Science.gov

Sample records for infrasound source observed

  1. Infrasound Observations from Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arechiga, R. O.; Johnson, J. B.; Edens, H. E.; Thomas, R. J.; Jones, K. R.

    2008-12-01

    To provide additional insight into the nature of lightning, we have investigated its infrasound manifestations. An array of three stations in a triangular configuration, with three sensors each, was deployed during the Summer of 2008 (July 24 to July 28) in the Magdalena mountains of New Mexico, to monitor infrasound (below 20 Hz) sources due to lightning. Hyperbolic formulations of time of arrival (TOA) measurements and interferometric techniques were used to locate lightning sources occurring over and outside the network. A comparative analysis of simultaneous Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) data and infrasound measurements operating in the same area was made. The LMA locates the sources of impulsive RF radiation produced by lightning flashes in three spatial dimensions and time, operating in the 60 - 66 MHz television band. The comparison showed strong evidence that lightning does produce infrasound. This work is a continuation of the study of the frequency spectrum of thunder conducted by Holmes et al., who reported measurements of infrasound frequencies. The integration of infrasound measurements with RF source localization by the LMA shows great potential for improved understanding of lightning processes.

  2. Infrasound array observation at Sakurajima volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoo, A.; Suzuki, Y. J.; Iguchi, M.

    2012-12-01

    Showa crater at the southeastern flank of the Sakurajima volcano has erupted since 2006, accompanying intermittent Vulcanian eruptions with small scale ash emissions. We conducted an array observation in the last half of 2011 in order to locate infrasound source generated by the eruptions. The array located 3.5 km apart from the crater was composed of 5 microphones (1kHz sampling) aligned in the radial direction from the crater with 100-m-intervals, and additional 4 microphones (200Hz sampling) in tangential direction to the first line in December 2011. Two peaks, around 2Hz and 0.5Hz, in power spectrum of the infrasound were identified; the former peak would be related to the eigen frequency of the vent of Showa crater, but the latter would be related to ejection of eruption clouds. They should be checked by experimental studies. The first 10 s infrasound signal was made by explosion directly and the following small amplitude infrasound tremors for about 2 min were mostly composed of diffraction and reflection waves from the topography around the volcano, mainly the wall of the Aira Caldera. It shows propagation direction of infrasound tremor after the explosion signals should be carefully examined. Clear change in the height of the infrasound source was not identified while volcanic cloud grew up. Strong eddies of the growing volcanic cloud would not be main sources of such weak infrasound signals, thus, infrasound waves are emitted mainly from (or through) the vent itself.

  3. Infrasound Observations from the Source Physics Experiment (Tests 1 and 2) at the Nevada National Security Site

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    series of explosions, we have the unique and rare opportunity to study infrasound generated by a well-characterized source from the same borehole ...opportunity to study infrasound generated by a well-characterized source from the same borehole . This reduces the number of variables that must be...experiment is to study the seismic waves generated from explosions in both damaged and undamaged rock and that the observed infrasound is a

  4. Sayarim Infrasound Calibration Explosion: Near-Source and Local Observations and Yield Estimation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    Institute of Israel (GII) at Sayarim Military Range (SMR), Negev Desert, Israel, on 26 August 2009. Near-source high-pressure values, measured...possible an upward directivity effect and asymmetric energy radiation to the atmosphere. Clear infrasound signals were well observed at distances up to...of Israel (GII) at Sayarim Military Range (SMR), Negev Desert, Israel, on 26 August 2009. Near-source high-pressure values, measured in the range 200

  5. Analysis of Signals from an Unique Ground-Truth Infrasound Source Observed at IMS Station IS26 in Southern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Karl

    2010-05-01

    Quantitative modeling of infrasound signals and development and verification of the corresponding atmospheric propagation models requires the use of well-calibrated sources. Numerous sources have been detected by the currently installed network of about 40 of the final 60 IMS infrasound stations. Besides non-nuclear explosions such as mining and quarry blasts and atmospheric phenomena like auroras, these sources include meteorites, volcanic eruptions and supersonic aircraft including re-entering spacecraft and rocket launches. All these sources of infrasound have one feature in common, in that their source parameters are not precisely known and the quantitative interpretation of the corresponding signals is therefore somewhat ambiguous. A source considered well-calibrated has been identified producing repeated infrasound signals at the IMS infrasound station IS26 in the Bavarian forest. The source results from propulsion tests of the ARIANE-5 rocket's main engine at a testing facility near Heilbronn, southern Germany. The test facility is at a range of 320 km and a backazimuth of ~280° from IS26. Ground-truth information was obtained for nearly 100 tests conducted in a 5-year period. Review of the available data for IS26 revealed that at least 28 of these tests show signals above the background noise level. These signals are verified based on the consistency of various signal parameters, e.g., arrival times, durations, and estimates of propagation characteristics (backazimuth, apparent velocity). Signal levels observed are a factor of 2-8 above the noise and reach values of up to 250 mPa for peak amplitudes, and a factor of 2-3 less for RMS measurements. Furthermore, only tests conducted during the months from October to April produce observable signals, indicating a significant change in infrasound propagation conditions between summer and winter months.

  6. Assessment of infrasound signals recorded on seismic stations and infrasound arrays in the western United States using ground truth sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Junghyun; Hayward, Chris; Stump, Brian W.

    2018-06-01

    Ground truth sources in Utah during 2003-2013 are used to assess the contribution of temporal atmospheric conditions to infrasound detection and the predictive capabilities of atmospheric models. Ground truth sources consist of 28 long duration static rocket motor burn tests and 28 impulsive rocket body demolitions. Automated infrasound detections from a hybrid of regional seismometers and infrasound arrays use a combination of short-term time average/long-term time average ratios and spectral analyses. These detections are grouped into station triads using a Delaunay triangulation network and then associated to estimate phase velocity and azimuth to filter signals associated with a particular source location. The resulting range and azimuth distribution from sources to detecting stations varies seasonally and is consistent with predictions based on seasonal atmospheric models. Impulsive signals from rocket body detonations are observed at greater distances (>700 km) than the extended duration signals generated by the rocket burn test (up to 600 km). Infrasound energy attenuation associated with the two source types is quantified as a function of range and azimuth from infrasound amplitude measurements. Ray-tracing results using Ground-to-Space atmospheric specifications are compared to these observations and illustrate the degree to which the time variations in characteristics of the observations can be predicted over a multiple year time period.

  7. Enhancements to the Bayesian Infrasound Source Location Method

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    ENHANCEMENTS TO THE BAYESIAN INFRASOUND SOURCE LOCATION METHOD Omar E. Marcillo, Stephen J. Arrowsmith, Rod W. Whitaker, and Dale N. Anderson Los...ABSTRACT We report on R&D that is enabling enhancements to the Bayesian Infrasound Source Location (BISL) method for infrasound event location...the Bayesian Infrasound Source Location Method 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER

  8. Urban Infrasound Observations - Examples from July 4th 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McComas, S.; Hayward, C.; Golden, P.; McKenna, M.; Simpson, C.

    2012-12-01

    Historical observations indicate that urban environments are rich in infrasound signals and thus provide the opportunity to characterize sources, monitor propagation path effects, and document diurnal and seasonal variability in the urban acoustical noise environment. If infrasound is to be used as viable signal for monitoring the urban environment and for identifying human and natural activities, the following key scientific issues must be examined: (1) What are the typical infrastructural sources of infrasound and their levels? (2) How saturated is the urban environment with infrasonic signals, i.e., do many signals propagate over long distances to reach a given sensor, or can individual sources be well differentiated? (3) Does infrasound provide new information to characterize rapidly evolving physical, cultural, economic, and military actions of interest? Each of these issues will be addressed with the acquisition and analysis of data from this observational study, including an analysis of the seasonal variation in infrasound noise and propagation effects. Such studies differ from typical infrasound work in that the propagation paths are short, i.e. ~1- 100 km, and signal frequencies can extend from the infrasound band to the low frequency acoustic band (100 Hz). We have begun a study to address some of the unique infrasound research questions and sources found in an urban environment. Our initial investigation of the data and a description of the identified noise and source signals are reported here. Three seismo-acoustic arrays were deployed on rooftops across the Southern Methodist University campus in Dallas, Texas, to characterize the urban infrasound environment. The first rooftop array, the Moody Coliseum, includes four elements at the corners of a 38m square and one element in the center. A seismometer is included at the central element. The second Multi-rooftop Array is spread across multiple building rooftops and has a 140m aperture. The third array

  9. Sources of Infrasound events listed in IDC Reviewed Event Bulletin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittner, Paulina; Polich, Paul; Gore, Jane; Ali, Sherif; Medinskaya, Tatiana; Mialle, Pierrick

    2017-04-01

    Until 2003 two waveform technologies, i.e. seismic and hydroacoustic were used to detect and locate events included in the International Data Centre (IDC) Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB). The first atmospheric event was published in the REB in 2003, however automatic processing required significant improvements to reduce the number of false events. In the beginning of 2010 the infrasound technology was reintroduced to the IDC operations and has contributed to both automatic and reviewed IDC bulletins. The primary contribution of infrasound technology is to detect atmospheric events. These events may also be observed at seismic stations, which will significantly improve event location. Examples sources of REB events, which were detected by the International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound network were fireballs (e.g. Bangkok fireball, 2015), volcanic eruptions (e.g. Calbuco, Chile 2015) and large surface explosions (e.g. Tjanjin, China 2015). Query blasts (e.g. Zheleznogorsk) and large earthquakes (e.g. Italy 2016) belong to events primarily recorded at seismic stations of the IMS network but often detected at the infrasound stations. In case of earthquakes analysis of infrasound signals may help to estimate the area affected by ground vibration. Infrasound associations to query blast events may help to obtain better source location. The role of IDC analysts is to verify and improve location of events detected by the automatic system and to add events which were missed in the automatic process. Open source materials may help to identify nature of some events. Well recorded examples may be added to the Reference Infrasound Event Database to help in analysis process. This presentation will provide examples of events generated by different sources which were included in the IDC bulletins.

  10. Detection, Source Location, and Analysis of Volcano Infrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, Kathleen F.

    in volcanic environments. The fumarolic jet noise was found to have a sustained, low amplitude signal with a spectral peak between 7-10 Hz. From thermal imagery we measure the jet temperature ( 260 °C) and estimate the jet diameter ( 2.5 m). From the estimated jet diameter, an assumed Strouhal number of 0.19, and the jet noise peak frequency, we estimated the jet velocity to be 79 - 132 m/s. We used published gas data to then estimate the volatile flux at 160 - 270 kg/s (14,000 - 23,000 t/d). These estimates are typically difficult to obtain in volcanic environments, but provide valuable information on the eruption. At regional and global length scales we use infrasound arrays to detect signals and determine their source back-azimuths. A ground coupled airwave (GCA) occurs when an incident acoustic pressure wave encounters the Earth's surface and part of the energy of the wave is transferred to the ground. GCAs are commonly observed from sources such as volcanic eruptions, bolides, meteors, and explosions. They have been observed to have retrograde particle motion. When recorded on collocated seismo-acoustic sensors, the phase between the infrasound and seismic signals is 90°. If the sensors are separated wind noise is usually incoherent and an additional phase is added due to the sensor separation. We utilized the additional phase and the characteristic particle motion to determine a unique back-azimuth solution to an acoustic source. The additional phase will be different depending on the direction from which a wave arrives. Our technique was tested using synthetic seismo-acoustic data from a coupled Earth-atmosphere 3D finite difference code and then applied to two well-constrained datasets: Mount St. Helens, USA, and Mount Pagan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands Volcanoes. The results from our method are within <1° - 5° of the actual and traditional infrasound array processing determined back-azimuths. Ours is a new method to detect and determine

  11. Local Infrasound Variability Related to In Situ Atmospheric Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Keehoon; Rodgers, Arthur; Seastrand, Douglas

    2018-04-01

    Local infrasound is widely used to constrain source parameters of near-surface events (e.g., chemical explosions and volcanic eruptions). While atmospheric conditions are critical to infrasound propagation and source parameter inversion, local atmospheric variability is often ignored by assuming homogeneous atmospheres, and their impact on the source inversion uncertainty has never been accounted for due to the lack of quantitative understanding of infrasound variability. We investigate atmospheric impacts on local infrasound propagation by repeated explosion experiments with a dense acoustic network and in situ atmospheric measurement. We perform full 3-D waveform simulations with local atmospheric data and numerical weather forecast model to quantify atmosphere-dependent infrasound variability and address the advantage and restriction of local weather data/numerical weather model for sound propagation simulation. Numerical simulations with stochastic atmosphere models also showed nonnegligible influence of atmospheric heterogeneity on infrasound amplitude, suggesting an important role of local turbulence.

  12. GT0 Explosion Sources for IMS Infrasound Calibration: Charge Design and Yield Estimation from Near-source Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitterman, Y.; Hofstetter, R.

    2014-03-01

    Three large-scale on-surface explosions were conducted by the Geophysical Institute of Israel (GII) at the Sayarim Military Range, Negev desert, Israel: about 82 tons of strong high explosives in August 2009, and two explosions of about 10 and 100 tons of ANFO explosives in January 2011. It was a collaborative effort between Israel, CTBTO, USA and several European countries, with the main goal to provide fully controlled ground truth (GT0) infrasound sources, monitored by extensive observations, for calibration of International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound stations in Europe, Middle East and Asia. In all shots, the explosives were assembled like a pyramid/hemisphere on dry desert alluvium, with a complicated explosion design, different from the ideal homogenous hemisphere used in similar experiments in the past. Strong boosters and an upward charge detonation scheme were applied to provide more energy radiated to the atmosphere. Under these conditions the evaluation of the actual explosion yield, an important source parameter, is crucial for the GT0 calibration experiment. Audio-visual, air-shock and acoustic records were utilized for interpretation of observed unique blast effects, and for determination of blast wave parameters suited for yield estimation and the associated relationships. High-pressure gauges were deployed at 100-600 m to record air-blast properties, evaluate the efficiency of the charge design and energy generation, and provide a reliable estimation of the charge yield. The yield estimators, based on empirical scaled relations for well-known basic air-blast parameters—the peak pressure, impulse and positive phase duration, as well as on the crater dimensions and seismic magnitudes, were analyzed. A novel empirical scaled relationship for the little-known secondary shock delay was developed, consistent for broad ranges of ANFO charges and distances, which facilitates using this stable and reliable air-blast parameter as a new potential

  13. Infrasound pulses from lightning and electrostatic field changes: Observation and discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chum, J.; Diendorfer, G.; Å indelářová, T.; Baše, J.; Hruška, F.

    2013-10-01

    Narrow (~1-2 s) infrasound pulses that followed, with ~11 to ~50 s delays, rapid changes of electrostatic field were observed by a microbarometer array in the Czech Republic during thunderstorm activity. A positive pressure fluctuation (compression phase) always preceded decompression; the compression was usually higher than the decompression. The angles of arrival (azimuth and elevation) were analyzed for selected distinct events. Comparisons of distances and azimuths of infrasound sources from the center of microbarometer array with lightning locations determined by the European Cooperation for Lighting Detection lightning detection network show that most of the selected events can be very likely associated with intracloud (IC) discharges. The preceding rapid changes of electrostatic field, their potential association with IC discharges, and high-elevation angles of arrival for near infrasound sources indicate that an electrostatic mechanism is probably responsible for their generation. It is discussed that distinguishing the relative role of thermal and electrostatic mechanism is difficult and that none of the published models of electrostatic production of infrasound thunder can explain the presented observations precisely. A modification of the current models, based on consideration of at least two charged layers, is suggested. Further theoretical and experimental investigations are however needed to get a better description of the generation mechanism.

  14. Time-space variations in infrasound sources related to environmental dynamics around Lützow-Holm Bay, east Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murayama, Takahiko; Kanao, Masaki; Yamamoto, Masa-Yuki; Ishihara, Yoshiaki; Matsushima, Takeshi; Kakinami, Yoshihiro; Okada, Kazumi; Miyamachi, Hiroki; Nakamoto, Manami; Takeuchi, Yukari; Toda, Shigeru

    2017-12-01

    Characteristic features of infrasound waves observed in the Antarctic reflect the physical interaction between the surface environment along the continental margin and the surrounding Southern Ocean. The temporal-spatial variability of the source locations for infrasound excitation during the eight-month period between January and August 2015 was investigated using recordings made by two infrasound arrays deployed along a section of the coast of Lützow-Holm Bay (LHB), Antarctica. The infrasound arrays clearly detected temporal variations in frequency content and propagation direction during this period. A number of infrasound sources were identified, many located north of the arrays. Many of the events had a predominant frequency content of a few Hz, higher than microbaroms from the ocean. A comparison of the results with MODIS satellite images indicated that these infrasound sources were ice-quakes associated with the calving of glaciers, the breaking off of sea ice, and collisions between this sea ice and icebergs around the LHB. Continuous measurements of infrasound in the Antarctic may serve as a proxy for monitoring the regional surface environment in terms of climate change at high southern latitudes.

  15. Auroral Infrasound Observed at I53US at Fairbanks, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, C. R.; Olson, J. V.

    2003-12-01

    In this presentation we will describe two different types of auroral infrasound recently observed at Fairbanks, Alaska in the pass band from 0.015 to 0.10 Hz. Infrasound signals associated with auroral activity (AIW) have been observed in Fairbanks over the past 30 years with infrasonic microphone arrays. The installation of the new CTBT/IMS infrasonic array, I53US, at Fairbanks has resulted in a greatly increased quality of the infrasonic data with which to study natural sources of infrasound. In the historical data at Fairbanks all the auroral infrasonic waves (AIW) detected were found to be the result of bow waves that are generated by supersonic motion of auroral arcs that contain strong electrojet currents. This infrasound is highly anisotropic, moving in the same direction as that of the auroral arc. AIW bow waves observed in 2003 at I53US will be described. Recently at I53US we have observed many events of very high trace velocity that are comprised of continuous, highly coherent wave trains. These waves occur in the morning hours at times of strong auroral activity. This new type of very high trace velocity AIW appears to be associated with pulsating auroral displays. Pulsating auroras occur predominantly after magnetic midnight (10:00 UT at Fairbanks). They are a usual part of the recovery phase of auroral substorms and are produced by energetic electrons precipitating into the atmosphere. Given proper dark, cloudless sky conditions during the AIW events, bright pulsating auroral forms were sometimes visible overhead.

  16. A repeating source of infrasound from the Wells, Nevada earthquake sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Arrowsmith, Stephen J.; Whitaker, Rod; Randall, George

    2009-01-01

    The Wells, Nevada earthquake of February 21, 2008, generated a complex seismoacoustic wakefield. In addition to epicentral infrasound, the earthquake triggered a secondary source of infrasound, which was also initiated by subsequent aftershocks. By applying simple constraints on the propagation of seismic and infrasound waves, we show that the secondary source is an isolated peak that appears to efficiently generate infrasound through the interaction with seismic surface waves. By measuring peak-to-peak amplitudes of epicentral and secondary arrivals and correcting them for the effects of distance and winds, we find that epicentral arrivals lit with empirical relationships of Mutschlecner and Whitakermore » (2005) and Le Pichon et al. (2006), which form the basis for a proposed infrasound discriminant (Anderson et al., Pers. Comm.). In contrast, the secondary arrivals are much higher in amplitude, highlighting the importance of being able to separate epicentral and secondary arrivals for infrasonic event discrimination.« less

  17. Modeling propagation of infrasound signals observed by a dense seismic network.

    PubMed

    Chunchuzov, I; Kulichkov, S; Popov, O; Hedlin, M

    2014-01-01

    The long-range propagation of infrasound from a surface explosion with an explosive yield of about 17.6 t TNT that occurred on June 16, 2008 at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR) in the western United States is simulated using an atmospheric model that includes fine-scale layered structure of the wind velocity and temperature fields. Synthetic signal parameters (waveforms, amplitudes, and travel times) are calculated using parabolic equation and ray-tracing methods for a number of ranges between 100 and 800 km from the source. The simulation shows the evolution of several branches of stratospheric and thermospheric signals with increasing range from the source. Infrasound signals calculated using a G2S (ground-to-space) atmospheric model perturbed by small-scale layered wind velocity and temperature fluctuations are shown to agree well with recordings made by the dense High Lava Plains seismic network located at an azimuth of 300° from UTTR. The waveforms of calculated infrasound arrivals are compared with those of seismic recordings. This study illustrates the utility of dense seismic networks for mapping an infrasound field with high spatial resolution. The parabolic equation calculations capture both the effect of scattering of infrasound into geometric acoustic shadow zones and significant temporal broadening of the arrivals.

  18. Non-traditional Infrasound Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, M. H.; McComas, S.; Simpson, C. P.; Diaz-Alvarez, H.; Costley, R. D.; Hayward, C.; Golden, P.; Endress, A.

    2017-12-01

    Historically, infrasound arrays have been deployed in rural environments where anthropological noise sources are limited. As interest in monitoring low energy sources at local distances grows in the infrasound community, it will be vital to understand how to monitor infrasound sources in an urban environment. Arrays deployed in urban centers have to overcome the decreased signal-to-noise ratio and reduced amount of real estate available to deploy an array. To advance the understanding of monitoring infrasound sources in urban environments, local and regional infrasound arrays were deployed on building rooftops on the campus at Southern Methodist University (SMU), and data were collected for one seasonal cycle. The data were evaluated for structural source signals (continuous-wave packets), and when a signal was identified, the back azimuth to the source was determined through frequency-wavenumber analysis. This information was used to identify hypothesized structural sources; these sources were verified through direct measurement and dynamic structural analysis modeling. In addition to the rooftop arrays, a camouflaged infrasound sensor was installed on the SMU campus and evaluated to determine its effectiveness for wind noise reduction. Permission to publish was granted by Director, Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory.

  19. The European Infrasound Bulletin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilger, Christoph; Ceranna, Lars; Ross, J. Ole; Vergoz, Julien; Le Pichon, Alexis; Brachet, Nicolas; Blanc, Elisabeth; Kero, Johan; Liszka, Ludwik; Gibbons, Steven; Kvaerna, Tormod; Näsholm, Sven Peter; Marchetti, Emanuele; Ripepe, Maurizio; Smets, Pieter; Evers, Laslo; Ghica, Daniela; Ionescu, Constantin; Sindelarova, Tereza; Ben Horin, Yochai; Mialle, Pierrick

    2018-05-01

    The European Infrasound Bulletin highlights infrasound activity produced mostly by anthropogenic sources, recorded all over Europe and collected in the course of the ARISE and ARISE2 projects (Atmospheric dynamics Research InfraStructure in Europe). Data includes high-frequency (> 0.7 Hz) infrasound detections at 24 European infrasound arrays from nine different national institutions complemented with infrasound stations of the International Monitoring System for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Data were acquired during 16 years of operation (from 2000 to 2015) and processed to identify and locate ˜ 48,000 infrasound events within Europe. The source locations of these events were derived by combining at least two corresponding station detections per event. Comparisons with ground-truth sources, e.g., Scandinavian mining activity, are provided as well as comparisons with the CTBT Late Event Bulletin (LEB). Relocation is performed using ray-tracing methods to estimate celerity and back-azimuth corrections for source location based on meteorological wind and temperature values for each event derived from European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) data. This study focuses on the analysis of repeating, man-made infrasound events (e.g., mining blasts and supersonic flights) and on the seasonal, weekly and diurnal variation of the infrasonic activity of sources in Europe. Drawing comparisons to previous studies shows that improvements in terms of detection, association and location are made within this study due to increasing the station density and thus the number of events and determined source regions. This improves the capability of the infrasound station network in Europe to more comprehensively estimate the activity of anthropogenic infrasound sources in Europe.

  20. Magnetic infrasound sensor

    DOEpatents

    Mueller, Fred M [Los Alamos, NM; Bronisz, Lawrence [Los Alamos, NM; Grube, Holger [Los Alamos, NM; Nelson, David C [Santa Fe, NM; Mace, Jonathan L [Los Alamos, NM

    2006-11-14

    A magnetic infrasound sensor is produced by constraining a permanent magnet inside a magnetic potential well above the surface of superconducting material. The magnetic infrasound sensor measures the position or movement of the permanent magnet within the magnetic potential well, and interprets the measurements. Infrasound sources can be located and characterized by combining the measurements from one or more infrasound sensors. The magnetic infrasound sensor can be tuned to match infrasound source types, resulting in better signal-to-noise ratio. The present invention can operate in frequency modulation mode to improve sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio. In an alternate construction, the superconductor can be levitated over a magnet or magnets. The system can also be driven, so that time resolved perturbations are sensed, resulting in a frequency modulation version with improved sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio.

  1. Topographic effects on infrasound propagation.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Mihan H; Gibson, Robert G; Walker, Bob E; McKenna, Jason; Winslow, Nathan W; Kofford, Aaron S

    2012-01-01

    Infrasound data were collected using portable arrays in a region of variable terrain elevation to quantify the effects of topography on observed signal amplitude and waveform features at distances less than 25 km from partially contained explosive sources during the Frozen Rock Experiment (FRE) in 2006. Observed infrasound signals varied in amplitude and waveform complexity, indicating propagation effects that are due in part to repeated local maxima and minima in the topography on the scale of the dominant wavelengths of the observed data. Numerical simulations using an empirically derived pressure source function combining published FRE accelerometer data and historical data from Project ESSEX, a time-domain parabolic equation model that accounted for local terrain elevation through terrain-masking, and local meteorological atmospheric profiles were able to explain some but not all of the observed signal features. Specifically, the simulations matched the timing of the observed infrasound signals but underestimated the waveform amplitude observed behind terrain features, suggesting complex scattering and absorption of energy associated with variable topography influences infrasonic energy more than previously observed. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America.

  2. Infrasound from the 2009 and 2017 DPRK rocket launches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evers, L. G.; Assink, J. D.; Smets, P. SM

    2018-06-01

    Supersonic rockets generate low-frequency acoustic waves, that is, infrasound, during the launch and re-entry. Infrasound is routinely observed at infrasound arrays from the International Monitoring System, in place for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. Association and source identification are key elements of the verification system. The moving nature of a rocket is a defining criterion in order to distinguish it from an isolated explosion. Here, it is shown how infrasound recordings can be associated, which leads to identification of the rocket. Propagation modelling is included to further constrain the source identification. Four rocket launches by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea in 2009 and 2017 are analysed in which multiple arrays detected the infrasound. Source identification in this region is important for verification purposes. It is concluded that with a passive monitoring technique such as infrasound, characteristics can be remotely obtained on sources of interest, that is, infrasonic intelligence, over 4500+ km.

  3. Characteristics of infrasound from lightning and sprites near thunderstorm areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farges, Thomas; Blanc, Elisabeth

    2010-06-01

    Research about thunder was mainly performed 20-30 years ago but has been renewed in recent years due to new interest about infrasound in the framework of the verification of the compliance of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. During the Eurosprite 2005 campaign, an infrasound miniarray has been set up in France to measure the characteristics of infrasound from lightning and sprites when these kinds of sources were close to the sensors (that is, for lightning distances lower than 100 km and sprite distances lower than 300 km). For two large thunderstorms which passed over the station, detection conditions of infrasound from lightning are detailed, and some characteristics are thoroughly described (e.g., amplitude variation with distance and spectrum of an individual event in the frequency range from 0.01 to 10 Hz). The locations of infrasound sources are determined using a 3-D inversion. Infrasound signals from sprites have also been detected, and the 3-D inversion method used for lightning infrasound has been adapted to locate the sources of infrasound from sprites. Four different sprite infrasound events are analyzed in this way. The infrasound source corresponds well to the sprite spatial characteristics deduced from camera observations. Questions about generation mechanisms of infrasound from lightning and sprites still remain. These new results should help us to understand the sound generation processes.

  4. Infrasound Studies at the USArray (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Groot-Hedlin, C. D.

    2013-12-01

    Many surface and atmospheric sources, both natural and anthropogenic, have generated infrasound signals that have been recorded on USArray transportable array (TA) seismometers at ranges up to thousands of kilometers. Such sources, including surface explosions, large bolides, mining events, and a space shuttle, have contributed to an understanding of infrasound propagation. We show examples of several atmospheric sources recorded at the TA. We first used USArray data to investigate infrasound signals from the space shuttle 'Atlantis'. Inclement weather in Florida forced the shuttle to land at Edwards Air Force Base in southern California on June 22, 2007, passing near three infrasound stations and several hundred seismic stations in northern Mexico, southern California, and Nevada. The high signal-to-noise ratio, broad receiver coverage, and Atlantis' positional information allowed us to test infrasound propagation modeling capabilities through the atmosphere to hundreds of kilometers range from the shuttle's path. Shadow zones and arrival times were predicted by tracing rays launched at right angles to the conical shock front surrounding the shuttle through a standard climatological model as well as a global ground to space model. Both models predict alternating regions of high and low ensonification to the NW, in line with observations. However, infrasound energy was detected tens of kilometers beyond the predicted zones of ensonification, possibly due to uncertainties in stratospheric wind speeds. The models also predict increasing waveform complexity with increasing distance, in line with observations. Several hundreds of broadband seismic stations in the U.S. Pacific Northwest recorded acoustic to seismic coupled signals from a large meteor that entered the atmosphere above northeastern Oregon on 19 February 2008. The travel times of the first arriving energy are consistent with a terminal explosion source model, suggesting that the large size of the explosion

  5. What is infrasound?

    PubMed

    Leventhall, Geoff

    2007-01-01

    Definitions of infrasound and low-frequency noise are discussed and the fuzzy boundary between them described. Infrasound, in its popular definition as sound below a frequency of 20 Hz, is clearly audible, the hearing threshold having been measured down to 1.5 Hz. The popular concept that sound below 20 Hz is inaudible is not correct. Sources of infrasound are in the range from very low-frequency atmospheric fluctuations up into the lower audio frequencies. These sources include natural occurrences, industrial installations, low-speed machinery, etc. Investigations of complaints of low-frequency noise often fail to measure any significant noise. This has led some complainants to conjecture that their perception arises from non-acoustic sources, such as electromagnetic radiation. Over the past 40 years, infrasound and low-frequency noise have attracted a great deal of adverse publicity on their effects on health, based mainly on media exaggerations and misunderstandings. A result of this has been that the public takes a one-dimensional view of infrasound, concerned only by its presence, whilst ignoring its low levels.

  6. Infrasound wave propagation over near-regional and tele-infrasonic distances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, Sara Mihan House

    2005-11-01

    Infrasound research is experiencing a renaissance due to advances in acoustic propagation calculations and a deeper understanding of the atmosphere. Uniquely combining observed data and propagation modeling, the three papers presented here quantify the effects of the atmosphere on propagation from a variety of sources at distances from less than 100 km (near-regional distances) to nearly 600 km (tele-infrasonic distances) for sources on the surface and at altitude (63 km). Paper one analyzes infrasound signals recorded at the CHNAR seismo-acoustic array. These sources are predominantly on the surface, result from human activity and occur closer than 250 km away. Propagation for these near-regional distances depends on tropospheric weather patterns and temporally varying, low-altitude ducts. To predict the observed arrivals local meteorological data is necessary; MSIS/HWM (Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter/Horizontal Wind Model) and NRL-G2S (Naval Research Laboratory Ground To Space) did not predict the observed arrivals. Paper two is the first time a waveform from an explosion at height has ever been reproduced; the recorded waveform was from the break-up of the space shuttle Columbia. For the tele-infrasonic normal mode modeling, MSIS/HWM and NRL-G2S yielded identical waveform results. Paper three looks at the tele-infrasonic path between an iron mine in Minnesota and an infrasound array in Manitoba, Canada. Over a four month period, the IS-10 infrasound array provided infrasound data to compare to archived blast statistics. NRL-G2S better reproduced the observed arrival travel times than MSIS/HWM; whether or not arrivals were observed depended on the noise field at the infrasound array. For any distance range or source height, accurate atmospheric parameters from the corresponding propagation paths are necessary to predict observed infrasound.

  7. A portable infrasound generator.

    PubMed

    Park, Joseph; Robertson, James

    2009-04-01

    The rotary subwoofer is a novel low frequency transducer capable of efficiently generating infrasound from a compact source. A field-deployable version of this device may find application as a calibration source for infrasound arrays of the International Monitoring System (IMS) [(2001). The Global Verification Regime and the International Monitoring System (CTBTO Preparatory Commission Vienna International Centre, Vienna, Austria)]. A prototype tested at the IMS infrasound array I59US demonstrated the ability to insonify all elements of the array from a standoff distance of 3.8 km. Signal-to-noise ratios of continuous wave signals ranged from 5 to 15 dB, indicating the utility of this source to transmit controllable infrasound signals over distances of 5 km.

  8. Infrasound and SO2 Observations of the 2011 Explosive Eruption of Nabro Volcano, Eritrea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fee, D.; Carn, S. A.; Prata, F.

    2011-12-01

    Nabro volcano, Eritrea erupted explosively on 12 June 2011 and produced near continuous emissions and infrasound until mid-July. The eruption disrupted air traffic and severely affected communities in the region. Although the eruption was relatively ash-poor, it produced significant SO2 emissions, including: 1) the highest SO2 column ever retrieved from space (3700 DU), 2) >1.3 Tg SO2 mass on 13 June, and 3) >2 Tg of SO2 for the entire eruption, one of the largest eruptive SO2 masses produced since the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo. Peak emissions reached well into the stratosphere (~19 km). Although the 12 June eruption was preceded by significant seismicity and clearly detected by satellite sensors, Nabro volcano is an understudied volcano that lies in a remote region with little ground-based monitoring. The Nabro eruption also produced significant infrasound signals that were recorded by two infrasound arrays: I19DJ (Djibouti, 264 km) and I32KE (Kenya, 1708 km). The I19DJ infrasound array detected the eruption with high signal-noise and provides the most detailed eruption chronology available, including eruption onset, duration, changes in intensity, etc. As seen in numerous other studies, sustained low frequency infrasound from Nabro is coincident with high-altitude emissions. Unexpectedly, the eruption also produced hundreds of short-duration, impulsive explosion signals, in addition to the sustained infrasonic jetting signals more typical of subplinian-plinian eruptions. These explosions are variable in amplitude, duration, and often cluster in groups. Here we present: 1) additional analyses, classification, and source estimation of the explosions, 2) infrasound propagation modeling to determine acoustic travel times and propagation paths, 3) detection and characterization of the SO2 emissions using the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Spin Enhanced Visible and Infra-Red Instrument (SEVIRI), and 4) a comparison between the relative infrasound energy and

  9. Infrasound as a Depth Discriminant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    INFRASOUND AS A DEPTH DISCRIMINANT Stephen J. Arrowsmith, Rod W. Whitaker, and Richard J. Stead Los Alamos National Laboratory Sponsored by the... infrasound from earthquakes, in conjunction with modeling, to better constrain our understanding of the generation of infrasound from earthquakes, in...particular the effect of source depth. Here, we first outline a systematic search for infrasound from earthquakes from a range of magnitudes. Based

  10. Infrasound in the ionosphere from earthquakes and typhoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chum, J.; Liu, J.-Y.; Podolská, K.; Šindelářová, T.

    2018-06-01

    Infrasound waves are observed in the ionosphere relatively rarely, in contrast to atmospheric gravity waves. Infrasound waves excited by two distinguished sources as seismic waves from strong earthquakes (M > 7) and severe tropospheric weather systems (typhoons) are discussed and analyzed. Examples of observation by an international network of continuous Doppler sounders are presented. It is documented that the co-seismic infrasound is generated by vertical movement of the ground surface caused by seismic waves propagating at supersonic speeds. The coseismic infrasound propagates nearly vertically and has usually periods of several tens of seconds far away from the epicenter. However, in the vicinity of the epicenter (up to distance about 1000-1500 km), the large amplitudes might lead to nonlinear formation of N-shaped pulse in the upper atmosphere with much longer dominant period, e.g. around 2 min. The experimental observation is in good agreement with numerical modeling. The spectral content can also be nonlinearly changed at intermediate distances (around 3000-4000 km), though the N-shaped pulse is not obvious. Infrasound waves associated with seven typhoons that passed over Taiwan in 2014-2016 were investigated. The infrasound waves were observed at heights approximately from 200 to 300 km. Their spectra differed during the individual events and event from event and covered roughly the spectral range 3.5-20 mHz. The peak of spectral density was usually around 5 mHz. The observed spectra exhibited fine structures that likely resulted from modal resonances. The infrasound was recorded during several hours for strong events, especially for two typhoons in September 2016.

  11. Infrasound and Seismic Observation of Hayabusa Reentry as An Artificial Meteorite Fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Y.; Hiramatsu, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Furumoto, M.; Fujita, K.

    2011-12-01

    The Hayabusa, the world first sample-return minor body explorer, came back to the Earth, and reentered into the Earth's atmosphere on June 13, 2010. Following the reentries of the Genesis in 2004 and the Stardust in 2006, the return of the Hayabusa Sample Return Capsule (H-SRC) was the third direct reentry event from the interplanetary transfer orbit to the Earth at a velocity of over 11.2 km/s. In addition, it was the world first case of the direct reentry of the spacecraft (H-S/C) itself from the interplanetary transfer orbit. The H-SRC and the H-S/C reentries are very good analogue for studying bolide size meteors and meteorite falls. We, therefore, conducted a ground observation campaign for aspects of meteor sciences. We carried out multi-site ground observations of the Hayabusa reentry in the Woomera Prohibited Area (WPA), Australia. The observations were configured with optical imaging with still and video recordings, spectroscopies, and shockwave detection with infrasound and seismic sensors. In this study, we report details of the infrasound/seismic observations and those results. To detect shockwaves from the H-SRC and the H-S/C, we installed three small aperture infrasound/seismic arrays as the main stations. In addition, we also installed three single component seismic sub stations and an audible sound recorder. The infrasound and seismic sensors clearly recorded sonic boom type shockwaves from the H-SRC and disrupted fragments of the H-S/C itself. The audible recording also detected those shockwave sounds in the human audible band. Positive overpressure values of shockwaves (corresponding to the H-SRC) recorded at three main stations are 1.3 Pa, 1.0 Pa, and 0.7 Pa with the slant distance of 36.9 km, 54.9 km, and 67.8 km (i.e., the source altitude of 36.5 km, 38.9km, and 40.6 km), respectively. These amplitudes of shockwave overpressures are systematically smaller than those of theoretical predictions. We tried to identify the sources of shockwaves

  12. [Observation of the L929 cell membrane after infrasound exposure with atomic force microscope].

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing-shui; Chen, Jing-zao; Liu, Bin; Li, Ling; Yi, Nan; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Sa

    2005-12-01

    To observe the changes of L929 cell membrane with atomic force microscope (AFM) after infrasound exposure and to explore the mechanisms of effect of infrasound on cell membrane. After primary culture, the L929 cells were exposed to infrasound with intensity output of 130 dB and frequency of 16 Hz 2 hours each day for 3 days. The subsequent changes in the membrane of the control cells and the cells exposed to the infrasound were determined by nano-scale scanning with AFM. After infrasound exposure, the normal prominence of the membrane became short and the dent became shallow in the 7.5 microm x 7.5 microm and 4.0 microm x 4.0 microm photographs. The prominence appeared as cobblestones. The surface of the membrane became smooth. The membrane structure of the L929 cells can be changed by infrasound exposure with intensity of 130 dB and frequency of 16 Hz. The change might be one of the characteristics of effect of infrasound on cell membrane.

  13. Atmospheric Infrasound during a Large Wildfire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, Alexis; Elbing, Brian

    2017-11-01

    Numerous natural and manmade sources generate infrasound, including tornado producing storms, human heart, hurricanes, and volcanoes. Infrasound is currently being studied as part of Collaboration Leading Operational UAS Development for Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics (CLOUD MAP), which is a multi-university collaboration focused on development and implementation of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) and integration with sensors for atmospheric measurements. To support this effort a fixed infrasonic microphone located in Stillwater, Oklahoma has been monitoring atmospheric emissions since September of 2016. While severe storm systems is the primary focus of this work, the system also captures a wide range of infrasonic sources from distances in excess of 300 miles due to an acoustic ceiling and weak atmospheric absorption. The current presentation will focus on atmospheric infrasound observations during a large wildfire on the Kansas-Oklahoma border that occurred between March 6-22, 2017. This work was supported by NSF Grant 1539070.

  14. Modelling infrasound signal generation from two underground explosions at the Source Physics Experiment using the Rayleigh integral

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Kyle R.; Whitaker, Rodney W.; Arrowsmith, Stephen J.

    2014-12-11

    For this study, we use the Rayleigh integral (RI) as an approximation to the Helmholtz–Kirchoff integral to model infrasound generation and propagation from underground chemical explosions at distances of 250 m out to 5 km as part of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE). Using a sparse network of surface accelerometers installed above ground zero, we are able to accurately create synthetic acoustic waveforms and compare them to the observed data. Although the underground explosive sources were designed to be symmetric, the resulting seismic wave at the surface shows an asymmetric propagation pattern that is stronger to the northeast of themore » borehole. This asymmetric bias may be attributed to the subsurface geology and faulting of the area and is observed in the acoustic waveforms. We compare observed and modelled results from two of the underground SPE tests with a sensitivity study to evaluate the asymmetry observed in the data. This work shows that it is possible to model infrasound signals from underground explosive sources using the RI and that asymmetries observed in the data can be modelled with this technique.« less

  15. Volcanic eruptions, lightning, and a waterfall: Differentiating the menagerie of infrasound in the Ecuadorian jungle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jeffrey B.; Lees, Jonathan M.; Yepes, Hugo

    2006-03-01

    In northeastern Ecuador, near Reventador Volcano, the airwaves are filled with infrasound. Here we identify the locations and characterize three distinct sources of local infrasound, including two types of infrasonic sources, which are not commonly discussed in the literature. The first of these novel sources is an intense and continuous radiator with a fixed location corresponding to San Rafael Waterfall. The signal from the river exhibits a tremor-like envelope that is well correlated across the 3-element infrasound network. Beyond the river, we also observe and map spatially variable sources corresponding to thunder. These transient signals have impulsive onsets, but are not well correlated across the network and are attributable to spatially-distributed source regions. Finally, we identify plentiful infrasound corresponding to Reventador's volcanic vent that is associated with unrest. This study demonstrates the utility of dispersed infrasound networks for distinguishing variable sources and improving interpretation of mechanisms of infrasound radiators.

  16. Infrasound detection of meteors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ElGabry, M. N.; Korrat, I. M.; Hussein, H. M.; Hamama, I. H.

    2017-06-01

    Meteorites that penetrate the atmosphere generate infrasound waves of very low frequency content. These waves can be detected even at large distances. In this study, we analyzed the infrasound waves produced by three meteors. The October 7, 2008 TC3 meteor fell over the north Sudan Nubian Desert, the February 15, 2013 Russian fireball, and the February 6, 2016 Atlantic meteor near to the Brazil coast. The signals of these three meteors were detected by the infrasound sensors of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO). The progressive Multi Channel Technique is applied to the signals in order to locate these infrasound sources. Correlation of the recorded signals in the collocated elements of each array enables to calculate the delays at the different array element relative to a reference one as a way to estimate the azimuth and velocity of the coming infrasound signals. The meteorite infrasound signals show a sudden change in pressure with azimuth due to its track variation at different heights in the atmosphere. Due to movement of the source, a change in azimuth with time occurs. Our deduced locations correlate well with those obtained from the catalogues of the IDC of the CTBTO.

  17. Linking Volcano Infrasound Observations to Conduit Processes for Vulcanian Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, L. M.; Dunham, E. M.; Almquist, M.; Mattsson, K.; Ampong, K.

    2016-12-01

    Volcano infrasound observations have been used to infer a range of eruption parameters, such as volume flux and exit velocity, with the majority of work focused on subaerial processes. Here, we propose using infrasound observations to investigate the subsurface processes of the volcanic system. We develop a one-dimensional model of the volcanic system, coupling an unsteady conduit model to a description of a volcanic jet with sound waves generated by the expansion of the jet. The conduit model describes isothermal two-phase flow with no relative motion between the phases. We are currently working on including crystals and adding conservation of energy to the governing equations. The model captures the descent of the fragmentation front into the conduit and approaches a steady state solution with choked flow at the vent. The descending fragmentation front influences the time history of mass discharge from the vent, which is linked to the infrasound signal through the volcanic jet model. The jet model is coupled to the conduit by conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. We compare simulation results for a range of models of the volcanic jet, ranging in complexity from assuming conservation of volume, as has been done in some previous infrasound studies, to solving the Euler equations for the surrounding compressible atmosphere and accounting for entrainment. Our model is designed for short-lived, impulsive Vulcanian eruptions, such as those seen at Sakurajima Volcano, with activity triggered by a sudden drop in pressure at the top of the conduit. The intention is to compare the simulated signals to observations and to devise an inverse procedure to enable inversion for conduit properties.

  18. Time reversal for localization of sources of infrasound signals in a windy stratified atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Lonzaga, Joel B

    2016-06-01

    Time reversal is used for localizing sources of recorded infrasound signals propagating in a windy, stratified atmosphere. Due to the convective effect of the background flow, the back-azimuths of the recorded signals can be substantially different from the source back-azimuth, posing a significant difficulty in source localization. The back-propagated signals are characterized by negative group velocities from which the source back-azimuth and source-to-receiver (STR) distance can be estimated using the apparent back-azimuths and trace velocities of the signals. The method is applied to several distinct infrasound arrivals recorded by two arrays in the Netherlands. The infrasound signals were generated by the Buncefield oil depot explosion in the U.K. in December 2005. Analyses show that the method can be used to substantially enhance estimates of the source back-azimuth and the STR distance. In one of the arrays, for instance, the deviations between the measured back-azimuths of the signals and the known source back-azimuth are quite large (-1° to -7°), whereas the deviations between the predicted and known source back-azimuths are small with an absolute mean value of <1°. Furthermore, the predicted STR distance is off only by <5% of the known STR distance.

  19. Infrasound Signal Characteristics from Small Earthquakes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    INFRASOUND SIGNAL CHARACTERISTICS FROM SMALL EARTHQUAKES J. Mark Hale1, Stephen J. Arrowsmith2, Chris Hayward3, Relu Burlacu1, Kristine L. Pankow1...ABSTRACT Understanding the source properties responsible for infrasound generation is critical to developing a seismo-acoustic data discriminant...mining in the Utah region create a unique setting for the study of near-field infrasound . The Utah network has been operating three permanent infrasound

  20. Integration of video and infrasound to understand source locations and vent geometry at Erebus Volcano, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. R.; Aster, R. C.; Johnson, J. B.; Kyle, P. R.; McIntosh, W. C.

    2007-05-01

    Infrasound monitoring at Erebus volcano has enabled us to quantify eruption energetics and precisely determine the source location of Strombolian eruptions. Since January 2006 we have operated a three-element network of identical infrasound pressure transducers, to track explosive eruptions, triangulate source locations of the eruptions, and distinguish activity from several vents with diverse activities. In December 2006 the network was expanded to six identical pressure transducers with improved azimuthal distribution sited ~300 m to 700 m from the erupting vents. These sensors have a dynamic range of +/-125 Pa and are able to record non-distorted waveforms for almost all eruptive events. Since January 2006, eruptions have been identified from locations within the ~40 m diameter phonolitic lava lake, an adjacent smaller "active vent", and a vent ~80 m distant from the lava lake known as "Werner's". Since late 2005 until the end of 2006, activity was considerably elevated at the "lava lake", from which frequent (up to six per day) explosions were noted. These events entailed gas bubble bursts, some of which were capable of ejecting bombs more than 1 km distant and producing infrasonic transients in excess of 100 Pa at a distance of 700 m. Activity from "Werner's" vent was much more subdued in terms of eruptive frequency and the radiated acoustic energy, with all signals less than about 5 Pa at 700 m. Activity from the "active vent" was also observed, though notably, these acoustic transients were extended in duration in terms of time (> 5 s to more than 30 s), which reflects extended duration ash-venting source mechanisms, corroborated by video records. The updated infrasound network has operated through a relative lull in eruptive intensity (November - December 2006 - January 2007). Since January 2007 more frequent and larger explosions from the lava lake have been observed and recorded with infrasound and video. We quantify this recent upsurge in lava lake

  1. Narrow infrasound pulses from lightning; are they of electrostatic or thermal origin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHUM, Jaroslav; Diendorfer, Gerhard; Šindelářová, Tereza; Baše, Jiří; Hruška, František

    2014-05-01

    Narrow (~1-2 s) infrasound pulses that followed, with ~11 to ~50 s delays, rapid changes of electrostatic field were observed by a microbarometer array in the Czech Republic during thunderstorm activity. The angles of arrival (azimuth and elevation) were analyzed for selected distinct events. Comparisons of distances and azimuths of infrasound sources from the center of microbarometer array with lightning locations determined by EUCLID lightning detection network show that most of the selected events are most likely associated with intra-cloud (IC) discharges. Preceding rapid changes of electrostatic field, potential association of infrasound pulses with IC discharges, and high elevation angles of arrival for near infrasound sources indicate that an electrostatic mechanism is probably responsible for their generation. It is discussed that distinguishing of the relative role of thermal and electrostatic mechanism is difficult, and that none of published models of electrostatic production of infrasound thunder can explain the presented observations precisely. A modification of the current models, based on consideration of at least two charged layers is suggested. Further theoretical and experimental investigations are however needed to get a better description of the generation mechanism of those infrasound pulses.

  2. Assessing and optimizing infrasound network performance: application to remote volcano monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tailpied, D.; LE Pichon, A.; Marchetti, E.; Kallel, M.; Ceranna, L.

    2014-12-01

    Infrasound is an efficient monitoring technique to remotely detect and characterize explosive sources such as volcanoes. Simulation methods incorporating realistic source and propagation effects have been developed to quantify the detection capability of any network. These methods can also be used to optimize the network configuration (number of stations, geographical location) in order to reduce the detection thresholds taking into account seasonal effects in infrasound propagation. Recent studies have shown that remote infrasound observations can provide useful information about the eruption chronology and the released acoustic energy. Comparisons with near-field recordings allow evaluating the potential of these observations to better constrain source parameters when other monitoring techniques (satellite, seismic, gas) are not available or cannot be made. Because of its regular activity, the well-instrumented Mount Etna is in Europe a unique natural repetitive source to test and optimize detection and simulation methods. The closest infrasound station part of the International Monitoring System is located in Tunisia (IS48). In summer, during the downwind season, it allows an unambiguous identification of signals associated with Etna eruptions. Under the European ARISE project (Atmospheric dynamics InfraStructure in Europe, FP7/2007-2013), experimental arrays have been installed in order to characterize infrasound propagation in different ranges of distance and direction. In addition, a small-aperture array, set up on the flank by the University of Firenze, has been operating since 2007. Such an experimental setting offers an opportunity to address the societal benefits that can be achieved through routine infrasound monitoring.

  3. Studies of infrasound propagation using the USArray seismic network (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedlin, M. A.; Degroot-Hedlin, C. D.; Walker, K. T.

    2010-12-01

    Although there are currently ~ 100 infrasound arrays worldwide, more than ever before, the station density is still insufficient to provide validation for detailed propagation modeling. Much structure in the atmosphere is short-lived and occurs at spatial scales much smaller than the average distance between infrasound stations. Relatively large infrasound signals can be observed on seismic channels due to coupling at the Earth's surface. Recent research, using data from the 70-km spaced 400-station USArray and other seismic network deployments, has shown the value of dense seismic network data for filling in the gaps between infrasound arrays. The dense sampling of the infrasound wavefield has allowed us to observe complete travel-time branches of infrasound signals and shed more light on the nature of infrasound propagation. We present early results from our studies of impulsive atmospheric sources, such as series of UTTR rocket motor detonations in Utah. The Utah blasts have been well recorded by USArray seismic stations and infrasound arrays in Nevada and Washington State. Recordings of seismic signals from a series of six events in 2007 are used to pinpoint the shot times to < 1 second. Variations in the acoustic branches and signal arrival times at the arrays are used to probe variations in atmospheric structure. Although we currently use coupled signals we anticipate studying dense acoustic network recordings as the USArray is currently being upgraded with infrasound microphones. These new sensors will allow us to make semi-continental scale network recordings of infrasound signals free of concerns about how the signals observed on seismic channels were modified when being coupled to seismic.

  4. Implications from Meteoric and Volcanic Infrasound Measured in the Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evers, L.

    2003-12-01

    Infrasound observations started in the Netherlands in 1986. Since then, several array configurations and instruments have been developed, tested and made operational. Currently, three infrasound arrays are continuously measuring infrasound with in-house developed microbarometers. The array apertures vary from 30 to 1500 meters and the number of instruments from 6 to 16 microbarometers. The inter-array distance ranges from 50 up to 150 km. This dense network of infrasound arrays is used to distinguish between earthquakes and sources in the atmosphere. Sonic booms, for example, can be experienced in the same manner as small (gas induced) earthquakes. Furthermore, Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) related research is done. Meteors are one of the few natural impulsive sources generating energy in kT TNT equivalent range. Therefore, the study of meteors is essential to the CTBT where infrasound is applied as monitoring technique. Studies of meteors in the Netherlands have shown the capability of infrasound to trace a meteor through the stratosphere. The propagation of infrasound is in first order dependent on the wind and temperature structure of the atmosphere. The meteor's path could be reconstructed by using ECMWF atmospheric models for wind and temperature. The results were compared to visual observations, confirming the location, direction and reported origin time. The accuracy of the localization mainly depends on the applied atmospheric model and array resolution. Successfully applying infrasound depends on the array configuration that should be based on the -frequency depend- spatial coherence of the signals of interest. The array aperture and inter-element distance will play a decisive role in detecting low signal-to-noise ratios. This is shown by results from studies on volcanic infrasound from Mt. Etna (Italy) detected in the Netherlands. Sub-array processing on the 16 element array revealed an increased detectability of infrasound for small

  5. Characterization of infrasound from lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assink, J. D.; Evers, L. G.; Holleman, I.; Paulssen, H.

    2008-08-01

    During thunderstorm activity in the Netherlands, electromagnetic and infrasonic signals are emitted due to the process of lightning and thunder. It is shown that correlating infrasound detections with results from a electromagnetic lightning detection network is successful up to distances of 50 km from the infrasound array. Infrasound recordings clearly show blastwave characteristics which can be related to cloud-ground discharges, with a dominant frequency between 1-5 Hz. Amplitude measurements of CG discharges can partly be explained by the beam pattern of a line source with a dominant frequency of 3.9 Hz, up to a distance of 20 km. The ability to measure lightning activity with infrasound arrays has both positive and negative implications for CTBT verification purposes. As a scientific application, lightning studies can benefit from the worldwide infrasound verification system.

  6. Infra-sound Signature of Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arechiga, R. O.; Badillo, E.; Johnson, J.; Edens, H. E.; Rison, W.; Thomas, R. J.

    2012-12-01

    We have analyzed thunder from over 200 lightning flashes to determine which part of thunder comes from the gas dynamic expansion of portions of the rapidly heated lightning channel and which from electrostatic field changes. Thunder signals were recorded by a ~1500 m network of 3 to 4 4-element microphone deployed in the Magdalena mountains of New Mexico in the summers of 2011 and 2012. The higher frequency infra-sound and audio-range portion of thunder is thought to come from the gas dynamic expansion, and the electrostatic mechanism gives rise to a signature infra-sound pulse peaked at a few Hz. More than 50 signature infra-sound pulses were observed in different portions of the thunder signal, with no preference towards the beginning or the end of the signal. Detection of the signature pulse occurs sometimes only for one array and sometimes for several arrays, which agrees with the theory that the pulse is highly directional (i.e., the recordings have to be in a specific position with respect to the cloud generating the pulse to be able to detect it). The detection of these pulses under quiet wind conditions by different acoustic arrays corroborates the electrostatic mechanism originally proposed by Wilson [1920], further studied by Dessler [1973] and Few [1985], observed by Bohannon [1983] and Balachandran [1979, 1983], and recently analyzed by Pasko [2009]. Pasko employed a model to explain the electrostatic-to-acoustic energy conversion and the initial compression waves in observed infrasonic pulses, which agrees with the observations we have made. We present thunder samples that exhibit signature infra-sound pulses at different times and acoustic source reconstruction to demonstrate the beaming effect.

  7. West Texas array experiment: Noise and source characterization of short-range infrasound and acoustic signals, along with lab and field evaluation of Intermountain Laboratories infrasound microphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Aileen

    The term infrasound describes atmospheric sound waves with frequencies below 20 Hz, while acoustics are classified within the audible range of 20 Hz to 20 kHz. Infrasound and acoustic monitoring in the scientific community is hampered by low signal-to-noise ratios and a limited number of studies on regional and short-range noise and source characterization. The JASON Report (2005) suggests the infrasound community focus on more broad-frequency, observational studies within a tactical distance of 10 km. In keeping with that recommendation, this paper presents a study of regional and short-range atmospheric acoustic and infrasonic noise characterization, at a desert site in West Texas, covering a broad frequency range of 0.2 to 100 Hz. To spatially sample the band, a large number of infrasound gauges was needed. A laboratory instrument analysis is presented of the set of low-cost infrasound sensors used in this study, manufactured by Inter-Mountain Laboratories (IML). Analysis includes spectra, transfer functions and coherences to assess the stability and range of the gauges, and complements additional instrument testing by Sandia National Laboratories. The IMLs documented here have been found reliably coherent from 0.1 to 7 Hz without instrument correction. Corrections were built using corresponding time series from the commercially available and more expensive Chaparral infrasound gauge, so that the corrected IML outputs were able to closely mimic the Chaparral output. Arrays of gauges are needed for atmospheric sound signal processing. Our West Texas experiment consisted of a 1.5 km aperture, 23-gauge infrasound/acoustic array of IMLs, with a compact, 12 m diameter grid-array of rented IMLs at the center. To optimize signal recording, signal-to-noise ratio needs to be quantified with respect to both frequency band and coherence length. The higher-frequency grid array consisted of 25 microphones arranged in a five by five pattern with 3 meter spacing, without

  8. Infrasound Monitoring of the Volcanic Activities of Japanese Volcanoes in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, H. I.; Che, I. Y.; Shin, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Since 1999 when our first infrasound array station(CHNAR) has been installed at Cheolwon, Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources(KIGAM) is continuously observing infrasound signals with an infrasound array network, named KIN(Korean Infrasound Network). This network is comprised of eight seismo-acoustic array stations(BRDAR, YPDAR, KMPAR, CHNAR, YAGAR, KSGAR, ULDAR, TJIAR). The aperture size of the smallest array is 300m and the largest is about 1.4km. The number of infrasound sensors are between 4(TJIAR) and 18(YAGAR), and 1~5 seismometers are collocated with infrasound sensors. Many interesting infrasound signals associated with different type of sources, such as blasting, large earthquake, bolide, volcanic explosion are detected by KIN in the past 15 years. We have analyzed the infrasound signals possibly associated with the japanese volcanic explosions with reference to volcanic activity report published by Japanese Meteorological Agency. Analysis results of many events, for example, Asama volcano explosion in 2004 and Shinmoe volcano in 2011, are well matched with the official report. In some cases, however, corresponding infrasound signals are not identified. By comparison of the infrasound signals from different volcanoes, we also found that the characteristics of signals are distinguishing. It may imply that the specific volcano has its own unique fingerprint in terms of infrasound signal. It might be investigated by long-term infrasound monitoring for a specific volcano as a ground truth generating repetitive infrasound signal.

  9. Infrasound Signal Characteristics from Small Earthquakes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    INFRASOUND SIGNAL CHARACTERISTICS FROM SMALL EARTHQUAKES Stephen J. Arrowsmith1, J. Mark Hale2, Relu Burlacu2, Kristine L. Pankow2, Brian W. Stump3...ABSTRACT Physical insight into source properties that contribute to the generation of infrasound signals is critical to understanding the...m, with one element being co-located with a seismic station. One of the goals of this project is the recording of infrasound from earthquakes of

  10. Characterization and diagnostic methods for geomagnetic auroral infrasound waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldham, Justin J.

    Infrasonic perturbations resulting from auroral activity have been observed since the 1950's. In the last decade advances in infrasonic microphone sensitivity, high latitude sensor coverage, time series analysis methods and computational efficiency have elucidated new types of auroral infrasound. Persistent periods of infrasonic activity associated with geomagnetic sub-storms have been termed geomagnetic auroral infrasound waves [GAIW]. We consider 63 GAIW events recorded by the Fairbanks, AK infrasonic array I53US ranging from 2003 to 2014 and encompassing a complete solar cycle. We make observations of the acoustic features of these events alongside magnetometer, riometer, and all-sky camera data in an effort to quantify the ionospheric conditions suitable for infrasound generation. We find that, on average, the generation mechanism for GAIW is confined to a region centered about ~60 0 longitude east of the anti-Sun-Earth line and at ~770 North latitude. We note furthermore that in all cases considered wherein imaging riometer data are available, that dynamic regions of heightened ionospheric conductivity periodically cross the overhead zenith. Consistent features in concurrent magnetometer conditions are also noted, with irregular oscillations in the horizontal component of the field ubiquitous in all cases. In an effort to produce ionosphere based infrasound free from the clutter and unknowns typical of geophysical observations, an experiment was undertaken at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program [HAARP] facility in 2012. Infrasonic signals appearing to originate from a source region overhead were observed briefly on 9 August 2012. The signals were observed during a period when an electrojet current was presumed to have passed overhead and while the facilities radio transmitter was periodically heating the lower ionosphere. Our results suggest dynamic auroral electrojet currents as primary sources of much of the observed infrasound, with

  11. Investigation of the infrasound produced by geophysical events such as volcanoes, thunder, and avalanches: the case for local infrasound monitoring (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. B.; Marcillo, O. E.; Arechiga, R. O.; Johnson, R.; Edens, H. E.; Marshall, H.; Havens, S.; Waite, G. P.

    2010-12-01

    Volcanoes, lightning, and mass wasting events generate substantial infrasonic energy that propagates for long distances through the atmosphere with generally low intrinsic attenuation. Although such sources are often studied with regional infrasound arrays that provide important records of their occurrence, position, and relative magnitudes these signals recorded at tens to hundreds of kilometers are often significantly affected by propagation effects. Complex atmospheric structure, due to heterogeneous winds and temperatures, and intervening topography can be responsible for multi-pathing, signal attenuation, and focusing or, alternatively, information loss (i.e., a shadow zone). At far offsets, geometric spreading diminishes signal amplitude requiring low noise recording sites and high fidelity microphones. In contrast recorded excess pressures at local distances are much higher in amplitude and waveforms are more representative of source phenomena. We report on recent studies of volcanoes, thunder, and avalanches made with networks and arrays of infrasound sensors deployed local (within a few km) to the source. At Kilauea Volcano (Hawaii) we deployed a network of ~50 infrasound sensitive sensors (flat from 50 s to 50 Hz) to track the coherence of persistent infrasonic tremor signals in the near-field (out to a few tens of kilometers). During periods of high winds (> 5-10 m/s) we found significant atmospheric influence for signals recorded at stations only a few kilometers from the source. Such observations have encouraged us to conduct a range of volcano, thunder, and snow avalanche studies with networks of small infrasound arrays (~30 m aperture) deployed close to the source region. We present results from local microphone deployments (12 sensors) at Santiaguito Volcano (Guatemala) where we are able to precisely (~10 m resolution) locate acoustic sources from explosions and rock falls. We also present results from our thunder mapping acoustic arrays (15 sensors

  12. Seismic and Infrasound Location

    SciTech Connect

    Arrowsmith, Stephen J.; Begnaud, Michael L.

    2014-03-19

    This presentation includes slides on Signal Propagation Through the Earth/Atmosphere Varies at Different Scales; 3D Seismic Models: RSTT; Ray Coverage (Pn); Source-Specific Station Corrections (SSSCs); RSTT Conclusions; SALSA3D (SAndia LoS Alamos) Global 3D Earth Model for Travel Time; Comparison of IDC SSSCs to RSTT Predictions; SALSA3D; Validation and Model Comparison; DSS Lines in the Siberian Platform; DSS Line CRA-4 Comparison; Travel Time Δak135; Travel Time Prediction Uncertainty; SALSA3D Conclusions; Infrasound Data Processing: An example event; Infrasound Data Processing: An example event; Infrasound Location; How does BISL work?; BISL: Application to the 2013 DPRK Test; and BISL: Ongoing Research.

  13. Infrasound Observation of the Apparent North Korean Nuclear Test of 25 May 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, J.; Che, I.; Kim, T.; Lee, H.

    2009-12-01

    On 25 May 2009, a seismic event (mb 4.6) was recorded from a source in northeastern North Korea, close to the location of a previous seismic event on 9 October 2006. Both events have been declared to be nuclear tests. Five seismo-acoustic arrays in South Korea recorded epicentral infrasonic signals for the more recent test following the strong seismic waves from the explosion. This study describes the characteristics of the nuclear test-generated infrasound signals observed at infrasound arrays located from 304 to 528 km from the source. The signals were characterized by stratospheric returns with amplitudes from 0.16 to 0.35 microbar and dominant frequencies between 1.0 and 4.3 Hz. Celerities determined for the arrivals suggest that most of the infrasonic energy travelled as a stratospheric phase. The inferred infrasonic location was offset about 15.7 km from the reference seismic location. On the basis of observed amplitudes of the stratospheric phases and corrections based on prevailing winds, the epicentral infrasonic energy was estimated to be equivalent to that expected from about 2.2 ton surface detonation of conventional explosives. We conclude that this small energy estimate is related to the partitioning of the contained explosive energy resulting from the interaction of strong ground motion at the surface with the atmosphere rather than the direct transfer of explosion energy to the air. This relatively small energy ratio between the infrasonic energy and the seismic energy could be used to distinguish the event from a common surface explosion.

  14. Near-source and Regional Experiments to Quantify Coupling and Propagation Effects of Seismic and Infrasound Signals from Mining Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stump, B. W.; Hayward, C.; Zhou, R.; House, S. M.

    2001-12-01

    Mining explosions designed to fragment rock are known to be regular sources of seismic waves as exemplified by the routine identification of these events in the USGS Mining Seismicity Report. Near-surface explosions can also generate low frequency acoustic waves or infrasound that can propagate through the atmosphere to regional distances. An understanding of source contributions to the size and character of waves initiated in the solid earth and atmosphere can be used to interpret propagation path effects as well as provide a physical understanding of characteristics that can be used for identifying the source type from the regional observations. The porphyry copper district of the SW United States was chosen for the study of these effects because of the existence of mining explosions that are routinely included in the USGS Mining Seismicity Report and an abundance of high quality regional seismic stations. A regional network of infrasound arrays was installed in order to quantify the accompanying low-frequency acoustic signals. In-mine seismic and acoustic measurements were made to quantify the source. These observations were supplemented with GPS locked video and in-mine documentation of the explosion design parameters. This comprehensive data set has been used to estimate source parameters that can be used to interpret the regional signals. Infrasound signals observed over a one-year time period indicate that the direction of atmospheric winds controls the amplitude and thus detection of these signals. Regional seismic observations are strongly affected by the style of blasting. The largest of the ground truth events (~250,000 kg explosive) are detonated in relatively long blasting sequences (~2 seconds) and produce some of the smallest regional signals. Smaller blasts (~25,000 to 50,000 kg) are detonated over relatively shorter time periods (`~0.2 to 0.4 seconds) and produce the largest regional signals. This source time function signature in the regional

  15. Overview of IMS infrasound station and engineering projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marty, J.; Doury, B.; Kramer, A.; Martysevich, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBTO) has a continuous interest in enhancing its capability in acoustic source detection, localization and characterization. The infrasound component of the International Monitoring System (IMS) constitutes the only worldwide ground-based infrasound network. It consists of sixty stations, among which forty-eight are already certified and continuously transmit data to the International Data Centre (IDC) in Vienna, Austria. Each infrasound station is composed of an array of infrasound sensors capable of measuring micro-pressure changes produced at ground level by infrasonic waves. The characteristics of infrasonic waves are computed in near real-time by IDC automatic detection software and are used as an input to IDC source categorization and localization algorithms. The PTS is continuously working towards the completion and sustainment of the IMS infrasound network. The objective of this presentation is to review the main activities performed in the IMS infrasound network over the last five years. This includes construction, installation, certification, major upgrade and revalidation activities. Major technology development projects to improve the reliability and robustness of IMS infrasound stations as well as their compliance with IMS Operational Manual requirements will also be presented. This includes advances in array geometry, wind noise reduction, system calibration, meteorological data as well as power and communication infrastructures. Finally the impact of all these changes on the overall detection capability of the IMS infrasound network will be highlighted.

  16. Infrasound signals from the underground nuclear explosions of North Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Il-Young; Park, Junghyun; Kim, Inho; Kim, Tae Sung; Lee, Hee-Il

    2014-07-01

    We investigated the infrasound signals from seismic ground motions induced by North Korea's underground nuclear explosions, including the recent third explosion on 2013 February 12. For the third explosion, the epicentral infrasound signals were detected not only by three infrasound network stations (KSGAR, ULDAR and YAGAR) in South Korea but also by two nearby International Monitoring System infrasound stations, IS45 and IS30. The detectability of the signals was limited at stations located on the relatively east side of the epicentre, with large azimuth deviations due to very favourable atmospheric conditions for eastward propagation at stratospheric height in 2013. The stratospheric wind direction was the reverse of that when the second explosion was conducted in 2009 May. The source location of the epicentral infrasound with wave parameters determined at the multiple stations has an offset by about 16.6 km from the reference seismic location. It was possible to determine the infrasonic location with moderate accuracy by the correction of the azimuth deviation due to the eastward winds in the stratosphere. In addition to the epicentral infrasonic signals, diffracted infrasound signals were observed from the second underground nuclear explosion in 2009. The exceptional detectability of the diffracted infrasound was a consequence of the temporal formation of a thin atmospheric inversion layer over the ocean surface when the event occurred.

