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Sample records for inhalable particulates delivered

  1. Real-time non-invasive detection of inhalable particulates delivered into live mouse airways.

    PubMed

    Donnelley, Martin; Morgan, Kaye S; Fouras, Andreas; Skinner, William; Uesugi, Kentaro; Yagi, Naoto; Siu, Karen K W; Parsons, David W

    2009-07-01

    Fine non-biological particles small enough to be suspended in the air are continually inhaled as we breathe. These particles deposit on airway surfaces where they are either cleared by airway defences or can remain and affect lung health. Pollutant particles from vehicles, building processes and mineral and industrial dusts have the potential to cause both immediate and delayed health problems. Because of their small size, it has not been possible to non-invasively examine how individual particles deposit on live airways, or to consider how they behave on the airway surface after deposition. In this study, synchrotron phase-contrast X-ray imaging (PCXI) has been utilized to detect and monitor individual particle deposition. The in vitro detectability of a range of potentially respirable particulates was first determined. Of the particulates tested, only asbestos, quarry dust, fibreglass and galena (lead sulfate) were visible in vitro. These particulates were then examined after delivery into the nasal airway of live anaesthetized mice; all were detectable in vivo but each exhibited different surface appearances and behaviour along the airway surface. The two fibrous particulates appeared as agglomerations enveloped by fluid, while the non-fibrous particulates were present as individual particles. Synchrotron PCXI provides the unique ability to non-invasively detect and track deposition of individual particulates in live mouse airways. With further refinement of particulate sizing and delivery techniques, PCXI should provide a novel approach for live animal monitoring of airway particulates relevant to lung health.

  2. Three-dimensional Numerical Simulation of Gas-particulate Flow around Breathing Human and Particulate Inhalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazaki, Yasuhiro; Okubo, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Toshiaki

    2006-05-01

    It is important to predict the environment around the breathing human because inhalation of virus (avian influenza, SARS) is recently severe worldwide problem, and air pollution caused by diesel emission particle (DEP) and asbestos attract a great deal of attention. In the present study, three-dimensional numerical simulation was carried out to predict unsteady flows around a breathing human and how suspended particulate matter (SPM, diameter˜1 μm) reaches the human nose in inhalation and exhalation. In the calculation, we find out smaller breathing angle and the closer distance between the human nose and pollutant region are effective in the inhalation of SPM.

  3. Grooved impactor and inertial trap for sampling inhalable particulate matter

    DOEpatents

    Loo, Billy W.

    1984-01-01

    An inertial trap and grooved impactor for providing a sharp cutoff for particles over 15 microns from entering an inhalable particulate sampler. The impactor head has a tapered surface and is provided with V-shaped grooves. The tapered surface functions for reducing particle blow-off or reentrainment while the grooves prevent particle bounce. Water droplets and any resuspended material over the 15 micron size are collected by the inertial trap and deposited in a reservoir associated with the impactor.

  4. Cell-mediated immunity to soluble and particulate inhaled antigens

    PubMed Central

    Hill, J. O.; Burrell, R.

    1979-01-01

    In order to determine the influence of an antigen's physical properties on the development of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) in the lung following aerosol immunization, human serum albumin (HSA) was prepared in either a soluble or a particulate form, the latter being coupled to respirable, carboxylated latex beads. Antigen was administered via an aerosol to groups of guinea-pigs, twice weekly for up to 4 weeks. Additional groups of animals served as unexposed and unconjugated latex controls. Lymphoid cells for CMI assays were isolated from the lung by bronchopulmonary lavage and from blood for use in mitogen- and antigen-induced lymphocyte transformation assays, as well as indirect macrophage migration inhibition tests. Particulate HSA-exposed animals yielded the highest numbers of free lung cells containing predominantly macrophages, with up to 33% lymphocytes. These were followed by the latex control, soluble HSA and unexposed control groups, respectively. Only the animals exposed to particulate HSA had evidence of antigen reactivation in the lung cell populations as measured by lymphocyte stimulation assays. In contrast, a response to polyclonal mitogens was found only in animals exposed to antigen in a soluble form. Data from macrophage depletion experiments suggest that the antigenicity of inhaled antigens may be due to the types and numbers of cells responding to the stimulus, and the subsequent role the alveolar macrophage may play in the modulation of cellular immunity. PMID:393444

