Science.gov

Sample records for infrastructure interdependency modeling

  1. Reliable Communication Models in Interdependent Critical Infrastructure Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sangkeun; Chinthavali, Supriya; Shankar, Mallikarjun

    2016-01-01

    Modern critical infrastructure networks are becoming increasingly interdependent where the failures in one network may cascade to other dependent networks, causing severe widespread national-scale failures. A number of previous efforts have been made to analyze the resiliency and robustness of interdependent networks based on different models. However, communication network, which plays an important role in today's infrastructures to detect and handle failures, has attracted little attention in the interdependency studies, and no previous models have captured enough practical features in the critical infrastructure networks. In this paper, we study the interdependencies between communication network and other kinds of critical infrastructure networks with an aim to identify vulnerable components and design resilient communication networks. We propose several interdependency models that systematically capture various features and dynamics of failures spreading in critical infrastructure networks. We also discuss several research challenges in building reliable communication solutions to handle failures in these models.

  2. CIMS: A FRAMEWORK FOR INFRASTRUCTURE INTERDEPENDENCY MODELING AND ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Donald D. Dudenhoeffer; May R. Permann; Milos Manic

    2006-12-01

    Today’s society relies greatly upon an array of complex national and international infrastructure networks such as transportation, utilities, telecommunication, and even financial networks. While modeling and simulation tools have provided insight into the behavior of individual infrastructure networks, a far less understood area is that of the interrelationships among multiple infrastructure networks including the potential cascading effects that may result due to these interdependencies. This paper first describes infrastructure interdependencies as well as presenting a formalization of interdependency types. Next the paper describes a modeling and simulation framework called CIMS© and the work that is being conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to model and simulate infrastructure interdependencies and the complex behaviors that can result.

  3. Hierarchical Coloured Petrinet Based Healthcare Infrastructure Interdependency Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nivedita, N.; Durbha, S.

    2014-11-01

    To ensure a resilient Healthcare Critical Infrastructure, understanding the vulnerabilities and analysing the interdependency on other critical infrastructures is important. To model this critical infrastructure and its dependencies, Hierarchal Coloured petri net modelling approach for simulating the vulnerability of Healthcare Critical infrastructure in a disaster situation is studied.. The model enables to analyse and understand various state changes, which occur when there is a disruption or damage to any of the Critical Infrastructure, and its cascading nature. It also enables to explore optimal paths for evacuation during the disaster. The simulation environment can be used to understand and highlight various vulnerabilities of Healthcare Critical Infrastructure during a flood disaster scenario; minimize consequences; and enable timely, efficient response.

  4. Stochastic Coloured Petrinet Based Healthcare Infrastructure Interdependency Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nukavarapu, Nivedita; Durbha, Surya

    2016-06-01

    The Healthcare Critical Infrastructure (HCI) protects all sectors of the society from hazards such as terrorism, infectious disease outbreaks, and natural disasters. HCI plays a significant role in response and recovery across all other sectors in the event of a natural or manmade disaster. However, for its continuity of operations and service delivery HCI is dependent on other interdependent Critical Infrastructures (CI) such as Communications, Electric Supply, Emergency Services, Transportation Systems, and Water Supply System. During a mass casualty due to disasters such as floods, a major challenge that arises for the HCI is to respond to the crisis in a timely manner in an uncertain and variable environment. To address this issue the HCI should be disaster prepared, by fully understanding the complexities and interdependencies that exist in a hospital, emergency department or emergency response event. Modelling and simulation of a disaster scenario with these complexities would help in training and providing an opportunity for all the stakeholders to work together in a coordinated response to a disaster. The paper would present interdependencies related to HCI based on Stochastic Coloured Petri Nets (SCPN) modelling and simulation approach, given a flood scenario as the disaster which would disrupt the infrastructure nodes. The entire model would be integrated with Geographic information based decision support system to visualize the dynamic behaviour of the interdependency of the Healthcare and related CI network in a geographically based environment.

  5. Modeling flood induced interdependencies among hydroelectricity generating infrastructures.

    PubMed

    Sultana, S; Chen, Z

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents a new kind of integrated modeling method for simulating the vulnerability of a critical infrastructure for a hazard and the subsequent interdependencies among the interconnected infrastructures. The developed method has been applied to a case study of a network of hydroelectricity generating infrastructures, e.g., water storage concrete gravity dam, penstock, power plant and transformer substation. The modeling approach is based on the fragility curves development with Monte Carlo simulation based structural-hydraulic modeling, flood frequency analysis, stochastic Petri net (SPN) modeling, and Markov Chain analysis. A certain flood level probability can be predicted from flood frequency analysis, and the most probable damage condition for this hazard can be simulated from the developed fragility curves of the dam. Consequently, the resulting interactions among the adjacent infrastructures can be quantified with SPN analysis; corresponding Markov Chain analysis simulates the long term probability matrix of infrastructure failures. The obtained results are quite convincing to prove the novel contribution of this research to the field of infrastructure interdependency analysis which might serve as a decision making tool for flood related emergency response and management.

  6. Solving Operational Models of Interdependent Infrastructure Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    resilience, getting the biggest “reduction in bang ” for their buck. The most important part of those modeling efforts is the formulation of a mathematical...than just another big project. I found a true interest and excitement working with you both and consider you both the highest caliber faculty I have...improving resilience, getting the biggest “reduction in bang ” for their buck. This type of research has been successfully applied to many different

  7. Network Interdependency Modeling for Risk Assessment on Built Infrastructure Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    inoperability model (IIM) in the analysis of built infrastructure systems . Previous applications of the IIM characterized infrastructure at the national...infrastructure systems and facilities. .............. 86 Figure 15. Analysis results using a common centrality measure. .................................... 90

  8. A modeling framework for investment planning in interdependent infrastructures in multi-hazard environments.

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Nathanael J. K.; Gearhart, Jared Lee; Jones, Dean A.; Nozick, Linda Karen; Prince, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Currently, much of protection planning is conducted separately for each infrastructure and hazard. Limited funding requires a balance of expenditures between terrorism and natural hazards based on potential impacts. This report documents the results of a Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project that created a modeling framework for investment planning in interdependent infrastructures focused on multiple hazards, including terrorism. To develop this framework, three modeling elements were integrated: natural hazards, terrorism, and interdependent infrastructures. For natural hazards, a methodology was created for specifying events consistent with regional hazards. For terrorism, we modeled the terrorists actions based on assumptions regarding their knowledge, goals, and target identification strategy. For infrastructures, we focused on predicting post-event performance due to specific terrorist attacks and natural hazard events, tempered by appropriate infrastructure investments. We demonstrate the utility of this framework with various examples, including protection of electric power, roadway, and hospital networks.

  9. Critical Infrastructure Interdependency Modeling: A Survey of U.S. and International Research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-08-01

    The Nation’s health, wealth, and security rely on the production and distribution of certain goods and services. The array of physical assets, processes, and organizations across which these goods and services move are called "critical infrastructures".1 This statement is as true in the U.S. as in any country in the world. Recent world events such as the 9-11 terrorist attacks, London bombings, and gulf coast hurricanes have highlighted the importance of stable electric, gas and oil, water, transportation, banking and finance, and control and communication infrastructure systems. Be it through direct connectivity, policies and procedures, or geospatial proximity, most critical infrastructure systems interact. These interactions often create complex relationships, dependencies, and interdependencies that cross infrastructure boundaries. The modeling and analysis of interdependencies between critical infrastructure elements is a relatively new and very important field of study. The U.S. Technical Support Working Group (TSWG) has sponsored this survey to identify and describe this current area of research including the current activities in this field being conducted both in the U.S. and internationally. The main objective of this study is to develop a single source reference of critical infrastructure interdependency modeling tools (CIIMT) that could be applied to allow users to objectively assess the capabilities of CIIMT. This information will provide guidance for directing research and development to address the gaps in development. The results will inform researchers of the TSWG Infrastructure Protection Subgroup of research and development efforts and allow a more focused approach to addressing the needs of CIIMT end-user needs. This report first presents the field of infrastructure interdependency analysis, describes the survey methodology, and presents the leading research efforts in both a cumulative table and through individual datasheets. Data was

  10. Multi-Model Framework for Investigating Potential Climate Change Impacts on Interdependent Critical Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvester, L.; Allen, M. R.; Wilbanks, T. J.

    2015-12-01

    Built infrastructure consists of a series of interconnected networks with many coupled interdependencies. Traditionally, risk and vulnerability assessments are conducted one infrastructure at a time, considering only direct impacts on built and planned assets. However, extreme events caused by climate change affect local communities in different respects and stress vital interconnected infrastructures in complex ways that cannot be captured with traditional risk assessment methodologies. We employ a combination of high-performance computing, geographical information science, and imaging methods to examine the impacts of climate change on infrastructure for cities in two different climate regions: Chicago, Illinois in the Midwest and Portland, Maine (and Casco Bay area) in the Northeast. In Illinois, we evaluate effects of changes in regional temperature and precipitation, informed by an extreme climate change projection, population growth and migration, water supply, and technological development, on electricity generation and consumption. In Maine, we determine the aggregate effects of sea level rise, changing precipitation patterns, and population shifts on the depth of the freshwater-saltwater interface in coastal aquifers and the implications of these changes for water supply in general. The purpose of these efforts is to develop a multi-model framework for investigating potential climate change impacts on interdependent critical infrastructure assessing both vulnerabilities and alternative adaptive measures.

  11. Identifying, understanding, and analyzing critical infrastructure interdependencies.

    SciTech Connect

    Rinaldi, S. M.; Peerenboom, J. P.; Kelly, T. K.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2001-12-01

    The notion that our nation's critical infrastructures are highly interconnected and mutually dependent in complex ways, both physically and through a host of information and communications technologies (so-called 'cyberbased systems'), is more than an abstract, theoretical concept. As shown by the 1998 failure of the Galaxy 4 telecommunications satellite, the prolonged power crisis in California, and many other recent infrastructure disruptions, what happens to one infrastructure can directly and indirectly affect other infrastructures, impact large geographic regions and send ripples throughout the national a global economy. This article presents a conceptual framework for addressing infrastructure interdependencies that could serve as the basis for further understanding and scholarship in this important area. We use this framework to explore the challenges and complexities of interdependency. We set the stage for this discussion by explicitly defining the terms infrastructure, infrastructure dependencies, and infrastructure interdependencies and introducing the fundamental concept of infrastructures as complex adaptive systems. We then focus on the interrelated factors and system conditions that collectively define the six dimensions. Finally, we discuss some of the research challenges involved in developing, applying, and validating modeling and simulation methodologies and tools for infrastructure interdependency analysis.

  12. Genetic Algorithms for Agent-Based Infrastructure Interdependency Modeling and Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    May Permann

    2007-03-01

    Today’s society relies greatly upon an array of complex national and international infrastructure networks such as transportation, electric power, telecommunication, and financial networks. This paper describes initial research combining agent-based infrastructure modeling software and genetic algorithms (GAs) to help optimize infrastructure protection and restoration decisions. This research proposes to apply GAs to the problem of infrastructure modeling and analysis in order to determine the optimum assets to restore or protect from attack or other disaster. This research is just commencing and therefore the focus of this paper is the integration of a GA optimization method with a simulation through the simulation’s agents.

  13. Cyber and physical infrastructure interdependencies.

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, Laurence R.; Kelic, Andjelka; Warren, Drake E.

    2008-09-01

    The goal of the work discussed in this document is to understand the risk to the nation of cyber attacks on critical infrastructures. The large body of research results on cyber attacks against physical infrastructure vulnerabilities has not resulted in clear understanding of the cascading effects a cyber-caused disruption can have on critical national infrastructures and the ability of these affected infrastructures to deliver services. This document discusses current research and methodologies aimed at assessing the translation of a cyber-based effect into a physical disruption of infrastructure and thence into quantification of the economic consequences of the resultant disruption and damage. The document discusses the deficiencies of the existing methods in correlating cyber attacks with physical consequences. The document then outlines a research plan to correct those deficiencies. When completed, the research plan will result in a fully supported methodology to quantify the economic consequences of events that begin with cyber effects, cascade into other physical infrastructure impacts, and result in degradation of the critical infrastructure's ability to deliver services and products. This methodology enables quantification of the risks to national critical infrastructure of cyber threats. The work addresses the electric power sector as an example of how the methodology can be applied.

  14. Post-disaster supply chain interdependent critical infrastructure system restoration: A review of data necessary and available for modeling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ramachandran, Varun; Long, Suzanna K.; Shoberg, Thomas G.; Corns, Steven; Carlo, Hector J.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of restoration strategies in the wake of large-scale disasters have focused on short-term emergency response solutions. Few consider medium- to long-term restoration strategies to reconnect urban areas to national supply chain interdependent critical infrastructure systems (SCICI). These SCICI promote the effective flow of goods, services, and information vital to the economic vitality of an urban environment. To re-establish the connectivity that has been broken during a disaster between the different SCICI, relationships between these systems must be identified, formulated, and added to a common framework to form a system-level restoration plan. To accomplish this goal, a considerable collection of SCICI data is necessary. The aim of this paper is to review what data are required for model construction, the accessibility of these data, and their integration with each other. While a review of publically available data reveals a dearth of real-time data to assist modeling long-term recovery following an extreme event, a significant amount of static data does exist and these data can be used to model the complex interdependencies needed. For the sake of illustration, a particular SCICI (transportation) is used to highlight the challenges of determining the interdependencies and creating models capable of describing the complexity of an urban environment with the data publically available. Integration of such data as is derived from public domain sources is readily achieved in a geospatial environment, after all geospatial infrastructure data are the most abundant data source and while significant quantities of data can be acquired through public sources, a significant effort is still required to gather, develop, and integrate these data from multiple sources to build a complete model. Therefore, while continued availability of high quality, public information is essential for modeling efforts in academic as well as government communities, a more

  15. Critical Infrastructure Modeling: An Approach to Characterizing Interdependencies of Complex Networks & Control Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart Walsh; Shane Cherry; Lyle Roybal

    2009-05-01

    Critical infrastructure control systems face many challenges entering the 21st century, including natural disasters, cyber attacks, and terrorist attacks. Revolutionary change is required to solve many existing issues, including gaining greater situational awareness and resiliency through embedding modeling and advanced control algorithms in smart sensors and control devices instead of in a central controller. To support design, testing, and component analysis, a flexible simulation and modeling capability is needed. Researchers at Idaho National Laboratory are developing and evaluating such a capability through their CIPRsim modeling and simulation framework.

  16. Analysis of Critical Infrastructure Dependencies and Interdependencies

    SciTech Connect

    Petit, Frederic; Verner, Duane; Brannegan, David; Buehring, William; Dickinson, David; Guziel, Karen; Haffenden, Rebecca; Phillips, Julia; Peerenboom, James

    2015-06-01

    The report begins by defining dependencies and interdependencies and exploring basic concepts of dependencies in order to facilitate a common understanding and consistent analytical approaches. Key concepts covered include; Characteristics of dependencies: upstream dependencies, internal dependencies, and downstream dependencies; Classes of dependencies: physical, cyber, geographic, and logical; and Dimensions of dependencies: operating environment, coupling and response behavior, type of failure, infrastructure characteristics, and state of operations From there, the report proposes a multi-phase roadmap to support dependency and interdependency assessment activities nationwide, identifying a range of data inputs, analysis activities, and potential products for each phase, as well as key steps needed to progress from one phase to the next. The report concludes by outlining a comprehensive, iterative, and scalable framework for analyzing dependencies and interdependencies that stakeholders can integrate into existing risk and resilience assessment efforts.

  17. Spatial-Temporal Quantification of Interdependencies Across Infrastructure Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Christopher; Dueñas-Osorio, Leonardo

    As infrastructure networks become more complex and intertwined, the relevance of network interdependency research is increasingly evident. Interconnected networks bring about efficiencies during normal operations but also come with risks of cascading failures with disaster events. An adequate understanding of network interdependencies and realistic multi-system modeling capabilities enable the exploration of practical operation strategies and mitigation efforts applicable to existing or future coupled networked systems. This chapter examines recent efforts in quantifying infrastructure network interdependencies through spatial and time-series analyses to reveal the heterogeneity and complexity in their coupling. Furthermore, a combined spatial-temporal methodology is recommended for the future calibration and validation of theoretical and computational models of interdependent networks of networks. An example case study is demonstrated using data derived from the 2010 Chilean Earthquake in the Talcahuano-Concepción region, which highlights the richness in coupling strengths across infrastructure systems, both as a function of time and geographical extent. Insights for design and control of coupled networks are also derivable from joint spatial-temporal analyses of infrastructure interdependence and its evolution.

  18. Thresholds and Complex Dynamics of Interdependent Cascading Infrastructure Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreras, B. A.; Newman, D. E.; Dobson, I.; Lynch, V. E.; Gradney, Paul

    Critical infrastructures have a number of the characteristic properties of complex systems. Among these are infrequent large failures through cascading events. These events, though infrequent, often obey a power law distribution in their probability versus size which suggests that conventional risk analysis does not apply to these systems. Real infrastructure systems typically have an additional layer of complexity, namely the heterogeneous coupling to other infrastructure systems that can allow a failure in one system to propagate to the other system. Here, we model the infrastructure systems through a network with complex system dynamics. We use both mean field theory to get analytic results and a numerical complex systems model, Demon, for computational results. An isolated system has bifurcated fixed points and a cascading threshold which is the same as the bifurcation point. When systems are coupled, this is no longer true and the cascading threshold is different from the bifurcation point of the fixed point solutions. This change in the cascading threshold caused by the interdependence of the system can have an impact on the "safe operation" of interdependent infrastructure systems by changing the critical point and even the power law exponent.

  19. Geospatial decision support framework for critical infrastructure interdependency assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Chung Yan

    Critical infrastructures, such as telecommunications, energy, banking and finance, transportation, water systems and emergency services are the foundations of modern society. There is a heavy dependence on critical infrastructures at multiple levels within the supply chain of any good or service. Any disruptions in the supply chain may cause profound cascading effect to other critical infrastructures. A 1997 report by the President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection states that a serious interruption in freight rail service would bring the coal mining industry to a halt within approximately two weeks and the availability of electric power could be reduced in a matter of one to two months. Therefore, this research aimed at representing and assessing the interdependencies between coal supply, transportation and energy production. A proposed geospatial decision support framework was established and applied to analyze interdependency related disruption impact. By utilizing the data warehousing approach, geospatial and non-geospatial data were retrieved, integrated and analyzed based on the transportation model and geospatial disruption analysis developed in the research. The results showed that by utilizing this framework, disruption impacts can be estimated at various levels (e.g., power plant, county, state, etc.) for preventative or emergency response efforts. The information derived from the framework can be used for data mining analysis (e.g., assessing transportation mode usages; finding alternative coal suppliers, etc.).

  20. Reducing Cascading Failure Risk by Increasing Infrastructure Network Interdependence

    PubMed Central

    Korkali, Mert; Veneman, Jason G.; Tivnan, Brian F.; Bagrow, James P.; Hines, Paul D. H.

    2017-01-01

    Increased interconnection between critical infrastructure networks, such as electric power and communications systems, has important implications for infrastructure reliability and security. Others have shown that increased coupling between networks that are vulnerable to internetwork cascading failures can increase vulnerability. However, the mechanisms of cascading in these models differ from those in real systems and such models disregard new functions enabled by coupling, such as intelligent control during a cascade. This paper compares the robustness of simple topological network models to models that more accurately reflect the dynamics of cascading in a particular case of coupled infrastructures. First, we compare a topological contagion model to a power grid model. Second, we compare a percolation model of internetwork cascading to three models of interdependent power-communication systems. In both comparisons, the more detailed models suggest substantially different conclusions, relative to the simpler topological models. In all but the most extreme case, our model of a “smart” power network coupled to a communication system suggests that increased power-communication coupling decreases vulnerability, in contrast to the percolation model. Together, these results suggest that robustness can be enhanced by interconnecting networks with complementary capabilities if modes of internetwork failure propagation are constrained. PMID:28317835

  1. Reducing Cascading Failure Risk by Increasing Infrastructure Network Interdependence.

    PubMed

    Korkali, Mert; Veneman, Jason G; Tivnan, Brian F; Bagrow, James P; Hines, Paul D H

    2017-03-20

    Increased interconnection between critical infrastructure networks, such as electric power and communications systems, has important implications for infrastructure reliability and security. Others have shown that increased coupling between networks that are vulnerable to internetwork cascading failures can increase vulnerability. However, the mechanisms of cascading in these models differ from those in real systems and such models disregard new functions enabled by coupling, such as intelligent control during a cascade. This paper compares the robustness of simple topological network models to models that more accurately reflect the dynamics of cascading in a particular case of coupled infrastructures. First, we compare a topological contagion model to a power grid model. Second, we compare a percolation model of internetwork cascading to three models of interdependent power-communication systems. In both comparisons, the more detailed models suggest substantially different conclusions, relative to the simpler topological models. In all but the most extreme case, our model of a "smart" power network coupled to a communication system suggests that increased power-communication coupling decreases vulnerability, in contrast to the percolation model. Together, these results suggest that robustness can be enhanced by interconnecting networks with complementary capabilities if modes of internetwork failure propagation are constrained.

  2. Reducing Cascading Failure Risk by Increasing Infrastructure Network Interdependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korkali, Mert; Veneman, Jason G.; Tivnan, Brian F.; Bagrow, James P.; Hines, Paul D. H.

    2017-03-01

    Increased interconnection between critical infrastructure networks, such as electric power and communications systems, has important implications for infrastructure reliability and security. Others have shown that increased coupling between networks that are vulnerable to internetwork cascading failures can increase vulnerability. However, the mechanisms of cascading in these models differ from those in real systems and such models disregard new functions enabled by coupling, such as intelligent control during a cascade. This paper compares the robustness of simple topological network models to models that more accurately reflect the dynamics of cascading in a particular case of coupled infrastructures. First, we compare a topological contagion model to a power grid model. Second, we compare a percolation model of internetwork cascading to three models of interdependent power-communication systems. In both comparisons, the more detailed models suggest substantially different conclusions, relative to the simpler topological models. In all but the most extreme case, our model of a “smart” power network coupled to a communication system suggests that increased power-communication coupling decreases vulnerability, in contrast to the percolation model. Together, these results suggest that robustness can be enhanced by interconnecting networks with complementary capabilities if modes of internetwork failure propagation are constrained.

  3. Reducing Cascading Failure Risk by Increasing Infrastructure Network Interdependence

    DOE PAGES

    Korkali, Mert; Veneman, Jason G.; Tivnan, Brian F.; ...

    2017-03-20

    Increased coupling between critical infrastructure networks, such as power and communication systems, has important implications for the reliability and security of these systems. To understand the effects of power-communication coupling, several researchers have studied models of interdependent networks and reported that increased coupling can increase vulnerability. However, these conclusions come largely from models that have substantially different mechanisms of cascading failure, relative to those found in actual power and communication networks, and that do not capture the benefits of connecting systems with complementary capabilities. In order to understand the importance of these details, this paper compares network vulnerability in simplemore » topological models and in models that more accurately capture the dynamics of cascading in power systems. First, we compare a simple model of topological contagion to a model of cascading in power systems and find that the power grid model shows a higher level of vulnerability, relative to the contagion model. Second, we compare a percolation model of topological cascading in coupled networks to three different models of power networks coupled to communication systems. Again, the more accurate models suggest very different conclusions than the percolation model. In all but the most extreme case, the physics-based power grid models indicate that increased power-communication coupling decreases vulnerability. This is opposite from what one would conclude from the percolation model, in which zero coupling is optimal. Only in an extreme case, in which communication failures immediately cause grid failures, did we find that increased coupling can be harmful. Together, these results suggest design strategies for reducing the risk of cascades in interdependent infrastructure systems.« less

  4. Agent-based modeling of complex infrastructures

    SciTech Connect

    North, M. J.

    2001-06-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS) can be applied to investigate complex infrastructures and infrastructure interdependencies. The CAS model agents within the Spot Market Agent Research Tool (SMART) and Flexible Agent Simulation Toolkit (FAST) allow investigation of the electric power infrastructure, the natural gas infrastructure and their interdependencies.

  5. Critical Infrastructure Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    2004-10-01

    The Critical Infrastructure Modeling System (CIMS) is a 3D modeling and simulation environment designed to assist users in the analysis of dependencies within individual infrastructure and also interdependencies between multiple infrastructures. Through visual cuing and textual displays, a use can evaluate the effect of system perturbation and identify the emergent patterns that evolve. These patterns include possible outage areas from a loss of power, denial of service or access, and disruption of operations. Method of Solution: CIMS allows the user to model a system, create an overlay of information, and create 3D representative images to illustrate key infrastructure elements. A geo-referenced scene, satellite, aerial images or technical drawings can be incorporated into the scene. Scenarios of events can be scripted, and the user can also interact during run time to alter system characteristics. CIMS operates as a discrete event simulation engine feeding a 3D visualization.

  6. Interconnectedness and interdependencies of critical infrastructures in the US economy: Implications for resilience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopra, Shauhrat S.; Khanna, Vikas

    2015-10-01

    Natural disasters in 2011 yielded close to 55 billion in economic damages alone in the United States (US), which highlights the need to reduce impacts of such disasters or other deliberate attacks. The US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) identifies a list of 16 Critical Infrastructure Sectors (CIS) whose incapacity due to disruptions would have a debilitating impact on the nation's economy. The goal of this work is to understand the implications of interdependencies among CIS on the resilience of the US economic system as a whole. We develop a framework that combines the empirical economic input-output (EIO) model with graph theory based techniques for understanding interdependencies, interconnectedness and resilience in the US economic system. By representing the US economy as a network, we are able to analyze its topology by separately looking at its unweighted and weighted forms. Topological analysis of the US EIO network suggests that it exhibits small world properties for the unweighted case, and in the weighted case, the throughput of industry sectors follows a power-law with an exponential cutoff. Implications of these topological properties are discussed in the paper. We also simulate hypothetical disruptions on CIS in order to identify industrial sectors that experience the largest economic impacts, and to quantify systemic vulnerability in economic terms. In addition, insights from community detection and hypothetical disruption scenarios help assess vulnerability of individual industrial communities to disruptions on individual CIS. These methodologies also provide insights regarding the extent of coupling between each CIS in the US EIO network. Based on our analysis, we observe that excessive interconnectedness and interdependencies of CIS results in high systemic vulnerability. This information can guide policymakers to design policies that improve resilience of economic networks, and evaluate policies that might indirectly increase coupling

  7. Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit is a toolkit of 5 EPA green infrastructure models and tools, along with communication materials, that can be used as a teaching tool and a quick reference resource when making GI implementation decisions.

  8. Green Infrastructure Modeling Tools

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Modeling tools support planning and design decisions on a range of scales from setting a green infrastructure target for an entire watershed to designing a green infrastructure practice for a particular site.

  9. Cascading of Fluctuations in Interdependent Energy Infrastructures. Gas-Grid Coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Chertkov, Michael; Lebedev, Vladimir; Backhaus, Scott N.

    2014-09-05

    The revolution of hydraulic fracturing has dramatically increased the supply and lowered the cost of natural gas in the United States driving an expansion of natural gas-fired generation capacity in many electrical grids. Unrelated to the natural gas expansion, lower capital costs and renewable portfolio standards are driving an expansion of intermittent renewable generation capacity such as wind and photovoltaic generation. These two changes may potentially combine to create new threats to the reliability of these interdependent energy infrastructures. Natural gas-fired generators are often used to balance the fluctuating output of wind generation. However, the time-varying output of these generators results in time-varying natural gas burn rates that impact the pressure in interstate transmission pipelines. Fluctuating pressure impacts the reliability of natural gas deliveries to those same generators and the safety of pipeline operations. We adopt a partial differential equation model of natural gas pipelines and use this model to explore the effect of intermittent wind generation on the fluctuations of pressure in natural gas pipelines. The mean square pressure fluctuations are found to grow linearly in time with points of maximum deviation occurring at the locations of flow reversals.

  10. Modeling interdependencies between business and communication processes in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Brigl, Birgit; Wendt, Thomas; Winter, Alfred

    2003-01-01

    The optimization and redesign of business processes in hospitals is an important challenge for the hospital information management who has to design and implement a suitable HIS architecture. Nevertheless, there are no tools available specializing in modeling information-driven business processes and the consequences on the communication between information processing, tools. Therefore, we will present an approach which facilitates the representation and analysis of business processes and resulting communication processes between application components and their interdependencies. This approach aims not only to visualize those processes, but to also to evaluate if there are weaknesses concerning the information processing infrastructure which hinder the smooth implementation of the business processes.

  11. A general model of resource production and exchange in systems of interdependent specialists.

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, Stephen Hamilton; Finley, Patrick D.; Beyeler, Walter Eugene; Brown, Theresa Jean; Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Breen, Peter; Kuypers, Marshall; Norton, Matthew David; Quach, Tu-Thach; Antognoli, Matthew; Mitchell, Michael David

    2011-11-01

    Infrastructures are networks of dynamically interacting systems designed for the flow of information, energy, and materials. Under certain circumstances, disturbances from a targeted attack or natural disasters can cause cascading failures within and between infrastructures that result in significant service losses and long recovery times. Reliable interdependency models that can capture such multi-network cascading do not exist. The research reported here has extended Sandia's infrastructure modeling capabilities by: (1) addressing interdependencies among networks, (2) incorporating adaptive behavioral models into the network models, and (3) providing mechanisms for evaluating vulnerability to targeted attack and unforeseen disruptions. We have applied these capabilities to evaluate the robustness of various systems, and to identify factors that control the scale and duration of disruption. This capability lays the foundation for developing advanced system security solutions that encompass both external shocks and internal dynamics.

  12. Interdependence theory and the actor-partner interdependence model: where theory and method converge.

    PubMed

    Wickham, Robert E; Knee, C Raymond

    2012-11-01

    This work describes an application of the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) that allows researchers to test hypotheses in terms of interdependence theory (IT). The authors' goal is to move beyond the obvious similarities of these two frameworks by providing a detailed conceptual integration. This analysis demonstrates that aspects of APIM analysis reveal a useful perspective on interdependence not explicitly articulated by IT. They also expand on ideas presented by Kenny and Ledermann by exploring the relationship between their ratio parameter k and IT, and introducing two additional ratios (h and c) also suggested by IT. A complete worked example of APIM analysis from the perspective of IT, along with a SAS MACRO that produces confidence intervals for k, h, and c, is provided.

  13. Earthquake interdependence and insurance loss modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muir Wood, R.

    2005-12-01

    Probabilistic Catastrophe loss modeling generally assumes that earthquakes are independent events and occur far enough apart in time that damage from one event is fully restituted before another earthquake occurs. While time dependence and cascade fault rupturing are today standard elements of the earthquake hazard engine, in the next generation of Catastrophe loss models one can expect to find a more comprehensive range of earthquake interdependence represented in a full simulation modeling environment. Such behavior includes the incorporation of the ways in which earthquakes relate one to another in both space and time (including foreshock, aftershock and triggered mainshock distinctions) and the damage that can be predicted from overlapping damage fields as related to the length of time for reconstruction that has elapsed between events. For insurance purposes losses are framed by the 168 hour clause for classifying losses as falling within the same `event' for reinsurance recoveries as well as the annual insurance contract. The understanding of the ways in which stress changes associated with fault rupture affect the probabilities of earthquakes on surrounding faults has also expanded the predictability of potential earthquake sequences as well as highlighted the potential to identify locations where, for some time window, risk can be discounted. While it can be illuminating to explore the loss and insurance implications of the patterns of historical earthquake occurrence seen historically along the Nankaido subduction zone of Southern Japan, in New Madrid from 1811-1812, or Nevada in 1954, the sequences to be expected in the future are unlikely to have historical precedent in the region in which they form.

  14. Cascading load model in interdependent networks with coupled strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianwei; Li, Yun; Zheng, Qiaofang

    2015-07-01

    Considering the coupled strength between interdependent networks, we introduce a new method to define the initial load on an edge and propose a cascading load model in interdependent networks. We explore the robustness of the interdependent networks against cascading failures by two measures, i.e., the critical threshold βc quantifying the whole robustness of the interdependent networks to avoid the emergence of cascading failure, and the new proposed smallest capacity threshold βc,s quantifying the degree of the worst damage of the interdependent networks. We numerically find that the AL (high-degree nodes in network A connect high-degree ones in network B) link between two networks can greatly enhance the robust level of the interdependent networks against cascading failures. Especially we observe that the values of βc in the interdependent networks with both the DL (high-degree nodes in network A connect low-degree ones in network B) link and the RL (nodes in network A randomly connect ones in network B) link increase monotonically with the coupled strength, while the values of βc,s in the interdependent networks with three types of link patterns almost monotonically decreases with the coupled strength. In the interdependent networks with the AL, the value of βc first decreases and then increases with the coupled strength. We further explain this interesting phenomenon by a simple graph. In addition, we study the influence of the coupled strength on the efficiency of two attacks to destroy the interdependent networks. We find that, when the coupled strength between two networks is weaker, attacking the edges with the lower load is more easier to trigger the cascading propagation than attacking the nodes with the higher load, however, when the coupled strength in two networks is stronger, the case is on the contrary. Finally, we give reasonable explanations from the local perspective of the total capacity of all neighboring edges of a failed edge.

  15. Attachment, mastery, and interdependence: a model of parenting processes.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Martha E

    2002-01-01

    A democratic nation needs an interdependent citizenry who are not only competent but who also can live together cooperatively with an eye toward what will benefit the whole as well as the self. In this article, the concept of interdependence is adopted as the central goal of parenting. The Parenting Processes Model is then presented, specifying how caregivers help children develop this interdependence. This work draws upon and integrates the work of a number of theoreticians, researchers, and clinicians, with the central focus on the work of John Bowlby, Alfred Adler, and Lev Vygotsky.

  16. Operational models of infrastructure resilience.

    PubMed

    Alderson, David L; Brown, Gerald G; Carlyle, W Matthew

    2015-04-01

    We propose a definition of infrastructure resilience that is tied to the operation (or function) of an infrastructure as a system of interacting components and that can be objectively evaluated using quantitative models. Specifically, for any particular system, we use quantitative models of system operation to represent the decisions of an infrastructure operator who guides the behavior of the system as a whole, even in the presence of disruptions. Modeling infrastructure operation in this way makes it possible to systematically evaluate the consequences associated with the loss of infrastructure components, and leads to a precise notion of "operational resilience" that facilitates model verification, validation, and reproducible results. Using a simple example of a notional infrastructure, we demonstrate how to use these models for (1) assessing the operational resilience of an infrastructure system, (2) identifying critical vulnerabilities that threaten its continued function, and (3) advising policymakers on investments to improve resilience.

  17. Assessing site-interdependent phylogenetic models of sequence evolution.

    PubMed

    Rodrigue, Nicolas; Philippe, Hervé; Lartillot, Nicolas

    2006-09-01

    In recent works, methods have been proposed for applying phylogenetic models that allow for a general interdependence between the amino acid positions of a protein. As of yet, such models have focused on site interdependencies resulting from sequence-structure compatibility constraints, using simplified structural representations in combination with a set of statistical potentials. This structural compatibility criterion is meant as a proxy for sequence fitness, and the methods developed thus far can incorporate different site-interdependent fitness proxies based on other measurements. However, no methods have been proposed for comparing and evaluating the adequacy of alternative fitness proxies in this context, or for more general comparisons with canonical models of protein evolution. In the present work, we apply Bayesian methods of model selection-based on numerical calculations of marginal likelihoods and posterior predictive checks-to evaluate models encompassing the site-interdependent framework. Our application of these methods indicates that considering site-interdependencies, as done here, leads to an improved model fit for all data sets studied. Yet, we find that the use of pairwise contact potentials alone does not suitably account for across-site rate heterogeneity or amino acid exchange propensities; for such complexities, site-independent treatments are still called for. The most favored models combine the use of statistical potentials with a suitably rich site-independent model. Altogether, the methodology employed here should allow for a more rigorous and systematic exploration of different ways of modeling explicit structural constraints, or any other site-interdependent criterion, while best exploiting the richness of previously proposed models.

  18. Exploring the interdependencies between parameters in a material model.

    SciTech Connect

    Silling, Stewart Andrew; Fermen-Coker, Muge

    2014-01-01

    A method is investigated to reduce the number of numerical parameters in a material model for a solid. The basis of the method is to detect interdependencies between parameters within a class of materials of interest. The method is demonstrated for a set of material property data for iron and steel using the Johnson-Cook plasticity model.

  19. Attack robustness of cascading load model in interdependent networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianwei; Wu, Yuedan; Li, Yun

    2015-08-01

    Considering the weight of a node and the coupled strength of two interdependent nodes in the different networks, we propose a method to assign the initial load of a node and construct a new cascading load model in the interdependent networks. Assuming that a node in one network will fail if its degree is 0 or its dependent node in the other network is removed from the network or the load on it exceeds its capacity, we study the influences of the assortative link (AL) and the disassortative link (DL) patterns between two networks on the robustness of the interdependent networks against cascading failures. For better evaluating the network robustness, from the local perspective of a node we present a new measure to qualify the network resiliency after targeted attacks. We show that the AL patterns between two networks can improve the robust level of the entire interdependent networks. Moreover, we obtain how to efficiently allocate the initial load and select some nodes to be protected so as to maximize the network robustness against cascading failures. In addition, we find that some nodes with the lower load are more likely to trigger the cascading propagation when the distribution of the load is more even, and also give the reasonable explanation. Our findings can help to design the robust interdependent networks and give the reasonable suggestion to optimize the allocation of the protection resources.

  20. Green Infrastructure Modeling Toolkit

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green infrastructure, such as rain gardens, green roofs, porous pavement, cisterns, and constructed wetlands, is becoming an increasingly attractive way to recharge aquifers and reduce the amount of stormwater runoff that flows into wastewater treatment plants or into waterbodies...

  1. Analysis of Family Research Designs: A Model of Interdependence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kashy, Deborah A.; Kenny, David A.

    1990-01-01

    Presents both a conceptual model (which partitions family data into individual, dyadic, and family effects and permits examination of several types of interdependence between family members) and an analytical method (confirmatory factor analysis) that can be used in the evaluation of round-robin family research data. (SR)

  2. Toward Developing Genetic Algorithms to Aid in Critical Infrastructure Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-05-01

    Today’s society relies upon an array of complex national and international infrastructure networks such as transportation, telecommunication, financial and energy. Understanding these interdependencies is necessary in order to protect our critical infrastructure. The Critical Infrastructure Modeling System, CIMS©, examines the interrelationships between infrastructure networks. CIMS© development is sponsored by the National Security Division at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in its ongoing mission for providing critical infrastructure protection and preparedness. A genetic algorithm (GA) is an optimization technique based on Darwin’s theory of evolution. A GA can be coupled with CIMS© to search for optimum ways to protect infrastructure assets. This includes identifying optimum assets to enforce or protect, testing the addition of or change to infrastructure before implementation, or finding the optimum response to an emergency for response planning. This paper describes the addition of a GA to infrastructure modeling for infrastructure planning. It first introduces the CIMS© infrastructure modeling software used as the modeling engine to support the GA. Next, the GA techniques and parameters are defined. Then a test scenario illustrates the integration with CIMS© and the preliminary results.

  3. An integrated model of human-wildlife interdependence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, Kun H.; Walsh, Richard G.; Johnson, R. L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper attempts to integrate wildlife-related ecologic and economic variables into an econometric model. The model reveals empirical evidence of the presumed interdependence of human-wildlife and the holistic nature of humanity's relationship to the ecosystem. Human use of biologic resources varies not only with income, education, and population, but also with sustainability of humankind's action relative to the quality and quantity of the supporting ecological base.

  4. ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION RELIABILITY EVALUATION WITH EMPHASIS ON EVOLVING INTERDEPENDENCE ON COMMUNICATION INFRASTRUCTURE.

    SciTech Connect

    AZARM,M.A.; BARI,R.; YUE,M.; MUSICKI,Z.

    2004-09-12

    This study developed a probabilistic methodology for assessment of the reliability and security of electrical energy distribution networks. This included consideration of the future grid system, which will rely heavily on the existing digitally based communication infrastructure for monitoring and protection. Event tree and fault tree methods were utilized. The approach extensively modeled the types of faults that a grid could potentially experience, the response of the grid, and the specific design of the protection schemes. We demonstrated the methods by applying it to a small sub-section of a hypothetical grid based on an existing electrical grid system of a metropolitan area. The results showed that for a typical design that relies on communication network for protection, the communication network reliability could contribute significantly to the frequency of loss of electrical power. The reliability of the communication network could become a more important contributor to the electrical grid reliability as the utilization of the communication network significantly increases in the near future to support ''smart'' transmission and/or distributed generation.

  5. A framework for linking cybersecurity metrics to the modeling of macroeconomic interdependencies.

    PubMed

    Santos, Joost R; Haimes, Yacov Y; Lian, Chenyang

    2007-10-01

    Hierarchical decision making is a multidimensional process involving management of multiple objectives (with associated metrics and tradeoffs in terms of costs, benefits, and risks), which span various levels of a large-scale system. The nation is a hierarchical system as it consists multiple classes of decisionmakers and stakeholders ranging from national policymakers to operators of specific critical infrastructure subsystems. Critical infrastructures (e.g., transportation, telecommunications, power, banking, etc.) are highly complex and interconnected. These interconnections take the form of flows of information, shared security, and physical flows of commodities, among others. In recent years, economic and infrastructure sectors have become increasingly dependent on networked information systems for efficient operations and timely delivery of products and services. In order to ensure the stability, sustainability, and operability of our critical economic and infrastructure sectors, it is imperative to understand their inherent physical and economic linkages, in addition to their cyber interdependencies. An interdependency model based on a transformation of the Leontief input-output (I-O) model can be used for modeling: (1) the steady-state economic effects triggered by a consumption shift in a given sector (or set of sectors); and (2) the resulting ripple effects to other sectors. The inoperability metric is calculated for each sector; this is achieved by converting the economic impact (typically in monetary units) into a percentage value relative to the size of the sector. Disruptive events such as terrorist attacks, natural disasters, and large-scale accidents have historically shown cascading effects on both consumption and production. Hence, a dynamic model extension is necessary to demonstrate the interplay between combined demand and supply effects. The result is a foundational framework for modeling cybersecurity scenarios for the oil and gas sector. A

  6. ELECTRICAL SUBSTATION RELIABILITY EVALUATION WITH EMPHASIS ON EVOLVING INTERDEPENDENCE ON COMMUNICATION INFRASTRUCTURE.

    SciTech Connect

    AZARM,M.A.BARI,R.A.MUSICKI,Z.

    2004-01-15

    The objective of this study is to develop a methodology for a probabilistic assessment of the reliability and security of electrical energy distribution networks. This includes consideration of the future grid system, which will rely heavily on the existing digitally based communication infrastructure for monitoring and protection. Another important objective of this study is to provide information and insights from this research to Consolidated Edison Company (Con Edison) that could be useful in the design of the new network segment to be installed in the area of the World Trade Center in lower Manhattan. Our method is microscopic in nature and relies heavily on the specific design of the portion of the grid being analyzed. It extensively models the types of faults that a grid could potentially experience, the response of the grid, and the specific design of the protection schemes. We demonstrate that the existing technology can be extended and applied to the electrical grid and to the supporting communication network. A small subsection of a hypothetical grid based on the existing New York City electrical grid system of Con Edison is used to demonstrate the methods. Sensitivity studies show that in the current design the frequency for the loss of the main station is sensitive to the communication network reliability. The reliability of the communication network could become a more important contributor to the electrical grid reliability as the utilization of the communication network significantly increases in the near future to support ''smart'' transmission and/or distributed generation. The identification of potential failure modes and their likelihood can support decisions on potential modifications to the network including hardware, monitoring instrumentation, and protection systems.

  7. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model: A Model of Bidirectional Effects in Developmental Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, William L.; Kenny, David A.

    2005-01-01

    The actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) is a model of dyadic relationships that integrates a conceptual view of interdependence with the appropriate statistical techniques for measuring and testing it. In this article we present the APIM as a general, longitudinal model for measuring bidirectional effects in interpersonal relationships. We…

  8. Towards strength and stability : agent-based modeling of infrastructure markets.

    SciTech Connect

    North, M. J.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2001-01-01

    Complex Adaptive Systems (CASs) can be applied to investigate complex infrastructures and infrastructure interdependencies. Agent-based modeling (ABM) is a new CAS-based approach to the construction of models. The CAS agents within the Spot Market Agent Research Tool (SMART) and Flexible Agent Simulation Toolkit (FAST) ABMs allow investigation of the electric power infrastructure, the natural gas infrastructure, and their interdependencies. The Swarm-based SMART models use sets of agents and interconnections to represent electric power and natural gas systems. A prototype virtual reality (VR) interface has also been constructed for a version of the SMART model. This tool is intended to explore the use of advanced interactive three-dimensional visualization in agent-based modeling. The Java-based FAST model is currently under construction. FAST is a complete redesign of the SMART models that includes improvements in the modeling environment, model detail, and representational fidelity. Developing ABMs is difficult but can be rewarding.

  9. Green Infrastructure Models and Tools

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this project is to modify and refine existing models and develop new tools to support decision making for the complete green infrastructure (GI) project lifecycle, including the planning and implementation of stormwater control in urban and agricultural settings,...

  10. Cascading failure analysis and restoration strategy in an interdependent network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sheng; Lv, Chuan; Zhao, Tingdi; Wang, Baoqing; Wang, Jianghui; Zhu, Juxing

    2016-05-01

    In modern society, many infrastructures are interdependent owing to functional and logical relations among components in different systems. These networked infrastructures can be modeled as interdependent networks. In the real world, different networks carry different traffic loads whose values are dynamic and stem from the load redistribution in the same network and disturbance from the interdependent network. Interdependency makes interdependent networks so fragile that even a slight initial disturbance may lead to a cascading failure of the entire systems. In this paper, interdependencies among networks are modeled and a failure cascade process is studied considering their effects on failure propagation. Meanwhile, an in-process restoration strategy after the initial failure is investigated. The restoration effects depend strongly on the trigger timing, restoration probability and priority of the restoration actions along with the additional disturbances. Our findings highlight the necessity to decrease the large-scale cascading failure by structuring and managing an interdependent network reasonably.

  11. Redundant Design in Interdependent Networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lijun; Yin, Yongfeng; Zhang, Zenghu; Malaiya, Yashwant K

    2016-01-01

    Modern infrastructure networks are often coupled together and thus could be modeled as interdependent networks. Overload and interdependent effect make interdependent networks more fragile when suffering from attacks. Existing research has primarily concentrated on the cascading failure process of interdependent networks without load, or the robustness of isolated network with load. Only limited research has been done on the cascading failure process caused by overload in interdependent networks. Redundant design is a primary approach to enhance the reliability and robustness of the system. In this paper, we propose two redundant methods, node back-up and dependency redundancy, and the experiment results indicate that two measures are effective and costless. Two detailed models about redundant design are introduced based on the non-linear load-capacity model. Based on the attributes and historical failure distribution of nodes, we introduce three static selecting strategies-Random-based, Degree-based, Initial load-based and a dynamic strategy-HFD (historical failure distribution) to identify which nodes could have a back-up with priority. In addition, we consider the cost and efficiency of different redundant proportions to determine the best proportion with maximal enhancement and minimal cost. Experiments on interdependent networks demonstrate that the combination of HFD and dependency redundancy is an effective and preferred measure to implement redundant design on interdependent networks. The results suggest that the redundant design proposed in this paper can permit construction of highly robust interactive networked systems.

  12. Redundant Design in Interdependent Networks

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Modern infrastructure networks are often coupled together and thus could be modeled as interdependent networks. Overload and interdependent effect make interdependent networks more fragile when suffering from attacks. Existing research has primarily concentrated on the cascading failure process of interdependent networks without load, or the robustness of isolated network with load. Only limited research has been done on the cascading failure process caused by overload in interdependent networks. Redundant design is a primary approach to enhance the reliability and robustness of the system. In this paper, we propose two redundant methods, node back-up and dependency redundancy, and the experiment results indicate that two measures are effective and costless. Two detailed models about redundant design are introduced based on the non-linear load-capacity model. Based on the attributes and historical failure distribution of nodes, we introduce three static selecting strategies-Random-based, Degree-based, Initial load-based and a dynamic strategy-HFD (historical failure distribution) to identify which nodes could have a back-up with priority. In addition, we consider the cost and efficiency of different redundant proportions to determine the best proportion with maximal enhancement and minimal cost. Experiments on interdependent networks demonstrate that the combination of HFD and dependency redundancy is an effective and preferred measure to implement redundant design on interdependent networks. The results suggest that the redundant design proposed in this paper can permit construction of highly robust interactive networked systems. PMID:27764174

  13. Development Model for Research Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wächter, Joachim; Hammitzsch, Martin; Kerschke, Dorit; Lauterjung, Jörn

    2015-04-01

    . The maturity of individual scientific domains differs considerably. • Technologically and organisationally many different RI components have to be integrated. Individual systems are often complex and have a long-term history. Existing approaches are on different maturity levels, e.g. in relation to the standardisation of interfaces. • The concrete implementation process consists of independent and often parallel development activities. In many cases no detailed architectural blue-print for the envisioned system exists. • Most of the funding currently available for RI implementation is provided on a project basis. To increase the synergies in infrastructure development the authors propose a specific RI Maturity Model (RIMM) that is specifically qualified for open system-of-system environments. RIMM is based on the concepts of Capability Maturity Models for organisational development, concretely the Levels of Conceptual Interoperability Model (LCIM) specifying the technical, syntactical, semantic, pragmatic, dynamic, and conceptual layers of interoperation [1]. The model is complemented by the identification and integration of growth factors (according to the Nolan Stages Theory [2]). These factors include supply and demand factors. Supply factors comprise available resources, e.g., data, services and IT-management capabilities including organisations and IT-personal. Demand factors are the overall application portfolio for RIs but also the skills and requirements of scientists and communities using the infrastructure. RIMM thus enables a balanced development process of RI and RI components by evaluating the status of the supply and demand factors in relation to specific levels of interoperability. [1] Tolk, A., Diallo, A., Turnitsa, C. (2007): Applying the Levels of Conceptual Interoperability Model in Support of Integratability, Interoperability, and Composability for System-of-Systems Engineering. Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics, Volume 5 - Number 5. [2

  14. Interdependent regional lung emptying during forced expiration: a transistor model.

    PubMed

    Solway, J; Fredberg, J J; Ingram, R H; Pedersen, O F; Drazen, J M

    1987-05-01

    We recognized similarities between isovolume pressure-flow curves of the lung and emitter-collector voltage-current characteristics of bipolar transistors, and used this analogy to model expiratory flow limitation in a two-generation branching network with parallel nonhomogeneity. In this model, each of two bronchi empty parenchymal compliances through a common trachea, and each branch includes resistances upstream and downstream of a flow-limiting site. Properties of each airway are specified independently, allowing simulation of differences between the tracheal and bronchial generations and between the parallel bronchial paths. Simulations of four types of parallel asymmetry were performed: unilateral peripheral bronchoconstriction; unilateral central bronchoconstriction; asymmetric redistribution of parenchymal compliance; and unilateral alteration of the bronchial area-transmural pressure characteristic. Our results indicate that multiple axial choke points can exist simultaneously in a symmetric lung when large airway opening-pleural pressure gradients exist; despite severe nonhomogeneity of regional lung emptying, flow interdependence among parallel branches tends to maintain a near normal configuration of the overall maximal expiratory flow-volume (MEFV) curve throughout a large fraction of the vital capacity; and sudden changes of slope of the MEFV curve ("knees" or "bumps") may reflect choking in one branch in a nonuniform lung, but need not be obvious even when severe heterogeneity of lung emptying exists.

  15. A cognitive model of dynamic cooperation with varied interdependency information.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Cleotilde; Ben-Asher, Noam; Martin, Jolie M; Dutt, Varun

    2015-04-01

    We analyze the dynamics of repeated interaction of two players in the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) under various levels of interdependency information and propose an instance-based learning cognitive model (IBL-PD) to explain how cooperation emerges over time. Six hypotheses are tested regarding how a player accounts for an opponent's outcomes: the selfish hypothesis suggests ignoring information about the opponent and utilizing only the player's own outcomes; the extreme fairness hypothesis weighs the player's own and the opponent's outcomes equally; the moderate fairness hypothesis weighs the opponent's outcomes less than the player's own outcomes to various extents; the linear increasing hypothesis increasingly weighs the opponent's outcomes at a constant rate with repeated interactions; the hyperbolic discounting hypothesis increasingly and nonlinearly weighs the opponent's outcomes over time; and the dynamic expectations hypothesis dynamically adjusts the weight a player gives to the opponent's outcomes, according to the gap between the expected and the actual outcomes in each interaction. When players lack explicit feedback about their opponent's choices and outcomes, results are consistent with the selfish hypothesis; however, when this information is made explicit, the best predictions result from the dynamic expectations hypothesis.

  16. Modeling region-based interconnection for interdependent networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiangrong; Kooij, Robert E.; Van Mieghem, Piet

    2016-10-01

    Various real-world networks interact with and depend on each other. The design of the interconnection between interacting networks is one of the main challenges to achieve a robust interdependent network. Due to cost considerations, network providers are inclined to interconnect nodes that are geographically close. Accordingly, we propose two topologies, the random geographic graph and the relative neighborhood graph, for the design of interconnection in interdependent networks that incorporates the geographic location of nodes. Differing from the one-to-one interconnection studied in the literature, one node in one network can depend on an arbitrary number of nodes in the other network. We derive the average number of interdependent links for the two topologies, which enables their comparison. For the two topologies, we evaluate the impact of the interconnection structure on the robustness of interdependent networks against cascading failures. The two topologies are assessed on the real-world coupled Italian Internet and the electric transmission network. Finally, we propose the derivative of the largest mutually connected component with respect to the fraction of failed nodes as a robustness metric. This robustness metric quantifies the damage of the network introduced by a small fraction of initial failures well before the critical fraction of failures at which the whole network collapses.

  17. Model Programs: Childhood Education. Interdependent Learner Model of a Follow Through Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Institutes for Research in the Behavioral Sciences, Silver Spring, MD.

    In order to insure maximum success of the school's Head Start program, parents and teachers associated with a public school in Harlem chose a program based on the Interdependent Learner Model Follow Through Program originated at New York University. The federally funded program was introduced into kindergarten and first-grade classrooms and…

  18. Modeling and Managing Risk in Billing Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baiardi, Fabrizio; Telmon, Claudio; Sgandurra, Daniele

    This paper discusses risk modeling and risk management in information and communications technology (ICT) systems for which the attack impact distribution is heavy tailed (e.g., power law distribution) and the average risk is unbounded. Systems with these properties include billing infrastructures used to charge customers for services they access. Attacks against billing infrastructures can be classified as peripheral attacks and backbone attacks. The goal of a peripheral attack is to tamper with user bills; a backbone attack seeks to seize control of the billing infrastructure. The probability distribution of the overall impact of an attack on a billing infrastructure also has a heavy-tailed curve. This implies that the probability of a massive impact cannot be ignored and that the average impact may be unbounded - thus, even the most expensive countermeasures would be cost effective. Consequently, the only strategy for managing risk is to increase the resilience of the infrastructure by employing redundant components.

  19. Toolkit of Available EPA Green Infrastructure Modeling ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This webinar will present a toolkit consisting of five EPA green infrastructure models and tools, along with communication material. This toolkit can be used as a teaching and quick reference resource for use by planners and developers when making green infrastructure implementation decisions. It can also be used for low impact development design competitions. Models and tools included: Green Infrastructure Wizard (GIWiz), Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST), Visualizing Ecosystem Land Management Assessments (VELMA) Model, Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), and the National Stormwater Calculator (SWC). This webinar will present a toolkit consisting of five EPA green infrastructure models and tools, along with communication material. This toolkit can be used as a teaching and quick reference resource for use by planners and developers when making green infrastructure implementation decisions. It can also be used for low impact development design competitions. Models and tools included: Green Infrastructure Wizard (GIWiz), Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST), Visualizing Ecosystem Land Management Assessments (VELMA) Model, Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), and the National Stormwater Calculator (SWC).

  20. Assortativity decreases the robustness of interdependent networks.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Di; Stanley, H Eugene; D'Agostino, Gregorio; Scala, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    It was recently recognized that interdependencies among different networks can play a crucial role in triggering cascading failures and, hence, systemwide disasters. A recent model shows how pairs of interdependent networks can exhibit an abrupt percolation transition as failures accumulate. We report on the effects of topology on failure propagation for a model system consisting of two interdependent networks. We find that the internal node correlations in each of the two interdependent networks significantly changes the critical density of failures that triggers the total disruption of the two-network system. Specifically, we find that the assortativity (i.e., the likelihood of nodes with similar degree to be connected) within a single network decreases the robustness of the entire system. The results of this study on the influence of assortativity may provide insights into ways of improving the robustness of network architecture and, thus, enhance the level of protection of critical infrastructures.

  1. Assortativity decreases the robustness of interdependent networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Di; Stanley, H. Eugene; D'Agostino, Gregorio; Scala, Antonio

    2012-12-01

    It was recently recognized that interdependencies among different networks can play a crucial role in triggering cascading failures and, hence, systemwide disasters. A recent model shows how pairs of interdependent networks can exhibit an abrupt percolation transition as failures accumulate. We report on the effects of topology on failure propagation for a model system consisting of two interdependent networks. We find that the internal node correlations in each of the two interdependent networks significantly changes the critical density of failures that triggers the total disruption of the two-network system. Specifically, we find that the assortativity (i.e., the likelihood of nodes with similar degree to be connected) within a single network decreases the robustness of the entire system. The results of this study on the influence of assortativity may provide insights into ways of improving the robustness of network architecture and, thus, enhance the level of protection of critical infrastructures.

  2. System Dynamics Approach for Critical Infrastructure and Decision Support. A Model for a Potable Water System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqualini, D.; Witkowski, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Critical Infrastructure Protection / Decision Support System (CIP/DSS) project, supported by the Science and Technology Office, has been developing a risk-informed Decision Support System that provides insights for making critical infrastructure protection decisions. The system considers seventeen different Department of Homeland Security defined Critical Infrastructures (potable water system, telecommunications, public health, economics, etc.) and their primary interdependencies. These infrastructures have been modeling in one model called CIP/DSS Metropolitan Model. The modeling approach used is a system dynamics modeling approach. System dynamics modeling combines control theory and the nonlinear dynamics theory, which is defined by a set of coupled differential equations, which seeks to explain how the structure of a given system determines its behavior. In this poster we present a system dynamics model for one of the seventeen critical infrastructures, a generic metropolitan potable water system (MPWS). Three are the goals: 1) to gain a better understanding of the MPWS infrastructure; 2) to identify improvements that would help protect MPWS; and 3) to understand the consequences, interdependencies, and impacts, when perturbations occur to the system. The model represents raw water sources, the metropolitan water treatment process, storage of treated water, damage and repair to the MPWS, distribution of water, and end user demand, but does not explicitly represent the detailed network topology of an actual MPWS. The MPWS model is dependent upon inputs from the metropolitan population, energy, telecommunication, public health, and transportation models as well as the national water and transportation models. We present modeling results and sensitivity analysis indicating critical choke points, negative and positive feedback loops in the system. A general scenario is also analyzed where the potable water system responds to a generic disruption.

  3. Assessing Mediation in Dyadic Data Using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledermann, Thomas; Macho, Siegfried; Kenny, David A.

    2011-01-01

    The assessment of mediation in dyadic data is an important issue if researchers are to test process models. Using an extended version of the actor-partner interdependence model the estimation and testing of mediation is complex, especially when dyad members are distinguishable (e.g., heterosexual couples). We show how the complexity of the model…

  4. Cascades of failures in various models of interdependent networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buldyrev, Sergey; Kadish, Benjamin; Shere, Nathaniel; Aharon, Mitchel; Cwilich, Gabriel

    2012-02-01

    Complex networks appear in almost every aspect of science and technology. Recently an analytical framework for studying the percolation properties of interacting networks has been developed [1]. These studies however have several limitations. The real networks do are not randomly connected. They are often embedded into two dimensional space. The dependency links are not connecting nodes at random but have tendency to connect nodes with similar degrees, or nodes which are close to each other in Euclidian space. Moreover, the network failures may occur not only to the loss of connectivity but also due to overload of nodes with high betweennes. We have study these situations analytically and by computer simulations and found the conditions at which networks collapse in an abrupt first order like transition when the entire network becomes non-functional or fail gradually like in a second order transition as a greater fraction of nodes is removed in the initial attack or failure. [4pt] [1] S. V. Buldyrev, R. Parshani, G. Paul, H. E. Stanley, and S. Havlin, ``Catastrophic cascade of failures in interdependent networks,'' Nature 464, 1025-1028 (2010)

  5. Infrastructure Vulnerability Assessment Model (I-VAM).

    PubMed

    Ezell, Barry Charles

    2007-06-01

    Quantifying vulnerability to critical infrastructure has not been adequately addressed in the literature. Thus, the purpose of this article is to present a model that quantifies vulnerability. Vulnerability is defined as a measure of system susceptibility to threat scenarios. This article asserts that vulnerability is a condition of the system and it can be quantified using the Infrastructure Vulnerability Assessment Model (I-VAM). The model is presented and then applied to a medium-sized clean water system. The model requires subject matter experts (SMEs) to establish value functions and weights, and to assess protection measures of the system. Simulation is used to account for uncertainty in measurement, aggregate expert assessment, and to yield a vulnerability (Omega) density function. Results demonstrate that I-VAM is useful to decisionmakers who prefer quantification to qualitative treatment of vulnerability. I-VAM can be used to quantify vulnerability to other infrastructures, supervisory control and data acquisition systems (SCADA), and distributed control systems (DCS).