  17. Seismic &Infrasound Integrated Array "Apatity". Techniques, data processing, first results of observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradov, Y.; Baryshnikov, A.

    2003-04-01

    , was registered by infrasound part of SISIA "Apatity". Their sources were at distances from 38 to 220 km. The result of observations during the first 1 year enabled us to estimate frequency range and main directions of arrivals of acoustic waves and noise level in the place of observations. In accordance with the results and relief a 4-rays wind-noise-reducing pipe array would be install at all 3 sensors at May 2003, for improvement the delectability during windy conditions. A schemes of the SISIA "Apatity", data transmitting and processing and samples of detected signals are shown in the presentation.

  18. Infrasound associated with the deep M 7.3 northeastern China earthquake of June 28, 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Il-Young; Kim, Geunyoung; Le Pichon, Alexis

    2013-02-01

    On 28 June, 2002, a deep-focus (566 km) earthquake with a moment magnitude of 7.3 occurred in the China-Russia-North Korea border region. Despite its deep focus, the earthquake produced an infrasound signal that was observed by the remote infrasound array (CHNAR), 682 km from the epicenter, in South Korea. Coherent infrasound signals were detected sequentially at the receiver, with different arrival times and azimuths indicating that the signals were generated both near the epicenter and elsewhere. On the basis of the azimuth, arrival time measurements, and atmospheric ray simulation results, the source area of the infrasonic signals that arrived earlier were located along the eastern coastal areas of North Korea and Russia, whereas later signals were sourced throughout Japan. The geographically-constrained, and discrete, distribution of the sources identified is explained by infrasound propagation effects caused by a westward zonal wind that was active when the event occurred. The amplitude of the deep quake's signal was equivalent to that of a shallow earthquake with a magnitude of approximately 5. This study expands the breadth of seismically-associated infrasound to include deep earthquakes, and also supports the possibility that infrasound measurements could help determine the depth of earthquakes.

  19. Detection and interpretation of seismoacoustic events at German infrasound stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilger, Christoph; Koch, Karl; Ceranna, Lars

    2016-04-01

    Three infrasound arrays with collocated or nearby installed seismometers are operated by the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR) as the German National Data Center (NDC) for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Infrasound generated by seismoacoustic events is routinely detected at these infrasound arrays, but air-to-ground coupled acoustic waves occasionally show up in seismometer recordings as well. Different natural and artificial sources like meteoroids as well as industrial and mining activity generate infrasonic signatures that are simultaneously detected at microbarometers and seismometers. Furthermore, many near-surface sources like earthquakes and explosions generate both seismic and infrasonic waves that can be detected successively with both technologies. The combined interpretation of seismic and acoustic signatures provides additional information about the origin time and location of remote infrasound events or about the characterization of seismic events distinguishing man-made and natural origins. Furthermore, seismoacoustic studies help to improve the modelling of infrasound propagation and ducting in the atmosphere and allow quantifying the portion of energy coupled into ground and into air by seismoacoustic sources. An overview of different seismoacoustic sources and their detection by German infrasound stations as well as some conclusions on the benefit of a combined seismoacoustic analysis are presented within this study.

  20. Near- and far-field infrasound monitoring in the Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campus, Paola; Marchetti, Emanuele; Le Pichon, Alexis; Wallenstein, Nicolau; Ripepe, Maurizio; Kallel, Mohamed; Mialle, Pierrick

    2013-04-01

    The Mediterranean area is characterized by a number of very interesting sources of infrasound signals and offers a promising playground for the development of a deeper understanding of such sources and of the associated propagation models. The progress in the construction and certification of infrasound arrays belonging to the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) in the vicinity of this area has been complemented, in the last decade, by the construction of infrasound arrays established by several European research groups. The University of Florence (UniFi) plays a crucial role for the detection of infrasound signals in the Mediterranean area, having deployed since several years two infrasound arrays on Stromboli and Etna volcanoes, and, more recently, three infrasound arrays in the Alpine area of NW Italy and one infrasound array on the Apennines (Mount Amiata), designed and established in the framework of the ARISE Project. The IMS infrasound arrays IS42 (Graciosa, Azores, Portugal) and IS48 (Kesra, Tunisia) recorded, since the time of their certification, a number of far-field events which can be correlated with some near-field records of the infrasound arrays belonging to UniFi. An analysis of the results and potentialities of infrasound source's detections in near and far-field realized by IS42, IS48 and UniFi arrays in the Mediterranean area, with special focus on volcanic events is presented. The combined results deriving from the analysis of data recorded by the Unifi arrays and by the IS42 and IS48 arrays, in collaboration with the Department of Analyse et Surveillance (CEA/DASE), will generate a synergy which will certainly contribute to the progress of the ARISE Project.

  1. Recent Infrasound Calibration Activity at Los Alamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitaker, R. W.; Marcillo, O. E.

    2014-12-01

    Absolute infrasound sensor calibration is necessary for estimating source sizes from measured waveforms. This can be an important function in treaty monitoring. The Los Alamos infrasound calibration chamber is capable of absolute calibration. Early in 2014 the Los Alamos infrasound calibration chamber resumed operations in its new location after an unplanned move two years earlier. The chamber has two sources of calibration signals. The first is the original mechanical piston, and the second is a CLD Dynamics Model 316 electro-mechanical unit that can be digitally controlled and provide a richer set of calibration options. During 2008-2010 a number of upgrades were incorporated for improved operation and recording. In this poster we give an overview of recent chamber work on sensor calibrations, calibration with the CLD unit, some measurements with different porous hoses and work with impulse sources.

  2. Frequency-Wavenumber (F-K) Processing for Infrasound Distributed Arrays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited (U) Frequency-Wavenumber (F-K) Processing for Infrasound Distributed...have conventionally been used to detect infrasound . Pipe arrays, used in conjunction with microbarometers, provide noise reduction by averaging wind...signals. This is especially true for infrasound and low-frequency acoustic sources of tactical interest in the 1 to 100 Hz range. The work described

  3. Statistical analysis of infrasound signatures in airglow observations: Indications for acoustic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilger, Christoph; Schmidt, Carsten; Bittner, Michael

    2013-02-01

    The detection of infrasonic signals in temperature time series of the mesopause altitude region (at about 80-100 km) is performed at the German Remote Sensing Data Center of the German Aerospace Center (DLR-DFD) using GRIPS instrumentation (GRound-based Infrared P-branch Spectrometers). Mesopause temperature values with a temporal resolution of up to 10 s are derived from the observation of nocturnal airglow emissions and permit the identification of signals within the long-period infrasound range.Spectral intensities of wave signatures with periods between 2.5 and 10 min are estimated applying the wavelet analysis technique to one minute mean temperature values. Selected events as well as the statistical distribution of 40 months of observation are presented and discussed with respect to resonant modes of the atmosphere. The mechanism of acoustic resonance generated by strong infrasonic sources is a potential explanation of distinct features with periods between 3 and 5 min observed in the dataset.

  4. Nonlinear synthesis of infrasound propagation through an inhomogeneous, absorbing atmosphere.

    PubMed

    de Groot-Hedlin, C D

    2012-08-01

    An accurate and efficient method to predict infrasound amplitudes from large explosions in the atmosphere is required for diverse source types, including bolides, volcanic eruptions, and nuclear and chemical explosions. A finite-difference, time-domain approach is developed to solve a set of nonlinear fluid dynamic equations for total pressure, temperature, and density fields rather than acoustic perturbations. Three key features for the purpose of synthesizing nonlinear infrasound propagation in realistic media are that it includes gravitational terms, it allows for acoustic absorption, including molecular vibration losses at frequencies well below the molecular vibration frequencies, and the environmental models are constrained to have axial symmetry, allowing a three-dimensional simulation to be reduced to two dimensions. Numerical experiments are performed to assess the algorithm's accuracy and the effect of source amplitudes and atmospheric variability on infrasound waveforms and shock formation. Results show that infrasound waveforms steepen and their associated spectra are shifted to higher frequencies for nonlinear sources, leading to enhanced infrasound attenuation. Results also indicate that nonlinear infrasound amplitudes depend strongly on atmospheric temperature and pressure variations. The solution for total field variables and insertion of gravitational terms also allows for the computation of other disturbances generated by explosions, including gravity waves.

  5. Probing the atmosphere with infrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Posmentier, E. S.; Donn, W. L.

    1969-01-01

    Recent studies are reported which have contributed to the knowledge of atmospheric structure and have established the practicality of infrasonic techniques for probing the atmosphere to heights of 120 km or more. Observations of a few types of infrasound are reviewed, and the theories used to account for the infrasound propagation and the deduced atmospheric structures are discussed.

  6. Infrasound research at Kola Regional Seismological Centre, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asming, Vladimir; Kremenetskaya, Elena

    2013-04-01

    A small-aperture infrasound array has been installed in Kola Peninsula, Russia 17 km far from the town of Apatity in the year 2000. It comprises 3 Chaparral V microbarographs placed closely to the APA seismic array sensors and equipped with pipe wind reducing filters. The data are digitized at the array site and transmitted in real time to a processing center in Apatity. To search for infrasound events (arrivals of coherent signals) a beamforming-style detector has been developed. Now it works in near real time. We analyzed the detecting statistics for different frequency bands. Most man-made events are detected in 1-5 Hz band, microbaromes are typically detected in 0.2-1 Hz band. In lower frequencies we record mostly a wind noise. A data base of samples of infrasound signals of different natures has been collected. It contains recordings of microbaromes, industrial and military explosions, airplane shock waves, infrasound of airplanes, thunders, rocket launches and reentries, bolides etc. The most distant signals we have detected are associated with Kursk Magnetic Anomaly explosions (1700 km far from Apatity). We implemented an algorithm for association of infrasound signals and preliminary location of infrasound events by several arrays. It was tested with Apatity data together with data of Sweden - Finnish infrasound network operated by the Institute of Space Physics in Umea (Sweden). By agreement with NORSAR we have a real-time access to the data of Norwegian experimental infrasound installation situated in Karasjok (North Norway). Currently our detection and location programs work both with Apatity and Norwegian data. The results are available in Internet. Finnish militaries routinely destroy out-of-date weapon in autumns at the same compact site in North Finland. This is a great source of repeating infrasound signals of the same magnitude and origin. We recorded several hundreds of such explosions. The signals have been used for testing our location routines

  7. Infrasound from lightning: characteristics and impact on an infrasound station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farges, Thomas; Blanc, Elisabeth

    2010-05-01

    More than two third of the infrasound stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the CTBTO are now certified and measure routinely signals due particularly to natural activity (swell, volcano, severe weather including lightning, …). It is well established that more than 2,000 thunderstorms are continuously active all around the world and that about 45 lightning flashes are produced per second over the globe. During the Eurosprite 2005 campaign, we took the opportunity to measure, in France during summer, infrasound from lightning and from sprites (which are transient luminous events occurring over thunderstorm). We examine the possibility to measure infrasound from lightning when thunderstorms are close or far from the infrasound station. Main results concern detection range of infrasound from lightning, amplitude vs. distance law, and characteristics of frequency spectrum. We show clearly that infrasound from lightning can be detected when the thunderstorm is within about 75 km from the station. In good noise conditions, infrasound from lightning can be detected when thunderstorms are located more than 200 km from the station. No signal is recorded from lightning flashes occurring between 75 and 200 km away from the station, defining then a silence zone. When the thunderstorm is close to the station, the infrasound signal could reach several Pascal. The signal is then on average 30 dB over the noise level at 1 Hz. Infrasound propagate upward where the highest frequencies are dissipated and can produce a significant heating of the upper mesosphere. Some of these results have been confirmed by case studies with data from the IMS Ivory Coast station. The coverage of the IMS stations is very good to study the thunderstorm activity and its disparity which is a good proxy of the global warming. Progress in data processing for infrasound data in the last ten years and the appearance of global lightning detection network as the World Wide Lightning

  8. Infrasound from lightning: characteristics and impact on an infrasound station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farges, T.; Blanc, E.

    2009-12-01

    More than two third of the infrasound stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the CTBTO are now certified and measure routinely signals due particularly to natural activity (swell, volcano, severe weather including lightning, …). It is well established that more than 2,000 thunderstorms are continuously active all around the world and that about 45 lightning flashes are produced per second over the globe. During the Eurosprite 2005 campaign, we took the opportunity to measure, in France during summer, infrasound from lightning and from sprites (which are transient luminous events occurring over thunderstorm). We examine the possibility to measure infrasound from lightning when thunderstorms are close or far from the infrasound station. Main results concern detection range of infrasound from lightning, amplitude vs. distance law, and characteristics of frequency spectrum. We show clearly that infrasound from lightning can be detected when the thunderstorm is within about 75 km from the station. In good noise conditions, infrasound from lightning can be detected when thunderstorms are located more than 200 km from the station. No signal is recorded from lightning flashes occurring between 75 and 200 km away from the station, defining then a silence zone. When the thunderstorm is close to the station, the infrasound signal could reach several Pascal. The signal is then on average 30 dB over the noise level at 1 Hz. Infrasound propagate upward where the highest frequencies are dissipated and can produce a significant heating of the upper mesosphere. Some of these results have been confirmed by case studies with data from the IMS Ivory Coast station. The coverage of the IMS stations is very good to study the thunderstorm activity and its disparity which is a good proxy of the global warming. Progress in data processing for infrasound data in the last ten years and the appearance of global lightning detection network as the World Wide Lightning

  9. Constraining the Spatial and Temporal Variability of Atmospheric Conditions to Explore the Infrasound Detection of Volcanic Eruptions in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iezzi, A. M.; Schwaiger, H. F.; Fee, D.; Haney, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Alaska's over 50 historically active volcanoes span 2,500 kilometers, and their eruptions pose great threats to the aviation industry. This makes both prompt observations of explosion onsets and changes in intensity a necessity. Due to their expansive range and remoteness, these volcanoes are predominantly monitored by local seismic networks, remote observations including satellite imagery and infrasound sensors. Infrasound is an especially crucial tool in this area because infrasound data collection is not obstructed by frequent cloud cover (as in satellite imagery) and infrasound waves can travel hundreds to thousands of kilometers. However, infrasound station coverage is relatively sparse and strong wind and temperature gradients in the atmosphere create multiple waveguides and shadow zones where the propagation of infrasound is enhanced and diminished, respectively. To accurately constrain volcanic source information and the long-range propagation of infrasound waves, a detailed characterization of the spatial and temporal variability of the atmosphere is vital. These properties can be constrained using a ground-to-space model similar to that of Drob et al. (2003) based upon varied meteorological observations and applied to infrasound waves to model the propagation of infrasound. Here we present the first results of a re-analysis system constructed by the Alaska Volcano Observatory to accurately characterize and model long-range infrasound propagation from volcanic eruptions. We select a number of case studies to examine infrasound detections (or lack thereof) from recent eruptions of Alaskan volcanoes, including the November 2014 eruption of Pavlof Volcano and July 2015 eruption of Cleveland Volcano. Detailed examination of the acoustic propagation conditions will provide additional insight into detection capability and eruption dynamics with future work aiming to implement real-time long-range infrasound propagation modeling.Drob, Douglas P., J. M. Picone

  10. Infrasound from thunder: A natural seismic source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ting-L.; Langston, Charles A.

    2007-07-01

    A small array consisting of five three-component short-period surface seismometers, a three-component borehole seismometer, and five infrasound microphones was built to investigate thunder-induced ground motions. Data from two thunder events with similar N-wave waveforms but different horizontal slownesses are chosen as examples of data collected by the array. These impulsive acoustic waves excited P and S reverberations in the near surface that depend on both the incident wave horizontal slowness and the velocity structure in the upper 30 meters at the site. Although the depth of the borehole is relatively shallow compared to a seismic wave wavelength, velocity amplitude in the radial component decays as much as 63 percent with depth but vertical component amplitudes are unaffected consistent with air-coupled Rayleigh wave excitation. Naturally occurring thunder appears to be a useful seismic source to empirically determine site resonance characteristics for hazards assessments.

  11. Global Infrasound Association Based on Probabilistic Clutter Categorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, N. S.; Mialle, P.

    2015-12-01

    The IDC collects waveforms from a global network of infrasound sensors maintained by the IMS, and automatically detects signal onsets and associates them to form event hypotheses. However, a large number of signal onsets are due to local clutter sources such as microbaroms (from standing waves in the oceans), waterfalls, dams, gas flares, surf (ocean breaking waves) etc. These sources are either too diffuse or too local to form events. Worse still, the repetitive nature of this clutter leads to a large number of false event hypotheses due to the random matching of clutter at multiple stations. Previous studies, for example [1], have worked on categorization of clutter using long term trends on detection azimuth, frequency, and amplitude at each station. In this work we continue the same line of reasoning to build a probabilistic model of clutter that is used as part of NET-VISA [2], a Bayesian approach to network processing. The resulting model is a fusion of seismic, hydro-acoustic and infrasound processing built on a unified probabilistic framework. Notes: The attached figure shows all the unassociated arrivals detected at IMS station I09BR for 2012 distributed by azimuth and center frequency. (The title displays the bandwidth of the kernel density estimate along the azimuth and frequency dimensions).This plot shows multiple micro-barom sources as well as other sources of infrasound clutter. A diverse clutter-field such as this one is quite common for most IMS infrasound stations, and it highlights the dangers of forming events without due consideration of this source of noise. References: [1] Infrasound categorization Towards a statistics-based approach. J. Vergoz, P. Gaillard, A. Le Pichon, N. Brachet, and L. Ceranna. ITW 2011 [2] NET-VISA: Network Processing Vertically Integrated Seismic Analysis. N. S. Arora, S. Russell, and E. Sudderth. BSSA 2013.

  12. Contribution of Infrasound to IDC Reviewed Event Bulletin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittner, Paulina; Polich, Paul; Gore, Jane; Ali, Sherif Mohamed; Medinskaya, Tatiana; Mialle, Pierrick

    2016-04-01

    Until 2003 two waveform technologies, i.e. seismic and hydroacoustic were used to detect and locate events included in the International Data Centre (IDC) Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB). The first atmospheric event was published in the REB in 2003 but infrasound detections could not be used by the Global Association (GA) Software due to the unmanageable high number of spurious associations. Offline improvements of the automatic processing took place to reduce the number of false detections to a reasonable level. In February 2010 the infrasound technology was reintroduced to the IDC operations and has contributed to both automatic and reviewed IDC bulletins. The primary contribution of infrasound technology is to detect atmospheric events. These events may also be observed at seismic stations, which will significantly improve event location. Examples of REB events, which were detected by the International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound network were fireballs (e.g. Bangkok fireball, 2015), volcanic eruptions (e.g. Calbuco, Chile 2015) and large surface explosions (e.g. Tjanjin, China 2015). Query blasts and large earthquakes belong to events primarily recorded at seismic stations of the IMS network but often detected at the infrasound stations. Presence of infrasound detection associated to an event from a mining area indicates a surface explosion. Satellite imaging and a database of active mines can be used to confirm the origin of such events. This presentation will summarize the contribution of 6 years of infrasound data to IDC bulletins and provide examples of events recorded at the IMS infrasound network. Results of this study may help to improve location of small events with observations on infrasound stations.

  13. Effect of time-varying tropospheric models on near-regional and regional infrasound propagation as constrained by observational data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, Mihan H.; Stump, Brian W.; Hayward, Chris

    2008-06-01

    The Chulwon Seismo-Acoustic Array (CHNAR) is a regional seismo-acoustic array with co-located seismometers and infrasound microphones on the Korean peninsula. Data from forty-two days over the course of a year between October 1999 and August 2000 were analyzed; 2052 infrasound-only arrivals and 23 seismo-acoustic arrivals were observed over the six week study period. A majority of the signals occur during local working hours, hour 0 to hour 9 UT and appear to be the result of cultural activity located within a 250 km radius. Atmospheric modeling is presented for four sample days during the study period, one in each of November, February, April, and August. Local meteorological data sampled at six hour intervals is needed to accurately model the observed arrivals and this data produced highly temporally variable thermal ducts that propagated infrasound signals within 250 km, matching the temporal variation in the observed arrivals. These ducts change dramatically on the order of hours, and meteorological data from the appropriate sampled time frame was necessary to interpret the observed arrivals.

  14. Detecting and Cataloging Global Explosive Volcanism Using the IMS Infrasound Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matoza, R. S.; Green, D. N.; LE Pichon, A.; Fee, D.; Shearer, P. M.; Mialle, P.; Ceranna, L.

    2015-12-01

    Explosive volcanic eruptions are among the most powerful sources of infrasound observed on earth, with recordings routinely made at ranges of hundreds to thousands of kilometers. These eruptions can also inject large volumes of ash into heavily travelled aviation corridors, thus posing a significant societal and economic hazard. Detecting and counting the global occurrence of explosive volcanism helps with progress toward several goals in earth sciences and has direct applications in volcanic hazard mitigation. This project aims to build a quantitative catalog of global explosive volcanic activity using the International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound network. We are developing methodologies to search systematically through IMS infrasound array detection bulletins to identify signals of volcanic origin. We combine infrasound signal association and source location using a brute-force, grid-search, cross-bearings approach. The algorithm corrects for a background prior rate of coherent infrasound signals in a global grid. When volcanic signals are identified, we extract metrics such as location, origin time, acoustic intensity, signal duration, and frequency content, compiling the results into a catalog. We are testing and validating our method on several well-known case studies, including the 2009 eruption of Sarychev Peak, Kuriles, the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, and the 2015 eruption of Calbuco, Chile. This work represents a step toward the goal of integrating IMS data products into global volcanic eruption early warning and notification systems. Additionally, a better characterization of volcanic signal detection helps improve understanding of operational event detection, discrimination, and association capabilities of the IMS network.

  15. Effects of infrasound on vestibular function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takigawa, H.; Sakamoto, H.; Murata, M.

    1991-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to elucidate subjective symptoms reported by some individuals exposed to various sounds, including infrasound. Narrow band infrasound of 5 Hz at center frequency and wide octave band audible noise were separately applied at an intensity of 95 dB. Parameters such as involuntary eye movement with the eyes visually fixed, body sway and pulse-wave were investigated. The total amount and power percentage in the low-frequency band of involuntary eye movement was significantly increased upon exposure to infrasound. Furthermore, confusion in postural control at the time of transition from opening to closing of the subject's eyes was inhibited by this exposure. Conversely, pulse-wave height decrement was observed upon exposure to both sounds, although this was smaller in the case of infrasound as compared with that of noise. These findings are taken to indicate that the effects taking place via the two different pathways were mixed in the subjective symptoms, and that functional changes caused by infrasound exposure were unrelated to an emotion stimulated by acoustical sensation.

  16. Infrasound Signals from Ground-Motion Sources

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    signals as a basis for discriminants between underground nuclear tests ( UGT ) and earthquakes (EQ). In an earlier program, infrasound signals from... UGTs and EQs were collected at ranges of a few hundred kilometers, in the far-field. Analysis of these data revealed two parameters that had potential...well. To study the near-field signals, we are using computational techniques based on modeled ground motions from UGTs and EQs. One is the closed

  17. Monitoring the Earth's Atmosphere with the Global IMS Infrasound Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachet, Nicolas; Brown, David; Mialle, Pierrick; Le Bras, Ronan; Coyne, John; Given, Jeffrey

    2010-05-01

    , they represent valuable data for other civil applications like monitoring of natural hazards (volcanic activity, storm tracking) and climate change. Non-noise detections are used in network processing at the IDC along with seismic and hydroacoustic technologies. The arrival phases detected on the three waveform technologies may be combined and used for locating events in an automatically generated bulletin of events. This automatic event bulletin is routinely reviewed by analysts during the interactive review process. However, the fusion of infrasound data with the other waveform technologies has only recently (in early 2010) become part of the IDC operational system, after a software development and testing period that began in 2004. The build-up of the IMS infrasound network, the recent developments of the IDC infrasound software, and the progress accomplished during the last decade in the domain of real-time atmospheric modelling have allowed better understanding of infrasound signals and identification of a growing data set of ground-truth sources. These infragenic sources originate from natural or man-made sources. Some of the detected signals are emitted by local or regional phenomena recorded by a single IMS infrasound station: man-made cultural activity, wind farms, aircraft, artillery exercises, ocean surf, thunderstorms, rumbling volcanoes, iceberg calving, aurora, avalanches. Other signals may be recorded by several IMS infrasound stations at larger distances: ocean swell, sonic booms, and mountain associated waves. Only a small fraction of events meet the event definition criteria considering the Treaty verification mission of the Organization. Candidate event types for the IDC Reviewed Event Bulletin include atmospheric or surface explosions, meteor explosions, rocket launches, signals from large earthquakes and explosive volcanic eruptions.

  18. Incorporating atmospheric uncertainties into estimates of the detection capability of the IMS infrasound network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pichon, Alexis; Ceranna, Lars; Taillepied, Doriane

    2015-04-01

    To monitor compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), a dedicated network is being deployed. Multi-year observations recorded by the International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound network confirm that its detection capability is highly variable in space and time. Today, numerical modeling techniques provide a basis to better understand the role of different factors describing the source and the atmosphere that influence propagation predictions. Previous studies estimated the radiated source energy from remote observations using frequency dependent attenuation relation and state-of-the-art specifications of the stratospheric wind. In order to account for a realistic description of the dynamic structure of the atmosphere, model predictions are further enhanced by wind and temperature error distributions as measured in the framework of the ARISE project (http://arise-project.eu/). In the context of the future verification of the CTBT, these predictions quantify uncertainties in the spatial and temporal variability of the IMS infrasound network performance in higher resolution, and will be helpful for the design and prioritizing maintenance of any arbitrary infrasound monitoring network.

  19. Incorporating atmospheric uncertainties into estimates of the detection capability of the IMS infrasound network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pichon, Alexis; Blanc, Elisabeth; Rüfenacht, Rolf; Kämpfer, Niklaus; Keckhut, Philippe; Hauchecorne, Alain; Ceranna, Lars; Pilger, Christoph; Ross, Ole

    2014-05-01

    To monitor compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), a dedicated network is being deployed. Multi-year observations recorded by the International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound network confirm that its detection capability is highly variable in space and time. Today, numerical modeling techniques provide a basis to better understand the role of different factors describing the source and the atmosphere that influence propagation predictions. Previous studies estimated the radiated source energy from remote observations using frequency dependent attenuation relation and state-of-the-art specifications of the stratospheric wind. In order to account for a realistic description of the dynamic structure of the atmosphere, model predictions are further enhanced by wind and temperature error distributions as measured in the framework of the ARISE project (http://arise-project.eu/). In the context of the future verification of the CTBT, these predictions quantify uncertainties in the spatial and temporal variability of the IMS infrasound network performance in higher resolution, and will be helpful for the design and prioritizing maintenance of any arbitrary infrasound monitoring network.

  20. Sound Is Sound: Film Sound Techniques and Infrasound Data Array Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perttu, A. B.; Williams, R.; Taisne, B.; Tailpied, D.

    2017-12-01

    A multidisciplinary collaboration between earth scientists and a sound designer/composer was established to explore the possibilities of audification analysis of infrasound array data. Through the process of audification of the infrasound we began to experiment with techniques and processes borrowed from cinema to manipulate the noise content of the signal. The results of this posed the question: "Would the accuracy of infrasound data array processing be enhanced by employing these techniques?". So a new area of research was born from this collaboration and highlights the value of these interactions and the unintended paths that can occur from them. Using a reference event database, infrasound data were processed using these new techniques and the results were compared with existing techniques to asses if there was any improvement to detection capability for the array. With just under one thousand volcanoes, and a high probability of eruption, Southeast Asia offers a unique opportunity to develop and test techniques for regional monitoring of volcanoes with different technologies. While these volcanoes are monitored locally (e.g. seismometer, infrasound, geodetic and geochemistry networks) and remotely (e.g. satellite and infrasound), there are challenges and limitations to the current monitoring capability. Not only is there a high fraction of cloud cover in the region, making plume observation more difficult via satellite, there have been examples of local monitoring networks and telemetry being destroyed early in the eruptive sequence. The success of local infrasound studies to identify explosions at volcanoes, and calculate plume heights from these signals, has led to an interest in retrieving source parameters for the purpose of ash modeling with a regional network independent of cloud cover.

  1. Infrasound analysis of I18DK, northwest Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evers, L. G.; Weemstra, C.

    2010-12-01

    Within the scope of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), four methods are used to verify the treaty. One of these methods is based on the detection of infrasound waves generated by a nuclear explosion. Seismological, hydroacoustical and radionuclide measurements are also applied. The International Monitoring System (IMS) will consist of 60 infrasound stations of which 35 stations are currently operational. Data obtained from an infrasound station situated on the northwestern shoreline of Greenland is analyzed. This station is operated by Denmark and labeled as I18DK. I18DK is situated in an area which receives an ever increasing attention from a geophysical perspective. I18DK has continuously been operational from April 2003 and onwards. The IMS station is an infrasound array with an aperture of about 1200 meters, where air-pressure fluctuations are recorded by eight microbarometers at a sample-rate of 20 Hz. The infrasonic recordings are filtered between 0.1 & 1.0 and 1.0 & 6.0 Hz. The slowness grid is searched for two different configurations in the higher frequency band. Once using all 8 stations and once only taking into account the 5 center stations. Several different source types are known to generate infrasound, for example, calving of icebergs and glaciers, explosions, earthquakes, oceanic wave-wave interaction, volcanic eruptions and aurora. The challenge is to distinguish between these different source types and use the outcome of the array analysis to better understand these phenomena. The rate of occurrence of icequakes, the calving of glaciers and the variation in extent of the sea ice in this area is of interest in relation to global warming. The processing results of the 1 to 6 Hz band seem to show dominating back-azimuths related to these sources. The glaciers south of I18DK produce significant infrasound during summer time. As well, a direct link can be found between the number of warm days in a year and the number of infrasound

  2. Sensitivity of the International Monitoring System infrasound network to elevated sources: a western Eurasia case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nippress, Alexandra; Green, David N.

    2017-11-01

    For the past 5 years (2010-2015) infrasound arrivals have been included in International Data Centre analyst-reviewed bulletins of events detected across the International Monitoring System (IMS). In western Eurasia, there are clusters of up to 268 events that consist of only infrasound arrivals (no associated seismic phases). These clusters are of unknown origin, although one in the North Sea region is associated with sonic booms from supersonic aircraft activity. IMS data for 17 North Sea events are analysed and compared with data from the Large Aperture Infrasound Array in the Netherlands to support the existence of these events and to determine common characteristics. Three other large clusters in western Eurasia are also identified and studied and show similar characteristics to the North Sea events, indicative of supersonic aircraft activity. The IMS infrasound network is shown to be particularly sensitive to sonic booms because the elevated source height reduces the anisotropy of infrasonic propagation within a stratospheric duct and allows for episodic upwind propagation. This episodic upwind propagation in addition to the prevailing downwind propagation, leads to clusters of Reviewed Event Bulletin events with constrained locations in western Eurasia region during the summer months. In the winter months, the recorded arrivals suggest that episodic upwind propagation is not as prevalent. Propagation modelling indicates that the subsequent unidirectional propagation, combined with the sparseness of the IMS network, leads to elongated lines of estimated event locations.

  3. Infrasound's capability to detect and characterise volcanic events, from local to regional scale.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taisne, Benoit; Perttu, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Local infrasound and seismic networks have been successfully used for identification and quantification of explosions at single volcanoes. However the February, 2014 eruption of Kelud volcano, Indonesia, destroyed most of the local monitoring network. The use of remote seismic and infrasound sensors proved to be essential in the reconstruction of the eruptive sequence. The first recorded explosive event, with relatively weak seismic and infrasonic signature, was followed by a 2 hour sustained signal detected as far away as 11,000 km by infrasound sensors and up to 2,300 km away by seismometers. The volcanic intensity derived from these observations places the 2014 Kelud eruption between the intensity of the 1980 Mount St. Helens and the 1991 Pinatubo eruptions. The use of remote seismic stations and infrasound arrays in deriving valuable information about the onset, evolution, and intensity of volcanic eruptions is clear from the Kelud example. After this eruption the Singapore Infrasound Array became operational. This array, along with the other regional infrasound arrays which are part of the International Monitoring System, have recorded events from fireballs and regional volcanoes. The detection capability of this network for any specific volcanic event is not only dependent on the amplitude of the source, but also the propagation effects, noise level at each station, and characteristics of the regional persistent noise sources (like the microbarum). Combining the spatial and seasonal characteristics of this noise, within the same frequency band as significant eruptive events, with the probability of such events to occur, gives us a comprehensive understanding of detection capability for any of the 750 active or potentially active volcanoes in Southeast Asia.

  4. Infrasound Detection of Rocket Launches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-01

    infrasound pressure, and λ and µ are the Lame and shear modulii. Seismic data was available from the IRIS data center for the seismic station DWPF ...the bandwidth of interest. Figure 4 shows a recording of STS-93 (07/24/99 04:31:00GMT) at DWPF (97 km). The largest seismic amplitudes are consistent...lasts ~400 seconds. The dominant frequency (~4 Hz) at DWPF is consistent with the long-range infrasound signals observed at DLIAR. Figure 3. Seismic

  5. Recent development of infrasound monitoring network in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghica, Daniela; Popa, Mihaela; Ionescu, Constantin

    2017-04-01

    The second half of 2016 was marked at National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) by a significant development of infrasound monitoring infrastructure in Romania. In addition to IPLOR, the 6-element acoustic array installed at Plostina, in the central part of Romania, since 2009, two other four-element arrays were deployed. The first one, BURARI infrasound research array, was deployed in late July 2016, under a joint effort of AFTAC, USA and NIEP, in the northern part of Romania, in Bucovina region. The sites, placed in vicinity of the central elements of BURAR seismic array (over 1.2 km aperture), are equipped with Chaparral Physics Model 21 microbarometers and Reftek RT 130 data loggers. The data, used mainly for research purposes within the scientific collaboration project between NIEP and AFTAC, are available to scientific community. The second one is a PTS portable infrasound array (I67RO) deployed for one year, starting with the end of September 2016, within a collaboration project between NIEP and PTS of the Preparatory Commission for CTBTO. This array is located in the western part of Romania, at Marisel, Cluj County, covering a 0.9 km aperture and being equipped with CEA/DAM MB2005 microbarometers and Reftek RT 130 data loggers. This joint experiment aims to contribute both to advanced understanding of infrasound sources in Central-Europe and to ARISE design study project, as an expansion of the spatial coverage of the European infrasound network. The data recorded by the three infrasound arrays deployed in Romania, during a same time interval (October - December 2016) were processed into detection arrival bulletins applying CEA/DASE PMCC algorithm embedded in DTK-GPMCC (extended CTBTO NDC-in-a-box) and WinPMCC software applications. The results were plotted and analyzed using DTK-DIVA software (extended CTBTO NDC-in-a-box), in order to assess detectability of each station, as well as the capacity of fusing detections into support of infrasound monitoring

  6. Infrasound in the middle stratosphere measured with a free-flying acoustic array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, Daniel C.; Lees, Jonathan M.

    2015-11-01

    Infrasound recorded in the middle stratosphere suggests that the acoustic wavefield above the Earth's surface differs dramatically from the wavefield near the ground. In contrast to nearby surface stations, the balloon-borne infrasound array detected signals from turbulence, nonlinear ocean wave interactions, building ventilation systems, and other sources that have not been identified yet. Infrasound power spectra also bore little resemblance to spectra recorded on the ground at the same time. Thus, sensors on the Earth's surface likely capture a fraction of the true diversity of acoustic waves in the atmosphere. Future studies building upon this experiment may quantify the acoustic energy flux from the surface to the upper atmosphere, extend the capability of the International Monitoring System to detect nuclear explosions, and lay the observational groundwork for a recently proposed mission to detect earthquakes on Venus using free-flying microphones.

  7. In search of discernible infrasound emitted by numerically simulated tornadoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schecter, David A.

    2012-09-01

    The comprehensive observational study of Bedard (2005) provisionally found that the infrasound of a tornado is discernible from the infrasound of generic cloud processes in a convective storm. This paper discusses an attempt to corroborate the reported observations of distinct tornado infrasound with numerical simulations. Specifically, this paper investigates the infrasound of an ordinary tornado in a numerical experiment with the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System, customized to simulate acoustic phenomena. The simulation has no explicit parameterization of microphysical cloud processes, but creates an unsteady tornado of moderate strength by constant thermal forcing in a rotational environment. Despite strong fluctuations in the lower corner flow and upper outflow regions, a surprisingly low level of infrasound is radiated by the vortex. Infrasonic pressure waves in the 0.1 Hz frequency regime are less intense than those which could be generated by core-scale vortex Rossby (VR) waves of modest amplitude in similar vortices. Higher frequency infrasound is at least an order of magnitude weaker than expected based on infrasonic observations of tornadic thunderstorms. Suppression of VR waves (and their infrasound) is explained by the gradual decay of axial vorticity with increasing radius from the center of the vortex core. Such non-Rankine wind-structure is known to enable the rapid damping of VR waves by inviscid mechanisms, including resonant wave-mean flow interaction and "spiral wind-up" of vorticity. Insignificant levels of higher frequency infrasound may be due to oversimplifications in the computational setup, such as the neglect of thermal fluctuations caused by phase transitions of moisture in vigorous cloud turbulence.

  8. Contribution of the infrasound technology to characterize large scale atmospheric disturbances and impact on infrasound monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, Elisabeth; Le Pichon, Alexis; Ceranna, Lars; Pilger, Christoph; Charlton Perez, Andrew; Smets, Pieter

    2016-04-01

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) developed for the verification of the Comprehensive nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) provides a unique global description of atmospheric disturbances generating infrasound such as extreme events (e.g. meteors, volcanoes, earthquakes, and severe weather) or human activity (e.g. explosions and supersonic airplanes). The analysis of the detected signals, recorded at global scales and over near 15 years at some stations, demonstrates that large-scale atmospheric disturbances strongly affect infrasound propagation. Their time scales vary from several tens of minutes to hours and days. Their effects are in average well resolved by the current model predictions; however, accurate spatial and temporal description is lacking in both weather and climate models. This study reviews recent results using the infrasound technology to characterize these large scale disturbances, including (i) wind fluctuations induced by gravity waves generating infrasound partial reflections and modifications of the infrasound waveguide, (ii) convection from thunderstorms and mountain waves generating gravity waves, (iii) stratospheric warming events which yield wind inversions in the stratosphere, (iv)planetary waves which control the global atmospheric circulation. Improved knowledge of these disturbances and assimilation in future models is an important objective of the ARISE (Atmospheric dynamics Research InfraStructure in Europe) project. This is essential in the context of the future verification of the CTBT as enhanced atmospheric models are necessary to assess the IMS network performance in higher resolution, reduce source location errors, and improve characterization methods.

  9. Global scale stratospheric processes as measured by the infrasound IMS network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pichon, A.; Ceranna, L.; Kechut, P.

    2012-12-01

    IMS infrasound array data are routinely processed at the International Data Center (IDC). The wave parameters of the detected signals are estimated with the Progressive Multi-Channel Correlation method (PMCC). We have processed continuous recordings from 41 certified IMS stations from 2005 to 2010 in the 0.01-5 Hz frequency band using a new implementation of the PMCC algorithm. Microbaroms are the dominant source of signals near-continuously and globally detected. The observed azimuthal seasonal trend correlates well with the variation of the effective sound speed ratio (Veff-ratio) which is a proxy for the combined effects of refraction due to sound speed gradients and advection due to along-path stratospheric wind on infrasound propagation. Systematic correlations between infrasound parameters (e.g. number of detections, amplitude) and Veff-ratio calculated at different ranges of altitudes are performed. Combined with propagation modeling, we show that such an analysis enables a characterization of the wind and temperature structure above the stratosphere and may provide detailed information on upper atmospheric processes (e.g., large-scale planetary waves, stratospheric warming effects) from the seasonal trend to short time scale variability. We discuss the potential benefit of long-term infrasound monitoring to infer stratospheric processes for the first time on a global scale. This study suggests poorly resolved stratospheric wind fluctuations at low latitude regions with strengths of horizontal wind structures underestimated by at least ~10 m/s. It is expected that this correlation between infrasound observations and the state-of-the-art atmospheric specifications will allow to statistically quantify the spatial and temporal resolutions of the wind structures at different ranges of altitudes, latitudes and time scales.

  10. Evaluation of Infrasound and Strobe Lights for Eliciting Avoidance Behavior in Juvenile Salmon and Char

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Robert P.; Neitzel, Duane A.; Amidan, Brett G.

    2001-12-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted using juvenile chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis, and rainbow trout O. mykiss to determine specific behavior responses to infrasound (< 20 Hz) and flashing strobe lights. The objective of these tests was to determine if juvenile salmonids could be deterred from entrainment at water diversion structures. Caged fish were acclimated in a static test tank and their behavior was recorded using low light cameras. Species-specific behavior was characterized by measuring movements of the fish within the cage and by observing startle and habituation responses. Wild chinook salmon (40-45 mm TL) and hatchery rearedmore » chinook salmon (45-50 mm TL) exhibited avoidance responses when initially exposed to a 10-Hz volume displacement source of infrasound. Rainbow and eastern brook trout (25-100 mm TL) did not respond with avoidance or other behaviors to infrasound. Evidence of habituation to the infrasound source was evident for chinook salmon during repeated exposures. Wild and hatchery chinook displayed a higher proportion of movement during the initial exposures to infrasound when the acclimation period in the test tank was 2-3 h as compared to a 12-15 h acclimation period. A flashing strobe light produced consistent movement in wild chinook salmon (60% of the tests), hatchery reared chinook salmon (50%), and rainbow trout (80%). No measurable responses were observed for brook trout. Results indicate that consistent, repeatable responses can be elicited from some fish using high-intensity strobe lights under a controlled laboratory testing. The species specific behaviors observed in these experiments might be used to predict how fish might react to low-frequency sound and strobe lights in a screening facility.« less

  11. Infrasound from the 2007 fissure eruptions of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai'i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fee, David; Garces, Milton; Orr, Tim; Poland, Mike

    2011-03-01

    Varied acoustic signals were recorded at Kīlauea Volcano in mid-2007, coincident with dramatic changes in the volcano's activity. Prior to this time period, Pu'u 'Ō'ō crater produced near-continuous infrasonic tremor and was the primary source of degassing and lava effusion at Kīlauea. Collapse and draining of Pu'u 'Ō'ō crater in mid-June produced impulsive infrasonic signals and fluctuations in infrasonic tremor. Fissure eruptions on 19 June and 21 July were clearly located spatially and temporally using infrasound arrays. The 19 June eruption from a fissure approximately mid-way between Kīlauea's summit and Pu'u 'Ō'ō produced infrasound for ˜30 minutes—the only observed geophysical signal associated with the fissure opening. The infrasound signal from the 21 July eruption just east of Pu'u 'Ō'ō shows a clear azimuthal progression over time, indicative of fissure propagation over 12.9 hours. The total fissure propagation rate is relatively slow at 164 m/hr, although the fissure system ruptured discontinuously. Individual fissure rupture times are estimated using the acoustic data combined with visual observations.

  12. Infrasound from the 2007 fissure eruptions of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fee, D.; Garces, M.; Orr, T.; Poland, M.

    2011-01-01

    Varied acoustic signals were recorded at Kīlauea Volcano in mid-2007, coincident with dramatic changes in the volcano's activity. Prior to this time period, Pu'u 'Ō'ō crater produced near-continuous infrasonic tremor and was the primary source of degassing and lava effusion at Kīlauea. Collapse and draining of Pu'u 'Ō'ō crater in mid-June produced impulsive infrasonic signals and fluctuations in infrasonic tremor. Fissure eruptions on 19 June and 21 July were clearly located spatially and temporally using infrasound arrays. The 19 June eruption from a fissure approximately mid-way between Kīlauea's summit and Pu'u 'O'o produced infrasound for ~30 minutes-the only observed geophysical signal associated with the fissure opening. The infrasound signal from the 21 July eruption just east of Pu'u 'Ō'ō shows a clear azimuthal progression over time, indicative of fissure propagation over 12.9 hours. The total fissure propagation rate is relatively slow at 164 m/hr, although the fissure system ruptured discontinuously. Individual fissure rupture times are estimated using the acoustic data combined with visual observations.

  13. Overview of the 2009 and 2011 Sayarim Infrasound Calibration Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fee, D.; Waxler, R.; Drob, D.; Gitterman, Y.; Given, J.

    2012-04-01

    The establishment of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) has stimulated infrasound research and development. However, as the network comes closer to completion there exists a lack of large, well-constrained sources to test the network and its capabilities. Also, significant uncertainties exist in long-range acoustic propagation due to a dynamic, difficult to characterize atmosphere, particularly the thermosphere. In 2009 and 2011 three large scale infrasound calibration experiments were performed in Europe, the Middle East, Africa, and Asia. The goal of the calibration experiments were to test the IMS infrasound network and validate atmospheric and propagation models with large, well-constrained infrasound sources. This presentation provides an overview of the calibration experiments, including deployment, atmospheric conditions during the experiments, explosion characterization, infrasonic signal detection and identification, and a discussion of the results and implications. Each calibration experiment consisted of singular surface detonation of explosives with nominal weights of 82, 10.24, and 102.08 tons on 26 August 2009, 24 January 2011, and 26 January 2011, respectively. These explosions were designed and conducted by the Geophysical Institute of Israel at Sayarim Military Range, Israel and produced significant infrasound detected by numerous permanent and temporary infrasound arrays in the region. The 2009 experiment was performed in the summer to take advantage of the westerly stratospheric winds. Infrasonic arrivals were detected by both IMS and temporary arrays deployed to the north and west of the source, including clear stratospheric arrivals and thermospheric arrivals with low celerities. The 2011 experiment was performed during the winter, when strong easterly stratospheric winds dominated in addition to a strong tropospheric jet (the jet stream). These wind jets allowed detection

  14. Seismoacoustic Coupled Signals From Earthquakes in Central Italy: Epicentral and Secondary Sources of Infrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shani-Kadmiel, Shahar; Assink, Jelle D.; Smets, Pieter S. M.; Evers, Läslo G.

    2018-01-01

    In this study we analyze infrasound signals from three earthquakes in central Italy. The Mw 6.0 Amatrice, Mw 5.9 Visso, and Mw 6.5 Norcia earthquakes generated significant epicentral ground motions that couple to the atmosphere and produce infrasonic waves. Epicentral seismic and infrasonic signals are detected at I26DE; however, a third type of signal, which arrives after the seismic wave train and before the epicentral infrasound signal, is also detected. This peculiar signal propagates across the array at acoustic wave speeds, but the celerity associated with it is 3 times the speed of sound. Atmosphere-independent backprojections and full 3-D ray tracing using atmospheric conditions of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts are used to demonstrate that this apparently fast-arriving infrasound signal originates from ground motions more than 400 km away from the epicenter. The location of the secondary infrasound patch coincides with the closest bounce point to I26DE as depicted by ray tracing backprojections.

  15. Infrasound data inversion for atmospheric sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalande, J.-M.; Sèbe, O.; Landès, M.; Blanc-Benon, Ph.; Matoza, R. S.; Le Pichon, A.; Blanc, E.

    2012-07-01

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) continuously records acoustic waves in the 0.01-10 Hz frequency band, known as infrasound. These waves propagate through the layered structure of the atmosphere. Coherent infrasonic waves are produced by a variety of anthropogenic and natural sources and their propagation is controlled by spatiotemporal variations of temperature and wind velocity. Natural stratification of atmospheric properties (e.g. temperature, density and winds) forms waveguides, allowing long-range propagation of infrasound waves. However, atmospheric specifications used in infrasound propagation modelling suffer from lack and sparsity of available data above an altitude of 50 km. As infrasound can propagate in the upper atmosphere up to 120 km, we assume that infrasonic data could be used for sounding the atmosphere, analogous to the use of seismic data to infer solid Earth structure and the use of hydroacoustic data to infer oceanic structure. We therefore develop an inversion scheme for vertical atmospheric wind profiles in the framework of an iterative linear inversion. The forward problem is treated in the high-frequency approximation using a Hamiltonian formulation and complete first-order ray perturbation theory is developed to construct the Fréchet derivatives matrix. We introduce a specific parametrization for the unknown model parameters based on Principal Component Analysis. Finally, our algorithm is tested on synthetic data cases spanning different seasonal periods and network configurations. The results show that our approach is suitable for infrasound atmospheric sounding on a regional scale.

  16. Infrasound associated with 2004-2005 large Sumatra earthquakes and tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pichon, A.; Herry, P.; Mialle, P.; Vergoz, J.; Brachet, N.; Garcés, M.; Drob, D.; Ceranna, L.

    2005-10-01

    Large earthquakes that occurred in the Sumatra region in 2004 and 2005 generated acoustic waves recorded by the Diego Garcia infrasound array. The Progressive Multi-Channel Correlation (PMCC) analysis is performed to detect the seismic and infrasound signals associated with these events. The study is completed by an inverse location procedure that permitted reconstruction of the source location of the infrasonic waves. The results show that ground motion near the epicenter and vibrations of nearby land masses efficiently produced infrasound. The analysis also reveals unique evidence of long period pressure waves from the tsunami earthquake (M9.0) of December 26, 2004.

  17. BBN technical memorandum W1291 infrasound model feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Farrell, T., BBN Systems and Technologies

    1998-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the need and level of effort required to add existing atmospheric databases and infrasound propagation models to the DOE`s Hydroacoustic Coverage Assessment Model (HydroCAM) [1,2]. The rationale for the study is that the performance of the infrasound monitoring network will be an important factor for both the International Monitoring System (IMS) and US national monitoring capability. Many of the technical issues affecting the design and performance of the infrasound network are directly related to the variability of the atmosphere and the corresponding uncertainties in infrasound propagation. It is clear that the studymore » of these issues will be enhanced by the availability of software tools for easy manipulation and interfacing of various atmospheric databases and infrasound propagation models. In addition, since there are many similarities between propagation in the oceans and in the atmosphere, it is anticipated that much of the software infrastructure developed for hydroacoustic database manipulation and propagation modeling in HydroCAM will be directly extendible to an infrasound capability. The study approach was to talk to the acknowledged domain experts in the infrasound monitoring area to determine: 1. The major technical issues affecting infrasound monitoring network performance. 2. The need for an atmospheric database/infrasound propagation modeling capability similar to HydroCAM. 3. The state of existing infrasound propagation codes and atmospheric databases. 4. A recommended approach for developing the required capabilities. A list of the people who contributed information to this study is provided in Table 1. We also relied on our knowledge of oceanographic and meteorological data sources to determine the availability of atmospheric databases and the feasibility of incorporating this information into the existing HydroCAM geographic database software. This report presents a summary of the need for an

  18. Location and analysis of acoustic infrasound pulses in lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arechiga, R.; Stock, M.; Thomas, R.; Erives, H.; Rison, W.; Edens, H.; Lapierre, J.

    2014-07-01

    Acoustic, VHF, and electrostatic measurements throw new light onto the origin and production mechanism of the thunder infrasound signature (<10 Hz) from lightning. This signature, composed of an initial compression followed by a rarefaction pulse, has been the subject of several unconfirmed theories and models. The observations of two intracloud flashes which each produced multiple infrasound pulses were analyzed for this work. Once the variation of the speed of sound with temperature is taken into account, both the compression and rarefaction portions of the infrasound pulses are found to originate very near lightning channels mapped by the Lightning Mapping Array. We found that none of the currently proposed models can explain infrasound generation by lightning, and thus propose an alternate theory: The infrasound compression pulse is produced by electrostatic interaction of the charge deposited on the channel and in the streamer zone of the lightning channel.

  19. [Effects of infrasound on ultrastructure of testis cell in mice].

    PubMed

    Wei, Ya-Ning; Liu, Jing; Shu, Qing; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Chen, Jing-Zao

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the effects of infrasound on ultrastructure of testis in mouse. Twelve male BALB/C mice were randomly divided into three groups according to exposed duration on 1, 7 and 14 day. The mice were separately exposed to infrasound environment under 8 Hz/90 dB, 8 Hz/130 dB, 16 Hz/90 dB, 16 Hz/130 dB 2 hours per day. There was another control group which had three mice were separated into module with no infrasound. All the mice were killed on schedule. Then all the sections of testis were observed under electronic microscope. The alterations of structure and the chromatin were observed. Some acute alteration in one day group was found in testis cell, such as cellular denaturation and necrosis, intercellular edema, mitochondria swelling, liposome hyperplasia. When the infrasound was up to 8 Hz/130 dB, the damage showed seriously. In 7 and 14 day group, the acute alteration was gradually decreased. A plenty of abnormal sperm were found. And other alteration was chromatin condense. The effect of variational frequency was important in ultrastructure. The infrasound markedly effected to testicular cell morphology and secreting function. Infrasound will lead to the alteration of procreation in mouse.

  20. Application of a New Infrasound Sensor Technology in a Long Range Infrasound Propagation Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talmadge, C. L.; Waxler, R.; Hetzer, C. H.; Kleniert, D. E., Jr.; Dillion, K.; Assink, J.; Aydin, A.

    2009-12-01

    A low-cost ruggedized infrasound sensor has been developed at the NCPA laboratory of the University of Mississippi for outdoor infrasound measurements. This sensor has similar performance characteristics to other "standard" infrasound sensors, such as the Chaparral 50. A total of 50 sensors were constructed for this experiment, of which 42 were deployed on the Nevada and Utah desert for a period of four months. A long-range infrasound propagation experiment using these sensors was performed during the summer and fall of 2009. Source sizes varied in size from 4, 20 and 80 equivalent tons of TNT. The blasts were carried out typically on the Monday of each week in the afternoon, and were part of a scheduled demolition of first, second and third stages of trident missiles. In addition to a source capture location 23-km south of the site of the blasts, a series of 8 5-element arrays are located to the west of the blast location, at approximate ranges of 180 through 250 km in 10-km steps. Each array consisted of elements at -150-m, -50-m, 0-m, 50-m and 150-m relative to the center of the array along an east-west direction, and all microphones were equipped with 4 50-ft porous hoses connected to the microphone manifold for wind noise suppression. The signals from the microphones were digitized using GPS-synchronized, 24-bit DAQ systems. A Westerly direction for the deployment of the microphones was motivated by the presence of a strong stratospheric duct that persists through the summer months in the northern hemisphere at these latitudes. In this paper, we will discuss feasibility issues related the design of the NCPA microphone that makes possible deployments on these on large scales. Signal to noise issues related to temperature and wind fluctuations will also be discussed. Future plans include a larger scale deployment of several hundred microphones during 2010. We will discuss how the lessons learned from this series of measurements impacts that future deployment.

  1. Uncertainties associated with parameter estimation in atmospheric infrasound arrays.

    PubMed

    Szuberla, Curt A L; Olson, John V

    2004-01-01

    This study describes a method for determining the statistical confidence in estimates of direction-of-arrival and trace velocity stemming from signals present in atmospheric infrasound data. It is assumed that the signal source is far enough removed from the infrasound sensor array that a plane-wave approximation holds, and that multipath and multiple source effects are not present. Propagation path and medium inhomogeneities are assumed not to be known at the time of signal detection, but the ensemble of time delays of signal arrivals between array sensor pairs is estimable and corrupted by uncorrelated Gaussian noise. The method results in a set of practical uncertainties that lend themselves to a geometric interpretation. Although quite general, this method is intended for use by analysts interpreting data from atmospheric acoustic arrays, or those interested in designing and deploying them. The method is applied to infrasound arrays typical of those deployed as a part of the International Monitoring System of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization.

  2. Automated infrasound signal detection algorithms implemented in MatSeis - Infra Tool.

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Darren

    2004-07-01

    MatSeis's infrasound analysis tool, Infra Tool, uses frequency slowness processing to deconstruct the array data into three outputs per processing step: correlation, azimuth and slowness. Until now, an experienced analyst trained to recognize a pattern observed in outputs from signal processing manually accomplished infrasound signal detection. Our goal was to automate the process of infrasound signal detection. The critical aspect of infrasound signal detection is to identify consecutive processing steps where the azimuth is constant (flat) while the time-lag correlation of the windowed waveform is above background value. These two statements describe the arrival of a correlated set of wavefrontsmore » at an array. The Hough Transform and Inverse Slope methods are used to determine the representative slope for a specified number of azimuth data points. The representative slope is then used in conjunction with associated correlation value and azimuth data variance to determine if and when an infrasound signal was detected. A format for an infrasound signal detection output file is also proposed. The detection output file will list the processed array element names, followed by detection characteristics for each method. Each detection is supplied with a listing of frequency slowness processing characteristics: human time (YYYY/MM/DD HH:MM:SS.SSS), epochal time, correlation, fstat, azimuth (deg) and trace velocity (km/s). As an example, a ground truth event was processed using the four-element DLIAR infrasound array located in New Mexico. The event is known as the Watusi chemical explosion, which occurred on 2002/09/28 at 21:25:17 with an explosive yield of 38,000 lb TNT equivalent. Knowing the source and array location, the array-to-event distance was computed to be approximately 890 km. This test determined the station-to-event azimuth (281.8 and 282.1 degrees) to within 1.6 and 1.4 degrees for the Inverse Slope and Hough Transform detection algorithms

  3. Collective bubble oscillations as a component of surf infrasound.

    PubMed

    Park, Joseph; Garcés, Milton; Fee, David; Pawlak, Geno

    2008-05-01

    Plunging surf is a known generator of infrasound, though the mechanisms have not been clearly identified. A model based on collective bubble oscillations created by demise of the initially entrained air pocket is examined. Computed spectra are compared to infrasound data from the island of Kauai during periods of medium, large, and extreme surf. Model results suggest that bubble oscillations generated by plunging waves are plausible generators of infrasound, and that dynamic bubble plume evolution on a temporal scale comparable to the breaking wave period may contribute to the broad spectral lobe of dominant infrasonic energy observed in measured data. Application of an inverse model has potential to characterize breaking wave size distributions, energy, and temporal changes in seafloor morphology based on remotely sensed infrasound.

  4. Hyperion 5113/A Infrasound Sensor Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Bion John

    2015-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has tested and evaluated an infrasound sensor, the 5113/A manufactured by Hyperion. These infrasound sensors measure pressure output by a methodology developed by the University of Mississippi. The purpose of the infrasound sensor evaluation was to determine a measured sensitivity, transfer function, power, self-noise, and dynamic range. The 5113/A infrasound sensor is a new revision of the 5000 series intended to meet the infrasound application requirements for use in the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO).

  5. A Bayesian framework for infrasound location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modrak, Ryan T.; Arrowsmith, Stephen J.; Anderson, Dale N.

    2010-04-01

    We develop a framework for location of infrasound events using backazimuth and infrasonic arrival times from multiple arrays. Bayesian infrasonic source location (BISL) developed here estimates event location and associated credibility regions. BISL accounts for unknown source-to-array path or phase by formulating infrasonic group velocity as random. Differences between observed and predicted source-to-array traveltimes are partitioned into two additive Gaussian sources, measurement error and model error, the second of which accounts for the unknown influence of wind and temperature on path. By applying the technique to both synthetic tests and ground-truth events, we highlight the complementary nature of back azimuths and arrival times for estimating well-constrained event locations. BISL is an extension to methods developed earlier by Arrowsmith et al. that provided simple bounds on location using a grid-search technique.

  6. The Temporal Morphology of Infrasound Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drob, Douglas P.; Garcés, Milton; Hedlin, Michael; Brachet, Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    Expert knowledge suggests that the performance of automated infrasound event association and source location algorithms could be greatly improved by the ability to continually update station travel-time curves to properly account for the hourly, daily, and seasonal changes of the atmospheric state. With the goal of reducing false alarm rates and improving network detection capability we endeavor to develop, validate, and integrate this capability into infrasound processing operations at the International Data Centre of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization. Numerous studies have demonstrated that incorporation of hybrid ground-to-space (G2S) enviromental specifications in numerical calculations of infrasound signal travel time and azimuth deviation yields significantly improved results over that of climatological atmospheric specifications, specifically for tropospheric and stratospheric modes. A robust infrastructure currently exists to generate hybrid G2S vector spherical harmonic coefficients, based on existing operational and emperical models on a real-time basis (every 3- to 6-hours) (D rob et al., 2003). Thus the next requirement in this endeavor is to refine numerical procedures to calculate infrasound propagation characteristics for robust automatic infrasound arrival identification and network detection, location, and characterization algorithms. We present results from a new code that integrates the local (range-independent) τp ray equations to provide travel time, range, turning point, and azimuth deviation for any location on the globe given a G2S vector spherical harmonic coefficient set. The code employs an accurate numerical technique capable of handling square-root singularities. We investigate the seasonal variability of propagation characteristics over a five-year time series for two different stations within the International Monitoring System with the aim of understanding the capabilities of current working knowledge of the

  7. Engineering and development projects for the sustainment and enhancement of the IMS infrasound network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marty, J.; Martysevich, P.; Kramer, A.; Haralabus, G.

    2012-04-01

    The Provisional Technical Secretariat (PTS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) has a continuous interest in enhancing its capability in infrasound source localization and characterization. This capability is based on the processing of data recorded by the infrasound network of the International Monitoring System (IMS). This infrasound network consists of sixty stations, among which forty-five are already certified and continuously transmit data to the International Data Center (IDC) in Vienna, Austria. Each infrasound station is composed of an array of infrasound sensors capable of measuring micro-pressure changes produced at ground level by infrasonic waves. It is the responsibility of the Engineering and Development Section of the IMS Division to ensure the highest quality for IMS infrasound data. This includes the design of robust and reliable infrasound stations, the use of accurate and calibrated infrasound measuring chains, the installation of efficient wind noise reduction systems and the implementation of quality-control tools. The purpose of this paper is to present ongoing PTS infrasound engineering and development projects related to the testing and validation of wind noise reduction system models, the implementation of infrasound data QC tools, the definition of guidelines for the design of IMS power supply systems and the development of a portable infrasound calibrator and of field kits for site survey and certification.

  8. Detecting blast-induced infrasound in wind noise.

    PubMed

    Howard, Wheeler B; Dillion, Kevin L; Shields, F Douglas

    2010-03-01

    Current efforts seek to monitor and investigate such naturally occurring events as volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, bolides entering the atmosphere, earthquakes, and tsunamis by the infrasound they generate. Often, detection of the infrasound signal is limited by the masking effect of wind noise. This paper describes the use of a distributed array to detect infrasound signals from four atmospheric detonations at White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico, USA in 2006. Three of the blasts occurred during times of low wind noise and were easily observed with array processing techniques. One blast was obscured by high wind conditions. The results of signal processing are presented that allowed localization of the blast-induced signals in the presence of wind noise in the array response.

  9. Volcanic eruption volume flux estimations from very long period infrasound signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Taishi; Aoyama, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Takeshi; Iguchi, Masato; Hendrasto, Muhamad

    2017-01-01

    We examine very long period infrasonic signals accompanying volcanic eruptions near active vents at Lokon-Empung volcano in Indonesia, Aso, Kuchinoerabujima, and Kirishima volcanoes in Japan. The excitation of the very long period pulse is associated with an explosion, the emerging of an eruption column, and a pyroclastic density current. We model the excitation of the infrasound pulse, assuming a monopole source, to quantify the volume flux and cumulative volume of erupting material. The infrasound-derived volume flux and cumulative volume can be less than half of the video-derived results. A largely positive correlation can be seen between the infrasound-derived volume flux and the maximum eruption column height. Therefore, our result suggests that the analysis of very long period volcanic infrasound pulses can be helpful in estimating the maximum eruption column height.

  10. Trans Atlantic Infrasound Payload (TAIP) Operation Plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, Daniel; Lees, Jonathan M.

    The Carolina Infrasound package, added as a piggyback to the 2016 ULDB ight, recorded unique acoustic signals such as the ocean microbarom and a large meteor. These data both yielded unique insights into the acoustic energy transfer from the lower to the upper atmosphere as well as highlighted the vast array of signals whose origins remain unknown. Now, the opportunity to y a payload across the north Atlantic offers an opportunity to sample one of the most active ocean microbarom sources on Earth. Improvements in payload capabilities should result in characterization of the higher frequency range of the stratospheric infrasoundmore » spectrum as well. Finally, numerous large mining and munitions disposal explosions in the region may provide \\ground truth" events for assessing the detection capability of infrasound microphones in the stratosphere. The flight will include three different types of infrasound sensors. One type is a pair of polarity reversed InfraBSU microphones (standard for high altitude flights since 2016), another is a highly sensitive Chaparral 60 modified for a very low corner period, and the final sensor is a lightweight, low power Gem infrasound package. By evaluating these configurations against each other on the same flight, we will be able to optimize future campaigns with different sensitivity and mass constraints.« less

  11. Seismic and Infrasound Energy Generation and Propagation at Local and Regional Distances Phase 1 - Divine Strake Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-10-11

    large mine collapse (M=3.9) and shallow earthquake (M=3.9) indicates that there were no signals generated by these events. A new type of infrasound ...provide data to document the propagation of the acoustic signals between the infrasound array sites and allow us to estimate group velocities since...in near-source acoustic and seismic signals . 10 Near-source acoustic and seismic signals recorded at UTTR3 Explosion generated infrasound signals

  12. Infrasound, Its Sources and Its Effects on Man

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-05-01

    modulated by an infra - Annoyance has been broken out as a separate sonic frequency. For instance, the amplified topic because I believe that the greatest...importance is the nigh frequency response of quency sound. In general, infrasound does not the measurement system. Measurement of infra - often occur at levels...esuential for detailed analysis and changes in barometric pressure would be con- from these recordings a narrow band spectral sidered infrasonic . The

  13. Detection of atmospheric infrasound with a ring laser interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, Robert W.; Meredith, John A.; Lamb, Angela B.; Kessler, Elijah G.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the results from using a large active ring laser interferometer as an infrasound detector are presented. On April 27, 2014, an EF4 tornado struck Central Arkansas and passed within 21 km of the ring laser interferometer. The tornado resulted in 16 fatalities and millions of dollars in damage. Using the ring laser to study the tornado infrasound produced results that qualitatively agree with several findings from a long-term study of weather generated infrasound by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. A Fast Fourier Transform of the ring laser output revealed a coherent frequency of approximately 0.94 Hz that lasted during the life of the storm. The 0.94 Hz frequency was initially observed 30 min before the funnel was reported on the ground. Infrasound signatures from four separate tornadoes are presented. In each case, coherent infrasound was detected at least 30 min before the tornado was reported on the ground. Examples of the detection of distant coherent acoustic-gravity waves from volcanoes and typhoons are also presented. In addition, buoyancy waves were recorded.

  14. Improving Estimates of Regional Infrasound Propagation by Incorporating Three-Dimensional Weather Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, M. H.; Alter, R. E.; Swearingen, M. E.; Wilson, D. K.

    2017-12-01

    Many larger sources, such as volcanic eruptions and nuclear detonations, produce infrasound (acoustic waves with a frequency lower than humans can hear, namely 0.1-20 Hz) that can propagate over global scales. But many smaller infrastructure sources, such as bridges, dams, and buildings, also produce infrasound, though with a lower amplitude that tends to propagate only over regional scales (up to 150 km). In order to accurately calculate regional-scale infrasound propagation, we have incorporated high-resolution, three-dimensional forecasts from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) meteorological model into a signal propagation modeling system called Environmental Awareness for Sensor and Emitter Employment (EASEE), developed at the US Army Engineer Research and Development Center. To quantify the improvement of infrasound propagation predictions with more realistic weather data, we conducted sensitivity studies with different propagation ranges and horizontal resolutions and compared them to default predictions with no weather model data. We describe the process of incorporating WRF output into EASEE for conducting these acoustic propagation simulations and present the results of the aforementioned sensitivity studies.

  15. Infrasound ray tracing models for real events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averbuch, Gil; Applbaum, David; Price, Colin; Ben Horin, Yochai

    2015-04-01

    's height or the sprite's most energetic part. Even though atmospheric wind has a strong influence on infrasound wave propagation, our estimation is that for high altitude sources, extreme weather in the troposphere below has low impact on the trajectories of the waves.

  16. Results of Infrasound Interferometry in Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, J. T.; Ruigrok, E. N.; Evers, L. G.; Simons, D. G.; Wapenaar, K.

    2012-04-01

    The travel time of infrasound through the atmosphere depends on the temperature and the wind. These atmospheric conditions could be estimated by measuring the travel times between different receivers (microbarometers). For such an estimation an inverse model of the propagation of infrasound through the atmosphere is essential. In the first step it is useful to build a forward model. The inputs of our raytracing model are the atmospheric conditions and the positions of source and receiver. The model consists of three elements the source, the channel and the receiver. The source is a blast wave or microbaroms. The channel is the atmosphere and it takes into account the travel time along the eigen ray, the attenuation of the different atmospheric layers, the spreading of the rays and the influence of caustics. Each receiver is reached by different rays (eigen rays). To determine the eigen rays is part of the receiver element. As output the model generates synthetic barograms. The synthetic barograms can be used to explain measured barograms. Furthermore the synthetic barograms can also be used to evaluate the determination of the travel time. The accurate travel time is for the inverse model as input essential. Since small changes of the travel time lead to big changes of the output (temperature and wind). The travel time between two receivers is determined by crosscorrelating the barograms of these two receivers. This technique was already successfully applied in the troposphere (Haney, 2009). We show that the same can be achieved with more complicated stratospheric phases. Now we compare the crosscorrelation of synthetic barograms with the crosscorrelation of measured barograms. These barograms are measured with the 'Large Aperture Infrasound Array' (LAIA). LAIA is being installed by the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) in the framework of the radio-astronomical 'Low Frequency Array' (LOFAR) initiative. LAIA will consist of thirty microbarometers

  17. Capturing the Acoustic Radiation Pattern of Strombolian Eruptions using Infrasound Sensors Aboard a Tethered Aerostat, Yasur Volcano, Vanuatu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolly, Arthur D.; Matoza, Robin S.; Fee, David; Kennedy, Ben M.; Iezzi, Alexandra M.; Fitzgerald, Rebecca H.; Austin, Allison C.; Johnson, Richard

    2017-10-01

    We obtained an unprecedented view of the acoustic radiation from persistent strombolian volcanic explosions at Yasur volcano, Vanuatu, from the deployment of infrasound sensors attached to a tethered aerostat. While traditional ground-based infrasound arrays may sample only a small portion of the eruption pressure wavefield, we were able to densely sample angular ranges of 200° in azimuth and 50° in takeoff angle by placing the aerostat at 38 tethered loiter positions around the active vent. The airborne data joined contemporaneously collected ground-based infrasound and video recordings over the period 29 July to 1 August 2016. We observe a persistent variation in the acoustic radiation pattern with average eastward directed root-mean-square pressures more than 2 times larger than in other directions. The observed radiation pattern may be related to both path effects from the crater walls, and source directionality.

