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Sample records for infrasonic radiations

  1. Mechanism of inverted-chirp infrasonic radiation from sprites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Larquier, Sebastien; Pasko, Victor P.

    2010-12-01

    Farges and Blanc (2010) reported inverted-chirp infrasonic signals with high frequencies arriving before low frequencies, possibly emitted by sprite discharges and observed on the ground at close range (<100 km) from the source. In the present work a parallel version of a 2-D FDTD model of infrasound propagation in a realistic atmosphere is applied to demonstrate that the observed morphology of infrasound signals is consistent with general scaling of diameters of sprite streamers inversely proportionally to the air density. The smaller structures at lower altitudes radiate higher infrasonic frequencies that arrive first at the observational point on the ground, while the low frequency components are delayed because they originate at lower air densities at higher altitudes. The results demonstrate that strong absorption of high frequency infrasonic components at high altitudes (i.e., ˜0.2 dB/km for 8 Hz at 70 km) may also contribute to formation of inverted-chirp signals observed on the ground at close range.

  2. High Frequency Infrasonic Radiation from the 11 March 2011 Tohoku Mw 9.0 Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, K. T.; Le Pichon, A.; Degroot-Hedlin, C. D.; Che, I.

    2011-12-01

    The tragic March 11 Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake ruptured the Wadati-Benioff zone beneath northeast Japan, generating a damaging seismic wavetrain and triggering a tsunami that devastated the nearby coastal areas. Centroid moment tensors, aftershocks, and the geometry of the trench suggest the rupture occurred on a plane roughly 400 km long by 200 km wide. Because the Earth's surface is effectively a speaker, the seismic wavetrain generated infrasonic emissions from northeast Japan that were recorded by seven infrasound arrays within 5600 km of the epicenter. Using a time progressive beamforming method and the Progressive Multi-Channel Correlation method, we detect and calculate back azimuths for the 0.3 to 3 Hz infrasonic signals at these stations. After application of predicted wind corrections, these back azimuths point to Honshu and Hokkaido, with the majority of detections illuminating a north-south elongated area near Sendai, where the USGS ShakeMap predicts the greatest intensity of surface shaking. An array near Tokyo (IS30) provides the first recording of locally generated infrasound from a very large dip-slip earthquake. At IS30 a six-minute arrival in the 0.3 to 1.5 Hz band is observed from northeast Japan spanning an 18° back azimuth range. Two shorter events originate from a source to the west, likely Mt. Fuji. Using constraints from propagation modeling, we back project the infrasonic amplitudes recorded at IS30 to a relatively localized area. The maximum amplitude of 1 Pa originates from surface shaking along the coast. This location is also just west of the epicenter and adjacent to the location of maximum P-wave radiation from back projection studies. Noise at IS30 after the mainshock limits the detection of additional signals. A more pronounced infrasonic wavetrain at IS44 (Kamchatka) illuminates the entire Honshu and Hokkaido region, especially along the east coast near Sendai. In agreement with propagation modeling predictions using global

  3. Compact Infrasonic Windscreen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Shams, Qamar A.; Sealey, Bradley S.; Comeaux, Toby

    2005-01-01

    A compact windscreen has been conceived for a microphone of a type used outdoors to detect atmospheric infrasound from a variety of natural and manmade sources. Wind at the microphone site contaminates received infrasonic signals (defined here as sounds having frequencies <20 Hz), because a microphone cannot distinguish between infrasonic pressures (which propagate at the speed of sound) and convective pressure fluctuations generated by wind turbulence. Hence, success in measurement of outdoor infrasound depends on effective screening of the microphone from the wind. The present compact windscreen is based on a principle: that infrasound at sufficiently large wavelength can penetrate any barrier of practical thickness. Thus, a windscreen having solid, non-porous walls can block convected pressure fluctuations from the wind while transmitting infrasonic acoustic waves. The transmission coefficient depends strongly upon the ratio between the acoustic impedance of the windscreen and that of air. Several materials have been found to have impedance ratios that render them suitable for use in constructing walls that have practical thicknesses and are capable of high transmission of infrasound. These materials (with their impedance ratios in parentheses) are polyurethane foam (222), space shuttle tile material (332), balsa (323), cedar (3,151), and pine (4,713).

  4. Acoustic Localization with Infrasonic Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Threatt, Arnesha; Elbing, Brian

    2015-11-01

    Numerous geophysical and anthropogenic events emit infrasonic frequencies (<20 Hz), including volcanoes, hurricanes, wind turbines and tornadoes. These sounds, which cannot be heard by the human ear, can be detected from large distances (in excess of 100 miles) due to low frequency acoustic signals having a very low decay rate in the atmosphere. Thus infrasound could be used for long-range, passive monitoring and detection of these events. An array of microphones separated by known distances can be used to locate a given source, which is known as acoustic localization. However, acoustic localization with infrasound is particularly challenging due to contamination from other signals, sensitivity to wind noise and producing a trusted source for system development. The objective of the current work is to create an infrasonic source using a propane torch wand or a subwoofer and locate the source using multiple infrasonic microphones. This presentation will present preliminary results from various microphone configurations used to locate the source.

  5. Seismic and infrasonic source processes in volcanic fluid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matoza, Robin S.

    Volcanoes exhibit a spectacular diversity in fluid oscillation processes, which lead to distinct seismic and acoustic signals in the solid earth and atmosphere. Volcano seismic waveforms contain rich information on the geometry of fluid migration, resonance effects, and transient and sustained pressure oscillations resulting from unsteady flow through subsurface cracks, fissures and conduits. Volcanic sounds contain information on shallow fluid flow, resonance in near-surface cavities, and degassing dynamics into the atmosphere. Since volcanoes have large spatial scales, the vast majority of their radiated atmospheric acoustic energy is infrasonic (<20 Hz). This dissertation presents observations from joint broadband seismic and infrasound array deployments at Mount St. Helens (MSH, Washington State, USA), Tungurahua (Ecuador), and Kilauea Volcano (Hawaii, USA), each providing data for several years. These volcanoes represent a broad spectrum of eruption styles ranging from hawaiian to plinian in nature. The catalogue of recorded infrasonic signals includes continuous broadband and harmonic tremor from persistent degassing at basaltic lava vents and tubes at Pu'u O'o (Kilauea), thousands of repetitive impulsive signals associated with seismic longperiod (0.5-5 Hz) events and the dynamics of the shallow hydrothermal system at MSH, rockfall signals from the unstable dacite dome at MSH, energetic explosion blast waves and gliding infrasonic harmonic tremor at Tungurahua volcano, and large-amplitude and long-duration broadband signals associated with jetting during vulcanian, subplinian and plinian eruptions at MSH and Tungurahua. We develop models for a selection of these infrasonic signals. For infrasonic long-period (LP) events at MSH, we investigate seismic-acoustic coupling from various buried source configurations as a means to excite infrasound waves in the atmosphere. We find that linear elastic seismic-acoustic transmission from the ground to atmosphere is

  6. Seismic Observation of Infrasonic Signals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    The implication of these results is that an infra - sonic monitoring capability already exists in the current seismic network and... infra - sonic signal recorded by the microbarographs. This arrival is linearly polarized, with a near-vertical orientation of the state vector. The...TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 84-7 cn "^ SEISMIC OBSERVATION p INFRASONIC SIGNALS D < FINAL REPORT by JACK C. SWANSON and J. CRAIG WOERPEL The views and

  7. Infrasonic Emissions From A Tornado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrin, Christopher; Elbing, Brian

    2017-11-01

    Tornadoes cause dozens of deaths and significant damage throughout the United States every year. Tornado-producing storm systems emit infrasound (sound at frequencies below human hearing) up to 2 hours before tornadogenesis. Weak atmospheric attenuation at these frequencies allows them to be detected hundreds of miles away. Hence, passive infrasonic monitoring may be used for long-range study of tornadogenesis. This requires characterization of infrasound during the life of a tornado and from other background sources. This is being accomplished as part of the Collaboration Leading Operational UAS Development for Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics (CLOUD-MAP) project, a multi-university collaboration focused on the development and implementation of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) and their integration with sensors for atmospheric measurement. This presentation will report findings from a fixed infrasonic microphone that has been continuously monitoring the atmosphere since September 2, 2016. Infrasound from a tornado that occurred 19 km from the microphone on May 11, 2017 will be presented as well as an overview of other infrasonic observations. This work was supported by NSF Grant 1539070.

  8. A Portable Infrasonic Detection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Burkett, Cecil G.; Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Lawrenson, Christopher C.; Masterman, Michael

    2008-01-01

    During last couple of years, NASA Langley has designed and developed a portable infrasonic detection system which can be used to make useful infrasound measurements at a location where it was not possible previously. The system comprises an electret condenser microphone, having a 3-inch membrane diameter, and a small, compact windscreen. Electret-based technology offers the lowest possible background noise, because Johnson noise generated in the supporting electronics (preamplifier) is minimized. The microphone features a high membrane compliance with a large backchamber volume, a prepolarized backplane and a high impedance preamplifier located inside the backchamber. The windscreen, based on the high transmission coefficient of infrasound through matter, is made of a material having a low acoustic impedance and sufficiently thick wall to insure structural stability. Close-cell polyurethane foam has been found to serve the purpose well. In the proposed test, test parameters will be sensitivity, background noise, signal fidelity (harmonic distortion), and temporal stability. The design and results of the compact system, based upon laboratory and field experiments, will be presented.

  9. Infrasonic waves generated by supersonic auroral arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasko, Victor P.

    2012-10-01

    A finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) model of infrasound propagation in a realistic atmosphere is used to provide quantitative interpretation of infrasonic waves produced by auroral arcs moving with supersonic speed. The Lorentz force and Joule heating are discussed in the existing literature as primary sources producing infrasound waves in the frequency range 0.1-0.01 Hz associated with the auroral electrojet. The results are consistent with original ideas of Swift (1973) and demonstrate that the synchronization of the speed of auroral arc and phase speed of the acoustic wave in the electrojet volume is an important condition for generation of magnitudes and frequency contents of infrasonic waves observable on the ground. The reported modeling also allows accurate quantitative reproduction of previously observed complex infrasonic waveforms including direct shock and reflected shockwaves, which are refracted back to the earth by the thermosphere.

  10. Infrasonic Stethoscope for Monitoring Physiological Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Dimarcantonio, Albert L. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    An infrasonic stethoscope for monitoring physiological processes of a patient includes a microphone capable of detecting acoustic signals in the audible frequency bandwidth and in the infrasonic bandwidth (0.03 to 1000 Hertz), a body coupler attached to the body at a first opening in the microphone, a flexible tube attached to the body at a second opening in the microphone, and an earpiece attached to the flexible tube. The body coupler is capable of engagement with a patient to transmit sounds from the person, to the microphone and then to the earpiece.

  11. Infrasonic Stethoscope for Monitoring Physiological Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, Allan J. (Inventor); Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Dimarcantonio, Albert L. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An infrasonic stethoscope for monitoring physiological processes of a patient includes a microphone capable of detecting acoustic signals in the audible frequency bandwidth and in the infrasonic bandwidth (0.03 to 1000 Hertz), a body coupler attached to the body at a first opening in the microphone, a flexible tube attached to the body at a second opening in the microphone, and an earpiece attached to the flexible tube. The body coupler is capable of engagement with a patient to transmit sounds from the person, to the microphone and then to the earpiece.

  12. Do manatees utilize infrasonic communication or detection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerstein, Edmund; Gerstein, Laura; Forsythe, Steve; Blue, Joseph

    2004-05-01

    Some researchers speculate Sirenians might utilize infrasonic communication like their distant elephant cousins; however, audiogram measurements and calibrated manatee vocalizations do not support this contention. A comprehensive series of hearing tests conducted with West Indian manatees yielded the first and most definitive audiogram for any Sirenian. The manatee hearing tests were also the first controlled underwater infrasonic psychometric tests with any marine mammal. Auditory thresholds were measured from 0.4 to 46 kHz, but detection thresholds of possible vibrotactile origin were measured as low as 0.015 kHz. Manatees have short hairs on their bodies that may be sensitive vibrotactile receptors capable of detecting particle displacement in the near field. To detect these signals the manatee rotated on axis, exposing the densest portion of hairs toward the projector. Manatees inhabit shallow water where particle motion detection may be more useful near the water's surface, where sound pressures are low due to the Lloyd mirror effect. With respect to intraspecific communication, no infrasonic spectra have been identified in hundreds of calibrated calls. Low source levels and propagation limits in shallow-water habitats suggest low-frequency manatee calls have limited utility over long distances and infrasonic communication is not an attribute shared with elephants.

  13. Infrasonic troposphere-ionosphere coupling in Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garces, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    The propagation of infrasonic waves in the ionospheric layers has been considered since the 1960's. It is known that space weather can alter infrasonic propagation below the E layer (~120 km altitude), but it was thought that acoustic attenuation was too severe above this layer to sustain long-range propagation. Although volcanoes, earthquakes and tsunamis (all surface sources) appear to routinely excite perturbations in the ionospheric F layer by the propagation of acoustic and acoustic-gravity waves through the atmosphere, there are few reports of the inverse pathway. This paper discusses some of the routine ground-based infrasonic array observations of ionospheric returns from surface sources. These thermospheric returns generally point back towards the source, with an azimuth deviation that can be corrected using the wind velocity profiles in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. However, the seismic excitation in the North Pacific by the Tohoku earthquake ensonified the coupled lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere waveguide in the 0.01 - 0.1 Hz frequency band, producing anomalous signals observed by infrasound arrays in Hawaii. These infrasonic signals propagated at curiously high velocities, suggesting that some assumptions on ionospheric sound generation and propagation could be revisited.

  14. Exploring Venus interior structure with infrasonic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimoun, David; Garcia, Raphael; Cadu, Alexandre; Cutts, Jim; Komjathy, Attila; Pauken, Mike; Kedar, Sharon; Jackson, Jennifer; Stevenson, Dave

    2017-04-01

    Radar images have revealed a surface of Venus that is much younger than expected, as well as a variety of enigmatic features linked to the tectonic activity. If probing the interior structure of Venus is a formidable challenge, it is still of primary importance for understanding Venus itself, its relationship to Earth and more generally the evolution of Earth-like planets. Conventional long period seismology uses very broadband seismic sensors that require to be in contact with the planetary surface, like for the Apollo missions and for the Mars Insight mission; this approach is in the short term impractical for Venus because of its extreme temperature and pressure surface conditions. Russian probes such as Venera 13-14 have only lasted a few tens of minutes, when the required duration of the seismic measurements, based on a rough estimate of the Venus tectonic activity, is at least of a few months. We propose as a possible way forward to use the very conditions at the surface of Venus to record the signal in a more suitable environment: as acoustic and infrasonic waves resulting from seismic activity are coupled much more efficiently than on Earth in the dense carbon dioxide atmosphere, a string of micro-barometers deployed on a tether by a balloon platform at Venus over the cloud layer would record this infrasonic counterpart. Such an experiment could encompass a wide range of scientific objectives, from the characterization of the infrasonic background of Venus to the ability to record, and possibly discriminate, signatures from volcanic events, storm activity, and meteor impacts. We will discuss our proposed Venus experiment, as well as the experimental validation effort that takes place on Earth to validate the idea and possibly record infrasonic seismic counterparts

  15. Acoustic/infrasonic rocket engine signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tenney, Stephen M.; Noble, John M.; Whitaker, Rodney W.; ReVelle, Douglas O.

    2003-09-01

    Infrasonics offers the potential of long-range acoustic detection of explosions, missiles and even sounds created by manufacturing plants. The atmosphere attenuates acoustic energy above 20 Hz quite rapidly, but signals below 10 Hz can propagate to long ranges. Space shuttle launches have been detected infrasonically from over 1000 km away and the Concorde airliner from over 400 km. This technology is based on microphones designed to respond to frequencies from .1 to 300 Hz that can be operated outdoors for extended periods of time with out degrading their performance. The US Army Research Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory have collected acoustic and infrasonic signatures of static engine testing of two missiles. Signatures were collected of a SCUD missile engine at Huntsville, AL and a Minuteman engine at Edwards AFB. The engines were fixed vertically in a test stand during the burn. We will show the typical time waveform signals of these static tests and spectrograms for each type. High resolution, 24-bit data were collected at 512 Hz and 16-bit acoustic data at 10 kHz. Edwards data were recorded at 250 Hz and 50 Hz using a Geotech Instruments 24 bit digitizer. Ranges from the test stand varied from 1 km to 5 km. Low level and upper level meteorological data was collected to provide full details of atmospheric propagation during the engine test. Infrasonic measurements were made with the Chaparral Physics Model 2 microphone with porous garden hose attached for wind noise suppression. A B&K microphone was used for high frequency acoustic measurements. Results show primarily a broadband signal with distinct initiation and completion points. There appear to be features present in the signals that would allow identification of missile type. At 5 km the acoustic/infrasonic signal was clearly present. Detection ranges for the types of missile signatures measured will be predicted based on atmospheric modeling. As part of an experiment conducted by ARL

  16. Infrasonic tremor observed at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garces, M.; Harris, A.; Hetzer, C.; Johnson, J.; Rowland, S.; Marchetti, E.; Okubo, P.

    2003-01-01

    Infrasonic array data collected at Ki??lauea Volcano, Hawai'i, during November 12-21, 2002 indicate that the active vents and lava tube system near the P'u 'O??'o?? vent complex emit almost continuous infrasound in the 0.310 Hz frequency band. The spectral content of these infrasonic signals matches well that of synchronous seismic tremor. In sites protected from wind noise, significant signal to noise ratios were recorded as far as ???13 km from the crater of Pu'u 'O??'o??. The infrasonic recordings suggest that one or more tremor sources may be close to the surface. In addition, these results demonstrate that adequate site and instrument selections for infrasonic arrays are essential in order to obtain consistent and reliable infrasonic detections. ?? 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Exploring Venus Interior Structure by Detection of Infrasonic Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimoun, D.; Cutts, J.; Stevenson, D.; Garcia, R. F.

    2015-04-01

    Knowledge of the interior structure of Venus is currently impeded by the limited time that a seismometer can survive in the atmosphere of Venus. We propose to remotely detect quakes by infrasonic measurements at the top of the cloud layer.

  18. [The psychological effect of minesweeping infrasonic field].

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhi-qiang; Liang, Zhen-fu; Shi, Xiu-feng; Yu, Hao

    2003-02-01

    To investigate the effect of infrasonic field of minesweeper on psychology of minesweeper crews. An experimental ship was selected to conduct infrasonic minesweeping, a control ship of the same type was selected to operate likewise with the infrasound generator turned off, and another group of coast-servicemen was chosen as blank control. Attention-span test, digit memory test, two-digital numbers list and profile of mood states (POMS) were used to test the ship crews and coast-servicemen. There were no significant differences in psychological parameters between the two ship crews before the experiment. But the scores of two-digit figures list in ship crews were significant lower than that in coast-servicemen, (31.2 +/- 11.8, 36.4 +/- 14.5 respectively vs 45.8 +/- 13.9, P < 0.05). POMS showed that the scores of anger-hostility, fatigue-inertia, and confusion-bewilderment in both ship crew groups [(15.5 +/- 6.4, 18.3 +/- 6.8), (12.1 +/- 5.0,12.3 +/- 4.9), (11.6 +/- 4.4, 12.5 +/- 4.8), respectively] were higher than those in coast-servicemen (13.9 +/- 7.0, 7.6 +/- 4.1, 8.2 +/- 4.3, respectively, P < 0.05 or 0.01), while vigor-activity in experimental group (15.0 +/- 5.9) was lower than that in coast-servicemen (19.7 +/- 4.7). After the experiment, the scores of experimental crews in digit memory test (14.5 +/- 5.0), vigor-activity (12.2 +/- 5.8), fatigue-inertia (15.8 +/- 6.2) were significantly different from those of control crews (17.3 +/- 4.8, 16.5 +/- 4.6, 11.3 +/- 5.1). The infrasonic field from minesweeper may injure the crew's psychological health and some neurobehavioral function.

  19. Studies Of Infrasonic Propagation Using Dense Seismic Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedlin, M. A.; deGroot-Hedlin, C. D.; Drob, D. P.

    2011-12-01

    Although there are approximately 100 infrasonic arrays worldwide, more than ever before, the station density is still insufficient to provide validation for detailed propagation modeling. Relatively large infrasonic signals can be observed on seismic channels due to coupling at the Earth's surface. Recent research, using data from the 70-km spaced 400-station USArray and other seismic network deployments, has shown the value of dense seismic network data for filling in the gaps between infrasonic arrays. The dense sampling of the infrasonic wavefield has allowed us to observe complete travel-time branches of infrasound and address important research problems in infrasonic propagation. We present our analysis of infrasound created by a series of rocket motor detonations that occurred at the UTTR facility in Utah in 2007. These data were well recorded by the USArray seismometers. We use the precisely located blasts to assess the utility of G2S mesoscale models and methods to synthesize infrasonic propagation. We model the travel times of the branches using a ray-based approach and the complete wavefield using a FDTD algorithm. Although results from both rays and FDTD approaches predict the travel times to within several seconds, only about 40% of signals are predicted using rays largely due to penetration of sound into shadow zones. FDTD predicts some sound penetration into the shadow zone, but the observed shadow zones, as defined by the seismic data, have considerably narrower spatial extent than either method predicts, perhaps due to un-modeled small-scale structure in the atmosphere.

  20. Experimental investigation into infrasonic emissions from atmospheric turbulence.

    PubMed

    Shams, Qamar A; Zuckerwar, Allan J; Burkett, Cecil G; Weistroffer, George R; Hugo, Derek R

    2013-03-01

    Clear air turbulence (CAT) is the leading cause of in-flight injuries and in severe cases can result in fatalities. The purpose of this work is to design and develop an infrasonic array network for early warning of clear air turbulence. The infrasonic system consists of an infrasonic three-microphone array, compact windscreens, and data management system. Past experimental efforts to detect acoustic emissions from CAT have been limited. An array of three infrasonic microphones, operating in the field at NASA Langley Research Center, on several occasions received signals interpreted as infrasonic emissions from CAT. Following comparison with current lidar and other past methods, the principle of operation, the experimental methods, and experimental data are presented for case studies and confirmed by pilot reports. The power spectral density of the received signals was found to fit a power law having an exponent of -6 to -7, which is found to be characteristics of infrasonic emissions from CAT, in contrast to findings of the past.

  1. [Evaluation of occupational exposure to infrasonic noise].

    PubMed

    Pawlaczyk-Luszczyńska, M

    1998-01-01

    This papers presents the results of infrasonic noise measurements performed at various workplaces in industry and transportation in Poland. The study concerned noise emitted by 124 different types of machinery, appliances and means of transport. The measurements were made under typical conditions of work and with reference to Polish norm PN-86/N-01338 and international norms ISO 7196:1995 and ISO 9612:1997. According to PN-86/N-01338, within octave bands of 8 divided by 31.5 Hz, the acoustic pressure exceeding the admissible levels for (a) workers' health protection were found in 5 (4.0%) cases; (b) proper conditions for performing basic functions in observational dispatcher cabins, etc.--in 77 (62.1%) cases; and (c) premises for administration, design offices, etc.--in 92 (74.2%) cases. The hearing threshold was exceeded in 66.9 of all the machinery under study.

  2. Effectiveness of nonporous windscreens for infrasonic measurements.

    PubMed

    Dauchez, Nicolas; Hayot, Maxime; Denis, Stéphane

    2016-06-01

    This paper deals with nonporous windscreens used for reducing noise in infrasonic measurements. A model of sound transmission using a modal approach is derived. The system is a square plate coupled with a cavity. The model agrees with finite element simulations and measurements performed on two windscreens: a cubic windscreen using a material recommended by Shams, Zuckerwar, and Sealey [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 118, 1335-1340 (2005)] and an optimized flat windscreen made out of aluminum. Only the latter was found to couple acoustical waves below 10 Hz without any attenuation. Moreover, wind noise reduction measurements show that nonporous windscreens perform similarly as a pipe array by averaging the pressure fluctuations. These results question the assumptions of Shams et al. and Zuckerwar [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 127, 3327-3334 (2010)] about compact nonporous windscreens design and effectiveness.

  3. Possibility of magnetospheric VLF response to atmospheric infrasonic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bespalov, P. A.; Savina, O. N.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we consider a model of the influence of atmospheric infrasonic waves on VLF magnetospheric whistler wave excitation. This excitation occurs as a result of a succession of processes: a modulation of the plasma density by acoustic-gravity waves in the ionosphere, a reflection of the whistlers by ionosphere modulation, and a modification of whistler wave generation in the magnetospheric resonator. A variation of the magnetospheric resonator Q-factor has an influence on the operation of the plasma magnetospheric maser, where the active substances are radiation belt particles, and the working modes are electromagnetic whistler waves. The magnetospheric maser is an oscillating system which can be responsible for the excitation of self-oscillations. These self-oscillations are frequently characterized by alternating stages of accumulation and precipitation of energetic particles into the ionosphere during a pulse of whistler emissions. Numerical and analytical investigations of the response of self-oscillations to harmonic oscillations of the whistler reflection coefficient shows that even a small modulation rate can significantly change magnetospheric VLF emissions. Our results can explain the causes of the modulation of energetic electron fluxes and whistler wave intensity with a time scale from 10 to 150 s in the day-side magnetosphere. Such quasi-periodic VLF emissions are often observed in the sub-auroral and auroral magnetosphere and have a noticeable effect on the formation of space weather phenomena.

  4. Infrasonic Signals from the 29 June 2012 Derecho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winslow, N.; Howard, W. B.; Pulli, J. J.; Kofford, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    Common weather events such as pressure fronts, tornados, and hurricanes generate infrasonic signals (sub-audible acoustic signals with an oscillatory frequency below 20 Hz). These signals can provide a distal (>10km) analysis of weather events because: (1) the attenuation of an infrasonic signal with distance is less than that of a similar audible signal, and (2) the propagation velocities of typical weather events are much slower than the speed of sound. The 29 June, 2012 Derecho (a widespread, long-lived, rapidly moving linear band of storms extending more than 240 miles and including wind gusts in excess of 58 mph) that stretched from Chicago, IL to Washington, DC generated infrasonic signals in addition to causing over $100 million in damage to the power systems of Virginia, West Virginia, and Maryland alone. The infrasonic (and seismic) signals from this event were recorded on the NCPA micro barometers along the northeastern edge of the current configuration of the USArray. These instruments, which sample at 40 Hz, exhibit a flat frequency response from around 0.1 Hz to above 20 Hz and show a sensitivity of 1.57 x 104 Volts/Pascal at 0.8 Hz. An analysis of the recordings observed at multiple stations identified several infrasonic signatures from the Derecho. The signal's duration was approximately 40 minutes and exhibited a large peak pressure fluctuation. A characteristic ramp up occurred before the peak pressure fluctuation, and the majority of the infrasonic energy occurred below 1 Hz. These signatures are analyzed within the context of the Derecho as an infrasonic source, and the propagation of infrasound in the atmosphere.

  5. Collection of Infrasonic Sound From Sources of Military Importance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masterman, Michael; Shams, Qamar A.; Burkett, Cecil G.; Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Stihler, Craig; Wallace, Jack

    2008-01-01

    Extreme Endeavors is collaborating with NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) in the development, testing and analysis of infrasonic detection system under a Space Act Agreement. Acoustic studies of atmospheric events like convective storms, shear-induced turbulence, acoustic gravity waves, microbursts, hurricanes, and clear air turbulence (CAT) over the past thirty years have established that these events are strong emitters of infrasound. Recently NASA Langley Research Center has designed and developed a portable infrasonic detection system which can be used to make useful infrasound measurements at locations where it was not possible previously, such as a mountain crag, inside a cave or on the battlefield. The system comprises an electret condenser microphone, having a 3-inch membrane diameter, and a small, compact windscreen. Extreme Endeavors will present the findings from field testing using this portable infrasonic detection system. Field testing of the infrasonic detection system was partly funded by Greer Industries and support provided by the West Virginia Division of Natural Resources. The findings from this work illustrate the ability to detect structure and other information about the contents inside the caves. The presentation will describe methodology for utilizing infrasonic to locate and portray underground facilities.

  6. Exposure to infrasonic noise in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Bilski, Bartosz

    2017-03-21

    Although exposure to audible noise has been examined in many publications, the sources of infrasound in agriculture have not been fully examined and presented. The study presents the assessment of exposure to infrasound from many sources at workplaces in agriculture with examples of possible ergonomic and health consequences caused by such exposure. Workers'-perceived infrasonic noise levels were examined for 118 examples of moving and stationary agricultural machines (modern and old cab-type tractors, old tractors without cabins, small tractors, grinders, chargers, forage mixers, grain cleaners, conveyors, bark sorters and combine-harvesters). Measurements of infrasound were taken with the use of class 1 instruments (digital sound analyzer DSA-50 digital and acoustic calibrator). Noise level measurements were performed in accordance with PN-Z-01338:2010, PN-EN ISO 9612:2011 and ISO 9612:2009. The most intense sources of infrasound in the study were modern and old large size types agricultural machinery (tractors, chargers and combined-harvesters, and stationary forage mixers with ventilation). The G-weighted infrasound levels were significant and at many analyzed workplaces stayed within or exceeded the occupational exposure limit (LG eq, 8h = 102 dB) when the duration of exposure is longer than 22 min./8-hours working day (most noisy - modern cab-type tractors), 46 min./8 hours working day (most noisy - old type cab-tractors), 73 min./8 hours working day (most noisy - old tractors without cabins), 86 min./8-hours working day (most noisy - combine-harvesters) and 156 min./8 hours working day (most noisy - stationary forage mixers with ventilation). All measured machines generated infrasonic noise exceeded the value LG eq, Te = 86 dB (occupational exposure limit for workplaces requiring maintained mental concentration). A very important harmful factor is infrasound exposure for pregnant women and adolescents at workplaces in agriculture. Very valuable work can be

  7. Compact nonporous windscreen for infrasonic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Sealey, Bradley S.

    2005-09-01

    Infrasonic windscreens, designed for service at frequencies below 20 Hz, were fabricated from a variety of materials having a low acoustic impedance, and tested against four specifications (the first three in a small wind tunnel): (1) wind-generated noise reduction (``insertion loss'') at a free-stream wind speed of 9.3 m/s, (2) transmission of low-frequency sound from a known source (subwoofer), (3) spectrum of sound generated from trailing vortices (aeolian tones), and (4) water absorption (to determine suitability for all-weather service). The operating principle is based on the high penetrating capability of infrasound through solid barriers. Windscreen materials included three woods (pine, cedar, and balsa), closed-cell polyurethane foam, and Space Shuttle tile material. The windscreen inside diameter ranged from 0.0254 to 0.1016 m (1 to 4 in.), and wall thickness from 0.003175 to 0.01905 m (18 to 34 in.). A windscreen made of closed-cell polyurethane foam revealed a wind noise reduction of 10-20 dB from 0.7 to 25 Hz, transmission coefficient near unity from 10 to 20 Hz, and spectral peaks beyond 20 Hz due to vortex-generated sound. Following a description of past methods, the principle of operation, and the experimental method, experimental data are presented for a variety of windscreens.

  8. Infrasonic component of volcano-seismic eruption tremor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matoza, Robin S.; Fee, David

    2014-03-01

    Air-ground and ground-air elastic wave coupling are key processes in the rapidly developing field of seismoacoustics and are particularly relevant for volcanoes. During a sustained explosive volcanic eruption, it is typical to record a sustained broadband signal on seismometers, termed eruption tremor. Eruption tremor is usually attributed to a subsurface seismic source process, such as the upward migration of magma and gases through the shallow conduit and vent. However, it is now known that sustained explosive volcanic eruptions also generate powerful tremor signals in the atmosphere, termed infrasonic tremor. We investigate infrasonic tremor coupling down into the ground and its contribution to the observed seismic tremor. Our methodology builds on that proposed by Ichihara et al. (2012) and involves cross-correlation, coherence, and cross-phase spectra between waveforms from nearly collocated seismic and infrasonic sensors; we apply it to datasets from Mount St. Helens, Tungurahua, and Redoubt Volcanoes.

  9. Monitoring of atmospheric nuclear explosions with infrasonic microphone arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Charles R.

    2002-11-01

    A review is given of the various United States programs for the infrasonic monitoring of atmospheric nuclear explosions from their inception in 1946 to their termination in 1975. The US Atomic Energy Detection System (USAEDS) monitored all nuclear weapons tests that were conducted by the Soviet Union, France, China, and the US with arrays of sensitive microbarographs in a worldwide network of infrasonic stations. A discussion of the source mechanism for the creation and subsequent propagation around the globe of long wavelength infrasound from explosions (volcanic and nuclear) is given to show the efficacy of infrasonic monitoring for the detection of atmospheric nuclear weapons tests. The equipment that was used for infrasound detection, the design of the sensor arrays, and the data processing techniques that were used by USAEDS are all discussed.

  10. Infrasonic and seismic signals from the Myanmar earthquake of November 11,2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Wei; Zhang, Dongning; Li, Ke

    2013-04-01

    On November 11, 2012, at 01:12:38 UTC (09:12:38 Beijing Time), a strong earthquake (Mw=6.8) occurred in Myanmar. The epicenter (23.0˚N,95.9˚E,focal depth ~10 km) was near the town of Male, 52 km NNE of the city of Shwebo. The earthquake with a rupture length of 60-70 km resulted from right lateral movement on the Sagaing Fault related to collision between the Indo-Australian Plate and the Eurasian Plate. At a distance of 366 km from the epicenter, infrasonic and seismic signals were recorded by Tengchong seismo-acoustic array located in southwest of China for monitoring volcanic and earthquake activity, which consists of four MB2005 microbarometers with bandwidth 0.01-27Hz and four BBVS-60 seismometers with bandwidth 0.01667-50Hz arranged in a centered triangle with an aperture of about 1.8 km. PMCC provided by CEA/DASE applied to analyze infrasound data. Comparison of the infrasonic and seismic signals produced by this earthquake showed infrasonic signals with different arrival times and azimuths may be classified as local, epicentral and diffracted or secondary sourced infrasound, but seismic signals only include P, S and surface waves can produce local infrasound through ground-coupled air waves at the station. The PMCC results indicated that the infrasonic waves showed a consistent acoustic trace velocity of approximately 0.348 km/s from 09:30 to 09:36 (Beijing Time) and the azimuth of arrival changed with time from 227 to 217 degrees. There are mountain chains with altitude more than 1000 m in the east of the epicenter. Mountains shaking induced by earthquake acted as a speaker and radiated the infrasound that traveled to Tengchong seismo-acoustic array. It was worth noting that PMCC detected a group infrasound with trace velocity of approximately 0.339 km/s and arrival azimuth of 237 degree from 09:23:31 to 09:24 (Beijing Time). It may be inferred that the seismic surface wave induced by earthquake reach the mountains on the border between China Yunnan and

  11. Hearing at low and infrasonic frequencies.

    PubMed

    Møller, H; Pedersen, C S

    2004-01-01

    The human perception of sound at frequencies below 200 Hz is reviewed. Knowledge about our perception of this frequency range is important, since much of the sound we are exposed to in our everyday environment contains significant energy in this range. Sound at 20-200 Hz is called low-frequency sound, while for sound below 20 Hz the term infrasound is used. The hearing becomes gradually less sensitive for decreasing frequency, but despite the general understanding that infrasound is inaudible, humans can perceive infrasound, if the level is sufficiently high. The ear is the primary organ for sensing infrasound, but at levels somewhat above the hearing threshold it is possible to feel vibrations in various parts of the body. The threshold of hearing is standardized for frequencies down to 20 Hz, but there is a reasonably good agreement between investigations below this frequency. It is not only the sensitivity but also the perceived character of a sound that changes with decreasing frequency. Pure tones become gradually less continuous, the tonal sensation ceases around 20 Hz, and below 10 Hz it is possible to perceive the single cycles of the sound. A sensation of pressure at the eardrums also occurs. The dynamic range of the auditory system decreases with decreasing frequency. This compression can be seen in the equal-loudness-level contours, and it implies that a slight increase in level can change the perceived loudness from barely audible to loud. Combined with the natural spread in thresholds, it may have the effect that a sound, which is inaudible to some people, may be loud to others. Some investigations give evidence of persons with an extraordinary sensitivity in the low and infrasonic frequency range, but further research is needed in order to confirm and explain this phenomenon.

  12. Improved Bayesian Infrasonic Source Localization for regional infrasound

    DOE PAGES

    Blom, Philip S.; Marcillo, Omar; Arrowsmith, Stephen J.

    2015-10-20

    The Bayesian Infrasonic Source Localization (BISL) methodology is examined and simplified providing a generalized method of estimating the source location and time for an infrasonic event and the mathematical framework is used therein. The likelihood function describing an infrasonic detection used in BISL has been redefined to include the von Mises distribution developed in directional statistics and propagation-based, physically derived celerity-range and azimuth deviation models. Frameworks for constructing propagation-based celerity-range and azimuth deviation statistics are presented to demonstrate how stochastic propagation modelling methods can be used to improve the precision and accuracy of the posterior probability density function describing themore » source localization. Infrasonic signals recorded at a number of arrays in the western United States produced by rocket motor detonations at the Utah Test and Training Range are used to demonstrate the application of the new mathematical framework and to quantify the improvement obtained by using the stochastic propagation modelling methods. Moreover, using propagation-based priors, the spatial and temporal confidence bounds of the source decreased by more than 40 per cent in all cases and by as much as 80 per cent in one case. Further, the accuracy of the estimates remained high, keeping the ground truth within the 99 per cent confidence bounds for all cases.« less

  13. Characteristics of dilatational infrasonic pulses accompanying low-frequency earthquakes at Miyakejima Volcano, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Yoshiaki; Yamasato, Hitoshi; Shimbori, Toshiki; Sakai, Takayuki

    2014-12-01

    Since the caldera-forming eruption of Miyakejima Volcano in 2000, low-frequency (LF) earthquakes have occurred frequently beneath the caldera. Some of these LF earthquakes are accompanied by emergent infrasonic pulses that start with dilatational phases and may be accompanied by the eruption of small amounts of ash. The estimated source locations of both the LF earthquakes and the infrasonic signals are within the vent at shallow depth. Moreover, the maximum seismic amplitude roughly correlates with the maximum amplitude of the infrasonic pulses. From these observations, we hypothesized that the infrasonic waves were excited by partial subsidence within the vent associated with the LF earthquakes. To verify our hypothesis, we used the infrasonic data to estimate the volumetric change due to the partial subsidence associated with each LF earthquake. The results showed that partial subsidence in the vent can well explain the generation of infrasonic waves.

  14. Infrasonic tremor wavefield of the Pu`u `Ō`ō crater complex and lava tube system, Hawaii, in April 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matoza, Robin S.; Fee, David; GarcéS, Milton A.

    2010-12-01

    Long-lived effusive volcanism at the Pu`u `Ō`ō crater complex, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii produces persistent infrasonic tremor that has been recorded almost continuously for months to years. Previous studies showed that this infrasonic tremor wavefield can be recorded at a range of >10 km. However, the low signal power of this tremor relative to ambient noise levels results in significant propagation effects on signal detectability at this range. In April 2007, we supplemented a broadband infrasound array at ˜12.5 km from Pu`u `Ō`ō (MENE) with a similar array at ˜2.4 km from the source (KIPU). The additional closer-range data enable further evaluation of tropospheric propagation effects and provide higher signal-to-noise ratios for studying volcanic source processes. The infrasonic tremor source appears to consist of at least two separate physical processes. We suggest that bubble cloud oscillation in a roiling magma conduit beneath the crater complex may produce a broadband component of the tremor. Low-frequency sound sourced in a shallow magma conduit may radiate infrasound efficiently into the atmosphere due to the anomalous transparency of the magma-air interface. We further propose that more sharply peaked tones with complex temporal evolution may result from oscillatory interactions of a low-velocity gas jet with solid vent boundaries in a process analogous to the hole tone or whistler nozzle. The infrasonic tremor arrives with a median azimuth of ˜67° at KIPU. Additional infrasonic signals and audible sounds originating from the extended lava tube system to the south of the crater complex (median azimuth ˜77°) coincided with turbulent degassing activity at a new lava tube skylight. Our observations indicate that acoustic studies may aid in understanding persistent continuous degassing and unsteady flow dynamics at Kilauea Volcano.

  15. Basic Research on Seismic and Infrasonic Monitoring of the European Arctic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    detected with a high signal -to-noise ratio (SNR) on the ARCES array ; secondly they register very stable azimuth estimates on the detection lists; and...exploiting the data from the Swedish infrasound array network, which provides a useful supplement to the seismic and infrasonic arrays in Norway and NW...infrasonic phase associations. Furthermore, we plan to generate an infrasonic event bulletin using only the estimated azimuths and detection times of

  16. Infrasonic interferometry of stratospherically refracted microbaroms--a numerical study.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Julius T; El Allouche, Nihed; Simons, Dick G; Ruigrok, Elmer N; Wapenaar, Kees; Evers, Läslo G

    2013-10-01

    The atmospheric wind and temperature can be estimated through the traveltimes of infrasound between pairs of receivers. The traveltimes can be obtained by infrasonic interferometry. In this study, the theory of infrasonic interferometry is verified and applied to modeled stratospherically refracted waves. Synthetic barograms are generated using a raytracing model and taking into account atmospheric attenuation, geometrical spreading, and phase shifts due to caustics. Two types of source wavelets are implemented for the experiments: blast waves and microbaroms. In both numerical experiments, the traveltimes between the receivers are accurately retrieved by applying interferometry to the synthetic barograms. It is shown that microbaroms can be used in practice to obtain the traveltimes of infrasound through the stratosphere, which forms the basis for retrieving the wind and temperature profiles.

  17. Infrasonic interferometry applied to synthetic and measured data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Julius T.; Evers, Läslo G.; Ruigrok, Elmer; Wapenaar, Kees; Simons, Dick G.

    2013-04-01

    The estimation of the traveltime of infrasound through the atmosphere is interesting for several applications. For example, it could be used to determine temperature and wind of the atmosphere, since the traveltime depends on these atmospheric conditions (Haney, 2009). In this work the traveltime is estimated with infrasonic interferometry. In other words, we calculate the crosscorrelations of data of spatially distributed receivers. With this method the traveltime between two receivers is determined without the need for ground truth events. In a first step, we crosscorrelate synthetic data, which are generated by a raytracing model. This model takes into account the traveltime along the rays, the attenuation of the different atmospheric layers, the spreading of the rays and the influence of caustics. In these numerical experiments we show that it is possible to determine the traveltime through infrasonic interferometry. We present the results of infrasonic interferometry applied to measured data. Microbaroms are used in the crosscorrelation approach. Microbaroms are caused by ocean waves and are measured by the 'Large Aperture Infrasound Array' (LAIA). LAIA is being installed by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) in the framework of the radio-astronomical 'Low Frequency Array' (LOFAR) initiative. LAIA consists currently of around twenty receivers (microbarometers) with an aperture of around 100 km, allowing for several inter-station distances. Here, we show the results of crosscorrelations as a function of receivers distance, to assess the signal coherency. This research is made possible by the support of the 'Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research' (NWO). Haney, M., 2009. Infrasonic ambient noise interferometry from correlations of microbaroms, Geophysical Research Letters, 36, L19808

  18. Magma Vesiculation and Infrasonic Activity in Open Conduit Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colo', L.; Baker, D. R.; Polacci, M.; Ripepe, M.

    2007-12-01

    At persistently active basaltic volcanoes such as Stromboli, Italy degassing of the magma column can occur in "passive" and "active" conditions. Passive degassing is generally understood as a continuous, non explosive release of gas mainly from the open summit vents and subordinately from the conduit's wall or from fumaroles. In passive degassing generally gas is in equilibrium with atmospheric pressure, while in active degassing the gas approaches the surface at overpressurized conditions. During active degassing (or puffing), the magma column is interested by the bursting of small gas bubbles at the magma free surface and, as a consequence, the active degassing process generates infrasonic signals. We postulated, in this study, that the rate and the amplitude of infrasonic activity is somehow linked to the rate and the volume of the overpressured gas bubbles, which are generated in the magma column. Our hypothesis is that infrasound is controlled by the quantities of gas exsolved in the magma column and then, that a relationship between infrasound and the vesiculation process should exist. In order to achieve this goal, infrasonic records and bubble size distributions of scoria samples from normal explosive activity at Stromboli processed via X ray tomography have been compared. We observed that the cumulative distribution for both data sets follow similar power laws, indicating that both processes are controlled by a scale invariant phenomenon. However the power law is not stable but changes in different scoria clasts, reflecting when gas bubble nucleation is predominant over bubbles coalescence and viceversa. The power law also changes for the infrasonic activity from time to time, suggesting that infrasound may be controlled also by a different gas exsolution within the magma column. Changes in power law distributions are the same for infrasound and scoria indicating that they are linked to the same process acting in the magmatic system. We suggest that

  19. Exploring the interior of Venus with seismic and infrasonic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, J. M.; Cutts, J. A.; Pauken, M.; Komjathy, A.; Smrekar, S. E.; Kedar, S.; Mimoun, D.; Garcia, R.; Schubert, G.; Lebonnois, S.; Stevenson, D. J.; Lognonne, P. H.; Zhan, Z.; Ko, J. Y. T.; Tsai, V. C.

    2016-12-01

    The dense atmosphere of Venus, which efficiently couples seismic energy into the atmosphere as infrasonic waves, enables an alternative to conventional seismology: detection of infrasonic waves in the upper atmosphere using either high altitude balloons or orbiting spacecraft. Infrasonic techniques for probing the interior of Venus can be implemented without exposing sensors to the severe surface environments on Venus. This approach takes advantage of the fact that approximately sixty-times the energy from a seismic event on Venus is coupled into the atmosphere on Venus as would occur for a comparable event on Earth. The direct or epicentral wave propagates vertically above the event, and the indirect wave propagates through the planet as a Rayleigh wave and then couples to an infrasonic wave. Although there is abundant evidence of tectonic activity on Venus, questions remain as to whether the planet is still active and whether energy releases are seismic or aseismic. In recent years, seismologists have developed techniques for probing crustal and interior structure in parts of the Earth where there are very few quakes. We have begun an effort to determine if this is also possible for Venus. Just as seismic energy propagates more efficiently upward across the surface atmosphere interface, equally acoustic energy originating in the atmosphere will propagate downwards more effectively. Measurements from a balloon platform in the atmosphere of Venus could assess the nature and spectral content of such sources, while having the ability to identify and discriminate signatures from volcanic events, storm activity, and meteor impacts. We will discuss our ongoing assessment on the feasibility of a balloon acoustic monitoring system. In particular, we will highlight our results of the flight experiment on Earth that will focus on using barometer instruments on a tethered helium-filled balloon in the vicinity of a known seismic source generated by a seismic hammer

  20. [Revised maximum admissible intensity (MAI) values for infrasonic noise in work environment].

    PubMed

    Pawlaczyk-Łuszczyńska, M; Augustyńska, D; Kaczmarska-Kozłowska, A; Sliwińska-Kowalska, M; Kameduła, M

    2001-01-01

    A short review of infrasound sources is presented. The measuring methods and occupational exposure limits for infrasonic noise (infrasound) are described. The amended Polish regulations on maximum admissible intensity (MAI) values for infrasonic noise in work environment and proposals of exposure limits for workers at particular risk (i.e. pregnant women and juveniles) are discussed.

  1. Volcano infrasonic signals and magma degassing: First-order experimental insights and application to Stromboli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, Stephen J.; James, Mike R.; Corder, Steven B.

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrate the rise and expansion of a gas slug as a fluid dynamic source mechanism for infrasonic signals generated by gas puffing and impulsive explosions at Stromboli. The fluid dynamics behind the rise, expansion and burst of gas slugs in the confines of an experimental tube can be characterised into different regimes. Passive expansion occurs for small gas masses, where negligible dynamic gas over-pressure develops during bubble ascent and, prior to burst, meniscus oscillation forms an important infrasonic source. With increasing gas mass, a transition regime emerges where dynamic gas over-pressure is significant. For larger gas masses, this regime transforms to fully explosive behaviour, where gas over-pressure dominates as an infrasonic source and bubble bursting is not a critical factor. The rate of change of excess pressure in the experimental tube was used to generate synthetic infrasonic waveforms. Qualitatively, the waveforms compare well to infrasonic waveforms measured from a range of eruptions at Stromboli. Assuming pressure continuity during flow through the vent, and applying dimensionless arguments from the first-order experiments, allows estimation of eruption metrics from infrasonic signals measured at Stromboli. Values of bubble length, gas mass and over-pressure calculated from infrasonic signals are in excellent agreement with those derived by independent means for eruptions at Stromboli, therefore providing a method of estimating eruption metrics from infrasonic measurement.

  2. Monochromatic infrasonic tremor driven by persistent degassing and convection at Villarrica Volcano, Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripepe, M.; Marchetti, E.; Bonadonna, C.; Harris, A. J. L.; Pioli, L.; Ulivieri, G.

    2010-08-01

    Infrasonic data collected at Villarrica volcano (Chile) in March 2009 show a sustained, continuous, infrasonic oscillation (tremor) with a monochromatic low frequency content at ˜0.75 Hz. This tremor is extremely stable in time both at the summit and at a distal (˜4 km) small aperture array. Infrasonic tremor is characterized by discrete high amplitude bursts with a cyclic recurrence time of ˜40 s and is well correlated (0.93) with seismic tremor. These new data are compared with previous datasets collected in 2002 and 2004 during different levels of activity. All data show the same persistent infrasonic tremor and have the same strong correlation with seismic tremor. The stability and correlation of infrasonic and seismic tremor indicate the existence of a sustained and continuous process, which we suggest is related to the gravity-driven bubble column dynamics responsible for conduit convection.

  3. Mechanism of Lightning Associated Infrasonic Pulses from Thunderclouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasko, V. P.