  6. Contextualizing Community Violence and Its Effects: An Ecological Model of Parent-Child Interdependent Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aisenberg, Eugene; Ell, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an integrated conceptual framework that contextualizes exposure to community violence and the interpersonal and interdependent processes of parent and child response to community violence. This model posits that parental distress, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, is a significant mediator of…

  7. The Critical Infrastructure Portfolio Selection Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-13

    Gregory Ehlers ties together two concepts that are fundamental to enabling a thorough understanding of the Critical Infrastructure Portfolio Selection...work of world-renowned economists, Paul Collier and Anke Hoeffler, and the econometric models that these scholars have developed in an effort to...

  8. Modelling the effect of perceived interdependence among mental healthcare professionals on their work role performance.

    PubMed

    Markon, Marie-Pierre; Chiocchio, François; Fleury, Marie-Josée

    2017-04-13

    The purpose of mental healthcare system reform was to enhance service efficiency by strengthening primary mental healthcare and increasing service integration in communities. Reinforcing interprofessional teamwork also intended to address the extensive and multidimensional needs of patients with mental disorders by bringing together a broader array of expertise. In this context, mental healthcare professionals (MHCPs) from various health and social care professions are more interdependent in many aspects of their work (tasks, resources, and goals). We wanted to examine the effect of perceived interdependence among MHCPs on their work role performance in the context of mental healthcare. For this purpose, we developed and tested a model coherent with the Input-Mediator-Outcome-Input (IMOI) framework of team effectiveness. Data from questionnaires administered to 315 MHCPs from four local health service networks in Quebec, Canada were analysed through structural equation modelling and mediation analysis. The structural equation model provided a good fit for the data and explained 51% of the variance of work role performance. Perceived collaboration, confidence in the advantages of interprofessional collaboration, involvement in the decision process, knowledge sharing, and satisfaction with the nature of the work partially mediated the effect of perceived interdependence among team members on work role performance. Therefore, perceived interdependence among team members had a positive impact on the work role performance of MHCPs mostly through its effect on favourable team functioning features. This implies, in practice, that increased interdependence of MHCPs would be more likely to truly enhance work role performance if team-based interventions to promote collaborative work and interprofessional teaching and training programs to support work within interprofessional teams were jointly implemented. Participation in the decision process and knowledge sharing should

  9. Perspective: The Climate-Population-Infrastructure Modeling and Simulation Fertile Area for New Research

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Melissa R; Fernandez, Steven J; Walker, Kimberly A; Fu, Joshua S

    2014-01-01

    Managing the risks posed by climate change and extreme weather to energy production and delivery is a challenge to communities worldwide. As climate conditions change, populations will shift, and demand will re-locate; and networked infrastructures will evolve to accommodate new load centers, and, hopefully, minimize vulnerability to natural disaster. Climate effects such as sea level rise, increased frequency and intensity of natural disasters, force populations to move locations. Displaced population creates new demand for built infrastructure that in turn generates new economic activity that attracts new workers and associated households to the new locations. Infrastructures and their interdependencies will change in reaction to climate drivers as the networks expand into new population areas and as portions of the networks are abandoned as people leave. Thus, infrastructures will evolve to accommodate new load centers while some parts of the network are underused, and these changes will create emerging vulnerabilities. Forecasting the location of these vulnerabilities by combining climate predictions and agent based population movement models shows promise for defining these future population distributions and changes in coastal infrastructure configurations. By combining climate and weather data, engineering algorithms and social theory it has been only recently possible to examine electricity demand response to increased climactic temperatures, population relocation in response to extreme cyclonic events, consequent net population changes and new regional patterns in electricity demand. These emerging results suggest a research agenda of coupling these disparate modelling approaches to understand the implications of climate change for protecting the nation s critical infrastructure.

  10. Modeling structure-function interdependence of pulmonary gas exchange.

    PubMed

    Weibel, Ewald R

    2008-01-01

    Modeling functional processes, such as gas exchange, that occur deep in the lung far from where one can directly observe, depends on knowledge about the precise and quantitative design of the structure of the gas exchanger. This is the case as well for the actual arrangement of alveoli and blood capillaries at the gas exchange surface as for the disposition of gas exchange units with respect to the airway and vascular trees. The serial arrangement of alveoli and their perfusion as parallel units have important consequences for gas exchange.

  11. Peering Strategic Game Models for Interdependent ISPs in Content Centric Internet

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Jianfeng; Xu, Changqiao; Su, Wei; Zhang, Hongke

    2013-01-01

    Emergent content-oriented networks prompt Internet service providers (ISPs) to evolve and take major responsibility for content delivery. Numerous content items and varying content popularities motivate interdependence between peering ISPs to elaborate their content caching and sharing strategies. In this paper, we propose the concept of peering for content exchange between interdependent ISPs in content centric Internet to minimize content delivery cost by a proper peering strategy. We model four peering strategic games to formulate four types of peering relationships between ISPs who are characterized by varying degrees of cooperative willingness from egoism to altruism and interconnected as profit-individuals or profit-coalition. Simulation results show the price of anarchy (PoA) and communication cost in the four games to validate that ISPs should decide their peering strategies by balancing intradomain content demand and interdomain peering relations for an optimal cost of content delivery. PMID:24381517

  12. FACETS -- Infrastructure for Integrated Fusion Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shasharina, Svetlana; Cary, John; Carlsson, Johan; Hakim, Ammar; Kruger, Scott; Miah, Mahmood; Pletzer, Alexander; Vadlamani, Srinath; Wade-Stein, David; Balay, Satish; McInnes, Lois; Zhang, Hong; Candy, Jeff; Fahey, Mark; Cohen, Ron; Epperly, Tom; Rognlien, Tom; Estep, Don; Pankin, Alexei; Malony, Allen; Morris, Alan; Shende, Sameer; Indireshkumar, Keshavamurthy; McCune, Douglas; Pigarov, Alexander

    2009-11-01

    It is desirable that an infrastructure for integrated fusion modeling has support for: legacy and new components used interchangeably; consistent management of components lifecycle; allocating parallel resources consistent with the nature of participating components and the problem scope; components written in multiple programming languages; composition of sequentially and concurrently executing components respecting dependencies; tight and loose coupling of components; testing and validation of separate and integrated components; and use of multiple platforms from desktops to LCFs. In this poster we will describe the status of the FACETS with respect to these features.

  13. Protein (multi-)location prediction: utilizing interdependencies via a generative model

    PubMed Central

    Shatkay, Hagit

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: Proteins are responsible for a multitude of vital tasks in all living organisms. Given that a protein’s function and role are strongly related to its subcellular location, protein location prediction is an important research area. While proteins move from one location to another and can localize to multiple locations, most existing location prediction systems assign only a single location per protein. A few recent systems attempt to predict multiple locations for proteins, however, their performance leaves much room for improvement. Moreover, such systems do not capture dependencies among locations and usually consider locations as independent. We hypothesize that a multi-location predictor that captures location inter-dependencies can improve location predictions for proteins. Results: We introduce a probabilistic generative model for protein localization, and develop a system based on it—which we call MDLoc—that utilizes inter-dependencies among locations to predict multiple locations for proteins. The model captures location inter-dependencies using Bayesian networks and represents dependency between features and locations using a mixture model. We use iterative processes for learning model parameters and for estimating protein locations. We evaluate our classifier MDLoc, on a dataset of single- and multi-localized proteins derived from the DBMLoc dataset, which is the most comprehensive protein multi-localization dataset currently available. Our results, obtained by using MDLoc, significantly improve upon results obtained by an initial simpler classifier, as well as on results reported by other top systems. Availability and implementation: MDLoc is available at: http://www.eecis.udel.edu/∼compbio/mdloc. Contact: shatkay@udel.edu. PMID:26072505

  14. The Component Model of Infrastructure: A Practical Approach to Understanding Public Health Program Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Kimberly; Rieker, Patricia P.

    2014-01-01

    Functioning program infrastructure is necessary for achieving public health outcomes. It is what supports program capacity, implementation, and sustainability. The public health program infrastructure model presented in this article is grounded in data from a broader evaluation of 18 state tobacco control programs and previous work. The newly developed Component Model of Infrastructure (CMI) addresses the limitations of a previous model and contains 5 core components (multilevel leadership, managed resources, engaged data, responsive plans and planning, networked partnerships) and 3 supporting components (strategic understanding, operations, contextual influences). The CMI is a practical, implementation-focused model applicable across public health programs, enabling linkages to capacity, sustainability, and outcome measurement. PMID:24922125

  15. The component model of infrastructure: a practical approach to understanding public health program infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Lavinghouze, S René; Snyder, Kimberly; Rieker, Patricia P

    2014-08-01

    Functioning program infrastructure is necessary for achieving public health outcomes. It is what supports program capacity, implementation, and sustainability. The public health program infrastructure model presented in this article is grounded in data from a broader evaluation of 18 state tobacco control programs and previous work. The newly developed Component Model of Infrastructure (CMI) addresses the limitations of a previous model and contains 5 core components (multilevel leadership, managed resources, engaged data, responsive plans and planning, networked partnerships) and 3 supporting components (strategic understanding, operations, contextual influences). The CMI is a practical, implementation-focused model applicable across public health programs, enabling linkages to capacity, sustainability, and outcome measurement.

  16. Consideration of an applied model of public health program infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Lavinghouze, René; Snyder, Kimberly; Rieker, Patricia; Ottoson, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Systemic infrastructure is key to public health achievements. Individual public health program infrastructure feeds into this larger system. Although program infrastructure is rarely defined, it needs to be operationalized for effective implementation and evaluation. The Ecological Model of Infrastructure (EMI) is one approach to defining program infrastructure. The EMI consists of 5 core (Leadership, Partnerships, State Plans, Engaged Data, and Managed Resources) and 2 supporting (Strategic Understanding and Tactical Action) elements that are enveloped in a program's context. We conducted a literature search across public health programs to determine support for the EMI. Four of the core elements were consistently addressed, and the other EMI elements were intermittently addressed. The EMI provides an initial and partial model for understanding program infrastructure, but additional work is needed to identify evidence-based indicators of infrastructure elements that can be used to measure success and link infrastructure to public health outcomes, capacity, and sustainability.

  17. Sharing, caring, and surveilling: an actor-partner interdependence model examination of Facebook relational maintenance strategies.

    PubMed

    McEwan, Bree

    2013-12-01

    Abstract Relational maintenance is connected to high quality friendships. Friendship maintenance behaviors may occur online via social networking sites. This study utilized an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to examine how Facebook maintenance and surveillance affect friendship quality. Bryant and Marmo's (2012) Facebook maintenance scale was evaluated, revealing two factors: sharing and caring. Facebook surveillance was also measured. For friendship satisfaction and liking, significant positive actor and partner effects emerged for caring; significant negative actor, partner, and interaction effects emerged for sharing; and significant positive actor effects emerged for surveillance. For friendship closeness, significant positive actor effects emerged for caring and surveillance.

  18. Interdependent Multi-Layer Networks: Modeling and Survivability Analysis with Applications to Space-Based Networks

    PubMed Central

    Castet, Jean-Francois; Saleh, Joseph H.

    2013-01-01

    This article develops a novel approach and algorithmic tools for the modeling and survivability analysis of networks with heterogeneous nodes, and examines their application to space-based networks. Space-based networks (SBNs) allow the sharing of spacecraft on-orbit resources, such as data storage, processing, and downlink. Each spacecraft in the network can have different subsystem composition and functionality, thus resulting in node heterogeneity. Most traditional survivability analyses of networks assume node homogeneity and as a result, are not suited for the analysis of SBNs. This work proposes that heterogeneous networks can be modeled as interdependent multi-layer networks, which enables their survivability analysis. The multi-layer aspect captures the breakdown of the network according to common functionalities across the different nodes, and it allows the emergence of homogeneous sub-networks, while the interdependency aspect constrains the network to capture the physical characteristics of each node. Definitions of primitives of failure propagation are devised. Formal characterization of interdependent multi-layer networks, as well as algorithmic tools for the analysis of failure propagation across the network are developed and illustrated with space applications. The SBN applications considered consist of several networked spacecraft that can tap into each other's Command and Data Handling subsystem, in case of failure of its own, including the Telemetry, Tracking and Command, the Control Processor, and the Data Handling sub-subsystems. Various design insights are derived and discussed, and the capability to perform trade-space analysis with the proposed approach for various network characteristics is indicated. The select results here shown quantify the incremental survivability gains (with respect to a particular class of threats) of the SBN over the traditional monolith spacecraft. Failure of the connectivity between nodes is also examined, and the

  19. Graphic Methods for Interpreting Longitudinal Dyadic Patterns From Repeated-Measures Actor-Partner Interdependence Models.

    PubMed

    Perry, Nicholas S; Baucom, Katherine J W; Bourne, Stacia; Butner, Jonathan; Crenshaw, Alexander O; Hogan, Jasara N; Imel, Zac E; Wiltshire, Travis J; Baucom, Brian R W

    2017-02-27

    Researchers commonly use repeated-measures actor-partner interdependence models (RM-APIM) to understand how romantic partners change in relation to one another over time. However, traditional interpretations of the results of these models do not fully or correctly capture the dyadic temporal patterns estimated in RM-APIM. Interpretation of results from these models largely focuses on the meaning of single-parameter estimates in isolation from all the others. However, considering individual coefficients separately impedes the understanding of how these associations combine to produce an interdependent pattern that emerges over time. Additionally, positive within-person, or actor, effects are commonly misinterpreted as indicating growth from one time point to the next when they actually represent decline. We suggest that change-as-outcome RM-APIMs and vector field diagrams (VFDs) can be used to improve the understanding and presentation of dyadic patterns of association described by standard RM-APIMs. The current article briefly reviews the conceptual foundations of RM-APIMs, demonstrates how change-as-outcome RM-APIMs and VFDs can aid interpretation of standard RM-APIMs, and provides a tutorial in making VFDs using multilevel modeling. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Ex-couples' unwanted pursuit behavior: an actor-partner interdependence model approach.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Olivia; Loeys, Tom; Buysse, Ann

    2013-04-01

    Unwanted pursuit behavior (UPB) refers to a wide range of repeated, unwanted, and privacy-violating intrusions that are inflicted to pursue an intimate or romantic relationship. These behaviors most often occur when partners end their romantic entanglements. Despite the fact that UPB is grounded in relationships, psychological explanations for post-breakup UPB perpetration have been restricted to actor effects assessed in samples of separated individuals. For that reason, the present study aimed to identify feasible partner effects that additionally explain UPB perpetration using a Flemish sample of 46 heterosexual divorced couples, beginning with the notion of interdependence. Using actor-partner interdependence models, we explored actor, partner, and gender main and interaction effects of anxious attachment, satisfaction, alternatives, investments, and conflict in the previous marriage on the perpetration of post-divorce UPBs. The significant Partner × Gender interactions of anxious attachment and satisfaction, Actor × Partner interactions of anxious attachment and quality of alternatives, and the marginally significant partner effect of relational conflict underline the important role of the dyad in studying UPB perpetration. These findings shed new light on the nature of UPB perpetration that go beyond the individual and support the use of a systemic approach in clinical practices.

  1. Cascading failures coupled model of interdependent double layered public transit network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin; Fu, Bai-Bai; Li, Shu-Bin

    2016-06-01

    Taking urban public transit network as research perspective, this work introduces the influences of adjacent stations on definition of station initial load, the connected edge transit capacity, and the coupled capacity to modify traditional load-capacity cascading failures (CFs) model. Furthermore, we consider the coupled effect of lower layered public transit network on the CFs of upper layered public transit network, and construct CFs coupled model of double layered public transit network with “interdependent relationship”. Finally, taking Jinan city’s public transit network as example, we give the dynamics simulation analysis of CFs under different control parameters based on measurement indicator of station cascading failures ratio (abbreviated as CF) and the scale of time-step cascading failures (abbreviated as TCFl), get the influencing characteristics of various control parameters, and verify the feasibility of CFs coupled model of double layered public transit network.

  2. Contextualizing community violence and its effects: an ecological model of parent-child interdependent coping.

    PubMed

    Aisenberg, Eugene; Ell, Kathleen

    2005-07-01

    This article presents an integrated conceptual framework that contextualizes exposure to community violence and the interpersonal and interdependent processes of parent and child response to community violence. This model posits that parental distress, including post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression, is a significant mediator of child distress symptomatology and behavior problems. The model advances understanding of the impact of community violence in the lives of parents and children through various mechanisms, including social capital. This article underscores the need for a fundamental shift in the study of community violence, in the delivery of mental health services, and in prevention efforts from focusing on the individual child to concentrating on the parent, family, and community-level factors and processes. This article highlights important areas to address in future research, including investigation and specification of the mechanisms and processes by which neighborhoods affect and influence human development outcomes.

  3. A basket two-part model to analyze medical expenditure on interdependent multiple sectors.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, Shinya; Wu, Tianyi; Yamanishi, Kenji

    2016-09-01

    This study proposes a novel statistical methodology to analyze expenditure on multiple medical sectors using consumer data. Conventionally, medical expenditure has been analyzed by two-part models, which separately consider purchase decision and amount of expenditure. We extend the traditional two-part models by adding the step of basket analysis for dimension reduction. This new step enables us to analyze complicated interdependence between multiple sectors without an identification problem. As an empirical application for the proposed method, we analyze data of 13 medical sectors from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey. In comparison with the results of previous studies that analyzed the multiple sector independently, our method provides more detailed implications of the impacts of individual socioeconomic status on the composition of joint purchases from multiple medical sectors; our method has a better prediction performance.

  4. Detecting, measuring, and testing dyadic patterns in the actor-partner interdependence model.

    PubMed

    Kenny, David A; Ledermann, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    Family researchers have used the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) to study romantic couples, parent-child dyads, and siblings. We discuss a new method to detect, measure, and test different theoretically important patterns in the APIM: equal actor and partner effect (couple pattern); same size, but different signs of actor and partner effects (contrast pattern); and zero partner effects (actor-only pattern). To measure these different patterns, as well as others, we propose the estimation of the parameter k, which equals the partner effect divided by the actor effect. For both indistinguishable dyad members (e.g., twins) and distinguishable dyad members (e.g., heterosexual couples), we propose strategies for estimating and testing different models. We illustrate our new approach with four data sets.

  5. An actor-partner interdependence model of spousal criticism and depression.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Kristina M; Smith, David A

    2010-08-01

    Although perceived criticism is relational, most theory and research concerns only relatives' criticism toward patients and not the converse. With a sample of 33 depressed patients and their spouses, we take a fully relational approach to criticism by testing an actor-partner interdependence model (Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006). Patient intended criticism was especially strongly associated with depressive symptoms for wives, whereas patient perceived criticism was especially negatively related to depressive symptoms for husbands. Nondepressed partner intended criticism was positively related to patient depressive symptoms, but nondepressed wife perceived criticism was negatively related to husband depressive symptoms. The importance of including patient intended and partner perceived criticism as well as examining sex differences in models of criticism and depression are discussed.

  6. A Model for the Departmental Quality Management Infrastructure Within an Academic Health System.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Simon C; Demski, Renee; Hooper, Jody E; Biddison, Lee Daugherty; Berry, Stephen A; Petty, Brent G; Chen, Allen R; Hill, Peter M; Miller, Marlene R; Witter, Frank R; Allen, Lisa; Wick, Elizabeth C; Stierer, Tracey S; Paine, Lori; Puttgen, Hans A; Tamargo, Rafael J; Pronovost, Peter J

    2016-09-06

    As quality improvement and patient safety come to play a larger role in health care, academic medical centers and health systems are poised to take a leadership role in addressing these issues. Academic medical centers can leverage their large integrated footprint and have the ability to innovate in this field. However, a robust quality management infrastructure is needed to support these efforts. In this context, quality and safety are often described at the executive level and at the unit level. Yet, the role of individual departments, which are often the dominant functional unit within a hospital, in realizing health system quality and safety goals has not been addressed. Developing a departmental quality management infrastructure is challenging because departments are diverse in composition, size, resources, and needs.In this article, the authors describe the model of departmental quality management infrastructure that has been implemented at the Johns Hopkins Hospital. This model leverages the fractal approach, linking departments horizontally to support peer and organizational learning and connecting departments vertically to support accountability to the hospital, health system, and board of trustees. This model also provides both structure and flexibility to meet individual departmental needs, recognizing that independence and interdependence are needed for large academic medical centers. The authors describe the structure, function, and support system for this model as well as the practical and essential steps for its implementation. They also provide examples of its early success.

  7. Toolkit of Available EPA Green Infrastructure Modeling ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Watershed Management Optimization Support Tool (WMOST) is a software application designed tofacilitate integrated water resources management across wet and dry climate regions. It allows waterresources managers and planners to screen a wide range of practices across their watershed or jurisdictionfor cost-effectiveness and environmental and economic sustainability. WMOST allows users to select up to 15stormwater management practices, including traditional grey infrastructure, green infrastructure, and otherlow impact development practices. Stormwater discharges continue to cause impairment of our Nation’s waterbodies. Conventional stormwater infrastructure, or gray infrastructure, is largely designed to move stormwater away from urban areas through pipes and conduit. Runoff from these surfaces can overwhelm sewer systems and end up contaminating local waterways. When stormwater runs off impervious streets, parking lots, sidewalks, and rooftops, it carries pollutants such as motor oil, lawn chemicals, sediments, and pet waste to streams, rivers, and lakes. Runoff flows can also cause erosion and flooding that can damage property, infrastructure, and wildlife habitat. In addition to runoff problems, impervious surfaces also prevent water from penetrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Green infrastructure (e.g., rain gardens, green roofs, porous pavement, cisterns) is becoming an increasingly attractive way to recharge aquifers and reduce the amou

  8. Spatial Data Web Services Pricing Model Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozmus, L.; Erkek, B.; Colak, S.; Cankurt, I.; Bakıcı, S.

    2013-08-01

    The General Directorate of Land Registry and Cadastre (TKGM) which is the leader in the field of cartography largely continues its missions which are; to keep and update land registry and cadastre system of the country under the responsibility of the treasure, to perform transactions related to real estate and to establish Turkish national spatial information system. TKGM a public agency has completed many projects. Such as; Continuously Operating GPS Reference Stations (TUSAGA-Aktif), Geo-Metadata Portal (HBB), Orthophoto-Base Map Production and web services, Completion of Initial Cadastre, Cadastral Renovation Project (TKMP), Land Registry and Cadastre Information System (TAKBIS), Turkish National Spatial Data Infrastructure Project (TNSDI), Ottoman Land Registry Archive Information System (TARBIS). TKGM provides updated map and map information to not only public institutions but also to related society in the name of social responsibility principals. Turkish National Spatial Data Infrastructure activities have been started by the motivation of Circular No. 2003/48 which was declared by Turkish Prime Ministry in 2003 within the context of e-Transformation of Turkey Short-term Action Plan. Action No. 47 in the mentioned action plan implies that "A Feasibility Study shall be made in order to establish the Turkish National Spatial Data Infrastructure" whose responsibility has been given to General Directorate of Land Registry and Cadastre. Feasibility report of NSDI has been completed in 10th of December 2010. After decision of Steering Committee, feasibility report has been send to Development Bank (old name State Planning Organization) for further evaluation. There are two main arrangements with related this project (feasibility report).First; Now there is only one Ministry which is Ministry of Environment and Urbanism responsible for establishment, operating and all national level activities of NSDI. And Second arrangement is related to institutional Level. The

  9. Testing crossover effects in an actor-partner interdependence model among Chinese dual-earner couples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huimin; Cheung, Fanny M

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the crossover effects from one partner's work-family interface (work-family conflict [WFC] and work-family enrichment [WFE]) to the other partner's four outcomes (psychological strain, life satisfaction, marital satisfaction and job satisfaction) in a sample of Chinese dual-earner couples. Married couples (N = 361) completed a battery of questionnaires, including the work-family interface scale, the psychological strain scale, the life, marital, as well as job satisfaction scale. Results from the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) analyses showed that wives' WFE was negatively associated with husbands' psychological strain, and positively associated with husbands' life, marital and job satisfaction. Furthermore, husbands' WFC was negatively related to wives' marital satisfaction, whereas husbands' WFE was positively related to wives' marital satisfaction. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed, and future research directions were provided.

  10. Reciprocal Associations Among Maternal and Child Characteristics of At-Risk Families: A Longitudinal Actor-Partner Interdependence Model.

    PubMed

    Claridge, Amy M; Wojciak, Armeda S; Lettenberger-Klein, Cassandra G; Pettigrew, Haley V; McWey, Lenore M; Chaviano, Casey L

    2015-07-01

    Researchers have found linear associations among maternal and child characteristics. However, family systems theorists suggest that relationships are more complex and family members are interdependent. We used actor-partner interdependence modeling to unravel associations among maternal and child characteristics to predict outcomes in adolescence. We used data from 361 mother-child dyads from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect and found both actor and partner effects. Maternal depression and history of victimization were associated with children's later reports of lower mother-adolescent relationship quality. Children's perceptions of relationship quality were also associated with mothers' later depressive symptoms and perceptions of relationship quality. Overall, results highlighted interdependence among mothers and their children over time. We discuss implications for marriage and family therapists.

  11. Parental Self-Efficacy and Positive Contributions Regarding Autism Spectrum Condition: An Actor-Partner Interdependence Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García-López, Cristina; Sarriá, Encarnación; Pozo, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    Couples affect each other cognitively, emotionally and behaviorally. The goal of this study is to test the benefits and potential use of the actor-partner interdependence model in examining how parental self-efficacy and positive contributions of fathers and mothers of children with Autism Spectrum Condition influence each other's psychological…

  12. "Does It Count?" and "Who Can Speak?": An Interdependent Model of Knowledge-Production in Public and Traditional Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grobman, Laurie

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a model of public scholarship in which the knowledge-generation binary in traditional and public scholarship can and does blur, even dissolve, through interdependent partnerships. The author analyzes the overlapping issues of authority and voice between the scholarship of community-engaged research and the discipline of…

  13. Failure cascade in interdependent network with traffic loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sheng; Wang, Baoqing; Ma, Xiaomin; Wang, Jianghui; Zhao, Tingdi

    2015-12-01

    Complex networks have been widely studied recent years, but most researches focus on the single, non-interacting networks. With the development of modern systems, many infrastructure networks are coupled together and therefore should be modeled as interdependent networks. For interdependent networks, failure of nodes in one network may lead to failure of dependent nodes in the other networks. This may happen recursively and lead to a failure cascade. In the real world, different networks carry different traffic loads. Overload and load redistribution may lead to more nodes’ failure. Considering the dependency between the interdependent networks and the traffic load, a small fraction of fault nodes may lead to complete fragmentation of a system. Based on the robust analysis of interdependent networks, we propose a costless defense strategy to suppress the failure cascade. Our findings highlight the need to consider the load and coupling preference when designing robust interdependent networks. And it is necessary to take actions in the early stage of the failure cascade to decrease the losses caused by the large-scale breakdown of infrastructure networks.

  14. Interdependent networks: vulnerability analysis and strategies to limit cascading failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Gaihua; Dawson, Richard; Khoury, Mehdi; Bullock, Seth

    2014-07-01

    Network theory is increasingly employed to study the structure and behaviour of social, physical and technological systems — including civil infrastructure. Many of these systems are interconnected and the interdependencies between them allow disruptive events to propagate across networks, enabling damage to spread far beyond the immediate footprint of disturbance. In this research we experiment with a model to characterise the configuration of interdependencies in terms of direction, redundancy, and extent, and we analyse the performance of interdependent systems with a wide range of possible coupling modes. We demonstrate that networks with directed dependencies are less robust than those with undirected dependencies, and that the degree of redundancy in inter-network dependencies can have a differential effect on robustness depending on the directionality of the dependencies. As interdependencies between many real-world systems exhibit these characteristics, it is likely that many such systems operate near their critical thresholds. The vulnerability of an interdependent network is shown to be reducible in a cost effective way, either by optimising inter-network connections, or by hardening high degree nodes. The results improve understanding of the influence of interdependencies on system performance and provide insight into how to mitigate associated risks.

  15. A Comparison of Techniques for Optimal Infrastructure Restoration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    failures can have large impacts on critical infrastructure (e.g., telecommunication networks, power networks, transportation networks and distribution...serious impacts on the humans and the economy of a country. Critical civil infrastructures include telecommunication networks, power net- works...use interdependent power de- livery and telecommunication systems as an example to show the capability of their model for the development of design

  16. Approaches to improve the robustness on interdependent networks against cascading failures with load-based model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Zhengcheng; Fang, Yanjun; Tian, Meng; Zhang, Rong

    2015-11-01

    With load-based model, considering the loss of capacity on nodes, we investigate how the coupling strength (many-to-many coupled pattern) and link patterns (one-to-one coupled pattern) can affect the robustness of interdependent networks. In one-to-one coupled pattern, we take into account the properties of degree and betweenness, and adopt four kinds of inter-similarity link patterns and random link pattern. In many-to-many coupled pattern, we propose a novel method to build new networks via adding inter-links (coupled links) on the existing one-to-one coupled networks. For a full investigation on the effects, we conduct two types of attack strategies, i.e. RO-attack (randomly remove only one node) and RF-attack (randomly remove a fraction of nodes). We numerically find that inter-similarity link patterns and bigger coupling strength can effectively improve the robustness under RO-attacks and RF-attacks in some cases. Therefore, the inter-similarity link patterns can be applied during the initial period of network construction. Once the networks are completed, the robustness level can be improved via adding inter-links appropriately without changing the existing inter-links and topologies of networks. We also find that BA-BA topology is a better choice and that it is not useful to infinitely increase the capacity which is defined as the cost of networks.

  17. Modelling of hydrogen infrastructure for vehicle refuelling in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joffe, D.; Hart, D.; Bauen, A.

    One of the principal barriers to the widespread use of hydrogen as a road transport fuel is the need for a refuelling infrastructure to be established. The lack of an adequate refuelling infrastructure would severely inhibit an uptake of hydrogen vehicles. On the other hand, without significant penetration of these vehicles, the demand for hydrogen would be insufficient to make a widespread conventional refuelling infrastructure economic. The infrastructure is likely to develop initially in cities, due to the high concentration of vehicles and the anticipated air quality benefits of a switch to hydrogen as a road transport fuel. While trial schemes such as the Clean Urban Transport for Europe (CUTE) bus project will establish initial hydrogen refuelling sites, it is not clear how a transition to a widespread refuelling infrastructure will occur. Indeed, the number of possible different ways and scales of producing and distributing hydrogen means that the possible configurations for such an infrastructure are almost endless. Imperial College London is examining transition strategies for a hydrogen infrastructure for vehicle refuelling in London under a project funded by the UK Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC). Imperial has five project partners from industry and local government to assist in this study: the Greater London Authority (GLA), BP, BOC, BMW and Air Products. This paper presents initial results from technical modelling of hydrogen infrastructure technologies and how they could be deployed to provide an initial facility for the refuelling of hydrogen fuel-cell buses in London. The results suggest that the choice of H 2 production technology can have significant effects on when the infrastructure would be installed, and the timing of hydrogen production, and bus refuelling.

  18. Tools for 21st Century infrastructure protection

    SciTech Connect

    Trost, S.R.

    1997-07-01

    The President`s Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection (PCCEP) was formed under Executive Order 13010 to recommend a national strategy for protecting and assuring critical infrastructures. Eight critical infrastructure elements have been identified. This paper provides an overview of tools necessary to conduct in depth analysis and characterization of threats, vulnerabilities, and interdependencies of critical infrastructure subsystems, and their interaction with each other. Particular emphasis is placed on research requirements necessary to develop the next generation of tools. In addition to tools, a number of system level research suggestions are made including developing a system architecture, data flow models, national level resources, and a national test bed.

  19. Modeling hospitals' adaptive capacity during a loss of infrastructure services.

    PubMed

    Vugrin, Eric D; Verzi, Stephen J; Finley, Patrick D; Turnquist, Mark A; Griffin, Anne R; Ricci, Karen A; Wyte-Lake, Tamar

    2015-01-01

    Resilience in hospitals - their ability to withstand, adapt to, and rapidly recover from disruptive events - is vital to their role as part of national critical infrastructure. This paper presents a model to provide planning guidance to decision makers about how to make hospitals more resilient against possible disruption scenarios. This model represents a hospital's adaptive capacities that are leveraged to care for patients during loss of infrastructure services (power, water, etc.). The model is an optimization that reallocates and substitutes resources to keep patients in a high care state or allocates resources to allow evacuation if necessary. An illustrative example demonstrates how the model might be used in practice.

  20. Interdependence in Women with Breast Cancer and Their Partners: An Interindividual Model of Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorros, Sam M.; Card, Noel A.; Segrin, Chris; Badger, Terry A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this investigation was to test whether interdependence in dyads living with breast cancer could account for person-partner crossover effects in distress outcomes. Method: The sample consisted of 95 dyads with early-stage breast cancer. By using reciprocal dyadic data from women with breast cancer and their partners, we fit a…

  1. Leveraging Structural Characteristics of Interdependent Networks to Model Non-Linear Cascading Risks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    Brian Yoshimoto, J. Robert Wirthlin, and John Colombi, The Air Force Institute of Technology Software Acquisition Patterns of Failure and How to...interdependent programs (Flowe, Brown, & Hardin , 2009; Flowe, Kasunic, & Brown, 2010; Lewin, 1999). Also, the acquisition paradigm established in statute

  2. Toward an ontology framework supporting the integration of geographic information with modeling and simulation for critical infrastructure protection

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosiano, John J; Bent, Russell W; Linger, Steve P

    2009-01-01

    Protecting the nation's infrastructure from natural disasters, inadvertent failures, or intentional attacks is a major national security concern. Gauging the fragility of infrastructure assets, and understanding how interdependencies across critical infrastructures affect their behavior, is essential to predicting and mitigating cascading failures, as well as to planning for response and recovery. Modeling and simulation (M&S) is an indispensable part of characterizing this complex system of systems and anticipating its response to disruptions. Bringing together the necessary components to perform such analyses produces a wide-ranging and coarse-grained computational workflow that must be integrated with other analysis workflow elements. There are many points in both types of work flows in which geographic information (GI) services are required. The GIS community recognizes the essential contribution of GI in this problem domain as evidenced by past OGC initiatives. Typically such initiatives focus on the broader aspects of GI analysis workflows, leaving concepts crucial to integrating simulations within analysis workflows to that community. Our experience with large-scale modeling of interdependent critical infrastructures, and our recent participation in a DRS initiative concerning interoperability for this M&S domain, has led to high-level ontological concepts that we have begun to assemble into an architecture that spans both computational and 'world' views of the problem, and further recognizes the special requirements of simulations that go beyond common workflow ontologies. In this paper we present these ideas, and offer a high-level ontological framework that includes key geospatial concepts as special cases of a broader view.

  3. Modeling, Simulation and Analysis of Public Key Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yuan-Kwei; Tuey, Richard; Ma, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Security is an essential part of network communication. The advances in cryptography have provided solutions to many of the network security requirements. Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) is the foundation of the cryptography applications. The main objective of this research is to design a model to simulate a reliable, scalable, manageable, and high-performance public key infrastructure. We build a model to simulate the NASA public key infrastructure by using SimProcess and MatLab Software. The simulation is from top level all the way down to the computation needed for encryption, decryption, digital signature, and secure web server. The application of secure web server could be utilized in wireless communications. The results of the simulation are analyzed and confirmed by using queueing theory.

  4. Interdependence between Army Conventional Forces and Special Operations Forces: Changing Institutional Mental Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-23

    and joint activities between U.S. Army CF and SOF, a lack of interdependence dilutes outcomes of theatre security campaign plans. If the forcing...organizational learning, then the risk to successful theatre security cooperation increases due to a waning shared understanding between CF and SOF. 1...operational environment. Every geographic combatant command, or GCC, designs theatre security campaign plans, setting the stage for consistent CF

  5. Sustainable infrastructure system modeling under uncertainties and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yongxi

    Infrastructure systems support human activities in transportation, communication, water use, and energy supply. The dissertation research focuses on critical transportation infrastructure and renewable energy infrastructure systems. The goal of the research efforts is to improve the sustainability of the infrastructure systems, with an emphasis on economic viability, system reliability and robustness, and environmental impacts. The research efforts in critical transportation infrastructure concern the development of strategic robust resource allocation strategies in an uncertain decision-making environment, considering both uncertain service availability and accessibility. The study explores the performances of different modeling approaches (i.e., deterministic, stochastic programming, and robust optimization) to reflect various risk preferences. The models are evaluated in a case study of Singapore and results demonstrate that stochastic modeling methods in general offers more robust allocation strategies compared to deterministic approaches in achieving high coverage to critical infrastructures under risks. This general modeling framework can be applied to other emergency service applications, such as, locating medical emergency services. The development of renewable energy infrastructure system development aims to answer the following key research questions: (1) is the renewable energy an economically viable solution? (2) what are the energy distribution and infrastructure system requirements to support such energy supply systems in hedging against potential risks? (3) how does the energy system adapt the dynamics from evolving technology and societal needs in the transition into a renewable energy based society? The study of Renewable Energy System Planning with Risk Management incorporates risk management into its strategic planning of the supply chains. The physical design and operational management are integrated as a whole in seeking mitigations against the

  6. Modeling green infrastructure land use changes on future air ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Green infrastructure can be a cost-effective approach for reducing stormwater runoff and improving water quality as a result, but it could also bring co-benefits for air quality: less impervious surfaces and more vegetation can decrease the urban heat island effect, and also result in more removal of air pollutants via dry deposition with increased vegetative surfaces. Cooler surface temperatures can also decrease ozone formation through the increases of NOx titration; however, cooler surface temperatures also lower the height of the boundary layer resulting in more concentrated pollutants within the same volume of air, especially for primary emitted pollutants (e.g. NOx, CO, primary particulate matter). To better understand how green infrastructure impacts air quality, the interactions between all of these processes must be considered collectively. In this study, we use a comprehensive coupled meteorology-air quality model (WRF-CMAQ) to simulate the influence of planned land use changes that include green infrastructure in Kansas City (KC) on regional meteorology and air quality. Current and future land use data was provided by the Mid-America Regional Council for 2012 and 2040 (projected land use due to population growth, city planning and green infrastructure implementation). These land use datasets were incorporated into the WRF-CMAQ modeling system allowing the modeling system to propagate the changes in vegetation and impervious surface coverage on meteoro

  7. Can the linguistic interdependence theory support a bilingual-bicultural model of literacy education for deaf students?

    PubMed

    Mayer, C; Wells, G

    1996-01-01

    Drawing on Cummins' (1989) linguistic interdependence model, proponents of bilingual-bicultural models of literacy education for deaf students claim that, if ASL is well established as the L1, then literacy in English (L2) can be achieved by means of reading and writing without exposure to English through either speech or English-based sign. In our opinion, this claim is based on a false analogy: the situation of the deaf learner of English literacy does not match the conditions assumed by the linguistic interdependence model. We draw on the work of Vygotsky and Halliday to develop a conceptualization of the processes involved in becoming literate, examining the particular and unique challenges that deaf students face as they strive to become members of the linguistic community of users of written English. We argue that becoming literate involves mastering three modes of lanuage use: 'social speech,' 'inner speech,' and written text. In some respects the educational context for deaf students is analogous to that of other bilingual learners; in some crucial aspects, it is very different.

  8. Model institutional infrastructures for recycling of photovoltaic modules

    SciTech Connect

    Moscowitz, P.D.; Reaven, J.; Fthenakis, V.M.

    1996-07-01

    This paper describes model approaches to designing an institutional infrastructure for the recycling of decommissioned photovoltaic modules; more detailed discussion of the information presented in this paper is contained in Reaven et al., (1996)[1]. The alternative approaches are based on experiences in other industries, with other products and materials. In the aluminum, scrap iron, and container glass industries, where recycling is a long-standing, even venerable practice, predominantly private, fully articulated institutional infrastructures exist. Nevertheless, even in these industries, arrangements are constantly evolving in response to regulatory changes, competition, and new technological developments. Institutional infrastructures are less settled for younger large- scale recycling industries that target components of the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream, such as cardboard and newspaper, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) plastics, and textiles. In these industries the economics, markets, and technologies are rapidly changing. Finally, many other industries are developing projects to ensure that their products are recycled (and recyclable) e.g., computers, non-automotive batteries, communications equipment, motor and lubrication oil and oil filters, fluorescent lighting fixtures, automotive plastics and shredder residues, and bulk industrial chemical wastes. The lack of an an adequate recycling infrastructure, attractive end-markets, and clear the economic incentives, can be formidable impediments to a self- sustaining recycling system.

  9. Dyadic effects of marital satisfaction on coparenting in Chinese families: Based on the actor-partner interdependence model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Wu, Xin-Chun

    2016-04-18

    Based on the actor-partner interdependence model, this study explored the spillover and crossover effects of marital satisfaction on coparenting in Chinese nuclear and extended families. Spillover and crossover effects refer to the transfer of experiences, affects or behaviors, focusing on the intra-personal and inter-personal transfer of a marital subsystem to a coparenting subsystem. The participants comprised 279 couples with children ranging in age from 3 to 7 years old. The marital satisfaction and extent of coparenting of both the fathers and the mothers was tested to examine the dyadic interaction. Structural equation modeling results revealed significant intra-personal and inter-personal correlations between marital satisfaction and coparenting, indicating spillover and crossover effects in nuclear and extended families, and there were no differences between the two family structures. The results indicated that fathers' marital satisfaction influenced both fathers' and mothers' coparenting practices.

  10. Game Theoretic Modeling of Security and Interdependency in a Public Cloud

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    information without up-front or long-term commitment of resources. Moreover, a cloud user can dynamically grow and shrink the resources provisioned to an...up-front or long-term commitment of resources. Moreover, a cloud user can dynamically grow and shrink the resources provisioned to an application on...infrastructure and have easy access to their information without up-front or long-term commitment of resources. Moreover, a cloud user can dynamically grow

  11. Parallel Infrastructure Modeling and Inversion Module for E4D

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-09

    Electrical resistivity tomography ERT is a method of imaging the electrical conductivity of the subsurface. Electrical conductivity is a useful metric for understanding the subsurface because it is governed by geomechanical and geochemical properties that drive subsurface systems. ERT works by injecting current into the subsurface across a pair of electrodes, and measuring the corresponding electrical potential response across another pair of electrodes. Many such measurements are strategically taken across an array of electrodes to produce an ERT data set. These data are then processed through a computationally demanding process known as inversion to produce an image of the subsurface conductivity structure that gave rise to the measurements. Data can be inverted to provide 2D images, 3D images, or in the case of time-lapse 3D imaging, 4D images. ERT is generally not well suited for environments with buried electrically conductive infrastructure such as pipes, tanks, or well casings, because these features tend to dominate and degrade ERT images. This reduces or eliminates the utility of ERT imaging where it would otherwise be highly useful for, for example, imaging fluid migration from leaking pipes, imaging soil contamination beneath leaking subusurface tanks, and monitoring contaminant migration in locations with dense network of metal cased monitoring wells. The location and dimension of buried metallic infrastructure is often known. If so, then the effects of the infrastructure can be explicitly modeled within the ERT imaging algorithm, and thereby removed from the corresponding ERT image. However,there are a number of obstacles limiting this application. 1) Metallic infrastructure cannot be accurately modeled with standard codes because of the large contrast in conductivity between the metal and host material. 2) Modeling infrastructure in true dimension requires the computational mesh to be highly refined near the metal inclusions, which increases

  12. Cooperation of German Airports in Europe: Comparison of Different Types by Means of an Interdependence-Profile-Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meincke, Peter A.

    2003-01-01

    The limited growth possibilities in the home markets - not the least of which, based on capacity and expansion problems - force the large airport operators to enter into, via partnerships, cooperations and alliances. The German airports already cooperate among one another in different forms. The purpose of the paper is to examine the structures and possibilities of cooperation among airports in Europe (e.g. Airport Systems, Airport Networks). The experience of German airports with different cooperations and alliances will be also considered. Finally the forms of cooperations among airports are analysed by means of interdependence-profile-models with different features (mutual dependence, coordination volume, complexity, cooperation profit, value, degree of formalization and temporal frame), in order to find out how high the cooperative attachment of cooperation is to be evaluated.

  13. Parental Self-Efficacy and Positive Contributions Regarding Autism Spectrum Condition: An Actor-Partner Interdependence Model.

    PubMed

    García-López, Cristina; Sarriá, Encarnación; Pozo, Pilar

    2016-07-01

    Couples affect each other cognitively, emotionally and behaviorally. The goal of this study is to test the benefits and potential use of the actor-partner interdependence model in examining how parental self-efficacy and positive contributions of fathers and mothers of children with Autism Spectrum Condition influence each other's psychological adaptation. The sample includes 76 Spanish couples who completed validated questionnaires measuring predictors, i.e., self-efficacy and positive contributions, and adaptation outcomes i.e., stress, anxiety, depression and psychological well-being. Multilevel analysis revealed many actor and some partner effects of parental self-efficacy and positive contributions to be important determinants of adaptation above and beyond child and sociodemographic factors, and as such, these effects should be targeted in clinical intervention programs.

  14. Location-Based Critical Infrastructure Interdependency (LBCII)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    a shallow 7.3 on the Modified Mercalli Intensity scale (MMI) subduction earthquake in the Strait of Georgia, British Coloumbia (at latitude 49.45...the Vancouver airport. The potential for building damage was assessed across ground acceleration zones . Three categories of building damage were...building damage zones , and by identifying electrical failure as a consequence of an earthquake. It was possible to visualize the other effected

  15. Actor Interdependence in Collaborative Telelearning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasson, Barbara; Bourdeau, Jacqueline

    This paper presents a model of collaborative telelearning and describes how coordination theory has provided a framework for the analysis of actor (inter)dependencies in this scenario. The model is intended to inform the instructional design of learning scenarios, the technological design of the telelearning environment, and the design of…

  16. Federated Modelling and Simulation for Critical Infrastructure Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rome, Erich; Langeslag, Peter; Usov, Andrij

    Modelling and simulation is an important tool for Critical Infrastructure (CI) dependency analysis, for testing methods for risk reduction, and as well for the evaluation of past failures. Moreover, interaction of such simulations with external threat models, e.g., a river flood model, or economic models enable consequence analysis and thus may assist in what-if decision-making processes. The simulation of complex scenarios involving several different CI sectors requires the usage of heterogeneous federated simulations of CIs. However, common standards for modelling and interoperability of such federated CI simulations are missing. Also, creating the required abstract models from CIs and other data, setting up the individual federate simulators and integrating all subsystems is a time-consuming and complicated task that requires substantial know-how and resources. In this chapter, we outline applications and benefit of federated modelling, simulation and analysis (MS&A) for Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP). We review the state of the art in federated MS&A for CIP and categorise common approaches and interoperability concepts like central and lateral coupling of simulators. As examples for the latter two concepts, we will present in more detail an interoperability standard from the military domain, HLA, and an approach developed in the DIESIS project. Special emphasis will also be put on describing the problem of synchronising systems with different time models. Also, we will briefly assess the state of transferring MS&A for CIP research results to practical application by comparing the situations in the USA and in Europe.

  17. Embracing Complexity: Using Technology to Develop a Life-Long Learning Model for Non-Working Time in the Interdependent Homes for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiang, I-Tsun; Chen, Mei-Li

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to employ complexity theory as a theoretical framework and technology to facilitate the development of a life-long learning model for non-working time in the interdependent homes for adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). A "Shining Star Sustainable Action Project" of the ROC Foundation for Autistic…

  18. Assessing Socioeconomic Impacts of Cascading Infrastructure Disruptions in a Dynamic Human-Infrastructure Network

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    Study approach A mathematical framework in the form of a network interdependency model was developed to systematically quantify the effects of...characteristics of the datasets on which the human-infrastructure network model for the Maiduguri case study was based. The mathematical network...graphical user interface (GUI) whereby the creation of the mathematical inputs to the network model could proceed directly via user interaction with

  19. Simulating economic effects of disruptions in the telecommunications infrastructure.

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Roger Gary; Barton, Dianne Catherine; Reinert, Rhonda K.; Eidson, Eric D.; Schoenwald, David Alan

    2004-01-01

    CommAspen is a new agent-based model for simulating the interdependent effects of market decisions and disruptions in the telecommunications infrastructure on other critical infrastructures in the U.S. economy such as banking and finance, and electric power. CommAspen extends and modifies the capabilities of Aspen-EE, an agent-based model previously developed by Sandia National Laboratories to analyze the interdependencies between the electric power system and other critical infrastructures. CommAspen has been tested on a series of scenarios in which the communications network has been disrupted, due to congestion and outages. Analysis of the scenario results indicates that communications networks simulated by the model behave as their counterparts do in the real world. Results also show that the model could be used to analyze the economic impact of communications congestion and outages.

  20. 3D Geological modelling - towards a European level infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kathryn A.; van der Krogt, Rob; Busschers, Freek S.

    2013-04-01

    The joint European Geological Surveys are preparing the ground for a "European Geological Data Infrastructure" (EGDI), under the framework of the FP7-project EGDI-Scope. This scoping study, started in June 2012, for a pan-European e-Infrastructure is based on the successes of earlier joint projects including 'OneGeology-Europe' and aims to provide the backbone for serving interoperable, geological data currently held by European Geological Surveys. Also data from past, ongoing and future European projects will be incorporated. The scope will include an investigation of the functional and technical requirements for serving 3D geological models and will look to research the potential for providing a framework to integrate models at different scales, and form a structure for enabling the development of new and innovative model delivery mechanisms. The EGDI-scope project encourages pan-European inter-disciplinary collaboration between all European Geological Surveys. It aims to enhance emerging web based technologies that will facilitate the delivery of geological data to user communities involved in European policy making and international industry, but also to geoscientific research communities and the general public. Therefore, stakeholder input and communication is imperative to the success, as is the collaboration with all the Geological Surveys of Europe. The most important functional and technical requirements for delivery of such information at pan-European level will be derived from exchanges with relevant European stakeholder representatives and providers of geological data. For handling and delivering 3D geological model data the project will need to address a number of strategic issues: • Which are the most important issues and queries for the relevant stakeholders, requiring 3D geological models? How can this be translated to functional requirements for development and design of an integrated European application? • How to handle the very large

  1. Globalization, Interdependence and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neubauer, Deane

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary globalization is marked by rapidly and dramatically increasing interdependence, which operates both within and among countries. Increasing global interdependence has profound influence on education at all levels, such as how to deal with a world with more permeable boundaries in which people are on the move more frequently (migration)…

  2. INTERdependence Curriculum Aid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Affairs Council of Philadelphia, PA.

    Stressing global interdependence, this guide suggests resources, materials, and activities related to major world problems. Global interdependence is interpreted as connections between and among nations in areas of war and peace, human rights, environmental use, economics, and international law. The major objective is to help students understand…

  3. The role of intergenerational similarity and parenting in adolescent self-criticism: An actor-partner interdependence model.

    PubMed

    Bleys, Dries; Soenens, Bart; Boone, Liesbet; Claes, Stephan; Vliegen, Nicole; Luyten, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    Research investigating the development of adolescent self-criticism has typically focused on the role of either parental self-criticism or parenting. This study used an actor-partner interdependence model to examine an integrated theoretical model in which achievement-oriented psychological control has an intervening role in the relation between parental and adolescent self-criticism. Additionally, the relative contribution of both parents and the moderating role of adolescent gender were examined. Participants were 284 adolescents (M = 14 years, range = 12-16 years) and their parents (M = 46 years, range = 32-63 years). Results showed that only maternal self-criticism was directly related to adolescent self-criticism. However, both parents' achievement-oriented psychological control had an intervening role in the relation between parent and adolescent self-criticism in both boys and girls. Moreover, one parent's achievement-oriented psychological control was not predicted by the self-criticism of the other parent.

  4. Client and therapist therapeutic alliance, session evaluation, and client reliable change: a moderated actor-partner interdependence model.

    PubMed

    Kivlighan, Dennis M; Marmarosh, Cheri L; Hilsenroth, Mark J

    2014-01-01

    Actor-partner interdependence modeling (APIM; Kashy & Kenny, 2000) was used to study the early therapeutic alliance in 74 clients being treated by 29 therapists to explore the relationship between the alliance and treatment progress, while prioritizing the dyadic nature of the alliance. The APIM examines collaboration/influence by modeling the impact of one dyad member's alliance ratings on the other member's session impact rating (partner effects). In terms of the alliance, the results revealed significant client-actor effects for client ratings of session depth and positivity as well as significant therapist-actor effects for therapist ratings of session smoothness and positivity. For client-rated alliance, there were also significant client-partner effects for therapist ratings of session depth. For clients who made a reliable change in treatment, an increase in client-reported alliance was related to therapist reporting more arousal in the 3rd session. For clients who did not make a reliable change in treatment, client-reported alliance was not related to therapist arousal. Limitations of the study and implications of the findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. A Virtual Environment for Resilient Infrastructure Modeling and Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    provide essential support that inspires me each and every day. Therefore, I dedicate this and the rest of my life to you and our dreams . To my boys...systems with an artificial test and a known, but non-obvious solution. 25 Table 2. Electric generator g118 has capacity of 0 instead of 400 MWh...still solvable in the way to avoid an additional penalty in the interdependent FM via the optimal routing in the separate EM, which was artificially

  6. Working alliance, real relationship, session quality, and client improvement in psychodynamic psychotherapy: A longitudinal actor partner interdependence model.

    PubMed

    Kivlighan, Dennis M; Hill, Clara E; Gelso, Charles J; Baumann, Ellen

    2016-03-01

    We used the Actor Partner Interdependence Model (APIM; Kashy & Kenny, 2000) to examine the dyadic associations of 74 clients and 23 therapists in their evaluations of working alliance, real relationship, session quality, and client improvement over time in ongoing psychodynamic or interpersonal psychotherapy. There were significant actor effects for both therapists and clients, with the participant's own ratings of working alliance and real relationship independently predicting their own evaluations of session quality. There were significant client partner effects, with clients' working alliance and real relationship independently predicting their therapists' evaluations of session quality. The client partner real relationship effect was stronger in later sessions than in earlier sessions. Therapists' real relationship ratings (partner effect) were a stronger predictor of clients' session quality ratings in later sessions than in earlier sessions. Therapists' working alliance ratings (partner effect) were a stronger predictor of clients' session quality ratings when clients made greater improvement than when clients made lesser improvement. For clients' session outcome ratings, there were complex three-way interactions, such that both Client real relationship and working alliance interacted with client improvement and time in treatment to predict clients' session quality. These findings strongly suggest both individual and partner effects when clients and therapists evaluate psychotherapy process and outcome. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  7. Remarriage Beliefs as Predictors of Marital Quality and Positive Interaction in Stepcouples: An Actor-Partner Interdependence Model.

    PubMed

    Garneau, Chelsea L; Higginbotham, Brian; Adler-Baeder, Francesca

    2015-12-01

    Using an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model, we examined remarriage beliefs as predictors of marital quality and positive interaction in a sample of 179 stepcouples. Three beliefs were measured using subscales from the Remarriage Belief Inventory (RMBI) including success is slim, children are the priority, and finances should be pooled. Several significant actor and partner effects were found for both wives' and husbands' beliefs. Wives' marital quality was positively associated with their own beliefs that finances should be pooled and negatively associated with their own beliefs that success is slim. Wives' reports of their own and spouses' positive interaction were both positively associated with their beliefs that finances should be pooled. Their reports of spouses' positive interaction were also negatively associated with husbands' beliefs that success is slim. Husbands' marital quality was positively associated with wives' beliefs that children are the priority, positively associated with their own beliefs that finances should be pooled, and negatively with success is slim. Positive interaction for husbands was positively associated with wives' beliefs that finances should be pooled and negatively associated with their own beliefs that success is slim. Finally, husbands' reports of positive interaction for their spouses were positively associated with wives' beliefs that finances should be pooled. Implications for future research utilizing dyadic data analysis with stepcouples are addressed.

  8. Do topological models provide good information about electricity infrastructure vulnerability?

    PubMed

    Hines, Paul; Cotilla-Sanchez, Eduardo; Blumsack, Seth

    2010-09-01

    In order to identify the extent to which results from topological graph models are useful for modeling vulnerability in electricity infrastructure, we measure the susceptibility of power networks to random failures and directed attacks using three measures of vulnerability: characteristic path lengths, connectivity loss, and blackout sizes. The first two are purely topological metrics. The blackout size calculation results from a model of cascading failure in power networks. Testing the response of 40 areas within the Eastern U.S. power grid and a standard IEEE test case to a variety of attack/failure vectors indicates that directed attacks result in larger failures using all three vulnerability measures, but the attack-vectors that appear to cause the most damage depend on the measure chosen. While the topological metrics and the power grid model show some similar trends, the vulnerability metrics for individual simulations show only a mild correlation. We conclude that evaluating vulnerability in power networks using purely topological metrics can be misleading.

  9. A Strategic Assessment of Infrastructure Asset-Management Modeling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    of creat- ing a decision-support system for agencies with substantial, assorted infrastructure inventories and limited resources. Results: Logical...support the war-fighting mission.40 Ulti- mately , the Air Force reduces the stock of infrastructure assets as well as the maintenance and repair budget

  10. Beyond Dyadic Interdependence: Actor-Oriented Models for Co-Evolving Social Networks and Individual Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burk, William J.; Steglich, Christian E. G.; Snijders, Tom A. B.

    2007-01-01

    Actor-oriented models are described as a longitudinal strategy for examining the co-evolution of social networks and individual behaviors. We argue that these models provide advantages over conventional approaches due to their ability to account for inherent dependencies between individuals embedded in a social network (i.e., reciprocity,…

  11. Interdependency and hierarchy of exact and approximate epidemic models on networks.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Timothy J; Kiss, Istvan Z

    2014-07-01

    Over the years numerous models of S I S (susceptible --> infected --> susceptible) disease dynamics unfolding on networks have been proposed. Here, we discuss the links between many of these models and how they can be viewed as more general motif-based models. We illustrate how the different models can be derived from one another and, where this is not possible, discuss extensions to established models that enables this derivation. We also derive a general result for the exact differential equations for the expected number of an arbitrary motif directly from the Kolmogorov/master equations and conclude with a comparison of the performance of the different closed systems of equations on networks of varying structure.

  12. Cascade of failures in interdependent networks with different average degree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zunshui; Cao, Jinde; Hayat, Tasawar

    2014-12-01

    Most of modern systems are coupled by two sub-networks and therefore should be modeled as interdependent networks. The study towards robustness of interdependent networks becomes interesting and significant. In this paper, mainly by numerical simulations, the robustness of interdependent Erdös-Rényi (ER) networks and interdependent scale-Free (SF) networks coupled by two sub-networks with different average degree are investigated. First, we study the robustness of interdependent networks under random attack. Second, we study the robustness of interdependent networks under targeted attack on high or low degree nodes, and find that interdependent networks with different average degree are significantly different from those interdependent networks with equal average degree.

  13. Contribution of marital conflict to marital quality in short and long-term marriages: An actor-partner interdependence model

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Rezazade, Majid; Saadat, Hassan; Kimiaei, Seyed Ali; Zade, Nima Hoseyn

    2015-01-01

    Aims: In the field of family research, previous studies have made great strides toward understanding the relationship between marital conflict and quality. However, they have only studied couples in short-term marriages. Therefore, much remains to be unraveled with regard to long-term marriages. We aimed investigate the comparative contribution of aspects of marital conflict to marital quality in short-and long-term marriages in Iranian families. Materials and Methods: Using random clustered sampling, 400 dyads in intact first marriages were surveyed across eight provinces of Iran. Complete surveys for both husbands and wives were returned for 162 households (couple's response rate: 40.5%). Survey measures included demographics questionnaire, Barati and Sanai's Marital Conflict Questionnaire and Blum and Mehrabian's Comprehensive Marital Satisfaction Scale. Structural equation modeling was used to test the actor-partner interdependence model of marital conflict-marital quality. Results: Generalized additive models were incorporated to define what constitutes short-and long-term marriages. Based on the models regressed, duration ≤ 10 years was defined as short-term, whereas duration ≥ 25 years was labeled long-term. In short-term marriages (n = 44), decreased sexual relations, increased daily hassles and sidedness in relations with parents were negatively associated with marital quality in both actor and actor-to-partner paths. In long-term married couples (n = 46), only increased daily hassles (P < 0.001) and disagreement over financial affairs (P = 0.005) contributed to actor paths and only sidedness in relationships with parents showed significant negative association to marital quality in actor-to-partner paths. Conclusions: Different themes of conflict contribute to the diminished level of marital quality in early and late stages of the marriage. Conflicts over sex, relationship with extended family and daily hassles are emphasized in the early years of

  14. A model to forecast data centre infrastructure costs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vernet, R.

    2015-12-01

    The computing needs in the HEP community are increasing steadily, but the current funding situation in many countries is tight. As a consequence experiments, data centres, and funding agencies have to rationalize resource usage and expenditures. CC-IN2P3 (Lyon, France) provides computing resources to many experiments including LHC, and is a major partner for astroparticle projects like LSST, CTA or Euclid. The financial cost to accommodate all these experiments is substantial and has to be planned well in advance for funding and strategic reasons. In that perspective, leveraging infrastructure expenses, electric power cost and hardware performance observed in our site over the last years, we have built a model that integrates these data and provides estimates of the investments that would be required to cater to the experiments for the mid-term future. We present how our model is built and the expenditure forecast it produces, taking into account the experiment roadmaps. We also examine the resource growth predicted by our model over the next years assuming a flat-budget scenario.

  15. INTERDEPENDENCIES OF MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL SIMULATIONS IN AN AIR QUALITY MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this work, we use the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to examine the effect of several control strategies on simultaneous concentrations of ozone, PM2.5, and three important HAPs: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and benzene.