  18. Global Infrasound Association Based on Probabilistic Clutter Categorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, Nimar; Mialle, Pierrick

    2016-04-01

    The IDC advances its methods and continuously improves its automatic system for the infrasound technology. The IDC focuses on enhancing the automatic system for the identification of valid signals and the optimization of the network detection threshold by identifying ways to refine signal characterization methodology and association criteria. An objective of this study is to reduce the number of associated infrasound arrivals that are rejected from the automatic bulletins when generating the reviewed event bulletins. Indeed, a considerable number of signal detections are due to local clutter sources such as microbaroms, waterfalls, dams, gas flares, surf (ocean breaking waves) etc. These sources are either too diffuse or too local to form events. Worse still, the repetitive nature of this clutter leads to a large number of false event hypotheses due to the random matching of clutter at multiple stations. Previous studies, for example [1], have worked on categorization of clutter using long term trends on detection azimuth, frequency, and amplitude at each station. In this work we continue the same line of reasoning to build a probabilistic model of clutter that is used as part of NETVISA [2], a Bayesian approach to network processing. The resulting model is a fusion of seismic, hydroacoustic and infrasound processing built on a unified probabilistic framework. References: [1] Infrasound categorization Towards a statistics based approach. J. Vergoz, P. Gaillard, A. Le Pichon, N. Brachet, and L. Ceranna. ITW 2011 [2] NETVISA: Network Processing Vertically Integrated Seismic Analysis. N. S. Arora, S. Russell, and E. Sudderth. BSSA 2013

  19. The case for infrasound as the long-range map cue in avian navigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagstrum, J.T.

    2007-01-01

    Of the various 'map' and 'compass' components of Kramer's avian navigational model, the long-range map component is the least well understood. In this paper atmospheric infrasounds are proposed as the elusive longrange cues constituting the avian navigational map. Although infrasounds were considered a viable candidate for the avian map in the 1970s, and pigeons in the laboratory were found to detect sounds at surprisingly low frequencies (0.05 Hz), other tests appeared to support either of the currently favored olfactory or magnetic maps. Neither of these hypotheses, however, is able to explain the full set of observations, and the field has been at an impasse for several decades. To begin, brief descriptions of infrasonic waves and their passage through the atmosphere are given, followed by accounts of previously unexplained release results. These examples include 'release-site biases' which are deviations of departing pigeons from the homeward bearing, an annual variation in homing performance observed only in Europe, difficulties orienting over lakes and above temperature inversions, and the mysterious disruption of several pigeon races. All of these irregularities can be consistently explained by the deflection or masking of infrasonic cues by atmospheric conditions or by other infrasonic sources (microbaroms, sonic booms), respectively. A source of continuous geographic infrasound generated by atmosphere-coupled microseisms is also proposed. In conclusion, several suggestions are made toward resolving some of the conflicting experimental data with the pigeons' possible use of infrasonic cues.

  20. Global scale stratospheric processes as measured by the infrasound IMS network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pichon, A.; Ceranna, L.; Kechut, P.

    2012-04-01

    IMS infrasound array data are routinely processed at the International Data Center (IDC). The wave parameters of the detected signals are estimated with the Progressive Multi-Channel Correlation method (PMCC). This new implementation of the PMCC algorithm allows the full frequency range of interest (0.01-5 Hz) to be processed efficiently in a single computational run. We have processed continuous recordings from 41 certified IMS stations from 2005 to 2010. We show that microbaroms are the dominant source of signals and are near-continuously globally detected. The observed azimuthal seasonal trend correlates well with the variation of the effective sound speed ratio which is a proxy for the combined effects of refraction due to sound speed gradients and advection due to along-path wind on infrasound propagation. A general trend in signal backazimuth is observed between winter and summer, driven by the seasonal reversal of the stratospheric winds. Combined with propagation modeling, we show that such an analysis enables a characterization of the wind and temperature structure above the stratosphere and may provide detailed information on upper atmospheric processes (e.g., large-scale planetary waves, stratospheric warming effects). We correlate perturbations and deviations from the seasonal trend to short time-scale variability of the atmosphere. We discuss the potential benefit of long-term infrasound monitoring to infer stratospheric processes for the first time on a global scale.

  1. Cardiac peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ expression is modulated by oxidative stress in acutely infrasound-exposed cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Pei, Zhaohui; Meng, Rongsen; Zhuang, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Yiqiao; Liu, Fangpeng; Zhu, Miao-Zhang; Li, Ruiman

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of acute infrasound exposure on oxidative damage and investigate the underlying mechanisms in rat cardiomyocytes. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were cultured and exposed to infrasound for several days. In the study, the expression of CAT, GPx, SOD1, and SOD2 and their activities in rat cardiomyocytes in infrasound exposure groups were significantly decreased compared to those in the various time controls, along with significantly higher levels of O2 (-) and H2O2. Decreased cardiac cell viability was not observed in various time controls. A significant reduction in cardiac cell viability was observed in the infrasound group compared to the control, while significantly increased cardiac cell viability was observed in the infrasound exposure and rosiglitazone pretreatment group. Compared to the control, rosiglitazone significantly upregulated CAT, GPx, SOD1, and SOD2 expression and their activities in rat cardiomyocytes exposed to infrasound, while the levels of O2 (-) or H2O2 were significantly decreased. A potential link between a significant downregulation of PPAR-γ expression in rat cardiomyocytes in the infrasound group was compared to the control and infrasound-induced oxidative stress. These findings indicate that infrasound can induce oxidative damage in rat cardiomyocytes by inactivating PPAR-γ.

  2. IMS Infrasound Monitoring Test Site at Trafelberg, Austria: Preliminary Results from In-Situ Response Measurements of Infrasound Elements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    IMS INFRASOUND MONITORING TEST SITE AT TRAFELBERG, AUSTRIA: PRELIMINARY RESULTS FROM IN-SITU RESPONSE MEASUREMENTS OF INFRASOUND ELEMENTS Thomas...The International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) has a unique infrasound test site...all four infrasound elements at I99 were made from 0.008 Hz to several Hz. For all four elements, from 0.01 to 0.1 Hz, the measured magnitude and

  3. Empirical Relationships from Regional Infrasound Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negraru, P. T.; Golden, P.

    2011-12-01

    Two yearlong infrasound observations were collected at two arrays located within the so called "Zone of Silence" or "Shadow Zone" from well controlled explosive sources to investigate the long term atmospheric effects on signal propagation. The first array (FNIAR) is located north of Fallon NV, at 154 km from the munitions disposal facility outside of Hawthorne NV, while the second array (DNIAR) is located near Mercury NV, approximately 293 km south east of the detonation site. Based on celerity values, approximately 80% of the observed arrivals at FNIAR are considered stratospheric (celerities below 300 m/s), while 20% of them propagated as tropospheric waveguides with celerities of 330-345 m/s. Although there is considerable scatter in the celerity values, two seasonal effects were observed for both years; 1) a gradual decrease in celerity from summer to winter (July/January period) and 2) an increase in celerity values that starts in April. In the winter months celerity values can be extremely variable, and we have observed signals with celerities as low as 240 m/s. In contrast, at DNIAR we observe much stronger seasonal variations. In winter months we have observed tropospheric, stratospheric and thermospheric arrivals while in the summer mostly tropospheric and slower thermospheric arrivals dominate. This interpretation is consistent with the current seasonal variation of the stratospheric winds and was confirmed by ray tracing with G2S models. In addition we also discuss how the observed infrasound arrivals can be used to improve ground truth estimation methods (location, origin times and yield). For instance an empirical wind parameter derived from G2S models suggests that the differences in celerity values observed for both arrays can be explained by changes in the wind conditions. Currently we have started working on improving location algorithms that take into account empirical celerity models derived from celerity/wind plots.

  4. Infrasound as a Depth Discriminant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    INFRASOUND AS A DEPTH DISCRIMINANT Stephen J. Arrowsmith1, Hans E. Hartse1, Steven R. Taylor2, Richard J. Stead1, and Rod W. Whitaker1 Los Alamos...LA09-Depth-NDD02 ABSTRACT The identification of a signature relating depth to a remotely recorded infrasound signal requires a dataset of...can generate infrasound via a variety of processes, which have occasionally been confused in past studies due to the complexity of the process; (2

  5. An analysis of three new infrasound arrays around Kīlauea Volcano

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thelen, Weston A.; Cooper, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    A network of three new infrasound station arrays was installed around Kīlauea Volcano between July 2012 and September 2012, and a preliminary analysis of open-vent monitoring has been completed by Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO). Infrasound is an emerging monitoring method in volcanology that detects perturbations in atmospheric pressure at frequencies below 20 Hz, which can result from volcanic events that are not always observed optically or thermally. Each array has the capability to detect various infrasound events as small as 0.05 Pa as measured at the array site. The infrasound monitoring network capabilities are demonstrated through case studies of rockfalls, pit collapses, and rise-fall cycles at Halema'uma'u Crater and Pu'u 'Ōʻō.

  6. Using infrasound waves to monitor tropospheric weather and crater morphology changes at Volcán Tungurahua, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, Hugo D.; Johnson, Jeffrey B.; Ramón, Patricio G.; Ruiz, Mario C.

    2018-01-01

    We use infrasound waves generated during eruptions of Volcán Tungurahua (Ecuador) to study both, changing atmospheric conditions and volcanic source characteristics. Analyzed infrasound data were recorded for a 32-month period by a five-station network located within 6.5 km from the vent. We use cross-network correlation to quantify the recurrent eruptive behavior of Tungurahua and results are corroborated by reports from the Ecuadorian monitoring agency. Cross-network lag times vary over short time periods (minutes to days) when vent location is stable and attribute these variations to changes in atmospheric structure. Assuming a fixed source location, we invert for average air temperatures and winds in Tungurahua's vicinity (< 6.5 km) and find evidence for diurnal and semidiurnal tropospheric tides. We also use cross-network correlation lag times to compute infrasound source positions with resolutions of 11.6 m, taking into account coarse NOAA atmospheric models for local winds and temperatures. Variable infrasound-derived source locations suggest source migration during the 32 months of analyzed data. Such source position variability is expected following energetic eruptions that destructively altered the crater/vent morphology as confirmed by imagery obtained during regular overflights.

  7. Improved Infrasound Event Location

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Bolide (20) —— 1 signal —— 5-8 signals Mine Explosion (112) Volcano (20) —— 2 signals —— >8 signals Rocket Motor Test (1) Landslide (1) —— 3-4...significant bookkeeping, since the ray-tracing programs must be executed separately for each source-receiver-model scenario, each producing multiple...Infrasound monitoring of volcanoes to probe high-altitude winds, J. Geophys. Res. 110, D13106, doi: 10.1029/2004JD005587. Le Pichon, A., K

  8. MB3a Infrasound Sensor Evaluation.

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Bion J.; McDowell, Kyle D.

    2014-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has tested and evaluated a new infrasound sensor, the MB3a, manufactured by Seismo Wave. These infrasound sensors measure pressure output by a methodology developed by researchers at the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and the technology was recently licensed to Seismo Wave for production and sales. The purpose of the infrasound sensor evaluation was to determine a measured sensitivity, transfer function, power, self-noise, dynamic range, seismic sensitivity, and self- calibration ability. The MB3a infrasound sensors are being evaluated for potential use in the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban-Treaty Organization (CTBTO).

  9. Infrasound and seismic array analysis of snow avalanches: results from the 2015-2017 experiment in Dischma valley above Davos, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, Emanuele; van Herwijnen, Alec; Ripepe, Maurizio

    2017-04-01

    While flowing downhill a snow avalanche radiates seismic and infrasonic waves being coupled both with the ground and the atmosphere. Infrasound waves are mostly generated by the powder cloud of the avalanche, while seismic waves are mostly generated by the dense flowing snow mass on the ground, resulting in different energy partitioning between seismic and infrasound for different kinds of avalanches. This results into a general uncertainty on the efficiency of seismic and infrasound monitoring, in terms of the size and source-to-receiver distance of detectable events. Nevertheless, both seismic and infrasound have been used as monitoring systems for the remote detection of snow avalanches, being the reliable detection of snow avalanches of crucial importance to better understand triggering mechanisms, identify possible precursors, or improve avalanche forecasting. We present infrasonic and seismic array data collected during the winters of 2015- 2016 and 2016-2017 in the Dischma valley above Davos, Switzerland, where a five element infrasound array and a 7 element seismic array had been deployed at short distance from each other and with several avalanche paths nearby. Avalanche observation in the area is performed through automatic cameras providing additional information on the location, type (dry or wet), size and occurrence time of the avalanches released. The use of arrays instead of single sensors allows increasing the signal-to-noise ratio and identifying events in terms of back-azimuth and apparent velocity of the wave-field, thus providing indication on the source position of the recorded signal. For selected snow avalanches captured with automatic cameras, we therefore perform seismic and infrasound array processing to constrain the avalanche path and dynamics and investigate the partitioning of seismic and infrasound energy for the different portions of the avalanche path. Moreover we compare results of seismic and infrasound array processing for the

  10. CTBT infrasound network performance to detect the 2013 Russian fireball event

    DOE PAGES

    Pilger, Christoph; Ceranna, Lars; Ross, J. Ole; ...

    2015-03-18

    The explosive fragmentation of the 2013 Chelyabinsk meteorite generated a large airburst with an equivalent yield of 500 kT TNT. It is the most energetic event recorded by the infrasound component of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty-International Monitoring System (CTBT-IMS), globally detected by 20 out of 42 operational stations. This study performs a station-by-station estimation of the IMS detection capability to explain infrasound detections and nondetections from short to long distances, using the Chelyabinsk meteorite as global reference event. Investigated parameters influencing the detection capability are the directivity of the line source signal, the ducting of acoustic energy, and the individualmore » noise conditions at each station. Findings include a clear detection preference for stations perpendicular to the meteorite trajectory, even over large distances. Only a weak influence of stratospheric ducting is observed for this low-frequency case. As a result, a strong dependence on the diurnal variability of background noise levels at each station is observed, favoring nocturnal detections.« less

  11. Wind Noise Suppression for Infrasound Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    Wind Noise Suppression for Infrasound Sensors by John M. Noble, W.C. Kirkpatrick Alberts, II, Sandra L. Collier, Richard Raspet, and Mark A...Laboratory Adelphi, MD 20783-1197 ARL-TR-6873 March 2014 Wind Noise Suppression for Infrasound Sensors John M. Noble, Sandra L. Collier, and...DATES COVERED (From - To) October 2012 to September 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Wind Noise Suppression for Infrasound Sensors 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  12. Hyperion 5113/GP Infrasound Sensor Evaluation.

    SciTech Connect

    Merchant, Bion J.

    2015-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has tested and evaluated an infrasound sensor, the 5113/GP manufactured by Hyperion. These infrasound sensors measure pressure output by a methodology developed by the University of Mississippi. The purpose of the infrasound sensor evaluation was to determine a measured sensitivity, transfer function, power, self-noise, dynamic range, and seismic sensitivity. These sensors are being evaluated prior to deployment by the U.S. Air Force.

  13. Infrasound and Seismic Recordings of Rocket Launches from Kennedy Space Center, 2016-2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, S. R.; Thompson, G.; Brown, R. G.; Braunmiller, J.; Farrell, A. K.; Mehta, C.

    2017-12-01

    We installed a temporary 3-station seismic-infrasound network at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in February 2016 to test sensor calibrations and train students in field deployment and data acquisitions techniques. Each station featured a single broadband 3-component seismometer and a 3-element infrasound array. In May 2016 the network was scaled back to a single station due to other projects competing for equipment. To date 8 rocket launches have been recorded by the infrasound array, as well as 2 static tests, 1 aborted launch and 1 rocket explosion (see next abstract). Of the rocket launches recorded 4 were SpaceX Falcon-9, 2 were ULA Atlas-5 and 2 were ULA Delta-IV. A question we attempt to answer is whether the rocket engine type and launch trajectory can be estimated with appropriate travel-time, amplitude-ratio and spectral techniques. For example, there is a clear Doppler shift in seismic and infrasound spectrograms from all launches, with lower frequencies occurring later in the recorded signal as the rocket accelerates away from the array. Another question of interest is whether there are relationships between jet noise frequency, thrust and/or nozzle velocity. Infrasound data may help answer these questions. We are now in the process of deploying a permanent seismic and infrasound array at the Astronaut Beach House. 10 more rocket launches are schedule before AGU. NASA is also conducting a series of 33 sonic booms over KSC beginning on Aug 21st. Launches and other events at KSC have provided rich sources of signals that are useful to characterize and gain insight into physical processes and wave generation from man-made sources.

  14. Characterization of Atmospheric Infrasound for Improved Weather Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Threatt, Arnesha; Elbing, Brian

    2016-11-01

    Collaboration Leading Operational UAS Development for Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics (CLOUD MAP) is a multi-university collaboration focused on development and implementation of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) and integration with sensors for atmospheric measurements. A primary objective for this project is to create and demonstrate UAS capabilities needed to support UAS operating in extreme conditions, such as a tornado producing storm system. These storm systems emit infrasound (acoustic signals below human hearing, <20 Hz) up to 2 hours before tornadogenesis. Due to an acoustic ceiling and weak atmospheric absorption, infrasound can be detected from distances in excess of 300 miles. Thus infrasound could be used for long-range, passive monitoring and detection of tornadogenesis as well as directing UAS resources to high-decision-value-information. To achieve this the infrasonic signals with and without severe storms must be understood. This presentation will report findings from the first CLOUD MAP field demonstration, which acquired infrasonic signals while simultaneously sampling the atmosphere with UAS. Infrasonic spectra will be shown from a typical calm day, a continuous source (pulsed gas-combustion torch), singular events, and UAS flights as well as localization results from a controlled source and multiple microphones. This work was supported by NSF Grant 1539070: CLOUD MAP - Collaboration Leading Operational UAS Development for Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics.

  15. Infrasound workshop for CTBT monitoring: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Christie, D.; Whitaker, R.

    1998-11-01

    It is expected that the establishment of new infrasound stations in the global IMS network by the Provisional Technical Secretariat of the CTBTO in Vienna will commence in the middle of 1998. Thus, decisions on the final operational design for IMS infrasound stations will have to be made within the next 12 months. Though many of the basic design problems have been resolved, it is clear that further work needs to be carried out during the coming year to ensure that IMS infrasound stations will operate with maximum capability in accord with the specifications determined during the May 1997 PrepCommore » Meeting. Some of the papers presented at the Workshop suggest that it may be difficult to design a four-element infrasound array station that will reliably detect and locate infrasound signals at all frequencies in the specified range from 0.02 to 4.0 Hz in all noise environments. Hence, if the basic design of an infrasound array is restricted to four array elements, the final optimized design may be suited only to the detection and location of signals in a more limited pass-band. Several participants have also noted that the reliable discrimination of infrasound signals could be quite difficult if the detection system leads to signal distortion. Thus, it has been emphasized that the detection system should not, if possible, compromise signal fidelity. This report contains the workshop agenda, a list of participants, and abstracts and viewgraphs from each presentation.« less

  16. Infrasound Propagation Modeling for Explosive Yield Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, J. E.; Golden, P.; Negraru, P.

    2013-12-01

    This study focuses on developing methods of estimating the size or yield of HE surface explosions from local and regional infrasound measurements in the southwestern United States. A munitions disposal facility near Mina, Nevada provides a repeating ground-truth source for this study, with charge weights ranging from 870 - 3800 lbs. Detonation logs and GPS synchronized videos were obtained for a sample of shots representing the full range of weights. These are used to calibrate a relationship between charge weight and spectral level from seismic waveforms recorded at the Nevada Seismic Array (NVAR) at a distance of 36 km. Origin times and yields for the remaining shots are inferred from the seismic recordings at NVAR. Infrasound arrivals from the detonations have been continuously recorded on three four-element, small aperture infrasound arrays since late 2009. NVIAR is collocated with NVAR at a range of approximately 36 km to the northeast. FALN and DNIAR are located at ranges of 154 km to the north, and 293 km to the southeast respectively. Travel times and amplitudes for stratospheric arrivals at DNIAR show strong seasonal variability with the largest amplitudes and celerities occurring during the winter months when the stratospheric winds are favorable. Stratospheric celerities for FNIAR to the north are more consistent as they are not strongly affected by the predominantly meridional stratospheric winds. Tropospheric arrivals at all three arrays show considerable variability that does not appear to be a seasonal effect. Naval Research Laboratory Ground to Space (NRL-G2S) Mesoscale models are used to specify the atmosphere along the propagation path for each detonation. Ray-tracing is performed for each source/receiver pair to identify events for which the models closely match the travel-time observations. This subset of events is used to establish preliminary wind correction formulas using wind values from the G2S profile for the entire propagation path. These

  17. Chaparral Model 60 Infrasound Sensor Evaluation.

    SciTech Connect

    Slad, George William; Merchant, Bion J.

    2016-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has tested and evaluated an infrasound sensor, the Model 60 manufactured by Chaparral Physics, a Division of Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. The purpose of the infrasound sensor evaluation was to determine a measured sensitivity, transfer function, power, self-noise, dynamic range, and seismic sensitivity. The Model 60 infrasound sensor is a new sensor developed by Chaparral Physics intended to be a small, rugged sensor used in more flexible application conditions.

  18. Could the IMS Infrasound Stations Support a Global Network of Small Aperture Seismic Arrays?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    J, Gibbons, Steven; Kværna, Tormod; Mykkeltveit, Svein

    2015-04-01

    find such added capabilities valuable from a national perspective. In addition, the seismic recordings may also help to identify the sources of infrasound signals with consequences for improved event screening and evaluating models of infrasound propagation and atmospheric properties.

  19. Infrasound induced instability by modulation of condensation process in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Naugolnykh, Konstantin; Rybak, Samuil

    2008-12-01

    A sound wave in supersaturated water vapor can modulate both the process of heat release caused by condensation, and subsequently, as a result, the resonance interaction of sound with the modulated heat release provides sound amplification. High-intensity atmospheric perturbations such as cyclones and thunderstorms generate infrasound, which is detectable at large distances from the source. The wave-condensation instability can lead to variation in the level of infrasound radiation by a developing cyclone, and this can be as a precursor of these intense atmospheric events.

  20. Distinct Crater and Conduit Infrasound Reveal an Open Vent Volcano Running Out of Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, J. J.; Fee, D.; Haney, M. M.; Diefenbach, A. K.; Carn, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    Open-vent degassing dominated activity at Mount Pagan, Mariana Islands dating back to at least 2013, when ground-based sensors were installed, to mid-2015 when degassing fell below detection limits. Gas sampling indicated shallow magma was the source, and an analysis of LP seismicity showed that repeated pressurization and venting of a shallow crack controlled degassing. Open-vent degassing also produced abundant infrasound, recorded on two 6-element arrays. Two main infrasound features are the focus of this study: 1) a 0.3 Hz iVLP and 2) a 1.7 Hz iLP. Tens of thousands of iVLPs and iLPs were recorded over the 22-month study period, and correlation and cluster analyses show little change in both waveform and frequency content, suggesting a non-destructive, repeating source. An interesting upper conduit-crater geometry was discovered in helicopter overflights of the summit crater, and to test the effects of the crater and conduit shape and size on the infrasound signals, a high-resolution (<1 meter) DEM of the crater was produced by structure-from-motion using video captured during helicopter orbits. We perform full-waveform inversion of the infrasound data using the 3D topography, and show that a synthetic monopole source induces distinct resonance in the crater and upper conduit that mostly reproduces the iVLP and iLP signals, respectively. Further investigation of the infrasound catalogue shows that while the frequency content and waveforms remained stable through time, the amplitude of the iVLP events began decreasing months prior to cessation of degassing. Initially, the iLP amplitudes remained unaffected while the iVLP amplitudes dropped, but in the final months before degassing ended iLP amplitudes also began decreasing. We interpret this pattern as a progressive decline in the gas overpressure, initially resulting in a decreased ability to trigger resonance in the large crater volume, but eventually affecting the ability of the monopole source to induce

  1. Unraveling Structural Infrasound: understanding the science for persistent remote monitoring of critical infrastructure (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, S. M.; Diaz-Alvarez, H.; McComas, S.; Costley, D.; Whitlow, R. D.; Jordan, A. M.; Taylor, O.

    2013-12-01

    In 2006, the Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) began a program designed to meet the capability gap associated with remote assessment of critical infrastructure. This program addresses issues arising from the use of geophysical techniques to solve engineering problems through persistent monitoring of critical infrastructure using infrasound. In the original 2006-2009 study of a railroad bridge in Ft. Leonard Wood, MO, the fundamental modes of motion of the structure were detected at up to 30 km away, with atmospheric excitation deemed to be the source driver. Follow-on research focused on the mechanically driven modes excited by traffic, with directional acoustic emanations. The success of the Ft. Wood ambient excitation study resulted in several subsequent programs to push the boundaries of this new technique for standoff assessment, discussed herein. Detection of scour and river system health monitoring are serious problems for monitoring civil infrastructure, from both civilian and military perspectives. Knowledge of overall system behavior over time is crucial for assessment of bridge foundations and barge navigation. This research focuses on the same steel-truss bridge from the Ft. Wood study, and analyzes 3D and 2D substructure models coupled with the superstructure reaction loads to assess the modal deformations within the infrasound bandwidth and the correlation to scour of embedment material. The Urban infrasound program is infrasound modeling, data analysis, and sensor research leading to the detection, classification and localization of threat activities in complex propagation environments. Three seismo-acoustic arrays were deployed on rooftops across the Southern Methodist University campus in Dallas, Texas, to characterize the urban infrasound environment. Structural sources within 15 km of the arrays have been identified through signal processing and confirmed through acoustical models. Infrasound is also being studied as a means of

  2. Multidirectional seismo-acoustic wavefield of strombolian explosions at Yasur, Vanuatu using a broadband seismo-acoustic network, infrasound arrays, and infrasonic sensors on tethered balloons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matoza, R. S.; Jolly, A. D.; Fee, D.; Johnson, R.; Kilgour, G.; Christenson, B. W.; Garaebiti, E.; Iezzi, A. M.; Austin, A.; Kennedy, B.; Fitzgerald, R.; Key, N.

    2016-12-01

    Seismo-acoustic wavefields at volcanoes contain rich information on shallow magma transport and subaerial eruption processes. Acoustic wavefields from eruptions are predicted to be directional, but sampling this wavefield directivity is challenging because infrasound sensors are usually deployed on the ground surface. We attempt to overcome this observational limitation using a novel deployment of infrasound sensors on tethered balloons in tandem with a suite of dense ground-based seismo-acoustic, geochemical, and eruption imaging instrumentation. We present preliminary results from a field experiment at Yasur Volcano, Vanuatu from July 26th to August 4th 2016. Our observations include data from a temporary network of 11 broadband seismometers, 6 single infrasonic microphones, 7 small-aperture 3-element infrasound arrays, 2 infrasound sensor packages on tethered balloons, an FTIR, a FLIR, 2 scanning Flyspecs, and various visual imaging data. An introduction to the dataset and preliminary analysis of the 3D seismo-acoustic wavefield and source process will be presented. This unprecedented dataset should provide a unique window into processes operating in the shallow magma plumbing system and their relation to subaerial eruption dynamics.

  3. High Altitude Infrasound Measurements using Balloon-Borne Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, D. C.; Johnson, C. S.; Gupta, R. A.; Anderson, J.; Lees, J. M.; Drob, D. P.; Phillips, D.

    2015-12-01

    For the last fifty years, almost all infrasound sensors have been located on the Earth's surface. A few experiments consisting of microphones on poles and tethered aerostats comprise the remainder. Such surface and near-surface arrays likely do not capture the full diversity of acoustic signals in the atmosphere. Here, we describe results from a balloon mounted infrasound array that reached altitudes of up to 38 km (the middle stratosphere). The balloon drifted at the ambient wind speed, resulting in a near total reduction in wind noise. Signals consistent with tropospheric turbulence were detected. A spectral peak in the ocean microbarom range (0.12 - 0.35 Hz) was present on balloon-mounted sensors but not on static infrasound stations near the flight path. A strong 18 Hz signal, possibly related to building ventilation systems, was observed in the stratosphere. A wide variety of other narrow band acoustic signals of uncertain provenance were present throughout the flight, but were absent in simultaneous recordings from nearby ground stations. Similar phenomena were present in spectrograms from the last balloon infrasound campaign in the 1960s. Our results suggest that the infrasonic wave field in the stratosphere is very different from that which is readily detectable on surface stations. This has implications for modeling acoustic energy transfer between the lower and upper atmosphere as well as the detection of novel acoustic signals that never reach the ground. Our work provides valuable constraints on a proposed mission to detect earthquakes on Venus using balloon-borne infrasound sensors.

  4. Detection of Nuclear Explosions Using Infrasound Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    signal correlation between array elements in these arrays can seriously limit the reliable detection of infrasound generated ...goals of this investigation are to identify problems with the detection of explosion- generated infrasonic signals at stations in the global infrasound ...restricted to a thermospheric waveguide. The second part is focused on the limitations imposed on array detection of explosion- generated infrasound

  5. Advancement of Techniques for Modeling the Effects of Atmospheric Gravity-Wave-Induced Inhomogeneities on Infrasound Propagation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    ADVANCEMENT OF TECHNIQUES FOR MODELING THE EFFECTS OF ATMOSPHERIC GRAVITY-WAVE-INDUCED INHOMOGENEITIES ON INFRASOUND PROPAGATION Robert G...number of infrasound observations indicate that fine-scale atmospheric inhomogeneities contribute to infrasonic arrivals that are not predicted by...standard modeling techniques. In particular, gravity waves, or buoyancy waves, are believed to contribute to the multipath nature of infrasound

  6. Dust devil signatures in infrasound records of the International Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Ralph D.; Christie, Douglas

    2015-03-01

    We explore whether dust devils have a recognizable signature in infrasound array records, since several Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty verification stations conducting continuous measurements with microbarometers are in desert areas which see dust devils. The passage of dust devils (and other boundary layer vortices, whether dust laden or not) causes a local temporary drop in pressure: the high-pass time domain filtering in microbarometers results in a "heartbeat" signature, which we observe at the Warramunga station in Australia. We also observe a ~50 min pseudoperiodicity in the occurrence of these signatures and some higher-frequency infrasound. Dust devils do not significantly degrade the treaty verification capability. The pipe arrays for spatial averaging used in infrasound monitoring degrade the detection efficiency of small devils, but the long observation time may allow a useful census of large vortices, and thus, the high-sensitivity infrasonic array data from the monitoring network can be useful in studying columnar vortices in the lower atmosphere.

  7. Infrasound array criteria for automatic detection and front velocity estimation of snow avalanches: towards a real-time early-warning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, E.; Ripepe, M.; Ulivieri, G.; Kogelnig, A.

    2015-11-01

    Avalanche risk management is strongly related to the ability to identify and timely report the occurrence of snow avalanches. Infrasound has been applied to avalanche research and monitoring for the last 20 years but it never turned into an operational tool to identify clear signals related to avalanches. We present here a method based on the analysis of infrasound signals recorded by a small aperture array in Ischgl (Austria), which provides a significant improvement to overcome this limit. The method is based on array-derived wave parameters, such as back azimuth and apparent velocity. The method defines threshold criteria for automatic avalanche identification by considering avalanches as a moving source of infrasound. We validate the efficiency of the automatic infrasound detection with continuous observations with Doppler radar and we show how the velocity of a snow avalanche in any given path around the array can be efficiently derived. Our results indicate that a proper infrasound array analysis allows a robust, real-time, remote detection of snow avalanches that is able to provide the number and the time of occurrence of snow avalanches occurring all around the array, which represent key information for a proper validation of avalanche forecast models and risk management in a given area.

  8. Seismic generated infrasounds on Telluric Planets: Modeling and comparisons between Earth, Venus and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lognonne, P. H.; Rolland, L.; Karakostas, F. G.; Garcia, R.; Mimoun, D.; Banerdt, W. B.; Smrekar, S. E.

    2015-12-01

    Earth, Venus and Mars are all planets in which infrasounds can propagate and interact with the solid surface. This leads to infrasound generation for internal sources (e.g. quakes) and to seismic waves generations for atmospheric sources (e.g. meteor, impactor explosions, boundary layer turbulences). Both the atmospheric profile, surface density, atmospheric wind and viscous/attenuation processes are however greatly different, including major differences between Mars/Venus and Earth due to the CO2 molecular relaxation. We present modeling results and compare the seismic/acoustic coupling strength for Earth, Mars and Venus. This modeling is made through normal modes modelling for models integrating the interior, atmosphere, both with realistic attenuation (intrinsic Q for solid part, viscosity and molecular relaxation for the atmosphere). We complete these modeling, made for spherical structure, by integration of wind, assuming the later to be homogeneous at the scale of the infrasound wavelength. This allows us to compute either the Seismic normal modes (e.g. Rayleigh surface waves), or the acoustic or the atmospheric gravity modes. Comparisons are done, for either a seismic source or an atmospheric source, on the amplitude of expected signals as a function of distance and frequency. Effects of local time are integrated in the modeling. We illustrate the Rayleigh waves modelling by Earth data (for large quakes and volcanoes eruptions). For Venus, very large coupling can occur at resonance frequencies between the solid part and atmospheric part of the planet through infrasounds/Rayleigh waves coupling. If the atmosphere reduced the Q (quality coefficient) of Rayleigh waves in general, the atmosphere at these resonance soffers better propagation than Venus crust and increases their Q. For Mars, Rayleigh waves excitations by atmospheric burst is shown and discussed for the typical yield of impacts. The new data of the Nasa INSIGHT mission which carry both seismic and

  9. Infrasound Waveform Inversion and Mass Flux Validation from Sakurajima Volcano, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fee, D.; Kim, K.; Yokoo, A.; Izbekov, P. E.; Lopez, T. M.; Prata, F.; Ahonen, P.; Kazahaya, R.; Nakamichi, H.; Iguchi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Recent advances in numerical wave propagation modeling and station coverage have permitted robust inversion of infrasound data from volcanic explosions. Complex topography and crater morphology have been shown to substantially affect the infrasound waveform, suggesting that homogeneous acoustic propagation assumptions are invalid. Infrasound waveform inversion provides an exciting tool to accurately characterize emission volume and mass flux from both volcanic and non-volcanic explosions. Mass flux, arguably the most sought-after parameter from a volcanic eruption, can be determined from the volume flux using infrasound waveform inversion if the volcanic flow is well-characterized. Thus far, infrasound-based volume and mass flux estimates have yet to be validated. In February 2015 we deployed six infrasound stations around the explosive Sakurajima Volcano, Japan for 8 days. Here we present our full waveform inversion method and volume and mass flux estimates of numerous high amplitude explosions using a high resolution DEM and 3-D Finite Difference Time Domain modeling. Application of this technique to volcanic eruptions may produce realistic estimates of mass flux and plume height necessary for volcanic hazard mitigation. Several ground-based instruments and methods are used to independently determine the volume, composition, and mass flux of individual volcanic explosions. Specifically, we use ground-based ash sampling, multispectral infrared imagery, UV spectrometry, and multigas data to estimate the plume composition and flux. Unique tiltmeter data from underground tunnels at Sakurajima also provides a way to estimate the volume and mass of each explosion. In this presentation we compare the volume and mass flux estimates derived from the different methods and discuss sources of error and future improvements.

  10. Infrasound from lightning measured in Ivory Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farges, T.; Matoza, R. S.

    2011-12-01

    It is well established that more than 2,000 thunderstorms occur continuously around the world and that about 45 lightning flashes are produced per second over the globe. More than two thirds (42) of the infrasound stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the CTBTO (Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organisation) are now certified and routinely measure signals due to natural activity (e.g., airflow over mountains, aurora, microbaroms, surf, volcanoes, severe weather including lightning flashes, ...). Some of the IMS stations are located where worldwide lightning detection networks (e.g. WWLLN) have a weak detection capability but lightning activity is high (e.g. Africa, South America). These infrasound stations are well localised to study lightning flash activity and its disparity, which is a good proxy for global warming. Progress in infrasound array data processing over the past ten years makes such lightning studies possible. For example, Farges and Blanc (2010) show clearly that it is possible to measure lightning infrasound from thunderstorms within a range of distances from the infrasound station. Infrasound from lightning can be detected when the thunderstorm is within about 75 km from the station. The motion of the squall zone is very well measured inside this zone. Up to 25% of lightning flashes can be detected with this technique, giving better results locally than worldwide lightning detection networks. An IMS infrasound station has been installed in Ivory Coast for 8 years. The optical space-based instrument OTD measured a rate of 10-20 flashes/km^2/year in that country and showed strong seasonal variations (Christian et al., 2003). Ivory Coast is therefore a good place to study infrasound data associated with lightning activity and its temporal variation. First statistical results will be presented in this paper based on 3 years of data (2005-2008).

  11. Prospects for infrasound bolide detections from balloon-borne platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Eliot; Bowman, Daniel; Arrowsmith, Stephen; Boslough, Marc; Klein, Viliam; Ballard, Courtney; Lees, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    We report on an experiment to assess whether balloon-borne instruments can improve sensitivities to bolides exploding in the Earth's atmosphere (essentially using the atmosphere as a witness plate to characterize the small end of the NEO (Near Earth Object) population). The CTBTO's infrasound network regularly detects infrasound disturbances caused by bolides, including the 15-FEB-2013 Chelybinsk impact. Balloon-borne infrasound sensors should have two important advantages over ground-based infrasound stations: there should be virtually no wind noise on a free-floating platform, and a sensor in the stratosphere should benefit from its location within the stratospheric duct. Balloon-borne sensors also have the disadvantage that the amplitude of infrasound waves will decrease as they ascend with altitude. To test the performance of balloon-borne sensors, we conducted an experiment on a NASA high altitude (35 km) balloon launched from Ft Sumner, NM on 28-SEP-2016. We were able to put two independent infrasound payloads on this flight. We arranged for three 3000-lb ANFO explosions to be detonated from Socorro, NM at 12:00, 14:00 and 16:29:59 MST. The first two explosions were detected from the NASA balloon, with the first explosion showing three separate waveforms arriving within a 25-s span. The peak-to-peak amplitude of the waveforms was about 0.06 Pa, and the cleanest microphone channel detected this waveform with an SNR greater than 20. A second balloon at 15 km altitude also detected the second explosion. We have signals from a dozen ground stations at various positions from Socorro to Ft Sumner. We will report on wave propagation models and how they compare with observations from the two balloons and the various ground-stations.

  12. [Effects of infrasound on visual electrophysiology in mice].

    PubMed

    Shi, Li; Zhang, Zuo-ming; Chen, Jing-zao; Liu, Jing

    2003-04-01

    To investigate the possible effects of infrasound on visual functions. One hundred and fifty mature male Kunming-mice were divided into 5 groups, in which one was control and the other four were exposed to infrasound of 8 Hz, 90 dB; 8 Hz, 130 dB; 16 Hz, 90 dB and 16 Hz, 130 dB 2 h/d respectively. The exposure time for them were 0, 1, 4, 7, 14 and 21 d respectively, each group was divided into 6 sub-groups. Electroretinogram (ERG), oscillatory potentials (OPs), and visual evoked potential (VEP) were recorded after exposure. The visual electrophysiological indices after 8 Hz, 90 dB and 16 Hz, 90 dB exposures were similar except for a little difference at some temporal points (P<0.05). Most of the indices in 8 Hz, 130 dB group changed after 7 d exposure, and the longer the exposure, the more obvious changes were observed (P<0.01). The indices in 16 Hz, 130 dB group changed obviously after 1 d and reversed with increase of exposure time (P<0.01). The effect of infrasound on visual functions are related to its frequency and intensity. Infrasound of different frequencies causes different levels of retinal resonance, which leads to different degrees of cellular lesion and produces different electrical potentials.

  13. USGS VDP Infrasound Sensor Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Slad, George William; Merchant, Bion J.

    2016-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has tested and evaluated two infrasound sensors, the model VDP100 and VDP250, built in-house at the USGS Cascades Volcano Observatory. The purpose of the infrasound sensor evaluation was to determine a measured sensitivity, self-noise, dynamic range and nominal transfer function. Notable features of the VDP sensors include novel and durable construction and compact size.

  14. Balloon-Borne Infrasound Detection of Energetic Bolide Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Eliot F.; Ballard, Courtney; Klein, Viliam; Bowman, Daniel; Boslough, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Infrasound is usually defined as sound waves below 20 Hz, the nominal limit of human hearing. Infrasound waves propagate over vast distances through the Earth's atmosphere: the CTBTO (Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization) has 48 installed infrasound-sensing stations around the world to detect nuclear detonations and other disturbances. In February 2013, several CTBTO infrasound stations detected infrasound signals from a large bolide that exploded over Chelyabinsk, Russia. Some stations recorded signals that had circumnavigated the Earth, over a day after the original event. The goal of this project is to improve upon the sensitivity of the CTBTO network by putting microphones on small, long-duration super-pressure balloons, with the overarching goal of studying the small end of the NEO population by using the Earth's atmosphere as a witness plate.A balloon-borne infrasound sensor is expected to have two advantages over ground-based stations: a lack of wind noise and a concentration of infrasound energy in the "stratospheric duct" between roughly 5 - 50 km altitude. To test these advantages, we have built a small balloon payload with five calibrated microphones. We plan to fly this payload on a NASA high-altitude balloon from Ft Sumner, NM in August 2016. We have arranged for three large explosions to take place in Socorro, NM while the balloon is aloft to assess the sensitivity of balloon-borne vs. ground-based infrasound sensors. We will report on the results from this test flight and the prospects for detecting/characterizing small bolides in the stratosphere.

  15. Can expectations produce symptoms from infrasound associated with wind turbines?

    PubMed

    Crichton, Fiona; Dodd, George; Schmid, Gian; Gamble, Greg; Petrie, Keith J

    2014-04-01

    The development of new wind farms in many parts of the world has been thwarted by public concern that subaudible sound (infrasound) generated by wind turbines causes adverse health effects. Although the scientific evidence does not support a direct pathophysiological link between infrasound and health complaints, there is a body of lay information suggesting a link between infrasound exposure and health effects. This study tested the potential for such information to create symptom expectations, thereby providing a possible pathway for symptom reporting. A sham-controlled double-blind provocation study, in which participants were exposed to 10 min of infrasound and 10 min of sham infrasound, was conducted. Fifty-four participants were randomized to high- or low-expectancy groups and presented audiovisual information, integrating material from the Internet, designed to invoke either high or low expectations that exposure to infrasound causes specified symptoms. High-expectancy participants reported significant increases, from preexposure assessment, in the number and intensity of symptoms experienced during exposure to both infrasound and sham infrasound. There were no symptomatic changes in the low-expectancy group. Healthy volunteers, when given information about the expected physiological effect of infrasound, reported symptoms that aligned with that information, during exposure to both infrasound and sham infrasound. Symptom expectations were created by viewing information readily available on the Internet, indicating the potential for symptom expectations to be created outside of the laboratory, in real world settings. Results suggest psychological expectations could explain the link between wind turbine exposure and health complaints.

  16. Infrasound sensitizes human glioblastoma cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Rachlin, Kenneth; Moore, Dan H; Yount, Garret

    2013-11-01

    The development of nontoxic agents that can selectively enhance the cytotoxicity of chemotherapy is an important aim in oncology. This study evaluates the ability of infrasound exposure to sensitize glioblastoma cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. The infrasound was delivered using a device designed to replicate the unique infrasound emissions measured during external Qigong treatments. Human glioblastoma cell lines harboring wild-type p53 (U87) or mutant p53 (U251, SF210, and SF188) were treated in culture with cisplatin, infrasound emissions, or the combination of the 2 agents. Induction of apoptosis was quantified after 24 hours by flow cytometry following annexin V/propidium iodide staining. Infrasound emissions alone, delivered at moderate levels (~10 mPa) with dynamic frequency content (7-13 Hz), did not induce apoptosis, yet combining infrasound with cisplatin augmented the induction of apoptosis by cisplatin in all the 4 cell lines (P < .05). Increased cellular uptake of the fluorophore calcein associated with infrasound exposure was quantified by fluorescence microscopy as well as flow cytometry, demonstrating increased cell membrane permeability. The 4 cell lines differed in the degree to which infrasound exposure increased calcein uptake, and these differences were predictive of the extent to which infrasound enhanced cisplatin-induced apoptosis. When exposed to specific frequencies, membrane permeabilization also appeared to be differentially responsive for each cell line, suggesting the potential for selective targeting of tissue types using isolated infrasonic frequencies. Additionally, the pressure amplitudes used in this study were several orders of magnitude less than those used in similar studies involving ultrasound and shock waves. The results of this study provide support for using infrasound to enhance the chemotherapeutic effects of cisplatin in a clinical setting.

  17. Hindcasting the paroxysmal eruption of Villarrica using resonant infrasound tones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. B.; Watson, L. M.; Dunham, E. M.; Anderson, J.; Franco, L.; Cardona, C., Sr.; Palma, J.

    2017-12-01

    Volcanoes radiate their most intense sounds in the infrasound band (below 20 Hz), which can be well recorded many kilometers from a vent. Open-vent volcanic systems, with active degassing, are particularly effective at producing infrasound, and they characteristically produce resonant tones controlled by the geometry of their crater. Changes in infrasound resonant tones, and their damping coefficient, thus provide a means to infer crater geometry, including crater volume, depth, and profile. This study analyzes the rapidly varying infrasound tone and quality factor of infrasound at Volcan Villarrica (Chile) leading up to its paroxysmal eruption on 3 March 2015. The changes in infrasound reflected a rise in the lava lake surface starting 100 hours prior to the violent and sudden eruption. We suggest that infrasound surveillance of open-vent resonance is a powerful tool with application for forecasting volcanic unrest at open vent volcanoes.

  18. Progresses with Net-VISA on Global Infrasound Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mialle, Pierrick; Arora, Nimar

    2017-04-01

    Global Infrasound Association algorithms are an important area of active development at the International Data Centre (IDC). These algorithms play an important part of the automatic processing system for verification technologies. A key focus at the IDC is to enhance association and signal characterization methods by incorporating the identification of signals of interest and the optimization of the network detection threshold. The overall objective is to reduce the number of associated infrasound arrivals that are rejected from the automatic bulletins when generating the Reviewed Event Bulletins (REB), and hence reduce IDC analyst workload. Despite good accuracy by the IDC categorization, a number of signal detections due to clutter sources such as microbaroms or surf are built into events. In this work we aim to optimize the association criteria based on knowledge acquired by IDC in the last 6 years, and focus on the specificity of seismo-acoustic events. The resulting work has been incorporated into NETVISA [1], a Bayesian approach to network processing. The model that we propose is a fusion of seismic, hydroacoustic and infrasound processing built on a unified probabilistic framework. References: [1] NETVISA: Network Processing Vertically Integrated Seismic Analysis. N. S. Arora, S. Russell, and E. Sudderth. BSSA 2013

  19. Progresses with Net-VISA on Global Infrasound Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mialle, P.; Arora, N. S.

    2016-12-01

    Global Infrasound Association algorithms are an important area of active development at the International Data Centre (IDC). These algorithms play an important part of the automatic processing system for verification technologies. A key focus at the IDC is to enhance association and signal characterization methods by incorporating the identification of signals of interest and the optimization of the network detection threshold. The overall objective is to reduce the number of associated infrasound arrivals that are rejected from the automatic bulletins when generating the Reviewed Event Bulletins (REB), and hence reduce IDC analyst workload. Despite good accuracy by the IDC categorization, a number of signal detections due to clutter sources such as microbaroms or surf are built into events. In this work we aim to optimize the association criteria based on knowledge acquired by IDC in the last 6 years, and focus on the specificity of seismo-acoustic events. The resulting work has been incorporated into NETVISA [1], a Bayesian approach to network processing. The model that we propose is a fusion of seismic, hydroacoustic and infrasound processing built on a unified probabilistic framework. References: [1] NETVISA: Network Processing Vertically Integrated Seismic Analysis. N. S. Arora, S. Russell, and E. Sudderth. BSSA 2013

  20. Infrasound from lightning measured in Ivory Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farges, T.; Millet, C.; Matoza, R. S.

    2012-04-01

    It is well established that more than 2,000 thunderstorms occur continuously around the world and that about 45 lightning flashes are produced per second over the globe. More than two thirds (42) of the infrasound stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the CTBTO (Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organisation) are now certified and routinely measure signals due to natural activity (e.g., airflow over mountains, aurora, microbaroms, surf, volcanoes, severe weather including lightning flashes, …). Some of the IMS stations are located where worldwide lightning detection networks (e.g. WWLLN) have a weak detection capability but lightning activity is high (e.g. Africa, South America). These infrasound stations are well localised to study lightning flash activity and its disparity, which is a good proxy for global warming. Progress in infrasound array data processing over the past ten years makes such lightning studies possible. For example, Farges and Blanc (2010) show clearly that it is possible to measure lightning infrasound from thunderstorms within a range of distances from the infrasound station. Infrasound from lightning can be detected when the thunderstorm is within about 75 km from the station. The motion of the squall zone is very well measured inside this zone. Up to 25% of lightning flashes can be detected with this technique, giving better results locally than worldwide lightning detection networks. An IMS infrasound station has been installed in Ivory Coast for 9 years. The lightning rate of this region is 10-20 flashes/km2/year from space-based instrument OTD (Christian et al., 2003). Ivory Coast is therefore a good place to study infrasound data associated with lightning activity and its temporal variation. First statistical results will be presented in this paper based on 4 years of data (2005-2009). For short lightning distances (less than 20 km), up to 60 % of lightning detected by WWLLN has been one-to-one correlated

  1. Frequency and Size of Strombolian Eruptions from the Phonolitic Lava Lake at Erebus Volcano, Antarctica: Insights from Infrasound and Seismic Observations on Bubble Formation and Ascent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotman, H. M. M.; Kyle, P. R.; Fee, D.; Curtis, A.

    2015-12-01

    Erebus, an active intraplate volcano on Ross Island, commonly produces bubble burst Strombolian explosions from a long-lived, convecting phonolitic lava lake. Persistent lava lakes are rare, and provide direct insights into their underlying magmatic system. Erebus phonolite is H2O-poor and contains ~30% anorthoclase megacrysts. At shallow depths lab measurements suggest the magma has viscosities of ~107 Pa s. This has implications for magma and bubble ascent rates through the conduit and into the lava lake. The bulk composition and matrix glass of Erebus ejecta has remained uniform for many thousands of years, but eruptive activity varies on decadal and shorter time scales. Over the last 15 years, increased activity took place in 2005-2007, and more recently in the 2013 austral summer. In the 2014 austral summer, new infrasound sensors were installed ~700 m from the summit crater hosting the lava lake. These sensors, supplemented by the Erebus network seismic stations, recorded >1000 eruptions between 1 January and 7 April 2015, with an average infrasound daily uptime of 9.6 hours. Over the same time period, the CTBT infrasound station IS55, ~25 km from Erebus, detected ~115 of the >1000 locally observed eruptions with amplitude decreases of >100x. An additional ~200 eruptions were recorded during local infrasound downtime. This represents an unusually high level of activity from the Erebus lava lake, and while instrument noise influences the minimum observable amplitude each day, the eruption infrasound amplitudes may vary by ~3 orders of magnitude over the scale of minutes to hours. We use this heightened period of variable activity and associated seismic and acoustic waveforms to examine mechanisms for bubble formation and ascent, such as rise speed dependence and collapsing foam; repose times for the larger eruptions; and possible eruption connections to lava lake cyclicity.

  2. Detection of infrasound and linear acceleration in fishes.

    PubMed

    Sand, O; Karlsen, H E

    2000-09-29

    Fishes have an acute sensitivity to extremely low-frequency linear acceleration, or infrasound, even down to below 1 Hz. The otolith organs are the sensory system responsible for this ability. The hydrodynamic noise generated by swimming fishes is mainly in the infrasound range, and may be important in courtship and prey predator interactions. Intense infrasound has a deterring effect on some species, and has a potential in acoustic barriers. We hypothesize that the pattern of ambient infrasound in the oceans may be used for orientation in migratory fishes, and that pelagic fishes may detect changes in the surface wave pattern associated with altered water depth and distant land formations. We suggest that the acute sensitivity to linear acceleration could be used for inertial guidance, and to detect the relative velocity of layered ocean currents. Sensitivity to infrasound may be a widespread ability among aquatic organisms, and has also been reported in cephalopods and crustaceans.

  3. Detection of infrasound and linear acceleration in fishes.

    PubMed Central

    Sand, O; Karlsen, H E

    2000-01-01

    Fishes have an acute sensitivity to extremely low-frequency linear acceleration, or infrasound, even down to below 1 Hz. The otolith organs are the sensory system responsible for this ability. The hydrodynamic noise generated by swimming fishes is mainly in the infrasound range, and may be important in courtship and prey predator interactions. Intense infrasound has a deterring effect on some species, and has a potential in acoustic barriers. We hypothesize that the pattern of ambient infrasound in the oceans may be used for orientation in migratory fishes, and that pelagic fishes may detect changes in the surface wave pattern associated with altered water depth and distant land formations. We suggest that the acute sensitivity to linear acceleration could be used for inertial guidance, and to detect the relative velocity of layered ocean currents. Sensitivity to infrasound may be a widespread ability among aquatic organisms, and has also been reported in cephalopods and crustaceans. PMID:11079418

  4. Infrasound Studies for Yield Estimation of HE Explosions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-05

    AFRL-RV-HA-TR-2011-1022 Infrasound Studies for Yield Estimation of HE Explosions Paul Golden Petru Negraru Southern Methodist...DATES COVERED (From - To) 5 Mar 2010 to 5 Mar 2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Infrasound Studies for Yield Estimation of HE Explosions 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...conducting investigations to determine the yield of HE explosions from infrasound signals. In particular SMU is investigating how the period and amplitude

  5. North Korea nuclear test analysis results using KMA seismic and infrasound networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Y. S.; Park, E.; Lee, D.; Min, K.; CHO, S.

    2017-12-01

    Democratic People's Republic of Korea(DPRK) carried out 6th nuclear test on 3 Sep. 2017 at 03:30 UTC. Seismic and infrasound network operated by Korea Meteorological Administration(KMA) successfully detected signals took place in the DPRK's test site, Punggye-ri. First, we checked that Pg/Lg spectral amplitude ratio greater than 1 in the frequency range from 1.0 to 10.0 Hz is useful to discriminate between DPRK test signals and natural earthquakes. KMA's infrasound stations of Cheorwon(CW) and Yanggu(YG) successfully monitored the azimuth direction of the arrival of the infrasound signals generated from DPRK underground nuclear explosions, including the recent test on September 03, 2017. The azimuthal direction of 210(CW) and 130 (YG) point out Punggye-ri test site. Complete waveforms at stations MDJ, CHC2, YNCB in long period(0.05 to 0.1 HZ) are jointly inverted with local P-wave polarities to generate moment tensor inversion result of the explosive moment 1.20e+24 dyne cm(Mw 5.31) and 65% of ISO. The moment magnitude of 5th, 4th and 3rd are 4.61, 4.69 and 4.46 respectively. Source type moment tensor inversion result of DPRK nuclear tests show that the event is significantly away from the deviatoric line of the Hudson et at. (1989) source-type diagram and identifies as having a significant explosive component. Analysis results using seismic and infrasound network verify that the DPRK's explosion tests classified as nuclear test.

  6. Infrasound Studies for Yield Estimation of HE Explosions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-05

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TR-2012-0084 TR-2012-0084 INFRASOUND STUDIES FOR YIELD ESTIMATION OF HE EXPLOSIONS Paul Golden, et al...05 Mar 2010 to 05 Mar 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA9453-10-C-0212 Infrasound Studies for Yield Estimation of HE...report we discuss the capability of estimating the yield of an explosion from infrasound signals generated by low yield chemical explosions. We used

  7. Collection and Analysis of Ground Truth Infrasound Data in Kazakhstan and Russia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    Infrasound signals generated by large mining explosions at Ekibastuz coal mines in Northern Kazakstan have been detected by a 4-element infrasound array ...380 km) and Kokchetav (distance=74 km). Detection of infrasound signals at these distance ranges at mid-latitude (50 degrees N), suggests the... infrasound array , contour plot of beam power and array beam trace .............................. 9 5 Infrasound signals from the

  8. Inferring atmospheric weather conditions in volcanic environments using infrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, H. D.; Johnson, J. B.; Ruiz, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    We use infrasound produced by Tungurahua Volcano (Ecuador) to infer local time-varying atmospheric conditions, which can be used to improve gas flux measurements and tephra dispersal modeling. Physical properties of the atmosphere, including wind and temperature (which controls adiabatic sound speed), can be quantified by studying the travel times of acoustic waves produced during volcanic activity. The travel times between Tungurahua's vent and five infrasound stations located in a network configuration over an area of 90 km2 were used in this study. We are able to quantify the arrival time differences of acoustic waves for ten unique station pairs and use this information to model the average speed of sound between source and receiver. To identify what parameters best fit the observed arrival times, we perform a grid search for a homogeneous two-dimensional wind velocity as well as for air temperature. Due to travel time dependence on the specific path taken by waves, we account for topography using a 5 meter resolution digital elevation model of Tungurahua. To investigate the time-varying atmospheric structure we use data recorded at Tungurahua volcano, during a strombolian eruptive phase in August 2012, however the methodology can be applied to continuous network infrasound data collected since July 2006 as part of the Japanese-Ecuadorian Cooperation Project: "Enhancement of the Volcano Monitoring Capacity in Ecuador". We propose that the computation of wind velocities will help to improve gas flux measurements that are based on remote sensing techniques like Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS), resulting in better estimates of sulfur fluxes that can then be related to magma fluxing into the volcanic system. Further, wind field quantification close to the volcano can improve numerical models that are used to forecast tephra deposits, thereby helping to mitigate their effect on inhabitants, infrastructure, livestock, and crops.

  9. Frequency-wavenumber processing for infrasound distributed arrays.

    PubMed

    Costley, R Daniel; Frazier, W Garth; Dillion, Kevin; Picucci, Jennifer R; Williams, Jay E; McKenna, Mihan H

    2013-10-01

    The work described herein discusses the application of a frequency-wavenumber signal processing technique to signals from rectangular infrasound arrays for detection and estimation of the direction of travel of infrasound. Arrays of 100 sensors were arranged in square configurations with sensor spacing of 2 m. Wind noise data were collected at one site. Synthetic infrasound signals were superposed on top of the wind noise to determine the accuracy and sensitivity of the technique with respect to signal-to-noise ratio. The technique was then applied to an impulsive event recorded at a different site. Preliminary results demonstrated the feasibility of this approach.

  10. Possible influence of infrasound on glioma cell response to chemotherapy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Yount, Garret; Taft, Ryan; West, Jeremy; Moore, Dan

    2004-04-01

    To assess the response of cultured human tumor cells to infrasound in combination with conventional anticancer agents using an infrasound-emitting apparatus marketed as a therapeutic device. Two pilot experiments measured proliferation of cultured brain tumor cells exposed to three treatment conditions: infrasound emission alone, infrasound in combination with the chemotherapy 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and infrasound in combination with ionizing radiation. Results from each experimental condition were compared to those from appropriate control conditions. A standard colony-forming efficiency assay was used to assess tumor cell proliferation. Tumor cell proliferation was not significantly altered by treatment with infrasound alone, nor did infrasound appear to influence cellular response to x-rays. There was a significant interaction between 5-FU and infrasound (P < 0.0001), however, evident in decreased colony formation. Further research is warranted to assess potential synergism between infrasound and 5-FU against tumor cell proliferation, and to investigate the possible therapeutic use of infrasound.

  11. A Comparison between Predicted and Observed Atmospheric States and their Effects on Infrasonic Source Time Function Inversion at Source Physics Experiment 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aur, K. A.; Poppeliers, C.; Preston, L. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Source Physics Experiment (SPE) consists of a series of underground chemical explosions at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) designed to gain an improved understanding of the generation and propagation of physical signals in the near and far field. Characterizing the acoustic and infrasound source mechanism from underground explosions is of great importance to underground explosion monitoring. To this end we perform full waveform source inversion of infrasound data collected from the SPE-6 experiment at distances from 300 m to 6 km and frequencies up to 20 Hz. Our method requires estimating the state of the atmosphere at the time of each experiment, computing Green's functions through these atmospheric models, and subsequently inverting the observed data in the frequency domain to obtain a source time function. To estimate the state of the atmosphere at the time of the experiment, we utilize the Weather Research and Forecasting - Data Assimilation (WRF-DA) modeling system to derive a unified atmospheric state model by combining Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Continental-scale International Project (GCIP) data and locally obtained sonde and surface weather observations collected at the time of the experiment. We synthesize Green's functions through these atmospheric models using Sandia's moving media acoustic propagation simulation suite (TDAAPS). These models include 3-D variations in topography, temperature, pressure, and wind. We compare inversion results using the atmospheric models derived from the unified weather models versus previous modeling results and discuss how these differences affect computed source waveforms with respect to observed waveforms at various distances. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-mission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear

  12. Assessment of eruption intensity using infrasound waveform inversion at Mt. Etna, Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz Moreno, A.; Iezzi, A. M.; Lamb, O. D.; Zuccarello, L.; Fee, D.; De Angelis, S.

    2017-12-01

    Mt. Etna, Italy, a 3,330 m stratovolcano, is one of the most active volcanoes in the world. It is topped by five craters: Voragine, Bocca Nuova, the North-East, South-East, and New South-East Crater. Its activity during the past decade can be separated into two main types: i) nearly-continuous degassing interspersed by mild-to-vigorous Strombolian activity within the summit craters, and ii) effusive flank eruptions. In June 2017, we deployed a large temporary network of 14 infrasound sensors (Chaparral UHP60) and 12 broadband seismometers (Guralp EX-120s). We also recorded Thermal Infrared (TIR) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle images of activity at the summit vents. Our primary objective is to quantify the intensity and mechanisms of infrasound sources at Mt. Etna, and use these results to improve models of volcanic plumes. From June 2017 until the time of writing, the infrasound network detected signals associated with nearly-continuous degassing and discrete small-to-moderate explosions originating at two distinct locations within the Voragine Crater and the New South-East Crater, respectively. During periods of increased explosive activity, we recorded 20-30 discrete events/day with infrasonic amplitudes of up to 7.5 Pa at 1 km distance from the active vent. The explosions exhibited sinusoidal acoustic waveforms, often with similar characteristics, durations of 1-3 s, and a 2 Hz peak frequency. Due to the relatively dense station coverage and the azimuthal distribution of the network, our deployment offers an opportunity to characterize, with unprecedented resolution, infrasound sources at Mt. Etna. Here we present preliminary results of 3D acoustic wave-field simulations, using a Finite Difference Time Domain modelling scheme, and a preliminary assessment of volumetric eruption rates through acoustic waveform inversion. We investigate the effects of local topography and atmospheric winds on the propagation of the acoustic wavefield, and discuss the implications for

  13. Automated detection and cataloging of global explosive volcanism using the International Monitoring System infrasound network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matoza, Robin S.; Green, David N.; Le Pichon, Alexis; Shearer, Peter M.; Fee, David; Mialle, Pierrick; Ceranna, Lars

    2017-04-01

    We experiment with a new method to search systematically through multiyear data from the International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound network to identify explosive volcanic eruption signals originating anywhere on Earth. Detecting, quantifying, and cataloging the global occurrence of explosive volcanism helps toward several goals in Earth sciences and has direct applications in volcanic hazard mitigation. We combine infrasound signal association across multiple stations with source location using a brute-force, grid-search, cross-bearings approach. The algorithm corrects for a background prior rate of coherent unwanted infrasound signals (clutter) in a global grid, without needing to screen array processing detection lists from individual stations prior to association. We develop the algorithm using case studies of explosive eruptions: 2008 Kasatochi, Alaska; 2009 Sarychev Peak, Kurile Islands; and 2010 Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland. We apply the method to global IMS infrasound data from 2005-2010 to construct a preliminary acoustic catalog that emphasizes sustained explosive volcanic activity (long-duration signals or sequences of impulsive transients lasting hours to days). This work represents a step toward the goal of integrating IMS infrasound data products into global volcanic eruption early warning and notification systems. Additionally, a better understanding of volcanic signal detection and location with the IMS helps improve operational event detection, discrimination, and association capabilities.

  14. Detecting hidden volcanic explosions from Mt. Cleveland Volcano, Alaska with infrasound and ground-couples airwaves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    De Angelis, Slivio; Fee, David; Haney, Matthew; Schneider, David

    2012-01-01

    In Alaska, where many active volcanoes exist without ground-based instrumentation, the use of techniques suitable for distant monitoring is pivotal. In this study we report regional-scale seismic and infrasound observations of volcanic activity at Mt. Cleveland between December 2011 and August 2012. During this period, twenty explosions were detected by infrasound sensors as far away as 1827 km from the active vent, and ground-coupled acoustic waves were recorded at seismic stations across the Aleutian Arc. Several events resulting from the explosive disruption of small lava domes within the summit crater were confirmed by analysis of satellite remote sensing data. However, many explosions eluded initial, automated, analyses of satellite data due to poor weather conditions. Infrasound and seismic monitoring provided effective means for detecting these hidden events. We present results from the implementation of automatic infrasound and seismo-acoustic eruption detection algorithms, and review the challenges of real-time volcano monitoring operations in remote regions. We also model acoustic propagation in the Northern Pacific, showing how tropospheric ducting effects allow infrasound to travel long distances across the Aleutian Arc. The successful results of our investigation provide motivation for expanded efforts in infrasound monitoring across the Aleutians and contributes to our knowledge of the number and style of vulcanian eruptions at Mt. Cleveland.

  15. Is there evidence for an acoustic signal at IMS infrasound stations from the North Korean event of 12 May 2010?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, K.; Pilger, C.

    2016-12-01

    Over the last two years more and more evidence has been presented that a small seismic event had occurred in North Korea on 12 May 2010. Most recent work has concluded that the event shows earthquake-like features when applying event identification methods based on regional phase amplitude ratios. These findings are in contrast to previous hypotheses and identification studies which claimed that low-yield nuclear testing had been carried out. Some of these studies were based solely on radionuclide and noble gas detections found at International Monitoring System (IMS) stations as well as at national facilities. Turning to another technology, it has been shown in several studies that underground nuclear tests carried out at the Punggye-ri test site in North Korea have produced infrasound signatures at the closest IMS stations I45RU and I30JP and at national infrasound stations in South Korea. In particular this holds for the tests carried out in 2009, 2013 and 2016. For the 2013 test infrasound arrivals have been included in the Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) issued by the International Data Center of CTBTO. Based on this experience an effort was undertaken to analyze infrasound data from these IMS stations and to search for signals that may be associated to the 12 May 2010 event. While it is not expected to obtain such a signal for an earthquake source at depth, as would not be expected as well for a buried explosion source of rather small magnitude, the analysis of I45RU and I30JP data suggests a very weak arrival as obtained from frequency-wavenumber analysis showing parameters similar to those obtained for the announced tests. If the features found are indeed not artifacts then one could speculate that (1) the event of concern may not be an earthquake, even though it exhibits seismic signal characteristics causing it to be classified as an earthquake, or (2) the detections may be related to incidental blasting activity in nearby quarries. Propagation modeling of

  16. Responses of the ear to low frequency sounds, infrasound and wind turbines

    PubMed Central

    Salt, Alec N.; Hullar, Timothy E.