    2008-12-01

    The infrasonic waves correspond to the region of frequencies of acoustic sound waves 0.02-10 Hz, higher than the acoustic cut-off frequency but lower than the audible frequencies [e.g., Blanc, Ann. Geophys., 3, 673, 1985]. There is a strong experimental evidence that thunderstorms represent significant sources of infrasonic wave activity spanning a broad altitude range from the troposphere and up to the thermosphere [e.g., Blanc, 1985; Few, in Handbook of Atmospheric Electrodynamics, Vol. 2, edited by H. Volland, pp. 1-31, CRC Press, 1995; Drob et al., JGR, 108, 4680, 2003]. This evidence includes electrostatic production of 0.1- 1 Hz infrasonic waves from thunderclouds [Few, 1995] and recent discovery of infrasound from lightning induced transient luminous events in the mesosphere called sprites [Liszka, J. Low Freq. Noise Vibr. Active Control, 23, 85, 2004; Farges et al., GRL, 32, L13824, 2005; Liszka and Hobara, JASTP, 68, 1179, 2006]. The understanding and classification of different infrasonic waves and their sources is of great current interest from a Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification perspective [e.g., Assink et al., GRL, 35, L15802, 2008]. It has been pointed many decades ago by C. T. R. Wilson [Phil. Trans. R. Soc. London A, 221, 73, 1920] that sudden reduction of the electric field inside a thundercloud immediately following a lightning discharge should produce an infrasound signature. Wilson [1920] noted that the pressure within a charged cloud must be less than the pressure outside, similarly to that within a charged soap bubble. In contrast to the sudden expansion of the air along the track of a lightning flash, the sudden contraction of a large volume of air must furnish a measurable rarefaction pulse [Wilson, 1920]. Many experimental and theoretical contributions followed these predictions by C. T. R. Wilson (see [Few, JGR, 90, 6175, 1985] and extensive list of references therein). Modeling investigation of related scenarios

  4. Infrasonic and low-frequency insert earphone hearing threshold.

    PubMed

    Kuehler, Robert; Fedtke, Thomas; Hensel, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Low-frequency and infrasonic pure-tone monaural hearing threshold data down to 2.5 Hz are presented. These measurements were made by means of a newly developed insert-earphone source. The source is able to generate pure-tone sound pressure levels up to 130 dB between 2 and 250 Hz with very low harmonic distortions. Behavioral hearing thresholds were determined in the frequency range from 2.5 to 125 Hz for 18 otologically normal test persons. The median hearing thresholds are comparable to values given in the literature. They are intended for stimulus calibration in subsequent brain imaging investigations.

  5. Towards an accurate real-time locator of infrasonic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinsky, V.; Blom, P.; Polozov, A.; Marcillo, O.; Arrowsmith, S.; Hofstetter, A.

    2017-11-01

    Infrasonic signals propagate from an atmospheric source via media with stochastic and fast space-varying conditions. Hence, their travel time, the amplitude at sensor recordings and even manifestation in the so-called "shadow zones" are random. Therefore, the traditional least-squares technique for locating infrasonic sources is often not effective, and the problem for the best solution must be formulated in probabilistic terms. Recently, a series of papers has been published about Bayesian Infrasonic Source Localization (BISL) method based on the computation of the posterior probability density function (PPDF) of the source location, as a convolution of a priori probability distribution function (APDF) of the propagation model parameters with likelihood function (LF) of observations. The present study is devoted to the further development of BISL for higher accuracy and stability of the source location results and decreasing of computational load. We critically analyse previous algorithms and propose several new ones. First of all, we describe the general PPDF formulation and demonstrate that this relatively slow algorithm might be among the most accurate algorithms, provided the adequate APDF and LF are used. Then, we suggest using summation instead of integration in a general PPDF calculation for increased robustness, but this leads us to the 3D space-time optimization problem. Two different forms of APDF approximation are considered and applied for the PPDF calculation in our study. One of them is previously suggested, but not yet properly used is the so-called "celerity-range histograms" (CRHs). Another is the outcome from previous findings of linear mean travel time for the four first infrasonic phases in the overlapping consecutive distance ranges. This stochastic model is extended here to the regional distance of 1000 km, and the APDF introduced is the probabilistic form of the junction between this travel time model and range-dependent probability

  6. [Clinical assessment of infrasonic phonophoresis efficacy in the treatment of bacterial keratitis].

    PubMed

    Sidorenko, E I; Filatov, V V; Alimova, Iu M

    1999-01-01

    Therapeutic efficacy of infrasonic phonophoresis is studied in 30 patients with bacterial keratitis. Control group consisted of 87 patients with the same diagnosis. Clinical studies included comparative evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of infrasonic phonophoresis and traditional local instillations of the same drugs. Before treatment, visual acuity was the same in both groups, while after regression of inflammation after treatment it was 0.13 higher in the phonophoresis group. Results of clinical studies indicate a higher efficacy of infrasonic therapy of patients with keratitis. The duration of therapy was decreased, number of bed-days decreased, and visual acuity after treatment improved.

  7. The origin of infrasonic ionosphere oscillations over tropospheric thunderstorms

    DOE PAGES

    Shao, Xuan -Min; Lay, Erin Hoffmann

    2016-07-01

    Thunderstorms have been observed to introduce infrasonic oscillations in the ionosphere, but it is not clear what processes or which parts of the thunderstorm generate the oscillations. In this paper, we present a new technique that uses an array of ground-based GPS total electron content (TEC) measurements to locate the source of the infrasonic oscillations and compare the source locations with thunderstorm features to understand the possible source mechanisms. The location technique utilizes instantaneous phase differences between pairs of GPS-TEC measurements and an algorithm to best fit the measured and the expected phase differences for assumed source positions and othermore » related parameters. In this preliminary study, the infrasound waves are assumed to propagate along simple geometric raypaths from the source to the measurement locations to avoid extensive computations. The located sources are compared in time and space with thunderstorm development and lightning activity. Sources are often found near the main storm cells, but they are more likely related to the downdraft process than to the updraft process. As a result, the sources are also commonly found in the convectively quiet stratiform regions behind active cells and are in good coincidence with extensive lightning discharges and inferred high-altitude sprites discharges.« less

  8. The origin of infrasonic ionosphere oscillations over tropospheric thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xuan-Min; Lay, Erin H.

    2016-07-01

    Thunderstorms have been observed to introduce infrasonic oscillations in the ionosphere, but it is not clear what processes or which parts of the thunderstorm generate the oscillations. In this paper, we present a new technique that uses an array of ground-based GPS total electron content (TEC) measurements to locate the source of the infrasonic oscillations and compare the source locations with thunderstorm features to understand the possible source mechanisms. The location technique utilizes instantaneous phase differences between pairs of GPS-TEC measurements and an algorithm to best fit the measured and the expected phase differences for assumed source positions and other related parameters. In this preliminary study, the infrasound waves are assumed to propagate along simple geometric raypaths from the source to the measurement locations to avoid extensive computations. The located sources are compared in time and space with thunderstorm development and lightning activity. Sources are often found near the main storm cells, but they are more likely related to the downdraft process than to the updraft process. The sources are also commonly found in the convectively quiet stratiform regions behind active cells and are in good coincidence with extensive lightning discharges and inferred high-altitude sprites discharges.

  9. Evaluation of occupational exposure to infrasonic noise in Poland.

    PubMed

    Pawlaczyk-Luszczyńska, M

    1999-01-01

    A short review of infrasound sources and effects on humans is presented. Polish standard PN-86/N-01338 and international standards ISO 7196:1995 and ISO 9612:1997 concerning the measuring techniques of infrasonic noise are described. The results of infrasonic noise measurements performed in the work environment in Poland are discussed. The study concerned the noise emitted by 124 different types of industrial machinery, appliances and means of transport. The measurements were made in typical working conditions with reference to Polish and international standards. The sound pressure levels exceeding Polish admissible values for: (a) workers' health protection were found in 5 (4.0%) cases, (b) ensuring proper conditions for performing basic functions in observational dispatcher cabins etc. in 77 (62.1%) cases; and (c) administration premises, design offices etc. in 92 (74.2%) cases. The admissible sound pressure levels for workers' health protection are in fact the permissible levels for hearing protection, however they do not correspond with the hearing threshold of infrasound the G-weighting characteristic is associated with. The hearing threshold of infrasound (G86 curve) was exceeded in 66.9% of all the industrial machinery and means of transport under study.

  10. Baleen whale infrasonic sounds: Natural variability and function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Christopher W.

    2004-05-01

    Blue and fin whales (Balaenoptera musculus and B. physalus) produce very intense, long, patterned sequences of infrasonic sounds. The acoustic characteristics of these sounds suggest strong selection for signals optimized for very long-range propagation in the deep ocean as first hypothesized by Payne and Webb in 1971. This hypothesis has been partially validated by very long-range detections using hydrophone arrays in deep water. Humpback songs recorded in deep water contain units in the 20-l00 Hz range, and these relatively simple song components are detectable out to many hundreds of miles. The mid-winter peak in the occurrence of 20-Hz fin whale sounds led Watkins to hypothesize a reproductive function similar to humpback (Megaptera novaeangliae) song, and by default this function has been extended to blue whale songs. More recent evidence shows that blue and fin whales produce infrasonic calls in high latitudes during the feeding season, and that singing is associated with areas of high productivity where females congregate to feed. Acoustic sampling over broad spatial and temporal scales for baleen species is revealing higher geographic and seasonal variability in the low-frequency vocal behaviors than previously reported, suggesting that present explanations for baleen whale sounds are too simplistic.

  11. The origin of infrasonic ionosphere oscillations over tropospheric thunderstorms

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Xuan -Min; Lay, Erin Hoffmann

    Thunderstorms have been observed to introduce infrasonic oscillations in the ionosphere, but it is not clear what processes or which parts of the thunderstorm generate the oscillations. In this paper, we present a new technique that uses an array of ground-based GPS total electron content (TEC) measurements to locate the source of the infrasonic oscillations and compare the source locations with thunderstorm features to understand the possible source mechanisms. The location technique utilizes instantaneous phase differences between pairs of GPS-TEC measurements and an algorithm to best fit the measured and the expected phase differences for assumed source positions and othermore » related parameters. In this preliminary study, the infrasound waves are assumed to propagate along simple geometric raypaths from the source to the measurement locations to avoid extensive computations. The located sources are compared in time and space with thunderstorm development and lightning activity. Sources are often found near the main storm cells, but they are more likely related to the downdraft process than to the updraft process. As a result, the sources are also commonly found in the convectively quiet stratiform regions behind active cells and are in good coincidence with extensive lightning discharges and inferred high-altitude sprites discharges.« less

  12. Tele-infrasonic studies of hard-rock mining explosions.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Mihan H; Stump, Brian W; Hayek, Sylvia; McKenna, Jason R; Stanton, Terry R

    2007-07-01

    The Lac-du-Bonnet infrasound station, IS-10, and the Minnesota iron mines 390 km to the southeast are ideally located to assess the accuracy of atmospheric profiles needed for infrasound modeling. Infrasonic data from 2003 associated with explosions at the iron mine were analyzed for effects of explosion size and atmospheric conditions on observations with well-constrained ground truth. Noise was the determining factor for observation; high noise conditions sometimes prevented unequivocal identification of infrasound arrivals. Observed arrivals had frequencies of 0.5 to 5 Hz, with a dominant frequency of 2 Hz, and generally had durations on the order of 10 s or less. There was no correlation between explosive amount and observability. Tele-infrasonic propagation distances (greater than 250 km) produce thermospheric ray paths. Modeling is based upon MSIS/HWM (Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter/Horizontal Wind Model) and NRL-G2S (Naval Research Laboratory Ground to Space) datasets. The NRL-G2S dataset provided more accurate travel time predictions that the MSIS/HWM dataset. PE modeling for the NRL-G2S dataset indicates energy loss at higher frequencies (around 4 Hz). Additionally, applying the Sutherland/Bass model through the NRL-G2S realization of the atmosphere in InfraMAP results in predicted amplitudes too small to be observed.

  13. Observation of Infrasonic/Acoustic/Seismic Waves Induced by Hypersonic Reentry of Hayabusa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, M.-Y.; Ishihara, Y.; Hiramatsu, Y.; Furumoto, M.; Fujita, K.

    2012-05-01

    Observation of infrasonic/acoustic/seismic waves induced by hypersonic reentry of HAYABUSA was carried out on June 13, 2010. Results by 3-sites arrayed observation will be shown in detail by comparison with multiple-sites optical observation.

  14. Electronic stethoscope with frequency shaping and infrasonic recording capabilities.

    PubMed

    Gordon, E S; Lagerwerff, J M

    1976-03-01

    A small electronic stethoscope with variable frequency response characteristics has been developed for aerospace and research applications. The system includes a specially designed piezoelectric pickup and amplifier with an overall frequency response from 0.7 to 5,000 HZ (-3 dB points) and selective bass and treble boost or cut of up to 15 dB. A steep slope, high pass filter can be switched in for ordinary clinical auscultation without overload distortion from strong infrasonic signal inputs. A commercial stethoscope-type headset, selected for best overall response, is used which can adequately handle up to 100 mW of audio power delivered from the amplifier. The active components of the amplifier consist of only four opamp-type integrated circuits.

  15. Infrasonic ambient noise interferometry from correlations of microbaroms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haney, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    We show that microbaroms, continuous infrasound fluctuations resulting from the interaction of the ocean with the atmosphere, have long-range correlation properties that make it possible to estimate the impulse response between two microphones from passive recordings. The processing is analogous to methods employed in the emerging field of ambient noise seismology, where the random noise source is the ocean coupling with the solid Earth (microseisms) instead of the atmosphere (microbaroms). We find that time-dependent temperature fields and temperature inversions determine the character of infrasonic impulse responses at Fourpeaked Volcano in Alaska. Applications include imaging and monitoring the gross structure of the Earth's atmospheric boundary layer. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Infrasonic wind-noise reduction by barriers and spatial filters.

    PubMed

    Hedlin, Michael A H; Raspet, Richard

    2003-09-01

    This paper reports experimental observations of wind speed and infrasonic noise reduction inside a wind barrier. The barrier is compared with "rosette" spatial filters and with a reference site that uses no noise reduction system. The barrier is investigated for use at International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound array sites where spatially extensive noise-reducing systems cannot be used because of a shortage of suitable land. Wind speed inside a 2-m-high 50%-porous hexagonal barrier coated with a fine wire mesh is reduced from ambient levels by 90%. If the infrasound wind-noise level reductions are all plotted versus the reduced frequency given by f*L/v, where L is the characteristic size of the array or barrier, f is the frequency, and v is the wind speed, the reductions at different wind speeds are observed to collapse into a single curve for each wind-noise reduction method. The reductions are minimal below a reduced frequency of 0.3 to 1, depending on the device, then spatial averaging over the turbulence structure leads to increased reduction. Above the reduced corner frequency, the barrier reduces infrasonic noise by up to 20 to 25 dB. Below the corner frequency the barrier displays a small reduction of about 4 dB. The rosettes display no reduction below the corner frequency. One other advantage of the wind barrier over rosette spatial filters is that the signal recorded inside the barrier enters the microbarometer from free air and is not integrated, possibly out of phase, after propagation through a system of narrow pipes.

  17. Infrasonic monitoring of snow avalanches in the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, E.; Ulivieri, G.; Ripepe, M.; Chiambretti, I.; Segor, V.

    2012-04-01

    Risk assessment of snow avalanches is mostly related to weather conditions and snow cover. However a robust risk validation requires to identify all avalanches occurring, in order to compare predictions to real effects. For this purpose on December 2010 we installed a permanent 4-element, small aperture (100 m), infrasound array in the Alps, after a pilot experiment carried out in Gressonay during the 2009-2010 winter season. The array has been deployed in the Ayas Valley, at an elevation of 2000 m a.s.l., where natural avalanches are expected and controlled events are regularly performed. The array consists into 4 Optimic 2180 infrasonic microphones, with a sensitivity of 10-3 Pa in the 0.5-50 Hz frequency band and a 4 channel Guralp CMG-DM24 A/D converter, sampling at 100 Hz. Timing is achieved with a GPS receiver. Data are transmitted to the Department of Earth Sciences of the University of Firenze, where data is recorded and processed in real-time. A multi-channel semblance is carried out on the continuous data set as a function of slowness, back-azimuth and frequency of recorded infrasound in order to detect all avalanches occurring from the back-ground signal, strongly affected by microbarom and mountain induced gravity waves. This permanent installation in Italy will allow to verify the efficiency of the system in short-to-medium range (2-8 km) avalanche detection, and might represent an important validation to model avalanches activity during this winter season. Moreover, the real-time processing of infrasonic array data, might strongly contribute to avalanche risk assessments providing an up-to-description of ongoing events.

  18. Acoustic Network Localization and Interpretation of Infrasonic Pulses from Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arechiga, R. O.; Johnson, J. B.; Badillo, E.; Michnovicz, J. C.; Thomas, R. J.; Edens, H. E.; Rison, W.

    2011-12-01

    We improve on the localization accuracy of thunder sources and identify infrasonic pulses that are correlated across a network of acoustic arrays. We attribute these pulses to electrostatic charge relaxation (collapse of the electric field) and attempt to model their spatial extent and acoustic source strength. Toward this objective we have developed a single audio range (20-15,000 Hz) acoustic array and a 4-station network of broadband (0.01-500 Hz) microphone arrays with aperture of ~45 m. The network has an aperture of 1700 m and was installed during the summers of 2009-2011 in the Magdalena mountains of New Mexico, an area that is subject to frequent lightning activity. We are exploring a new technique based on inverse theory that integrates information from the audio range and the network of broadband acoustic arrays to locate thunder sources more accurately than can be achieved with a single array. We evaluate the performance of the technique by comparing the location of thunder sources with RF sources located by the lightning mapping array (LMA) of Langmuir Laboratory at New Mexico Tech. We will show results of this technique for lightning flashes that occurred in the vicinity of our network of acoustic arrays and over the LMA. We will use acoustic network detection of infrasonic pulses together with LMA data and electric field measurements to estimate the spatial distribution of the charge (within the cloud) that is used to produce a lightning flash, and will try to quantify volumetric charges (charge magnitude) within clouds.

  19. Infrasonic observations of the June 2009 Sarychev Peak eruption, Kuril Islands: Implications for infrasonic monitoring of remote explosive volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matoza, Robin S.; Le Pichon, Alexis; Vergoz, Julien; Herry, Pascal; Lalande, Jean-Marie; Lee, Hee-il; Che, Il-Young; Rybin, Alexander

    2011-02-01

    Sarychev Peak (SP), located on Ostrov Matua, Kurils, erupted explosively during 11-16 June 2009. Whereas remote seismic stations did not record the eruption, we report atmospheric infrasound (acoustic wave ~ 0.01-20 Hz) observations of the eruption at seven infrasound arrays located at ranges of ~ 640-6400 km from SP. The infrasound arrays consist of stations of the International Monitoring System global infrasound network and additional stations operated by the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources. Signals at the three closest recording stations IS44 (643 km, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy, Kamchatka Krai, Russia), IS45 (1690 km, Ussuriysk, Russia), and IS30 (1774 km, Isumi, Japan) represent a detailed record of the explosion chronology that correlates well with an eruption chronology based on satellite data (TERRA, NOAA, MTSAT). The eruption chronology inferred from infrasound data has a higher temporal resolution than that obtained with satellite data. Atmosphere-corrected infrasonic source locations determined from backazimuth cross-bearings of first-arrivals have a mean centroid ~ 15 km from the true location of SP. Scatter in source locations of up to ~ 100 km result from currently unresolved details of atmospheric propagation and source complexity. We observe systematic time-variations in trace-velocity, backazimuth deviation, and signal frequency content at IS44. Preliminary investigation of atmospheric propagation from SP to IS44 indicates that these variations can be attributed to solar tide variability in the thermosphere. It is well known that additional information about active volcanic processes can be learned by deploying infrasonic sensors with seismometers at erupting volcanoes. This study further highlights the significant potential of infrasound arrays for monitoring volcanic regions such as the Kurils that have only sparse seismic network coverage.

  20. Infrasonic Observations of Ground Shaking along the 2010 Mw 7.2 El Mayor Rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degroot-Hedlin, C. D.; Walker, K.

    2010-12-01

    The Mw 7.2 El Mayor earthquake in northeast Baja California generated seismic waves that were felt for up to 90 seconds throughout southern California and northern Baja. The locations of the epicenter, aftershocks, and surface rupture suggest that the rupture was not focused at one specific location, but initiated near El Mayor, Mexico and extended northwest for roughly 120 km through the U.S. border. We analyze infrasound and seismic data recorded by three arrays and show that the surface shaking in the vicinity of the rupture also generated infrasound that was detected at least 200 km away to the north and west of the epicentral region, despite stratospheric winds from the west that only favor eastward propagation. Frequency domain beamforming of infrasound array signals recorded by an array near San Diego (MRIAR) shows a time progression of signal back azimuth that spans the entire rupture length. Ray trace modeling using 4-D atmospheric velocity models suggests that the observed infrasound signals refracted in the thermosphere. The signals have frequencies from 1 to 12 Hz, which is rather high given the level of thermospheric attenuation predicted by traditional models. A secondary infrasound wavetrain that arrived at MRIAR before the epicentral infrasound appears to have originated from an infrasonic radiator south of the array that was excited by the passing surface waves.

  1. Simultaneous infrasonic, seismic, magnetic and ionospheric observations in an earthquake epicentre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laštovička, J.; Baše, J.; Hruška, F.; Chum, J.; Šindelářová, T.; Horálek, J.; Zedník, J.; Krasnov, V.

    2010-10-01

    Various pre-seismic and co-seismic effects have been reported in the literature in the solid Earth, hydrosphere, atmosphere, electric/magnetic field and in the ionosphere. Some of the effects observed above the surface, particularly some of the pre-seismic effects, are still a matter of debate. Here we analyze the co-seismic effects of a relatively weak earthquake of 28 October 2008, which was a part of an earthquake swarm in the westernmost region of the Czech Republic. Special attention is paid to unique measurements of infrasonic phenomena. As far as we know, these have been the first infrasonic measurements during earthquake in the epicentre zone. Infrasonic oscillations (˜1-12 Hz) in the epicentre region appear to be excited essentially by the vertical seismic oscillations. The observed oscillations are real epicentral infrasound not caused by seismic shaking of the instruments or by meteorological phenomena. Seismo-infrasonic oscillations observed 155 km apart from the epicentre were excited in situ by seismic waves. No earthquake-related infrasonic effects have been observed in the ionosphere. Necessity to make vibration tests of instruments is pointed out in order to be sure that observed effects are not effects of mechanical shaking of the instrument.

  2. Wake Vortex Detection: Phased Microphone vs. Linear Infrasonic Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Sullivan, Nicholas T.; Knight, Howard K.

    2014-01-01

    infrasonic array at the Newport News-Williamsburg International Airport early in the year 2013. A pattern of pressure burst, high-coherence intervals, and diminishing-coherence intervals was observed for all takeoff and landing events without exception. The results of a phased microphone vs. linear infrasonic array comparison will be presented.

  3. Infrasonic Observations of Explosions and Degassing at Kilauea Summit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fee, D.; Garces, M.

    2008-12-01

    After 25 years of quiescence, eruptive activity returned to Kilauea Caldera with an explosion in Halema'uma'u crater on March 19th 2008. The explosion is presumed to be the clearing of a clogged vent. Along with the 3/19 explosion, at least 5 more gas-driven explosions have occurred and were clearly recorded at a 4-element infrasound array 7 km away. Acoustic energy estimates for these explosions yield energies between ~ 0.2-3 × 107 J. Infrasonic VLP energy is present for some of the explosions, but not all. The relatively long explosion durations (>20 seconds) and frequency content are consistent with a transient pressure pulse followed by the reverberation of a shallow gas chamber or conduit. Persistent degassing from Halema'uma'u followed the initial explosion. The harmonic infrasonic tremor produced by the degassing is the most energetic to date at Kilauea, with the cumulative tremor acoustic energy at ~107-108 Joules/hour. The complex tremor spectra show numerous peaks, with the dominant peak between 0.3-0.6 Hz and a smaller amplitude peak around 1-3 Hz. The peak frequency of the harmonic tremor has changed over time, which could be related to a change in the gas-filled chamber dimensions or temperature. Further analysis of the tremor spectra may help constrain dimensions. Consistent with our previous observations at Kilauea from Pu'u 'O'o, Fissure D, and lava skylights, the excitation of a gas within a confined volume appears to be the acoustic (and possibly seismic) source. For the tremor, we propose a mechanism where persistent degassing excites the gas volume into resonance. The explosions signals are consistent with a slug of gas reaching the free surface and exciting the conduit as well. Correlation of the infrasound signals with seismic tremor, LP and VLP signals suggest an open system connecting the atmosphere to the seismic excitation process at depth. Results will also be presented in relation to the recent observation of a visible lava lake within

  4. Infrasonic Monitoring Network on the Big Island of Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thelen, Weston; Garces, Milton; Cooper, Jennifer; Badger, Nickles; Perttu, Anna; Williams, Brian

    2013-04-01

    The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) with the participation of the University of Hawaii Infrasound Lab (ISLA) installed three new permanent infrasound arrays on the south half of the Island of Hawaii. Together with three existing permanent arrays maintained by ISLA, the current infrasound network around Kīlauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes is one of the most advanced of any volcano in the world. Open-vent volcanoes such as Kīlauea are particularly good infrasound emitters as lava spattering and unsteady gas release is common. The network was designed with two main goals in mind: 1) to monitor and study the infrasound sources associated with the ongoing Pu`u `Ō`ō and Halema'u'mau eruption, and 2) to detect in near real-time new eruptions at Mauna Loa or Kīlauea volcanoes. Each HVO array consists of 4 sensors, which form an equilateral triangle ~100 m on a side surrounding a central sensor. Three other permanent arrays maintained by ISLA (I59US, MENE, KHLU) have been operational since 2000, 2006, and 2009, respectively, and consist of a combination of Chaparral 25 and 50 sensors. Each infrasound instrument within the HVO arrays is built around an low- cost AllSensor MEMS sensor, which has higher noise characteristics than a Chaparral 25, but similar frequency response. ISLA also operates stations on Maui and Kauai that provide --statewide coverage. Since the full network has been established, we have recorded several infrasound signals including infrasonic tremor from Halema`uma`u, collapses from the craters of Halema`uma`u and Pu`u `Ō`ō, and other natural and anthropogenic infrasound from diverse sources on- island, offshore, and aloft. Future developments will include real-time detection, location, and identification of infrasonic signals for eruption notification. We hope to increase public awareness of volcanic infrasound by posting real-time locations on an interactive display, similar to how seismicity is currently reported. MENE data is presently

  5. Infrasonic waves in the ionosphere generated by a weak earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnov, V. M.; Drobzheva, Ya. V.; Chum, J.

    2011-08-01

    A computer code has been developed to simulate the generation of infrasonic waves (frequencies considered ≤80 Hz) by a weak earthquake (magnitude ˜3.6), their propagation through the atmosphere and their effects in the ionosphere. We provide estimates of the perturbations in the ionosphere at the height (˜160 km) where waves at the sounding frequency (3.59 MHz) of a continuous Doppler radar reflect. We have found that the pressure perturbation is 5.79×10-7 Pa (0.26% of the ambient value), the temperature perturbation is 0.088 K (0.015% of the ambient value) and the electron density perturbation is 2×108 m-3 (0.12% of the ambient value). The characteristic perturbation is found to be a bipolar pulse lasting ˜25 s, and the maximum Doppler shift is found to be ˜0.08 Hz, which is too small to be detected by the Doppler radar at the time of the earthquake.

  6. Infrasonic wind noise under a deciduous tree canopy.

    PubMed

    Webster, Jeremy; Raspet, Richard

    2015-05-01

    In a recent paper, the infrasonic wind noise measured at the floor of a pine forest was predicted from the measured wind velocity spectrum and profile within and above the trees [Raspet and Webster, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 137, 651-659 (2015)]. This research studies the measured and predicted wind noise under a deciduous forest with and without leaves. A calculation of the turbulence-shear interaction pressures above the canopy predicts the low frequency peak in the wind noise spectrum. The calculated turbulence-turbulence interaction pressure due to the turbulence field near the ground predicts the measured wind noise spectrum in the higher frequency region. The low frequency peak displays little dependence on whether the trees have leaves or not. The high frequency contribution with leaves is approximately an order of magnitude smaller than the contribution without leaves. Wind noise levels with leaves are very similar to the wind noise levels in the pine forest. The calculated turbulence-shear contribution from the wind within the canopy is shown to be negligible in comparison to the turbulence-turbulence contribution in both cases. In addition, the effect of taller forests and smaller roughness lengths than those of the test forest on the turbulence-shear interaction is simulated based on measured meteorological parameters.

  7. Nonlinear aspects of infrasonic pressure transfer into the perilymph.

    PubMed

    Krukowski, B; Carlborg, B; Densert, O

    1980-06-01

    The perilymphatic pressure was studied in response to various low frequency pressure changes in the ear canal. The pressure transfer was analysed and found to be nonlinear in many aspects. The pressure response was found to contain two time constants representing the inner ear pressure regulating mechanisms. The time constants showed an asymmetry in response to positive and negative going inputs--the effects to some extent proportional to input levels. Further nonlinearities were found when infrasonic sine waves were applied to the ear. Harmonic distortion and modulation appeared. When short bursts of infrasound were introduced a clear d.c. shift was observed as a consequence of an asymmetry in the response to positive and negative going pressure inputs. A temporary change in mean perilymphatic pressure was thus achieved and continued throughout the duration of the signal. At very low frequencies a distinct phase shift was detected in the sine waves. This appeared as a phase lead, breaking the continuity of the output sine wave.

  8. Theory of compact nonporous windscreens for infrasonic measurements.

    PubMed

    Zuckerwar, Allan J

    2010-06-01

    The principle of the compact nonporous windscreen is based on the great penetrability of infrasound through matter. The windscreen performance is characterized by the ratio of the sound pressure at an interior microphone, located in the center of a windscreen, to the incident sound pressure in the free field. The frequency dependence of this pressure ratio is derived as a function of the windscreen material and geometric properties. Four different windscreen geometries are considered: a subsurface, box-shaped windscreen, a cylindrical windscreen of infinite length, a cylindrical windscreen of finite length, and a spherical windscreen. Results are presented for windscreens made of closed-cell polyurethane foam and for typical dimensions of each of the above geometries. The cylindrical windscreen of finite length, featuring evanescent radial modes, behaves as a unity-gain, low-pass filter, cutting off sharply at the end of the infrasonic range. The remaining geometries reveal a pass band that extends well into the audio range, terminated by a pronounced peak beyond which the response plummets rapidly.

  9. Wind fence enclosures for infrasonic wind noise reduction.

    PubMed

    Abbott, JohnPaul; Raspet, Richard; Webster, Jeremy

    2015-03-01

    A large porous wind fence enclosure has been built and tested to optimize wind noise reduction at infrasonic frequencies between 0.01 and 10 Hz to develop a technology that is simple and cost effective and improves upon the limitations of spatial filter arrays for detecting nuclear explosions, wind turbine infrasound, and other sources of infrasound. Wind noise is reduced by minimizing the sum of the wind noise generated by the turbulence and velocity gradients inside the fence and by the area-averaging the decorrelated pressure fluctuations generated at the surface of the fence. The effects of varying the enclosure porosity, top condition, bottom gap, height, and diameter and adding a secondary windscreen were investigated. The wind fence enclosure achieved best reductions when the surface porosity was between 40% and 55% and was supplemented by a secondary windscreen. The most effective wind fence enclosure tested in this study achieved wind noise reductions of 20-27 dB over the 2-4 Hz frequency band, a minimum of 5 dB noise reduction for frequencies from 0.1 to 20 Hz, constant 3-6 dB noise reduction for frequencies with turbulence wavelengths larger than the fence, and sufficient wind noise reduction at high wind speeds (3-6 m/s) to detect microbaroms.

  10. Assessment of atmospheric models for tele-infrasonic propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, Mihan; Hayek, Sylvia

    2005-04-01

    Iron mines in Minnesota are ideally located to assess the accuracy of available atmospheric profiles used in infrasound modeling. These mines are located approximately 400 km away to the southeast (142) of the Lac-Du-Bonnet infrasound station, IS-10. Infrasound data from June 1999 to March 2004 was analyzed to assess the effects of explosion size and atmospheric conditions on observations. IS-10 recorded a suite of events from this time period resulting in well constrained ground truth. This ground truth allows for the comparison of ray trace and PE (Parabolic Equation) modeling to the observed arrivals. The tele-infrasonic distance (greater than 250 km) produces ray paths that turn in the upper atmosphere, the thermosphere, at approximately 120 km to 140 km. Modeling based upon MSIS/HWM (Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter/Horizontal Wind Model) and the NOGAPS (Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System) and NRL-GS2 (Naval Research Laboratory Ground to Space) augmented profiles are used to interpret the observed arrivals.

  11. Infrasonic detection of a near-Earth object impact over Indonesia on 8 October 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silber, Elizabeth A.; Le Pichon, Alexis; Brown, Peter G.

    2011-06-01

    We present analysis of infrasonic signals produced by a large Earth-impacting fireball, believed to be among the most energetic instrumentally recorded during the last century that occurred on 8 October, 2009 over Indonesia. This extraordinary event, detected by 17 infrasonic stations of the global International Monitoring Network, generated stratospherically ducted infrasound returns at distances up to 17 500 km, the greatest range at which infrasound from a fireball has been detected since the 1908 Tunguska explosion. From these infrasonic records, we find the total source energy for this bolide as 8-67 kilotons of TNT equivalent explosive yield, with the favored best estimate near ˜50 kt. Global impact events of such energy are expected only once per decade and study of their impact effects can provide insight into the impactor threshold levels for ground damage and climate perturbations.

  12. Infrasonic emissions from local meteorological events: A summary of data taken throughout 1984

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    Records of infrasonic signals, propagating through the Earth's atmosphere in the frequency band 2 to 16 Hz, were gathered on a three microphone array at Langley Research Center throughout the year 1984. Digital processing of these records fulfilled three functions: time delay estimation, based on an adaptive filter; source location, determined from the time delay estimates; and source identification, based on spectral analysis. Meteorological support was provided by significant meteorological advisories, lightning locator plots, and daily reports from the Air Weather Service. The infrasonic data are organized into four characteristic signatures, one of which is believed to contain emissions from local meteorological sources. This class of signature prevailed only on those days when major global meteorological events appeared in or near to eastern United States. Eleven case histories are examined. Practical application of the infrasonic array in a low level wing shear alert system is discussed.

  13. Infrasonic Detection of a Large Bolide over South Sulawesi, Indonesia on October 8, 2009: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silber, E. A.; Brown, P. G.; Le Pinchon, A.

    2011-01-01

    In the morning hours of October 8, 2009, a bright object entered Earth's atmosphere over South Sulawesi, Indonesia. This bolide disintegrated above the ground, generating stratospheric infrasound returns that were detected by infrasonic stations of the global International Monitoring System (IMS) Network of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) at distances up to 17 500 km. Here we present instrumental recordings and preliminary results of this extraordinary event. Using the infrasonic period-yield relations, originally derived for atmospheric nuclear detonations, we find the most probable source energy for this bolide to be 70+/-20 kt TNT equivalent explosive yield. A unique aspect of this event is the fact that it was apparently detected by infrasound only. Global events of such magnitude are expected only once per decade and can be utilized to calibrate infrasonic location and propagation tools on a global scale, and to evaluate energy yield formula, and event timing.

  14. Joint seismic-infrasonic processing of recordings from a repeating source of atmospheric explosions.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Steven J; Ringdal, Frode; Kvaerna, Tormod

    2007-11-01

    A database has been established of seismic and infrasonic recordings from more than 100 well-constrained surface explosions, conducted by the Finnish military to destroy old ammunition. The recorded seismic signals are essentially identical and indicate that the variation in source location and magnitude is negligible. In contrast, the infrasonic arrivals on both seismic and infrasound sensors exhibit significant variation both with regard to the number of detected phases, phase travel times, and phase amplitudes, which would be attributable to atmospheric factors. This data set provides an excellent database for studies in sound propagation, infrasound array detection, and direction estimation.

  15. Behavioural responses to infrasonic particle acceleration in cuttlefish.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Maria; Haga, Jens Ådne Rekkedal; Karlsen, Hans Erik

    2018-01-11

    Attacks by aquatic predators generate frontal water disturbances characterised by low-frequency gradients in pressure and particle motion. Low-frequency hearing is highly developed in cephalopods. Thus, we examined behavioural responses in juvenile cuttlefish to infrasonic accelerations mimicking main aspects of the hydrodynamic signals created by predators. In the experimental set-up, animals and their surrounding water moved as a unit to minimise lateral line activation and to allow examination of the contribution by the inner ear. Behavioural responses were tested in light versus darkness and after food deprivation following a 'simulated' hunting opportunity. At low acceleration levels, colour change threshold at 3, 5 and 9 Hz was 0.028, 0.038 and 0.035 m s -2 , respectively. At higher stimulus levels, jet-propulsed escape responses thresholds in daylight were 0.043, 0.065 and 0.069 m s -2 at 3, 5 and 9 Hz, respectively, and not significantly different from the corresponding darkness thresholds of 0.043, 0.071 and 0.064 m s -2 In a simulated hunting mode, escape thresholds were significantly higher at 3 Hz (0.118 m s -2 ) but not at 9 Hz (0.134 m s -2 ). Escape responses were directional, and overall followed the direction of the initial particle acceleration, with mean escape angles from 313 to 33 deg for all three experiments. Thus, in the wild, particle acceleration might cause escape responses directed away from striking predators but towards suction-feeding predators. We suggest that cuttlefish jet-propulsed escape behaviour has evolved to be elicited by the early hydrodynamic disturbances generated during predator encounters, and that the inner ear plays an essential role in the acoustic escape responses. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Noninvasive intracranial pressure measurement using infrasonic emissions from the tympanic membrane.

    PubMed

    Stettin, Eduard; Paulat, Klaus; Schulz, Chris; Kunz, Ulrich; Mauer, Uwe Max

    2011-06-01

    We investigated whether ICP can be assessed by measuring infrasonic emissions from the tympanic membrane. An increase in ICP was induced in 22 patients with implanted ICP pressure sensors. ICP waveforms that were obtained invasively and continuously were compared with infrasonic emission waveforms. In addition, the noninvasive method was used in a control group of 14 healthy subjects. In a total of 83 measurements, the changes in ICP that were observed in response to different types of stimulation were detected in the waveforms obtained noninvasively as well as in those acquired invasively. Low ICP was associated with an initial high peak and further peaks with smaller amplitudes. High ICP was associated with a marked decrease in the number of peaks and in the difference between the amplitudes of the initial and last peaks. The assessment of infrasonic emissions, however, does not yet enable us to provide exact figures. It is conceivable that the assessment of infrasonic emissions will become suitable both as a screening tool and for the continuous monitoring of ICP in an intensive care environment.

  17. Infrasonic analysis of carotid vibration as a diagnostic method in carotid insufficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Anastassiades, A J; Petounis, A D

    1976-01-01

    The infrasonic part of the spectrum of the carotid artery wall vibration in the neck was obtained. Differences between the spectral content and vibrational amplitude in normal and occluded carotids were found. The application of this technique in clinical practice could be useful in the detection of the carotid insufficiency syndrome.

  18. Monitoring Seismo-volcanic and Infrasonic Signals at Volcanoes: Mt. Etna Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannata, Andrea; Di Grazia, Giuseppe; Aliotta, Marco; Cassisi, Carmelo; Montalto, Placido; Patanè, Domenico

    2013-11-01

    Volcanoes generate a broad range of seismo-volcanic and infrasonic signals, whose features and variations are often closely related to volcanic activity. The study of these signals is hence very useful in the monitoring and investigation of volcano dynamics. The analysis of seismo-volcanic and infrasonic signals requires specifically developed techniques due to their unique characteristics, which are generally quite distinct compared with tectonic and volcano-tectonic earthquakes. In this work, we describe analysis methods used to detect and locate seismo-volcanic and infrasonic signals at Mt. Etna. Volcanic tremor sources are located using a method based on spatial seismic amplitude distribution, assuming propagation in a homogeneous medium. The tremor source is found by calculating the goodness of the linear regression fit ( R 2) of the log-linearized equation of the seismic amplitude decay with distance. The location method for long-period events is based on the joint computation of semblance and R 2 values, and the location method of very long-period events is based on the application of radial semblance. Infrasonic events and tremor are located by semblance-brightness- and semblance-based methods, respectively. The techniques described here can also be applied to other volcanoes and do not require particular network geometries (such as arrays) but rather simple sparse networks. Using the source locations of all the considered signals, we were able to reconstruct the shallow plumbing system (above sea level) during 2011.

  19. A study of infrasonic anisotropy and multipathing in the atmosphere using seismic networks.

    PubMed

    Hedlin, Michael A H; Walker, Kristoffer T

    2013-02-13

    We discuss the use of reverse time migration (RTM) with dense seismic networks for the detection and location of sources of atmospheric infrasound. Seismometers measure the response of the Earth's surface to infrasound through acoustic-to-seismic coupling. RTM has recently been applied to data from the USArray network to create a catalogue of infrasonic sources in the western US. Specifically, several hundred sources were detected in 2007-2008, many of which were not observed by regional infrasonic arrays. The influence of the east-west stratospheric zonal winds is clearly seen in the seismic data with most detections made downwind of the source. We study this large-scale anisotropy of infrasonic propagation, using a winter and summer source in Idaho. The bandpass-filtered (1-5 Hz) seismic waveforms reveal in detail the two-dimensional spread of the infrasonic wavefield across the Earth's surface within approximately 800 km of the source. Using three-dimensional ray tracing, we find that the stratospheric winds above 30 km altitude in the ground-to-space (G2S) atmospheric model explain well the observed anisotropy pattern. We also analyse infrasound from well-constrained explosions in northern Utah with a denser IRIS PASSCAL seismic network. The standard G2S model correctly predicts the anisotropy of the stratospheric duct, but it incorrectly predicts the dimensions of the shadow zones in the downwind direction. We show that the inclusion of finer-scale structure owing to internal gravity waves infills the shadow zones and predicts the observed time durations of the signals. From the success of this method in predicting the observations, we propose that multipathing owing to fine scale, layer-cake structure is the primary mechanism governing propagation for frequencies above approximately 1 Hz and infer that stochastic approaches incorporating internal gravity waves are a useful improvement to the standard G2S model for infrasonic propagation modelling.

  20. Evaluation of rosette infrasonic noise-reducing spatial filters.

    PubMed

    Hedlin, Michael A H; Alcoverro, Benoit; D'Spain, Gerald

    2003-10-01

    This paper presents results from recent tests of rosette infrasonic noise-reducing spatial filters at the Pinon Flat Observatory in southern California. Data from 18- and 70-m aperture rosette filters and a reference port are used to gauge the reduction in atmospheric wind-generated noise levels provided by the filters and to examine the effect of these spatial filters on spatially coherent acoustic signals in the 0.02- to 10-Hz band. At wind speeds up to 5.5 m/s, the 18-m rosette filter reduces wind noise levels above 0.2 Hz by 15 to 20 dB. Under the same conditions, the 70-m rosette filter provides noise reduction of up to 15 to 20 dB between 0.02 and 0.7 Hz. Standing wave resonance inside the 70-m filter degrades the reception of acoustic signals above 0.7 Hz. The fundamental mode of the resonance, 15 dB above background, is centered at 2.65-Hz and the first odd harmonic is observed at 7.95 Hz in data from the large filter. Analytical simulations accurately reproduce the noise reduction and resonance observed in the 70-m filter at all wind speeds above 1.25 m/s. Resonance theory indicates that internal reflections that give rise to the resonance observed in the passband are occurring at the summing manifolds, and not at the inlets. Rosette filters are designed for acoustic arrivals with infinite phase velocity. The plane-wave response of the 70-m rosette filter has a strong dependence on frequency above 3.5 Hz at grazing angles of less than 15 degrees from the horizontal. At grazing angles, complete cancellation of the signal occurs at 5 Hz. Theoretical predictions of the phase and amplitude response of 18- and 70-m rosette filters, that take into account internal resonance and time delays between the inlets, compare favorably with observations derived from a cross-spectral analysis of signals from the explosion of a large bolide.

  1. Does an infrasonic acoustic shock wave resonance of the manganese 3+ loaded/copper depleted prion protein initiate the pathogenesis of TSE?

    PubMed

    Purdey, Mark

    2003-06-01

    Intensive exposures to natural and artificial sources of infrasonic acoustic shock (tectonic disturbances, supersonic aeroplanes, etc.) have been observed in ecosystems supporting mammalian populations that are blighted by clusters of traditional and new variant strains of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). But TSEs will only emerge in those 'infrasound-rich' environments which are simultaneously influenced by eco-factors that induce a high manganese (Mn)/low copper (Cu)-zinc (Zn) ratio in brains of local mammalian populations. Since cellular prion protein (PrPc) is a cupro-protein expressed throughout the circadian mediated pathways of the body, it is proposed that PrP's Cu component performs a role in the conduction and distribution of endogenous electromagnetic energy; energy that has been transduced from incoming ultraviolet, acoustic, geomagnetic radiations. TSE pathogenesis is initiated once Mn substitutes at the vacant Cu domain on PrPc and forms a nonpathogenic, protease resistant, 'sleeping' prion. A second stage of pathogenesis comes into play once a low frequency wave of infrasonic shock metamorphoses the piezoelectric atomic structure of the Mn 3+ component of the prion, thereby 'priming' the sleeping prion into its fully fledged, pathogenic TSE isoform - where the paramagnetic status of the Mn 3+ atom is transformed into a stable ferrimagnetic lattice work, due to the strong electron-phonon coupling resulting from the dynamic 'Jahn-Teller' type distortions of the oxygen octahedra specific to the trivalent Mn species. The so called 'infectivity' of the prion is a misnomer and should be correctly defined as the contagious field inducing capacity of the ferrimagnetic Mn 3+ component of the prion; which remains pathogenic at all temperatures below the 'curie point'. A progressive domino-like 'metal to ligand to metal' ferrimagnetic corruption of the conduits of electromagnetic superexchange is initiated. The TSE diseased brain can be likened to

  2. Finite-difference time-domain modeling of transient infrasonic wavefields excited by volcanic explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Lees, J. M.

    2011-03-01

    Numerical modeling of waveform diffractions along the rim of a volcano vent shows high correlation to observed explosion signals at Karymsky Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia. The finite difference modeling assumed a gaussian source time function and an axisymmetric geometry. A clear demonstration of the significant distortion of infrasonic wavefronts was caused by diffraction at the vent rim edge. Data collected at Karymsky in 1997 and 1998 were compared to synthetic waveforms and variations of vent geometry were determined via grid search. Karymsky exhibited a wide range of variation in infrasonic waveforms, well explained by the diffraction, and modeled as changing vent geometry. Rim diffraction of volcanic infrasound is shown to be significant and must be accounted for when interpreting source physics from acoustic observations.

  3. Blood pressure changes in man during infrasonic exposure. An experimental study.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, A; Landström, U

    1985-01-01

    Twenty healthy male volunteers were exposed to infrasound in a pressure chamber especially designed for the experiments. The effects on blood pressure, pulse rate and serum cortisol levels of acute infrasonic stimulation were studied in a series of different experiments. Varying frequencies (6, 12, 16 Hz) and pressure levels (95, 110, 125 dB(lin)) were tested. Significantly increased diastolic and decreased systolic blood pressures were recorded without any rise in pulse rate. The increase in diastolic blood pressure reached a maximal mean of about 8 mmHg after 30 min exposure. The results suggest that acute infrasonic stimulation induces a peripheral vasoconstriction with increased blood pressure, previously shown to occur in conjunction with industrial noise. Chronic long-term exposure to environmental infrasound may be of importance for the development of essential hypertension in predisposed individuals.

  4. Observation of infrasonic and gravity waves at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripepe, Maurizio; De Angelis, Silvio; Lacanna, Giorgio; Voight, Barry

    2010-04-01

    The sudden ejection of material during an explosive eruption generates a broad spectrum of pressure oscillations, from infrasonic to gravity waves. An infrasonic array, installed at 3.5 km from the Soufriere Hills Volcano has successfully detected and located, in real-time, the infrasound generated by several pyroclastic flows (PF) estimating mean flow speeds of 30-75 m/s. On July 29 and December 3, 2008, two differential pressure transducers, co-located with the array, recorded ultra long-period (ULP) oscillations at frequencies of 0.97 and 3.5 mHz, typical of atmospheric gravity waves, associated with explosive eruptions. The observation of gravity waves in the near-field (<6 km) at frequencies as low as about 1 mHz is unprecedented during volcanic eruptions.

  5. Infrasonic crackle and supersonic jet noise from the eruption of Nabro Volcano, Eritrea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fee, David; Matoza, Robin S.; Gee, Kent L.; Neilsen, Tracianne B.; Ogden, Darcy E.

    2013-08-01

    The lowermost portion of an explosive volcanic eruption column is considered a momentum-driven jet. Understanding volcanic jets is critical for determining eruption column dynamics and mitigating volcanic hazards; however, volcanic jets are inherently difficult to observe due to their violence and opacity. Infrasound from the 2011 eruption of Nabro Volcano, Eritrea has waveform features highly similar to the "crackle" phenomenon uniquely produced by man-made supersonic jet engines and rockets and is characterized by repeated asymmetric compressions followed by weaker, gradual rarefactions. This infrasonic crackle indicates that infrasound source mechanisms in sustained volcanic eruptions are strikingly similar to jet noise sources from heated, supersonic jet engines and rockets, suggesting that volcanologists can utilize the modeling and physical understandings of man-made jets to understand volcanic jets. The unique, distinctive infrasonic crackle from Nabro highlights the use of infrasound to remotely detect and characterize hazardous eruptions and its potential to determine volcanic jet parameters.

  6. Finite-Difference Time-Domain Modeling of Infrasonic Waves Generated by Supersonic Auroral Arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasko, V. P.