  5. Quality assurance test of delivered dose uniformity of multiple-dose inhaler and dry powder inhaler drug products.

    PubMed

    Tsong, Yi; Dong, Xiaoyu; Shen, Meiyu; Lostritto, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    The delivered dose uniformity is one of the most critical requirements for dry powder inhaler (DPI) and metered dose inhaler products. In 1999, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a Draft Guidance entitled Nasal Spray and Inhalation Solution, Suspension, and Spray Drug Products-Chemistry, Manufacturing and Controls Documentation and recommended a two-tier acceptance sampling plan that is a modification of the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) sampling plan of dose content uniformity (USP34<601>). This sampling acceptance plan is also applied to metered dose inhaler (MDI) and DPI drug products in general. The FDA Draft Guidance method is shown to have a near-zero probability of acceptance at the second tier. In 2000, under the request of The International Pharmaceutical Aerosol Consortium, the FDA developed a two-tier sampling acceptance plan based on two one-sided tolerance intervals (TOSTIs) for a small sample. The procedure was presented in the 2005 Advisory Committee Meeting of Pharmaceutical Science and later published in the Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics (Tsong et al., 2008). This proposed procedure controls the probability of the product delivering below a pre-specified effective dose and the probability of the product delivering over a pre-specified safety dose. In this article, we further propose an extension of the TOSTI procedure to single-tier procedure with any number of canisters.

  6. Murine pharmacokinetics of rifapentine delivered as an inhalable dry powder.

    PubMed

    Chan, John G Y; Tyne, Anneliese S; Pang, Angel; McLachlan, Andrew J; Perera, Vidya; Chan, Joseph C Y; Britton, Warwick J; Chan, Hak Kim; Duke, Colin C; Young, Paul M; Traini, Daniela

    2015-03-01

    A novel inhalable rifapentine dry powder formulation could improve pulmonary rifapentine concentrations resulting in a significantly shorter time to treat tuberculosis infection. The pharmacokinetics of rifapentine (20mg/kg) in healthy mice was compared following intratracheal (IT) and intraperitoneal (IP) administration. Plasma, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and tissue samples were collected and drug levels were quantified at time points up to 24h. Concentration-time data were analysed using a mixed-effects modelling approach to provide model-based estimates of area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC0-∞). IT delivery had considerably higher peak rifapentine lung and BAL concentrations and associated AUC0-∞ compared with IP delivery. The plasma AUC0-∞ following IT dry powder delivery was ca. four-fold smaller than the value for IP delivery. Inhaled delivery of rifapentine has the potential to selectively enhance therapeutic efficacy at the pulmonary site of infection whilst minimising systemic exposure and related toxicity.

  7. Efficacy and safety of ipratropium bromide/albuterol delivered via Respimat inhaler versus MDI.

    PubMed

    Zuwallack, R; De Salvo, M C; Kaelin, T; Bateman, E D; Park, C S; Abrahams, R; Fakih, F; Sachs, P; Pudi, K; Zhao, Y; Wood, C C