    2010-01-01

    Infrasonic sounds are generated internally in the body (by respiration, heartbeat, coughing, etc) and by external sources, such as air conditioning systems, inside vehicles, some industrial processes and, now becoming increasingly prevalent, wind turbines. It is widely assumed that infrasound presented at an amplitude below what is audible has no influence on the ear. In this review, we consider possible ways that low frequency sounds, at levels that may or may not be heard, could influence the function of the ear. The inner ear has elaborate mechanisms to attenuate low frequency sound components before they are transmitted to the brain. The auditory portion of the ear, the cochlea, has two types of sensory cells, inner hair cells (IHC) and outer hair cells (OHC), of which the IHC are coupled to the afferent fibers that transmit “hearing” to the brain. The sensory stereocilia (“hairs”) on the IHC are “fluid coupled” to mechanical stimuli, so their responses depend on stimulus velocity and their sensitivity decreases as sound frequency is lowered. In contrast, the OHC are directly coupled to mechanical stimuli, so their input remains greater than for IHC at low frequencies. At very low frequencies the OHC are stimulated by sounds at levels below those that are heard. Although the hair cells in other sensory structures such as the saccule may be tuned to infrasonic frequencies, auditory stimulus coupling to these structures is inefficient so that they are unlikely to be influenced by airborne infrasound. Structures that are involved in endolymph volume regulation are also known to be influenced by infrasound, but their sensitivity is also thought to be low. There are, however, abnormal states in which the ear becomes hypersensitive to infrasound. In most cases, the inner ear’s responses to infrasound can be considered normal, but they could be associated with unfamiliar sensations or subtle changes in physiology. This raises the possibility that

  17. Responses of the ear to low frequency sounds, infrasound and wind turbines.

    PubMed

    Salt, Alec N; Hullar, Timothy E

    2010-09-01

    Infrasonic sounds are generated internally in the body (by respiration, heartbeat, coughing, etc) and by external sources, such as air conditioning systems, inside vehicles, some industrial processes and, now becoming increasingly prevalent, wind turbines. It is widely assumed that infrasound presented at an amplitude below what is audible has no influence on the ear. In this review, we consider possible ways that low frequency sounds, at levels that may or may not be heard, could influence the function of the ear. The inner ear has elaborate mechanisms to attenuate low frequency sound components before they are transmitted to the brain. The auditory portion of the ear, the cochlea, has two types of sensory cells, inner hair cells (IHC) and outer hair cells (OHC), of which the IHC are coupled to the afferent fibers that transmit "hearing" to the brain. The sensory stereocilia ("hairs") on the IHC are "fluid coupled" to mechanical stimuli, so their responses depend on stimulus velocity and their sensitivity decreases as sound frequency is lowered. In contrast, the OHC are directly coupled to mechanical stimuli, so their input remains greater than for IHC at low frequencies. At very low frequencies the OHC are stimulated by sounds at levels below those that are heard. Although the hair cells in other sensory structures such as the saccule may be tuned to infrasonic frequencies, auditory stimulus coupling to these structures is inefficient so that they are unlikely to be influenced by airborne infrasound. Structures that are involved in endolymph volume regulation are also known to be influenced by infrasound, but their sensitivity is also thought to be low. There are, however, abnormal states in which the ear becomes hypersensitive to infrasound. In most cases, the inner ear's responses to infrasound can be considered normal, but they could be associated with unfamiliar sensations or subtle changes in physiology. This raises the possibility that exposure to the

  18. Using the IMS infrasound network for the identification of mountain-associated waves and gravity waves hotspots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hupe, Patrick; Ceranna, Lars; Pilger, Christoph; Le Pichon, Alexis

    2017-04-01

    The infrasound network of the International Monitoring System (IMS) has been established for monitoring the atmosphere to detect violations of the Comprehensive nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The IMS comprises 49 certified infrasound stations which are globally distributed. Each station provides data for up to 16 years. Due to the uniform distribution of the stations, the IMS infrasound network can be used to derive global information on atmospheric dynamics' features. This study focuses on mountain-associated waves (MAWs), i.e. acoustic waves in the frequency range between approximately 0.01 Hz and 0.05 Hz. MAWs can be detected in infrasound data by applying the Progressive Multi-Channel Correlation (PMCC) algorithm. As a result of triangulation, global hotspots of MAWs can be identified. Previous studies on gravity waves indicate that global hotspots of gravity waves are similar to those found for MAWs by using the PMCC algorithm. The objective of our study is an enhanced understanding of the excitation sources and of possible interactions between MAWs and gravity waves. Therefore, spatial and temporal correlation analyses will be performed. As a preceding step, we will present (seasonal) hotspots of MAWs as well as hotspots of gravity waves derived by the IMS infrasound network.

  19. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) attenuates infrasound-induced neuronal impairment by inhibiting microglia-mediated inflammation.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jing; Jing, Da; Shi, Ming; Liu, Yang; Lin, Tian; Xie, Zhen; Zhu, Yi; Zhao, Haibo; Shi, Xiaodan; Du, Fang; Zhao, Gang

    2014-07-01

    Infrasound, a kind of common environmental noise and a major contributor of vibroacoustic disease, can induce the central nervous system (CNS) damage. However, no relevant anti-infrasound drugs have been reported yet. Our recent studies have shown that infrasound resulted in excessive microglial activation rapidly and sequential inflammation, revealing a potential role of microglia in infrasound-induced CNS damage. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major bioactive component in green tea, has the capacity of protecting against various neurodegenerative diseases via an anti-inflammatory mechanism. However, it is still unknown to date whether EGCG acts on infrasound-induced microglial activation and neuronal damage. We showed that, after 1-, 2- or 5-day exposure of rats to 16 Hz, 130 dB infrasound (2 h/day), EGCG significantly inhibited infrasound-induced microglial activation in rat hippocampal region, evidenced by reduced expressions of Iba-1 (a marker for microglia) and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18 and TNF-α). Moreover, infrasound-induced neuronal apoptosis in rat hippocampi was significantly suppressed by EGCG. EGCG also inhibited infrasound-induced activation of primary microglia in vitro and decreased the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the supernatants of microglial culture, which were toxic to cultured neurons. Furthermore, EGCG attenuated infrasound-induced increases in nuclear NF-κB p65 and phosphorylated IκBα, and ameliorated infrasound-induced decrease in IκB in microglia. Therefore, our study provides the first evidence that EGCG acts against infrasound-induced neuronal impairment by inhibiting microglia-mediated inflammation through a potential NF-κB pathway-related mechanism, suggesting that EGCG can be used as a promising drug for the treatment of infrasound-induced CNS damage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 2013 certified IMS infrasound stations: IS37 (Bardufoss, Norway) and IS58 (Midway, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haralabus, Georgios; Marty, Julien; Kramer, Alfred; Mialle, Pierrick; Robertson, James

    2014-05-01

    The Infrasound component of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear?Test?Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) includes 60 infrasound stations out of which 47 are currently certified. The latest two additions to this Infrasound network, namely IS58 on Sand Island, Midway Atoll, United States of America (USA), and IS37 in Bardufoss, Norway, are presented here. Both stations were certified in 2013. IS58 is a 4 element infrasound array arranged in a triangular geometry with a central component. The triangular bases vary from 1.1 to 1.8 km. The micropressure sensors deployed at each element were Chaparral 50A microbarometers. Signals from IS58 were processed by the International Data Centre (IDC) and detection associated not only with microbaroms but also with the activity of the Kliuchevskoi volcano in the Russian Peninsula Kamchatka were built. These initial results indicate good detection capability of the IS58 station for low wind conditions. In Norway the topography allowed for a large element array, so IS37 was built with 10-elements that have average spacing of 1 km. This design allows the formation of several triangles with baseline of 1 to 2 km and also a triangular sub array with spacing of approximately 360 m. The sensors utilized in IS37 elements were MB2005 microbarometers. Initial data analysis by IDC identified distant microbarom sources with strong azimuth and frequency content variability as well as strong detections from local sources, namely the Finnfjord ferro-alloy plant in Norway and the Kiruna iron mine in Sweden.

  1. Regional measurements of infrasound signals from ARIANE-5 engine tests in Southern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, K.

    2012-04-01

    A well-controlled source of repetitive infrasound emissions was previously identified and has been related to development and acceptance tests of the European Space Agencies ARIANE-5 main engine. The propulsion testing facility of the German Aerospace Agency (DLR) near Heilbronn, Southern Germany, is a distance of about 320 km away from the International Monitoring System (IMS) station IS26 in east-southeasterly direction. In the past, signals associated with these propulsion tests could normally be detected at IS26 during winter months, but not during summer months, reflecting the changes in atmospheric conditions between winter and summer. Over the last year, DLR has prepared to conduct a series of seven propulsion tests which started in November 2011; with interim times between tests of 3-4 weeks it will last until late March or early April 2012. With mobile infrasound recording equipment available at BGR we planned to record the infrasonic wavefield along the path to IS26 at regular distances starting as close as 20 km from the source. Our aim is to study sound propagation from direct paths mainly involving the tropospheric layer through the "zone of silence" to distances close to IS26, where paths through stratospheric layers are followed. Preliminary results show that during the relevant winter season direct path propagation can be observed to some 40 km from the propulsion test source, even at seismographic stations where the acoustic wave couples into the ground. The tests are also observed at IS26, and waveform duration and f-k-analysis confirm the signals to be associated with the GT-type propulsion tests.

  2. Atmospheric propagation of infrasound across mountain ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiens, Florentin; Millet, Christophe; Lott, Francois

    2017-11-01

    Linear theory of acoustic propagation is used to analyze trapping of infrasound within the lower tropospheric waveguide during propagation above a mountain range. Atmospheric flow produced by the mountains is predicted by a nonlinear mounatin wave model. For the infrasound component, we solve the wave equation under the effective sound speed approximation using both a spectral collocation method and a WKB approach. It is shown that in realistic configurations, the mountain waves can deeply perturb the low level waveguide, which leads to significant acoustic dispersion. To interpret these results each acoustic mode is tracked separately as the horizontal distance increases. It is shown that during statically stable situations, roughly representative of winter or night situations, the mountain waves induce a Foehn effect downstream which shrinks significantly the waveguide. This yields a new form of infrasound absorption, that can largely outweigh the direct effect the moutain induces on the low-level waveguide. For the opposite case, when the low level flow is less statically stable (summer or day situations), mountain wave dynamics do not produce dramatic responses downstream. Instead, it favors the passage of infrasound, which somehow mitigates the direct effect of the obstacle.

  3. Experimental characterization of seasonal variations in infrasonic traveltimes on the Korean Peninsula with implications for infrasound event location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Il-Young; Stump, Brian W.; Lee, Hee-Il

    2011-04-01

    The dependence of infrasound propagation on the season and path environment was quantified by the analysis of more than 1000 repetitive infrasonic ground-truth events at an active, open-pit mine over two years. Blast-associated infrasonic signals were analysed from two infrasound arrays (CHNAR and ULDAR) located at similar distances of 181 and 169 km, respectively, from the source but in different azimuthal directions and with different path environments. The CHNAR array is located to the NW of the source area with primarily a continental path, whereas the ULDAR is located East of the source with a path dominated by open ocean. As a result, CHNAR observations were dominated by stratospheric phases with characteristic celerities of 260-289 m s-1 and large seasonal variations in the traveltime, whereas data from ULDAR consisted primarily of tropospheric phases with larger celerities from 322 to 361 m s-1 and larger daily than seasonal variation in the traveltime. The interpretation of these observations is verified by ray tracing using atmospheric models incorporating daily weather balloon data that characterizes the shallow atmosphere for the two years of the study. Finally, experimental celerity models that included seasonal path effects were constructed from the long-term data set. These experimental celerity models were used to constrain traveltime variations in infrasonic location algorithms providing improved location estimates as illustrated with the empirical data set.

  4. Eddy-Current Non-Inertial Displacement Sensing for Underwater Infrasound Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    Eddy-current non-inertial displacement sensing for underwater infrasound measurements Dimitri M. Donskoy Stevens Institute of Technology, 711 Hudson...geophysicists have an ongoing interest in exploring underwater acous- tic processes at infrasound frequencies, for example, for monitoring natural events...underwater infrasound measurements 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f

  5. Experimental Infrasound Studies in Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrin, E. T.; Negraru, P. T.; Golden, P.; Williams, A.

    2009-12-01

    An experimental propagation study was carried out in Nevada in June 2009 on Julian days 173-177. During this field experiment we deployed 16 single channel digital infrasound recorders to monitor the munitions disposal activities near Hawthorne, NV. The sensors were deployed in a single line and placed approximately 12 km apart at distances ranging from 2 to 177 km. A four element semi-permanent infrasound array named FNIAR was installed approximately 154 km north of the detonation site in line with the individual temporary recorders. Tropospheric arrivals were observed during all days of the experiment, but during day 176 the observed arrivals had very large amplitudes. A large signal was observed at 58 km from the detonation site with amplitude as large as 4 Pascals, while at 94 km no signal was observed. At FNIAR the amplitude of the tropospheric arrival was 1 Pascal. During this day meteorological data acquired in the propagation path showed a strong jet stream to the north. On day 177 we were not able to identify tropospheric arrivals beyond 34 km, but at stations beyond 152 km we observed stratospheric arrivals. Continuous monitoring of these signals at FNIAR shows that stratospheric arrivals are the most numerous. In a two month period, from 06/15/2009 to 08/15/2009 there were 35 operational days at the Hawthorne disposal facility resulting in 212 explosions with known origin times. Based on the celerity values there were 115 explosions that have only stratospheric arrivals (celerities of 300-275 m/s), 72 explosions with both tropospheric (celerities above 330 m/s) and stratospheric arrivals, 20 explosions that were not detected and five explosions that have only tropospheric arrivals.

  6. Volcanic Infrasound - A technical topic communicated in an entertaining way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerlow, Isaac

    2017-04-01

    Volcanic Infrasound is a 9-minute film about using infrasound waves to detect and measure volcanic eruptions as they unfold. The film was made by an interdisciplinary team of filmmakers and scientists for a general audience. The movie explains the basic facts of using infrasound to detect volcanic activity, and it also shows volcano researchers as they install infrasound sensors in a natural reserve in the middle of the city. This is the first in a series of films that seek to address natural hazards of relevance to Singapore, a country shielded from violent hazards. This presentation reviews the science communication techniques and assumptions used to develop and produce this entertaining scientific documentary short. Trailer: https://vimeo.com/192206460

  7. Health effects from low-frequency noise and infrasound in the general population: Is it time to listen? A systematic review of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Baliatsas, Christos; van Kamp, Irene; van Poll, Ric; Yzermans, Joris

    2016-07-01

    A systematic review of observational studies was conducted to assess the association between everyday life low-frequency noise (LFN) components, including infrasound and health effects in the general population. Literature databases Pubmed, Embase and PsycInfo and additional bibliographic sources such as reference sections of key publications and journal databases were searched for peer-reviewed studies published from 2000 to 2015. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Most of them examined subjective annoyance as primary outcome. The adequacy of provided information in the included papers and methodological quality of studies was also addressed. Moreover, studies were screened for meta-analysis eligibility. Some associations were observed between exposure to LFN and annoyance, sleep-related problems, concentration difficulties and headache in the adult population living in the vicinity of a range of LFN sources. However, evidence, especially in relation to chronic medical conditions, was very limited. The estimated pooled prevalence of high subjective annoyance attributed to LFN was about 10%. Epidemiological research on LFN and health effects is scarce and suffers from methodological shortcomings. Low frequency noise in the everyday environment constitutes an issue that requires more research attention, particularly for people living in the vicinity of relevant sources. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Damage to Hippocampus of Rats after Being Exposed to Infrasound.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng Yao; Chen, Chen; Xie, Xue Jun; Xu, Sheng Long; Guo, Guo Zhen; Wang, Jin

    2016-06-01

    The objective was to observe damage of hippocampus in rats after exposure to infrasound, and to assess HSP70 expression in hippocampus. SD rats in the experimental group were exposed to 140 dB (8 Hz) infrasound for 2 h per day for 3 days. The morphology of the hippocampus was examined by transmission electronic microscopic (TEM). Cell apoptosis was observed by TUNEL staining at 0 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 2 w after exposure. HSP70 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blotting (WB). TEM showed that hippocampus was significantly damaged by exposure, and exhibited recovery 1 week after exposure. The TUNEL data showed that neuronal apoptosis after exposure was significantly higher than in the control rats at 24 h and 48 h, and the apoptotic cells decreased one week after exposure. IHC and WB showed HSP70 expression was significantly higher in the exposed rats, peaked at 24 h. Exposure to 140 dB (8 Hz) infrasound for 2 h per day for 3 days appeared to induce damage to the hippocampus of rats, based on changes in ultrastructure and increased cell apoptosis. However, recovery from the damage occurred overtime. HSP70 expression also increased after the exposure and decreased by 48. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  9. [The effects of infrasound on the blood coagulation function of guinea pigs].

    PubMed

    Ma, Wen-min; Qi, Peng; Zhang, Jian-zhong; Yi, Yong; Chen, Xing-ming; Zhang, Jun; Han, Rui-gang

    2011-03-01

    To study the change of the blood coagulation function of guinea pigs exposed to 16 Hz/120 dB, 16 Hz/125 dB infrasound and to explore the mechanism of circulation system damage. Seventy-two guinea pigs were divided into 3 groups: the control group, the group exposed to 16 Hz/120 dB infrasound for 1.5 h a day and the group exposed to 16 Hz/125 dB infrasound for 1.5 h a day. Each exposure group was divided into 4 sub-groups (8 guinea pigs a sub-group) which were exposed to infrasound for 1, 7, 14 and 21 d, respectively. The coagulation function and serum nitric oxide (NO) were measured for control group and all sub-groups after exposure to infrasound. The prothrombin time (PT), international normalized ratio (INR) and serum NO of group exposed to 16 Hz/125 dB infrasound were (31.16 ± 3.05) s, 2.53 ± 1.21 and (88.304 ± 52.601) µmol/L, respectively, which were significantly higher than those [(21.36 ± 0.10) s, 1.65 ± 0.07 and (30.943 ± 26.864) µmol/L] of control group (P < 0.05). PT and INR of sub-groups exposed to 16 Hz/125 dB infrasound for 14 and 21 d were significantly higher than those of control group. NO of sub-groups exposed to 16 Hz/125 dB infrasound for 1 week and 2 weeks were significantly higher than that of control group (P < 0.05), but NO of sub-group exposed to 16 Hz/125 dB infrasound for 3 weeks decreased slightly. The blood coagulation function of guinea pigs exposed to 16 Hz/125 dB infrasound decreased, PT and INR may be used as the indexes to assess of blood coagulation function change induced by the infrasound exposure.

  10. On infrasound generated by wind farms and its propagation in low-altitude tropospheric waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcillo, Omar; Arrowsmith, Stephen; Blom, Philip; Jones, Kyle

    2015-10-01

    Infrasound from a 60-turbine wind farm was found to propagate to distances up to 90 km under nighttime atmospheric conditions. Four infrasound sensor arrays were deployed in central New Mexico in February 2014; three of these arrays captured infrasound from a large wind farm. The arrays were in a linear configuration oriented southeast with 13, 54, 90, and 126 km radial distances and azimuths of 166°, 119°, 113°, and 111° from the 60 1.6 MW turbine Red Mesa Wind Farm, Laguna Pueblo, New Mexico, USA. Peaks at a fundamental frequency slightly below 0.9 Hz and its harmonics characterize the spectrum of the detected infrasound. The generation of this signal is linked to the interaction of the blades, flow gradients, and the supporting tower. The production of wind-farm sound, its propagation, and detection at long distances can be related to the characteristics of the atmospheric boundary layer. First, under stable conditions, mostly occurring at night, winds are highly stratified, which enhances the production of thickness sound and the modulation of other higher-frequency wind turbine sounds. Second, nocturnal atmospheric conditions can create low-altitude waveguides (with altitudes on the order of hundreds of meters) allowing long-distance propagation. Third, night and early morning hours are characterized by reduced background atmospheric noise that enhances signal detectability. This work describes the characteristics of the infrasound from a quasi-continuous source with the potential for long-range propagation that could be used to monitor the lower part of the atmospheric boundary layer.

  11. Southwest U.S. Seismo-Acoustic Network: An Autonomous Data Aggregation, Detection, Localization and Ground-Truth Bulletin for the Infrasound Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. R.; Arrowsmith, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Southwest U.S. Seismo-Acoustic Network (SUSSAN) is a collaborative project designed to produce infrasound event detection bulletins for the infrasound community for research purposes. We are aggregating a large, unique, near real-time data set with available ground truth information from seismo-acoustic arrays across New Mexico, Utah, Nevada, California, Texas and Hawaii. The data are processed in near real-time (~ every 20 minutes) with detections being made on individual arrays and locations determined for networks of arrays. The detection and location data are then combined with any available ground truth information and compiled into a bulletin that will be released to the general public directly and eventually through the IRIS infrasound event bulletin. We use the open source Earthworm seismic data aggregation software to acquire waveform data either directly from the station operator or via the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology Data Management Center (IRIS DMC), if available. The data are processed using InfraMonitor, a powerful infrasound event detection and localization software program developed by Stephen Arrowsmith at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Our goal with this program is to provide the infrasound community with an event database that can be used collaboratively to study various natural and man-made sources. We encourage participation in this program directly or by making infrasound array data available through the IRIS DMC or other means. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. R&A 5317326

  12. Infrasounds and biorhythms of the human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panuszka, Ryszard; Damijan, Zbigniew; Kasprzak, Cezary; McGlothlin, James

    2002-05-01

    Low Frequency Noise (LFN) and infrasound has begun a new public health hazard. Evaluations of annoyance of (LFN) on human occupational health were based on standards where reactions of human auditory system and vibrations of parts of human body were small. Significant sensitivity has been observed on the central nervous system from infrasonic waves especially below 10 Hz. Observed follow-up effects in the brain gives incentive to study the relationship between parameters of waves and reactions obtained of biorhythms (EEG) and heart action (EKG). New results show the impact of LFN on the electrical potentials of the brain are dependent on the pressure waves on the human body. Electrical activity of circulatory system was also affected. Signals recorded in industrial workplaces were duplicated by loudspeakers and used to record data from a typical LFN spectra with 5 and 7 Hz in a laboratory chamber. External noise, electromagnetic fields, temperature, dust, and other elements were controlled. Results show not only a follow-up effect in the brain but also a result similar to arrhythmia in the heart. Relaxations effects were observed of people impacted by waves generated from natural sources such as streams and waterfalls.

  13. Ash-plume dynamics and eruption source parameters by infrasound and thermal imagery: The 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripepe, M.; Bonadonna, C.; Folch, A.; Delle Donne, D.; Lacanna, G.; Marchetti, E.; Höskuldsson, A.

    2013-03-01

    During operational ash-cloud forecasting, prediction of ash concentration and total erupted mass directly depends on the determination of mass eruption rate (MER), which is typically inferred from plume height. Uncertainties for plume heights are large, especially for bent-over plumes in which the ascent dynamics are strongly affected by the surrounding wind field. Here we show how uncertainties can be reduced if MER is derived directly from geophysical observations of source dynamics. The combination of infrasound measurements and thermal camera imagery allows for the infrasonic type of source to be constrained (a dipole in this case) and for the plume exit velocity to be calculated (54-142 m/s) based on the acoustic signal recorded during the 2010 Eyjafjallajökull eruption from 4 to 21 May. Exit velocities are converted into MER using additional information on vent diameter (50±10 m) and mixture density (5.4±1.1 kg/m3), resulting in an average ∼9×105 kg/s MER during the considered period of the eruption. We validate our acoustic-derived MER by using independent measurements of plume heights (Icelandic Meteorological Office radar observations). Acoustically derived MER are converted into plume heights using field-based relationships and a 1D radially averaged buoyant plume theory model using a reconstructed total grain size distribution. We conclude that the use of infrasonic monitoring may lead to important understanding of the plume dynamics and allows for real-time determination of eruption source parameters. This could improve substantially the forecasting of volcano-related hazards, with important implications for civil aviation safety.

  14. Coherent ambient infrasound recorded by the International Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matoza, Robin S.; LandèS, Matthieu; Le Pichon, Alexis; Ceranna, Lars; Brown, David

    2013-01-01

    The ability of the International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound network to detect atmospheric nuclear explosions and other signals of interest is strongly dependent on station-specific ambient noise. This ambient noise includes both incoherent wind noise and real coherent infrasonic waves. Previous ambient infrasound noise models have not distinguished between incoherent and coherent components. We present a first attempt at statistically and systematically characterizing coherent infrasound recorded by the IMS. We perform broadband (0.01-5 Hz) array processing with the IMS continuous waveform archive (39 stations from 1 April 2005 to 31 December 2010) using an implementation of the Progressive Multi-Channel Correlation algorithm in log-frequency space. From these results, we estimate multi-year 5th, 50th, and 95th percentiles of the RMS pressure of coherent signals in 15 frequency bands for each station. We compare the resulting coherent infrasound models with raw power spectral density noise models, which inherently include both incoherent and coherent components. Our results indicate that IMS arrays consistently record coherent ambient infrasound across the broad frequency range from 0.01 to 5 Hz when wind noise levels permit. The multi-year averaging emphasizes continuous signals such as oceanic microbaroms, as well as persistent transient signals such as repetitive volcanic, surf, thunder, or anthropogenic activity. Systematic characterization of coherent infrasound detection is important for quantifying a station's recording environment, signal-to-noise ratio as a function of frequency and direction, and overall performance, which all influence the detection probability of specific signals of interest.

  15. Infrasound propagation in tropospheric ducts and acoustic shadow zones.

    PubMed

    de Groot-Hedlin, Catherine D

    2017-10-01

    Numerical computations of the Navier-Stokes equations governing acoustic propagation are performed to investigate infrasound propagation in the troposphere and into acoustic shadow zones. An existing nonlinear finite-difference, time-domain (FDTD) solver that constrains input sound speed models to be axisymmetric is expanded to allow for advection and rigid, stair-step topography. The FDTD solver permits realistic computations along a given azimuth. It is applied to several environmental models to examine the effects of nonlinearity, topography, advection, and two-dimensional (2D) variations in wind and sound speeds on the penetration of infrasound into shadow zones. Synthesized waveforms are compared to a recording of a rocket motor fuel elimination event at the Utah Test and Training Range. Results show good agreement in the amplitude, duration, and spectra of synthesized and recorded waveforms for propagation through 2D atmospheric models whether or not topography, advection, or nonlinearity is explicitly included. However, infrasound propagation through a one-dimensional, range-averaged, atmospheric model yields waveforms with lower amplitudes and frequencies, suggesting that small-scale atmospheric variability causes significant scatter within the troposphere, leading to enhanced infrasound penetration into shadow zones. Thus, unresolved fine-scale atmospheric dynamics are not required to explain infrasound propagation into shadow zones.

  16. [Effects of infrasound on activities of 3beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and acid phosphatase of polygonal cells in adrenal cortex zona fasciculate in mice].

    PubMed

    Dang, Wei-min; Wang, Sheng; Tian, Shi-xiu; Chen, Bing; Sun, Fei; Li, Wei; Jiao, Yan; He, Li-hua

    2007-02-01

    To explore the biological effects of infrasound on the polygonal cells in adrenal cortex zona fasciculation in mice. The biological effects of infrasound on the activities of 3beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-betaHSDH) and acid phosphatase(ACP) of the polygonal cells in adrenal cortex zona fasciculate were observed when exposure to 8 and 16 Hz infrasound at 80, 90, 100, 110, 120 and 130 dB for 1 day, 7 days and 14 days or 14 days after the exposure. When exposure to 8 Hz infrasound, the enzyme activities of 3-betaHSDH increase as the sound pressure levels increase. Only when the sound pressure levels reach 130 dB, the enzyme activities began to decrease exceptionally. When exposure to 16 Hz, 80 dB infrasound, no significant difference between the treatment and control group in the activities of 3-betaHSDH could be observed, but the injury of the polygonal cells had appeared. When exposure to 16 Hz, 100 dB infrasound, the activities of 3-betaHSDH started to increase. The cell injury still existed. When exposed to 16 Hz, 120 dB infrasound, the local tissue damage represented. Fourteen days after the mice exposure to 8 Hz, 90 dB and 130 dB infrasound for 14 days continuously, the local tissue injury of the adrenal cortex zona fasciculation began to recover at certain extent, but the higher the exposure sound pressure level, the poorer the tissue recovery. The biological effects of infrasound on the polygonal cells in adrenal cortex zona fasciculation response to the frequency of the infrasound are found at certain action strength range, but this characteristic usually is covered by the severe tissue injury. When exposure to infrasound is stopped for a period of time, the local tissue injury of the adrenal cortex zona fasciculation could recovers at certain extent, but the higher the exposure sound pressure level, the more poorer the tissue recovery.

  17. [Analysis on the mechanism of acupuncture infrasound energy in treatment of diseases].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi-ming

    2009-03-01

    Infrasound is a sound wave with vibration frequency of less than 20 Hz, characterized by a longer wavelength, weak attenuating and strong penetration power, etc. Since the inherent frequencies of the human body and the organs are within infrasound vibration range, so infrasound has a stronger effect on the human body. The study found that the process of acupuncture at acupoints could be regarded as one containing a forced vibration with damping, and in the acupuncture, a infrasound of 2-15 Hz could be produced, which can easily has a resonance with the human body and the organs. By calculation of the sound pressure and sound strength in acupuncture, it was found that acupuncture infrasound had four characteristics: small total energy, small amplitude, strong voice, and orientation spreading along the meridian line. Because the meridian lines are the good pathway to spread low-frequency sound, acupuncture infrasound energy can successfully pass the meridian lines to reach the focus, penetrate the morbid tissues and improve the functions of tissues or organs.

  18. Evaluation of infrasound signals from the shuttle Atlantis using a large seismic network.

    PubMed

    de Groot-Hedlin, Catherine D; Hedlin, Michael A H; Walker, Kristoffer T; Drob, Douglas P; Zumberge, Mark A

    2008-09-01

    Inclement weather in Florida forced the space shuttle "Atlantis" to land at Edwards Air Force Base in southern California on June 22, 2007, passing near three infrasound stations and several hundred seismic stations in northern Mexico, southern California, and Nevada. The high signal-to-noise ratio, broad receiver coverage, and Atlantis' positional information allow for the testing of infrasound propagation modeling capabilities through the atmosphere to regional distances. Shadow zones and arrival times are predicted by tracing rays that are launched at right angles to the conical shock front surrounding the shuttle through a standard climatological model as well as a global ground to space model. The predictions and observations compare favorably over much of the study area for both atmospheric specifications. To the east of the shuttle trajectory, there were no detections beyond the primary acoustic carpet. Infrasound energy was detected hundreds of kilometers to the west and northwest (NW) of the shuttle trajectory, consistent with the predictions of ducting due to the westward summer-time stratospheric jet. Both atmospheric models predict alternating regions of high and low ensonifications to the NW. However, infrasound energy was detected tens of kilometers beyond the predicted zones of ensonification, possibly due to uncertainties in stratospheric wind speeds.

  19. Status report on the establishment of the CTBTO IMS infrasound network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Thomas L.

    2005-04-01

    Steady progress has been made in the establishment of the CTBTO IMS infrasound monitoring network. To date 86% of the site surveys for 60 infrasound stations in the network have been completed, 50% of the stations are transmitting continuous data to Vienna, and 40% of the stations have been certified. While the global distribution pattern of infrasound stations transmitting data to Vienna is still disperse, regional networks begin to form in North and South America as well as in the Australian and South African regions. This presentation will focus on an overview of recent progress made in the establishment of the global infrasound network, and also present some of the challenges and difficulties encountered in this program.

  20. The Gem Infrasound Logger and Custom-Built Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Jacob F.; Johnson, Jeffrey B.; Bowman, Daniel C.

    Here, we designed, built, and recorded data with a custom infrasound logger (referred to as the Gem) that is inexpensive, portable, and easy to use. We also describe its design process, qualities, and applications in this article. Field instrumentation is a key element of geophysical data collection, and the quantity and quality of data that can be recorded is determined largely by the characteristics of the instruments used. Geophysicists tend to rely on commercially available instruments, which suffice for many important types of fieldwork. However, commercial instrumentation can fall short in certain roles, which motivates the development of custom sensorsmore » and data loggers. Particularly, we found existing data loggers to be expensive and inconvenient for infrasound campaigns, and developed the Gem infrasound logger in response. In this article, we discuss development of this infrasound logger and the various uses found for it, including projects on volcanoes, high-altitude balloons, and rivers. Further, we demonstrate that when needed, scientists can feasibly design and build their own specialized instruments, and that doing so can enable them to record more and better data at a lower cost.« less

  1. The Gem Infrasound Logger and Custom-Built Instrumentation

    DOE PAGES

    Anderson, Jacob F.; Johnson, Jeffrey B.; Bowman, Daniel C.; ...

    2017-11-22

    Here, we designed, built, and recorded data with a custom infrasound logger (referred to as the Gem) that is inexpensive, portable, and easy to use. We also describe its design process, qualities, and applications in this article. Field instrumentation is a key element of geophysical data collection, and the quantity and quality of data that can be recorded is determined largely by the characteristics of the instruments used. Geophysicists tend to rely on commercially available instruments, which suffice for many important types of fieldwork. However, commercial instrumentation can fall short in certain roles, which motivates the development of custom sensorsmore » and data loggers. Particularly, we found existing data loggers to be expensive and inconvenient for infrasound campaigns, and developed the Gem infrasound logger in response. In this article, we discuss development of this infrasound logger and the various uses found for it, including projects on volcanoes, high-altitude balloons, and rivers. Further, we demonstrate that when needed, scientists can feasibly design and build their own specialized instruments, and that doing so can enable them to record more and better data at a lower cost.« less

  2. Coherent ambient infrasound recorded by the global IMS network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matoza, R. S.; Landes, M.; Le Pichon, A.; Ceranna, L.; Brown, D.

    2011-12-01

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) includes a global network of infrasound arrays, which is designed to detect atmospheric nuclear explosions anywhere on the planet. The infrasound network also has potential application in detection of natural hazards such as large volcanic explosions and severe weather. Ambient noise recorded by the network includes incoherent wind noise and coherent infrasound. We present a statistical analysis of coherent infrasound recorded by the IMS network. We have applied broadband (0.01 to 5 Hz) array processing systematically to the multi-year IMS historical dataset (2005-present) using an implementation of the Progressive Multi-Channel Correlation (PMCC) algorithm in log-frequency space. We show that IMS arrays consistently record coherent ambient infrasound across the broad frequency range from 0.01 to 5 Hz when wind-noise levels permit. Multi-year averaging of PMCC detection bulletins emphasizes continuous signals such as oceanic microbaroms, as well as persistent transient signals such as repetitive volcanic, surf, or anthropogenic activity (e.g., mining or industrial activity). While many of these continuous or repetitive signals are of interest in their own right, they may dominate IMS array detection bulletins and obscure or complicate detection of specific signals of interest. The new PMCC detection bulletins have numerous further applications, including in volcano and microbarom studies, and in IMS data quality assessment.

  3. Using barometric time series of the IMS infrasound network for a global analysis of thermally induced atmospheric tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hupe, Patrick; Ceranna, Lars; Pilger, Christoph

    2018-04-01

    The International Monitoring System (IMS) has been established to monitor compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty and comprises four technologies, one of which is infrasound. When fully established, the IMS infrasound network consists of 60 sites uniformly distributed around the globe. Besides its primary purpose of determining explosions in the atmosphere, the recorded data reveal information on other anthropogenic and natural infrasound sources. Furthermore, the almost continuous multi-year recordings of differential and absolute air pressure allow for analysing the atmospheric conditions. In this paper, spectral analysis tools are applied to derive atmospheric dynamics from barometric time series. Based on the solar atmospheric tides, a methodology for performing geographic and temporal variability analyses is presented, which is supposed to serve for upcoming studies related to atmospheric dynamics. The surplus value of using the IMS infrasound network data for such purposes is demonstrated by comparing the findings on the thermal tides with previous studies and the Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications Version 2 (MERRA-2), which represents the solar tides well in its surface pressure fields. Absolute air pressure recordings reveal geographical characteristics of atmospheric tides related to the solar day and even to the lunar day. We therefore claim the chosen methodology of using the IMS infrasound network to be applicable for global and temporal studies on specific atmospheric dynamics. Given the accuracy and high temporal resolution of the barometric data from the IMS infrasound network, interactions with gravity waves and planetary waves can be examined in future for refining the knowledge of atmospheric dynamics, e.g. the origin of tidal harmonics up to 9 cycles per day as found in the barometric data sets. Data assimilation in empirical models of solar tides would be a valuable application of the IMS infrasound

  4. Inhibitory Effects of Low Decibel Infrasound on the Cardiac Fibroblasts and the Involved Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Wei; Deng, Qin-Qin; Chen, Bao-Ying; Lu, Zhen-Xing; Li, Qing; Zhao, Hai-Kang; Chang, Pan; Yu, Jun; Pei, Zhao-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Infrasound is a mechanical vibration wave with frequency between 0.0001 and 20 Hz. It has been established that infrasound of 120 dB or stronger is dangerous to humans. However, the biological effects of low decibel infrasound are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of low decibel infrasound on the cardiac fibroblasts. Materials and Methods: The cardiac fibroblasts were isolated and cultured from Sprague–Dawley rats. The cultured cells were assigned into the following four groups: control group, angiotensin II (Ang II) group, infrasound group, and Ang II+infrasound group. The cell proliferation and collagen synthesis rates were evaluated by means of [3H]-thymidine and [3H]-proline incorporation, respectively. The levels of TGF-β were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, RNAi approaches were used for the analysis of the biological functions of miR-29a, and the phosphorylation status of Smad3 was detected using western blotting analysis. Results: The results showed that low decibel infrasound significantly alleviated Ang II-induced enhancement of cell proliferation and collagen synthesis. Discussion: Compared with the control, Ang II markedly decreased the expression of miR-29a levels and increased the secretion of TGF-β and phosphorylation of Smad3, which was partly reversed by the treatment with low decibel infrasound. Importantly, knockdown of miR-29a diminished the effects of infrasound on the cardiac fibroblasts. In conclusion, low decibel infrasound inhibits Ang II-stimulated cardiac fibroblasts via miR-29a targeting TGF-β/Smad3 signaling. PMID:28615545

  5. Inhibitory effects of low decibel infrasound on the cardiac fibroblasts and the involved mechanism.

    PubMed

    Jin, Wei; Deng, Qin-Qin; Chen, Bao-Ying; Lu, Zhen-Xing; Li, Qing; Zhao, Hai-Kang; Chang, Pan; Yu, Jun; Pei, Zhao-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Infrasound is a mechanical vibration wave with frequency between 0.0001 and 20 Hz. It has been established that infrasound of 120 dB or stronger is dangerous to humans. However, the biological effects of low decibel infrasound are largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of low decibel infrasound on the cardiac fibroblasts. The cardiac fibroblasts were isolated and cultured from Sprague-Dawley rats. The cultured cells were assigned into the following four groups: control group, angiotensin II (Ang II) group, infrasound group, and Ang II+infrasound group. The cell proliferation and collagen synthesis rates were evaluated by means of [3H]-thymidine and [3H]-proline incorporation, respectively. The levels of TGF-β were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, RNAi approaches were used for the analysis of the biological functions of miR-29a, and the phosphorylation status of Smad3 was detected using western blotting analysis. The results showed that low decibel infrasound significantly alleviated Ang II-induced enhancement of cell proliferation and collagen synthesis. Compared with the control, Ang II markedly decreased the expression of miR-29a levels and increased the secretion of TGF-β and phosphorylation of Smad3, which was partly reversed by the treatment with low decibel infrasound. Importantly, knockdown of miR-29a diminished the effects of infrasound on the cardiac fibroblasts. In conclusion, low decibel infrasound inhibits Ang II-stimulated cardiac fibroblasts via miR-29a targeting TGF-β/Smad3 signaling.

  6. Infra-sound cancellation and mitigation in wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boretti, Albert; Ordys, Andrew; Al Zubaidy, Sarim

    2018-03-01

    The infra-sound spectra recorded inside homes located even several kilometres far from wind turbine installations is characterized by large pressure fluctuation in the low frequency range. There is a significant body of literature suggesting inaudible sounds at low frequency are sensed by humans and affect the wellbeing through different mechanisms. These mechanisms include amplitude modulation of heard sounds, stimulating subconscious pathways, causing endolymphatic hydrops, and possibly potentiating noise-induced hearing loss. We suggest the study of infra-sound active cancellation and mitigation to address the low frequency noise issues. Loudspeakers generate pressure wave components of same amplitude and frequency but opposite phase of the recorded infra sound. They also produce pressure wave components within the audible range reducing the perception of the infra-sound to minimize the sensing of the residual infra sound.

  7. Infrasound increases intracellular calcium concentration and induces apoptosis in hippocampi of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaohui; Gong, Li; Li, Xiaofang; Ye, Lin; Wang, Bin; Liu, Jing; Qiu, Jianyong; Jiao, Huiduo; Zhang, Wendong; Chen, Jingzao; Wang, Jiuping

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we determined the effect of infrasonic exposure on apoptosis and intracellular free Ca²⁺ ([Ca²⁺]i) levels in the hippocampus of adult rats. Adult rats were randomly divided into the control and infrasound exposure groups. For infrasound treatment, animals received infrasonic exposure at 90 (8 Hz) or 130 dB (8 Hz) for 2 h per day. Hippocampi were dissected, and isolated hippocampal neurons were cultured. The [Ca²⁺]i levels in hippocampal neurons from adult rat brains were determined by Fluo-3/AM staining with a confocal microscope system on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28 following infrasonic exposure. Apoptosis was evaluated by Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide double staining. Positive cells were sorted and analyzed by flow cytometry. Elevated [Ca²⁺]i levels were observed on days 14 and 21 after rats received daily treatment with 90 or 130 dB sound pressure level (SPL) infrasonic exposure (p<0.01 vs. control). The highest levels of [Ca²⁺]i were detected in the 130 dB SPL infrasonic exposure group. Meanwhile, apoptosis in hippocampal neurons was found to increase on day 7 following 90 dB SPL infrasound exposure, and significantly increased on day 14. Upon 130 dB infrasound treatment, apoptosis was first observed on day 14, whereas the number of apoptotic cells gradually decreased thereafter. Additionally, a marked correlation between cell apoptosis and [Ca²⁺]i levels was found on day 14 and 21 following daily treatment with 90 and 130 dB SPL, respectively. These results demonstrate that a period of infrasonic exposure induced apoptosis and upregulated [Ca²⁺]i levels in hippocampal neurons, suggesting that infrasound may cause damage to the central nervous system (CNS) through the Ca²⁺‑mediated apoptotic pathway in hippocampal neurons.

  8. Multi-Array Detection, Association and Location of Infrasound and Seismo-Acoustic Events in Utah

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-30

    techniques for detecting , associating, and locating infrasound signals at single and multiple arrays and then combining the processed results with...was detected and located by both infrasound and seismic instruments (Figure 3). Infrasound signals at all three arrays , from one of the explosions, are...COVERED (From - To) 30-Sep-2008 REPRINT 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER MULTI- ARRAY DETECTION , ASSOCIATION AND LOCATION OF INFRASOUND FA8718

  9. Nuclear Explosion and Infrasound Event Resources of the SMDC Monitoring Research Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    2008 Monitoring Research Review: Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Technologies 928 Figure 7. Dozens of detected infrasound signals from...investigate alternative detection schemes at the two infrasound arrays based on frequency-wavenumber (fk) processing and the F-statistic. The results of... infrasound signal - detection processing schemes. REFERENCES Bahavar, M., B. Barker, J. Bennett, R. Bowman, H. Israelsson, B. Kohl, Y-L. Kung, J. Murphy

  10. The Development of Methodologies for Determining Non-Linear Effects in Infrasound Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    THE DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGIES FOR DETERMINING NON-LINEAR EFFECTS IN INFRASOUND SENSORS Darren M. Hart, Harold V. Parks, and Randy K. Rembold...the past year, four new infrasound sensor designs were evaluated for common performance characteristics, i.e., power consumption, response (amplitude...and phase), noise, full-scale, and dynamic range. In the process of evaluating a fifth infrasound sensor, which is an update of an original design

  11. Visualizing the deep end of sound: plotting multi-parameter results from infrasound data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perttu, A. B.; Taisne, B.

    2016-12-01

    Infrasound is sound below the threshold of human hearing: approximately 20 Hz. The field of infrasound research, like other waveform based fields relies on several standard processing methods and data visualizations, including waveform plots and spectrograms. The installation of the International Monitoring System (IMS) global network of infrasound arrays, contributed to the resurgence of infrasound research. Array processing is an important method used in infrasound research, however, this method produces data sets with a large number of parameters, and requires innovative plotting techniques. The goal in designing new figures is to be able to present easily comprehendible, and information-rich plots by careful selection of data density and plotting methods.

  12. An investigation of infrasound propagation over mountain ranges.

    PubMed

    Damiens, Florentin; Millet, Christophe; Lott, François

    2018-01-01

    Linear theory is used to analyze trapping of infrasound within the lower tropospheric waveguide during propagation above a mountain range. Atmospheric flow produced by the mountains is predicted by a nonlinear mountain gravity wave model. For the infrasound component, this paper solves the wave equation under the effective sound speed approximation using both a finite difference method and a Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approach. It is shown that in realistic configurations, the mountain waves can deeply perturb the low-level waveguide, which leads to significant acoustic dispersion. To interpret these results, each acoustic mode is tracked separately as the horizontal distance increases. It is shown that during statically stable situations, situations that are common during night over land in winter, the mountain waves induce a strong Foehn effect downstream, which shrinks the waveguide significantly. This yields a new form of infrasound absorption that can largely outweigh the direct effect the mountain induces on the low-level waveguide. For the opposite case, when the low-level flow is less statically stable (situations that are more common during day in summer), mountain wave dynamics do not produce dramatic responses downstream. It may even favor the passage of infrasound and mitigate the direct effect of the obstacle.

  13. Explosion localization and characterization via infrasound using numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fee, D.; Kim, K.; Iezzi, A. M.; Matoza, R. S.; Jolly, A. D.; De Angelis, S.; Diaz Moreno, A.; Szuberla, C.

    2017-12-01

    Numerous methods have been applied to locate, detect, and characterize volcanic and anthropogenic explosions using infrasound. Far-field localization techniques typically use back-azimuths from multiple arrays (triangulation) or Reverse Time Migration (RTM, or back-projection). At closer ranges, networks surrounding a source may use Time Difference of Arrival (TDOA), semblance, station-pair double difference, etc. However, at volcanoes and regions with topography or obstructions that block the direct path of sound, recent studies have shown that numerical modeling is necessary to provide an accurate source location. A heterogeneous and moving atmosphere (winds) may also affect the location. The time reversal mirror (TRM) application of Kim et al. (2015) back-propagates the wavefield using a Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) algorithm, with the source corresponding to the location of peak convergence. Although it provides high-resolution source localization and can account for complex wave propagation, TRM is computationally expensive and limited to individual events. Here we present a new technique, termed RTM-FDTD, which integrates TRM and FDTD. Travel time and transmission loss information is computed from each station to the entire potential source grid from 3-D Green's functions derived via FDTD. The wave energy is then back-projected and stacked at each grid point, with the maximum corresponding to the likely source. We apply our method to detect and characterize thousands of explosions from Yasur Volcano, Vanuatu and Etna Volcano, Italy, which both provide complex wave propagation and multiple source locations. We compare our results with those from more traditional methods (e.g. semblance), and suggest our method is preferred as it is computationally less expensive than TRM but still integrates numerical modeling. RTM-FDTD could be applied to volcanic other anthropogenic sources at a wide variety of ranges and scenarios. Kim, K., Lees, J.M., 2015. Imaging

  14. Eruption mass estimation using infrasound waveform inversion and ash and gas measurements: Evaluation at Sakurajima Volcano, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fee, David; Izbekov, Pavel; Kim, Keehoon; Yokoo, Akihiko; Lopez, Taryn; Prata, Fred; Kazahaya, Ryunosuke; Nakamichi, Haruhisa; Iguchi, Masato

    2017-12-01

    Eruption mass and mass flow rate are critical parameters for determining the aerial extent and hazard of volcanic emissions. Infrasound waveform inversion is a promising technique to quantify volcanic emissions. Although topography may substantially alter the infrasound waveform as it propagates, advances in wave propagation modeling and station coverage permit robust inversion of infrasound data from volcanic explosions. The inversion can estimate eruption mass flow rate and total eruption mass if the flow density is known. However, infrasound-based eruption flow rates and mass estimates have yet to be validated against independent measurements, and numerical modeling has only recently been applied to the inversion technique. Here we present a robust full-waveform acoustic inversion method, and use it to calculate eruption flow rates and masses from 49 explosions from Sakurajima Volcano, Japan. Six infrasound stations deployed from 12-20 February 2015 recorded the explosions. We compute numerical Green's functions using 3-D Finite Difference Time Domain modeling and a high-resolution digital elevation model. The inversion, assuming a simple acoustic monopole source, provides realistic eruption masses and excellent fit to the data for the majority of the explosions. The inversion results are compared to independent eruption masses derived from ground-based ash collection and volcanic gas measurements. Assuming realistic flow densities, our infrasound-derived eruption masses for ash-rich eruptions compare favorably to the ground-based estimates, with agreement ranging from within a factor of two to one order of magnitude. Uncertainties in the time-dependent flow density and acoustic propagation likely contribute to the mismatch between the methods. Our results suggest that realistic and accurate infrasound-based eruption mass and mass flow rate estimates can be computed using the method employed here. If accurate volcanic flow parameters are known, application of

  15. [Effect of infrasound on ultrastructure and permeability of rat's blood-retinal barrier].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Ping; Zhang, Zuoming; Jiang, Yong; Gou, Qun; Wang, Bing; Gou, Lin; Chen, Jingzao

    2002-08-01

    To investigate the possible effect of infrasound on the ultra-structure and permeability of rat's blood-retinal barrier (BRB). Ultra-structural changes of BRB were observed through the injection of lanthanum nitrate (La), which was used as a tracer to demonstrate the breakdown of the BRB, into blood vessels. Fifteen mature male rats divided into 5 groups were exposed to infrasound at a 8 Hz frequency, 130 dB sound pressure level in a pressure chamber especially designed for the experiment for 0, 1, 7, 14, 21 days, respectively. Under the action of infrasound, along with the prolongation of exposure, the damage of BRB was severer and severer. On the 1st day, there was no significant change in La leakage. On the 7th day, La diffused in the interphotoreceptor space at nuclear level. On the 14th day, La granules could be seen in the space of nervous cells. Finally, on the 21st day, La was found between synapses, synapses and nerve cells, as well as between the nerve cells and supporting cells, then sometimes reached vitreous body. Under the electron microscope, there were no significant morphological changes, but changes related to metabolism, such as edematous mitochondria, dilated rough endoplasmic reticula, precipitation of glycogen grandules, widening of perinuclear space, etc. The results thus suggest that the exposure to infrasound cause the breakdown of rat's blood-retinal barrier and visual impairment.

  16. Effects of infrasound on cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juanfang; Lin, Tian; Yan, Xiaodong; Jiang, Wen; Shi, Ming; Ye, Ruidong; Rao, Zhiren; Zhao, Gang

    2010-06-02

    Adult rats were used to identify the effects of infrasound on neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. After 7 consecutive days' exposure to infrasound of 16 Hz at 130 dB, immunostaining of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) and doublecortin (DCX) was preformed. Compared with those in normal groups, the numbers of BrdU+ and DCX+/BrdU+ cells in the subgranular zone in infrasound groups were significantly decreased at 3, 6, 10 and 14 days and returned to normal at 18 days. The percentage of BrdU+ cells that were co-labeled with DCX showed no significant differences between the infrasound and normal groups. These data suggest that infrasound inhibits the cell proliferation in adult rat dentate gyrus but has no effects on early migration and differentiation of these newborn cells.

  17. Using Seismic and Infrasonic Data to Identify Persistent Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nava, S.; Brogan, R.

    2014-12-01

    Data from seismic and infrasound sensors were combined to aid in the identification of persistent sources such as mining-related explosions. It is of interest to operators of seismic networks to identify these signals in their event catalogs. Acoustic signals below the threshold of human hearing, in the frequency range of ~0.01 to 20 Hz are classified as infrasound. Persistent signal sources are useful as ground truth data for the study of atmospheric infrasound signal propagation, identification of manmade versus naturally occurring seismic sources, and other studies. By using signals emanating from the same location, propagation studies, for example, can be conducted using a variety of atmospheric conditions, leading to improvements to the modeling process for eventual use where the source is not known. We present results from several studies to identify ground truth sources using both seismic and infrasound data.

  18. 75 FR 37742 - Addition of New Export Control Classification Number 6A981 Passive Infrasound Sensors to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... or man-made infrasound sources including earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, rocket launch, and/or... rocket launch and/or nuclear explosions, or whether the parameters are overly broad. If the controls are...

  19. Infrasound from lightning measured in Ivory Coast from 2004 to 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farges, Thomas; Le Pichon, Alexis; Ceranna, Lars; Diawara, Adama

    2016-04-01

    It is well established that more than 2,000 thunderstorms occur continuously around the world and that about 45 lightning flashes are produced per second over the globe. 80 % of the infrasound stations of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the CTBTO (Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organisation) are now certified and routinely measure signals due to natural activity (e.g., airflow over mountains, aurora, microbaroms, surf, volcanoes, severe weather including lightning flashes …). Some of the IMS stations are located where lightning activity is high (e.g. Africa, South America). These infrasound stations are well localised to study lightning flash activity and its disparity, which is a good proxy for global warming. Progress in infrasound array data processing over the past ten years makes such lightning studies possible. Assink et al. (2008) and Farges and Blanc (2010) show clearly that it is possible to measure lightning infrasound from thunderstorms within 300 km. One-to-one correlation is possible when the thunderstorm is within about 75 km from the station. When the lightning flash occurs within 20 km, it is also possible to rebuild the 3D geometry of the discharges when the network size is less than 100 m (Arechiga et al., 2011; Gallin, 2014). An IMS infrasound station has been installed in Ivory Coast since 2002. The lightning rate of this region is 10-20 flashes/km²/year from space-based instrument OTD (Christian et al., 2003). Ivory Coast is therefore a good place to study infrasound data associated with lightning activity and its temporal variation. First statistical results will be presented in this paper based on 10 years of data (2005-2014). Correlation between infrasound having a mean frequency higher than 1 Hz and lightning flashes detected by the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) is systematically looked for. One-to-one correlation is obtained for flashes occurring within about 100 km. An exponential decrease of the

  20. [Pharmacokinetics of radiotracers in the ocular tissues exposed to infrasound and ultrasound phonophoreses].

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    The paper compares the efficiency of infrasound and ultrasound phonophoreses. The efficiency was evaluated on the basis of the rate of radiotracers within the eye after infrasound or ultrasound exposure of the eyeball. The exposure was made after preliminary putting the radiotracer-impregnated application into the bulbar conjunctiva of an animal. Radioactivity was recorded on a Siemens gamma camera in its lifetime. The time course of changes in the radioactivities measured 10, 30, and 60 minutes after termination of exposures strongly suggests its stable increase in the eye exposed to infrasound. At the same time 10 minutes after ultrasound exposure, the increased concentration of a radiotracer in the eye was less than that after infrasound exposure and then it progressively decreased. Thus, having a significant phoretic activity, infrasound, as ultrasound, creates more favorable conditions for long drug storage in the eye.

  1. Assessment of Operational Progress of NASA Langley Developed Windshield and Microphone for Infrasound

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    Assessment of Operational Progress of NASA Langley Developed Windshield and Microphone for Infrasound by W.C. Kirkpatrick Alberts, II...Windshield and Microphone for Infrasound W.C. Kirkpatrick Alberts, II, Stephen M. Tenney, and John M. Noble Sensors and Electron Devices Directorate...2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Assessment of Operational Progress of NASA Langley Developed Windshield and Microphone for Infrasound 5a. CONTRACT

  2. Effects of infrasound on the growth of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    He, Renhong; Fan, Jianzhong

    2014-11-01

    Poor viability of transplanted bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) is well‑known, but developing methods for enhancing the viability of BMSCs requires further investigation. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the effects of infrasound on the proliferation and apoptosis of BMSCs, and to determine the association between survivin expression levels and infrasound on BMSCs. Primary BMSCs were derived from Sprague Dawley rats. The BMSCs, used at passage three, were divided into groups that received infrasound for 10, 30, 60, 90 or 120 min, and control groups, which were exposed to the air for the same durations. Infrasound was found to promote proliferation and inhibit apoptosis in BMSCs. The results indicated that 60 min was the most suitable duration for applied infrasound treatment to BMSCs. The protein and mRNA expression levels of survivin in BMSCs from the two treatment groups that received 60 min infrasound or air, were examined by immunofluorescence and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Significant differences in survivin expression levels were identified between the two groups, as infrasound enhanced the expression levels of survivin. In conclusion, infrasound promoted proliferation and inhibited apoptosis in BMSCs, and one mechanisms responsible for the protective effects may be the increased expression levels of survivin.

  3. Assessing the detection capability of a dense infrasound network in the southern Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Il-Young; Le Pichon, Alexis; Kim, Kwangsu; Shin, In-Cheol

    2017-08-01

    The Korea Infrasound Network (KIN) is a dense seismoacoustic array network consisting of eight small-aperture arrays with an average interarray spacing of ∼100 km. The processing of the KIN historical recordings over 10 yr in the 0.05-5 Hz frequency band shows that the dominant sources of signals are microbaroms and human activities. The number of detections correlates well with the seasonal and daily variability of the stratospheric wind dynamics. The quantification of the spatiotemporal variability of the KIN detection performance is simulated using a frequency-dependent semi-empirical propagation modelling technique. The average detection thresholds predicted for the region of interest by using both the KIN arrays and the International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound station network at a given frequency of 1.6 Hz are estimated to be 5.6 and 10.0 Pa for two- and three-station coverage, respectively, which was about three times lower than the thresholds predicted by using only the IMS stations. The network performance is significantly enhanced from May to August, with detection thresholds being one order of magnitude lower than the rest of the year due to prevailing steady stratospheric winds. To validate the simulations, the amplitudes of ground-truth repeated surface mining explosions at an open-pit limestone mine were measured over a 19-month period. Focusing on the spatiotemporal variability of the stratospheric winds which control to first order where infrasound signals are expected to be detected, the predicted detectable signal amplitude at the mine and the detection capability at one KIN array located at a distance of 175 km are found to be in good agreement with the observations from the measurement campaign. The detection threshold in summer is ∼2 Pa and increases up to ∼300 Pa in winter. Compared with the low and stable thresholds in summer, the high temporal variability of the KIN performance is well predicted throughout the year. Simulations

  4. Monitoring volcanic activity using correlation patterns between infrasound and ground motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichihara, M.; Takeo, M.; Yokoo, A.; Oikawa, J.; Ohminato, T.

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents a simple method to distinguish infrasonic signals from wind noise using a cross-correlation function of signals from a microphone and a collocated seismometer. The method makes use of a particular feature of the cross-correlation function of vertical ground motion generated by infrasound, and the infrasound itself. Contribution of wind noise to the correlation function is effectively suppressed by separating the microphone and the seismometer by several meters because the correlation length of wind noise is much shorter than wavelengths of infrasound. The method is applied to data from two recent eruptions of Asama and Shinmoe-dake volcanoes, Japan, and demonstrates that the method effectively detects not only the main eruptions, but also minor activity generating weak infrasound hardly visible in the wave traces. In addition, the correlation function gives more information about volcanic activity than infrasound alone, because it reflects both features of incident infrasonic and seismic waves. Therefore, a graphical presentation of temporal variation in the cross-correlation function enables one to see qualitative changes of eruptive activity at a glance. This method is particularly useful when available sensors are limited, and will extend the utility of a single microphone and seismometer in monitoring volcanic activity.

  5. The influence of periodic wind turbine noise on infrasound array measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilger, Christoph; Ceranna, Lars

    2017-02-01

    Aerodynamic noise emissions from the continuously growing number of wind turbines in Germany are creating increasing problems for infrasound recording systems. These systems are equipped with highly sensitive micro pressure sensors accurately measuring acoustic signals in a frequency range inaudible to the human ear. Ten years of data (2006-2015) from the infrasound array IGADE in Northern Germany are analysed to quantify the influence of wind turbine noise on infrasound recordings. Furthermore, a theoretical model is derived and validated by a field experiment with mobile micro-barometer stations. Fieldwork was carried out 2004 to measure the infrasonic pressure level of a single horizontal-axis wind turbine and to extrapolate the sound effect for a larger number of nearby wind turbines. The model estimates the generated sound pressure level of wind turbines and thus enables for specifying the minimum allowable distance between wind turbines and infrasound stations for undisturbed recording. This aspect is particularly important to guarantee the monitoring performance of the German infrasound stations I26DE in the Bavarian Forest and I27DE in Antarctica. These stations are part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) verifying compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT), and thus have to meet stringent specifications with respect to infrasonic background noise.

  6. Glial cell-expressed mechanosensitive channel TRPV4 mediates infrasound-induced neuronal impairment.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ming; Du, Fang; Liu, Yang; Li, Li; Cai, Jing; Zhang, Guo-Feng; Xu, Xiao-Fei; Lin, Tian; Cheng, Hao-Ran; Liu, Xue-Dong; Xiong, Li-Ze; Zhao, Gang

    2013-11-01

    Vibroacoustic disease, a progressive and systemic disease, mainly involving the central nervous system, is caused by excessive exposure to low-frequency but high-intensity noise generated by various heavy transportations and machineries. Infrasound is a type of low-frequency noise. Our previous studies demonstrated that infrasound at a certain intensity caused neuronal injury in rats but the underlying mechanism(s) is still largely unknown. Here, we showed that glial cell-expressed TRPV4, a Ca(2+)-permeable mechanosensitive channel, mediated infrasound-induced neuronal injury. Among different frequencies and intensities, infrasound at 16 Hz and 130 dB impaired rat learning and memory abilities most severely after 7-14 days exposure, a time during which a prominent loss of hippocampal CA1 neurons was evident. Infrasound also induced significant astrocytic and microglial activation in hippocampal regions following 1- to 7-day exposure, prior to neuronal apoptosis. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of glial activation in vivo protected against neuronal apoptosis. In vitro, activated glial cell-released proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α were found to be key factors for this neuronal apoptosis. Importantly, infrasound induced an increase in the expression level of TRPV4 both in vivo and in vitro. Knockdown of TRPV4 expression by siRNA or pharmacological inhibition of TRPV4 in cultured glial cells decreased the levels of IL-1β and TNF-α, attenuated neuronal apoptosis, and reduced TRPV4-mediated Ca(2+) influx and NF-κB nuclear translocation. Finally, using various antagonists we revealed that calmodulin and protein kinase C signaling pathways were involved in TRPV4-triggered NF-κB activation. Thus, our results provide the first evidence that glial cell-expressed TRPV4 is a potential key factor responsible for infrasound-induced neuronal impairment.

  7. On the use of infrasound for constraining global climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millet, Christophe; Ribstein, Bruno; Lott, Francois; Cugnet, David

    2017-11-01

    Numerical prediction of infrasound is a complex issue due to constantly changing atmospheric conditions and to the random nature of small-scale flows. Although part of the upward propagating wave is refracted at stratospheric levels, where gravity waves significantly affect the temperature and the wind, yet the process by which the gravity wave field changes the infrasound arrivals remains poorly understood. In the present work, we use a stochastic parameterization to represent the subgrid scale gravity wave field from the atmospheric specifications provided by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. It is shown that regardless of whether the gravity wave field possesses relatively small or large features, the sensitivity of acoustic waveforms to atmospheric disturbances can be extremely different. Using infrasound signals recorded during campaigns of ammunition destruction explosions, a new set of tunable parameters is proposed which more accurately predicts the small-scale content of gravity wave fields in the middle atmosphere. Climate simulations are performed using the updated parameterization. Numerical results demonstrate that a network of ground-based infrasound stations is a promising technology for dynamically tuning the gravity wave parameterization.

  8. Looking for a correlation between infrasound and volcanic gas in strombolian explosions by using high resolution UV spectroscopy and thermal imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delle Donne, Dario; Tamburello, Giancarlo; Ripepe, Maurizio; Aiuppa, Alessandro

    2014-05-01

    According to the linear theory of sound, acoustic pressure propagating in a homogeneous atmosphere can be modelled in terms of the rate of change of a volumetric source. At open-vent volcanoes, this acoustic source process is commonly related to the explosive dynamics triggered by the rise, expansion and bursting of a gas slug at the magma free surface with the conduit. Just before an explosion, the magma surface will undergo deformation by the expanding gas slug. The deformation of the magma surface will then produce an equivalent displacement of the atmosphere, inducing a volumetric compression and generating an excess pressure that scales to the rate of volumetric change of the atmosphere displaced. Linear theory of sound thus predicts that pressure amplitude of infrasonic waves associated to volcanic explosions should be generated by the first time-derivative of the gas mass flux during the burst. In some cases a correlation between the first time-derivative and the SO2 mass flux has been found. However no clear correlation has yet been established between infrasonic amplitude and total ejected gas mass; therefore, the origin of infrasound in volcanic systems remains matter of debate. In the framework of the FP7-ERC BRIDGE Project, we tested different possible hypotheses on the acoustic source model, by correlating infrasound with the total gas mass retrieved from high-resolution UV spectroscopy techniques (UV camera). Experiments were conducted at Stromboli volcano (Italy), where we also employed a thermal camera to measure the total fragments/gas mass. Both techniques allowed independent estimation of total mass flux of gas and fragments within the volcanic plume. During the experiments, explosions detected by the UV camera emitted between 2 and 55 kg SO2, corresponding to SO2 peak fluxes of 0.1-0.8 kg/s. SO2 mass was converted into a total (maximum) erupted gas of 1310 kg, which is generating a peak pressure of ~8 Pa recorded at ~450 m from the source vent

  9. Investigation and Characterization of Acoustic Emissions of Tornadoes Using Arrays of Infrasound Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, W. G.; Talmadge, C. L.; Waxler, R.; Knupp, K. R.; Goudeau, B.; Hetzer, C. H.

    2017-12-01

    Working in co-ordination with the NOAA Vortex Southeast (Vortex SE) research program, 9 infrasound sensor arrays were deployed at fixed sites across North Alabama, South-central Tennessee, and Northwest Georgia during March and April of 2017, to investigate the emission and characterization of infrasonic acoustic energy from tornadoes and related phenomena. Each array consisted of seven broadband acoustic sensors with calibrated frequency response from 0.02 Hz to 200 Hz. The arrays were configured in a pattern such that accurate bearings to acoustic sources could be obtained over a broad range of frequencies (nominally from 1 Hz to 100 Hz). Data were collected synchronously at a rate of 1000 samples per second. On 22 April 2017 a line of strong storms passed directly through the area being monitored producing at least three verified tornadoes. Two of these were rated at EF0 and the other an EF1. Subsequent processing of the data from several of the arrays revealed acoustic emissions from the tornadic storms ranging in frequencies below 1 Hz to frequencies greater than 10 Hz. Accurate bearings to the storms have been calculated from distances greater than 60 km. Preliminary analysis has revealed that continuous emissions occurred prior to the estimated touchdown times, while the storms were on the ground, and for short periods after the tornadoes lifted; however, the strongest emissions appeared to occur while the storms were on the ground. One of the storms passed near two arrays simultaneously, and therefore accurate an accurate track of the storm as it moved has been obtained only using the infrasound measurements. Initial results from the analysis of the infrasound data will be presented. Under Vortex SE meteorological data was collected on a large suite of sensors. Correlations between the infrasound data and the meteorological data will be investigated and discussed.

  10. Evaluation of Inter-Mountain Labs infrasound sensors : July 2007.

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Darren M.

    2007-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has tested and evaluated three Inter Mountain Labs infrasound sensors. The test results included in this report were in response to static and tonal-dynamic input signals. Most test methodologies used were based on IEEE Standards 1057 for Digitizing Waveform Recorders and 1241 for Analog to Digital Converters; others were designed by Sandia specifically for infrasound application evaluation and for supplementary criteria not addressed in the IEEE standards. The objective of this work was to evaluate the overall technical performance of the Inter Mountain Labs (IML) infrasound sensor model SS. The results of this evaluation were only comparedmore » to relevant noise models; due to a lack of manufactures documentation notes on the sensors under test prior to testing. The tests selected for this system were chosen to demonstrate different performance aspects of the components under test.« less

  11. Recent enhancements of the PMCC infrasound signal detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brachet, N.; Mialle, P.; Matoza, R. S.; Le Pichon, A.; Cansi, Y.; Ceranna, L.

    2010-12-01

    The Progressive Multi-Channel Correlation (PMCC) is an antenna technique that is commonly being used by the scientific community for detecting coherent signals recorded on infrasound arrays. The PMCC detector, originally developed by CEA/DASE (Cansi, 1995), was installed in 2004 in the operational environment of the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Comprehensive nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO) in Vienna. During the last 5 years, several changes have been made by the IDC to enhance the PMCC source code and parameter configuration, and the detector has exhibited good performance in terms of detection sensitivity and robustness. Recent studies performed at the CEA/DASE have shown that the IDC version (DFX/Geotool-PMCC) and the DASE version (WinPMCC) of PMCC software benefit from the implementation of the adaptive processing window duration and a log-spaced frequency bands. This tested configuration enables better detection and characterization of all received signals in their wave-front parameter space (e.g., frequency-azimuth space, frequency-trace-velocity space). A new release of the WinPMCC software - running under Windows or Linux operating systems - including a fully configurable filtering and detection parameters is now available upon request. We present the results of a statistical analysis on 10 years of infrasound data recorded at the IMS stations IS26, Germany and IS22, New Caledonia. A comparison is made between the automatic detections produced by the IDC, and the reprocessed detections using the optimized filtering and detection configuration parameters. Work is also underway at the CEA/DASE to determine more rigorously the azimuth and speed uncertainties. The current algorithm estimates the uncertainties based on statistical analysis of the distribution of PMCC detection pixels in the azimuth-speed space. The new code that is being considered performs the calculation of infrasound measurement errors as a function of physical

  12. Long period seismicity and very long period infrasound driven by shallow magmatic degassing at Mount Pagan, Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyons, John; Haney, Matt; Werner, Cynthia A.; Kelly, Peter; Patrick, Matthew R.; Kern, Christoph; Trusdell, Frank A.

    2016-01-01

    Long period (LP) seismicity and very long period infrasound (iVLP) were recorded during continuous degassing from Mount Pagan, Mariana Islands, in July 2013 to January 2014. The frequency content of the LP and iVLP events and delay times between the two arrivals were remarkably stable and indicate nearly co-located sources. Using phase-weighted stacking over similar events to dampen noise, we find that the LP source centroid is located 60 m below and 180 m west of the summit vent. The moment tensor reveals a volumetric source modeled as resonance of a subhorizontal sill intersecting a dike. We model the seismoacoustic wavefields with a coupled earth-air 3-D finite difference code. The ratios of pressure to velocity measured at the infrasound arrays are an order of magnitude larger than the synthetic ratios, so the iVLP is not the result of LP energy transmitting into the atmosphere at its epicenter. Based on crater shape and dimensions determined by structure from motion, we model the iVLP as acoustic resonance of an exponential horn. The source of the continuous plume from gas analysis is shallow magmatic degassing, which repeatedly pressurized the dike-sill portion of the conduit over the 7 months of observation. Periodic gas release caused the geologically controlled sill to partially collapse and resonate, while venting of gas at the surface triggered resonance in the crater. LP degassing only accounts for ~12% of total degassing, indicating that most degassing is relatively aseismic and that multiple active pathways exist beneath the vent.