  16. A mathematical model to explore the interdependence between the serotonin and orexin/hypocretin systems.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Alok; Wong-Lin, KongFatt; McGinnity, T Martin; Prasad, Girijesh

    2011-01-01

    Among their multitude of physiological and behavioral effects, the neurochemicals serotonin (5-HT) and orexin (Ox) have been closely linked to major depressive disorders (MDD) and sleep alterations. The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and the lateral hypothalamus area (LHA) are brain regions that are sources of 5-HT and Ox, and there is evidence that suggests a reciprocal interaction between them. This lends support to the hypothesis of a close relationship between MDD and sleep disorders. Based on various experimental data, and appropriate assumptions, we construct a mathematical model of the coupled DRN-LHA neural circuit. Our model relates the dynamics of four important variables that can be experimentally measured: (i) the firing rate of 5-HT-containing neurons in DRN, (ii) the firing rate of Ox-containing neurons in the LHA, (iii) 5-HT concentration level in LHA, and (iv) Ox concentration level in DRN. Simulations show that our model supports the co-existence of baseline activities and concentration levels as observed in various separate experiments. It also allows circuit-level exploration of various parameters not yet identified experimentally, e.g. the rise and decay of Ox concentration levels due to Ox neural activity, and the exact dependence of Ox neural activity on 5-HT level. Finally we have made some model predictions regarding the effects of the 5-HT antagonist on the circuit. Our model, which can be subjected to verification and refinement as new experimental data accumulates, provides unified quantitative relationships and predictions between two important connected brain regions strongly tied to MDD and sleep disorders.

  17. Inter-dependent tissue growth and Turing patterning in a model for long bone development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Simon; Iber, Dagmar

    2013-10-01

    The development of long bones requires a sophisticated spatial organization of cellular signalling, proliferation, and differentiation programs. How such spatial organization emerges on the growing long bone domain is still unresolved. Based on the reported biochemical interactions we developed a regulatory model for the core signalling factors IHH, PTCH1, and PTHrP and included two cell types, proliferating/resting chondrocytes and (pre-)hypertrophic chondrocytes. We show that the reported IHH-PTCH1 interaction gives rise to a Schnakenberg-type Turing kinetics, and that inclusion of PTHrP is important to achieve robust patterning when coupling patterning and tissue dynamics. The model reproduces relevant spatiotemporal gene expression patterns, as well as a number of relevant mutant phenotypes. In summary, we propose that a ligand-receptor based Turing mechanism may control the emergence of patterns during long bone development, with PTHrP as an important mediator to confer patterning robustness when the sensitive Turing system is coupled to the dynamics of a growing and differentiating tissue. We have previously shown that ligand-receptor based Turing mechanisms can also result from BMP-receptor, SHH-receptor, and GDNF-receptor interactions, and that these reproduce the wildtype and mutant patterns during digit formation in limbs and branching morphogenesis in lung and kidneys. Receptor-ligand interactions may thus constitute a general mechanism to generate Turing patterns in nature.

  18. Modeling the near-term risk of climate uncertainty : interdependencies among the U.S. states.

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Backus, George A.; Warren, Drake E.

    2010-12-01

    Decisions made to address climate change must start with an understanding of the risk of an uncertain future to human systems, which in turn means understanding both the consequence as well as the probability of a climate induced impact occurring. In other words, addressing climate change is an exercise in risk-informed policy making, which implies that there is no single correct answer or even a way to be certain about a single answer; the uncertainty in future climate conditions will always be present and must be taken as a working-condition for decision making. In order to better understand the implications of uncertainty on risk and to provide a near-term rationale for policy interventions, this study estimates the impacts from responses to climate change on U.S. state- and national-level economic activity by employing a risk-assessment methodology for evaluating uncertain future climatic conditions. Using the results from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) as a proxy for climate uncertainty, changes in hydrology over the next 40 years were mapped and then modeled to determine the physical consequences on economic activity and to perform a detailed 70-industry analysis of the economic impacts among the interacting lower-48 states. The analysis determines industry-level effects, employment impacts at the state level, interstate population migration, consequences to personal income, and ramifications for the U.S. trade balance. The conclusions show that the average risk of damage to the U.S. economy from climate change is on the order of $1 trillion over the next 40 years, with losses in employment equivalent to nearly 7 million full-time jobs. Further analysis shows that an increase in uncertainty raises this risk. This paper will present the methodology behind the approach, a summary of the underlying models, as well as the path forward for improving the approach.

  19. Robustness of Interdependent Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havlin, Shlomo

    2011-03-01

    In interdependent networks, when nodes in one network fail, they cause dependent nodes in other networks to also fail. This may happen recursively and can lead to a cascade of failures. In fact, a failure of a very small fraction of nodes in one network may lead to the complete fragmentation of a system of many interdependent networks. We will present a framework for understanding the robustness of interacting networks subject to such cascading failures and provide a basic analytic approach that may be useful in future studies. We present exact analytical solutions for the critical fraction of nodes that upon removal will lead to a failure cascade and to a complete fragmentation of two interdependent networks in a first order transition. Surprisingly, analyzing complex systems as a set of interdependent networks may alter a basic assumption that network theory has relied on: while for a single network a broader degree distribution of the network nodes results in the network being more robust to random failures, for interdependent networks, the broader the distribution is, the more vulnerable the networks become to random failure. We also show that reducing the coupling between the networks leads to a change from a first order percolation phase transition to a second order percolation transition at a critical point. These findings pose a significant challenge to the future design of robust networks that need to consider the unique properties of interdependent networks.

  20. State of the art in risk analysis of workforce criticality influencing disaster preparedness for interdependent systems.

    PubMed

    Santos, Joost R; Herrera, Lucia Castro; Yu, Krista Danielle S; Pagsuyoin, Sheree Ann T; Tan, Raymond R

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this article is to discuss a needed paradigm shift in disaster risk analysis to emphasize the role of the workforce in managing the recovery of interdependent infrastructure and economic systems. Much of the work that has been done on disaster risk analysis has focused primarily on preparedness and recovery strategies for disrupted infrastructure systems. The reliability of systems such as transportation, electric power, and telecommunications is crucial in sustaining business processes, supply chains, and regional livelihoods, as well as ensuring the availability of vital services in the aftermath of disasters. There has been a growing momentum in recognizing workforce criticality in the aftermath of disasters; nevertheless, significant gaps still remain in modeling, assessing, and managing workforce disruptions and their associated ripple effects to other interdependent systems. The workforce plays a pivotal role in ensuring that a disrupted region continues to function and subsequently recover from the adverse effects of disasters. With this in mind, this article presents a review of recent studies that have underscored the criticality of workforce sectors in formulating synergistic preparedness and recovery policies for interdependent infrastructure and regional economic systems.

  1. The virtual machine (VM) scaler: an infrastructure manager supporting environmental modeling on IaaS clouds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infrastructure-as-a-service (IaaS) clouds provide a new medium for deployment of environmental modeling applications. Harnessing advancements in virtualization, IaaS clouds can provide dynamic scalable infrastructure to better support scientific modeling computational demands. Providing scientific m...

  2. Assessing the risk posed by natural hazards to infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eidsvig, Unni; Kristensen, Krister; Vidar Vangelsten, Bjørn

    2015-04-01

    The modern society is increasingly dependent on infrastructures to maintain its function, and disruption in one of the infrastructure systems may have severe consequences. The Norwegian municipalities have, according to legislation, a duty to carry out a risk and vulnerability analysis and plan and prepare for emergencies in a short- and long term perspective. Vulnerability analysis of the infrastructures and their interdependencies is an important part of this analysis. This paper proposes a model for assessing the risk posed by natural hazards to infrastructures. The model prescribes a three level analysis with increasing level of detail, moving from qualitative to quantitative analysis. This paper focuses on the second level, which consists of a semi-quantitative analysis. The purpose of this analysis is to perform a screening of the scenarios of natural hazards threatening the infrastructures identified in the level 1 analysis and investigate the need for further analyses, i.e. level 3 quantitative analyses. The proposed level 2 analysis considers the frequency of the natural hazard, different aspects of vulnerability including the physical vulnerability of the infrastructure itself and the societal dependency on the infrastructure. An indicator-based approach is applied, ranking the indicators on a relative scale. The proposed indicators characterize the robustness of the infrastructure, the importance of the infrastructure as well as interdependencies between society and infrastructure affecting the potential for cascading effects. Each indicator is ranked on a 1-5 scale based on pre-defined ranking criteria. The aggregated risk estimate is a combination of the semi-quantitative vulnerability indicators, as well as quantitative estimates of the frequency of the natural hazard and the number of users of the infrastructure. Case studies for two Norwegian municipalities are presented, where risk to primary road, water supply and power network threatened by storm

  3. Toolkit of Available EPA Green Infrastructure Modeling Software. National Stormwater Calculator

    EPA Science Inventory

    This webinar will present a toolkit consisting of five EPA green infrastructure models and tools, along with communication material. This toolkit can be used as a teaching and quick reference resource for use by planners and developers when making green infrastructure implementat...

  4. A green infrastructure experimental site for developing and evaluating models

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Ecosystems Research Division (ERD) of the U.S. EPA’s National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) in Athens, GA has a 14-acre urban watershed which has become an experimental research site for green infrastructure studies. About half of the watershed is covered by pervious la...

  5. Defense of Cyber Infrastructures Against Cyber-Physical Attacks Using Game-Theoretic Models

    DOE PAGES

    Rao, Nageswara S. V.; Poole, Stephen W.; Ma, Chris Y. T.; ...

    2015-04-06

    The operation of cyber infrastructures relies on both cyber and physical components, which are subject to incidental and intentional degradations of different kinds. Within the context of network and computing infrastructures, we study the strategic interactions between an attacker and a defender using game-theoretic models that take into account both cyber and physical components. The attacker and defender optimize their individual utilities expressed as sums of cost and system terms. First, we consider a Boolean attack-defense model, wherein the cyber and physical sub-infrastructures may be attacked and reinforced as individual units. Second, we consider a component attack-defense model wherein theirmore » components may be attacked and defended, and the infrastructure requires minimum numbers of both to function. We show that the Nash equilibrium under uniform costs in both cases is computable in polynomial time, and it provides high-level deterministic conditions for the infrastructure survival. When probabilities of successful attack and defense, and of incidental failures are incorporated into the models, the results favor the attacker but otherwise remain qualitatively similar. This approach has been motivated and validated by our experiences with UltraScience Net infrastructure, which was built to support high-performance network experiments. In conclusion, the analytical results, however, are more general, and we apply them to simplified models of cloud and high-performance computing infrastructures.« less

  6. Defense of Cyber Infrastructures Against Cyber-Physical Attacks Using Game-Theoretic Models

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, Nageswara S. V.; Poole, Stephen W.; Ma, Chris Y. T.; He, Fei; Zhuang, Jun; Yau, David K. Y.

    2015-04-06

    The operation of cyber infrastructures relies on both cyber and physical components, which are subject to incidental and intentional degradations of different kinds. Within the context of network and computing infrastructures, we study the strategic interactions between an attacker and a defender using game-theoretic models that take into account both cyber and physical components. The attacker and defender optimize their individual utilities expressed as sums of cost and system terms. First, we consider a Boolean attack-defense model, wherein the cyber and physical sub-infrastructures may be attacked and reinforced as individual units. Second, we consider a component attack-defense model wherein their components may be attacked and defended, and the infrastructure requires minimum numbers of both to function. We show that the Nash equilibrium under uniform costs in both cases is computable in polynomial time, and it provides high-level deterministic conditions for the infrastructure survival. When probabilities of successful attack and defense, and of incidental failures are incorporated into the models, the results favor the attacker but otherwise remain qualitatively similar. This approach has been motivated and validated by our experiences with UltraScience Net infrastructure, which was built to support high-performance network experiments. In conclusion, the analytical results, however, are more general, and we apply them to simplified models of cloud and high-performance computing infrastructures.

  7. New security infrastructure model for distributed computing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubenskaya, J.; Kryukov, A.; Demichev, A.; Prikhodko, N.

    2016-02-01

    At the paper we propose a new approach to setting up a user-friendly and yet secure authentication and authorization procedure in a distributed computing system. The security concept of the most heterogeneous distributed computing systems is based on the public key infrastructure along with proxy certificates which are used for rights delegation. In practice a contradiction between the limited lifetime of the proxy certificates and the unpredictable time of the request processing is a big issue for the end users of the system. We propose to use unlimited in time hashes which are individual for each request instead of proxy certificate. Our approach allows to avoid using of the proxy certificates. Thus the security infrastructure of distributed computing system becomes easier for development, support and use.

  8. Critical Infrastructure Consequence Modeler v 0.5.0 Beta

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Lozanne; & Richardson, Bryan

    2009-08-11

    Implements previously developed methodology to calculate total disutility to an organization caused by impacts imposed upon the physical system in question (electric power transmission system, water system, etc).Critical infrastructure utility personnel will use this as a planning tool to determine where system weaknesses are and where improvements should be made such that the consequence of some impact is no longer higher than acceptable.

  9. Catastrophic cascade of failures in interdependent networks.

    PubMed

    Buldyrev, Sergey V; Parshani, Roni; Paul, Gerald; Stanley, H Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

    2010-04-15

    Complex networks have been studied intensively for a decade, but research still focuses on the limited case of a single, non-interacting network. Modern systems are coupled together and therefore should be modelled as interdependent networks. A fundamental property of interdependent networks is that failure of nodes in one network may lead to failure of dependent nodes in other networks. This may happen recursively and can lead to a cascade of failures. In fact, a failure of a very small fraction of nodes in one network may lead to the complete fragmentation of a system of several interdependent networks. A dramatic real-world example of a cascade of failures ('concurrent malfunction') is the electrical blackout that affected much of Italy on 28 September 2003: the shutdown of power stations directly led to the failure of nodes in the Internet communication network, which in turn caused further breakdown of power stations. Here we develop a framework for understanding the robustness of interacting networks subject to such cascading failures. We present exact analytical solutions for the critical fraction of nodes that, on removal, will lead to a failure cascade and to a complete fragmentation of two interdependent networks. Surprisingly, a broader degree distribution increases the vulnerability of interdependent networks to random failure, which is opposite to how a single network behaves. Our findings highlight the need to consider interdependent network properties in designing robust networks.

  10. Security and Interdependency in a Public Cloud: A Game Theoretic Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-29

    appropriate parts of our paper.) However, it will be seen that interdependency underpins all these causes and influences network security in general...16 MAY 2014. 3 regular security issues any network would have is that public clouds exhibit a unique type of interdependency because of the...we will look at the interdependent nature of the critical infrastructure network in the United States and its connection to cyberspace. In

  11. Flexible Web service infrastructure for the development and deployment of predictive models.

    PubMed

    Guha, Rajarshi

    2008-02-01

    The development of predictive statistical models is a common task in the field of drug design. The process of developing such models involves two main steps: building the model and then deploying the model. Traditionally such models have been deployed using Web page interfaces. This approach restricts the user to using the specified Web page, and using the model in other ways can be cumbersome. In this paper we present a flexible and generalizable approach to the deployment of predictive models, based on a Web service infrastructure using R. The infrastructure described allows one to access the functionality of these models using a variety of approaches ranging from Web pages to workflow tools. We highlight the advantages of this infrastructure by developing and subsequently deploying random forest models for two data sets.

  12. A reference model for model-based design of critical infrastructure protection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Young Don; Park, Cheol Young; Lee, Jae-Chon

    2015-05-01

    Today's war field environment is getting versatile as the activities of unconventional wars such as terrorist attacks and cyber-attacks have noticeably increased lately. The damage caused by such unconventional wars has also turned out to be serious particularly if targets are critical infrastructures that are constructed in support of banking and finance, transportation, power, information and communication, government, and so on. The critical infrastructures are usually interconnected to each other and thus are very vulnerable to attack. As such, to ensure the security of critical infrastructures is very important and thus the concept of critical infrastructure protection (CIP) has come. The program to realize the CIP at national level becomes the form of statute in each country. On the other hand, it is also needed to protect each individual critical infrastructure. The objective of this paper is to study on an effort to do so, which can be called the CIP system (CIPS). There could be a variety of ways to design CIPS's. Instead of considering the design of each individual CIPS, a reference model-based approach is taken in this paper. The reference model represents the design of all the CIPS's that have many design elements in common. In addition, the development of the reference model is also carried out using a variety of model diagrams. The modeling language used therein is the systems modeling language (SysML), which was developed and is managed by Object Management Group (OMG) and a de facto standard. Using SysML, the structure and operational concept of the reference model are designed to fulfil the goal of CIPS's, resulting in the block definition and activity diagrams. As a case study, the operational scenario of the nuclear power plant while being attacked by terrorists is studied using the reference model. The effectiveness of the results is also analyzed using multiple analysis models. It is thus expected that the approach taken here has some merits

  13. Defense of Cyber Infrastructures Against Cyber-Physical Attacks Using Game-Theoretic Models.

    PubMed

    Rao, Nageswara S V; Poole, Stephen W; Ma, Chris Y T; He, Fei; Zhuang, Jun; Yau, David K Y

    2016-04-01

    The operation of cyber infrastructures relies on both cyber and physical components, which are subject to incidental and intentional degradations of different kinds. Within the context of network and computing infrastructures, we study the strategic interactions between an attacker and a defender using game-theoretic models that take into account both cyber and physical components. The attacker and defender optimize their individual utilities, expressed as sums of cost and system terms. First, we consider a Boolean attack-defense model, wherein the cyber and physical subinfrastructures may be attacked and reinforced as individual units. Second, we consider a component attack-defense model wherein their components may be attacked and defended, and the infrastructure requires minimum numbers of both to function. We show that the Nash equilibrium under uniform costs in both cases is computable in polynomial time, and it provides high-level deterministic conditions for the infrastructure survival. When probabilities of successful attack and defense, and of incidental failures, are incorporated into the models, the results favor the attacker but otherwise remain qualitatively similar. This approach has been motivated and validated by our experiences with UltraScience Net infrastructure, which was built to support high-performance network experiments. The analytical results, however, are more general, and we apply them to simplified models of cloud and high-performance computing infrastructures.

  14. Interdependency Assessment of Coupled Natural Gas and Power Systems in Energy Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hongzhao; Qiu, Jing; Zhang, Sanhua; Lai, Mingyong; Dong, Zhao Yang

    2015-12-01

    Owing to the technological development of natural gas exploration and the increasing penetration of gas-fired power generation, gas and power systems inevitably interact with each other from both physical and economic points of view. In order to effectively assess the two systems' interdependency, this paper proposes a systematic modeling framework and constructs simulation platforms for coupled gas and power systems in an energy market environment. By applying the proposed approach to the Australian national electricity market (NEM) and gas market, the impacts of six types of market and system factors are quantitatively analyzed, including power transmission limits, gas pipeline contingencies, gas pipeline flow constraints, carbon emission constraints, power load variations, and non-electric gas load variations. The important interdependency and infrastructure weakness for the two systems are well studied and identified. Our work provides a quantitative basis for grid operators and policy makers to support and guide operation and investment decisions for electric power and natural gas industries.

  15. Concepts, Models and Implementation of the Marine Spatial Data Infrastructure in Germany Mdi-De

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rüh, C.; Bill, R.

    2012-07-01

    In Germany currently the development of a marine data infrastructure takes place with the aim of merging information concerning the fields coastal engineering, hydrography and surveying, protection of the marine environment, maritime conservation, regional planning and coastal research. This undertaking is embedded in a series of regulations and developments on many administrative levels from which specifications and courses of action derive. To set up a conceptual framework for the marine data infrastructure (MDI-DE) scientists at the Professorship for Geodesy and Geoinformatics at Rostock University are building a reference model, evaluating meta-information systems and developing models to support common workflows in marine applications. The reference model for the marine spatial data infrastructure of Germany (MDI-DE) is the guideline for all developments inside this infrastructure. Because the undertaking is embedded in a series of regulations and developments this paper illustrates an approach on modelling a scenario for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) using the Unified Modelling Language (UML). Evaluating how other countries built their marine spatial infrastructures is of main importance, to learn where obstacles are and errors are likely to occur. To be able to look at other initiatives from a neutral point of view it is necessary to construct a framework for evaluation of marine spatial data infrastructures. Spatial data infrastructure assessment approaches were used as bases and were expanded to meet the requirements of the marine domain. As an international case-study this paper will look at Canada's Marine Geospatial Data Infrastructure (MGDI), COINAtlantic and GeoPortal.

  16. Assessing the Vulnerability of Large Critical Infrastructure Using Fully-Coupled Blast Effects Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    McMichael, L D; Noble, C R; Margraf, J D; Glascoe, L G

    2009-03-26

    Structural failures, such as the MacArthur Maze I-880 overpass in Oakland, California and the I-35 bridge in Minneapolis, Minnesota, are recent examples of our national infrastructure's fragility and serve as an important reminder of such infrastructure in our everyday lives. These two failures, as well as the World Trade Center's collapse and the levee failures in New Orleans, highlight the national importance of protecting our infrastructure as much as possible against acts of terrorism and natural hazards. This paper describes a process for evaluating the vulnerability of critical infrastructure to large blast loads using a fully-coupled finite element approach. A description of the finite element software and modeling technique is discussed along with the experimental validation of the numerical tools. We discuss how such an approach can be used for specific problems such as modeling the progressive collapse of a building.

  17. An agent-based microsimulation of critical infrastructure systems

    SciTech Connect

    BARTON,DIANNE C.; STAMBER,KEVIN L.

    2000-03-29

    US infrastructures provide essential services that support the economic prosperity and quality of life. Today, the latest threat to these infrastructures is the increasing complexity and interconnectedness of the system. On balance, added connectivity will improve economic efficiency; however, increased coupling could also result in situations where a disturbance in an isolated infrastructure unexpectedly cascades across diverse infrastructures. An understanding of the behavior of complex systems can be critical to understanding and predicting infrastructure responses to unexpected perturbation. Sandia National Laboratories has developed an agent-based model of critical US infrastructures using time-dependent Monte Carlo methods and a genetic algorithm learning classifier system to control decision making. The model is currently under development and contains agents that represent the several areas within the interconnected infrastructures, including electric power and fuel supply. Previous work shows that agent-based simulations models have the potential to improve the accuracy of complex system forecasting and to provide new insights into the factors that are the primary drivers of emergent behaviors in interdependent systems. Simulation results can be examined both computationally and analytically, offering new ways of theorizing about the impact of perturbations to an infrastructure network.

  18. Design and Implementation of a Computation Server for Optimization with Application to the Analysis of Critical Infrastructure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    confidentiality, integrity, and availability ( Salehi et al., 2007). The most important tactic to be used at the architectural level will be improving...analyzing critical infrastructure interdependencies. IEEE Control Systems, 21(6):11–25. Salehi , P., Jaferian, P., and Barforoush, A. (2007). Modeling

  19. Associations of Emotional Distress and Perceived Health in Persons With Atrial Fibrillation and Their Partners Using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model.

    PubMed

    Dalteg, Tomas; Benzein, Eva; Sandgren, Anna; Malm, Dan; Årestedt, Kristofer

    2016-08-01

    Individual behavior affects and is affected by other people. The aim of this study was to examine if emotional distress in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and their spouses was associated with their own and their partner's perceived health. Participants included 91 dyads of patients and their spouses. Emotional distress was measured using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and perceived health was measured with the Short Form 36 Health Survey. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model was used for dyad-level analyses of associations, using structural equation modeling. Higher levels of anxiety and depression were associated with lower levels of perceived health in patients and spouses. Higher levels of depression in patients were associated with lower levels of vitality in spouses and vice versa. As AF patients and their spouses influence each other, health-care interventions should consider the dyad to address dyadic dynamics. This may benefit the health of the individual patient and of the couple.

  20. Current Capabilities, Requirements and a Proposed Strategy for Interdependency Analysis in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, Robin; Chozos, Nick; Salako, Kizito

    The UK government recently commissioned a research study to identify the state-of-the-art in Critical Infrastructure modelling and analysis, and the government/industry requirements for such tools and services. This study (Cetifs) concluded with a strategy aiming to bridge the gaps between the capabilities and requirements, which would establish interdependency analysis as a commercially viable service in the near future. This paper presents the findings of this study that was carried out by CSR, City University London, Adelard LLP, a safety/security consultancy and Cranfield University, defense academy of the UK.

  1. Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking in Interdependent Networked Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Qing; Wang, Lin; Xia, Cheng-Yi; Wang, Zhen

    2014-02-01

    Spatial evolution game has traditionally assumed that players interact with direct neighbors on a single network, which is isolated and not influenced by other systems. However, this is not fully consistent with recent research identification that interactions between networks play a crucial rule for the outcome of evolutionary games taking place on them. In this work, we introduce the simple game model into the interdependent networks composed of two networks. By means of imitation dynamics, we display that when the interdependent factor α is smaller than a threshold value αC, the symmetry of cooperation can be guaranteed. Interestingly, as interdependent factor exceeds αC, spontaneous symmetry breaking of fraction of cooperators presents itself between different networks. With respect to the breakage of symmetry, it is induced by asynchronous expansion between heterogeneous strategy couples of both networks, which further enriches the content of spatial reciprocity. Moreover, our results can be well predicted by the strategy-couple pair approximation method.

  2. Is the work flow model a suitable candidate for an observatory supervisory control infrastructure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Philip N.; Schumacher, Germán.

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports on the early investigation of using the work flow model for observatory infrastructure software. We researched several work ow engines and identified 3 for further detailed, study: Bonita BPM, Activiti and Taverna. We discuss the business process model and how it relates to observatory operations and identify a path finder exercise to further evaluate the applicability of these paradigms.

  3. Recovery of Interdependent Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Muro, M. A.; La Rocca, C. E.; Stanley, H. E.; Havlin, S.; Braunstein, L. A.

    2016-03-01

    Recent network research has focused on the cascading failures in a system of interdependent networks and the necessary preconditions for system collapse. An important question that has not been addressed is how to repair a failing system before it suffers total breakdown. Here we introduce a recovery strategy for nodes and develop an analytic and numerical framework for studying the concurrent failure and recovery of a system of interdependent networks based on an efficient and practically reasonable strategy. Our strategy consists of repairing a fraction of failed nodes, with probability of recovery γ, that are neighbors of the largest connected component of each constituent network. We find that, for a given initial failure of a fraction 1 ‑ p of nodes, there is a critical probability of recovery above which the cascade is halted and the system fully restores to its initial state and below which the system abruptly collapses. As a consequence we find in the plane γ ‑ p of the phase diagram three distinct phases. A phase in which the system never collapses without being restored, another phase in which the recovery strategy avoids the breakdown, and a phase in which even the repairing process cannot prevent system collapse.

  4. Recovery of Interdependent Networks.

    PubMed

    Di Muro, M A; La Rocca, C E; Stanley, H E; Havlin, S; Braunstein, L A

    2016-03-09

    Recent network research has focused on the cascading failures in a system of interdependent networks and the necessary preconditions for system collapse. An important question that has not been addressed is how to repair a failing system before it suffers total breakdown. Here we introduce a recovery strategy for nodes and develop an analytic and numerical framework for studying the concurrent failure and recovery of a system of interdependent networks based on an efficient and practically reasonable strategy. Our strategy consists of repairing a fraction of failed nodes, with probability of recovery γ, that are neighbors of the largest connected component of each constituent network. We find that, for a given initial failure of a fraction 1 - p of nodes, there is a critical probability of recovery above which the cascade is halted and the system fully restores to its initial state and below which the system abruptly collapses. As a consequence we find in the plane γ - p of the phase diagram three distinct phases. A phase in which the system never collapses without being restored, another phase in which the recovery strategy avoids the breakdown, and a phase in which even the repairing process cannot prevent system collapse.

  5. Recovery of Interdependent Networks

    PubMed Central

    Di Muro, M. A.; La Rocca, C. E.; Stanley, H. E.; Havlin, S.; Braunstein, L. A.

    2016-01-01

    Recent network research has focused on the cascading failures in a system of interdependent networks and the necessary preconditions for system collapse. An important question that has not been addressed is how to repair a failing system before it suffers total breakdown. Here we introduce a recovery strategy for nodes and develop an analytic and numerical framework for studying the concurrent failure and recovery of a system of interdependent networks based on an efficient and practically reasonable strategy. Our strategy consists of repairing a fraction of failed nodes, with probability of recovery γ, that are neighbors of the largest connected component of each constituent network. We find that, for a given initial failure of a fraction 1 − p of nodes, there is a critical probability of recovery above which the cascade is halted and the system fully restores to its initial state and below which the system abruptly collapses. As a consequence we find in the plane γ − p of the phase diagram three distinct phases. A phase in which the system never collapses without being restored, another phase in which the recovery strategy avoids the breakdown, and a phase in which even the repairing process cannot prevent system collapse. PMID:26956773

  6. The Investigation of Relationship among Relational-Interdependent Self-Construal, Cyberbullying, and Psychological Disharmony in Adolescents: An Investigation of Structural Equation Modelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetin, Bayram; Eroglu, Yuksel; Peker, Adem; Akbaba, Sirri; Pepsoy, Sevim

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of relational-interdependent self-construal on cyberbullying and the effect of cyberbullying on psychological disharmony. Participants were 258 high school students. In this study, the Relational-Interdependent Self-Construal Scale, the Revised Cyberbullying Inventory, and the Depression, Anxiety,…

  7. A guide for the estimation of gender and sexual orientation effects in dyadic data: an actor-partner interdependence model approach.

    PubMed

    West, Tessa V; Popp, Danielle; Kenny, David A

    2008-03-01

    The study of gender differences is a pervasive topic in relationship science. However, there are several neglected issues in this area that require special care and attention. First, there is not just one gender effect but rather three gender effects: gender of the respondent, gender of the partner, and the gender of respondent by gender of the partner interaction. To separate these three effects, the dyadic research design should ideally have three different types of dyads: male-female, male-male, and female-female. Second, the analysis of gender differences in relational studies could benefit from the application of recent advances in the analysis of dyadic data, most notably the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model. Third, relationship researchers need to consider the confounding, mediating, and moderating effects of demographic variables. We use the American Couples (Blumstein & Schwartz, 1983) data set to illustrate these points.

  8. Effects of self-care on quality of life in adults with heart failure and their spousal caregivers: testing dyadic dynamics using the actor-partner interdependence model.

    PubMed

    Vellone, Ercole; Chung, Misook L; Cocchieri, Antonello; Rocco, Gennaro; Alvaro, Rosaria; Riegel, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    Emotions are contagious in couples. The purpose of this study was to analyze the manner in which adults with chronic heart failure (HF) and their informal caregivers influence each other's self-care behavior and quality of life (QOL). A sample of 138 HF patients and spouses was enrolled from ambulatory centers across Italy. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) was used to analyze dyadic data obtained with the Self-Care of Heart Failure Index (SCHFI), the Caregivers Contribution to the SCHFI, and the Short Form 12. Both actor and partner effects were found. Higher self-care was related to lower physical QOL in patients and caregivers. Higher self-care maintenance in patients was associated with better mental QOL in caregivers. In caregivers, confidence in the ability to support patients in self-care was associated with improved caregivers' mental QOL, but worsened physical QOL in patients. Interventions that build the caregivers' confidence are needed.

  9. Shaping Science for Increasing Interdependence and Specialization.

    PubMed

    Utzerath, Christian; Fernández, Guillén

    2017-03-01

    Like art, science affords an individualistic career. However, increasingly, complexity necessitates increased interdependency and specialization. Despite this change, many institutions, funding agencies, and publishers insist on an exclusively individualistic model of science. This hinders scientific progress by imposing a range of inefficiencies in the planning and execution of research plans.

  10. Independence and Interdependence in Early Childhood Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitington, Victoria

    2004-01-01

    It is through culture that children make sense of their worlds (Trevarthen, 1998). Cross- cultural models show that families are likely to primarily foster either independence or interdependence in their children (Gonzalez-Mena, 1997; Greenfield, 1994). Young children are likely to pay the "price of acculturation" when they enter early…

  11. The Magnet® model: an infrastructure for excellence.

    PubMed

    Luzinski, Craig

    2011-11-01

    This month, the director of the Magnet Recognition Program provides an overview of the Magnet model. In 2007, the Magnet model was developed as a framework for grouping the Sources of Evidence, collapsing them into fewer domains than the 14 Forces of Magnetism. The new model provides a foundation for structure and process while emphasizing the importance of nursing leadership and the achievement of superior performance as evidenced by clinical practice outcomes.

  12. A Modeling Framework to Incorporate Effects of Infrastructure in Sociohydrological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muneepeerakul, R.

    2014-12-01

    In studying coupled natural-human systems, most modeling efforts focus on humans and the natural resources. In reality, however, humans rarely interact with these resources directly; the relationships between humans and resources are mediated by infrastructures. In sociohydrological systems, these include, for example, dams and irrigation canals. These infrastructures have important characteristics such as threshold behavior and a separate entity/organization tasked with maintaining them. These characteristics influence social dynamics within the system, which in turn determines the state of infrastructure and water usage, thereby exerting feedbacks onto the hydrological processes. Infrastructure is thus a necessary ingredient for modeling co-evolution of human and water in sociohydrological systems. A conceptual framework to address this gap has been proposed by Anderies, Janssen, and Ostrom (2004). Here we develop a model to operationalize the framework and report some preliminary results. Simple in its setup, the model highlights the structure of the social dilemmas and how it affects the system's sustainability. The model also offers a platform to explore how the system's sustainability may respond to external shocks from globalization and global climate change.

  13. Combining Interactive Infrastructure Modeling and Evolutionary Algorithm Optimization for Sustainable Water Resources Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R.; Kasprzyk, J. R.; Zagona, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Population growth and climate change, combined with difficulties in building new infrastructure, motivate portfolio-based solutions to ensuring sufficient water supply. Powerful simulation models with graphical user interfaces (GUI) are often used to evaluate infrastructure portfolios; these GUI based models require manual modification of the system parameters, such as reservoir operation rules, water transfer schemes, or system capacities. Multiobjective evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) based optimization can be employed to balance multiple objectives and automatically suggest designs for infrastructure systems, but MOEA based decision support typically uses a fixed problem formulation (i.e., a single set of objectives, decisions, and constraints). This presentation suggests a dynamic framework for linking GUI-based infrastructure models with MOEA search. The framework begins with an initial formulation which is solved using a MOEA. Then, stakeholders can interact with candidate solutions, viewing their properties in the GUI model. This is followed by changes in the formulation which represent users' evolving understanding of exigent system properties. Our case study is built using RiverWare, an object-oriented, data-centered model that facilitates the representation of a diverse array of water resources systems. Results suggest that assumptions within the initial MOEA search are violated after investigating tradeoffs and reveal how formulations should be modified to better capture stakeholders' preferences.

  14. Guide to the Concept: Interdependence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, David C.

    This draft outline presents and organizes for teachers one of the fundamental concepts in war/peace studies: interdependence. As the definitional statement makes clear, interdependence involves learning to look at the world as a single system, and to identify and analyze its various subsystems. Part of the rationale for considering interdependence…

  15. Education for an Interdependent Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodbelt, Samuel

    1979-01-01

    Calls for social studies teachers to emphasize future studies and the implications of growing global interdependence. Students should learn about alternative futures, the possible decline of nationalism, overpopulation and food resources, the ecological system and natural resources, and ways of achieving interdependence. (AV)

  16. Cascades in interdependent flow networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scala, Antonio; De Sanctis Lucentini, Pier Giorgio; Caldarelli, Guido; D'Agostino, Gregorio

    2016-06-01

    In this manuscript, we investigate the abrupt breakdown behavior of coupled distribution grids under load growth. This scenario mimics the ever-increasing customer demand and the foreseen introduction of energy hubs interconnecting the different energy vectors. We extend an analytical model of cascading behavior due to line overloads to the case of interdependent networks and find evidence of first order transitions due to the long-range nature of the flows. Our results indicate that the foreseen increase in the couplings between the grids has two competing effects: on the one hand, it increases the safety region where grids can operate without withstanding systemic failures; on the other hand, it increases the possibility of a joint systems' failure.

  17. Comparison of Modeled Results for Kansas City Middle Blue River Green Infrastructure Pilot Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Services Department (WSD) in Kansas City, Missouri (KCMO) has conducted extensive modeling and economic studies of its combined sewer system (CSS) over the last several years. A number of green infrastructure (GI) solutions were identified and constructed to reduce dis...

  18. Impact of Degree Heterogeneity on Attack Vulnerability of Interdependent Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shiwen; Wu, Yafang; Ma, Yilin; Wang, Li; Gao, Zhongke; Xia, Chengyi

    2016-09-01

    The study of interdependent networks has become a new research focus in recent years. We focus on one fundamental property of interdependent networks: vulnerability. Previous studies mainly focused on the impact of topological properties upon interdependent networks under random attacks, the effect of degree heterogeneity on structural vulnerability of interdependent networks under intentional attacks, however, is still unexplored. In order to deeply understand the role of degree distribution and in particular degree heterogeneity, we construct an interdependent system model which consists of two networks whose extent of degree heterogeneity can be controlled simultaneously by a tuning parameter. Meanwhile, a new quantity, which can better measure the performance of interdependent networks after attack, is proposed. Numerical simulation results demonstrate that degree heterogeneity can significantly increase the vulnerability of both single and interdependent networks. Moreover, it is found that interdependent links between two networks make the entire system much more fragile to attacks. Enhancing coupling strength between networks can greatly increase the fragility of both networks against targeted attacks, which is most evident under the case of max-max assortative coupling. Current results can help to deepen the understanding of structural complexity of complex real-world systems.

  19. Impact of Degree Heterogeneity on Attack Vulnerability of Interdependent Networks

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shiwen; Wu, Yafang; Ma, Yilin; Wang, Li; Gao, Zhongke; Xia, Chengyi

    2016-01-01

    The study of interdependent networks has become a new research focus in recent years. We focus on one fundamental property of interdependent networks: vulnerability. Previous studies mainly focused on the impact of topological properties upon interdependent networks under random attacks, the effect of degree heterogeneity on structural vulnerability of interdependent networks under intentional attacks, however, is still unexplored. In order to deeply understand the role of degree distribution and in particular degree heterogeneity, we construct an interdependent system model which consists of two networks whose extent of degree heterogeneity can be controlled simultaneously by a tuning parameter. Meanwhile, a new quantity, which can better measure the performance of interdependent networks after attack, is proposed. Numerical simulation results demonstrate that degree heterogeneity can significantly increase the vulnerability of both single and interdependent networks. Moreover, it is found that interdependent links between two networks make the entire system much more fragile to attacks. Enhancing coupling strength between networks can greatly increase the fragility of both networks against targeted attacks, which is most evident under the case of max-max assortative coupling. Current results can help to deepen the understanding of structural complexity of complex real-world systems. PMID:27609483

  20. Sensing Models and Sensor Network Architectures for Transport Infrastructure Monitoring in Smart Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonis, Ingo

    2015-04-01

    Transport infrastructure monitoring and analysis is one of the focus areas in the context of smart cities. With the growing number of people moving into densely populated urban metro areas, precise tracking of moving people and goods is the basis for profound decision-making and future planning. With the goal of defining optimal extensions and modifications to existing transport infrastructures, multi-modal transport has to be monitored and analysed. This process is performed on the basis of sensor networks that combine a variety of sensor models, types, and deployments within the area of interest. Multi-generation networks, consisting of a number of sensor types and versions, are causing further challenges for the integration and processing of sensor observations. These challenges are not getting any smaller with the development of the Internet of Things, which brings promising opportunities, but is currently stuck in a type of protocol war between big industry players from both the hardware and network infrastructure domain. In this paper, we will highlight how the OGC suite of standards, with the Sensor Web standards developed by the Sensor Web Enablement Initiative together with the latest developments by the Sensor Web for Internet of Things community can be applied to the monitoring and improvement of transport infrastructures. Sensor Web standards have been applied in the past to pure technical domains, but need to be broadened now in order to meet new challenges. Only cross domain approaches will allow to develop satisfying transport infrastructure approaches that take into account requirements coming form a variety of sectors such as tourism, administration, transport industry, emergency services, or private people. The goal is the development of interoperable components that can be easily integrated within data infrastructures and follow well defined information models to allow robust processing.

  1. SimWIND: A Geospatial Infrastructure Model for Wind Energy Production and Transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middleton, R. S.; Phillips, B. R.; Bielicki, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    Wind is a clean, enduring energy resource with a capacity to satisfy 20% or more of the electricity needs in the United States. A chief obstacle to realizing this potential is the general paucity of electrical transmission lines between promising wind resources and primary load centers. Successful exploitation of this resource will therefore require carefully planned enhancements to the electric grid. To this end, we present the model SimWIND for self-consistent optimization of the geospatial arrangement and cost of wind energy production and transmission infrastructure. Given a set of wind farm sites that satisfy meteorological viability and stakeholder interest, our model simultaneously determines where and how much electricity to produce, where to build new transmission infrastructure and with what capacity, and where to use existing infrastructure in order to minimize the cost for delivering a given amount of electricity to key markets. Costs and routing of transmission line construction take into account geographic and social factors, as well as connection and delivery expenses (transformers, substations, etc.). We apply our model to Texas and consider how findings complement the 2008 Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) Competitive Renewable Energy Zones (CREZ) Transmission Optimization Study. Results suggest that integrated optimization of wind energy infrastructure and cost using SimWIND could play a critical role in wind energy planning efforts.

  2. Critical Infrastructure Protection II, The International Federation for Information Processing, Volume 290.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papa, Mauricio; Shenoi, Sujeet

    The information infrastructure -- comprising computers, embedded devices, networks and software systems -- is vital to day-to-day operations in every sector: information and telecommunications, banking and finance, energy, chemicals and hazardous materials, agriculture, food, water, public health, emergency services, transportation, postal and shipping, government and defense. Global business and industry, governments, indeed society itself, cannot function effectively if major components of the critical information infrastructure are degraded, disabled or destroyed. Critical Infrastructure Protection II describes original research results and innovative applications in the interdisciplinary field of critical infrastructure protection. Also, it highlights the importance of weaving science, technology and policy in crafting sophisticated, yet practical, solutions that will help secure information, computer and network assets in the various critical infrastructure sectors. Areas of coverage include: - Themes and Issues - Infrastructure Security - Control Systems Security - Security Strategies - Infrastructure Interdependencies - Infrastructure Modeling and Simulation This book is the second volume in the annual series produced by the International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP) Working Group 11.10 on Critical Infrastructure Protection, an international community of scientists, engineers, practitioners and policy makers dedicated to advancing research, development and implementation efforts focused on infrastructure protection. The book contains a selection of twenty edited papers from the Second Annual IFIP WG 11.10 International Conference on Critical Infrastructure Protection held at George Mason University, Arlington, Virginia, USA in the spring of 2008.

  3. Social contagions on interdependent lattice networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Panpan; Gao, Lei; Zhao, Pengcheng; Wang, Wei; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2017-03-01

    Although an increasing amount of research is being done on the dynamical processes on interdependent spatial networks, knowledge of how interdependent spatial networks influence the dynamics of social contagion in them is sparse. Here we present a novel non-Markovian social contagion model on interdependent spatial networks composed of two identical two-dimensional lattices. We compare the dynamics of social contagion on networks with different fractions of dependency links and find that the density of final recovered nodes increases as the number of dependency links is increased. We use a finite-size analysis method to identify the type of phase transition in the giant connected components (GCC) of the final adopted nodes and find that as we increase the fraction of dependency links, the phase transition switches from second-order to first-order. In strong interdependent spatial networks with abundant dependency links, increasing the fraction of initial adopted nodes can induce the switch from a first-order to second-order phase transition associated with social contagion dynamics. In networks with a small number of dependency links, the phase transition remains second-order. In addition, both the second-order and first-order phase transition points can be decreased by increasing the fraction of dependency links or the number of initially-adopted nodes.

  4. Social contagions on interdependent lattice networks.

    PubMed

    Shu, Panpan; Gao, Lei; Zhao, Pengcheng; Wang, Wei; Stanley, H Eugene

    2017-03-16

    Although an increasing amount of research is being done on the dynamical processes on interdependent spatial networks, knowledge of how interdependent spatial networks influence the dynamics of social contagion in them is sparse. Here we present a novel non-Markovian social contagion model on interdependent spatial networks composed of two identical two-dimensional lattices. We compare the dynamics of social contagion on networks with different fractions of dependency links and find that the density of final recovered nodes increases as the number of dependency links is increased. We use a finite-size analysis method to identify the type of phase transition in the giant connected components (GCC) of the final adopted nodes and find that as we increase the fraction of dependency links, the phase transition switches from second-order to first-order. In strong interdependent spatial networks with abundant dependency links, increasing the fraction of initial adopted nodes can induce the switch from a first-order to second-order phase transition associated with social contagion dynamics. In networks with a small number of dependency links, the phase transition remains second-order. In addition, both the second-order and first-order phase transition points can be decreased by increasing the fraction of dependency links or the number of initially-adopted nodes.

  5. Social contagions on interdependent lattice networks

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Panpan; Gao, Lei; Zhao, Pengcheng; Wang, Wei; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2017-01-01

    Although an increasing amount of research is being done on the dynamical processes on interdependent spatial networks, knowledge of how interdependent spatial networks influence the dynamics of social contagion in them is sparse. Here we present a novel non-Markovian social contagion model on interdependent spatial networks composed of two identical two-dimensional lattices. We compare the dynamics of social contagion on networks with different fractions of dependency links and find that the density of final recovered nodes increases as the number of dependency links is increased. We use a finite-size analysis method to identify the type of phase transition in the giant connected components (GCC) of the final adopted nodes and find that as we increase the fraction of dependency links, the phase transition switches from second-order to first-order. In strong interdependent spatial networks with abundant dependency links, increasing the fraction of initial adopted nodes can induce the switch from a first-order to second-order phase transition associated with social contagion dynamics. In networks with a small number of dependency links, the phase transition remains second-order. In addition, both the second-order and first-order phase transition points can be decreased by increasing the fraction of dependency links or the number of initially-adopted nodes. PMID:28300198

  6. Catastrophic cascade of failures in interdependent networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Havlin, Shlomo; Parshani, Roni; Paul, Gerald; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2010-03-01

    Many complex systems are coupled together and therefore should be modeled by multiple interdependent networks. For example, a power network in which the nodes are power stations and a communication network in which the nodes are computers, are interdependent. In interdependent networks, failure of nodes in one network, cause failure of dependent nodes in another network. This may happen recursively and can lead to a cascade of failures: a failure of a very small fraction of nodes in one network may lead to the complete fragmentation of a system. We provide a framework for understanding the robustness of interacting networks subject to such cascading failures and provide a basic analytic approach that may be useful in future work. We present exact analytical solutions for the critical fraction of nodes that upon removal will lead to a failure cascade and to a complete fragmentation of two randomly connected interdependent networks in terms of the generating functions of their degree distributions. Surprisingly, networks with broad degree distributions are more vulnerable to random failures than networks with narrow degree distributions.

  7. Toward a multidimensional model of athletes' commitment to coach-athlete relationships and interdependent sport teams: a substantive-methodological synergy.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Ben; Gucciardi, Daniel F; Dimmock, James A

    2014-02-01

    Drawing from a three-factor model of organizational commitment, we sought to provide validity evidence for a multidimensional conceptualization designed to capture adolescent athletes' commitment to their coach-athlete relationship or their team. In Study 1, 335 individual-sport athletes (Mage = 17.32, SD = 1.38) completed instruments assessing affective, normative, and continuance commitment to their relationship with their coach, and in Study 2, contextually modified instruments were administered to assess interdependent-sport athletes' (N = 286, Mage = 16.31, SD = 1.33) commitment to their team. Bayesian structural equation modeling revealed support for a three-factor (in comparison with a single-factor) model, along with relations between commitment dimensions and relevant correlates (e.g., satisfaction, return intentions, cohesion) that were largely consistent with theory. Guided by recent advancements in Bayesian modeling, these studies provide a new commitment instrument with the potential for use and refinement in team- and relationship-based settings and offer preliminary support for a conceptual framework that may help advance our understanding of the factors underpinning individuals' engagement in sport.

  8. Data management for geospatial vulnerability assessment of interdependencies in US power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, C.Y.; Scown, C.D.; Soibelman, L.; Matthews, H.S.; Garrett, J.H.; Dodrill, K.; McSurdy, S.

    2009-09-15

    Critical infrastructures maintain our society's stability, security, and quality of life. These systems are also interdependent, which means that the disruption of one infrastructure system can significantly impact the operation of other systems. Because of the heavy reliance on electricity production, it is important to assess possible vulnerabilities. Determining the source of these vulnerabilities can provide insight for risk management and emergency response efforts. This research uses data warehousing and visualization techniques to explore the interdependencies between coal mines, rail transportation, and electric power plants. By merging geospatial and nonspatial data, we are able to model the potential impacts of a disruption to one or more mines, rail lines, or power plants, and visually display the results using a geographical information system. A scenario involving a severe earthquake in the New Madrid Seismic Zone is used to demonstrate the capabilities of the model when given input in the form of a potentially impacted area. This type of interactive analysis can help decision makers to understand the vulnerabilities of the coal distribution network and the potential impact it can have on electricity production.

  9. Model for a University-Based Clinical Research Development Infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Havermahl, Tamara; LaPensee, Elizabeth; Williams, David; Clauw, Daniel; Parker, Robert A.; Downey, Brad; Liu, Jing; Myles, James

    2014-01-01

    The Research Development Core (RDC) is housed within the Michigan Institute for Clinical & Health Research (MICHR) at the University of Michigan (U-M). Established in 2006, RDC provides no-cost, in-person consultations to help U-M investigators strengthen their grant proposals. RDC offers investigators feedback and critique on all aspects of their study design, plus partnerships, funding mechanisms and future directions. This article describes RDC’s model and provides data describing the success of its services. The RDC is composed of a multidisciplinary team of professionals in grant development. It is comprised of two senior faculty co-directors from the U-M Medical School, two senior biostatisticians, outside faculty content experts, and RDC administrative staff. Investigators contact RDC to request a consultation and submit advance grant materials for review by the RDC team. During the consultation, investigators explain their project and identify challenges. The RDC team and additional experts offer feedback that is captured in meeting notes and provided to investigators. RDC commitments beyond the meetings are implemented and carefully tracked. Investigators may also request grant editing, budgeting, or proposal submission assistance. Investigators utilizing RDC have been awarded $44.5 million since 2011. The demand for RDC consultations doubled from 2010 to 2011, and reached a high of 131 consultations in 2012. Investigator feedback has been positive: 80% reported RDC had a strong impact on their proposal, and over 90% indicated they would recommend RDC to colleagues. MICHR is committed to providing investigators with RDC services to better ensure strong grant applications and successful research careers. PMID:25340362

  10. Using AGWA and the KINEROS2 Model-to-Model Green Infrastructure in Two Typical Residential Lots in Prescott, AZ

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) Urban tool provides a step-by-step process to model subdivisions using the KINEROS2 model, with and without Green Infrastructure (GI) practices. AGWA utilizes the Kinematic Runoff and Erosion (KINEROS2) model, an event driven, ...

  11. National Survey of Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Center Personnel, Infrastructure, and Models of Care Delivery.

    PubMed

    Majhail, Navneet S; Mau, Lih-Wen; Chitphakdithai, Pintip; Payton, Tammy; Eckrich, Michael; Joffe, Steven; Lee, Stephanie J; LeMaistre, Charles F; LeRademacher, Jennifer; Loberiza, Fausto; Logan, Brent; Parsons, Susan K; Repaczki-Jones, Ramona; Robinett, Pam; Rizzo, J Douglas; Murphy, Elizabeth; Denzen, Ellen M

    2015-07-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a complex procedure that requires availability of adequate infrastructure, personnel, and resources at transplantation centers. We conducted a national survey of transplantation centers in the United States to obtain data on their personnel, infrastructure, and care delivery models. A 42-item web-based survey was administered to medical directors of transplantation centers in the United States that reported any allogeneic HCT to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research in 2011. The response rate for the survey was 79% for adult programs (85 of 108 centers) and 82% for pediatric programs (54 of 66 centers). For describing results, we categorized centers into groups with similar volumes based on 2010 total HCT activity (adult centers, 9 categories; pediatric centers, 6 categories). We observed considerable variation in available resources, infrastructure, personnel, and care delivery models among adult and pediatric transplantation centers. Characteristics varied substantially among centers with comparable transplantation volumes. Transplantation centers may find these data helpful in assessing their present capacity and use them to evaluate potential resource needs for personnel, infrastructure, and care delivery and in planning for growth.

  12. Breakdown of interdependent directed networks

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xueming; Stanley, H. Eugene; Gao, Jianxi

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence shows that real-world systems interact with one another via dependency connectivities. Failing connectivities are the mechanism behind the breakdown of interacting complex systems, e.g., blackouts caused by the interdependence of power grids and communication networks. Previous research analyzing the robustness of interdependent networks has been limited to undirected networks. However, most real-world networks are directed, their in-degrees and out-degrees may be correlated, and they are often coupled to one another as interdependent directed networks. To understand the breakdown and robustness of interdependent directed networks, we develop a theoretical framework based on generating functions and percolation theory. We find that for interdependent Erdős–Rényi networks the directionality within each network increases their vulnerability and exhibits hybrid phase transitions. We also find that the percolation behavior of interdependent directed scale-free networks with and without degree correlations is so complex that two criteria are needed to quantify and compare their robustness: the percolation threshold and the integrated size of the giant component during an entire attack process. Interestingly, we find that the in-degree and out-degree correlations in each network layer increase the robustness of interdependent degree heterogeneous networks that most real networks are, but decrease the robustness of interdependent networks with homogeneous degree distribution and with strong coupling strengths. Moreover, by applying our theoretical analysis to real interdependent international trade networks, we find that the robustness of these real-world systems increases with the in-degree and out-degree correlations, confirming our theoretical analysis. PMID:26787907

  13. Forecasting International Interdependence and Conflict.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-30

    market by the likes of multinational corporations , and, in some cases, by the state itself. This opposing school would argue that while the importance...and the phenomenon-interdependence, are related. The openness of interdependent nations to comunications and many other transmitters of culture, as...vulnerabilities that go with par- ticipation. Also ignored are multinational corporations and their effects on home and host country economies, international

  14. Structural interdependence in teams: An integrative framework and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Courtright, Stephen H; Thurgood, Gary R; Stewart, Greg L; Pierotti, Abigail J

    2015-11-01

    Although interdependence is a central aspect of team design, there has been a lack of clarity regarding the meaning and impact of different forms of interdependence. To provide theoretical clarity and to advance research on team interdependence, we develop an organizing, conceptual framework of interdependence in teams and test it using meta-analysis. We first review and tie together different conceptualizations of interdependence in the literature and illustrate how they converge around 2 major constructs: task interdependence and outcome interdependence. After providing integrative definitions of these forms of interdependence, as well as subdimensions, we then explore the relative effects of task and outcome interdependence on team functioning and performance. Specifically, we propose a pattern of differential effects in which task interdependence is primarily associated with team performance through its effects on task-focused team functioning (i.e., transition/action processes, collective efficacy), whereas outcome interdependence is primarily associated with team performance through its effects on relational team functioning (i.e., interpersonal processes, cohesion). We test these differential effects using a meta-analytic database of 107 independent samples and 7,563 teams. The meta-analytic path model provides strong support for our hypotheses. Implications and future directions for the study of interdependence in work teams are discussed.

  15. WRF4G project: Adaptation of WRF Model to Distributed Computing Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cofino, Antonio S.; Fernández Quiruelas, Valvanuz; García Díez, Markel; Blanco Real, Jose C.; Fernández, Jesús

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays Grid Computing is powerful computational tool which is ready to be used for scientific community in different areas (such as biomedicine, astrophysics, climate, etc.). However, the use of this distributed computing infrastructures (DCI) is not yet common practice in climate research, and only a few teams and applications in this area take advantage of this infrastructure. Thus, the first objective of this project is to popularize the use of this technology in the atmospheric sciences area. In order to achieve this objective, one of the most used applications has been taken (WRF; a limited- area model, successor of the MM5 model), that has a user community formed by more than 8000 researchers worldwide. This community develop its research activity on different areas and could benefit from the advantages of Grid resources (case study simulations, regional hind-cast/forecast, sensitivity studies, etc.). The WRF model is been used as input by many energy and natural hazards community, therefore those community will also benefit. However, Grid infrastructures have some drawbacks for the execution of applications that make an intensive use of CPU and memory for a long period of time. This makes necessary to develop a specific framework (middleware). This middleware encapsulates the application and provides appropriate services for the monitoring and management of the jobs and the data. Thus, the second objective of the project consists on the development of a generic adaptation of WRF for Grid (WRF4G), to be distributed as open-source and to be integrated in the official WRF development cycle. The use of this WRF adaptation should be transparent and useful to face any of the previously described studies, and avoid any of the problems of the Grid infrastructure. Moreover it should simplify the access to the Grid infrastructures for the research teams, and also to free them from the technical and computational aspects of the use of the Grid. Finally, in order to

  16. A flexible framework for process-based hydraulic and water quality modeling of stormwater green infrastructure performance

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Models that allow for design considerations of green infrastructure (GI) practices to control stormwater runoff and associated contaminants have received considerable attention in recent years. While popular, generally, the GI models are relatively simplistic. However,...

  17. Actor-Partner Interdependence Model Analysis of Sexual Communication and Relationship/Family Planning Factors Among Immigrant Latino Couples in the United States.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yui

    2017-05-01

    The Latino population in the United States is quickly growing, and its unintended pregnancy rate is increasing. To decrease unintended pregnancies, couples must mutually agree on family planning. Communication between partners is one key factor identified in successful family planning for couples. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine sexual communication and its associations with sexual relationship power, general communication, and views on family planning. The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model was used to analyze dyadic influences of the chosen variables. Forty immigrant Latino couples were recruited from prenatal care clinics. The study results were grouped according to the three types of power structures: exhibition of men's traditional machismo values, exhibition of women's increased power in their relationships, and exhibition of men's and women's own empowerment with sexual communication. There was a negative association between men's views on family planning and women's sexual communication (exhibition of machismo values); a negative association between women's sexual relationship power and their partners' sexual communication (exhibition of women's increased power); and positive associations between men's and women's general communication and sexual communication (exhibition of men's and women's own empowerment). Dyadic influences of sexual communication and associated variables need to be incorporated into interventions to facilitate family planning for couples.

  18. Sense making and benefit finding in couples who have a child with Asperger syndrome: an application of the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model.

    PubMed

    Samios, Christina; Pakenham, Kenneth I; Sofronoff, Kate

    2012-05-01

    Parents of children with Asperger syndrome face many challenges that may lead them to search for meaning by developing explanations for (sense making) and finding benefits (benefit finding) in having a child with special needs. Although family theorists have proposed that finding meaning occurs interpersonally, there is a dearth of empirical research that has examined finding meaning at the couple level. This study examined sense making and benefit finding in 84 couples who have a child with Asperger syndrome by using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (Kenny et al., 2006) to examine actor effects (i.e. the extent to which an individual's score on the predictor variable impacts his or her own level of adjustment) and partner effects (i.e. the extent to which an individual's score on the predictor variable has an impact on his or her partner's level of adjustment) of sense making and benefit finding on parental adjustment. Results demonstrated that parents' benefit finding related to greater anxiety and parents' sense making related to not only their own adjustment but also their partner's adjustment. Results highlight the importance of adopting an interpersonal perspective on finding meaning and adjustment. Limitations, future research and clinical implications are also discussed.

  19. Robust-yet-fragile nature of interdependent networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Fei; Xia, Yongxiang; Wei, Zhi

    2015-05-01

    Interdependent networks have been shown to be extremely vulnerable based on the percolation model. Parshani et al. [Europhys. Lett. 92, 68002 (2010), 10.1209/0295-5075/92/68002] further indicated that the more intersimilar networks are, the more robust they are to random failures. When traffic load is considered, how do the coupling patterns impact cascading failures in interdependent networks? This question has been largely unexplored until now. In this paper, we address this question by investigating the robustness of interdependent Erdös-Rényi random graphs and Barabási-Albert scale-free networks under either random failures or intentional attacks. It is found that interdependent Erdös-Rényi random graphs are robust yet fragile under either random failures or intentional attacks. Interdependent Barabási-Albert scale-free networks, however, are only robust yet fragile under random failures but fragile under intentional attacks. We further analyze the interdependent communication network and power grid and achieve similar results. These results advance our understanding of how interdependency shapes network robustness.

  20. Emotional Interdependence and Well-Being in Close Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Sels, Laura; Ceulemans, Eva; Bulteel, Kirsten; Kuppens, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Emotional interdependence—here defined as partners’ emotions being linked to each other across time—is often considered a key characteristic of healthy romantic relationships. But is this actually the case? We conducted an experience-sampling study with 50 couples indicating their feelings 10 times a day for 7 days and modeled emotional interdependence for each couple separately taking a dyadographic approach. The majority of couples (64%) did not demonstrate strong signs of emotional interdependence, and couples that did, showed great inter-dyad differences in their specific patterns. Individuals from emotionally more interdependent couples reported higher individual well-being than individuals from more independent couples in terms of life satisfaction but not depression. Relational well-being was not (relationship satisfaction) or even negatively (empathic concern) related to the degree of emotional interdependence. Especially driving the emotions of the partner (i.e., sender effects) accounted for these associations, opposed to following the emotions of the partner (i.e., receiver effects). Additionally, assessing emotional interdependence for positive and negative emotions separately elucidated that primarily emotional interdependence for positive emotions predicted more self-reported life satisfaction and less empathic concern. These findings highlight the existence of large inter-dyad differences, explore relationships between emotional interdependence and key well-being variables, and demonstrate differential correlates for sending and receiving emotions. PMID:27014114

  1. Modeling the Hydrologic Effects of Large-Scale Green Infrastructure Projects with GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bado, R. A.; Fekete, B. M.; Khanbilvardi, R.