    2010-12-01

    Atmospheric infrasonic waves are acoustic waves with frequencies ranging from ˜0.02 to ˜10 Hz [e.g., Blanc, Ann. Geophys., 3, 673, 1985]. The importance of infrasound studies has been emphasized in the past ten years from the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty verification perspective [e.g., Le Pichon et al., JGR, 114, D08112, 2009]. A proper understanding of infrasound propagation in the atmosphere is required for identification and classification of different infrasonic waves and their sources [Drob et al., JGR, 108, D21, 4680, 2003]. In the present work we employ a FDTD model of infrasound propagation in a realistic atmosphere to provide quantitative interpretation of infrasonic waves produced by auroral arcs moving with supersonic speed. We have recently applied similar modeling approaches for studies of infrasonic waves generated from thunderstorms [e.g., Few, Handbook of Atmospheric Electrodynamics, H. Volland (ed.), Vol. 2, pp.1-31, CRC Press, 1995], quantitative interpretation of infrasonic signatures from pulsating auroras [Wilson et al., GRL, 32, L14810, 2005], and studies of infrasonic waves generated by transient luminous events in the middle atmosphere termed sprites [e.g., Farges, Lightning: Principles, Instruments and Applications, H.D. Betz et al. (eds.), Ch.18, Springer, 2009]. The related results have been reported in [Pasko, JGR, 114, D08205, 2009], [de Larquier et al., GRL, 37, L06804, 2010], and [de Larquier, MS Thesis, Penn State, Aug. 2010], respectively. In the FDTD model, the altitude and frequency dependent attenuation coefficients provided by Sutherland and Bass [J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 115, 1012, 2004] are included in classical equations of acoustics in a gravitationally stratified atmosphere using a decomposition technique recently proposed by de Groot-Hedlin [J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 124, 1430, 2008]. The auroral infrasonic waves (AIW) in the frequency range 0.1-0.01 Hz associated with the supersonic motion of auroral arcs have been

  7. Basic Research on Seismic and Infrasonic Monitoring of the European Arctic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    characteristics as well as the inherent variability among these signals . We have used available recordings both from the Apatity infrasound array and from...experimentally attempt to generate an infrasonic event bulletin using only the estimated azimuths and detection times of infrasound phases recorded by... detection . Our studies have shown a remarkably efficient wave propagation from events near Novaya Zemlya across the Barents Sea. Significant signal

  8. Longitudinal endolymph movements and endocochlear potential changes induced by stimulation at infrasonic frequencies.

    PubMed

    Salt, A N; DeMott, J E

    1999-08-01

    The inner ear is continually exposed to pressure fluctuations in the infrasonic frequency range (< 20 Hz) from external and internal body sources. The cochlea is generally regarded to be insensitive to such stimulation. The effects of stimulation at infrasonic frequencies (0.1 to 10 Hz) on endocochlear potential (EP) and endolymph movements in the guinea pig cochlea were studied. Stimuli were applied directly to the perilymph of scala tympani or scala vestibuli of the cochlea via a fluid-filled pipette. Stimuli, especially those near 1 Hz, elicited large EP changes which under some conditions exceeded 20 mV in amplitude and were equivalent to a cochlear microphonic (CM) response. Accompanying the electrical responses was a cyclical, longitudinal displacement of the endolymph. The amplitude and phase of the CM varied according to which perilymphatic scala the stimuli were applied to and whether a perforation was made in the opposing perilymphatic scala. Spontaneously occurring middle ear muscle contractions were also found to induce EP deflections and longitudinal endolymph movements comparable to those generated by perilymphatic injections. These findings suggest that cochlear fluid movements induced by pressure fluctuations at infrasonic frequencies could play a role in fluid homeostasis in the normal state and in fluid disturbances in pathological states.

  9. Some results of recording infrasonic signals from explosions in Finland, 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulichkov, S.; Kremenetskaya, E.; Vinogradov, Yu.; Asming, V.; Popov, O.; Bush, G.; Golikova, E.; Drob, D.

    2010-05-01

    The results of recording infrasonic signals from series of explosions in Finland in 2009 are presented. The explosions were carried out by Finish militaries for destruction of outdated weapon. Explosions yield about 10 t tnt. It was performed about twenty explosions in 2009, August-September. The distance between the source and the receiver was 304 km. It was detected infrasonic waves corresponding to sound propagation along earth surface and in stratospheric and thermospheric acoustic waveguides. The significant difference in azimuths for surface, stratospheric, thermospheric arrivals of infrasound signals is obtained. These differences are due to the influence of transverse wind propagation. The theoretical calculation of the waveform of recorded infrasonic signals is produced. The calculation is done using the TDPE (Time Domain Parabolic Equation Code) method and the G2S temperature and wind profile. The temperature and wind profile are taken from balloon sounding data up to the height of 17 km. A satisfactory agreement between the results of calculations and experimental data is obtained.

  10. Real-time realizations of the Bayesian Infrasonic Source Localization Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinsky, V.; Arrowsmith, S.; Hofstetter, A.; Nippress, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Bayesian Infrasonic Source Localization method (BISL), introduced by Mordak et al. (2010) and upgraded by Marcillo et al. (2014) is destined for the accurate estimation of the atmospheric event origin at local, regional and global scales by the seismic and infrasonic networks and arrays. The BISL is based on probabilistic models of the source-station infrasonic signal propagation time, picking time and azimuth estimate merged with a prior knowledge about celerity distribution. It requires at each hypothetical source location, integration of the product of the corresponding source-station likelihood functions multiplied by a prior probability density function of celerity over the multivariate parameter space. The present BISL realization is generally time-consuming procedure based on numerical integration. The computational scheme proposed simplifies the target function so that integrals are taken exactly and are represented via standard functions. This makes the procedure much faster and realizable in real-time without practical loss of accuracy. The procedure executed as PYTHON-FORTRAN code demonstrates high performance on a set of the model and real data.

  11. Anatomy of infrasonic communication in baleen whales: Divergent mechanisms of sound generation in mysticetes and odontocetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reidenberg, Joy S.; Laitman, Jeffrey T.

    2004-05-01

    Cetaceans produce sounds at opposite ends of the frequency spectrum. The laryngeal role in odontocete sound production (echolocation, communication) remains unclear. Mysticete infrasonics are presumed to be laryngeal in origin, but production mechanisms are unknown. To address this, we examined postmortem larynges in 6 mysticete species (3 genera) and compared them to our odontocete collection (20 species/15 genera). Results indicate that the rostral portion of the odontocete larynx is elongated, narrow, rigid, and normally positioned intranarially. This portion of the mysticete larynx is comparatively shortened, open, pliable, and in Megaptera may be retracted from its intranarial position. Internally, mysticete vocal folds are thick, paired, and oriented horizontally, compared with the thin, usually unpaired, and vertically oriented odontocete fold. Mysticetes may generate low frequency sounds via pneumatically driven fold vibrations, which then pass to attached laryngeal sac walls, through overlying throat pleats, to water. Rorqual mysticetes may also vibrate paired corniculate flaps while regulating airflow into the nasal region. Infrasonic pulses may pass through adjacent soft palate, skull, or nasal cartilages to water. Laryngeal anatomy in mysticetes and odontocetes appears highly divergent. These morphological differences may correlate to adaptations for producing infrasonic (mysticete) or ultrasonic (odontocete) communication. [Work supported by ONR:N00014-96-1-0764, ONR:N00014-99-1-0815, and AMNHSOF.

  12. Observed seismic and infrasonic signals around the Hakone volcano -Discussion based on a finite-difference calculation-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakamatu, S.; Kawakata, H.; Hirano, S.

    2017-12-01

    Observation and analysis of infrasonic waves are important for volcanology because they could be associated with mechanisms of volcanic tremors and earthquakes (Sakai et al., 2000). Around the Hakone volcano area, Japan, infrasonic waves had been observed many times in 2015 (Yukutake et al., 2016, JpGU). In the area, seismometers have been installed more than microphones, so that analysis of seismograms may also contribute to understanding some characteristics of the infrasonic waves. In this study, we focused on the infrasonic waves on July 1, 2015, at the area and discussed their propagation. We analyzed the vertical component of seven seismograms and two infrasound records; instruments for these data have been installed within 5 km from the vent emerged in the June 2015 eruption(HSRI, 2015). We summarized distances of the observation points from the vent and appearance of the signals in the seismograms and the microphone records in Table 1. We confirmed that, when the OWD microphone(Fig1) observed the infrasonic waves, seismometers of the OWD and the KIN surface seismic stations(Fig1) recorded pulse-like signals repeatedly while the other five buried seismometers did not. At the same time, the NNT microphone(Fig1) recorded no more than unclear signals despite the shorter distance to the vent than that of the KIN station. We found that the appearance of pulse-like signals at the KIN seismic station usually 10-11 seconds delay after the appearance at the OWD seismic station. The distance between these two stations is 3.5km, so that the signals in seismograms could represent propagation of the infrasonic waves rather than the seismic waves. If so, however, the infrasound propagation could be influenced by the topography of the area because the signals are unclear in the NNT microphone record.To validate the above interpretation, we simulated the diffraction of the infrasonic waves due to the topography. We executed a 3-D finite-difference calculation by

  13. Deployment of broadband seismic and infrasonic networks on Tungurahua and Cotopaxi Volcanoes, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, H.; Yepes, H.; Vaca, M.; Caceres, V.; Nagai, T.; Yokoe, K.; Imai, T.; Miyakawa, K.; Yamashina, T.; Arrais, S.; Vasconez, F.; Pinajota, E.; Cisneros, C.; Ramos, C.; Paredes, M.; Gomezjurado, L.; Garcia-Aristizabal, A.; Molina, I.; Ramon, P.; Segovia, M.; Palacios, P.; Enriquez, W.; Inoue, I.; Nakano, M.; Inoue, H.

    2006-12-01

    Tungurahua and Cotopaxi are andesitic active volcanoes in Ecuadorian Andes. Tungurahua continues its eruptive activity since 1999, in which explosive eruptions accompanying pyroclastic flows occurred in July- August, 2006. Cotopaxi is one of the world's highest glacier-clad active volcanoes, and its seismic activity remains high since 2001. To enhance the monitoring capability of these volcanoes, we have installed broadband seismometers (Guralp CMG-40T: 60 s-50 Hz) and infrasonic sensors (ACO TYPE7144/4144: 10 s- 100 Hz) on these volcanoes through the technical cooperation program of Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). Three and five stations are currently installed at Tungurahua and Cotopaxi, respectively, and additional two stations will be installed at Tungurahua. Both seismic and infrasonic waveform data at each station are digitized by a Geotech Smart24D datalogger with a sampling frequency of 50 Hz, and transmitted by a digital telemetry system using 2.4 GHz Wireless LAN to the central office in Quito. The Tungurahua's eruptive activity accompanying pyroclastic flows in July-August 2006 was monitored in real-time by the network. The observed waveforms show a wide variety of signatures in response to various eruption styles: intermittent tremor during Strombolian eruptions, five-hour-long continuous strong tremor during heightened eruptions, very-long-period (VLP) seismic signals (10-50 s) associated with pyroclastic flows, and impulsive seismic and infrasonic events of explosions. At Cotopaxi Volcano, VLP signals (2 s) accompanying long- period signals (1-2 Hz) were detected by our network. Similar events occurred in 2002, and are interpreted as gas-release process from magma in an intruded dike beneath Cotopaxi (Molina et al, submitted to JGR). The present observation of the same type of events suggests that the intruded dike is still active beneath Cotopaxi. These signals detected by our networks are highly useful to understand volcanic processes

  14. Infrasound wave propagation over near-regional and tele-infrasonic distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, Sara Mihan House

    2005-11-01

    Infrasound research is experiencing a renaissance due to advances in acoustic propagation calculations and a deeper understanding of the atmosphere. Uniquely combining observed data and propagation modeling, the three papers presented here quantify the effects of the atmosphere on propagation from a variety of sources at distances from less than 100 km (near-regional distances) to nearly 600 km (tele-infrasonic distances) for sources on the surface and at altitude (63 km). Paper one analyzes infrasound signals recorded at the CHNAR seismo-acoustic array. These sources are predominantly on the surface, result from human activity and occur closer than 250 km away. Propagation for these near-regional distances depends on tropospheric weather patterns and temporally varying, low-altitude ducts. To predict the observed arrivals local meteorological data is necessary; MSIS/HWM (Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter/Horizontal Wind Model) and NRL-G2S (Naval Research Laboratory Ground To Space) did not predict the observed arrivals. Paper two is the first time a waveform from an explosion at height has ever been reproduced; the recorded waveform was from the break-up of the space shuttle Columbia. For the tele-infrasonic normal mode modeling, MSIS/HWM and NRL-G2S yielded identical waveform results. Paper three looks at the tele-infrasonic path between an iron mine in Minnesota and an infrasound array in Manitoba, Canada. Over a four month period, the IS-10 infrasound array provided infrasound data to compare to archived blast statistics. NRL-G2S better reproduced the observed arrival travel times than MSIS/HWM; whether or not arrivals were observed depended on the noise field at the infrasound array. For any distance range or source height, accurate atmospheric parameters from the corresponding propagation paths are necessary to predict observed infrasound.

  15. Robust snow avalanche detection using machine learning on infrasonic array data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thüring, Thomas; Schoch, Marcel; van Herwijnen, Alec; Schweizer, Jürg

    2014-05-01

    Snow avalanches may threaten people and infrastructure in mountain areas. Automated detection of avalanche activity would be highly desirable, in particular during times of poor visibility, to improve hazard assessment, but also to monitor the effectiveness of avalanche control by explosives. In the past, a variety of remote sensing techniques and instruments for the automated detection of avalanche activity have been reported, which are based on radio waves (radar), seismic signals (geophone), optical signals (imaging sensor) or infrasonic signals (microphone). Optical imagery enables to assess avalanche activity with very high spatial resolution, however it is strongly weather dependent. Radar and geophone-based detection typically provide robust avalanche detection for all weather conditions, but are very limited in the size of the monitoring area. On the other hand, due to the long propagation distance of infrasound through air, the monitoring area of infrasonic sensors can cover a large territory using a single sensor (or an array). In addition, they are by far more cost effective than radars or optical imaging systems. Unfortunately, the reliability of infrasonic sensor systems has so far been rather low due to the strong variation of ambient noise (e.g. wind) causing a high false alarm rate. We analyzed the data collected by a low-cost infrasonic array system consisting of four sensors for the automated detection of avalanche activity at Lavin in the eastern Swiss Alps. A comparably large array aperture (~350m) allows highly accurate time delay estimations of signals which arrive at different times at the sensors, enabling precise source localization. An array of four sensors is sufficient for the time resolved source localization of signals in full 3D space, which is an excellent method to anticipate true avalanche activity. Robust avalanche detection is then achieved by using machine learning methods such as support vector machines. The system is initially

  16. A theoretical relation between the celerity and trace velocity of infrasonic phases.

    PubMed

    Lonzaga, Joel B

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a relationship between the celerity and trace velocity of infrasound signals propagating in a stratified, windy atmosphere. Despite their importance, known celerity values have only been determined empirically. An infrasonic phase (I-phase) diagram is developed which is useful in identifying different I-phases. Such an I-phase diagram allows for the prediction of the range of values of the celerity and trace velocity for each I-phase. The phase diagram can easily be extended to underwater acoustic and acoustic-gravity waves. An I-phase diagram is compared with data obtained from a ground-truth event where qualitative agreement is obtained.

  17. Infrasonic acoustic waves generated by fast air heating in sprite cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Caitano L.; Pasko, Victor P.

    2014-03-01

    Acceleration, expansion, and branching of sprite streamers can lead to concentration of high electrical currents in regions of space, that are observed in the form of bright sprite cores. Driven by this electrical current, a series of chemical processes take place in the sprite plasma. Excitation, followed by quenching of excited electronic states leads to energy transfer from charged to neutral species. The consequence is heating and expansion of air leading to emission of infrasonic acoustic waves. Results indicate that ≳0.01 Pa pressure perturbations on the ground, observed in association with sprites, can only be produced by exceptionally strong currents in sprite cores, exceeding 2 kA.

  18. Exposure to audible and infrasonic noise by modern agricultural tractors operators.

    PubMed

    Bilski, Bartosz

    2013-03-01

    The wheeled agricultural tractor is one of the most prominent sources of noise in agriculture. This paper presents the assessment of the operator's exposure to audible and infrasonic noise in 32 selected modern wheeled agricultural tractors designed and produced by world-renowned companies in normal working conditions. The tractors have been in use for no longer than 4 years, with rated power of 51 kW to up to 228 kW (as per 97/68 EC). Audible and infrasonic noise level measurements and occupational exposure analysis to noise were performed according to ISO 9612:2009 (strategy 1 - task-based measurements). The measurements were made in different typical work conditions inside and outside of tractors cabs. The results indicated that exposure levels to noise perceived by the operators (L(ex,Te) between 62,3 and 84,7 dB-A) and can make a small risk of potential adversely effects on hearing during tasks performed inside the closed cab. It should be remarked that uncertainty interval is wider and in in some conditions can occur transgression of audible noise occupational exposure limits. The measured audible noise levels can potentially develop the non-auditory effects. Analysed tractors emit considerable infrasonic noise levels that tend to exceed the occupational exposure limits (both inside and outside the driver's cab). The levels of infrasound: 83,8-111,4 dB-G. All tractors introduced for sale should be subjected to tests in terms of infrasonic noise levels. The applicable standards for low frequency noise and its measurement methods for vehicles, including agricultural tractors, should be scientifically revised. In the last years there has been a noticeable technical progress in reduction of audible noise exposure at the tractors operators workplaces with simultaneously lack of important works for limitation of exposure to infrasound. Author discuss possible health and ergonomic consequencies of such exposure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics

  19. Infrasonic and seismic signals from earthquakes and explosions observed with Plostina seismo-acoustic array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghica, D.; Ionescu, C.

    2012-04-01

    Plostina seismo-acoustic array has been recently deployed by the National Institute for Earth Physics in the central part of Romania, near the Vrancea epicentral area. The array has a 2.5 km aperture and consists of 7 seismic sites (PLOR) and 7 collocated infrasound instruments (IPLOR). The array is being used to assess the importance of collocated seismic and acoustic sensors for the purposes of (1) seismic monitoring of the local and regional events, and (2) acoustic measurement, consisting of detection of the infrasound events (explosions, mine and quarry blasts, earthquakes, aircraft etc.). This paper focuses on characterization of infrasonic and seismic signals from the earthquakes and explosions (accidental and mining type). Two Vrancea earthquakes with magnitude above 5.0 were selected to this study: one occurred on 1st of May 2011 (MD = 5.3, h = 146 km), and the other one, on 4th October 2011 (MD = 5.2, h = 142 km). The infrasonic signals from the earthquakes have the appearance of the vertical component of seismic signals. Because the mechanism of the infrasonic wave formation is the coupling of seismic waves with the atmosphere, trace velocity values for such signals are compatible with the characteristics of the various seismic phases observed with PLOR array. The study evaluates and characterizes, as well, infrasound and seismic data recorded from the explosion caused by the military accident produced at Evangelos Florakis Naval Base, in Cyprus, on 11th July 2011. Additionally, seismo-acoustic signals presumed to be related to strong mine and quarry blasts were investigated. Ground truth of mine observations provides validation of this interpretation. The combined seismo-acoustic analysis uses two types of detectors for signal identification: one is the automatic detector DFX-PMCC, applied for infrasound detection and characterization, while the other one, which is used for seismic data, is based on array processing techniques (beamforming and frequency

  20. Large endolymphatic potentials from low-frequency and infrasonic tones in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Salt, Alec N; Lichtenhan, Jeffery T; Gill, Ruth M; Hartsock, Jared J

    2013-03-01

    Responses of the ear to low-frequency and infrasonic sounds have not been extensively studied. Understanding how the ear responds to low frequencies is increasingly important as environmental infrasounds are becoming more pervasive from sources such as wind turbines. This study shows endolymphatic potentials in the third cochlear turn from acoustic infrasound (5 Hz) are larger than from tones in the audible range (e.g., 50 and 500 Hz), in some cases with peak-to-peak amplitude greater than 20 mV. These large potentials were suppressed by higher-frequency tones and were rapidly abolished by perilymphatic injection of KCl at the cochlear apex, demonstrating their third-turn origins. Endolymphatic iso-potentials from 5 to 500 Hz were enhanced relative to perilymphatic potentials as frequency was lowered. Probe and infrasonic bias tones were used to study the origin of the enhanced potentials. Potentials were best explained as a saturating response summed with a sinusoidal voltage (Vo), that was phase delayed by an average of 60° relative to the biasing effects of the infrasound. Vo is thought to arise indirectly from hair cell activity, such as from strial potential changes caused by sustained current changes through the hair cells in each half cycle of the infrasound.

  1. Clustering and classification of infrasonic events at Mount Etna using pattern recognition techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannata, A.; Montalto, P.; Aliotta, M.; Cassisi, C.; Pulvirenti, A.; Privitera, E.; Patanè, D.

    2011-04-01

    Active volcanoes generate sonic and infrasonic signals, whose investigation provides useful information for both monitoring purposes and the study of the dynamics of explosive phenomena. At Mt. Etna volcano (Italy), a pattern recognition system based on infrasonic waveform features has been developed. First, by a parametric power spectrum method, the features describing and characterizing the infrasound events were extracted: peak frequency and quality factor. Then, together with the peak-to-peak amplitude, these features constituted a 3-D ‘feature space’; by Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise algorithm (DBSCAN) three clusters were recognized inside it. After the clustering process, by using a common location method (semblance method) and additional volcanological information concerning the intensity of the explosive activity, we were able to associate each cluster to a particular source vent and/or a kind of volcanic activity. Finally, for automatic event location, clusters were used to train a model based on Support Vector Machine, calculating optimal hyperplanes able to maximize the margins of separation among the clusters. After the training phase this system automatically allows recognizing the active vent with no location algorithm and by using only a single station.

  2. Tracking in Real-Time Pyroclastic Flows at Soufriere Hills Volcano, Montserrat, by infrasonic array.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripepe, M.; de Angelis, S.; Lacanna, G.; Poggi, P.; Williams, C.

    2008-12-01

    Active volcanoes produce infrasonic airwaves, which provide valuable insight into the eruption dynamics and the level of volcanic activity. On open conduit volcanoes, infrasound can be used to monitor the gas overpressure in the magma and the degassing rate of active volcanic vents. On volcanoes characterized by dome growth, infrasound can also be generated by non-explosive sources related to dome collapses and pyroclastic flows. In March 2008, the Department of Earth Science (DST) of Firenze (Italy) in cooperation with Montserrat Volcano Observatory (MVO) has installed a small-aperture infrasonic array at a distance of ~3000 m from the dome of the Soufriere Hill Volcano (SHV). The array has an aperture of 200 m and a "star" geometry, with 3 satellite stations at 100 m distance from the receiving central station. Each element of the array is linked to the receiver station by fiber optics cable, and the signal is acquired with a resolution of 16 bits at a rate of 50 samples/sec. The data collected by the array are sent via a radio modem link to the MVO offices, on Montserrat, where they are archived and processed in real-time. Real-time location of infrasonic events are obtained and displayed on computer monitors for use in monitoring of volcanic activity. After a period of very low levels of activity, starting from the end of May 2008, SHV has produced several small explosions without any short-term precursory sign. Some of these events have generated ash plumes reaching up to a few thousands of meters above the sea level, and were accompanied by moderate-to-large size pyroclastic flows that descended the western flanks of the volcanic edifice. The array was able to detect and locate in real-time the clear infrasound associated both with the explosions and the pyroclastic flows. In the latter case, the array estimated the speed and the direction of the flux revealing the presence of several pulses within the same flow. The variable azimuth of the signal during the

  3. Modeling and observations of an elevated, moving infrasonic source: Eigenray methods.

    PubMed

    Blom, Philip; Waxler, Roger

    2017-04-01

    The acoustic ray tracing relations are extended by the inclusion of auxiliary parameters describing variations in the spatial ray coordinates and eikonal vector due to changes in the initial conditions. Computation of these parameters allows one to define the geometric spreading factor along individual ray paths and assists in identification of caustic surfaces so that phase shifts can be easily identified. A method is developed leveraging the auxiliary parameters to identify propagation paths connecting specific source-receiver geometries, termed eigenrays. The newly introduced method is found to be highly efficient in cases where propagation is non-planar due to horizontal variations in the propagation medium or the presence of cross winds. The eigenray method is utilized in analysis of infrasonic signals produced by a multi-stage sounding rocket launch with promising results for applications of tracking aeroacoustic sources in the atmosphere and specifically to analysis of motor performance during dynamic tests.

  4. Involvement of connexin43 in the infrasonic noise-induced glutamate release by cultured astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shan; Wang, Yong-Qiang; Xu, Cheng-Feng; Li, Ya-Na; Guo, Rong; Li, Ling

    2014-05-01

    Infrasonic noise/infrasound is a type of environmental noise that threatens public health as a nonspecific biological stressor. Glutamate-related excitotoxicity is thought to be responsible for infrasound-induced impairment of learning and memory. In addition to neurons, astrocytes are also capable of releasing glutamate. In the present study, to identify the effect of infrasound on astroglial glutamate release, cultured astrocytes were exposed to infrasound at 16 Hz, 130 dB for different times. We found that infrasound exposure caused a significant increase in glutamate levels in the extracellular fluid. Moreover, blocking the connexin43 (Cx43) hemichannel or gap junction, decreasing the probability of Cx43 being open or inhibiting of Cx43 expression blocked this increase. The results suggest that glutamate release by Cx43 hemichannels/gap junctions is involved in the response of cultured astrocytes to infrasound.

  5. Cross-beam coherence of infrasonic signals at local and regional ranges.

    PubMed

    Alberts, W C Kirkpatrick; Tenney, Stephen M

    2017-11-01

    Signals collected by infrasound arrays require continuous analysis by skilled personnel or by automatic algorithms in order to extract useable information. Typical pieces of information gained by analysis of infrasonic signals collected by multiple sensor arrays are arrival time, line of bearing, amplitude, and duration. These can all be used, often with significant accuracy, to locate sources. A very important part of this chain is associating collected signals across multiple arrays. Here, a pairwise, cross-beam coherence method of signal association is described that allows rapid signal association for high signal-to-noise ratio events captured by multiple infrasound arrays at ranges exceeding 150 km. Methods, test cases, and results are described.

  6. Atmospheric propagation modeling indicates homing pigeons use loft-specific infrasonic ‘map’ cues

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagstrum, Jonathan T.

    2013-01-01

    Results from an acoustic ray-tracing program using daily meteorological profiles are presented to explain ‘release-site biases’ for homing pigeons at three experimental sites in upstate New York where W. T. Keeton and his co-workers at Cornell University conducted extensive releases between 1968 and 1987 in their investigations of the avian navigational ‘map’. The sites are the Jersey Hill and Castor Hill fire towers, and another near Weedsport, where control pigeons from the Cornell loft vanished in random directions, in directions consistently >50 deg clockwise and in directions ∼15 deg clockwise from the homeward bearing, respectively. Because Cornell pigeons were disoriented at Jersey Hill whereas birds from other lofts were not, it is inferred that Jersey Hill lies within an acoustic ‘shadow’ zone relative to infrasonic signals originating from the Cornell loft’s vicinity. Such signals could arise from ground-to-air coupling of near-continuous microseisms, or from scattering of direct microbaroms off terrain features, both of which are initially generated by wave–wave interactions in the deep ocean. HARPA runs show that little or no infrasound from the loft area arrived at Jersey Hill on days when Cornell pigeons were disoriented there, and that homeward infrasonic signals could have arrived at all three sites from directions consistent with pigeon departure bearings, especially on days when these bearings were unusual. The general stability of release-site biases might be due to influences of terrain on transmission of the homeward signals under prevailing weather patterns, whereas short-term changes in biases might be caused by rapid shifts in atmospheric conditions.

  7. Infrasonic and Ultrasonic Hearing Evolved after the Emergence of Modern Whales.

    PubMed

    Mourlam, Mickaël J; Orliac, Maeva J

    2017-06-19

    Mysticeti (baleen whales) and Odontoceti (toothed whales) today greatly differ in their hearing abilities: Mysticeti are presumed to be sensitive to infrasonic noises [1-3], whereas Odontoceti are sensitive to ultrasonic sounds [4-6]. Two competing hypotheses exist regarding the attainment of hearing abilities in modern whales: ancestral low-frequency sensitivity [7-13] or ancestral high-frequency sensitivity [14, 15]. The significance of these evolutionary scenarios is limited by the undersampling of both early-diverging cetaceans (archaeocetes) and terrestrial hoofed relatives of cetaceans (non-cetacean artiodactyls). Here, we document for the first time the bony labyrinth, the hollow cavity housing the hearing organ, of two species of protocetid whales from Lutetian deposits (ca. 46-43 Ma) of Kpogamé, Togo. These archaeocete cetaceans, which are transitional between terrestrial and aquatic forms, prove to be a key for determining the hearing abilities of early whales. We propose a new evolutionary picture for the early stages of this history, based on qualitative and quantitative studies of the cochlear morphology of an unparalleled sample of extant and extinct land artiodactyls and cetaceans. Contrary to the hypothesis that archaeocetes have been more sensitive to high-frequency sounds than their terrestrial ancestors [15], we demonstrate that early cetaceans presented a cochlear functional pattern close to that of their terrestrial relatives, and that specialization for infrasonic or ultrasonic hearing in Mysticeti or Odontoceti, respectively, instead only occurred in fully aquatic whales, after the emergence of Neoceti (Mysticeti+Odontoceti). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Atmospheric propagation modeling indicates homing pigeons use loft-specific infrasonic 'map' cues.

    PubMed

    Hagstrum, Jonathan T

    2013-02-15

    Results from an acoustic ray-tracing program using daily meteorological profiles are presented to explain 'release-site biases' for homing pigeons at three experimental sites in upstate New York where W. T. Keeton and his co-workers at Cornell University conducted extensive releases between 1968 and 1987 in their investigations of the avian navigational 'map'. The sites are the Jersey Hill and Castor Hill fire towers, and another near Weedsport, where control pigeons from the Cornell loft vanished in random directions, in directions consistently >50 deg clockwise and in directions ∼15 deg clockwise from the homeward bearing, respectively. Because Cornell pigeons were disoriented at Jersey Hill whereas birds from other lofts were not, it is inferred that Jersey Hill lies within an acoustic 'shadow' zone relative to infrasonic signals originating from the Cornell loft's vicinity. Such signals could arise from ground-to-air coupling of near-continuous microseisms, or from scattering of direct microbaroms off terrain features, both of which are initially generated by wave-wave interactions in the deep ocean. HARPA runs show that little or no infrasound from the loft area arrived at Jersey Hill on days when Cornell pigeons were disoriented there, and that homeward infrasonic signals could have arrived at all three sites from directions consistent with pigeon departure bearings, especially on days when these bearings were unusual. The general stability of release-site biases might be due to influences of terrain on transmission of the homeward signals under prevailing weather patterns, whereas short-term changes in biases might be caused by rapid shifts in atmospheric conditions.

  9. Sounds of earthquakes in West Bohemia: analysis of sonic and infrasonic records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Tomáš; Vilhelm, Jan; Kuna, Václav; Chum, Jaroslav; Horálek, Josef

    2013-04-01

    Earthquake sounds are usually observed during the occurrence of small earthquakes. The observations of audible manifestations of earthquakes date back to the ancient age and have been recently analyzed in more detail based both on macroseismic observations and audio recordings. In most cases the earthquake sounds resemble low-frequency underground thundering that is generated by seismic-acoustic conversion of P and SV waves at the earth surface. This is also supported by the fact that earthquake sounds usually precede shaking caused by S-waves. The less frequent are explosion-type sounds whose origin remains unclear. We analyze the observations of sounds associating the occurrence of earthquake swarms in the area of West Bohemia/Vogtland, Central Europe. Macroseismic data include 250 reports of sounds with 90% thundering and 10% of explosions. Additional data consist of sonic and infrasonic records acquired by microphones and microbarographs at seismic stations in the area. All the sonic and infrasonic records correspond to sounds of the thunder type; no explosions were recorded. Comparison of these records enabled to determine the seismic wave - air pressure transfer function. The measurements using a 3D microphone array confirm that in the epicentral area the sonic wave is propagating subvertically. We also compared the coda of seismograms and sonic records. It turned out that additional to seismo-acoustic coupling, a later acoustic wave of thunder type arrives at the observation site whose arrival time corresponds to sonic propagation from the epicenter. We analyse the possible generation mechanisms of this type of sonic wave.

  10. Infrasonic Monitoring,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-08-14

    seismic network. At large range, infrasound signals are oscillatory acoustic signals detected as small pressure variations about the ambient value... Infrasound Review and Background Infrasound signals are regular acoustic signals in that they are longitudinal pressure waves albeit at rather low frequency...energy is concentrated at higher frequency than that for higher yield sources. Infrasound can be generated by natural and manmade processes; moreover

  11. Acoustic analysis of shock production by very high-altitude meteors—I: infrasonic observations, dynamics and luminosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, P. G.; Edwards, W. N.; Revelle, D. O.; Spurny, P.

    2007-04-01

    Four very high-velocity and high-altitude meteors (a Leonid, two Perseids and a high-speed sporadic fireball) have been unambiguously detected at the ground both optically using precision all-sky cameras and acoustically via infrasound and seismic signals. Infrasound arriving from altitudes of over 100 km is not very common, but has been previously observed for re-entering spacecraft. This, however, is the first reported detection of such high-altitude infrasound unambiguously from meteors to our knowledge. These fragile meteoroids were found to generate acoustic waves at source heights ranging from 80 to 110 km, with most acoustic energy being generated near the lowest heights. Time residuals between observed acoustic onset and model predictions based on ray-tracing points along the photographically determined trajectories indicate that the upper winds given by the UK meteorological office (UKMO) model systematically produce lower residuals for first arrivals than those from the Naval Research Laboratory Horizontal Wind Model (HWM). Average source energies for three of the four events from acoustic data alone are found to be in the range of 2×108-9 J. One event, EN010803, had unusually favorable geometry for acoustic detection at the ground and therefore has the smallest photometric source energy (10-5 kt; 6×107 J) of any meteor detected infrasonically. When compared to the total optical radiation recorded by film, the results for the three events produce equivalent integral panchromatic luminous efficiencies of 3 7%, within a factor of two of the values proposed by Ceplecha and McCrosky [1976. Fireball end heights—a diagnostic for the structure of meteoric material. Journal of Geophysical Research 81, 6257 6275] for the velocity range (55 70 km s-1) appropriate to our events. Application of these findings to meteor showers in general suggest that the Geminid shower should be the most prolific producer of infrasound detectable meteors at the ground of all the

  12. Infrasonic signatures of a Polar Low in the Norwegian and Barents Sea on 23 27 March 1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Børre Orbæk, Jon; Naustvik, Magnus

    1995-10-01

    This article presents an analysis of a Polar Low in the Norwegian and Barents Sea, 23 27 March 1992. The low is remote monitored from northern Norway and Svalbard by means of two Passive Broadband Infrasonic Sodars (PBIS's), estimating the directionality of the local acoustic field of atmospheric infrasound. The presented data show that the polar low apparently generates strong infrasound, and it is believed that some part of the measured pressure perturbations are generated by the intense turbulent regions of the low, as part of the aerodynamic spectrum. Due to the very low attenuation of infrasound in the atmosphere, the sound propagates to distant recording stations more than 1000km away, by successive reflections between the upper atmosphere and the sea surface. Because of the small number of synoptic stations in the area, data inputs to the numerical circulation models are few, and because the phenomena in study are mesoscale, down to one tenth the size of a frontal cyclone, conventional meteorological data may not resolve the features of interest. The infrasonic direction-of-arrival (DOA)-spectra produced by the PBIS passive acoustic remote sensing technique utilized in this work, is shown to give new information to the analysis of the weather situation. While the satellite images normally are ambiguous with respect to the dynamics and thermodynamic state of the visible cloud-clusters, the infrasonic DOA-spectra may provide valuable dynamic information of the distant polar low in near real time. It is suggested that the major part of the infrasonic signatures detected by the PBIS's come from the active regions of turbulent convection. By picking out the directions of these active intensification regions, the DOA-spectra may, as is shown in this article, indicate that several local disturbances took part in the complex polar low development.

  13. Performance Assessment of Multi-Array Processing with Ground Truth for Infrasonic, Seismic and Seismo-Acoustic Events

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-03

    of white noise vectors with square sumable coefficients and components with finite fourth order moments (Shumway et al., 1999). Here, the infrasonic...center in a star -like configuration for reducing the background noise from wind activity along the boundary layer. Sensor data is recorded by 24-bit...the PMCC Algorithm In Figure 19, under the assumption that the source (red star ) is far from the arrays, PMCC starts coherence processing using

  14. Experimental characterization of seasonal variations in infrasonic traveltimes on the Korean Peninsula with implications for infrasound event location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Il-Young; Stump, Brian W.; Lee, Hee-Il

    2011-04-01

    The dependence of infrasound propagation on the season and path environment was quantified by the analysis of more than 1000 repetitive infrasonic ground-truth events at an active, open-pit mine over two years. Blast-associated infrasonic signals were analysed from two infrasound arrays (CHNAR and ULDAR) located at similar distances of 181 and 169 km, respectively, from the source but in different azimuthal directions and with different path environments. The CHNAR array is located to the NW of the source area with primarily a continental path, whereas the ULDAR is located East of the source with a path dominated by open ocean. As a result, CHNAR observations were dominated by stratospheric phases with characteristic celerities of 260-289 m s-1 and large seasonal variations in the traveltime, whereas data from ULDAR consisted primarily of tropospheric phases with larger celerities from 322 to 361 m s-1 and larger daily than seasonal variation in the traveltime. The interpretation of these observations is verified by ray tracing using atmospheric models incorporating daily weather balloon data that characterizes the shallow atmosphere for the two years of the study. Finally, experimental celerity models that included seasonal path effects were constructed from the long-term data set. These experimental celerity models were used to constrain traveltime variations in infrasonic location algorithms providing improved location estimates as illustrated with the empirical data set.

  15. Atmospheric Propagation Modeling Indicates Homing Pigeons use Loft-Specific Infrasonic 'Map' Cues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagstrum, J. T.; Baker, L. M.; Spritzer, J. M.; McKenna, M. H.

    2011-12-01

    Pigeons (Columba livia) released at distant sites commonly depart in directions significantly off the actual homeward bearing. Such site-dependent deviations, or biases, for birds from a given loft are generally stable over time, but can also change from hour to hour, day to day, and year to year. At some release sites, birds consistently vanish in random directions and have longer flight times and lower return rates. Release sites characterized by frequent disorientation are not uncommon for pigeon lofts in both Europe and the USA. One such site is the Jersey Hill fire tower in upstate New York located ~120 km W of the Cornell loft in Ithaca. Cornell birds released at Jersey Hill between 1968 and 1987 almost always vanished randomly, although birds from other lofts had little difficulty orienting there. The results for one day, however, stand out: on August 13, 1969, Cornell birds released at Jersey Hill vanished consistently to the NE (r = 0.921; n=7) and returned home after normal flight times. Cornell pigeons released the next day again showed 'normal' behavior for the site and departed randomly. If, in fact, the birds are using acoustic cues to navigate, the long-term acoustic 'dead' zone we propose for Jersey Hill, due to prevailing atmospheric conditions, indicates that the cues are coming from a single, relatively restricted area, most likely surrounding the home loft. We have modeled the transmission of infrasonic waves, presumably coupled to the atmosphere from ocean-generated microseisms (0.14 Hz), between the Cornell loft and a number of release sites using HARPA (Hamiltonian Acoustic Ray-tracing Program for the Atmosphere) and rawinsonde data collected near Albany and Buffalo, NY. The HARPA modeling shows that acoustic signals from the Cornell loft reached Jersey Hill only on a few release days with unusual atmospheric conditions, including August 13, and were launched at angles less than ~2° above horizontal, most likely from steep-sided terrain in

  16. Acoustic propagation and atmosphere characteristics derived from infrasonic waves generated by the Concorde.

    PubMed

    Le, Pichon Alexis; Garcés, Milton; Blanc, Elisabeth; Barthélémy, Maud; Drob, Doug P

    2002-01-01

    Infrasonic signals generated by daily supersonic Concorde flights between North America and Europe have been consistently recorded by an array of microbarographs in France. These signals are used to investigate the effects of atmospheric variability on long-range sound propagation. Statistical analysis of wave parameters shows seasonal and daily variations associated with changes in the wind structure of the atmosphere. The measurements are compared to the predictions obtained by tracing rays through realistic atmospheric models. Theoretical ray paths allow a consistent interpretation of the observed wave parameters. Variations in the reflection level, travel time, azimuth deviation and propagation range are explained by the source and propagation models. The angular deviation of a ray's azimuth direction, due to the seasonal and diurnal fluctuations of the transverse wind component, is found to be approximately 5 degrees from the initial launch direction. One application of the seasonal and diurnal variations of the observed phase parameters is the use of ground measurements to estimate fluctuations in the wind velocity at the reflection heights. The simulations point out that care must be taken when ascribing a phase velocity to a turning height. Ray path simulations which allow the correct computation of reflection heights are essential for accurate phase identifications.

  17. Use of a porous material description of forests in infrasonic propagation algorithms.

    PubMed

    Swearingen, Michelle E; White, Michael J; Ketcham, Stephen A; McKenna, Mihan H

    2013-10-01

    Infrasound can propagate very long distances and remain at measurable levels. As a result infrasound sensing is used for remote monitoring in many applications. At local ranges, on the order of 10 km, the influence of the presence or absence of forests on the propagation of infrasonic signals is considered. Because the wavelengths of interest are much larger than the scale of individual components, the forest is modeled as a porous material. This approximation is developed starting with the relaxation model of porous materials. This representation is then incorporated into a Crank-Nicholson method parabolic equation solver to determine the relative impacts of the physical parameters of a forest (trunk size and basal area), the presence of gaps/trees in otherwise continuous forest/open terrain, and the effects of meteorology coupled with the porous layer. Finally, the simulations are compared to experimental data from a 10.9 kg blast propagated 14.5 km. Comparison to the experimental data shows that appropriate inclusion of a forest layer along the propagation path provides a closer fit to the data than solely changing the ground type across the frequency range from 1 to 30 Hz.

  18. An apparatus for sequentially combining microvolumes of reagents by infrasonic mixing.

    PubMed

    Camien, M N; Warner, R C

    1984-05-01

    A method employing high-speed infrasonic mixing for obtaining timed samples for following the progress of a moderately rapid chemical reaction is described. Drops of 10 to 50 microliter each of two reagents are mixed to initiate the reaction, followed, after a measured time interval, by mixing with a drop of a third reagent to quench the reaction. The method was developed for measuring the rate of denaturation of covalently closed, circular DNA in NaOH at several temperatures. For this purpose the timed samples were analyzed by analytical ultracentrifugation. The apparatus was tested by determination of the rate of hydrolysis of 2,4-dinitrophenyl acetate in an alkaline buffer. The important characteristics of the method are (i) it requires very small volumes of sample and reagents; (ii) the components of the reaction mixture are pre-equilibrated and mixed with no transfer outside the prescribed constant temperature environment; (iii) the mixing is very rapid; and (iv) satisfactorily precise measurements of relatively short time intervals (approximately 2 sec minimum) between sequential mixings of the components are readily obtainable.

  19. An Optimal Parameterization Framework for Infrasonic Tomography of the Stratospheric Winds Using Non-Local Sources

    DOE PAGES

    Blom, Philip Stephen; Marcillo, Omar Eduardo

    2016-12-05

    A method is developed to apply acoustic tomography methods to a localized network of infrasound arrays with intention of monitoring the atmosphere state in the region around the network using non-local sources without requiring knowledge of the precise source location or non-local atmosphere state. Closely spaced arrays provide a means to estimate phase velocities of signals that can provide limiting bounds on certain characteristics of the atmosphere. Larger spacing between such clusters provide a means to estimate celerity from propagation times along multiple unique stratospherically or thermospherically ducted propagation paths and compute more precise estimates of the atmosphere state. Inmore » order to avoid the commonly encountered complex, multimodal distributions for parametric atmosphere descriptions and to maximize the computational efficiency of the method, an optimal parametrization framework is constructed. This framework identifies the ideal combination of parameters for tomography studies in specific regions of the atmosphere and statistical model selection analysis shows that high quality corrections to the middle atmosphere winds can be obtained using as few as three parameters. Lastly, comparison of the resulting estimates for synthetic data sets shows qualitative agreement between the middle atmosphere winds and those estimated from infrasonic traveltime observations.« less

  20. Infrasonic array observations at I53US of the 2006 Augustine Volcano eruptions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, C.R.; Olson, J.V.; Szuberla, Curt A.L.; McNutt, Steve; Tytgat, Guy; Drob, Douglas P.

    2006-01-01

    The recent January 2006 Augustine eruptions, from the 11th to the 28th, have produced a series of 12 infrasonic signals that were observed at the I53US array at UAF. the eruption times for the signals were provided by the Alaska Volcanic Observatory at UAF using seismic sensors and a Chaparral microphone that are installed on Augustine Island. The bearing and distance of Augustine from I53US are, respectively, 207.8 degrees and 675 km. The analysis of the signals is done with a least-squares detector/estimator that calculates, from the 28 different sensor-pairs in the array, the mean of the cross-correlation maxima (MCCM), the horizontal trace-velocity and the azimuth of arrival of the signal using a sliding-window of 2000 data points. The data were bandpass filtered from 0.03 to 0.10 Hz. The data are digitized at a rate of 20 Hz. The average values of the signal parameters for all 12 Augustine signals are as follows: MCCM=0.85 (std 0.14), Trace-velocity=0.346 (std 0.016) km/sec, Azimuth=209 (std 2) deg. The celerity for each signal was calculated using the range 675 km and the individual travel times to I53US. The average celerity for all ten eruption signals was 0.27 (std 0.02) km/sec. Ray tracing studies, using mean values of the wind speed and temperature profiles (along the path) from NRL, have shown that there was propagation to I53US by both stratospheric and thermospheric ray paths from the volcano.

  1. The spatial coherence structure of infrasonic waves: analysis of data from International Monitoring System arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, David N.

    2015-04-01

    The spatial coherence structure of 30 infrasound array detections, with source-to-receiver ranges of 25-6500 km, has been measured within the 0.25-1 Hz passband. The data were recorded at International Monitoring System (IMS) microbarograph arrays with apertures of between 1 and 4 km. Such array detections are of interest for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty monitoring. The majority of array detections (e.g. 80 per cent of recordings in the third-octave passband centred on 0.63 Hz) exhibit spatial coherence loss anisotropy that is consistent with previous lower frequency atmospheric acoustic studies; coherence loss is more rapid perpendicular to the acoustic propagation direction than parallel to it. The thirty array detections display significant interdetection variation in the magnitude of spatial coherence loss. The measurements can be explained by the simultaneous arrival of wave fronts at the recording array with angular beamwidths of between 0.4 and 7° and velocity bandwidths of between 2 and 40 m s-1. There is a statistically significant positive correlation between source-to-receiver range and the magnitude of coherence loss. Acoustic multipathing generated by interactions with fine-scale wind and temperature gradients along stratospheric propagation paths is qualitatively consistent with the observations. In addition, the study indicates that to isolate coherence loss generated by propagation effects, analysis of signals exhibiting high signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) is required (SNR2 > 11 in this study). The rapid temporal variations in infrasonic noise observed in recordings at IMS arrays indicates that correcting measured coherence values for the effect of noise, using pre-signal estimates of noise power, is ineffective.

  2. Ionospheric response to infrasonic-acoustic waves generated by natural hazard events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zettergren, M. D.; Snively, J. B.

    2015-09-01

    Recent measurements of GPS-derived total electron content (TEC) reveal acoustic wave periods of ˜1-4 min in the F region ionosphere following natural hazard events, such as earthquakes, severe weather, and volcanoes. Here we simulate the ionospheric responses to infrasonic-acoustic waves, generated by vertical accelerations at the Earth's surface or within the lower atmosphere, using a compressible atmospheric dynamics model to perturb a multifluid ionospheric model. Response dependencies on wave source geometry and spectrum are investigated at middle, low, and equatorial latitudes. Results suggest constraints on wave amplitudes that are consistent with observations and that provide insight on the geographical variability of TEC signatures and their dependence on the geometry of wave velocity field perturbations relative to the ambient geomagnetic field. Asymmetries of responses poleward and equatorward from the wave sources indicate that electron perturbations are enhanced on the equatorward side while field aligned currents are driven principally on the poleward side, due to alignments of acoustic wave velocities parallel and perpendicular to field lines, respectively. Acoustic-wave-driven TEC perturbations are shown to have periods of ˜3-4 min, which are consistent with the fraction of the spectrum that remains following strong dissipation throughout the thermosphere. Furthermore, thermospheric acoustic waves couple with ion sound waves throughout the F region and topside ionosphere, driving plasma disturbances with similar periods and faster phase speeds. The associated magnetic perturbations of the simulated waves are calculated to be observable and may provide new observational insight in addition to that provided by GPS TEC measurements.

  3. The use of impedance matching capillaries for reducing resonance in rosette infrasonic spatial filters.

    PubMed

    Hedlin, Michael A H; Alcoverro, Benoit

    2005-04-01

    Rosette spatial filters are used at International Monitoring System infrasound array sites to reduce noise due to atmospheric turbulence. A rosette filter consists of several clusters, or rosettes, of low-impedance inlets. Acoustic energy entering each rosette of inlets is summed, acoustically, at a secondary summing manifold. Acoustic energy from the secondary manifolds are summed acoustically at a primary summing manifold before entering the microbarometer. Although rosette filters have been found to be effective at reducing infrasonic noise across a broad frequency band, resonance inside the filters reduces the effectiveness of the filters at high frequencies. This paper presents theoretical and observational evidence that the resonance inside these filters that is seen below 10 Hz is due to reflections occuring at impedance discontinuities at the primary and secondary summing manifolds. Resonance involving reflections at the inlets amplifies noise levels at frequencies above 10 Hz. This paper further reports results from theoretical and observational tests of impedance matching capillaries for removing the resonance problem. Almost total removal of resonant energy below 5 Hz was found by placing impedance matching capillaries adjacent to the secondary summing manifolds in the pipes leading to the primary summing manifold and the microbarometer. Theory and recorded data indicate that capillaries with resistance equal to the characteristic impedance of the pipe connecting the secondary and primary summing manifolds suppresses resonance but does not degrade the reception of acoustic signals. Capillaries at the inlets can be used to remove resonant energy at higher frequencies but are found to be less effective due to the high frequency of this energy outside the frequency band of interest.