  13. Infrasonic observations of the June 2009 Sarychev Peak eruption, Kuril Islands: Implications for infrasonic monitoring of remote explosive volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matoza, Robin S.; Le Pichon, Alexis; Vergoz, Julien; Herry, Pascal; Lalande, Jean-Marie; Lee, Hee-il; Che, Il-Young; Rybin, Alexander

    2011-02-01

    Sarychev Peak (SP), located on Ostrov Matua, Kurils, erupted explosively during 11-16 June 2009. Whereas remote seismic stations did not record the eruption, we report atmospheric infrasound (acoustic wave ~ 0.01-20 Hz) observations of the eruption at seven infrasound arrays located at ranges of ~ 640-6400 km from SP. The infrasound arrays consist of stations of the International Monitoring System global infrasound network and additional stations operated by the Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources. Signals at the three closest recording stations IS44 (643 km, Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskiy, Kamchatka Krai, Russia), IS45 (1690 km, Ussuriysk, Russia), and IS30 (1774 km, Isumi, Japan) represent a detailed record of the explosion chronology that correlates well with an eruption chronology based on satellite data (TERRA, NOAA, MTSAT). The eruption chronology inferred from infrasound data has a higher temporal resolution than that obtained with satellite data. Atmosphere-corrected infrasonic source locations determined from backazimuth cross-bearings of first-arrivals have a mean centroid ~ 15 km from the true location of SP. Scatter in source locations of up to ~ 100 km result from currently unresolved details of atmospheric propagation and source complexity. We observe systematic time-variations in trace-velocity, backazimuth deviation, and signal frequency content at IS44. Preliminary investigation of atmospheric propagation from SP to IS44 indicates that these variations can be attributed to solar tide variability in the thermosphere. It is well known that additional information about active volcanic processes can be learned by deploying infrasonic sensors with seismometers at erupting volcanoes. This study further highlights the significant potential of infrasound arrays for monitoring volcanic regions such as the Kurils that have only sparse seismic network coverage.

  14. Balloon Borne Infrasound Platforms for Remote Monitoring of Natural Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lees, J. M.; Bowman, D. C.

    2016-12-01

    In the last three years several NASA supported balloon launches were instrumented with infrasound sensors to monitor acoustic wavefields in the stratosphere. Such high altitude platforms may detect geoacoustic phenomena at much greater ranges than equivalent ground stations, and perhaps record sound waves that rarely reach the Earth's surface. Since acoustic waves are a key diagnostic for several natural hazards (volcanic eruptions, severe storms, and tsunamis, for example), the increased range and spatial coverage of balloon borne arrays promise greater quantification and perhaps early warning of such events. Before this can be accomplished, the performance of stratospheric arrays must be compared to tthat of those on the ground. Here, we show evidence for 0.2 Hz infrasound associated with oceanic oscillations recorded during night time hours of the flights, consistent with concurrent ground recordings on the east and west coasts of North America. We also report numerous narrow band acoustic signals (5-30 Hz) that resemble recordings made in in the 1960's, the last time microphones were lofted into the stratosphere. Theoretical and ground based observational data from Rind(1977) indicate loss of acoustic energy in the thermosphere, where heating of the upper atmosphere is predicted to be on the order of 30-40 degrees Kelvin per day. We propose testing these ideas by using extensive ground arrays recently deployed in North America in conjunction with airborne platforms installed in the mid-stratosphere. New experiments scheduled for 2016 include circumnavigation of Antarctica (collected in June) as well as two proposed flights in New Mexico in September. The flights are designed to both capture known acoustic sources as well as events of opportunity.

  15. Impact of infrasound on the human cochlea.

    PubMed

    Hensel, Johannes; Scholz, Günther; Hurttig, Ulrike; Mrowinski, Dieter; Janssen, Thomas

    2007-11-01

    Low-frequency tones were reported to modulate the amplitude of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) indicating periodic changes of the operating point of the cochlear amplifier. The present study investigates potential differences between infrasound and low-frequency sounds in their ability to modulate human DPOAEs. DPOAEs were recorded in 12 normally hearing subjects in the presence of a biasing tone with f(B)=6Hz and a level L(B)=130dB SPL. Primary frequencies were fixed at f(1)=1.6 and f(2)=2.0kHz with fixed levels L(1)=51 and L(2)=30dB SPL. A new measure, the modulation index (MI), was devised to characterise the degree of DPOAE modulation. In subsequent measurements with biasing tones of f(B) = 12, 24 and 50Hz, L(B) was adjusted to maintain the MI as obtained individually at 6Hz. Modulation patterns lagged with increasing f(B). The necessary L(B) decreased by 12dB/octave with increasing f(B) and ran almost parallel to the published infrasound detection threshold. No signs of an abrupt change in transmission into the cochlea were found between infra- and low-frequency sounds. The results show clearly that infrasound enters the inner ear, and can alter cochlear processing.

  16. On the infrasound detected from the 2013 and 2016 DPRK's underground nuclear tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assink, J. D.; Averbuch, G.; Smets, P. S. M.; Evers, L. G.

    2016-04-01

    The underground nuclear tests by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) generated atmospheric infrasound both in 2013 and 2016. Clear detections were made in the Russian Federation (I45RU) and Japan (I30JP) in 2013 at stations from the International Monitoring System. Both tropospheric and stratospheric refractions arrived at the stations. In 2016, only a weak return was potentially observed at I45RU. Data analysis and propagation modeling show that the noise level at the stations and the stratospheric circumpolar vortex were different in 2016 compared to 2013. As the seismic magnitude of the 2013 and 2016 nuclear test explosions was comparable, we hypothesize that the 2016 test occurred at least 1.5 times deeper. In such a case, less seismic energy would couple through the lithosphere-atmosphere interface, leading to less observable infrasound. Since explosion depth is difficult to estimate from seismic data alone, this motivates a synergy between seismics and infrasonics.

  17. Detection of infrasound generated by Clear Air Turbulence (CAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meredith, R.; Badavi, F.; Becher, J.

    1981-01-01

    A unified data acquisiton system which is an AM carrier system consisting of a converter signal, conditioning electronics, and peripheral equipment was checked and calibrated and installed in a mobile van. A microphone array in the shape of a 244-m equilateral triangle was connected to the data acquisition system using 457-m long cables. Development of techniques for signal processing for interpreting the infrasonic signature (differentiating between CAT and other sources of infrasound) is summarized. Once patches of CAT are located in the atmosphere, corroboration can be achieved through test flights of aircraft into the suspected region.

  18. [Effects of infrasound therapy on proliferation, apoptosis and ultrastructure of human B lymphoma Raji cells].

    PubMed

    Bao, Yong; Fan, Jian-Zhong; Li, Ke; Li, Chuan; Yang, Jun-Feng

    2008-06-01

    To investigate the effect of infrasound therapy on the proliferation, apoptosis and ultrastructure of human B lymphoma Raji cells. Human B lymphoma Raji cells were exposed to infrasound treatment for 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min and cultured subsequently for 24 or 48 h. MTT assay, flow cytometry analysis, and electron microscopy were performed to examine the proliferative status, cell apoptosis and ultrastructural changes of the exposed cells, respectively. MTT assay revealed no significant changes in the proliferation of the cells exposed to infrasound treatment (P>0.05), nor did flow cytometry analysis identified significant variation in the cell apoptosis (P>0.05). Scanning electron microscopy, however, identified shortened or reduced cell processes and microvilli on the surface of the cells with infrasound exposure and a subsequent 24-hour culture, and the cell membrane surface became smooth. Under transmission electron microscope, the cells with infrasound treatment presented with significantly reduced microvilli, and the cell nuclei appeared homogeneous, with cytoplasmic budding and losses after a 48-hour culture. Infrasound less than 90 dB does not obviously affect the proliferation and apoptosis of Raji cells, but may directly cause cell ultrastructural changes such as reduction of the cell processes.

  19. Utilization of Seismic and Infrasound Signals for Characterizing Mining Explosions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-01

    different types of mining operations exist, ranging from surface coal cast blasting to hard rock fragmentation blasting in porphyry copper mines. The study...both seismic and infrasound signals. The seismic coupling of large-scale cast blasts in Wyoming, copper fragmentation blasts in Arizona and New Mexico...mining explosions from the copper fragmentation blasts in SE Arizona were observed at Los Alamos. Detected events were among the largest of the blasts

  20. Infrasound Sensor and Porous-Hose Filter Characterization Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, D. M.; Harris, J. M.

    2008-12-01

    The Ground-Based Nuclear Explosion Monitoring Research and Development (GNEM R&D) program at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is regarded as the primary center for unbiased expertise in testing and evaluation of geophysical sensors and instrumentation for nuclear explosion monitoring. Over the past year much of our work has focused in the area of infrasound sensor characterization through the continuing development of an infrasound sensor characterization test-bed. Our main areas of focus have been in new sensor characterization and understanding the effects of porous-hose filters for reducing acoustic background signals. Three infrasound sensors were evaluated for characteristics of instrument response, linearity and self-noise. The sensors tested were Chaparral Physics model 2.5 low-gain, New Mexico Tech All-Sensor and the Inter-Mountain Labs model SS avalanche sensor. For the infrasound sensors tested, the test results allow us to conclude that two of the three sensors had sufficiently quiet noise floor to be at or below the Acoustic low-noise model from 0.1 to 7 Hz, which make those sensors suitable to explosion monitoring. The other area of focus has been to understand the characteristics of porous-hose filters used at some monitoring sites. For this, an experiment was designed in which two infrasound sensors were co- located. One sensor was connected to a typical porous-hose spatial filter consisting of eight individual hoses covering a 30m aperture and the second sensor was left open to unimpeded acoustic input. Data were collected for several days, power spectrum computed for two-hour windows and the relative gain of the porous-hose filters were estimated by dividing the power spectrum. The porous-hose filter appears to attenuate less than 3 dB (rel 1 Pa**2/Hz) below 0.1 Hz and as much as 25 dB at 1 Hz and between 20 to 10 dB above 10 Hz. Several more experiments will be designed to address the effects of different characteristics of the individual porous

  1. [Characteristics of infrasound and its influence on workers in working environment of certain thermoelectricity works and department].

    PubMed

    Dang, Wei-Min; Wang, Sheng; Tian, Shi-Xiu; Zhao, Quan-Hong; Chen, Bing; Sun, Fei; He, Li-Hua; Zou, Zhi-Fang; Guo, Zhi-Bin; Ma, Wen-Jun

    2008-12-01

    To study the characteristics of infrasound and its effects on the workers at power plants. The audible noise and infrasound in three thermoelectricity plants were measured and by using Symptom Checklist 90 (SCL-90), the subjective sensation, and the physiological indices were compared between exposed workers and controls. The infrasound levels were different at different measure sites of the three thermoelectricity works ranging from 40 to 98 dB. There was still 40 approximately 80 dB infrasound even when the soot blower stopped running. Different apparatus produced different infrasound levels with the highest ranging from 62 to 115 dB. A single frequency (16 Hz) infrasound was produced in certain department during working hour with sound pressure levels of 110 to 120 dB, but the audible noise sound pressure level was less than 70 dB. There was no significant difference in the indices representing vision fatigue and neurobehaviour function between exposed workers and controls. Workers at certain department experienced evident subjective sensation of neurobehavioral dysfunction, and the scores of somatization, depression, hostility, phobic anxiety, and psychotism in the SCL-90 were significantly higher in the exposed group than in the control and the norm in China (P < 0.05). Infrasound is ubiquitous in the working environment, but usually, the noise levels are less than 120 dB. In some special production department, there is persistent infrasound above 110 to 120 dB. No obvious health effects are found among those who are exposed to infrasound below 100 dB. However, the workers who are chronically exposed to infrasound above 110 to 120 dB present notable subjective sensation of autonomic neurobehavioral dysfunction, and their psychological health status is not as good as those in the control and those in the domestic normal pattern.

  2. Infrasound-induced changes on sexual behavior in male rats and some underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Zhiqiang; Pei, Zhaohui; Chen, Jingzao

    2007-01-01

    To investigate some bioeffects of infrasound on copulation as well as underlying mechanisms, we inspected the changes of sexual behavior, serum testosterone concentration and mRNA expression levels of steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) in testes of rats exposed to infrasound of 8Hz at 90 or 130dB for 1, 7, 14 and 21 days (2h/day), respectively. Rats exposed to 90dB exhibited significant decrement in sexual behavior, serum testosterone levels and mRNA expression levels of StAR and P450scc at the time point of 1 day but not at the rest time points, and no significantly change of SF-1 mRNA expression was observed over the period of 21 days in spite of mild fluctuation. Rats exposed to 130dB exhibited significant decrement in all aspects above, which became more profound with prolonged exposure. Our conclusion is that adverse bioeffects of infrasound on reproduction depend on some exposure parameters, the mechanism of which could involve in the decreased expression of some key enzymes or regulator for testosterone biosynthesis. Copyright © 2006. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. The Temporal Morphology of Infrasound Propagation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    that incorpo- ration of hybrid ground-to-space (G2S) enviromental specifications in numerical calculations of infrasound signal travel time and...Ban Treaty Organization. Numerous studies have demonstrated that incorporation of hybrid ground-to-space (G2S) enviromental specifications in numerical

  4. Infrasound production by bolides: A global statistical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ens, T. A.; Brown, P. G.; Edwards, W. N.; Silber, E. A.

    2012-05-01

    We have examined a dataset consisting of 71 bolides detected by satellite sensors, which provide energy and location estimates, with simultaneous measurements of the same events on 143 distinct waveforms. These bolides have total source energies ranging from 0.02 kt TNT equivalent yield to ≈20 kt and probable diameters of order a few meters on average. We find that it is possible to detect large events with energies of ≈20 kt or more globally. Infrasonic detections of these events for stratospheric arrivals have ranges between 350-17,000 km and show clear wind-related amplitude modifications. We find that our period-yield relations are virtually identical to that found from AFTAC nuclear test data with the most robust period-yield correlation found for those events having multiple station averaged periods. We have also found empirical expressions relating maximum expected detection range for infrasound as a function of energy and low and high frequency cut-off as a function of energy. Our multi-variate fits suggest that 1/2 > yield-scaling is most appropriate for long range bolide infrasound measurements with a distance scaling exponent of ≈1.1 best representing the data. Our best-fit wind correction exponent is a factor of ≈3 smaller than found by previous studies which we suggest may indicate a decrease in the value of k with range. We find that the integral acoustic efficiency for bolides is ≥0.01% with a best lower limit estimate nearer 0.1%. Finally, we conclude that a range independent atmosphere implementation of the normal-mode approach to simulate bolide amplitudes is ineffective at large ranges due to the large change in atmospheric conditions along source-receiver paths.

  5. Infrasound Assessment of Infrastructure Report 6: Scour Detection and Riverine Health Assessment Using Infrasound

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    construed as an official Department of the Army position unless so designated by other authorized documents. DESTROY THIS REPORT WHEN NO LONGER NEEDED...20 Figure 14. Seismic and infrasound detection of a barge strike on the I-20 bridge pier during the...foundations meaning that no plans, either design or as-built, existed for the structure. Initially, bridges classified as having unknown foundations

  6. Infrasound and seismic detections associated with the 7 September 2015 Bangkok fireball

    DOE PAGES

    Caudron, Corentin; Taisne, Benoit; Perttu, Anna; ...

    2016-08-22

    A bright fireball was reported at 01:43:35 UTC on September 7, 2015 at a height of ~30 km above 14.5°N, 98.9°E near Bangkok, Thailand. It had a TNT yield equivalent of 3.9 kilotons (kt), making it the largest fireball detected in South–East Asia since the ~50 kt 2009 Sumatra bolide. Infrasonic signals were observed at four infrasound arrays that are part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) and one infrasound array located in Singapore. Acoustic bearings and event origin times inferred from array processing are consistent with the eyewitness accounts. A seismic signal associated with this event was also likelymore » recorded at station SRDT, in Thailand. As a result, an acoustic energy equivalent of 1.15 ± 0.24 kt is derived from the Singaporean acoustic data using the period of the peak energy.« less

  7. Infrasound and seismic detections associated with the 7 September 2015 Bangkok fireball

    SciTech Connect

    Caudron, Corentin; Taisne, Benoit; Perttu, Anna

    A bright fireball was reported at 01:43:35 UTC on September 7, 2015 at a height of ~30 km above 14.5°N, 98.9°E near Bangkok, Thailand. It had a TNT yield equivalent of 3.9 kilotons (kt), making it the largest fireball detected in South–East Asia since the ~50 kt 2009 Sumatra bolide. Infrasonic signals were observed at four infrasound arrays that are part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) and one infrasound array located in Singapore. Acoustic bearings and event origin times inferred from array processing are consistent with the eyewitness accounts. A seismic signal associated with this event was also likelymore » recorded at station SRDT, in Thailand. As a result, an acoustic energy equivalent of 1.15 ± 0.24 kt is derived from the Singaporean acoustic data using the period of the peak energy.« less

  8. Source Region Modeling of Explosions 2 and 3 from the Source Physics Experiment Using the Rayleigh Integral Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, K. R.; Arrowsmith, S.; Whitaker, R. W.

    2012-12-01

    The overall mission of the National Center for Nuclear Security (NCNS) Source Physics Experiment at the National Nuclear Security Site (SPE-N) near Las Vegas, Nevada is to improve upon and develop new physics based models for underground nuclear explosions using scaled, underground chemical explosions as proxies. To this end, we use the Rayleigh integral as an approximation to the Helmholz-Kirchoff integral, [Whitaker, 2007 and Arrowsmith et al., 2011], to model infrasound generation in the far-field. Infrasound generated by single-point explosive sources above ground can typically be treated as monopole point-sources. While the source is relatively simple, the research needed to model above ground point-sources is complicated by path effects related to the propagation of the acoustic signal and out of the scope of this study. In contrast, for explosions that occur below ground, including the SPE explosions, the source region is more complicated but the observation distances are much closer (< 5 km), thus greatly reducing the complication of path effects. In this case, elastic energy from the explosions radiates upward and spreads out, depending on depth, to a more distributed region at the surface. Due to this broad surface perturbation of the atmosphere we cannot model the source as a simple monopole point-source. Instead, we use the analogy of a piston mounted in a rigid, infinite baffle, where the surface area that moves as a result of the explosion is the piston and the surrounding region is the baffle. The area of the "piston" is determined by the depth and explosive yield of the event. In this study we look at data from SPE-N-2 and SPE-N-3. Both shots had an explosive yield of 1 ton at a depth of 45 m. We collected infrasound data with up to eight stations and 32 sensors within a 5 km radius of ground zero. To determine the area of the surface acceleration, we used data from twelve surface accelerometers installed within 100 m radially about ground zero

  9. Integration of Infrasound, Atmospheric Pressure, and Seismic Observations with the NSF EarthScope USArray Transportable Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernon, F.; Tytell, J.; Hedlin, M. A. H.; Walker, K.; Busby, R.; Woodward, R.

    2012-04-01

    Earthscope's USArray Transportable Array (TA) network serves as a real-time monitoring and recording platform for both seismic and weather phenomena. To date, most of the approximately 500 TA stations have been retrofitted with VTI SCP1000 MEMS barometric pressure gauges capable of recording data at 1 sample per second (sps). Additionally, over 300 of the TA stations have also been retrofitted with Setra 278 barometric gauges and NCPA infrasound sensors capable of recording data at 1 and 40 sps. While individual seismic events have been successfully researched via the TA network, observations of powerful weather events by the TA network have yet to be embraced by the scientific community. This presentation will focus on case studies involving severe weather passage across portions of the TA network throughout 2011 in order to highlight its viability as a platform for real-time weather monitoring and research. It will also highlight the coupling of atmospheric signals into the seismic observations. Examples of gust front passages and pressure couplets from severe thunderstorms will be presented, as will observations of multiple tornados occurred in the Spring of 2011. These data will demonstrate the overall viability of the TA network for monitoring severe weather events in real-time.

  10. A Framework for Real-Time Collection, Analysis, and Classification of Ubiquitous Infrasound Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christe, A.; Garces, M. A.; Magana-Zook, S. A.; Schnurr, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Traditional infrasound arrays are generally expensive to install and maintain. There are ~10^3 infrasound channels on Earth today. The amount of data currently provided by legacy architectures can be processed on a modest server. However, the growing availability of low-cost, ubiquitous, and dense infrasonic sensor networks presents a substantial increase in the volume, velocity, and variety of data flow. Initial data from a prototype ubiquitous global infrasound network is already pushing the boundaries of traditional research server and communication systems, in particular when serving data products over heterogeneous, international network topologies. We present a scalable, cloud-based approach for capturing and analyzing large amounts of dense infrasonic data (>10^6 channels). We utilize Akka actors with WebSockets to maintain data connections with infrasound sensors. Apache Spark provides streaming, batch, machine learning, and graph processing libraries which will permit signature classification, cross-correlation, and other analytics in near real time. This new framework and approach provide significant advantages in scalability and cost.

  11. Acoustic analysis of shock production by very high-altitude meteors—I: infrasonic observations, dynamics and luminosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, P. G.; Edwards, W. N.; Revelle, D. O.; Spurny, P.

    2007-04-01

    Four very high-velocity and high-altitude meteors (a Leonid, two Perseids and a high-speed sporadic fireball) have been unambiguously detected at the ground both optically using precision all-sky cameras and acoustically via infrasound and seismic signals. Infrasound arriving from altitudes of over 100 km is not very common, but has been previously observed for re-entering spacecraft. This, however, is the first reported detection of such high-altitude infrasound unambiguously from meteors to our knowledge. These fragile meteoroids were found to generate acoustic waves at source heights ranging from 80 to 110 km, with most acoustic energy being generated near the lowest heights. Time residuals between observed acoustic onset and model predictions based on ray-tracing points along the photographically determined trajectories indicate that the upper winds given by the UK meteorological office (UKMO) model systematically produce lower residuals for first arrivals than those from the Naval Research Laboratory Horizontal Wind Model (HWM). Average source energies for three of the four events from acoustic data alone are found to be in the range of 2×108-9 J. One event, EN010803, had unusually favorable geometry for acoustic detection at the ground and therefore has the smallest photometric source energy (10-5 kt; 6×107 J) of any meteor detected infrasonically. When compared to the total optical radiation recorded by film, the results for the three events produce equivalent integral panchromatic luminous efficiencies of 3 7%, within a factor of two of the values proposed by Ceplecha and McCrosky [1976. Fireball end heights—a diagnostic for the structure of meteoric material. Journal of Geophysical Research 81, 6257 6275] for the velocity range (55 70 km s-1) appropriate to our events. Application of these findings to meteor showers in general suggest that the Geminid shower should be the most prolific producer of infrasound detectable meteors at the ground of all the

  12. Tracking near-surface atmospheric conditions using an infrasound network.

    PubMed

    Marcillo, O; Johnson, J B

    2010-07-01

    Continuous volcanic infrasound signal was recorded on a three-microphone network at Kilauea in July 2008 and inverted for near-surface horizontal winds. Inter-station phase delays, determined by signal cross-correlation, vary by up to 4% and are attributable to variable atmospheric conditions. The results suggest two predominant weather regimes during the study period: (1) 6-9 m/s easterly trade winds and (2) lower-intensity 2-5 m/s mountain breezes from Mauna Loa. The results demonstrate the potential of using infrasound for tracking local averaged meteorological conditions, which has implications for modeling plume dispersal and quantifying gas flux.

  13. On the Infrasound Detected From The 2013 and 2016 DPRK's Underground Nuclear Tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assink, J. D.; Averbuch, G.; Smets, P. S. M.; Evers, L. G.

    2016-12-01

    The underground nuclear tests by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) generated atmospheric infrasound both in 2013 and 2016. Clear detections were made in the Russian Federation (I45RU) and Japan (I30JP) in 2013 at stations from the International Monitoring System. Both tropospheric and stratospheric refractions arrived at the stations. In 2016, only a weak return was potentially observed at I45RU. Data analysis and propagation modeling show that the noise level at the stations and the stratospheric circumpolar vortex were different in 2016 compared to 2013. A seismo-acoustic analysis of the 2013 and 2016 DPRK tests, in combination with atmospheric propagation modeling, motivates the hypothesis that the 2016 test was at a greater depth than the 2013 test. In such a case, less seismic energy would couple through the lithosphere-atmosphere interface, leading to less observable infrasound. A preliminary analysis suggests that the 2016 test occurred at least 1.5 times deeper. Since explosion depth is difficult to estimate from seismic data alone, this motivates a synergy between seismics and infrasonics.

  14. Infrasound and the avian navigational map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagstrum, J.T.

    2001-01-01

    Birds can accurately navigate over hundreds to thousands of kilometres, and use celestial and magnetic compass senses to orient their flight. How birds determine their location in order to select the correct homeward bearing (map sense) remains controversial, and has been attributed to their olfactory or magnetic senses. Pigeons can hear infrasound down to 0??05 Hz, and an acoustic avian map is proposed consisting of infrasonic cues radiated from steep-sided topographic features. The source of these infrasonic signals is microseisms continuously generated by interfering oceanic waves. Atmospheric processes affecting the infrasonic map cues can explain perplexing experimental results from pigeon releases. Moreover, four recent disrupted pigeon races in Europe and the north-eastern USA intersected infrasonic shock waves from the Concorde supersonic transport. Having an acoustic map might also allow clock-shifted birds to test their homeward progress and select between their magnetic and solar compasses.

  15. Monitoring the development of volcanic eruptions through volcanic lightning - Using a lightning mapping array, seismic and infrasound array, and visual plume analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C. M.; Thompson, G.; McNutt, S. R.; Behnke, S. A.; Edens, H. E.; Van Eaton, A. R.; Gaudin, D.; Thomas, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    The period of 28 May - 7 June 2015 at Sakurajima Volcano, Japan witnessed a multitude of Vulcanian eruptive events, which resulted in plumes reaching 500-3000m above the vent. These plumes varied from white, gas-rich plumes to dark grey and black ash-rich plumes, and were recorded on lowlight and infrared cameras. A nine-station lightning mapping array (LMA) was deployed to locate sources of VHF (67-73 MHz) radiation produced by lightning flashes and other types of electrical activity such as `continuous RF (radio frequency)'. Two Nanometrics Trillium broadband seismometers and six BSU infrasound sensors were deployed. Over this ten day period we recorded 1556 events that consisted of both seismic and infrasound signals, indicating explosive activity. There are an additional 1222 events that were recorded as only seismic or infrasound signals, which may be a result of precursory seismic signals or noise contamination. Plume discharge types included both distinct lightning flashes and `continuous RF'. The LMA ran continuously for the duration of the experiment. On 30 May 2015 at least seven lightning flashes were also detected by the Vaisala Global Lightning Detection 360 network, which detects VLF (3-30 kHz) radiation. However the University of Washington's World Wide Lightning Location Network, which also detects VLF radiation, detected no volcanic lightning flashes in this time period. This indicates that the electrical activity in Sakurajima's plume occurs near the lower limits of the VLF detection threshold. We investigate relationships between the plume dynamics, the geophysical signal and the corresponding electrical activity through: plume velocity and height; event waveform cross-correlation; volcano acoustic-seismic ratios; overall geophysical energy; RSAM records; and VHF sources detected by the LMA. By investigating these relationships we hope to determine the seismic/infrasound energy threshold required to generate measurable electrical activity

  16. Merging Infrasound and Electromagnetic Signals as a Means for Nuclear Explosion Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashkenazy, Joseph; Lipshtat, Azi; Kesar, Amit S.; Pistinner, Shlomo; Ben Horin, Yochai

    2016-04-01

    The infrasound monitoring network of the CTBT consists of 60 stations. These stations are capable of detecting atmospheric events, and may provide approximate location within time scale of a few hours. However, the nature of these events cannot be deduced from the infrasound signal. More than two decades ago it was proposed to use the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) as a means of discriminating nuclear explosion from other atmospheric events. An EMP is a unique signature of nuclear explosion and is not detected from chemical ones. Nevertheless, it was decided to exclude the EMP technology from the official CTBT verification regime, mainly because of the risk of high false alarm rate, due to lightning electromagnetic pulses [1]. Here we present a method of integrating the information retrieved from the infrasound system with the EMP signal which enables us to discriminate between lightning discharges and nuclear explosions. Furthermore, we show how spectral and other characteristics of the electromagnetic signal emitted from a nuclear explosion are distinguished from those of lightning discharge. We estimate the false alarm probability of detecting a lightning discharge from a given area of the infrasound event, and identifying it as a signature of a nuclear explosion. We show that this probability is very low and conclude that the combination of infrasound monitoring and EMP spectral analysis may produce a reliable method for identifying nuclear explosions. [1] R. Johnson, Unfinished Business: The Negotiation of the CTBT and the End of Nuclear Testing, United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research, 2009.

  17. Eruption mass estimation using infrasound waveform inversion and ash and gas measurements: Evaluation at Sakurajima Volcano, Japan [Comparison of eruption masses at Sakurajima Volcano, Japan calculated by infrasound waveform inversion and ground-based sampling

    DOE PAGES

    Fee, David; Izbekov, Pavel; Kim, Keehoon; ...

    2017-10-09

    Eruption mass and mass flow rate are critical parameters for determining the aerial extent and hazard of volcanic emissions. Infrasound waveform inversion is a promising technique to quantify volcanic emissions. Although topography may substantially alter the infrasound waveform as it propagates, advances in wave propagation modeling and station coverage permit robust inversion of infrasound data from volcanic explosions. The inversion can estimate eruption mass flow rate and total eruption mass if the flow density is known. However, infrasound-based eruption flow rates and mass estimates have yet to be validated against independent measurements, and numerical modeling has only recently been appliedmore » to the inversion technique. Furthermore we present a robust full-waveform acoustic inversion method, and use it to calculate eruption flow rates and masses from 49 explosions from Sakurajima Volcano, Japan.« less

  18. Eruption mass estimation using infrasound waveform inversion and ash and gas measurements: Evaluation at Sakurajima Volcano, Japan [Comparison of eruption masses at Sakurajima Volcano, Japan calculated by infrasound waveform inversion and ground-based sampling

    SciTech Connect

    Fee, David; Izbekov, Pavel; Kim, Keehoon

    Eruption mass and mass flow rate are critical parameters for determining the aerial extent and hazard of volcanic emissions. Infrasound waveform inversion is a promising technique to quantify volcanic emissions. Although topography may substantially alter the infrasound waveform as it propagates, advances in wave propagation modeling and station coverage permit robust inversion of infrasound data from volcanic explosions. The inversion can estimate eruption mass flow rate and total eruption mass if the flow density is known. However, infrasound-based eruption flow rates and mass estimates have yet to be validated against independent measurements, and numerical modeling has only recently been appliedmore » to the inversion technique. Furthermore we present a robust full-waveform acoustic inversion method, and use it to calculate eruption flow rates and masses from 49 explosions from Sakurajima Volcano, Japan.« less

  19. Multiple-Array Detection, Association and Location of Infrasound and Seismo-Acoustic Events - Utilization of Ground-Truth Information

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    signals detected by infrasound arrays were discriminated as surface explosions, not earthquakes , and are marked by yellow...velocity, and amplitude of detected signals at each array . Horizontal propagation velocity of infrasound signals , also called celerity, is used not only...REPRINT 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE MULTIPLE- ARRAY DETECTION , ASSOCIATION AND LOCATION OF INFRASOUND AND SEISMO-ACOUSTIC

  20. Multiple-Array Detection, Association and Location of Infrasound and Seismo-Acoustic Events - Utilization of Ground Truth Information

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    MULTIPLE-ARRAY DETECTION, ASSOCIATION AND LOCATION OF INFRASOUND AND SEISMO-ACOUSTIC EVENTS – UTILIZATION OF GROUND TRUTH INFORMATION Stephen J...and infrasound data from seismo-acoustic arrays and apply the methodology to regional networks for validation with ground truth information. In the...initial year of the project automated techniques for detecting, associating and locating infrasound signals were developed. Recently, the location

  1. Synthesis of a Novel Nitronyl Nitroxide Radical and Determination of its Protective Effects Against Infrasound-Induced Injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haibo; Wang, Jin; Yang, Qi; Zhang, Xinwei; Gao, Peng; Xu, Shenglong; Sun, XiaoLi; Wang, YuKun

    2015-07-01

    Infrasound causes functional disorders and structural injury to the central nervous system. However, few anti-infrasound drugs exist, and they are inefficient. Nitronyl nitroxide radicals have been reported to be good antioxidants that act as superoxide dismutase mimics and directly react with reactive oxygen species, such as ·OH, H2O2, and O 2 (∙) -. Our previous research showed that the nitronyl nitroxide radical L-NNNBP has good protective effects against β-amyloid deposition and memory deficits in an AD rat model of APP/PS1. The objective of the present study was to find a new group of anti-infrasound drugs and determine the underlying pharmacological actions of nitronyl nitroxide radicals against infrasound-induced neuronal impairment in vivo. We synthesized a new stable nitronyl nitroxide radical, NRbt, and characterized its crystal structure. The results of the anti-oxidative damage effects of NRbt and the positive control drug tempol showed that they could significantly increase the SOD activity, CAT activity and GSH level and decrease the MDA level in rat hippocampi compared with infrasound exposure without pretreatment. Moreover, the ability of NRbt to regulate the activity or level of these biochemical markers was better than that of tempol. Our results showed that both NRbt and tempol significantly protected against the learning and memory impairments induced by infrasound exposure in a Morris water maze, but there were no significant differences in the path length or escape latency between the rats in the tempol group and the three NRbt groups (P > 0.05). In addition, the infrasound-induced neuronal apoptosis in rat hippocampi was significantly suppressed by NRbt and tempol. The results demonstrated that compared with the infrasound exposure group, the expression of Bcl-2 was up-regulated and the expressions of Bax and caspase-3 were down-regulated in rats pretreated with NRbt (40 mg/kg) or tempol (40 mg/kg). These results showed that the newly

  2. Post-installation activities in the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivas Veloso, J. A.; Christie, D. R.; Hoffmann, T. L.; Campus, P.; Bell, M.; Langlois, A.; Martysevich, P.; Demirovik, E.; Carvalho, J.; Kramer, A.; Wu, Sean F.

    2002-11-01

    The provisional operation and maintenance of IMS infrasound stations after installation and subsequent certification has the objective to prepare the infrasound network for entry into force of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The goal is to maintain and fine tune the technical capabilities of the network, to repair faulty equipment, and to ensure that stations continue to meet the minimum specifications through evaluation of data quality and station recalibration. Due to the globally dispersed nature of the network, this program constitutes a significant undertaking that requires careful consideration of possible logistic approaches and their financial implications. Currently, 11 of the 60 IMS infrasound stations are transmitting data in the post-installation Testing & Evaluation mode. Another 5 stations are under provisional operation and are maintained in post-certification mode. It is expected that 20% of the infrasound network will be certified by the end of 2002. This presentation will focus on the different phases of post-installation activities of the IMS infrasound program and the logistical challenges to be tackled to ensure a cost-efficient management of the network. Specific topics will include Testing & Evaluation and Certification of Infrasound Stations, as well as Configuration Management and Network Sustainment.

  3. Infrasound as a Geophysical Probe Using Earth as a Venus Analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komjathy, Attila; Cutts, James; Pauken, Michael; Kedar, Sharon; Smrekar, Suzanne

    2016-10-01

    JPL is in a process of developing an instrument to measure seismic activity on Venus by detecting infrasonic waves in the atmosphere. The overall objective of this research is to demonstrate the feasibility of using sensitive barometers to detect infrasonic signals from seismic and explosive activity on Venus from a balloon platform. Because of Venus' dense atmosphere, seismic signatures from even small quakes (magnitude ~3) are effectively coupled into the atmosphere. The seismic signals are known to couple about 60 times more efficiently into the atmosphere on Venus than on Earth. It was found that almost no attenuation below 80 km on Venus for frequency less than 1Hz. Whereas wind noise is a major source of background noise for terrestrial infrasonic arrays, it is expected that a balloon platform, which drifts with winds will be capable of very sensitive measurements with low noise.In our research we will demonstrate and apply techniques for discriminating upward propagating waves from a seismic event by making measurements with two or more infrasonic sensors using very sensitive barometers on a tether deployed from the balloon in a series of earth-based tests. We will first demonstrate and validate the technique using an artificial infrasound source in a deployment from a hot air balloon on Earth and then extend it with longer duration flights in the troposphere and stratosphere.We will report results on the first flight experiment that will focus on using the barometer instruments on a tethered helium-filled balloon. The balloon flight will be conducted in the vicinity of a known seismic source generated by a seismic hammer. Earlier tests conducted by Sandia National Laboratory demonstrated that this is a highly reproducible source of seismic and acoustic energy using infrasound sensors. The results of the experiments are intended to validate the two-barometer signal processing approach using a well-characterized point signal source.

  4. Infrasound as a Geophysical Probe Using Earth as a Venus Analog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komjathy, A.; Cutts, J. A.; Pauken, M.; Kedar, S.; Smrekar, S. E.; Hall, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    JPL is in a process of developing an instrument to measure seismic activity on Venus by detecting infrasonic waves in the atmosphere. The overall objective of this research is to demonstrate the feasibility of using sensitive barometers to detect infrasonic signals from seismic and explosive activity on Venus from a balloon platform. Because of Venus' dense atmosphere, seismic signatures from even small quakes (magnitude 3) are effectively coupled into the atmosphere. The seismic signals are known to couple about 60 times more efficiently into the atmosphere on Venus than on Earth. It was found that almost no attenuation below 80 km on Venus for frequency less than 1Hz. Whereas wind noise is a major source of background noise for terrestrial infrasonic arrays, it is expected that a balloon platform, which drifts with winds will be capable of very sensitive measurements with low noise. In our research we will demonstrate and apply techniques for discriminating upward propagating waves from a seismic event by making measurements with two or more infrasonic sensors using very sensitive barometers on a tether deployed from the balloon in a series of earth-based tests. We will first demonstrate and validate the technique using an artificial infrasound source in a deployment from a hot air balloon on Earth and then extend it with longer duration flights in the troposphere and stratosphere. We will report results on the first flight experiment that will focus on using the barometer instruments on a tethered helium-filled balloon. The balloon flight will be conducted in the vicinity of a known seismic source generated by a seismic hammer. Earlier tests conducted by Sandia National Laboratory demonstrated that this is a highly reproducible source of seismic and acoustic energy using infrasound sensors. The results of the experiments are intended to validate the two-barometer signal processing approach using a well-characterized point signal source.

  5. IMS Seismic and Infrasound Stations Instrumental Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starovoit, Y. O.; Dricker, I. G.; Marty, J.

    2016-12-01

    The IMS seismic network is a set of monitoring facilities including 50 primary stations and 120 auxiliary stations. Besides the difference in the mode of data transmission to the IDC, technical specifications for seismographic equipment to be installed at both types of stations are essentially the same. The IMS infrasound network comprises 60 facilities with the requirement of continuous data transmission to IDC. The objective of this presentation is to report instrumental challenges associated with both seismic and infrasound technologies. In context of specifications for IMS seismic stations it was stressed that verification seismology is concerned with searching of reliable methods of signal detections at high frequencies. In the meantime MS/mb screening criteria between earthquakes and explosions relies on reliable detection of surface waves. The IMS seismic requirements for instrumental noise and operational range of data logger are defined as certain dB level below minimum background within the required frequency band from 0.02 to 16Hz. The type of sensors response is requested to be flat either in velocity or acceleration. The compliance with IMS specifications may thus introduce a challenging task when low-noise conditions have been recorded at the site. It means that as a station noise PSD approaches the NLNM it requires a high sensitive sensor to be connected to a quiet digitizer which may cause a quick system clip and waste of the available dynamic range. The experience has shown that hybrid frequency response of seismic sensors where combination of flat to velocity and flat to acceleration portions of the sensor frequency response may provide an optimal solution for utilization of the dynamic range and low digitizer noise floor. Vast efforts are also being undertaken and results achieved in the infrasound technology to standardize and optimize the response of the Wind-Noise Reduction System within the IMS infrasound passband from 0.02-4Hz and to deploy

  6. Infrasound exposure induces apoptosis of rat cardiac myocytes by regulating the expression of apoptosis-related proteins.

    PubMed

    Pei, Zhao-Hui; Chen, Bao-Ying; Tie, Ru; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Zhao, Ge; Qu, Ping; Zhu, Xiao-Xing; Zhu, Miao-Zhang; Yu, Jun

    2011-12-01

    It has been reported that exposure to infrasound causes cardiac dysfunction. Allowing for the key role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, the objective of this study was to investigate the apoptotic effects of infrasound. Cardiac myocytes cultured from neonatal rats were exposed to infrasound of 5 Hz at 130 dB. The apoptosis was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling. Also, the expression levels of a series of apoptosis-related proteins were detected. As a result, infrasound induced apoptosis of cultured rat cardiac myocytes in a time-dependant manner. The expression of proapoptotic proteins such as Bax, caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and FAS was significantly up-regulated, with concomitant down-regulated expression of antiapoptotic proteins such as Bcl-x, and the inhibitory apoptosis proteins family proteins including XIAP, cIAP-1, and cIAP-2. The expression of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and β-catenin, which are the substrate proteins of caspase-3, was significantly decreased. In conclusion, infrasound is an apoptotic inducer of cardiac myocytes.

  7. The 2013 Russian fireball largest ever detected by CTBTO infrasound sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Pichon, Alexis; Ceranna, Lars; Pilger, Christoph; Mialle, Pierrick; Brown, David; Herry, Pascal; Brachet, Nicolas

    2013-07-01

    15 February 2013, a large Earth-impacting fireball disintegrated over the Ural Mountains. This extraordinary event is, together with the 1908 Tunguska fireball, among the most energetic events ever instrumentally recorded. It generated infrasound returns, after circling the globe, at distances up to ~85,000 km, and was detected at 20 infrasonic stations of the global International Monitoring System (IMS). For the first time since the establishment of the IMS infrasound network, multiple arrivals involving waves that traveled twice round the globe have been clearly identified. A preliminary estimate of the explosive energy using empirical period-yield scaling relations gives a value of 460 kt of TNT equivalent. In the context of the future verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, this event provides a prominent milestone for studying in detail infrasound propagation around the globe for almost 3 days as well as for calibrating the performance of the IMS network.

  8. Infrasound and seismic analysis of the SpaceX Falcon9 explosion sequence of 1-September-2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, G.; McNutt, S. R.; Brown, R. G.; Braunmiller, J.; Mehta, C.

    2017-12-01

    During a static launch test on 1-Sep-2016 at Kennedy Space Center, a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket exploded causing loss of the rocket and the payload, and extensively damaging the launch complex. The sequence was captured by a 3-element infrasound array and a broadband 3-component seismometer at the Astronaut Beach House, just 0.87 miles (1.4 km) from the launch pad. Manual picking identified 153 impulsive airwave signals over a 26-minute interval and these were compared to video recordings of the sequence. The explosion onset consisted of a moderate signal on both seismic and infrasound (52 Pa) instruments. This corresponds to the rupture of the second-stage fuel tank. We found no signals before this, so we do not believe that there was an external cause. The primary fuel tank ruptured 4 seconds later and was the strongest event by far, producing an infrasound signal that exceeded 1400 Pa ( 2000 Pa in reduced pressure). The seismic signal consists mainly of air-coupled Rayleigh waves with frequencies of 5-23 Hz. The infrasound events occurred in four clusters. The first cluster included the onset and main events and 46 smaller events. This was followed by several minutes without infrasound signals during which a 3.5 minute continuous seismic vibration occurred. Cluster 2 consisted of 4 events ranging from 117-256 Pa. Cluster 3 comprised 96 events of 7-78 Pa. Cluster 4 consisted of 5 events with overpressures of 23-63 Pa. Gaps of several minutes without infrasound and seismic signals occurred between clusters 2 and 3, and 3 and 4. In terms of energy, the main event dominated; in terms of numbers, cluster 3 had the most infrasound events. The seismic and infrasound data are complementary to video recordings of the explosion, and provide additional characterization that may be useful to interpret the sequence of events. Because of the proximity of our array to this rocket explosion, our dataset may be unique.

  9. [Hygienic estimation of combined influence of noise and infrasound on the organism of military men].

    PubMed

    Akhmetzianov, I M; Zinkin, V N; Petreev, I V; Dragan, S P

    2011-11-01

    Hygienic estimation of combined influence of noise and infrasound on the organism of military men. Combined influence of noise and infrasound is accompanied by essential increase of risk of development neurosensory deafness and hypertensive illness. At combined influence of noise and infrasound with a maximum of a spectrum in the field of a sound range the probability of development neurosensory deafness will prevail. Thus probability of development of pathology of ear above the values established ISO 1999:1990. In a case if the spectrum maximum is necessary on an infrasonic range the probability of development of a hypertensive illness.

  10. Analysis and modeling of infrasound from a four-stage rocket launch.

    PubMed

    Blom, Philip; Marcillo, Omar; Arrowsmith, Stephen

    2016-06-01

    Infrasound from a four-stage sounding rocket was recorded by several arrays within 100 km of the launch pad. Propagation modeling methods have been applied to the known trajectory to predict infrasonic signals at the ground in order to identify what information might be obtained from such observations. There is good agreement between modeled and observed back azimuths, and predicted arrival times for motor ignition signals match those observed. The signal due to the high-altitude stage ignition is found to be low amplitude, despite predictions of weak attenuation. This lack of signal is possibly due to inefficient aeroacoustic coupling in the rarefied upper atmosphere.

  11. Infrasound Sensor Calibration and Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    infrasound calibration chamber. Under separate funding a number of upgrades were made to the chamber. These include a Geotech Smart24 digitizer and...of upgrades were made to the chamber. These include a Geotech Smart24 digitizer and workstation, an LVDT sensor for piston phone phase measurement, a...20 samples per second on a GeoTech Instruments DL 24 digitizer. Fifty cycles of data were fit with the Matlab function NLINFIT that gave the peak

  12. An optical fiber infrasound sensor: a new lower limit on atmospheric pressure noise between 1 and 10 Hz.

    PubMed

    Zumberge, Mark A; Berger, Jonathan; Hedlin, Michael A H; Husmann, Eric; Nooner, Scott; Hilt, Richard; Widmer-Schnidrig, Rudolf

    2003-05-01

    A new distributed sensor for detecting pressure variations caused by distant sources has been developed. The instrument reduces noise due to air turbulence in the infrasound band by averaging pressure along a line by means of monitoring strain in a long tubular diaphragm with an optical fiber interferometer. Above 1 Hz, the optical fiber infrasound sensor (OFIS) is less noisy than sensors relying on mechanical filters. Records collected from an 89-m-long OFS indicate a new low noise limit in the band from 1 to 10 Hz. Because the OFIS integrates pressure variations at light-speed rather than the speed of sound, phase delays of the acoustical signals caused by the sensor are negligible. Very long fiber-optic sensors are feasible and hold the promise of better wind-noise reduction than can be achieved with acoustical-mechanical systems.

  13. Infrasound as a Long Standing Tool for Monitoring Continental Ecuadorean Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, M. C.; Ortiz, H. D.; Hernandez, S.; Palacios, P.; Anzieta, J. C.

    2017-12-01

    In the last 10 years, infrasound and seismic methods have been successfully used in the continuous monitoring of eruptive activity at Tunguruhua, Reventador, Sangay and Cotopaxi volcanoes. After a dormant period of 81 years, Tungurahua woke up in 1999 and has since been characterized by vulcanian and strombolian eruptions. Beginning in July 2006, a permanent seismo-infrasonic network with 5 collocated seismic and infrasound sensors was installed through a cooperation with Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA). It recorded more than 6,000 explosions at Tungurahua with reduced amplitudes larger than 270 Pa at 1 km from the active crater, including 3 explosions greater than 6000 Pa associated with short-lived explosions. Major and long sustained eruptions (July 14-15, 2006; August 16-17, 2006; February 6-8, 2008, May 28, 2010; December 4, 2010; December 3-4, 2011; August 18, 2012) generated seismic and infrasound tremors with complex waveforms. In 2002, Reventador volcano produced the largest eruption in Ecuador in the last century (VEI-4). Since September 2012, alternating periods of strombolian activity and short-lived vulcanian explosions are monitored by seismic and microbarometer sensors located on the south-east border of the caldera rim. Non-steady activity with fluctuations between quiescence and frequent explosions, tremor, and chugging events is recorded. Infrasound of explosions ranges from 75 to 6350 Pa in reduced peak-to-peak amplitudes. Sangay, a remote and very active volcano, is monitored by a broadband seismometer and microbarometer collocated at 8 km from the summit. Active periods during the last few months are characterized by explosion events followed by lava flows and small ash emissions. In March 2016, more than 100 explosions were recorded in a single day. Finally, in 2015 Cotopaxi volcano began its recent eruptive period after 138 years of quiescence. One month after the initiation of its eruptive activity, 76 harmonic infrasound

  14. The stratospheric arrival pair in infrasound propagation.

    PubMed

    Waxler, Roger; Evers, Läslo G; Assink, Jelle; Blom, Phillip

    2015-04-01

    The ideal case of a deep and well-formed stratospheric duct for long range infrasound propagation in the absence of tropospheric ducting is considered. A canonical form, that of a pair of arrivals, for ground returns of impulsive signals in a stratospheric duct is determined. The canonical form is derived from the geometrical acoustics approximation, and is validated and extended through full wave modeling. The full caustic structure of the field of ray paths is found and used to determine phase relations between the contributions to the wavetrain from different propagation paths. Finally, comparison with data collected from the 2005 fuel gas depot explosion in Buncefield, England is made. The correspondence between the theoretical results and the observations is shown to be quite good.

  15. Multiple-Array Detection, Association and Location of Infrasound and Seismo-Acoustic Event-Utilization of Ground Truth Information (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-07

    AFRL-RV-PS- AFRL-RV-PS- TP-2012-0017 TP-2012-0017 MULTIPLE-ARRAY DETECTION, ASSOCIATION AND LOCATION OF INFRASOUND AND SEISMO-ACOUSTIC...ASSOCIATION AND LOCATION OF 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8718-08-C-0008 INFRASOUND AND SEISMO-ACOUSTIC EVENT – UTILIZATION OF GROUND-TRUTH... infrasound signals from both correlated and uncorrelated noise. Approaches to this problem are implementation of the F-detector, which employs the F

  16. [Effects of acute infrasound exposure on vestibular and auditory functions and the ultrastructural changes of inner ear in the guinea pig].

    PubMed

    Feng, B; Jiang, S; Yang, W; Han, D; Zhang, S

    2001-02-01

    To define the effects of acute infrasound exposure on vestibular and auditory functions and the ultrastructural changes of inner ear in guinea pigs. The animals involved in the study were exposed to 8 Hz infrasound at 135dB SPL for 90 minutes in a reverberant chamber. The sinusoidal pendular test (SPT), auditory brainstem response (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) were respectively detected pre-exposure and at 0(within 2 hrs), 2 and 5 day after exposure. The ultrastructures of the inner ear were observed by scanning electron microscopy. The slow-phase velocity and the frequency of the vestibular nystagmus elicited by sinusoidal pendular test (SPT) declined slightly following infrasound exposure, but the changes were not significant (P > 0.05). No differences in the ABR thresholds, the latencies and the interval peak latencies of I, III, V waves were found between the normal and the experimental groups, and among experimental groups. The amplitudes of DPOAE at any frequency declined remarkably in all experimental groups. The ultrastructures of the inner ear were damaged to different extent. Infrasound could transiently depress the excitability of the vestibular end-organs, decrease the function of OHC in the organ of Corti and cause damage to the inner ear of guinea pigs.

  17. Imaging the atmosphere using volcanic infrasound recorded on a dense local sensor network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcillo, O. E.; Johnson, J. B.; Johnson, R.

    2010-12-01

    We deployed a 47-node infrasound sensor network around Kilauea’s Halemaumau Vent to image the atmospheric conditions of the near-surface. This active vent is a persistent radiator of energetic infrasound enabling us to probe atmospheric winds and temperatures. This research builds upon a previous experiment that recorded infrasound on a three-node network, to determine relative phase delay and invert for atmospheric wind. The technique developed for this previous analysis assumed the intrinsic sound speed and was able to track the evolution of the average wind field in a large area (around 10 km2) and was largely insensitive to local meteorological effects, caused by topography and vegetation. The results of this previous experiment showed the potential of this technique for atmospheric studies and called for a following experiment with a denser sensor network over a larger area. During the summer 2010, we returned to Kilauea and deployed a 47-sensor network in three different configurations around Kilauea summit and down the volcano’s flanks. Persistent infrasonic tremor was ‘loud’ with excess pressures up to 10 Pa (when scaled to 1 km) and periods of high acoustic emissions that lasted from hours to days. The instrumentation for this experiment was composed of single-channel RefTek RT125A Texan digitizers and InfraNMT infrasound sensors. The Texan digitizers provide high-resolution 24-bit analog to digital conversion and can operate continuously for approximately five days with two D-cell batteries. The InfraNMT sensor is based on a piezo-electric transducer and was developed at the Infrasound Laboratory at New Mexico Tech. This sensor features low power (< 3 mA at 9 V) and flat response between 0.02 to 50 Hz. Three different network topologies were tested during this two-week experiment. For the first and second topologies, the sensors were deployed along established roads on two almost perpendicular sensor lines centered at the Halema’uma’u crater

  18. Status report on the establishment of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivas Veloso, J. A.; Christie, D. R.; Campus, P.; Bell, M.; Hoffmann, T. L.; Langlois, A.; Martysevich, P.; Demirovik, E.; Carvalho, J.; Kramer, A.

    2002-11-01

    The infrasound component of the International Monitoring System (IMS) for Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty verification aims for global detection and localization of low-frequency sound waves originating from atmospheric nuclear explosions. The infrasound network will consist of 60 array stations, distributed as evenly as possible over the globe to assure at least two-station detection capability for 1-kton explosions at any point on earth. This network will be larger and more sensitive than any other previously operated infrasound network. As of today, 85% of the site surveys for IMS infrasound stations have been completed, 25% of the stations have been installed, and 8% of the installations have been certified and are transmitting high-quality continuous data to the International Data Center in Vienna. By the end of 2002, 20% of the infrasound network is expected to be certified and operating in post-certification mode. This presentation will discuss the current status and progress made in the site survey, installation, and certification programs for IMS infrasound stations. A review will be presented of the challenges and difficulties encountered in these programs, together with practical solutions to these problems.

  19. Infrasound initiates directional fast-start escape responses in juvenile roach Rutilus rutilus.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, Hans E; Piddington, Robert W; Enger, Per S; Sand, Olav

    2004-11-01

    Acoustic stimuli within the sonic range are effective triggers of C-type escape behaviours in fish. We have previously shown that fish have an acute sensitivity to infrasound also, with acceleration thresholds in the range of 10(-5) m s(-2). In addition, infrasound at high intensities around 10(-2) m s(-2) elicits strong and sustained avoidance responses in several fish species. In the present study, the possible triggering of C-escapes by infrasonic single-cycle vibrations was examined in juvenile roach Rutilus rutilus. The fish were accelerated in a controlled and quantifiable manner using a swing system. The applied stimuli simulated essential components of the accelerations that a small fish would encounter in the hydrodynamic flow field produced by a predatory fish. Typical C- and S-type escape responses were induced by accelerations within the infrasonic range with a threshold of 0.023 m s(-2) for an initial acceleration at 6.7 Hz. Response trajectories were on average in the same direction as the initial acceleration. Unexpectedly, startle behaviours mainly occurred in the trailing half of the test chamber, in which the fish were subjected to linear acceleration in combination with compression, i.e. the expected stimuli produced by an approaching predator. Very few responses were observed in the leading half of the test chamber, where the fish were subjected to acceleration and rarefaction, i.e. the stimuli expected from a suction type of predator. We conclude that particle acceleration is essential for the directionality of the startle response to infrasound, and that the response is triggered by the synergistic effects of acceleration and compression.

  20. [Effects of infrasound exposure on several enzymes activities of spleen and liver in rats].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yao-ming; Ye, Lin; Gao, Shuang-bin; Zhu, Dong-hai; Luo, Weng-jing; Liu, Xiu-hong; Chen, Jing-yuan; Chen, Jing-zao

    2004-05-01

    To investigate the changes of several enzymes activities in the spleen and liver of rats after exposure to 8 Hz 130 dB infrasound for different time. Thirty-five male SD rats were randomly divided into five groups. Rats of group 1 served as control, rats from group 2 to 5 were exposed to 8 Hz 130 dB infrasound, 2 hours per day, for 1 wk, 2 wk, 3 wk, and 4 wk, respectively. The changes of enzymes activities in spleen and liver of rats were observed. Monoamine oxidase activities in spleen were significantly increased at 1 wk and 2 wk, it was decreased at 3 wk, and increased again at 4 wk (P < 0.05). There were no changes in the liver compared with the control group. Glutathione peroxides activities in spleen were significantly increased at 4 wk (P < 0.05) and it also increased in liver at 1 wk (P < 0.05). Superoxide dismutase activities in spleen were increased significantly from 1 wk to 4 wk, but there were no markedly changes in liver. The level of malondialdehyde in spleen were increased at 3 wk and 4 wk. In the liver, it were increased at 1 wk and 2 wk, and decreased at 3 wk, but it increased again at 4 wk (P < 0.05). The results indicated that lipid peroxidation and oxygen free radicals in spleen and liver were increased after infrasound exposure and it might induce the damage in tissue or cells.

  1. In situ calibration of atmospheric-infrasound sensors including the effects of wind-noise-reduction pipe systems.

    PubMed

    Gabrielson, Thomas B

    2011-09-01

    A worldwide network of more than 40 infrasound monitoring stations has been established as part of the effort to ensure compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Each station has four to eight individual infrasound elements in a kilometer-scale array for detection and bearing determination of acoustic events. The frequency range of interest covers a three-decade range-roughly from 0.01 to 10 Hz. A typical infrasound array element consists of a receiving transducer connected to a multiple-inlet pipe network to average spatially over the short-wavelength turbulence-associated "wind noise." Although the frequency response of the transducer itself may be known, the wind-noise reduction system modifies that response. In order to understand the system's impact on detection and identification of acoustical events, the overall frequency response must be determined. This paper describes a technique for measuring the absolute magnitude and phase of the frequency response of an infrasound element including the wind-noise-reduction piping by comparison calibration using ambient noise and a reference-microphone system. Measured coherence between the reference and the infrasound element and the consistency between the magnitude and the phase provide quality checks on the process. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  2. Analysis and modeling of infrasound from a four-stage rocket launch

    DOE PAGES

    Blom, Philip Stephen; Marcillo, Omar Eduardo; Arrowsmith, Stephen

    2016-06-17

    Infrasound from a four-stage sounding rocket was recorded by several arrays within 100 km of the launch pad. Propagation modeling methods have been applied to the known trajectory to predict infrasonic signals at the ground in order to identify what information might be obtained from such observations. There is good agreement between modeled and observed back azimuths, and predicted arrival times for motor ignition signals match those observed. The signal due to the high-altitude stage ignition is found to be low amplitude, despite predictions of weak attenuation. As a result, this lack of signal is possibly due to inefficient aeroacousticmore » coupling in the rarefied upper atmosphere.« less

  3. Analysis and modeling of infrasound from a four-stage rocket launch

    SciTech Connect

    Blom, Philip Stephen; Marcillo, Omar Eduardo; Arrowsmith, Stephen

    Infrasound from a four-stage sounding rocket was recorded by several arrays within 100 km of the launch pad. Propagation modeling methods have been applied to the known trajectory to predict infrasonic signals at the ground in order to identify what information might be obtained from such observations. There is good agreement between modeled and observed back azimuths, and predicted arrival times for motor ignition signals match those observed. The signal due to the high-altitude stage ignition is found to be low amplitude, despite predictions of weak attenuation. As a result, this lack of signal is possibly due to inefficient aeroacousticmore » coupling in the rarefied upper atmosphere.« less

  4. Study on osteogenesis promoted by low sound pressure level infrasound in vivo and some underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Long, Hua; Zheng, Liheng; Gomes, Fernando Cardoso; Zhang, Jinhui; Mou, Xiang; Yuan, Hua

    2013-09-01

    To clarify the effects of low sound pressure level (LSPL) infrasound on local bone turnover and explore its underlying mechanisms, femoral defected rats were stabilized with a single-side external fixator. After exposure to LSPL infrasound for 30min twice everyday for 6 weeks, the pertinent features of bone healing were assessed by radiography, peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT), histology and immunofluorescence assay. Infrasound group showed a more consecutive and smoother process of fracture healing and modeling in radiographs and histomorphology. It also showed significantly higher average bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD). Immunofluorescence showed increased expression of calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) and decreased Neuropeptide Y (NPY) innervation in microenvironment. The results suggested the osteogenesis promotion effects of LSPL infrasound in vivo. Neuro-osteogenic network in local microenvironment was probably one target mediating infrasonic osteogenesis, which might provide new strategy to accelerate bone healing and remodeling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A Framework for Estimating Stratospheric Wind Speeds from Infrasound Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrowsmith, S.; Marcillo, O. E.

    2012-12-01

    We present a methodology for infrasonic remote sensing of winds in the stratosphere that does not require discrete ground-truth events. Our method uses measured time delays between arrays of sensors to provide group velocities and then minimizes the difference between observed and predicted group velocities. Because we focus on inter-array propagation effects, it is not necessary to simulate the full propagation path from source to receiver. This feature allows us to use a relatively simple forward model that is applicable over short-regional distances. By focusing on stratospheric returns, we show that our nonlinear inversion scheme converges much better if the starting model contains a strong stratospheric duct. Using the HWM/MSISE model, we demonstrate that the inversion scheme is robust to large uncertainties in backazimuth, but that uncertainties in the measured trace velocity and group velocity should be controlled through the addition of adjoint constraints. Using realistic estimates of measurement error, our results show that the inversion scheme will nevertheless improve upon a starting model under most scenarios for the 9-array Utah infrasound network. Future research should investigate the effects of model error associated with these measurements.

  6. Infrasound-induced hemodynamics, ultrastructure, and molecular changes in the rat myocardium.

    PubMed

    Pei, Zhaohui; Sang, Hanfei; Li, Ruiman; Xiao, Pingxi; He, Jiangui; Zhuang, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Miaozhang; Chen, Jingzao; Ma, Hong

    2007-04-01

    Recent interest in adverse effects of infrasound on organisms arises from health concerns. We assessed the association between infrasound exposure of 5 Hz at 130 dB and changes of cardiac ultrastructure and function in rats. Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into control, 1, 7, and 14 days groups for 2 h of infrasound once daily according to planned schedules. Changes of cardiac ultrastructure, hemodynamics indices, intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)](i)), and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase 2 (SERCA2) were detected. Heart rates in 1 day group were significantly increased compared with control group and no significant changes in other groups. Left ventricular systolic pressures were significantly increased with time. Left ventricular diastolic end pressure and maximum rising rates of left ventricular pressure (+dl/dt) were significantly increased in 7 and 14 days groups and not changed in 1 day group, compared with control group. Maximum dropping rates of left ventricular pressure (-dl/dt) were significantly decreased in 7 and 14 days groups and not changed in 1 day group, compared with control group. In heart cells, there were several swelled mitochondria in 1 day group, more swelled mitochondria in 7 days group, platelet aggregation in the intercellular substance in 14 days group. [Ca(2+)](i) were significantly increased with time. There was a significant increase in SERCA2 in 1 day group, while a significant decrease in 7 and 14 days groups, compared with control group. Infrasound of 5 Hz at 130 dB can damage cardiac ultrastructure and function. Changes of [Ca(2+)](i) and SERCA2 play an important role in the secondary cardiac damage. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Effect of infrasound on cochlear damage from exposure to a 4 kHz octave band of noise.

    PubMed

    Harding, Gary W; Bohne, Barbara A; Lee, Steve C; Salt, Alec N

    2007-03-01

    Infrasound (i.e., <20 Hz for humans; <100 Hz for chinchillas) is not audible, but exposure to high-levels of infrasound will produce large movements of cochlear fluids. We speculated that high-level infrasound might bias the basilar membrane and perhaps be able to minimize noise-induced hearing loss. Chinchillas were simultaneously exposed to a 30 Hz tone at 100 dB SPL and a 4 kHz OBN at either 108 dB SPL for 1.75 h or 86 dB SPL for 24h. For each animal, the tympanic membrane (TM) in one ear was perforated ( approximately 1 mm(2)) prior to exposure to attenuate infrasound transmission to that cochlea by about 50 dB SPL. Controls included animals that were exposed to the infrasound only or the 4 kHz OBN only. ABR threshold shifts (TSs) and DPOAE level shifts (LSs) were determined pre- and post-TM-perforation and immediately post-exposure, just before cochlear fixation. The cochleae were dehydrated, embedded in plastic, and dissected into flat preparations of the organ of Corti (OC). Each dissected segment was evaluated for losses of inner hair cells (IHCs) and outer hair cells (OHCs). For each chinchilla, the magnitude and pattern of functional and hair cell losses were compared between their right and left cochleae. The TM perforation produced no ABR TS across frequency but did produce a 10-21 dB DPOAE LS from 0.6 to 2 kHz. The infrasound exposure alone resulted in a 10-20 dB ABR TS at and below 2 kHz, no DPOAE LS and no IHC or OHC losses. Exposure to the 4 kHz OBN alone at 108 dB produced a 10-50 dB ABR TS for 0.5-12 kHz, a 10-60 dB DPOAE LS for 0.6-16 kHz and severe OHC loss in the middle of the first turn. When infrasound was present during exposure to the 4 kHz OBN at 108 dB, the functional losses and OHC losses extended much further toward the apical and basal tips of the OC than in cochleae exposed to the 4 kHz OBN alone. Exposure to only the 4 kHz OBN at 86 dB produces a 10-40 dB ABR TS for 3-12 kHz and 10-30 dB DPOAE LS for 3-8 kHz but little or no OHC loss

  8. Effect of infrasound on cochlear damage from exposure to a 4-kHz octave band of noise

    PubMed Central

    Harding, Gary W.; Bohne, Barbara A.; Lee, Steve C.; Salt, Alec N.

    2008-01-01

    Infrasound (i.e., < 20 Hz for humans; < 100 Hz for chinchillas) is not audible, but exposure to high levels of infrasound will produce large movements of cochlear fluids. We speculated that high-level infrasound might bias the basilar membrane and perhaps be able to minimize noise-induced hearing loss. Chinchillas were simultaneously exposed to a 30 Hz tone at 100 dB SPL and a 4-kHz OBN at either 108 dB SPL for 1.75 h or 86 dB SPL for 24 h. For each animal, the tympanic membrane (TM) in one ear was perforated (~1 mm2) prior to exposure to attenuate infrasound transmission to that cochlea by about 50 dB SPL. Controls included animals that were exposed to the infrasound only or the 4-kHz OBN only. ABR threshold shifts (TSs) and DPOAE level shifts (LSs) were determined pre- and post-TM-perforation and immediately post-exposure, just before cochlear fixation. The cochleae were dehydrated, embedded in plastic, and dissected into flat preparations of the organ of Corti (OC). Each dissected segment was evaluated for losses of inner hair cells (IHCs) and outer hair cells (OHCs). For each chinchilla, the magnitude and pattern of functional and hair cell losses were compared between their right and left cochleae. The TM perforation produced no ABR TS across frequency but did produce a 10–21 dB DPOAE LS from 0.6–2 kHz. The infrasound exposure alone resulted in a 10–20 dB ABR TS at and below 2 kHz, no DPOAE LS and no IHC or OHC losses. Exposure to the 4-kHz OBN alone at 108 dB produced a 10–50 dB ABR TS for 0.5–12 kHz, a 10–60 dB DPOAE LS for 0.6–16 kHz and severe OHC loss in the middle of the first turn. When infrasound was present during exposure to the 4-kHz OBN at 108 dB, the functional losses and OHC losses extended much further toward the apical and basal tips of the OC than in cochleae exposed to the 4-kHz OBN alone. Exposure to only the 4-kHz OBN at 86 dB produces a 10–40 dB ABR TS for 3–12 kHz and 10–30 dB DPOAE LS for 3–8 kHz but little or no

  9. Role of infrasound pressure waves in atherosclerotic plaque rupture: a theoretical approach.

    PubMed

    Tsatsaris, Athanasios; Koukounaris, Efstathios; Motsakos, Theodoros; Perrea, Despina

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the role of infrasound aortic pressure waves (IPW) in atherosclerotic plaque rupture. Atherosclerotic plaques have been simulated partly, in two dimensions, as being short or long Conical Intersections (CIS), that is to say elliptic, parabolic or hyperbolic surfaces. Consequently, the course and reflection of the generated aortic pressure wave (infrasound domain-less than 20Hz) has been examined around the simulated plaques. The incidence of IPW on plaque surface results both in reflection and "refraction" of the wave. The IPW course within tissue, seems to be enhanced by high Cu-level presence at these areas according to recent evidence (US2003000388213). The "refracted", derived wave travels through plaque tissue and is eventually accumulated to the foci of the respective CIS-plaque geometry. The foci location within or underneath atheroma declares zones where infrasound energy is mostly absorbed. This process, among other mechanisms may contribute to plaque rupture through the development of local hemorrhage and inflammation in foci areas. In future, detection of foci areas and repair (i.e. via Laser Healing Microtechnique) may attenuate atherosclerotic plaque rupture behavior.