    2015-12-01

    Impervious surfaces in urban areas generate excess runoff, which in turn causes flooding, combined sewer overflows, and degradation of adjacent surface waters. Municipal environmental protection agencies have shown a growing interest in mitigating these effects with 'green' infrastructure practices that partially restore the perviousness and water holding capacity of urban centers. Assessment of the performance of current and future green infrastructure projects is hindered by the lack of adequate hydrological modeling tools; conventional techniques fail to account for the complex flow pathways of urban environments, and detailed analyses are difficult to prepare for the very large domains in which green infrastructure projects are implemented. Currently, no standard toolset exists that can rapidly and conveniently predict runoff, consequent inundations, and sewer overflows at a city-wide scale. We demonstrate how streamlined modeling techniques can be used with open-source GIS software to efficiently model runoff in large urban catchments. Hydraulic parameters and flow paths through city blocks, roadways, and sewer drains are automatically generated from GIS layers, and ultimately urban flow simulations can be executed for a variety of rainfall conditions. With this methodology, users can understand the implications of large-scale land use changes and green/gray storm water retention systems on hydraulic loading, peak flow rates, and runoff volumes.

  2. A model for assessing habitat fragmentation caused by new infrastructures in extensive territories - evaluation of the impact of the Spanish strategic infrastructure and transport plan.

    PubMed

    Mancebo Quintana, S; Martín Ramos, B; Casermeiro Martínez, M A; Otero Pastor, I

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the present work is to design a model for evaluating the impact of planned infrastructures on species survival at the territorial scale by calculating a connectivity index. The method developed involves determining the effective distance of displacement between patches of the same habitat, simplifying earlier models so that there is no dependence on specific variables for each species. A case study is presented in which the model was used to assess the impact of the forthcoming roads and railways included in the Spanish Strategic Infrastructure and Transport Plan (PEIT, in its Spanish initials). This study took into account the habitats of peninsular Spain, which occupies an area of some 500,000 km(2). In this territory, the areas deemed to provide natural habitats are defined by Directive 92/43/EEC. The impact of new infrastructures on connectivity was assessed by comparing two scenarios, with and without the plan, for the major new road and railway networks. The calculation of the connectivity index (CI) requires the use of a raster methodology based on the Arc/Info geographical information system (GIS). The actual calculation was performed using a program written in Arc/Info Macro Language (AML); this program is available in FragtULs (Mancebo Quintana, 2007), a set of tools for calculating indicators of fragmentation caused by transport infrastructure (http://topografia.montes.upm.es/fragtuls.html). The indicator of connectivity proposed allows the estimation of the connectivity between all the patches of a territory, with no artificial (non-ecologically based) boundaries imposed. The model proposed appears to be a useful tool for the analysis of fragmentation caused by plans for large territories.

  3. Applying Input-Output Model to Estimate Broader Economic Impact of Transportation Infrastructure Investment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anas, Ridwan; Tamin, Ofyar; Wibowo, Sony S.

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the relationships between infrastructure improvement and economic growth in the surrounding region. Traditionally, microeconomic and macroeconomic analyses are the mostly used tools for analyzing the linkage between transportation sectors and economic growth but offer little clues to the mechanisms linking transport improvements and the broader economy impacts. This study will estimate the broader economic benefits of the new transportation infrastructure investment, Cipularangtollway in West Java province, Indonesia, to the region connected (Bandung district) using Input-Output model. The result show the decrease of freight transportation costs by at 17 % and the increase of 1.2 % of Bandung District's GDP after the operation of Cipularangtollway.

  4. Interdependence of chronic hydraulic dysfunction and canopy processes can improve integrated models of tree response to drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, D. Scott; Roberts, David E.; Ewers, Brent E.; Sperry, John S.; McDowell, Nathan G.; Pockman, William T.

    2015-08-01

    Hydraulic systems of plants have evolved in the context of carbon allocation and fitness trade-offs of maximizing carbon gain and water transport in the face of short and long-term fluctuations in environmental conditions. The resulting diversity of traits include a continuum of isohydry-anisohydry or high to low relative stomatal closure during drought, shedding of canopy foliage or disconnecting roots from soil to survive drought, and adjusting root areas to efficiently manage canopy water costs associated with photosynthesis. These traits are examined within TREES, an integrated model that explicitly couples photosynthesis and carbon allocation to soil-plant hydraulics and canopy processes. Key advances of the model are its ability to account for differences in soil and xylem cavitation, transience of hydraulic impairment associated with delayed or no refilling of xylem, and carbon allocation to plant structures based on photosynthetic uptake of carbon and hydraulic limitations to water transport. The model was used to examine hydraulic traits of cooccurring isohydric (piñon pine) and anisohydric (one-seed juniper) trees from a field-based experimental drought. Model predictions of both transpiration and leaf water potential were improved when there was no refilling of xylem over simulations where xylem was able refill in response to soil water recharge. Model experiments with alternative root-to-leaf area ratios (RR/L) showed the RR/L that supports maximum cumulative water use is not beneficial for supporting maximum carbon gain during extended drought, illustrating how a process model reveals trade-offs in plant traits.

  5. Interdependent networks: the fragility of control

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Richard G.; Barthelemy, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Recent work in the area of interdependent networks has focused on interactions between two systems of the same type. However, an important and ubiquitous class of systems are those involving monitoring and control, an example of interdependence between processes that are very different. In this Article, we introduce a framework for modelling ‘distributed supervisory control' in the guise of an electrical network supervised by a distributed system of control devices. The system is characterised by degrees of freedom salient to real-world systems— namely, the number of control devices, their inherent reliability, and the topology of the control network. Surprisingly, the behavior of the system depends crucially on the reliability of control devices. When devices are completely reliable, cascade sizes are percolation controlled; the number of devices being the relevant parameter. For unreliable devices, the topology of the control network is important and can dramatically reduce the resilience of the system. PMID:24067404

  6. The interdependent contributions of gravitational and structural features to perfusion distribution in a multiscale model of the pulmonary circulation

    PubMed Central

    Tawhai, M. H.; Hoffman, E. A.; Burrowes, K. S.

    2011-01-01

    Recent experimental and imaging studies suggest that the influence of gravity on the measured distribution of blood flow in the lung is largely through deformation of the parenchymal tissue. To study the contribution of hydrostatic effects to regional perfusion in the presence of tissue deformation, we have developed an anatomically structured computational model of the pulmonary circulation (arteries, capillaries, veins), coupled to a continuum model of tissue deformation, and including scale-appropriate fluid dynamics for blood flow in each vessel type. The model demonstrates that both structural and the multiple effects of gravity on the pulmonary circulation make a distinct contribution to the distribution of blood. It shows that postural differences in perfusion gradients can be explained by the combined effect of tissue deformation and extra-acinar blood vessel resistance to flow in the dependent tissue. However, gravitational perfusion gradients persist when the effect of tissue deformation is eliminated, highlighting the importance of the hydrostatic effects of gravity on blood distribution in the pulmonary circulation. Coupling of large- and small-scale models reveals variation in microcirculatory driving pressures within isogravitational planes due to extra-acinar vessel resistance. Variation in driving pressures is due to heterogeneous large-vessel resistance as a consequence of geometric asymmetry in the vascular trees and is amplified by the complex balance of pressures, distension, and flow at the microcirculatory level. PMID:21292845

  7. The Interdependence of the Factors Influencing the Perceived Quality of the Online Learning Experience: A Causal Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltier, James W.; Schibrowsky, John A.; Drago, William

    2007-01-01

    A structural model of the drivers of online education is proposed and tested. The findings help to identify the interrelated nature of the lectures delivered via technology outside of the traditional classroom, the importance of mentoring, the need to develop course structure, the changing roles for instructors and students, and the importance of…

  8. The stock-flow model of spatial data infrastructure development refined by fuzzy logic.

    PubMed

    Abdolmajidi, Ehsan; Harrie, Lars; Mansourian, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The system dynamics technique has been demonstrated to be a proper method by which to model and simulate the development of spatial data infrastructures (SDI). An SDI is a collaborative effort to manage and share spatial data at different political and administrative levels. It is comprised of various dynamically interacting quantitative and qualitative (linguistic) variables. To incorporate linguistic variables and their joint effects in an SDI-development model more effectively, we suggest employing fuzzy logic. Not all fuzzy models are able to model the dynamic behavior of SDIs properly. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate different fuzzy models and their suitability for modeling SDIs. To that end, two inference and two defuzzification methods were used for the fuzzification of the joint effect of two variables in an existing SDI model. The results show that the Average-Average inference and Center of Area defuzzification can better model the dynamics of SDI development.

  9. ENES the European Network for Earth System modelling and its infrastructure projects IS-ENES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guglielmo, Francesca; Joussaume, Sylvie; Parinet, Marie

    2016-04-01

    The scientific community working on climate modelling is organized within the European Network for Earth System modelling (ENES). In the past decade, several European university departments, research centres, meteorological services, computer centres, and industrial partners engaged in the creation of ENES with the purpose of working together and cooperating towards the further development of the network, by signing a Memorandum of Understanding. As of 2015, the consortium counts 47 partners. The climate modelling community, and thus ENES, faces challenges which are both science-driven, i.e. analysing of the full complexity of the Earth System to improve our understanding and prediction of climate changes, and have multi-faceted societal implications, as a better representation of climate change on regional scales leads to improved understanding and prediction of impacts and to the development and provision of climate services. ENES, promoting and endorsing projects and initiatives, helps in developing and evaluating of state-of-the-art climate and Earth system models, facilitates model inter-comparison studies, encourages exchanges of software and model results, and fosters the use of high performance computing facilities dedicated to high-resolution multi-model experiments. ENES brings together public and private partners, integrates countries underrepresented in climate modelling studies, and reaches out to different user communities, thus enhancing European expertise and competitiveness. In this need of sophisticated models, world-class, high-performance computers, and state-of-the-art software solutions to make efficient use of models, data and hardware, a key role is played by the constitution and maintenance of a solid infrastructure, developing and providing services to the different user communities. ENES has investigated the infrastructural needs and has received funding from the EU FP7 program for the IS-ENES (InfraStructure for ENES) phase I and II

  10. Optimization of cascade-resilient electrical infrastructures and its validation by power flow modeling.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yiping; Pedroni, Nicola; Zio, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    Large-scale outages on real-world critical infrastructures, although infrequent, are increasingly disastrous to our society. In this article, we are primarily concerned with power transmission networks and we consider the problem of allocation of generation to distributors by rewiring links under the objectives of maximizing network resilience to cascading failure and minimizing investment costs. The combinatorial multiobjective optimization is carried out by a nondominated sorting binary differential evolution (NSBDE) algorithm. For each generators-distributors connection pattern considered in the NSBDE search, a computationally cheap, topological model of failure cascading in a complex network (named the Motter-Lai [ML] model) is used to simulate and quantify network resilience to cascading failures initiated by targeted attacks. The results on the 400 kV French power transmission network case study show that the proposed method allows us to identify optimal patterns of generators-distributors connection that improve cascading resilience at an acceptable cost. To verify the realistic character of the results obtained by the NSBDE with the embedded ML topological model, a more realistic but also more computationally expensive model of cascading failures is adopted, based on optimal power flow (namely, the ORNL-Pserc-Alaska) model). The consistent results between the two models provide impetus for the use of topological, complex network theory models for analysis and optimization of large infrastructures against cascading failure with the advantages of simplicity, scalability, and low computational cost.

  11. Modeling the infrastructure dynamics of China -- Water, agriculture, energy, and greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, S.H.; Drennen, T.E.; Engi, D.; Harris, D.L.; Jeppesen, D.M.; Thomas, R.P.

    1998-08-01

    A comprehensive critical infrastructure analysis of the People`s Republic of China was performed to address questions about China`s ability to meet its long-term grain requirements and energy needs and to estimate greenhouse gas emissions in China likely to result from increased agricultural production and energy use. Four dynamic computer simulation models of China`s infrastructures--water, agriculture, energy and greenhouse gas--were developed to simulate, respectively, the hydrologic budgetary processes, grain production and consumption, energy demand, and greenhouse gas emissions in China through 2025. The four models were integrated into a state-of-the-art comprehensive critical infrastructure model for all of China. This integrated model simulates diverse flows of commodities, such as water and greenhouse gas, between the separate models to capture the overall dynamics of the integrated system. The model was used to generate projections of China`s available water resources and expected water use for 10 river drainage regions representing 100% of China`s mean annual runoff and comprising 37 major river basins. These projections were used to develop estimates of the water surpluses and/or deficits in the three end-use sectors--urban, industrial, and agricultural--through the year 2025. Projections of the all-China demand for the three major grains (corn, wheat, and rice), meat, and other (other grains and fruits and vegetables) were also generated. Each geographic region`s share of the all-China grain demand (allocated on the basis of each region`s share of historic grain production) was calculated in order to assess the land and water resources in each region required to meet that demand. Growth in energy use in six historically significant sectors and growth in greenhouse gas loading were projected for all of China.

  12. The effects of depressive symptoms and anxiety on quality of life in patients with heart failure and their spouses: Testing dyadic dynamics using Actor-Partner Interdependence Model

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Misook L.; Moser, Debra K.; Lennie, Terry A.; Rayens, Mary Kay

    2009-01-01

    Background Depressive symptoms and anxiety are common in heart failure patients as well as their spousal caregivers. However, it is not known whether their emotional distress contributes to their partner's quality of life (QoL). This study examined the effect of patients' and partners' depressive symptoms and anxiety on quality of life in patient-spouse dyads using an innovative dyadic analysis technique, the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM). Method A total of 58 dyads (patient: 43% in males, mean age 62 years, mean ejection fraction 34% ± 11, 43% in NYHA III-IV) participated in the study. Depressive symptoms and anxiety were assessed using the Brief Symptom Inventory. QoL was assessed using the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire. Dyadic data were analyzed using the APIM with distinguishable dyad regression model. In APIM, actor effect is the impact of a person's emotional distress on his/her own QoL. Partner effect is the impact of a person's emotional distress on his/her partner's QoL. Result Depressive symptoms exhibited actor effect of both patients (p <.001) and spouses (p < .001) and only partner effect of patients (p < .05) on QoL. Patients and spouses with higher depressive symptoms had poorer quality of life. Patients whose spouses had higher depressive symptoms were more likely to indicate their own quality of life was poorer. Anxiety has similar actor and partner effects on QoL as depressive symptoms. Conclusion Interventions to reduce depression and anxiety and to improve patients' quality of life should include both patients and spouses. PMID:19539816

  13. E pluribus unum: using group model building with many interdependent organizations to create integrated health-care networks.

    PubMed

    Pieters, Angèle; Akkermans, Henk; Franx, Arie

    2011-01-01

    This chapter reports on an action research case study of integrated obstetric care in the Netherlands. Efficient and patient-friendly patient flows through integrated care networks are of major societal importance. How to design and develop such interorganizational patient flows is still a nascent research area, especially when dealing with a large number (n>3) of stakeholders. We have shown that a modification of an existing method to support interorganizational collaboration by system dynamics-based group model building (GMB) (the Renga method, Akkermans, 2001) may be effective in achieving such collaboration.

  14. Report on three Genomes to Life Workshops: Data Infrastructure, Modeling and Simulation, and Protein Structure Prediction

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, GA

    2003-09-16

    On July 22, 23, 24, 2003, three one day workshops were held in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Each was attended by about 30 computational biologists, mathematicians, and computer scientists who were experts in the respective workshop areas The first workshop discussed the data infrastructure needs for the Genomes to Life (GTL) program with the objective to identify gaps in the present GTL data infrastructure and define the GTL data infrastructure required for the success of the proposed GTL facilities. The second workshop discussed the modeling and simulation needs for the next phase of the GTL program and defined how these relate to the experimental data generated by genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. The third workshop identified emerging technical challenges in computational protein structure prediction for DOE missions and outlining specific goals for the next phase of GTL. The workshops were attended by representatives from both OBER and OASCR. The invited experts at each of the workshops made short presentations on what they perceived as the key needs in the GTL data infrastructure, modeling and simulation, and structure prediction respectively. Each presentation was followed by a lively discussion by all the workshop attendees. The following findings and recommendations were derived from the three workshops. A seamless integration of GTL data spanning the entire range of genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics will be extremely challenging but it has to be treated as the first-class component of the GTL program to assure GTL's chances for success. High-throughput GTL facilities and ultrascale computing will make it possible to address the ultimate goal of modern biology: to achieve a fundamental, comprehensive, and systematic understanding of life. But first the GTL community needs to address the problem of the massive quantities and increased complexity of biological data produced by experiments and computations. Genome-scale collection, analysis

  15. Security Analysis of Smart Grid Cyber Physical Infrastructures Using Modeling and Game Theoretic Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Abercrombie, Robert K; Sheldon, Frederick T.

    2015-01-01

    Cyber physical computing infrastructures typically consist of a number of sites are interconnected. Its operation critically depends both on cyber components and physical components. Both types of components are subject to attacks of different kinds and frequencies, which must be accounted for the initial provisioning and subsequent operation of the infrastructure via information security analysis. Information security analysis can be performed using game theory implemented in dynamic Agent Based Game Theoretic (ABGT) simulations. Such simulations can be verified with the results from game theory analysis and further used to explore larger scale, real world scenarios involving multiple attackers, defenders, and information assets. We concentrated our analysis on the electric sector failure scenarios and impact analyses by the NESCOR Working Group Study, From the Section 5 electric sector representative failure scenarios; we extracted the four generic failure scenarios and grouped them into three specific threat categories (confidentiality, integrity, and availability) to the system. These specific failure scenarios serve as a demonstration of our simulation. The analysis using our ABGT simulation demonstrates how to model the electric sector functional domain using a set of rationalized game theoretic rules decomposed from the failure scenarios in terms of how those scenarios might impact the cyber physical infrastructure network with respect to CIA.

  16. Infrastructure requirement of knowledge management system model of statistical learning tool (SLT) for education community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Rusli; Samah, Bahaman Abu; Bolong, Jusang; D'Silva, Jeffrey Lawrence; Shaffril, Hayrol Azril Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    Today, teaching and learning (T&L) using technology as tool is becoming more important especially in the field of statistics as a part of the subject matter in higher education system environment. Eventhough, there are many types of technology of statistical learnig tool (SLT) which can be used to support and enhance T&L environment, however, there is lack of a common standard knowledge management as a knowledge portal for guidance especially in relation to infrastructure requirement of SLT in servicing the community of user (CoU) such as educators, students and other parties who are interested in performing this technology as a tool for their T&L. Therefore, there is a need of a common standard infrastructure requirement of knowledge portal in helping CoU for managing of statistical knowledge in acquiring, storing, desseminating and applying of the statistical knowedge for their specific purposes. Futhermore, by having this infrastructure requirement of knowledge portal model of SLT as a guidance in promoting knowledge of best practise among the CoU, it can also enhance the quality and productivity of their work towards excellence of statistical knowledge application in education system environment.

  17. Green infrastructure retrofits on residential parcels: Ecohydrologic modeling for stormwater design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, B.; Band, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    To meet water quality goals stormwater utilities and not-for-profit watershed organizations in the U.S. are working with citizens to design and implement green infrastructure on residential land. Green infrastructure, as an alternative and complement to traditional (grey) stormwater infrastructure, has the potential to contribute to multiple ecosystem benefits including stormwater volume reduction, carbon sequestration, urban heat island mitigation, and to provide amenities to residents. However, in small (1-10-km2) medium-density urban watersheds with heterogeneous land cover it is unclear whether stormwater retrofits on residential parcels significantly contributes to reduce stormwater volume at the watershed scale. In this paper, we seek to improve understanding of how small-scale redistribution of water at the parcel scale as part of green infrastructure implementation affects urban water budgets and stormwater volume across spatial scales. As study sites we use two medium-density headwater watersheds in Baltimore, MD and Durham, NC. We develop ecohydrology modeling experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of redirecting residential rooftop runoff to un-altered pervious surfaces and to engineered rain gardens to reduce stormwater runoff. As baselines for these experiments, we performed field surveys of residential rooftop hydrologic connectivity to adjacent impervious surfaces, and found low rates of connectivity. Through simulations of pervasive adoption of downspout disconnection to un-altered pervious areas or to rain garden stormwater control measures (SCM) in these catchments, we find that most parcel-scale changes in stormwater fate are attenuated at larger spatial scales and that neither SCM alone is likely to provide significant changes in streamflow at the watershed scale.

  18. Resource modelling for control: how hydrogeological modelling can support a water quality monitoring infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scozzari, Andrea; Doveri, Marco

    2015-04-01

    The knowledge of the physical/chemical processes implied with the exploitation of water bodies for human consumption is an essential tool for the optimisation of the monitoring infrastructure. Due to their increasing importance in the context of human consumption (at least in the EU), this work focuses on groundwater resources. In the framework of drinkable water networks, the physical and data-driven modelling of transport phenomena in groundwater can help optimising the sensor network and validating the acquired data. This work proposes the combined usage of physical and data-driven modelling as a support to the design and maximisation of results from a network of distributed sensors. In particular, the validation of physico-chemical measurements and the detection of eventual anomalies by a set of continuous measurements take benefit from the knowledge of the domain from which water is abstracted, and its expected characteristics. Change-detection techniques based on non-specific sensors (presented by quite a large literature during the last two decades) have to deal with the classical issues of maximising correct detections and minimising false alarms, the latter of the two being the most typical problem to be faced, in the view of designing truly applicable monitoring systems. In this context, the definition of "anomaly" in terms of distance from an expected value or feature characterising the quality of water implies the definition of a suitable metric and the knowledge of the physical and chemical peculiarities of the natural domain from which water is exploited, with its implications in terms of characteristics of the water resource.

  19. Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking in Interdependent Networked Game

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Qing; Wang, Lin; Xia, Cheng-Yi; Wang, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Spatial evolution game has traditionally assumed that players interact with direct neighbors on a single network, which is isolated and not influenced by other systems. However, this is not fully consistent with recent research identification that interactions between networks play a crucial rule for the outcome of evolutionary games taking place on them. In this work, we introduce the simple game model into the interdependent networks composed of two networks. By means of imitation dynamics, we display that when the interdependent factor α is smaller than a threshold value αC, the symmetry of cooperation can be guaranteed. Interestingly, as interdependent factor exceeds αC, spontaneous symmetry breaking of fraction of cooperators presents itself between different networks. With respect to the breakage of symmetry, it is induced by asynchronous expansion between heterogeneous strategy couples of both networks, which further enriches the content of spatial reciprocity. Moreover, our results can be well predicted by the strategy-couple pair approximation method. PMID:24526076

  20. Dyadic conflict, drinking to cope, and alcohol-related problems: A psychometric study and longitudinal actor-partner interdependence model.

    PubMed

    Lambe, Laura; Mackinnon, Sean P; Stewart, Sherry H

    2015-10-01

    The motivational model of alcohol use posits that individuals may consume alcohol to cope with negative affect. Conflict with others is a strong predictor of coping motives, which in turn predict alcohol-related problems. Two studies examined links between conflict, coping motives, and alcohol-related problems in emerging adult romantic dyads. It was hypothesized that the association between conflict and alcohol-related problems would be mediated by coping-depression and coping-anxiety motives. It was also hypothesized that this would be true for actor (i.e., how individual factors influence individual behaviors) and partner effects (i.e., how partner factors influence individual behaviors) and at the between- (i.e., does not vary over the study period) and within-subjects (i.e., varies over the study period) levels. Both studies examined participants currently in a romantic relationship who consumed ≥12 alcoholic drinks in the past year. Study 1 was cross-sectional using university students (N = 130 students; 86.9% female; M = 21.02 years old, SD = 3.43). Study 2 used a 4-wave, 4-week longitudinal design with romantic dyads (N = 100 dyads; 89% heterosexual; M = 22.13 years old, SD = 5.67). In Study 2, coping-depression motives emerged as the strongest mediator of the conflict-alcohol-related problems association, and findings held for actor effects but not partner effects. Supplemental analyses revealed that this mediational pathway only held among women. Within any given week, alcohol-related problems changed systematically in the same direction between romantic partners. Interventions may wish to target coping-depression drinking motives within couples in response to conflict to reduce alcohol-related problems.

  1. Improving interdependent networks robustness by adding connectivity links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Xingpei; Wang, Bo; Liu, Dichen; Chen, Guo; Tang, Fei; Wei, Daqian; Tu, Lian

    2016-02-01

    Compared with a single and isolated network, interdependent networks have two types of links: connectivity link and dependency link. This paper aims to improve the robustness of interdependent networks by adding connectivity links. Firstly, interdependent networks failure model and four frequently used link addition strategies are briefly reviewed. Furthermore, by defining inter degree-degree difference, two novel link addition strategies are proposed. Finally, we verify the effectiveness of our proposed link addition strategies by comparing with the current link addition strategies in three different network models. The simulation results show that, given the number of added links, link allocation strategies have great effects on the robustness of interdependent networks, i.e., the double-network link allocation strategy is superior to single-network link allocation strategy. Link addition strategies proposed in this paper excel the current strategies, especially for BA interdependent networks. Moreover, our work can provide guidance on how to allocate limited resources to an existing interdependent networks system and optimize its topology to avoid the potential cascade failures.

  2. The Ecological Model Web Concept: A Consultative Infrastructure for Decision Makers and Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, G.; Nativi, S.

    2011-12-01

    Rapid climate and socioeconomic changes may be outrunning society's ability to understand, predict, and respond to change effectively. Decision makers want better information about what these changes will be and how various resources will be affected, while researchers want better understanding of the components and processes of ecological systems, how they interact, and how they respond to change. Although there are many excellent models in ecology and related disciplines, there is only limited coordination among them, and accessible, openly shared models or model systems that can be consulted to gain insight on important ecological questions or assist with decision-making are rare. A "consultative infrastructure" that increased access to and sharing of models and model outputs would benefit decision makers, researchers, as well as modelers. Of course, envisioning such an ambitious system is much easier than building it, but several complementary approaches exist that could contribute. The one discussed here is called the Model Web. This is a concept for an open-ended system of interoperable computer models and databases based on making models and their outputs available as services ("model as a service"). Initially, it might consist of a core of several models from which it could grow gradually as new models or databases were added. However, a model web would not be a monolithic, rigidly planned and built system--instead, like the World Wide Web, it would grow largely organically, with limited central control, within a framework of broad goals and data exchange standards. One difference from the WWW is that a model web is much harder to create, and has more pitfalls, and thus is a long term vision. However, technology, science, observations, and models have advanced enough so that parts of an ecological model web can be built and utilized now, forming a framework for gradual growth as well as a broadly accessible infrastructure. Ultimately, the value of a model

  3. A year 2003 conceptual model for the U.S. telecommunications infrastructure.

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Roger Gary; Reinert, Rhonda K.

    2003-12-01

    To model the telecommunications infrastructure and its role and robustness to shocks, we must characterize the business and engineering of telecommunications systems in the year 2003 and beyond. By analogy to environmental systems modeling, we seek to develop a 'conceptual model' for telecommunications. Here, the conceptual model is a list of high-level assumptions consistent with the economic and engineering architectures of telecommunications suppliers and customers, both today and in the near future. We describe the present engineering architectures of the most popular service offerings, and describe the supplier markets in some detail. We also develop a characterization of the customer base for telecommunications services and project its likely response to disruptions in service, base-lining such conjectures against observed behaviors during 9/11.

  4. Large-scale application of the flood damage model RAilway Infrastructure Loss (RAIL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellermann, Patric; Schönberger, Christine; Thieken, Annegret H.

    2016-11-01

    Experience has shown that river floods can significantly hamper the reliability of railway networks and cause extensive structural damage and disruption. As a result, the national railway operator in Austria had to cope with financial losses of more than EUR 100 million due to flooding in recent years. Comprehensive information on potential flood risk hot spots as well as on expected flood damage in Austria is therefore needed for strategic flood risk management. In view of this, the flood damage model RAIL (RAilway Infrastructure Loss) was applied to estimate (1) the expected structural flood damage and (2) the resulting repair costs of railway infrastructure due to a 30-, 100- and 300-year flood in the Austrian Mur River catchment. The results were then used to calculate the expected annual damage of the railway subnetwork and subsequently analysed in terms of their sensitivity to key model assumptions. Additionally, the impact of risk aversion on the estimates was investigated, and the overall results were briefly discussed against the background of climate change and possibly resulting changes in flood risk. The findings indicate that the RAIL model is capable of supporting decision-making in risk management by providing comprehensive risk information on the catchment level. It is furthermore demonstrated that an increased risk aversion of the railway operator has a marked influence on flood damage estimates for the study area and, hence, should be considered with regard to the development of risk management strategies.

  5. Battery Ownership Model: A Tool for Evaluating the Economics of Electrified Vehicles and Related Infrastructure; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    O'Keefe, M.; Brooker, A.; Johnson, C.; Mendelsohn, M.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2011-01-01

    Electric vehicles could significantly reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and dependence on imported petroleum. However, for mass adoption, EV costs have historically been too high to be competitive with conventional vehicle options due to the high price of batteries, long refuel time, and a lack of charging infrastructure. A number of different technologies and business strategies have been proposed to address some of these cost and utility issues: battery leasing, battery fast-charging stations, battery swap stations, deployment of charge points for opportunity charging, etc. In order to investigate these approaches and compare their merits on a consistent basis, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has developed a new techno-economic model. The model includes nine modules to examine the levelized cost per mile for various types of powertrain and business strategies. The various input parameters such as vehicle type, battery, gasoline, and electricity prices; battery cycle life; driving profile; and infrastructure costs can be varied. In this paper, we discuss the capabilities of the model; describe key modules; give examples of how various assumptions, powertrain configurations, and business strategies impact the cost to the end user; and show the vehicle's levelized cost per mile sensitivity to seven major operational parameters.

  6. Coordinated scheduling of electricity and natural gas infrastructures with a transient model for natural gas flow.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cong; Shahidehpour, Mohammad; Wang, Jianhui

    2011-06-01

    This paper focuses on transient characteristics of natural gas flow in the coordinated scheduling of security-constrained electricity and natural gas infrastructures. The paper takes into account the slow transient process in the natural gas transmission systems. Considering their transient characteristics, natural gas transmission systems are modeled as a set of partial differential equations (PDEs) and algebraic equations. An implicit finite difference method is applied to approximate PDEs by difference equations. The coordinated scheduling of electricity and natural gas systems is described as a bi-level programming formulation from the independent system operator's viewpoint. The objective of the upper-level problem is to minimize the operating cost of electric power systems while the natural gas scheduling optimization problem is nested within the lower-level problem. Numerical examples are presented to verify the effectiveness of the proposed solution and to compare the solutions for steady-state and transient models of natural gas transmission systems.

  7. Towards victim-oriented crime modelling in a social science e-infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Malleson, Nick; Birkin, Mark

    2011-08-28

    The National e-Infrastructure for Social Simulation (NeISS) is a multi-disciplinary collaboration between computation and social science within the UK Digital Social Research programme. The project aims to develop new tools and services for social scientists and planners to assist in performing 'what-if' scenario predictions in a variety of policy contexts. A key part of the NeISS remit is to explore real-world scenarios and evaluate real policy applications. Research into the processes and drivers behind crime is an important application area that has major implications for both improving crime-related policy and developing effective crime prevention strategies. This paper will discuss how the current e-infrastructure and available microsimulation tools can be used to improve an existing agent-based burglary simulation (BurgdSIM) by including a more realistic representation of the victims of crime. Results show that the model produces different spatial patterns when individual-level victim data are used and a risk profile of the synthetic victims suggests which types of people have the largest burglary risk.

  8. Rice in an interdependent world.

    PubMed

    Falck, V T

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the outcome of the increasing need and dependence on rice as an essential food, and the potential hazards of this trajectory in an interdependent world, and to propose the need for a supranational system to guide decisions made in areas of mutual dependency among nations. All rice producing countries of the world should be responsible for assuring sufficient quantities and qualities of rice for the world's population. However, there are hazards related to emphasis on rice yields associated with the neglect of overall nutritional needs and also the potential for environmental impact given the need for sustainable development. Scientific measurement and data analyses of interdependent supranational variables are needed to guide policies and practices to insure conditions for life will be favorable for people everywhere.

  9. Implementing CUAHSI and SWE observation data models in the long-term monitoring infrastructure TERENO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, J. F.; Stender, V.; Schroeder, M.

    2013-12-01

    Terrestrial Environmental Observatories (TERENO) is an interdisciplinary and long-term research project spanning an Earth observation network across Germany. It includes four test sites within Germany from the North German lowlands to the Bavarian Alps and is operated by six research centers of the Helmholtz Association. The contribution by the participating research centers is organized as regional observatories. The challenge for TERENO and its observatories is to integrate all aspects of data management, data workflows, data modeling and visualizations into the design of a monitoring infrastructure. TERENO Northeast is one of the sub-observatories of TERENO and is operated by the German Research Centre for Geosciences GFZ in Potsdam. This observatory investigates geoecological processes in the northeastern lowland of Germany by collecting large amounts of environmentally relevant data. The success of long-term projects like TERENO depends on well-organized data management, data exchange between the partners involved and on the availability of the captured data. Data discovery and dissemination are facilitated not only through data portals of the regional TERENO observatories but also through a common spatial data infrastructure TEODOOR. TEODOOR bundles the data, provided by the different web services of the single observatories, and provides tools for data discovery, visualization and data access. The TERENO Northeast data infrastructure integrates data from more than 200 instruments and makes the data available through standard web services. Data are stored following the CUAHSI observation data model in combination with the 52° North Sensor Observation Service data model. The data model was implemented using the PostgreSQL/PostGIS DBMS. Especially in a long-term project, such as TERENO, care has to be taken in the data model. We chose to adopt the CUAHSI observational data model because it is designed to store observations and descriptive information (metadata

  10. The Conservation Nexus: Valuing Interdependent Water and Energy Savings in Phoenix, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chester, M.; Bartos, M.

    2013-12-01

    Energy and water resources are intrinsically linked, yet they are managed separately--even in the water-scarce American southwest. This study develops a spatially-explicit model of water-energy interdependencies in Arizona, and assesses the potential for co-beneficial conservation programs. Arizona consumes 2.8% of its water demand for thermoelectric power and 8% of its electricity demand for water infrastructure--roughly twice the national average. The interdependent benefits of investments in 7 conservation strategies are assessed. Deployment of irrigation retrofits and new reclaimed water facilities dominate potential water savings, while residential and commercial HVAC improvements dominate energy savings. Water conservation policies have the potential to reduce statewide electricity demand by 1.0-2.9%, satisfying 5-14% of mandated energy-efficiency goals. Likewise, adoption of energy-efficiency measures and renewable generation portfolios can reduce non-agricultural water demand by 2.0-2.6%. These co-benefits of conservation investments are typically not included in conservation plans or benefit-cost analyses. Residential water conservation measures produce significant water and energy savings, but are generally not cost-effective at current water prices. An evaluation of the true cost of water in Arizona would allow future water and energy savings to be compared objectively, and would help policymakers allocate scarce resources to the highest-value conservation measures. Water Transfers between Water Cycle Components in Arizona in 2008 Cumulative embedded energy in water cycle components in Arizona in 2008

  11. The Semi-opened Infrastructure Model (SopIM): A Frame to Set Up an Organizational Learning Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundstein, Michel

    In this paper, we introduce the "Semi-opened Infrastructure Model (SopIM)" implemented to deploy Artificial Intelligence and Knowledge-based Systems within a large industrial company. This model illustrates what could be two of the operating elements of the Model for General Knowledge Management within the Enterprise (MGKME) that are essential to set up the organizational learning process that leads people to appropriate and use concepts, methods and tools of an innovative technology: the "Ad hoc Infrastructures" element, and the "Organizational Learning Processes" element.

  12. Noise-tolerant inverse analysis models for nondestructive evaluation of transportation infrastructure systems using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceylan, Halil; Gopalakrishnan, Kasthurirangan; Birkan Bayrak, Mustafa; Guclu, Alper

    2013-09-01

    The need to rapidly and cost-effectively evaluate the present condition of pavement infrastructure is a critical issue concerning the deterioration of ageing transportation infrastructure all around the world. Nondestructive testing (NDT) and evaluation methods are well-suited for characterising materials and determining structural integrity of pavement systems. The falling weight deflectometer (FWD) is a NDT equipment used to assess the structural condition of highway and airfield pavement systems and to determine the moduli of pavement layers. This involves static or dynamic inverse analysis (referred to as backcalculation) of FWD deflection profiles in the pavement surface under a simulated truck load. The main objective of this study was to employ biologically inspired computational systems to develop robust pavement layer moduli backcalculation algorithms that can tolerate noise or inaccuracies in the FWD deflection data collected in the field. Artificial neural systems, also known as artificial neural networks (ANNs), are valuable computational intelligence tools that are increasingly being used to solve resource-intensive complex engineering problems. Unlike the linear elastic layered theory commonly used in pavement layer backcalculation, non-linear unbound aggregate base and subgrade soil response models were used in an axisymmetric finite element structural analysis programme to generate synthetic database for training and testing the ANN models. In order to develop more robust networks that can tolerate the noisy or inaccurate pavement deflection patterns in the NDT data, several network architectures were trained with varying levels of noise in them. The trained ANN models were capable of rapidly predicting the pavement layer moduli and critical pavement responses (tensile strains at the bottom of the asphalt concrete layer, compressive strains on top of the subgrade layer and the deviator stresses on top of the subgrade layer), and also pavement

  13. Interdependent Catalysts for Transforming Learning Environments ... and the Faculty Who Teach in Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solheim, Catherine; Longo, Bernadette; Cohen, Bradley A.; Dikkers, Amy Garrett

    2010-01-01

    Designers of new, technology-rich, interactive learning environments need to consider the interdependent factors of physical and virtual spaces, faculty, students, and institutional infrastructure to create an effective setting for teaching and learning in higher education settings. At the University of Minnesota, a small group of faculty, staff,…

  14. Human initiated cascading failures in societal infrastructures.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Chris; Channakeshava, Karthik; Huang, Fei; Kim, Junwhan; Marathe, Achla; Marathe, Madhav V; Pei, Guanhong; Saha, Sudip; Subbiah, Balaaji S P; Vullikanti, Anil Kumar S

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we conduct a systematic study of human-initiated cascading failures in three critical inter-dependent societal infrastructures due to behavioral adaptations in response to a crisis. We focus on three closely coupled socio-technical networks here: (i) cellular and mesh networks, (ii) transportation networks and (iii) mobile call networks. In crises, changes in individual behaviors lead to altered travel, activity and calling patterns, which influence the transport network and the loads on wireless networks. The interaction between these systems and their co-evolution poses significant technical challenges for representing and reasoning about these systems. In contrast to system dynamics models for studying these interacting infrastructures, we develop interaction-based models in which individuals and infrastructure elements are represented in detail and are placed in a common geographic coordinate system. Using the detailed representation, we study the impact of a chemical plume that has been released in a densely populated urban region. Authorities order evacuation of the affected area, and this leads to individual behavioral adaptation wherein individuals drop their scheduled activities and drive to home or pre-specified evacuation shelters as appropriate. They also revise their calling behavior to communicate and coordinate among family members. These two behavioral adaptations cause flash-congestion in the urban transport network and the wireless network. The problem is exacerbated with a few, already occurring, road closures. We analyze how extended periods of unanticipated road congestion can result in failure of infrastructures, starting with the servicing base stations in the congested area. A sensitivity analysis on the compliance rate of evacuees shows non-intuitive effect on the spatial distribution of people and on the loading of the base stations. For example, an evacuation compliance rate of 70% results in higher number of overloaded

  15. Human Initiated Cascading Failures in Societal Infrastructures

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Chris; Channakeshava, Karthik; Huang, Fei; Kim, Junwhan; Marathe, Achla; Marathe, Madhav V.; Pei, Guanhong; Saha, Sudip; Subbiah, Balaaji S. P.; Vullikanti, Anil Kumar S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we conduct a systematic study of human-initiated cascading failures in three critical inter-dependent societal infrastructures due to behavioral adaptations in response to a crisis. We focus on three closely coupled socio-technical networks here: (i) cellular and mesh networks, (ii) transportation networks and (iii) mobile call networks. In crises, changes in individual behaviors lead to altered travel, activity and calling patterns, which influence the transport network and the loads on wireless networks. The interaction between these systems and their co-evolution poses significant technical challenges for representing and reasoning about these systems. In contrast to system dynamics models for studying these interacting infrastructures, we develop interaction-based models in which individuals and infrastructure elements are represented in detail and are placed in a common geographic coordinate system. Using the detailed representation, we study the impact of a chemical plume that has been released in a densely populated urban region. Authorities order evacuation of the affected area, and this leads to individual behavioral adaptation wherein individuals drop their scheduled activities and drive to home or pre-specified evacuation shelters as appropriate. They also revise their calling behavior to communicate and coordinate among family members. These two behavioral adaptations cause flash-congestion in the urban transport network and the wireless network. The problem is exacerbated with a few, already occurring, road closures. We analyze how extended periods of unanticipated road congestion can result in failure of infrastructures, starting with the servicing base stations in the congested area. A sensitivity analysis on the compliance rate of evacuees shows non-intuitive effect on the spatial distribution of people and on the loading of the base stations. For example, an evacuation compliance rate of 70% results in higher number of overloaded

  16. Interdependent Lattice Networks in High Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowinger, Steven; Cwilich, Gabriel; Buldyrev, Sergey

    We study the mutual percolation of two interdependent lattice networks following the procedure outlined by Buldyrev et al 1 . We studied lattices of dimensions 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6. We imposed that the length of interdependent links connecting the nodes from one lattice to the other be less than a certain value, r. We find that for each dimension, D <6, there is a value of r =rI >1 such that for r >=rI, the cascading failures occur as a discontinuous first order transition, while for r model become identical to those of RR graphs. We found that in all dimensions the maximal vulnerability of the networks, as a function of r , is achieved at a distance of r =rmax >rI, but forr >rmax the vulnerability starts to decrease as r --> ∞ . However, the decrease becomes less significant as the dimension increases and becomes negligible for D = 6. Results on how the parameters of the transition scale with the size of the system will be presented. [1] Catastrophic cascade of failures in interdependent networks, Buldyrev, Parshani, Paul, Stanley& Havlin, Nature, 464, 1025-1028 (15 April 2010)

  17. The Kiel data management infrastructure - arising from a generic data model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischer, D.; Mehrtens, H.; Schirnick, C.; Springer, P.

    2010-12-01

    The Kiel Data Management Infrastructure (KDMI) started from a cooperation of three large-scale projects (SFB574, SFB754 and Cluster of Excellence The Future Ocean) and the Leibniz Institute of Marine Sciences (IFM-GEOMAR). The common strategy for project data management is a single person collecting and transforming data according to the requirements of the targeted data center(s). The intention of the KDMI cooperation is to avoid redundant and potentially incompatible data management efforts for scientists and data managers and to create a single sustainable infrastructure. An increased level of complexity in the conceptual planing arose from the diversity of marine disciplines and approximately 1000 scientists involved. KDMI key features focus on the data provenance which we consider to comprise the entire workflow from field sampling thru labwork to data calculation and evaluation. Managing the data of each individual project participant in this way yields the data management for the entire project and warrants the reusability of (meta)data. Accordingly scientists provide a workflow definition of their data creation procedures resulting in their target variables. The central idea in the development of the KDMI presented here is based on the object oriented programming concept which allows to have one object definition (workflow) and infinite numbers of object instances (data). Each definition is created by a graphical user interface and produces XML output stored in a database using a generic data model. On creation of a data instance the KDMI translates the definition into web forms for the scientist, the generic data model then accepts all information input following the given data provenance definition. An important aspect of the implementation phase is the possibility of a successive transition from daily measurement routines resulting in single spreadsheet files with well known points of failure and limited reuseability to a central infrastructure as a

  18. Urban Stormwater Management Model and Tools for Designing Stormwater Management of Green Infrastructure Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haris, H.; Chow, M. F.; Usman, F.; Sidek, L. M.; Roseli, Z. A.; Norlida, M. D.

    2016-03-01

    Urbanization is growing rapidly in Malaysia. Rapid urbanization has known to have several negative impacts towards hydrological cycle due to decreasing of pervious area and deterioration of water quality in stormwater runoff. One of the negative impacts of urbanization is the congestion of the stormwater drainage system and this situation leading to flash flood problem and water quality degradation. There are many urban stormwater management softwares available in the market such as Storm Water Drainage System design and analysis program (DRAINS), Urban Drainage and Sewer Model (MOUSE), InfoWorks River Simulation (InfoWork RS), Hydrological Simulation Program-Fortran (HSPF), Distributed Routing Rainfall-Runoff Model (DR3M), Storm Water Management Model (SWMM), XP Storm Water Management Model (XPSWMM), MIKE-SWMM, Quality-Quantity Simulators (QQS), Storage, Treatment, Overflow, Runoff Model (STORM), and Hydrologic Engineering Centre-Hydrologic Modelling System (HEC-HMS). In this paper, we are going to discuss briefly about several softwares and their functionality, accessibility, characteristics and components in the quantity analysis of the hydrological design software and compare it with MSMA Design Aid and Database. Green Infrastructure (GI) is one of the main topics that has widely been discussed all over the world. Every development in the urban area is related to GI. GI can be defined as green area build in the develop area such as forest, park, wetland or floodway. The role of GI is to improve life standard such as water filtration or flood control. Among the twenty models that have been compared to MSMA SME, ten models were selected to conduct a comprehensive review for this study. These are known to be widely accepted by water resource researchers. These ten tools are further classified into three major categories as models that address the stormwater management ability of GI in terms of quantity and quality, models that have the capability of conducting the

  19. Direct and indirect effects of commitment on interdependence and satisfaction in married couples.

    PubMed

    Givertz, Michelle; Segrin, Chris; Woszidlo, Alesia

    2016-03-01

    This study tested the prediction that an individual's marital commitment would be positively associated with their own and their partner's marital satisfaction, and that one's own marital interdependence would be associated with one's own marital satisfaction. It also tested the prediction that there would be an indirect effect of marital commitment on marital satisfaction through higher marital interdependence for both the individual and the partner. Predictions were tested on 628 married couples. Overall, results were consistent with predictions. Tests of actor-partner interdependence mediation models revealed direct effects of marital commitment on marital satisfaction for both husbands and wives. Wives' commitment was also directly associated with husbands' marital interdependence and marital satisfaction, but husbands' commitment was not significantly associated with wives' interdependence or satisfaction. For both husbands and wives, their own marital interdependence was significantly associated with their own marital satisfaction. These same tests revealed indirect effects of marital commitment on marital satisfaction through higher marital interdependence for both husbands and wives individually. There was also an indirect effect of wives' commitment on husbands' marital satisfaction through wives' higher marital interdependence. These results are consistent with interdependence theory and the investment model of commitment.

  20. The extreme vulnerability of interdependent spatially embedded networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashan, Amir; Berezin, Yehiel; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Havlin, Shlomo

    2013-10-01

    Recent studies show that in interdependent networks a very small failure in one network may lead to catastrophic consequences. Above a critical fraction of interdependent nodes, even a single node failure can invoke cascading failures that may abruptly fragment the system, whereas below this critical dependency a failure of a few nodes leads only to a small amount of damage to the system. So far, research has focused on interdependent random networks without space limitations. However, many real systems, such as power grids and the Internet, are not random but are spatially embedded. Here we analytically and numerically study the stability of interdependent spatially embedded networks modelled as lattice networks. Surprisingly, we find that in lattice systems, in contrast to non-embedded systems, there is no critical dependency and any small fraction of interdependent nodes leads to an abrupt collapse. We show that this extreme vulnerability of very weakly coupled lattices is a consequence of the critical exponent describing the percolation transition of a single lattice.

  1. SCEC Community Modeling Environment (SCEC/CME) - Seismic Hazard Analysis Applications and Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maechling, P. J.; Jordan, T. H.; Kesselman, C.; Moore, R.; Minster, B.; SCEC ITR Collaboration

    2003-12-01

    The Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) has formed a Geoscience/IT partnership to develop an advanced information infrastructure for system-level earthquake science in Southern California. This SCEC/ITR partnership comprises SCEC, USC's Information Sciences Institute (ISI), the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC), the Incorporated Institutions for Research in Seismology (IRIS), and the U.S. Geological Survey. This collaboration recently completed the second year in a five-year National Science Foundation (NSF) funded ITR project called the SCEC Community Modeling Environment (SCEC/CME). The goal of the SCEC/CME is to develop seismological applications and information technology (IT) infrastructure to support the development of Seismic Hazard Analysis (SHA) programs and other geophysical simulations. The SHA application programs developed by project collaborators include a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis system called OpenSHA [Field et al., this meeting]. OpenSHA computational elements that are currently available include a collection of attenuation relationships, and several Earthquake Rupture Forecasts (ERF's). Geophysicists in the collaboration have also developed Anelastic Wave Models (AWMs) using both finite-difference and finite-element approaches. Earthquake simulations using these codes have been run for a variety of earthquake sources. A Rupture Dynamic Model (RDM) has also been developed that couples a rupture dynamics simulation into an anelastic wave model. The collaboration has also developed IT software and hardware infrastructure to support the development, execution, and analysis of SHA programs. To support computationally expensive simulations, we have constructed a grid-based system utilizing Globus software [Kesselman et al., this meeting]. Using the SCEC grid, project collaborators can submit computations from the SCEC/CME servers to High Performance Computers at USC, NPACI and Teragrid High Performance Computing Centers. We have

  2. Modeling complexity in engineered infrastructure system: Water distribution network as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Fang; Li, Xiang; Li, Ke

    2017-02-01

    The complex topology and adaptive behavior of infrastructure systems are driven by both self-organization of the demand and rigid engineering solutions. Therefore, engineering complex systems requires a method balancing holism and reductionism. To model the growth of water distribution networks, a complex network model was developed following the combination of local optimization rules and engineering considerations. The demand node generation is dynamic and follows the scaling law of urban growth. The proposed model can generate a water distribution network (WDN) similar to reported real-world WDNs on some structural properties. Comparison with different modeling approaches indicates that a realistic demand node distribution and co-evolvement of demand node and network are important for the simulation of real complex networks. The simulation results indicate that the efficiency of water distribution networks is exponentially affected by the urban growth pattern. On the contrary, the improvement of efficiency by engineering optimization is limited and relatively insignificant. The redundancy and robustness, on another aspect, can be significantly improved through engineering methods.

  3. Paradigm Shift in Data Content and Informatics Infrastructure Required for Generalized Constitutive Modeling of Materials Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, S. M.

    2006-01-01

    Materials property information such as composition and thermophysical/mechanical properties abound in the literature. Oftentimes, however, the corresponding response curves from which these data are determined are missing or at the very least difficult to retrieve. Further, the paradigm for collecting materials property information has historically centered on (1) properties for materials comparison/selection purposes and (2) input requirements for conventional design/analysis methods. However, just as not all materials are alike or equal, neither are all constitutive models (and thus design/ analysis methods) equal; each model typically has its own specific and often unique required materials parameters, some directly measurable and others indirectly measurable. Therefore, the type and extent of materials information routinely collected is not always sufficient to meet the current, much less future, needs of the materials modeling community. Informatics has been defined as the science concerned with gathering, manipulating, storing, retrieving, and classifying recorded information. A key aspect of informatics is its focus on understanding problems and applying information technology as needed to address those problems. The primary objective of this article is to highlight the need for a paradigm shift in materials data collection, analysis, and dissemination so as to maximize the impact on both practitioners and researchers. Our hope is to identify and articulate what constitutes "sufficient" data content (i.e., quality and quantity) for developing, characterizing, and validating sophisticated nonlinear time- and history-dependent (hereditary) constitutive models. Likewise, the informatics infrastructure required for handling the potentially massive amounts of materials data will be discussed.

  4. Redundant Interdependencies Boost the Robustness of Multiplex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radicchi, Filippo; Bianconi, Ginestra

    2017-01-01

    In the analysis of the robustness of multiplex networks, it is commonly assumed that a node is functioning only if its interdependent nodes are simultaneously functioning. According to this model, a multiplex network becomes more and more fragile as the number of layers increases. In this respect, the addition of a new layer of interdependent nodes to a preexisting multiplex network will never improve its robustness. Whereas such a model seems appropriate to understand the effect of interdependencies in the simplest scenario of a network composed of only two layers, it may seem unsuitable to characterize the robustness of real systems formed by multiple network layers. In fact, it seems unrealistic that a real system evolved, through the development of multiple layers of interactions, towards a fragile structure. In this paper, we introduce a model of percolation where the condition that makes a node functional is that the node is functioning in at least two of the layers of the network. The model reduces to the commonly adopted percolation model for multiplex networks when the number of layers equals two. a larger number of layers, however, the model describes a scenario where the addition of new layers boosts the robustness of the system by creating redundant interdependencies among layers. We prove this fact thanks to the development of a message-passing theory that is able to characterize the model in both synthetic and real-world multiplex graphs.

  5. WC WAVE - Integrating Diverse Hydrological-Modeling Data and Services Into an Interoperable Geospatial Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudspeth, W. B.; Baros, S.; Barrett, H.; Savickas, J.; Erickson, J.

    2015-12-01

    WC WAVE (Western Consortium for Watershed Analysis, Visualization and Exploration) is a collaborative research project between the states of Idaho, Nevada, and New Mexico that is funded under the National Science Foundation's Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (EPSCoR). The goal of the project is to understand and document the effects of climate change on interactions between precipitation, vegetation growth, soil moisture and other landscape properties. These interactions are modeled within a framework we refer to as a virtual watershed (VW), a computer infrastructure that simulates watershed dynamics by linking scientific modeling, visualization, and data management components into a coherent whole. Developed and hosted at the Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico, the virtual watershed has a number of core functions which include: a) streamlined access to data required for model initialization and boundary conditions; b) the development of analytic scenarios through interactive visualization of available data and the storage of model configuration options; c) coupling of hydrological models through the rapid assimilation of model outputs into the data management system for access and use by sequent models. The WC-WAVE virtual watershed accomplishes these functions by provision of large-scale vector and raster data discovery, subsetting, and delivery via Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and REST web service standards. Central to the virtual watershed is the design and use of an innovative array of metadata elements that permits the stepwise coupling of diverse hydrological models (e.g. ISNOBAL, PRMS, CASiMiR) and input data to rapidly assess variation in outcomes under different climatic conditions. We present details on the architecture and functionality of the virtual watershed, results from three western U.S. watersheds, and discuss the realized benefits to watershed science of employing this integrated solution.

  6. Quantitative physical models of volcanic phenomena for hazards assessment of critical infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic hazards may have destructive effects on economy, transport, and natural environments at both local and regional scale. Hazardous phenomena include pyroclastic density currents, tephra fall, gas emissions, lava flows, debris flows and avalanches, and lahars. Volcanic hazards assessment is based on available information to characterize potential volcanic sources in the region of interest and to determine whether specific volcanic phenomena might reach a given site. Volcanic hazards assessment is focussed on estimating the distances that volcanic phenomena could travel from potential sources and their intensity at the considered site. Epistemic and aleatory uncertainties strongly affect the resulting hazards assessment. Within the context of critical infrastructures, volcanic eruptions are rare natural events that can create severe hazards. In addition to being rare events, evidence of many past volcanic eruptions is poorly preserved in the geologic record. The models used for describing the impact of volcanic phenomena generally represent a range of model complexities, from simplified physics based conceptual models to highly coupled thermo fluid dynamical approaches. Modelling approaches represent a hierarchy of complexity, which reflects increasing requirements for well characterized data in order to produce a broader range of output information. In selecting models for the hazard analysis related to a specific phenomenon, questions that need to be answered by the models must be carefully considered. Independently of the model, the final hazards assessment strongly depends on input derived from detailed volcanological investigations, such as mapping and stratigraphic correlations. For each phenomenon, an overview of currently available approaches for the evaluation of future hazards will be presented with the aim to provide a foundation for future work in developing an international consensus on volcanic hazards assessment methods.

  7. Critical infrastructure protection decision support system decision model : overview and quick-start user's guide.

    SciTech Connect

    Samsa, M.; Van Kuiken, J.; Jusko, M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-12-01

    The Critical Infrastructure Protection Decision Support System Decision Model (CIPDSS-DM) is a useful tool for comparing the effectiveness of alternative risk-mitigation strategies on the basis of CIPDSS consequence scenarios. The model is designed to assist analysts and policy makers in evaluating and selecting the most effective risk-mitigation strategies, as affected by the importance assigned to various impact measures and the likelihood of an incident. A typical CIPDSS-DM decision map plots the relative preference of alternative risk-mitigation options versus the annual probability of an undesired incident occurring once during the protective life of the investment, assumed to be 20 years. The model also enables other types of comparisons, including a decision map that isolates a selected impact variable and displays the relative preference for the options of interest--parameterized on the basis of the contribution of the isolated variable to total impact, as well as the likelihood of the incident. Satisfaction/regret analysis further assists the analyst or policy maker in evaluating the confidence with which one option can be selected over another.

  8. Development of an informatics infrastructure for data exchange of biomolecular simulations: architecture, data models and ontology$

    PubMed Central

    Thibault, J. C.; Roe, D. R.; Eilbeck, K.; Cheatham, T. E.; Facelli, J. C.

    2015-01-01

    Biomolecular simulations aim to simulate structure, dynamics, interactions, and energetics of complex biomolecular systems. With the recent advances in hardware, it is now possible to use more complex and accurate models, but also reach time scales that are biologically significant. Molecular simulations have become a standard tool for toxicology and pharmacology research, but organizing and sharing data – both within the same organization and among different ones – remains a substantial challenge. In this paper we review our recent work leading to the development of a comprehensive informatics infrastructure to facilitate the organization and exchange of biomolecular simulations data. Our efforts include the design of data models and dictionary tools that allow the standardization of the metadata used to describe the biomedical simulations, the development of a thesaurus and ontology for computational reasoning when searching for biomolecular simulations in distributed environments, and the development of systems based on these models to manage and share the data at a large scale (iBIOMES), and within smaller groups of researchers at laboratory scale (iBIOMES Lite), that take advantage of the standardization of the meta data used to describe biomolecular simulations. PMID:26387907

  9. Battery Ownership Model: A Tool for Evaluating the Economics of Electrified Vehicles and Related Infrastructure (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    O'Keefe, M.; Brooker, A.; Johnson, C.; Mendelsohn, M.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2010-11-01

    This presentation uses a vehicle simulator and economics model called the Battery Ownership Model to examine the levelized cost per mile of conventional (CV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) in comparison with the cost to operate an electric vehicle (EV) under a service provider business model. The service provider is assumed to provide EV infrastructure such as charge points and swap stations to allow an EV with a 100-mile range to operate with driving profiles equivalent to CVs and HEVs. Battery cost, fuel price forecast, battery life, and other variables are examined to determine under what scenarios the levelized cost of an EV with a service provider can approach that of a CV. Scenarios in both the United States as an average and Hawaii are examined. The levelized cost of operating an EV with a service provider under average U.S. conditions is approximately twice the cost of operating a small CV. If battery cost and life can be improved, in this study the cost of an EV drops to under 1.5 times the cost of a CV for U.S. average conditions. In Hawaii, the same EV is only slightly more expensive to operate than a CV.

  10. Triple point in correlated interdependent networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdez, L. D.; Macri, P. A.; Stanley, H. E.; Braunstein, L. A.

    2013-11-01

    Many real-world networks depend on other networks, often in nontrivial ways, to maintain their functionality. These interdependent “networks of networks” are often extremely fragile. When a fraction 1-p of nodes in one network randomly fails, the damage propagates to nodes in networks that are interdependent and a dynamic failure cascade occurs that affects the entire system. We present dynamic equations for two interdependent networks that allow us to reproduce the failure cascade for an arbitrary pattern of interdependency. We study the “rich club” effect found in many real interdependent network systems in which the high-degree nodes are extremely interdependent, correlating a fraction α of the higher-degree nodes on each network. We find a rich phase diagram in the plane p-α, with a triple point reminiscent of the triple point of liquids that separates a nonfunctional phase from two functional phases.

  11. A screening methodology for the identification and ranking of infrastructure vulnerabilities due to terrorism.

    PubMed

    Apostolakis, George E; Lemon, Douglas M

    2005-04-01

    The extreme importance of critical infrastructures to modern society is widely recognized. These infrastructures are complex and interdependent. Protecting the critical infrastructures from terrorism presents an enormous challenge. Recognizing that society cannot afford the costs associated with absolute protection, it is necessary to identify and prioritize the vulnerabilities in these infrastructures. This article presents a methodology for the identification and prioritization of vulnerabilities in infrastructures. We model the infrastructures as interconnected digraphs and employ graph theory to identify the candidate vulnerable scenarios. These scenarios are screened for the susceptibility of their elements to a terrorist attack, and a prioritized list of vulnerabilities is produced. The prioritization methodology is based on multiattribute utility theory. The impact of losing infrastructure services is evaluated using a value tree that reflects the perceptions and values of the decisionmaker and the relevant stakeholders. These results, which are conditional on a specified threat, are provided to the decisionmaker for use in risk management. The methodology is illustrated through the presentation of a portion of the analysis conducted on the campus of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

  12. The robustness of interdependent clustered networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xuqing; Shao, Shuai; Wang, Huijuan; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

    2013-01-01

    It was recently found that cascading failures can cause the abrupt breakdown of a system of interdependent networks. Using the percolation method developed for single clustered networks by Newman (Phys. Rev. Lett., 103 (2009) 058701), we develop an analytical method for studying how clustering within the networks of a system of interdependent networks affects the system's robustness. We find that clustering significantly increases the vulnerability of the system, which is represented by the increased value of the percolation threshold pc in interdependent networks.