  4. Study of atmospheric gravity waves and infrasonic sources using the USArray Transportable Array pressure data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedlin, Michael; de Groot-Hedlin, Catherine; Hoffmann, Lars; Alexander, M. Joan; Stephan, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    The upgrade of the USArray Transportable Array (TA) with microbarometers and infrasound microphones has created an opportunity for a broad range of new studies of atmospheric sources and the large- and small-scale atmospheric structure through which signals from these events propagate. These studies are akin to early studies of seismic events and the Earth's interior structure that were made possible by the first seismic networks. In one early study with the new dataset we use the method of de Groot-Hedlin and Hedlin (2015) to recast the TA as a massive collection of 3-element arrays to detect and locate large infrasonic events. Over 2,000 events have been detected in 2013. The events cluster in highly active regions on land and offshore. Stratospherically ducted signals from some of these events have been recorded more than 2,000 km from the source and clearly show dispersion due to propagation through atmospheric gravity waves. Modeling of these signals has been used to test statistical models of atmospheric gravity waves. The network is also useful for making direct observations of gravity waves. We are currently studying TA and satellite observations of gravity waves from singular events to better understand how the waves near ground level relate to those observed aloft. We are also studying the long-term statistics of these waves from the beginning of 2010 through 2014. Early work using data bandpass filtered from 1-6 hr shows that both the TA and satellite data reveal highly active source regions, such as near the Great Lakes. de Groot-Hedlin and Hedlin, 2015, A method for detecting and locating geophysical events using clusters of arrays, Geophysical Journal International, v203, p960-971, doi: 10.1093/gji/ggv345.

  5. Stromal Vascular Fraction from Lipoaspirate Infranatant: Comparison Between Suction-Assisted Liposuction and Nutational Infrasonic Liposuction.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Robert E

    2016-06-01

    Lipoaspirate has shown great promise as a source of progenitor cells for use in regenerative medicine. The stromal vascular fraction (SVF) can be isolated from lipoaspirate using enzyme digestion and centrifugation, but this approach may be limited by the labor-intensive nature of the technique as well as ambiguities in current governmental regulations. An alternative approach to obtain SVF from lipoaspirate was studied. Paired (collected from contralateral regions) lipoaspirate specimens were acquired from 30 consenting patients (age 24-62; 22 females, 8 males) by suction-assisted liposuction (SAL) and nutational infrasonic liposuction (NIL). The infranatant from 50 ml of adipose tissue (LAF) was centrifuged at 400g × 5 min and the resultant pellet was collected with a pipette. Time = 15-20 min. The respective SVFs cell populations were counted using an optical fluorescent cell counter (Nexcelom A2000) and the fluorescent stains-acridine orange (AO) and propidium iodide (PI). The number of nucleated, live cells from SAL infranatant was 97,345 ± 23,435 per ml of adipose tissue and from NIL infranatant was 335,621 ± 81,274 per ml of adipose tissue. The p value is <0.00001, n = 30. Regenerative cells can be isolated from the lipoaspirate infranatant from either SAL or NIL, although in lower quantities than from enzyme digestion. NIL acquisition yielded 3.5× the number of cells over that acquired from SAL. The time, skill, and cost of producing SVF from infranatant is less than using enzyme digestion, which potentially make these regenerative therapies accessible to more physicians and patients. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  6. Setting up infrasonic propagation simulation using the latest real-time atmospheric specifications at the IDC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachet, N.; Mialle, P.; Brown, D.; Coyne, J.; Drob, D.; Virieux, J.; Garcés, M.

    2009-04-01

    The International Data Centre (IDC) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBTO) Preparatory Commission in Vienna is pursuing its automatic processing effort for the return of infrasound data processing into operations in 2009. Concurrently, work is also underway to further improve this process by enhancing the modeling of the infrasound propagation in the atmosphere and then by labeling the phases in order to improve the event categorization and location. In 2008, the IDC acquired WASP-3D Sph (Windy Atmospheric Sonic Propagation) (Virieux et al., 2004) a 3-D ray-tracing based long range propagation software that accounts for the heterogeneity of the atmosphere. Once adapted to the IDC environment, WASP-3 Sph has been used to improve the understanding of infrasound wave propagation and has been compared with the 1-D ray tracing Taupc software (Garcés and Drob, 2007) at the IDC. In addition to performing the infrasound propagation simulation, different atmospheric models are available at the IDC, either real-time: ECMWF (European Centre for Middle-range Weather Forecast), or empiric: HWM93 (Horizontal Wind Model) and HWM07 (Drob, 2008), used in their initial format or interpolated into G2S (Ground to Space) model. The IDC infrasound reference database is used for testing, comparing and validating the various propagation software and atmospheric specifications. Moreover all the performed simulations are giving feedback on the quality of the infrasound reference events and provide useful information to improve their location by refining infrasonic wave propagation characteristics. The results of this study are presented for a selection of reference events and they will help the IDC designing and defining short and mid-term enhancements of the infrasound automatic and interactive processing to take into account the spatial and temporal heterogeneities of the atmosphere.

  7. Infrasonic harmonic tremor and degassing bursts from Halema'uma'u Crater, Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fee, David; Garcés, Milton; Patrick, Matt; Chouet, Bernard; Dawson, Phil; Swanson, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    The formation, evolution, collapse, and subsequent resurrection of a vent within Halema'uma'u Crater, Kilauea Volcano, produced energetic and varied degassing signals recorded by a nearby infrasound array between 2008 and early 2009. After 25 years of quiescence, a vent-clearing explosive burst on 19 March 2008 produced a clear, complex acoustic signal. Near-continuous harmonic infrasonic tremor followed this burst until 4 December 2008, when a period of decreased degassing occurred. The tremor spectra suggest volume oscillation and reverberation of a shallow gas-filled cavity beneath the vent. The dominant tremor peak can be sustained through Helmholtz oscillations of the cavity, while the secondary tremor peak and overtones are interpreted assuming acoustic resonance. The dominant tremor frequency matches the oscillation frequency of the gas emanating from the vent observed by video. Tremor spectra and power are also correlated with cavity geometry and dynamics, with the cavity depth estimated at ~219 m and volume ~3 x 106 m3 in November 2008. Over 21 varied degassing bursts were observed with extended burst durations and frequency content consistent with a transient release of gas exciting the cavity into resonance. Correlation of infrasound with seismicity suggests an open system connecting the atmosphere to the seismic excitation process at depth. Numerous degassing bursts produced very long period (0.03-0.1 Hz) infrasound, the first recorded at Kilauea, indicative of long-duration atmospheric accelerations. Kilauea infrasound appears controlled by the exsolution of gas from the magma, and the interaction of this gas with the conduits and cavities confining it.

  8. Optical Fiber Sensors for Infrasonic Wind Noise Reduction and Earth Strain Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeWolf, Scott

    Fiber-based interferometers provide the means to sense very small displacements over long baselines, and have the advantage of being nearly completely passive in their operation, making them particularly well suited for geophysical applications. This work presents the development and results from four new systems: one in atmospheric acoustics and three in Earth strain. Turbulent pressure fluctuations (wind noise) are a significant limiting factor in low-frequency atmospheric acoustic measurements. The Optical Fiber Infrasound Sensor (OFIS) provides an alternative to traditional infrasonic wind noise reduction (WNR) techniques by providing an instantaneous average over a large spatial extent. This study shows that linear OFISs ranging in length from 30 to 270 m provide a WNR of up to 30 dB in winds up to 5 m/s, in good agreement with a new analytical model. Arrays of optical fiber strainmeters were deployed to measure sediment compaction at two sites in Bangladesh. One array at Jamalganj (in the north) consists of 20, 40, 60, and 100 m long strainmeters, while the second near Khulna (in the south) also includes lengths of 80 and 300 m. Two years of weekly measurements show a clear seasonal signal and subsidence at both sites that is in reasonable agreement with collocated GPS receivers. A new 250-meter, interferometric vertical borehole strainmeter has been developed based completely on passive optical components. Details of the prototyping, design, and deployment at the Pinon Flat Observatory (PFO) are presented. Power spectra show an intertidal noise level of -130 dB (re. 1 epsilon/Hz), consistent within 1-3 dB between redundant components. Examination of its response to Earth tides and earthquakes relative to the areal strain recorded by an orthogonal pair of collocated, 730 m horizontal laser strainmeters yield a Poisson's ratio of 0.26. Two prototype horizontal strainmeters were also developed to explore the use of similar interferometric optical fiber

  9. Seismic and infrasonic signals associated with an unusual collapse event at the Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, D. N.; Neuberg, J.

    2005-04-01

    In March 2004, during a period of no magma extrusion at Soufrière Hills volcano, Montserrat, an explosive event occurred with little precursory activity. Recorded broadband seismic signals ranged from an ultra-long-period signal with a dominant period of 120 s to impulsive, short-duration events containing frequencies up to 30 Hz. Synthetic displacement functions were fit to the long-period data after application of the seismometer response. These indicate a shallow collapse of the volcanic edifice occurred, initiated ~300 m below the surface, lasting ~100 s. Infrasonic tremor and pulses were also recorded in the 1-20 Hz range. The high-frequency seismicity and infrasound are interpreted as the subsequent collapse of a gravitationally unstable buttress of remnant dome material which impacted upon the edifice surface. This unique dataset demonstrates the benefits of deploying multi-parameter stations equipped with broadband instruments.

  10. Involvement of microglial cells in infrasonic noise-induced stress via upregulated expression of corticotrophin releasing hormone type 1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Du, F; Yin, L; Shi, M; Cheng, H; Xu, X; Liu, Z; Zhang, G; Wu, Z; Feng, G; Zhao, G

    2010-05-19

    Infrasound is a kind of environmental noise and threatens the public health as a nonspecific biological stressor. Upregulated expression of corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) and its receptor CRH-R1 in the neurons of hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) was reported to be responsible for infrasonic noise-induced stress and injuries. Recent studies revealed that CRH-R1 is expressed in activated microglial cells, lending support to the hypothesis that microglial cells may be also responsible for infrasonic noise-induced stress. In this work, we exposed Sprague-Dawley rats and in vitro cultured microglial cells to infrasound with a main frequency of 16 Hz and a sound pressure level of 130 dB for 2 h, and examined the changes in the expression of CRH-R1 at different time points after infrasound exposure by immunohistochemistry and semi-quantitative RT-PCR. We found that infrasound exposure resulted in a significant activation of microglia cells and upregulated their expression of CRH-R1 in the PVN in vivo. Upregulated expression of CRH-R1 can be blocked by antalarmin, a selective CRH-R1 antagonist. Our in vitro data further revealed that in the absence of neurons, infrasound can directly induce microglial activation and upregulate their CRH-R1 expression. These findings suggest that in addition to the PVN neurons, microglial cells are the effector cells for infrasound as well, and involve in the infrasound-induced stress through upregulated expression of CRH-R1. Copyright 2010 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Observation of a Rayleigh Wave Induced by Infrasonic Elephant Vocalizations: a Possible Communication Mode?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunther, R.; O'Connell-Rodwell, C. E.; Klemperer, S.; Rodwell, T. C.; Haines, S.; Goldman, M.; Evans, J. R.

    2003-12-01

    experiments, the amplitudes of both the elephant-coupled Rayleigh wave and the elephant-driven airwave had decayed to almost ambient noise levels at the end of our 168-m-long recording spread. This was most likely due to the high ambient-noise levels during our experiment. Free-ranging African elephants have been shown to respond to low-frequency calls of other elephants at ranges of 2 km with an ideal outer limit of 10 km. Because a surface wave decays at only 1/r, we speculate that wild elephants may detect the Rayleigh waves of other elephants via bone conduction or somatosensory reception or both, and hence may communicate at greater distances than possible using infrasonic calls transmitted through the atmosphere.

  12. Audible and infrasonic noise levels in the cabins of modern agricultural tractors--does the risk of adverse, exposure-dependent effects still exist?

    PubMed

    Bilski, Bartosz

    2013-06-01

    The agricultural tractor is one of the most commonly used vehicles on farms and one of the most prominent sources of noise. This article presents an exemplary assessment of the audible and infrasonic noise levels in the cabins of selected modern wheeled agricultural tractors. Operator-perceived audible and infrasonic noise levels in the cabins were examined for 20 types of modern tractors during typical conditions of work. The tractors had been in use for no longer than 3 years, with rated power between 96 kW and 227 kW, designed and produced by world-renowned companies. Noise level measurements were performed in accordance with PN-EN ISO 9612:2011 (ISO 9612:2009). Audible noise levels (A-weighted) ranged from 62.1 to 87.4 dB-A (average: 68.2 to 83.8 dB-A) for different work tasks. The factors influencing noise levels include performed tasks, soil, weather conditions and the skills of individual drivers. In spectrum analysis, the highest noise levels occurred at frequencies 250 Hz, 1 and 2 kHz. Infrasound noise levels (G-weighted) ranged from 87.3 to 111.3 dB-G. The driver-experienced exposure to infrasound was found to increase significantly when the vehicle was in motion. Average audible noise levels have no potential to adversely affect the hearing organ during tasks performed inside the closed cabins of the analysed modern agricultural tractors. Due to the relatively low audible noise levels inside the cabins of modern agricultural tractors, non-auditory effects are the only adverse symptoms that can develop. Modern agricultural tractors emit considerable infrasonic noise levels. All tractors introduced into the market should be subjected to tests with regard to infrasonic noise levels.

  13. [Changes in immunobiological reactivity under the combined action of microwave, infrasonic and gamma irradiation].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ev, Iu G; Batanov, G V; Stepanov, V S

    1983-01-01

    In experiments on rats and rabbits a study was made of the combined effect of 9.3 gHz and 0.1 gHz (200 and 1530 muW/cm2, respectively), infrasound (8 Hz, 115 db), and gamma-radiation (cumulative dose of 5.5 Gy) on cell and humoral immunity, and on autoimmune processes. It was shown that preirradiation with microwaves increased the resistance of the organism to gamma-radiation, and microwaves combined with infrasound enhanced the biological effect of gamma-radiation.

  14. Seasonal variations of infrasonic arrivals from long-term ground truth observations in Nevada and implication for event location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negraru, Petru; Golden, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Long-term ground truth observations were collected at two infrasound arrays in Nevada to investigate how seasonal atmospheric variations affect the detection, traveltime and signal characteristics (azimuth, trace velocity, frequency content and amplitudes) of infrasonic arrivals at regional distances. The arrays were located in different azimuthal directions from a munition disposal facility in Nevada. FNIAR, located 154 km north of the source has a high detection rate throughout the year. Over 90 per cent of the detonations have traveltimes indicative of stratospheric arrivals, while tropospheric waveguides are observed from only 27 per cent of the detonations. The second array, DNIAR, located 293 km southeast of the source exhibits strong seasonal variations with high stratospheric detection rates in winter and the virtual absence of stratospheric arrivals in summer. Tropospheric waveguides and thermospheric arrivals are also observed for DNIAR. Modeling through the Naval Research Laboratory Ground to Space atmospheric sound speeds leads to mixed results: FNIAR arrivals are usually not predicted to be present at all (either stratospheric or tropospheric), while DNIAR arrivals are usually correctly predicted, but summer arrivals show a consistent traveltime bias. In the end, we show the possible improvement in location using empirically calibrated traveltime and azimuth observations. Using the Bayesian Infrasound Source Localization we show that we can decrease the area enclosed by the 90 per cent credibility contours by a factor of 2.5.

  15. Infrasonic noise induces axonal degeneration of cultured neurons via a Ca²⁺ influx pathway.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Haoran; Wang, Bing; Tang, Chi; Feng, Guodong; Zhang, Chen; Li, Ling; Lin, Tian; Du, Fang; Duan, Hong; Shi, Ming; Zhao, Gang

    2012-07-20

    Infrasound is a kind of environmental noise. It can evoke biological resonance in organismic tissues including the central nervous system (CNS), causing displacement and distortion of cellular architectures. Several studies have revealed that certain intensity infrasound can impair normal functions of the brain, but the underlying mechanisms still remain largely unknown. Growing evidence has demonstrated that axonal degeneration is responsible for a variety of CNS dysfunctions. To explore whether neuronal axons are affected under infrasonic insults, we exposed cultured hippocampal neurons to infrasound with a frequency of 16 Hz and a pressure level of 130 dB for 1h, and examined the morphological and molecular changes of neuronal axons by immunocytochemistry and Western blotting, respectively. Our results showed that infrasound exposure significantly resulted in axonal degeneration of cultured hippocampal neurons, which was relatively independent of neuronal cell death. This infrasound-induced axonal degeneration can be significantly blocked by Ca²⁺ chelator EGTA and Rho kinase inhibitor Fasudil, but not by proteasome inhibitor MG132. Moreover, calcium imaging and RhoA activation assays revealed a great enhancement of Ca²⁺ influx within axons and RhoA activation after infrasound exposure, respectively. Depletion of Ca²⁺ by EGTA markedly inhibited this Ca²⁺ influx and attenuated RhoA activation as well. Thus, our findings revealed that axonal degeneration may be one of the important mechanisms underlying infrasound-induced CNS impairment, and Ca²⁺ influx pathway is likely implicated in the process. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Long-times series of infrasonic records at open-vents volcanoes (Yasur volcano, Vanuatu, 2003-2014): the remarkable temporal stability of magma viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergniolle, S.; Souty, V.; Zielinski, C.; Bani, P.; LE Pichon, A.; Lardy, M.; Millier, P.; Herry, P.; Todman, S.; Garaebiti, E.

    2017-12-01

    Open-vents volcanoes, often presenting series of Strombolian explosions of various intensity, are responding, although with a delay, to any changes in the degassing pattern, providing a quasi-direct route to processes at depth. Open-vents volcanoes display a persistent volcanic activity, although of variable intensity. Long-times series at open-vents volcanoes could therefore be key measurements to unravel physical processes at the origin of Strombolian explosions and be crucial for monitoring. Continuous infrasonic records can be used to estimate the gas volume expelled at the vent during explosions (bursting of a long slug). The gas volume of each explosion is deduced from a series of two successive integrations of acoustic pressure (monopole). Here we analysed more than 4 years of infrasonic records at Yasur volcano (Vanuatu), spanning between 2003 and 2014 and organised into 8 main quasi-continuous periods. The relationship between the gas volume of each explosion and its associated maximum positive acoustic pressure, a proxy for the inner gas overpressure at bursting, shows a remarkably stable trend over the 8 periods. Two main trends exists, one which covers the full range of acoustic pressures (called « strong explosions ») and the second which represents explosions with a large gas volume and mild acoustic pressure. The class of « strong explosions » clearly follows the model of Del Bello et al. (2012), which shows that the inner gas overpressure at bursting, here empirically measured by the maximum acoustic pressure, is proportional to the gas volume. Constrains on magma viscosity and conduit radius, are deduced from this trend and from the gas volume at the transition passive-active degassing. The remarkable stability of this trend over time suggests that 1) the magma viscosity is stable at the depth where gas overpressure is produced within the slug and 2) any potential changes in magma viscosity occur very close to the top of the magma column.

  17. Transmission of infrasonic pressure waves from cerebrospinal to intralabyrinthine fluids through the human cochlear aqueduct: Non-invasive measurements with otoacoustic emissions.

    PubMed

    Traboulsi, Raghida; Avan, Paul

    2007-11-01

    The cochlear aqueduct connecting intralabyrinthine and cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) acts as a low-pass filter that should be able to transmit infrasonic pressure waves from CSF to cochlea. Recent experiments have shown that otoacoustic emissions generated at 1kHz respond to pressure-related stapes impedance changes with a change in phase relative to the generator tones, and provide a non-invasive means of assessing intracochlear pressure changes. In order to characterize the transmission to the cochlea of CSF pressure waves due to respiration, the distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) of 12 subjects were continuously monitored around 1kHz at a rate of 6.25epochs/s, and their phase relative to the stimulus tones was extracted. The subjects breathed normally, in different postures, while thoracic movements were recorded so as to monitor respiration. A correlate of respiration was found in the time variation of DPOAE phase, with an estimated mean amplitude of 10 degrees , i.e. 60mm water, suggesting little attenuation across the aqueduct. Its phase lag relative to thoracic movements varied between 0 degrees and -270 degrees . When fed into a two-compartment model of CSF and labyrinthine spaces, these results suggest that respiration rate at rest is just above the resonance frequency of the CSF compartment, and just below the corner frequency of the cochlear-aqueduct low-pass filter, in line with previous estimates from temporal bone and intracranial measurements. The fact that infrasonic CSF waves can be monitored through the cochlea opens diagnostic possibilities in neurology.

  18. Detection of Acoustic/Infrasonic/Seismic Waves Generated by Hypersonic Re-Entry of the HAYABUSA Capsule and Fragmented Parts of the Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Masa-Yuki; Ishihara, Yoshiaki; Hiramatsu, Yoshihiro; Kitamura, Kazuki; Ueda, Masayoshi; Shiba, Yasuo; Furumoto, Muneyoshi; Fujita, Kazuhisa

    2011-10-01

    Acoustic/infrasonic/seismic waves were observed during the re-entry of the Japanese asteroid explorer ``HAYABUSA'' at 6 ground sites in Woomera, Australia, on 2010 June 13. Overpressure values of infrasound waves were detected at 3 ground sites in a range from 1.3 Pa, 1.0 Pa, and 0.7 Pa with each distance of 36.9 km, 54.9 km, and 67.8 km, respectively, apart from the SRC trajectory. Seismic waveforms through air-to-ground coupling processes were also detected at 6 sites, showing a one-to-one correspondence to infrasound waves at all simultaneous observation sites. Audible sound up to 1 kHz was recorded at one site with a distance of 67.8 km. The mother spacecraft was fragmented from 75 km down to 38 km with a few explosive enhancements of emissions. A persistent train of HAYABUSA re-entry was confirmed at an altitude range of between 92 km down to 82 km for about 3 minutes. Light curves of 136 fragmented parts of the spacecraft were analyzed in detail based on video observations taken at multiple ground sites, being classified into three types of fragmentations, i.e., melting, explosive, and re-fragmented types. In a comparison between infrasonic waves and video-image analyses, regarding the generation of sonic-boom type shock waves by hypersonically moving artificial meteors, both the sample return capsule and fragmented parts of the mother spacecraft, at an altitude of 40 ± 1 km were confirmed with a one-to-one correspondence with each other.

  19. Infrasonic Influence of Volcanos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosman, Ashley

    2014-03-01

    My presentation will consist of a poster on the use of ring laser interferometers to detect infrasound. The research was performed during the summer of 2013 and it focused on the finding infrasound emissions created by volcanic activity. I will explain how a ring laser works and discuss how I analyze the collected data using Fast Fourier Transforms. Due to the extreme distances over which infrasound can travel, I will also stress the need to compare the detected responses to specific volcanic eruptions. Finally, I will purpose practical applications of my research. One of the more promising applications is to use ring lasers to detect volcanic activity in remote areas such as parts of the Aleutian Islands. There is considerable air traffic over the Aleutian Islands. Volcanic plumes are a significant aviation hazard and can damage jet engines to the extent that they will no longer operate. Thank you to the NSF ans NASA foundations for providing funding for this reseach.

  20. Infrasonic induced ground motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ting-Li

    On January 28, 2004, the CERI seismic network recorded seismic signals generated by an unknown source. Our conclusion is that the acoustic waves were initiated by an explosive source near the ground surface. The meteorological temperature and effective sound speed profiles suggested existence of an efficient near-surface waveguide that allowed the acoustic disturbance to propagate to large distances. An explosion occurring in an area of forest and farms would have limited the number of eyewitnesses. Resolution of the source might be possible by experiment or by detailed analysis of the ground motion data. A seismo-acoustic array was built to investigate thunder-induced ground motions. Two thunder events with similar N-wave waveforms but different horizontal slownesses are chosen to evaluate the credibility of using thunder as a seismic source. These impulsive acoustic waves excited P and S reverberations in the near surface that depend on both the incident wave horizontal slowness and the velocity structure in the upper 30 meters. Nineteen thunder events were chosen to further investigate the seismo-acoustic coupling. The consistent incident slowness differences between acoustic pressure and ground motions suggest that ground reverberations were first initiated somewhat away from the array. Acoustic and seismic signals were used to generate the time-domain transfer function through the deconvolution technique. Possible non-linear interaction for acoustic propagation into the soil at the surface was observed. The reverse radial initial motions suggest a low Poisson's ratio for the near-surface layer. The acoustic-to-seismic transfer functions show a consistent reverberation series of the Rayleigh wave type, which has a systematic dispersion relation to incident slownesses inferred from the seismic ground velocity. Air-coupled Rayleigh wave dispersion was used to quantitatively constrain the near-surface site structure with constraints afforded by near-surface body wave refraction and Rayleigh wave dispersion data. Theoretical standard high-frequency and air-coupled Rayleigh wave dispersion calculated by the inferred site structure match the observed dispersion curves. Our study suggests that natural or controlled air-borne pressure sources can be used to investigate the near-surface site structures for earthquake shaking hazard studies.

  1. Multidirectional seismo-acoustic wavefield of strombolian explosions at Yasur, Vanuatu using a broadband seismo-acoustic network, infrasound arrays, and infrasonic sensors on tethered balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matoza, R. S.; Jolly, A. D.; Fee, D.; Johnson, R.; Kilgour, G.; Christenson, B. W.; Garaebiti, E.; Iezzi, A. M.; Austin, A.; Kennedy, B.; Fitzgerald, R.; Key, N.

    2016-12-01

    Seismo-acoustic wavefields at volcanoes contain rich information on shallow magma transport and subaerial eruption processes. Acoustic wavefields from eruptions are predicted to be directional, but sampling this wavefield directivity is challenging because infrasound sensors are usually deployed on the ground surface. We attempt to overcome this observational limitation using a novel deployment of infrasound sensors on tethered balloons in tandem with a suite of dense ground-based seismo-acoustic, geochemical, and eruption imaging instrumentation. We present preliminary results from a field experiment at Yasur Volcano, Vanuatu from July 26th to August 4th 2016. Our observations include data from a temporary network of 11 broadband seismometers, 6 single infrasonic microphones, 7 small-aperture 3-element infrasound arrays, 2 infrasound sensor packages on tethered balloons, an FTIR, a FLIR, 2 scanning Flyspecs, and various visual imaging data. An introduction to the dataset and preliminary analysis of the 3D seismo-acoustic wavefield and source process will be presented. This unprecedented dataset should provide a unique window into processes operating in the shallow magma plumbing system and their relation to subaerial eruption dynamics.

  2. Acoustic and infrasonic measurements of thunder during the HyMeX SOP1 campaign in 2012 and comparison with new modeling results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacroix, Arthur; Farges, Thomas; Marchiano, Regis; Coulouvrat, François

    2017-04-01

    Thunder is composed of complex acoustic waves with a rich infrasonic and audible frequency spectrum. This complexity depends both on the source and the propagation of the wave to the observer. However there is no mutual agreement on the link between the observed spectral content and the generation mechanisms. The objective of this study is to provide new experimental results and their comparison to theoretical investigations. An acoustic station was deployed in Fall 2012 during the first Special Operation Period of the HyMeX project in South of France. This station was composed of 4 microphones arranged in a triangle of 50-m side with one of them at the center and 4 microbarometers arranged in a triangle of 500-m side with one of them co-localized with the central microphone (Defer et al., 2015). During more than 2 months, about ten thunderstorms occurred over the station producing many cloud-to-ground and intracloud flashes. Several thousands of acoustic signals and electromagnetic detections from research and operational lightning location networks were recorded. Our database contains a sufficient number of flashes close to the source (< 1km) to minimize propagation effects and to focus on the source effects. The 3D reconstruction of the acoustical sources using the acoustic signals (from 1 to 40 Hz) shows that these signals are mainly localized inside the lightning channel joining the cloud to the ground and produced during the return stroke phase of the flashes (Gallin et al., 2016). These observations are compatible with a source mechanism due to the thermal expansion associated to the sudden heating of the air in the lightning channel. An original model inspired by Few's string pearl theory (Few, 1969) has been developed. It shows that the tortuous channel geometry explains at least partly the low frequency content of observed thunder spectrum.

  3. [Experimental study of infrasonic phonophoresis].

    PubMed

    Filatov, V V

    2001-01-01

    A new method of drug administration, infrared phonophoresis, was experimentally studied. The method has no analogs in the world. The study was carried out on 20 Chinchilla rabbits. Water applications impregnated with equal volumes of the radiopharmaceutical (RP) were placed into the conjunctival cavities of both eyes. The right eye was control and the left was treated by infrasound (experiment). The information was recorded in live animals after removal of the application and thorough washing of the conjunctival cavity immediately, 30 min, and 1 h after infrasound phonophoresis session. Radioactivity measurements at all terms indicate its stable increase in the experimental eye and a progressive decrease in the control eye. Hence, infrasound promoted long accumulation of the RP in the eye at anterior route of the drug delivery without preliminary injection of the drug into ocular vessels.

  4. Infrasonic Effect of Solar Eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pushin, V. F.; Chernogor, L. F.

    2013-06-01

    The relevance of this study is due to the need to understand, physical effects associated with rare phenomenon, solar eclipse. Until recently, the features of internal gravity wave generation, have been studied in the 10 -100 min period range, while in this, study an attempt is made to confirm the fact of generation, and estimate the general parameters of infrasound oscillations, associated with solar eclipses in the 1-10 min period range. The observations were made with the HF Doppler radar at vertical, incidence. The data were subjected to spectral analysis and, band-pass filtering. The solar eclipses that had occurred over, Kharkiv city (Ukraine) within 1999-2011 are determined to be, associated with Doppler shift of frequency oscillations in the, infrasound frequency band ( 5-8 min period range) and with, amplitude of 20 -100 mHz. The corresponding amplitude, of electron density oscillations was approximately equal to, 0.1- 0.5 %.

  5. Radiation Protection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Offices Regional Offices Labs and Research Centers Radiation Protection Contact Us Share Dose Calculator Use the Radiation ... the Office of Air and Radiation (OAR) Radiation Protection Radiation Sources and Doses Calculate Your Radiation Dose ...

  6. Pelvic radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation of the pelvis - discharge; Cancer treatment - pelvic radiation; Prostate cancer - pelvic radiation; Ovarian cancer - pelvic radiation; Cervical cancer - pelvic radiation; Uterine cancer - pelvic radiation; Rectal cancer - ...

  7. Explosive Infrasonic Events: Sensor Comparison Experiment (SCE)

    SciTech Connect

    Schnurr, J. M.; Garces, M.; Rodgers, A. J.

    SCE (sensor comparison experiment) 1 through 4 consists of a series of four controlled above-ground explosions designed to provide new data for overpressure propagation. Infrasound data were collected by LLNL iPhones and other sensors. Origin times, locations HOB, and yields are not being released at this time and are therefore not included in this report. This preliminary report will be updated as access to additional data changes, or instrument responses are determined.

  8. Seismic Methods of Infrasonic Signal Detection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-30

    11 Alaid (Kurile Is.): Plume on satellite i agery ......................................................... 11 Kilauea ( Hawaii ): Small...historic eruption ... 6-7 Kilauea ( Hawaii ): Small fissure eruption in summit caldera ................. 7-8 Galunggung (Indonesia): Explosions and...4 June. El Chich6n Volcano (continued) TABLE 1 LOCATION AND DATE LAYER ALTITUDE IN KM BACKSCATTER (peak in parentheses) Mauna Loa, Hawaii 20.5-22

  9. Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Honglu

    2006-01-01

    Astronauts receive the highest occupational radiation exposure. Effective protections are needed to ensure the safety of astronauts on long duration space missions. Increased cancer morbidity or mortality risk in astronauts may be caused by occupational radiation exposure. Acute and late radiation damage to the central nervous system (CNS) may lead to changes in motor function and behavior, or neurological disorders. Radiation exposure may result in degenerative tissue diseases (non-cancer or non-CNS) such as cardiac, circulatory, or digestive diseases, as well as cataracts. Acute radiation syndromes may occur due to occupational radiation exposure.

  10. Radiation sickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Radiation therapy References Geleijns J, Tack D. Medical physics: radiation risks. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard ... Exposure Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more Health Topics A-Z Read more A.D.A. ...

  11. Radiation Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... EPA’s mission in radiation protection is to protect human health and the environment from the ionizing radiation that comes from human use of radioactive elements. Other agencies regulate the ...

  12. Radiation safety.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Sarah

    2013-06-01

    Diagnostic radiology procedures, such as computed tomography (CT) and X-ray, are an increasing source of ionising radiation exposure to our community. Exposure to ionising radiation is associated with increased risk of malignancy, proportional to the level of exposure. Every diagnostic test using ionising radiation needs to be justified by clinical need. General practitioners need a working knowledge of radiation safety so they can adequately inform their patients of the risks and benefits of diagnostic imaging procedures.

  13. Radiation Exposure

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation is energy that travels in the form of waves or high-speed particles. It occurs naturally in sunlight. Man-made radiation is used in X-rays, nuclear weapons, nuclear power plants and cancer treatment. If you are exposed to small amounts of radiation over a ...

  14. Sources and Radiation Patterns of Volcano-Acoustic Signals Investigated with Field-Scale Chemical Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, D. C.; Lees, J. M.; Taddeucci, J.; Graettinger, A. H.; Sonder, I.; Valentine, G.

    2014-12-01

    infrasonic radiation, our multiparametric dataset also allowed us to investigate other acoustic processes relevant for explosive eruptions, including shock-wave generation and audible sound radiation, and to link them to the starting conditions and evolution of the blasts.

  15. Radiation Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grupen, Claus

    Radiation protection is a very important aspect for the application of particle detectors in many different fields, like high energy physics, medicine, materials science, oil and mineral exploration, and arts, to name a few. The knowledge of radiation units, the experience with shielding, and information on biological effects of radiation are vital for scientists handling radioactive sources or operating accelerators or X-ray equipment. This article describes the modern radiation units and their conversions to older units which are still in use in many countries. Typical radiation sources and detectors used in the field of radiation protection are presented. The legal regulations in nearly all countries follow closely the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Tables and diagrams with relevant information on the handling of radiation sources provide useful data for the researcher working in this field.

  16. Hawking radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parentani, Renaud; Spindel, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    Hawking radiation is the thermal radiation predicted to be spontaneously emitted by black holes. It arises from the steady conversion of quantum vacuum fluctuations into pairs of particles, one of which escaping at infinity while the other is trapped inside the black hole horizon. It is named after the physicist Stephen Hawking who derived its existence in 1974. This radiation reduces the mass of black holes and is therefore also known as black hole evaporation.

  17. Plume radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dirscherl, R.

    1993-06-01

    The electromagnetic radiation originating from the exhaust plume of tactical missile motors is of outstanding importance for military system designers. Both missile- and countermeasure engineer rely on the knowledge of plume radiation properties, be it for guidance/interference control or for passive detection of adversary missiles. To allow access to plume radiation properties, they are characterized with respect to the radiation producing mechanisms like afterburning, its chemical constituents, and reactions as well as particle radiation. A classification of plume spectral emissivity regions is given due to the constraints imposed by available sensor technology and atmospheric propagation windows. Additionally assessment methods are presented that allow a common and general grouping of rocket motor properties into various categories. These methods describe state of the art experimental evaluation techniques as well as calculation codes that are most commonly used by developers of NATO countries. Dominant aspects influencing plume radiation are discussed and a standardized test technique is proposed for the assessment of plume radiation properties that include prediction procedures. These recommendations on terminology and assessment methods should be common to all employers of plume radiation. Special emphasis is put on the omnipresent need for self-protection by the passive detection of plume radiation in the ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) spectral band.

  18. Ionizing radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, C. A.; Grigoryev, Y. G.

    1975-01-01

    The biological effects of ionizing radiation encountered in space are considered. Biological experiments conducted in space and some experiences of astronauts during space flight are described. The effects of various levels of radiation exposure and the determination of permissible dosages are discussed.

  19. Understanding Radiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    Radiation is a natural energy force that has been a part of the environment since the Earth was formed. It takes various forms, none of which can be smelled, tasted, seen, heard, or felt. Nevertheless, scientists know what it is, where it comes from, how to measure and detect it, and how it affects people. Cosmic radiation from outer space and…

  20. Radiation Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer patients receive it. The radiation may be external, from special machines, or internal, from radioactive substances that a doctor places inside your body. The type of radiation therapy you receive depends on many factors, including The type of cancer The size of ...

  1. Radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Fultz, B.T.

    1980-12-05

    Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and x-rays generated in backscatter Moessbauer effect spectroscopy and x-ray spectrometry, which has a large window for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

  2. Radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Fultz, Brent T.

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and X-rays generated in backscatter Mossbauer effect spectroscopy and X-ray spectrometry, which has a large "window" for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

  3. Diffuse radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A diffuse celestial radiation which is isotropic at least on a course scale were measured from the soft X-ray region to about 150 MeV, at which energy the intensity falls below that of the galactic emission for most galactic latitudes. The spectral shape, the intensity, and the established degree of isotropy of this diffuse radiation already place severe constraints on the possible explanations for this radiation. Among the extragalactic theories, the more promising explanations of the isotropic diffuse emission appear to be radiation from exceptional galaxies from matter antimatter annihilation at the boundaries of superclusters of galaxies of matter and antimatter in baryon symmetric big bang models. Other possible sources for extragalactic diffuse gamma radiation are discussed and include normal galaxies, clusters of galaxies, primordial cosmic rays interacting with intergalactic matter, primordial black holes, and cosmic ray leakage from galaxies.

  4. Radiation dosimeter

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Richard J.

    1983-01-01

    A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even though the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

  5. Radiation dosimeter

    DOEpatents

    Fox, R.J.

    1981-09-01

    A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even through the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

  6. Radiation Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Castor, J I

    2003-10-16

    The discipline of radiation hydrodynamics is the branch of hydrodynamics in which the moving fluid absorbs and emits electromagnetic radiation, and in so doing modifies its dynamical behavior. That is, the net gain or loss of energy by parcels of the fluid material through absorption or emission of radiation are sufficient to change the pressure of the material, and therefore change its motion; alternatively, the net momentum exchange between radiation and matter may alter the motion of the matter directly. Ignoring the radiation contributions to energy and momentum will give a wrong prediction of the hydrodynamic motion when the correctmore » description is radiation hydrodynamics. Of course, there are circumstances when a large quantity of radiation is present, yet can be ignored without causing the model to be in error. This happens when radiation from an exterior source streams through the problem, but the latter is so transparent that the energy and momentum coupling is negligible. Everything we say about radiation hydrodynamics applies equally well to neutrinos and photons (apart from the Einstein relations, specific to bosons), but in almost every area of astrophysics neutrino hydrodynamics is ignored, simply because the systems are exceedingly transparent to neutrinos, even though the energy flux in neutrinos may be substantial. Another place where we can do ''radiation hydrodynamics'' without using any sophisticated theory is deep within stars or other bodies, where the material is so opaque to the radiation that the mean free path of photons is entirely negligible compared with the size of the system, the distance over which any fluid quantity varies, and so on. In this case we can suppose that the radiation is in equilibrium with the matter locally, and its energy, pressure and momentum can be lumped in with those of the rest of the fluid. That is, it is no more necessary to distinguish photons from atoms, nuclei and electrons, than it is to

  7. RADIATION DETECTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, H.N.; Glass, F.M.

    1960-05-10

    A radiation detector of the type is described wherein a condenser is directly connected to the electrodes for the purpose of performing the dual function of a guard ring and to provide capacitance coupling for resetting the detector system.

  8. Radiation Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Radiation (also called x-rays, gamma rays, or photons) either kills tumor cells directly or interferes with ... treatment per day, five days a week, for two to seven weeks. Potiential Side Effects Most people ...

  9. Radiation enteritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... and tobacco Almost all milk products Coffee, tea, chocolate, and sodas with caffeine Foods containing whole bran ... Call your provider if you are having radiation therapy or have had it in the past and ...

  10. Radiation therapy

    MedlinePlus

    Doroshow JH. Approach to the patient with cancer. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 179. National Cancer Institute. Radiation therapy and you: support for people ...

  11. Brain radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer - brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  12. RADIATION HAZARD

    SciTech Connect

    Savenko, I.A.; Pisarenko, N.F.; Shavrin, P.I.

    1961-01-01

    Analysis of data obtained by Sputnik V (August 19, 1961) at about 320 km made it possible to delineate the position of the radiation belts and to estimate the amount of radiation hazard present. Scintillation counter data show that the radiation in the belts is anisotropic and that the energy flux under a layer of matter of 2 x 10/sup -3/ g cm/sup -2/ is 10/sup 10/ ev cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/. The mean energy released per quantum in the scintillation counter crystal is computed at 2.0 x 10/sup 5/ ev and the intensity of electrons in the outer beltmore » at 5 x 10/sup 4/ particles cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/. The radiation dosage absorbed inside Sputnik V was determined by dividing the amount of energy liberated in the sodium iodide crystal of the scinitillation counter by the weight of the crystal (36.4 g) without the need of a detailed examination of the composition and spectrum of the radiation. A dosage value of 7 mrad/24 hr was obtained; in terms of the RBE (relative biological effect) of the cosmic charged particles this amounted to 5O mrem/24 hr. This dosage is considered relatively safe for astronauts during flights along trajectories similar to that of Sputnik V when the sun is quiet. Solar flares, however, could bring about an increase in radiation. Owing to latitude and longitude effects and the specifi distribution of radiation at this height, the dosage per orbit ranged from 0.35 to 0.70 mrad. (OTS)« less

  13. Radiation enteritis and radiation scoliosis

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, M.; Eng, K.; Engler, G.L.

    1980-09-01

    Any patient with radiation scoliosis should be suspected of having a visceral lesion as well. Chronic radiation enteritis may be manifested by intestinal obstruction, fistulas, perforation, and hemorrhage. Intestinal obstruction is the most common complication, and must be differentiated from postoperative cast or from spinal-traction syndrome. Obstruction that does not respond promptly to conservative measures must be treated surgically. Irradiated bowel is ischemic, and necrosis with spontaneous perforation can only be avoided with early diagnosis and surgical intervention.

  14. Directional radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Dowell, Jonathan L.

    2017-09-12

    Directional radiation detectors and systems, methods, and computer-readable media for using directional radiation detectors to locate a radiation source are provided herein. A directional radiation detector includes a radiation sensor. A radiation attenuator partially surrounds the radiation sensor and defines an aperture through which incident radiation is received by the radiation sensor. The aperture is positioned such that when incident radiation is received directly through the aperture and by the radiation sensor, a source of the incident radiation is located within a solid angle defined by the aperture. The radiation sensor senses at least one of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma particles, or neutrons.

  15. RADIATION INTEGRATOR

    DOEpatents

    Glass, F.M.; Wilson, H.N.

    1959-02-17

    Radiation detecting and measuring systems, particularly a compact, integrating, background monitor, are discussed. One of the principal features of the system is the use of an electrometer tube where the input of the tube is directly connected to an electrode of the radiation detector and a capacitor is coupled to the tube input. When a predetermined quantity of radiation has been integrated, a trigger signal is fed to a recorder and a charge is delivered to the capacitor to render the tube inoperative. The capacitor is then recharged for the next period of operation. With this arrangement there is a substantial reduction in lead lengths and the principal components may be enclosed and hermetically sealed to insure low leakage.

  16. Radiation receiver

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, Arlon J.

    1983-01-01

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles.

  17. Radiation receiver

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, A.J.

    1983-09-13

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles. 5 figs.

  18. RADIATION SOURCES

    DOEpatents

    Brucer, M.H.

    1958-04-15

    A novel long-lived source of gamma radiation especially suitable for calibration purposes is described. The source of gamma radiation is denoted mock iodine131, which comprises a naixture of barium-133 and cesium-137. The barium and cesium are present in a barium-cesium ratio of approximately 5.7/1 to 14/1, uniformly dispersed in an ion exchange resin and a filter surrounding the resin comprised of a material of atomic number below approximately 51, and substantially 0.7 to 0.9 millimeter thick.

  19. Radiation pager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, John L.; Vadnais, Kenneth G.

    1997-01-01

    Recent advances in miniature photomultiplier tubes and low power electronics have made possible a new generation of small gamma-ray radiation detectors specifically designed for use by government and law enforcement agencies for the detection and interdiction of concealed nuclear materials. This paper describes an inexpensive pager sized radiation detector that can be worn on the belt or carried in a pocket for hands free operation, and which can quietly alert the operator to the presence of nuclear material. The sensitivity performance of the detector technology and the application of the instrument to law enforcement and nuclear smuggling are discussed.

  20. Radiation Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, W. G. G.

    1970-01-01

    Discusses the historical development of both the wave and the corpuscular photon model of light. Suggests that students should be informed that the two models are complementary and that each model successfully describes a wide range of radiation phenomena. Cites 19 references which might be of interest to physics teachers and students. (LC)

  1. Radiation Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Radiation insulation technology from Apollo and subsequent spacecraft was used to develop superinsulators, used by makers of cold weather apparel, to make parkas, jackets, boots and outdoor gear such as sleeping bags. The radiant barrier technology offers warmth retention at minimal weight and bulk.

  2. Radiation Therapy: Professions in Radiation Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... and typically one to two years of clinical physics training. They are certified by the American Board of Radiology or the American Board of Medical Physics . Radiation Therapist Radiation therapists work with radiation oncologists. ...

  3. Radiation Engineering for Designers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellish, Jonathan A.

    2015-01-01

    This tutorial provides an overview of the natural space radiation environment, an introduction to radiation effect types, an overview of EEE parts selection, scrubbing, and radiation mitigation, and an introduction to radiation testing.

  4. Risk Factors: Radiation

    Cancer.gov

    Radiation of certain wavelengths, called ionizing radiation, has enough energy to damage DNA and cause cancer. Ionizing radiation includes radon, x-rays, gamma rays, and other forms of high-energy radiation.

  5. Acute Radiation Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Specific Types of Emergencies Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS): A Fact Sheet for the Public Language: English ( ... radiation dose. People exposed to radiation will get ARS only if: The radiation dose was high The ...

  6. Shortwave Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klassen, Steve; Bugbee, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Accurate shortwave radiation data is critical to evapotranspiration (ET) models used for developing irrigation schedules to optimize crop production while saving water, minimizing fertilizer, herbicide, and pesticide applications, reducing soil erosion, and protecting surface and ground water quality. Low cost silicon cell pyranometers have proven to be sufficiently accurate and robust for widespread use in agricultural applications under unobstructed daylight conditions. More expensive thermopile pyranometers are required for use as calibration standards and measurements under light with unique spectral properties (electric lights, under vegetation, in greenhouses and growth chambers). Routine cleaning, leveling, and annual calibration checks will help to ensure the integrity of long-term data.

  7. Adaptors for radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Livesay, Ronald Jason

    2014-04-22

    Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

  8. Adaptors for radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Livesay, Ronald Jason

    2015-07-28

    Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

  9. Radiation Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Apollo and subsequent spacecraft have had highly effective radiation barriers; made of aluminized polymer film, they bar or let in heat to maintain consistent temperatures inside. Tech 2000, formerly Quantum International Corporation used the NASA technology in its insulating materials, Super "Q" Radiant Barrier, for home, industry and mobile applications. The insulation combines industrial aluminum foil overlaid around a core of another material, usually propylene or mylar. The outer layer reflects up to 97 percent of heat; the central layer creates a thermal break in the structure and thus allows low radiant energy emission. The Quantum Cool Wall, used in cars and trucks, takes up little space while providing superior insulation, thus reducing spoilage and costs. The panels can also dampen sound and engine, exhaust and solar heat.

  10. Radiation dosimeters

    DOEpatents

    Hoelsher, James W.; Hegland, Joel E.; Braunlich, Peter F.; Tetzlaff, Wolfgang

    1992-01-01

    Radiation dosimeters and dosimeter badges. The dosimeter badges include first and second parts which are connected to join using a securement to produce a sealed area in which at least one dosimeter is held and protected. The badge parts are separated to expose the dosimeters to a stimulating laser beam used to read dose exposure information therefrom. The badge is constructed to allow automated disassembly and reassembly in a uniquely fitting relationship. An electronic memory is included to provide calibration and identification information used during reading of the dosimeter. Dosimeter mounts which reduce thermal heating requirements are shown. Dosimeter constructions and production methods using thin substrates and phosphor binder-layers applied thereto are also taught.

  11. Radiation Insulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    An aluminized polymer film is a highly effective radiation barrier for both manned and unmanned spacecraft. Variations of this space-devised material are also used as an energy conservation technique for homes and offices. One commercial company, Tech 2000 (formerly Buckeye Radiant Barrier), markets 'Super R' Radiant Barrier, which finds its origins in the Apollo Mission programs. The material is placed between wall studs and exterior facing before siding or in new roof installation, between roof support and roof sheathing. Successful retrofit installations have included schools and shrink wrap ovens. The radiant barrier blocks 95 percent of radiant energy, thus retaining summer heat and blocking winter cold. Suppliers claim utility bill reductions of 20 percent or more.

  12. RADIATION DOSIMETER

    DOEpatents

    Balkwell, W.R. Jr.; Adams, G.D. Jr.

    1960-05-10

    An improvement was made in the determination of amounts of ionizing radiation, particularly low-energy beta particles of less than 1000 rad total dose by means of fluid-phase dosimeter employing a stabilized-- sensitized ferrous-ferric colorimetric system in a sulphuric acid medium. The improvement in the dosimeter consists of adding to the ferrous-ferric system in concentrations of 10/sub -2/ to 10/sup -4/M an organic compound having one or more carboxylic or equivalent groups, such compounds being capable of chelating or complexing the iron ions in the solution. Suitable sensitizing and stabilizing agents are benzoic, phthalic, salicylic, malonic, lactic, maleic, oxalic, citric, succinic, phenolic tartaric, acetic, and adipic acid, as well as other compounds which are added to the solution alone or in certain combinations. As in conventional fluid-phase dosimeters, the absorbed dosage is correlated with a corresponding change in optical density at particular wavelengths of the solution.