    2010-08-01

    We compared the efficacy and safety of ipratropium bromide/albuterol delivered via Respimat inhaler, a novel propellant-free inhaler, versus chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-metered dose inhaler (MDI) and ipratropium Respimat inhaler in patients with COPD. This was a multinational, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, 12-week, parallel-group, active-controlled study. Patients with moderate to severe COPD were randomized to ipratropium bromide/albuterol (20/100mcg) Respimat inhaler, ipratropium bromide/albuterol MDI [36mcg/206mcg (Combivent Inhalation Aerosol MDI)], or ipratropium bromide (20mcg) Respimat inhaler. Each medication was administered four times daily. Serial spirometry was performed over 6h (0.15min, then hourly) on 4 test days. The primary efficacy variable was forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV(1)) change from test day baseline at 12 weeks. A total of 1209 of 1480 randomized, treated patients completed the study; the majority were male (65%) with a mean age of 64 yrs and a mean screening pre-bronchodilator FEV(1) (percent predicted) of 41%. Ipratropium bromide/albuterol Respimat inhaler had comparable efficacy to ipratropium bromide/albuterol MDI for FEV(1) area under the curve at 0-6h (AUC(0-6)), superior efficacy to ipratropium Respimat inhaler for FEV(1) AUC(0-4) and comparable efficacy to ipratropium Respimat inhaler for FEV(1) AUC(4-6). All active treatments were well tolerated. This study demonstrates that ipratropium bromide/albuterol 20/100mcg inhaler administered four times daily for 12 weeks had equivalent bronchodilator efficacy and comparable safety to ipratropium bromide/albuterol 36mcg/206mcg MDI, and significantly improved lung function compared with the mono-component ipratropium bromide 20 mcg Respimat inhaler. [Clinical Trial Identifier Number: NCT00400153].

  8. Effects of Inhalable Particulate Matter on Blood Coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Bonzini, Matteo; Tripodi, Armando; Artoni, Andrea; Tarantini, Letizia; Marinelli, Barbara; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Apostoli, Pietro; Baccarelli, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Background Particulate matter (PM) exposure has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, possibly resulting from hypercoagulability and thrombosis. Lung and systemic inflammation from PM inhalation may activate blood coagulation, but mechanisms for PM-related hypercoagulability are still largely unknown. Objectives To identify coagulation mechanisms activated by PM in a population with well-characterized exposure. Methods We measured prothrombin time [PT], activated-partial-thromboplastin time [aPTT], Endogenous Thrombin Potentials [ETP] with/without exogenous triggers and with/without soluble thrombomodulin, tissue-plasminogen activator antigen [t-PA], D-dimer, and C-reactive protein [CRP] in 37 workers in a steel-production plant with well-characterized exposure to PM with aerodynamic diameter <1μm (PM1) and coarse PM (PM10-PM1). Blood samples were collected from each subject on the first (baseline) and last (post-exposure) day of a four-day workweek. We analysed differences between baseline and post-exposure levels using paired Student’s t-test. We fitted multivariate mixed-regression models to estimate the associations of inter-quartile range PM1 and coarse PM exposure with parameter levels. Results None of the parameters showed any significant changes in post-exposure samples, compared to baseline. However, exposure levels were associated with shorter PT (β[PM1]=−0.33 sec, p=0.08; β[PMcoarse]=−0.33 sec, p=0.01), and higher ETP without exogenous triggers and with thrombomodulin (β[PM1]=+99 nM*min, p=0.02; β[PMcoarse]=+66 nM*min, p=0.05), t-PA (β[PM1]=+0.72 ng/mL, p=0.01; β[PMcoarse]=+0.88 ng/mL, p=0.04), and CRP (β[PM1]=+0.59 mg/L, p=0.03; β[PMcoarse]=+0.48 mg/L, p=0.01). Conclusions PM exposure did not show any short-term effect within the week of the study. The association of PM exposure with PT, ETP, CRP provides some evidence of long-term effects on inflammation and coagulation. PMID:19922434

  9. Systematic review of clinical effectiveness of pressurised metered dose inhalers versus other hand held inhaler devices for delivering corticosteroids in asthma.