  13. Comparison of WinSLAMM Modeled Results with Monitored Bioinfiltration Data during Kansas City Green Infrastructure Demonstration Project

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Services Department (WSD) in Kansas City, Missouri (KCMO) has conducted extensive modeling and economic studies of its combined sewer system (CSS) over the last several years. A number of green infrastructure (GI) solutions were identified and constructed to reduce dis...

  14. The ISB model (infrastructure, service, behaviour): a tool for waste practitioners.

    PubMed

    Timlett, R; Williams, I D

    2011-06-01

    In response to the EU Landfill Directive and the challenge of mitigating climate change, the UK government (nationally and locally) must develop strategies and policies to reduce, recycle, compost and recover waste. Best practice services that yield high recycling rates, such as alternate weekly collections, are now largely mainstream in suitable areas. However, national recycling performance is short of what is needed; policy makers must look for innovative ways to meet challenging recycling targets. Increasingly, local authorities are using behaviour change interventions to encourage the public to recycle; these tend to be based on the premise that an individuals' behaviour is predetermined by their values. In practice, this has led to a host of initiatives that attempt to change individuals' behaviour without addressing situational barriers. In this paper, we argue that that a behaviour-centric approach has limited effectiveness. Using an analysis of the literature and studies that investigated recycling participation in the city of Portsmouth, we have identified three significant clusters that can facilitate effective recycling: infrastructure, service and behaviour (ISB). We present the ISB model - a tool that can be used by waste practitioners when planning interventions to maximise recycling to better understand the situation and context for behaviour. Analysis using the ISB model suggests that current best practice, "business as usual" interventions could realistically achieve a national recycling rate of 50%. If the UK is to move towards zero waste, policy makers must look "upstream" for interventions that change the situational landscape.

  15. Freva - Freie Univ Evaluation System Framework for Scientific Infrastructures in Earth System Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadow, Christopher; Illing, Sebastian; Kunst, Oliver; Schartner, Thomas; Kirchner, Ingo; Rust, Henning W.; Cubasch, Ulrich; Ulbrich, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    The Freie Univ Evaluation System Framework (Freva - freva.met.fu-berlin.de) is a software infrastructure for standardized data and tool solutions in Earth system science. Freva runs on high performance computers to handle customizable evaluation systems of research projects, institutes or universities. It combines different software technologies into one common hybrid infrastructure, including all features present in the shell and web environment. The database interface satisfies the international standards provided by the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF). Freva indexes different data projects into one common search environment by storing the meta data information of the self-describing model, reanalysis and observational data sets in a database. This implemented meta data system with its advanced but easy-to-handle search tool supports users, developers and their plugins to retrieve the required information. A generic application programming interface (API) allows scientific developers to connect their analysis tools with the evaluation system independently of the programming language used. Users of the evaluation techniques benefit from the common interface of the evaluation system without any need to understand the different scripting languages. Facilitation of the provision and usage of tools and climate data automatically increases the number of scientists working with the data sets and identifying discrepancies. The integrated web-shell (shellinabox) adds a degree of freedom in the choice of the working environment and can be used as a gate to the research projects HPC. Plugins are able to integrate their e.g. post-processed results into the database of the user. This allows e.g. post-processing plugins to feed statistical analysis plugins, which fosters an active exchange between plugin developers of a research project. Additionally, the history and configuration sub-system stores every analysis performed with the evaluation system in a database

  16. Scaling wetland green infrastructure?practices to watersheds using modeling approaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green infrastructure practices are typically implemented at the plot or local scale. Wetlands in the landscape can serve important functions at these scales and can mediate biogeochemical and hydrological processes, particularly when juxtaposed with low impact development (LID)....

  17. Strategic preparedness for recovery from catastrophic risks to communities and infrastructure systems of systems.

    PubMed

    Haimes, Yacov Y

    2012-11-01

    Natural and human-induced disasters affect organizations in myriad ways because of the inherent interconnectedness and interdependencies among human, cyber, and physical infrastructures, but more importantly, because organizations depend on the effectiveness of people and on the leadership they provide to the organizations they serve and represent. These human-organizational-cyber-physical infrastructure entities are termed systems of systems. Given the multiple perspectives that characterize them, they cannot be modeled effectively with a single model. The focus of this article is: (i) the centrality of the states of a system in modeling; (ii) the efficacious role of shared states in modeling systems of systems, in identification, and in the meta-modeling of systems of systems; and (iii) the contributions of the above to strategic preparedness, response to, and recovery from catastrophic risk to such systems. Strategic preparedness connotes a decision-making process and its associated actions. These must be: implemented in advance of a natural or human-induced disaster, aimed at reducing consequences (e.g., recovery time, community suffering, and cost), and/or controlling their likelihood to a level considered acceptable (through the decisionmakers' implicit and explicit acceptance of various risks and tradeoffs). The inoperability input-output model (IIM), which is grounded on Leontief's input/output model, has enabled the modeling of interdependent subsystems. Two separate modeling structures are introduced. These are: phantom system models (PSM), where shared states constitute the essence of modeling coupled systems; and the IIM, where interdependencies among sectors of the economy are manifested by the Leontief matrix of technological coefficients. This article demonstrates the potential contributions of these two models to each other, and thus to more informative modeling of systems of systems schema. The contributions of shared states to this modeling and to

  18. Application of a multilevel access model in the development of a security infrastructure for a clinical information system.

    PubMed Central

    Henkind, S. J.; Orlowski, J. M.; Skarulis, P. C.

    1993-01-01

    A number of security models including the military model, the Institute of Medicine model, and the matrix model have been utilized, or proposed, for protecting clinical information systems. These models have a number of limitations, however, and of particular concern, they focus on security as opposed to access. In this paper we describe a multilevel access model which can overcome some of these limitations. This model is currently being utilized in the development of an improved security infrastructure for a clinical information system. PMID:8130553

  19. ARMA modelled time-series classification for structural health monitoring of civil infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter Carden, E.; Brownjohn, James M. W.

    2008-02-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) is the subject of a great deal of ongoing research leading to the capability that reliable remote monitoring of civil infrastructure would allow a shift from schedule-based to condition-based maintenance strategies. The first stage in such a system would be the indication of an extraordinary change in the structure's behaviour. A statistical classification algorithm is presented here which is based on analysis of a structure's response in the time domain. The time-series responses are fitted with Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) models and the ARMA coefficients are fed to the classifier. The classifier is capable of learning in an unsupervised manner and of forming new classes when the structural response exhibits change. The approach is demonstrated with experimental data from the IASC-ASCE benchmark four-storey frame structure, the Z24 bridge and the Malaysia-Singapore Second Link bridge. The classifier is found to be capable of identifying structural change in all cases and of forming distinct classes corresponding to different structural states in most cases.

  20. Green Infrastructure Design Based on Spatial Conservation Prioritization and Modeling of Biodiversity Features and Ecosystem Services.

    PubMed

    Snäll, Tord; Lehtomäki, Joona; Arponen, Anni; Elith, Jane; Moilanen, Atte

    2016-02-01

    There is high-level political support for the use of green infrastructure (GI) across Europe, to maintain viable populations and to provide ecosystem services (ES). Even though GI is inherently a spatial concept, the modern tools for spatial planning have not been recognized, such as in the recent European Environment Agency (EEA) report. We outline a toolbox of methods useful for GI design that explicitly accounts for biodiversity and ES. Data on species occurrence, habitats, and environmental variables are increasingly available via open-access internet platforms. Such data can be synthesized by statistical species distribution modeling, producing maps of biodiversity features. These, together with maps of ES, can form the basis for GI design. We argue that spatial conservation prioritization (SCP) methods are effective tools for GI design, as the overall SCP goal is cost-effective allocation of conservation efforts. Corridors are currently promoted by the EEA as the means for implementing GI design, but they typically target the needs of only a subset of the regional species pool. SCP methods would help to ensure that GI provides a balanced solution for the requirements of many biodiversity features (e.g., species, habitat types) and ES simultaneously in a cost-effective manner. Such tools are necessary to make GI into an operational concept for combating biodiversity loss and promoting ES.

  1. Green Infrastructure Design Based on Spatial Conservation Prioritization and Modeling of Biodiversity Features and Ecosystem Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snäll, Tord; Lehtomäki, Joona; Arponen, Anni; Elith, Jane; Moilanen, Atte

    2016-02-01

    There is high-level political support for the use of green infrastructure (GI) across Europe, to maintain viable populations and to provide ecosystem services (ES). Even though GI is inherently a spatial concept, the modern tools for spatial planning have not been recognized, such as in the recent European Environment Agency (EEA) report. We outline a toolbox of methods useful for GI design that explicitly accounts for biodiversity and ES. Data on species occurrence, habitats, and environmental variables are increasingly available via open-access internet platforms. Such data can be synthesized by statistical species distribution modeling, producing maps of biodiversity features. These, together with maps of ES, can form the basis for GI design. We argue that spatial conservation prioritization (SCP) methods are effective tools for GI design, as the overall SCP goal is cost-effective allocation of conservation efforts. Corridors are currently promoted by the EEA as the means for implementing GI design, but they typically target the needs of only a subset of the regional species pool. SCP methods would help to ensure that GI provides a balanced solution for the requirements of many biodiversity features (e.g., species, habitat types) and ES simultaneously in a cost-effective manner. Such tools are necessary to make GI into an operational concept for combating biodiversity loss and promoting ES.

  2. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment Model for Soil Bioengineering Measures on Infrastructure Slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoerbinger, Stephan; Obriejetan, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Soil bioengineering techniques can be a helpful instrument for civil engineers taking into account not only technical but also ecological, socio-economic and sustainability aspects. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) models can serve as supplementary evaluation methods to economic analyses, taking into account the resource demand and environmental burdens of engineering structures. The presented LCA model includes the functional grade of structures in addition to environmental aspects. When using vegetation as living construction material, several factors have to be considered. There is the provision of ecosystem services of plants, such as the stabilization of the slope through its root-system, CO2 sequestration through biomass production et cetera. However, it must be noted that vegetation can cause security issues on infrastructure facilities and entail costs through the necessity of maintenance works. For this reason, it is necessary to already define the target systems during the planning phase of a soil bioengineering structure. In this way, necessary measures can be adapted in all life cycles of a structure. The objective of the presented LCA model is to serve as a basis for the definition of target systems. In the designed LCA model the soil bioengineering structures are divided into four life phases; construction phase, operational phase, end of life phase and subsequent use phase. A main objective of the LCA model is the understanding of the "Cumulative Energy Demand" (CED) and "Global Warming Potential" (GWP) of soil bioengineering structures during all life cycle phases. Additionally, the biomass production and the CO2 sequestration potential of the used plants are regarded as well as the functional integrity of the soil bioengineering system. In the life phase of soil bioengineering structures, a major part of the energy input is required during the construction phase. This is mainly due to the cumulative energy demand of the inert materials

  3. Modeling the demand reduction input-output (I-O) inoperability due to terrorism of interconnected infrastructures.

    PubMed

    Santos, Joost R; Haimes, Yacov Y

    2004-12-01

    Interdependency analysis in the context of this article is a process of assessing and managing risks inherent in a system of interconnected entities (e.g., infrastructures or industry sectors). Invoking the principles of input-output (I-O) and decomposition analysis, the article offers a framework for describing how terrorism-induced perturbations can propagate due to interconnectedness. Data published by the Bureau of Economic Analysis Division of the U.S. Department of Commerce is utilized to present applications to serve as test beds for the proposed framework. Specifically, a case study estimating the economic impact of airline demand perturbations to national-level U.S. sectors is made possible using I-O matrices. A ranking of the affected sectors according to their vulnerability to perturbations originating from a primary sector (e.g., air transportation) can serve as important input to risk management. For example, limited resources can be prioritized for the "top-n" sectors that are perceived to suffer the greatest economic losses due to terrorism. In addition, regional decomposition via location quotients enables the analysis of local-level terrorism events. The Regional I-O Multiplier System II (RIMS II) Division of the U.S. Department of Commerce is the agency responsible for releasing the regional multipliers for various geographical resolutions (economic areas, states, and counties). A regional-level case study demonstrates a process of estimating the economic impact of transportation-related scenarios on industry sectors within Economic Area 010 (the New York metropolitan region and vicinities).

  4. TRENT2D WG: a smart web infrastructure for debris-flow modelling and hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorzi, Nadia; Rosatti, Giorgio; Zugliani, Daniel; Rizzi, Alessandro; Piffer, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Mountain regions are naturally exposed to geomorphic flows, which involve large amounts of sediments and induce significant morphological modifications. The physical complexity of this class of phenomena represents a challenging issue for modelling, leading to elaborate theoretical frameworks and sophisticated numerical techniques. In general, geomorphic-flows models proved to be valid tools in hazard assessment and management. However, model complexity seems to represent one of the main obstacles to the diffusion of advanced modelling tools between practitioners and stakeholders, although the UE Flood Directive (2007/60/EC) requires risk management and assessment to be based on "best practices and best available technologies". Furthermore, several cutting-edge models are not particularly user-friendly and multiple stand-alone software are needed to pre- and post-process modelling data. For all these reasons, users often resort to quicker and rougher approaches, leading possibly to unreliable results. Therefore, some effort seems to be necessary to overcome these drawbacks, with the purpose of supporting and encouraging a widespread diffusion of the most reliable, although sophisticated, modelling tools. With this aim, this work presents TRENT2D WG, a new smart modelling solution for the state-of-the-art model TRENT2D (Armanini et al., 2009, Rosatti and Begnudelli, 2013), which simulates debris flows and hyperconcentrated flows adopting a two-phase description over a mobile bed. TRENT2D WG is a web infrastructure joining advantages offered by the software-delivering model SaaS (Software as a Service) and by WebGIS technology and hosting a complete and user-friendly working environment for modelling. In order to develop TRENT2D WG, the model TRENT2D was converted into a service and exposed on a cloud server, transferring computational burdens from the user hardware to a high-performing server and reducing computational time. Then, the system was equipped with an

  5. Enhancing resilience of interdependent networks by healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stippinger, Marcell; Kertész, János

    2014-12-01

    Interdependent networks are characterized by two kinds of interactions: The usual connectivity links within each network and the dependency links coupling nodes of different networks. Due to the latter links such networks are known to suffer from cascading failures and catastrophic breakdowns. When modeling these phenomena, usually one assumes that a fraction of nodes gets damaged in one of the networks, which is followed possibly by a cascade of failures. In real life the initiating failures do not occur at once and effort is made to replace the ties eliminated due to the failing nodes. Here we study a dynamic extension of the model of interdependent networks and introduce the possibility of link formation with a probability w, called healing, to bridge non-functioning nodes and enhance network resilience. A single random node is removed, which may initiate an avalanche. After each removal step healing starts resulting in a new topology. Then a new node fails and the process continues until the giant component disappears either in a catastrophic breakdown or in a smooth transition. Simulation results are presented for square lattices as starting networks under random attacks of constant intensity. We find that the shift in the position of the breakdown has a power-law scaling as a function of the healing probability with an exponent close to 1. Below a critical healing probability, catastrophic cascades form and the average degree of surviving nodes decreases monotonically, while above this value there are no macroscopic cascades and the average degree has first an increasing character and decreases only at the very late stage of the process. These findings facilitate to plan intervention in case of crisis situation by describing the efficiency of healing efforts needed to suppress cascading failures.

  6. Robustness of interdependent networks under targeted attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xuqing; Gao, Jianxi; Buldyrev, Sergey; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2012-02-01

    When an initial failure of nodes occurs in interdependent networks, a cascade of failure between the networks occurs. Earlier studies focused on random initial failures. Here we study the robustness of interdependent networks under targeted attack on high or low degree nodes. We introduce a general technique which maps the targeted-attack problem in interdependent networks to the random-attack problem in a transformed pair of interdependent networks. We find that when the highly connected nodes are protected and have lower probability to fail, in contrast to single scale-free (SF) networks where the percolation threshold pc=0, coupled SF networks are significantly more vulnerable with pc significantly larger than zero. The result implies that interdependent networks are difficult to defend by strategies such as protecting the high degree nodes that have been found useful to significantly improve robustness of single networks.

  7. Robustness of interdependent networks under targeted attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xuqing; Gao, Jianxi; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-06-01

    When an initial failure of nodes occurs in interdependent networks, a cascade of failure between the networks occurs. Earlier studies focused on random initial failures. Here we study the robustness of interdependent networks under targeted attack on high or low degree nodes. We introduce a general technique which maps the targeted-attack problem in interdependent networks to the random-attack problem in a transformed pair of interdependent networks. We find that when the highly connected nodes are protected and have lower probability to fail, in contrast to single scale-free (SF) networks where the percolation threshold pc=0, coupled SF networks are significantly more vulnerable with pc significantly larger than zero. The result implies that interdependent networks are difficult to defend by strategies such as protecting the high degree nodes that have been found useful to significantly improve robustness of single networks.

  8. Regional interdependence and migration in Asia.

    PubMed

    Kim, W B

    1995-01-01

    "The 1980s witnessed increasing regional interdependence in Asia through trade and investment. Increasing flows of labor within the region, however, raise questions about three important issues: (1) the assumption that trade, investment and aid will eventually mitigate migration pressure in source countries and the effectiveness of migration policies based on that assumption; (2) whether increasing regional interdependence stimulates or deters migration; [and] (3) the effect of rising interdependence on the political and international relations aspects of migration. As a partial attempt to address these questions, this article examines the regional pattern of economic interdependence by utilizing information concerning trade, investment and migration flows. The concept of interdependence/dependence is discussed within a political context, focusing on migration and policy responses to it. Observations are made on the implications for regional stability and development."

  9. Regional scale monitoring of atmospheric water vapor content with GNSS infrastructure and numerical model predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozsa, Szabolcs; Zeno Gyongyosi, Andras; Bartholy, Judit; Kern, Aniko; Weidinger, Tamas; Decsi, Anna; Kenyeres, Ambrus; Dombai, Ferenc; Adam, Jozsef

    2013-04-01

    Water, which is present in the troposphere in all three phases, has a unique feature among atmospheric components. Besides the formation of clouds and precipitation, it has a key role in atmospheric energy transport and it is the most important greenhouse gas. Due to its temporal and spatial variability, the monitoring of water in the atmosphere requires observations with high temporal and spatial resolution. The water content in the air can be measured directly by radiosondes, in order to monitor the vertical structure of the lower 30-35 km. In addition, remote sensing devices installed on spacecrafts, airframes and the Earth's surface are also available for the measurement of water content. These sensors yield the total water amount of a column of air, the so-called precipitable water (PW) content, in units of kg m-2 or mm. Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are capable to monitor various parameters of the atmosphere. With the establishment of the active GNSS network in Hungary, it became feasible to quantify and monitor PW from GNSS observations. The advantage of this solution is the high spatial and temporal resolution of the observations. Modeling of the weather system is performed by the numerical solution of the atmospheric hydro-thermodynamic set of equations. Based on the actual weather as initial condition, the parameters of the expected weather can be estimated. In this study two different meteorological models (WRF and DBCRAS) - run at the Department of Meteorology at Eotvos Lorand University for weather research and forecasting purposes - are compared with the PW estimates provided by the GNSS infrastructure for 7 months in 2011. Deviation between measured data from different sources is near 1 mm in most cases. Forecast PW values show larger deviation from measured data, which results from weather condition dependent forecast errors.

  10. Will electrical cyber-physical interdependent networks undergo first-order transition under random attacks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Xingpei; Wang, Bo; Liu, Dichen; Dong, Zhaoyang; Chen, Guo; Zhu, Zhenshan; Zhu, Xuedong; Wang, Xunting

    2016-10-01

    Whether the realistic electrical cyber-physical interdependent networks will undergo first-order transition under random failures still remains a question. To reflect the reality of Chinese electrical cyber-physical system, the "partial one-to-one correspondence" interdependent networks model is proposed and the connectivity vulnerabilities of three realistic electrical cyber-physical interdependent networks are analyzed. The simulation results show that due to the service demands of power system the topologies of power grid and its cyber network are highly inter-similar which can effectively avoid the first-order transition. By comparing the vulnerability curves between electrical cyber-physical interdependent networks and its single-layer network, we find that complex network theory is still useful in the vulnerability analysis of electrical cyber-physical interdependent networks.

  11. Green Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Large paved surfaces keep rain from infiltrating the soil and recharging groundwater supplies. Alternatively, Green infrastructure uses natural processes to reduce and treat stormwater in place by soaking up and storing water. These systems provide many environmental, social, an...

  12. Blue and green infrastructures implementation to solve stormwater management issues in a new urban development project - a modelling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versini, Pierre-Antoine; Tchiguirinskaia, Ioulia; Schertzer, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Concentrating buildings and socio-economic activities, urban areas are particularly vulnerable to hydrological risks. Modification in climate may intensify already existing issues concerning stormwater management (due to impervious area) and water supply (due to the increase of the population). In this context, water use efficiency and best water management practices are key-issues in the urban environment already stressed. Blue and green infrastructures are nature-based solutions that provide synergy of the blue and green systems to provide multifunctional solutions and multiple benefits: increased amenity, urban heat island improvement, biodiversity, reduced energy requirements... They are particularly efficient to reduce the potential impact of new and existing developments with respect to stormwater and/or water supply issues. The Multi-Hydro distributed rainfall-runoff model represents an adapted tool to manage the impacts of such infrastructures at the urban basin scale. It is a numerical platform that makes several models interact, each of them representing a specific portion of the water cycle in an urban environment: surface runoff and infiltration depending on a land use classification, sub-surface processes and sewer network drainage. Multi-Hydro is still being developed at the Ecole des Ponts (open access from https://hmco.enpc.fr/Tools-Training/Tools/Multi-Hydro.php) to take into account the wide complexity of urban environments. The latest advancements have made possible the representation of several blue and green infrastructures (green roof, basin, swale). Applied in a new urban development project located in the Paris region, Multi-Hydro has been used to simulate the impact of blue and green infrastructures implementation. It was particularly focused on their ability to fulfil regulation rules established by local stormwater managers in order to connect the parcel to the sewer network. The results show that a combination of several blue and green

  13. Co-integration Model of Logistics Infrastructure Investment and Regional Economic Growth in Central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Kai; Gan, Xiao-qing; Gao, Kuo

    The speed of logistics infrastructures investment in Central China is still lower than other regions since the rise of the central region strategy was put forward. And the ration of freight turnover was also being down. The analysis with the relations among the central region of the logistics investment, logistics value-added and GDP, found that three variables exists co-integration relation. And found that the investment in logistics infrastructure was the Granger reason of the GDP, the investment in logistics infrastructure and logistics value-added was the Granger reason for each other. According to the analysis, some countermeasures be put forward as following: accelerate the speed of logistics investment, optimize logistics environment, promote the logistics capability, reduce logistics cost, and so on.

  14. A sustainability model based on cloud infrastructures for core and downstream Copernicus services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manunta, Michele; Calò, Fabiana; De Luca, Claudio; Elefante, Stefano; Farres, Jordi; Guzzetti, Fausto; Imperatore, Pasquale; Lanari, Riccardo; Lengert, Wolfgang; Zinno, Ivana; Casu, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    SAR products generation and exploitation. In particular, CNR is porting the multi-temporal DInSAR technique referred to as Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) into the ESA G-POD (Grid Processing On Demand) and CIOP (Cloud Computing Operational Pilot) platforms (Elefante et al., 2013) within the SuperSites Exploitation Platform (SSEP) project, which aim is contributing to the development of an ecosystem for big geo-data processing and dissemination. This work focuses on presenting the main results that have been achieved by the DORIS project concerning the use of advanced DInSAR products for supporting CPA during the risk management cycle. Furthermore, based on the DORIS experience, a sustainability model for Core and Downstream Copernicus services based on the effective exploitation of cloud platforms is proposed. In this framework, remote sensing community, both service providers and users, can significantly benefit from the Helix Nebula-The Science Cloud initiative, created by European scientific institutions, agencies, SMEs and enterprises to pave the way for the development and exploitation of a cloud computing infrastructure for science. REFERENCES Elefante, S., Imperatore, P. , Zinno, I., M. Manunta, E. Mathot, F. Brito, J. Farres, W. Lengert, R. Lanari, F. Casu, 2013, "SBAS-DINSAR Time series generation on cloud computing platforms". IEEE IGARSS Conference, Melbourne (AU), July 2013.

  15. Modeling virtual healthcare systems: methods for qualitative case analysis and sociometry of institutional infrastructures.

    PubMed

    Séror, Ann

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a strategy for the qualitative analysis of virtual institutional infrastructures serving complex healthcare systems. Methodologies considered include case analysis, grounded theory, and sociometry. The discussion is illustrated with references to case analyses of diverse healthcare systems. Particular attention is focused on ideological values expressed in market dynamics and system control structures.

  16. Modeling green infrastructure land use changes on future air quality in Kansas City

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green infrastructure can be a cost-effective approach for reducing stormwater runoff and improving water quality as a result, but it could also bring co-benefits for air quality: less impervious surfaces and more vegetation can decrease the urban heat island effect, and also resu...

  17. INTERDEPENDENT SUPERIORITY AND INFERIORITY FEELINGS

    PubMed Central

    Ingham, Harrington V.

    1949-01-01

    It is postulated that in neurotic persons who have unrealistic feelings of superiority and inferiority the two are interdependent. This is a departure from the concept of previous observers that either one or the other is primary and its opposite is overcompensation. The author postulates considerable parallelism, with equal importance for each. He submits that the neurotic person forms two logic-resistant compartments for the two opposed self-estimates and that treatment which makes inroads of logic upon one compartment, simultaneously does so upon the other. Two examples are briefly reported. The neurotic benefits sought in exaggeration of capability are the same as those sought in insistence upon inferiority: Presumption of superiority at once bids for approbation and delivers the subject from the need to prove himself worthy of it in dreaded competition; exaggeration of incapability baits sympathy and makes competition unnecessary because failure is conceded. Some of the characteristics of abnormal self-estimates that distinguish them from normal are: Preoccupation with self, resistance to logical explanation of personality problems, inconsistency in reasons for beliefs in adequacy on the one hand and inadequacy on the other, unreality, rationalization of faults, and difficulty and vacillation in the selection of adequate goals. PMID:15390573

  18. Cascading Failures Due to Multiple Causes in Interdependent Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornbluth, Yosef; Buldyrev, Sergey

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, several models of network failure have been introduced. Some of these models are based on overload, in which increased traffic destroys nodes, while others are based on partial isolation, in which a node needs several functional neighbors to survive. In these systems, failure of a small fraction of nodes can cause a cascade of failures which may completely destroy the network. The majority of these models are studied in single networks. However, many real-world systems are comprised of multiple interdependent networks. Recent studies based on the concept of mutual percolation show that these systems are much more vulnerable than a single network. We numerically and analytically investigate how multiple causes of failure simultaneously acting in a system of interdependent networks affect their vulnerability.

  19. Volcanic hazards at distant critical infrastructure: A method for bespoke, multi-disciplinary assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odbert, H. M.; Aspinall, W.; Phillips, J.; Jenkins, S.; Wilson, T. M.; Scourse, E.; Sheldrake, T.; Tucker, P.; Nakeshree, K.; Bernardara, P.; Fish, K.

    2015-12-01

    Societies rely on critical services such as power, water, transport networks and manufacturing. Infrastructure may be sited to minimise exposure to natural hazards but not all can be avoided. The probability of long-range transport of a volcanic plume to a site is comparable to other external hazards that must be considered to satisfy safety assessments. Recent advances in numerical models of plume dispersion and stochastic modelling provide a formalized and transparent approach to probabilistic assessment of hazard distribution. To understand the risks to critical infrastructure far from volcanic sources, it is necessary to quantify their vulnerability to different hazard stressors. However, infrastructure assets (e.g. power plantsand operational facilities) are typically complex systems in themselves, with interdependent components that may differ in susceptibility to hazard impact. Usually, such complexity means that risk either cannot be estimated formally or that unsatisfactory simplifying assumptions are prerequisite to building a tractable risk model. We present a new approach to quantifying risk by bridging expertise of physical hazard modellers and infrastructure engineers. We use a joint expert judgment approach to determine hazard model inputs and constrain associated uncertainties. Model outputs are chosen on the basis of engineering or operational concerns. The procedure facilitates an interface between physical scientists, with expertise in volcanic hazards, and infrastructure engineers, with insight into vulnerability to hazards. The result is a joined-up approach to estimating risk from low-probability hazards to critical infrastructure. We describe our methodology and show preliminary results for vulnerability to volcanic hazards at a typical UK industrial facility. We discuss our findings in the context of developing bespoke assessment of hazards from distant sources in collaboration with key infrastructure stakeholders.

  20. Interdependent network reciprocity in evolutionary games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhen; Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2013-01-01

    Besides the structure of interactions within networks, also the interactions between networks are of the outmost importance. We therefore study the outcome of the public goods game on two interdependent networks that are connected by means of a utility function, which determines how payoffs on both networks jointly influence the success of players in each individual network. We show that an unbiased coupling allows the spontaneous emergence of interdependent network reciprocity, which is capable to maintain healthy levels of public cooperation even in extremely adverse conditions. The mechanism, however, requires simultaneous formation of correlated cooperator clusters on both networks. If this does not emerge or if the coordination process is disturbed, network reciprocity fails, resulting in the total collapse of cooperation. Network interdependence can thus be exploited effectively to promote cooperation past the limits imposed by isolated networks, but only if the coordination between the interdependent networks is not disturbed.

  1. Building safeguards infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, Rebecca S; Mcclelland - Kerr, John

    2009-01-01

    Much has been written in recent years about the nuclear renaissance - the rebirth of nuclear power as a clean and safe source of electricity around the world. Those who question the nuclear renaissance often cite the risk of proliferation, accidents or an attack on a facility as concerns, all of which merit serious consideration. The integration of these three areas - sometimes referred to as 3S, for safety, security and safeguards - is essential to supporting the growth of nuclear power, and the infrastructure that supports them should be strengthened. The focus of this paper will be on the role safeguards plays in the 3S concept and how to support the development of the infrastructure necessary to support safeguards. The objective of this paper has been to provide a working definition of safeguards infrastructure, and to discuss xamples of how building safeguards infrastructure is presented in several models. The guidelines outlined in the milestones document provide a clear path for establishing both the safeguards and the related infrastructures needed to support the development of nuclear power. The model employed by the INSEP program of engaging with partner states on safeguards-related topics that are of current interest to the level of nuclear development in that state provides another way of approaching the concept of building safeguards infrastructure. The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative is yet another approach that underscored five principal areas for growth, and the United States commitment to working with partners to promote this growth both at home and abroad.

  2. Pandemic influenza and critical infrastructure dependencies: possible impact on hospitals.

    PubMed

    Itzwerth, Ralf L; Macintyre, C Raina; Shah, Smita; Plant, Aileen J

    2006-11-20

    Hospitals will be particularly challenged when pandemic influenza spreads. Within the health sector in general, existing pandemic plans focus on health interventions to control outbreaks. The critical relationship between the health sector and other sectors is not well understood and addressed. Hospitals depend on critical infrastructure external to the organisation itself. Existing plans do not adequately consider the complexity and interdependency of systems upon which hospitals rely. The failure of one such system can trigger a failure of another, causing cascading breakdowns. Health is only one of the many systems that struggle at maximum capacity during "normal" times, as current business models operate with no or minimal "excess" staff and have become irreducible operations. This makes interconnected systems highly vulnerable to acute disruptions, such as a pandemic. Companies use continuity plans and highly regulated business continuity management to overcome process interruptions. This methodology can be applied to hospitals to minimise the impact of a pandemic.

  3. QuakeSim Computational Infrastructure for Integrating DESDynI and UAVSAR Data into Earthquake Models (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnellan, A.; Rundle, J. B.; Grant Ludwig, L.; McLeod, D.; Pierce, M.; Fox, G.; Al-Ghanmi, R. A.; Parker, J. W.; Granat, R. A.; Lyzenga, G. A.; Ma, Y.; Glasscoe, M. T.; Ji, J.; Wang, J.; Gao, X.; Quakesim Team

    2010-12-01

    QuakeSim is a computational infrastructure for studying, modeling, and forecasting earthquakes from a system perspective. QuakeSim takes into account the entire earthquake cycle of strain accumulation and release, requiring crustal deformation data as a key data source. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) and Global Positioning System (GPS) data provide current crustal deformation rates, while paleoseismic data provide long-term fault slip rates and earthquake history. The QuakeTables federated multimedia database contains spaceborne and UAVSAR InSAR data for the California region as well as paleoseismic fault data from a number of self-consistent datasets, such as the Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (UCERF), California Geological Survey (CGS), and Virtual California. Access to QuakeTables is provided through a web interface and a Web Services based application program interface (API) for data delivery. Data are categorized into self-consistent datasets that can be queried in their original form or a derivation therefrom. QuakeTables provides access to mapping features through a web interface, that provides users with direct access to the QuakeTables federated data. Users can browse, map and navigate the available datasets. QuakeSim applications include crustal deformation modeling and pattern analysis. The crustal deformation tools include forward elastic dislocation models (DISLOC) and 3D viscoelastic finite element models (GeoFEST), and elastic inversions of crustal deformation data (SIMPLEX). The tools support mapping and applications for visualizing results in vector or interfermetric form. Virtual California simulates interacting fault systems. Pattern analysis tools include RDAHMM for identifying state changes in time series data, and RIPI for identifying hotspot locations of increased probabilities for magnitude 5 and above earthquakes. The QuakeSim infrastructure automatically posts UAVSAR data to QuakeTables for storage and

  4. Cascading failures in interdependent networks with finite functional components.

    PubMed

    Di Muro, M A; Buldyrev, S V; Stanley, H E; Braunstein, L A

    2016-10-01

    We present a cascading failure model of two interdependent networks in which functional nodes belong to components of size greater than or equal to s. We find theoretically and via simulation that in complex networks with random dependency links the transition is first order for s≥3 and continuous for s=2. We also study interdependent lattices with a distance constraint r in the dependency links and find that increasing r moves the system from a regime without a phase transition to one with a second-order transition. As r continues to increase, the system collapses in a first-order transition. Each regime is associated with a different structure of domain formation of functional nodes.

  5. Cascading failures in interdependent networks with finite functional components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Muro, M. A.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Stanley, H. E.; Braunstein, L. A.

    2016-10-01

    We present a cascading failure model of two interdependent networks in which functional nodes belong to components of size greater than or equal to s . We find theoretically and via simulation that in complex networks with random dependency links the transition is first order for s ≥3 and continuous for s =2 . We also study interdependent lattices with a distance constraint r in the dependency links and find that increasing r moves the system from a regime without a phase transition to one with a second-order transition. As r continues to increase, the system collapses in a first-order transition. Each regime is associated with a different structure of domain formation of functional nodes.

  6. Project Scheduling Tool for Maintaining Capability Interdependencies and Defence Program Investment: A User’s Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    UNCLASSIFIED Project Scheduling Tool for Maintaining Capability Interdependencies and Defence Program Investment: A User’s Guide M.-T. Nguyen Joint...product, the Project Scheduling Tool (version 1.4). The tool implements various mathematical Integer Linear Programming models, as well as an approach that...Scheduling Tool for Maintaining Capability Interdependencies and Defence Program Investment: A User’s Guide Executive Summary Defence decision-makers are faced

  7. Assessing Vulnerabilities, Risks, and Consequences of Damage to Critical Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Suski, N; Wuest, C

    2011-02-04

    Since the publication of 'Critical Foundations: Protecting America's Infrastructure,' there has been a keen understanding of the complexity, interdependencies, and shared responsibility required to protect the nation's most critical assets that are essential to our way of life. The original 5 sectors defined in 1997 have grown to 18 Critical Infrastructures and Key Resources (CIKR), which are discussed in the 2009 National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) and its supporting sector-specific plans. The NIPP provides the structure for a national program dedicated to enhanced protection and resiliency of the nation's infrastructure. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provides in-depth, multi-disciplinary assessments of threat, vulnerability, and consequence across all 18 sectors at scales ranging from specific facilities to infrastructures spanning multi-state regions, such as the Oil and Natural Gas (ONG) sector. Like many of the CIKR sectors, the ONG sector is comprised of production, processing, distribution, and storage of highly valuable and potentially dangerous commodities. Furthermore, there are significant interdependencies with other sectors, including transportation, communication, finance, and government. Understanding the potentially devastating consequences and collateral damage resulting from a terrorist attack or natural event is an important element of LLNL's infrastructure security programs. Our work began in the energy sector in the late 1990s and quickly expanded other critical infrastructure sectors. We have performed over 600 physical assessments with a particular emphasis on those sectors that utilize, store, or ship potentially hazardous materials and for whom cyber security is important. The success of our approach is based on building awareness of vulnerabilities and risks and working directly with industry partners to collectively advance infrastructure protection. This approach consists of three phases: The Pre

  8. The ecological model web concept: A consultative infrastructure for researchers and decision makers using a Service Oriented Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geller, Gary

    2010-05-01

    Rapid climate and socioeconomic changes may be outrunning society's ability to understand, predict, and respond to change effectively. Decision makers such as natural resource managers want better information about what these changes will be and how the resources they are managing will be affected. Researchers want better understanding of the components and processes of ecological systems, how they interact, and how they respond to change. Nearly all these activities require computer models to make ecological forecasts that can address "what if" questions. However, despite many excellent models in ecology and related disciplines, there is no coordinated model system—that is, a model infrastructure--that researchers or decision makers can consult to gain insight on important ecological questions or help them make decisions. While this is partly due to the complexity of the science, to lack of critical observations, and other issues, limited access to and sharing of models and model outputs is a factor as well. An infrastructure that increased access to and sharing of models and model outputs would benefit researchers, decision makers of all kinds, and modelers. One path to such a "consultative infrastructure" for ecological forecasting is called the Model Web, a concept for an open-ended system of interoperable computer models and databases communicating using a Service Oriented Architectures (SOA). Initially, it could consist of a core of several models, perhaps made interoperable retroactively, and then it could grow gradually as new models or databases were added. Because some models provide basic information of use to many other models, such as simple physical parameters, these "keystone" models are of particular importance in a model web. In the long run, a model web would not be rigidly planned and built--instead, like the World Wide Web, it would grow largely organically, with limited central control, within a framework of broad goals and data exchange

  9. Exploring Actor-Partner Interdependence in Family Therapy: Whose View (Parent or Adolescent) Best Predicts Treatment Progress?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedlander, Myrna L.; Kivlighan, Dennis M., Jr.; Shaffer, Katharine S.

    2012-01-01

    Predictions of family therapy outcome consistently vary depending on which client rates the alliance. We used the actor-partner interdependence model (Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006) to test the interdependence of parents' and adolescents' ratings of alliance, session depth/value, and improvement-so-far after Sessions 3, 6, and 9. Initial analyses…

  10. Using agent based modeling to assess the effect of increased Bus Rapid Transit system infrastructure on walking for transportation.

    PubMed

    Lemoine, Pablo D; Cordovez, Juan Manuel; Zambrano, Juan Manuel; Sarmiento, Olga L; Meisel, Jose D; Valdivia, Juan Alejandro; Zarama, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    The effect of transport infrastructure on walking is of interest to researchers because it provides an opportunity, from the public policy point of view, to increase physical activity (PA). We use an agent based model (ABM) to examine the effect of transport infrastructure on walking. Particular relevance is given to assess the effect of the growth of the Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) system in Bogotá on walking. In the ABM agents are assigned a home, work location, and socioeconomic status (SES) based on which they are assigned income for transportation. Individuals must decide between the available modes of transport (i.e., car, taxi, bus, BRT, and walking) as the means of reaching their destination, based on resources and needed travel time. We calibrated the model based on Bogota's 2011 mobility survey. The ABM results are consistent with previous empirical findings, increasing BRT access does indeed increase the number of minutes that individuals walk for transportation, although this effect also depends on the availability of other transport modes. The model indicates a saturation process: as more BRT lanes are added, the increment in minutes walking becomes smaller, and eventually the walking time decreases. Our findings on the potential contribution of the expansion of the BRT system to walking for transportation suggest that ABMs may prove helpful in designing policies to continue promoting walking.

  11. Cyberwarfare on the Electricity Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Murarka, N.; Ramesh, V.C.

    2000-03-20

    The report analyzes the possibility of cyberwarfare on the electricity infrastructure. The ongoing deregulation of the electricity industry makes the power grid all the more vulnerable to cyber attacks. The report models the power system information system components, models potential threats and protective measures. It therefore offers a framework for infrastructure protection.

  12. Mathematical programming (MP) model to determine optimal transportation infrastructure for geologic CO2 storage in the Illinois basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehmer, Donald E.

    Analysis of results from a mathematical programming model were examined to 1) determine the least cost options for infrastructure development of geologic storage of CO2 in the Illinois Basin, and 2) perform an analysis of a number of CO2 emission tax and oil price scenarios in order to implement development of the least-cost pipeline networks for distribution of CO2. The model, using mixed integer programming, tested the hypothesis of whether viable EOR sequestration sites can serve as nodal points or hubs to expand the CO2 delivery infrastructure to more distal locations from the emissions sources. This is in contrast to previous model results based on a point-to- point model having direct pipeline segments from each CO2 capture site to each storage sink. There is literature on the spoke and hub problem that relates to airline scheduling as well as maritime shipping. A large-scale ship assignment problem that utilized integer linear programming was run on Excel Solver and described by Mourao et al., (2001). Other literature indicates that aircraft assignment in spoke and hub routes can also be achieved using integer linear programming (Daskin and Panayotopoulos, 1989; Hane et al., 1995). The distribution concept is basically the reverse of the "tree and branch" type (Rothfarb et al., 1970) gathering systems for oil and natural gas that industry has been developing for decades. Model results indicate that the inclusion of hubs as variables in the model yields lower transportation costs for geologic carbon dioxide storage over previous models of point-to-point infrastructure geometries. Tabular results and GIS maps of the selected scenarios illustrate that EOR sites can serve as nodal points or hubs for distribution of CO2 to distal oil field locations as well as deeper saline reservoirs. Revenue amounts and capture percentages both show an improvement over solutions when the hubs are not allowed to come into the solution. Other results indicate that geologic

  13. ActivitySim: large-scale agent based activity generation for infrastructure simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Gali, Emmanuel; Eidenbenz, Stephan; Mniszewski, Sue; Cuellar, Leticia; Teuscher, Christof

    2008-01-01

    The United States' Department of Homeland Security aims to model, simulate, and analyze critical infrastructure and their interdependencies across multiple sectors such as electric power, telecommunications, water distribution, transportation, etc. We introduce ActivitySim, an activity simulator for a population of millions of individual agents each characterized by a set of demographic attributes that is based on US census data. ActivitySim generates daily schedules for each agent that consists of a sequence of activities, such as sleeping, shopping, working etc., each being scheduled at a geographic location, such as businesses or private residences that is appropriate for the activity type and for the personal situation of the agent. ActivitySim has been developed as part of a larger effort to understand the interdependencies among national infrastructure networks and their demand profiles that emerge from the different activities of individuals in baseline scenarios as well as emergency scenarios, such as hurricane evacuations. We present the scalable software engineering principles underlying ActivitySim, the socia-technical modeling paradigms that drive the activity generation, and proof-of-principle results for a scenario in the Twin Cities, MN area of 2.6 M agents.

  14. The robustness of interdependent networks under the interplay between cascading failures and virus propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Dawei; Wang, Zhen; Xiao, Gaoxi; Gao, Bo; Wang, Lianhai

    2016-09-01

    Cascading failures and epidemic dynamics, as two successful application realms of network science, are usually investigated separately. How do they affect each other is still an open, interesting problem. In this letter, we couple both processes and put them into the framework of interdependent networks, where each network only supports one dynamical process. Of particular interest, they spontaneously form a feedback loop: virus propagation triggers cascading failures of systems while cascading failures suppress virus propagation (i.e., the interplay between cascading failures and virus propagation, also named CF-VP model). Under this novel model, the interdependent networks will collapse completely if virus transmissibility exceeds a crucial threshold. In addition, only when the network sustaining the epidemic dynamics has a larger average degree, will the interdependent networks become more vulnerable, which is opposite to the observation of traditional cascading models in interdependent networks. To protect interdependent networks we also propose control measures based on the identification capability: a stronger identification capability leads to more robust interdependent networks.

  15. Cascading failures in interdependent networks due to insufficient received support capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Pengshuai; Zhu, Peidong; Shao, Chengcheng; Xun, Peng

    2017-03-01

    We propose a capability based dependency model of interdependent network that takes two node dependency properties into account. One is support capability and the other is required capability. The redundancy degree of an interdependent network is also defined, whose value is the ratio of its total support capability and total required capability. Through the numerical simulations, we found that: (1) Interdependent networks without redundant support-dependence links are extremely vulnerable, even the failure of one node could cause the collapse of whole network; (2) Increasing support-dependence links and redistributing the nodes' dependency properties can enhance the robustness of network without changing its redundancy degree; (3) Improving the redundancy degree could enhance network robustness without adding support-dependence links. These conclusions enlighten the design of interdependent networks: when network's redundancy degree is fixed, we can take strategy from results (2), and when network structure is settled, we can apply strategy from results (3).

  16. Positive social interdependence and classroom climate.

    PubMed

    Abrami, P C; Chambers, B; Poulsen, C; Kouros, C; Farrell, M; D'Apollonia, S

    1994-08-01

    We explored the relationship between student perceptions of social interdependence and social support. Attitudinal responses to the Classroom Life Instrument (Johnson & Johnson, 1983; Johnson, Johnson, & Anderson, 1983; Johnson, Johnson, Buckman, & Richards, 1985) were gathered in Canada from four classes totaling 123 eighth-grade students learning geometry in cooperative groups. We extended previous findings by examining the relationships among the classroom climate variables, causal attributions, and achievement, and explored the consistency among the four classroom climate studies using statistical methods for meta-analysis to determine overall effect magnitudes and the degree of study-to-study variability. Social support from the teacher and fellow students was moderately related to perceptions of positive interdependence, but social interdependence factors were less important predictors of student learning than was student self-esteem.

  17. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Chinese Eco-Industrial Parks by Targeting Energy Infrastructure: A Vintage Stock Model.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yang; Tian, Jinping; Chertow, Marian; Chen, Lujun

    2016-10-03

    Mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in China's industrial sector is crucial for addressing climate change. We developed a vintage stock model to quantify the GHG mitigation potential and cost effectiveness in Chinese eco-industrial parks by targeting energy infrastructure with five key measures. The model, integrating energy efficiency assessments, GHG emission accounting, cost-effectiveness analyses, and scenario analyses, was applied to 548 units of energy infrastructure in 106 parks. The results indicate that two measures (shifting coal-fired boilers to natural gas-fired boilers and replacing coal-fired units with natural gas combined cycle units) present a substantial potential to mitigate GHGs (42%-46%) compared with the baseline scenario. The other three measures (installation of municipal solid waste-to-energy units, replacement of small-capacity coal-fired units with large units, and implementation of turbine retrofitting) present potential mitigation values of 6.7%, 0.3%, and 2.1%, respectively. In most cases, substantial economic benefits also can be achieved by GHG emission mitigation. An uncertainty analysis showed that enhancing the annual working time or serviceable lifetime levels could strengthen the GHG mitigation potential at a lower cost for all of the measures.

  18. A Model to Exhibit the Interdependence of the Cognitive and Affective Domains of Objectives for Use in Science and Technical Teacher Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormerod, M. B.

    1983-01-01

    Proposes a diagrammatic model connecting the cognitive and affective domains of educational objectives, abandoning Krathwohl's hierarchy of affective objectives for one based solely on arousal of interest as a positive dimension. A negative dimension for the hierarchy is also suggested and research evidence supporting the model is given.…

  19. VERCE, Virtual Earthquake and Seismology Research Community in Europe, a new ESFRI initiative integrating data infrastructure, Grid and HPC infrastructures for data integration, data analysis and data modeling in seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Hemert, Jano; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre

    2010-05-01

    Research in earthquake and seismology addresses fundamental problems in understanding Earth's internal wave sources and structures, and augment applications to societal concerns about natural hazards, energy resources and environmental change. This community is central to the European Plate Observing System (EPOS)—the ESFRI initiative in solid Earth Sciences. Global and regional seismology monitoring systems are continuously operated and are transmitting a growing wealth of data from Europe and from around the world. These tremendous volumes of seismograms, i.e., records of ground motions as a function of time, have a definite multi-use attribute, which puts a great premium on open-access data infrastructures that are integrated globally. In Europe, the earthquake and seismology community is part of the European Integrated Data Archives (EIDA) infrastructure and is structured as "horizontal" data services. On top of this distributed data archive system, the community has developed recently within the EC project NERIES advanced SOA-based web services and a unified portal system. Enabling advanced analysis of these data by utilising a data-aware distributed computing environment is instrumental to fully exploit the cornucopia of data and to guarantee optimal operation of the high-cost monitoring facilities. The strategy of VERCE is driven by the needs of data-intensive applications in data mining and modelling and will be illustrated through a set of applications. It aims to provide a comprehensive architecture and framework adapted to the scale and the diversity of these applications, and to integrate the community data infrastructure with Grid and HPC infrastructures. A first novel aspect is a service-oriented architecture that provides well-equipped integrated workbenches, with an efficient communication layer between data and Grid infrastructures, augmented with bridges to the HPC facilities. A second novel aspect is the coupling between Grid data analysis and

  20. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Lõhmus, Mare; Balbus, John

    2015-01-01

    Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens' quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion.

  1. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure

    PubMed Central

    Lõhmus, Mare; Balbus, John

    2015-01-01

    Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens’ quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion. PMID:26615823

  2. Emergent Risks In Critical Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dynes, Scott

    Firms cannot function successfully without managing a host of internal and external organizational and process interdependencies. Part of this involves business continuity planning, which directly aects how resilient arm and its business sector are in the face of disruptions. This paper presents the results of eld studies related to information risk management practices in the health care and retail sectors. The studies explore information risk management coordinating signals within and across rms in these sectors as well as the potential eects of cyber disruptions on the rms as stand-alone entities and as part of a critical infrastructure. The health care case study investigates the impact of the Zotob worm on the ability to deliver medical care and treatment. The retail study examines the resilience of certain elements of the food supply chain to cyber disruptions.

  3. Development of virtual patient models for permanent implant brachytherapy Monte Carlo dose calculations: interdependence of CT image artifact mitigation and tissue assignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miksys, N.; Xu, C.; Beaulieu, L.; Thomson, R. M.

    2015-08-01

    This work investigates and compares CT image metallic artifact reduction (MAR) methods and tissue assignment schemes (TAS) for the development of virtual patient models for permanent implant brachytherapy Monte Carlo (MC) dose calculations. Four MAR techniques are investigated to mitigate seed artifacts from post-implant CT images of a homogeneous phantom and eight prostate patients: a raw sinogram approach using the original CT scanner data and three methods (simple threshold replacement (STR), 3D median filter, and virtual sinogram) requiring only the reconstructed CT image. Virtual patient models are developed using six TAS ranging from the AAPM-ESTRO-ABG TG-186 basic approach of assigning uniform density tissues (resulting in a model not dependent on MAR) to more complex models assigning prostate, calcification, and mixtures of prostate and calcification using CT-derived densities. The EGSnrc user-code BrachyDose is employed to calculate dose distributions. All four MAR methods eliminate bright seed spot artifacts, and the image-based methods provide comparable mitigation of artifacts compared with the raw sinogram approach. However, each MAR technique has limitations: STR is unable to mitigate low CT number artifacts, the median filter blurs the image which challenges the preservation of tissue heterogeneities, and both sinogram approaches introduce new streaks. Large local dose differences are generally due to differences in voxel tissue-type rather than mass density. The largest differences in target dose metrics (D90, V100, V150), over 50% lower compared to the other models, are when uncorrected CT images are used with TAS that consider calcifications. Metrics found using models which include calcifications are generally a few percent lower than prostate-only models. Generally, metrics from any MAR method and any TAS which considers calcifications agree within 6%. Overall, the studied MAR methods and TAS show promise for further retrospective MC dose

  4. The Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI) Software Development: Applications, Infrastructure, and Middleware/Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Dean N.

    2011-06-30

    The status of and future plans for the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI) hinge on software that PCMDI is either currently distributing or plans to distribute to the climate community in the near future. These software products include standard conventions, national and international federated infrastructures, and community analysis and visualization tools. This report also mentions other secondary software not necessarily led by or developed at PCMDI to provide a complete picture of the overarching applications, infrastructures, and middleware/networks. Much of the software described anticipates the use of future technologies envisioned over the span of next year to 10 years. These technologies, together with the software, will be the catalyst required to address extreme-scale data warehousing, scalability issues, and service-level requirements for a diverse set of well-known projects essential for predicting climate change. These tools, unlike the previous static analysis tools of the past, will support the co-existence of many users in a productive, shared virtual environment. This advanced technological world driven by extreme-scale computing and the data it generates will increase scientists’ productivity, exploit national and international relationships, and push research to new levels of understanding.

  5. Downscaling seasonal to centennial simulations on distributed computing infrastructures using WRF model. The WRF4G project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cofino, A. S.; Fernández Quiruelas, V.; Blanco Real, J. C.; García Díez, M.; Fernández, J.

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays Grid Computing is powerful computational tool which is ready to be used for scientific community in different areas (such as biomedicine, astrophysics, climate, etc.). However, the use of this distributed computing infrastructures (DCI) is not yet common practice in climate research, and only a few teams and applications in this area take advantage of this infrastructure. Thus, the WRF4G project objective is to popularize the use of this technology in the atmospheric sciences area. In order to achieve this objective, one of the most used applications has been taken (WRF; a limited- area model, successor of the MM5 model), that has a user community formed by more than 8000 researchers worldwide. This community develop its research activity on different areas and could benefit from the advantages of Grid resources (case study simulations, regional hind-cast/forecast, sensitivity studies, etc.). The WRF model is used by many groups, in the climate research community, to carry on downscaling simulations. Therefore this community will also benefit. However, Grid infrastructures have some drawbacks for the execution of applications that make an intensive use of CPU and memory for a long period of time. This makes necessary to develop a specific framework (middleware). This middleware encapsulates the application and provides appropriate services for the monitoring and management of the simulations and the data. Thus,another objective of theWRF4G project consists on the development of a generic adaptation of WRF to DCIs. It should simplify the access to the DCIs for the researchers, and also to free them from the technical and computational aspects of the use of theses DCI. Finally, in order to demonstrate the ability of WRF4G solving actual scientific challenges with interest and relevance on the climate science (implying a high computational cost) we will shown results from different kind of downscaling experiments, like ERA-Interim re-analysis, CMIP5 models

  6. Modeling Rainfall-Runoff Dynamics in Tropical, Urban Socio-Hydrological Systems: Green Infrastructure and Variable Precipitation Interception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nytch, C. J.; Meléndez-Ackerman, E. J.

    2014-12-01

    There is a pressing need to generate spatially-explicit models of rainfall-runoff dynamics in the urban humid tropics that can characterize flow pathways and flood magnitudes in response to erratic precipitation events. To effectively simulate stormwater runoff processes at multiple scales, complex spatio-temporal parameters such as rainfall, evapotranspiration, and antecedent soil moisture conditions must be accurately represented, in addition to uniquely urban factors including stormwater conveyance structures and connectivity between green and gray infrastructure elements. In heavily urbanized San Juan, Puerto Rico, stream flashiness and frequent flooding are major issues, yet still lacking is a hydrological analysis that models the generation and movement of fluvial and pluvial stormwater through the watershed. Our research employs a novel and multifaceted approach to dealing with this problem that integrates 1) field-based rainfall interception and infiltration methodologies to quantify the hydrologic functions of natural and built infrastructure in San Juan; 2) remote sensing analysis to produce a fine-scale typology of green and gray cover types in the city and determine patterns of spatial distribution and connectivity; 3) assessment of precipitation and streamflow variability at local and basin-wide scales using satellite and radar precipitation estimates in concert with rainfall and stream gauge point data and participatory flood mapping; 4) simulation of historical, present-day, and future stormwater runoff scenarios with a fully distributed hydrologic model that couples diverse components of urban socio-hydrological systems from formal and informal knowledge sources; and 5) bias and uncertainty analysis of parameters and model structure within a Bayesian hierarchical framework. Preliminary results from the rainfall interception study suggest that canopy structure and leaf area index of different tree species contribute to variable throughfall and

  7. A virtualized infrastructure for molecular imaging research using a data grid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jasper; Dagliyan, Grant; Liu, Brent

    2009-02-01

    The animal-to-researcher workflow in many of today's small animal imaging center is burdened with proprietary data limitations, inaccessible back-up methods, and imaging results that are not easily viewable across campus. Such challenges decrease the amount of scans performed per day at the center and requires researchers to wait longer for their images and quantified results. Furthermore, data mining at the small animal imaging center is often limited to researcher names and date-labelled archiving hard-drives. To gain efficiency and reliable access to small animal imaging data, such a center needs to move towards an integrated workflow with file format normalization services, metadata databases, expandable archiving infrastructure, and comprehensive user interfaces for query / retrieval tools - achieving all in a cost-effective manner. This poster presentation demonstrates how grid technology can support such a molecular imaging and small animal imaging research community to bridge the needs between imaging modalities and clinical researchers. Existing projects have utilized the Data Grid in PACS tier 2 backup solutions, where fault-tolerance is a high priority, as well as imagingbased clinical trials where data security and auditing are primary concerns. Issues to be addressed include, but are not limited to, novel database designs, file format standards, virtual archiving and distribution workflows, and potential grid computing for 3-D reconstructions, co-registration, and post-processing analysis.

  8. Navy Perspective on Joint Force Interdependence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    for the mar- itime Services. The Navy–Marine Corps team has operated interdependently for over two centuries. Symbiotic since their inceptions...required. We must view all new information systems as part of a larger family of systems. As such, we should press hard to ensure convergence

  9. Toward Liberating Interdependence: Exploring an Intercultural Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Boyung

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes a postcolonial intercultural pedagogy, one that can create Liberating Interdependence among communities and across boundaries. First, the author examines conflicting ways that the Exodus is told in different communities: as a story of the God of the oppressed and as a story about an unjust God. Second, after analyzing the…

  10. Percolation of interdependent networks with intersimilarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yanqing; Zhou, Dong; Zhang, Rui; Han, Zhangang; Rozenblat, Céline; Havlin, Shlomo

    2013-11-01

    Real data show that interdependent networks usually involve intersimilarity. Intersimilarity means that a pair of interdependent nodes have neighbors in both networks that are also interdependent [Parshani Europhys. Lett.EULEEJ0295-507510.1209/0295-5075/92/68002 92, 68002 (2010)]. For example, the coupled worldwide port network and the global airport network are intersimilar since many pairs of linked nodes (neighboring cities), by direct flights and direct shipping lines, exist in both networks. Nodes in both networks in the same city are regarded as interdependent. If two neighboring nodes in one network depend on neighboring nodes in the other network, we call these links common links. The fraction of common links in the system is a measure of intersimilarity. Previous simulation results of Parshani suggest that intersimilarity has considerable effects on reducing the cascading failures; however, a theoretical understanding of this effect on the cascading process is currently missing. Here we map the cascading process with intersimilarity to a percolation of networks composed of components of common links and noncommon links. This transforms the percolation of intersimilar system to a regular percolation on a series of subnetworks, which can be solved analytically. We apply our analysis to the case where the network of common links is an Erdős-Rényi (ER) network with the average degree K, and the two networks of noncommon links are also ER networks. We show for a fully coupled pair of ER networks, that for any K⩾0, although the cascade is reduced with increasing K, the phase transition is still discontinuous. Our analysis can be generalized to any kind of interdependent random network systems.

  11. Claudin-4 forms a paracellular barrier, revealing the interdependence of claudin expression in the loose epithelial cell culture model opossum kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Borovac, Jelena; Barker, Reid S; Rievaj, Juraj; Rasmussen, Andrew; Pan, Wanling; Wevrick, Rachel; Alexander, R Todd

    2012-12-15

    The effect of claudins on paracellular fluxes has been predominantly studied in either Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) or LLCPK cells. Neither model system has a very low transepithelial resistance (TER) as observed in leaky epithelia. Moreover, results from one model system are not always consistent with another. Opossum kidney (OK) cells form tight junctions yet have a very low TER. We therefore set out to characterize the paracellular transport properties of this cell culture model. Ussing chamber dilution potential measurements revealed that OK cells exhibit a very low TER (11.7 ± 1.4 Ω·cm(2)), slight cation selectivity (P(Na)/P(Cl) = 1.10 ± 0.01), and the Eisenman permeability sequence IV; the permeability of monovalent cations ranking K(+) > Cs(+) > Rb(+) > Na(+) > Li(+). Quantitative real-time PCR studies found that OK cells endogenously express claudin-4 > -1 > -6 > -20 > -9 > -12 > -11 > -15. Overexpression of claudin-4 significantly increased TER, decreased Na(+) and Cl(-) permeability, and increased levels of claudin-1, -6, and -9 mRNA. Knockdown of claudin-4 in the overexpressing cells significantly decreased TER without altering claudin expression; thus claudin-4 forms a barrier in OK cells. Knockdown of endogenous claudin-4 decreased claudin-1, -9, and -12 expression without altering TER. Claudin-2 overexpression decreased TER, significantly increased Na(+) and Cl(-) permeability, and decreased claudin-12 and -6 expression. Together these results demonstrate that claudin expression is tightly coupled in OK cells.