  13. RADIATION COUNTER

    DOEpatents

    Goldsworthy, W.W.

    1958-02-01

    This patent relates to a radiation counter, and more particularly, to a scintillation counter having high uniform sensitivity over a wide area and capable of measuring alpha, beta, and gamma contamination over wide energy ranges, for use in quickly checking the contami-nation of personnel. Several photomultiplier tubes are disposed in parallel relationship with a light tight housing behind a wall of scintillation material. Mounted within the housing with the photomultipliers are circuit means for producing an audible sound for each pulse detected, and a range selector developing a voltage proportional to the repetition rate of the detected pulses and automatically altering its time constant when the voltage reaches a predetermined value, so that manual range adjustment of associated metering means is not required.

  14. Radiation Exposure and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Fact Sheet Adopted: June 2010 Updated: June 2017 Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Radiation Exposure and ... radiation and pregnancy can be found on the Health Physics Society " Ask the Experts" Web site. she should ...

  15. Pregnancy and Radiation Exposure

    MedlinePlus

    ... pregnant women. Ionizing radiation is the kind of electromagnetic radiation produced by x-ray machines, radioactive isotopes ( ... The reproductive risk of nonionizing radiation, which includes electromagnetic fields emitted from computers, microwave communication systems, microwave ...

  16. Radiation Therapy for Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Radiation therapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Learn about the types of radiation, why side effects happen, which ones you might have, and more.

  17. Radiation and People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freilich, Florence G.

    1970-01-01

    Describes the development of radiation as a tool of medicine. Includes topics on history of radiation, electromagnetic spectrum, X-ray tubes, high energy machines, radioactive sources, artificial radioactivity, radioactive scanning, units, present radiation background, and effect of radiation on living tissue. (DS)

  18. Radiation transport calculations for cosmic radiation.

    PubMed

    Endo, A; Sato, T

    2012-01-01

    The radiation environment inside and near spacecraft consists of various components of primary radiation in space and secondary radiation produced by the interaction of the primary radiation with the walls and equipment of the spacecraft. Radiation fields inside astronauts are different from those outside them, because of the body's self-shielding as well as the nuclear fragmentation reactions occurring in the human body. Several computer codes have been developed to simulate the physical processes of the coupled transport of protons, high-charge and high-energy nuclei, and the secondary radiation produced in atomic and nuclear collision processes in matter. These computer codes have been used in various space radiation protection applications: shielding design for spacecraft and planetary habitats, simulation of instrument and detector responses, analysis of absorbed doses and quality factors in organs and tissues, and study of biological effects. This paper focuses on the methods and computer codes used for radiation transport calculations on cosmic radiation, and their application to the analysis of radiation fields inside spacecraft, evaluation of organ doses in the human body, and calculation of dose conversion coefficients using the reference phantoms defined in ICRP Publication 110. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Wireless radiation sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Lamberti, Vincent E.; Howell, Jr, Layton N.; Mee, David K.

    Disclosed is a sensor for detecting radiation. The sensor includes a ferromagnetic metal and a radiation sensitive material coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The radiation sensitive material is operable to change a tensile stress of the ferromagnetic metal upon exposure to radiation. The radiation is detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the changes in the tensile stress.

  20. Infrasonic Influences of Tornados and Cyclonic Weather Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, Tessa

    2014-03-01

    Infrasound waves travel through the air at approximately 340 m/s at sea level, while experiencing low levels of friction, allowing the waves to travel over larger distances. When seismic waves travel through unconsolidated soil, the waves slow down to approximately 340 m/s. Because the speeds of waves in the air and ground are similar, a more effective transfer of energy from the atmosphere to the ground can occur. Large ring lasers can be utilized for detecting sources of infrasound traveling through the ground by measuring anomalies in the frequency difference between their two counter-rotating beams. Sources of infrasound include tornados and other cyclonic weather systems. The way systems create waves that transfer to the ground is unknown and will be continued in further research; this research has focused on attempting to isolate the time that the ring laser detected anomalies in order to investigate if these anomalies may be contributed to isolatable weather systems. Furthermore, this research analyzed the frequencies detected in each of the anomalies and compared the frequencies with various characteristics of each weather system, such as tornado width, wind speeds, and system development. This research may be beneficial for monitoring gravity waves and weather systems.

  1. Infrasonic cardiac signals: complementary windows to cardiovascular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Tavakolian, Kouhyar; Ngai, Brandon; Blaber, Andrew P; Kaminska, Bozena

    2011-01-01

    New approaches to fairly old noninvasive cardiology tools, based on studying low frequency vibrations created by the heart on the body, were reviewed. These signals were divided and studied in two categories and compared in their capability for estimation of hemodynamic parameters. In particular one representative signal of each category, seismocardiogram and ultra-low frequency ballistocardiogram, were selected and compared to each other in their correspondence to physiological events behind their waves.

  2. Calculated wind noise for an infrasonic wind noise enclosure.

    PubMed

    Abbott, JohnPaul; Raspet, Richard

    2015-07-01

    A simple calculation of the wind noise measured at the center of a large porous wind fence enclosure is developed. The calculation provides a good model of the measured wind noise, with a good agreement within ±5 dB, and is derived by combining the wind noise contributions from (a) the turbulence-turbulence and turbulence-shear interactions inside the enclosure, (b) the turbulence interactions on the surface of the enclosure, and (c) the turbulence-shear interactions outside of the enclosure. Each wind noise contribution is calculated from the appropriate measured turbulence spectra, velocity profiles, correlation lengths, and the mean velocity at the center, surface, and outside of the enclosure. The model is verified by comparisons of the measured wind noise to the calculated estimates of the differing noise contributions and their sum.

  3. Infrasonic observations of large-scale HE events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Rodney W.; Mutschlecner, J. Paul; Davidson, Masha B.; Noel, Susan D.

    1990-01-01

    The Los Alamos Infrasound Program has been operating since about mid-1982, making routine measurements of low frequency atmospheric acoustic propagation. Generally, the authors work between 0.1 Hz to 10 Hz; however, much of the work is concerned with the narrower range of 0.5 to 5.0 Hz. Two permanent stations, St. George, UT, and Los Alamos, NM, have been operational since 1983, collecting data 24 hours a day. For the purposes of this discussion, the authors concentrate on their measurements of large, high explosive (HE) events at ranges of 250 km to 5330 km. Because their equipment is well suited for mobile deployments, they can easily establish temporary observing sites for special events. The measurements are from the permanent sites, as well as from various temporary sites. A few observations that are typical of the full data set are given.

  4. Using Seismic and Infrasonic Data to Identify Persistent Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava, S.; Brogan, R.

    2014-12-01

    Data from seismic and infrasound sensors were combined to aid in the identification of persistent sources such as mining-related explosions. It is of interest to operators of seismic networks to identify these signals in their event catalogs. Acoustic signals below the threshold of human hearing, in the frequency range of ~0.01 to 20 Hz are classified as infrasound. Persistent signal sources are useful as ground truth data for the study of atmospheric infrasound signal propagation, identification of manmade versus naturally occurring seismic sources, and other studies. By using signals emanating from the same location, propagation studies, for example, can be conducted using a variety of atmospheric conditions, leading to improvements to the modeling process for eventual use where the source is not known. We present results from several studies to identify ground truth sources using both seismic and infrasound data.

  5. Infrasonic detection performance in presence of nuisance signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbit, Maurice; Arrowsmith, Stephen; Che, Il-young; Le Pichon, Alexis; Nouvellet, Adrien; Park, Junghyun; Roueff, Francois

    2014-05-01

    The infrasound network of the International Monitoring System (IMS) consists of sixty stations deployed all over the World by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). The IMS has been designed to reliably detect, at least by two stations, an explosion greater than 1 kiloton located anywhere on the Earth [1]. Each station is an array of at least four microbarometers with an aperture of 1 to 3 km. The first important issue is to detect the presence of the signal of interest (SOI) embedded in noise. The detector is commonly based on the property that the SOI provides coherent observations on the sensors but not the noise. The statistic of test, called F-stat [2], [5], [6] , calculated in a time cell a few seconds, is commonly used for this purpose. In this paper, we assume that a coherent source is permanently present arriving from an unknown direction of arrivals (DOA). The typical case is the presence of microbaroms or the presence of wind. This source is seen as a nuisance signal (NS). In [4], [3] authors assume that a time cell without the SOI (CH0) is available, whereas a following time cell is considered as the cell under test (CUT). Therefore the DOA and the SNR of the NS can be estimated. If the signal-to-noise ration SNR of the NS is large enough, the distribution of the F-stat under the absence of SOI is known to be a non central Fisher. It follows that the threshold can be performed from a given value of the FAR. The major drawback to keep the NS is that the NS could hide the SOI, this phenomena is similar to the leakage which is a well-known phenomena in the Fourier analysis. An other approach consists to use the DOA estimate of the NS to mitigate the NS by spatial notch filter in the frequency domain. On this approach a new algorithm is provided. To illustrate, numerical results on synthetical and real data are presented, in term of Receiver Operating Characteristic ROC curves. REFERENCES [1] Christie D.R. and Campus P., The IMS infrasound netwrok: design and establishment of infrasound stations, Infrasound Monitoring for Atmospheric Studies, Springer Netherlands, Editor: Le Pichon, Alexis and Blanc, Elisabeth and Hauchecorne, Alain, pp 27-72, 2010. [2] Shumway R. H.,Advances in Mixed Signal Processing for Regional and Teleseismic Arrays 28th Seismic Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies, pp 503-509, 2007. [3] Park J., Hayward C.T., Zeiler C. P., Arrowsmith S.J. and Stump B.W., A Comparative Study of Automated Infrasound Detectors - PMCC and inframonitor with analyst review, SSA Annual Meeting, 2013. [4] Arrowsmith S.J., Whitaker R., Katz C. and Hayward C., The F-Detector Revisited: An Improved Strategy for Signal Detection at Seismic and Infrasound Arrays, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 2008. [5] Arrowsmith S.J., Whitaker R., Steven R. Taylor, Burlacu R., Stump B.W., Hedlin M.A.H., Randall G., Hayward C. and ReVelle D., Regional monitoring of infrasound events using multiple arrays: application to Utah and Washington State, Geophys. J. Int., vol.175, pp 291-300, 2008. [6] Charbit M., Gaillard P. and Le Pichon A., Evaluating the performance of infrasound detectors, EGU, Vienne, Autriche, April 2012.

  6. Infrasonic waves from volcanic eruptions on the Kamchatka peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordeev, E. I.; Firstov, P. P.; Kulichkov, S. N.; Makhmudov, E. R.

    2013-07-01

    The IS44 station operates at the observation point of Nachiki on the Kamchatka peninsula, which is part of the International Monitoring System (IMS), and it helps verify compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The Kamchatka Branch, Geophysical Service, Russian Academy of Sciences (KB GS RAS), has a station operating in the village of Paratunka. Both of these stations allow one to monitor strong explosive eruptions of andesitic volcanoes.1 Both kinematic and dynamic parameters of acoustic signals accompanying the eruptions of the Bezymyannyi volcano (at a distance of 361 km from Nachiki) in 2009-2010 and the Kizimen volcano (at a distance of 275 km) on December 31, 2011, are considered. A low-frequency rarefaction phase 60 s in length has been revealed in the initial portion of the record of acoustic signals accompanying such strong eruptions. It is shown that the rarefaction phase occurs due to the rapid condensation of superheated juvenile vapor2 that enters the atmosphere during such explosions.3 The amount of volcanic ash emitted into the atmosphere has been estimated within (3.2-7.3) 106 m3 on the basis of acoustic signals recorded during the eruptions under consideration.

  7. Plutonium radiation surrogate

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Michael I [Dublin, CA

    2010-02-02

    A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

  8. Radiation Protection in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Williams, N.

    1965-01-01

    The main emphasis of a provincial radiation protection program is on ionizing radiation produced by machines, although assistance is given to the Federal Radiation Protection Division in its program relating to radioactive substances. The basis for the Saskatchewan program of radiation protection is the Radiological Health Act 1961. An important provision of the Act is annual registration of radiation equipment. The design of the registration form encourages a “do-it-yourself” radiation and electrical safety inspection. Installations are inspected every two years by a radiation health officer. Two hundred and twenty-one deficiencies were found during inspection of 224 items of radiation equipment, the commonest being failure to use personal film badges. Insufficient filtration of the beam, inadequate limitation of the beam, and unnecessary exposure of operators were other common faults. Physicians have a responsibility to weigh the potential advantages against the hazards when requesting radiographic or fluoroscopic procedures. PMID:14282164

  9. Lowering Juno Radiation Vault

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-12

    Technicians lowered a special radiation vault onto the propulsion module of NASA Juno spacecraft. The vault will dramatically slow the aging effect radiation has on the electronics for the duration of the mission.

  10. Is Radiation Dangerous?

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    Radiation is all around us, ranging from the non-dangerous to the lethal. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln talks about radiation and gives you the real deal on whether it is dangerous or not.

  11. Radiation Measurements on Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-12-09

    Micrograys are unit of measurement for absorbed radiation dose. The vertical axis is in micrograys per day. The RAD instrument on NASA Curiosity Mars rover monitors the natural radiation environment at the surface of Mars.

  12. ERLN Radiation Focus Area

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    As part of the Environmental Response Laboratory Network, the National Air and Radiation Environmental Laboratory (NAREL) here provides your laboratory with access to radiation-specific laboratory guidance documents and training courses.

  13. Space Radiation Program Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krenek, Sam

    2008-01-01

    This poster presentation shows the various elements of the Space Radiation Program. It reviews the program requirements: develop and validate standards, quantify space radiation human health risks, mitigate risks through countermeasures and technologies, and treat and monitor unmitigated risks.

  14. Inspecting Juno Radiation Vault

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-12

    A technician inspects the special radiation vault being installed atop the propulsion module of NASA Juno spacecraft; the vault has titanium walls to protect the spacecraft electronic brain and heart from Jupiter harsh radiation environment.

  15. Cell Radiation Experiment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    2010-01-01

    The cell radiation experiment system (CRES) is a perfused-cell culture apparatus, within which cells from humans or other animals can (1) be maintained in homeostasis while (2) being exposed to ionizing radiation during controlled intervals and (3) being monitored to determine the effects of radiation and the repair of radiation damage. The CRES can be used, for example, to determine effects of drug, radiation, and combined drug and radiation treatments on both normal and tumor cells. The CRES can also be used to analyze the effects of radiosensitive or radioprotectant drugs on cells subjected to radiation. The knowledge gained by use of the CRES is expected to contribute to the development of better cancer treatments and of better protection for astronauts, medical-equipment operators, and nuclear-power-plant workers, and others exposed frequently to ionizing radiation.

  16. Radiation Protection Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A handbook which sets forth the Kennedy Space Center radiation protection policy is presented. The book also covers administrative direction and guidance on organizational and procedural requirements of the program. Only ionizing radiation is covered.

  17. Prostate radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000399.htm Prostate radiation - discharge To use the sharing features on ... keeping or getting an erection may occur after prostate radiation therapy. You may not notice this problem ...

  18. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    DOEpatents

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  19. (Mis)Understanding Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, Stephen Bruce

    2016-02-10

    This set of slides discusses radiation and fears concerning it at a non-technical level. Included are some misconceptions and practical consequences resulting from these. The concept of radiation hormesis is explained. The author concludes that a number of significant societal benefits are being foregone because of overly cautious concerns about low-level radiation.

  20. Fundamentals of Radiation Physics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-01

    Sources of Ionizing Radiation Electrically generated • Charged particle accelerators • Van de Graaff generator , cyclotron linear accelerator ...Presented at the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Scientific Medical Effects of Ionizing Radiation Course July 28 through August 1, 2008...conducted once a year, focuses on the latest research about the medical effects of ionizing radiation to help clinicians, health physicists, and

  1. Spacecraft radiator systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Grant A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A spacecraft radiator system designed to provide structural support to the spacecraft. Structural support is provided by the geometric "crescent" form of the panels of the spacecraft radiator. This integration of radiator and structural support provides spacecraft with a semi-monocoque design.

  2. Ionizing Radiation: The issue of radiation quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prise, Kevin; Schettino, Giuseppe

    Types of Ionising radiations are differentiated from each other by fundamental characteristics of their energy deposition patterns when they interact with biological materials. At the level of the DNA these non-random patterns drive differences in the yields and distributions of DNA damage patterns and specifically the production of clustered damage or complex lesions. The complex radiation fields found in space bring significant challenges for developing a mechanistic understanding of radiation effects from the perspective of radiation quality as these consist of a diverse range of particle and energy types unique to the space environment. Linear energy transfer, energy deposited per unit track length in units of keV per micron, has long been used as a comparator for different types of radiation but has limitations in that it is an average value. Difference in primary core ionizations relative to secondary delta ray ranges vary significantly with particle mass and energy leading to complex interrelationships with damage production at the cellular level. At the cellular level a greater mechanistic understanding is necessary, linking energy deposition patterns to DNA damage patterns and cellular response, to build appropriate biophysical models that are predictive for different radiation qualities and mixed field exposures. Defined studies using monoenergetic beams delivered under controlled conditions are building quantitative data sets of both initial and long term changes in cells as a basis for a great mechanistic understanding of radiation quality effects of relevance to not only space exposures but clinical application of ion-beams.

  3. Radiation detection system

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Melvin A.; Davies, Terence J.; Morton, III, John R.

    1976-01-01

    A radiation detection system which utilizes the generation of Cerenkov light in and the transmission of that light longitudinally through fiber optic wave guides in order to transmit intelligence relating to the radiation to a remote location. The wave guides are aligned with respect to charged particle radiation so that the Cerenkov light, which is generated at an angle to the radiation, is accepted by the fiber for transmission therethrough. The Cerenkov radiation is detected, recorded, and analyzed at the other end of the fiber.

  4. Mossbauer spectrometer radiation detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A Mossbauer spectrometer with high efficiencies in both transmission and backscattering techniques is described. The device contains a sodium iodide crystal for detecting radiation caused by the Mossbauer effect, and two photomultipliers to collect the radiation detected by the crystal. When used in the transmission technique, the sample or scatterer is placed between the incident radiation source and the detector. When used in a backscattering technique, the detector is placed between the incident radiation source and the sample of scatterer such that the incident radiation will pass through a hole in the crystal and strike the sample. Diagrams of the instrument are provided.

  5. Solar cell radiation handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, J. R., Jr.; Tada, H. Y.

    1973-01-01

    A method is presented for predicting the degradation of a solar array in a space radiation environment. Solar cell technology which emphasizes the cell parameters that degrade in a radiation environment, is discussed along with the experimental techniques used in the evaluation of radiation effects. Other topics discussed include: theoretical aspects of radiation damage, methods for developing relative damage coefficients, nature of the space radiation environment, method of calculating equivalent fluence from electron and proton energy spectrums and relative damage coefficients, and comparison of flight data with estimated degradation.

  6. PERSONAL RADIATION MONITOR

    DOEpatents

    Dilworth, R.H.; Borkowski, C.J.

    1961-12-26

    A transistorized, fountain pen type radiation monitor to be worn on the person is described. Radiation produces both light flashes in a small bulb and an audible warning tone, the frequency of both the tone and light flashes being proportional to radiation intensity. The device is powered by a battery and a blocking oscillator step-up power supply The oscillator frequency- is regulated to be proportional to the radiation intensity, to provide adequate power in high radiation fields, yet minimize battery drain at low operating intensities. (AEC)

  7. Solar radiation measurement project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ioup, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    The Xavier solar radiation measurement project and station are described. Measurements of the total solar radiation on a horizontal surface from an Eppley pyranometer were collected into computer data files. Total radiation in watt hours was converted from ten minute intervals to hourly intervals. Graphs of this total radiation data are included. A computer program in Fortran was written to calculate the total extraterrestrial radiation on a horizontal surface for each day of the month. Educational and social benefits of the project are cited.

  8. RADIATION WAVE DETECTOR

    DOEpatents

    Wouters, L.F.

    1958-10-28

    The detection of the shape and amplitude of a radiation wave is discussed, particularly an apparatus for automatically indicating at spaced lntervals of time the radiation intensity at a flxed point as a measure of a radiation wave passing the point. The apparatus utilizes a number of photomultiplier tubes surrounding a scintillation type detector, For obtainlng time spaced signals proportional to radiation at predetermined intervals the photolnultiplier tubes are actuated ln sequence following detector incidence of a predetermined radiation level by electronic means. The time spaced signals so produced are then separately amplified and relayed to recording means.

  9. Radiation protection and instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, J. V.

    1975-01-01

    Radiation was found not to be an operational problem during the Apollo program. Doses received by the crewmen of Apollo missions 7 through 17 were small because no major solar-particle events occurred during those missions. One small event was detected by a radiation sensor outside the Apollo 12 spacecraft, but no increase in radiation dose to the crewmen inside the spacecraft was detected. Radiation protection for the Apollo program was focused on both the peculiarities of the natural space radiation environment and the increased prevalence of manmade radiation sources on the ground and onboard the spacecraft. Radiation-exposure risks to crewmen were assessed and balanced against mission gain to determine mission constraints. Operational radiation evaluation required specially designed radiation detection systems onboard the spacecraft in addition to the use of satellite data, solar observatory support, and other liaison. Control and management of radioactive sources and radiation-generating equipment was important in minimizing radiation exposure of ground-support personnel, researchers, and the Apollo flight and backup crewmen.

  10. RF radiation from lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, D. M.

    1978-01-01

    Radiation from lightning in the RF band from 3-300 MHz were monitored. Radiation in this frequency range is of interest as a potential vehicle for monitoring severe storms and for studying the lightning itself. Simultaneous measurements were made of RF radiation and fast and slow field changes. Continuous analogue recordings with a system having 300 kHz of bandwidth were made together with digital records of selected events (principally return strokes) at greater temporal resolution. The data reveal patterns in the RF radiation for the entire flash which are characteristic of flash type and independent of the frequency of observation. Individual events within the flash also have characteristic RF patterns. Strong radiation occurs during the first return strokes, but delayed about 20 micron sec with respect to the begining of the return stroke; whereas, RF radiation from subsequent return strokes tends to be associated with cloud processes preceding the flash with comparatively little radiation occurring during the return stroke itself.

  11. Acute radiation syndrome and chronic radiation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grammaticos, Philip; Giannoula, Evanthia; Fountos, George P

    2013-01-01

    Acute radiation syndrome (ARS) or sickness or poisoning or toxicity is induced after a whole body exposure of men to high doses of radiation between 1-12Gy. First symptoms are from the gastrointestinal system, which together with bone marrow are the most sensitive parts of our body. Chronic radiation syndrome (CRS) may be induced by smaller than 1Gy radiation doses or after a mild form of ARS. Prophylaxis and treatment suggestions are described. In cases of ARS, a large part of the exposed population after proper medical care may survive, while without medical care this part of the population will be lost. Prophylaxis may also save another part of the population.

  12. RADIATION WAVE DETECTION

    DOEpatents

    Wouters, L.F.

    1960-08-30

    Radiation waves can be detected by simultaneously measuring radiation- wave intensities at a plurality of space-distributed points and producing therefrom a plot of the wave intensity as a function of time. To this end. a detector system is provided which includes a plurality of nuclear radiation intensity detectors spaced at equal radial increments of distance from a source of nuclear radiation. Means are provided to simultaneously sensitize the detectors at the instant a wave of radiation traverses their positions. the detectors producing electrical pulses indicative of wave intensity. The system further includes means for delaying the pulses from the detectors by amounts proportional to the distance of the detectors from the source to provide an indication of radiation-wave intensity as a function of time.

  13. Foundations of radiation hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihalas, D.; Mihalas, B. W.

    This book is the result of an attempt, over the past few years, to gather the basic tools required to do research on radiating flows in astrophysics. The microphysics of gases is discussed, taking into account the equation of state of a perfect gas, the first and second law of thermodynamics, the thermal properties of a perfect gas, the distribution function and Boltzmann's equation, the collision integral, the Maxwellian velocity distribution, Boltzmann's H-theorem, the time of relaxation, and aspects of classical statistical mechanics. Other subjects explored are related to the dynamics of ideal fluids, the dynamics of viscous and heat-conducting fluids, relativistic fluid flow, waves, shocks, winds, radiation and radiative transfer, the equations of radiation hydrodynamics, and radiating flows. Attention is given to small-amplitude disturbances, nonlinear flows, the interaction of radiation and matter, the solution of the transfer equation, acoustic waves, acoustic-gravity waves, basic concepts of special relativity, and equations of motion and energy.

  14. Earth Radiation Measurement Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. Louis

    2000-01-01

    This document is the final report for NASA Grant NAG1-1959, 'Earth Radiation Measurement Science'. The purpose of this grant was to perform research in this area for the needs of the Clouds and Earth Radiant Energy System (CERES) project and for the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), which are bing conducted by the Radiation and Aerosols Branch of the Atmospheric Sciences Division of Langley Research Center. Earth Radiation Measurement Science investigates the processes by which measurements are converted into data products. Under this grant, research was to be conducted for five tasks: (1) Point Response Function Measurements; (2) Temporal Sampling of Outgoing Longwave Radiation; (3) Spatial Averaging of Radiation Budget Data; (4) CERES Data Validation and Applications; and (5) ScaRaB Data Validation and Application.

  15. Prompt Radiation Protection Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2018-02-01

    dimensional Monte-Carlo radiation transport code MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle) and the evaluation of the protection factors (ratio of dose in the open to...radiation was performed using the three dimensional Monte- Carlo radiation transport code MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle) and the evaluation of the protection...by detonation of a nuclear device have placed renewed emphasis on evaluation of the consequences in case of such an event. The Defense Threat

  16. Nuclear radiation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knies, R. J.; Byrn, N. R.; Smith, H. T.

    1972-01-01

    A study program of radiation shielding against the deleterious effects of nuclear radiation on man and equipment is reported. The methods used to analyze the radiation environment from bremsstrahlung photons are discussed along with the methods employed by transport code users. The theory and numerical methods used to solve transport of neutrons and gammas are described, and the neutron and cosmic fluxes that would be present on the gamma-ray telescope were analyzed.

  17. RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D.

    1997-10-01

    A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

  18. Radiation oncology in Canada.

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Meredith; Gospodarowicz, Mary

    2018-01-01

    In this article we provide an overview of the Canadian healthcare system and the cancer care system in Canada as it pertains to the governance, funding and delivery of radiotherapy programmes. We also review the training and practice for radiation oncologists, medical physicists and radiation therapists in Canada. We describe the clinical practice of radiation medicine from patients' referral, assessment, case conferences and the radiotherapy process. Finally, we provide an overview of the practice culture for Radiation Oncology in Canada. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Rotating bubble membrane radiator

    DOEpatents

    Webb, Brent J.; Coomes, Edmund P.

    1988-12-06

    A heat radiator useful for expelling waste heat from a power generating system aboard a space vehicle is disclosed. Liquid to be cooled is passed to the interior of a rotating bubble membrane radiator, where it is sprayed into the interior of the bubble. Liquid impacting upon the interior surface of the bubble is cooled and the heat radiated from the outer surface of the membrane. Cooled liquid is collected by the action of centrifical force about the equator of the rotating membrane and returned to the power system. Details regarding a complete space power system employing the radiator are given.

  20. Radiation coloration resistant glass

    DOEpatents

    Tomozawa, M.; Watson, E.B.; Acocella, J.

    1986-11-04

    A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10[sup 7] rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency. 3 figs.

  1. Radiation coloration resistant glass

    DOEpatents

    Tomozawa, Minoru; Watson, E. Bruce; Acocella, John

    1986-01-01

    A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10.sup.7 rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency.

  2. Potential theory of radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, Huei-Huang

    1989-01-01

    A theoretical method is being developed by which the structure of a radiation field can be predicted by a radiation potential theory, similar to a classical potential theory. The introduction of a scalar potential is justified on the grounds that the spectral intensity vector is irrotational. The vector is also solenoidal in the limits of a radiation field in complete radiative equilibrium or in a vacuum. This method provides an exact, elliptic type equation that will upgrade the accuracy and the efficiency of the current CFD programs required for the prediction of radiation and flow fields. A number of interesting results emerge from the present study. First, a steady state radiation field exhibits an optically modulated inverse square law distribution character. Secondly, the unsteady radiation field is structured with two conjugate scalar potentials. Each is governed by a Klein-Gordon equation with a frictional force and a restoring force. This steady potential field structure and the propagation of radiation potentials are consistent with the well known results of classical electromagnetic theory. The extension of the radiation potential theory for spray combustion and hypersonic flow is also recommended.

  3. Solar radiation on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, Joseph; Flood, Dennis J.

    1989-01-01

    Detailed information on solar radiation characteristics on Mars are necessary for effective design of future planned solar energy systems operating on the surface of Mars. Presented here is a procedure and solar radiation related data from which the diurnally, hourly and daily variation of the global, direct beam and diffuse insolation on Mars are calculated. The radiation data are based on measured optical depth of the Martian atmosphere derived from images taken of the sun with a special diode on the Viking cameras; and computation based on multiple wavelength and multiple scattering of the solar radiation.

  4. Solar radiation on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, Joseph; Flood, Dennis J.

    1990-01-01

    Detailed information on solar radiation characteristics on Mars are necessary for effective design of future planned solar energy systems operating on the surface of Mars. Presented here is a procedure and solar radiation related data from which the diurnally, hourly and daily variation of the global, direct beam and diffuse insolation on Mars are calculated. The radiation data are based on measured optical depth of the Martian atmosphere derived from images taken of the sun with a special diode on the Viking cameras; and computation based on multiple wavelength and multiple scattering of the solar radiation.

  5. IMPROVEMENTS IN RADIATION SHUTTERS

    SciTech Connect

    None

    1961-07-12

    An apparatus for the protection of eyesight from the radiated energy released from a thermonuclear explosion is described. The apparatus consists of a shutter which is opaque to the radiation, an electrically ignitible detonator for blowing the shutter across the path of the radiation, and a phototransistor for igniting the detonator when the radiated energy exceeds a level which is injurious to the eyesight. There may be a second detonator for blowing the shutter away after the explosion has subsided. The second detonator is manually operated. Diagrams show the apparatus attached to a soldier's helmet and a turret. (N.W.R.)

  6. Flexible radiator system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oren, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The soft tube radiator subsystem is described including applicable system requirements, the design and limitations of the subsystem components, and the panel manufacturing method. The soft tube radiator subsystem is applicable to payloads requiring 1 to 12 kW of heat rejection for orbital lifetimes per mission of 30 days or less. The flexible radiator stowage volume required is about 60% and the system weight is about 40% of an equivalent heat rejection rigid panel. The cost should also be considerably less. The flexible radiator is particularly suited to shuttle orbiter sortie payloads and also whose mission lengths do not exceed the 30 day design life.

  7. Multiplate Radiation Shields: Investigating Radiational Heating Errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Scott James

    1995-01-01

    Multiplate radiation shield errors are examined using the following techniques: (1) analytic heat transfer analysis, (2) optical ray tracing, (3) numerical fluid flow modeling, (4) laboratory testing, (5) wind tunnel testing, and (6) field testing. Guidelines for reducing radiational heating errors are given that are based on knowledge of the temperature sensor to be used, with the shield being chosen to match the sensor design. Small, reflective sensors that are exposed directly to the air stream (not inside a filter as is the case for many temperature and relative humidity probes) should be housed in a shield that provides ample mechanical and rain protection while impeding the air flow as little as possible; protection from radiation sources is of secondary importance. If a sensor does not meet the above criteria (i.e., is large or absorbing), then a standard Gill shield performs reasonably well. A new class of shields, called part-time aspirated multiplate radiation shields, are introduced. This type of shield consists of a multiplate design usually operated in a passive manner but equipped with a fan-forced aspiration capability to be used when necessary (e.g., low wind speed). The fans used here are 12 V DC that can be operated with a small dedicated solar panel. This feature allows the fan to operate when global solar radiation is high, which is when the largest radiational heating errors usually occur. A prototype shield was constructed and field tested and an example is given in which radiational heating errors were reduced from 2 ^circC to 1.2 ^circC. The fan was run continuously to investigate night-time low wind speed errors and the prototype shield reduced errors from 1.6 ^ circC to 0.3 ^circC. Part-time aspirated shields are an inexpensive alternative to fully aspirated shields and represent a good compromise between cost, power consumption, reliability (because they should be no worse than a standard multiplate shield if the fan fails), and accuracy

  8. On Blackbody Radiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jain, Pushpendra K.

    1991-01-01

    The interrelationship between the various forms of the Planck radiation equation is discussed. A differential equation that gives intensity or energy density of radiation per unit wavelength or per unit frequency is emphasized. The Stefan-Boltzmann Law and the change in the glow of a hot body with temperature are also discussed. (KR)

  9. Thallium bromide radiation detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, K.S.; Lund, J.C.; Olschner, F.

    1989-02-01

    Radiation detectors have been fabricated from crystals of the semiconductor material thallium bromide (TlBr) and the performance of these detectors as room temperature photon spectrometers has been measured. These detectors exhibit improved energy resolution over previously reported TlBr detectors. These results indicate that TlBr is a very promising radiation detector material.

  10. Orbiter Avionics Radiation Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddell, Brandon D.

    1999-01-01

    This handbook was assembled to document he radiation environment for design of Orbiter avionics. It also maps the environment through vehicle shielding and mission usage into discrete requirements such as total dose. Some details of analytical techniques for calculating radiation effects are provided. It is anticipated that appropriate portions of this document will be added to formal program specifications.

  11. Space Radiation Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blakely, E.

    Evaluation of potential health effects from radiation exposure during and after deep space travel is important for the future of manned missions To date manned missions have been limited to near-Earth orbits with the moon our farthest distance from earth Historical space radiation career exposures for astronauts from all NASA Missions show that early missions involved total exposures of less than about 20 mSv With the advent of Skylab and Mir total career exposure levels increased to a maximum of nearly 200 mSv Missions in deep space with the requisite longer duration of the missions planned may pose greater risks due to the increased potential for exposure to complex radiation fields comprised of a broad range of radiation types and energies from cosmic and unpredictable solar sources The first steps in the evaluation of risks are underway with bio- and physical-dosimetric measurements on both commercial flight personnel and international space crews who have experience on near-earth orbits and the necessary theoretical modeling of particle-track traversal per cell including the contributing effects of delta-rays in particle exposures An assumption for biologic effects due to exposure of radiation in deep space is that they differ quantitatively and qualitatively from that on earth The dose deposition and density pattern of heavy charged particles are very different from those of sparsely ionizing radiation The potential risks resulting from exposure to radiation in deep space are cancer non-cancer and genetic effects Radiation from

  12. Electromagnetic radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Benson, Jay L.; Hansen, Gordon J.

    1976-01-01

    An electromagnetic radiation detector including a collimating window, a cathode member having a photoelectric emissive material surface angularly disposed to said window whereby radiation is impinged thereon at acute angles, an anode, separated from the cathode member by an evacuated space, for collecting photoelectrons emitted from the emissive cathode surface, and a negatively biased, high transmissive grid disposed between the cathode member and anode.

  13. Ultraviolet radiation changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenzie, Richard L.; Frederick, John E.; Ilyas, Mohammad; Filyushkin, V.; Wahner, Andreas; Stamnes, K.; Muthusubramanian, P.; Blumthaler, M.; Roy, Colin E.; Madronich, Sasha

    1991-01-01

    A major consequence of ozone depletion is an increase in solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation received at the Earth's surface. This chapter discusses advances that were made since the previous assessment (World Meteorological Organization (WMO)) to our understanding of UV radiation. The impacts of these changes in UV on the biosphere are not included, because they are discussed in the effects assessment.

  14. Synchrotron Radiation II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MOSAIC, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation is a unique form of radiation that spans the electro-magnetic spectrum from X-rays through the ultraviolet and visible into the infrared. Tunable monochromators enable scientists to select a narrow band of wavelengths at any point in the spectrum. (Author/BB)

  15. Radiative Flux Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer

    Long, Chuck [NOAA

    2008-05-14

    The Radiative Flux Analysis is a technique for using surface broadband radiation measurements for detecting periods of clear (i.e. cloudless) skies, and using the detected clear-sky data to fit functions which are then used to produce continuous clear-sky estimates. The clear-sky estimates and measurements are then used in various ways to infer cloud macrophysical properties.

  16. Radiation Therapy Side Effects

    Cancer.gov

    Radiation therapy has side effects because it not only kills or slows the growth of cancer cells, it can also affect nearby healthy cells. Many people who get radiation therapy experience fatigue. Other side effects depend on the part of the body that is being treated. Learn more about possible side effects.

  17. Radiation in the universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuhlinger, Ernst; Truemper, Joachim; Weisskopf, Martin

    1992-01-01

    When Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen discovered radiation one hundred years ago, it seemed that what was discovered was one of the rarest and most volatile members of the family of the basic modules of our natural world. Today cosmologists report that a substantial part of the universe's radiation energy consists of X-rays, which travel through cosmic space with the speed of light.

  18. Radiation treatment of pharmaceuticals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dám, A. M.; Gazsó, L. G.; Kaewpila, S.; Maschek, I.

    1996-03-01

    Product specific doses were calculated for pharmaceuticals to be radiation treated. Radio-pasteurization dose were determined for some heat sensitive pharmaceutical basic materials (pancreaton, neopancreatin, neopancreatin USP, duodenum extract). Using the new recommendation (ISO standards, Method 1) dose calculations were performed and radiation sterilization doses were determined for aprotinine and heparine Na.

  19. Microcircuit radiation effects databank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Radiation test data submitted by many testers is collated to serve as a reference for engineers who are concerned with and have some knowledge of the effects of the natural radiation environment on microcircuits. Total dose damage information and single event upset cross sections, i.e., the probability of a soft error (bit flip) or of a hard error (latchup) are presented.

  20. Whole breast radiation therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... 11, 2016. www.cancer.gov/types/breast/hp/breast-treatment-pdq . Accessed September 13, 2016. National Cancer Institute. Radiation therapy and you: support for people who have cancer. Cancer.gov Web site. www.cancer.gov/publications/patient-education/radiation-therapy-and-you . Accessed September 13, ...

  1. Radiation-resistant microorganism

    DOEpatents

    Fliermans, Carl B.

    2007-01-09

    An isolated and purified bacterium is provided which was isolated from a high-level radioactive waste site of mixed waste. The isolate has the ability to degrade a wide variety of organic contaminants while demonstrating high tolerance to ionizing radiation. The organism is uniquely suited to bioremediation of a variety or organic contaminants while in the presence of ionizing radiation.

  2. Radiation-resistant microorganism

    DOEpatents

    Fliermans, Carl B.

    2010-06-15

    An isolated and purified bacterium is provided which was isolated from a high-level radioactive waste site of mixed waste. The isolate has the ability to degrade a wide variety of organic contaminants while demonstrating high tolerance to ionizing radiation. The organism is uniquely suited to bioremediation of a variety or organic contaminants while in the presence of ionizing radiation.

  3. Nuclear radiation actuated valve

    DOEpatents

    Christiansen, David W.; Schively, Dixon P.

    1985-01-01

    A nuclear radiation actuated valve for a nuclear reactor. The valve has a valve first part (such as a valve rod with piston) and a valve second part (such as a valve tube surrounding the valve rod, with the valve tube having side slots surrounding the piston). Both valve parts have known nuclear radiation swelling characteristics. The valve's first part is positioned to receive nuclear radiation from the nuclear reactor's fuel region. The valve's second part is positioned so that its nuclear radiation induced swelling is different from that of the valve's first part. The valve's second part also is positioned so that the valve's first and second parts create a valve orifice which changes in size due to the different nuclear radiation caused swelling of the valve's first part compared to the valve's second part. The valve may be used in a nuclear reactor's core coolant system.

  4. Broadband optical radiation detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, A.; Hong, S. D.; Moacanin, J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A method and apparatus for detecting optical radiation by optically monitoring temperature changes in a microvolume caused by absorption of the optical radiation to be detected is described. More specifically, a thermal lens forming material is provided which has first and second opposite, substantially parallel surfaces. A reflective coating is formed on the first surface, and a radiation absorbing coating is formed on the reflective coating. Chopped, incoming optical radiation to be detected is directed to irradiate a small portion of the radiation absorbing coating. Heat generated in this small area is conducted to the lens forming material through the reflective coating, thereby raising the temperature of a small portion of the lens forming material and causing a thermal lens to be formed therein.

  5. Fundamentals of Radiation Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Bos, Adrie J. J.

    The basic concepts of radiation dosimetry are reviewed on basis of ICRU reports and text books. The radiation field is described with, among others, the particle fluence. Cross sections for indirectly ionizing radiation are defined and indicated is how they are related to the mass energy transfer and mass energy absorption coefficients. Definitions of total and restricted mass stopping powers of directly ionizing radiation are given. The dosimetric quantities, kerma, absorbed dose and exposure together with the relations between them are discussed in depth. Finally it is indicated how the absorbed dose can be measured with a calorimeter by measuringmore » the temperature increase and with an ionisation chamber measuring the charge produced by the ionizing radiation and making use of the Bragg-Gray relation.« less

  6. Solar radiation in Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ólafsson, Haraldur; Cataldi, Maxime; Zehouf, Hafsa; Pálmason, Bolli

    2014-05-01

    Short wave radiation has been observed at several locations in Iceland in recent years. The observations reveal that there is large spatial variability in the incoming radiation. There are indications of a coast-to-inland gradient and there is much greater radiation at central-inland locations than further west as well in the far east. The results are in line with Markús Á. Einarsson's reports where estimation of radiation was based on manned cloud observations shortly after the middle of the 20th century. Values of radiation retrieved from the operational simulations of the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) compare in general well with the observations.

  7. Radiation Damage Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, P. M.

    1984-01-01

    The availability of data regarding the radiation behavior of GaAs and silicon solar cells is discussed as well as efforts to provide sufficient information. Other materials are considered too immature for reasonable radiation evaluation. The lack of concern over the possible catastrophic radiation degradation in cascade cells is a potentially serious problem. Lithium counterdoping shows potential for removing damage in irradiated P-type material, although initial efficiencies are not comparable to current state of the art. The possibility of refining the lithium doping method to maintain high initial efficiencies and combining it with radiation tolerant structures such as thin BSF cells or vertical junction cells could provide a substantial improvement in EOL efficiencies. Laser annealing of junctions, either those formed ion implantation or diffusion, may not only improve initial cell performance but might also reduce the radiation degradation rate.

  8. Underwater radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Kruse, Lyle W.; McKnight, Richard P.

    1986-01-01

    A detector apparatus for differentiating between gamma and neutron radiation is provided. The detector includes a pair of differentially shielded Geiger-Mueller tubes. The first tube is wrapped in silver foil and the second tube is wrapped in lead foil. Both the silver and lead foils allow the passage of gamma rays at a constant rate in a gamma ray only field. When neutrons are present, however, the silver activates and emits beta radiation that is also detected by the silver wrapped Geiger-Mueller tube while the radiation detected by the lead wrapped Geiger-Mueller tube remains constant. The amount of radiation impinging on the separate Geiger-Mueller tubes is then correlated in order to distinguish between the neutron and gamma radiations.

  9. Fading Hawking radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakalli, Izzet; Halilsoy, Mustafa; Pasaoglu, Hale

    2012-07-01

    In this study, we explore a particular type Hawking radiation which ends with zero temperature and entropy. The appropriate black holes for this purpose are the linear dilaton black holes. In addition to the black hole choice, a recent formalism in which the Parikh-Wilczek's tunneling formalism amalgamated with quantum corrections to all orders in ħ is considered. The adjustment of the coefficients of the quantum corrections plays a crucial role on this particular Hawking radiation. The obtained tunneling rate indicates that the radiation is not pure thermal anymore, and hence correlations of outgoing quanta are capable of carrying away information encoded within them. Finally, we show in detail that when the linear dilaton black hole completely evaporates through such a particular radiation, entropy of the radiation becomes identical with the entropy of the black hole, which corresponds to "no information loss".

  10. Radiation and health*

    PubMed Central

    Lindell, B.

    1987-01-01

    Radiation has been a source of fascination and concern ever since Wilhelm Konrad Röntgen discovered X-rays on 8 November 1895. Over the years, health workers as well as the public have been concerned about medical uses of X-rays, the presence of radon in buildings, radioactive waste from nuclear power stations, fallout from nuclear test explosions, radioactive consumer products, microwave ovens, and many other sources of radiation. Most recently, the tragic accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station in the USSR, and the subsequent contamination over most of Europe, has again wakened interest and concern and also reminded us about a number of misconceptions about radiation. This article describes the essentials about radiation (especially ionizing radiation) and its health effects. PMID:3496982

  11. RADIATION BIOLOGY: CONCEPTS FOR RADIATION PROTECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT

    The opportunity to write a historical review of the field of radiation biology allows for the viewing of the development and maturity of a field of study, thereby being able to provide the appropriate context for the earlier years of research and its findings. The...

  12. RADIATION INJURY OF MYELOPOIESIS IN MONKEYS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    RADIATION EFFECTS, *HEMATOPOIETIC SYSTEM, RADIATION INJURIES, GAMMA RAYS, LEUKOCYTES, BLOOD COUNTS, HEMOGLOBIN, MORTALITY RATE, BONE MARROW, LEUKEMIA, ANEMIAS , RADIATION SICKNESS, RADIATION DOSAGE, USSR.

  13. Protecting Juno Electronics from Radiation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-12

    Technicians installed the special radiation vault for NASA Juno spacecraft on the propulsion module. The radiation vault has titanium walls to protect the spacecraft electronic brain and heart from Jupiter harsh radiation environment.

  14. [Remote radiation planning support system].

    PubMed

    Atsumi, Kazushige; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Yoshidome, Satoshi; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Sasaki, Tomonari; Ohga, Saiji; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Shinoto, Makoto; Asai, Kaori; Sakamoto, Katsumi; Hirakawa, Masakazu; Honda, Hiroshi

    2012-08-01

    We constructed a remote radiation planning support system between Kyushu University Hospital (KUH) in Fukuoka and Kyushu University Beppu Hospital (KBH) in Oita. Between two institutions, radiology information system for radiotherapy division (RT-RIS) and radiation planning system (RTPS) were connected by virtual private network (VPN). This system enables the radiation oncologists at KUH to perform radiotherapy planning for the patients at KBH. The detail of the remote radiation planning support system in our institutions is as follows: The radiation oncologist at KBH performs radiotherapy planning and the data of the patients are sent anonymously to the radiation oncologists at KUH. The radiation oncologists at KUH receive the patient's data, access to RTPS at KBH, verify or change the radiation planning at KBH: Radiation therapy is performed at KBH according to the confirmed plan by the radiation oncologists at KUH. Our remote radiation planning system is useful for providing radiation therapy with safety and accuracy.

  15. Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Ingram, M.; Mason, W. B.; Whipple, G. H.; Howland, J. W.

    1952-04-07

    This report presents a review of present knowledge and concepts of the biological effects of ionizing radiations. Among the topics discussed are the physical and chemical effects of ionizing radiation on biological systems, morphological and physiological changes observed in biological systems subjected to ionizing radiations, physiological changes in the intact animal, latent changes following exposure of biological systems to ionizing radiations, factors influencing the biological response to ionizing radiation, relative effects of various ionizing radiations, and biological dosimetry.

  16. Infrasound and the avian navigational map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagstrum, J.T.

    2001-01-01

    Birds can accurately navigate over hundreds to thousands of kilometres, and use celestial and magnetic compass senses to orient their flight. How birds determine their location in order to select the correct homeward bearing (map sense) remains controversial, and has been attributed to their olfactory or magnetic senses. Pigeons can hear infrasound down to 0??05 Hz, and an acoustic avian map is proposed consisting of infrasonic cues radiated from steep-sided topographic features. The source of these infrasonic signals is microseisms continuously generated by interfering oceanic waves. Atmospheric processes affecting the infrasonic map cues can explain perplexing experimental results from pigeon releases. Moreover, four recent disrupted pigeon races in Europe and the north-eastern USA intersected infrasonic shock waves from the Concorde supersonic transport. Having an acoustic map might also allow clock-shifted birds to test their homeward progress and select between their magnetic and solar compasses.

  17. Radiation effects in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, R. J. M.

    The radiation protection guidelines of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are under review by Scientific Committe 75 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. The re-evaluation of the current guidelines is necessary, first, because of the increase in information about radiation risks since 1970 when the original recommendations were made and second, the population at risk has changed. For example, women have joined the ranks of the astronauts. Two types of radiation, protons and heavy ions, are of particular concern in space. Unfortunately, there is less information about the effects on tissues and the induction of cancer by these radiations than by other radiations. The choice of Quality Factors (Q) for obtaining dose equivalents for these radiations, is an important aspect of the risk estimate for space travel. There are not sufficient data for the induction of late effects by either protons or by heavy ions. The current information suggests a RBE for the relative protons of about 1, whereas, -a RBE of 20 for tumor induction by heavy ions, such as iron-56, appears appropriate. The recommendations for the dose equivalent career limits for skin and the lens of the eye have been reduced but the 30-day and annual limits have been raised.