  10. Comparing near-regional and local measurements of infrasound from Mount Erebus, Antarctica: Implications for monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowa, A. L.; Green, D. N.; Johnson, J. B.; Phillips, J. C.; Rust, A. C.

    2014-11-01

    amplitude and lower atmosphere effective sound speed structure. At times of increased sound speed gradient, higher amplitude decay rates are observed, consistent with increased upward refraction of acoustic energy along the propagation path. This study indicates that whilst monitoring activity levels at near-regional ranges can be successful, variable amplitude decay rate means quantitative analysis of infrasound data for eruption intensity and magnitude is not advisable without the consideration of local atmospheric sound speed structure.

  11. Influence of infrasound exposure on the whole L-type calcium currents in rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Pei, Zhaohui; Zhuang, Zhiqiang; Xiao, Pingxi; Chen, Jingzao; Sang, Hanfei; Ren, Jun; Wu, Zhenbiao; Yan, Guangmei

    2009-06-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of infrasound exposure (5 Hz at 130 dB) on whole-cell L-type Ca2+ currents (WLCC) in rat ventricular myocytes and the underlying mechanism(s) involved. Thirty-two adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to infrasound exposure and control groups. [Ca2+](i), WLCC, mRNA expression of the a(1c) subunit of L-type Ca2+ channels (LCC), and SERCA2 protein were examined on day 1, 7, and 14 after initiation of infrasound exposure. Fluo-3/AM fluorescence and the laser scanning confocal microscope techniques were used to measure [Ca2+](i) in freshly isolated ventricular myocytes. The Ca2+ fluorescence intensity (FI), denoting [Ca2+](i) in cardiomyocytes, was significantly elevated in a time-dependent manner in the exposure groups. There was a significant increase in WLCC in the 1-day group and a further significant increase in the 7- and 14-day groups. LCC mRNA expression measured by RT-PCR revealed a significant rise in the 1-day group and a significant additional rise in the 7- and 14-day groups compared with control group. SERCA2 expression was significantly upregulated in the 1-day group followed by an overt decrease in the 7- and 14-day groups. Prolonged exposure of infrasound altered WLCC in rat cardiomyocytes by shifting the steady-state inactivation curves to the right (more depolarized direction) without altering the slope and biophysical properties of I (Ca,L). Taken together, our data suggest that changes in [Ca2+](I) levels as well as expression of LCC and SERCA2 may contribute to the infrasound exposure-elicited cardiac response.

  12. Group Behavioural Responses of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L.) to Light, Infrasound and Sound Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Samantha; Oppedal, Frode; Korsøen, Øyvind J.; Sonny, Damien; Dempster, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Understanding species-specific flight behaviours is essential in developing methods of guiding fish spatially, and requires knowledge on how groups of fish respond to aversive stimuli. By harnessing their natural behaviours, the use of physical manipulation or other potentially harmful procedures can be minimised. We examined the reactions of sea-caged groups of 50 salmon (1331±364 g) to short-term exposure to visual or acoustic stimuli. In light experiments, fish were exposed to one of three intensities of blue LED light (high, medium and low) or no light (control). Sound experiments included exposure to infrasound (12 Hz), a surface disturbance event, the combination of infrasound and surface disturbance, or no stimuli. Groups that experienced light, infrasound, and the combination of infrasound and surface disturbance treatments, elicited a marked change in vertical distribution, where fish dived to the bottom of the sea-cage for the duration of the stimulus. Light treatments, but not sound, also reduced the total echo-signal strength (indicative of swim bladder volume) after exposure to light, compared to pre-stimulus levels. Groups in infrasound and combination treatments showed increased swimming activity during stimulus application, with swimming speeds tripled compared to that of controls. In all light and sound treatments, fish returned to their pre-stimulus swimming depths and speeds once exposure had ceased. This work establishes consistent, short-term avoidance responses to these stimuli, and provides a basis for methods to guide fish for aquaculture applications, or create avoidance barriers for conservation purposes. In doing so, we can achieve the manipulation of group position with minimal welfare impacts, to create more sustainable practices. PMID:23691087

  13. Group behavioural responses of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) to light, infrasound and sound stimuli.

    PubMed

    Bui, Samantha; Oppedal, Frode; Korsøen, Øyvind J; Sonny, Damien; Dempster, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Understanding species-specific flight behaviours is essential in developing methods of guiding fish spatially, and requires knowledge on how groups of fish respond to aversive stimuli. By harnessing their natural behaviours, the use of physical manipulation or other potentially harmful procedures can be minimised. We examined the reactions of sea-caged groups of 50 salmon (1331 ± 364 g) to short-term exposure to visual or acoustic stimuli. In light experiments, fish were exposed to one of three intensities of blue LED light (high, medium and low) or no light (control). Sound experiments included exposure to infrasound (12 Hz), a surface disturbance event, the combination of infrasound and surface disturbance, or no stimuli. Groups that experienced light, infrasound, and the combination of infrasound and surface disturbance treatments, elicited a marked change in vertical distribution, where fish dived to the bottom of the sea-cage for the duration of the stimulus. Light treatments, but not sound, also reduced the total echo-signal strength (indicative of swim bladder volume) after exposure to light, compared to pre-stimulus levels. Groups in infrasound and combination treatments showed increased swimming activity during stimulus application, with swimming speeds tripled compared to that of controls. In all light and sound treatments, fish returned to their pre-stimulus swimming depths and speeds once exposure had ceased. This work establishes consistent, short-term avoidance responses to these stimuli, and provides a basis for methods to guide fish for aquaculture applications, or create avoidance barriers for conservation purposes. In doing so, we can achieve the manipulation of group position with minimal welfare impacts, to create more sustainable practices.

  14. Finite-difference time-domain synthesis of infrasound propagation through an absorbing atmosphere.

    PubMed

    de Groot-Hedlin, C

    2008-09-01

    Equations applicable to finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) computation of infrasound propagation through an absorbing atmosphere are derived and examined in this paper. It is shown that over altitudes up to 160 km, and at frequencies relevant to global infrasound propagation, i.e., 0.02-5 Hz, the acoustic absorption in dB/m varies approximately as the square of the propagation frequency plus a small constant term. A second-order differential equation is presented for an atmosphere modeled as a compressible Newtonian fluid with low shear viscosity, acted on by a small external damping force. It is shown that the solution to this equation represents pressure fluctuations with the attenuation indicated above. Increased dispersion is predicted at altitudes over 100 km at infrasound frequencies. The governing propagation equation is separated into two partial differential equations that are first order in time for FDTD implementation. A numerical analysis of errors inherent to this FDTD method shows that the attenuation term imposes additional stability constraints on the FDTD algorithm. Comparison of FDTD results for models with and without attenuation shows that the predicted transmission losses for the attenuating media agree with those computed from synthesized waveforms.

  15. Seismo-acoustic Signals Recorded at KSIAR, the Infrasound Array Installed at PS31

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T. S.; Che, I. Y.; Jeon, J. S.; Chi, H. C.; Kang, I. B.

    2014-12-01

    One of International Monitoring System (IMS)'s primary seismic stations, PS31, called Korea Seismic Research Station (KSRS), was installed around Wonju, Korea in 1970s. It has been operated by US Air Force Technical Applications Center (AFTAC) for more than 40 years. KSRS is composed of 26 seismic sensors including 19 short period, 6 long period and 1 broad band seismometers. The 19 short period sensors were used to build an array with a 10-km aperture while the 6 long period sensors were used for a relatively long period array with a 40-km aperture. After KSRS was certified as an IMS station in 2006 by Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO), Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) which is the Korea National Data Center started to take over responsibilities on the operation and maintenance of KSRS from AFTAC. In April of 2014, KIGAM installed an infrasound array, KSIAR, on the existing four short period seismic stations of KSRS, the sites KS05, KS06, KS07 and KS16. The collocated KSIAR changed KSRS from a seismic array into a seismo-acoustic array. The aperture of KSIAR is 3.3 km. KSIAR also has a 100-m small aperture infrasound array at KS07. The infrasound data from KSIAR except that from the site KS06 is being transmitted in real time to KIGAM with VPN and internet line. An initial analysis on seismo-acoustic signals originated from local and regional distance ranges has been performed since May 2014. The analysis with the utilization of an array process called Progressive Multi-Channel Correlation (PMCC) detected seismo-acoustic signals caused by various sources including small explosions in relation to constructing local tunnels and roads. Some of them were not found in the list of automatic bulletin of KIGAM. The seismo-acoustic signals recorded by KSIAR are supplying a useful information for discriminating local and regional man-made events from natural events.

  16. Long-range propagation of nonlinear infrasound waves through an absorbing atmosphere.

    PubMed

    de Groot-Hedlin, C D

    2016-04-01

    The Navier-Stokes equations are solved using a finite-difference, time-domain (FDTD) approach for axi-symmetric environmental models, allowing three-dimensional acoustic propagation to be simulated using a two-dimensional Cylindrical coordinate system. A method to stabilize the FDTD algorithm in a viscous medium at atmospheric densities characteristic of the lower thermosphere is described. The stabilization scheme slightly alters the governing equations but results in quantifiable dispersion characteristics. It is shown that this method leaves sound speeds and attenuation unchanged at frequencies that are well resolved by the temporal sampling rate but strongly attenuates higher frequencies. Numerical experiments are performed to assess the effect of source strength on the amplitudes and spectral content of signals recorded at ground level at a range of distances from the source. It is shown that the source amplitudes have a stronger effect on a signal's dominant frequency than on its amplitude. Applying the stabilized code to infrasound propagation through realistic atmospheric profiles shows that nonlinear propagation alters the spectral content of low amplitude thermospheric signals, demonstrating that nonlinear effects are significant for all detectable thermospheric returns.

  17. Infrasound radiated by the Gerdec and Chelopechene explosions: propagation along unexpected paths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, David N.; Vergoz, Julien; Gibson, Robert; Le Pichon, Alexis; Ceranna, Lars

    2011-05-01

    Infrasound propagation paths through the atmosphere are controlled by the temporally and spatially varying sound speed and wind speed amplitudes. Because of the complexity of atmospheric acoustic propagation it is often difficult to reconcile observed infrasonic arrivals with the sound speed profiles predicted by meteorological specifications. This paper provides analyses of unexpected arrivals recorded in Europe and north Africa from two series of accidental munitions dump explosions, recorded at ranges greater than 1000 km: two explosions at Gerdec, Albania, on 2008 March 15 and four explosions at Chelopechene, Bulgaria, on 2008 July 3. The recorded signal characteristics include multiple pulsed arrivals, celerities between 0.24 and 0.34 km s-1 and some signal frequency content above 1 Hz. Often such characteristics are associated with waves that have propagated within a ground-to-stratosphere waveguide, although the observed celerities extend both above and below the conventional range for stratospheric arrivals. However, state-of-the-art meteorological specifications indicate that either weak, or no, ground-to-stratosphere waveguides are present along the source-to-receiver paths. By incorporating realistic gravity-wave induced horizontal velocity fluctuations into time-domain Parabolic Equation models the pulsed nature of the signals is simulated, and arrival times are predicted to within 30 s of the observed values (<1 per cent of the source-to-receiver transit time). Modelling amplitudes is highly dependent upon estimates of the unknown acoustic source strength (or equivalent chemical explosive yield). Current empirical explosive yield relationships, derived from infrasonic amplitude measurements from point-source chemical explosions, suggest that the equivalent chemical yield of the largest Gerdec explosion was of the order of 1 kt and the largest Chelopechene explosion was of the order of 100 t. When incorporating these assumed yields, the Parabolic

  18. Infrasound Signals as Basis for Event Discriminants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    tests ( UGT ) at the NTS, some work was done on finding discriminants between UGTs and earthquakes. Plots of wind-corrected infrasound pressure amplitude...probably due to the longer duration of earthquake motion compared to the Figure 1. These figure illustrate the initial comparisons for UGTs and...earthquakes for signal duration (left) and wind corrected amplitude (right) as functions of Mb. relatively short duration for a UGT . On the other hand

  19. Automatic identification of alpine mass movements based on seismic and infrasound signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimmel, Andreas; Hübl, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    The automatic detection and identification of alpine mass movements like debris flows, debris floods or landslides gets increasing importance for mitigation measures in the densely populated and intensively used alpine regions. Since this mass movement processes emits characteristically seismic and acoustic waves in the low frequency range this events can be detected and identified based on this signals. So already several approaches for detection and warning systems based on seismic or infrasound signals has been developed. But a combination of both methods, which can increase detection probability and reduce false alarms is currently used very rarely and can serve as a promising method for developing an automatic detection and identification system. So this work presents an approach for a detection and identification system based on a combination of seismic and infrasound sensors, which can detect sediment related mass movements from a remote location unaffected by the process. The system is based on one infrasound sensor and one geophone which are placed co-located and a microcontroller where a specially designed detection algorithm is executed which can detect mass movements in real time directly at the sensor site. Further this work tries to get out more information from the seismic and infrasound spectrum produced by different sediment related mass movements to identify the process type and estimate the magnitude of the event. The system is currently installed and tested on five test sites in Austria, two in Italy and one in Switzerland as well as one in Germany. This high number of test sites is used to get a large database of very different events which will be the basis for a new identification method for alpine mass movements. These tests shows promising results and so this system provides an easy to install and inexpensive approach for a detection and warning system.

  20. Acoustic buffeting by infrasound in a low vibration facility.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, B P; Hoffman, J E; Burke, S A; Bonn, D A

    2016-09-01

    Measurement instruments and fabrication tools with spatial resolution on the atomic scale require facilities that mitigate the impact of vibration sources in the environment. One approach to protection from vibration in a building's foundation is to place the instrument on a massive inertia block, supported on pneumatic isolators. This opens the questions of whether or not a massive floating block is susceptible to acoustic forces, and how to mitigate the effects of any such acoustic buffeting. Here this is investigated with quantitative measurements of vibrations and sound pressure, together with finite element modeling. It is shown that a particular concern, even in a facility with multiple acoustic enclosures, is the excitation of the lowest fundamental acoustic modes of the room by infrasound in the low tens of Hz range, and the efficient coupling of the fundamental room modes to a large inertia block centered in the room.

  1. I37NO: an IMS infrasound array in northern Norway for optimal monitoring of infrasound on global and regional scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvaerna, Tormod; Gibbons, Steven; Fyen, Jan; Roth, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The IMS infrasound array I37NO near Bardufoss in northern Norway became operational in October 2013 and was certified on December 19, 2013. The 10-element array has an aperture of approximately 1.5 km and is deployed in low-lying woodland about 2.5 degrees north of the Arctic Circle. Its location in the European Arctic means that the array fills an important gap in the global IMS infrasound monitoring network. In addition, I37NO extends significantly the network of infrasound stations in northern Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Russia: operated by NORSAR, the Swedish Institute for Space Physics, and the Kola Regional Seismological Center in Apatity. The geometry is based on the highly successful classical design for regional seismic arrays with sensors arranged in two approximately concentric rings surrounding a central site. A 4-site subarray with an aperture of approximately 450 meters, comprising the central element and the inner ring of 3 sites, provides an excellent array response function and detection capability for relatively high frequency (2-4 Hz) signals. Such signals are usually generated by events at distances within 1000 km and often lack energy in the lower frequency bands for which the larger aperture arrays provide signal coherence. These so-called regional signals are of increasing importance in civil applications and the need to characterize the infrasonic wavefield over these distances is increasingly important in the remote monitoring of natural hazards. I37NO will provide good characterization of Ground Truth industrial and military explosions in the region which are well-constrained by seismic data. The full array aperture provides excellent backazimuth and slowness resolution for lower frequency signals and it is anticipated that I37NO will contribute significantly to the detection and association of signals on a global scale. Already within the first few months of operation, we have examples of high-quality recordings from meteors, accidental

  2. Infrasound: Connecting the Solid Earth, Oceans, and Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedlin, M. A. H.; Walker, K.; Drob, D. P.; de Groot-Hedlin, C. D.

    2012-05-01

    The recently reinvigorated field of infrasonics is poised to provide insight into atmospheric structure and the physics of large atmospheric phenomena, just as seismology has shed considerable light on the workings and structure of Earth's solid interior. Although a natural tool to monitor the atmosphere and shallow Earth for nuclear explosions, it is becoming increasingly apparent that infrasound also provides another means to monitor a suite of natural hazards. The frequent observation of geophysical sources—such as the unsteady sea surface, volcanoes, and earthquakes—that radiate energy both up into the atmosphere and down into the liquid or solid Earth and transmission of energy across Earth's boundaries reminds us that Earth is an interconnected system. This review details the rich history of the unheard sound in the atmosphere and the role that infrasonics plays in helping us understand the Earth system.

  3. Use of Infrasound for evaluating potentially hazardous conditions for barge transit on the Mississippi River at Vicksburg, Mississippi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, M. H.; Simpson, C. P.; Jordan, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Navigating the Mississippi River in Vicksburg, MS is known to be difficult for barge traffic in even the best of conditions due to the river's sharp bend 2 km north of the Highway 80 Bridge. When river levels rise, the level of difficulty in piloting barges under the bridge rises. Ongoing studies by the U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) are investigating infrasound as a means to correlate the low frequency acoustics generated by the river with the presence of hazardous conditions observed during flood stage, i.e., rough waters and high currents, which may lead to barge-bridge impacts. The Denied Area Monitoring and Exploitation of Structures (DAMES) Array at the ERDC Vicksburg, MS campus is a persistent seismic-acoustic array used for structural monitoring and explosive event detection. The DAMES Array is located 4.3 km from the Mississippi River/Highway 80 Bridge junction and recorded impulsive sub-audible acoustic signals, similar to an explosive event, from barge-bridge collisions that occurred between 2011 and 2017. This study focuses on five collisions that occurred during January 2016, which resulted in closing the river for barge transit and the Highway 80 Bridge for rail transit for multiple days until safety inspections were completed. The Highway 80 Bridge in Vicksburg, MS is the only freight-crossing over the Mississippi River between Baton Rouge, LA and Memphis, TN, meaning delays from these closings have significant impacts on all transit of goods throughout the Southeastern United States. River basin data and regional meteorological data have been analyzed to find correlations between the river conditions in January 2016, and recorded infrasound data with the aim of determining the likelihood that hazardous conditions are present on the river. Frequency-wavenumber analysis was used to identify the transient signals associated with the barge-bridge impacts and calculate the backazimuth to their source. Then, with the use of

  4. Infrasound from ground to space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, Daniel Charles

    Acoustic detector networks are usually located on the Earth's surface. However, these networks suffer from shortcomings such as poor detection range and pervasive wind noise. An alternative is to deploy acoustic sensors on high altitude balloons. In theory, such platforms can resolve signals arriving from great distances, acquire others that never reach the surface at all, and avoid wind noise entirely. This dissertation focuses on scientific advances, instrumentation, and analytical techniques resulting from the development of such sensor arrays. Results from infrasound microphones deployed on balloon flights in the middle stratosphere are described, and acoustic sources such as the ocean microbarom and building ventilation systems are discussed. Electromagnetic noise originating from the balloon, flight system, and other payloads is shown to be a pervasive issue. An experiment investigating acoustic sensor calibration at low pressures is presented, and implications for high altitude recording are considered. Outstanding challenges and opportunities in sound measurement using sensors embedded in the free atmosphere are outlined. Acoustic signals from field scale explosions designed to emulate volcanic eruptions are described, and their generation mechanisms modeled. Wave forms recorded on sensors suspended from tethered helium balloons are compared with those detected on ground stations during the experiment. Finally, the Hilbert-Huang transform, a high time resolution spectral analysis method for nonstationary and nonlinear time series, is presented.

  5. Near- Source, Seismo-Acoustic Signals Accompanying a NASCAR Race at the Texas Motor Speedway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stump, B. W.; Hayward, C.; Underwood, R.; Howard, J. E.; MacPhail, M. D.; Golden, P.; Endress, A.

    2014-12-01

    Near-source, seismo-acoustic observations provide a unique opportunity to characterize urban sources, remotely sense human activities including vehicular traffic and monitor large engineering structures. Energy separately coupled into the solid earth and atmosphere provides constraints on not only the location of these sources but also the physics of the generating process. Conditions and distances at which these observations can be made are dependent upon not only local geological conditions but also atmospheric conditions at the time of the observations. In order to address this range of topics, an empirical, seismo-acoustic study was undertaken in and around the Texas Motor Speedway in the Dallas-Ft. Worth area during the first week of April 2014 at which time a range of activities associated with a series of NASCAR races occurred. Nine, seismic sensors were deployed around the 1.5-mile track for purposes of documenting the direct-coupled seismic energy from the passage of the cars and other vehicles on the track. Six infrasound sensors were deployed on a rooftop in a rectangular array configuration designed to provide high frequency beam forming for acoustic signals. Finally, a five-element infrasound array was deployed outside the track in order to characterize how the signals propagate away from the sources in the near-source region. Signals recovered from within the track were able to track and characterize the motion of a variety of vehicles during the race weekend including individual racecars. Seismic data sampled at 1000 sps documented strong Doppler effects as the cars approached and moved away from individual sensors. There were faint seismic signals that arrived at seismic velocity but local acoustic to seismic coupling as supported by the acoustic observations generated the majority of seismic signals. Actual seismic ground motions were small as demonstrated by the dominance of regional seismic signals from a magnitude 4.0 earthquake that arrived at

  6. A meteor shockwave event recorded at seismic and infrasound stations in northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Utpal; Chao, Benjamin F.; Hsieh, Yikai; Chang, Emmy T. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Three mysterious explosion sounds were heard in the coastal towns of Tamsui, west of Taipei in northern Taiwan, in the early evening of December 5, 2013. The event left clear signals that are identified in the recordings of 12 regional seismometers and 3 infrasound sensors and processed by means of travel time analysis. The apparent velocity of 330 m/s of the signals confirms that the energy transmission was through the atmosphere, and the characteristics of the waveforms suggest the meteor-generated shockwaves. We use the graphical method as well as the Genetic Algorithm optimization approach to constrain the trajectory of the meteor and to locate its projected intercept with the ground—(25.33 N, 121.26 E), approximately 20 km off the coast of Tamsui. The trajectory has azimuth (measured from north in a map view in the clockwise direction) of 303° and (near-vertical) elevation angle of 70°. From the observed period of 1.3 s at the maximum amplitude of the infrasound signal, we estimate by conventional scaling law that the meteor in question had impact energy on the order of 5 × 1010 J (equivalent to an earthquake of local magnitude 4) or roughly a size of 0.5 m across.

  7. Seismo-Acoustic Generation by Earthquakes and Explosions and Near-Regional Propagation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-30

    earthquakes generate infrasound . Three infrasonic arrays in Utah (BGU, EPU, and NOQ), one in Nevada (NVIAR), and one in Wyoming (PDIAR) recorded...Katz, and C. Hayward (2009b). The F-detector Revisited: An Improved Strategy for Signal Detection at Seismic and Infrasound Arrays , Bull. Seism. Soc...sources. RESEARCH ACCOMPLISHED Infrasound Observations of the Wells Earthquake Most studies documenting earthquake - generated infrasound are based

  8. Detection of regional infrasound signals using array data: Testing, tuning, and physical interpretation.

    PubMed

    Park, Junghyun; Stump, Brian W; Hayward, Chris; Arrowsmith, Stephen J; Che, Il-Young; Drob, Douglas P

    2016-07-01

    This work quantifies the physical characteristics of infrasound signal and noise, assesses their temporal variations, and determines the degree to which these effects can be predicted by time-varying atmospheric models to estimate array and network performance. An automated detector that accounts for both correlated and uncorrelated noise is applied to infrasound data from three seismo-acoustic arrays in South Korea (BRDAR, CHNAR, and KSGAR), cooperatively operated by Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) and Southern Methodist University (SMU). Arrays located on an island and near the coast have higher noise power, consistent with both higher wind speeds and seasonably variable ocean wave contributions. On the basis of the adaptive F-detector quantification of time variable environmental effects, the time-dependent scaling variable is shown to be dependent on both weather conditions and local site effects. Significant seasonal variations in infrasound detections including daily time of occurrence, detection numbers, and phase velocity/azimuth estimates are documented. These time-dependent effects are strongly correlated with atmospheric winds and temperatures and are predicted by available atmospheric specifications. This suggests that commonly available atmospheric specifications can be used to predict both station and network detection performance, and an appropriate forward model improves location capabilities as a function of time.

  9. Effects of infrasound on hippocampus-dependent learning and memory in rats and some underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Hua; Long, Hua; Liu, Jing; Qu, Lili; Chen, Jingzao; Mou, Xiang

    2009-09-01

    To investigate the effect of infrasound on the hippocampus-dependent spatial learning and memory as well as its underlying mechanisms, we measured the changes of cognitive abilities, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) signal transduction pathway and neurogenesis in the hippocampus of rats. The results showed that rats exposed to infrasound of 16 Hz at 130 dB for 14 days exhibited longer escape latency from day 2 and shortened time staying in the quadrant P in Morris water maze (MWM). It was found that mRNA and protein expression levels of hippocampal BDNF and TrkB were significantly decreased in real-time PCR and Western blot, and the number of BrdU-labeled cells in hippocampus was also reduced when compared to control. These results provided novel evidences that the infrasound of a certain exposure parameter can impair hippocampus-dependent learning and memory, in which the downregulation of the neuronal plasticity-related BDNF-TrkB signal pathway and less neurogenesis in hippocampus might be involved.

  10. Nanotube aerogel sheet flutter for actuation, power generation, and infrasound detection.

    PubMed

    Kang, Tae June; Kim, Taewoo; Jang, Eui Yun; Im, Hyeongwook; Lepro-Chavez, Xavier; Ovalle-Robles, Raquel; Oh, Jiyoung; Kozlov, Mikhail E; Baughman, Ray H; Lee, Hong H; Kim, Yong Hyup

    2014-08-18

    Electromagnetic induction (EMI) is a mechanism of classical physics that can be utilized to convert mechanical energy to electrical energy or electrical to mechanical energy. This mechanism has not been exploited fully because of lack of a material with a sufficiently low force constant. We here show that carbon nanotube (CNT) aerogel sheets can exploit EMI to provide mechanical actuation at very low applied voltages, to harvest mechanical energy from small air pressure fluctuations, and to detect infrasound at inaudible frequencies below 20 Hz. Using conformal deposition of 100 nm thick aluminum coatings on the nanotubes in the sheets, mechanical actuation can be obtained by applying millivolts, as compared with the thousand volts needed to achieve giant-stroke electrostatic actuation of carbon nanotube aerogel sheets. Device simplicity and performance suggest possible applications as an energy harvester of low energy air fluctuations and as a sensor for infrasound frequencies.

  11. Complex monitoring and alert network for electromagnetic, infrasound, acoustic seismotectonic phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    -Emilian Toader, Victorin; Moldovan, Iren-Adelina; Constantin, Ionescu

    2014-05-01

    The Romanian seismicity recorded in 2013 three important events: the largest seismic "silence", the shortest sequence of two earthquakes greater than 4.8R in less than 14 days after the "Romanian National Institute for Earth Physics" (NIEP) developed a digital network, and a very high crustal activity in Galati area. We analyze the variations of the telluric currents and local magnetic field, variations of the atmospheric electrostatic field, infrasound, temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction, atmospheric pressure, variations in the earth crust with inclinometers and animal behavior. The general effect is the first high seismic energy discontinuity that could be a precursor factor. Since 1977 Romania did not register any important earthquake that would generate a sense of fear among the population. In parallel with the seismic network NIEP developed a magneto-telluric, bioseismic, VLF and acoustic network. A large frequency spectrum is covered for mechanical vibration, magnetic and electric field with ground and air sensors. Special software was designed for acquisition, analysis and real time alert using internet direct connection, web page, email and SMS. Many examples show the sensitivity of telluric current, infrasound, acoustic records (from air-ground), and the effect of tectonic stress on the magnetic field or ground deformation. The next update of the multidisciplinary monitoring network will include measurement of ionization, radon emission, sky color, solar radiation and extension of infrasound and VL/LF equipment. NOAA Space Weather satellites transmit solar activity magnetic field data, X ray flux, electron, and proton flux information useful for complex analysis.

  12. On the use of remote infrasound and seismic stations to constrain the eruptive sequence and intensity for the 2014 Kelud eruption

    SciTech Connect

    Caudron, Corentin; Taisne, Benoit; Garces, Milton

    The February 2014 eruption of Kelud volcano (Indonesia) destroyed most of the instruments near it. We use remote seismic and infrasound sensors to reconstruct the eruptive sequence. The first explosions were relatively weak seismic and infrasound events. A major stratospheric ash injection occurred a few minutes later and produced long-lasting atmospheric and ground-coupled acoustic waves that were detected as far as 11,000 km by infrasound sensors and up to 2300 km away on seismometers. A seismic event followed ~12 minutes later and was recorded 7000 km away by seismometers. We estimate a volcanic intensity around 10.9, placing the 2014 Keludmore » eruption between the 1980 Mount St. Helens and 1991 Pinatubo eruptions intensities. As a result, we demonstrate how remote infrasound and seismic sensors are critical for the early detection of volcanic explosions, and how they can help to constrain and understand eruptive sequences.« less

  13. On the use of remote infrasound and seismic stations to constrain the eruptive sequence and intensity for the 2014 Kelud eruption

    DOE PAGES

    Caudron, Corentin; Taisne, Benoit; Garces, Milton; ...

    2015-07-14

    The February 2014 eruption of Kelud volcano (Indonesia) destroyed most of the instruments near it. We use remote seismic and infrasound sensors to reconstruct the eruptive sequence. The first explosions were relatively weak seismic and infrasound events. A major stratospheric ash injection occurred a few minutes later and produced long-lasting atmospheric and ground-coupled acoustic waves that were detected as far as 11,000 km by infrasound sensors and up to 2300 km away on seismometers. A seismic event followed ~12 minutes later and was recorded 7000 km away by seismometers. We estimate a volcanic intensity around 10.9, placing the 2014 Keludmore » eruption between the 1980 Mount St. Helens and 1991 Pinatubo eruptions intensities. As a result, we demonstrate how remote infrasound and seismic sensors are critical for the early detection of volcanic explosions, and how they can help to constrain and understand eruptive sequences.« less

  14. Seasonal variations of infrasonic arrivals from long-term ground truth observations in Nevada and implication for event location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negraru, Petru; Golden, Paul

    2017-04-01

    Long-term ground truth observations were collected at two infrasound arrays in Nevada to investigate how seasonal atmospheric variations affect the detection, traveltime and signal characteristics (azimuth, trace velocity, frequency content and amplitudes) of infrasonic arrivals at regional distances. The arrays were located in different azimuthal directions from a munition disposal facility in Nevada. FNIAR, located 154 km north of the source has a high detection rate throughout the year. Over 90 per cent of the detonations have traveltimes indicative of stratospheric arrivals, while tropospheric waveguides are observed from only 27 per cent of the detonations. The second array, DNIAR, located 293 km southeast of the source exhibits strong seasonal variations with high stratospheric detection rates in winter and the virtual absence of stratospheric arrivals in summer. Tropospheric waveguides and thermospheric arrivals are also observed for DNIAR. Modeling through the Naval Research Laboratory Ground to Space atmospheric sound speeds leads to mixed results: FNIAR arrivals are usually not predicted to be present at all (either stratospheric or tropospheric), while DNIAR arrivals are usually correctly predicted, but summer arrivals show a consistent traveltime bias. In the end, we show the possible improvement in location using empirically calibrated traveltime and azimuth observations. Using the Bayesian Infrasound Source Localization we show that we can decrease the area enclosed by the 90 per cent credibility contours by a factor of 2.5.

  15. Sound, infrasound, and sonic boom absorption by atmospheric clouds.

    PubMed

    Baudoin, Michaël; Coulouvrat, François; Thomas, Jean-Louis

    2011-09-01

    This study quantifies the influence of atmospheric clouds on propagation of sound and infrasound, based on an existing model [Gubaidulin and Nigmatulin, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 26, 207-228 (2000)]. Clouds are considered as a dilute and polydisperse suspension of liquid water droplets within a mixture of dry air and water vapor, both considered as perfect gases. The model is limited to low and medium altitude clouds, with a small ice content. Four physical mechanisms are taken into account: viscoinertial effects, heat transfer, water phase changes (evaporation and condensation), and vapor diffusion. Physical properties of atmospheric clouds (altitude, thickness, water content and droplet size distribution) are collected, along with values of the thermodynamical coefficients. Different types of clouds have been selected. Quantitative evaluation shows that, for low audible and infrasound frequencies, absorption within clouds is several orders of magnitude larger than classical absorption. The importance of phase changes and vapor diffusion is outlined. Finally, numerical simulations for nonlinear propagation of sonic booms indicate that, for thick clouds, attenuation can lead to a very large decay of the boom at the ground level. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  16. [Study of changes in the enzyme-salt composition affecting the permeability of ocular tissues under infrasound phonophoresis].

    PubMed

    Filatov, V V

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the study of infrasound phonophoresis-induced changes in biochemical factors, which affect the permeability of eyeball tissues. During 10 days, the rabbit right eye was exposed to an infrasound in the changing pressure mode at 4 Hz and 173 dB for 10 minutes every day. The left eye remained control. After finishing a series of studies, the animals were slaughtered, the eyes were enucleated and prepared into individual tissues. Changes in sodium-potassium composition were investigated in the first series. By causing a reduction in the cellular content of K+, infrasound exposure was found to cause a decrease in membranous potential and activation Na-channel, as confirmed by the elevated intracellular levels of Na+. This in turn enhances ocular tissue permeability for drugs without damaging the structure of a cell membrane. Changes in the activity of the following enzymes: beta-glucosidase, cathepsin D, and hy- aluronidase. Infrasound was ascertained to enhance the activity of beta-glucosidase, which accounts for the lower levels of glucose in ocular tissues and points to the activation and acceleration of biochemical processes in the tissues. At the same time the increased concentrations of cathepsin D and hyaluronidase found in ocular tissues were responsible for a temporary reduction in the viscosity of hyaluronic acid, which promotes resolution of opacities, adhesions or scars and increased tissue permeability.

  17. Nanotube Aerogel Sheet Flutter for Actuation, Power Generation, and Infrasound Detection

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Tae June; Kim, Taewoo; Jang, Eui Yun; Im, Hyeongwook; Lepro-Chavez, Xavier; Ovalle-Robles, Raquel; Oh, Jiyoung; Kozlov, Mikhail E.; Baughman, Ray H.; Lee, Hong H.; Kim, Yong Hyup

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic induction (EMI) is a mechanism of classical physics that can be utilized to convert mechanical energy to electrical energy or electrical to mechanical energy. This mechanism has not been exploited fully because of lack of a material with a sufficiently low force constant. We here show that carbon nanotube (CNT) aerogel sheets can exploit EMI to provide mechanical actuation at very low applied voltages, to harvest mechanical energy from small air pressure fluctuations, and to detect infrasound at inaudible frequencies below 20 Hz. Using conformal deposition of 100 nm thick aluminum coatings on the nanotubes in the sheets, mechanical actuation can be obtained by applying millivolts, as compared with the thousand volts needed to achieve giant-stroke electrostatic actuation of carbon nanotube aerogel sheets. Device simplicity and performance suggest possible applications as an energy harvester of low energy air fluctuations and as a sensor for infrasound frequencies. PMID:25130708

  18. Linear and Nonlinear Infrasound Propagation to 1000 km

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-15

    Kirtland AFB, NM 87117-5776 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) AFRL /RVBYE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) AFRL -RV-PS-TR-2016-0017 12...distribution is unlimited. 30 DISTRIBUTION LIST DTIC/OCP 8725 John J. Kingman Rd, Suite 0944 Ft Belvoir, VA 22060-6218 1 cy AFRL /RVIL Kirtland ... AFRL -RV-PS- AFRL -RV-PS- TR-2016-0017 TR-2016-0017 LINEAR AND NONLINEAR INFRASOUND PROPAGATION TO 1000 KM Catherine de Groot-Hedlin Scripps

  19. Detection of regional infrasound signals using array data: Testing, tuning, and physical interpretation

    DOE PAGES

    Park, Junghyun; Stump, Brian W.; Hayward, Chris; ...

    2016-07-14

    This work quantifies the physical characteristics of infrasound signal and noise, assesses their temporal variations, and determines the degree to which these effects can be predicted by time-varying atmospheric models to estimate array and network performance. An automated detector that accounts for both correlated and uncorrelated noise is applied to infrasound data from three seismo-acoustic arrays in South Korea (BRDAR, CHNAR, and KSGAR), cooperatively operated by Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) and Southern Methodist University (SMU). Arrays located on an island and near the coast have higher noise power, consistent with both higher wind speeds and seasonablymore » variable ocean wave contributions. On the basis of the adaptive F-detector quantification of time variable environmental effects, the time-dependent scaling variable is shown to be dependent on both weather conditions and local site effects. Significant seasonal variations in infrasound detections including daily time of occurrence, detection numbers, and phase velocity/azimuth estimates are documented. These time-dependent effects are strongly correlated with atmospheric winds and temperatures and are predicted by available atmospheric specifications. As a result, this suggests that commonly available atmospheric specifications can be used to predict both station and network detection performance, and an appropriate forward model improves location capabilities as a function of time.« less

  20. Computationally robust and noise resistant numerical detector for the detection of atmospheric infrasound.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Chang; Olson, John V; Szuberla, Curt A L

    2013-07-01

    This work reports on a performance study of two numerical detectors that are particularly useful for infrasound arrays operating under windy conditions. The sum of squares of variance ratios (SSVR1)-proposed for detecting signals with frequency ranging from 1 to 10 Hz-is computed by taking the ratio of the squared sum of eigenvalues to the square of largest eigenvalue of the covariance matrix of the power spectrum. For signals with lower frequency between 0.015 and 0.1 Hz, SSVR2 is developed to reduce the detector's sensitivity to noise. The detectors' performances are graphically compared against the current method, the mean of cross correlation maxima (MCCM), using the receiver operating characteristics curves and three types of atmospheric infrasound, corrupted by Gaussian and Pink noise. The MCCM and SSVR2 detectors were also used to detect microbaroms from the 24 h-long infrasound data. It was found that the two detectors outperform the MCCM detector in both sensitivity and computational efficiency. For mine blasts corrupted by Pink noise (signal-to-noise ratio = -7 dB), the MCCM and SSVR1 detectors yield 62 and 88 % true positives when accepting 20% false positives. For an eight-sensor array, the speed gain is approximately eleven-fold for a 50 s long signal.

  1. Automatic Identification of Alpine Mass Movements by a Combination of Seismic and Infrasound Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Hübl, Johannes; McArdell, Brian W.; Walter, Fabian

    2018-01-01

    The automatic detection and identification of alpine mass movements such as debris flows, debris floods, or landslides have been of increasing importance for devising mitigation measures in densely populated and intensively used alpine regions. Since these mass movements emit characteristic seismic and acoustic waves in the low-frequency range (<30 Hz), several approaches have already been developed for detection and warning systems based on these signals. However, a combination of the two methods, for improving detection probability and reducing false alarms, is still applied rarely. This paper presents an update and extension of a previously published approach for a detection and identification system based on a combination of seismic and infrasound sensors. Furthermore, this work evaluates the possible early warning times at several test sites and aims to analyze the seismic and infrasound spectral signature produced by different sediment-related mass movements to identify the process type and estimate the magnitude of the event. Thus, this study presents an initial method for estimating the peak discharge and total volume of debris flows based on infrasound data. Tests on several catchments show that this system can detect and identify mass movements in real time directly at the sensor site with high accuracy and a low false alarm ratio. PMID:29789449

  2. Lahar infrasound associated with Volcán Villarrica's 3 March 2015 eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jeffrey B.; Palma, Jose L.

    2015-08-01

    The paroxysmal 2015 eruption of Volcán Villarrica (Chile) produced a 2.5 h long lahar, which descended more than 20 km within the Rio Correntoso/Turbio drainage and destroyed two small bridges. A three-element infrasound array 10 km from the summit, and 4 km from the lahar's closest approach, was used to study the flow's progression. Array processing using cross-correlation lag times and semblance places constraints on the lahar's dynamics, including detection of an initial flow pulse that traveled from 2 to 12 km at an average speed of 38 m/s. Subsequently, the lahar signal evolved to a relatively stationary infrasonic tremor located 10 to 12 km from the vent and adjacent to a topographic notch, through which sound may have preferentially diffracted toward the recording site. This study demonstrates the powerful capabilities of infrasound arrays for lahar study and suggests their potential application for future hazard monitoring.

  3. A seismoacoustic study of the 2011 January 3 Circleville earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrowsmith, Stephen J.; Burlacu, Relu; Pankow, Kristine; Stump, Brian; Stead, Richard; Whitaker, Rod; Hayward, Chris

    2012-05-01

    We report on a unique set of infrasound observations from a single earthquake, the 2011 January 3 Circleville earthquake (Mw 4.7, depth of 8 km), which was recorded by nine infrasound arrays in Utah. Based on an analysis of the signal arrival times and backazimuths at each array, we find that the infrasound arrivals at six arrays can be associated to the same source and that the source location is consistent with the earthquake epicentre. Results of propagation modelling indicate that the lack of associated arrivals at the remaining three arrays is due to path effects. Based on these findings we form the working hypothesis that the infrasound is generated by body waves causing the epicentral region to pump the atmosphere, akin to a baffled piston. To test this hypothesis, we have developed a numerical seismoacoustic model to simulate the generation of epicentral infrasound from earthquakes. We model the generation of seismic waves using a 3-D finite difference algorithm that accounts for the earthquake moment tensor, source time function, depth and local geology. The resultant acceleration-time histories on a 2-D grid at the surface then provide the initial conditions for modelling the near-field infrasonic pressure wave using the Rayleigh integral. Finally, we propagate the near-field source pressure through the Ground-to-Space atmospheric model using a time-domain Parabolic Equation technique. By comparing the resultant predictions with the six epicentral infrasound observations from the 2011 January 3, Circleville earthquake, we show that the observations agree well with our predictions. The predicted and observed amplitudes are within a factor of 2 (on average, the synthetic amplitudes are a factor of 1.6 larger than the observed amplitudes). In addition, arrivals are predicted at all six arrays where signals are observed, and importantly not predicted at the remaining three arrays. Durations are typically predicted to within a factor of 2, and in some cases

  4. Seismic and Infrasound Recordings from Kilauea Volcano: Volcanic Tremor, Lava Outbreaks, and Fissure Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fee, D.; Garces, M.; Orr, T.

    2007-12-01

    The continuous effusion from the Pu'u 'O'o crater complex, the active vent of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, produced nearly continuous tremor for years. Recently this tremor was recorded by two infrasound arrays, one at 12.5 km and one at 2.5 km, as well as a broadband seismometer at the closer array. These recordings exhibit significant temporal changes. A sharp, complex spectral peak of ~0.6 Hz is present in nearly the entire dataset, and tends to bifurcate and shift frequency over time. Although the seismic wavefield at Kilauea is complex and path effects appear to play a significant role, this spectral peak is also weakly manifested in the seismic recordings. Array processing of the infrasonic data reveals an abundance of broadband signal as well. Most of the signal appears to originate from the main crater region. However, the 2.5 km array detected the presence of a skylight with growing hornitos ~400 m south of Pu'u 'O'o on the active lava tube system. On June 19th, 2007, the magmatic system at Pu'u 'O'o changed. An intrusion of magma reached the surface 6 km west of the crater complex. The timing and location of the lava outbreak were determined acoustically using array processing. Two distinct acoustic pulses were recorded from the correct azimuth, both exhibiting harmonics. The 7/21 fissure eruption also produced clear infrasound signals. The onset of the fissure eruption east of P'u' 'O'o was apparent beginning around midnight on 7/21 and was focused between ~1.5-5 Hz. Although the fissure eruption continued to produce infrasound, the character of the recorded signal changes over time. A third infrasound array was placed closer to P'u' 'O'o and the fissure to help further constrain the eruption. More detailed results on acoustic signals from the Father's Day Intrusion and Fissure eruption will be presented.

  5. Improving Infrasound Signal Detection and Event Location in the Western US Using Atmospheric Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dannemann, F. K.; Park, J.; Marcillo, O. E.; Blom, P. S.; Stump, B. W.; Hayward, C.

    2016-12-01

    Data from five infrasound arrays in the western US jointly operated by University of Utah Seismograph Station and Southern Methodist University are used to test a database-centric processing pipeline, InfraPy, for automated event detection, association and location. Infrasonic array data from a one-year time period (January 1 2012 to December 31 2012) are used. This study focuses on the identification and location of 53 ground-truth verified events produced from near surface military explosions at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR). Signals are detected using an adaptive F-detector, which accounts for correlated and uncorrelated time-varying noise in order to reduce false detections due to the presence of coherent noise. Variations in detection azimuth and correlation are found to be consistent with seasonal changes in atmospheric winds. The Bayesian infrasonic source location (BISL) method is used to produce source location and time credibility contours based on posterior probability density functions. Updates to the previous BISL methodology include the application of celerity range and azimuth deviation distributions in order to accurately account for the spatial and temporal variability of infrasound propagation through the atmosphere. These priors are estimated by ray tracing through Ground-to-Space (G2S) atmospheric models as a function of season and time of day using historic atmospheric characterizations from 2007 to 2013. Out of the 53 events, 31 are successfully located using the InfraPy pipeline. Confidence contour areas for maximum a posteriori event locations produce error estimates which are reduced a maximum of 98% and an average of 25% from location estimates utilizing a simple time independent uniform atmosphere. We compare real-time ray tracing results with the statistical atmospheric priors used in this study to examine large time differences between known origin times and estimated origin times that might be due to the misidentification of

  6. A study of infrasound propagation based on high-order finite difference solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations.

    PubMed

    Marsden, O; Bogey, C; Bailly, C

    2014-03-01

    The feasibility of using numerical simulation of fluid dynamics equations for the detailed description of long-range infrasound propagation in the atmosphere is investigated. The two dimensional (2D) Navier Stokes equations are solved via high fidelity spatial finite differences and Runge-Kutta time integration, coupled with a shock-capturing filter procedure allowing large amplitudes to be studied. The accuracy of acoustic prediction over long distances with this approach is first assessed in the linear regime thanks to two test cases featuring an acoustic source placed above a reflective ground in a homogeneous and weakly inhomogeneous medium, solved for a range of grid resolutions. An atmospheric model which can account for realistic features affecting acoustic propagation is then described. A 2D study of the effect of source amplitude on signals recorded at ground level at varying distances from the source is carried out. Modifications both in terms of waveforms and arrival times are described.

  7. An Empirical Study of Atmospheric Correction Procedures for Regional Infrasound Amplitudes with Ground Truth.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    This study focusses on improving methods of accounting for atmospheric effects on infrasound amplitudes observed on arrays at regional distances in the southwestern United States. Recordings at ranges of 150 to nearly 300 km from a repeating ground truth source of small HE explosions are used. The explosions range in actual weight from approximately 2000-4000 lbs. and are detonated year-round which provides signals for a wide range of atmospheric conditions. Three methods of correcting the observed amplitudes for atmospheric effects are investigated with the data set. The first corrects amplitudes for upper stratospheric wind as developed by Mutschlecner and Whitaker (1999) and uses the average wind speed between 45-55 km altitudes in the direction of propagation to derive an empirical correction formula. This approach was developed using large chemical and nuclear explosions and is tested with the smaller explosions for which shorter wavelengths cause the energy to be scattered by the smaller scale structure of the atmosphere. The second approach isa semi-empirical method using ray tracing to determine wind speed at ray turning heights where the wind estimates replace the wind values in the existing formula. Finally, parabolic equation (PE) modeling is used to predict the amplitudes at the arrays at 1 Hz. The PE amplitudes are compared to the observed amplitudes with a narrow band filter centered at 1 Hz. An analysis is performed of the conditions under which the empirical and semi-empirical methods fail and full wave methods must be used.

  8. Optical Fiber Infrasound Sensor Arrays: An Improved Alternative to Arrays of Rosette Wind Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Kristoffer; Zumberge, Mark; Dewolf, Scott; Berger, Jon; Hedlin, Michael

    2010-05-01

    A key difficulty in infrasound signal detection is the noise created by spatially incoherent turbulence that is usually present in wind. Increasing wind speeds correlate with increasing noise levels across the entire infrasound band. Optical fiber infrasound sensors (OFIS) are line microphones that instantaneously integrate pressure along their lengths with laser interferometry. Although the sensor has a very low noise floor, the promise of the sensor is in its effectiveness at reducing wind noise without the need for a network of interconnected pipes. We have previously shown that a single 90 m OFIS (spanning a line) is just as effective at reducing wind noise as a 70 m diameter rosette (covering a circular area). We have also empirically measured the infrasound response of the OFIS as a function of back azimuth, showing that it is well predicted by an analytical solution; the response is flat for broadside signals and similar to the rosette response for endfire signals. Using that analytical solution, we have developed beamforming techniques that permit the estimation of back azimuth using an array of OFIS arms as well as an array deconvolution technique that accurately stacks weighted versions of the recordings to obtain the original infrasound signal. We show how a slight modification to traditional array processing techniques can also be used with OFIS arrays to determine back azimuth, even for signal-to-noise ratios much less than 1. Recently several improvements to the OFIS instrumentation have been achieved. We have made an important modification to our interferometric technique that makes the interferometer insensitive to ambient temperature fluctuation. We are also developing a continuous real-time calibration system, which may eliminate the need for periodic array calibration efforts. We also report progress in comparing a newly installed 270 m long OFIS at Piñon Flat Observatory (PFO) to a collocated 70 m rosette of the I57US array. Specifically, we

  9. Infrasonic Observations of Ground Shaking along the 2010 Mw 7.2 El Mayor Rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degroot-Hedlin, C. D.; Walker, K.

    2010-12-01

    The Mw 7.2 El Mayor earthquake in northeast Baja California generated seismic waves that were felt for up to 90 seconds throughout southern California and northern Baja. The locations of the epicenter, aftershocks, and surface rupture suggest that the rupture was not focused at one specific location, but initiated near El Mayor, Mexico and extended northwest for roughly 120 km through the U.S. border. We analyze infrasound and seismic data recorded by three arrays and show that the surface shaking in the vicinity of the rupture also generated infrasound that was detected at least 200 km away to the north and west of the epicentral region, despite stratospheric winds from the west that only favor eastward propagation. Frequency domain beamforming of infrasound array signals recorded by an array near San Diego (MRIAR) shows a time progression of signal back azimuth that spans the entire rupture length. Ray trace modeling using 4-D atmospheric velocity models suggests that the observed infrasound signals refracted in the thermosphere. The signals have frequencies from 1 to 12 Hz, which is rather high given the level of thermospheric attenuation predicted by traditional models. A secondary infrasound wavetrain that arrived at MRIAR before the epicentral infrasound appears to have originated from an infrasonic radiator south of the array that was excited by the passing surface waves.

  10. Schema for the LANL infrasound analysis tool, infrapy

    SciTech Connect

    Dannemann, Fransiska Kate; Marcillo, Omar Eduardo

    2017-04-14

    The purpose of this document is to define the schema used for the operation of the infrasound analysis tool, infrapy. The tables described by this document extend the CSS3.0 or KB core schema to include information required for the operation of infrapy. This document is divided into three sections, the first being this introduction. Section two defines eight new, infrasonic data processing-specific database tables. Both internal (ORACLE) and external formats for the attributes are defined, along with a short description of each attribute. Section three of the document shows the relationships between the different tables by using entity-relationship diagrams.

  11. Effects of infrasound at 8 Hz 90 dB/130 dB on NMDAR1 expression and changes in intracellular calcium ion concentration in the hippocampus of rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhao-Hui; Chen, Jing-Zao; Ye, Lin; Liu, Jing; Qiu, Jian-Yong; Xu, Jian; Lu, Rui; Yuan, Xiao-Chao; Zhang, Wen-Dong; Li, Xiao-Fang; Li, Gong

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effect of infrasound on the expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDAR)1 as well as changes in intracellular calcium ion concentration ([Ca2+]i) in the hippocampus of rats. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were exposed for 2 h daily to infrasound at 8 Hz 90 dB or 130 dB, and NMDAR1 expression was examined on days 1, 7, 14, 21 and 28. The expression of NMDAR1 in the rat hippocampus upon exposure to infrasound at 8 Hz 90 dB sound pressure level (SPL) showed an initial decrease on day 1, an increase on days 7 and 14, a further decrease on day 21, and a return to normal levels on day 28. The peak level was observed on day 14 in every examined subregion of the hippocampus. By contrast, exposure to infrasound at 8 Hz 130 dB SPL had opposite effects, showing an increase on day 1, a decrease on day 7, a decrease to the lowest point on days 14, another increase on day 21 and a return to normal levels on day 28. The lowest expression of NMDAR1 was found in the CA1 and CA3 regions on day 14 and in the DG region on day 7 with exposure at 130 dB. There were significant differences in [Ca2+]i concentration on days 14 and 21 with infrasonic exposure at both 8 Hz 90 dB and 130 dB, but no significant differences in [Ca2+]i concentration on days 1, 7 and 28 compared to the control group. The highest [Ca2+]i level was noted on day 14 with infrasound exposure at 8 Hz 130 dB. These changes suggest that 8 Hz 90 dB/130 dB infrasound exposure induced certain reversible changes in NMDAR1 expression and [Ca2+]i concentration in hippocampal cells, which may influence mnemonic functions related to the hippocampus.

  12. The source of infrasound associated with long-period events at mount St. Helens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matoza, R.S.; Garces, M.A.; Chouet, B.A.; D'Auria, L.; Hedlin, M.A.H.; De Groot-Hedlin, C.; Waite, G.P.

    2009-01-01

    During the early stages of the 2004-2008 Mount St. Helens eruption, the source process that produced a sustained sequence of repetitive long-period (LP) seismic events also produced impulsive broadband infrasonic signals in the atmosphere. To assess whether the signals could be generated simply by seismic-acoustic coupling from the shallow LP events, we perform finite difference simulation of the seismo-acoustic wavefield using a single numerical scheme for the elastic ground and atmosphere. The effects of topography, velocity structure, wind, and source configuration are considered. The simulations show that a shallow source buried in a homogeneous elastic solid produces a complex wave train in the atmosphere consisting of P/SV and Rayleigh wave energy converted locally along the propagation path, and acoustic energy originating from , the source epicenter. Although the horizontal acoustic velocity of the latter is consistent with our data, the modeled amplitude ratios of pressure to vertical seismic velocity are too low in comparison with observations, and the characteristic differences in seismic and acoustic waveforms and spectra cannot be reproduced from a common point source. The observations therefore require a more complex source process in which the infrasonic signals are a record of only the broadband pressure excitation mechanism of the seismic LP events. The observations and numerical results can be explained by a model involving the repeated rapid pressure loss from a hydrothermal crack by venting into a shallow layer of loosely consolidated, highly permeable material. Heating by magmatic activity causes pressure to rise, periodically reaching the pressure threshold for rupture of the "valve" sealing the crack. Sudden opening of the valve generates the broadband infrasonic signal and simultaneously triggers the collapse of the crack, initiating resonance of the remaining fluid. Subtle waveform and amplitude variability of the infrasonic signals as

  13. Sub-Surface Windscreen for the Measurement of Outdoor Infrasound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shams, Qamar A.; Burkett, Cecil G., Jr.; Comeaux, Toby; Zuckerwar, Allan J.; Weistroffer, George R.

    2008-01-01

    A windscreen has been developed that features two advantages favorable for the measurement of outdoor infrasound. First, the sub-surface location, with the top of the windscreen flush with the ground surface, minimizes the mean velocity of the impinging wind. Secondly, the windscreen material (closed cell polyurethane foam) has a sufficiently low acoustic impedance (222 times that of air) and wall thickness (0.0127 m) to provide a transmission coefficient of nearly unity over the infrasonic frequency range (0-20 Hz). The windscreen, a tightly-sealed box having internal dimensions of 0.3048 x 0.3048 x 0.3556 m, contains a microphone, preamplifier, and a cable feed thru to an external power supply. Provisions are made for rain drainage and seismic isolation. A three-element array, configured as an equilateral triangle with 30.48 m spacing and operating continuously in the field, periodically receives highly coherent signals attributed to emissions from atmospheric turbulence. The time delays between infrasonic signals received at the microphones permit determination of the bearing and elevation of the sources, which correlate well with locations of pilot reports (PIREPS) within a 320 km radius about the array. The test results are interpreted to yield spectral information on infrasonic emissions from clear air turbulence.

  14. Joint seismic-infrasonic processing of recordings from a repeating source of atmospheric explosions.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Steven J; Ringdal, Frode; Kvaerna, Tormod

    2007-11-01

    A database has been established of seismic and infrasonic recordings from more than 100 well-constrained surface explosions, conducted by the Finnish military to destroy old ammunition. The recorded seismic signals are essentially identical and indicate that the variation in source location and magnitude is negligible. In contrast, the infrasonic arrivals on both seismic and infrasound sensors exhibit significant variation both with regard to the number of detected phases, phase travel times, and phase amplitudes, which would be attributable to atmospheric factors. This data set provides an excellent database for studies in sound propagation, infrasound array detection, and direction estimation.

  15. Lithosphere-Atmosphere coupling: Spectral element modeling of the evolution of acoustic waves in the atmosphere from an underground source.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averbuch, Gil; Price, Colin

    2015-04-01

    Lithosphere-Atmosphere coupling: Spectral element modeling of the evolution of acoustic waves in the atmosphere from an underground source. G. Averbuch, C. Price Department of Geosciences, Tel Aviv University, Israel Infrasound is one of the four Comprehensive Nuclear-Test Ban Treaty technologies for monitoring nuclear explosions. This technology measures the acoustic waves generated by the explosions followed by their propagation through the atmosphere. There are also natural phenomena that can act as an infrasound sources like sprites, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes. The infrasound waves generated from theses phenomena can also be detected by the infrasound arrays. In order to study the behavior of these waves, i.e. the physics of wave propagation in the atmosphere, their evolution and their trajectories, numerical methods are required. This presentation will deal with the evolution of acoustic waves generated by underground sources (earthquakes and underground explosions). A 2D Spectral elements formulation for lithosphere-atmosphere coupling will be presented. The formulation includes the elastic wave equation for the seismic waves and the momentum, mass and state equations for the acoustic waves in a moving stratified atmosphere. The coupling of the two media is made by boundary conditions that ensures the continuity of traction and velocity (displacement) in the normal component to the interface. This work has several objectives. The first is to study the evolution of acoustic waves in the atmosphere from an underground source. The second is to derive transmission coefficients for the energy flux with respect to the seismic magnitude and earth density. The third will be the generation of seismic waves from acoustic waves in the atmosphere. Is it possible?

  16. Infrasound signal detection and characterization using ground-coupled airwaves on a single seismo-acoustic sensor pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKee, K. F.; Fee, D.; Haney, M. M.; Lyons, J. J.; Matoza, R. S.

    2016-12-01

    A ground-coupled airwave (GCA) occurs when an incident atmospheric pressure wave encounters the Earth's surface and part of the energy of the wave is transferred to the ground (i.e. coupled to the ground) as a seismic wave. This seismic wave propagates as a surface Rayleigh wave evidenced by the retrograde particle motion detected on a three-component seismometer. Acoustic waves recorded on a collocated microphone and seismometer can be coherent and have a 90-degree phase difference, predicted by theory and in agreement with observations. If the sensors are separated relative to the frequencies of interest, usually 10s to 100s of meters, then recorded wind noise becomes incoherent and an additional phase shift is present due to the separation distance. These characteristics of GCAs have been used to distinguish wind noise from other sources as well as to determine the acoustic contribution to seismic recordings. Here we aim to develop a minimalist infrasound signal detection and characterization technique requiring just one microphone and one three-component seismometer. Based on GCA theory, determining a source azimuth should be possible using a single seismo-acoustic sensor pair by utilizing the phase difference and exploiting the characteristic particle motion. We will use synthetic seismo-acoustic data generated by a coupled Earth-atmosphere 3D finite difference code to test and tune the detection and characterization method. The method will then be further tested using various well-constrained sources (e.g. Chelyabinsk meteor, Pagan Volcano, Cleveland Volcano). Such a technique would be advantageous in situations where resources are limited and large sensor networks are not feasible.

  17. Dynamics of the Bingham Canyon rock avalanches (Utah, USA) resolved from topographic, seismic, and infrasound data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Jeffrey R.; Pankow, Kristine L.; Ford, Sean R.; Koper, Keith D.; Hale, J. Mark; Aaron, Jordan; Larsen, Chris F.

    2017-03-01

    The 2013 Bingham Canyon Mine rock avalanches represent one of the largest cumulative landslide events in recorded U.S. history and provide a unique opportunity to test remote analysis techniques for landslide characterization. Here we combine aerial photogrammetry surveying, topographic reconstruction, numerical runout modeling, and analysis of broadband seismic and infrasound data to extract salient details of the dynamics and evolution of the multiphase landslide event. Our results reveal a cumulative intact rock source volume of 52 Mm3, which mobilized in two main rock avalanche phases separated by 1.5 h. We estimate that the first rock avalanche had 1.5-2 times greater volume than the second. Each failure initiated by sliding along a gently dipping (21°), highly persistent basal fault before transitioning to a rock avalanche and spilling into the inner pit. The trajectory and duration of the two rock avalanches were reconstructed using runout modeling and independent force history inversion of intermediate-period (10-50 s) seismic data. Intermediate- and shorter-period (1-50 s) seismic data were sensitive to intervals of mass redirection and constrained finer details of the individual slide dynamics. Back projecting short-period (0.2-1 s) seismic energy, we located the two rock avalanches within 2 and 4 km of the mine. Further analysis of infrasound and seismic data revealed that the cumulative event included an additional 11 smaller landslides (volumes 104-105 m3) and that a trailing signal following the second rock avalanche may result from an air-coupled Rayleigh wave. Our results demonstrate new and refined techniques for detailed remote characterization of the dynamics and evolution of large landslides.

  18. Improved Bayesian Infrasonic Source Localization for regional infrasound

    DOE PAGES

    Blom, Philip S.; Marcillo, Omar; Arrowsmith, Stephen J.

    2015-10-20

    The Bayesian Infrasonic Source Localization (BISL) methodology is examined and simplified providing a generalized method of estimating the source location and time for an infrasonic event and the mathematical framework is used therein. The likelihood function describing an infrasonic detection used in BISL has been redefined to include the von Mises distribution developed in directional statistics and propagation-based, physically derived celerity-range and azimuth deviation models. Frameworks for constructing propagation-based celerity-range and azimuth deviation statistics are presented to demonstrate how stochastic propagation modelling methods can be used to improve the precision and accuracy of the posterior probability density function describing themore » source localization. Infrasonic signals recorded at a number of arrays in the western United States produced by rocket motor detonations at the Utah Test and Training Range are used to demonstrate the application of the new mathematical framework and to quantify the improvement obtained by using the stochastic propagation modelling methods. Moreover, using propagation-based priors, the spatial and temporal confidence bounds of the source decreased by more than 40 per cent in all cases and by as much as 80 per cent in one case. Further, the accuracy of the estimates remained high, keeping the ground truth within the 99 per cent confidence bounds for all cases.« less

  19. Infrasonic and seismic signals from earthquakes and explosions observed with Plostina seismo-acoustic array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghica, D.; Ionescu, C.

    2012-04-01

    Plostina seismo-acoustic array has been recently deployed by the National Institute for Earth Physics in the central part of Romania, near the Vrancea epicentral area. The array has a 2.5 km aperture and consists of 7 seismic sites (PLOR) and 7 collocated infrasound instruments (IPLOR). The array is being used to assess the importance of collocated seismic and acoustic sensors for the purposes of (1) seismic monitoring of the local and regional events, and (2) acoustic measurement, consisting of detection of the infrasound events (explosions, mine and quarry blasts, earthquakes, aircraft etc.). This paper focuses on characterization of infrasonic and seismic signals from the earthquakes and explosions (accidental and mining type). Two Vrancea earthquakes with magnitude above 5.0 were selected to this study: one occurred on 1st of May 2011 (MD = 5.3, h = 146 km), and the other one, on 4th October 2011 (MD = 5.2, h = 142 km). The infrasonic signals from the earthquakes have the appearance of the vertical component of seismic signals. Because the mechanism of the infrasonic wave formation is the coupling of seismic waves with the atmosphere, trace velocity values for such signals are compatible with the characteristics of the various seismic phases observed with PLOR array. The study evaluates and characterizes, as well, infrasound and seismic data recorded from the explosion caused by the military accident produced at Evangelos Florakis Naval Base, in Cyprus, on 11th July 2011. Additionally, seismo-acoustic signals presumed to be related to strong mine and quarry blasts were investigated. Ground truth of mine observations provides validation of this interpretation. The combined seismo-acoustic analysis uses two types of detectors for signal identification: one is the automatic detector DFX-PMCC, applied for infrasound detection and characterization, while the other one, which is used for seismic data, is based on array processing techniques (beamforming and frequency

  20. Evaluating the Capability of High-Altitude Infrasound Platforms to Cover Gaps in Existing Networks.

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, Daniel

    A variety of Earth surface and atmospheric sources generate low frequency sound waves that can travel great distances. Despite a rich history of ground-based sensor studies, very few experiments have investigated the prospects of free floating microphone arrays at high altitudes. However, recent initiatives have shown that such networks have very low background noise and may sample an acoustic wave field that is fundamentally different than that at the Earth's surface. The experiments have been limited to at most two stations at altitude, limiting their utility in acoustic event detection and localization. We describe the deployment of five drifting microphonemore » stations at altitudes between 21 and 24 km above sea level. The stations detected one of two regional ground-based explosions as well as the ocean microbarom while traveling almost 500 km across the American Southwest. The explosion signal consisted of multiple arrivals; signal amplitudes did not correlate with sensor elevation or source range. A sparse network method that employed curved wave front corrections was able to determine the backazimuth from the free flying network to the acoustic source. Episodic broad band signals similar to those seen on previous flights in the same region were noted as well, but their source remains unclear. Background noise levels were commensurate with those on infrasound stations in the International Monitoring System (IMS) below 2 seconds, but sensor self noise appears to dominate at higher frequencies.« less

  1. Detection Optimization of the Progressive Multi-Channel Correlation Algorithm Used in Infrasound Nuclear Treaty Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    82 4.3.2 Bayes Decision Criteria and Risk Minimization ............................................ 86...on the globe. In its mission to achieve information superiority, AFTAC has historically combined data garnered from seismic and infrasound networks...to improve location estimates for nuclear events. For instance, underground explosions produce seismic waves that can couple into the atmosphere

  2. Steps toward quantitative infrasound propagation modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waxler, Roger; Assink, Jelle; Lalande, Jean-Marie; Velea, Doru

    2016-04-01

    Realistic propagation modeling requires propagation models capable of incorporating the relevant physical phenomena as well as sufficiently accurate atmospheric specifications. The wind speed and temperature gradients in the atmosphere provide multiple ducts in which low frequency sound, infrasound, can propagate efficiently. The winds in the atmosphere are quite variable, both temporally and spatially, causing the sound ducts to fluctuate. For ground to ground propagation the ducts can be borderline in that small perturbations can create or destroy a duct. In such cases the signal propagation is very sensitive to fluctuations in the wind, often producing highly dispersed signals. The accuracy of atmospheric specifications is constantly improving as sounding technology develops. There is, however, a disconnect between sound propagation and atmospheric specification in that atmospheric specifications are necessarily statistical in nature while sound propagates through a particular atmospheric state. In addition infrasonic signals can travel to great altitudes, on the order of 120 km, before refracting back to earth. At such altitudes the atmosphere becomes quite rare causing sound propagation to become highly non-linear and attenuating. Approaches to these problems will be presented.

  3. Acoustic event location and background noise characterization on a free flying infrasound sensor network in the stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, Daniel C.; Albert, Sarah A.

    2018-06-01

    A variety of Earth surface and atmospheric sources generate low-frequency sound waves that can travel great distances. Despite a rich history of ground-based sensor studies, very few experiments have investigated the prospects of free floating microphone arrays at high altitudes. However, recent initiatives have shown that such networks have very low background noise and may sample an acoustic wave field that is fundamentally different than that at Earth's surface. The experiments have been limited to at most two stations at altitude, making acoustic event detection and localization difficult. We describe the deployment of four drifting microphone stations at altitudes between 21 and 24 km above sea level. The stations detected one of two regional ground-based chemical explosions as well as the ocean microbarom while travelling almost 500 km across the American Southwest. The explosion signal consisted of multiple arrivals; signal amplitudes did not correlate with sensor elevation or source range. The waveforms and propagation patterns suggest interactions with gravity waves at 35-45 km altitude. A sparse network method that employed curved wave front corrections was able to determine the backazimuth from the free flying network to the acoustic source. Episodic signals similar to those seen on previous flights in the same region were noted, but their source remains unclear. Background noise levels were commensurate with those on infrasound stations in the International Monitoring System below 2 s.

  4. Ground Observation of the Hayabusa Reentry: The Third Opportunity of Man-made Fireball from Interplanetary Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Y.; Yamamoto, M.; Hiramatsu, Y.; Furumoto, M.; Fujita, K.