  12. SBML qualitative models: a model representation format and infrastructure to foster interactions between qualitative modelling formalisms and tools

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Qualitative frameworks, especially those based on the logical discrete formalism, are increasingly used to model regulatory and signalling networks. A major advantage of these frameworks is that they do not require precise quantitative data, and that they are well-suited for studies of large networks. While numerous groups have developed specific computational tools that provide original methods to analyse qualitative models, a standard format to exchange qualitative models has been missing. Results We present the Systems Biology Markup Language (SBML) Qualitative Models Package (“qual”), an extension of the SBML Level 3 standard designed for computer representation of qualitative models of biological networks. We demonstrate the interoperability of models via SBML qual through the analysis of a specific signalling network by three independent software tools. Furthermore, the collective effort to define the SBML qual format paved the way for the development of LogicalModel, an open-source model library, which will facilitate the adoption of the format as well as the collaborative development of algorithms to analyse qualitative models. Conclusions SBML qual allows the exchange of qualitative models among a number of complementary software tools. SBML qual has the potential to promote collaborative work on the development of novel computational approaches, as well as on the specification and the analysis of comprehensive qualitative models of regulatory and signalling networks. PMID:24321545

  13. ESPAS, the near-Earth space data infrastructure for e-Science: architecture, data model and first release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belehaki, Anna; Hapgood, Mike

    2013-04-01

    In the frames of the European Commission FP7 Programme, the ESPAS data infrastructure (http://www.espas-fp7.eu) is under development with primary objective to support the access to observations from the near-Earth space environment. This is a region that extends from the Earth's atmosphere up to the inner magnetosphere. Observing instruments that are linked to ESPAS include ionosondes, incoherent scatter radars, magnetometers, GNSS receivers and a large number of space sensors and radars. The ESPAS platform supports the systematic exploration of multi-point measurements from near-Earth space through homogeneous access to diverse data, enhances researchers' capability to develop advanced models of the geospace, supports data assimilation and provides tools for validation of models. The concept of extensibility to new data sets is an important element in the ESPAS architecture. The first phase that led to the release of the first prototype included the design and development of the initial data model that supports end user queries for near-earth space datasets using any combination of the following search fields: organisation, instruments, characteristics, temporal and spatial constraints. The next step would be the implementation of search for characteristics within the datasets. For the first release only the basic data sources are registered (i.e. EDAM electron density, DIAS ionosonde data, EISCAT Incoherent Scatter Radar measurements). In a second phase, when all databases and enhanced databases will be registered, the ESPAS infrastructure must be extensively tested through the application of several use cases, designed to serve the needs of the wide interdisciplinary users and producers communities, such as the ionospheric, thermospheric, magnetospheric, space weather and space climate communities, the geophysics community, the space communications engineering, HF users, satellite operators, navigation and surveillance systems, and space agencies. The final

  14. A simple grid implementation with Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing using BLAST as a model

    PubMed Central

    Pinthong, Watthanai; Muangruen, Panya

    2016-01-01

    Development of high-throughput technologies, such as Next-generation sequencing, allows thousands of experiments to be performed simultaneously while reducing resource requirement. Consequently, a massive amount of experiment data is now rapidly generated. Nevertheless, the data are not readily usable or meaningful until they are further analysed and interpreted. Due to the size of the data, a high performance computer (HPC) is required for the analysis and interpretation. However, the HPC is expensive and difficult to access. Other means were developed to allow researchers to acquire the power of HPC without a need to purchase and maintain one such as cloud computing services and grid computing system. In this study, we implemented grid computing in a computer training center environment using Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) as a job distributor and data manager combining all desktop computers to virtualize the HPC. Fifty desktop computers were used for setting up a grid system during the off-hours. In order to test the performance of the grid system, we adapted the Basic Local Alignment Search Tools (BLAST) to the BOINC system. Sequencing results from Illumina platform were aligned to the human genome database by BLAST on the grid system. The result and processing time were compared to those from a single desktop computer and HPC. The estimated durations of BLAST analysis for 4 million sequence reads on a desktop PC, HPC and the grid system were 568, 24 and 5 days, respectively. Thus, the grid implementation of BLAST by BOINC is an efficient alternative to the HPC for sequence alignment. The grid implementation by BOINC also helped tap unused computing resources during the off-hours and could be easily modified for other available bioinformatics software. PMID:27547555

  15. A simple grid implementation with Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing using BLAST as a model.

    PubMed

    Pinthong, Watthanai; Muangruen, Panya; Suriyaphol, Prapat; Mairiang, Dumrong

    2016-01-01

    Development of high-throughput technologies, such as Next-generation sequencing, allows thousands of experiments to be performed simultaneously while reducing resource requirement. Consequently, a massive amount of experiment data is now rapidly generated. Nevertheless, the data are not readily usable or meaningful until they are further analysed and interpreted. Due to the size of the data, a high performance computer (HPC) is required for the analysis and interpretation. However, the HPC is expensive and difficult to access. Other means were developed to allow researchers to acquire the power of HPC without a need to purchase and maintain one such as cloud computing services and grid computing system. In this study, we implemented grid computing in a computer training center environment using Berkeley Open Infrastructure for Network Computing (BOINC) as a job distributor and data manager combining all desktop computers to virtualize the HPC. Fifty desktop computers were used for setting up a grid system during the off-hours. In order to test the performance of the grid system, we adapted the Basic Local Alignment Search Tools (BLAST) to the BOINC system. Sequencing results from Illumina platform were aligned to the human genome database by BLAST on the grid system. The result and processing time were compared to those from a single desktop computer and HPC. The estimated durations of BLAST analysis for 4 million sequence reads on a desktop PC, HPC and the grid system were 568, 24 and 5 days, respectively. Thus, the grid implementation of BLAST by BOINC is an efficient alternative to the HPC for sequence alignment. The grid implementation by BOINC also helped tap unused computing resources during the off-hours and could be easily modified for other available bioinformatics software.

  16. The Emerging Interdependence of the Electric Power Grid & Information and Communication Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Taft, Jeffrey D.; Becker-Dippmann, Angela S.

    2015-08-01

    This paper examines the implications of emerging interdependencies between the electric power grid and Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Over the past two decades, electricity and ICT infrastructure have become increasingly interdependent, driven by a combination of factors including advances in sensor, network and software technologies and progress in their deployment, the need to provide increasing levels of wide-area situational awareness regarding grid conditions, and the promise of enhanced operational efficiencies. Grid operators’ ability to utilize new and closer-to-real-time data generated by sensors throughout the system is providing early returns, particularly with respect to management of the transmission system for purposes of reliability, coordination, congestion management, and integration of variable electricity resources such as wind generation.

  17. A Spatial Probit Econometric Model of Land Change: The Case of Infrastructure Development in Western Amazonia, Peru.

    PubMed

    Arima, E Y

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forests are now at the center stage of climate mitigation policies worldwide given their roles as sources of carbon emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation. Although the international community has created mechanisms such as REDD+ to reduce those emissions, developing tropical countries continue to invest in infrastructure development in an effort to spur economic growth. Construction of roads in particular is known to be an important driver of deforestation. This article simulates the impact of road construction on deforestation in Western Amazonia, Peru, and quantifies the amount of carbon emissions associated with projected deforestation. To accomplish this objective, the article adopts a Bayesian probit land change model in which spatial dependencies are defined between regions or groups of pixels instead of between individual pixels, thereby reducing computational requirements. It also compares and contrasts the patterns of deforestation predicted by both spatial and non-spatial probit models. The spatial model replicates complex patterns of deforestation whereas the non-spatial model fails to do so. In terms of policy, both models suggest that road construction will increase deforestation by a modest amount, between 200-300 km2. This translates into aboveground carbon emissions of 1.36 and 1.85 x 106 tons. However, recent introduction of palm oil in the region serves as a cautionary example that the models may be underestimating the impact of roads.

  18. A Spatial Probit Econometric Model of Land Change: The Case of Infrastructure Development in Western Amazonia, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Arima, E. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical forests are now at the center stage of climate mitigation policies worldwide given their roles as sources of carbon emissions resulting from deforestation and forest degradation. Although the international community has created mechanisms such as REDD+ to reduce those emissions, developing tropical countries continue to invest in infrastructure development in an effort to spur economic growth. Construction of roads in particular is known to be an important driver of deforestation. This article simulates the impact of road construction on deforestation in Western Amazonia, Peru, and quantifies the amount of carbon emissions associated with projected deforestation. To accomplish this objective, the article adopts a Bayesian probit land change model in which spatial dependencies are defined between regions or groups of pixels instead of between individual pixels, thereby reducing computational requirements. It also compares and contrasts the patterns of deforestation predicted by both spatial and non-spatial probit models. The spatial model replicates complex patterns of deforestation whereas the non-spatial model fails to do so. In terms of policy, both models suggest that road construction will increase deforestation by a modest amount, between 200–300 km2. This translates into aboveground carbon emissions of 1.36 and 1.85 x 106 tons. However, recent introduction of palm oil in the region serves as a cautionary example that the models may be underestimating the impact of roads. PMID:27010739

  19. Lessons from the unexpected: the importance of data infrastructure, conceptual models, and serendipity in health services research.

    PubMed

    Mechanic, D

    2001-01-01

    In examining the importance of data systems, conceptual models, and serendipity in understanding health services, the case is made for a vigorous and responsive data infrastructure and more emphasis on conceptual development. Particularly important is the development of data systems that can keep pace with changes in health care organization and patterns of care. Three examples--from managed care, deinstitutionalization, and physician remuneration--demonstrate the need to empirically examine seemingly obvious assumptions about health patterns and trends, and the lessons to be learned when assumptions are proved incorrect. Major future challenges include incorporating patient preferences into outcomes research, meaningful communication about treatment options and health plan choices, and understanding how organizational culture and norms affect decision processes.

  20. Brandenburg 3D - a comprehensive 3D Subsurface Model, Conception of an Infrastructure Node and a Web Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerschke, Dorit; Schilling, Maik; Simon, Andreas; Wächter, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    The Energiewende and the increasing scarcity of raw materials will lead to an intensified utilization of the subsurface in Germany. Within this context, geological 3D modeling is a fundamental approach for integrated decision and planning processes. Initiated by the development of the European Geospatial Infrastructure INSPIRE, the German State Geological Offices started digitizing their predominantly analog archive inventory. Until now, a comprehensive 3D subsurface model of Brandenburg did not exist. Therefore the project B3D strived to develop a new 3D model as well as a subsequent infrastructure node to integrate all geological and spatial data within the Geodaten-Infrastruktur Brandenburg (Geospatial Infrastructure, GDI-BB) and provide it to the public through an interactive 2D/3D web application. The functionality of the web application is based on a client-server architecture. Server-sided, all available spatial data is published through GeoServer. GeoServer is designed for interoperability and acts as the reference implementation of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Web Feature Service (WFS) standard that provides the interface that allows requests for geographical features. In addition, GeoServer implements, among others, the high performance certified compliant Web Map Service (WMS) that serves geo-referenced map images. For publishing 3D data, the OGC Web 3D Service (W3DS), a portrayal service for three-dimensional geo-data, is used. The W3DS displays elements representing the geometry, appearance, and behavior of geographic objects. On the client side, the web application is solely based on Free and Open Source Software and leans on the JavaScript API WebGL that allows the interactive rendering of 2D and 3D graphics by means of GPU accelerated usage of physics and image processing as part of the web page canvas without the use of plug-ins. WebGL is supported by most web browsers (e.g., Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Safari, and Opera). The web

  1. Natural hazard resilient cities: the case of a SSMS model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos-Reyes, Jaime

    2010-05-01

    Modern society is characterised by complexity; i.e. technical systems are highly complex and highly interdependent. The nature of the interdependence amongst these systems has become an issue on increasing importance in recent years. Moreover, these systems face a number threats ranging from technical, human and natural. For example, natural hazards (earthquakes, floods, heavy snow, etc) can cause significant problems and disruption to normal life. On the other hand, modern society depends on highly interdependent infrastructures such as transport (rail, road, air, etc), telecommunications, power and water supply, etc. Furthermore, in many cases there is no single owner, operator, and regulator of such systems. Any disruption in any of the interconnected systems may cause a domino-effect. The domino-effect may occur at local, regional or at national level; or, in some cases; it may be extended across international borders. Given the above, it may be argued that society is less resilient to such events and therefore there is a need to have a system in place able to maintain risk within an acceptable range, whatever that might be. This paper presents the modelling process of the interdependences amongst "critical infrastructures" (i.e. transport, telecommunications, power & water supply, etc) for a typical city. The approach has been the application of the developed Systemic Safety Management System (SSMS) model. The main conclusion is that the SSMS model has the potentiality to be used to model interdependencies amongst the so called "critical infrastructures". It is hoped that the approach presented in this paper may help to gain a better understanding of the interdependence amongst these systems and may contribute to a resilient society when disrupted by natural hazards.

  2. Whole Life Program. The Acculturation Model of Interdependent Apartment Living for Adults with Disabilities. Interfacing Individual Rights with the Responsibilities of Community Living. Continuing Education Courses through College for Living.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Jan L.; Roelofs, Alice R.

    This book is a resource for human service professionals with detailed information necessary to start, maintain, monitor, assess, and reevaluate a program targeting independence. It describes the Whole Life Program, an interdependent apartment program combined with continuing education for adults with developmental, physical, and emotional…

  3. Exploiting and developing interoperability between multidisciplinary environmental research infrastructures in Europe - step toward international collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorvari, S.; Asmi, A.; Konijn, J.; Pursula, A.; Los, W.; Laj, P.; Kutsch, W. L.

    2014-12-01

    Environmental Research infrastructures are long-term facilities, resources, and related services that are used by research communities to conduct environmental research in their respective fields. The focus of the European environmental Research Infrastructures is in in-situ or short-range remote sensing infrastructures. Each environmental research infrastructure (RI) has its own particular set of science questions and foci that it must solve to achieve its objectives; however every RI is also providing its data and services to the wider user communities and thus contributing to the wider, trans- and interdisciplinary science questions and grand environmental challenges. Thus, there are many issues that most of the RIs share, e.g. data collection, preservation, quality control, integration and availability, as well as providing the computational capability to researchers. ENVRI - Common operation of European Research Infrastructures - project was a collaborative action of major European Environmental RIs working towards increased cooperation and interoperability between the infrastructures (www.envri.eu). From the technological point-of-view, one of the major results is the development of common Environmental RIs Reference Model, which is a tool to effectively enhance the interoperability among RIs. In addition to common technical solutions, also cultural and human related topics need to be tackled in parallel with the technical solutions. Topics such as open access, data policy issues (licenses, citation agreements, IPR agreements), technologies for machine-machine interaction, workflows, metadata, data annotations, and the training of the data scientist and research generalist to make it all work and implemented. These three interdependent resource capitals (technological incl. ENVRI Reference Model, cultural and human capitals) will be discussed in the presentation.

  4. The effects of perceived social support on quality of life in patients awaiting coronary artery bypass grafting and their partners: testing dyadic dynamics using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Patricia; Molloy, Gerard J; Chung, Misook L

    2012-01-01

    Patients awaiting coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) need support from their partners or family caregivers to manage their self care successfully and to maximise quality of life. Partners need social support to help overcome the stressful tasks of an unexpected caregiving role. It is not known whether the individual's perceived social support contributes to their own, as well as their partner's quality of life. The aims of this study were to assess differences in social support and quality of life in patients and partners awaiting CABG, and to examine whether patients' and partners' perceived social support predicted their own, as well as their partner's quality of life before CABG. This cross-sectional study recruited 84 dyads (patients 84% males, aged 64.5 years and partners 94% females, aged 61.05 years). Perceived social support was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support survey, with sub-scales for informational/emotional support, affectionate support, tangible support and positive social interaction. Quality of life was assessed using the Short-Form 12 Health Survey. Dyadic data were analysed using the Actor-Partner Interdependence Model, with distinguishable dyad regression. Results revealed the patients' informational/emotional support exhibited an actor effect on their own mental health (ß = 0.19, p = 0.001); indicating those with low informational/emotional support had poorer mental health. There was a partner effect of the patients' informational/emotional support on their partner's mental health (ß = 0.14, p = 0.024), indicating the patients' informational/emotional support was associated with the partner's mental health. None of the other types of social support exhibited an actor effect or a partner effect on the patient's or the partner's mental or physical health. More research into the relationship between social support and mental health is needed to help inform the design of interventions that target the dyad.

  5. CSDMS2.0: Computational Infrastructure for Community Surface Dynamics Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syvitski, J. P.; Hutton, E.; Peckham, S. D.; Overeem, I.; Kettner, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Community Surface Dynamic Modeling System (CSDMS) is an NSF-supported, international and community-driven program that seeks to transform the science and practice of earth-surface dynamics modeling. CSDMS integrates a diverse community of more than 850 geoscientists representing 360 international institutions (academic, government, industry) from 60 countries and is supported by a CSDMS Interagency Committee (22 Federal agencies), and a CSDMS Industrial Consortia (18 companies). CSDMS presently distributes more 200 Open Source models and modeling tools, access to high performance computing clusters in support of developing and running models, and a suite of products for education and knowledge transfer. CSDMS software architecture employs frameworks and services that convert stand-alone models into flexible "plug-and-play" components to be assembled into larger applications. CSDMS2.0 will support model applications within a web browser, on a wider variety of computational platforms, and on other high performance computing clusters to ensure robustness and sustainability of the framework. Conversion of stand-alone models into "plug-and-play" components will employ automated wrapping tools. Methods for quantifying model uncertainty are being adapted as part of the modeling framework. Benchmarking data is being incorporated into the CSDMS modeling framework to support model inter-comparison. Finally, a robust mechanism for ingesting and utilizing semantic mediation databases is being developed within the Modeling Framework. Six new community initiatives are being pursued: 1) an earth - ecosystem modeling initiative to capture ecosystem dynamics and ensuing interactions with landscapes, 2) a geodynamics initiative to investigate the interplay among climate, geomorphology, and tectonic processes, 3) an Anthropocene modeling initiative, to incorporate mechanistic models of human influences, 4) a coastal vulnerability modeling initiative, with emphasis on deltas and

  6. ESDORA: A Data Archive Infrastructure Using Digital Object Model and Open Source Frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Biva; Pan, Jerry; Green, Jim; Palanisamy, Giriprakash; Wei, Yaxing; Lenhardt, W.; Cook, R. Bob; Wilson, B. E.; Leggott, M.

    2011-12-01

    There are an array of challenges associated with preserving, managing, and using contemporary scientific data. Large volume, multiple formats and data services, and the lack of a coherent mechanism for metadata/data management are some of the common issues across data centers. It is often difficult to preserve the data history and lineage information, along with other descriptive metadata, hindering the true science value for the archived data products. In this project, we use digital object abstraction architecture as the information/knowledge framework to address these challenges. We have used the following open-source frameworks: Fedora-Commons Repository, Drupal Content Management System, Islandora (Drupal Module) and Apache Solr Search Engine. The system is an active archive infrastructure for Earth Science data resources, which include ingestion, archiving, distribution, and discovery functionalities. We use an ingestion workflow to ingest the data and metadata, where many different aspects of data descriptions (including structured and non-structured metadata) are reviewed. The data and metadata are published after reviewing multiple times. They are staged during the reviewing phase. Each digital object is encoded in XML for long-term preservation of the content and relations among the digital items. The software architecture provides a flexible, modularized framework for adding pluggable user-oriented functionality. Solr is used to enable word search as well as faceted search. A home grown spatial search module is plugged in to allow user to make a spatial selection in a map view. A RDF semantic store within the Fedora-Commons Repository is used for storing information on data lineage, dissemination services, and text-based metadata. We use the semantic notion "isViewerFor" to register internally or externally referenced URLs, which are rendered within the same web browser when possible. With appropriate mapping of content into digital objects, many

  7. Building Information Modelling (BIM) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technologies in infrastructure construction project management and delay and disruption analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacanas, Yiannis; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Agapiou, Athos; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos

    2015-06-01

    Time in infrastructure construction projects has always been a fundamental issue as early as from the inception of a project, during the construction process and often after the completion and delivery. In a typical construction contract time related matters such as the completion date and possible delays are among the most important issues that are dealt with by the contract provisions. In the event of delay there are usually provisions for extension of time award to the contractor with possible reimbursement for the extra cost and expenses caused by this extension of time to the contract duration. In the case the contractor is not entitled to extension of time, the owner will be possibly entitled to amounts as compensation for the time prohibited from using his development. Even in the event of completion within the time agreed, under certain circumstances a contractor may have claims for reimbursement for extra costs incurred due to induced acceleration measures he had to take in order to mitigate disruption effects caused to the progress of the works by the owner or his representatives. Depending on the size of the project and the agreement amount, these reimbursement sums may be extremely high. Therefore innovative methods with the exploitation of new technologies for effective project management for the avoidance of delays, delay analysis and mitigation measures are essential; moreover, methods for collecting efficiently information during the construction process so that disputes regarding time are avoided or resolved in a quick and fair manner are required. This paper explores the state of art for existing use of Building Information Modelling (BIM) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) technologies in the construction industry in general. Moreover the paper considers the prospect of using BIM technology in conjunction with the use of UAV technology for efficient and accurate as-built data collection and illustration of the works progress during an

  8. Mathematical modelling of tsunami impacts on critical infrastructures: exposure and severity associated with debris transport at Sines port, Portugal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conde, Daniel; Baptista, Maria Ana; Sousa Oliveira, Carlos; Ferreira, Rui M. L.

    2015-04-01

    Global energy production is still significantly dependant on the coal supply chain, justifying huge investments on building infrastructures, capable of stocking very large quantities of this natural resource. Most of these infrastructures are located at deep-sea ports and are therefore exposed to extreme coastal hazards, such as tsunami impacts. The 2011 Tohoku tsunami is reported to have inflicted severe damage to Japan's coal-fired power stations and related infrastructure. Sines, located in the Portuguese coast, hosts a major commercial port featuring an exposed coal stockpile area extending over more than 24 ha and a container terminal currently under expansion up to 100ha. It is protected against storm surges but tsunamis have not been considered in the design criteria. The dominant wind-generated wave direction is N to NW, while the main tsunamigenic faults are located S to SW of the port. This configuration potentially exposes sensitive facilities, such as the new terminal container and the coal stockpile area. According to a recent revision of the national tsunami catalogue (Baptista, 2009), Portugal has been affected by numerous major tsunamis over the last two millennia, with the most notorious event being the Great Lisbon Earthquake and Tsunami occurred on the 1st November 1755. The aim of this work is to simulate the open ocean propagation and overland impact of a tsunami on the Sines port, similar to the historical event of 1755, based on the different tsunamigenic faults and magnitudes proposed in the current literature. Open ocean propagation was modelled with standard simulation tools like TUNAMI and GeoClaw. Near-shore and overland propagation was carried out using a recent 2DH mathematical model for solid-fluid flows, STAV-2D from CERIS-IST (Ferreira et al., 2009; Canelas, 2013). STAV-2D is particularly suited for tsunami propagation over complex and morphodynamic geometries, featuring a discretization scheme based on a finite-volume method using

  9. Technology Interdependency Roadmaps for Space Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishen, Kumar

    1995-01-01

    The requirements for Space Technology are outlined in terms of NASA Strategic Plan. The national emphasis on economic revitalization is described along with the environmental changes needed for the new direction. Space Technology Interdependency (STI) is elaborated in terms of its impact on national priority on science, education, and economy. Some suggested approaches to strengthening STI are outlined. Finally, examples of Technology Roadmaps for Space Operations area are included to illustrate the value of STI for national cohesiveness and economic revitalization.

  10. Modeling network infrastructure and performance evaluation for PACS: DICOM over ethernet-based TCP/IP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arvanitis, Theodoros N.; Roth, David

    2001-08-01

    Studies of information and process modeling have demonstrated the importance and clinical impact of Picture Archiving and Communication Systems in the efficient operational management of imaging within the clinical setting. The appropriate identification of both clinical and technology requirements for the planning and deployment of such systems is essential to achieve cost-effectiveness in use. The understanding of the complexities of clinically viable network topologies and architectures for PACS can be achieved through realistic simulations and modeling. The purpose of this paper is to provide a methodology for modeling the DICOM session and application layer entities over Ethernet-based TCP/IP, by using the OPNET Modeler, and derive performance evaluation metrics for different PACS network topologies.

  11. A Model for Sustainable Development of Child Mental Health Infrastructure in the LMIC World: Vietnam as a Case Example

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Bahr; Ngo, Victoria Khanh; Dang, Hoang-Minh; Pollack, Amie; Trung, Lam T.; Tran, Cong V.; Tran, Nam T.; Sang, David; Do, Khanh N.

    2012-01-01

    Children and adolescents are among the highest need populations in regards to mental health support, especially in low and middle income countries (LMIC). Yet resources in LMIC for prevention and treatment of mental health problems are limited, in particular for children and adolescents. In this paper, we discuss a model for development of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) resources in LMIC that has guided a ten year initiative focused on development of CAMH treatment and research infrastructure in Vietnam. We first review the need for development of mental health resources for children and adolescents in general, and then in Vietnam. We next present the model that guided our program as it developed, focused on the twin Capacity Development Goals of efficacy and sustainability, and the Capacity Development Targets used to move towards these goals. Finally we discuss our CAMH development initiative in Vietnam, the center of which has been development of a graduate program in clinical psychology at Vietnam National University, linking program activities to this model. PMID:24701368

  12. BluePyOpt: Leveraging Open Source Software and Cloud Infrastructure to Optimise Model Parameters in Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Van Geit, Werner; Gevaert, Michael; Chindemi, Giuseppe; Rössert, Christian; Courcol, Jean-Denis; Muller, Eilif B.; Schürmann, Felix; Segev, Idan; Markram, Henry

    2016-01-01

    At many scales in neuroscience, appropriate mathematical models take the form of complex dynamical systems. Parameterizing such models to conform to the multitude of available experimental constraints is a global non-linear optimisation problem with a complex fitness landscape, requiring numerical techniques to find suitable approximate solutions. Stochastic optimisation approaches, such as evolutionary algorithms, have been shown to be effective, but often the setting up of such optimisations and the choice of a specific search algorithm and its parameters is non-trivial, requiring domain-specific expertise. Here we describe BluePyOpt, a Python package targeted at the broad neuroscience community to simplify this task. BluePyOpt is an extensible framework for data-driven model parameter optimisation that wraps and standardizes several existing open-source tools. It simplifies the task of creating and sharing these optimisations, and the associated techniques and knowledge. This is achieved by abstracting the optimisation and evaluation tasks into various reusable and flexible discrete elements according to established best-practices. Further, BluePyOpt provides methods for setting up both small- and large-scale optimisations on a variety of platforms, ranging from laptops to Linux clusters and cloud-based compute infrastructures. The versatility of the BluePyOpt framework is demonstrated by working through three representative neuroscience specific use cases. PMID:27375471

  13. Anger Suppression, Interdependent Self-Construal, and Depression among Asian American and European American College Students

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Rebecca Y. M.; Park, Irene J. K.

    2010-01-01

    The present study tested a theoretical model of emotion regulation (Yap, Sheeber, & Allen, 2007) in a sample of Asian American and European American college students (N = 365). Specifically, the mediating role of anger suppression in the effect of temperament and family processes on depressive symptoms was tested across race and levels of interdependent self-construal (a culturally based self orientation emphasizing connectedness with others). Next, the moderation of the suppression—depression relation was tested by race and interdependent self-construal. Results indicated that the hypothesized model fit well across Asian American and European American students as well as those with high vs. low levels of interdependent self-construal. Anger suppression was a significant mediator of the hypothesized indirect effects on depressive symptoms. Moreover, race and interdependent self-construal moderated the suppression—depression link, such that Asian American status and a stronger interdependent self-construal attenuated the relation between anger suppression and depressive symptoms. Understanding both universal and culture-specific aspects of emotion regulation in the development of depressive symptoms will be essential for sound theory, future research, and effective prevention and intervention efforts across diverse populations. PMID:21058815

  14. Toward disaster-resilient cities: characterizing resilience of infrastructure systems with expert judgments.

    PubMed

    Chang, Stephanie E; McDaniels, Timothy; Fox, Jana; Dhariwal, Rajan; Longstaff, Holly

    2014-03-01

    Resilient infrastructure systems are essential for cities to withstand and rapidly recover from natural and human-induced disasters, yet electric power, transportation, and other infrastructures are highly vulnerable and interdependent. New approaches for characterizing the resilience of sets of infrastructure systems are urgently needed, at community and regional scales. This article develops a practical approach for analysts to characterize a community's infrastructure vulnerability and resilience in disasters. It addresses key challenges of incomplete incentives, partial information, and few opportunities for learning. The approach is demonstrated for Metro Vancouver, Canada, in the context of earthquake and flood risk. The methodological approach is practical and focuses on potential disruptions to infrastructure services. In spirit, it resembles probability elicitation with multiple experts; however, it elicits disruption and recovery over time, rather than uncertainties regarding system function at a given point in time. It develops information on regional infrastructure risk and engages infrastructure organizations in the process. Information sharing, iteration, and learning among the participants provide the basis for more informed estimates of infrastructure system robustness and recovery that incorporate the potential for interdependent failures after an extreme event. Results demonstrate the vital importance of cross-sectoral communication to develop shared understanding of regional infrastructure disruption in disasters. For Vancouver, specific results indicate that in a hypothetical M7.3 earthquake, virtually all infrastructures would suffer severe disruption of service in the immediate aftermath, with many experiencing moderate disruption two weeks afterward. Electric power, land transportation, and telecommunications are identified as core infrastructure sectors.

  15. The TERENO-preAlpine Observatory: A Research Infrastructure for Hydrometeorological Observation and -Modeling across Compartments and Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunstmann, H.; Beck, C.; Brosy, C.; Chwala, C.; Emeis, S.; Fersch, B.; Garvelmann, J.; Gasche, R.; Jahn, C.; Junkermann, W.; Keis, F.; Kiese, R.; Krieg, R.; Mauder, M.; Ralf, M.; Neidl, F.; Philipp, A.; Schäfer, K.; Schmid, H. P. E.; Völksch, I.; Warscher, M.; Werhahn, J.; Wolf, B.; Senatore, A.; Rödiger, T.

    2015-12-01

    The improved understanding of the interlinked atmospheric and terrestrial hydrological processes requires concerted and compartment-crossing observation and -modeling efforts. Through the TERENO preAlpine Observatory, located in the southern Bavarian region of Germany, comprehensive technical infrastructure is being established to allow joint analyses of water-, energy- and nutrient fluxes. The observatory extends from the Ammergau mountains in the South till Lake Ammersee in the North. The observatory is designated as an international research platform, open for participation and integration. The technical infrastructure consists of a multitude of precipitation gauges at different altitudes, an X-band radar, and a set of commercial microwave radio links allowing to derive line integrated precipitation estimates, numerous snow monitoring stations, a SnowPack Analyzer, neutron based SnowFox devices, as well as a snow melt lysimeter and time-lapse photography. For the quantification of the combined water and energy fluxes, three eddy covariance systems including four-component net-radiometers and soil-heat flux instrumentation are operated. Soil moisture patterns and dynamics are measured with a wireless sensor network consisting of 55 in-situ soil moisture profiles, a cosmic ray probe probe and 36 precision weighing vegetated lysimeters at different locations and altitudes. Groundwater dynamics and hydrogeochemical composition of the two main local aquifers are monitored at five observation wells as well as streamflow at three weirs at various cross sections. Additionally, stable water isotopes are analyzed. The operational monitoring is complemented by intensive measurement campaigns, like the ScaleX campaign in June and July 2015 for which we present first results. Here, additional remote sensing measurements of atmospheric wind, humidity and temperature profiles are performed, which are complemented by micro-light aircraft- and UAV-based remote sensing for three

  16. Flight Test of Composite Model Reference Adaptive Control (CMRAC) Augmentation Using NASA AirSTAR Infrastructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, Irene M.; Gadient, ROss; Lavretsky, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents flight test results of a robust linear baseline controller with and without composite adaptive control augmentation. The flight testing was conducted using the NASA Generic Transport Model as part of the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research system at NASA Langley Research Center.

  17. PERFLUOROCARBON GAS TRACER STUDIES TO SUPPORT RISK ASSESSMENT MODELING OF CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE SUBJECTED TO TERRORIST ATTACKS.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; HEISER, J.; WATSON, T.; ALLWINE, K.J.; FLAHERTY, J.E.

    2006-05-06

    Development of real-time predictive modeling to identify the dispersion and/or source(s) of airborne weapons of mass destruction including chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear material in urban environments is needed to improve response to potential releases of these materials via either terrorist or accidental means. These models will also prove useful in defining airborne pollution dispersion in urban environments for pollution management/abatement programs. Predicting gas flow in an urban setting on a scale of less than a few kilometers is a complicated and challenging task due to the irregular flow paths that occur along streets and alleys and around buildings of different sizes and shapes, i.e., ''urban canyons''. In addition, air exchange between the outside and buildings and subway areas further complicate the situation. Transport models that are used to predict dispersion of WMD/CBRN materials or to back track the source of the release require high-density data and need defensible parameterizations of urban processes. Errors in the data or any of the parameter inputs or assumptions will lead to misidentification of the airborne spread or source release location(s). The need for these models to provide output in a real-time fashion if they are to be useful for emergency response provides another challenge. To improve the ability of New York City's (NYC's) emergency management teams and first response personnel to protect the public during releases of hazardous materials, the New York City Urban Dispersion Program (UDP) has been initiated. This is a four year research program being conducted from 2004 through 2007. This paper will discuss ground level and subway Perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) release studies conducted in New York City. The studies released multiple tracers to study ground level and vertical transport of contaminants. This paper will discuss the results from these tests and how these results can be used for improving transport models

  18. Advanced Artificial Science. The development of an artificial science and engineering research infrastructure to facilitate innovative computational modeling, analysis, and application to interdisciplinary areas of scientific investigation.

    SciTech Connect

    Saffer, Shelley I.

    2014-12-01

    This is a final report of the DOE award DE-SC0001132, Advanced Artificial Science. The development of an artificial science and engineering research infrastructure to facilitate innovative computational modeling, analysis, and application to interdisciplinary areas of scientific investigation. This document describes the achievements of the goals, and resulting research made possible by this award.

  19. Extreme events in multilayer, interdependent complex networks and control

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Zhong; Huang, Zi-Gang; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Eisenberg, Daniel; Seager, Thomas P.; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the emergence of extreme events in interdependent networks. We introduce an inter-layer traffic resource competing mechanism to account for the limited capacity associated with distinct network layers. A striking finding is that, when the number of network layers and/or the overlap among the layers are increased, extreme events can emerge in a cascading manner on a global scale. Asymptotically, there are two stable absorption states: a state free of extreme events and a state of full of extreme events, and the transition between them is abrupt. Our results indicate that internal interactions in the multiplex system can yield qualitatively distinct phenomena associated with extreme events that do not occur for independent network layers. An implication is that, e.g., public resource competitions among different service providers can lead to a higher resource requirement than naively expected. We derive an analytical theory to understand the emergence of global-scale extreme events based on the concept of effective betweenness. We also articulate a cost-effective control scheme through increasing the capacity of very few hubs to suppress the cascading process of extreme events so as to protect the entire multi-layer infrastructure against global-scale breakdown. PMID:26612009

  20. Evaluating the role of green infrastructures on near-road pollutant dispersion and removal: Modelling and measurement.

    PubMed

    Morakinyo, Tobi Eniolu; Lam, Yun Fat; Hao, Song

    2016-11-01

    To enhance the quality of human life in a rapidly urbanized world plagued with high transportation, the masterful contribution of improved urban and local air quality cannot be overemphasized. In order to reduce human exposure to near-road air pollution, several approaches including the installation of roadside structural barriers especially in open street areas, such as city entrances are being applied. In the present study, the air quality around real world and idealized green infrastructures was investigated by means of numerical simulation and a short field measurement campaign. Fair agreement was found between ENVI-met modelled and measured particulate matter's concentration data around a realistic vegetation barrier indicating a fair representation of reality in the model. Several numerical experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of barrier type (vegetation/hedge and green wall) and dimensions on near-road air quality. The results show different horizontal/vertical patterns and magnitudes of upwind and downwind relative concentration (with and without a barrier) depending on wind condition, barrier type and dimension. Furthermore, an integrated dispersion-deposition approach was employed to assess the impact on air quality of near-road vegetation barrier. At last, recommendations to city and urban planners on the implementation of roadside structural barriers were made.

  1. Modeling the effects of health status and the educational infrastructure on the cognitive development of Tanzanian schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Alok; Jukes, Matthew; Ngorosho, Damaris; Khilma, Charles; Bundy, Donald A P

    2005-01-01

    This paper models the proximate determinants of school attendance and scores on cognitive and educational achievement tests and on school examinations of over 600 schoolchildren from the Control group of a randomized trial in Tanzania, where children in the Intervention group heavily infected with hookworm and schistosomiasis received treatment. The modeling approach used a random effects framework and incorporated the inter-relationships between school attendance and performance on various tests, controlling for children's health status, socioeconomic variables, grade level, and the educational infrastructure. The empirical results showed the importance of variables such as children's height and hemoglobin concentration for the scores, especially on educational achievement tests that are easy to implement in developing countries. Also, teacher experience and work assignments were significant predictors of the scores on educational achievement tests, and there was some evidence of multiplicative effects of children's heights and work assignments on the test scores. Lastly, some comparisons were made for changes in test scores of treated children in the Intervention group with the untreated children in the Control group.

  2. The Fragility of Interdependency: Coupled Networks Switching Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    2013-03-01

    Recent disasters ranging from abrupt financial ``flash crashes'' and large-scale power outages to sudden death among the elderly dramatically exemplify the fact that the most dangerous vulnerability is hiding in the many interdependencies among different networks. In the past year, we have quantified failures in model of interconnected networks, and demonstrated the need to consider mutually dependent network properties in designing resilient systems. Specifically, we have uncovered new laws governing the nature of switching phenomena in coupled networks, and found that phenomena that are continuous ``second order'' phase transitions in isolated networks become discontinuous abrupt ``first order'' transitions in interdependent networks [S. V. Buldyrev, R. Parshani, G. Paul, H. E. Stanley, and S. Havlin, ``Catastrophic Cascade of Failures in Interdependent Networks,'' Nature 464, 1025 (2010); J. Gao, S. V. Buldyrev, H. E. Stanley, and S. Havlin, ``Novel Behavior of Networks Formed from Interdependent Networks,'' Nature Physics 8, 40 (2012). We conclude by discussing the network basis for understanding sudden death in the elderly, and the possibility that financial ``flash crashes'' are not unlike the catastrophic first-order failure incidents occurring in coupled networks. Specifically, we study the coupled networks that are responsible for financial fluctuations. It appears that ``trend switching phenomena'' that we uncover are remarkably independent of the scale over which they are analyzed. For example, we find that the same laws governing the formation and bursting of the largest financial bubbles also govern the tiniest finance bubbles, over a factor of 1,000,000,000 in time scale [T. Preis, J. Schneider, and H. E. Stanley, ``Switching Processes in Financial Markets,'' Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108, 7674 (2011); T. Preis and H. E. Stanley, ``Bubble Trouble: Can a Law Describe Bubbles and Crashes in Financial Markets?'' Physics World 24, No. 5, 29 (May 2011

  3. A qualitative readiness-requirements assessment model for enterprise big-data infrastructure investment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olama, Mohammed M.; McNair, Allen W.; Sukumar, Sreenivas R.; Nutaro, James J.

    2014-05-01

    In the last three decades, there has been an exponential growth in the area of information technology providing the information processing needs of data-driven businesses in government, science, and private industry in the form of capturing, staging, integrating, conveying, analyzing, and transferring data that will help knowledge workers and decision makers make sound business decisions. Data integration across enterprise warehouses is one of the most challenging steps in the big data analytics strategy. Several levels of data integration have been identified across enterprise warehouses: data accessibility, common data platform, and consolidated data model. Each level of integration has its own set of complexities that requires a certain amount of time, budget, and resources to implement. Such levels of integration are designed to address the technical challenges inherent in consolidating the disparate data sources. In this paper, we present a methodology based on industry best practices to measure the readiness of an organization and its data sets against the different levels of data integration. We introduce a new Integration Level Model (ILM) tool, which is used for quantifying an organization and data system's readiness to share data at a certain level of data integration. It is based largely on the established and accepted framework provided in the Data Management Association (DAMADMBOK). It comprises several key data management functions and supporting activities, together with several environmental elements that describe and apply to each function. The proposed model scores the maturity of a system's data governance processes and provides a pragmatic methodology for evaluating integration risks. The higher the computed scores, the better managed the source data system and the greater the likelihood that the data system can be brought in at a higher level of integration.

  4. A Qualitative Readiness-Requirements Assessment Model for Enterprise Big-Data Infrastructure Investment

    SciTech Connect

    Olama, Mohammed M; McNair, Wade; Sukumar, Sreenivas R; Nutaro, James J

    2014-01-01

    In the last three decades, there has been an exponential growth in the area of information technology providing the information processing needs of data-driven businesses in government, science, and private industry in the form of capturing, staging, integrating, conveying, analyzing, and transferring data that will help knowledge workers and decision makers make sound business decisions. Data integration across enterprise warehouses is one of the most challenging steps in the big data analytics strategy. Several levels of data integration have been identified across enterprise warehouses: data accessibility, common data platform, and consolidated data model. Each level of integration has its own set of complexities that requires a certain amount of time, budget, and resources to implement. Such levels of integration are designed to address the technical challenges inherent in consolidating the disparate data sources. In this paper, we present a methodology based on industry best practices to measure the readiness of an organization and its data sets against the different levels of data integration. We introduce a new Integration Level Model (ILM) tool, which is used for quantifying an organization and data system s readiness to share data at a certain level of data integration. It is based largely on the established and accepted framework provided in the Data Management Association (DAMA-DMBOK). It comprises several key data management functions and supporting activities, together with several environmental elements that describe and apply to each function. The proposed model scores the maturity of a system s data governance processes and provides a pragmatic methodology for evaluating integration risks. The higher the computed scores, the better managed the source data system and the greater the likelihood that the data system can be brought in at a higher level of integration.

  5. Cascading Failures in Interdependent Lattice Networks: The Critical Role of the Length of Dependency Links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Bashan, Amir; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

    2012-06-01

    We study the cascading failures in a system composed of two interdependent square lattice networks A and B placed on the same Cartesian plane, where each node in network A depends on a node in network B randomly chosen within a certain distance r from the corresponding node in network A and vice versa. Our results suggest that percolation for small r below rmax⁡≈8 (lattice units) is a second-order transition, and for larger r is a first-order transition. For rinterdependent infrastructures embedded in Euclidean space become most vulnerable when the distance between interdependent nodes is in the intermediate range, which is much smaller than the size of the system.

  6. Interdependent lattice networks in high dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowinger, Steven; Cwilich, Gabriel A.; Buldyrev, Sergey V.

    2016-11-01

    We study the mutual percolation of two interdependent lattice networks ranging from two to seven dimensions, denoted as D . We impose that the length (measured as chemical distance) of interdependency links connecting nodes in the two lattices be less than or equal to a certain value, r . For each value of D and r , we find the mutual percolation threshold, pc[D ,r ] , below which the system completely collapses through a cascade of failures following an initial destruction of a fraction (1 -p ) of the nodes in one of the lattices. We find that for each dimension, D <6 , there is a value of r =rI>1 such that for r ≥rI the cascading failures occur as a discontinuous first-order transition, while for r interdependent lattices reach maximal vulnerability (maximal pc[D ,r ] ) at a distance r =rmax>rI , and for r >rmax the vulnerability starts to decrease as r →∞ . However, the decrease becomes less significant as D increases, and pc[D ,rmax] -pc[D ,∞ ] decreases exponentially with D . We also investigate the dependence of pc[D ,r ] on the system size as well as how the nature of the transition changes as the number of lattice sites, N →∞ .

  7. Optimizing interconnections to maximize the spectral radius of interdependent networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huashan; Zhao, Xiuyan; Liu, Feng; Xu, Shouhuai; Lu, Wenlian

    2017-03-01

    The spectral radius (i.e., the largest eigenvalue) of the adjacency matrices of complex networks is an important quantity that governs the behavior of many dynamic processes on the networks, such as synchronization and epidemics. Studies in the literature focused on bounding this quantity. In this paper, we investigate how to maximize the spectral radius of interdependent networks by optimally linking k internetwork connections (or interconnections for short). We derive formulas for the estimation of the spectral radius of interdependent networks and employ these results to develop a suite of algorithms that are applicable to different parameter regimes. In particular, a simple algorithm is to link the k nodes with the largest k eigenvector centralities in one network to the node in the other network with a certain property related to both networks. We demonstrate the applicability of our algorithms via extensive simulations. We discuss the physical implications of the results, including how the optimal interconnections can more effectively decrease the threshold of epidemic spreading in the susceptible-infected-susceptible model and the threshold of synchronization of coupled Kuramoto oscillators.

  8. Interdependency of tropical marine ecosystems in response to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, Megan I.; Leon, Javier X.; Callaghan, David P.; Roelfsema, Chris M.; Hamylton, Sarah; Brown, Christopher J.; Baldock, Tom; Golshani, Aliasghar; Phinn, Stuart R.; Lovelock, Catherine E.; Hoegh-Guldberg, Ove; Woodroffe, Colin D.; Mumby, Peter J.

    2014-08-01

    Ecosystems are linked within landscapes by the physical and biological processes they mediate. In such connected landscapes, the response of one ecosystem to climate change could have profound consequences for neighbouring systems. Here, we report the first quantitative predictions of interdependencies between ecosystems in response to climate change. In shallow tropical marine ecosystems, coral reefs shelter lagoons from incoming waves, allowing seagrass meadows to thrive. Deepening water over coral reefs from sea-level rise results in larger, more energetic waves traversing the reef into the lagoon, potentially generating hostile conditions for seagrass. However, growth of coral reef such that the relative water depth is maintained could mitigate negative effects of sea-level rise on seagrass. Parameterizing physical and biological models for Lizard Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia, we find negative effects of sea-level rise on seagrass before the middle of this century given reasonable rates of reef growth. Rates of vertical carbonate accretion typical of modern reef flats (up to 3 mm yr-1) will probably be insufficient to maintain suitable conditions for reef lagoon seagrass under moderate to high greenhouse gas emissions scenarios by 2100. Accounting for interdependencies in ecosystem responses to climate change is challenging, but failure to do so results in inaccurate predictions of habitat extent in the future.

  9. Interdependence, Human Rights and Global Health Law.

    PubMed

    Viens, A M

    2015-12-01

    The connection between health and human rights continues to play a prominent role within global health law. In particular, a number of theorists rely on the claim that there is a relation of interdependence between health and human rights. The nature and extent of this relation, however, is rarely defined, developed or defended in a conceptually robust way. This paper seeks to explore the source, scope and strength of this putative relation and what role it might play in developing a global health law framework.

  10. Hydro-meteorological extreme events caused by climate variability or change and their impacts on infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, A. R.

    2008-05-01

    Critical infrastructures and key assets, especially along coastal areas, are vulnerable to sea level rise caused by climate change, and perhaps more importantly, to extremes of precipitation, wind and storm surges, which in turn are likely to be exacerbated by climate change and consequent rise in sea levels. The 2007 IPCC report states that extreme hydro-meteorological events, ranging from heat waves and cold spells to extreme rainfall events or ice storms, are likely to increase in intensity, duration and frequency over the next several decades. While the uncertainties in our current understanding of climate impacts on certain weather extremes like hurricanes may be high, the net damage in the future is expected to increase anyway owing to enhanced stresses caused by population growth and land use changes. The first step is to quantify the expected exacerbation in the intensity- duration-frequency (IDF) of extreme weather and hydrologic events in light of climate change and assess the uncertainties thereof. Climate model projections need to be developed or downscaled at regional to local scales relevant to the scales of such hazards and their impacts on infrastructures and their interdependencies. The second step is to quantify the expected impact on infrastructures caused by the exacerbated hazards. Thus, infrastructures designed to outlast specific return levels of precipitation or wind may be under additional stress if climate change causes the return levels to intensify. The third step is to develop precise and dynamic geospatial risk indices. The risk computations need to consider the IDF of weather or hydrologic hazards, aggregate measures of infrastructure resilience and vulnerability, the consequences of infrastructure damage on population, economy and environment, and the capabilities and measures that can be brought to bear to mitigate the risks. One additional requirement is to investigate specific infrastructures in more depth and quantify the

  11. Engineering Infrastructures: Problems of Safety and Security in the Russian Federation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makhutov, Nikolay A.; Reznikov, Dmitry O.; Petrov, Vitaly P.

    Modern society cannot exist without stable and reliable engineering infrastructures (EI), whose operation is vital for any national economy. These infrastructures include energy, transportation, water and gas supply systems, telecommunication and cyber systems, etc. Their performance is commensurate with storing and processing huge amounts of information, energy and hazardous substances. Ageing infrastructures are deteriorating — with operating conditions declining from normal to emergency and catastrophic. The complexity of engineering infrastructures and their interdependence with other technical systems makes them vulnerable to emergency situations triggered by natural and manmade catastrophes or terrorist attacks.

  12. Operation and planning of coordinated natural gas and electricity infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaping

    Natural gas is becoming rapidly the optimal choice for fueling new generating units in electric power system driven by abundant natural gas supplies and environmental regulations that are expected to cause coal-fired generation retirements. The growing reliance on natural gas as a dominant fuel for electricity generation throughout North America has brought the interaction between the natural gas and power grids into sharp focus. The primary concern and motivation of this research is to address the emerging interdependency issues faced by the electric power and natural gas industry. This thesis provides a comprehensive analysis of the interactions between the two systems regarding the short-term operation and long-term infrastructure planning. Natural gas and renewable energy appear complementary in many respects regarding fuel price and availability, environmental impact, resource distribution and dispatchability. In addition, demand response has also held the promise of making a significant contribution to enhance system operations by providing incentives to customers for a more flat load profile. We investigated the coordination between natural gas-fired generation and prevailing nontraditional resources including renewable energy, demand response so as to provide economical options for optimizing the short-term scheduling with the intense natural gas delivery constraints. As the amount and dispatch of gas-fired generation increases, the long-term interdependency issue is whether there is adequate pipeline capacity to provide sufficient gas to natural gas-fired generation during the entire planning horizon while it is widely used outside the power sector. This thesis developed a co-optimization planning model by incorporating the natural gas transportation system into the multi-year resource and transmission system planning problem. This consideration would provide a more comprehensive decision for the investment and accurate assessment for system adequacy and

  13. Risk-Based Input-Output Analysis of Influenza Epidemic Consequences on Interdependent Workforce Sectors

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Joost R.; May, Larissa; Haimar, Amine El

    2013-01-01

    Outbreaks of contagious diseases underscore the ever-looming threat of new epidemics. Compared to other disasters that inflict physical damage to infrastructure systems, epidemics can have more devastating and prolonged impacts on the population. This paper investigates the interdependent economic and productivity risks resulting from epidemic-induced workforce absenteeism. In particular, we develop a dynamic input-output model capable of generating sector-disaggregated economic losses based on different magnitudes of workforce disruptions. An ex post analysis of the 2009 H1N1 pandemic in the National Capital Region (NCR) reveals the distribution of consequences across different economic sectors. Consequences are categorized into two metrics: (i) economic loss, which measures the magnitude of monetary losses incurred in each sector, and (ii) inoperability, which measures the normalized monetary losses incurred in each sector relative to the total economic output of that sector. For a simulated mild pandemic scenario in NCR, two distinct rankings are generated using the economic loss and inoperability metrics. Results indicate that the majority of the critical sectors ranked according to the economic loss metric comprise of sectors that contribute the most to the NCR's gross domestic product (e.g., federal government enterprises). In contrast, the majority of the critical sectors generated by the inoperability metric include sectors that are involved with epidemic management (e.g., hospitals). Hence, prioritizing sectors for recovery necessitates consideration of the balance between economic loss, inoperability, and other objectives. Although applied specifically to the NCR region, the proposed methodology can be customized for other regions. PMID:23278756

  14. Attachment Anxiety and Avoidance and Perceptions of Group Climate: An Actor-Partner Interdependence Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivlighan, Dennis M.; Lo Coco, Gianluca; Gullo, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    There is a lack of research examining group members' attachment styles and group climate perceptions in the context of the attachment styles and group climate perceptions of the other group members. In the current study, the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) was used to examine the relationships among (a) a group member's attachment…

  15. Infrastructure Ecology for Sustainable and Resilient Urban Infrastructure Design

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Hyunju; Pandit, Arka; Crittenden, John; Xu, Ming; Perrings, Charles; Wang, Dali; Li, Ke; French, Steve

    2010-10-01

    The population growth coupled with increasing urbanization is predicted to exert a huge demand on the growth and retrofit of urban infrastructure, particularly in water and energy systems. The U.S. population is estimated to grow by 23% (UN, 2009) between 2005 and 2030. The corresponding increases in energy and water demand were predicted as 14% (EIA, 2009) and 20% (Elcock, 2008), respectively. The water-energy nexus needs to be better understood to satisfy the increased demand in a sustainable manner without conflicting with environmental and economic constraints. Overall, 4% of U.S. power generation is used for water distribution (80%) and treatment (20%). 3% of U.S. water consumption (100 billion gallons per day, or 100 BGD) and 40% of U.S. water withdrawal (340 BGD) are for thermoelectric power generation (Goldstein and Smith, 2002). The water demand for energy production is predicted to increase most significantly among the water consumption sectors by 2030. On the other hand, due to the dearth of conventional water sources, energy intensive technologies are increasingly in use to treat seawater and brackish groundwater for water supply. Thus comprehending the interrelation and interdependency between water and energy system is imperative to evaluate sustainable water and energy supply alternatives for cities. In addition to the water-energy nexus, decentralized or distributed concept is also beneficial for designing sustainable water and energy infrastructure as these alternatives require lesser distribution lines and space in a compact urban area. Especially, the distributed energy infrastructure is more suited to interconnect various large and small scale renewable energy producers which can be expected to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In the case of decentralized water infrastructure, on-site wastewater treatment facility can provide multiple benefits. Firstly, it reduces the potable water demand by reusing the treated water for non-potable uses

  16. California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project

    SciTech Connect

    Heydorn, Edward C

    2013-03-12

    Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. has completed a comprehensive, multiyear project to demonstrate a hydrogen infrastructure in California. The specific primary objective of the project was to demonstrate a model of a real-world retail hydrogen infrastructure and acquire sufficient data within the project to assess the feasibility of achieving the nation's hydrogen infrastructure goals. The project helped to advance hydrogen station technology, including the vehicle-to-station fueling interface, through consumer experiences and feedback. By encompassing a variety of fuel cell vehicles, customer profiles and fueling experiences, this project was able to obtain a complete portrait of real market needs. The project also opened its stations to other qualified vehicle providers at the appropriate time to promote widespread use and gain even broader public understanding of a hydrogen infrastructure. The project engaged major energy companies to provide a fueling experience similar to traditional gasoline station sites to foster public acceptance of hydrogen. Work over the course of the project was focused in multiple areas. With respect to the equipment needed, technical design specifications (including both safety and operational considerations) were written, reviewed, and finalized. After finalizing individual equipment designs, complete station designs were started including process flow diagrams and systems safety reviews. Material quotes were obtained, and in some cases, depending on the project status and the lead time, equipment was placed on order and fabrication began. Consideration was given for expected vehicle usage and station capacity, standard features needed, and the ability to upgrade the station at a later date. In parallel with work on the equipment, discussions were started with various vehicle manufacturers to identify vehicle demand (short- and long-term needs). Discussions included identifying potential areas most suited for hydrogen fueling stations

  17. Optimal expansion of a drinking water infrastructure system with respect to carbon footprint, cost-effectiveness and water demand.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Qi, Cheng; Yang, Y Jeffrey

    2012-11-15

    Urban water infrastructure expansion requires careful long-term planning to reduce the risk from climate change during periods of both economic boom and recession. As part of the adaptation management strategies, capacity expansion in concert with other management alternatives responding to the population dynamics, ecological conservation, and water management policies should be systematically examined to balance the water supply and demand temporally and spatially with different scales. To mitigate the climate change impact, this practical implementation often requires a multiobjective decision analysis that introduces economic efficiencies and carbon-footprint matrices simultaneously. The optimal expansion strategies for a typical water infrastructure system in South Florida demonstrate the essence of the new philosophy. Within our case study, the multiobjective modeling framework uniquely features an integrated evaluation of transboundary surface and groundwater resources and quantitatively assesses the interdependencies among drinking water supply, wastewater reuse, and irrigation water permit transfer as the management options expand throughout varying dimensions. With the aid of a multistage planning methodology over the partitioned time horizon, such a systems analysis has resulted in a full-scale screening and sequencing of multiple competing objectives across a suite of management strategies. These strategies that prioritize 20 options provide a possible expansion schedule over the next 20 years that improve water infrastructure resilience and at low life-cycle costs. The proposed method is transformative to other applications of similar water infrastructure systems elsewhere in the world.

  18. Sea Level Rise Impacts On Infrastructure Vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqualini, D.; Mccown, A. W.; Backhaus, S.; Urban, N. M.

    2015-12-01

    Increase of global sea level is one of the potential consequences of climate change and represents a threat for the U.S.A coastal regions, which are highly populated and home of critical infrastructures. The potential danger caused by sea level rise may escalate if sea level rise is coupled with an increase in frequency and intensity of storms that may strike these regions. These coupled threats present a clear risk to population and critical infrastructure and are concerns for Federal, State, and particularly local response and recovery planners. Understanding the effect of sea level rise on the risk to critical infrastructure is crucial for long planning and for mitigating potential damages. In this work we quantify how infrastructure vulnerability to a range of storms changes due to an increase of sea level. Our study focuses on the Norfolk area of the U.S.A. We assess the direct damage of drinking water and wastewater facilities and the power sector caused by a distribution of synthetic hurricanes. In addition, our analysis estimates indirect consequences of these damages on population and economic activities accounting also for interdependencies across infrastructures. While projections unanimously indicate an increase in the rate of sea level rise, the scientific community does not agree on the size of this rate. Our risk assessment accounts for this uncertainty simulating a distribution of sea level rise for a specific climate scenario. Using our impact assessment results and assuming an increase of future hurricanes frequencies and intensities, we also estimate the expected benefits for critical infrastructure.

  19. The Development and Infrastructure Needs Required for Success--One College's Model: Online Nursing Education at Drexel University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, Fran; Glasgow, Mary Ellen Smith

    2007-01-01

    Technology's impact on the delivery of health care mandates that nursing faculty use all technologies at their disposal to better prepare students to work in technology-infused health care environments. Essential components of an infrastructure to grow technology-infused nursing education include a skilled team comprised of tech-savvy faculty and…

  20. Resource Interdependence, Student Interactions and Performance in Cooperative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchs, Celine; Butera, Fabrizio; Mugny, Gabriel

    2004-01-01

    Two studies were carried out during university workshops, and analyzed the effects of resource interdependence on student-student interactions, and the impact of these interactions on performance. Students worked cooperatively, either on complementary information (positive resource interdependence) or on identical information (resource…

  1. In the land of the free, interdependent action undermines motivation.

    PubMed

    Hamedani, Maryam G; Markus, Hazel Rose; Fu, Alyssa S

    2013-02-01

    Today's most pressing social challenges require people to recognize their shared fate and work together--to think and act interdependently. In the three studies reported here, we found that appeals for increased interdependence may undermine the very motivation they seek to inspire. We examined the hypothesis that invoking interdependent action undermines motivation for chronically independent European Americans but not for bicultural Asian Americans who are both chronically independent and chronically interdependent. Studies 1 and 2 demonstrated that priming interdependent rather than independent action undermined European Americans' motivation to perform challenging mental and physical tasks. Study 3 showed that framing an appeal for environmental sustainability in terms of interdependent rather than independent action led to decreased motivation and resource allocation among European Americans. Motivation was not undermined for Asian Americans, which reveals how behavior is divergently shaped, in the land of the free, by foundational sociocultural schemas of independence and interdependence. This research has the novel implication that it may be necessary to invoke independent behaviors in order to successfully motivate interdependence.

  2. The Relationship between Library Anxiety and Social Interdependence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Qun G.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    This study examined the relationship between library anxiety and social interdependence. Participants were 115 graduate students from various disciplines who were administered the Library Anxiety Scale (LAS) and the Social Interdependence Scale (SIS). The LAS assesses levels of library anxiety. This instrument has the following five subscales:…

  3. Indonesian Mothers and Their Young Children: Towards an Interdependent Society?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zevalkink, Jolien

    Considering the mother-child relationship as the first in which culturally-related interdependence or independence is learned, this study examined whether the interdependency hypothesis holds for the mother-child relationship in Indonesia. The study focused on the quality of the mother-child relationship, children's daily social interactions, and…

  4. Interdependent networks - Topological percolation research and application in finance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Di

    This dissertation covers the two major parts of my Ph.D. research: i) developing a theoretical framework of complex networks and applying simulation and numerical methods to study the robustness of the network system, and ii) applying statistical physics concepts and methods to quantitatively analyze complex systems and applying the theoretical framework to study real-world systems. In part I, we focus on developing theories of interdependent networks as well as building computer simulation models, which includes three parts: 1) We report on the effects of topology on failure propagation for a model system consisting of two interdependent networks. We find that the internal node correlations in each of the networks significantly changes the critical density of failures, which can trigger the total disruption of the two-network system. Specifically, we find that the assortativity within a single network decreases the robustness of the entire system. 2) We study the percolation behavior of two interdependent scale-free (SF) networks under random failure of 1-p fraction of nodes. We find that as the coupling strength q between the two networks reduces from 1 (fully coupled) to 0 (no coupling), there exist two critical coupling strengths q1 and q2 , which separate the behaviors of the giant component as a function of p into three different regions, and for q2 < q < q 1 , we observe a hybrid order phase transition phenomenon. 3) We study the robustness of n interdependent networks with partially support-dependent relationship both analytically and numerically. We study a starlike network of n Erdos-Renyi (ER), SF networks and a looplike network of n ER networks, and we find for starlike networks, their phase transition regions change with n, but for looplike networks the phase regions change with average degree k . In part II, we apply concepts and methods developed in statistical physics to study economic systems. We analyze stock market indices and foreign exchange

  5. Biased imitation in coupled evolutionary games in interdependent networks

    PubMed Central

    Santos, M. D.; Dorogovtsev, S. N.; Mendes, J. F. F.