    PubMed

    Brocklebank, D; Wright, J; Cates, C

    2001-10-20

    To determine the clinical effectiveness of pressurised metered dose inhalers (with or without spacer) compared with other hand held inhaler devices for the delivery of corticosteroids in stable asthma. Systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Cochrane Airways Group trials database (Medline, Embase, Cochrane controlled clinical trials register, and hand searching of 18 relevant journals), pharmaceutical companies, and bibliographies of included trials. All trials in children or adults with stable asthma that compared a pressurised metered dose inhaler with any other hand held inhaler device delivering the same inhaled corticosteroid. 24 randomised controlled trials were included. Significant differences were found for forced expiratory volume in one second, morning peak expiratory flow rate, and use of drugs for additional relief with dry powder inhalers. However, either these were within clinically equivalent limits or the differences were not apparent once baseline characteristics had been taken into account. No significant differences were found between pressurised metered dose inhalers and any other hand held inhaler device for the following outcomes: lung function, symptoms, bronchial hyper-reactivity, systemic bioavailability, and use of additional relief bronchodilators. No evidence was found that alternative inhaler devices (dry powder inhalers, breath actuated pressurised metered dose inhalers, or hydrofluoroalkane pressurised metered dose inhalers) are more effective than the pressurised metered dose inhalers for delivery of inhaled corticosteroids. Pressurised metered dose inhalers remain the most cost effective first line delivery devices.

  10. Particulate oil shale inhalation and pulmonary inflammatory response in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.S.; Holland, L.M.; Halleck, M.S.; Martinez, E.; Saunders, G.

    1983-01-01

    This experiment detrimetal that long-term inhalation of shale dusts by rats elicits a limited inflammatory response in the lung less profound than that observed in animals exposed to equivalent levels of quartz alone. This observation suggests that organic and inorganic constituents of shale may provide a protective effect. The implications for fibrogenic disease are two-fold: (1) inhalation of oil shale dusts appeared to be less detriemtal than the inhalation of quartz along, and (2) there was no apparent synergistic action of quartz and the complex of organic materials present in shale. Animals exposed to shale dusts failed to develop any significant lung lesions, while all of the animals exposed to quartz developed granulomas and some frank fibrosis.

  11. EFFECTS OF INSTILLED AND INHALED PARTICULATE MATTER ON CARDIOPULMONARY PARAMETERS IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF INSTILLED AND INHALED PARTICULATE MATTER ON CARDIOPULMONARY PARAMETERS IN RATS

    LB Wichers (UNC - Chapel Hill; Chapel Hill, NC USA), MJ Campen (LRRI; Albuquerque, NM USA), JP Nolan, WH Rowan, AD Ledbetter, DW Winsett, UP Kodavanti, MCJ Schladweiler, DL Costa, and...

  12. EFFECTS OF INSTILLED AND INHALED PARTICULATE MATTER ON CARDIOPULMONARY PARAMETERS IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF INSTILLED AND INHALED PARTICULATE MATTER ON CARDIOPULMONARY PARAMETERS IN RATS

    LB Wichers (UNC - Chapel Hill; Chapel Hill, NC USA), MJ Campen (LRRI; Albuquerque, NM USA), JP Nolan, WH Rowan, AD Ledbetter, DW Winsett, UP Kodavanti, MCJ Schladweiler, DL Costa, and...

  13. Systematic review of clinical effectiveness of pressurised metered dose inhalers versus other hand held inhaler devices for delivering β2 agonists bronchodilators in asthma

    PubMed Central

    Ram, Felix S F; Wright, John; Brocklebank, David; White, John E S

    2001-01-01

    Objectives To determine the clinical effectiveness of pressurised metered dose inhalers compared with other hand held inhaler devices for delivering short acting β2 agonists in stable asthma. Design Systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Data sources Cochrane Airways Group specialised trials database (which includes hand searching of 20 relevant journals), Medline, Embase, Cochrane controlled clinical trials register, pharmaceutical companies, and bibliographies of included trials. Trials All trials in children or adults with stable asthma that compared the pressurised metered dose inhaler (with or without a spacer device) against any other hand held inhaler device containing the same β2 agonist. Results 84 randomised controlled trials were included. No differences were found between the pressurised metered dose inhaler and any other hand held inhaler device for lung function, blood pressure, symptoms, bronchial hyperreactivity, systemic bioavailability, inhaled steroid requirement, serum potassium concentration, and use of additional relief bronchodilators. In adults, pulse rate was lower in those using the pressurised metered dose inhaler compared with those using Turbohaler (standardised mean difference 0.44, 95% confidence interval 0.05 to 0.84); patients preferred the pressurised metered dose inhaler to the Rotahaler (relative risk 0.53, 95% confidence interval 0.36 to 0.78); hydrofluoroalkane pressurised metered dose inhalers reduced the requirement for rescue short course oral steroids (relative risk 0.67, 0.49 to 0.91). Conclusions No evidence was found to show that alternative inhaler devices are more effective than standard pressurised metered dose inhalers for delivering acting β2 agonist bronchodilators in asthma. Pressurised metered dose inhalers remain the most cost effective delivery devices. What is already known on this topicMany different inhaler devices are available for administration of short acting β2 agonists in asthma