    2010-12-01

    After 7 years and 6,000,000,000 km of challenging cruise in the solar system, the Hayabusa did come back to the Earth on June 13, 2010. The Hayabusa, the first sample-return explorer to NEA, landed on 25243 Itokawa in 2005, capturing surface particles on the S-type asteroid into its sample return capsule (SRC). Following to the reentries of the Genesis in 2004 and the Stardust in 2006, the return of the Hayabusa SRC was the third direct reentry event from the interplanetary transfer orbit to the Earth at a velocity of over 11.2 km/s. In addition, it was world first case of direct reentry of spacecraft from interplanetary transfer orbit. After the successful resumption of the SRC, it was carefully sent to ISAS/JAXA, and at present, small particles expected to be the first sample-return materials from the minor planet are carefully investigated. In order to obtain precise trajectory information to ensure the quick procedure for the Hayabusa SRC resumption team, we observed the Hayabusa SRC reentry by optically in Australian night sky. High-resolution imaging and spectroscopy were carried out with several high-sensitivity instruments to investigate thermal-protection process of thermal protection ablator (TPA) as well as interaction process between SRC surface materials and upper atmospheric neutral and plasma components. Moreover, shockwaves were observed by infrasound/seismic sensor arrays on ground to investigate reentry related shockwaves as well as air-to-ground coupling process at the extremely rare opportunity. With respect to nominal trajectory of the Hayabusa SRC reentry, four optical stations were set inside and near the Woomera Prohibited Area, Australia, targeting on peak-heat and/or front-heat profiles of ablating TPA for engineering aspect. Infrasound and seismic sensors were also deployed as three arrayed stations and three single stations to realize direction findings of sonic boom type shockwaves from the SRC and spacecraft and point source type

  5. Seismic and infrasonic source processes in volcanic fluid systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matoza, Robin S.

    Volcanoes exhibit a spectacular diversity in fluid oscillation processes, which lead to distinct seismic and acoustic signals in the solid earth and atmosphere. Volcano seismic waveforms contain rich information on the geometry of fluid migration, resonance effects, and transient and sustained pressure oscillations resulting from unsteady flow through subsurface cracks, fissures and conduits. Volcanic sounds contain information on shallow fluid flow, resonance in near-surface cavities, and degassing dynamics into the atmosphere. Since volcanoes have large spatial scales, the vast majority of their radiated atmospheric acoustic energy is infrasonic (<20 Hz). This dissertation presents observations from joint broadband seismic and infrasound array deployments at Mount St. Helens (MSH, Washington State, USA), Tungurahua (Ecuador), and Kilauea Volcano (Hawaii, USA), each providing data for several years. These volcanoes represent a broad spectrum of eruption styles ranging from hawaiian to plinian in nature. The catalogue of recorded infrasonic signals includes continuous broadband and harmonic tremor from persistent degassing at basaltic lava vents and tubes at Pu'u O'o (Kilauea), thousands of repetitive impulsive signals associated with seismic longperiod (0.5-5 Hz) events and the dynamics of the shallow hydrothermal system at MSH, rockfall signals from the unstable dacite dome at MSH, energetic explosion blast waves and gliding infrasonic harmonic tremor at Tungurahua volcano, and large-amplitude and long-duration broadband signals associated with jetting during vulcanian, subplinian and plinian eruptions at MSH and Tungurahua. We develop models for a selection of these infrasonic signals. For infrasonic long-period (LP) events at MSH, we investigate seismic-acoustic coupling from various buried source configurations as a means to excite infrasound waves in the atmosphere. We find that linear elastic seismic-acoustic transmission from the ground to atmosphere is

  6. The correction of infrasound signals for upper atmospheric winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mutschlecner, J. Paul; Whitaker, Rodney W.

    1990-01-01

    Infrasound waves propagate in the atmosphere by a well known mechanism produced by refraction of the waves, return to earth, and reflection at the surface into the atmosphere for subsequent bounces. A figure illustrates this phenomenon with results from a ray trace model. In this instance three rays are returned to earth from a region centered at about 50 kilometers in altitude and two from a region near 110 kilometers in altitude. The control of the wave refraction is largely dominated by the temperature-height profile and inversions; however, a major influence is also produced by the atmospheric wind profile. Another figure illustrates the considerable ray differences for rays moving in the wind direction (to the right) and in the counter direction (to the left). It obviously can be expected that infrasonic signal amplitudes will be greatly influenced by the winds in the atmosphere. The seasonal variation of the high altitude atmospheric winds is well documented. A third figure illustrates this with average statistics on the observed zonal wind in the region of 50 plus or minus 5 kilometers in altitude. The results are based upon a survey by Webb; Webb terms this parameterization the Stratospheric Circulation Index (SCI). The very strong seasonal variation has the ability to exert a major seasonal influence on infrasonic signals. The purpose here is to obtain a method for the correction of this effect.

  7. Construction of a meteor orbit calculation system for comprehensive meteor observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizumoto, S.; Madkour, W.; Yamamoto, M.

    2016-01-01

    At Kochi University of Technology (KUT), the development of an HRO (Ham-band Radio meteor Observation) -Interferometer (IF) was started in 2003, and we realized the meteor orbit calculation system by multiple-site radio observation with GPS time-keeping combining with the 5 channel (5ch) HRO-IF in 2012. Here, we introduce a future plan of comprehensive meteor observation by Radio, Optical and Infrasound observation.

  8. Gravity and Acoustic Waves Applied to the Dynamics and Kinematics of the Atmosphere.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    following areas is presented: 1) Use of Infrasound as an Atmospheric Probe: Infrasonic signals from natural and artifi- cial sources were used as a passive...Probe After identifying the atmospheric factors controlling the propagation of infrasound we inverted the procedure to use infrasonic signals from...background infra - sound in the lower thermosphere could have a strong influence on the heating of this region. Our observations of wind speeds agree well

  9. Acoustic Event Location and Background Noise Characterization on a Free Flying Infrasound Sensor Network in the Stratosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, Daniel C.; Albert, Sarah A.

    We present that a variety of Earth surface and atmospheric sources generate low frequency sound waves that can travel great distances. Despite a rich history of ground-based sensor studies, very few experiments have investigated the prospects of free floating microphone arrays at high altitudes. However, recent initiatives have shown that such networks have very low background noise and may sample an acoustic wave field that is fundamentally different than that at Earth’s surface. The experiments have been limited to at most two stations at altitude, making acoustic event detection and localization difficult. We describe the deployment of four drifting microphonemore » stations at altitudes between 21 and 24 km above sea level. The stations detected one of two regional ground-based chemical explosions as well as the ocean microbarom while traveling almost 500 km across the American Southwest. The explosion signal consisted of multiple arrivals; signal amplitudes did not correlate with sensor elevation or source range. The waveforms and propagation patterns suggest interactions with gravity waves in the 35-45 km altitude. A sparse network method that employed curved wave front corrections was able to determine the backazimuth from the free flying network to the acoustic source. Episodic signals similar to those seen on previous flights in the same region were noted, but their source remains unclear. Lastly, background noise levels were commensurate with those on infrasound stations in the International Monitoring System below 2 seconds.« less

  10. Acoustic Event Location and Background Noise Characterization on a Free Flying Infrasound Sensor Network in the Stratosphere

    DOE PAGES

    Bowman, Daniel C.; Albert, Sarah A.

    2018-02-22

    We present that a variety of Earth surface and atmospheric sources generate low frequency sound waves that can travel great distances. Despite a rich history of ground-based sensor studies, very few experiments have investigated the prospects of free floating microphone arrays at high altitudes. However, recent initiatives have shown that such networks have very low background noise and may sample an acoustic wave field that is fundamentally different than that at Earth’s surface. The experiments have been limited to at most two stations at altitude, making acoustic event detection and localization difficult. We describe the deployment of four drifting microphonemore » stations at altitudes between 21 and 24 km above sea level. The stations detected one of two regional ground-based chemical explosions as well as the ocean microbarom while traveling almost 500 km across the American Southwest. The explosion signal consisted of multiple arrivals; signal amplitudes did not correlate with sensor elevation or source range. The waveforms and propagation patterns suggest interactions with gravity waves in the 35-45 km altitude. A sparse network method that employed curved wave front corrections was able to determine the backazimuth from the free flying network to the acoustic source. Episodic signals similar to those seen on previous flights in the same region were noted, but their source remains unclear. Lastly, background noise levels were commensurate with those on infrasound stations in the International Monitoring System below 2 seconds.« less

  11. Characterization of moderate ash-and-gas explosions at Santiaguito volcano, Guatemala, from infrasound waveform inversion and thermal infrared measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelis, S. De; Lamb, O. D.; Lamur, A.; Hornby, A. J.; von Aulock, F. W.; Chigna, G.; Lavallée, Y.; Rietbrock, A.

    2016-06-01

    The rapid discharge of gas and rock fragments during volcanic eruptions generates acoustic infrasound. Here we present results from the inversion of infrasound signals associated with small and moderate gas-and-ash explosions at Santiaguito volcano, Guatemala, to retrieve the time history of mass eruption rate at the vent. Acoustic waveform inversion is complemented by analyses of thermal infrared imagery to constrain the volume and rise dynamics of the eruption plume. Finally, we combine results from the two methods in order to assess the bulk density of the erupted mixture, constrain the timing of the transition from a momentum-driven jet to a buoyant plume, and to evaluate the relative volume fractions of ash and gas during the initial thrust phase. Our results demonstrate that eruptive plumes associated with small-to-moderate size explosions at Santiaguito only carry minor fractions of ash, suggesting that these events may not involve extensive magma fragmentation in the conduit.

  12. Characterization of moderate ash-and-gas explosions at Santiaguito volcano, Guatemala, from infrasound waveform inversion and thermal infrared measurements.

    PubMed

    Angelis, S De; Lamb, O D; Lamur, A; Hornby, A J; von Aulock, F W; Chigna, G; Lavallée, Y; Rietbrock, A

    2016-06-28

    The rapid discharge of gas and rock fragments during volcanic eruptions generates acoustic infrasound. Here we present results from the inversion of infrasound signals associated with small and moderate gas-and-ash explosions at Santiaguito volcano, Guatemala, to retrieve the time history of mass eruption rate at the vent. Acoustic waveform inversion is complemented by analyses of thermal infrared imagery to constrain the volume and rise dynamics of the eruption plume. Finally, we combine results from the two methods in order to assess the bulk density of the erupted mixture, constrain the timing of the transition from a momentum-driven jet to a buoyant plume, and to evaluate the relative volume fractions of ash and gas during the initial thrust phase. Our results demonstrate that eruptive plumes associated with small-to-moderate size explosions at Santiaguito only carry minor fractions of ash, suggesting that these events may not involve extensive magma fragmentation in the conduit.

  13. The Ongoing Addition of Infrasound Sensors and the Flexette Wind-Noise Reducing System to Global Seismic Network Stations Operated by Project IDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebeling, C. W.; Coon, C.

    2017-12-01

    Infrasound sensors are now being installed at Global Seismic Network (GSN) stations meeting certain infrastructure criteria. Manufactured by Hyperion Technology Group, Inc., these instruments (model IFS-3312) have a nominal sensitivity of 140 mV/Pa (at 1 Hz), a full-scale range of ±100 Pa, and a dynamic range of 120 dB. Low power consumption (750 mW at 12 VDC) and small size (153 mm x 178 mm) ease incorporation into the mix of existing GSN instrumentation. The accompanying flexible rosette ("Flexette") acoustic wind-noise reducing system, designed by Project IDA (International Deployment of Accelerometers-IDA), optimally includes 24 inlets, 4 secondary manifolds, and a single primary manifold. Each secondary manifold is connected to 6 inlets and to the primary manifold by 10-ft air hoses, thus eliminating stresses and the greater potential for leaks associated with the use of pipe. While the main design goal was to maximize the reduction of acoustic wind-noise over the widest range of wind speeds possible, consideration of additional criteria resulted in a Flexette base design easily tailored to meet individual station constraints and restrictions, made up of inexpensive (total cost infrasound sensor and Flexette installed. Additional IDA GSN stations with this capability added since then include CMLA (Cha de Macela, Sao Miguel Island, Azores, Portugal), in June 2017; and the new GSN station KWJN (Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands), in August 2017. During the next 6 months infrasound capability will be extended to IDA GSN stations BORG (Borganes, Iceland), EFI (Mount Kent, East Falkland Islands), and SACV (Santiago Island, Cape Verde).As with other data from GSN stations, real-time infrasound data are freely available from the Incorporated Research

  14. Mobile Source Observation Database (MSOD)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Mobile Source Observation Database (MSOD) is a relational database developed by the Assessment and Standards Division (ASD) of the U.S. EPA Office of Transportation and Air Quality (formerly the Office of Mobile Sources).

  15. Detecting Seismic Infrasound Signals on Balloon Platforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnamoorthy, S.; Komjathy, A.; Cutts, J. A.; Pauken, M.; Garcia, R.; Mimoun, D.; Jackson, J. M.; Kedar, S.; Smrekar, S. E.; Hall, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    The determination of the interior structure of a planet requires detailed seismic investigations - a process that entails the detection and characterization of seismic waves due to geological activities (e.g., earthquakes, volcanoes, etc.). For decades, this task has primarily been performed on Earth by an ever-expanding network of terrestrial seismic stations. However, on planets such as Venus, where the surface pressure and temperature can reach as high as 90 atmospheres and 450 degrees Celsius respectively, placing seismometers on the planet's surface poses a vexing technological challenge. However, the upper layers of the Venusian atmosphere are more benign and capable of hosting geophysical payloads for longer mission lifetimes. In order to achieve the aim of performing geophysical experiments from an atmospheric platform, JPL and its partners (ISAE-SUPAERO and California Institute of Technology) are in the process of developing technologies for detection of infrasonic waves generated by earthquakes from a balloon. The coupling of seismic energy into the atmosphere critically depends on the density differential between the surface of the planet and the atmosphere. Therefore, the successful demonstration of this technique on Earth would provide ample reason to expect success on Venus, where the atmospheric impedance is approximately 60 times that of Earth. In this presentation, we will share results from the first set of Earth-based balloon experiments performed in Pahrump, Nevada in June 2017. These tests involved the generation of artificial sources of known intensity using a seismic hammer and their detection using a complex network of sensors, including highly sensitive micro-barometers suspended from balloons, GPS receivers, geophones, microphones, and seismometers. This experiment was the first of its kind and was successful in detecting infrasonic waves from the earthquakes generated by the seismic hammer. We will present the first comprehensive analysis

  16. Dynamics of the Bingham Canyon rock avalanches (Utah, USA) resolved from topographic, seismic, and infrasound data: Bingham Canyon Rock Avalanches

    DOE PAGES

    Moore, Jeffrey R.; Pankow, Kristine L.; Ford, Sean R.; ...

    2017-03-01

    The 2013 Bingham Canyon Mine rock avalanches represent one of the largest cumulative landslide events in recorded U.S. history and provide a unique opportunity to test remote analysis techniques for landslide characterization. We combine aerial photogrammetry surveying, topographic reconstruction, numerical runout modeling, and analysis of broadband seismic and infrasound data to extract salient details of the dynamics and evolution of the multiphase landslide event. Our results reveal a cumulative intact rock source volume of 52 Mm 3, which mobilized in two main rock avalanche phases separated by 1.5 h. We estimate that the first rock avalanche had 1.5–2 times greatermore » volume than the second. Each failure initiated by sliding along a gently dipping (21°), highly persistent basal fault before transitioning to a rock avalanche and spilling into the inner pit. The trajectory and duration of the two rock avalanches were reconstructed using runout modeling and independent force history inversion of intermediate-period (10–50 s) seismic data. Intermediate- and shorter-period (1–50 s) seismic data were sensitive to intervals of mass redirection and constrained finer details of the individual slide dynamics. Back projecting short-period (0.2–1 s) seismic energy, we located the two rock avalanches within 2 and 4 km of the mine. Further analysis of infrasound and seismic data revealed that the cumulative event included an additional 11 smaller landslides (volumes ~10 4–10 5 m 3) and that a trailing signal following the second rock avalanche may result from an air-coupled Rayleigh wave. These results demonstrate new and refined techniques for detailed remote characterization of the dynamics and evolution of large landslides.« less

  17. Long-range acoustic observations of the Eyjafjallajökull eruption, Iceland, April-May 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matoza, Robin S.; Vergoz, Julien; Le Pichon, Alexis; Ceranna, Lars; Green, David N.; Evers, Läslo G.; Ripepe, Maurizio; Campus, Paola; Liszka, Ludwik; Kvaerna, Tormod; Kjartansson, Einar; Höskuldsson, Ármann

    2011-03-01

    The April-May 2010 summit eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, was recorded by 14 atmospheric infrasound sensor arrays at ranges between 1,700 and 3,700 km, indicating that infrasound from modest-size eruptions can propagate for thousands of kilometers in atmospheric waveguides. Although variations in both atmospheric propagation conditions and background noise levels at the sensors generate fluctuations in signal-to-noise ratios and signal detectability, array processing techniques successfully discriminate between volcanic infrasound and ambient coherent and incoherent noise. The current global infrasound network is significantly more dense and sensitive than any previously operated network and signals from large volcanic explosions are routinely recorded. Because volcanic infrasound is generated during the explosive release of fluid into the atmosphere, it is a strong indicator that an eruption has occurred. Therefore, long-range infrasonic monitoring may aid volcanic explosion detection by complementing other monitoring technologies, especially in remote regions with sparse ground-based instrument networks.

  18. Eruptive Source Parameters from Near-Source Gravity Waves Induced by Large Vulcanian eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barfucci, Giulia; Ripepe, Maurizio; De Angelis, Silvio; Lacanna, Giorgio; Marchetti, Emanuele

    2016-04-01

    The sudden ejection of hot material from volcanic vent perturbs the atmosphere generating a broad spectrum of pressure oscillations from acoustic infrasound (<10 Hz) to gravity waves (<0.03 Hz). However observations of gravity waves excited by volcanic eruptions are still rare, mostly limited to large sub-plinian eruptions and frequently at large distance from the source (>100 km). Atmospheric Gravity waves are induced by perturbations of the hydrostatic equilibrium of the atmosphere and propagate within a medium with internal density stratification. They are initiated by mechanisms that cause the atmosphere to be displaced as for the injection of volcanic ash plume during an eruption. We use gravity waves to infer eruptive source parameters, such as mass eruption rate (MER) and duration of the eruption, which may be used as inputs in the volcanic ash transport and dispersion models. We present the analysis of near-field observations (<7 km) of atmospheric gravity waves, with frequencies of 0.97 and 1.15 mHz, recorded by a pressure sensors network during two explosions in July and December 2008 at Soufrière Hills Volcano, Montserrat. We show that gravity waves at Soufrière Hills Volcano originate above the volcanic dome and propagate with an apparent horizontal velocities of 8-10 m/s. Assuming a single mass injection point source model, we constrain the source location at ~3.5 km a.s.l., above the vent, duration of the gas thrust < 140 s and MERs of 2.6 and 5.4 x10E7 kg/s, for the two eruptive events. Source duration and MER derived by modeling Gravity Waves are fully compatible with others independent estimates from field observations. Our work strongly supports the use of gravity waves to model eruption source parameters and can have a strong impact on our ability to monitor volcanic eruption at a large distance and may have future application in assessing the relative magnitude of volcanic explosions.

  19. Predicting Wind Noise Inside Porous Dome Filters for Infrasound Sensing on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitre, Kevin M.

    The study described in this thesis aims to assess the effects of wind-generated noise on potential infrasound measurements on future Mars missions. Infrasonic sensing on Mars is being considered as a means to probe the long-scale atmospheric dynamics, thermal balance, and also to infer bolide impact statistics. In this study, a preliminary framework for predicting the principal wind noise mechanisms to the signal detected by a sensor placed inside a hemispherical porous dome on the Martian surface is developed. The method involves calculating the pressure power density spectra in the infrasonic range generated by turbulent interactions and filtered by dome shaped filters of varying porosities. Knowing the overall noise power spectrum will allow it to be subtracted from raw signals of interest and aid in the development of infrasound sensors for the Martian environment. In order to make these power spectral predictions, the study utilizes the Martian Climate Database (MCD) global circulation model, developed by Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique in Paris, France. Velocity profiles are generated and used in semi empirical functions generated by von Karman along with equations for describing the physical turbulent interactions. With these, turbulent interactions in the free atmosphere above the Martian surface are described. For interactions of turbulence with the porous filter, semi-empirical formulations are adapted to the Martian parameters generated by the MCD and plotted alongside contributions in the free atmosphere outside and inside the dome to obtain the total wind noise contribution from turbulence. In conclusion, the plots of power spectral densities versus frequency are analyzed to determine what porosity filter would provide the best wind-noise suppression when measured at the center the dome. The study shows that 55% (0.02 to 5 Hz) and 80% (6 to 20 Hz) porosities prove to be the better of the five porosities tested.

  20. Microseism Source Distribution Observed from Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, David; Bean, Chris; Donne, Sarah; Le Pape, Florian; Möllhoff, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Ocean generated microseisms (OGM) are recorded globally with similar spectral features observed everywhere. The generation mechanism for OGM and their subsequent propagation to continental regions has led to their use as a proxy for sea-state characteristics. Also many modern seismological methods make use of OGM signals. For example, the Earth's crust and upper mantle can be imaged using ``ambient noise tomography``. For many of these methods an understanding of the source distribution is necessary to properly interpret the results. OGM recorded on near coastal seismometers are known to be related to the local ocean wavefield. However, contributions from more distant sources may also be present. This is significant for studies attempting to use OGM as a proxy for sea-state characteristics such as significant wave height. Ireland has a highly energetic ocean wave climate and is close to one of the major source regions for OGM. This provides an ideal location to study an OGM source region in detail. Here we present the source distribution observed from seismic arrays in Ireland. The region is shown to consist of several individual source areas. These source areas show some frequency dependence and generally occur at or near the continental shelf edge. We also show some preliminary results from an off-shore OBS network to the North-West of Ireland. The OBS network includes instruments on either side of the shelf and should help interpret the array observations.

  1. On the use of remote infrasound and seismic stations to constrain eruptive sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caudron, C.; Taisne, B.; Garces, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    The Kelud eruption was one of the strongest volcanic eruption of the decade. The eruption occurred on the 13th of February 2014 and ejected volcanic ash up to 20 km of altitude. The eruption also destroyed most of the instruments deployed in the near field. Therefore, not much information could be unraveled from the local volcano monitoring system. An explosion was clearly captured at many infrasound stations of the IMS network (and in Singapore), making it one of the biggest volcanic events recorded by the network. The high intensity, deep frequency, and infrasonic detection range of >10,000 km is characteristic of an eruptive column that injects ash into aircraft cruising altitudes and is an evident threat to aviation. The explosion signal was particularly rich in very long periods (~ 200s) and could be resolved as two distinct pulses at some sites. Interestingly, many broadband seismic instruments also recorded this event as far as 5000 kilometers. By inspecting the seismic data of the instruments located closer to the edifice (~ 150 km), we could clearly distinguish two different pulses separated by 17 minutes, followed by the arrival of very low frequencies (thanks to the coupling between ground and atmosphere). One pulse vs two pulses might have strong implications for the subsequent ash modelling. Due to the violence of the events, 4 stations out of 5 were destructed and the remaining one was saturated. This illustrates that data streams from broadband seismometers and infrasound sensors located at safe distances are extremely useful for deciphering the dynamic of the eruption and its implication in term of local, regional and global impact.

  2. IVS Observation of ICRF2-Gaia Transfer Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bail, K.; Gipson, J. M.; Gordon, D.; MacMillan, D. S.; Behrend, D.; Thomas, C. C.; Bolotin, S.; Himwich, W. E.; Baver, K. D.; Corey, B. E.; Titus, M.; Bourda, G.; Charlot, P.; Collioud, A.

    2016-03-01

    The second realization of the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF2), which is the current fundamental celestial reference frame adopted by the International Astronomical Union, is based on Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) data at radio frequencies in X band and S band. The European Space Agency’s Gaia mission, launched on 2013 December 19, started routine scientific operations in 2014 July. By scanning the whole sky, it is expected to observe ∼500,000 Quasi Stellar Objects in the optical domain an average of 70 times each during the five years of the mission. This means that, in the future, two extragalactic celestial reference frames, at two different frequency domains, will coexist. It will thus be important to align them very accurately. In 2012, the Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Bordeaux (LAB) selected 195 sources from ICRF2 that will be observed by Gaia and should be suitable for aligning the radio and optical frames: they are called ICRF2-Gaia transfer sources. The LAB submitted a proposal to the International VLBI Service (IVS) to regularly observe these ICRF2-Gaia transfer sources at the same rate as Gaia observes them in the optical realm, e.g., roughly once a month. We describe our successful effort to implement such a program and report on the results. Most observations of the ICRF2-Gaia transfer sources now occur automatically as part of the IVS source monitoring program, while a subset of 37 sources requires special attention. Beginning in 2013, we scheduled 25 VLBI sessions devoted in whole or in part to measuring these 37 sources. Of the 195 sources, all but one have been successfully observed in the 12 months prior to 2015 September 01. Of the sources, 87 met their observing target of 12 successful sessions per year. The position uncertainties of all of the ICRF2-Gaia transfer sources have improved since the start of this observing program. For a subset of 24 sources whose positions were very poorly known, the uncertainty

  3. Location of space debris by infrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asming, Vladimir; Vinogradov, Yuri

    2013-04-01

    After an exhausted stage has separated from a rocket it comes back to the dense atmosphere. It burns and divides into many pieces moving separately. Ballisticians can calculate an approximate trace of a falling stage and outline a supposed area where the debris can fall (target ellipse). Such ellipses are usually rather big in sizes (something like 60 x 100 km). For safety reasons all local inhabitants should be evacuated from a target area during rocket's launch. One of problems is that the ballistician can not compute the traces and areas exactly. There were many cases when debris had fallen outside the areas. Rescue teams must check such cases to make changes in rockets. The largest pieces can contain remains of toxic rocket fuel and therefore must be found and deactivated. That is why the problem of debris location is of significant importance for overland fall areas. It is more or less solved in Kazakhstan where large fragments of 1st stages can be seen in the Steppe but it is very difficult to find fragments of 2nd stages in Altai, Tomsk region and Komi republic (taiga, mountains, swamps). The rocket debris produces strong infrasonic shock waves during their reentry. Since 2009 the Kola Branch of Geophysical Survey of RAS participates in joint project with Khrunichev Space Center concerning with infrasound debris location. We have developed mobile infrasound arrays consisting of 3 microphones, analog-to-digit converter, GPS and notebook. The aperture is about 200 m, deployment time is less than 1 hour. Currently we have 4 such arrays, one of them is wireless and consists of 3 units comprising a microphone, GPS and radio-transmitter. We have made several field measurements by 3 or 4 such arrays placed around target ellipses of falling rocket stages in Kazakhstan ("Soyuz" rocket 1st stage), Altai and Tomsk region ("Proton" rocket 2nd stages). If was found that a typical 2nd stage divides into hundreds of pieces and each one generates a shock wave. This is a

  4. Infrasonic Monitoring,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-08-14

    seismic network. At large range, infrasound signals are oscillatory acoustic signals detected as small pressure variations about the ambient value... Infrasound Review and Background Infrasound signals are regular acoustic signals in that they are longitudinal pressure waves albeit at rather low frequency...energy is concentrated at higher frequency than that for higher yield sources. Infrasound can be generated by natural and manmade processes; moreover

  5. VLBI observations of Infrared-Faint Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middelberg, Enno; Phillips, Chris; Norris, Ray; Tingay, Steven

    2006-10-01

    We propose to observe a small sample of radio sources from the ATLAS project (ATLAS = Australia Telescope Large Area Survey) with the LBA, to determine their compactness and map their structures. The sample consists of three radio sources with no counterpart in the co-located SWIRE survey (3.6 um to 160 um), carried out with the Spitzer Space Telescope. This rare class of sources, dubbed Infrared-Faint Radio Sources, or IFRS, is inconsistent with current galaxy evolution models. VLBI observations are an essential way to obtain further clues on what these objects are and why they are hidden from infrared observations: we will map their structure to test whether they resemble core-jet or double-lobed morphologies, and we will measure the flux densities on long baselines, to determine their compactness. Previous snapshot-style LBA observations of two other IFRS yielded no detections, hence we propose to use disk-based recording with 512 Mbps where possible, for highest sensitivity. With the observations proposed here, we will increase the number of VLBI-observed IFRS from two to five, soon allowing us to draw general conclusions about this intriguing new class of objects.

  6. Mobile Source Observation Database (MSOD)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Mobile Source Observation Database (MSOD) is a relational database being developed by the Assessment and Standards Division (ASD) of the US Environmental Protection Agency Office of Transportation and Air Quality (formerly the Office of Mobile Sources). The MSOD contains emission test data from in-use mobile air- pollution sources such as cars, trucks, and engines from trucks and nonroad vehicles. Data in the database was collected from 1982 to the present. The data is intended to be representative of in-use vehicle emissions in the United States.

  7. Infrasonic crackle and supersonic jet noise from the eruption of Nabro Volcano, Eritrea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fee, David; Matoza, Robin S.; Gee, Kent L.; Neilsen, Tracianne B.; Ogden, Darcy E.

    2013-08-01

    The lowermost portion of an explosive volcanic eruption column is considered a momentum-driven jet. Understanding volcanic jets is critical for determining eruption column dynamics and mitigating volcanic hazards; however, volcanic jets are inherently difficult to observe due to their violence and opacity. Infrasound from the 2011 eruption of Nabro Volcano, Eritrea has waveform features highly similar to the "crackle" phenomenon uniquely produced by man-made supersonic jet engines and rockets and is characterized by repeated asymmetric compressions followed by weaker, gradual rarefactions. This infrasonic crackle indicates that infrasound source mechanisms in sustained volcanic eruptions are strikingly similar to jet noise sources from heated, supersonic jet engines and rockets, suggesting that volcanologists can utilize the modeling and physical understandings of man-made jets to understand volcanic jets. The unique, distinctive infrasonic crackle from Nabro highlights the use of infrasound to remotely detect and characterize hazardous eruptions and its potential to determine volcanic jet parameters.

  8. Detection of Thrombosis in the Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Circuit by Infrasound: Proof of Concept.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Gabriel; Berg, Niclas; Eriksson, Anders; Prahl Wittberg, Lisa

    2017-06-01

    As of today, there exist no reliable, objective methods for early detection of thrombi in the extracorporeal membrane oxygenators (ECMO) system. Within the ECMO system, thrombi are not always fixed to a certain component or location in the circuit. Thus, clot fragments of different shapes and consistencies may circulate and give rise to vibrations and sound generation. By bedside sound measurements and additional laboratory experiments (although not detailed herein), we found that the presence of particles (clots or aggregates and fragments of clots) can be detected by analyzing the strength of infra-sound (< 20 Hz) modes of the spectrum near the inlet and outlet of the centrifugal pump in the ECMO circuit. For the few patients that were considered in this study, no clear false positive or negative examples were found when comparing the spectral approach with clinical observations. A laboratory setup provided insight to the flow in and out of the pump, confirming that in the presence of particles a low-amplitude low-frequency signal is strongly amplified, enabling the identification of a clot. © 2016 The Authors Artificial Organs published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Center for Artificial Organ and Transplantation (ICAOT).

  9. A wide-angle high Mach number modal expansion for infrasound propagation.

    PubMed

    Assink, Jelle; Waxler, Roger; Velea, Doru

    2017-03-01

    The use of modal expansions to solve the problem of atmospheric infrasound propagation is revisited. A different form of the associated modal equation is introduced, valid for wide-angle propagation in atmospheres with high Mach number flow. The modal equation can be formulated as a quadratic eigenvalue problem for which there are simple and efficient numerical implementations. A perturbation expansion for the treatment of attenuation, valid for stratified media with background flow, is derived as well. Comparisons are carried out between the proposed algorithm and a modal algorithm assuming an effective sound speed, including a real data case study. The comparisons show that the effective sound speed approximation overestimates the effect of horizontal wind on sound propagation, leading to errors in traveltime, propagation path, trace velocity, and absorption. The error is found to be dependent on propagation angle and Mach number.

  10. Design of infrasound-detection system via adaptive LMSTDE algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khalaf, C. S.; Stoughton, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    A proposed solution to an aviation safety problem is based on passive detection of turbulent weather phenomena through their infrasonic emission. This thesis describes a system design that is adequate for detection and bearing evaluation of infrasounds. An array of four sensors, with the appropriate hardware, is used for the detection part. Bearing evaluation is based on estimates of time delays between sensor outputs. The generalized cross correlation (GCC), as the conventional time-delay estimation (TDE) method, is first reviewed. An adaptive TDE approach, using the least mean square (LMS) algorithm, is then discussed. A comparison between the two techniques is made and the advantages of the adaptive approach are listed. The behavior of the GCC, as a Roth processor, is examined for the anticipated signals. It is shown that the Roth processor has the desired effect of sharpening the peak of the correlation function. It is also shown that the LMSTDE technique is an equivalent implementation of the Roth processor in the time domain. A LMSTDE lead-lag model, with a variable stability coefficient and a convergence criterion, is designed.

  11. Seismo-acoustic analysis of the near quarry blasts using Plostina small aperture array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghica, Daniela; Stancu, Iulian; Ionescu, Constantin

    2013-04-01

    Seismic and acoustic signals are important to recognize different type of industrial blasting sources in order to discriminate between them and natural earthquakes. We have analyzed the seismic events listed in the Romanian catalogue (Romplus) for the time interval between 2011 and 2012, and occurred in the Dobrogea region, in order to determine detection seismo-acoustic signals of quarry blasts by Plostina array stations. Dobrogea is known as a seismic region characterized by crustal earthquakes with low magnitudes; at the same time, over 40 quarry mines are located in the area, being sources of blasts recorded both with the seismic and infrasound sensors of the Romanian Seismic Network. Plostina seismo-acoustic array, deployed in the central part of Romania, consists of 7 seismic sites (3C broad-band instruments and accelerometers) collocated with 7 infrasound instruments. The array is particularly used for the seismic monitoring of the local and regional events, as well as for the detection of infrasonic signals produced by various sources. Considering the characteristics of the infrasound sensors (frequency range, dynamic, sensibility), the array proved its efficiency in observing the signals produced by explosions, mine explosion and quarry blasts. The quarry mines included for this study cover distances of two hundreds of kilometers from the station and routinely generate explosions that are detected as seismic and infrasonic signals with Plostina array. The combined seismo-acoustic analysis uses two types of detectors for signal identification: one, applied for the seismic signal identification, is based on array processing techniques (beamforming and frequency-wave number analysis), while the other one, which is used for infrasound detection and characterization, is the automatic detector DFX-PMCC (Progressive Multi-Channel Correlation Method). Infrasonic waves generated by quarry blasts have frequencies ranging from 0.05 Hz up to at least 6 Hz and

  12. Multi-sensor investigation of the Sumatran Tsunami: observations and analysis of hydroacoustic, seismic, infrasonic, and tide gauge data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharyya, J.; Pulli, J.; Gibson, R.; Upton, Z.

    2005-05-01

    We present an analysis of the acoustic signals from the December 26, 2004 Sumatra earthquakes, in conjunction with the seismic and tide gauge information from the event. The M9.0 mainshock and its aftershocks were recorded by a suite of seismic sensors around the globe, giving us information on its location and the source process. Recently installed sensor assets in the Indian Ocean have enabled us to study additional features of this significant event. Hydroacoustic signals were recorded by three hydrophone arrays, and the direction finding capability of these arrays allows us to examine the location, time and extent of the T-wave generation process. We detect a clear variation of the back-azimuth that is consistent with the spatial extent of the source rupture. Recordings from nearly co-located seismometers provide insights into the acoustic-to-seismic conversion process for T-waves at islands, along with the variation in signal characteristics with source size. Two separate infrasound arrays detect the atmospheric signals generated by the event, along with additional observations of the seismic surface wave and the T-phase. We will present a comparison of the signals from the mainshock, as a function of location and size, with those from aftershocks and similar events in the nearby region. Our acoustic observations compare favorably with model predictions of wave propagation in the region. For the hydroacoustic data, the azimuth, arrival time, and signal blockage characteristics, from three separate arrays, associate the onset of the signal with the mainshock and with a time extent consistent with the rupture propagation. Our analysis of the T-phase travel times suggests that the seismic-to-acoustic conversion occurs more than 100 km from the epicenter. The infrasound signal's arrival time and signal duration are consistent with both stratospheric and thermospheric propagation from a source region near the mainshock. We use the tide gauge data from stations

  13. Infrasonic Observations of Explosions and Degassing at Kilauea Summit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fee, D.; Garces, M.

    2008-12-01

    After 25 years of quiescence, eruptive activity returned to Kilauea Caldera with an explosion in Halema'uma'u crater on March 19th 2008. The explosion is presumed to be the clearing of a clogged vent. Along with the 3/19 explosion, at least 5 more gas-driven explosions have occurred and were clearly recorded at a 4-element infrasound array 7 km away. Acoustic energy estimates for these explosions yield energies between ~ 0.2-3 × 107 J. Infrasonic VLP energy is present for some of the explosions, but not all. The relatively long explosion durations (>20 seconds) and frequency content are consistent with a transient pressure pulse followed by the reverberation of a shallow gas chamber or conduit. Persistent degassing from Halema'uma'u followed the initial explosion. The harmonic infrasonic tremor produced by the degassing is the most energetic to date at Kilauea, with the cumulative tremor acoustic energy at ~107-108 Joules/hour. The complex tremor spectra show numerous peaks, with the dominant peak between 0.3-0.6 Hz and a smaller amplitude peak around 1-3 Hz. The peak frequency of the harmonic tremor has changed over time, which could be related to a change in the gas-filled chamber dimensions or temperature. Further analysis of the tremor spectra may help constrain dimensions. Consistent with our previous observations at Kilauea from Pu'u 'O'o, Fissure D, and lava skylights, the excitation of a gas within a confined volume appears to be the acoustic (and possibly seismic) source. For the tremor, we propose a mechanism where persistent degassing excites the gas volume into resonance. The explosions signals are consistent with a slug of gas reaching the free surface and exciting the conduit as well. Correlation of the infrasound signals with seismic tremor, LP and VLP signals suggest an open system connecting the atmosphere to the seismic excitation process at depth. Results will also be presented in relation to the recent observation of a visible lava lake within

  14. Modal expansions for infrasound propagation and their implications for ground-to-ground propagation.

    PubMed

    Waxler, Roger; Assink, Jelle; Velea, Doru

    2017-02-01

    The use of expansions in vertical eigenmodes for long range infrasound propagation modeling in the effective sound speed approximation is investigated. The question of convergence of such expansions is related to the maximum elevation angles that are required. Including atmospheric attenuation leads to a non-self-adjoint vertical eigenvalue problem. The use of leading order perturbation theory for the modal attenuation is compared to the results of numerical solutions to the non-self-adjoint eigenvalue problem and conditions under which the perturbative result is expected to be valid are obtained. Modal expansions are obtained in the frequency domain; broadband signals must be modeled through Fourier reconstruction. Such broadband signal reconstruction is investigated and the relation between bandwidth, wavetrain duration, and frequency sampling is discussed.

  15. Study of the performance of the infrasound Station IS48TN during the period 2011 -2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejri, Chourouk

    2017-04-01

    The Infrasound Station IS48, in Kesra, Tunisia is part of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. IS48 is managed and maintained by the Tunisian NDC. Its good location in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea allows to have various and interesting detections. Several events were recorded and identified. But since 2010, the performance of the station has began to be noisy , due to a leakage in the pipe array, despite efforts to solve the issue through the pressure test and maintenance . To this issues, PTS decided to upgrade the WNRS at IS48TN.

  16. The discrimination of man-made explosions from earthquakes using seismo-acoustic analysis in the Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Il-Young; Jeon, Jeong-Soo

    2010-05-01

    Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM) operates an infrasound network consisting of seven seismo-acoustic arrays in South Korea. Development of the arrays began in 1999, partially in collaboration with Southern Methodist University, with the goal of detecting distant infrasound signals from natural and anthropogenic phenomena in and around the Korean Peninsula. The main operational purpose of this network is to discriminate man-made seismic events from seismicity including thousands of seismic events per year in the region. The man-made seismic events are major cause of error in estimating the natural seismicity, especially where the seismic activity is weak or moderate such as in the Korean Peninsula. In order to discriminate the man-made explosions from earthquakes, we have applied the seismo-acoustic analysis associating seismic and infrasonic signals generated from surface explosion. The observations of infrasound at multiple arrays made it possible to discriminate surface explosion, because small or moderate size earthquake is not sufficient to generate infrasound. Till now we have annually discriminated hundreds of seismic events in seismological catalog as surface explosions by the seismo-acoustic analysis. Besides of the surface explosions, the network also detected infrasound signals from other sources, such as bolide, typhoons, rocket launches, and underground nuclear test occurred in and around the Korean Peninsula. In this study, ten years of seismo-acoustic data are reviewed with recent infrasonic detection algorithm and association method that finally linked to the seismic monitoring system of the KIGAM to increase the detection rate of surface explosions. We present the long-term results of seismo-acoustic analysis, the detection capability of the multiple arrays, and implications for seismic source location. Since the seismo-acoustic analysis is proved as a definite method to discriminate surface explosion, the analysis will be

  17. The assessment and evaluation of low-frequency noise near the region of infrasound.

    PubMed

    Ziaran, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to present recent knowledge about the assessment and evaluation of low-frequency sounds (noise) and infrasound, close to the threshold of hearing, and identify their potential effect on human health and annoyance. Low-frequency noise generated by air flowing over a moving car with an open window was chosen as a typical scenario which can be subjectively assessed by people traveling by automobile. The principle of noise generated within the interior of the car and its effects on the comfort of the driver and passengers are analyzed at different velocities. An open window of a car at high velocity behaves as a source of specifically strong tonal low-frequency noise which is generally perceived as annoying. The interior noise generated by an open window of a passenger car was measured under different conditions: Driving on a highway and driving on a typical roadway. First, an octave-band analysis was used to assess the noise level and its impact on the driver's comfort. Second, a fast Fourier transform (FFT) analysis and one-third octave-band analysis were used for the detection of tonal low-frequency noise. Comparison between two different car makers was also done. Finally, the paper suggests some possibilities for scientifically assessing and evaluating low-frequency sounds in general, and some recommendations are introduced for scientific discussion, since sounds with strong low-frequency content (but not only strong) engender greater annoyance than is predicted by an A-weighted sound pressure level.

  18. Infrasound observation of the apparent North Korean nuclear test of 25 May 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Il-Young; Kim, Tae Sung; Jeon, Jeong-Soo; Lee, Hee-Il

    2009-11-01

    On 25 May 2009, a seismic event (mb 4.6) was recorded from a source in northeastern North Korea, close to the location of a previous seismic event on 9 October 2006. Both events have been declared to be nuclear tests by North Korea. For the more recent test, five seismo-acoustic arrays in South Korea recorded epicentral infrasonic signals. The signals are characterized by amplitudes from 0.16 to 0.35 microbar and dominant frequencies between 0.8 and 4.3 Hz. Celerities determined for the arrivals suggest that most of the infrasonic energy travelled as a stratospheric phase. Based on observed stratospheric amplitudes, the epicentral infrasonic energy was estimated to be equivalent to that expected from 3.0 tons of high explosives detonated on the surface. We conclude that this small energy estimate is due to the atmospheric coupling from the strong surface ground motion rather than the direct transfer of explosion energy to the air. This relatively small infrasonic to seismic energy ratio could be used to distinguish the event from a common surface explosion.

  19. Experiencing Earth's inaudible symphony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marlton, Graeme; Charlton-Perez, Andrew; Harrison, Giles; Robson, Juliet

    2017-04-01

    Everyday the human body is exposed to thousands of different sounds; smartphones, music, cars and overhead aircraft to name a few. There are some sounds however which we cannot hear as they are below our range of hearing, sound at this level is known as infrasound and is of very low frequency. Such examples of infrasound are the sounds made by glaciers and volcanos, distant mining activities and the sound of the ocean. These sounds are emitted by these sources constantly all over the world and are recorded at infrasound stations, thus providing a recording of Earth's inaudible symphony. The aim of this collaboration between artists and scientists is to create a proof of concept immersive experience in which members of the public are invited to experience and understand infrasound. Participants will sit in an installation and be shown images of natural infrasound sources whilst their seat is vibrated at with an amplitude modulated version of the original infrasound wave. To further enhance the experience, subwoofers will play the same amplitude modulated soundwave to place the feeling of the infrasound wave passing through the installation. Amplitude modulation is performed so that a vibration is played at a frequency that can be felt by the human body but its amplitude varies at the frequency of the infrasound wave. The aim of the project is to see how humans perceive sounds that can't be heard and many did not know were there. The second part of the project is educational in which that this installation can be used to educate the general public about infrasound and its scientific uses. A simple demonstration for this session could be the playing of amplitude modulated infrasound wave that can be heard as opposed to felt as the transport of an installation at this is not possible and the associated imagery.

  20. Infrared observations of anonymous IRC sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strecker, D. W.; Ney, E. P.

    1974-01-01

    Infrared (0.9 to 18 microns) observations of 232 anonymous 2-micron Sky survey (IRC) sources are reported. Most of the objects appear to be late-type stars with little or no long-wave excess. About ten percent exhibit large excesses. Thirty-one of the brightest 11-micron sources have been remeasured to determine variability. These brighter objects appear to fall into two groups; one group resembles NML Tauri, while the other is like NML Cygni.

  1. Three dimensional volcano-acoustic source localization at Karymsky Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowell, Colin

    We test two methods of 3-D acoustic source localization on volcanic explosions and small-scale jetting events at Karymsky Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia. Recent infrasound studies have provided evidence that volcanic jets produce low-frequency aerodynamic sound (jet noise) similar to that from man-made jet engines. Man-made jets are known to produce sound through turbulence along the jet axis, but discrimination of sources along the axis of a volcanic jet requires a network of sufficient topographic relief to attain resolution in the vertical dimension. At Karymsky Volcano, the topography of an eroded edifice adjacent to the active cone provided a platform for the atypical deployment of five infrasound sensors with intra-network relief of ˜600 m in July 2012. A novel 3-D inverse localization method, srcLoc, is tested and compared against a more common grid-search semblance technique. Simulations using synthetic signals indicate that srcLoc is capable of determining vertical source locations for this network configuration to within +/-150 m or better. However, srcLoc locations for explosions and jetting at Karymsky Volcano show a persistent overestimation of source elevation and underestimation of sound speed by an average of ˜330 m and 25 m/s, respectively. The semblance method is able to produce more realistic source locations by fixing the sound speed to expected values of 335 - 340 m/s. The consistency of location errors for both explosions and jetting activity over a wide range of wind and temperature conditions points to the influence of topography. Explosion waveforms exhibit amplitude relationships and waveform distortion strikingly similar to those theorized by modeling studies of wave diffraction around the crater rim. We suggest delay of signals and apparent elevated source locations are due to altered raypaths and/or crater diffraction effects. Our results suggest the influence of topography in the vent region must be accounted for when attempting 3-D

  2. A study of infrasonic anisotropy and multipathing in the atmosphere using seismic networks.

    PubMed

    Hedlin, Michael A H; Walker, Kristoffer T

    2013-02-13

    We discuss the use of reverse time migration (RTM) with dense seismic networks for the detection and location of sources of atmospheric infrasound. Seismometers measure the response of the Earth's surface to infrasound through acoustic-to-seismic coupling. RTM has recently been applied to data from the USArray network to create a catalogue of infrasonic sources in the western US. Specifically, several hundred sources were detected in 2007-2008, many of which were not observed by regional infrasonic arrays. The influence of the east-west stratospheric zonal winds is clearly seen in the seismic data with most detections made downwind of the source. We study this large-scale anisotropy of infrasonic propagation, using a winter and summer source in Idaho. The bandpass-filtered (1-5 Hz) seismic waveforms reveal in detail the two-dimensional spread of the infrasonic wavefield across the Earth's surface within approximately 800 km of the source. Using three-dimensional ray tracing, we find that the stratospheric winds above 30 km altitude in the ground-to-space (G2S) atmospheric model explain well the observed anisotropy pattern. We also analyse infrasound from well-constrained explosions in northern Utah with a denser IRIS PASSCAL seismic network. The standard G2S model correctly predicts the anisotropy of the stratospheric duct, but it incorrectly predicts the dimensions of the shadow zones in the downwind direction. We show that the inclusion of finer-scale structure owing to internal gravity waves infills the shadow zones and predicts the observed time durations of the signals. From the success of this method in predicting the observations, we propose that multipathing owing to fine scale, layer-cake structure is the primary mechanism governing propagation for frequencies above approximately 1 Hz and infer that stochastic approaches incorporating internal gravity waves are a useful improvement to the standard G2S model for infrasonic propagation modelling.

  3. Observations of galactic X-ray sources by OSO-7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markert, T. H.; Canizares, C. R.; Clark, G. W.; Hearn, D. R.; Li, F. K.; Sprott, G. F.; Winkler, P. F.

    1977-01-01

    We present the MIT data from the OSO-7 satellite for observations of the galactic plane between 1971 and 1974. A number of sources discovered in the MIT all-sky survey are described in detail: MX 0049 + 59, MX 0836 - 42, MX 1353 - 64, MX 1406 - 61, MX 1418 - 61, MX 1709 - 40, and MX 1608 - 52 (the persistent source suggested to be associated with the X-ray burst source XB 1608 - 52). Upper limits to the X-ray emission from a number of interesting objects are also derived. General results describing all of our observations of galactic sources are presented. Specifically, we display the number-intensity diagrams, luminosity functions, and color-color diagrams for all of the sources we detected. The data are divided between disk and bulge populations, and the characteristics of the two groups are contrasted. Finally, the concept of X-ray source populations and the relationship of globular cluster sources and burst sources to the disk and bulge populations are discussed.

  4. System Performance of Absolute Quartz-Crystal Barometers with Sub-Microbar Precision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-01

    respectively. signals , which falls in the microbarom frequency band. This affirms the detection of ocean generated infrasound (microbaroms) using a single...scales down to seconds is demonstrated. The first observations of ocean- generated , atmospheric infrasound with periods of about 5 s and sub-microbar...demonstrated. The first observations of ocean- generated , atmospheric infrasound with periods of about 5 s and sub-microbar amplitudes, called microbaroms

  5. Measurement Science of the Intermittent Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    Infrasound from the Russian meteor of 15 February 2013 observed in Colorado, Geophysical Research Letters (03 2013) Shiril Tichkule, Andreas...barometers have been arranged in the form of a triangle of 40 m spacing, and the barometer array has effectively detected atmospheric infrasound (including...ocean- generated “microbaroms” and the infrasound boom from the 15 February 2013 Russian me- teor) and gravity waves • During intensive-observation

  6. 3-D acoustic waveform simulation and inversion supplemented by infrasound sensors on a tethered weather balloon at Yasur Volcano, Vanuatu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iezzi, A. M.; Fee, D.; Matoza, R. S.; Jolly, A. D.; Kim, K.; Christenson, B. W.; Johnson, R.; Kilgour, G.; Garaebiti, E.; Austin, A.; Kennedy, B.; Fitzgerald, R.; Gomez, C.; Key, N.

    2017-12-01

    Well-constrained acoustic waveform inversion can provide robust estimates of erupted volume and mass flux, increasing our ability to monitor volcanic emissions (potentially in real-time). Previous studies have made assumptions about the multipole source mechanism, which can be represented as the combination of pressure fluctuations from a volume change, directionality, and turbulence. The vertical dipole has not been addressed due to ground-based recording limitations. In this study we deployed a high-density seismo-acoustic network around Yasur Volcano, Vanuatu, including multiple acoustic sensors along a tethered balloon that was moved every 15-60 minutes. Yasur has frequent strombolian eruptions every 1-4 minutes from any one of three active vents within a 400 m diameter crater. Our experiment captured several explosions from each vent at 38 tether locations covering 200 in azimuth and a take-off range of 50 (Jolly et. al., in review). Additionally, FLIR, FTIR, and a variety of visual imagery were collected during the deployment to aid in the seismo-acoustic interpretations. The third dimension (vertical) of pressure sensor coverage allows us to more completely constrain the acoustic source. Our analysis employs Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) modeling to obtain the full 3-D Green's functions for each propagation path. This method, following Kim et al. (2015), takes into account realistic topographic scattering based on a high-resolution digital elevation model created using structure-from-motion techniques. We then invert for the source location and multipole source-time function using a grid-search approach. We perform this inversion for multiple events from vents A and C to examine the source characteristics of the vents, including an infrasound-derived volume flux as a function of time. These volumes fluxes are then compared to those derived independently from geochemical and seismic inversion techniques. Jolly, A., Matoza, R., Fee, D., Kennedy, B

  7. A low-order model for long-range infrasound propagation in random atmospheric waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millet, C.; Lott, F.

    2014-12-01

    In numerical modeling of long-range infrasound propagation in the atmosphere, the wind and temperature profiles are usually obtained as a result of matching atmospheric models to empirical data. The atmospheric models are classically obtained from operational numerical weather prediction centers (NOAA Global Forecast System or ECMWF Integrated Forecast system) as well as atmospheric climate reanalysis activities and thus, do not explicitly resolve atmospheric gravity waves (GWs). The GWs are generally too small to be represented in Global Circulation Models, and their effects on the resolved scales need to be parameterized in order to account for fine-scale atmospheric inhomogeneities (for length scales less than 100 km). In the present approach, the sound speed profiles are considered as random functions, obtained by superimposing a stochastic GW field on the ECMWF reanalysis ERA-Interim. The spectral domain is binned by a large number of monochromatic GWs, and the breaking of each GW is treated independently from the others. The wave equation is solved using a reduced-order model, starting from the classical normal mode technique. We focus on the asymptotic behavior of the transmitted waves in the weakly heterogeneous regime (for which the coupling between the wave and the medium is weak), with a fixed number of propagating modes that can be obtained by rearranging the eigenvalues by decreasing Sobol indices. The most important feature of the stochastic approach lies in the fact that the model order (i.e. the number of relevant eigenvalues) can be computed to satisfy a given statistical accuracy whatever the frequency. As the low-order model preserves the overall structure of waveforms under sufficiently small perturbations of the profile, it can be applied to sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification. The gain in CPU cost provided by the low-order model is essential for extracting statistical information from simulations. The statistics of a

  8. Tropical deep convection and density current signature on surface pressure: comparison of idealized and real WRF simulations with infra-sounder measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantino, Lorenzo; Heinrich, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    In the framework of the ARISE (Atmospheric dynamics Research InfraStructure in Europe) project, which proposes to design a new infrastructure to integrate different atmospheric observation networks, we analyse moist deep convective processes responsible of intensive rainstorms in the tropics (making use of the Weather Research and Forecasting, WRF, numerical model) and compare the results with ground measurements of the CTBTO (Comprehensive nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization) infra-sound stations in Ivory Coast. In this work, we investigate the life cycle of singlecell deep convective cloud trough a bi-dimensional, non-hydrostatic, limited-area simulation in simplified model configuration ("idealized case"), at high spatial and temporal resolution. In this way, we expect to resolve explicitly the convective cloud dynamics, avoiding the use of sometimes questionable parametrization (e.g. PBL and convective cumulus) schemes. We also perform a three-dimensional numerical experiment at coarser resolution, guided by real meteorological data of the tropical Ivory Coast region, to compare "real case" results with the infra-sounder measurements for the same area. Previous studies have shown that rain evaporation during intense precipitating events may cool the atmosphere and produce negative buoyancy that, together with falling rain, may give rise to particularly strong down-drafts (Betts, 1976, Tompkins, 2000). As the descending air column impacts the ground, it spreads out and creates a horizontal surface outflow (generally called "density current" or "cold pool") colder and denser than surrounding air. Results from the 2D idealized case show that temporal and horizontal resolution of 2 seconds and 250 meters is fine enough to produce a density current, that moves outward up to several kilometers from storm center. The increase in surface density (up to 2% higher than the base state) is followed by a sudden variation of surface temperature and an increase in horizontal

  9. Diverse Eruptive Activity Revealed by Acoustic and Electromagnetic Observations of the 14 July 2013 Intense Vulcanian Eruption of Tungurahua Volcano, Ecuador

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. F.; Johnson, J. B.; Steele, A. L.; Ruiz, M. C.; Brand, B. D.

    2018-04-01

    During the powerful July 2013 eruption of Tungurahua volcano, Ecuador, we recorded exceptionally high amplitude, long-period infrasound (1,600-Pa peak-to-peak amplitude, 5.5-s period) on sensors within 2 km of the vent alongside electromagnetic signals from volcanic lightning serendipitously captured as interference. This explosion was one of Tungurahua's most powerful vulcanian eruptions since recent activity began in 1999, and its acoustic wave is among the most powerful volcanic infrasound ever recorded anywhere. We use these data to quantify erupted volume from the main explosion and to classify postexplosive degassing into distinct emission styles. Additionally, we demonstrate a highly effective method of recording lightning-related electromagnetic signals alongside infrasound. Detailed chronologies of powerful vulcanian eruptions are rare; this study demonstrates that diverse eruptive processes can occur in such eruptions and that near-vent infrasound and electromagnetic data can elucidate them.

  10. Infrasonic Monitoring Network on the Big Island of Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thelen, Weston; Garces, Milton; Cooper, Jennifer; Badger, Nickles; Perttu, Anna; Williams, Brian

    2013-04-01

    The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) with the participation of the University of Hawaii Infrasound Lab (ISLA) installed three new permanent infrasound arrays on the south half of the Island of Hawaii. Together with three existing permanent arrays maintained by ISLA, the current infrasound network around Kīlauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes is one of the most advanced of any volcano in the world. Open-vent volcanoes such as Kīlauea are particularly good infrasound emitters as lava spattering and unsteady gas release is common. The network was designed with two main goals in mind: 1) to monitor and study the infrasound sources associated with the ongoing Pu`u `Ō`ō and Halema'u'mau eruption, and 2) to detect in near real-time new eruptions at Mauna Loa or Kīlauea volcanoes. Each HVO array consists of 4 sensors, which form an equilateral triangle ~100 m on a side surrounding a central sensor. Three other permanent arrays maintained by ISLA (I59US, MENE, KHLU) have been operational since 2000, 2006, and 2009, respectively, and consist of a combination of Chaparral 25 and 50 sensors. Each infrasound instrument within the HVO arrays is built around an low- cost AllSensor MEMS sensor, which has higher noise characteristics than a Chaparral 25, but similar frequency response. ISLA also operates stations on Maui and Kauai that provide --statewide coverage. Since the full network has been established, we have recorded several infrasound signals including infrasonic tremor from Halema`uma`u, collapses from the craters of Halema`uma`u and Pu`u `Ō`ō, and other natural and anthropogenic infrasound from diverse sources on- island, offshore, and aloft. Future developments will include real-time detection, location, and identification of infrasonic signals for eruption notification. We hope to increase public awareness of volcanic infrasound by posting real-time locations on an interactive display, similar to how seismicity is currently reported. MENE data is presently

  11. Exposure to infrasonic noise in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Bilski, Bartosz

    2017-03-21

    Although exposure to audible noise has been examined in many publications, the sources of infrasound in agriculture have not been fully examined and presented. The study presents the assessment of exposure to infrasound from many sources at workplaces in agriculture with examples of possible ergonomic and health consequences caused by such exposure. Workers'-perceived infrasonic noise levels were examined for 118 examples of moving and stationary agricultural machines (modern and old cab-type tractors, old tractors without cabins, small tractors, grinders, chargers, forage mixers, grain cleaners, conveyors, bark sorters and combine-harvesters). Measurements of infrasound were taken with the use of class 1 instruments (digital sound analyzer DSA-50 digital and acoustic calibrator). Noise level measurements were performed in accordance with PN-Z-01338:2010, PN-EN ISO 9612:2011 and ISO 9612:2009. The most intense sources of infrasound in the study were modern and old large size types agricultural machinery (tractors, chargers and combined-harvesters, and stationary forage mixers with ventilation). The G-weighted infrasound levels were significant and at many analyzed workplaces stayed within or exceeded the occupational exposure limit (LG eq, 8h = 102 dB) when the duration of exposure is longer than 22 min./8-hours working day (most noisy - modern cab-type tractors), 46 min./8 hours working day (most noisy - old type cab-tractors), 73 min./8 hours working day (most noisy - old tractors without cabins), 86 min./8-hours working day (most noisy - combine-harvesters) and 156 min./8 hours working day (most noisy - stationary forage mixers with ventilation). All measured machines generated infrasonic noise exceeded the value LG eq, Te = 86 dB (occupational exposure limit for workplaces requiring maintained mental concentration). A very important harmful factor is infrasound exposure for pregnant women and adolescents at workplaces in agriculture. Very valuable work can be

  12. Infrasonic wave accompanying a crack opening during the 2015 Hakone eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yukutake, Yohei; Ichihara, Mie; Honda, Ryou

    2018-03-01

    To understand the initial process of the phreatic eruption of the Hakone volcano from June 29 to July 01, 2015, we analyzed infrasound data using the cross-correlation between infrasound and vertical ground velocity and compared the results of our analysis to the crustal deformation detected by tiltmeters and broadband seismometers. An infrasound signal and vertical ground motion due to an infrasound wave coupled to the ground were detected simultaneously with the opening of a crack source beneath the Owakudani geothermal region during the 2-min time period after 07:32 JST on June 29, 2015 (JST = UTC + 8 h). Given that the upper end of the open crack was approximately 150 m beneath the surface, the time for the direct emission of highly pressurized fluid from the upper end of the open crack to the surface should have exceeded the duration of the inflation owing to the hydraulic diffusivity in the porous media. Therefore, the infrasound signal coincident with the opening of the crack may reflect a sudden emission of volcanic gas resulting from the rapid vaporization of pre-existing groundwater beneath Owakudani because of the transfer of the volumetric strain change from the deformation source. We also noticed a correlation pattern corresponding to discrete impulsive infrasound signals during vent formation, which occurred several hours to 2 days after the opening of the crack. In particular, we noted that the sudden emission of vapor coincided with the inflation of the shallow pressure source, whereas the eruptive burst events accompanied by the largest vent formation were delayed by approximately 2 days. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the correlation method is a useful tool in detecting small infrasound signals and provides important information regarding the initial processes of the eruption.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Determining the Intensity of a Point-Like Source Observed on the Background of AN Extended Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornienko, Y. V.; Skuratovskiy, S. I.

    2014-12-01

    The problem of determining the time dependence of intensity of a point-like source in case of atmospheric blur is formulated and solved by using the Bayesian statistical approach. A pointlike source is supposed to be observed on the background of an extended source with constant in time though unknown brightness. The equation system for optimal statistical estimation of the sequence of intensity values in observation moments is obtained. The problem is particularly relevant for studying gravitational mirages which appear while observing a quasar through the gravitational field of a far galaxy.

  14. Localization of diffusion sources in complex networks with sparse observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zhao-Long; Shen, Zhesi; Tang, Chang-Bing; Xie, Bin-Bin; Lu, Jian-Feng

    2018-04-01

    Locating sources in a large network is of paramount importance to reduce the spreading of disruptive behavior. Based on the backward diffusion-based method and integer programming, we propose an efficient approach to locate sources in complex networks with limited observers. The results on model networks and empirical networks demonstrate that, for a certain fraction of observers, the accuracy of our method for source localization will improve as the increase of network size. Besides, compared with the previous method (the maximum-minimum method), the performance of our method is much better with a small fraction of observers, especially in heterogeneous networks. Furthermore, our method is more robust against noise environments and strategies of choosing observers.

  15. Statistical Metadata Analysis of the Variability of Latency, Device Transfer Time, and Coordinate Position from Smartphone-Recorded Infrasound Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garces, E. L.; Garces, M. A.; Christe, A.

    2017-12-01

    The RedVox infrasound recorder app uses microphones and barometers in smartphones to record infrasound, low-frequency sound below the threshold of human hearing. We study a device's metadata, which includes position, latency time, the differences between the device's internal times and the server times, and the machine time, searching for patterns and possible errors or discontinuities in these scaled parameters. We highlight metadata variability through scaled multivariate displays (histograms, distribution curves, scatter plots), all created and organized through software development in Python. This project is helpful in ascertaining variability and honing the accuracy of smartphones, aiding the emergence of portable devices as viable geophysical data collection instruments. It can also improve the app and cloud service by increasing efficiency and accuracy, allowing to better document and foresee drastic natural movements like tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, storms, rocket launches, and meteor impacts; recorded data can later be used for studies and analysis by a variety of professions. We expect our final results to produce insight on how to counteract problematic issues in data mining and improve accuracy in smartphone data-collection. By eliminating lurking variables and minimizing the effect of confounding variables, we hope to discover efficient processes to reduce superfluous precision, unnecessary errors, and data artifacts. These methods should conceivably be transferable to other areas of software development, data analytics, and statistics-based experiments, contributing a precedent of smartphone metadata studies from geophysical rather than societal data. The results should facilitate the rise of civilian-accessible, hand-held, data-gathering mobile sensor networks and yield more straightforward data mining techniques.

  16. astroplan: An Open Source Observation Planning Package in Python

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Brett M.; Tollerud, Erik; Sipőcz, Brigitta; Deil, Christoph; Douglas, Stephanie T.; Berlanga Medina, Jazmin; Vyhmeister, Karl; Smith, Toby R.; Littlefair, Stuart; Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Gee, Wilfred T.; Jeschke, Eric

    2018-03-01

    We present astroplan—an open source, open development, Astropy affiliated package for ground-based observation planning and scheduling in Python. astroplan is designed to provide efficient access to common observational quantities such as celestial rise, set, and meridian transit times and simple transformations from sky coordinates to altitude-azimuth coordinates without requiring a detailed understanding of astropy’s implementation of coordinate systems. astroplan provides convenience functions to generate common observational plots such as airmass and parallactic angle as a function of time, along with basic sky (finder) charts. Users can determine whether or not a target is observable given a variety of observing constraints, such as airmass limits, time ranges, Moon illumination/separation ranges, and more. A selection of observation schedulers are included that divide observing time among a list of targets, given observing constraints on those targets. Contributions to the source code from the community are welcome.

  17. The "Haunt" project: an attempt to build a "haunted" room by manipulating complex electromagnetic fields and infrasound.

    PubMed

    French, Christopher C; Haque, Usman; Bunton-Stasyshyn, Rosie; Davis, Rob

    2009-05-01

    Recent research has suggested that a number of environmental factors may be associated with a tendency for susceptible individuals to report mildly anomalous sensations typically associated with "haunted" locations, including a sense of presence, feeling dizzy, inexplicable smells, and so on. Factors that may be associated with such sensations include fluctuations in the electromagnetic field (EMF) and the presence of infrasound. A review of such work is presented, followed by the results of the "Haunt" project in which an attempt was made to construct an artificial "haunted" room by systematically varying such environmental factors. Participants (N=79) were required to spend 50 min in a specially constructed chamber, within which they were exposed to infrasound, complex EMFs, both or neither. They were informed in advance that during this period they might experience anomalous sensations and asked to record on a floor plan their location at the time of occurrence of any such sensations, along with a note of the time of occurrence and a brief description of the sensation. Upon completing the session in the experimental chamber, they were asked to complete three questionnaires. The first was an EXIT scale asking respondents to indicate whether or not they had experienced particular anomalous sensations. The second was the Australian Sheep-Goat Scale, a widely used measure of belief in and experience of the paranormal. The third was Persinger's Personal Philosophy Inventory, although only the items that constitute the Temporal Lobe Signs (TLS) Inventory sub-scale were scored. These items deal with psychological experiences typically associated with temporal lobe epilepsy but normally distributed throughout the general population. Although many participants reported anomalous sensations of various kinds, the number reported was unrelated to experimental condition but was related to TLS scores. The most parsimonious explanation for our findings is in terms of

  18. Medical and non-medical protection standards for ultrasound and infrasound.

    PubMed

    Duck, Francis A

    2007-01-01

    Protection from inappropriate or hazardous exposure to ultrasound is controlled through international standards and national regulations. IEC standard 60601 part 1 establishes requirements for the mechanical, electrical, chemical and thermal safety for all electro-medical equipment. The associated part 2 standard for diagnostic medical ultrasonic equipment sets no upper limits on ultrasonic exposure. Instead, safety indices are defined that are intended to advise users on the degree of thermal and mechanical hazard. At present the display of these safety indices satisfies regulatory requirements in both the USA and Europe. Nevertheless there are reservations about the effectiveness of this approach to protection management. In the USA, there are national regulatory limits on diagnostic exposure, based on acoustic output from clinical equipment in use over 20 years ago. The IEC 60601 part 2 standard for therapeutic equipment sets 3 W cm(-2) as the limit on acoustic intensity. Transducer surface temperature is controlled for both diagnostic and therapy devices. For airborne ultrasound, interim guidelines on limits of human exposure published by the IRPA are now 2 decades old. A limit on sound pressure level of 100 dB for the general population is recommended. The absence of protection standards for infrasound relates to difficulties in measurement at these low frequencies.

  19. Can earthquake source inversion benefit from rotational ground motion observations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igel, H.; Donner, S.; Reinwald, M.; Bernauer, M.; Wassermann, J. M.; Fichtner, A.

    2015-12-01

    With the prospects of instruments to observe rotational ground motions in a wide frequency and amplitude range in the near future we engage in the question how this type of ground motion observation can be used to solve seismic inverse problems. Here, we focus on the question, whether point or finite source inversions can benefit from additional observations of rotational motions. In an attempt to be fair we compare observations from a surface seismic network with N 3-component translational sensors (classic seismometers) with those obtained with N/2 6-component sensors (with additional colocated 3-component rotational motions). Thus we keep the overall number of traces constant. Synthetic seismograms are calculated for known point- or finite-source properties. The corresponding inverse problem is posed in a probabilistic way using the Shannon information content as a measure how the observations constrain the seismic source properties. The results show that with the 6-C subnetworks the source properties are not only equally well recovered (even that would be benefitial because of the substantially reduced logistics installing N/2 sensors) but statistically significant some source properties are almost always better resolved. We assume that this can be attributed to the fact the (in particular vertical) gradient information is contained in the additional rotational motion components. We compare these effects for strike-slip and normal-faulting type sources. Thus the answer to the question raised is a definite "yes". The challenge now is to demonstrate these effects on real data.