    2014-01-01

    We explore the evolutionary dynamics of two games—the Prisoner's Dilemma and the Snowdrift Game—played within distinct networks (layers) of interdependent networks. In these networks imitation and interaction between individuals of opposite layers is established through interlinks. We explore an update rule in which revision of strategies is a biased imitation process: individuals imitate neighbors from the same layer with probability p, and neighbors from the second layer with complementary probability 1 − p. We demonstrate that a small decrease of p from p = 1 (which corresponds to forbidding strategy transfer between layers) is sufficient to promote cooperation in the Prisoner's Dilemma subpopulation. This, on the other hand, is detrimental for cooperation in the Snowdrift Game subpopulation. We provide results of extensive computer simulations for the case in which layers are modelled as regular random networks, and support this study with analytical results for coupled well-mixed populations. PMID:24658580

  6. The Interdependence of Deformational and Thermal Processes in Mountain Belts

    PubMed

    Huerta; Royden; Hodges

    1996-08-02

    Crustal temperatures within collisional orogens are anomalously high compared with temperatures at comparable depths in stable continents, which is evidence of thermal processes that are fundamental to orogenesis. These temperatures can be explained by the redistribution of crust enriched in heat-producing elements through the accretion of crust from the down-going plate to the upper plate and surface erosion. With the use of geologically reasonable rates, the model results predict high temperatures (over 600°C) and inverted upper-plate geotherms (about 100°C over 20 kilometers) at shallow depths (20 to 40 kilometers) by 25 to 35 million years after collision. This study emphasizes the interdependence of deformational, surficial, and thermal processes.

  7. French security policy: From independence to interdependence

    SciTech Connect

    Laird, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    The book features the first-time translation of some of the most significant recent papers by leading French analysts of security affairs. Beginning with a look at continuity and change in French policy since de Gaulle, this books presents the evolution of French security policy in the 1970s and 1980s. Dr. Laird pays special attention to the French nuclear modernization process and to the trend in the last two decades toward greater emphasis on security interdependence within the Western Alliance at the expense of the classic Gaullist stance of independence. He examines the major dimensions of French security policy, particularly French nuclear employment policy and doctrine, the Franco-German relationship, and France's role in Europe and in East-West relations.

  8. On the interdependence of cognition and emotion

    PubMed Central

    Storbeck, Justin; Clore, Gerald L.

    2008-01-01

    Affect and cognition have long been treated as independent entities, but in the current review we suggest that affect and cognition are in fact highly interdependent. We open the article by discussing three classic views for the independence of affect. These are (i) the affective independence hypothesis, that emotion is processed independently from cognition, (ii) the affective primacy hypothesis, that evaluative processing precedes semantic processing, and (iii) the affective automaticity hypothesis, that affectively potent stimuli commandeer attention and evaluation is automatic. We argue that affect is not independent from cognition, that affect is not primary to cognition, nor is affect automatically elicited. The second half of the paper discusses several instances of how affect influences cognition. We review experiments showing affective involvement in perception, semantic activation, and attitude activation. We conclude that one function of affect is to regulate cognitive processing. PMID:18458789

  9. Spreading of cooperative behaviour across interdependent groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Luo-Luo; Perc, Matjaž

    2013-08-01

    Recent empirical research has shown that links between groups reinforce individuals within groups to adopt cooperative behaviour. Moreover, links between networks may induce cascading failures, competitive percolation, or contribute to efficient transportation. Here we show that there in fact exists an intermediate fraction of links between groups that is optimal for the evolution of cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game. We consider individual groups with regular, random, and scale-free topology, and study their different combinations to reveal that an intermediate interdependence optimally facilitates the spreading of cooperative behaviour between groups. Excessive between-group links simply unify the two groups and make them act as one, while too rare between-group links preclude a useful information flow between the two groups. Interestingly, we find that between-group links are more likely to connect two cooperators than in-group links, thus supporting the conclusion that they are of paramount importance.

  10. Spreading of cooperative behaviour across interdependent groups

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Luo-Luo; Perc, Matjaž

    2013-01-01

    Recent empirical research has shown that links between groups reinforce individuals within groups to adopt cooperative behaviour. Moreover, links between networks may induce cascading failures, competitive percolation, or contribute to efficient transportation. Here we show that there in fact exists an intermediate fraction of links between groups that is optimal for the evolution of cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game. We consider individual groups with regular, random, and scale-free topology, and study their different combinations to reveal that an intermediate interdependence optimally facilitates the spreading of cooperative behaviour between groups. Excessive between-group links simply unify the two groups and make them act as one, while too rare between-group links preclude a useful information flow between the two groups. Interestingly, we find that between-group links are more likely to connect two cooperators than in-group links, thus supporting the conclusion that they are of paramount importance. PMID:23963495

  11. Aging Water Infrastructure

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Aging Water Infrastructure (AWI) research program is part of EPA’s larger effort called the Sustainable Water Infrastructure (SI) initiative. The SI initiative brings together drinking water and wastewater utility managers; trade associations; local watershed protection organ...

  12. Sustainable Water Infrastructure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resources for state and local environmental and public health officials, and water, infrastructure and utility professionals to learn about sustainable water infrastructure, sustainable water and energy practices, and their role.

  13. Climate Action Benefits: Infrastructure

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page provides background on the relationship between infrastructure and climate change and describes what the CIRA Infrastructure analyses cover. It provides links to the subsectors Bridges, Roads, Urban Drainage, and Coastal Property.

  14. Interdependence and dynamics of essential services in an extensive risk context: a case study in Montserrat, West Indies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sword-Daniels, V. L.; Rossetto, T.; Wilson, T. M.; Sargeant, S.

    2015-05-01

    The essential services that support urban living are complex and interdependent, and their disruption in disasters directly affects society. Yet there are few empirical studies to inform our understanding of the vulnerabilities and resilience of complex infrastructure systems in disasters. This research takes a systems thinking approach to explore the dynamic behaviour of a network of essential services, in the presence and absence of volcanic ashfall hazards in Montserrat, West Indies. Adopting a case study methodology and qualitative methods to gather empirical data, we centre the study on the healthcare system and its interconnected network of essential services. We identify different types of relationship between sectors and develop a new interdependence classification system for analysis. Relationships are further categorised by hazard conditions, for use in extensive risk contexts. During heightened volcanic activity, relationships between systems transform in both number and type: connections increase across the network by 41%, and adapt to increase cooperation and information sharing. Interconnections add capacities to the network, increasing the resilience of prioritised sectors. This in-depth and context-specific approach provides a new methodology for studying the dynamics of infrastructure interdependence in an extensive risk context, and can be adapted for use in other hazard contexts.

  15. Interdependence and dynamics of essential services in an extensive risk context: a case study in Montserrat, West Indies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sword-Daniels, V. L.; Rossetto, T.; Wilson, T. M.; Sargeant, S.

    2015-02-01

    The essential services that support urban living are complex and interdependent, and their disruption in disasters directly affects society. Yet there are few empirical studies to inform our understanding of the vulnerabilities and resilience of complex infrastructure systems in disasters. This research takes a systems thinking approach to explore the dynamic behaviour of a network of essential services, in the presence and absence of volcanic ashfall hazards in Montserrat, West Indies. Adopting a case study methodology and qualitative methods to gather empirical data we centre the study on the healthcare system and its interconnected network of essential services. We identify different types of relationship between sectors and develop a new interdependence classification system for analysis. Relationships are further categorised by hazard condition, for use in extensive risk contexts. During heightened volcanic activity, relationships between systems transform in both number and type: connections increase across the network by 41%, and adapt to increase cooperation and information sharing. Interconnections add capacities to the network, increasing the resilience of prioritised sectors. This in-depth and context-specific approach provides a new methodology for studying the dynamics of infrastructure interdependence in an extensive risk context, and can be adapted for use in other hazard contexts.

  16. The LOCI-method: Collaboration Building in Complex Endeavors Based on Analysis of Interdependencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Interdependence Theory According to Kurt Lewin (1948), the essence of a group is the interdependence among its members. Interdependence...multidimensional framework for conceptualizing human services integration initiatives. New Directions for Program Evaluation, 69, 5-19. Lewin , K. (1948

  17. Mass Vaccination with a New, Less Expensive Oral Cholera Vaccine Using Public Health Infrastructure in India: The Odisha Model

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Shantanu K.; Sah, Binod; Patnaik, Bikash; Kim, Yang Hee; Kerketta, Anna S.; Shin, Sunheang; Rath, Shyam Bandhu; Ali, Mohammad; Mogasale, Vittal; Khuntia, Hemant K.; Bhattachan, Anuj; You, Young Ae; Puri, Mahesh K.; Lopez, Anna Lena; Maskery, Brian; Nair, Gopinath B.; Clemens, John D.; Wierzba, Thomas F.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The substantial morbidity and mortality associated with recent cholera outbreaks in Haiti and Zimbabwe, as well as with cholera endemicity in countries throughout Asia and Africa, make a compelling case for supplementary cholera control measures in addition to existing interventions. Clinical trials conducted in Kolkata, India, have led to World Health Organization (WHO)-prequalification of Shanchol, an oral cholera vaccine (OCV) with a demonstrated 65% efficacy at 5 years post-vaccination. However, before this vaccine is widely used in endemic areas or in areas at risk of outbreaks, as recommended by the WHO, policymakers will require empirical evidence on its implementation and delivery costs in public health programs. The objective of the present report is to describe the organization, vaccine coverage, and delivery costs of mass vaccination with a new, less expensive OCV (Shanchol) using existing public health infrastructure in Odisha, India, as a model. Methods All healthy, non-pregnant residents aged 1 year and above residing in selected villages of the Satyabadi block (Puri district, Odisha, India) were invited to participate in a mass vaccination campaign using two doses of OCV. Prior to the campaign, a de jure census, micro-planning for vaccination and social mobilization activities were implemented. Vaccine coverage for each dose was ascertained as a percentage of the censused population. The direct vaccine delivery costs were estimated by reviewing project expenditure records and by interviewing key personnel. Results The mass vaccination was conducted during May and June, 2011, in two phases. In each phase, two vaccine doses were given 14 days apart. Sixty-two vaccination booths, staffed by 395 health workers/volunteers, were established in the community. For the censused population, 31,552 persons (61% of the target population) received the first dose and 23,751 (46%) of these completed their second dose, with a drop-out rate of 25

  18. Cascade of failures in interdependent networks coupled by different type networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zunshui; Cao, Jinde

    2015-07-01

    Modern systems are mostly coupled together. Therefore, they should be modeled as interdependent networks. In this paper, the robustness of interdependent networks coupled with different type networks is studied in detail under both targeted and random attack. The critical fraction of nodes leading to a complete fragmentation of two interdependent networks is analyzed. Some findings are summarized as: (i) For random attack problem, the existence criteria for the giant component in interdependent networks coupled by two different type networks are quite different from those coupled by the same type networks. Different type coupled networks are more vulnerable than the same type coupled-networks. (ii) For targeted attack problem, if the highly connected nodes are protected and only the lowly connected nodes failed, the system leads to a first order percolation phase transition for different type coupled-networks, and a second transition for same type coupled-networks as well. The available result implies that different type coupled-networks are difficult to defend by strategies such as protecting the high degree nodes that can be useful to significantly improve robustness of the same type coupled-networks. (iii) For targeted attack problem, when the lowly connected nodes are protected and only the highly connected nodes failed, coupled scale free networks become more vulnerable than the others.

  19. Robustness of interdependent networks with different link patterns against cascading failures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianwei; Jiang, Chen; Qian, Jianfei

    2014-01-01

    Taking into account the load, the load redistribution, and the node capacity, we study the robustness of two interdependent networks A and B against cascading failures, where each node in network A depends on one node in network B, and vice versa. We adopt three kinds of link patterns between two interdependent networks, i.e., the assortative link (AL), the disassortative link (DL), the random link (RL), where the RA refers to connect randomly two nodes in networks A and B, the AL refers to that high-degree (low-degree) nodes in A network link high-degree (low-degree) nodes in B network, while the DL refers to the fact that high-degree nodes in A network link low-degree nodes in B network. We investigate the robustness of the interdependent networks constructed by two artificial networks and the power grid, taking into account two stages of the cascading propagation. We numerically find that both the different link patterns and the parameters in the cascading model have important effects on dramatically improving the robustness of the interdependent networks against cascading failures. In addition, we obtain the better link pattern and the matching network structure to effectively avoid the cascading propagation.

  20. Parallel digital forensics infrastructure.

    SciTech Connect

    Liebrock, Lorie M.; Duggan, David Patrick

    2009-10-01

    This report documents the architecture and implementation of a Parallel Digital Forensics infrastructure. This infrastructure is necessary for supporting the design, implementation, and testing of new classes of parallel digital forensics tools. Digital Forensics has become extremely difficult with data sets of one terabyte and larger. The only way to overcome the processing time of these large sets is to identify and develop new parallel algorithms for performing the analysis. To support algorithm research, a flexible base infrastructure is required. A candidate architecture for this base infrastructure was designed, instantiated, and tested by this project, in collaboration with New Mexico Tech. Previous infrastructures were not designed and built specifically for the development and testing of parallel algorithms. With the size of forensics data sets only expected to increase significantly, this type of infrastructure support is necessary for continued research in parallel digital forensics. This report documents the implementation of the parallel digital forensics (PDF) infrastructure architecture and implementation.

  1. Geospatial-Temporal Data Mining for Infrastructures or Ecosystems under Stress From Severe Weather Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vatsavai, R.; Ganguly, A.; Omitaomu, O.; Bhaduri, B.

    2008-05-01

    not be able to readily determine or utilize the co-occurrence of river networks and electrical grids to determine the anticipated impact of flooding on electrical power outages, spatial data mining can offer new and interesting solutions. This is especially true if we view infrastructures or ecosystems as patterns of interconnected systems with spatial and/or functional dependency. These patterns depend on several attributes including the density of population being served, the number of times each infrastructure failure is dependent on the failure of other infrastructures, and the path and intensity of the extreme weather events. For example, the co-location of two or more electrical substations along the path of a Tornado will have more impacts on other infrastructures than if the substations are spatially distant from each other. Spatial data mining techniques can expose other information and reveal hidden interdependencies that are useful for inference and accurate predictions. The recent literature in the area of modeling ecosystems or infrastructure interdependencies under stress often suggests the use of complex adaptive systems. The development of aggregate indicators and similarity measures for infrastructure or ecosystem components are required, which in turn can be facilitated by spatial and spatio-temporal data mining. We present a short tutorial on spatial and spatio-temporal data mining, with a particular emphasis on how they can offer new solutions over and above data science approaches commonly used by the earth science or impacts communities. We provide preliminary case studies to illustrate the possibilities.

  2. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  3. Measuring Interdependency among Industrial Chains with Financial Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jingchun; Fang, Ye; Luo, Jing

    Industrial chains exhibit strong interdependency within a large-scale resource-based enterprise group. When analyzing the independency effect in industrial chains, the interdependency of financial index is often ignored. In this paper, we will mainly focus on measuring the long-term interdependency effect by historical simulation and cointegration tests with financial data. A large-scale coal-mining group is studied empirically as a case to explain the framework of independency analysis among the industrial chains. The results show that high degree of independency appears in production costs and marketing costs, and low degree appears in revenues and profits.

  4. Designing and implementing an interdependent resilience culture.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Henry Patrick

    Once an emergency occurs, companies find themselves competing for diminishing resources. Companies mired in confusion and debate often fail to obtain the resources necessary for a speedy recovery and fail to meet the expectations of their various interested parties. Unfortunately, it is during these emergencies that the firm is judged. Unfavourable evaluations of a company by customers, the government and/or the general public result in lost future revenue through contracts that are either not renewed or cancelled, as well as disqualification from tenders and lost bids. This paper discusses how an oil field services company implemented an interdependent resilience culture. Development of this culture included paring down complex concepts and theories into simple rules that are continually introduced and reinforced to the company's leadership. After years of effort, employees from the well head to the corporate boardroom are aligned and aware of everyone's roles when an incident occurs. In short, because each person can count on the others, the company quickly adapts and overcomes significant issues, adding to its competitiveness. As a reader, you will understand that the results of implementing this new culture come down to a single metric: speed. Responses become faster, decisions faster, communication and the transfer of knowledge faster. Emergencies are dynamic and ever-changing. Information quickly becomes stale and outdated. Installing this culture creates a more nimble company which reacts in a manner that allows for extra time, so all the unplanned delays, pitfalls and breakdowns can occur with little to no meaningful impact.

  5. A Modular Repository-based Infrastructure for Simulation Model Storage and Execution Support in the Context of In Silico Oncology and In Silico Medicine.

    PubMed

    Christodoulou, Nikolaos A; Tousert, Nikolaos E; Georgiadi, Eleni Ch; Argyri, Katerina D; Misichroni, Fay D; Stamatakos, Georgios S

    2016-01-01

    The plethora of available disease prediction models and the ongoing process of their application into clinical practice - following their clinical validation - have created new needs regarding their efficient handling and exploitation. Consolidation of software implementations, descriptive information, and supportive tools in a single place, offering persistent storage as well as proper management of execution results, is a priority, especially with respect to the needs of large healthcare providers. At the same time, modelers should be able to access these storage facilities under special rights, in order to upgrade and maintain their work. In addition, the end users should be provided with all the necessary interfaces for model execution and effortless result retrieval. We therefore propose a software infrastructure, based on a tool, model and data repository that handles the storage of models and pertinent execution-related data, along with functionalities for execution management, communication with third-party applications, user-friendly interfaces to access and use the infrastructure with minimal effort and basic security features.

  6. A Modular Repository-based Infrastructure for Simulation Model Storage and Execution Support in the Context of In Silico Oncology and In Silico Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Christodoulou, Nikolaos A.; Tousert, Nikolaos E.; Georgiadi, Eleni Ch.; Argyri, Katerina D.; Misichroni, Fay D.; Stamatakos, Georgios S.

    2016-01-01

    The plethora of available disease prediction models and the ongoing process of their application into clinical practice – following their clinical validation – have created new needs regarding their efficient handling and exploitation. Consolidation of software implementations, descriptive information, and supportive tools in a single place, offering persistent storage as well as proper management of execution results, is a priority, especially with respect to the needs of large healthcare providers. At the same time, modelers should be able to access these storage facilities under special rights, in order to upgrade and maintain their work. In addition, the end users should be provided with all the necessary interfaces for model execution and effortless result retrieval. We therefore propose a software infrastructure, based on a tool, model and data repository that handles the storage of models and pertinent execution-related data, along with functionalities for execution management, communication with third-party applications, user-friendly interfaces to access and use the infrastructure with minimal effort and basic security features. PMID:27812280

  7. Cascading dynamics with local weighted flow redistribution in interdependent networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yuzhuo

    2013-07-01

    We study load cascading dynamics in a system composed of coupled interdependent networks while adopting a local weighted flow redistribution rule. We find that when the intra- or inter-connectivity increases, robustness against the cascade of load failures in the symmetrically coupled interdependent networks increases. In addition, when a failed link has to first split its flow asymmetrically to its neighbouring link groups according to the link types, even though there exists an optimal split, the robustness is lowered in contrast with the non-split situation. Furthermore, the optimal weighting mechanism in an isolated network no longer holds in interdependent networks. Finally, robustness against the cascade of load failures is not guaranteed to increase by making the distribution of the degree of intra-connectivity broader. We confirm these phenomena by theoretical analysis based on mean-field theory. Our findings might have great implications for preventing load-failure-induced local cascades in symmetrically coupled interdependent networks.

  8. Complex interdependent supply chain networks: Cascading failure and robustness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Liang; Jing, Ke; He, Jie; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2016-02-01

    A supply chain network is a typical interdependent network composed of an undirected cyber-layer network and a directed physical-layer network. To analyze the robustness of this complex interdependent supply chain network when it suffers from disruption events that can cause nodes to fail, we use a cascading failure process that focuses on load propagation. We consider load propagation via connectivity links as node failure spreads through one layer of an interdependent network, and we develop a priority redistribution strategy for failed loads subject to flow constraint. Using a giant component function and a one-to-one directed interdependence relation between nodes in a cyber-layer network and physical-layer network, we construct time-varied functional equations to quantify the dynamic process of failed loads propagation in an interdependent network. Finally, we conduct a numerical simulation for two cases, i.e., single node removal and multiple node removal at the initial disruption. The simulation results show that when we increase the number of removed nodes in an interdependent supply chain network its robustness undergoes a first-order discontinuous phase transition, and that even removing a small number of nodes will cause it to crash.

  9. Permafrost Hazards and Linear Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanilovskaya, Julia; Sergeev, Dmitry

    2014-05-01

    climate change. Extra maintenance activity is needed for existence infrastructure to stay operable. Engineers should run climate models under the most pessimistic scenarios when planning new infrastructure projects. That would allow reducing the potential shortcomings related to the permafrost thawing.

  10. Interdependency enriches the spatial reciprocity in prisoner's dilemma game on weighted networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiaokun; Sun, Shiwen; Li, Xiaoxuan; Wang, Li; Xia, Chengyi; Sun, Junqing

    2016-01-01

    To model the evolution of cooperation under the realistic scenarios, we propose an interdependent network-based game model which simultaneously considers the difference of individual roles in the spatial prisoner's dilemma game. In our model, the system is composed of two lattices on which an agent designated as a cooperator or defector will be allocated, meanwhile each agent will be endowed as a specific weight taking from three typical distributions on one lattice (i.e., weighted lattice), and set to be 1.0 on the other one (i.e., un-weighted or standard lattice). In addition, the interdependency will be built through the utility coupling between point-to-point partners. Extensive simulations indicate that the cooperation will be continuously elevated for the weighted lattice as the utility coupling strength (α) increases; while the cooperation will take on a nontrivial evolution on the standard lattice as α varies, and will be still greatly promoted when compared to the case of α = 0. At the same time, the full T - K phase diagrams are also explored to illustrate the evolutionary behaviors, and it is powerfully shown that the interdependency drives the defectors to survive within the narrower range, but individual weighting of utility will further broaden the coexistence space of cooperators and defectors, which renders the nontrivial evolution of cooperation in our model. Altogether, the current consequences about the evolution of cooperation will be helpful for us to provide the insights into the prevalent cooperation phenomenon within many real-world systems.

  11. The GEOSS User Requirement Registry (URR): A Cross-Cutting Service-Oriented Infrastructure Linking Science, Society and GEOSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plag, H.-P.; Foley, G.; Jules-Plag, S.; Ondich, G.; Kaufman, J.

    2012-04-01

    The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) is implementing the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) as a user-driven service infrastructure responding to the needs of users in nine interdependent Societal Benefit Areas (SBAs) of Earth observations (EOs). GEOSS applies an interdisciplinary scientific approach integrating observations, research, and knowledge in these SBAs in order to enable scientific interpretation of the collected observations and the extraction of actionable information. Using EOs to actually produce these societal benefits means getting the data and information to users, i.e., decision-makers. Thus, GEO needs to know what the users need and how they would use the information. The GEOSS User Requirements Registry (URR) is developed as a service-oriented infrastructure enabling a wide range of users, including science and technology (S&T) users, to express their needs in terms of EOs and to understand the benefits of GEOSS for their fields. S&T communities need to be involved in both the development and the use of GEOSS, and the development of the URR accounts for the special needs of these communities. The GEOSS Common Infrastructure (GCI) at the core of GEOSS includes system-oriented registries enabling users to discover, access, and use EOs and derived products and services available through GEOSS. In addition, the user-oriented URR is a place for the collection, sharing, and analysis of user needs and EO requirements, and it provides means for an efficient dialog between users and providers. The URR is a community-based infrastructure for the publishing, viewing, and analyzing of user-need related information. The data model of the URR has a core of seven relations for User Types, Applications, Requirements, Research Needs, Infrastructure Needs, Technology Needs, and Capacity Building Needs. The URR also includes a Lexicon, a number of controlled vocabularies, and

  12. Infrastructure Survey 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    In 2011, the Group of Eight (Go8) conducted a survey on the state of its buildings and infrastructure. The survey is the third Go8 Infrastructure survey, with previous surveys being conducted in 2007 and 2009. The current survey updated some of the information collected in the previous surveys. It also collated data related to aspects of the…

  13. Smart Valley Infrastructure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maule, R. William

    1994-01-01

    Discusses prototype information infrastructure projects in northern California's Silicon Valley. The strategies of the public and private telecommunications carriers vying for backbone services and industries developing end-user infrastructure technologies via office networks, set-top box networks, Internet multimedia, and "smart homes"…

  14. Infrastructure Damage/Fragility Models and Data Quality Issues Associated with Department of Defense Climate Vulnerability and Impact Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-26

    vulnerabilities and optimize resource  allocation  across or within Services or installations; at finer scales,  DoD planners can benefit from detailed...inform an array of decisions, including the  allocation  of resources to ensure that installation  infrastructure is able to support DoD activities and...damage information in HAZUS‐MH include: sea walls, bulkheads, quay  walls, small craft  berthing , harbor protection facilities, moorings, marine

  15. Energy Transmission and Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Mathison, Jane

    2012-12-31

    The objective of Energy Transmission and Infrastructure Northern Ohio (OH) was to lay the conceptual and analytical foundation for an energy economy in northern Ohio that will: • improve the efficiency with which energy is used in the residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, and transportation sectors for Oberlin, Ohio as a district-wide model for Congressional District OH-09; • identify the potential to deploy wind and solar technologies and the most effective configuration for the regional energy system (i.e., the ratio of distributed or centralized power generation); • analyze the potential within the district to utilize farm wastes to produce biofuels; • enhance long-term energy security by identifying ways to deploy local resources and building Ohio-based enterprises; • identify the policy, regulatory, and financial barriers impeding development of a new energy system; and • improve energy infrastructure within Congressional District OH-09. This objective of laying the foundation for a renewable energy system in Ohio was achieved through four primary areas of activity: 1. district-wide energy infrastructure assessments and alternative-energy transmission studies; 2. energy infrastructure improvement projects undertaken by American Municipal Power (AMP) affiliates in the northern Ohio communities of Elmore, Oak Harbor, and Wellington; 3. Oberlin, OH-area energy assessment initiatives; and 4. a district-wide conference held in September 2011 to disseminate year-one findings. The grant supported 17 research studies by leading energy, policy, and financial specialists, including studies on: current energy use in the district and the Oberlin area; regional potential for energy generation from renewable sources such as solar power, wind, and farm-waste; energy and transportation strategies for transitioning the City of Oberlin entirely to renewable resources and considering pedestrians, bicyclists, and public transportation as well as drivers

  16. Flexible Computational Science Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Bergen, Ben; Moss, Nicholas; Charest, Marc Robert Joseph

    2016-04-06

    FleCSI is a compile-time configurable framework designed to support multi-physics application development. As such, FleCSI attempts to provide a very general set of infrastructure design patterns that can be specialized and extended to suit the needs of a broad variety of solver and data requirements. Current support includes multi-dimensional mesh topology, mesh geometry, and mesh adjacency information, n-dimensional hashed-tree data structures, graph partitioning interfaces, and dependency closures. FleCSI also introduces a functional programming model with control, execution, and data abstractions that are consistent with both MPI and state-of-the-art task-based runtimes such as Legion and Charm++. The FleCSI abstraction layer provides the developer with insulation from the underlying runtime, while allowing support for multiple runtime systems, including conventional models like asynchronous MPI. The intent is to give developers a concrete set of user-friendly programming tools that can be used now, while allowing flexibility in choosing runtime implementations and optimizations that can be applied to architectures and runtimes that arise in the future. The control and execution models in FleCSI also provide formal nomenclature for describing poorly understood concepts like kernels and tasks.

  17. Creating a New Model for Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation for Critical Infrastructure: The New York City Climate Change Adaptation Task Force and the NYC Panel on Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenzweig, C.; Solecki, W. D.; Freed, A. M.

    2008-12-01

    The New York City Climate Change Adaptation Task Force, launched in August 2008, aims to secure the city's critical infrastructure against rising seas, higher temperatures and fluctuating water supplies projected to result from climate change. The Climate Change Adaptation Task Force is part of PlaNYC, the city's long- term sustainability plan, and is composed of over 30 city and state agencies, public authorities and companies that operate the region's roads, bridges, tunnels, mass transit, and water, sewer, energy and telecommunications systems - all with critical infrastructure identified as vulnerable. It is one of the most comprehensive adaptation efforts yet launched by an urban region. To guide the effort, Mayor Michael Bloomberg has formed the New York City Panel on Climate Change (NPCC), modeled on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Experts on the panel include climatologists, sea-level rise specialists, adaptation experts, and engineers, as well as representatives from the insurance and legal sectors. The NPCC is developing planning tools for use by the Task Force members that provide information about climate risks, adaptation and risk assessment, prioritization frameworks, and climate protection levels. The advisory panel is supplying climate change projections, helping to identify at- risk infrastructure, and assisting the Task Force in developing adaptation strategies and guidelines for design of new structures. The NPCC will also publish an assessment report in 2009 that will serve as the foundation for climate change adaptation in the New York City region, similar to the IPCC reports. Issues that the Climate Change Adaptation Task Force and the NPCC are addressing include decision- making under climate change uncertainty, effective ways for expert knowledge to be incorporated into public actions, and strategies for maintaining consistent and effective attention to long-term climate change even as municipal governments cycle

  18. Advanced simulation for analysis of critical infrastructure : abstract cascades, the electric power grid, and Fedwire.

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Stamber, Kevin Louis; Beyeler, Walter Eugene

    2004-08-01

    Critical Infrastructures are formed by a large number of components that interact within complex networks. As a rule, infrastructures contain strong feedbacks either explicitly through the action of hardware/software control, or implicitly through the action/reaction of people. Individual infrastructures influence others and grow, adapt, and thus evolve in response to their multifaceted physical, economic, cultural, and political environments. Simply put, critical infrastructures are complex adaptive systems. In the Advanced Modeling and Techniques Investigations (AMTI) subgroup of the National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC), we are studying infrastructures as complex adaptive systems. In one of AMTI's efforts, we are focusing on cascading failure as can occur with devastating results within and between infrastructures. Over the past year we have synthesized and extended the large variety of abstract cascade models developed in the field of complexity science and have started to apply them to specific infrastructures that might experience cascading failure. In this report we introduce our comprehensive model, Polynet, which simulates cascading failure over a wide range of network topologies, interaction rules, and adaptive responses as well as multiple interacting and growing networks. We first demonstrate Polynet for the classical Bac, Tang, and Wiesenfeld or BTW sand-pile in several network topologies. We then apply Polynet to two very different critical infrastructures: the high voltage electric power transmission system which relays electricity from generators to groups of distribution-level consumers, and Fedwire which is a Federal Reserve service for sending large-value payments between banks and other large financial institutions. For these two applications, we tailor interaction rules to represent appropriate unit behavior and consider the influence of random transactions within two stylized networks: a regular homogeneous array and a

  19. Toward a Relationship Perspective on Aggression among Schoolchildren: Integrating Social Cognitive and Interdependence Theories

    PubMed Central

    Card, Noel A.

    2011-01-01

    The traditional psychological approach of studying aggression among schoolchildren in terms of individual differences in aggression and in victimization has been valuable in identifying prevalence rates, risk, and consequences of involvement in aggression. However, it is argued that a focus on aggressor-victim relationships is warranted based on both conceptual and empirical grounds. Such a shift in focus requires modification and integration of existing theories of aggression, and this paper integrates social cognitive theory and interdependence theory to suggest a new, interdependent social cognitive theory of aggression. Specifically, this paper identifies points of overlap and different foci between these theories, and it illustrates their integration through a proposed model of the emergence of aggressor-victim interactions and relationships. The paper concludes that expanding consideration to include aggressor-victim relationships among schoolchildren offers considerable theoretical, empirical, and intervention opportunities. PMID:26985397

  20. [Attributes of forest infrastructure].

    PubMed

    Gao, Jun-kai; Jin, Ying-shan

    2007-06-01

    This paper discussed the origin and evolution of the conception of ecological infrastructure, the understanding of international communities about the functions of forest, the important roles of forest in China' s economic development and ecological security, and the situations and challenges to the ongoing forestry ecological restoration programs. It was suggested that forest should be defined as an essential infrastructure for national economic and social development in a modern society. The critical functions of forest infrastructure played in the transition of forestry ecological development were emphasized. Based on the synthesis of forest ecosystem features, it was considered that the attributes of forest infrastructure are distinctive, due to the fact that it is constructed by living biological material and diversified in ownership. The forestry ecological restoration program should not only follow the basic principles of infrastructural construction, but also take the special characteristics of forests into consideration in studying the managerial system of the programs. Some suggestions for the ongoing programs were put forward: 1) developing a modern concept of ecosystem where man and nature in harmony is the core, 2) formulating long-term stable investments for forestry ecological restoration programs, 3) implementing forestry ecological restoration programs based on infrastructure construction principles, and 4) managing forests according to the principles of infrastructural construction management.

  1. Optimization of large-scale heterogeneous system-of-systems models.

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, Ojas; Watson, Jean-Paul; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Siirola, John; Swiler, Laura Painton; Hough, Patricia Diane; Lee, Herbert K. H.; Hart, William Eugene; Gray, Genetha Anne; Woodruff, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Decision makers increasingly rely on large-scale computational models to simulate and analyze complex man-made systems. For example, computational models of national infrastructures are being used to inform government policy, assess economic and national security risks, evaluate infrastructure interdependencies, and plan for the growth and evolution of infrastructure capabilities. A major challenge for decision makers is the analysis of national-scale models that are composed of interacting systems: effective integration of system models is difficult, there are many parameters to analyze in these systems, and fundamental modeling uncertainties complicate analysis. This project is developing optimization methods to effectively represent and analyze large-scale heterogeneous system of systems (HSoS) models, which have emerged as a promising approach for describing such complex man-made systems. These optimization methods enable decision makers to predict future system behavior, manage system risk, assess tradeoffs between system criteria, and identify critical modeling uncertainties.

  2. Interdependency of Subsurface Carbon Distribution and Graphene–Catalyst Interaction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of the graphene–catalyst interaction during chemical vapor deposition are investigated using in situ, time- and depth-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and complementary grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations coupled to a tight-binding model. We thereby reveal the interdependency of the distribution of carbon close to the catalyst surface and the strength of the graphene–catalyst interaction. The strong interaction of epitaxial graphene with Ni(111) causes a depletion of dissolved carbon close to the catalyst surface, which prevents additional layer formation leading to a self-limiting graphene growth behavior for low exposure pressures (10–6–10–3 mbar). A further hydrocarbon pressure increase (to ∼10–1 mbar) leads to weakening of the graphene–Ni(111) interaction accompanied by additional graphene layer formation, mediated by an increased concentration of near-surface dissolved carbon. We show that growth of more weakly adhered, rotated graphene on Ni(111) is linked to an initially higher level of near-surface carbon compared to the case of epitaxial graphene growth. The key implications of these results for graphene growth control and their relevance to carbon nanotube growth are highlighted in the context of existing literature. PMID:25188018

  3. Reading people's minds from emotion expressions in interdependent decision making.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Celso M; Carnevale, Peter J; Read, Stephen J; Gratch, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    How do people make inferences about other people's minds from their emotion displays? The ability to infer others' beliefs, desires, and intentions from their facial expressions should be especially important in interdependent decision making when people make decisions from beliefs about the others' intention to cooperate. Five experiments tested the general proposition that people follow principles of appraisal when making inferences from emotion displays, in context. Experiment 1 revealed that the same emotion display produced opposite effects depending on context: When the other was competitive, a smile on the other's face evoked a more negative response than when the other was cooperative. Experiment 2 revealed that the essential information from emotion displays was derived from appraisals (e.g., Is the current state of affairs conducive to my goals? Who is to blame for it?); facial displays of emotion had the same impact on people's decision making as textual expressions of the corresponding appraisals. Experiments 3, 4, and 5 used multiple mediation analyses and a causal-chain design: Results supported the proposition that beliefs about others' appraisals mediate the effects of emotion displays on expectations about others' intentions. We suggest a model based on appraisal theories of emotion that posits an inferential mechanism whereby people retrieve, from emotion expressions, information about others' appraisals, which then lead to inferences about others' mental states. This work has implications for the design of algorithms that drive agent behavior in human-agent strategic interaction, an emerging domain at the interface of computer science and social psychology.

  4. Decontamination of Bacillus spores adhered to iron and cement-mortar drinking water infrastructure in a model system using disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Jeffrey G; Meiners, Greg; Heckman, Lee; Rice, Eugene W; Hall, John

    2017-02-01

    Decontamination of Bacillus spores adhered to common drinking water infrastructure surfaces was evaluated using a variety of disinfectants. Corroded iron and cement-mortar lined iron represented the infrastructure surfaces, and were conditioned in a 23 m long, 15 cm diameter (75 ft long, 6 in diameter) pilot-scale drinking water distribution pipe system. Decontamination was evaluated using increased water velocity (flushing) alone at 0.5 m s(-1) (1.7 ft s(-1)), as well as free chlorine (5 and 25 mg L(-1)), monochloramine (25 mg L(-1)), chlorine dioxide (5 and 25 mg L(-1)), ozone (2.0 mg L(-1)), peracetic acid 25 mg L(-1)) and acidified nitrite (0.1 mol L(-1) at pH 2 and 3), all followed by flushing at 0.3 m s(-1) (1 ft s(-1)). Flushing alone reduced the adhered spores by 0.5 and 2.0 log10 from iron and cement-mortar, respectively. Log10 reduction on corroded iron pipe wall coupons ranged from 1.0 to 2.9 at respective chlorine dioxide concentrations of 5 and 25 mg L(-1), although spores were undetectable on the iron surface during disinfection at 25 mg L(-1). Acidified nitrite (pH 2, 0.1 mol L(-1)) yielded no detectable spores on the iron surface during the flushing phase after disinfection. Chlorine dioxide was the best performing disinfectant with >3.0 log10 removal from cement-mortar at 5 and 25 mg L(-1). The data show that free chlorine, monochloramine, ozone and chlorine dioxide followed by flushing can reduce adhered spores by > 3.0 log10 on cement-mortar.

  5. [Biobanks European infrastructure].

    PubMed

    Kinkorová, Judita; Topolčan, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    Biobanks are structured repositories of human tissue samples connected with specific information. They became an integral part of personalized medicine in the new millennium. At the European research area biobanks are isolated not well coordinated and connected to the network. European commission supports European infrastructure BBMRI-ERIC (Biobanks and Biomolecular Resources Research Infrastructure European Research Infrastructure Consortium), consortium of 54 members with more than 225 associated organizations, largely biobanks from over 30 countries. The aim is to support biomedical research using stored samples. Czech Republic is a member of the consortium as a national node BBMRI_CZ, consisting of five partners.

  6. IPHE Infrastructure Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    2010-02-01

    This proceedings contains information from the IPHE Infrastructure Workshop, a two-day interactive workshop held on February 25-26, 2010, to explore the market implementation needs for hydrogen fueling station development.

  7. Clarkesville Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The report outlines the 2012 technical assistance for Clarkesville, GA to develop a Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy, which provides the basic building blocks for a green infrastructure plan:

  8. The cloud services innovation platform- enabling service-based environmental modelling using infrastructure-as-a-service cloud computing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Service oriented architectures allow modelling engines to be hosted over the Internet abstracting physical hardware configuration and software deployments from model users. Many existing environmental models are deployed as desktop applications running on user's personal computers (PCs). Migration ...

  9. Water supply planning under interdependence of actions: Theory and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabi, S.; Hipel, K. W.; Kilgour, D. M.

    1999-07-01

    An ongoing water supply planning problem in the Regional Municipality of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, is studied to select the best water supply combination, within a multiple-objective framework, when actions are interdependent. The interdependencies in the problem are described and shown to be essential features. The problem is formulated as a multiple-criteria integer program with interdependent actions. Because of the large number of potential actions and the nonconvexity of the decision space, it is quite difficult to find nondominated subsets of actions. Instead, a modified goal programming technique is suggested to identify promising subsets. The appropriateness of this technique is explained, and the lessons learned in applying it to the Waterloo water supply planning problem are described.

  10. Optimal interdependence between networks for the evolution of cooperation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen; Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has identified interactions between networks as crucial for the outcome of evolutionary games taking place on them. While the consensus is that interdependence does promote cooperation by means of organizational complexity and enhanced reciprocity that is out of reach on isolated networks, we here address the question just how much interdependence there should be. Intuitively, one might assume the more the better. However, we show that in fact only an intermediate density of sufficiently strong interactions between networks warrants an optimal resolution of social dilemmas. This is due to an intricate interplay between the heterogeneity that causes an asymmetric strategy flow because of the additional links between the networks, and the independent formation of cooperative patterns on each individual network. Presented results are robust to variations of the strategy updating rule, the topology of interdependent networks, and the governing social dilemma, thus suggesting a high degree of universality.

  11. Random Regular Networks with Distance-limited Interdependent Links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowinger, Steven; Kornbluth, Yosef; Cwilich, Gabriel; Buldyrev, Sergey

    2014-03-01

    We study the mutual percolation of a system composed of two interdependent random regular networks. We introduce a notion of distance, d, to explore the effects of the proximity of interdependent nodes on the cascade of failures after an initial attack. The nature of the transition through which the networks disintegrate depends on the parameters of the system, which are the degree of the nodes and the maximum distance between interdependent nodes. As the distance and degree increase, the collapse at the critical threshold changes from a second-order transition to a first-order one. The critical threshold monotonically increases with distance. We find a transitional case, in which a novel type of phase transition appears. The case d = 1 can be completely solved analytically and it maps into a discrete version of the Rényi parking problem.

  12. MFC Communications Infrastructure Study

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Cannon; Terry Barney; Gary Cook; George Danklefsen, Jr.; Paul Fairbourn; Susan Gihring; Lisa Stearns

    2012-01-01

    Unprecedented growth of required telecommunications services and telecommunications applications change the way the INL does business today. High speed connectivity compiled with a high demand for telephony and network services requires a robust communications infrastructure.   The current state of the MFC communication infrastructure limits growth opportunities of current and future communication infrastructure services. This limitation is largely due to equipment capacity issues, aging cabling infrastructure (external/internal fiber and copper cable) and inadequate space for telecommunication equipment. While some communication infrastructure improvements have been implemented over time projects, it has been completed without a clear overall plan and technology standard.   This document identifies critical deficiencies with the current state of the communication infrastructure in operation at the MFC facilities and provides an analysis to identify needs and deficiencies to be addressed in order to achieve target architectural standards as defined in STD-170. The intent of STD-170 is to provide a robust, flexible, long-term solution to make communications capabilities align with the INL mission and fit the various programmatic growth and expansion needs.

  13. Research infrastructure support to address ecosystem dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Los, Wouter

    2014-05-01

    Predicting the evolution of ecosystems to climate change or human pressures is a challenge. Even understanding past or current processes is complicated as a result of the many interactions and feedbacks that occur within and between components of the system. This talk will present an example of current research on changes in landscape evolution, hydrology, soil biogeochemical processes, zoological food webs, and plant community succession, and how these affect feedbacks to components of the systems, including the climate system. Multiple observations, experiments, and simulations provide a wealth of data, but not necessarily understanding. Model development on the coupled processes on different spatial and temporal scales is sensitive for variations in data and of parameter change. Fast high performance computing may help to visualize the effect of these changes and the potential stability (and reliability) of the models. This may than allow for iteration between data production and models towards stable models reducing uncertainty and improving the prediction of change. The role of research infrastructures becomes crucial is overcoming barriers for such research. Environmental infrastructures are covering physical site facilities, dedicated instrumentation and e-infrastructure. The LifeWatch infrastructure for biodiversity and ecosystem research will provide services for data integration, analysis and modeling. But it has to cooperate intensively with the other kinds of infrastructures in order to support the iteration between data production and model computation. The cooperation in the ENVRI project (Common operations of environmental research infrastructures) is one of the initiatives to foster such multidisciplinary research.

  14. Constraining nitrogen inputs to urban streams from leaking sewer infrastructure using inverse modeling: Implications for urban water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikora, M. T.; Elliott, E. M.; Bain, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    Excess fixed nitrogen contributes to stream degradation in densely populated regions, compounding problems of surface water contamination in urban landscapes. In particular, leaking sewer infrastructure is an acknowledged source of non-point source (NPS) nitrogen pollution to ground- and surface water in urban areas; however quantification of such contributions is exceedingly limited. This lack of knowledge inhibits efforts to understand urban nitrogen retention and export, despite the potential for this source to impact downstream water quality. Nine Mile Run (NMR), a restored urban stream in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (USA), drains a 1600 hectare urban watershed characterized by a high degree of impervious surface cover (38%). For years known locally as "stink creek," NMR remains significantly impacted by combined sewer overflows, leaky sewers, and degraded water quality. In order to assess sources of impairment, water samples were collected from four locations bi-weekly over two years, intensive sampling was conducted during one summer storm and DIN concentrations in water samples were analyzed (where DIN = nitrate + nitrite + ammonium). Using DIN concentrations, discharge records, published estimates of urban watershed nitrogen retention, and known inputs of atmospherically deposited nitrogen, a watershed nitrogen budget was constructed for NMR and subsequently inverted to constrain potential sewage inputs. Retention estimates ranging from 65 to 85% were applied and resulting calculations indicate that DIN contributions from sewage ranged from 5.5 to 25 kg ha-1yr-1. This research documents the potential contribution of sewage to DIN loads in urban streams and highlights the challenges of reducing nutrient pollution to receiving waters in cities with aging, degraded sewer lines.

  15. Percolation theory on interdependent networks based on epidemic spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, Seung-Woo; Bizhani, Golnoosh; Christensen, Claire; Grassberger, Peter; Paczuski, Maya

    2012-01-01

    We consider percolation on interdependent locally treelike networks, recently introduced by Buldyrev S. V. et al., Nature, 464 (2010) 1025, and demonstrate that the problem can be simplified conceptually by deleting all references to cascades of failures. Such cascades do exist, but their explicit treatment just complicates the theory —which is a straightforward extension of the usual epidemic spreading theory on a single network. Our method has the added benefits that it is directly formulated in terms of an order parameter and its modular structure can be easily extended to other problems, e.g. to any number of interdependent networks, or to networks with dependency links.

  16. The combined use of Building Information Modelling (BIM) and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) technologies for the 3D illustration of the progress of works in infrastructure construction projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacanas, Yiannis; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Agapiou, Athos; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos

    2016-08-01

    Building Information Modelling (BIM) technology is already part of the construction industry and is considered by professionals as a very useful tool for all phases of a construction project. BIM technology, with the particularly useful 3D illustrations which it provides, can be used to illustrate and monitor the progress of works effectively through the entire lifetime of the project. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) have undergone significant advances in equipment capabilities and now have the capacity to acquire high resolution imagery from different angles in a cost effective and efficient manner. By using photogrammetry, characteristics such as distances, areas, volumes, elevations, object sizes, and object shape can be determined within overlapping areas. This paper explores the combined use of BIM and UAV technologies in order to achieve efficient and accurate as-built data collection and 3D illustrations of the works progress during an infrastructure construction project.

  17. A Quantitative Risk Assessment Model Involving Frequency and Threat Degree under Line-of-Business Services for Infrastructure of Emerging Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Jing, Xu; Hu, Hanwen; Yang, Huijun; Au, Man Ho; Li, Shuqin; Xiong, Naixue; Imran, Muhammad; Vasilakos, Athanasios V

    2017-03-21

    The prospect of Line-of-Business Services (LoBSs) for infrastructure of Emerging Sensor Networks (ESNs) is exciting. Access control remains a top challenge in this scenario as the service provider's server contains a lot of valuable resources. LoBSs' users are very diverse as they may come from a wide range of locations with vastly different characteristics. Cost of joining could be low and in many cases, intruders are eligible users conducting malicious actions. As a result, user access should be adjusted dynamically. Assessing LoBSs' risk dynamically based on both frequency and threat degree of malicious operations is therefore necessary. In this paper, we proposed a Quantitative Risk Assessment Model (QRAM) involving frequency and threat degree based on value at risk. To quantify the threat degree as an elementary intrusion effort, we amend the influence coefficient of risk indexes in the network security situation assessment model. To quantify threat frequency as intrusion trace effort, we make use of multiple behavior information fusion. Under the influence of intrusion trace, we adapt the historical simulation method of value at risk to dynamically access LoBSs' risk. Simulation based on existing data is used to select appropriate parameters for QRAM. Our simulation results show that the duration influence on elementary intrusion effort is reasonable when the normalized parameter is 1000. Likewise, the time window of intrusion trace and the weight between objective risk and subjective risk can be set to 10 s and 0.5, respectively. While our focus is to develop QRAM for assessing the risk of LoBSs for infrastructure of ESNs dynamically involving frequency and threat degree, we believe it is also appropriate for other scenarios in cloud computing.

  18. A Quantitative Risk Assessment Model Involving Frequency and Threat Degree under Line-of-Business Services for Infrastructure of Emerging Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Xu; Hu, Hanwen; Yang, Huijun; Au, Man Ho; Li, Shuqin; Xiong, Naixue; Imran, Muhammad; Vasilakos, Athanasios V.

    2017-01-01

    The prospect of Line-of-Business Services (LoBSs) for infrastructure of Emerging Sensor Networks (ESNs) is exciting. Access control remains a top challenge in this scenario as the service provider’s server contains a lot of valuable resources. LoBSs’ users are very diverse as they may come from a wide range of locations with vastly different characteristics. Cost of joining could be low and in many cases, intruders are eligible users conducting malicious actions. As a result, user access should be adjusted dynamically. Assessing LoBSs’ risk dynamically based on both frequency and threat degree of malicious operations is therefore necessary. In this paper, we proposed a Quantitative Risk Assessment Model (QRAM) involving frequency and threat degree based on value at risk. To quantify the threat degree as an elementary intrusion effort, we amend the influence coefficient of risk indexes in the network security situation assessment model. To quantify threat frequency as intrusion trace effort, we make use of multiple behavior information fusion. Under the influence of intrusion trace, we adapt the historical simulation method of value at risk to dynamically access LoBSs’ risk. Simulation based on existing data is used to select appropriate parameters for QRAM. Our simulation results show that the duration influence on elementary intrusion effort is reasonable when the normalized parameter is 1000. Likewise, the time window of intrusion trace and the weight between objective risk and subjective risk can be set to 10 s and 0.5, respectively. While our focus is to develop QRAM for assessing the risk of LoBSs for infrastructure of ESNs dynamically involving frequency and threat degree, we believe it is also appropriate for other scenarios in cloud computing. PMID:28335569

  19. Water Intelligence and the Cyber-Infrastructure Revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    As an intrinsic factor in national security, the global economy, food and energy production, and human and ecological health, fresh water resources are increasingly being considered by an ever-widening array of stakeholders. The U.S. intelligence community has identified water as a key factor in the Nation's security risk profile. Water industries are growing rapidly, and seek to revolutionize the role of water in the global economy, making water an economic value rather than a limitation on operations. Recent increased focus on the complex interrelationships and interdependencies between water, food, and energy signal a renewed effort to move towards integrated water resource management. Throughout all of this, hydrologic extremes continue to wreak havoc on communities and regions around the world, in some cases threatening long-term economic stability. This increased attention on water coincides with the "second IT revolution" of cyber-infrastructure (CI). The CI concept is a convergence of technology, data, applications and human resources, all coalescing into a tightly integrated global grid of computing, information, networking and sensor resources, and ultimately serving as an engine of change for collaboration, education and scientific discovery and innovation. In the water arena, we have unprecedented opportunities to apply the CI concept to help address complex water challenges and shape the future world of water resources - on both science and socio-economic application fronts. Providing actionable local "water intelligence" nationally or globally is now becoming feasible through high-performance computing, data technologies, and advanced hydrologic modeling. Further development on all of these fronts appears likely and will help advance this much-needed capability. Lagging behind are water observation systems, especially in situ networks, which need significant innovation to keep pace with and help fuel rapid advancements in water intelligence.

  20. MOEMS industrial infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heeren, Henne; Paschalidou, Lia

    2004-08-01

    numbers they want (several millions per year). The crossover point where building a dedicated facility becomes a realistic option, can differ very much depending on technology complexity, numbers and market value. Also history plays a role, companies with past experience in the production of a product and the necessary facilities and equipment will tend to achieve captive production. Companies not having a microtechnology history will tend to outsource, offering business opportunities for foundries. The number of foundries shows a steady growth over the years. The total availability of foundries, however, and their flexibility will, undoubtedly, rely on market potential and its size. Unlike design houses, foundries need to realise a substantial return on the "large" investments they make in terms of capital and infrastructure. These returns will be maximised through mass-produced products aimed at "killer" applications (accelerometers are only one example). The existence of professional suppliers of MOEMS packaging and assembly is an essential element in the supply chain and critical for the manufacturing and commercialisation of MOEMS products. In addition, the incorporation of packaging and assembly techniques at the front-end of the engineering cycle will pay back in terms of financial savings and shorter timescales to market. Packaging and assembly for MOEMS are, in general, more costly than their equivalents for standard integrated circuits. This is, primarily, due to the diversity of the interconnections (which are multi-functional and may incorporate: electrical, optical, fluidic etc). In addition, the high levels of accuracy and the potential sensitivity of the devices to mechanical and external influences play a major role in the cost aspects of the final MNT product. This article will give an overview of the package/assembly providers and foundry business models and analyse their contribution to the MOEMS supply chain illustrated with some typical examples. As

  1. Risk Assessment of Infrastructure System of Systems with Precursor Analysis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhenyu; Haimes, Yacov Y

    2016-08-01

    Physical infrastructure systems are commonly composed of interconnected and interdependent subsystems, which in their essence constitute system of systems (S-o-S). System owners and policy researchers need tools to foresee potential emergent forced changes and to understand their impact so that effective risk management strategies can be developed. We develop a systemic framework for precursor analysis to support the design of an effective and efficient precursor monitoring and decision support system with the ability to (i) identify and prioritize indicators of evolving risks of system failure; and (ii) evaluate uncertainties in precursor analysis to support informed and rational decision making. This integrated precursor analysis framework is comprised of three processes: precursor identification, prioritization, and evaluation. We use an example of a highway bridge S-o-S to demonstrate the theories and methodologies of the framework. Bridge maintenance processes involve many interconnected and interdependent functional subsystems and decision-making entities and bridge failure can have broad social and economic consequences. The precursor analysis framework, which constitutes an essential part of risk analysis, examines the impact of various bridge inspection and maintenance scenarios. It enables policy researchers and analysts who are seeking a risk perspective on bridge infrastructure in a policy setting to develop more risk informed policies and create guidelines to efficiently allocate limited risk management resources and mitigate severe consequences resulting from bridge failures.

  2. Development of Markov Chain-Based Queuing Model and Wireless Infrastructure for EV to Smart Meter Communication in V2G

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoshkumar; Udaykumar, R. Y.

    2015-04-01

    The electrical vehicles (EVs) can be connected to the grid for power transaction. The vehicle-to-grid (V2G) supports the grid requirements and helps in maintaining the load demands. The grid control center (GCC), aggregator and EV are three key entities in V2G communication. The GCC sends the information about power requirements to the aggregator. The aggregator after receiving the information from the GCC sends the information to the EVs. Based on the information, the interested EV owners participate in power transaction with the grid. The aggregator facilitates the EVs by providing the parking and charging slot. In this paper the queuing model for EVs connected to the grid and development of wireless infrastructure for the EV to Smart Meter communication is proposed. The queuing model is developed and simulated. The path loss models for WiMAX are analyzed and compared. Also, the physical layer of WiMAX protocol is modeled and simulated for the EV to Smart Meter communication in V2G.

  3. Volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Thomas M.; Stewart, Carol; Sword-Daniels, Victoria; Leonard, Graham S.; Johnston, David M.; Cole, Jim W.; Wardman, Johnny; Wilson, Grant; Barnard, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    supply managers include: monitoring turbidity levels in raw water intakes, and if necessary increasing chlorination to compensate for higher turbidity; managing water demand; and communicating monitoring results with the public to allay fears of contamination. Ash can cause major damage to wastewater disposal systems. Ash deposited onto impervious surfaces such as roads and car parks is very easily washed into storm drains, where it can form intractable masses and lead to long-term flooding problems. It can also enter wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), both through sewer lines and by direct fallout. Damage to modern WWTPs can run into millions of dollars. Ash falls reduce visibility creating hazards for ground transportation. Dry ash is also readily remobilised by vehicle traffic and wind, and dry and wet ash deposits will reduce traction on paved surfaces, including airport runways. Ash cleanup from road and airports is commonly necessary, but the large volumes make it logistically challenging. Vehicles are vulnerable to ash; it will clog filters and brake systems and abrade moving parts within engines. Lastly, modern telecommunications networks appear to be relatively resilient to volcanic ash fall. Signal attenuation and interference during ash falls has not been reported in eruptions over the past 20 years, with the exception of interference from ash plume-generated lightning. However, some telecommunications equipment is vulnerable to airborne ash, in particular heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems which may become blocked from ash ingestion leading to overheating. This summary of volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure provides insight into the relative vulnerability of infrastructure under a range of different ashfall scenarios. Identifying and quantifying these impacts is an essential step in building resilience within these critical systems. We have attempted to consider interdependencies between sectors in a holistic way using

  4. Science and Technology, Autonomous and More Interdependent Every Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santilli, Haydee

    2012-01-01

    In a School of Engineering scientific and technological knowledge live together. Science teachers usually try to understand the role that scientific disciplines have over the engineer training. In this paper are descript three historical case studies that could help teachers and students for better understanding the interdependence between science…

  5. Joint Force Interdependence for a Fiscally Constrained Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Army 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Dr. Richard Meinhart ...Joint Force Interdependence For A Fiscally Constrained Future by Colonel Daniel P. Ray United States Army ...United States Army War College Class of 2013 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: A Approved for Public Release Distribution is Unlimited

  6. The Study of Geography in an Interdependent World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saueressig-Schreuder, Yda

    The importance of restructuring the discipline of geography and enhancing its role in the precollege curriculum as part of a global approach to education is emphasized in this paper. International education is seen as an essential part of high school and college education in an increasingly interdependent world. The oil crisis, the world economic…

  7. Hong Kong in Transition: A Look at Economic Interdependence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Selena

    Economic interdependence has played an important role in Hong Kong's history, from its earliest days as a British colony to its current status as a center of international trade and finance. Hong Kong occupies a unique place in history because of its unprecedented transfer of power in 1997 from Britain to the People's Republic of China. The future…

  8. Robust face representation using hybrid spatial feature interdependence matrix.

    PubMed

    Yao, Anbang; Yu, Shan

    2013-08-01

    A key issue in face recognition is to seek an effective descriptor for representing face appearance. In the context of considering the face image as a set of small facial regions, this paper presents a new face representation approach coined spatial feature interdependence matrix (SFIM). Unlike classical face descriptors which usually use a hierarchically organized or a sequentially concatenated structure to describe the spatial layout features extracted from local regions, SFIM is attributed to the exploitation of the underlying feature interdependences regarding local region pairs inside a class specific face. According to SFIM, the face image is projected onto an undirected connected graph in a manner that explicitly encodes feature interdependence-based relationships between local regions. We calculate the pair-wise interdependence strength as the weighted discrepancy between two feature sets extracted in a hybrid feature space fusing histograms of intensity, local binary pattern and oriented gradients. To achieve the goal of face recognition, our SFIM-based face descriptor is embedded in three different recognition frameworks, namely nearest neighbor search, subspace-based classification, and linear optimization-based classification. Extensive experimental results on four well-known face databases and comprehensive comparisons with the state-of-the-art results are provided to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed SFIM-based descriptor.

  9. Teaching About Interdependence in a Peaceful World. No. 5418.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Children's Fund, New York, NY. United States Committee.

    Designed for elementary-grade students, these resource materials provide activities which relate the global concepts of peace and interdependence to the direct experience of the child. Subunits on world food supply, world health, and the world mail system use simulation and role-playing activities to help learners see how the things that they…

  10. Shared impression formation in the cognitively interdependent dyad.

    PubMed

    Ruscher, Janet B; Santuzzi, Alecia M; Hammer, Elizabeth Yost

    2003-09-01

    We examined the role of cognitive interdependence in determining how close friends form shared impressions of another person. Cognitive interdependence should provide a processing advantage, such that close friends are more efficient in forming shared impressions and are more successful at doing so. Under normal circumstances, the conversations of close friends should be marked by little necessity to make explicit requests for information, mutual recognition of who currently is controlling the flow of conversation, and willingness to express differences in opinion. Given these advantages, close friends also should be able to form complex shared impressions that go beyond mere one-sided stereotypic judgments and that instead resolve apparent discrepancies in the target's personality. However, if the cognitive interdependence system is disrupted by mutual distraction, these advantages should attenuate or even reverse. Dyads of varying degrees of closeness were mutually distracted or not while discussing their impressions of another female college student. Results supported predictions and are discussed with reference to how cognitive interdependence may help close dyads function within their mutual social networks.

  11. ITER Cryoplant Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauve, E.; Monneret, E.; Voigt, T.; Vincent, G.; Forgeas, A.; Simon, M.