  18. Beneficial uses of radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, M.R.

    1991-10-01

    An overall decline in technical literacy within the American public has come at a time when technological advances are accelerating in the United States and around the world. This had led to a large communication gulf between the general public and the technologists. Nowhere is this more evident then with the topic of radiation. Regrettably, too few people know about sources of radiation, the pervasiveness, amounts, and variabilities, and do not have a true understanding of the environment in which we live. Nor do many people know that radiation has been used in beneficial ways for decades around the world.more » While the general public does not know of the scientific applications to which radiation has been deployed, it nevertheless had benefited tremendously from these efforts. Thanks to the well know properties of radiation, scientific ingenuity has found many uses of radiation in chemical and agricultural research, biomedical research, in the diagnoses and treatment of hundreds of types of diseases, in industrial applications, food irradiation, and many others. This paper provides a sample of the types of uses to which radiation has been used to help advance the betterment of humankind.« less

  19. Biologically Inspired Radiation Reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sylvia M. (Inventor); Lawson, John W. (Inventor); Squire, Thomas H. (Inventor); Gusman, Michael (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    A thermal protection system (TPS) comprising a mixture of silicon carbide and SiOx that has been converted from Si that is present in a collection of diatom frustules and at least one diatom has quasi-periodic pore-to-pore separation distance d(p-p) in a selected range. Where a heat shield comprising the converted SiC/SiOx frustules receives radiation, associated with atmospheric (re)entry, a portion of this radiation is reflected so that radiation loading of the heat shield is reduced.

  20. Illumination and radiative cooling

    DOEpatents

    Fan, Shanhui; Raman, Aaswath Pattabhi; Zhu, Linxiao; Rephaeli, Eden

    2018-03-20

    Aspects of the present disclosure are directed to providing and/or controlling electromagnetic radiation. As may be implemented in accordance with one or more embodiments, an apparatus includes a first structure that contains an object, and a second structure that is transparent at solar wavelengths and emissive in the atmospheric electromagnetic radiation transparency window. The second structure operates with the first structure to pass light into the first structure for illuminating the object, and to radiatively cool the object while preserving the object's color.

  1. Ethics and radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Sven Ove

    2007-06-01

    Some of the major problems in radiation protection are closely connected to issues that have a long, independent tradition in moral philosophy. This contribution focuses on two of these issues. One is the relationship between the protection of individuals and optimisation on the collective level, and the other is the relative valuation of future versus immediate damage. Some of the intellectual tools that have been developed by philosophers can be useful in radiation protection. On the other hand, philosophers have much to learn from radiation protectors, not least when it comes to finding pragmatic solutions to problems that may be intractable in principle.

  2. Fast multilevel radiative transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paletou, Frédéric; Léger, Ludovick

    2007-01-01

    The vast majority of recent advances in the field of numerical radiative transfer relies on approximate operator methods better known in astrophysics as Accelerated Lambda-Iteration (ALI). A superior class of iterative schemes, in term of rates of convergence, such as Gauss-Seidel and Successive Overrelaxation methods were therefore quite naturally introduced in the field of radiative transfer by Trujillo Bueno & Fabiani Bendicho (1995); it was thoroughly described for the non-LTE two-level atom case. We describe hereafter in details how such methods can be generalized when dealing with non-LTE unpolarised radiation transfer with multilevel atomic models, in monodimensional geometry.

  3. Miniaturized radiation chirper

    DOEpatents

    Umbarger, C. John; Wolf, Michael A.

    1980-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a miniaturized radiation chirper for use with a small battery supplying on the order of 5 volts. A poor quality CdTe crystal which is not necessarily suitable for high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy is incorporated with appropriate electronics so that the chirper emits an audible noise at a rate that is proportional to radiation exposure level. The chirper is intended to serve as a personnel radiation warning device that utilizes new and novel electronics with a novel detector, a CdTe crystal. The resultant device is much smaller and has much longer battery life than existing chirpers.

  4. Human radiation tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lushbaugh, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    The acute radiation syndrome in man is clinically bounded by death at high dose levels and by the prodromal syndrome of untoward physiological effects at minimal levels of clinically effective exposure. As in lower animals, man experiences principally three acute modes of death from radiation exposure (Bond et al., 1965). These are known collectively as the lethal radiation syndromes: central nervous system death, gastrointestinal death, and hematopoietic death. The effect of multiple exposure on lethality, the effect of multiple exposure on hematopoietic recovery, and quantitative aspects of cell and tissue repair are discussed.

  5. Radiative forcing of climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramanswamy, V.; Shine, Keith; Leovy, Conway; Wang, Wei-Chyung; Rodhe, Henning; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Ding, M.; Lelieveld, Joseph; Edmonds, Jae A.; Mccormick, M. Patrick

    1991-01-01

    An update of the scientific discussions presented in Chapter 2 of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report is presented. The update discusses the atmospheric radiative and chemical species of significance for climate change. There are two major objectives of the present update. The first is an extension of the discussion on the Global Warming Potentials (GWP's), including a reevaluation in view of the updates in the lifetimes of the radiatively active species. The second important objective is to underscore major developments in the radiative forcing of climate due to the observed stratospheric ozone losses occurring between 1979 and 1990.

  6. Liquid sheet radiator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L.; White, K. Alan, III

    1987-01-01

    A new external flow radiator concept, the liquid sheet radiator (LSR), is introduced. The LSR sheet flow is described and an expression for the length/width (l/w), ratio is presented. A linear dependence of l/w on velocity is predicted that agrees with experimental results. Specific power for the LSR is calculated and is found to be nearly the same as the specific power of a liquid droplet radiator, (LDR). Several sheet thicknesses and widths were experimentally investigated. In no case was the flow found to be unstable.

  7. Microcircuit radiation effects databank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This databank is the collation of radiation test data submitted by many testers and serves as a reference for engineers who are concerned with and have some knowledge of the effects of the natural radiation environment on microcircuits. It contains radiation sensitivity results from ground tests and is divided into two sections. Section A lists total dose damage information, and section B lists single event upset cross sections, I.E., the probability of a soft error (bit flip) or of a hard error (latchup).

  8. Composition for radiation shielding

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1994-01-01

    A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield has a depleted urum core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container.

  9. The Integrated Radiation Mapper Assistant

    SciTech Connect

    Carlton, R.E.; Tripp, L.R.

    1995-03-01

    The Integrated Radiation Mapper Assistant (IRMA) system combines state-of-the-art radiation sensors and microprocessor based analysis techniques to perform radiation surveys. Control of the survey function is from a control station located outside the radiation thus reducing time spent in radiation areas performing radiation surveys. The system consists of a directional radiation sensor, a laser range finder, two area radiation sensors, and a video camera mounted on a pan and tilt platform. THis sensor package is deployable on a remotely operated vehicle. The outputs of the system are radiation intensity maps identifying both radiation source intensities and radiation levels throughout themore » room being surveyed. After completion of the survey, the data can be removed from the control station computer for further analysis or archiving.« less

  10. Method of enhancing radiation response of radiation detection materials

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Steven D.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is a method of increasing radiation response of a radiation detection material for a given radiation signal by first pressurizing the radiation detection material. Pressurization may be accomplished by any means including mechanical and/or hydraulic. In this application, the term "pressure" includes fluid pressure and/or mechanical stress.

  11. Portal radiation monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kruse, Lyle W.

    1985-01-01

    A portal radiation monitor combines 0.1% FAR with high sensitivity to special nuclear material. The monitor utilizes pulse shape discrimination, dynamic compression of the photomultiplier output and scintillators sized to maintain efficiency over the entire portal area.

  12. Portal radiation monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kruse, L.W.

    1982-03-23

    A portal radiation monitor combines .1% FAR with high sensitivity to special nuclear material. The monitor utilizes pulse shape discrimination, dynamic compression of the photomultiplier output and scintillators sized to maintain efficiency over the entire portal area.

  13. Radiation and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious harm. However, radiation emergencies, like a nuclear power plant accident, may expose you to larger, more ... did happen to women in the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in the Ukraine in 1986. If ...

  14. The Space Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourdarie, Sebastien; Xapsos, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of the space radiation environment on spacecraft systems and instruments are significant design considerations for space missions. Astronaut exposure is a serious concern for manned missions. In order to meet these challenges and have reliable, cost-effective designs, the radiation environment must be understood and accurately modeled. The nature of the environment varies greatly between low earth orbits, higher earth orbits and interplanetary space. There are both short-term and long-term variations with the phase of the solar cycle. In this paper we concentrate mainly on charged particle radiations. Descriptions of the radiation belts and particles of solar and cosmic origin are reviewed. An overview of the traditional models is presented accompanied by their application areas and limitations. This is followed by discussion of some recent model developments.

  15. Radiation Therapy (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... temporary, it can be permanent. Sore Mouth and Tooth Decay The tissues of the mouth may be sore ... and there may be an increased risk of tooth decay if a child received radiation therapy to the ...

  16. Tin Can Radiation Detector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crull, John L.

    1986-01-01

    Provides instructions for making tin can radiation detectors from empty aluminum cans, aluminum foil, clear plastic, copper wire, silica gel, and fine, unwaxed dental floss put together with tape or glue. Also provides suggestions for activities using the detectors. (JN)

  17. Space radiation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, J. C.

    1986-01-01

    Instrument design and data analysis expertise was provided in support of several space radiation monitoring programs. The Verification of Flight Instrumentation (VFI) program at NASA included both the Active Radiation Detector (ARD) and the Nuclear Radiation Monitor (NRM). Design, partial fabrication, calibration and partial data analysis capability to the ARD program was provided, as well as detector head design and fabrication, software development and partial data analysis capability to the NRM program. The ARD flew on Spacelab-1 in 1983, performed flawlessly and was returned to MSFC after flight with unchanged calibration factors. The NRM, flown on Spacelab-2 in 1985, also performed without fault, not only recording the ambient gamma ray background on the Spacelab, but also recording radiation events of astrophysical significance.

  18. Nanotechnology in radiation oncology.

    PubMed

    Wang, Andrew Z; Tepper, Joel E

    2014-09-10

    Nanotechnology, the manipulation of matter on atomic and molecular scales, is a relatively new branch of science. It has already made a significant impact on clinical medicine, especially in oncology. Nanomaterial has several characteristics that are ideal for oncology applications, including preferential accumulation in tumors, low distribution in normal tissues, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and clearance, that differ from those of small molecules. Because these properties are also well suited for applications in radiation oncology, nanomaterials have been used in many different areas of radiation oncology for imaging and treatment planning, as well as for radiosensitization to improve the therapeutic ratio. In this article, we review the unique properties of nanomaterials that are favorable for oncology applications and examine the various applications of nanotechnology in radiation oncology. We also discuss the future directions of nanotechnology within the context of radiation oncology. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  19. Nanotechnology in Radiation Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Andrew Z.; Tepper, Joel E.

    2014-01-01

    Nanotechnology, the manipulation of matter on atomic and molecular scales, is a relatively new branch of science. It has already made a significant impact on clinical medicine, especially in oncology. Nanomaterial has several characteristics that are ideal for oncology applications, including preferential accumulation in tumors, low distribution in normal tissues, biodistribution, pharmacokinetics, and clearance, that differ from those of small molecules. Because these properties are also well suited for applications in radiation oncology, nanomaterials have been used in many different areas of radiation oncology for imaging and treatment planning, as well as for radiosensitization to improve the therapeutic ratio. In this article, we review the unique properties of nanomaterials that are favorable for oncology applications and examine the various applications of nanotechnology in radiation oncology. We also discuss the future directions of nanotechnology within the context of radiation oncology. PMID:25113769

  20. Volcanic Aerosol Radiative Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lacis, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Large sporadic volcanic eruptions inject large amounts of sulfur bearing gases into the stratosphere which then get photochemically converted to sulfuric acid aerosol droplets that exert a radiative cooling effect on the global climate system lasting for several years.

  1. Radiation Exposure - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rays) - 繁體中文 (Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect)) PDF California Dental Association Nuclear or Radiation Emergencies - 繁體中文 (Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect)) Bilingual PDF ...

  2. Radiated Emissions Test Approach

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2015-10-02

    1. Draft Department of Transportation (DOT) Test Plan to Develop : Interference Tolerance Masks for GNSS Receivers in the L1 : Radiofrequency Band (1559 1610 MHz) provides high level : overview of radiated emissions test setup : 2. Presenta...

  3. Lecture on Thermal Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Brian R.

    2006-01-01

    This lecture will cover solar thermal radiation, particularly as it relates to the high energy solar processes that are the subject of this summer school. After a general review of thermal radiation from the Sun and a discussion of basic definitions, the various emission and absorption mechanisms will be described including black-body emission, bremsstrahlung, free-bound, and atomic line emissions of all kinds. The bulk of the time will be spent discussing the observational characteristics of thermal flare plasma and what can be learned about the flare energy release process from observations of the thermal radiation at all wavelengths. Information that has been learned about the morphology, temperature distribution, and composition of the flare plasma will be presented. The energetics of the thermal flare plasma will be discussed in relation to the nonthermal energy of the particles accelerated during the flare. This includes the total energy, the radiated and conductive cooling processes, and the total irradiated energy.

  4. Installing Juno Radiation Vault

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-07-12

    Technicians installed a special radiation vault onto the propulsion module of NASA Juno spacecraft. Each titanium wall measures nearly a square meter nearly 10 square feet in area and about 1 centimeter a third of an inch in thickness.

  5. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Street, Robert A.; Perez-Mendez, Victor; Kaplan, Selig N.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

  6. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Street, R.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Kaplan, S.N.

    1992-11-17

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification. 13 figs.

  7. Ionizing radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1990-01-01

    An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

  8. Radiation therapy -- skin care

    MedlinePlus

    ... References Doroshow JH. Approach to the patient with cancer. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 179. National Cancer Institute website. Radiation therapy and you: support for ...

  9. Radiative transfer dynamo effect

    DOE PAGES

    Munirov, Vadim R.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2017-01-17

    Here, magnetic fields in rotating and radiating astrophysical plasma can be produced due to a radiative interaction between plasma layers moving relative to each other. The efficiency of current drive, and with it the associated dynamo effect, is considered in a number of limits. It is shown here, however, that predictions for these generated magnetic fields can be significantly higher when kinetic effects, previously neglected, are taken into account.

  10. Auditing radiation sterilization facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Jeffrey A.

    The diversity of radiation sterilization systems available today places renewed emphasis on the need for thorough Quality Assurance audits of these facilities. Evaluating compliance with Good Manufacturing Practices is an obvious requirement, but an effective audit must also evaluate installation and performance qualification programs (validation_, and process control and monitoring procedures in detail. The present paper describes general standards that radiation sterilization operations should meet in each of these key areas, and provides basic guidance for conducting QA audits of these facilities.

  11. Radiation detection system

    DOEpatents

    Whited, R.C.

    A system for obtaining improved resolution in relatively thick semiconductor radiation detectors, such as HgI/sub 2/, which exhibit significant hole trapping. Two amplifiers are used: the first measures the charge collected and the second the contribution of the electrons to the charge collected. The outputs of the two amplifiers are utilized to unfold the total charge generated within the detector in response to a radiation event.

  12. Radiative transfer dynamo effect.

    PubMed

    Munirov, Vadim R; Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic fields in rotating and radiating astrophysical plasma can be produced due to a radiative interaction between plasma layers moving relative to each other. The efficiency of current drive, and with it the associated dynamo effect, is considered in a number of limits. It is shown here, however, that predictions for these generated magnetic fields can be significantly higher when kinetic effects, previously neglected, are taken into account.

  13. Radiation associated tumors following therapeutic cranial radiation

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhary, Abhineet; Spence, Alex M.; Sales, Lindsay; Rostomily, Robert C.; Rockhill, Jason K.; Silbergeld, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: A serious, albeit rare, sequel of therapeutic ionizing radiotherapy is delayed development of a new, histologically distinct neoplasm within the radiation field. Methods: We identified 27 cases, from a 10-year period, of intracranial tumors arising after cranial irradiation. The original lesions for which cranial radiation was used for treatment included: tinea capitis (1), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; 5), sarcoma (1), scalp hemangioma (1), cranial nerve schwannoma (1) and primary (13) and metastatic (1) brain tumors, pituitary tumor (1), germinoma (1), pinealoma (1), and unknown histology (1). Dose of cranial irradiation ranged from 1800 to 6500 cGy, with a mean of 4596 cGy. Age at cranial irradiation ranged from 1 month to 43 years, with a mean of 13.4 years. Results: Latency between radiotherapy and diagnosis of a radiation-induced neoplasm ranged from 4 to 47 years (mean 18.8 years). Radiation-induced tumors included: meningiomas (14), sarcomas (7), malignant astrocytomas (4), and medulloblastomas (2). Data were analyzed to evaluate possible correlations between gender, age at irradiation, dose of irradiation, latency, use of chemotherapy, and radiation-induced neoplasm histology. Significant correlations existed between age at cranial irradiation and development of either a benign neoplasm (mean age 8.5 years) versus a malignant neoplasm (mean age 20.3; P = 0.012), and development of either a meningioma (mean age 7.0 years) or a sarcoma (mean age 27.4 years; P = 0.0001). There was also a significant positive correlation between latency and development of either a meningioma (mean latency 21.8 years) or a sarcoma (mean latency 7.7 years; P = 0.001). The correlation between dose of cranial irradiation and development of either a meningioma (mean dose 4128 cGy) or a sarcoma (mean dose 5631 cGy) approached significance (P = 0.059). Conclusions: Our study is the first to show that younger patients had a longer latency period and were more likely

  14. Acute radiation syndrome caused by accidental radiation exposure - therapeutic principles.

    PubMed

    Dörr, Harald; Meineke, Viktor

    2011-11-25

    Fortunately radiation accidents are infrequent occurrences, but since they have the potential of large scale events like the nuclear accidents of Chernobyl and Fukushima, preparatory planning of the medical management of radiation accident victims is very important. Radiation accidents can result in different types of radiation exposure for which the diagnostic and therapeutic measures, as well as the outcomes, differ. The clinical course of acute radiation syndrome depends on the absorbed radiation dose and its distribution. Multi-organ-involvement and multi-organ-failure need be taken into account. The most vulnerable organ system to radiation exposure is the hematopoietic system. In addition to hematopoietic syndrome, radiation induced damage to the skin plays an important role in diagnostics and the treatment of radiation accident victims. The most important therapeutic principles with special reference to hematopoietic syndrome and cutaneous radiation syndrome are reviewed.

  15. Radiation analysis devices, radiation analysis methods, and articles of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Roybal, Lyle Gene

    2010-06-08

    Radiation analysis devices include circuitry configured to determine respective radiation count data for a plurality of sections of an area of interest and combine the radiation count data of individual of sections to determine whether a selected radioactive material is present in the area of interest. An amount of the radiation count data for an individual section is insufficient to determine whether the selected radioactive material is present in the individual section. An article of manufacture includes media comprising programming configured to cause processing circuitry to perform processing comprising determining one or more correction factors based on a calibration of a radiation analysis device, measuring radiation received by the radiation analysis device using the one or more correction factors, and presenting information relating to an amount of radiation measured by the radiation analysis device having one of a plurality of specified radiation energy levels of a range of interest.

  16. Radiation and thyroid neoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    McConahey, W.M.; Hayles, A.B.

    1976-06-01

    It is now generally accepted that an association exists between external radiation administered to the head, neck, and upper thorax of infants, children, and adolescents and the subsequent development of neoplastic changes in the thyroid gland. Until recent years, external radiation was frequently administered to shrink an enlarged thymus or for the treatment of tonsillitis, adenoiditis, hearing loss, hemangioma, acne, tinea capitis, and other conditions. During the course of these treatments, the thyroid gland was exposed to scatter radiation. The use of external radiation therapy was then accepted practice, and its value was attested by many. Concern about the adversemore » effects was not initially appreciated, primarily because of the long periods of time between the radiation and the recognition of changes in the thyroid. The availability and effectiveness of other therapeutic measures and the growing concern about the delayed effects of radiation therapy when administered to the young for relatively benign conditions has, in recent years, largely eliminated use of this form of therapy, except in a few unusual conditions.« less

  17. Packet personal radiation monitor

    DOEpatents

    Phelps, James E.

    1989-01-01

    A personal radiation monitor of the chirper type is provided for detecting ionizing radiation. A battery powered high voltage power supply is used to generate and apply a high voltage bias to a G-M tube radiation sensor. The high voltage is monitored by a low-loss sensing network which generates a feedback signal to control the high voltage power supply such that the high voltage bias is recharged to +500 VDC when the current pulses of the sensor, generated by the detection of ionizing radiation events, discharges the high voltage bias to +450 VDC. During the high voltage recharge period an audio transducer is activated to produce an audible "chirp". The rate of the "chirps" is controlled by the rate at which the high voltage bias is recharged, which is proportional to the radiation field intensity to which the sensor is exposed. The chirp rate sensitivity is set to be approximately 1.5 (chirps/min/MR/hr.). The G-M tube sensor is used in a current sensing mode so that the device does not paralyze in a high radiation field.

  18. ISO radiation sterilization standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Byron J.; Hansen, Joyce M.

    1998-06-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the current status of the ISO radiation sterilization standards. The ISO standards are voluntary standards which detail both the validation and routine control of the sterilization process. ISO 11137 was approved in 1994 and published in 1995. When reviewing the standard you will note that less than 20% of the standard is devoted to requirements and the remainder is guidance on how to comply with the requirements. Future standards developments in radiation sterilization are being focused on providing additional guidance. The guidance that is currently provided in informative annexes of ISO 11137 includes: device/packaging materials, dose setting methods, and dosimeters and dose measurement, currently, there are four Technical Reports being developed to provide additional guidance: 1. AAMI Draft TIR, "Radiation Sterilization Material Qualification" 2. ISO TR 13409-1996, "Sterilization of health care products — Radiation sterilization — Substantiation of 25 kGy as a sterilization dose for small or infrequent production batches" 3. ISO Draft TR, "Sterilization of health care products — Radiation sterilization Selection of a sterilization dose for a single production batch" li]4. ISO Draft TR, "Sterilization of health care products — Radiation sterilization-Product Families, Plans for Sampling and Frequency of Dose Audits."

  19. Radiation Sensitization in Cancer Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstock, Clive L.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses various aspects of radiation damage to biological material, including free radical mechanisms, radiation sensitization and protection, tumor hypoxia, mechanism of hypoxic cell radiosensitization, redox model for radiation modification, sensitizer probes of cellular radiation targets, pulse radiolysis studies of free radical kinetics,…

  20. Radiation health research, 1986 - 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A collection of 225 abstracts of radiation research sponsored by NASA during the period 1986 through 1990 is reported. Each abstract was categorized within one of four discipline areas: physics, biology, risk assessment, and microgravity. Topic areas within each discipline were assigned as follows: Physics - atomic physics, nuclear science, space radiation, radiation transport and shielding, and instrumentation; Biology - molecular biology, cellular radiation biology, tissue, organs and organisms, radioprotectants, and plants; Risk assessment - radiation health and epidemiology, space flight radiation health physics, inter- and intraspecies extrapolation, and radiation limits and standards; and Microgravity. When applicable subareas were assigned for selected topic areas. Keywords and author indices are provided.

  1. Radiation delivery system and method

    DOEpatents

    Sorensen, Scott A.; Robison, Thomas W.; Taylor, Craig M. V.

    2002-01-01

    A radiation delivery system and method are described. The system includes a treatment configuration such as a stent, balloon catheter, wire, ribbon, or the like, a portion of which is covered with a gold layer. Chemisorbed to the gold layer is a radiation-emitting self-assembled monolayer or a radiation-emitting polymer. The radiation delivery system is compatible with medical catheter-based technologies to provide a therapeutic dose of radiation to a lesion following an angioplasty procedure.

  2. Radiation: Behavioral Implications in Space

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    central nervous system (CNS). Thus, because of the uncertainties bout proton and HZE radiation, the CNS and behavioral effects of these radiations should...central nervous system or with an indirect measure of emesis (conditioned taste aversion) may occur as low as 0.1 -0.25 Gy. 305 (3) Radiation effects ...paper: (1) space radiations are more effective at disrupting behavior; (2) task demands can aggravate the radiation-disruption; (3) efforts to mitigate

  3. Status of LDEF radiation modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, John W.; Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    1995-01-01

    The current status of model prediction and comparison with LDEF radiation dosimetry measurements is summarized with emphasis on major results obtained in evaluating the uncertainties of present radiation environment model. The consistency of results and conclusions obtained from model comparison with different sets of LDEF radiation data (dose, activation, fluence, LET spectra) is discussed. Examples where LDEF radiation data and modeling results can be utilized to provide improved radiation assessments for planned LEO missions (e.g., Space Station) are given.

  4. Radiation from Relativistic Jets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishikawa, K.-I.; Mizuno, Y.; Hardee, P.; Sol, H.; Medvedev, M.; Zhang, B.; Nordlund, A.; Frederiksen, J. T.; Fishman, G. J.; Preece, R.

    2008-01-01

    Nonthermal radiation observed from astrophysical systems containing relativistic jets and shocks, e.g., gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and Galactic microquasar systems usually have power-law emission spectra. Recent PIC simulations of relativistic electron-ion (electron-positron) jets injected into a stationary medium show that particle acceleration occurs within the downstream jet. In the presence of relativistic jets, instabilities such as the Buneman instability, other two-streaming instability, and the Weibel (filamentation) instability create collisionless shocks, which are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. The simulation results show that the Weibel instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields. These magnetic fields contribute to the electron's transverse deflection behind the jet head. The 'jitter' radiation from deflected electrons in small-scale magnetic fields has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation, a case of diffusive synchrotron radiation, may be important to understand the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants.

  5. Radiative Forcing by Contrails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meerkoetter, R.; Schumann, U.; Doelling, D. R.; Nakajima, T.; Tsushima, Y.

    1999-01-01

    A parametric study of the instantaneous radiative impact of contrails is presented using three different radiative transfer models for a series of model atmospheres and cloud parameters. Contrails are treated as geometrically and optically thin plane parallel homogeneous cirrus layers in a static atmospheres The ice water content is varied as a function of ambient temperature. The model atmospheres include tropical, mid-latitude, and subarctic summer and winter atmospheres Optically thin contrails cause a positive net forcing at top of the atmosphere. At the surface the radiative forcing is negative during daytime. The forcing increases with the optical depth and the amount of contrail cover. At the top of the atmosphere a mean contrail cover of 0.1% with average optical depth of 0.2 to 0.5 causes about 0.01 to 0.03 W/m(exp 2)a daily mean instantaneous radiative forcing. Contrails cool the surface during the day and heat the surface during the night, and hence reduce the daily temperature amplitude The net effect depends strongly on the daily variation of contrail cloud cover. The indirect radiative forcing due to particle changes in natural cirrus clouds may be of the same magnitude as the direct one due to additional cover.

  6. Remote radiation dosimetry

    DOEpatents

    Braunlich, P.F.; Tetzlaff, W.; Hegland, J.E.; Jones, S.C.

    1991-03-12

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via a transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission. 8 figures.

  7. Remote radiation dosimetry

    DOEpatents

    Braunlich, Peter F.; Tetzlaff, Wolfgang; Hegland, Joel E.; Jones, Scott C.

    1991-01-01

    Disclosed are methods and apparatus for remotely measuring radiation levels. Such are particularly useful for measuring relatively high levels or dosages of radiation being administered in radiation therapy. They are also useful for more general radiation level measurements where remote sensing from the remaining portions of the apparatus is desirable. The apparatus uses a beam generator, such as a laser beam, to provide a stimulating beam. The stimulating beam is preferably of wavelengths shorter than 6 microns, or more advantageously less than 2 microns. The stimulating beam is used to stimulate a remote luminescent sensor mounted in a probe which emits stored luminescent energy resulting from exposure of the sensor to ionizing radiation. The stimulating beam is communicated to the remote luminescent sensor via transmissive fiber which also preferably serves to return the emission from the luminescent sensor. The stimulating beam is advantageously split by a beam splitter to create a detector beam which is measured for power during a reading period during which the luminescent phosphor is read. The detected power is preferably used to control the beam generator to thus produce desired beam power during the reading period. The luminescent emission from the remote sensor is communicated to a suitable emission detector, preferably after filtering or other selective treatment to better isolate the luminescent emission.

  8. Ionizing radiation and life.

    PubMed

    Dartnell, Lewis R

    2011-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is a ubiquitous feature of the Cosmos, from exogenous cosmic rays (CR) to the intrinsic mineral radioactivity of a habitable world, and its influences on the emergence and persistence of life are wide-ranging and profound. Much attention has already been focused on the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation on organisms and the complex molecules of life, but ionizing radiation also performs many crucial functions in the generation of habitable planetary environments and the origins of life. This review surveys the role of CR and mineral radioactivity in star formation, generation of biogenic elements, and the synthesis of organic molecules and driving of prebiotic chemistry. Another major theme is the multiple layers of shielding of planetary surfaces from the flux of cosmic radiation and the various effects on a biosphere of violent but rare astrophysical events such as supernovae and gamma-ray bursts. The influences of CR can also be duplicitous, such as limiting the survival of surface life on Mars while potentially supporting a subsurface biosphere in the ocean of Europa. This review highlights the common thread that ionizing radiation forms between the disparate component disciplines of astrobiology. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  9. Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW)

    SciTech Connect

    Chubar, O.; Elleaume, P.

    2013-03-01

    "Synchrotron Radiation Workshop" (SRW) is a physical optics computer code for calculation of detailed characteristics of Synchrotron Radiation (SR) generated by relativistic electrons in magnetic fields of arbitrary configuration and for simulation of the radiation wavefront propagation through optical systems of beamlines. Frequency-domain near-field methods are used for the SR calculation, and the Fourier-optics based approach is generally used for the wavefront propagation simulation. The code enables both fully- and partially-coherent radiation propagation simulations in steady-state and in frequency-/time-dependent regimes. With these features, the code has already proven its utility for a large number of applications in infrared, UV, softmore » and hard X-ray spectral range, in such important areas as analysis of spectral performances of new synchrotron radiation sources, optimization of user beamlines, development of new optical elements, source and beamline diagnostics, and even complete simulation of SR based experiments. Besides the SR applications, the code can be efficiently used for various simulations involving conventional lasers and other sources. SRW versions interfaced to Python and to IGOR Pro (WaveMetrics), as well as cross-platform library with C API, are available.« less

  10. Packet personal radiation monitor

    DOEpatents

    Phelps, J.E.

    1988-03-31

    A personal radiation monitor of the chirper type is provided for detecting ionizing radiation. A battery powered high voltage power supply is used to generate and apply a high voltage bias to a G-M tube radiation sensor. The high voltage is monitored by a low-loss sensing network which generates a feedback signal to control the high voltage power supply such that the high voltage bias is recharged to +500 VDC when the current pulses of the sensor, generated by the detection of ionizing radiatonevents, discharges the high voltage bias to +450 VDC. During the high voltage recharge period an audio transducer is activated to produce an audible ''chirp''. The rate of the ''chirps'' is controlled by the rate at which the high voltage bias is recharged, which is proportional to the radiation field intensity to which the sensor is exposed. The chirp rate sensitivity is set to be approximately 1.5 (chirps/min/MR/hr.). The G-M tube sensor is used in a current sensing mode so that the device does not paralyze in a high radiation field. 2 figs.

  11. AREA RADIATION MONITOR

    DOEpatents

    Manning, F.W.; Groothuis, S.E.; Lykins, J.H.; Papke, D.M.

    1962-06-12

    S>An improved area radiation dose monitor is designed which is adapted to compensate continuously for background radiation below a threshold dose rate and to give warning when the dose integral of the dose rate of an above-threshold radiation excursion exceeds a selected value. This is accomplished by providing means for continuously charging an ionization chamber. The chamber provides a first current proportional to the incident radiation dose rate. Means are provided for generating a second current including means for nulling out the first current with the second current at all values of the first current corresponding to dose rates below a selected threshold dose rate value. The second current has a maximum value corresponding to that of the first current at the threshold dose rate. The excess of the first current over the second current, which occurs above the threshold, is integrated and an alarm is given at a selected integrated value of the excess corresponding to a selected radiation dose. (AEC)

  12. Radiation Protection in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Brown, John R.; Jarvis, Anita A.

    1964-01-01

    A recent survey was carried out with respect to radiobiological and radiological health projects in Canada. Letters of inquiry, followed by two questionnaires, were sent out to every institution where radiation research was likely to have been undertaken. Approximately 75% of those contacted replied. Of the total of 200 studies, 84% were classified as biological and medical studies, the remaining 16% as environmental radiation studies. Responses to the inquiry stressed the inadequacy of the present governmental budget for radiation research, the need for higher salaries for research workers, and the necessity of a more intensive teaching program for technicians and professional personnel. The granting of longer-term grants, rather than annually renewable grants, is urged. PMID:14226104

  13. Aerothermodynamic radiation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donohue, K.; Reinecke, W. G.; Rossi, D.; Marinelli, W. J.; Krech, R. H.; Caledonia, G. E.

    1991-01-01

    We have built and made operational a 6 in. electric arc driven shock tube which alloys us to study the non-equilibrium radiation and kinetics of low pressure (0.1 to 1 torr) gases processed by 6 to 12 km/s shock waves. The diagnostic system allows simultaneous monitoring of shock radiation temporal histories by a bank of up to six radiometers, and spectral histories with two optical multi-channel analyzers. A data set of eight shots was assembled, comprising shocks in N2 and air at pressures between 0.1 and 1 torr and velocities of 6 to 12 km/s. Spectrally resolved data was taken in both the non-equilibrium and equilibrium shock regions on all shots. The present data appear to be the first spectrally resolved shock radiation measurements in N2 performed at 12 km/s. The data base was partially analyzed with salient features identified.

  14. Radiation-associated thyrotoxicosis

    SciTech Connect

    Katayama, S.; Shimaoka, K.; Osman, G.

    We studied 154 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis seen at Roswell Park Memorial Institute from 1963 to 1982. The retrospective review of the clinical materials revealed that 23 (15%) had a previous history of therapeutic radiation for various diseases. The radiation dose ranged from several to 3600 rads to the thyroid with a mean latency of 14.2 +/- 3.0 years. In 11 out of 16 patients who were tested for antithyroglobulin and antimicrosomal showed positive titers of either or both antibodies (69%). In a small number of patients, thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins were studied; long-acting thyroid stimulators (LATS) weremore » positive in one of six tested and thyrotrophin binding inhibitory immunoglobulins (TBII) in five of eight. The radiation-associated thyroidal dysfunction appears to be associated with the organ-specific autoimmune processes and could manifest as either hypo- or hyperfunction of the gland.« less

  15. Audible radiation monitor

    DOEpatents

    Odell, Daniel M. C.

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring ionizing radiation comprising radiation detectors in electrical connection with an isotopic analyzer and a device for producing chords to which each isotope is mapped so that the device produces a unique chord for each isotope. Preferably the chords are pleasing to the ear, except for chords representing unexpected isotopes, and are louder or softer depending on the level of radioactivity produced by each isotope, and musical instrument voices may be simulated in producing the chords as an aid to distinguishing similar-sounding chords. Because of the representation by chords, information regarding the level and composition of the radiation in an area can be conveyed to workers in that area more effectively and yet without distracting them.

  16. Composition for radiation shielding

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-08-02

    A composition for use as a radiation shield is disclosed. The shield has a depleted uranium core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container. 2 figs.

  17. Radiation and cataract.

    PubMed

    Rehani, Madan M; Vano, Eliseo; Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera; Kleiman, Norman J

    2011-09-01

    When this paper was about to go to press, the International Commission on Radiological Protection released a statement recommending a change in the threshold dose for the eye lens and dose limits for eye for occupationally exposed persons. It is clear that the earlier published threshold for radiation cataract is no longer valid. Epidemiological studies among Chernobyl clean-up workers, A bomb survivors, astronauts, residents of contaminated buildings, radiological technicians and recent surveys of staff in interventional rooms indicate that there is an increased incidence of lens opacities at doses below 1 Gy. Nevertheless, eye lens dosimetry is at a primitive stage and needs to be developed further. Despite uncertainties concerning dose threshold and dosimetry, it is possible to significantly reduce the risk of radiation cataract through the use of appropriate eye protection. By increasing awareness among those at risk and better adoption and increased usage of protective measures, radiation cataract can become preventable despite lowering of dose limits.

  18. Semiconductor radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Bell, Zane W.; Burger, Arnold

    2010-03-30

    A semiconductor detector for ionizing electromagnetic radiation, neutrons, and energetic charged particles. The detecting element is comprised of a compound having the composition I-III-VI.sub.2 or II-IV-V.sub.2 where the "I" component is from column 1A or 1B of the periodic table, the "II" component is from column 2B, the "III" component is from column 3A, the "IV" component is from column 4A, the "V" component is from column 5A, and the "VI" component is from column 6A. The detecting element detects ionizing radiation by generating a signal proportional to the energy deposited in the element, and detects neutrons by virtue of the ionizing radiation emitted by one or more of the constituent materials subsequent to capture. The detector may contain more than one neutron-sensitive component.

  19. Solar cell radiation handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tada, H. Y.; Carter, J. R., Jr.; Anspaugh, B. E.; Downing, R. G.

    1982-01-01

    The handbook to predict the degradation of solar cell electrical performance in any given space radiation environment is presented. Solar cell theory, cell manufacturing and how they are modeled mathematically are described. The interaction of energetic charged particles radiation with solar cells is discussed and the concept of 1 MeV equivalent electron fluence is introduced. The space radiation environment is described and methods of calculating equivalent fluences for the space environment are developed. A computer program was written to perform the equivalent fluence calculations and a FORTRAN listing of the program is included. Data detailing the degradation of solar cell electrical parameters as a function of 1 MeV electron fluence are presented.

  20. Saturn Radiation (SATRAD) Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, H. B.; Ratliff, J. M.; Evans, R. W.

    2005-01-01

    The Saturnian radiation belts have not received as much attention as the Jovian radiation belts because they are not nearly as intense-the famous Saturnian particle rings tend to deplete the belts near where their peak would occur. As a result, there has not been a systematic development of engineering models of the Saturnian radiation environment for mission design. A primary exception is that of Divine (1990). That study used published data from several charged particle experiments aboard the Pioneer 1 1, Voyager 1, and Voyager 2 spacecraft during their flybys at Saturn to generate numerical models for the electron and proton radiation belts between 2.3 and 13 Saturn radii. The Divine Saturn radiation model described the electron distributions at energies between 0.04 and 10 MeV and the proton distributions at energies between 0.14 and 80 MeV. The model was intended to predict particle intensity, flux, and fluence for the Cassini orbiter. Divine carried out hand calculations using the model but never formally developed a computer program that could be used for general mission analyses. This report seeks to fill that void by formally developing a FORTRAN version of the model that can be used as a computer design tool for missions to Saturn that require estimates of the radiation environment around the planet. The results of that effort and the program listings are presented here along with comparisons with the original estimates carried out by Divine. In addition, Pioneer and Voyager data were scanned in from the original references and compared with the FORTRAN model s predictions. The results were statistically analyzed in a manner consistent with Divine s approach to provide estimates of the ability of the model to reproduce the original data. Results of a formal review of the model by a panel of experts are also presented. Their recommendations for further tests, analyses, and extensions to the model are discussed.

  1. Acoustic Radiation Pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H.

    2018-01-01

    The theoretical foundation of acoustic radiation pressure in plane wave beams is reexamined. It is shown from finite deformation theory and the Boltzmann-Ehrenfest Adiabatic Principle that the Brillouin stress tensor (BST) is the radiation stress in Lagrangian coordinates (not Eulerian coordinates) and that the terms in the BST are not the momentum flux density and mean excess Eulerian stress but are simply contributions to the variation in the wave oscillation period resulting from changes in path length and true wave velocity, respectively, from virtual variations in the strain. It is shown that the radiation stress in Eulerian coordinates is the mean Cauchy stress (not the momentum flux density, as commonly assumed) and that Langevin's second relation does not yield an assessment of the mean Eulerian pressure, since the enthalpy used in the traditional derivations is a function of the thermodynamic tensions - not the Eulerian pressure. It is shown that the transformation between Lagrangian and Eulerian quantities cannot be obtained from the commonly-used expansion of one of the quantities in terms of the particle displacement, since the expansion provides only the difference between the value of the quantity at two different points in Cartesian space separated by the displacement. The proper transformation is obtained only by employing the transformation coefficients of finite deformation theory, which are defined in terms of the displacement gradients. Finite deformation theory leads to the result that for laterally unconfined, plane waves the Lagrangian and Eulerian radiation pressures are equal with the value (1/4)(2K) along the direction of wave propagation, where (K) is the mean kinetic energy density, and zero in directions normal to the propagation direction. This is contrary to the Langevin result that the Lagrangian radiation pressure in the propagation direction is equal to (2K) and the BST result that the Eulerian radiation pressure in that direction

  2. Radiation Hazard Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    NASA technology has made commercially available a new, inexpensive, conveniently-carried device for protection, of people exposed to potentially dangerous levels of microwave radiation. Microwaves are radio emissions of extremely high frequency. They can be hazardous but the degree of hazard is not yet well understood. Generally, it is believed that low intensity radiation of short duration is not harmful but that exposure to high levels can induce deep internal burns, affecting the circulatory and nervous systems, and particularly the eyes. The Department of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has established an allowable safe threshold of exposure. However, people working near high intensity sources of microwave energy-for example, radar antennas and television transmitters-may be unknowingly exposed to radiation levels beyond the safe limit. This poses not only a personal safety problem but also a problem for employers in terms of productivity loss, workman's compensation claims and possible liability litigation. Earlier-developed monitoring devices which warn personnel of dangerous radiation levels have their shortcomings. They can be cumbersome and awkward to use while working. They also require continual visual monitoring to determine if a person is in a dangerous area of radiation, and they are relatively expensive, another deterrent to their widespread adoption. In response to the need for a cheaper and more effective warning system, Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed, under NASA auspices, a new, battery-powered Microwave Radiation Hazard Detector. To bring the product to the commercial market, California Institute Research Foundation, the patent holder, granted an exclusive license to Cicoil Corporation, Chatsworth, California, an electronic components manufacturer.

  3. Small Active Radiation Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, Gautam D.

    2004-01-01

    A device, named small active radiation monitor, allows on-orbit evaluations during periods of increased radiation, after extravehicular activities, or at predesignated times for crews on such long-duration space missions as on the International Space Station. It also permits direct evaluation of biological doses, a task now performed using a combination of measurements and potentially inaccurate simulations. Indeed the new monitor can measure a full array of radiation levels, from soft x-rays to hard galactic cosmic-ray particles. With refinement, it will benefit commercial (nuclear power-plant workers, airline pilots, medical technicians, physicians/dentists, and others) and military personnel as well as the astronauts for whom thermoluminescent dosimeters are inadequate. Civilian and military personnel have long since graduated from film badges to thermoluminescent dosimeters. Once used, most dosimeters must be returned to a central facility for processing, a step that can take days or even weeks. While this suffices for radiation workers for whom exposure levels are typically very low and of brief duration, it does not work for astronauts. Even in emergencies and using express mail, the results can often be delayed by as much as 24 hours. Electronic dosimeters, which are the size of electronic oral thermometers, and tattlers, small electronic dosimeters that sound an alarm when the dose/dose rate exceeds preset values, are also used but suffer disadvantages similar to those of thermoluminescent dosimeters. None of these devices fully answers the need of rapid monitoring during the space missions. Instead, radiation is monitored by passive detectors, which are read out after the missions. Unfortunately, these detectors measure only the absorbed dose and not the biologically relevant dose equivalent. The new monitor provides a real-time readout, a time history of radiation exposures (both absorbed dose and biologically relevant dose equivalent), and a count of the

  4. Radiation Monitoring Equipment Dosimeter Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Kenneth A.; Golightly, Michael J.; Quam, William

    1992-01-01

    Spacecraft crews risk exposure to relatively high levels of ionizing radiation. This radiation may come from charged particles trapped in the Earth's magnetic fields, charged particles released by solar flare activity, galactic cosmic radiation, energetic photons and neutrons generated by interaction of these primary radiations with spacecraft and crew, and man-made sources (e.g., nuclear power generators). As missions are directed to higher radiation level orbits, viz., higher altitudes and inclinations, longer durations, and increased flight frequency, radiation exposure could well become a major factor for crew stay time and career lengths. To more accurately define the radiological exposure and risk to the crew, real-time radiation monitoring instrumentation, which is capable of identifying and measuring the various radiation components, must be flown. This presentation describes a radiation dosimeter instrument which was successfully flown on the Space Shuttle, the RME-3.

  5. Radiation hazards to man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, S. B.; Wilkinson, M. C.

    1971-01-01

    The secondary dose contribution expected from the heavy primaries of the galactic cosmic rays was evaluated by a calculational technique developed in this study. Improvements in the solar and galactic cosmic ray environments made possible by recent experimental and theoretical work are discussed and presented. The recommendations of the National Academy of Sciences' space radiation study panel, are used in conjunction with a shielding analysis, to evaluate the radiation status of an astronaut during the triple solar particle event of 10, 14, 16 July 1959.

  6. Solar cell radiation handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tada, H. Y.; Carter, J. R., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Solar cell theory cells are manufactured, and how they are modeled mathematically is reviewed. The interaction of energetic charged particle radiation with solar cells is discussed in detail and the concept of 1 MeV equivalent electron fluence is introduced. The space radiation environment is described and methods of calculating equivalent fluences for the space environment are developed. A computer program was written to perform the equivalent fluence calculations and a FORTRAN listing of the program is included. Finally, an extensive body of data detailing the degradation of solar cell electrical parameters as a function of 1 MeV electron fluence is presented.

  7. Tunable terahertz radiation source

    DOEpatents

    Boulaevskii, Lev; Feldmann, David M; Jia, Quanxi; Koshelev, Alexei; Moody, Nathan A

    2014-01-21

    Terahertz radiation source and method of producing terahertz radiation, said source comprising a junction stack, said junction stack comprising a crystalline material comprising a plurality of self-synchronized intrinsic Josephson junctions; an electrically conductive material in contact with two opposing sides of said crystalline material; and a substrate layer disposed upon at least a portion of both the crystalline material and the electrically-conductive material, wherein the crystalline material has a c-axis which is parallel to the substrate layer, and wherein the source emits at least 1 mW of power.

  8. Thermal radiative properties: Coatings.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Touloukian, Y. S.; Dewitt, D. P.; Hernicz, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    This volume consists, for the most part, of a presentation of numerical data compiled over the years in a most comprehensive manner on coatings for all applications, in particular, thermal control. After a moderately detailed discussion of the theoretical nature of the thermal radiative properties of coatings, together with an overview of predictive procedures and recognized experimental techniques, extensive numerical data on the thermal radiative properties of pigmented, contact, and conversion coatings are presented. These data cover metallic and nonmetallic pigmented coatings, enamels, metallic and nonmetallic contact coatings, antireflection coatings, resin coatings, metallic black coatings, and anodized and oxidized conversion coatings.

  9. Safety: Radiation Protection Manual

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-05-30

    t e c h n i c a l publication requires it, (2) personnel are required to wear dosimetry , EM 385-1-80 30 May 97 2-4 (3) personnel are required to...of SOPs, review of dosimetry results, changes in standards or guidance, equipment changes, and any other pertinent radiation safety information that...Table 3-4. The EDE is used in dosimetry to account for different organs having different sensitivities to radiation. Table 3-4 Weighting Factors

  10. RADIATION MEASURING DEVICES

    DOEpatents

    Bouricius, G.M.B.; Rusch, G.K.

    1960-03-22

    A radiation-measuring device is described having an a-c output. The apparatus has a high-energy particle source responsive to radiation flux disposed within a housing having a pair of collector plates. A potential gradient between the source and collector plates causes ions to flow to the plates. By means of electrostatic or magnetic deflection elements connected to an alternating potential, the ions are caused to flow alternately to each of the collector plates causing an a-c signal thereon.

  11. Diffraction radiation generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestopalov, Viktor P.; Vertii, Aleksei A.; Ermak, Gennadii P.; Skrynnik, Boris K.; Khlopov, Grigorii I.; Tsvyk, Aleksei I.

    Research in the field of diffraction radiation generators (DRG) conducted at the Radio Physics and electronics Institute of the Ukranian Academy of Sciences over the past 25 years is reviewed. The effect of diffraction radiation is analyzed in detail, and various operating regimes of DRGs are discussed. The discussion then focuses on the principal requirements for the design of packaged DRGs and their principal parameters. Finally, applications of DRGs in various fields of science and technology are reviewed, including such applications as DRG spectroscopy, diagnostics of plasma, biological specimens, and vibration, and DRG radar systems.

  12. Radiative decays at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giubega, L. E.

    2016-12-01

    Precise measurements on rare radiative B decays are performed with the LHCb experiment at LHC. The LHCb results regarding the ratio of branching fractions for two radiative decays, B 0 → K *0 γ and B s → ϕ γ, the direct CP asymmetry in B 0 → K *0 γ decay channel and the observation of the photon polarization in the B ± → K ±π∓π± γ decay, are included. The first two measurements were performed in 1 fb-1 of pp collisions data and the third one in 3 fb-1 of data, respectively.

  13. LDEF Satellite Radiation Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    1996-01-01

    Model calculations and analyses have been carried out to compare with several sets of data (dose, induced radioactivity in various experiment samples and spacecraft components, fission foil measurements, and LET spectra) from passive radiation dosimetry on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) satellite, which was recovered after almost six years in space. The calculations and data comparisons are used to estimate the accuracy of current models and methods for predicting the ionizing radiation environment in low earth orbit. The emphasis is on checking the accuracy of trapped proton flux and anisotropy models.

  14. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOEpatents

    Koster, J.E.; Bolton, R.D.

    1999-03-02

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans. 4 figs.

  15. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOEpatents

    Koster, James E.; Bolton, Richard D.

    1999-01-01

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans.

  16. Wireless passive radiation sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Pfeifer, Kent B; Rumpf, Arthur N; Yelton, William G

    2013-12-03

    A novel measurement technique is employed using surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices, passive RF, and radiation-sensitive films to provide a wireless passive radiation sensor that requires no batteries, outside wiring, or regular maintenance. The sensor is small (<1 cm.sup.2), physically robust, and will operate unattended for decades. In addition, the sensor can be insensitive to measurement position and read distance due to a novel self-referencing technique eliminating the need to measure absolute responses that are dependent on RF transmitter location and power.