  20. The Comparative Study of the Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields and Infrasound on Water Molecule Dissociation and Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    ISTC Project No. #1592P The Comparative Study of The Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields and Infrasound on Water Molecule...performed under the agreement with the International Science and Technology Center ( ISTC ), Moscow. REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704...dissociation and generation of reactive oxygen spaces. 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER ISTC Registration No: A-1592p 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  1. Inner Source Pickup Ions Observed by Ulysses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloeckler, G.

    2016-12-01

    The existence of an inner source of pickup ions close to the Sun was proposed in order to explain the unexpected discovery of C+ in the high-speed polar solar wind. Here I report on detailed analyses of the composition and the radial and latitudinal variations of inner source pickup ions measured with the Solar Wind Ion Composition Spectrometer on Ulysses from 1991 to 1998, approaching and during solar minimum. We find that the C+ intensity drops off with radial distance R as R-1.53, peaks at mid latitudes and drops to its lowest value in the ecliptic. Not only was C+ observed, but also N+, O+, Ne+, Na+, Mg+, Ar+, S+, K+, CH+, NH+, OH+, H2O+, H3O+, MgH+, HCN+, C2H4+, SO+ and many other singly-charged heavy ions and molecular ions. The measured velocity distributions of inner source pickup C+ and O+ indicate that these inner source pickup ions are most likely produced by charge exchange, photoionization and electron impact ionization of neutrals close to the Sun (within 10 to 30 solar radii). Possible causes for the unexpected latitudinal variations and the neutral source(s) producing the inner source pickup ions as well as plausible production mechanisms for inner source pickup ions will be discussed.

  2. Tree-cover and topography effects on local-infrasound propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna, S. M.; Swearingen, M.; Ketcham, S.; White, M.

    2013-12-01

    Infrasound can propagate very long distances and remain at measurable levels. As a result infrasound sensing is used for remote monitoring in many applications. At local ranges terrain relief is capable of scattering and blocking the propagation and assessment of the influence of the presence or absence of forests on the propagation of infrasonic signals is necessary. Because the wavelengths of interest are much larger than the scale of individual components, the forest is modeled as a porous material. This approximation is developed starting with the Relaxation model of porous materials. This representation is then incorporated into a Crank-Nicholson method parabolic equation solver to determine the relative impacts of the physical parameters of a forest (trunk size and basal area), the presence of gaps/trees in otherwise continuous forest/open terrain, and the effects of meteorology coupled with the porous layer. Finally, the simulations are compared to experimental data from a 10.9 kg blast propagated 14.5 km. Comparison to the experimental data shows that appropriate inclusion of a forest layer along the propagation path provides a closer fit to the data than solely changing the ground type across the frequency range from 1-30 Hz. Spatially discontinuous tree cover is a novel undertaking with forested volumes represented as a flow-resisting porous material. With only terrain topography but without tree cover, the model has conformity with measured signals, but addition of treecover properties does not significantly improve this conformity, though this result is consistent with theoretical expectations for the specific central Mississippi forest densities modeled. This study found that continuous tracts of forest produce some sound enhancement for frequencies below 25 Hz, and additional attenuation between 25-50 Hz. These effects are stronger for forests with higher densities of trees present and decrease as forest density decreases. At distances several

  3. Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) do not hear infrasound: the audiogram from 8 Hz to 10 kHz.

    PubMed

    Heffner, Henry E; Koay, Gimseong; Heffner, Rickye S

    2016-12-01

    The pure-tone thresholds of three budgerigars were determined from 8 Hz to 10 kHz. At a level of 60 dB sound pressure level (re 20 μN/m 2 ), their hearing range extends 6.6 octaves from 77 Hz to 7.6 kHz, with a best sensitivity of 1.1 dB at 3 kHz. Unlike pigeons and chickens, budgerigars do not have better low-frequency hearing than humans. This difference implies anatomical, physiological, and ecological differences between birds that hear infrasound (so far, pigeons and chickens) and those that do not (budgerigars).

  4. Detailed observations of the source of terrestrial narrowband electromagnetic radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurth, W. S.

    1982-01-01

    Detailed observations are presented of a region near the terrestrial plasmapause where narrowband electromagnetic radiation (previously called escaping nonthermal continuum radiation) is being generated. These observations show a direct correspondence between the narrowband radio emissions and electron cyclotron harmonic waves near the upper hybrid resonance frequency. In addition, electromagnetic radiation propagating in the Z-mode is observed in the source region which provides an extremely accurate determination of the electron plasma frequency and, hence, density profile of the source region. The data strongly suggest that electrostatic waves and not Cerenkov radiation are the source of the banded radio emissions and define the coupling which must be described by any viable theory.

  5. Chandra observation of the dipping source XB 1254-690

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iaria, R.; di Salvo, T.; Lavagetto, G.; D'Aí, A.; Robba, N. R.

    2007-03-01

    We present the results of a 53 ks long Chandra observation of the dipping source XB 1254-690. During the observation neither bursts or dips were observed. From the zero-order image we estimated the precise X-ray coordinates of the source with a 90% uncertainty of 0.6´´. Since the lightcurve did not show any significant variability, we extracted the spectrum corresponding to the whole observation. We confirmed the presence of the Fe XXVI Kα absorption lines with a larger accuracy with respect to the previous XMM EPIC pn observation. Assuming that the line width were due to a bulk motion or a turbulence associated to the coronal activity, we estimate that the lines were produced in a photoionized absorber between the coronal radius and the outer edge of the accretion disk.

  6. Mechanism of inverted-chirp infrasonic radiation from sprites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Larquier, Sebastien; Pasko, Victor P.

    2010-12-01

    Farges and Blanc (2010) reported inverted-chirp infrasonic signals with high frequencies arriving before low frequencies, possibly emitted by sprite discharges and observed on the ground at close range (<100 km) from the source. In the present work a parallel version of a 2-D FDTD model of infrasound propagation in a realistic atmosphere is applied to demonstrate that the observed morphology of infrasound signals is consistent with general scaling of diameters of sprite streamers inversely proportionally to the air density. The smaller structures at lower altitudes radiate higher infrasonic frequencies that arrive first at the observational point on the ground, while the low frequency components are delayed because they originate at lower air densities at higher altitudes. The results demonstrate that strong absorption of high frequency infrasonic components at high altitudes (i.e., ˜0.2 dB/km for 8 Hz at 70 km) may also contribute to formation of inverted-chirp signals observed on the ground at close range.

  7. Siberian Arctic black carbon sources constrained by model and observation

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, August; Eckhardt, Sabine; Stohl, Andreas; Semiletov, Igor P.; Dudarev, Oleg V.; Charkin, Alexander; Shakhova, Natalia; Klimont, Zbigniew; Heyes, Chris; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2017-01-01

    Black carbon (BC) in haze and deposited on snow and ice can have strong effects on the radiative balance of the Arctic. There is a geographic bias in Arctic BC studies toward the Atlantic sector, with lack of observational constraints for the extensive Russian Siberian Arctic, spanning nearly half of the circum-Arctic. Here, 2 y of observations at Tiksi (East Siberian Arctic) establish a strong seasonality in both BC concentrations (8 ng⋅m−3 to 302 ng⋅m−3) and dual-isotope–constrained sources (19 to 73% contribution from biomass burning). Comparisons between observations and a dispersion model, coupled to an anthropogenic emissions inventory and a fire emissions inventory, give mixed results. In the European Arctic, this model has proven to simulate BC concentrations and source contributions well. However, the model is less successful in reproducing BC concentrations and sources for the Russian Arctic. Using a Bayesian approach, we show that, in contrast to earlier studies, contributions from gas flaring (6%), power plants (9%), and open fires (12%) are relatively small, with the major sources instead being domestic (35%) and transport (38%). The observation-based evaluation of reported emissions identifies errors in spatial allocation of BC sources in the inventory and highlights the importance of improving emission distribution and source attribution, to develop reliable mitigation strategies for efficient reduction of BC impact on the Russian Arctic, one of the fastest-warming regions on Earth. PMID:28137854

  8. Infrasonic waves generated by supersonic auroral arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasko, Victor P.

    2012-10-01

    A finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) model of infrasound propagation in a realistic atmosphere is used to provide quantitative interpretation of infrasonic waves produced by auroral arcs moving with supersonic speed. The Lorentz force and Joule heating are discussed in the existing literature as primary sources producing infrasound waves in the frequency range 0.1-0.01 Hz associated with the auroral electrojet. The results are consistent with original ideas of Swift (1973) and demonstrate that the synchronization of the speed of auroral arc and phase speed of the acoustic wave in the electrojet volume is an important condition for generation of magnitudes and frequency contents of infrasonic waves observable on the ground. The reported modeling also allows accurate quantitative reproduction of previously observed complex infrasonic waveforms including direct shock and reflected shockwaves, which are refracted back to the earth by the thermosphere.

  9. The Bologna complete sample of nearby radio sources. II. Phase referenced observations of faint nuclear sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liuzzo, E.; Giovannini, G.; Giroletti, M.; Taylor, G. B.

    2009-10-01

    Aims: To study statistical properties of different classes of sources, it is necessary to observe a sample that is free of selection effects. To do this, we initiated a project to observe a complete sample of radio galaxies selected from the B2 Catalogue of Radio Sources and the Third Cambridge Revised Catalogue (3CR), with no selection constraint on the nuclear properties. We named this sample “the Bologna Complete Sample” (BCS). Methods: We present new VLBI observations at 5 and 1.6 GHz for 33 sources drawn from a sample not biased toward orientation. By combining these data with those in the literature, information on the parsec-scale morphology is available for a total of 76 of 94 radio sources with a range in radio power and kiloparsec-scale morphologies. Results: The fraction of two-sided sources at milliarcsecond resolution is high (30%), compared to the fraction found in VLBI surveys selected at centimeter wavelengths, as expected from the predictions of unified models. The parsec-scale jets are generally found to be straight and to line up with the kiloparsec-scale jets. A few peculiar sources are discussed in detail. Tables 1-4 are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  10. Gamma ray sources observation with the ARGO-YBJ detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernetto, S.; ARGO-YBJ Collaboration

    2011-02-01

    In this paper we report on the observations of TeV gamma ray sources performed by the air shower detector ARGO-YBJ. The objects studied in this work are the blazar Markarian 421 and the extended galactic source MGROJ1908+06, monitored during ~2 years of operation. Mrk421 has been detected by ARGO-YBJ with a statistical significance of ~11 standard deviations. The observed TeV emission was highly variable, showing large enhancements of the flux during active periods. The study of the spectral behaviour during flares revealed a positive correlation of the hardness with the flux, as already reported in the past by the Whipple telescope, suggesting that this is a long term property of the source. ARGO-YBJ observed a strong correlation between TeV gamma rays and the X-ray flux measured by RXTM/ASM and SWIFT/BAT during the whole period, with a time lag compatible with zero, supporting the one-zone SSC model to describe the emission mechanism. MGROJ1908+06 has been detected by ARGO-YBJ with ~5 standard deviation of significance. From our data the source appears extended and the measured extension is σext = 0.48° --> σext = 0.48° -0.28+0.26 --> -0.28+0.26, in agreement with a previous HESS observation. The average flux is in marginal agreement with that reported by MILAGRO, but significantly higher than that obtained by HESS, suggesting a possible flux variability.

  11. THE SOURCE STRUCTURE OF 0642+449 DETECTED FROM THE CONT14 OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ming H.; Wang, Guang L.; Heinkelmann, Robert

    2016-11-01

    The CONT14 campaign with state-of-the-art very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) data has observed the source 0642+449 with about 1000 observables each day during a continuous observing period of 15 days, providing tens of thousands of closure delays—the sum of the delays around a closed loop of baselines. The closure delay is independent of the instrumental and propagation delays and provides valuable additional information about the source structure. We demonstrate the use of this new “observable” for the determination of the structure in the radio source 0642+449. This source, as one of the defining sources in the second realization of themore » International Celestial Reference Frame, is found to have two point-like components with a relative position offset of −426 microarcseconds ( μ as) in R.A. and −66 μ as in decl. The two components are almost equally bright, with a flux-density ratio of 0.92. The standard deviation of closure delays for source 0642+449 was reduced from 139 to 90 ps by using this two-component model. Closure delays larger than 1 ns are found to be related to the source structure, demonstrating that structure effects for a source with this simple structure could be up to tens of nanoseconds. The method described in this paper does not rely on a priori source structure information, such as knowledge of source structure determined from direct (Fourier) imaging of the same observations or observations at other epochs. We anticipate our study to be a starting point for more effective determination of the structure effect in VLBI observations.« less

  12. Infrasonic ray tracing applied to mesoscale atmospheric structures: refraction by hurricanes.

    PubMed

    Bedard, Alfred J; Jones, R Michael

    2013-11-01

    A ray-tracing program is used to estimate the refraction of infrasound by the temperature structure of the atmosphere and by hurricanes represented by a Rankine-combined vortex wind plus a temperature perturbation. Refraction by the hurricane winds is significant, giving rise to regions of focusing, defocusing, and virtual sources. The refraction of infrasound by the temperature anomaly associated with a hurricane is small, probably no larger than that from uncertainties in the wind field. The results are pertinent to interpreting ocean wave generated infrasound in the vicinities of tropical cyclones.

  13. Infrasound reveals transition to oscillatory discharge regime during lava fountaining: Implication for early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulivieri, Giacomo; Ripepe, Maurizio; Marchetti, Emanuele

    2013-06-01

    present the analysis of ~4 million infrasonic signals which include 39 episodes of lava fountains recorded at 5.5 km from the active vents. We show that each eruptive episode is characterized by a distinctive trend in the amplitude, waveform, and frequency content of the acoustic signals, reflecting different explosive levels. Lava fountain starts with an ~93 min long violent phase of acoustic transients at ~1.25 Hz repeating every 2-5 s. Infrasound suddenly evolves into a persistent low-frequency quasi-monochromatic pressure oscillation at ~0.4 Hz. We interpret this shift as induced by the transition from the slug (discrete Strombolian) to churn flow (sustained lava fountain) regime that is reflecting an increase in the gas discharge rate. We calculate that infrasonic transition can occur at a gas superficial velocity of ≤76 m/s and it can be used to define infrasonic-based thresholds for an efficient early warning system.

  14. Infrasound-array-element frequency response: in-situ measurement and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrielson, T.

    2011-12-01

    Most array elements at the infrasound stations of the International Monitoring System use some variant of a multiple-inlet pipe system for wind-noise suppression. These pipe systems have a significant impact on the overall frequency response of the element. The spatial distribution of acoustic inlets introduces a response dependence that is a function of frequency and of vertical and horizontal arrival angle; the system of inlets, pipes, and summing junctions further shapes that response as the signal is ducted to the transducer. In-situ measurements, using a co-located reference microphone, can determine the overall frequency response and diagnose problems with the system. As of July 2011, the in-situ frequency responses for 25 individual elements at 6 operational stations (I10, I53, I55, I56, I57, and I99) have been measured. In support of these measurements, a fully thermo-viscous model for the acoustics of these multiple-inlet pipe systems has been developed. In addition to measurements at operational stations, comparative analyses have been done on experimental systems: a multiple-inlet radial-pipe system with varying inlet hole size; a one-quarter scale model of a 70-meter rosette system; and vertical directionality of a small rosette system using aircraft flyovers. [Funded by the US Army Space and Missile Defense Command

  15. A framework for estimating stratospheric wind speeds from unknown sources and application to the 2010 December 25 bolide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrowsmith, Stephen J.; Marcillo, Omar; Drob, Douglas P.

    2013-10-01

    We present a methodology for infrasonic remote sensing of winds in the stratosphere that does not require discrete ground-truth events. Our method uses measured time delays between arrays of sensors to provide group velocities (referred to here as celerities) and then minimizes the difference between observed and predicted celerities by perturbing an initial atmospheric specification. Because we focus on interarray propagation effects, it is not necessary to simulate the full propagation path from source to receiver. This feature allows us to use a relatively simple forward model that is applicable over short-regional distances. By focusing on stratospheric returns, we show that our non-linear inversion scheme converges much better if the starting model contains a strong stratospheric duct. Using the Horizontal Wind Model (HWM)/Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter (MSISE) empirical climatology as a starting model, we demonstrate that the inversion scheme is robust to large uncertainties in backazimuth, but that uncertainties in the measured trace velocity and celerity require the use of prior constraints to ensure suitable convergence. The inversion of synthetic data, using realistic estimates of measurement error, shows that our scheme will nevertheless improve upon a starting model under most scenarios. The inversion scheme is applied to infrasound data recorded from a large event on 2010 December 25, which is presumed to be a bolide, using data from a nine-element infrasound network in Utah. We show that our recorded data require a stronger zonal wind speed in the stratosphere than is present in the HWM profile, and are more consistent with the Ground-to-Space (G2S) profile.

  16. ROSAT observations of clusters with wide-angle tailed radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Jack O.

    1993-01-01

    The goal of these ROSAT PSPC pointed observations was to understand the nature of X-ray emission associated clusters that contain luminous wide-angle tailed (WAT) radio sources identified with the centrally dominant cluster galaxies. These 500 kpc diameter radio sources are strongly affected by confinement and interaction with the intracluster medium. So, a complete picture of the origin and evolution of these radio sources is not possible without detailed X-ray observations which sample the distribution and temperature of the surrounding hot gas. Two WAT clusters have been observed with the ROSAT PSPC to date. The first is Abell 2634 which contains the WAT 3C 465 and was approved for observations in AO-1. Unfortunately, these observations were broken into two widely separated pieces in time. The first data set containing about 9000 sec of integration arrived in mid-March, 1992. The second data set containing about 10,500 sec arrived just recently in early April (after a first tape was destroyed in the mail). The second cluster is 1919+479 which was approved for observations in AO-2. These ROSAT data arrived in October 1992.

  17. Acoustic and electric signals from lightning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balachandran, N. K.

    1983-01-01

    Observations of infrasound apparently generated by the collapse of the electrostatic field in the thundercloud, are presented along with electric field measurements and high-frequency thunder signals. The frequency of the infrasound pulse is about 1 Hz and amplitude a few microbars. The observations seem to confirm some of the theoretical predictions of Wilson (1920) and Dessler (1973). The signal is predominated by a compressional phase and seems to be beamed vertically. Calculation of the parameters of the charged region using the infrasound signal give reasonable values.

  18. Infrasonic Emissions From A Tornado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrin, Christopher; Elbing, Brian

    2017-11-01

    Tornadoes cause dozens of deaths and significant damage throughout the United States every year. Tornado-producing storm systems emit infrasound (sound at frequencies below human hearing) up to 2 hours before tornadogenesis. Weak atmospheric attenuation at these frequencies allows them to be detected hundreds of miles away. Hence, passive infrasonic monitoring may be used for long-range study of tornadogenesis. This requires characterization of infrasound during the life of a tornado and from other background sources. This is being accomplished as part of the Collaboration Leading Operational UAS Development for Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics (CLOUD-MAP) project, a multi-university collaboration focused on the development and implementation of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) and their integration with sensors for atmospheric measurement. This presentation will report findings from a fixed infrasonic microphone that has been continuously monitoring the atmosphere since September 2, 2016. Infrasound from a tornado that occurred 19 km from the microphone on May 11, 2017 will be presented as well as an overview of other infrasonic observations. This work was supported by NSF Grant 1539070.

  19. Dynamics of the middle atmosphere as observed by the ARISE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanc, E.

    2015-12-01

    It has been strongly demonstrated that variations in the circulation of the middle atmosphere influence weather and climate all the way to the Earth's surface. A key part of this coupling occurs through the propagation and breaking of planetary and gravity waves. However, limited observations prevent to faithfully reproduce the dynamics of the middle atmosphere in numerical weather prediction and climate models. The main challenge of the ARISE (Atmospheric dynamics InfraStructure in Europe) project is to combine existing national and international observation networks including: the International infrasound monitoring system developed for the CTBT (Comprehensive nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty) verification, the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Changes) lidar network, European observation infrastructures at mid latitudes (OHP observatory), tropics (Maïdo observatory), high latitudes (ALOMAR and EISCAT), infrasound stations which form a dense European network and satellites. The ARISE network is unique by its coverage (polar to equatorial regions in the European longitude sector), its altitude range (from troposphere to mesosphere and ionosphere) and the involved scales both in time (from seconds to tens of years) and space (from tens of meters to thousands of kilometers). Advanced data products are produced with the scope to assimilate data in the Weather Prediction models to improve future forecasts over weeks and seasonal time scales. ARISE observations are especially relevant for the monitoring of extreme events such as thunderstorms, volcanoes, meteors and at larger scales, deep convection and stratospheric warming events for physical processes description and study of long term evolution with climate change. Among the applications, ARISE fosters integration of innovative methods for remote detection of non-instrumented volcanoes including distant eruption characterization to provide notifications with reliable confidence indices to the

  20. Infrasonic tremor observed at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garces, M.; Harris, A.; Hetzer, C.; Johnson, J.; Rowland, S.; Marchetti, E.; Okubo, P.

    2003-01-01

    Infrasonic array data collected at Ki??lauea Volcano, Hawai'i, during November 12-21, 2002 indicate that the active vents and lava tube system near the P'u 'O??'o?? vent complex emit almost continuous infrasound in the 0.310 Hz frequency band. The spectral content of these infrasonic signals matches well that of synchronous seismic tremor. In sites protected from wind noise, significant signal to noise ratios were recorded as far as ???13 km from the crater of Pu'u 'O??'o??. The infrasonic recordings suggest that one or more tremor sources may be close to the surface. In addition, these results demonstrate that adequate site and instrument selections for infrasonic arrays are essential in order to obtain consistent and reliable infrasonic detections. ?? 2003 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Observations of low luminosity X-ray sources in Vela-Puppis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pravdo, S. H.; Becker, R. H.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Erlemitsos, P. J.; Swank, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Results of a study of the X-ray emission from a small portion of the galactic plane near galactic longitude 260 deg are presented. This region contains at least six low luminosity X-ray sources within approximately 10 deg. of PSRO833-45, which is near the center of the Gum Nebula. The X-ray source associated with the Vela pulsar, 4U0833-45, is observed at twice its 4U catalogue intensity. The lack of X-ray pulsations at the pulsar period, the non thermal power law spectrum, and models of the X-ray come from an extended source approximately 1 deg in radius. The observation of a high temperature spectrum in a field of view containing only Puppis A among known sources has led to the discovery of a new OSO-8 source, OSO752-39. Other spectra from this region are discussed.

  2. [Revised maximum admissible intensity (MAI) values for infrasonic noise in work environment].

    PubMed

    Pawlaczyk-Łuszczyńska, M; Augustyńska, D; Kaczmarska-Kozłowska, A; Sliwińska-Kowalska, M; Kameduła, M

    2001-01-01

    A short review of infrasound sources is presented. The measuring methods and occupational exposure limits for infrasonic noise (infrasound) are described. The amended Polish regulations on maximum admissible intensity (MAI) values for infrasonic noise in work environment and proposals of exposure limits for workers at particular risk (i.e. pregnant women and juveniles) are discussed.

  3. Infrasonic observations of large-scale HE events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, Rodney W.; Mutschlecner, J. Paul; Davidson, Masha B.; Noel, Susan D.

    1990-01-01

    The Los Alamos Infrasound Program has been operating since about mid-1982, making routine measurements of low frequency atmospheric acoustic propagation. Generally, the authors work between 0.1 Hz to 10 Hz; however, much of the work is concerned with the narrower range of 0.5 to 5.0 Hz. Two permanent stations, St. George, UT, and Los Alamos, NM, have been operational since 1983, collecting data 24 hours a day. For the purposes of this discussion, the authors concentrate on their measurements of large, high explosive (HE) events at ranges of 250 km to 5330 km. Because their equipment is well suited for mobile deployments, they can easily establish temporary observing sites for special events. The measurements are from the permanent sites, as well as from various temporary sites. A few observations that are typical of the full data set are given.

  4. Observations of low-luminosity X-ray sources in Vela-Puppis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pravdo, S. H.; Becker, R. H.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Swank, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Results are presented for a study of the X-ray emission from a small portion of the galactic plane near galactic longitude 260 deg. This region contains at least six low-luminosity X-ray sources within about 10 deg of PSR 0833-45, which is near the center of the Gum nebula. The X-ray source 4U 0833-45, associated with the Vela pulsar, is observed at twice its 4U catalog intensity. The lack of X-ray pulsations at the pulsar period (greater than 99% nonpulsed), the nonthermal power-law spectrum, and models of the X-ray source distribution in this region suggest that a large fraction of the X-rays come from an extended source about 1 deg of arc in radius. The observation of a high-temperature (effective temperature at least 100 million K) spectrum in a field of view containing only Puppis A among known sources has led to the discovery of new OSO 8 source, OS 0752-39. Other spectra from this region are discussed.

  5. Altered cortical and subcortical connectivity due to infrasound administered near the hearing threshold - Evidence from fMRI.

    PubMed

    Weichenberger, Markus; Bauer, Martin; Kühler, Robert; Hensel, Johannes; Forlim, Caroline Garcia; Ihlenfeld, Albrecht; Ittermann, Bernd; Gallinat, Jürgen; Koch, Christian; Kühn, Simone

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the brain's response towards near- and supra-threshold infrasound (IS) stimulation (sound frequency < 20 Hz) was investigated under resting-state fMRI conditions. The study involved two consecutive sessions. In the first session, 14 healthy participants underwent a hearing threshold-as well as a categorical loudness scaling measurement in which the individual loudness perception for IS was assessed across different sound pressure levels (SPL). In the second session, these participants underwent three resting-state acquisitions, one without auditory stimulation (no-tone), one with a monaurally presented 12-Hz IS tone (near-threshold) and one with a similar tone above the individual hearing threshold corresponding to a 'medium loud' hearing sensation (supra-threshold). Data analysis mainly focused on local connectivity measures by means of regional homogeneity (ReHo), but also involved independent component analysis (ICA) to investigate inter-regional connectivity. ReHo analysis revealed significantly higher local connectivity in right superior temporal gyrus (STG) adjacent to primary auditory cortex, in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and, when allowing smaller cluster sizes, also in the right amygdala (rAmyg) during the near-threshold, compared to both the supra-threshold and the no-tone condition. Additional independent component analysis (ICA) revealed large-scale changes of functional connectivity, reflected in a stronger activation of the right amygdala (rAmyg) in the opposite contrast (no-tone > near-threshold) as well as the right superior frontal gyrus (rSFG) during the near-threshold condition. In summary, this study is the first to demonstrate that infrasound near the hearing threshold may induce changes of neural activity across several brain regions, some of which are known to be involved in auditory processing, while others are regarded as keyplayers in emotional and autonomic control. These findings thus allow us to speculate on

  6. Extragalactic radio sources - Accurate positions from very-long-baseline interferometry observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, A. E. E.; Counselman, C. C., III; Hinteregger, H. F.; Knight, C. A.; Robertson, D. S.; Shapiro, I. I.; Whitney, A. R.; Clark, T. A.

    1973-01-01

    Relative positions for 12 extragalactic radio sources have been determined via wide-band very-long-baseline interferometry (wavelength of about 3.8 cm). The standard error, based on consistency between results from widely separated periods of observation, appears to be no more than 0.1 sec for each coordinate of the seven sources that were well observed during two or more periods. The uncertainties in the coordinates determined for the other five sources are larger, but in no case exceed 0.5 sec.

  7. Fine structure of 25 extragalactic radio sources. [interferometric observations of quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wittels, J. J.; Knight, C. A.; Shapiro, I. I.; Hinteregger, H. F.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Whitney, A. R.; Clark, T. A.; Hutton, L. K.; Marandino, G. E.; Niell, A. E.

    1975-01-01

    Interferometric observations taken at 7.8 GHz (gamma approximately = 3.8 cm) with five pairings of antennae of 25 extragalactic radio sources between April, 1972 and May, 1973 are reported. These sources exhibit a broad variety of fine structure from very simple to complex. The total flux and the correlated flux of some of the sources underwent large changes in a few weeks, while the structure and total power of others remained constant during the entire period of observation. Some aspects of the data processing and a discussion of errors are presented. Numerous figures are provided and explained. The individual radio sources are described in detail.

  8. Geophysical Measurements Using a Ring Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, Angela

    2016-03-01

    Low frequency infrasound from weather related events has been studied for a number of years. In this poster, the results from using a large active ring laser as an infrasound detector are presented. A slightly modified cavity design enhances the interferometer's sensitivity to infrasound. Our results qualitatively agree with several findings from a long term study of weather generated infrasound by NOAA. On April 27, 2014, the 66 km track of an EF-4 tornado passed within 21 km of the ring laser interferometer. An FFT of the ring laser interferometer output revealed a steady tornado generated frequency of 0.94 Hz. The track also passed close to the US Array Transportable Station W41B. This provided the opportunity to examine both the infrasound and ground motion generated by the tornado. Infrasound from three other tornadoes is also included. In all cases the infrasound was detected approximately 30 minutes before the tornado funnel was observed. This work is generously supported by the National Science Foundation and NASA/Arkansas Space Grant.

  9. Columbia/Einstein observations of galactic X-ray sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, K. S.

    1979-01-01

    The imaging observations of galactic clusters are presented. These fall into three categories: pre-main-sequence stars in the Orion nebulae, isolated-main-and-post main-sequence stars, and supernova remnants SNR. In addition to SNR, approximately 30 sources were detected.

  10. Locating multiple diffusion sources in time varying networks from sparse observations.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhao-Long; Shen, Zhesi; Cao, Shinan; Podobnik, Boris; Yang, Huijie; Wang, Wen-Xu; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2018-02-08

    Data based source localization in complex networks has a broad range of applications. Despite recent progress, locating multiple diffusion sources in time varying networks remains to be an outstanding problem. Bridging structural observability and sparse signal reconstruction theories, we develop a general framework to locate diffusion sources in time varying networks based solely on sparse data from a small set of messenger nodes. A general finding is that large degree nodes produce more valuable information than small degree nodes, a result that contrasts that for static networks. Choosing large degree nodes as the messengers, we find that sparse observations from a few such nodes are often sufficient for any number of diffusion sources to be located for a variety of model and empirical networks. Counterintuitively, sources in more rapidly varying networks can be identified more readily with fewer required messenger nodes.

  11. An Optimal Parameterization Framework for Infrasonic Tomography of the Stratospheric Winds Using Non-Local Sources

    DOE PAGES

    Blom, Philip Stephen; Marcillo, Omar Eduardo

    2016-12-05

    A method is developed to apply acoustic tomography methods to a localized network of infrasound arrays with intention of monitoring the atmosphere state in the region around the network using non-local sources without requiring knowledge of the precise source location or non-local atmosphere state. Closely spaced arrays provide a means to estimate phase velocities of signals that can provide limiting bounds on certain characteristics of the atmosphere. Larger spacing between such clusters provide a means to estimate celerity from propagation times along multiple unique stratospherically or thermospherically ducted propagation paths and compute more precise estimates of the atmosphere state. Inmore » order to avoid the commonly encountered complex, multimodal distributions for parametric atmosphere descriptions and to maximize the computational efficiency of the method, an optimal parametrization framework is constructed. This framework identifies the ideal combination of parameters for tomography studies in specific regions of the atmosphere and statistical model selection analysis shows that high quality corrections to the middle atmosphere winds can be obtained using as few as three parameters. Lastly, comparison of the resulting estimates for synthetic data sets shows qualitative agreement between the middle atmosphere winds and those estimated from infrasonic traveltime observations.« less

  12. VLA OH Zeeman Observations of the NGC 6334 Complex Source A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayo, E. A.; Sarma, A. P.; Troland, T. H.; Abel, N. P.

    2004-12-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the NGC 6334 complex source A, a compact continuum source in the SW region of the complex. Our intent is to determine the significance of the magnetic field in the support of the surrounding molecular cloud against gravitational collapse. We have performed OH 1665 and 1667 MHz observations taken with the Very Large Array in the BnA configuration and combined these data with the lower resolution CnB data of Sarma et al. (2000). These observations reveal magnetic fields with values of the order of 350 μ G toward source A, with maximum fields reaching 500 μ G. We have also theoretically modeled the molecular cloud surrounding source A using Cloudy, with the constraints to the model based on observation. This model provides significant information on the density of H2 through the cloud and also the relative density of H2 to OH which is important to our analysis of the region. We will combine the knowledge gained through the Cloudy modeling with Virial estimates to determine the significance of the magnetic field to the dynamics and evolution of source A.

  13. Wideband acoustic records of explosive volcanic eruptions at Stromboli: New insights on the explosive process and the acoustic source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, A.; Ripepe, M.; Lacanna, G.

    2014-06-01

    Wideband acoustic waves, both inaudible infrasound (<20 Hz) and audible component (>20 Hz), generated by strombolian eruptions were recorded at 5 kHz and correlated with video images. The high sample rate revealed that in addition to the known initial infrasound, the acoustic signal includes an energetic high-frequency (typically >100 Hz) coda. This audible signal starts before the positive infrasound onset goes negative. We suggest that the infrasonic onset is due to magma doming at the free surface, whereas the immediate high-frequency signal reflects the following explosive discharge flow. During strong gas-rich eruptions, positively skewed shockwave-like components with sharp compression and gradual depression appeared. We suggest that successive bursting of overpressurized small bubbles and the resultant volcanic jets sustain the highly gas-rich explosions and emit the audible sound. When the jet is supersonic, microexplosions of ambient air entrained in the hot jet emit the skewed waveforms.

  14. Altered cortical and subcortical connectivity due to infrasound administered near the hearing threshold – Evidence from fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Weichenberger, Markus; Bauer, Martin; Kühler, Robert; Hensel, Johannes; Forlim, Caroline Garcia; Ihlenfeld, Albrecht; Ittermann, Bernd; Gallinat, Jürgen; Koch, Christian; Kühn, Simone

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, the brain’s response towards near- and supra-threshold infrasound (IS) stimulation (sound frequency < 20 Hz) was investigated under resting-state fMRI conditions. The study involved two consecutive sessions. In the first session, 14 healthy participants underwent a hearing threshold—as well as a categorical loudness scaling measurement in which the individual loudness perception for IS was assessed across different sound pressure levels (SPL). In the second session, these participants underwent three resting-state acquisitions, one without auditory stimulation (no-tone), one with a monaurally presented 12-Hz IS tone (near-threshold) and one with a similar tone above the individual hearing threshold corresponding to a ‘medium loud’ hearing sensation (supra-threshold). Data analysis mainly focused on local connectivity measures by means of regional homogeneity (ReHo), but also involved independent component analysis (ICA) to investigate inter-regional connectivity. ReHo analysis revealed significantly higher local connectivity in right superior temporal gyrus (STG) adjacent to primary auditory cortex, in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and, when allowing smaller cluster sizes, also in the right amygdala (rAmyg) during the near-threshold, compared to both the supra-threshold and the no-tone condition. Additional independent component analysis (ICA) revealed large-scale changes of functional connectivity, reflected in a stronger activation of the right amygdala (rAmyg) in the opposite contrast (no-tone > near-threshold) as well as the right superior frontal gyrus (rSFG) during the near-threshold condition. In summary, this study is the first to demonstrate that infrasound near the hearing threshold may induce changes of neural activity across several brain regions, some of which are known to be involved in auditory processing, while others are regarded as keyplayers in emotional and autonomic control. These findings thus allow us to

  15. Numerical prediction of meteoric infrasound signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemec, Marian; Aftosmis, Michael J.; Brown, Peter G.

    2017-06-01

    We present a thorough validation of a computational approach to predict infrasonic signatures of centimeter-sized meteoroids. This is the first direct comparison of computational results with well-calibrated observations that include trajectories, optical masses and ground pressure signatures. We assume that the energy deposition along the meteor trail is dominated by atmospheric drag and simulate a steady, inviscid flow of air in thermochemical equilibrium to compute a near-body pressure signature of the meteoroid. This signature is then propagated through a stratified and windy atmosphere to the ground using a methodology from aircraft sonic-boom analysis. The results show that when the source of the signature is the cylindrical Mach-cone, the simulations closely match the observations. The prediction of the shock rise-time, the zero-peak amplitude of the waveform and the duration of the positive pressure phase are consistently within 10% of the measurements. Uncertainty in primarily the shape of the meteoroid results in a poorer prediction of the trailing part of the waveform. Overall, our results independently verify energy deposition estimates deduced from optical observations.

  16. Chemical Source Inversion using Assimilated Constituent Observations in an Idealized Two-dimensional System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tangborn, Andrew; Cooper, Robert; Pawson, Steven; Sun, Zhibin

    2009-01-01

    We present a source inversion technique for chemical constituents that uses assimilated constituent observations rather than directly using the observations. The method is tested with a simple model problem, which is a two-dimensional Fourier-Galerkin transport model combined with a Kalman filter for data assimilation. Inversion is carried out using a Green's function method and observations are simulated from a true state with added Gaussian noise. The forecast state uses the same spectral spectral model, but differs by an unbiased Gaussian model error, and emissions models with constant errors. The numerical experiments employ both simulated in situ and satellite observation networks. Source inversion was carried out by either direct use of synthetically generated observations with added noise, or by first assimilating the observations and using the analyses to extract observations. We have conducted 20 identical twin experiments for each set of source and observation configurations, and find that in the limiting cases of a very few localized observations, or an extremely large observation network there is little advantage to carrying out assimilation first. However, in intermediate observation densities, there decreases in source inversion error standard deviation using the Kalman filter algorithm followed by Green's function inversion by 50% to 95%.

  17. Study of atmospheric gravity waves and infrasonic sources using the USArray Transportable Array pressure data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedlin, Michael; de Groot-Hedlin, Catherine; Hoffmann, Lars; Alexander, M. Joan; Stephan, Claudia

    2016-04-01

    The upgrade of the USArray Transportable Array (TA) with microbarometers and infrasound microphones has created an opportunity for a broad range of new studies of atmospheric sources and the large- and small-scale atmospheric structure through which signals from these events propagate. These studies are akin to early studies of seismic events and the Earth's interior structure that were made possible by the first seismic networks. In one early study with the new dataset we use the method of de Groot-Hedlin and Hedlin (2015) to recast the TA as a massive collection of 3-element arrays to detect and locate large infrasonic events. Over 2,000 events have been detected in 2013. The events cluster in highly active regions on land and offshore. Stratospherically ducted signals from some of these events have been recorded more than 2,000 km from the source and clearly show dispersion due to propagation through atmospheric gravity waves. Modeling of these signals has been used to test statistical models of atmospheric gravity waves. The network is also useful for making direct observations of gravity waves. We are currently studying TA and satellite observations of gravity waves from singular events to better understand how the waves near ground level relate to those observed aloft. We are also studying the long-term statistics of these waves from the beginning of 2010 through 2014. Early work using data bandpass filtered from 1-6 hr shows that both the TA and satellite data reveal highly active source regions, such as near the Great Lakes. de Groot-Hedlin and Hedlin, 2015, A method for detecting and locating geophysical events using clusters of arrays, Geophysical Journal International, v203, p960-971, doi: 10.1093/gji/ggv345.

  18. Source Distributions of Substorm Ions Observed in the Near-Earth Magnetotail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashour-Abdalla, M.; El-Alaoui, M.; Peroomian, V.; Walker, R. J.; Raeder, J.; Frank, L. A.; Paterson, W. R.

    1999-01-01

    This study employs Geotail plasma observations and numerical modeling to determine sources of the ions observed in the near-Earth magnetotail near midnight during a substorm. The growth phase has the low-latitude boundary layer as its most important source of ions at Geotail, but during the expansion phase the plasma mantle is dominant. The mantle distribution shows evidence of two distinct entry mechanisms: entry through a high latitude reconnection region resulting in an accelerated component, and entry through open field lines traditionally identified with the mantle source. The two entry mechanisms are separated in time, with the high-latitude reconnection region disappearing prior to substorm onset.

  19. Evaluation of occupational exposure to infrasonic noise in Poland.

    PubMed

    Pawlaczyk-Luszczyńska, M

    1999-01-01

    A short review of infrasound sources and effects on humans is presented. Polish standard PN-86/N-01338 and international standards ISO 7196:1995 and ISO 9612:1997 concerning the measuring techniques of infrasonic noise are described. The results of infrasonic noise measurements performed in the work environment in Poland are discussed. The study concerned the noise emitted by 124 different types of industrial machinery, appliances and means of transport. The measurements were made in typical working conditions with reference to Polish and international standards. The sound pressure levels exceeding Polish admissible values for: (a) workers' health protection were found in 5 (4.0%) cases, (b) ensuring proper conditions for performing basic functions in observational dispatcher cabins etc. in 77 (62.1%) cases; and (c) administration premises, design offices etc. in 92 (74.2%) cases. The admissible sound pressure levels for workers' health protection are in fact the permissible levels for hearing protection, however they do not correspond with the hearing threshold of infrasound the G-weighting characteristic is associated with. The hearing threshold of infrasound (G86 curve) was exceeded in 66.9% of all the industrial machinery and means of transport under study.

  20. ASM-Triggered Too Observations of Kilohertz Oscillations in Three Atoll Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaaret, P.; Swank, Jean (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Three Rossi Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations were carried out for this proposal based on target of opportunity triggers derived from the All-Sky Monitor (ASM) on RXTE. We obtained short observations of 4U1636-536 (15ks) and 4U1735-44 (23ks) and a longer observation of 4U0614+091 (117ks). Our analysis of our observations of the atoll neutron star x-ray binary 4U1735-44 lead to the discovery of a second high frequency quasiperiodic oscillation (QPO) in this source. These results were published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. The data obtained on the source 4U0614+091 were used in a comprehensive study of this source, which will be published in the Astrophysical Journal. The data from this proposal were particularly critical for that study as they lead to the detection of the highest QPO frequency every found in the x-ray emission from an x-ray binary which will be important in placing limits on the equation of state of nuclear matter.

  1. A Decade of Progress in Geophysical Acoustics (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garces, M.

    2009-12-01

    In early 1999, there were very few infrasound programs worldwide, and no operational International Monitoring System (IMS) infrasound stations. The first modern arrays (IS26, Germany, and IS59, US) were still under construction. Limited data were available from prototype IMS arrays at Los Alamos, US, and Flers, France. “New” sensors were being developed, tested, and validated to meet the stringent IMS specifications. There were no operational source location algorithms and standard seasonal atmospheres were still being used for propagation modeling. The first IMS infrasound array (IS26) started sending data in October 1999, and was officially certified in April 10, 2001, with other IMS arrays following soon thereafter. However, by April 2001 there were enough uncertified infrasound stations operating around the Pacific basin to study the 4/23/01 meteor, which exploded at a height of ~30 km between Hawaii and California with an equivalent yield of ~10 kilotons. IMS arrays in Hawaii, Alaska, and California (the closest stations) were used to rapidly detect, locate, and characterize the explosion. Since this event was only captured by two monitoring technologies - infrasound and US satellites - the prompt and accurate identification of this sound source became a clarion call for the infrasound community. A growing number of case studies have encouraged steady progress in detection and location algorithms, and permitted the validation of incrementally refined atmospheric specifications and propagation models. Our physical understanding of the manifold natural and man-made processes that can create low-frequency sound has also flourished with the increasing number of students, scientists, and technologies dedicated to geoacoustic studies. At the time of this writing, over 2/3 of the 60-station infrasound array network of the IMS is operational, providing unprecedented global acoustic coverage. In addition, various countries have deployed infrasound sensing systems

  2. VLA observations of radio sources in interacting galaxy pairs in poor clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batuski, David J.; Hanisch, Robert J.; Burns, Jack O.

    1992-01-01

    Observations of 16 radio sources in interacting galaxies in 14 poor clusters were made using the Very Large Array in the B configuration at lambda of 6 and 2 cm. These sources had been unresolved in earlier observations at lambda of 21 cm, and were chosen as a sample to determine which of three models for radio source formation actually pertains in interacting galaxies. From the analysis of this sample, the starburst model appears most successful, but the 'central monster' model could pertain in some cases.

  3. Studies of Accreting Neutron Stars with RXTE Cycle 4 Observations: III: TOO Observations of Atoll Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paciesas, William S.

    2002-01-01

    NASA Grant NAG 5-9244 provided funds for the research projects 'ASM-Triggered TOO Observations of Kilohertz Oscillations in Five Atoll Sources' and 'Further Measurements of the Kilohertz Oscillations in 4U 1705-44' approved under the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) Guest Observer Program Cycle 4 and funded under the 1999 NASA Astrophysics Data Program. The principal investigator of the observing time proposals was Dr. E. C. Ford (U. of Amsterdam). The grant was funded for one year beginning 3/15/2000. The original ADP proposal was submitted by Prof. Jan van Paradijs, who passed away in 1999 before the funds were distributed. Prof. Wilham S. Padesas administered the grant during the period of performance. In spite of a wealth of observational data on the kHz QPO in low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), the interpretation of this phenomenon is currently uncertain because the pairs of kHz QPO peaks and the oscillations seen in some Type I X-ray bursts are almost, but not quite, connected by a simple beat frequency relation. Further systematic studies of systems with known QPOs are required in order to better understand the phenomenon. The proposals were intended to contribute to a solution to this confusion by observing the sources as they vary over a wide range of X-ray flux. RXTE target-of-opportunity observations of six transient atoll sources, 4U 0614+09, KS 1732-260, Ser X-1, 4U 1702-42, 4U 1820-30 and 4U 1705-44 were to be performed at various flux levels based on ASM measurements.

  4. HerMES: point source catalogues from Herschel-SPIRE observations II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Viero, M.; Clarke, C.; Bock, J.; Buat, V.; Conley, A.; Farrah, D.; Guo, K.; Heinis, S.; Magdis, G.; Marchetti, L.; Marsden, G.; Norberg, P.; Oliver, S. J.; Page, M. J.; Roehlly, Y.; Roseboom, I. G.; Schulz, B.; Smith, A. J.; Vaccari, M.; Zemcov, M.

    2014-11-01

    The Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey (HerMES) is the largest Guaranteed Time Key Programme on the Herschel Space Observatory. With a wedding cake survey strategy, it consists of nested fields with varying depth and area totalling ˜380 deg2. In this paper, we present deep point source catalogues extracted from Herschel-Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver (SPIRE) observations of all HerMES fields, except for the later addition of the 270 deg2 HerMES Large-Mode Survey (HeLMS) field. These catalogues constitute the second Data Release (DR2) made in 2013 October. A sub-set of these catalogues, which consists of bright sources extracted from Herschel-SPIRE observations completed by 2010 May 1 (covering ˜74 deg2) were released earlier in the first extensive data release in 2012 March. Two different methods are used to generate the point source catalogues, the SUSSEXTRACTOR point source extractor used in two earlier data releases (EDR and EDR2) and a new source detection and photometry method. The latter combines an iterative source detection algorithm, STARFINDER, and a De-blended SPIRE Photometry algorithm. We use end-to-end Herschel-SPIRE simulations with realistic number counts and clustering properties to characterize basic properties of the point source catalogues, such as the completeness, reliability, photometric and positional accuracy. Over 500 000 catalogue entries in HerMES fields (except HeLMS) are released to the public through the HeDAM (Herschel Database in Marseille) website (http://hedam.lam.fr/HerMES).

  5. The modulating impact of illumination and background radiation on 8 Hz-induced infrasound effect on physicochemical properties of physiolagical solution.

    PubMed

    Baghdasaryan, Naira; Mikayelyan, Yerazik; Barseghyan, Sedrak; Dadasyan, Erna; Ayrapetyan, Sinerik

    2012-12-01

    At present, when the level of background ionizing radiation is increasing in a number of world locations, the problem of the study of biological effect of high background radiation becomes one of the extremely important global problems in modern life sciences. The modern research in biophysics proved that water is a most essential target, through which the biological effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiations are realized. Therefore, there is no doubt about the strong dependency of non-ionizing radiation-induced effect on the level of background radiation. Findings have shown that illumination and background radiation have a strong modulation effect on infrasound-induced impacts on water physicochemical properties, which could also have appropriate effect on living organisms.

  6. Observing the Microseism Source Regions from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simard, M.; Kedar, S.; Rodriguez, E.; Webb, F. H.

    2005-12-01

    Correlations of this ambient seismic signal between seismic stations has recently emerged as a powerful technique for tomography of the Earth's crust, allowing continuous global monitoring of the crust to seismogenic depths without relying on the occurrence of earthquakes. The technique has the potential for resolving changes in the crust during periods of little or no earthquake activity. Since ambient seismic noise is predominantly generated by ocean wave-wave interactions known to originate in narrowly defined geographical source areas that vary according to ocean swell state and season, it may be possible to derive physical constraints of the source characteristics by globallyly observing candidate source regions from space. At present, such observations have been confined to point measurements such as directional buoys and ocean-bottom seismometers. Using a technique formulated by Engen and Jonsen [1995], a 'field view' of the generating region can be obtained by deriving ocean directional spectra from Synthetic Aperature Radar (SAR) images by analysis of cross correlation of single-look SAR images. In November 2004, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) air-borne SAR instrument, has collected data off the Alaska coast, while a large storm with wave heights of ~8m was pounding the coast. This was contemporaneous with the recording of strong microseismic activity by the Canadian National Seismic (CNSN). The AirSAR collected over a 100km long, 10km wide swath offshore, the region most likely to involve wave-wave interaction between the incoming swell and coast-reflected waves. JPL has implemented the cross correlation spectral technique, and applied it to the 2004 data-set. We will present results of the analysis of the SAR data in conjunction with analysis of the CNSN broadband seismic data.

  7. Monitoring Research in the Context of CTBT Negotiations and Networks,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-08-14

    1995) estimates, using infrasound and satellite data, that these sources generate explosion-like signals worldwide at a rate of approximately 1/yr at...coupling and the waveform appearance of atmospheric explosions. In infrasound there is the development of new array designs and of new automatic detection ...sensors. The principal daily use of the hydroacoustic network is for purposes of simple discrimination of those oceanic earthquakes detected by the seismic

  8. Cross-Matching Source Observations from the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laher, Russ; Grillmair, C.; Surace, J.; Monkewitz, S.; Jackson, E.

    2009-01-01

    Over the four-year lifetime of the PTF project, approximately 40 billion instances of astronomical-source observations will be extracted from the image data. The instances will correspond to the same astronomical objects being observed at roughly 25-50 different times, and so a very large catalog containing important object-variability information will be the chief PTF product. Organizing astronomical-source catalogs is conventionally done by dividing the catalog into declination zones and sorting by right ascension within each zone (e.g., the USNOA star catalog), in order to facilitate catalog searches. This method was reincarnated as the "zones" algorithm in a SQL-Server database implementation (Szalay et al., MSR-TR-2004-32), with corrections given by Gray et al. (MSR-TR-2006-52). The primary advantage of this implementation is that all of the work is done entirely on the database server and client/server communication is eliminated. We implemented the methods outlined in Gray et al. for a PostgreSQL database. We programmed the methods as database functions in PL/pgSQL procedural language. The cross-matching is currently based on source positions, but we intend to extend it to use both positions and positional uncertainties to form a chi-square statistic for optimal thresholding. The database design includes three main tables, plus a handful of internal tables. The Sources table stores the SExtractor source extractions taken at various times; the MergedSources table stores statistics about the astronomical objects, which are the result of cross-matching records in the Sources table; and the Merges table, which associates cross-matched primary keys in the Sources table with primary keys in the MergedSoures table. Besides judicious database indexing, we have also internally partitioned the Sources table by declination zone, in order to speed up the population of Sources records and make the database more manageable. The catalog will be accessible to the public

  9. Effects of charge design features on parameters of acoustic and seismic waves and cratering, for SMR chemical surface explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gitterman, Y.

    2012-04-01

    A series of experimental on-surface shots was designed and conducted by the Geophysical Institute of Israel at Sayarim Military Range (SMR) in Negev desert, including two large calibration explosions: about 82 tons of strong IMI explosives in August 2009, and about 100 tons of ANFO explosives in January 2011. It was a collaborative effort between Israel, CTBTO, USA and several European countries, with the main goal to provide fully controlled ground truth (GT0) infrasound sources in different weather/wind conditions, for calibration of IMS infrasound stations in Europe, Middle East and Asia. Strong boosters and the upward charge detonation scheme were applied to provide a reduced energy release to the ground and an enlarged energy radiation to the atmosphere, producing enhanced infrasound signals, for better observation at far-regional stations. The following observations and results indicate on the required explosives energy partition for this charge design: 1) crater size and local seismic (duration) magnitudes were found smaller than expected for these large surface explosions; 2) small test shots of the same charge (1 ton) conducted at SMR with different detonation directions showed clearly lower seismic amplitudes/energy and smaller crater size for the upward detonation; 3) many infrasound stations at local and regional distances showed higher than expected peak amplitudes, even after application of a wind-correction procedure. For the large-scale explosions, high-pressure gauges were deployed at 100-600 m to record air-blast properties, evaluate the efficiency of the charge design and energy generation, and provide a reliable estimation of the charge yield. Empirical relations for air-blast parameters - peak pressure, impulse and the Secondary Shock (SS) time delay - depending on distance, were developed and analyzed. The parameters, scaled by the cubic root of estimated TNT equivalent charges, were found consistent for all analyzed explosions, except of SS

  10. Transfer function for vital infrasound pressures between the carotid artery and the tympanic membrane.

    PubMed

    Furihata, Kenji; Yamashita, Masato

    2013-02-01

    While occupational injury is associated with numerous individual and work-related risk factors, including long working hours and short sleep duration, the complex mechanisms causing such injuries are not yet fully understood. The relationship between the infrasound pressures of the tympanic membrane [ear canal pressure (ECP)], detected using an earplug embedded with a low-frequency microphone, and the carotid artery [carotid artery pressure (CAP)], detected using a stethoscope fitted with the same microphone, can be quantitatively characterized using systems analysis. The transfer functions of 40 normal workers (19 to 57 years old) were characterized, involving the analysis of 446 data points. The ECP waveform exhibits a pulsatile character with a slow respiratory component, which is superimposed on a biphasic recording that is synchronous with the cardiac cycle. The respiratory ECP waveform correlates with the instantaneous heart rate. The results also revealed that various fatigue-related risk factors may affect the mean magnitudes of the measured pressures and the delay transfer functions between CAP and ECP in the study population; these factors include systolic blood pressure, salivary amylase activity, age, sleep duration, postural changes, chronic fatigue, and pulse rate.

  11. Catalog of infrared observations including: Bibliography of infrared astronomy and index of infrared source positions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gezari, D. Y.; Schmitz, M.; Mead, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The Catalog of Infrared Observations and its Far Infrared Supplement summarize all infrared astronomical observations at infrared wavelengths published in the scientific literature between 1965 and 1982. The Catalog includes as appendices the Bibliography of infrared astronomy which keys observations in the Catalog with the original journal references, and the index of infrared source positions which gives source positions for alphabetically listed sources in the Catalog. The Catalog data base contains over 85,000 observations of about 10,000 infrared sources, of which about 2,000 have no known visible counterpart.

  12. Methods for determining infrasound phase velocity direction with an array of line sensors.

    PubMed

    Walker, Kristoffer T; Zumberge, Mark A; Hedlin, Michael A H; Shearer, Peter M

    2008-10-01

    Infrasound arrays typically consist of several microbarometers separated by distances that provide predictable signal time separations, forming the basis for processing techniques that estimate the phase velocity direction. The directional resolution depends on the noise level and is proportional to the number of these point sensors; additional sensors help attenuate noise and improve direction resolution. An alternative approach is to form an array of directional line sensors, each of which emulates a line of many microphones that instantaneously integrate pressure change. The instrument response is a function of the orientation of the line with respect to the signal wavefront. Real data recorded at the Piñon Flat Observatory in southern California and synthetic data show that this spectral property can be exploited with multiple line sensors to determine the phase velocity direction with a precision comparable to a larger aperture array of microbarometers. Three types of instrument-response-dependent beamforming and an array deconvolution technique are evaluated. The results imply that an array of five radial line sensors, with equal azimuthal separation and an aperture that depends on the frequency band of interest, provides directional resolution while requiring less space compared to an equally effective array of five microbarometers with rosette wind filters.

  13. Sources and Radiation Patterns of Volcano-Acoustic Signals Investigated with Field-Scale Chemical Explosions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, D. C.; Lees, J. M.; Taddeucci, J.; Graettinger, A. H.; Sonder, I.; Valentine, G.

    2014-12-01

    We investigate the processes that give rise to complex acoustic signals during volcanic blasts by monitoring buried chemical explosions with infrasound and audio range microphones, strong motion sensors, and high speed imagery. Acoustic waveforms vary with scaled depth of burial (SDOB, units in meters per cube root of joules), ranging from high amplitude, impulsive, gas expansion dominated signals at low SDOB to low amplitude, longer duration, ground motion dominated signals at high SDOB. Typically, the sudden upward acceleration of the substrate above the blast produces the first acoustic arrival, followed by a second pulse due to the eruption of pressurized gas at the surface. Occasionally, a third overpressure occurs when displaced material decelerates upon impact with the ground. The transition between ground motion dominated and gas release dominated acoustics ranges between 0.0038-0.0018 SDOB, respectively. For example, one explosion registering an SDOB=0.0031 produced two overpressure pulses of approximately equal amplitude, one due to ground motion, the other to gas release. Recorded volcano infrasound has also identified distinct ground motion and gas release components during explosions at Sakurajima, Santiaguito, and Karymsky volcanoes. Our results indicate that infrasound records may provide a proxy for the depth and energy of these explosions. Furthermore, while magma fragmentation models indicate the possibility of several explosions during a single vulcanian eruption (Alidibirov, Bull Volc., 1994), our results suggest that a single explosion can also produce complex acoustic signals. Thus acoustic records alone cannot be used to distinguish between single explosions and multiple closely-spaced blasts at volcanoes. Results from a series of lateral blasts during the 2014 field experiment further indicates whether vent geometry can produce directional acoustic radiation patterns like those observed at Tungarahua volcano (Kim et al., GJI, 2012). Beside

  14. High-resolution observations of radio-source hot spots at 329 MHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linfield, R.; Simon, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    The hot spots of several luminous double radio sources have been observed at 329 MHz with VLBI at fringe spacings ranging from 0.05 to 0.70 arcsec. Two out of two high-redshift (z = about 0.5) sources, but only one of six low-redshift (z = about 0.05) sources, were detected. For the low-redshift source (3C 234) which was detected, either the hot spot is larger at 329 MHz than at 15 GHz, or else the brightness contrast between it and the surrounding lobe is lower at the lower frequency.

  15. Listening to sounds from an exploding meteor and oceanic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evers, L. G.; Haak, H. W.

    Low frequency sound (infrasound) measurements have been selected within the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) as a technique to detect and identify possible nuclear explosions. The Seismology Division of the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) operates since 1999 an experimental infrasound array of 16 micro-barometers. Here we show the rare detection and identification of an exploding meteor above Northern Germany on November 8th, 1999 with data from the Deelen Infrasound Array (DIA). At the same time, sound was radiated from the Atlantic Ocean, South of Iceland, due to the atmospheric coupling of standing ocean waves, called microbaroms. Occurring with only 0.04 Hz difference in dominant frequency, DIA proved to be able to discriminate between the physically different sources of infrasound through its unique lay-out and instruments. The explosive power of the meteor being 1.5 kT TNT is in the range of nuclear explosions and therefore relevant to the CTBT.

  16. Hovsgol earthquake 5 December 2014, M W = 4.9: seismic and acoustic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrynina, Anna A.; Sankov, Vladimir A.; Tcydypova, Larisa R.; German, Victor I.; Chechelnitsky, Vladimir V.; Ulzibat, Munkhuu

    2018-03-01

    A moderate shallow earthquake occurred on 5 December 2014 ( M W = 4.9) in the north of Lake Hovsgol (northern Mongolia). The infrasonic signal with duration 140 s was recorded for this earthquake by the "Tory" infrasound array (Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science, Russia). Source parameters of the earthquake (seismic moment, geometrical sizes, displacement amplitudes in the focus) were determined using spectral analysis of direct body P and S waves. The spectral analysis of seismograms and amplitude variations of the surface waves allows to determine the effect of the propagation of the rupture in the earthquake focus, the azimuth of the rupture propagation direction and the velocity of displacement in the earthquake focus. The results of modelling of the surface displacements caused by the Hovsgol earthquake and high effective velocity of propagation of infrasound signal ( 625 m/s) indicate that its occurrence is not caused by the downward movement of the Earth's surface in the epicentral region but by the effect of the secondary source. The position of the secondary source of infrasound signal is defined on the northern slopes of the Khamar-Daban ridge according to the data on the azimuth and time of arrival of acoustic wave at the Tory station. The interaction of surface waves with the regional topography is proposed as the most probable mechanism of formation of the infrasound signal.

  17. Diagnosing Tibetan pollutant sources via volatile organic compound observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongyan; He, Qiusheng; Song, Qi; Chen, Laiguo; Song, Yongjia; Wang, Yuhang; Lin, Kui; Xu, Zhencheng; Shao, Min

    2017-10-01

    Atmospheric transport of black carbon (BC) from surrounding areas has been shown to impact the Tibetan environment, and clarifying the geographical source and receptor regions is crucial for providing guidance for mitigation actions. In this study, 10 trace volatile organic compounds (VOCs) sampled across Tibet are chosen as proxies to diagnose source regions and related transport of pollutants to Tibet. The levels of these VOCs in Tibet are higher than those in the Arctic and Antarctic regions but much lower than those observed at many remote and background sites in Asia. The highest VOC level is observed in the eastern region, followed by the southern region and the northern region. A positive matrix factorization (PMF) model found that three factors-industry, biomass burning, and traffic-present different spatial distributions, which indicates that different zones of Tibet are influenced by different VOC sources. The average age of the air masses in the northern and eastern regions is estimated to be 3.5 and 2.8 days using the ratio of toluene to benzene, respectively, which indicates the foreign transport of VOC species to those regions. Back-trajectory analyses show that the Afghanistan-Pakistan-Tajikistan region, Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP), and Meghalaya-Myanmar region could transport industrial VOCs to different zones of Tibet from west to east. The agricultural bases in northern India could transport biomass burning-related VOCs to the middle-northern and eastern zones of Tibet. High traffic along the unique national roads in Tibet is associated with emissions from local sources and neighboring areas. Our study proposes international joint-control efforts and targeted actions to mitigate the climatic changes and effects associated with VOCs in Tibet, which is a climate sensitive region and an important source of global water.

  18. European VLBI network observations of fourteen GHz-peaked-spectrum radio sources at 5 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, L.; Reynolds, C.; Strom, R. G.; Dallacasa, D.

    2006-08-01

    We present the results of EVN polarization observations of fourteen GHz-Peaked-Spectrum (GPS) radio sources at 5 GHz. These sources were selected from bright GPS source samples and we aimed at finding Compact Symmetric Objects (CSOs). We have obtained full polarization 5 GHz VLBI observations of 14 sources providing information on their source structure and spectral indices. The results show that two core-jet sources 1433-040 and DA193, out of 14 GPS sources, exhibit integrated fractional polarizations of 3.6% and 1.0% respectively. The other 12 sources have no clear detection of pc-scale polarization. The results confirm that the GPS sources generally have very low polarization at 5 GHz. The sources 1133+432, 1824+271 and 2121-014 are confirmed as CSOs. Three new CSOs 0914+114, 1518+046 and 2322-040 (tentative) have been classified on the basis of 5 GHz images and spectral indices. The sources 1333+589, 1751+278 and 2323+790 can be classified either as compact doubles, and then they are likely CSO candidates or core-jet sources; further observations are needed for an appropriate classification; 0554-026, 1433-040 and 1509+054 are core-jet sources. In addition, we estimate that a component in the jet of quasar DA193 has superluminal motion of 3.3±0.6 h-1 c in 5.5 years.

  19. Chandra and XMM Observations of the ADC Source 0921-630

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kallman, T. R.; Angelini, L.; Boroson, B.; Cottam, J.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We analyze observations of the low mass X-ray binary 2S0921-63 obtained with the gratings and CCDs on Chandra and XMM. This object is a high inclination system showing evidence for an accretion disk corona (ADC). Such a corona has the potential to constrain the properties of the heated accretion disk in this system, and other LMXBs by extension. We find evidence for line emission which is generally consistent with that found by previous experiments, although we are able to detect more lines. For the first time in this source, we find that the iron K line has multiple components. We set limits on the line widths and velocity offsets, and we fit the spectra to photoionization models and discuss the implications for accretion disk corona models. For the first time in any ADC source we use these fits, together with density constraints based on the O VII line ratio, in order to constrain the flux in the medium-ionization region of the ADC. Under various assumptions about the source luminosity this constrains the location of the emitting region. These estimates, together with estimates for the emission measure, favor a scenario in which the intrinsic luminosity of the source is comparable to what we observe.

  20. Commercial observation satellites: broadening the sources of geospatial data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, John C.; O'Connell, Kevin M.; Venzor, Jose A.

    2002-09-01

    Commercial observation satellites promise to broaden substantially the sources of imagery data available to potential users of geospatial data and related information products. We examine the new trend toward private firms acquiring and operating high-resolution imagery satellites. These commercial observation satellites build on the substantial experience in Earth observation operations provided by government-owned imaging satellites for civilian and military purposes. However, commercial satellites will require governments and companies to reconcile public and private interests in allowing broad public access to high-resolution satellite imagery data without creating national security risks or placing the private firms at a disadvantage compared with other providers of geospatial data.

  1. Multi-Phenomenological Analysis of the 12 August 2015 Tianjin, China Chemical Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasyanos, M.; Kim, K.; Park, J.; Stump, B. W.; Hayward, C.; Che, I. Y.; Zhao, L.; Myers, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    We perform a multi-phenomenological analysis of the massive near-surface chemical explosions that occurred in Tianjin, China on 12 August 2015. A recent assessment of these events was performed by Zhao et al. (2016) using local (< 100 km) seismic data. This study considers a regional assessment of the same sequence in the absence of having any local data. We provide additional insight by combining regional seismic analysis with the use of infrasound signals and an assessment of the event crater. Event locations using infrasound signals recorded at Korean and IMS arrays are estimated based on the Bayesian Infrasonic Source Location (BISL) method (Modrak et al., 2010), and improved with azimuthal corrections using a raytracing (Blom and Waxler, 2012) and the Ground-to-Space (G2S) atmospheric models (Drob et al., 2003). The location information provided from the infrasound signals is then merged with the regional seismic arrivals to produce a joint event location. The yields of the events are estimated from seismic and infrasonic observations. Seismic waveform envelope method (Pasyanos et al., 2012) including the free surface effect (Pasyanos and Ford, 2015) is applied to regional seismic signals. Waveform inversion method (Kim and Rodgers, 2016) is used for infrasound signals. A combination of the seismic and acoustic signals can provide insights on the energy partitioning and break the tradeoffs between the yield and the depth/height of explosions, resulting in a more robust estimation of event yield. The yield information from the different phenomenologies are combined through the use of likelihood functions.

  2. Center determination for trailed sources in astronomical observation images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jun Ju; Hu, Shao Ming; Chen, Xu; Guo, Di Fu

    2014-11-01

    Images with trailed sources can be obtained when observing near-Earth objects, such as small astroids, space debris, major planets and their satellites, no matter the telescopes track on sidereal speed or the speed of target. The low centering accuracy of these trailed sources is one of the most important sources of the astrometric uncertainty, but how to determine the central positions of the trailed sources accurately remains a significant challenge to image processing techniques, especially in the study of faint or fast moving objects. According to the conditions of one-meter telescope at Weihai Observatory of Shandong University, moment and point-spread-function (PSF) fitting were chosen to develop the image processing pipeline for space debris. The principles and the implementations of both two methods are introduced in this paper. And some simulated images containing trailed sources are analyzed with each technique. The results show that two methods are comparable to obtain the accurate central positions of trailed sources when the signal to noise (SNR) is high. But moment tends to fail for the objects with low SNR. Compared with moment, PSF fitting seems to be more robust and versatile. However, PSF fitting is quite time-consuming. Therefore, if there are enough bright stars in the field, or the high astronometric accuracy is not necessary, moment is competent. Otherwise, the combination of moment and PSF fitting is recommended.

  3. The rotary subwoofer: a controllable infrasound source.

    PubMed

    Park, Joseph; Garcés, Milton; Thigpen, Bruce

    2009-04-01

    The rotary subwoofer is a novel acoustic transducer capable of projecting infrasonic signals at high sound pressure levels. The projector produces higher acoustic particle velocities than conventional transducers which translate into higher radiated sound pressure levels. This paper characterizes measured performance of a rotary subwoofer and presents a model to predict sound pressure levels.

  4. Observations of Ultra-Luminous X-ray Sources, and Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbert, E. J. M.

    2004-05-01

    I will review observations of Ultra-Luminous X-ray Sources (ULXs; Lx > 1E39 erg/s), in particular those observations that have helped reveal the nature of these curious objects. Some recent observations suggest that ULXs are a heterogenous class. Although ULX phenomenology is not fully understood, I will present some examples from the (possibly overlapping) sub-classes. Since ULXs are the most luminous objects in starburst galaxies, they, and ``normal'' luminous black-hole high-mass X-ray binaries are intimately tied to the global galaxian X-ray-star-formation connection. Further work is needed to understand how ULXs form, and how they are associated with the putative population of intermediate-mass black holes.

  5. MAMBO observations at 240GHz of optically obscured Spitzer sources: source clumps and radio activity at high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreani, P.; Magliocchetti, M.; de Zotti, G.

    2010-01-01

    Optically very faint (R > 25.5) sources detected by the Spitzer Space Telescope at 24μm represent a very interesting population at redshift z ~ (1.5-3). They exhibit strong clustering properties, implying that they are hosted by very massive haloes, and their mid-infrared emission could be powered by either dust-enshrouded star formation and/or by an obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN). We report observations carried out with the Max Planck Millimetre Bolometer (MAMBO) array at the IRAM 30-m antenna on Pico Veleta of a candidate p