    2017-02-01

    The ITER Tokamak requires an average 75 kW of refrigeration power at 4.5 K and 600 kW of refrigeration Power at 80 K to maintain the nominal operation condition of the ITER thermal shields, superconducting magnets and cryopumps. This is produced by the ITER Cryoplant, a complex cluster of refrigeration systems including in particular three identical Liquid Helium Plants and two identical Liquid Nitrogen Plants. Beyond the equipment directly part of the Cryoplant, colossal infrastructures are required. These infrastructures account for a large part of the Cryoplants lay-out, budget and engineering efforts. It is ITER Organization responsibility to ensure that all infrastructures are adequately sized and designed to interface with the Cryoplant. This proceeding presents the overall architecture of the cryoplant. It provides order of magnitude related to the cryoplant building and utilities: electricity, cooling water, heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC).

  12. Production model in the conditions of unstable demand taking into account the influence of trading infrastructure: Ergodicity and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrosova, N. K.; Shananin, A. A.

    2015-04-01

    A production model with allowance for a working capital deficit and a restricted maximum possible sales volume is proposed and analyzed. The study is motivated by an attempt to analyze the problems of functioning of low competitive macroeconomic structures. The model is formalized in the form of a Bellman equation, for which a closed-form solution is found. The stochastic process of product stock variations is proved to be ergodic and its final probability distribution is found. Expressions for the average production load and the average product stock are found by analyzing the stochastic process. A system of model equations relating the model variables to official statistical parameters is derived. The model is identified using data from the Fiat and KAMAZ companies. The influence of the credit interest rate on the firm market value assessment and the production load level are analyzed using comparative statics methods.

  13. Investment Planning of Interdependent Waterway Improvement Projects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-03-01

    functional expression (or metamodel) for S/I was developed through an experiment involving a microsimulation model for waterway traffic. The...is divided into two phases. The first phase is the development of evaluation functions that may act as a substitute for a microsimulation model for

  14. Understanding Building Infrastructure and Building Operation through DOE Asset Score Model: Lessons Learned from a Pilot Project

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Na; Goel, Supriya; Gorrissen, Willy J.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe

    2013-06-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is developing a national voluntary energy asset score system to help building owners to evaluate the as-built physical characteristics (including building envelope, the mechanical and electrical systems) and overall building energy efficiency, independent of occupancy and operational choices. The energy asset score breaks down building energy use information by simulating building performance under typical operating and occupancy conditions for a given use type. A web-based modeling tool, the energy asset score tool facilitates the implementation of the asset score system. The tool consists of a simplified user interface built on a centralized simulation engine (EnergyPlus). It is intended to reduce both the implementation cost for the users and increase modeling standardization compared with an approach that requires users to build their own energy models. A pilot project with forty-two buildings (consisting mostly offices and schools) was conducted in 2012. This paper reports the findings. Participants were asked to collect a minimum set of building data and enter it into the asset score tool. Participants also provided their utility bills, existing ENERGY STAR scores, and previous energy audit/modeling results if available. The results from the asset score tool were compared with the building energy use data provided by the pilot participants. Three comparisons were performed. First, the actual building energy use, either from the utility bills or via ENERGY STAR Portfolio Manager, was compared with the modeled energy use. It was intended to examine how well the energy asset score represents a building’s system efficiencies, and how well it is correlated to a building’s actual energy consumption. Second, calibrated building energy models (where they exist) were used to examine any discrepancies between the asset score model and the pilot participant buildings’ [known] energy use pattern. This comparison examined the end

  15. Interdependence--Spirit of 1976: A Special Bicentennial Edition of "Teaching about Interdependence in a Peaceful World."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Donald

    Methods and resource materials are suggested for teaching elementary level students about the concept of interdependence in terms of the Bicentennial. The rationale lies with a belief in human interrelatedness and the universality of human rights for which the signers of the Declaration of Independence struggled. Students are encouraged to explore…

  16. Effectiveness of water infrastructure for river flood management - Part 1: Flood hazard assessment using hydrological models in Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusyev, M. A.; Kwak, Y.; Khairul, M. I.; Arifuzzaman, M. B.; Magome, J.; Sawano, H.; Takeuchi, K.

    2015-06-01

    This study introduces a flood hazard assessment part of the global flood risk assessment (Part 2) conducted with a distributed hydrological Block-wise TOP (BTOP) model and a GIS-based Flood Inundation Depth (FID) model. In this study, the 20 km grid BTOP model was developed with globally available data on and applied for the Ganges, Brahmaputra and Meghna (GBM) river basin. The BTOP model was calibrated with observed river discharges in Bangladesh and was applied for climate change impact assessment to produce flood discharges at each BTOP cell under present and future climates. For Bangladesh, the cumulative flood inundation maps were produced using the FID model with the BTOP simulated flood discharges and allowed us to consider levee effectiveness for reduction of flood inundation. For the climate change impacts, the flood hazard increased both in flood discharge and inundation area for the 50- and 100-year floods. From these preliminary results, the proposed methodology can partly overcome the limitation of the data unavailability and produces flood~maps that can be used for the nationwide flood risk assessment, which is presented in Part 2 of this study.

  17. Prototype of the Mexican spatial data infrastructure for climate raster models and satellite imagery (“VISTA-C”)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couturier, S.; Osorno Covarrubias, J.; Magaña Rueda, V.; Martínez Zazueta, I.; Vázquez Cruz, G.

    2017-01-01

    In the face of climatic uncertainty and its impacts on agriculture yields, there is a growing need for public institutions of subtropical countries to access as reliable as possible meteorological models and transmit a representation of their results in an effective way to stakeholders in agriculture. In many of these countries however, broad climatic regions and point-based statistics remain the core of these representations. The use of satellite imagery is largely limited to visual assessment, although it could serve as complementary data to meteorological raster models and the basis for spatially consistent quantitative impact assessments of meteorological events. In view of this situation in Mexico, a project developed by the Institute of Geography at UNAM university, and promoted by the National Institute of Geography and Statistics, consisted in the development of a climate monitoring system, which includes three main features: 1) a modular array storage system containing NOAA and GOES satellite imagery acquired though a receiving station (ERISA), 2) a climate modeling squeme based on successive error corrections of climate raster maps and associated models using the above mentioned imagery, and 3) an online, dynamic geovisualization of the results of the models. We discuss the implemented technologies and illustrate the VISTA-C prototype which has been released.

  18. A technological infrastructure to sustain Internetworked Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Mattina, Ernesto; Savarino, Vincenzo; Vicari, Claudia; Storelli, Davide; Bianchini, Devis

    In the Web 3.0 scenario, where information and services are connected by means of their semantics, organizations can improve their competitive advantage by publishing their business and service descriptions. In this scenario, Semantic Peer to Peer (P2P) can play a key role in defining dynamic and highly reconfigurable infrastructures. Organizations can share knowledge and services, using this infrastructure to move towards value networks, an emerging organizational model characterized by fluid boundaries and complex relationships. This chapter collects and defines the technological requirements and architecture of a modular and multi-Layer Peer to Peer infrastructure for SOA-based applications. This technological infrastructure, based on the combination of Semantic Web and P2P technologies, is intended to sustain Internetworked Enterprise configurations, defining a distributed registry and enabling more expressive queries and efficient routing mechanisms. The following sections focus on the overall architecture, while describing the layers that form it.

  19. Expecting the Unexpected: Towards Robust Credential Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Shouhuai; Yung, Moti

    Cryptographic credential infrastructures, such as Public key infrastructure (PKI), allow the building of trust relationships in electronic society and electronic commerce. At the center of credential infrastructures is the methodology of digital signatures. However, methods that assure that credentials and signed messages possess trustworthiness and longevity are not well understood, nor are they adequately addressed in both literature and practice. We believe that, as a basic engineering principle, these properties have to be built into the credential infrastructure rather than be treated as an after-thought since they are crucial to the long term success of this notion. In this paper we present a step in the direction of dealing with these issues. Specifically, we present the basic engineering reasoning as well as a model that helps understand (somewhat formally) the trustworthiness and longevity of digital signatures, and then we give basic mechanisms that help improve these notions.

  20. Kwajalein Infrastructure Prioritization Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    GROUNDS-MAINTENANCE-SERVICE- CONTRACT-GUIDE-US-Army-Center>. David, Leonard. “ SpaceX Private Rocket Shifts to Island Launch.” 12 Aug. 2005. TechMedia...Network. 11 Sept. 2011. <http://www.space.com/1422- spacex -private-rocket-shifts-island-launch.html>. Kwajalein Infrastructure Prioritization

  1. An Infrastructure Roadmap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furgeson, Steven P.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how a master infrastructure plan for electrical and mechanical systems can help determine annual maintenance budgets, form annual capital-improvement budgets, take a snapshot of existing conditions, and lead to better energy management. Discusses important elements in such plans. (EV)

  2. Infrastructure Survey 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    In 2008 the Group of Eight (Go8) released a first report on the state of its buildings and infrastructure, based on a survey undertaken in 2007. A further survey was undertaken in 2009, updating some information about the assessed quality, value and condition of buildings and use of space. It also collated data related to aspects of the estate not…

  3. An Infrastructure Museum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2013-01-01

    This article invites teachers to let their students' imaginations soar as they become part of a team that will design a whole new kind of living technological museum, a facility that celebrates the world of infrastructure. In this activity, a new two-story building will be built, occupying a vacant corner parcel of land, approximately 150…

  4. Interdependence and Conventional and Special Operations Forces: A Decade of Tactical, Operational, and Strategic Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-14

    presents a dichotomy of tactical, operational, and strategic successes and failures . It represented the first instance of interdependence in US Army... INTERDEPENDENCE AND CONVENTIONAL AND SPECIAL OPERATIONS FORCES: A DECADE OF TACTICAL, OPERATIONAL, AND STRATEGIC EFFECTS A Monograph by LTC...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Interdependence and Conventional and Special Operations Forces: 5b. GRANT NUMBER A Decade of Tactical, Operational, and

  5. Learning Microbiology Through Cooperation: Designing Cooperative Learning Activities that Promote Interdependence, Interaction, and Accountability

    PubMed Central

    TREMPY, JANINE E.; SKINNER, MONICA M.; SIEBOLD, WILLIAM A.

    2002-01-01

    A microbiology course and its corresponding learning activities have been structured according to the Cooperative Learning Model. This course, The World According to Microbes, integrates science, math, engineering, and technology (SMET) majors and non-SMET majors into teams of students charged with problem solving activities that are microbial in origin. In this study we describe development of learning activities that utilize key components of Cooperative Learning—positive interdependence, promotive interaction, individual accountability, teamwork skills, and group processing. Assessments and evaluations over an 8-year period demonstrate high retention of key concepts in microbiology and high student satisfaction with the course. PMID:23653547

  6. Reworking the science curriculum: A case study in the interdependence between introductory biology and multiculturalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persell, Roger

    1994-12-01

    Multiculturalism has emerged as the major influence in revising science curricula and teaching, yet misunderstanding about the history and theoretical underpinnings of multiculturalism has made the separation of political and education reform contentious and difficult. Within the context of a new college-wide pluralism and diversity requirement, a large introductory biology course at Hunter College of the City University of New York is now the testing ground for an interdependent model of multicultural education. The implications for multiculturalism, science pedagogy, and the pivotal role of introductory courses are discussed.

  7. Mutual interdependence of splicing and transcription elongation.

    PubMed

    Brzyżek, Grzegorz; Świeżewski, Szymon

    2015-01-01

    Transcription and splicing are intrinsically linked, as splicing needs a pre-mRNA substrate to commence. The more nuanced view is that the rate of transcription contributes to splicing regulation. On the other hand there is accumulating evidence that splicing has an active role in controlling transcription elongation by DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II (RNAP II). We briefly review those mechanisms and propose a unifying model where splicing controls transcription elongation to provide an optimal timing for successive rounds of splicing.

  8. The difficult business model for mask equipment makers and mask infrastructure development support from consortia and governments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hector, Scott

    2005-11-01

    The extension of optical projection lithography through immersion to patterning features with half pitch <=65 nm is placing greater demands on the mask. Strong resolution enhancement techniques (RETs), such as embedded and alternating phase shift masks and complex model-based optical proximity correction, are required to compensate for diffraction and limited depth of focus (DOF). To fabricate these masks, many new or upgraded tools are required to write patterns, measure feature sizes and placement, inspect for defects, review defect printability and repair defects on these masks. Beyond the significant technical challenges, suppliers of mask fabrication equipment face the challenge of being profitable in the small market for mask equipment while encountering significant R&D expenses to bring new generations of mask fabrication equipment to market. The total available market for patterned masks is estimated to be $2.5B to $2.9B per year. The patterned mask market is about 20% of the market size for lithography equipment and materials. The total available market for mask-making equipment is estimated to be about $800M per year. The largest R&D affordability issue arises for the makers of equipment for fabricating masks where total available sales are typically less than ten units per year. SEMATECH has used discounted cash flow models to predict the affordable R&D while maintaining industry accepted internal rates of return. The results have been compared to estimates of the total R&D cost to bring a new generation of mask equipment to market for various types of tools. The analysis revealed that affordability of the required R&D is a significant problem for many suppliers of mask-making equipment. Consortia such as SEMATECH and Selete have played an important role in cost sharing selected mask equipment and material development projects. Governments in the United States, in Europe and in Japan have also helped equipment suppliers with support for R&D. This paper

  9. Identifying green infrastructure BMPs for reducing nitrogen export to a Chesapeake Bay agricultural stream: model synthesis and extension of experimental data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Question/Methods The effectiveness of riparian forest buffers and other green infrastructure for reducing nitrogen export to agricultural streams has been well described experimentally, but a clear understanding of process-level hydrological and biogeochemical control...

  10. Benchmarking infrastructure for mutation text mining

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Experimental research on the automatic extraction of information about mutations from texts is greatly hindered by the lack of consensus evaluation infrastructure for the testing and benchmarking of mutation text mining systems. Results We propose a community-oriented annotation and benchmarking infrastructure to support development, testing, benchmarking, and comparison of mutation text mining systems. The design is based on semantic standards, where RDF is used to represent annotations, an OWL ontology provides an extensible schema for the data and SPARQL is used to compute various performance metrics, so that in many cases no programming is needed to analyze results from a text mining system. While large benchmark corpora for biological entity and relation extraction are focused mostly on genes, proteins, diseases, and species, our benchmarking infrastructure fills the gap for mutation information. The core infrastructure comprises (1) an ontology for modelling annotations, (2) SPARQL queries for computing performance metrics, and (3) a sizeable collection of manually curated documents, that can support mutation grounding and mutation impact extraction experiments. Conclusion We have developed the principal infrastructure for the benchmarking of mutation text mining tasks. The use of RDF and OWL as the representation for corpora ensures extensibility. The infrastructure is suitable for out-of-the-box use in several important scenarios and is ready, in its current state, for initial community adoption. PMID:24568600

  11. Interdependent Mechanisms for Processing Gender and Emotion: The Special Status of Angry Male Faces

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Daniel A.; Ciaramitaro, Vivian M.

    2016-01-01

    While some models of how various attributes of a face are processed have posited that face features, invariant physical cues such as gender or ethnicity as well as variant social cues such as emotion, may be processed independently (e.g., Bruce and Young, 1986), other models suggest a more distributed representation and interdependent processing (e.g., Haxby et al., 2000). Here, we use a contingent adaptation paradigm to investigate if mechanisms for processing the gender and emotion of a face are interdependent and symmetric across the happy–angry emotional continuum and regardless of the gender of the face. We simultaneously adapted participants to angry female faces and happy male faces (Experiment 1) or to happy female faces and angry male faces (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, we found evidence for contingent adaptation, with simultaneous aftereffects in opposite directions: male faces were biased toward angry while female faces were biased toward happy. Interestingly, in the complementary Experiment 2, we did not find evidence for contingent adaptation, with both male and female faces biased toward angry. Our results highlight that evidence for contingent adaptation and the underlying interdependent face processing mechanisms that would allow for contingent adaptation may only be evident for certain combinations of face features. Such limits may be especially important in the case of social cues given how maladaptive it may be to stop responding to threatening information, with male angry faces considered to be the most threatening. The underlying neuronal mechanisms that could account for such asymmetric effects in contingent adaptation remain to be elucidated. PMID:27471482

  12. Phenology of two interdependent traits in migratory birds in response to climate change

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Nadiah Pardede; Johansson, Jacob; Ripa, Jörgen; Jonzén, Niclas

    2015-01-01

    In migratory birds, arrival date and hatching date are two key phenological markers that have responded to global warming. A body of knowledge exists relating these traits to evolutionary pressures. In this study, we formalize this knowledge into general mathematical assumptions, and use them in an ecoevolutionary model. In contrast to previous models, this study novelty accounts for both traits—arrival date and hatching date—and the interdependence between them, revealing when one, the other or both will respond to climate. For all models sharing the assumptions, the following phenological responses will occur. First, if the nestling-prey peak is late enough, hatching is synchronous with, and arrival date evolves independently of, prey phenology. Second, when resource availability constrains the length of the pre-laying period, hatching is adaptively asynchronous with prey phenology. Predictions for both traits compare well with empirical observations. In response to advancing prey phenology, arrival date may advance, remain unchanged, or even become delayed; the latter occurring when egg-laying resources are only available relatively late in the season. The model shows that asynchronous hatching and unresponsive arrival date are not sufficient evidence that phenological adaptation is constrained. The work provides a framework for exploring microevolution of interdependent phenological traits. PMID:25904668

  13. Phenology of two interdependent traits in migratory birds in response to climate change.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Nadiah Pardede; Johansson, Jacob; Ripa, Jörgen; Jonzén, Niclas

    2015-05-22

    In migratory birds, arrival date and hatching date are two key phenological markers that have responded to global warming. A body of knowledge exists relating these traits to evolutionary pressures. In this study, we formalize this knowledge into general mathematical assumptions, and use them in an ecoevolutionary model. In contrast to previous models, this study novelty accounts for both traits-arrival date and hatching date-and the interdependence between them, revealing when one, the other or both will respond to climate. For all models sharing the assumptions, the following phenological responses will occur. First, if the nestling-prey peak is late enough, hatching is synchronous with, and arrival date evolves independently of, prey phenology. Second, when resource availability constrains the length of the pre-laying period, hatching is adaptively asynchronous with prey phenology. Predictions for both traits compare well with empirical observations. In response to advancing prey phenology, arrival date may advance, remain unchanged, or even become delayed; the latter occurring when egg-laying resources are only available relatively late in the season. The model shows that asynchronous hatching and unresponsive arrival date are not sufficient evidence that phenological adaptation is constrained. The work provides a framework for exploring microevolution of interdependent phenological traits.

  14. Protecting complex infrastructures against multiple strategic attackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausken, Kjell

    2011-01-01

    Infrastructures are analysed subject to defence by a strategic defender and attack by multiple strategic attackers. A framework is developed where each agent determines how much to invest in defending versus attacking each of multiple targets. A target can have economic, human and symbolic values, which generally vary across agents. Investment expenditure functions for each agent can be linear in the investment effort, concave, convex, logistic, can increase incrementally, or can be subject to budget constraints. Contest success functions (e.g., ratio and difference forms) determine the probability of a successful attack on each target, dependent on the relative investments of the defender and attackers on each target, and on characteristics of the contest. Targets can be in parallel, in series, interlinked, interdependent or independent. The defender minimises the expected damage plus the defence expenditures. Each attacker maximises the expected damage minus the attack expenditures. The number of free choice variables equals the number of agents times the number of targets, or lower if there are budget constraints. Each agent is interested in how his investments vary across the targets, and the impact on his utilities. Alternative optimisation programmes are discussed, together with repeated games, dynamic games and incomplete information. An example is provided for illustration.

  15. The Water, Energy and Food Nexus: Finding the Balance in Infrastructure Investment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber-lee, A. T.; Wickel, B.; Kemp-Benedict, E.; Purkey, D. R.; Hoff, H.; Heaps, C.

    2013-12-01

    There is increasing evidence that single-sector infrastructure planning is leading to severely stressed human and ecological systems. There are a number of cross-sectoral impacts in these highly inter-linked systems. Examples include: - Promotion of biofuels that leads to conversion from food crops, reducing both food and water security. - Promotion of dams solely built for hydropower rather than multi-purpose uses, that deplete fisheries and affect saltwater intrusion dynamics in downstream deltas - Historical use of water for cooling thermal power plants, with increasing pressure from other water uses, as well as problems of increased water temperatures that affect the ability to cool plants efficiently. This list can easily be expanded, as these inter-linkages are increasing over time. As developing countries see a need to invest in new infrastructure to improve the livelihoods of the poor, developed countries face conditions of deteriorating infrastructure with an opportunity for new investment. It is crucial, especially in the face of uncertainty of climate change and socio-political realities, that infrastructure planning factors in the influence of multiple sectors and the potential impacts from the perspectives of different stakeholders. There is a need for stronger linkages between science and policy as well. The Stockholm Environment Institute is developing and implementing practical and innovative nexus planning approaches in Latin America, Africa and Asia that brings together stakeholders and ways of integrating uncertainty in a cross-sectoral quantitative framework using the tools WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning) and LEAP (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning). The steps used include: 1. Identify key actors and stakeholders via social network analysis 2. Work with these actors to scope out priority issues and decision criteria in both the short and long term 3. Develop quantitative models to clarify options and balances between the needs and

  16. Integrated Seismicity Model to Detect Pairs of Possible Interdependent Earthquakes and Its Application to Aftershocks of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki Earthquake and Sequence of the 2014 Kermadec and Rat Islands Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazawa, M.; Tamura, R.

    2015-12-01

    We introduce an integrated seismicity model to stochastically evaluate the time intervals of consecutive earthquakes at global scales, making it possible to detect a pair of earthquakes that are remotely located and possibly related to each other. The model includes seismicity in non-overlapping areas and comprehensively explains the seismicity on the basis of point process models, which include the stationary Poisson model, the aftershock decay model following Omori-Utsu's law, and/or the epidemic-type aftershock sequence (ETAS) model. By use of this model, we examine the possibility of remote triggering of the 2011 M6.4 eastern Shizuoka earthquake in the vicinity of Mt. Fuji that occurred 4 days after the Mw9.0 Tohoku-Oki earthquake and 4 minutes after the M6.2 off-Fukushima earthquake that located about 400 km away, and that of the 2014 Mw7.9 Rat Islands earthquake that occurred within one hour after the Mw6.7 Kermadec earthquake that located about 9,000 km away and followed two large (Mw6.9, 6.5) earthquakes in the region. Both target earthquakes occurred during the passage of surface waves propagating from the previous large events. We estimated probability that the time interval is shorter than that between consecutive events and obtained dynamic stress changes on the faults. The results indicate that the M6.4 eastern Shizuoka event may be rather triggered by the static stress changes from the Tohoku-Oki earthquake and that the Mw7.9 Rat Islands event may have been remotely triggered by the Kermadec events possibly via cyclic fatigue.

  17. Codifference as a practical tool to measure interdependence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyłomańska, Agnieszka; Chechkin, Aleksei; Gajda, Janusz; Sokolov, Igor M.

    2015-03-01

    Correlation and spectral analysis represent the standard tools to study interdependence in statistical data. However, for the stochastic processes with heavy-tailed distributions such that the variance diverges, these tools are inadequate. The heavy-tailed processes are ubiquitous in nature and finance. We here discuss codifference as a convenient measure to study statistical interdependence, and we aim to give a short introductory review of its properties. By taking different known stochastic processes as generic examples, we present explicit formulas for their codifferences. We show that for the Gaussian processes codifference is equivalent to covariance. For processes with finite variance these two measures behave similarly with time. For the processes with infinite variance the covariance does not exist, however, the codifference is relevant. We demonstrate the practical importance of the codifference by extracting this function from simulated as well as real data taken from turbulent plasma of fusion device and financial market. We conclude that the codifference serves as a convenient practical tool to study interdependence for stochastic processes with both infinite and finite variances as well.

  18. Moderate Intra-Group Bias Maximizes Cooperation on Interdependent Populations

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Changbing; Wang, Zhen; Li, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary game theory on spatial structures has received increasing attention during the past decades. However, the majority of these achievements focuses on single and static population structures, which is not fully consistent with the fact that real structures are composed of many interactive groups. These groups are interdependent on each other and present dynamical features, in which individuals mimic the strategy of neighbors and switch their partnerships continually. It is however unclear how the dynamical and interdependent interactions among groups affect the evolution of collective behaviors. In this work, we employ the prisoner's dilemma game to investigate how the dynamics of structure influences cooperation on interdependent populations, where populations are represented by group structures. It is found that the more robust the links between cooperators (or the more fragile the links between cooperators and defectors), the more prevalent of cooperation. Furthermore, theoretical analysis shows that the intra-group bias can favor cooperation, which is only possible when individuals are likely to attach neighbors within the same group. Yet, interestingly, cooperation can be even inhibited for large intra-group bias, allowing the moderate intra-group bias maximizes the cooperation level. PMID:24533084

  19. Cascading failures of interdependent modular small-world networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guowei; Wang, Xianpei; Tian, Meng; Dai, Dangdang; Long, Jiachuan; Zhang, Qilin

    2016-07-01

    Much empirical evidence shows that many real-world networks fall into the broad class of small-world networks and have a modular structure. The modularity has been revealed to have an important effect on cascading failure in isolated networks. However, the corresponding results for interdependent modular small-world networks remain missing. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between cascading failures and the intra-modular rewiring probabilities and inter-modular connections under different coupling preferences, i.e. random coupling with modules (RCWM), assortative coupling in modules (ACIM) and assortative coupling with modules (ACWM). The size of the largest connected component is used to evaluate the robustness from global and local perspectives. Numerical results indicate that increasing intra-modular rewiring probabilities and inter-modular connections can improve the robustness of interdependent modular small-world networks under intra-attacks and inter-attacks. Meanwhile, experiments on three coupling strategies demonstrate that ACIM has a better effect on preventing the cascading failures compared with RCWM and ACWM. These results can be helpful to allocate and optimize the topological structure of interdependent modular small-world networks to improve the robustness of such networks.

  20. Cascading failures with local load redistribution in interdependent Watts-Strogatz networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Chen; Zhang, Jun; Du, Wen-Bo; Sallan, Jose Maria; Lordan, Oriol

    2016-05-01

    Cascading failures of loads in isolated networks have been studied extensively over the last decade. Since 2010, such research has extended to interdependent networks. In this paper, we study cascading failures with local load redistribution in interdependent Watts-Strogatz (WS) networks. The effects of rewiring probability and coupling strength on the resilience of interdependent WS networks have been extensively investigated. It has been found that, for small values of the tolerance parameter, interdependent networks are more vulnerable as rewiring probability increases. For larger values of the tolerance parameter, the robustness of interdependent networks firstly decreases and then increases as rewiring probability increases. Coupling strength has a different impact on robustness. For low values of coupling strength, the resilience of interdependent networks decreases with the increment of the coupling strength until it reaches a certain threshold value. For values of coupling strength above this threshold, the opposite effect is observed. Our results are helpful to understand and design resilient interdependent networks.

  1. Percolation of interdependent networks with degree-correlated inter-connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, Akito; Kuse, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    In interdependent networks, failures of nodes in one constituent network lead nodes in another network to fail. This happens recursively and leads to a cascade of failures. It is known that the interdependent networks with random inter-connections have weaker robustness than the individual networks. However, if the interdependent networks have degree correlations between the networks constructing them as in the actual cases, the robustness of the interdependent networks may be changed. In this paper, we perform numerical simulations on interdependent networks and obtain the giant cluster sizes after the cascade of failures in order to evaluate the robustness. We show that when a interdependent network has a positive degree inter-correlation, it has the stronger robustness than that for the networks with no degree correlation. We show not only the numerical simulation results but theoretical ones for the robustness of the interdependent networks.

  2. Earth's interdependent thermal, structural, and chemical evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmeister, A.; Criss, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    The popular view that 30-55% of Earth's global power is primordial, with deep layers emanating significant power, rests on misunderstandings and models that omit magmatism and outgassing. These processes link Earth's chemical and thermal evolution, while creating layers, mainly because magmas transport latent heat and radioactive isotopes rapidly upwards. We link chemistry to heat flow, measured and theoretical, to understand the interior layering and workings. Quasi-steady state conditions describe most of Earth's history: (1) Accretion was cold and was not a source of deep heat. (2) Friction during core formation cannot have greatly heated the interior (thermodynamics plus buoyancy). (3) Conduction is the governing microscopic mechanism in the deep Earth. (4) Using well-constrained values of thermal conductivity (k), we find that homogeneously distributed radionuclides provide extremely high internal temperature (T) under radial symmetry. Moreover, for any given global power, sequestering heat producing elements into the upper mantle reduces Earth's central temperature by a factor of 10 from a homogeneous distribution. Hence, (5) core formation was a major cooling event. From modern determinations of k(T) we provide a reference conductive geotherm. Present-day global power of 30 TW from heat flux measurements and sequestering of heat producing elements in the upper mantle and transition zone, produces nearly isothermal T = 5300 K below 670 km, which equals experimentally determined freezing of pure Fe0 at the inner core boundary. Core freezing buffers the interior temperatures, while the Sun constrains the surface temperature, providing steady state conditions: Earth's deep interior is isothermal due to these constraints, low flux and high k. Our geotherms point to a stagnant lower mantle and convection above 670 km. Rotational flattening cracks the brittle lithosphere, providing paths for buoyant magmas to ascend. Release of latent heat augments the conductive

  3. In Situ Nuclear Characterization Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    James A. Smith; J. Rory Kennedy

    2011-11-01

    To be able to evolve microstructure with a prescribed in situ process, an effective measurement infrastructure must exist. This interdisciplinary infrastructure needs to be developed in parallel with in situ sensor technology. This paper discusses the essential elements in an effective infrastructure.

  4. Interdependencies and Causalities in Coupled Financial Networks.

    PubMed

    Vodenska, Irena; Aoyama, Hideaki; Fujiwara, Yoshi; Iyetomi, Hiroshi; Arai, Yuta

    2016-01-01

    We explore the foreign exchange and stock market networks for 48 countries from 1999 to 2012 and propose a model, based on complex Hilbert principal component analysis, for extracting significant lead-lag relationships between these markets. The global set of countries, including large and small countries in Europe, the Americas, Asia, and the Middle East, is contrasted with the limited scopes of targets, e.g., G5, G7 or the emerging Asian countries, adopted by previous works. We construct a coupled synchronization network, perform community analysis, and identify formation of four distinct network communities that are relatively stable over time. In addition to investigating the entire period, we divide the time period into into "mild crisis," (1999-2002), "calm," (2003-2006) and "severe crisis" (2007-2012) sub-periods and find that the severe crisis period behavior dominates the dynamics in the foreign exchange-equity synchronization network. We observe that in general the foreign exchange market has predictive power for the global stock market performances. In addition, the United States, German and Mexican markets have forecasting power for the performances of other global equity markets.

  5. Interdependencies and Causalities in Coupled Financial Networks

    PubMed Central

    Vodenska, Irena; Aoyama, Hideaki; Fujiwara, Yoshi; Iyetomi, Hiroshi; Arai, Yuta

    2016-01-01

    We explore the foreign exchange and stock market networks for 48 countries from 1999 to 2012 and propose a model, based on complex Hilbert principal component analysis, for extracting significant lead-lag relationships between these markets. The global set of countries, including large and small countries in Europe, the Americas, Asia, and the Middle East, is contrasted with the limited scopes of targets, e.g., G5, G7 or the emerging Asian countries, adopted by previous works. We construct a coupled synchronization network, perform community analysis, and identify formation of four distinct network communities that are relatively stable over time. In addition to investigating the entire period, we divide the time period into into “mild crisis,” (1999–2002), “calm,” (2003–2006) and “severe crisis” (2007–2012) sub-periods and find that the severe crisis period behavior dominates the dynamics in the foreign exchange-equity synchronization network. We observe that in general the foreign exchange market has predictive power for the global stock market performances. In addition, the United States, German and Mexican markets have forecasting power for the performances of other global equity markets. PMID:26977806

  6. PRACE - The European HPC Infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadelmeyer, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The mission of PRACE (Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe) is to enable high impact scientific discovery and engineering research and development across all disciplines to enhance European competitiveness for the benefit of society. PRACE seeks to realize this mission by offering world class computing and data management resources and services through a peer review process. This talk gives a general overview about PRACE and the PRACE research infrastructure (RI). PRACE is established as an international not-for-profit association and the PRACE RI is a pan-European supercomputing infrastructure which offers access to computing and data management resources at partner sites distributed throughout Europe. Besides a short summary about the organization, history, and activities of PRACE, it is explained how scientists and researchers from academia and industry from around the world can access PRACE systems and which education and training activities are offered by PRACE. The overview also contains a selection of PRACE contributions to societal challenges and ongoing activities. Examples of the latter are beside others petascaling, application benchmark suite, best practice guides for efficient use of key architectures, application enabling / scaling, new programming models, and industrial applications. The Partnership for Advanced Computing in Europe (PRACE) is an international non-profit association with its seat in Brussels. The PRACE Research Infrastructure provides a persistent world-class high performance computing service for scientists and researchers from academia and industry in Europe. The computer systems and their operations accessible through PRACE are provided by 4 PRACE members (BSC representing Spain, CINECA representing Italy, GCS representing Germany and GENCI representing France). The Implementation Phase of PRACE receives funding from the EU's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreements RI-261557, RI-283493 and RI

  7. Abstract concepts require concrete models: why cognitive scientists have not yet embraced nonlinearly coupled, dynamical, self-organized critical, synergistic, scale-free, exquisitely context-sensitive, interaction-dominant, multifractal, interdependent brain-body-niche systems.

    PubMed

    Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; van der Maas, Han L J; Farrell, Simon

    2012-01-01

    After more than 15 years of study, the 1/f noise or complex-systems approach to cognitive science has delivered promises of progress, colorful verbiage, and statistical analyses of phenomena whose relevance for cognition remains unclear. What the complex-systems approach has arguably failed to deliver are concrete insights about how people perceive, think, decide, and act. Without formal models that implement the proposed abstract concepts, the complex-systems approach to cognitive science runs the danger of becoming a philosophical exercise in futility. The complex-systems approach can be informative and innovative, but only if it is implemented as a formal model that allows concrete prediction, falsification, and comparison against more traditional approaches.

  8. Do Physical Proximity and Availability of Adequate Infrastructure at Public Health Facility Increase Institutional Delivery? A Three Level Hierarchical Model Approach.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rachana; Ladusingh, Laishram

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the inter-district and inter-village variation of utilization of health services for institutional births in EAG states in presence of rural health program and availability of infrastructures. District Level Household Survey-III (2007-08) data on delivery care and facility information was used for the purpose. Bivariate results examined the utilization pattern by states in presence of correlates of women related while a three-level hierarchical multilevel model illustrates the effect of accessibility, availability of health facility and community health program variables on the utilization of health services for institutional births. The study found a satisfactory improvement in state Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa, importantly, in Bihar and Uttaranchal. The study showed that increasing distance from health facility discouraged institutional births and there was a rapid decline of more than 50% for institutional delivery as the distance to public health facility exceeded 10 km. Additionally, skilled female health worker (ANM) and observed improved public health facility led to significantly increase the probability of utilization as compared to non-skilled ANM and not-improved health centers. Adequacy of essential equipment/laboratory services required for maternal care significantly encouraged deliveries at public health facility. District/village variables neighborhood poverty was negatively related to institutional delivery while higher education levels in the village and women's residing in more urbanized districts increased the utilization. "Inter-district" variation was 14 percent whereas "between-villages" variation for the utilization was 11 percent variation once controlled for all the three-level variables in the model. This study suggests that the mere availability of health facilities is necessary but not sufficient condition to promote utilization until the quality of service is inadequate and inaccessible considering

  9. Do Physical Proximity and Availability of Adequate Infrastructure at Public Health Facility Increase Institutional Delivery? A Three Level Hierarchical Model Approach

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rachana; Ladusingh, Laishram

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the inter-district and inter-village variation of utilization of health services for institutional births in EAG states in presence of rural health program and availability of infrastructures. District Level Household Survey-III (2007–08) data on delivery care and facility information was used for the purpose. Bivariate results examined the utilization pattern by states in presence of correlates of women related while a three-level hierarchical multilevel model illustrates the effect of accessibility, availability of health facility and community health program variables on the utilization of health services for institutional births. The study found a satisfactory improvement in state Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa, importantly, in Bihar and Uttaranchal. The study showed that increasing distance from health facility discouraged institutional births and there was a rapid decline of more than 50% for institutional delivery as the distance to public health facility exceeded 10 km. Additionally, skilled female health worker (ANM) and observed improved public health facility led to significantly increase the probability of utilization as compared to non-skilled ANM and not-improved health centers. Adequacy of essential equipment/laboratory services required for maternal care significantly encouraged deliveries at public health facility. District/village variables neighborhood poverty was negatively related to institutional delivery while higher education levels in the village and women’s residing in more urbanized districts increased the utilization. “Inter-district” variation was 14 percent whereas “between-villages” variation for the utilization was 11 percent variation once controlled for all the three-level variables in the model. This study suggests that the mere availability of health facilities is necessary but not sufficient condition to promote utilization until the quality of service is inadequate and inaccessible

  10. Analysis of the phase locking index for measuring of interdependency of cortical signals recorded in the EEG.

    PubMed

    Sazonov, Andrei V; Ho, Chin Keong; Bergmans, Jan W M; Arends, Johan B A M; Griep, Paul A M; Verbitskiy, Evgeny A; Cluitmans, Pierre J M; Boon, Paul A J M

    2007-01-01

    The phase locking index (PLI) was introduced to quantify in a statistical sense the phase synchronization of two signals. It has been commonly used to process biosignals. In this paper, we analyze the PLI for measuring the interdependency of cortical source signals (CSSs) recorded in the Electroencephalogram (EEG). The main focus of the analysis is the probability density function, which describes the sensitivity of the PLI to the joint noise ensemble in the CSSs. Since this function is mathematically intractable, we derive approximations and analyze them for a simple analytical model of the CSS mixture in the EEG. The accuracies of the approximate probability density functions (APDFs) are evaluated using simulations for the model. The APDFs are found sufficiently accurate and thus are applicable for practical intents and purposes. They can hence be used to determine the confidence intervals and significance levels for detection methods for interdependencies, e.g., between cortical signals recorded in the EEG.

  11. Game among interdependent networks: The impact of rationality on system robustness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yuhang; Cao, Gongze; He, Shibo; Chen, Jiming; Sun, Youxian

    2016-12-01

    Many real-world systems are composed of interdependent networks that rely on one another. Such networks are typically designed and operated by different entities, who aim at maximizing their own payoffs. There exists a game among these entities when designing their own networks. In this paper, we study the game investigating how the rational behaviors of entities impact the system robustness. We first introduce a mathematical model to quantify the interacting payoffs among varying entities. Then we study the Nash equilibrium of the game and compare it with the optimal social welfare. We reveal that the cooperation among different entities can be reached to maximize the social welfare in continuous game only when the average degree of each network is constant. Therefore, the huge gap between Nash equilibrium and optimal social welfare generally exists. The rationality of entities makes the system inherently deficient and even renders it extremely vulnerable in some cases. We analyze our model for two concrete systems with continuous strategy space and discrete strategy space, respectively. Furthermore, we uncover some factors (such as weakening coupled strength of interdependent networks, designing a suitable topology dependence of the system) that help reduce the gap and the system vulnerability.

  12. Evaluating Investments in Natural Gas Vehicles and Infrastructure for Your Fleet: Vehicle Infrastructure Cash-Flow Estimation -- VICE 2.0; Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzales, John

    2015-04-02

    Presentation by Senior Engineer John Gonzales on Evaluating Investments in Natural Gas Vehicles and Infrastructure for Your Fleet using the Vehicle Infrastructure Cash-flow Estimation (VICE) 2.0 model.

  13. Operational Models of Infrastructure Resilience

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    following a catastrophic event.” Reed et al.(67) present resilience scoring met- rics and build on the work of Haimes(58) in using input-output...ties among countermeasures. Military Operations Research, 2002; 7:5–23. 31. Garrick B, Hall J, McDonald JC, OToole T, Probst PS, Parker E, Rosenthal R

  14. Infrastructure for microsystem production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heeren, Henne; Sanchez, Stefan; Elders, Job; Heideman, Rene G.

    1999-03-01

    Manufacturing of micro-systems differs from IC manufacturing because the market requires a diversity of products and lower volumes per product. In addition, a diversity of micro-technologies has been developed, including non-IC compatible processes and potentially IC compatible processes. An infrastructure for the production of micro- system devices is lacking. On one side the technology for MST is available at the universities and small university related companies. On the other side there are several small and medium enterprises and bigger companies wanting to implement MST devices in their products, but unwilling to be dependent on universities. Philips Electronics in the Netherlands and Twente MicroProducts realized this problem and have started a project to fill this gap. At this moment the basic of the infrastructure is available: OnStream BV, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, opened its waferfab and assembly facilities for the production of MST devices. Twente MicroProducts will take care of the design of the products and of the small-scale production. Integration of quality systems for maintenance, yield, statistical process control and production in a Manufacturing Execution System offers direct access for all people involved to all the relevant information. It also ensures quality of the products made. The available capabilities of the infrastructure in the current status are compared to the market needs. In this article, a description of a seamless Micro-System Engineering Foundry is given. A seamless organization is capable of helping the customer from design to production. Several examples are given.

  15. Agile Infrastructure Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, P.; Ascenso, J.; Fedorko, I.; Fiorini, B.; Paladin, M.; Pigueiras, L.; Santos, M.

    2014-06-01

    At the present time, data centres are facing a massive rise in virtualisation and cloud computing. The Agile Infrastructure (AI) project is working to deliver new solutions to ease the management of CERN data centres. Part of the solution consists in a new "shared monitoring architecture" which collects and manages monitoring data from all data centre resources. In this article, we present the building blocks of this new monitoring architecture, the different open source technologies selected for each architecture layer, and how we are building a community around this common effort.

  16. The INSC Security Infrastructure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    Le but était de démontrer une infrastructure de réseau qui soutient la sécurité, l’interopérabilité, la maintenance, et la mobilité . La sécurité a...l’interopérabilité, la maintenance, et la mobilité . La sécurité a été fournie à la couche réseau en utilisant le protocole d’IPsec. Aucune sécurité

  17. Climate Change and Infrastructure, Urban Systems, and Vulnerabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbanks, Thomas J; Fernandez, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    associated with climate change that can disrupt infrastructure services, often cascading across infrastructures because of extensive interdependencies threatening health and local economies, especially in areas where human populations and economic activities are concentrated in urban areas. Vulnerabilities are especially large where infrastructures are subject to multiple stresses, beyond climate change alone; when they are located in areas vulnerable to extreme weather events; and if climate change is severe rather than moderate. But the report also notes that there are promising approaches for risk management, based on emerging lessons from a number of innovative initiatives in U.S. cities and other countries, involving both structural and non-structural (e.g., operational) options.

  18. Interdependence of Depressive Symptoms, School Involvement, and Academic Performance between Adolescent Friends: A Dyadic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Chong Man; Tan, Cin Cin; Buhrmester, Duane

    2015-01-01

    Background Friendships play an important role in the development of school involvement and academic performance during adolescence. This study examined the interdependence of depressive symptoms, school involvement, and academic performance between adolescent same-sex friends. Aims Using cross-sectional data, we examined whether the link between depressive symptoms and academic performance would be mediated by school involvement at the intrapersonal (actor) and interpersonal (partner) levels. Sample Data came from 155 pairs of same-sex adolescent friends (80 boys; Mage = 16.17, SD = .44). The Actor-Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) was used to examine the dyadic data and mediation hypotheses. Results Mediated actor effects showed that adolescents who had more depressive symptoms reported lower academic performance, and such an association was mediated by their own and their friend’s lower school involvement. Mediated partner effects showed that adolescents who had more depressive symptoms also had a friend with lower academic performance, and such an association was mediated by both individuals’ lower school involvement. Conclusions This study provided evidence to support the broader interpersonal framework for understanding school involvement and academic performance. The current findings also have potential practical implications, especially for programs targeted at addressing adolescents’ school problems. PMID:25858014

  19. The conservation nexus: valuing interdependent water and energy savings in Arizona.

    PubMed

    Bartos, Matthew D; Chester, Mikhail V

    2014-02-18

    Water and energy resources are intrinsically linked, yet they are managed separately--even in the water-scarce American southwest. This study develops a spatially explicit model of water-energy interdependencies in Arizona and assesses the potential for cobeneficial conservation programs. The interdependent benefits of investments in eight conservation strategies are assessed within the context of legislated renewable energy portfolio and energy efficiency standards. The cobenefits of conservation are found to be significant. Water conservation policies have the potential to reduce statewide electricity demand by 0.82-3.1%, satisfying 4.1-16% of the state's mandated energy-efficiency standard. Adoption of energy-efficiency measures and renewable generation portfolios can reduce nonagricultural water demand by 1.9-15%. These conservation cobenefits are typically not included in conservation plans or benefit-cost analyses. Many cobenefits offer negative costs of saved water and energy, indicating that these measures provide water and energy savings at no net cost. Because ranges of costs and savings for water-energy conservation measures are somewhat uncertain, future studies should investigate the cobenefits of individual conservation strategies in detail. Although this study focuses on Arizona, the analysis can be extended elsewhere as renewable portfolio and energy efficiency standards become more common nationally and internationally.

  20. Cascading failures in coupled networks with both inner-dependency and inter-dependency links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Run-Ran; Li, Ming; Jia, Chun-Xiao; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2016-05-01

    We study the percolation in coupled networks with both inner-dependency and inter-dependency links, where the inner- and inter-dependency links represent the dependencies between nodes in the same or different networks, respectively. We find that when most of dependency links are inner- or inter-ones, the coupled networks system is fragile and makes a discontinuous percolation transition. However, when the numbers of two types of dependency links are close to each other, the system is robust and makes a continuous percolation transition. This indicates that the high density of dependency links could not always lead to a discontinuous percolation transition as the previous studies. More interestingly, although the robustness of the system can be optimized by adjusting the ratio of the two types of dependency links, there exists a critical average degree of the networks for coupled random networks, below which the crossover of the two types of percolation transitions disappears, and the system will always demonstrate a discontinuous percolation transition. We also develop an approach to analyze this model, which is agreement with the simulation results well.

  1. Cascading failures in coupled networks with both inner-dependency and inter-dependency links

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Run-Ran; Li, Ming; Jia, Chun-Xiao; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2016-01-01

    We study the percolation in coupled networks with both inner-dependency and inter-dependency links, where the inner- and inter-dependency links represent the dependencies between nodes in the same or different networks, respectively. We find that when most of dependency links are inner- or inter-ones, the coupled networks system is fragile and makes a discontinuous percolation transition. However, when the numbers of two types of dependency links are close to each other, the system is robust and makes a continuous percolation transition. This indicates that the high density of dependency links could not always lead to a discontinuous percolation transition as the previous studies. More interestingly, although the robustness of the system can be optimized by adjusting the ratio of the two types of dependency links, there exists a critical average degree of the networks for coupled random networks, below which the crossover of the two types of percolation transitions disappears, and the system will always demonstrate a discontinuous percolation transition. We also develop an approach to analyze this model, which is agreement with the simulation results well. PMID:27142883

  2. Cascading failures in coupled networks with both inner-dependency and inter-dependency links.

    PubMed

    Liu, Run-Ran; Li, Ming; Jia, Chun-Xiao; Wang, Bing-Hong

    2016-05-04

    We study the percolation in coupled networks with both inner-dependency and inter-dependency links, where the inner- and inter-dependency links represent the dependencies between nodes in the same or different networks, respectively. We find that when most of dependency links are inner- or inter-ones, the coupled networks system is fragile and makes a discontinuous percolation transition. However, when the numbers of two types of dependency links are close to each other, the system is robust and makes a continuous percolation transition. This indicates that the high density of dependency links could not always lead to a discontinuous percolation transition as the previous studies. More interestingly, although the robustness of the system can be optimized by adjusting the ratio of the two types of dependency links, there exists a critical average degree of the networks for coupled random networks, below which the crossover of the two types of percolation transitions disappears, and the system will always demonstrate a discontinuous percolation transition. We also develop an approach to analyze this model, which is agreement with the simulation results well.

  3. Collaborative pre-competitive preclinical drug discovery with academics and pharma/biotech partners at Sanford|Burnham: infrastructure, capabilities & operational models.

    PubMed

    Chung, Thomas D Y

    2014-03-01

    There has been increased concern that the current "blockbuster" model of drug discovery and development practiced by "Big Pharma" are unsustainable in terms of cost (> $1 billion/approved drug) and time to market (10 - 15 years). The recent mergers and acquisitions (M&A), shuttering of internal research programs, closure of "redundant" sites of operations, senior management turnover and continued workforce reductions among the top 10 major pharmaceutical companies reflect draconian responses to reduce costs. However, the resultant exodus of intellectual capital, loss in motivation and momentum, and exit from early stage discovery programs by pharmaceutical companies has contributed to an "innovation deficit". Disease advocacy groups, investment communities and the government are calling for new innovative business models to address this deficit. In particular they are looking towards academia and clinical trials centers to catalyze new innovations in translational research. Indeed over the last decade many academic institutions have launched drug discovery centers largely comprising high-throughput screening (HTS) to accelerate "translational" research. A major impetus for this "open innovation" effort has been the National Institutes of Health (NIH) "Roadmap" and Molecular Libraries Initiative/Program (MLI/MLP), which is in its last year, and will be transitioned into the National Center for the Advancement of Translational Sciences (NCATS). With the end of Roadmap funding, general reduction in Federal government funding and its recent sequestration, academic drug discovery centers are being challenged to become selfsustaining, adding financial value, while remaining aligned with the missions of their respective academic non-profit institutions. We describe herein, a brief history of our bi-coastal Conrad Prebys Center for Chemical Genomics (Prebys Center) at the Sanford|Burnham Medical Research Institute (SBMRI), the key components of its infrastructure, core

  4. Challenges in scaling up biofuels infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Richard, Tom L

    2010-08-13

    Rapid growth in demand for lignocellulosic bioenergy will require major changes in supply chain infrastructure. Even with densification and preprocessing, transport volumes by mid-century are likely to exceed the combined capacity of current agricultural and energy supply chains, including grain, petroleum, and coal. Efficient supply chains can be achieved through decentralized conversion processes that facilitate local sourcing, satellite preprocessing and densification for long-distance transport, and business models that reward biomass growers both nearby and afar. Integrated systems that are cost-effective and energy-efficient will require new ways of thinking about agriculture, energy infrastructure, and rural economic development. Implementing these integrated systems will require innovation and investment in novel technologies, efficient value chains, and socioeconomic and policy frameworks; all are needed to support an expanded biofuels infrastructure that can meet the challenges of scale.

  5. Securing Infrastructure from High Explosive Threats

    SciTech Connect

    Glascoe, L; Noble, C; Reynolds, J; Kuhl, A; Morris, J

    2009-03-20

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is working with the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate, the Transportation Security Administration, and several infrastructure partners to characterize and help mitigate principal structural vulnerabilities to explosive threats. Given the importance of infrastructure to the nation's security and economy, there is a clear need for applied research and analyses (1) to improve understanding of the vulnerabilities of these systems to explosive threats and (2) to provide decision makers with time-critical technical assistance concerning countermeasure and mitigation options. Fully-coupled high performance calculations of structural response to ideal and non-ideal explosives help bound and quantify specific critical vulnerabilities, and help identify possible corrective schemes. Experimental validation of modeling approaches and methodologies builds confidence in the prediction, while advanced stochastic techniques allow for optimal use of scarce computational resources to efficiently provide infrastructure owners and decision makers with timely analyses.

  6. Modular Infrastructure for Rapid Flight Software Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pires, Craig

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of modular infrastructure to assist in the development of flight software. A feature of this program is the use of model based approach for application unique software. A review of two programs that this approach was use on are: the development of software for Hover Test Vehicle (HTV), and Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Experiment (LADEE).

  7. Effect of self-organized interdependence between populations on the evolution of cooperation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chao; Zhang, Xiaolin

    2017-01-01

    In this article, based on interdependent networks, the effect of self-organized interdependence on the evolution of cooperation is studied. Different from the previous works, the interdependent strength, which can effectively improve the fitness of players, is taken as a kind of limited resources and co-evolves with players' strategy. We show that the self-organization of interdependent strength would spontaneously lead to power law distribution at the stationary state, where the level of cooperation in system can be significantly promoted. Furthermore, when intermediate quantity of interdependence resources existing in system, the power law distribution is most evident with the power β ≈ 1.72, meanwhile the level of cooperation also reaches the maximum value. We discuss the related microscopic system properties which are responsible for the observed results and also demonstrate that the power law distribution of interdependence resources is an elementary property which is robust against the governing repeated games and the initial resources allocation patterns.

  8. Representing Green Infrastructure Management Techniques in Arid and Semi-arid Regions: Software Implementation and Demonstration using the AGWA/KINEROS2 Watershed Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasing urban development in the arid and semi-arid regions of the southwestern United States has led to greater demand for water from a region of limited water resources which has fundamentally altered the hydrologic response of developed watersheds. Green Infrastructure (GI)...

  9. Green Infrastructure Management Techniques in Arid and Semi-arid Regions: Software Implementation and Demonstration using the AGWA/KINEROS2 Watershed Model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increasing urban development in the arid and semi-arid regions of the southwestern United States has led to greater demand for water in a region with limited water resources and has fundamentally altered the hydrologic response of developed watersheds. Green Infrastructure (GI) p...

  10. The future of infrastructure security :

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, Pablo; Turnley, Jessica Glicken; Parrott, Lori K.

    2013-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories hosted a workshop on the future of infrastructure security on February 27-28, 2013, in Albuquerque, NM. The 17 participants came from backgrounds as diverse as federal policy, the insurance industry, infrastructure management, and technology development. The purpose of the workshop was to surface key issues, identify directions forward, and lay groundwork for cross-sectoral and cross-disciplinary collaborations. The workshop addressed issues such as the problem space (what is included in infrastructure problems?), the general types of threats to infrastructure (such as acute or chronic, system-inherent or exogenously imposed) and definitions of secure and resilient infrastructures. The workshop concluded with a consideration of stakeholders and players in the infrastructure world, and identification of specific activities that could be undertaken by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and other players.

  11. Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics (CIG)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurnis, M.; Kellogg, L. H.; Bloxham, J.; Hager, B. H.; Spiegelman, M.; Willett, S.; Wysession, M. E.; Aivazis, M.

    2004-12-01

    Solid earth geophysicists have a long tradition of writing scientific software to address a wide range of problems. In particular, computer simulations came into wide use in geophysics during the decade after the plate tectonic revolution. Solution schemes and numerical algorithms that developed in other areas of science, most notably engineering, fluid mechanics, and physics, were adapted with considerable success to geophysics. This software has largely been the product of individual efforts and although this approach has proven successful, its strength for solving problems of interest is now starting to show its limitations as we try to share codes and algorithms or when we want to recombine codes in novel ways to produce new science. With funding from the NSF, the US community has embarked on a Computational Infrastructure for Geodynamics (CIG) that will develop, support, and disseminate community-accessible software for the greater geodynamics community from model developers to end-users. The software is being developed for problems involving mantle and core dynamics, crustal and earthquake dynamics, magma migration, seismology, and other related topics. With a high level of community participation, CIG is leveraging state-of-the-art scientific computing into a suite of open-source tools and codes. The infrastructure that we are now starting to develop will consist of: (a) a coordinated effort to develop reusable, well-documented and open-source geodynamics software; (b) the basic building blocks - an infrastructure layer - of software by which state-of-the-art modeling codes can be quickly assembled; (c) extension of existing software frameworks to interlink multiple codes and data through a superstructure layer; (d) strategic partnerships with the larger world of computational science and geoinformatics; and (e) specialized training and workshops for both the geodynamics and broader Earth science communities. The CIG initiative has already started to

  12. Michigan E85 Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Sandstrom, Matthew M.

    2012-03-30

    This is the final report for a grant-funded project to financially assist and otherwise provide support to projects that increase E85 infrastructure in Michigan at retail fueling locations. Over the two-year project timeframe, nine E85 and/or flex-fuel pumps were installed around the State of Michigan at locations currently lacking E85 infrastructure. A total of five stations installed the nine pumps, all providing cost share toward the project. By using cost sharing by station partners, the $200,000 provided by the Department of Energy facilitated a total project worth $746,332.85. This project was completed over a two-year timetable (eight quarters). The first quarter of the project focused on project outreach to station owners about the incentive on the installation and/or conversion of E85 compatible fueling equipment including fueling pumps, tanks, and all necessary electrical and plumbing connections. Utilizing Clean Energy Coalition (CEC) extensive knowledge of gasoline/ethanol infrastructure throughout Michigan, CEC strategically placed these pumps in locations to strengthen the broad availability of E85 in Michigan. During the first and second quarters, CEC staff approved projects for funding and secured contracts with station owners; the second through eighth quarters were spent working with fueling station owners to complete projects; the third through eighth quarters included time spent promoting projects; and beginning in the second quarter and running for the duration of the project was spent performing project reporting and evaluation to the US DOE. A total of 9 pumps were installed (four in Elkton, two in Sebewaing, one in East Lansing, one in Howell, and one in Whitmore Lake). At these combined station locations, a total of 192,445 gallons of E85, 10,786 gallons of E50, and 19,159 gallons of E30 were sold in all reporting quarters for 2011. Overall, the project has successfully displaced 162,611 gallons (2,663 barrels) of petroleum, and reduced

  13. The Identification of Filters and Interdependencies for Effective Resource Allocation: Coupling the Mitigation of Natural Hazards to Economic Development.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agar, S. M.; Kunreuther, H.

    2005-12-01

    social benefits and costs. For example, spending after the 1992 Erzincan earthquake targeted local businesses but limited alternative employment, labor losses and diminished local markets all contributed to economic stagnation. Spending after the 1995 Dinar earthquake provided rent subsidies, supporting a major exodus from the town. Consequently many local people were excluded from reconstruction decisions and benefits offered by reconstruction funds. After the 1999 Marmara earthquakes, a 3-year economic decline in Yalova illustrates the vulnerability of local economic stability to weak regulation enforcement by a few agents. A resource allocation framework indicates that government-community relations, lack of economic diversification, beliefs, and compensation are weak links for effective spending. Stronger positive benefits could be achieved through spending to target land-use regulation enforcement, labor losses, time-critical needs of small businesses, and infrastructure. While the impacts of the Marmara earthquakes were devastating, strong commercial networks and international interests helped to re-establish the regional economy. Interdependencies may have helped to drive a recovery. Smaller events in eastern Turkey, however, can wipe out entire communities and can have long-lasting impacts on economic development. These differences may accelerate rural to urban migration and perpetuate regional economic divergence in the country. 1: Research performed in the Wharton MBA Program, Univ. of Pennsylvania.

  14. Resource allocation in road infrastructure using ANP priorities with ZOGP formulation-A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alias, Suriana; Adna, Norfarziah; Soid, Siti Khuzaimah; Kardri, Mahani

    2013-09-01

    Road Infrastructure (RI) project evaluation and selection is concern with the allocation of scarce organizational resources. In this paper, it is suggest an improved RI project selection methodology which reflects interdependencies among evaluation criteria and candidate projects. Fuzzy Delphi Method (FDM) is use to evoking expert group opinion and also to determine a degree of interdependences relationship between the alternative projects. In order to provide a systematic approach to set priorities among multi-criteria and trade-off among objectives, Analytic Network Process (ANP) is suggested to be applied prior to Zero-One Goal Programming (ZOGP) formulation. Specifically, this paper demonstrated how to combined FDM and ANP with ZOGP through a real-world RI empirical example on an ongoing decision-making project in Johor, Malaysia.

  15. Modeling Uncertainty and Its Implications in Complex Interdependent Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    Networks Anita Raja, Professor, The Cooper Union Mohammad Rashedul Hasan, Assistant Professor of Practice, UNL Robert Flowe, Office of Acquisition...êÅÜ=mêçÖê~ãW= `êÉ~íáåÖ=póåÉêÖó=Ñçê=fåÑçêãÉÇ=`Ü~åÖÉ= - 86 - Panel 13. Setting Requirements and Managing Risk in Complex, Networked Projects Thursday...Army for Acquisition, Logistics and Technology Acquisition in a World of Joint Capabilities: Methods for Understanding Cross-Organizational Network

  16. Utilities building NGV infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    Gas utilities across the US are aggressively pursuing the natural gas vehicle market by putting in place the infrastructure needed to ensure the growth of the important market. The first annual P and GJ NGV Marketing Survey has revealed many utilities plant to build and continue building NGV fueling facilities. The NGV industry in the US is confronting a classic chicken-or-egg quandary. Fleet operators and individual drivers are naturally unwilling to commit to a natural gas vehicle fuel until sufficient fueling facilities are in place, yet service station operators are reluctant to add NGV refueling capacity until enough CNG vehicles are on the road to create demand. The future of the NGV market is bright, but continued research and product improvements by suppliers as well as LDCs is needed if the potential is to be fulfilled. Advances in refueling facilities must continue if the market is to develop.

  17. Can Economics Provide Insights into Trust Infrastructure?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishik, Claire

    Many security technologies require infrastructure for authentication, verification, and other processes. In many cases, viable and innovative security technologies are never adopted on a large scale because the necessary infrastructure is slow to emerge. Analyses of such technologies typically focus on their technical flaws, and research emphasizes innovative approaches to stronger implementation of the core features. However, an observation can be made that in many cases the success of adoption pattern depends on non-technical issues rather than technology-lack of economic incentives, difficulties in finding initial investment, inadequate government support. While a growing body of research is dedicated to economics of security and privacy in general, few theoretical studies in this area have been completed, and even fewer that look at the economics of “trust infrastructure” beyond simple “cost of ownership” models. This exploratory paper takes a look at some approaches in theoretical economics to determine if they can provide useful insights into security infrastructure technologies and architectures that have the best chance to be adopted. We attempt to discover if models used in theoretical economics can h