  17. Radiation Environment of Phobos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, John F.; Clark, John H.; Sturner, Steven J.; Stubbs, Timothy; Wang, Yongli; Glenar, David A.; Schwadron, Nathan A.; Joyce, Colin J.; Spence, Harlan E.; Farrell, William M.

    2017-10-01

    The innermost Martian moon Phobos is a potential way station for the human exploration of Mars and the solar system beyond the orbit of Mars. It has a similar radiation environment to that at 1 AU for hot plasma and more energetic particles from solar, heliospheric and galactic sources. In the past two decades there have been many spacecraft measurements at 1 AU, and occasionally in the Mars orbital region around the Sun, that can be used to define a reference model for the time-averaged and time-variable radiation environments at Mars and Phobos. Yearly to hourly variance comes from the eleven-year solar activity cycle and its impact on solar energetic, heliospheric, and solar-modulated galactic cosmic ray particles. We report progress on compilation of the reference model from U.S. and international spacecraft data sources of the NASA Space Physics Data Facility and the Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO), and from tissue-equivalent dosage rate measurements by the CRaTER instrument on the Lunar Reconnaissance Observer spacecraft now in lunar orbit. Similar dosage rate data are also available from the Mars surface via the NASA Planetary Data System archive from the Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) instrument aboard the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover. The sub-Mars surface hemisphere of Phobos is slightly blocked from energetic particle irradiation by the body of Mars but there is a greater global variance of interplanetary radiation exposure as we have calculated from the known topography of this irregularly shaped moon. Phobos receives a relatively small flux of secondary radiation from galactic cosmic ray interactions with the Mars surface and atmosphere, and at plasma energies from pickup ions escaping out of the Mars atmosphere. The greater secondary radiation source is from cosmic ray interactions with the moon surface, which we have simulated with the GEANT radiation transport code for various cases of the surface regolith

  18. Space Radiation and the Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hampson, R. E.

    Solar and cosmic radiation pose a number of physiological challenges to human spaceflight outside the protective region of Earth's magnetosphere. Aside from well-described effects of radiation on the blood-forming tissues of the hematopoietic system, there is increasing evidence of direct effects of radiation on the brain as evidenced by studies showing longitudinal decline in memory and cognitive function following radiation specifically directed at brain tissue. These indications strengthen the need to more fully research effects of radiation - particular those components associated with solar wind and galactic cosmic radiation - on the nervous system of mammals from rodents to humans.

  19. Management of ionizing radiation injuries and illnesses, part 1: physics, radiation protection, and radiation instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Doran M; Jenkins, Mark S; Sugarman, Stephen L; Glassman, Erik S

    2014-03-01

    Ionizing radiation injuries and illnesses are exceedingly rare; therefore, most physicians have never managed such conditions. When confronted with a possible radiation injury or illness, most physicians must seek specialty consultation. Protection of responders, health care workers, and patients is an absolute priority for the delivery of medical care. Management of ionizing radiation injuries and illnesses, as well as radiation protection, requires a basic understanding of physics. Also, to provide a greater measure of safety when working with radioactive materials, instrumentation for detection and identification of radiation is needed. Because any health care professional could face a radiation emergency, it is imperative that all institutions have emergency response plans in place before an incident occurs. The present article is an introduction to basic physics, ionizing radiation, radiation protection, and radiation instrumentation, and it provides a basis for management of the consequences of a radiologic or nuclear incident.

  20. Nuclear Radiation Damages Minds!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    Professors Ernest Sternglass (University of Pittsburgh) and Steven Bell (Berry College) have assembled cogent, conclusive evidence indicating that nuclear radiation is associated with impaired cognition. They suggest that Scholastic Aptitude Scores (SATs), which have declined steadily for 19 years, will begin to rise. Their prediction is based on…

  1. Radiation detector spectrum simulator

    DOEpatents

    Wolf, Michael A.; Crowell, John M.

    1987-01-01

    A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source nerates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith generates several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

  2. Radiation detector spectrum simulator

    DOEpatents

    Wolf, M.A.; Crowell, J.M.

    1985-04-09

    A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source generates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith to generate several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

  3. Paradoxes of Thermal Radiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besson, U.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the thermal behaviour of objects exposed to a solar-type flux of thermal radiation. It aims to clarify certain apparent inconsistencies between theory and observation, and to give a detailed exposition of some critical points that physics textbooks usually treat in an insufficient or incorrect way. In particular,…

  4. Thermostatic Radiator Valve Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Dentz, Jordan; Ansanelli, Eric

    2015-01-01

    A large stock of multifamily buildings in the Northeast and Midwest are heated by steam distribution systems. Losses from these systems are typically high and a significant number of apartments are overheated much of the time. Thermostatically controlled radiator valves (TRVs) are one potential strategy to combat this problem, but have not been widely accepted by the residential retrofit market.

  5. Thermodynamics of Radiation Modes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pina, Eduardo; de la Selva, Sara Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    We study the equilibrium thermodynamics of the electromagnetic radiation in a cavity of a given volume and temperature. We found three levels of description, the thermodynamics of one mode, the thermodynamics of the distribution of frequencies in a band by summing over the frequencies in it and the global thermodynamics by summing over all the…

  6. Modeling Radiation Fog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    K R, Sreenivas; Mohammad, Rafiuddin

    2016-11-01

    Predicting the fog-onset, its growth and dissipation helps in managing airports and other modes of transport. After sunset, occurrence of fog requires moist air, low wind and clear-sky conditions. Under these circumstances radiative heat transfer plays a vital role in the NBL. Locally, initiation of fog happens when the air temperature falls below the dew-point. Thus, to predict the onset of fog at a given location, one has to compute evolution of vertical temperature profile. Earlier,our group has shown that the presence of aerosols and vertical variation in their number density determines the radiative-cooling and hence development of vertical temperature profile. Aerosols, through radiation in the window-band, provides an efficient path for air layers to lose heat to the cold, upper atmosphere. This process creates cooler air layer between warmer ground and upper air layers and resulting temperature profile facilitate the initiation of fog. Our results clearly indicates that accounting for the presence of aerosols and their radiative-transfer is important in modeling micro-meteorological process of fog formation and its evolution. DST, Govt. INDIA.

  7. VDT Emissions Radiate Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Bill

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the possible health effects of electromagnetic fields of radiation that are emitted from video display terminals (VDTs). Responses from vendors in the computer industry are related, steps to reduce possible risks are suggested, and additional sources of information on VDTs are listed. (LRW)

  8. Commercial Parts Radiation Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-13

    New Mexico’s COSMIAC Center performed radiation testing on a series of operational amplifiers, microcontrollers and microprocessor. The...commercial microcontroller and microprocessor equipment. The team would develop a list of the most promising commercial parts that might be utilized to...parts will include microprocessors, microcontrollers and memory modules. In addition, Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) will also be chosen

  9. Psoriasis and ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Farber, E.M.; Nall, L.

    1993-09-01

    Prevention and detection screening programs as a public health service in curtailing the ever-increasing incidence of all forms of skin cancer are reviewed. The effect of solar and artificial ultraviolet radiation on the general population and persons with psoriasis is examined. 54 refs.

  10. Photovoltaic radiation detector element

    DOEpatents

    Agouridis, Dimitrios C.

    1983-01-01

    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips.

  11. NTPR Radiation Exposure Reports

    Science.gov Websites

    History Documents US Underground Nuclear Test History Reports NTPR Radiation Exposure Reports Enewetak Atoll Cleanup Documents TRAC About Who We Are Our Values History Locations Our Leadership Director Detonations 1945-1962, Vol II: Oceanic Test Series DNA-6041F For the Record - A History of the Nuclear Test

  12. Acute radiation risk models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smirnova, Olga

    Biologically motivated mathematical models, which describe the dynamics of the major hematopoietic lineages (the thrombocytopoietic, lymphocytopoietic, granulocytopoietic, and erythropoietic systems) in acutely/chronically irradiated humans are developed. These models are implemented as systems of nonlinear differential equations, which variables and constant parameters have clear biological meaning. It is shown that the developed models are capable of reproducing clinical data on the dynamics of these systems in humans exposed to acute radiation in the result of incidents and accidents, as well as in humans exposed to low-level chronic radiation. Moreover, the averaged value of the "lethal" dose rates of chronic irradiation evaluated within models of these four major hematopoietic lineages coincides with the real minimal dose rate of lethal chronic irradiation. The demonstrated ability of the models of the human thrombocytopoietic, lymphocytopoietic, granulocytopoietic, and erythropoietic systems to predict the dynamical response of these systems to acute/chronic irradiation in wide ranges of doses and dose rates implies that these mathematical models form an universal tool for the investigation and prediction of the dynamics of the major human hematopoietic lineages for a vast pattern of irradiation scenarios. In particular, these models could be applied for the radiation risk assessment for health of astronauts exposed to space radiation during long-term space missions, such as voyages to Mars or Lunar colonies, as well as for health of people exposed to acute/chronic irradiation due to environmental radiological events.

  13. Radiation Exposure from Medical Exams and Procedures

    MedlinePlus

    Fact Sheet Adopted: January 2010 Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Radiation Exposure from Medical Exams and Procedures Ionizing radiation is used daily in hospitals and clinics ...

  14. Integrative Radiation Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen

    We plan to study tissue-level mechanisms important to human breast radiation carcinogenesis. We propose that the cell biology of irradiated tissues reveals a coordinated multicellular damage response program in which individual cell contributions are primarily directed towards suppression of carcinogenesis and reestablishment of homeostasis. We identified transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ) as a pivotal signal. Notably, we have discovered that TGFβ suppresses genomic instability by controlling the intrinsic DNA damage response and centrosome integrity. However, TGFβ also mediates disruption of microenvironment interactions, which drive epithelial to mesenchymal transition in irradiated human mammary epithelial cells. This apparent paradox of positive andmore » negative controls by TGFβ is the topic of the present proposal. First, we postulate that these phenotypes manifest differentially following fractionated or chronic exposures; second, that the interactions of multiple cell types in tissues modify the responses evident in this single cell type culture models. The goals are to: 1) study the effect of low dose rate and fractionated radiation exposure in combination with TGFβ on the irradiated phenotype and genomic instability of non-malignant human epithelial cells; and 2) determine whether stromal-epithelial interactions suppress the irradiated phenotype in cell culture and the humanized mammary mouse model. These data will be used to 3) develop a systems biology model that integrates radiation effects across multiple levels of tissue organization and time. Modeling multicellular radiation responses coordinated via extracellular signaling could have a significant impact on the extrapolation of human health risks from high dose to low dose/rate radiation exposure.« less

  15. Spacecraft Electrostatic Radiation Shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This project analyzed the feasibility of placing an electrostatic field around a spacecraft to provide a shield against radiation. The concept was originally proposed in the 1960s and tested on a spacecraft by the Soviet Union in the 1970s. Such tests and analyses showed that this concept is not only feasible but operational. The problem though is that most of this work was aimed at protection from 10- to 100-MeV radiation. We now appreciate that the real problem is 1- to 2-GeV radiation. So, the question is one of scaling, in both energy and size. Can electrostatic shielding be made to work at these high energy levels and can it protect an entire vehicle? After significant analysis and consideration, an electrostatic shield configuration was proposed. The selected architecture was a torus, charged to a high negative voltage, surrounding the vehicle, and a set of positively charged spheres. Van de Graaff generators were proposed as the mechanism to move charge from the vehicle to the torus to generate the fields necessary to protect the spacecraft. This design minimized complexity, residual charge, and structural forces and resolved several concerns raised during the internal critical review. But, it still is not clear if such a system is costeffective or feasible, even though several studies have indicated usefulness for radiation protection at energies lower than that of the galactic cosmic rays. Constructing such a system will require power supplies that can generate voltages 10 times that of the state of the art. Of more concern is the difficulty of maintaining the proper net charge on the entire structure and ensuring that its interaction with solar wind will not cause rapid discharge. Yet, if these concerns can be resolved, such a scheme may provide significant radiation shielding to future vehicles, without the excessive weight or complexity of other active shielding techniques.

  16. Radiation Therapy for Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... You have many issues to cope with. . . Your oncology team along with family and friends are available ... Therapy Answers www.rtanswers.org ABOUT THE RADIATION ONCOLOGY TEAM Radiation oncologists are cancer doctors who also ...

  17. Radiation Therapy for Skin Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... ask friends, family, support groups and your radiation oncology treatment team for help. Visit www.rtanswers.org ... rtanswers.org LEARNING ABOUT CLINICAL TRIALS The radiation oncology treatment team is constantly exploring new ways to ...

  18. Radiation Therapy for Gynecologic Cancers

    MedlinePlus

    ... A RE LEARNING ABOUT CLINICAL TRIALS The radiation oncology team is constantly exploring new ways to treat ... Cl inical Trials. gov www.clinicaltrials.gov NRG Oncology (Clinical Trials Using Radiation) www.nrgoncology.org Gynecologic ...

  19. Conical electromagnetic radiation flux concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    Concentrator provides method of concentrating a beam of electromagnetic radiation into a smaller beam, presenting a higher flux density. Smaller beam may be made larger by sending radiation through the device in the reverse direction.

  20. Hawking radiation and covariant anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Rabin; Kulkarni, Shailesh

    2008-01-15

    Generalizing the method of Wilczek and collaborators we provide a derivation of Hawking radiation from charged black holes using only covariant gauge and gravitational anomalies. The reliability and universality of the anomaly cancellation approach to Hawking radiation is also discussed.

  1. Simple device measures solar radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphries, W. R.

    1977-01-01

    Simple inexpensive thermometer, insolated from surroundings by transparent glass or plastic encasement, measures intensities of solar radiation, or radiation from other sources such as furnaces or ovens. Unit can be further modified to accomplish readings from remote locations.

  2. Radiation Injury to the Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... healthy cells. The Merck Manual states the following: Radiation Injury to the Nervous System: The nervous system can be damaged by radiation therapy. Acute and subacute transient symptoms may develop early, but ...

  3. Mouth and neck radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... to doing. Try to get more sleep at night. Rest during the day when you can. Take a few weeks off ... neck - discharge; Head and neck cancer - radiation; Squamous cell cancer - mouth and neck radiation; Mouth and neck ...

  4. Radiation Risk From Medical Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Eugene C.

    2010-01-01

    This review provides a practical overview of the excess cancer risks related to radiation from medical imaging. Primary care physicians should have a basic understanding of these risks. Because of recent attention to this issue, patients are more likely to express concerns over radiation risk. In addition, physicians can play a role in reducing radiation risk to their patients by considering these risks when making imaging referrals. This review provides a brief overview of the evidence pertaining to low-level radiation and excess cancer risks and addresses the radiation doses and risks from common medical imaging studies. Specific subsets of patients may be at greater risk from radiation exposure, and radiation risk should be considered carefully in these patients. Recent technical innovations have contributed to lowering the radiation dose from computed tomography, and the referring physician should be aware of these innovations in making imaging referrals. PMID:21123642

  5. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, L.H.

    1995-10-17

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

  6. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1994-01-01

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

  7. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, L.H.

    1994-08-16

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

  8. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1995-01-01

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

  9. Radiation effects on electronic parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. S.

    1971-01-01

    A search of literature concerning the long term effects of nuclear radiation on electronic parts was conducted to determine the effects of radiation fields encountered on deep space missions to parts used in the Pioneer Spacecraft. Topics discussed include: the various types of radiation the spacecraft will encounter, effects of radiation on electronic parts, and estimates of the damage thresholds for transistors and integrated circuits used on the Pioneer Spacecraft.

  10. Video Display Terminals: Radiation Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, William E.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses information gathered in past few years related to health effects of video display terminals (VDTs) with particular emphasis given to issues raised by VDT users. Topics covered include radiation emissions, health concerns, radiation surveys, occupational radiation exposure standards, and long-term risks. (17 references) (EJS)

  11. Internal Radiation Therapy for Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    When getting internal radiation therapy, a source of radiation is put inside your body, in either liquid or solid form. It can be used treat different kinds of cancer, including thyroid, head and neck, breast, cervix, prostate, and eye. Learn more about how what to expect when getting internal radiation therapy.

  12. Radiation effect on implanted pacemakers

    SciTech Connect

    Pourhamidi, A.H.

    1983-10-01

    It was previously thought that diagnostic or therapeutic ionizing radiation did not have an adverse effect on the function of cardiac pacemakers. Recently, however, some authors have reported damaging effect of therapeutic radiation on cardiac pulse generators. An analysis of a recently-extracted pacemaker documented the effect of radiation on the pacemaker pulse generator.

  13. Radiation Effects: Core Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicello, John F.

    1999-01-01

    The risks to personnel in space from the naturally occurring radiations are generally considered to be one of the most serious limitations to human space missions, as noted in two recent reports of the National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences. The Core Project of the Radiation Effects Team for the National Space Biomedical Research Institute is the consequences of radiations in space in order to develop countermeasure, both physical and pharmaceutical, to reduce the risks of cancer and other diseases associated with such exposures. During interplanetary missions, personnel in space will be exposed to galactic cosmic rays, including high-energy protons and energetic ions with atomic masses of iron or higher. In addition, solar events will produce radiation fields of high intensity for short but irregular durations. The level of intensity of these radiations is considerably higher than that on Earth's surface, and the biological risks to astronauts is consequently increased, including increased risks of carcinogenesis and other diseases. This group is examining the risk of cancers resulting from low-dose, low-dose rate exposures of model systems to photons, protons, and iron by using ground-based accelerators which are capable of producing beams of protons, iron, and other heavy ions at energies comparable to those encountered in space. They have begun the first series of experiments using a 1-GeV iron beam at the Brookhaven National Laboratory and 250-MeV protons at Loma Linda University Medical Center's proton synchrotron facility. As part of these studies, this group will be investigating the potential for the pharmaceutical, Tamoxifen, to reduce the risk of breast cancer in astronauts exposed to the level of doses and particle types expected in space. Theoretical studies are being carried out in a collaboration between scientists at NASA's Johnson Space Center and Johns Hopkins University in parallel with the experimental program have provided

  14. Pregnancy and Radiation Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerogiannis, J.; Stefanoyiannis, A. P.

    2010-01-01

    Several modalities are currently utilized for diagnosis and therapy, by appropriate application of x-rays. In diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology, radiotherapy, interventional cardiology, nuclear medicine and other specialties radiation protection of a pregnant woman as a patient, as well as a member of the operating personnel, is of outmost importance. Based on radiation risk, the termination of pregnancy is not justified if foetal doses are below 100 mGy. For foetal doses between 100 and 500 mGy, a decision is reached on a case by case basis. In Diagnostic Radiology, when a pregnant patient takes an abdomen CT, then an estimation of the foetus' dose is necessary. However, it is extremely rare for the dose to be high enough to justify an abortion. Radiographs of the chest and extremities can be done at any period of pregnancy, provided that the equipment is functioning properly. Usually, the radiation risk is lower than the risk of not undergoing a radiological examination. Radiation exposure in uterus from diagnostic radiological examinations is unlikely to result in any deleterious effect on the child, but the possibility of a radiation-induced effect can not be entirely ruled out. The effects of exposure to radiation on the foetus depend on the time of exposure, the date of conception and the absorbed dose. Finally, a pregnant worker can continue working in an x-ray department, as long as there is reasonable assurance that the foetal dose can be kept below 1 mGy during the pregnancy. Nuclear Medicine diagnostic examinations using short-lived radionuclides can be used for pregnant patient. Irradiation of the foetus results from placental transfer and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in the foetal tissues, as well as from external irradiation from radioactivity in the mother's organ and tissues. As a rule, a pregnant patient should not undergo therapy with radionuclide, unless it is crucial for her life. In Radiotherapy, the patient, treating

  15. Pregnancy and Radiation Protection

    SciTech Connect

    Gerogiannis, J.; Stefanoyiannis, A. P.

    Several modalities are currently utilized for diagnosis and therapy, by appropriate application of x-rays. In diagnostic radiology, interventional radiology, radiotherapy, interventional cardiology, nuclear medicine and other specialties radiation protection of a pregnant woman as a patient, as well as a member of the operating personnel, is of outmost importance. Based on radiation risk, the termination of pregnancy is not justified if foetal doses are below 100 mGy. For foetal doses between 100 and 500 mGy, a decision is reached on a case by case basis. In Diagnostic Radiology, when a pregnant patient takes an abdomen CT, then an estimation ofmore » the foetus' dose is necessary. However, it is extremely rare for the dose to be high enough to justify an abortion. Radiographs of the chest and extremities can be done at any period of pregnancy, provided that the equipment is functioning properly. Usually, the radiation risk is lower than the risk of not undergoing a radiological examination. Radiation exposure in uterus from diagnostic radiological examinations is unlikely to result in any deleterious effect on the child, but the possibility of a radiation-induced effect can not be entirely ruled out. The effects of exposure to radiation on the foetus depend on the time of exposure, the date of conception and the absorbed dose. Finally, a pregnant worker can continue working in an x-ray department, as long as there is reasonable assurance that the foetal dose can be kept below 1 mGy during the pregnancy. Nuclear Medicine diagnostic examinations using short-lived radionuclides can be used for pregnant patient. Irradiation of the foetus results from placental transfer and distribution of radiopharmaceuticals in the foetal tissues, as well as from external irradiation from radioactivity in the mother's organ and tissues. As a rule, a pregnant patient should not undergo therapy with radionuclide, unless it is crucial for her life. In Radiotherapy, the patient

  16. Space Radiation Cancer Risks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    Space radiation presents major challenges to astronauts on the International Space Station and for future missions to the Earth s moon or Mars. Methods used to project risks on Earth need to be modified because of the large uncertainties in projecting cancer risks from space radiation, and thus impact safety factors. We describe NASA s unique approach to radiation safety that applies uncertainty based criteria within the occupational health program for astronauts: The two terrestrial criteria of a point estimate of maximum acceptable level of risk and application of the principle of As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) are supplemented by a third requirement that protects against risk projection uncertainties using the upper 95% confidence level (CL) in the radiation cancer projection model. NASA s acceptable level of risk for ISS and their new lunar program have been set at the point-estimate of a 3-percent risk of exposure induced death (REID). Tissue-averaged organ dose-equivalents are combined with age at exposure and gender-dependent risk coefficients to project the cumulative occupational radiation risks incurred by astronauts. The 95% CL criteria in practice is a stronger criterion than ALARA, but not an absolute cut-off as is applied to a point projection of a 3% REID. We describe the most recent astronaut dose limits, and present a historical review of astronaut organ doses estimates from the Mercury through the current ISS program, and future projections for lunar and Mars missions. NASA s 95% CL criteria is linked to a vibrant ground based radiobiology program investigating the radiobiology of high-energy protons and heavy ions. The near-term goal of research is new knowledge leading to the reduction of uncertainties in projection models. Risk projections involve a product of many biological and physical factors, each of which has a differential range of uncertainty due to lack of data and knowledge. The current model for projecting space radiation

  17. Acute Cerebrovascular Radiation Syndrome: Radiation Neurotoxicity , mechanisms of CNS radiation injury, advanced countermeasures for Radiation Protection of Central Nervous System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Dmitri; Jones, Jeffrey; Maliev, Slava

    Key words: Cerebrovascular Acute Radiation Syndrome (Cv ARS), Radiation Neurotoxins (RNT), Neurotransmitters, Radiation Countermeasures, Antiradiation Vaccine (ArV), Antiradiation Blocking Antibodies, Antiradiation Antidote. Psychoneuroimmunology, Neurotoxicity. ABSTRACT: To review the role of Radiation Neurotoxins in triggering, developing of radiation induced central nervous system injury. Radiation Neurotoxins - rapidly acting blood toxic lethal agent, which activated after irradiation and concentrated, circulated in interstitial fluid, lymph, blood with interactions with cell membranes, receptors and cell compartments. Radiation Neurotoxins - biological molecules with high enzymatic activity and/or specific lipids and activated or modified after irradiation. The Radiation Neurotoxins induce increased permeability of blood vessels, disruption of the blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier and developing severe disorder of blood macro- and micro-circulation. Principles of Radiation Psychoneuro-immunology and Psychoneuro-allergology were applied for determination of pathological processes developed after irradiation or selective administration of Radiation Neurotoxins to radiation naïve mammals. Effects of radiation and exposure to radiation can develop severe irreversible abnormalities of Central Nervous System, brain structures and functions. Antiradiation Vaccine - most effective, advanced methods of protection, prevention, mitigation and treatment and was used for of Acute Radiation Syndromes and elaboration of new technology for immune-prophylaxis and immune-protection against ϒ, Heavy Ion, Neutron irradiation. Results of experiments suggested that blocking, antitoxic, antiradiation antibodies can significantly reduce toxicity of Radiation Toxins. New advanced technology include active immune-prophylaxis with Antiradiation Vaccine and Antiradiation therapy that included specific blocking antibodies to Radiation Neurotoxins

  18. Radiation dosimetry and biophysical models of space radiation effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wu, Honglu; Shavers, Mark R.; George, Kerry

    2003-01-01

    Estimating the biological risks from space radiation remains a difficult problem because of the many radiation types including protons, heavy ions, and secondary neutrons, and the absence of epidemiology data for these radiation types. Developing useful biophysical parameters or models that relate energy deposition by space particles to the probabilities of biological outcomes is a complex problem. Physical measurements of space radiation include the absorbed dose, dose equivalent, and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra. In contrast to conventional dosimetric methods, models of radiation track structure provide descriptions of energy deposition events in biomolecules, cells, or tissues, which can be used to develop biophysical models of radiation risks. In this paper, we address the biophysical description of heavy particle tracks in the context of the interpretation of both space radiation dosimetry and radiobiology data, which may provide insights into new approaches to these problems.

  19. The Fukushima radiation accident: consequences for radiation accident medical management.

    PubMed

    Meineke, Viktor; Dörr, Harald

    2012-08-01

    The March 2011 radiation accident in Fukushima, Japan, is a textbook example of a radiation accident of global significance. In view of the global dimensions of the accident, it is important to consider the lessons learned. In this context, emphasis must be placed on consequences for planning appropriate medical management for radiation accidents including, for example, estimates of necessary human and material resources. The specific characteristics of the radiation accident in Fukushima are thematically divided into five groups: the exceptional environmental influences on the Fukushima radiation accident, particular circumstances of the accident, differences in risk perception, changed psychosocial factors in the age of the Internet and globalization, and the ignorance of the effects of ionizing radiation both among the general public and health care professionals. Conclusions like the need for reviewing international communication, interfacing, and interface definitions will be drawn from the Fukushima radiation accident.

  20. Curiosity First Radiation Measurements on Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-08

    Like a human working in a radiation environment, NASA Curiosity rover carries its own version of a dosimeter to measure radiation from outer space and the sun. This graphic shows the flux of radiation detected the rover Radiation Assessment Detector.

  1. Radiation area monitor device and method

    SciTech Connect

    Vencelj, Matjaz; Stowe, Ashley C.; Petrovic, Toni

    A radiation area monitor device/method, utilizing: a radiation sensor having a directional radiation sensing capability; a rotation mechanism operable for selectively rotating the radiation sensor such that the directional radiation sensing capability selectively sweeps an area of interest; and a processor operable for analyzing and storing a radiation fingerprint acquired by the radiation sensor as the directional radiation sensing capability selectively sweeps the area of interest. Optionally, the radiation sensor includes a gamma and/or neutron radiation sensor. The device/method selectively operates in: a first supervised mode during which a baseline radiation fingerprint is acquired by the radiation sensor; and amore » second unsupervised mode during which a subsequent radiation fingerprint is acquired by the radiation sensor, wherein the subsequent radiation fingerprint is compared to the baseline radiation fingerprint and, if a predetermined difference threshold is exceeded, an alert is issued.« less

  2. Provisional standards of radiation safety during flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Radiation effects during space flights are discussed in the context of the sources and dangers of such radiation and the radiobiological prerequisites for establishing safe levels of radiation dosage. Standard safe levels of radiation during space flight are established.

  3. Radiation therapy - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... tumor Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Prostate cancer Testicular cancer Patient Instructions Abdominal radiation - discharge Bleeding during cancer treatment Brain radiation - discharge Breast radiation - discharge Chest radiation - discharge Dry mouth during ...

  4. Handheld CZT radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Murray, William S.; Butterfield, Kenneth B.; Baird, William

    2004-08-24

    A handheld CZT radiation detector having a CZT gamma-ray sensor, a multichannel analyzer, a fuzzy-logic component, and a display component is disclosed. The CZT gamma-ray sensor may be a coplanar grid CZT gamma-ray sensor, which provides high-quality gamma-ray analysis at a wide range of operating temperatures. The multichannel analyzer categorizes pulses produce by the CZT gamma-ray sensor into channels (discrete energy levels), resulting in pulse height data. The fuzzy-logic component analyzes the pulse height data and produces a ranked listing of radioisotopes. The fuzzy-logic component is flexible and well-suited to in-field analysis of radioisotopes. The display component may be a personal data assistant, which provides a user-friendly method of interacting with the detector. In addition, the radiation detector may be equipped with a neutron sensor to provide an enhanced mechanism of sensing radioactive materials.

  5. Terahertz radiation mixer

    DOEpatents

    Wanke, Michael C [Albuquerque, NM; Allen, S James [Santa Barbara, CA; Lee, Mark [Albuquerque, NM

    2008-05-20

    A terahertz radiation mixer comprises a heterodyned field-effect transistor (FET) having a high electron mobility heterostructure that provides a gatable two-dimensional electron gas in the channel region of the FET. The mixer can operate in either a broadband pinch-off mode or a narrowband resonant plasmon mode by changing a grating gate bias of the FET. The mixer can beat an RF signal frequency against a local oscillator frequency to generate an intermediate frequency difference signal in the microwave region. The mixer can have a low local oscillator power requirement and a large intermediate frequency bandwidth. The terahertz radiation mixer is particularly useful for terahertz applications requiring high resolution.

  6. Radiation Environment Inside Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neill, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Dr. Patrick O'Neill, NASA Johnson Space Center, will present a detailed description of the radiation environment inside spacecraft. The free space (outside) solar and galactic cosmic ray and trapped Van Allen belt proton spectra are significantly modified as these ions propagate through various thicknesses of spacecraft structure and shielding material. In addition to energy loss, secondary ions are created as the ions interact with the structure materials. Nuclear interaction codes (FLUKA, GEANT4, HZTRAN, MCNPX, CEM03, and PHITS) transport free space spectra through different thicknesses of various materials. These "inside" energy spectra are then converted to Linear Energy Transfer (LET) spectra and dose rate - that's what's needed by electronics systems designers. Model predictions are compared to radiation measurements made by instruments such as the Intra-Vehicular Charged Particle Directional Spectrometer (IV-CPDS) used inside the Space Station, Orion, and Space Shuttle.

  7. TOPEX orbital radiation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.; Barth, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The space radiation environment of the TOPEX spacecraft is investigated. A single trajectory was considered. The external (surface incident) charged particle radiation, predicted for the satellite, is determined by orbital flux integration for the specified trajectory. The latest standard models of the environment are used in the calculations. The evaluation is performed for solar maximum conditions. The spacecraft exposure to cosmic rays of galactic origin is evaluated over its flight path through the magnetosphere in terms of geomagnetic shielding effects, both for surface incident heavy ions and for particles emerging behind different material thickness. Limited shielding and dose evaluations are performed for simple infinite slab and spherical geometries. Results, given in graphical and tabular form, are analyzed, explained, and discussed. Conclusions are presented and commented on.

  8. [Heavy particle radiation therapy].

    PubMed

    Lozares, S; Mañeru, F; Pellejero, S

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of radiation formed by heavy particles make it a highly useful tool for therapeutic use. Protons, helium nuclei or carbon ions are being successfully employed in radiotherapy installations throughout the world. This article sets out the physical and technological foundations that make these radiation particles suitable for attacking white volume, as well as the different ways of administering treatment. Next, the main clinical applications are described, which show the therapeutic advantages in some of the pathologies most widely employed in proton and hadron therapy centres at present. Under continuous study, the clinical use of heavy particles appears to be an enormously promising path of advance in comparison with classical technologies, both in tumour coverage and in reducing dosages in surrounding tissue.

  9. Multilayer radiation shield

    DOEpatents

    Urbahn, John Arthur; Laskaris, Evangelos Trifon

    2009-06-16

    A power generation system including: a generator including a rotor including a superconductive rotor coil coupled to a rotatable shaft; a first prime mover drivingly coupled to the rotatable shaft; and a thermal radiation shield, partially surrounding the rotor coil, including at least a first sheet and a second sheet spaced apart from the first sheet by centripetal force produced by the rotatable shaft. A thermal radiation shield for a generator including a rotor including a super-conductive rotor coil including: a first sheet having at least one surface formed from a low emissivity material; and at least one additional sheet having at least one surface formed from a low emissivity material spaced apart from the first sheet by centripetal force produced by the rotatable shaft, wherein each successive sheet is an incrementally greater circumferential arc length and wherein the centripetal force shapes the sheets into a substantially catenary shape.

  10. Radiation shielding composition

    DOEpatents

    Quapp, W.J.; Lessing, P.A.

    1998-07-28

    A composition is disclosed for use as a radiation shield. The shield is a concrete product containing a stable uranium aggregate for attenuating gamma rays and a neutron absorbing component, the uranium aggregate and neutron absorbing component being present in the concrete product in sufficient amounts to provide a concrete having a density between about 4 and about 15 grams/cm{sup 3} and which will at a predetermined thickness, attenuate gamma rays and absorb neutrons from a radioactive material of projected gamma ray and neutron emissions over a determined time period. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing radioactive materials that emit gamma rays and neutrons. The concrete container preferably comprises a metal liner and/or a metal outer shell. The resulting radiation shielding container has the potential of being structurally sound, stable over a long period of time, and, if desired, readily mobile. 5 figs.

  11. Radiation shielding composition

    DOEpatents

    Quapp, William J.; Lessing, Paul A.

    2000-12-26

    A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield is a concrete product containing a stable uranium aggregate for attenuating gamma rays and a neutron absorbing component, the uranium aggregate and neutron absorbing component being present in the concrete product in sufficient amounts to provide a concrete having a density between about 4 and about 15 grams/cm.sup.3 and which will at a predetermined thickness, attenuate gamma rays and absorb neutrons from a radioactive material of projected gamma ray and neutron emissions over a determined time period. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing radioactive materials that emit gamma rays and neutrons. The concrete container preferably comprises a metal liner and/or a metal outer shell. The resulting radiation shielding container has the potential of being structurally sound, stable over a long period of time, and, if desired, readily mobile.

  12. Radiation shielding composition

    DOEpatents

    Quapp, William J.; Lessing, Paul A.

    1998-01-01

    A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield is a concrete product containing a stable uranium aggregate for attenuating gamma rays and a neutron absorbing component, the uranium aggregate and neutron absorbing component being present in the concrete product in sufficient amounts to provide a concrete having a density between about 4 and about 15 grams/cm.sup.3 and which will at a predetermined thickness, attenuate gamma rays and absorb neutrons from a radioactive material of projected gamma ray and neutron emissions over a determined time period. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing radioactive materials that emit gamma rays and neutrons. The concrete container preferably comprises a metal liner and/or a metal outer shell. The resulting radiation shielding container has the potential of being structurally sound, stable over a long period of time, and, if desired, readily mobile.

  13. Radiative Processes in Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila, Gabriela S.

    Relativistic jets and collimated outflows are ubiquitous phenomena in astrophysical settings, from young stellar objects up to Active Galactic Nuclei. The observed emission from some of these jets can cover the whole electromagnetic spectrum, from radio to gamma-rays. The relevant features of the spectral energy distributions depend on the nature of the source and on the characteristics of the surrounding environment. Here the author reviews the main physical processes that command the interactions between populations of relativistic particles locally accelerated in the jets, with matter, radiation and magnetic fields. Special attention is given to the conditions that lead to the dominance of the different radiative mechanisms. Examples from various types of sources are used to illustrate these effects.

  14. Genesis Radiation Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Altstatt, Richard L.; Skipworth, William C.

    2007-01-01

    The Genesis spacecraft launched on 8 August 2001 sampled solar wind environments at L1 from 2001 to 2004. After the Science Capsule door was opened, numerous foils and samples were exposed to the various solar wind environments during periods including slow solar wind from the streamer belts, fast solar wind flows from coronal holes, and coronal mass ejections. The Survey and Examination of Eroded Returned Surfaces (SEERS) program led by NASA's Space Environments and Effects program had initiated access for the space materials community to the remaining Science Capsule hardware after the science samples had been removed for evaluation of materials exposure to the space environment. This presentation will describe the process used to generate a reference radiation Genesis Radiation Environment developed for the SEERS program for use by the materials science community in their analyses of the Genesis hardware.

  15. Semiconductor radiation detector

    SciTech Connect

    Patt, Bradley E.; Iwanczyk, Jan S.; Tull, Carolyn R.

    A semiconductor radiation detector is provided to detect x-ray and light photons. The entrance electrode is segmented by using variable doping concentrations. Further, the entrance electrode is physically segmented by inserting n+ regions between p+ regions. The p+ regions and the n+ regions are individually biased. The detector elements can be used in an array, and the p+ regions and the n+ regions can be biased by applying potential at a single point. The back side of the semiconductor radiation detector has an n+ anode for collecting created charges and a number of p+ cathodes. Biased n+ inserts can bemore » placed between the p+ cathodes, and an internal resistor divider can be used to bias the n+ inserts as well as the p+ cathodes. A polysilicon spiral guard can be implemented surrounding the active area of the entrance electrode or surrounding an array of entrance electrodes.« less

  16. Time encoded radiation imaging

    DOEpatents

    Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik; Kiff, Scott

    2014-10-21

    The various technologies presented herein relate to detecting nuclear material at a large stand-off distance. An imaging system is presented which can detect nuclear material by utilizing time encoded imaging relating to maximum and minimum radiation particle counts rates. The imaging system is integrated with a data acquisition system that can utilize variations in photon pulse shape to discriminate between neutron and gamma-ray interactions. Modulation in the detected neutron count rates as a function of the angular orientation of the detector due to attenuation of neighboring detectors is utilized to reconstruct the neutron source distribution over 360 degrees around the imaging system. Neutrons (e.g., fast neutrons) and/or gamma-rays are incident upon scintillation material in the imager, the photons generated by the scintillation material are converted to electrical energy from which the respective neutrons/gamma rays can be determined and, accordingly, a direction to, and the location of, a radiation source identified.

  17. Radiation-induced schwannomas

    SciTech Connect

    Rubinstein, A.B.; Reichenthal, E.; Borohov, H.

    1989-06-01

    The histopathology and clinical course of three patients with schwannomas of the brain and high cervical cord after therapeutic irradiation for intracranial malignancy and for ringworm of the scalp are described. Earlier reports in the literature indicated that radiation of the scalp may induce tumors in the head and neck. It is therefore suggested that therapeutic irradiation in these instances was a causative factor in the genesis of these tumors.

  18. RADIATION SHIELDING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Wigner, E.P.; Young, G.J.

    1958-09-23

    ABS>A radiation shield that is suitable for the protection of personnel from both gamma rays and nentrons is described. The shield is comprised of a hollow wall and an aggregate consisting of iron and water in approximately equal amounts by volume substantially filling the wall. A means is provided to circulate the water through the wall to cool the shield when in use.

  19. Radiation in Yolo County

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickie, H.; Colwell, K.

    2013-12-01

    In today's post-nuclear age, there are many man-made sources of radioactivity, in addition to the natural background we expect from cosmic and terrestrial origins. While all atoms possess unstable isotopes, there are few that are abundant enough, energetic enough, and have long enough half-lives to pose a signicant risk of ionizing radiation exposure. We hypothesize a decreasing relative radiation measurement (in detected counts per minute [CPM]) at nine locations that might pose occupational or environmental hazard: 1. A supermarket produce aisle (living tissue has high concentration of 40K) 2. A hospital (medical imaging uses X-rays and radioactive dyes) 3. The electronics section of a superstore (high voltage electronics have the potential to produce ionizing radiation) 4. An electrical transformer (similar reasons) 5. An antique store (some ceramics and glazes use radioisotopes that are now outlawed) 6. A gasoline pump (processing and terrestrial isotope contamination might leave a radioactive residue) 7. A fertilized eld (phosphate rock contains uranium and thorium, in addition to potassium) 8. A house (hopefully mild background, but potential radon contamination) 9. A school (should be radiologically neutral) We tested the hypothesis by measuring 100 minutes of counts on a self-assembled MightyOhmTM Geiger counter at each location. Our results show that contrary to the hypothesized ordering, the house was the most radiologically active. We present possible explanations for the observed radiation levels, as well as possible sources of measurement error, possible consequences of prolonged exposure to the measured levels, and suggestions for decreasing exposure and environmental impact.

  20. Microwave Radiation and Thermoregulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-11-01

    AD-Alll 244 JOHN B PIERCE FOUNDATION LAB NEW HAVEN CONN F/S 6/18 MICROWAVE RADIATION AND THERMOREGULATION .(U) NOV 81 E R ADAIR AFOSR-77-3420...KEY WORDS rCo ntinue on reverse ,ide if necessary end identify by block number) behavioral thermoregulation squirrel monkey autonomic thermoregulation ...GOVERNMENT ~ j ~3Approved f or public release TABLE OF CONTENTS Page SUMMARY 1 BACKGROUND 3 A. Temperature changes and thermoregulation 3 B. Basic data on

  1. Hawking radiation As tunneling

    PubMed

    Parikh; Wilczek

    2000-12-11

    We present a short and direct derivation of Hawking radiation as a tunneling process, based on particles in a dynamical geometry. The imaginary part of the action for the classically forbidden process is related to the Boltzmann factor for emission at the Hawking temperature. Because the derivation respects conservation laws, the exact spectrum is not precisely thermal. We compare and contrast the problem of spontaneous emission of charged particles from a charged conductor.

  2. Structure in Radiative Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, R. Paul; Visco, A.; Doss, F.; Reighard, A.; Froula, D.; Glenzer, S.; Knauer, J.

    2008-05-01

    Radiative shocks are shock waves fast enough that radiation from the shock-heated matter alters the structure of the shock. They are of fundamental interest to high-energy-density physics and also have applications throughout astrophysics. This poster will review the dimensionless parameters that determine structure in these shocks and will discuss recent experiments to measure such structure for strongly radiative shocks that are optically thin upstream and optically thick downstream. The shock transition itself heats mainly the ions. Immediately downstream of the shock, the ions heat the electrons and the electrons radiate, producing an optically thin cooling layer, followed by the downstream layer of warm, shocked material. The axial structure of these systems is of interest, because the transition from precursor through the cooling layer to the final state is complex and difficult to calculate. Their lateral structure is also of interest, as they seem likely to be subject to some variation on the Vishniac instability of thin layers. In our experiments to produce such shocks, laser ablation launches a Be plasma into a tube of Xe or Ar gas, at a velocity above 100 km/s. This drives a shock down the tube. Radiography provides fundamental information about the structure and evolution of the shocked material in Xe. Thomson scattering and pyrometry have provided data in Ar. We will summarize the available evidence regarding the properties of these shocks, and will discuss their connections to astrophysical cases. This research was sponsored by the National Nuclear Security Administration under the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances program through DOE Research Grants DE-FG52-07NA28058, DE-FG52-04NA00064, and other grants and contracts.

  3. Understanding Radiation Thermometry. Part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risch, Timothy K.

    2015-01-01

    This document is a two-part course on the theory and practice of radiation thermometry. Radiation thermometry is the technique for determining the temperature of a surface or a volume by measuring the electromagnetic radiation it emits. This course covers the theory and practice of radiative thermometry and emphasizes the modern application of the field using commercially available electronic detectors and optical components. The course covers the historical development of the field, the fundamental physics of radiative surfaces, along with modern measurement methods and equipment.

  4. Monitoring cosmic radiation on aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, Robert D.; Iles, R. H. A.; Jones, J. B. L.; Hunter, R.; Taylor, G. C.; Thomas, D. J.

    2002-03-01

    The Earth is constantly bombarded by cosmic radiation that can be either galactic or solar in origin. At aircraft altitudes, the radiation levels are much higher than at sea level and recent European legislation has classified aircrew as radiation workers. University College London is working with Virgin Atlantic Airways on a 3 year project to monitor the levels of cosmic radiation on long-haul flights. The study will determine whether models currently used to predict radiation exposure of aircrew are adequate. It will also try to determine whether solar flare activity can cause significant enhancement to the predicted doses.

  5. Understanding Radiation Thermometry. Part I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risch Timothy K.

    2015-01-01

    This document is a two-part course on the theory and practice of radiation thermometry. Radiation thermometry is the technique for determining the temperature of a surface or a volume by measuring the electromagnetic radiation it emits. This course covers the theory and practice of radiative thermometry and emphasizes the modern application of the field using commercially available electronic detectors and optical components. The course covers the historical development of the field, the fundamental physics of radiative surfaces, along with modern measurement methods and equipment.

  6. Microbeam radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laissue, Jean A.; Lyubimova, Nadia; Wagner, Hans-Peter; Archer, David W.; Slatkin, Daniel N.; Di Michiel, Marco; Nemoz, Christian; Renier, Michel; Brauer, Elke; Spanne, Per O.; Gebbers, Jan-Olef; Dixon, Keith; Blattmann, Hans

    1999-10-01

    The central nervous system of vertebrates, even when immature, displays extraordinary resistance to damage by microscopically narrow, multiple, parallel, planar beams of x rays. Imminently lethal gliosarcomas in the brains of mature rats can be inhibited and ablated by such microbeams with little or no harm to mature brain tissues and neurological function. Potentially palliative, conventional wide-beam radiotherapy of malignant brain tumors in human infants under three years of age is so fraught with the danger of disrupting the functional maturation of immature brain tissues around the targeted tumor that it is implemented infrequently. Other kinds of therapy for such tumors are often inadequate. We suggest that microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) might help to alleviate the situation. Wiggler-generated synchrotron x-rays were first used for experimental microplanar beam (microbeam) radiation therapy (MRT) at Brookhaven National Laboratory's National Synchrotron Light Source in the early 1990s. We now describe the progress achieved in MRT research to date using immature and adult rats irradiated at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France, and investigated thereafter at the Institute of Pathology of the University of Bern.

  7. Solar ultraviolet radiation cataract.

    PubMed

    Löfgren, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    Despite being a treatable disease, cataract is still the leading cause for blindness in the world. Solar ultraviolet radiation is epidemiologically linked to cataract development, while animal and in vitro studies prove a causal relationship. However, the pathogenetic pathways for the disease are not fully understood and there is still no perfect model for human age related cataract. This non-comprehensive overview focus on recent developments regarding effects of solar UV radiation wavebands on the lens. A smaller number of fundamental papers are also included to provide a backdrop for the overview. Future studies are expected to further clarify the cellular and subcellular mechanisms for UV radiation-induced cataract and especially the isolated or combined temporal and spatial effects of UVA and UVB in the pathogenesis of human cataract. Regardless of the cause for cataract, there is a need for advances in pharmaceutical or other treatment modalities that do not require surgical replacement of the lens. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. [Nonionizing radiation and electromagnetic fields].

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, J H

    1991-01-01

    Nonionising radiation comprises all kinds of radiation and fields of the electromagnetic spectrum where biological matter is not ionised, as well as mechanical waves such as infrasound and ultrasound. The electromagnetic spectrum is subdivided into individual sections and includes: Static and low-frequency electric and magnetic fields including technical applications of energy with mains frequency, radio frequency fields, microwaves and optic radiation (infrared, visible light, ultraviolet radiation including laser). The following categories of persons can be affected by emissions by non-ionising radiation: Persons in the environment and in the household, workers, patients undergoing medical diagnosis or treatment. If the radiation is sufficiently intense, or if the fields are of appropriate strength, a multitude of effects can occur (depending on the type of radiation), such as heat and stimulating or irritating action, inflammations of the skin or eyes, changes in the blood picture, burns or in some cases cancer as a late sequel. The ability of radiation to penetrate into the human body, as well as the types of interaction with biological tissue, with organs and organisms, differs significantly for the various kinds of nonionising radiation. The following aspects of nonionising radiation are discussed: protection of humans against excessive sunlight rays when sunbathing and when exposed to UV radiation (e.g. in solaria); health risks of radio and microwaves (safety of microwave cookers and mobile radio units); effects on human health by electric and magnetic fields in everyday life.

  9. Method for microbeam radiation therapy

    DOEpatents

    Slatkin, Daniel N.; Dilmanian, F. Avraham; Spanne, Per O.

    1994-01-01

    A method of performing radiation therapy on a patient, involving exposing a target, usually a tumor, to a therapeutic dose of high energy electromagnetic radiation, preferably X-ray radiation, in the form of at least two non-overlapping microbeams of radiation, each microbeam having a width of less than about 1 millimeter. Target tissue exposed to the microbeams receives a radiation dose during the exposure that exceeds the maximum dose that such tissue can survive. Non-target tissue between the microbeams receives a dose of radiation below the threshold amount of radiation that can be survived by the tissue, and thereby permits the non-target tissue to regenerate. The microbeams may be directed at the target from one direction, or from more than one direction in which case the microbeams overlap within the target tissue enhancing the lethal effect of the irradiation while sparing the surrounding healthy tissue.

  10. Space Radiation Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, John

    2016-01-01

    The harmful effects of space radiation on astronauts is one of the most important limiting factors for human exploration of space beyond low Earth orbit, including a journey to Mars. This talk will present an overview of space radiation issues that arise throughout the solar system and will describe research efforts at NASA aimed at studying space radiation effects on astronauts, including the experimental program at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Recent work on galactic cosmic ray simulation at ground based accelerators will also be presented. The three major sources of space radiation, namely geomagnetically trapped particles, solar particle events and galactic cosmic rays will be discussed as well as recent discoveries of the harmful effects of space radiation on the human body. Some suggestions will also be given for developing a space radiation program in the Republic of Korea.

  11. New Approaches to Radiation Protection

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Eliot M.; Day, Regina; Singh, Vijay K.

    2015-01-01

    Radioprotectors are compounds that protect against radiation injury when given prior to radiation exposure. Mitigators can protect against radiation injury when given after exposure but before symptoms appear. Radioprotectors and mitigators can potentially improve the outcomes of radiotherapy for cancer treatment by allowing higher doses of radiation and/or reduced damage to normal tissues. Such compounds can also potentially counteract the effects of accidental exposure to radiation or deliberate exposure (e.g., nuclear reactor meltdown, dirty bomb, or nuclear bomb explosion); hence they are called radiation countermeasures. Here, we will review the general principles of radiation injury and protection and describe selected examples of radioprotectors/mitigators ranging from small-molecules to proteins to cell-based treatments. We will emphasize agents that are in more advanced stages of development. PMID:25653923

  12. Method for microbeam radiation therapy

    DOEpatents

    Slatkin, D.N.; Dilmanian, F.A.; Spanne, P.O.

    1994-08-16

    A method is disclosed of performing radiation therapy on a patient, involving exposing a target, usually a tumor, to a therapeutic dose of high energy electromagnetic radiation, preferably X-ray radiation. The dose is in the form of at least two non-overlapping microbeams of radiation, each microbeam having a width of less than about 1 millimeter. Target tissue exposed to the microbeams receives a radiation dose during the exposure that exceeds the maximum dose that such tissue can survive. Non-target tissue between the microbeams receives a dose of radiation below the threshold amount of radiation that can be survived by the tissue, and thereby permits the non-target tissue to regenerate. The microbeams may be directed at the target from one direction, or from more than one direction in which case the microbeams overlap within the target tissue enhancing the lethal effect of the irradiation while sparing the surrounding healthy tissue. No Drawings

  13. Chapter 1: Direct Normal Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Myer, Daryl R.

    2016-04-15

    This chapter addresses the quantitative and qualitative aspects of the solar resource, the direct solar radiation. It discusses the total or integrated broadband direct beam extraterrestrial radiation (ETR). This total integrated irradiance is comprised of photons of electromagnetic radiation. The chapter also discusses the impact of the atmosphere and its effect upon the direct normal irradiance (DNI) beam radiation. The gases and particulates present in the atmosphere traversed by the direct beam reflect, absorb, and scatter differing spectral regions and proportions of the direct beam, and act as a variable filter. Knowledge of the available broadband DNI beam radiation resourcemore » data is essential in designing a concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) system. Spectral variations in the DNI beam radiation affect the performance of a CPV system depending on the solar cell technology used. The chapter describes propagation and scattering processes of circumsolar radiation (CSR), which includes the Mie scattering from large particles.« less

  14. Influence of Extraterrestrial Radiation on Radiation Portal Monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Paul E.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2009-06-01

    Cosmic radiation and solar flares can be a major source of background radiation at the Earth’s surface. This paper examines the relationship between extraterrestrial radiation and the detectable background in radiation portal monitors used for homeland security applications. Background radiation data from 13 radiation portal monitor facilities are examined and compared against external sources of data related to extraterrestrial radiation, including measurements at neutron monitors located at 53 cosmic-ray observatories around the Earth, four polar orbiting satellites, three geostationary satellites, ground-based geomagnetic field data from observatories around the Earth, a solar magnetic index, solar radio flux data, and sunspot activitymore » data. Four-years (January 2003 through December 2006) of data are used in this study, which include the latter part of Solar Cycle 23 as solar activity was on the decline. The analysis shows a significant relationship between some extraterrestrial radiation and the background detected in the radiation portal monitors. A demonstrable decline is shown in the average gamma ray and neutron background at the radiation portal monitors as solar activity declined over the period of the study.« less

  15. Radiation safety among cardiology fellows.

    PubMed

    Kim, Candice; Vasaiwala, Samip; Haque, Faizul; Pratap, Kiran; Vidovich, Mladen I

    2010-07-01

    Cardiology fellows can be exposed to high radiation levels during procedures. Proper radiation training and implementation of safety procedures is of critical importance in lowering physician health risks associated with radiation exposure. Participants were cardiology fellows in the United States (n = 2,545) who were contacted by e-mail to complete an anonymous survey regarding the knowledge and practice of radiation protection during catheterization laboratory procedures. An on-line survey engine, SurveyMonkey, was used to distribute and collect the results of the 10-question survey. The response rate was 10.5%. Of the 267 respondents, 82% had undergone formal radiation safety training. Only 58% of the fellows were aware of their hospital's pregnancy radiation policy and 60% knew how to contact the hospital's radiation safety officer. Although 52% of the fellows always wore a dosimeter, 81% did not know their level of radiation exposure in the previous year and only 74% of fellows knew the safe levels of radiation exposure. The fellows who had received formal training were more likely to be aware of their pregnancy policy, to know the contact information of their radiation safety officer, to be aware of the safe levels of radiation exposure, to use dosimeters and RadPad consistently, and to know their own level of radiation exposure in the previous year. In conclusion, cardiology fellows have not been adequately educated about radiation safety. A concerted effort directed at physician safety in the workplace from the regulatory committees overseeing cardiology fellowships should be encouraged. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Radiation shielding quality assurance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Um, Dallsun

    For the radiation shielding quality assurance, the validity and reliability of the neutron transport code MCNP, which is now one of the most widely used radiation shielding analysis codes, were checked with lot of benchmark experiments. And also as a practical example, follows were performed in this thesis. One integral neutron transport experiment to measure the effect of neutron streaming in iron and void was performed with Dog-Legged Void Assembly in Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory in 1991. Neutron flux was measured six different places with the methane detectors and a BF-3 detector. The main purpose of the measurements was to provide benchmark against which various neutron transport calculation tools could be compared. Those data were used in verification of Monte Carlo Neutron & Photon Transport Code, MCNP, with the modeling for that. Experimental results and calculation results were compared in both ways, as the total integrated value of neutron fluxes along neutron energy range from 10 KeV to 2 MeV and as the neutron spectrum along with neutron energy range. Both results are well matched with the statistical error +/-20%. MCNP results were also compared with those of TORT, a three dimensional discrete ordinates code which was developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. MCNP results are superior to the TORT results at all detector places except one. This means that MCNP is proved as a very powerful tool for the analysis of neutron transport through iron & air and further it could be used as a powerful tool for the radiation shielding analysis. For one application of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) to neutron and gamma transport problems, uncertainties for the calculated values of critical K were evaluated as in the ANOVA on statistical data.

  17. Leakage radiation interference microscopy.

    PubMed

    Descrovi, Emiliano; Barakat, Elsie; Angelini, Angelo; Munzert, Peter; De Leo, Natascia; Boarino, Luca; Giorgis, Fabrizio; Herzig, Hans Peter

    2013-09-01

    We present a proof of principle for a new imaging technique combining leakage radiation microscopy with high-resolution interference microscopy. By using oil immersion optics it is demonstrated that amplitude and phase can be retrieved from optical fields, which are evanescent in air. This technique is illustratively applied for mapping a surface mode propagating onto a planar dielectric multilayer on a thin glass substrate. The surface mode propagation constant estimated after Fourier transformation of the measured complex field is well matched with an independent measurement based on back focal plane imaging.

  18. RADIATION SHIELDING COMPOSITION

    DOEpatents

    Dunegan, H.L.

    1963-01-29

    A light weight radiation shielding composition is described whose mechanical and radiological properties can be varied within wide limits. The composition of this shielding material consists of four basic ingredients: powder of either Pb or W, a plastic resin, a resin plasticizer, and a polymerization catalyst to promote an interaction of the plasticizer with the plastic resin. Air may be mixed into the above ingredients in order to control the density of the final composition. For equivalent gamma attenuation, the shielding composition weighs one-third to one-half as much as conventional Pb shielding. (AEC)

  19. Radiation Belt Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-27

    is unlimited. 15 DISTRIBUTION LIST DTIC/OCP 8725 John J. Kingman Rd, Suite 0944 Ft Belvoir, VA 22060-6218 1 cy AFRL /RVIL Kirtland AFB, NM 87117... AFRL -RV-PS- AFRL -RV-PS- TR-2016-0007 TR-2016-0007 RADIATION BELT DYNAMICS Jay M. Albert, et al. 27 December 2015 Final Report APPROVED FOR... KIRTLAND AIR FORCE BASE, NM 87117-5776 DTIC COPY NOTICE AND SIGNATURE PAGE Using Government drawings, specifications, or other data included in this

  20. The space radiation environment

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, D E

    There are three primary sources of space radiation: galactic cosmic rays (GCR), trapped belt radiation, and solar particle events (SPE). All are composed of ions, the nuclei of atoms. Their energies range from a few MeV u{sup -1} to over a GeV u{sup -1}. These ions can fragment when they interact with spacecraft materials and produce energetic neutrons and ions of lower atomic mass. Absorbed dose rates inside a typical spacecraft (like the Space Shuttle) in a low inclination (28.5 degrees) orbit range between 0.05 and 2 mGy d{sup -1} depending on the altitude and flight inclination (angle of orbitmore » with the equator). The quality factor of radiation in orbit depends on the relative contributions of trapped belt radiation and GCR, and the dose rate varies both with orbital altitude and inclination. The corresponding equivalent dose rate ranges between 0.1 and 4 mSv d{sup -1}. In high inclination orbits, like that of the Mir Space Station and as is planned for the International Space Station, blood-forming organ (BFO) equivalent dose rates as high as 1.5 mSv d{sup -1}. Thus, on a 1 y mission, a crew member could obtain a total dose of 0.55 Sv. Maximum equivalent dose rates measured in high altitude passes through the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) were 10 mSv h{sup -1}. For an interplanetary space mission (e.g., to Mars) annual doses from GCR alone range between 150 mSv y{sup -1} at solar maximum and 580 mSv y{sup -1} at solar minimum. Large SPE, like the October 1989 series, are more apt to occur in the years around solar maximum. In free space, such an event could contribute another 300 mSv, assuming that a warning system and safe haven can be effectively used with operational procedures to minimize crew exposures. Thus, the total dose for a 3 y mission to Mars could exceed 2 Sv.« less

  1. Radiation imaging apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Anger, H.O.; Martin, D.C.; Lampton, M.L.

    1983-07-26

    A radiation imaging system using a charge multiplier and a position sensitive anode in the form of periodically arranged sets of interconnected anode regions for detecting the position of the centroid of a charge cloud arriving thereat from the charge multiplier. Various forms of improved position sensitive anodes having single plane electrode connections are disclosed. Various analog and digital signal processing systems are disclosed, including systems which use the fast response of microchannel plates, anodes and preamps to perform scintillation pulse height analysis digitally. 15 figs.

  2. Microstructured silicon radiation detector

    SciTech Connect

    Okandan, Murat; Derzon, Mark S.; Draper, Bruce L.

    2017-03-14

    A radiation detector comprises a silicon body in which are defined vertical pores filled with a converter material and situated within silicon depletion regions. One or more charge-collection electrodes are arranged to collect current generated when secondary particles enter the silicon body through walls of the pores. The pores are disposed in low-density clusters, have a majority pore thickness of 5 .mu.m or less, and have a majority aspect ratio, defined as the ratio of pore depth to pore thickness, of at least 10.

  3. LDEF satellite radiation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armstrong, T. W.; Colborn, B. L.

    1994-01-01

    Some early results are summarized from a program under way to utilize LDEF satellite data for evaluating and improving current models of the space radiation environment in low earth orbit. Reported here are predictions and comparisons with some of the LDEF dose and induced radioactivity data, which are used to check the accuracy of current models describing the magnitude and directionality of the trapped proton environment. Preliminary findings are that the environment models underestimate both dose and activation from trapped protons by a factor of about two, and the observed anisotropy is higher than predicted.

  4. RADIATION DETECTOR SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Gundlach, J.C.; Kelley, G.G.

    1958-02-25

    This patent relates to radiation detection devices and presents a unique detection system especialiy desirable for portable type instruments using a Geiger-Mueller for a high voltage battery, thereby reducing the size and weight of the instrument, by arranging a one-shot multivibrator to recharge a capacitance applying operating potential to tho Geiger-Mueller tube each time a nuclear particle is detected. When detection occurs, the multivibrator further delivers a pulse to an appropriate indicator doing away with the necessity for the pulse amplifier conventionally intermediate between the detector and indicator in pulse detection systems.

  5. Radiation Protection Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adorisio, C.; Roesler, S.; Urscheler, C.; Vincke, H.

    This chapter summarizes the legal Radiation Protection (RP) framework to be considered in the design of HiLumi LHC. It details design limits and constraints, dose objectives and explains how the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) approach is formalized at CERN. Furthermore, features of the FLUKA Monte Carlo code are summarized that are of relevance for RP studies. Results of FLUKA simulations for residual dose rates during Long Shutdown 1 (LS1) are compared to measurements demonstrating good agreement and providing proof for the accuracy of FLUKA predictions for future shutdowns. Finally, an outlook for the residual dose rate evolution until LS3 is given.

  6. Radiation imaging apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Anger, Hal O.; Martin, Donn C.; Lampton, Michael L.

    1983-01-01

    A radiation imaging system using a charge multiplier and a position sensitive anode in the form of periodically arranged sets of interconnected anode regions for detecting the position of the centroid of a charge cloud arriving thereat from the charge multiplier. Various forms of improved position sensitive anodes having single plane electrode connections are disclosed. Various analog and digital signal processing systems are disclosed, including systems which use the fast response of microchannel plates, anodes and preamps to perform scintillation pulse height analysis digitally.

  7. Protection from Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; Shinn, J. L.; Singleterry, R. C.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Badhwar, G. D.; Kim, M. Y.; Badavi, F. F.; Heinbockel, J. H.

    2000-01-01

    The exposures anticipated for our astronauts in the anticipated Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) will be significantly higher (both annual and carrier) than any other occupational group. In addition, the exposures in deep space result largely from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) for which there is as yet little experience. Some evidence exists indicating that conventional linear energy transfer (LET) defined protection quantities (quality factors) may not be appropriate [1,2]. The purpose of this presentation is to evaluate our current understanding of radiation protection with laboratory and flight experimental data and to discuss recent improvements in interaction models and transport methods.

  8. Radiative Augmented Combustion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    PbLFICE SY 7a NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION M.L. ENERGIA , Inc. AFOSR/NA 6r. ADDRESS (City. State. anW ZIP Code) 7b. ADDRESS (City State, and ZIPCode...27 -00 N ’fPECTED 0 6I FOREWORD This is the Final Report on research on Radiative Augmented Combustion conducted at M. L. ENERGIA , Inc. It was a...the first two annual reports prior to this one. The entire research program was performed at ENERGIA , Inc., Princeton, New Jersey, with Dr. Moshe Lavid

  9. Radiation area monitor device and method

    SciTech Connect

    Vencelj, Matjaz; Stowe, Ashley C.; Petrovic, Toni

    A radiation area monitor device/method, utilizing: a radiation sensor; a rotating radiation shield disposed about the radiation sensor, wherein the rotating radiation shield defines one or more ports that are transparent to radiation; and a processor operable for analyzing and storing a radiation fingerprint acquired by the radiation sensor as the rotating radiation shield is rotated about the radiation sensor. Optionally, the radiation sensor includes a gamma and/or neutron radiation sensor. The device/method selectively operates in: a first supervised mode during which a baseline radiation fingerprint is acquired by the radiation sensor as the rotating radiation shield is rotated aboutmore » the radiation sensor; and a second unsupervised mode during which a subsequent radiation fingerprint is acquired by the radiation sensor as the rotating radiation shield is rotated about the radiation sensor, wherein the subsequent radiation fingerprint is compared to the baseline radiation fingerprint and, if a predetermined difference threshold is exceeded, an alert is issued.« less

  10. Malignant mesothelioma following radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Antman, K.H.; Corson, J.M.; Li, F.P.

    Mesothelioma developed in proximity to the field of therapeutic radiation administered 10-31 years previously in four patients. In three, mesothelioma arose within the site of prior therapeutic radiation for another cancer. Mesothelioma in the fourth patient developed adjacent to the site of cosmetic radiation to a thyroidectomy scar. None of these four patients recalled an asbestos exposure or had evidence of asbestosis on chest roentgenogram. Lung tissue in one patient was negative for ferruginous bodies, a finding considered to indicate no significant asbestos exposure. Five other patients with radiation-associated mesothelioma have been reported previously, suggesting that radiation is an uncommonmore » cause of human mesothelioma. Problems in the diagnosis of radiation-associated mesotheliomas are considered.« less

  11. RADIATION EFFECTS ON IMMUNE MECHANISMS

    SciTech Connect

    Stoner, R.D.; Hale, W.M.

    1963-03-01

    Experiments were performed on pathogen-free Swiss albino mice to determine the repressive effect of ionizing radiation on immune mechanisms. In animals given sublethal doses of Co/sup 60/ gamma radiation by acute short-term exposure or by chronic long-term exposure at a low dose rate, ability to produce antibody was inhibited or abolished, and natural resistance and active and passive immunity to pneumococcal and Trichinella infections were severely depressed. It appears that the repression resulted from damage to the cellular defensive mechanisms of the host. Active immunity and natural resistance to influenza virus infections were not altered significantly by radiation. Exposure tomore » radiation enhanced the severity of anaphylactic shock markedly in mice previously sensitized to tetanus toxoid and challenged with tetanus toxoid after radiation. Chronic exposure to radiation caused immediate increased sensitivity to fatal anaphylaxis. (auth)« less

  12. Gravitational scattering of electromagnetic radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooker, J. T.; Janis, A. I.

    1980-01-01

    The scattering of electromagnetic radiation by linearized gravitational fields is studied to second order in a perturbation expansion. The incoming electromagnetic radiation can be of arbitrary multipole structure, and the gravitational fields are also taken to be advanced fields of arbitrary multipole structure. All electromagnetic multipole radiation is found to be scattered by gravitational monopole and time-varying dipole fields. No case has been found, however, in which any electromagnetic multipole radiation is scattered by gravitational fields of quadrupole or higher-order multipole structure. This lack of scattering is established for infinite classes of special cases, and is conjectured to hold in general. The results of the scattering analysis are applied to the case of electromagnetic radiation scattered by a moving mass. It is shown how the mass and velocity may be determined by a knowledge of the incident and scattered radiation.

  13. Limitation of the synchrotron radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jialu; Yang, Jianming

    2001-06-01

    In recent years, owing to the great success of the synchrotron radiation in contemporary astrophysical research, the abusive use of synchrotron radiation has been emerged. In this paper, we show that the traditional idea, "electrons with a power-law energy distribution certainly yield a power-law radiation spectrum", should be changed. If the magnetic field of the radiation region is not flat and straight, the synchro-curvature radiation, instead of the synchrotron radiation, should be used to get a real description. In a curved magnetic field, the resulting spectrum of electrons could obviously distinct from a power-law one. This means that the way of only adding many other mechanisms to a pure power-law spectrum to get the expected spectrum might not be reasonable.

  14. Optical radiation measurements and instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Andersen, F A; Landry, R J

    1981-07-01

    Accurate measurement of optical radiation is required when sources of optical radiation are used in biological research. Such measurement of broad-band noncoherent optical radiations usually must be performed by a highly trained specialist using sophisticated, complex, and expensive instruments. Presentation of the results of such measurement requires correct use of quantities and units with which many biological researchers are unfamiliar. The measurement process, quantities, units, measurement systems and instruments, and uncertainties associated with optical radiation measurements are reviewed in this paper. A conventional technique for evaluating the potential hazards associated with broad-band sources of optical radiation and a spectroradiometer developed to measure spectral quantities is described. A new prototype ultraviolet radiation hazard monitor which has recently been developed is also presented. This new instrument utilizes a spectrograph and a spectral weighting mechanical mask and provides a direct reading of the effective irradiance for wavelengths less than 315 nm.

  15. Radiative Transfer in Seagrass Canopies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-30

    Radiative Transfer in Seagrass Canopies Richard C. Zimmerman Moss Landing Marine Laboratories P. O. Box 450 Moss Landing, CA 95039 phone (831) 655...models of radiative transfer for optically shallow waters with benthic substrates colonized by submerged plant canopies ( seagrasses and seaweeds). Such...coastal resources. SCIENTIFIC OBJECTIVES The objectives of this study are to • Develop radiative transfer models of seagrass and seaweed canopies in

  16. Proportional counter radiation camera

    DOEpatents

    Borkowski, C.J.; Kopp, M.K.

    1974-01-15

    A gas-filled proportional counter camera that images photon emitting sources is described. A two-dimensional, positionsensitive proportional multiwire counter is provided as the detector. The counter consists of a high- voltage anode screen sandwiched between orthogonally disposed planar arrays of multiple parallel strung, resistively coupled cathode wires. Two terminals from each of the cathode arrays are connected to separate timing circuitry to obtain separate X and Y coordinate signal values from pulse shape measurements to define the position of an event within the counter arrays which may be recorded by various means for data display. The counter is further provided with a linear drift field which effectively enlarges the active gas volume of the counter and constrains the recoil electrons produced from ionizing radiation entering the counter to drift perpendicularly toward the planar detection arrays. A collimator is interposed between a subject to be imaged and the counter to transmit only the radiation from the subject which has a perpendicular trajectory with respect to the planar cathode arrays of the detector. (Official Gazette)

  17. Imaging with terahertz radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Wai Lam; Deibel, Jason; Mittleman, Daniel M.

    2007-08-01

    Within the last several years, the field of terahertz science and technology has changed dramatically. Many new advances in the technology for generation, manipulation, and detection of terahertz radiation have revolutionized the field. Much of this interest has been inspired by the promise of valuable new applications for terahertz imaging and sensing. Among a long list of proposed uses, one finds compelling needs such as security screening and quality control, as well as whimsical notions such as counting the almonds in a bar of chocolate. This list has grown in parallel with the development of new technologies and new paradigms for imaging and sensing. Many of these proposed applications exploit the unique capabilities of terahertz radiation to penetrate common packaging materials and provide spectroscopic information about the materials within. Several of the techniques used for terahertz imaging have been borrowed from other, more well established fields such as x-ray computed tomography and synthetic aperture radar. Others have been developed exclusively for the terahertz field, and have no analogies in other portions of the spectrum. This review provides a comprehensive description of the various techniques which have been employed for terahertz image formation, as well as discussing numerous examples which illustrate the many exciting potential uses for these emerging technologies.

  18. Laser radiation bracket debonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostálová, Tat'jana; Jelínková, Helena; Šulc, Jan; Koranda, Petr; Nemec, Michal; Racek, Jaroslav; Miyagi, Mitsunobu

    2008-02-01

    Ceramic brackets are an aesthetic substitute for conventional stainless steel brackets in orthodontic patients. However, ceramic brackets are more brittle and have higher bond strengths, which can lead to bracket breakage and enamel damage during classical type of debonding. This study examined the possibility of laser radiation ceramic brackets removing as well as the possible damage of a surface structure of hard dental tissue after this procedure. Two types of lasers were used for the experiments - a laser diode LIMO HLU20F400 generating a wavelength of 808 nm with the maximum output power 20W at the end of the fiber (core diameter 400 μm, numerical aperture 0.22). As a second source, a diode-pumped Tm:YAP laser system generating a wavelength of 1.9 μm, with up to 3.8 W maximum output power was chosen. For the investigation, extracted incisors with ceramic brackets were used. In both cases, laser radiation was applied for 0.5 minute at a maximum power of 1 W. Temperature changes of the irradiated tissue was registered by camera Electrophysics PV320. After the interaction experiment, the photo-documentation was prepared by the stereomicroscope Nikon SMZ 2T, Japan. The surface tissue analysis was processed in "low vacuum" (30 Pa) regime without desiccation. This technique was used to record back-scattered electron images. Selecting the appropriate laser, resin, and bracket combination can minimize risks of enamel degradation and make debonding more safe.

  19. Personal Radiation Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Mark; Vinci, Victoria

    2004-01-01

    A report describes the personal radiation protection system (PRPS), which has been invented for use on the International Space Station and other spacecraft. The PRPS comprises walls that can be erected inside spacecraft, where and when needed, to reduce the amount of radiation to which personnel are exposed. The basic structural modules of the PRPS are pairs of 1-in. (2.54-cm)-thick plates of high-density polyethylene equipped with fasteners. The plates of each module are assembled with a lap joint. The modules are denoted bricks because they are designed to be stacked with overlaps, in a manner reminiscent of bricks, to build 2-in. (5.08-cm)-thick walls of various lengths and widths. The bricks are of two varieties: one for flat wall areas and one for corners. The corner bricks are specialized adaptations of the flat-area bricks that make it possible to join walls perpendicular to each other. Bricks are attached to spacecraft structures and to each other by use of straps that can be tightened to increase the strengths and stiffnesses of joints.

  20. Chandra Radiation Environment Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Blackwell, W. C.

    2003-01-01

    CRMFLX (Chandra Radiation Model of ion FluX) is a radiation environment risk mitigation tool for use as a decision aid in planning the operations times for Chandra's Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer (ACIS) detector. The accurate prediction of the proton flux environment with energies of 100 - 200 keV is needed in order to protect the ACIS detector against proton degradation. Unfortunately, protons of this energy are abundant in the region of space Chandra must operate, and on-board particle detectors do not measure proton flux levels of the required energy range. This presentation will describe the plasma environment data analysis and modeling basis of the CRMFLX engineering environment model developed to predict the proton flux in the solar wind, magnetosheath, and magnetosphere phenomenological regions of geospace. The recently released CRMFLX Version 2 implementation includes an algorithm that propagates flux from an observation location to other regions of the magnetosphere based on convective ExB and VB-curvature particle drift motions. This technique has the advantage of more completely filling out the database and makes maximum use of limited data obtained during high Kp periods or in areas of the magnetosphere with poor satellite flux measurement coverage.

  1. Space radiation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Two Active Radiation Dosimeters (ARD's) flown on Spacelab 1, performed without fault and were returned to Space Science Laboratory, MSFC for recalibration. During the flight, performance was monitored at the Huntsville Operations Center (HOSC). Despite some problems with the Shuttle data system handling the verification flight instrumentation (VFI), it was established that the ARD's were operating normally. Postflight calibrations of both units determined that sensitivities were essentially unchanged from preflight values. Flight tapes were received for approx. 60 percent of the flight and it appears that this is the total available. The data was analyzed in collaboration with Space Science Laboratory, MSFC. Also, the Nuclear Radiation Monitor (NRM) was assembled and tested at MSFC. Support was rendered in the areas of materials control and parts were supplied for the supplementary heaters, dome gas-venting device and photomultiplier tube housing. Performance characteristics of some flight-space photomultipliers were measured. The NRM was flown on a balloon-borne test flight and subsequently performed without fault on Spacelab-2. This data was analyzed and published.

  2. Diffuse gamma radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtel, C. E.; Simpson, G. A.; Thompson, D. J.

    1977-01-01

    An examination of the intensity, energy spectrum, and spatial distribution of the diffuse gamma-radiation observed by SAS-2 satellite away from the galactic plane in the energy range above 35 MeV has shown that it consists of two components. One component is generally correlated with galactic latitudes, the atomic hydrogen column density was deduced from 21 cm measurements, and the continuum radio emission, believed to be synchrotron emission. It has an energy spectrum similar to that in the plane and joins smoothly to the intense radiation from the plane. It is therefore presumed to be of galactic origin. The other component is apparently isotropic, at least on a coarse scale, and has a steep energy spectrum. No evidence is found for a cosmic ray halo surrounding the galaxy in the shape of a sphere or oblate spheroid with galactic dimensions. Constraints for a halo model with significantly larger dimensions are set on the basis of an upper limit to the gamma-ray anisotropy.

  3. Radiation-induced myelomatosis.

    PubMed

    Cuzick, J

    1981-01-22

    It is well known that radiation can cause myeloid leukemia. However, no excess of chronic lymphocytic leukemia has been observed. Myelomatosis, like chronic lymphocytic leukemia, is a tumor of B lymphocytes. To determine whether this disease has a radiogenic origin, we surveyed all cohorts of persons exposed to radiation for which data on cancer-related mortality are available. An excess of myeloma was found in most cohorts. However, a striking deficit was found in two groups irradiated intensely for uterine neoplasms (three cases observed, 10.71 expected; P = 0.012). All other groups combined had a highly significant excess (50 observed, 22.21 expected; P = 2 X 10(-7)). The largest relative risk appeared among persons receiving internal doses of alpha-particles (14 observed, 3.24 expected; P = 2 X 10(-5)), but a significant excess (13 observed, 6.33 expected; P = 0.026) was also found in patients receiving only therapeutic or diagnostic gamma-rays or x-rays. Most cases occurred 15 to 25 years after exposure.

  4. Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics

    DOEpatents

    Lyons, Peter B.; Looney, Larry D.

    1993-01-01

    A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resitance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation.

  5. Enhanced radiation resistant fiber optics

    DOEpatents

    Lyons, P.B.; Looney, L.D.

    1993-11-30

    A process for producing an optical fiber having enhanced radiation resistance is provided, the process including maintaining an optical fiber within a hydrogen-containing atmosphere for sufficient time to yield a hydrogen-permeated optical fiber having an elevated internal hydrogen concentration, and irradiating the hydrogen-permeated optical fiber at a time while the optical fiber has an elevated internal hydrogen concentration with a source of ionizing radiation. The radiation source is typically a cobalt-60 source and the fiber is pre-irradiated with a dose level up to about 1000 kilorads of radiation. 4 figures.

  6. Scintillator Waveguide For Sensing Radiation

    DOEpatents

    Bliss, Mary; Craig, Richard A.; Reeder; Paul L.

    2003-04-22

    The present invention is an apparatus for detecting ionizing radiation, having: a waveguide having a first end and a second end, the waveguide formed of a scintillator material wherein the therapeutic ionizing radiation isotropically generates scintillation light signals within the waveguide. This apparatus provides a measure of radiation dose. The apparatus may be modified to permit making a measure of location of radiation dose. Specifically, the scintillation material is segmented into a plurality of segments; and a connecting cable for each of the plurality of segments is used for conducting scintillation signals to a scintillation detector.

  7. Cardiac imaging: does radiation matter?

    PubMed Central

    Einstein, Andrew J.; Knuuti, Juhani

    2012-01-01

    The use of ionizing radiation in cardiovascular imaging has generated considerable discussion. Radiation should not be considered in isolation, but rather in the context of a careful examination of the benefits, risks, and costs of cardiovascular imaging. Such consideration requires an understanding of some fundamental aspects of the biology, physics, epidemiology, and terminology germane to radiation, as well as principles of radiological protection. This paper offers a concise, contemporary perspective on these areas by addressing pertinent questions relating to radiation and its application to cardiac imaging. PMID:21828062

  8. Space Flight Ionizing Radiation Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steve

    2017-01-01

    The space-flight ionizing radiation (IR) environment is dominated by very high-kinetic energy-charged particles with relatively smaller contributions from X-rays and gamma rays. The Earth's surface IR environment is not dominated by the natural radioisotope decay processes. Dr. Steven Koontz's lecture will provide a solid foundation in the basic engineering physics of space radiation environments, beginning with the space radiation environment on the International Space Station and moving outward through the Van Allen belts to cislunar space. The benefits and limitations of radiation shielding materials will also be summarized.

  9. Radiation reaction in fusion plasmas.

    PubMed

    Hazeltine, R D; Mahajan, S M

    2004-10-01

    The effects of a radiation reaction on thermal electrons in a magnetically confined plasma, with parameters typical of planned burning plasma experiments, are studied. A fully relativistic kinetic equation that includes the radiation reaction is derived. The associated rate of phase-space contraction is computed and the relative importance of the radiation reaction in phase space is estimated. A consideration of the moments of the radiation reaction force show that its effects are typically small in reactor-grade confined plasmas, but not necessarily insignificant.

  10. Epidemiology of accidental radiation exposures.

    PubMed Central

    Cardis, E

    1996-01-01

    Much of the information on the health effects of radiation exposure available to date comes from long-term studies of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Accidental exposures, such as those resulting from the Chernobyl and Kyshtym accidents, have as yet provided little information concerning health effects of ionizing radiation. This paper will present the current state of our knowledge concerning radiation effects, review major large-scale accidental radiation exposures, and discuss information that could be obtained from studies of accidental exposures and the types of studies that are needed. PMID:8781398

  11. Radiation Shielding for Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blattnig, Steve R.; Norbury, John W.; Norman, Ryan B.

    2003-01-01

    A safe and efficient exploration of space requires an understanding of space radiations so that human life and sensitive equipment can be protected. On the way to these sensitive sites, the radiation is modified in both quality and quantity. Many of these modifications are thought to be due to the production of pions and muons in the interactions between the radiation and intervening matter. A method to predict the effects of the presence of these particles on the transport of radiation through materials is presented.

  12. Operational Aspects of Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session FA4, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Solar Particle Events and the International Space Station; Radiation Environment on Mir and ISS Orbits During the Solar Cycle; New approach to Radiation Risk Assessment; An Industrial Method to Predict Major Solar Flares for a Better Protection of Human Beings in Space; Description of the Space Radiation Control System for the Russian Segment of ISS; Orbit Selection and Its Impact on Radiation Warning Architecture for a Human Mission to Mars; and Space Nuclear Power - Technology, Policy and Risk Considerations in Human Missions to Mars.

  13. Estimating shortwave solar radiation using net radiation and meteorological measurements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Shortwave radiation has a wide variety of uses in land-atmosphere interactions research. Actual evapotranspiration estimation that involves stomatal conductance models like Jarvis and Ball-Berry require shortwave radiation to estimate photon flux density. However, in most weather stations, shortwave...

  14. Radiation From Solar Activity | Radiation Protection | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-08-07

    Solar flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and geomagnetic storms from the sun can send extreme bursts of ionizing radiation and magnetic energy toward Earth. Some of this energy is in the form ionizing radiation and some of the energy is magnetic energy.

  15. Slope effects on shortwave radiation components and net radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter-Shea, Elizabeth A.; Blad, Blaine L.; Hays, Cynthia J.; Mesarch, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    The main objective of the International Satellite Land Surface Climatology Project (ISLSCP) has been stated as 'the development of techniques that may be applied to satellite observations of the radiation reflected and emitted from the Earth to yield quantitative information concerning land surface climatological conditions.' The major field study, FIFE (the First ISLSCP Field Experiment), was conducted in 1978-89 to accomplish this objective. Four intensive field campaigns (IFC's) were carried out in 1987 and one in 1989. Factors contributing to observed reflected radiation from the FIFE site must be understood before the radiation observed by satellites can be used to quantify surface processes. Analysis since our last report has focused on slope effects on incoming and outgoing shortwave radiation and net radiation from data collected in 1989.

  16. Thermostatic Radiator Valve Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Dentz, J.; Ansanelli, E.

    2015-01-01

    A large stock of multifamily buildings in the Northeast and Midwest are heated by steam distribution systems. Losses from these systems are typically high and a significant number of apartments are overheated much of the time. Thermostatically controlled radiator valves (TRVs) are one potential strategy to combat this problem, but have not been widely accepted by the residential retrofit market. In this project, the ARIES team sought to better understand the current usage of TRVs by key market players in steam and hot water heating and to conduct limited experiments on the effectiveness of new and old TRVs as amore » means of controlling space temperatures and reducing heating fuel consumption. The project included a survey of industry professionals, a field experiment comparing old and new TRVs, and cost-benefit modeling analysis using BEopt™ (Building Energy Optimization software).« less

  17. Martian atmospheric radiation budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, Bernhard Lee

    1994-01-01

    A computer model is used to study the radiative transfer of the martian winter-polar atmosphere. Solar heating at winter-polar latitudes is provided predominately by dust. For normal, low-dust conditions, CO2 provides almost as much heating as dust. Most heating by CO2 in the winter polar atmosphere is provided by the 2.7 micron band between 10 km and 30 km altitude, and by the 2.0 micron band below 10 km. The weak 1.3 micron band provides some significant heating near the surface. The minor CO2 bands at 1.4, 1.6, 4.8 and 5.2 micron are all optically thin, and produce negligible heating. O3 provides less than 10 percent of the total heating. Atmospheric cooling is predominantly thermal emission by dust, although CO2 15 micron band emission is important above 20 km altitude.

  18. The IRAS radiation environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stassinopoulos, E. G.

    1978-01-01

    Orbital flux integration for three selected mission altitudes and geographic instantaneous flux-mapping for nominal flight-path altitude were used to determine the external charged particle radiation predicted for the Infrared Astronomy Satellite. A current field model was used for magnetic field definitions for three nominal circular trajectories and for the geographic mapping positions. Innovative analysis features introduced include (1) positional fluxes as a function of time and energy for the most severe pass through the South Atlantic Anomaly; (2) total positional doses as a function of time and shield thickness; (3) comparison mapping fluxes for ratios of positional intensities to orbit integrated averages; and (4) statistical exposure-time history of a trajectory as a function of energy indicating, in percent of total mission duration, the time intervals over which the instantaneous fluxes would exceed the orbit integrated averages. Results are presented in tables and graphs.

  19. [Radiation Tolerant Electronics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Research work in the providing radiation tolerant electronics to NASA and the commercial sector is reported herein. There are four major sections to this report: (1) Special purpose VLSI technology section discusses the status of the VLSI projects as well as the new background technologies that have been developed; (2) Lossless data compression results provide the background and direction of new data compression pursued under this grant; (3) Commercial technology transfer presents an itemization of the commercial technology transfer; and (4) Delivery of VLSI to the Government is a solution and progress report that shows how the Government and Government contractors are gaining access to the technology that has been developed by the MRC.

  20. Detectors for Particle Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinknecht, Konrad

    1999-01-01

    This textbook provides a clear, concise and comprehensive review of the physical principles behind the devices used to detect charged particles and gamma rays, and the construction and performance of these many different types of detectors. Detectors for high-energy particles and radiation are used in many areas of science, especially particle physics and nuclear physics experiments, nuclear medicine, cosmic ray measurements, space sciences and geological exploration. This second edition includes all the latest developments in detector technology, including several new chapters covering micro-strip gas chambers, silicion strip detectors and CCDs, scintillating fibers, shower detectors using noble liquid gases, and compensating calorimeters for hadronic showers. This well-illustrated textbook contains examples from the many areas in science in which these detectors are used. It provides both a coursebook for students in physics, and a useful introduction for researchers in other fields.

  1. Earth Radiation Budget Science, 1978. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    An earth radiation budget satellite system planned in order to understand climate on various temporal and spatial scales is considered. Topics discussed include: climate modeling, climate diagnostics, radiation modeling, radiation variability and correlation studies, cloudiness and the radiation budget, and radiation budget and related measurements in 1985 and beyond.

  2. 10 CFR 36.57 - Radiation surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Radiation surveys. 36.57 Section 36.57 Energy NUCLEAR... § 36.57 Radiation surveys. (a) A radiation survey of the area outside the shielding of the radiation... facility starts to operate. A radiation survey of the area above the pool of pool irradiators must be...

  3. 10 CFR 36.57 - Radiation surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Radiation surveys. 36.57 Section 36.57 Energy NUCLEAR... § 36.57 Radiation surveys. (a) A radiation survey of the area outside the shielding of the radiation... facility starts to operate. A radiation survey of the area above the pool of pool irradiators must be...

  4. 10 CFR 36.57 - Radiation surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Radiation surveys. 36.57 Section 36.57 Energy NUCLEAR... § 36.57 Radiation surveys. (a) A radiation survey of the area outside the shielding of the radiation... facility starts to operate. A radiation survey of the area above the pool of pool irradiators must be...

  5. 10 CFR 36.57 - Radiation surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Radiation surveys. 36.57 Section 36.57 Energy NUCLEAR... § 36.57 Radiation surveys. (a) A radiation survey of the area outside the shielding of the radiation... facility starts to operate. A radiation survey of the area above the pool of pool irradiators must be...

  6. 10 CFR 36.57 - Radiation surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Radiation surveys. 36.57 Section 36.57 Energy NUCLEAR... § 36.57 Radiation surveys. (a) A radiation survey of the area outside the shielding of the radiation... facility starts to operate. A radiation survey of the area above the pool of pool irradiators must be...

  7. Radiation Embrittlement Archive Project

    SciTech Connect

    Klasky, Hilda B; Bass, Bennett Richard; Williams, Paul T

    2013-01-01

    The Radiation Embrittlement Archive Project (REAP), which is being conducted by the Probabilistic Integrity Safety Assessment (PISA) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory under funding from the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission s (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, aims to provide an archival source of information about the effect of neutron radiation on the properties of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels. Specifically, this project is an effort to create an Internet-accessible RPV steel embrittlement database. The project s website, https://reap.ornl.gov, provides information in two forms: (1) a document archive with surveillance capsule(s) reports and related technical reports, in PDF format,more » for the 104 commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States, with similar reports from other countries; and (2) a relational database archive with detailed information extracted from the reports. The REAP project focuses on data collected from surveillance capsule programs for light-water moderated, nuclear power reactor vessels operated in the United States, including data on Charpy V-notch energy testing results, tensile properties, composition, exposure temperatures, neutron flux (rate of irradiation damage), and fluence, (Fast Neutron Fluence a cumulative measure of irradiation for E>1 MeV). Additionally, REAP contains data from surveillance programs conducted in other countries. REAP is presently being extended to focus on embrittlement data analysis, as well. This paper summarizes the current status of the REAP database and highlights opportunities to access the data and to participate in the project.« less

  8. Radiation Safety Aspects of Nanotechnology

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, Mark; Myers, David; Cash, Leigh Jackson

    This Report is intended primarily for operational health physicists, radiation safety officers, and internal dosimetrists who are responsible for establishing and implementing radiation safety programs involving radioactive nanomaterials. It should also provide useful information for workers, managers and regulators who are either working directly with or have other responsibilities related to work with radioactive nanomaterials.

  9. Nanocomposites for electromagnetic radiation protection

    SciTech Connect

    Petrunin, V. F., E-mail: VFPetrunin@mephi.ru

    Specific features that characterize nanoparticles and which are due to their small size and allow one to enhance the interaction between the electromagnetic radiation and nanostructured materials and to develop the effective protection of man and equipment against harmful uncontrolled radiation are reported. Examples of the development of nanocomposite radar absorbing materials that can be used for protection of man and equipment are presented.

  10. Radiation therapy in the neonate

    SciTech Connect

    Littman, P.; D'Angio, G.J.

    Radiation therapy (RT) is frequently used in the management of children with cancer, but neonatal neoplasms are rare. Newborns represent 1.5% of the children with malignant diseases in the Tumor Registry at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia over the last 30 years. Thus, occasionally the pediatrics radiation therapist must consider treating the very young infant. The specific radiation effects on growth and development must be weighed in reaching a therapeutic decision. All children are vulnerable to the late effects of radiation therapy, but the neonates may be more susceptible because of the immaturity of important organs such as the brain,more » lung, liver, kidney, and bone. In general, radiation therapy, should be avoided during the first several weeks of life because of the potential increased sensitivity of the liver and kidneys during that period. If radiation therapy is used at all during infancy, the benefits must be weighed against the possibility of significant late effects. Increasing knowledge of pediatric neoplasms has shown that some tumors (such as mesoblastic nephroma) require no treatment except for surgical excision; and other tumors, such as Stage IV-S neuroblastoma, may require very little treatment. In those tumors that require radiation therapy, the use of chemotherapy may allow reduction of the radiation dose. Furthermore, alterations of time-dose-fractionation schemes and careful attention to tumor volume with the use of special techniques, such as ''shrinking fields,'' may decrease the late adverse effects of treatment.« less

  11. Radiation epidemiology: Past and present

    SciTech Connect

    Boice, J.D. Jr.

    1997-03-01

    Major advancements in radiation epidemiology have occurred during the last several years in studies of atomic bomb survivors, patients given medical radiation, and radiation workers, including underground miners. Risks associated with the Chernobyl accident, indoor radon and childhood exposure to I-131 have yet to be elucidated. Situations in the former Soviet Union around Chelyabinsk, a nuclear installation in the southern Urals, and in the Altai, which received radioactive fallout from weapons testing at Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan, have the potential to provide information on the effects of chronic radiation exposure. Since Roentgen`s discovery of x-rays just 100 years ago, a tremendous amountmore » of knowledge has been accumulated about human health effects following irradiation. The 1994 UNSCEAR report contains the latest compilation and synthesis of radiation epidemiology. This overview will cover epidemiology from a radiation perspective. The different types of study methodologies will be described, followed by a kaleidoscope coverage of past and present studies; ending with some remaining questions in radiation epidemiology. This should set the stage for future chapters, and stimulate thinking about implications of the new data on radiation cancer risks.« less

  12. Teaching about Natural Background Radiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Azmi, Darwish; Karunakara, N.; Mustapha, Amidu O.

    2013-01-01

    Ambient gamma dose rates in air were measured at different locations (indoors and outdoors) to demonstrate the ubiquitous nature of natural background radiation in the environment and to show that levels vary from one location to another, depending on the underlying geology. The effect of a lead shield on a gamma radiation field was also…

  13. Radiation camera motion correction system

    DOEpatents

    Hoffer, P.B.

    1973-12-18

    The device determines the ratio of the intensity of radiation received by a radiation camera from two separate portions of the object. A correction signal is developed to maintain this ratio at a substantially constant value and this correction signal is combined with the camera signal to correct for object motion. (Official Gazette)

  14. Effects Of Radiation On Insulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bouquet, Frank L.

    1988-01-01

    Report presents data on responses of electrically insulating thermosetting and thermoplastic polymers to radiation. Lowest-threshold-dose (LTD) levels and 25-percent-change levels presented for such properties as tensile strength and electrical resistivity. Data on radiation-induced outgassing also given.

  15. Radiation Environment Effects on Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ladbury, Ray.

    2017-01-01

    Space poses a variety of radiation hazards. These hazards pose different risks for different missions depending on the mission environment, duration and requirements. This presentation presents a brief look at several radiation related hazards, including destructive and nondestructive Single-Event Effect, Total Ionizing Dose, Displacement Damage and Spacecraft Charging. The temporal and spatial characteristics for the environments of concern for each are considered.

  16. Hawking radiation from black rings

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, Umpei; Murata, Keiju

    2008-01-15

    We calculate the quantum radiation from the 5-dimensional charged rotating black rings by demanding the radiation eliminate the possible anomalies on the horizons. It is shown that the temperature, energy flux, and angular-momentum flux exactly coincide with those of the Hawking radiation. The black rings considered in this paper contain the Myers-Perry black hole as a limit, and the quantum radiation for this black hole, obtained in the literature, is recovered in the limit. The results support the picture that the Hawking radiation can be regarded as the anomaly eliminator on horizons and suggest its general applicability to the higher-dimensionalmore » black holes discovered recently.« less

  17. [Radiation therapy and redox imaging].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Ken-ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy kills cancer cells in part by flood of free radicals. Radiation ionizes and/or excites water molecules to create highly reactive species, i.e. free radicals and/or reactive oxygen species. Free radical chain reactions oxidize biologically important molecules and thereby disrupt their function. Tissue oxygen and/or redox status, which can influence the course of the free radical chain reaction, can affect the efficacy of radiation therapy. Prior observation of tissue oxygen and/or redox status is helpful for planning a safe and efficient course of radiation therapy. Magnetic resonance-based redox imaging techniques, which can estimate tissue redox status non-invasively, have been developed not only for diagnostic information but also for estimating the efficacy of treatment. Redox imaging is now spotlighted to achieve radiation theranostics.

  18. Radiation techniques for esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Minsi; Wu, Abraham J

    2017-10-01

    Radiotherapy plays a crucial role in the curative management of localized esophageal cancer, both as definitive and preoperative therapy. For definitive therapy, the standard radiation dose is 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions and should be delivered with concurrent chemotherapy. Chemoradiotherapy also has a wellestablished benefit in the preoperative setting, as established in the CROSS randomized trial. Radiation fields are typically generous, to account for subclinical extension of disease along the esophagus and to regional nodes. Three-dimensional conformal radiation is the current standard technique for esophageal cancer, though intensity-modulated radiation therapy is increasingly utilized and may improve the outcomes of esophageal radiotherapy by reducing radiation dose to critical normal tissues.

  19. Sound radiation quantities arising from a resilient circular radiator.

    PubMed

    Aarts, Ronald M; Janssen, Augustus J E M

    2009-10-01

    Power series expansions in ka are derived for the pressure at the edge of a radiator, the reaction force on the radiator, and the total radiated power arising from a harmonically excited, resilient, flat, circular radiator of radius a in an infinite baffle. The velocity profiles on the radiator are either Stenzel functions (1-(sigma/a)2)n, with sigma the radial coordinate on the radiator, or linear combinations of Zernike functions Pn(2(sigma/a)2-1), with Pn the Legendre polynomial of degree n. Both sets of functions give rise, via King's integral for the pressure, to integrals for the quantities of interest involving the product of two Bessel functions. These integrals have a power series expansion and allow an expression in terms of Bessel functions of the first kind and Struve functions. Consequently, many of the results in [M. Greenspan, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 65, 608-621 (1979)] are generalized and treated in a unified manner. A foreseen application is for loudspeakers. The relation between the radiated power in the near-field on one hand and in the far field on the other is highlighted.

  20. Medical students' knowledge of ionizing radiation and radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Hagi, Sarah K; Khafaji, Mawya A

    2011-05-01

    To assess the knowledge of fourth-year medical students in ionizing radiation, and to study the effect of a 3-hour lecture in correcting their misconceptions. A cohort study was conducted on fourth-year medical students at King Abdul-Aziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the academic year 2009-2010. A 7-question multiple choice test-type questionnaire administered before, and after a 3-hour didactic lecture was used to assess their knowledge. The data was collected from December 2009 to February 2010. The lecture was given to 333 (72%) participants, out of the total of 459 fourth-year medical students. It covered topics in ionizing radiation and radiation protection. The questionnaire was validated and analyzed by 6 content experts. Of the 333 who attended the lecture, only 253 (76%) students completed the pre- and post questionnaire, and were included in this study. The average student score improved from 47-78% representing a gain of 31% in knowledge (p=0.01). The results indicated that the fourth-year medical students' knowledge regarding ionizing radiation and radiation protection is inadequate. Additional lectures in radiation protection significantly improved their knowledge of the topic, and correct their current misunderstanding. This study has shown that even with one dedicated lecture, students can learn, and absorb general principles regarding ionizing radiation.