  14. [Spatial distribution of inhalable particulate and association with respiratory disease in Beijing City].

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Zhao, Wen-Ji; Gong, Zhao-Ning; Zhao, Wen-Hui; Tang, Tao

    2013-01-01

    Inhalable particulate has become the premier pollutant of Beijing, which has enormous influence on the environmental quality of the city and health of the residents. Inhalable particle pollutants (particulate matter of 0.3, 0.5, 3.0 and 5.0 microm) during the heating period and the non-heating period in 2008 and 2009 were collected, and spatial analysis was used to study the spatial distribution of each pollutant. Meanwhile, the hospital data about respiratory disease during the same time was gathered and counted. Then the relativity between inhalable particulate pollutants and respiratory disease was studied by grey correlation analysis on the base of regression analysis. The results showed that spatial distribution of fine particle was diverse but the pattern of coarse particle was similar. There was certain association between respiratory disease and inhalable particle pollutants. Heating period was the highest incidence period of respiratory disease. The prevalence of respiratory disease was higher in heating period than non-heating period. The concentration of fine particle was higher than that of coarse particle both in heating and non-heating periods, and fine particle had more effects on the respiratory system disease than coarse particle.

  15. Systematic review of clinical effectiveness of pressurised metered dose inhalers versus other hand held inhaler devices for delivering beta (2 )agonists bronchodilators in asthma.

    PubMed

    Ram, F S; Wright, J; Brocklebank, D; White, J E

    2001-10-20

    To determine the clinical effectiveness of pressurised metered dose inhalers compared with other hand held inhaler devices for delivering short acting beta(2) agonists in stable asthma. Systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Cochrane Airways Group specialised trials database (which includes hand searching of 20 relevant journals), Medline, Embase, Cochrane controlled clinical trials register, pharmaceutical companies, and bibliographies of included trials. All trials in children or adults with stable asthma that compared the pressurised metered dose inhaler (with or without a spacer device) against any other hand held inhaler device containing the same beta(2) agonist. 84 randomised controlled trials were included. No differences were found between the pressurised metered dose inhaler and any other hand held inhaler device for lung function, blood pressure, symptoms, bronchial hyperreactivity, systemic bioavailability, inhaled steroid requirement, serum potassium concentration, and use of additional relief bronchodilators. In adults, pulse rate was lower in those using the pressurised metered dose inhaler compared with those using Turbohaler (standardised mean difference 0.44, 95% confidence interval 0.05 to 0.84); patients preferred the pressurised metered dose inhaler to the Rotahaler (relative risk 0.53, 95% confidence interval 0.36 to 0.78); hydrofluoroalkane pressurised metered dose inhalers reduced the requirement for rescue short course oral steroids (relative risk 0.67, 0.49 to 0.91). No evidence was found to show that alternative inhaler devices are more effective than standard pressurised metered dose inhalers for delivering acting beta(2 )agonist bronchodilators in asthma. Pressurised metered dose inhalers remain the most cost effective delivery devices.

  16. Dose-response relationships of inhaled insulin delivered via the Aerodose insulin inhaler and subcutaneously injected insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dennis; Mudaliar, Sunder; Chinnapongse, Sithipol; Chu, Neelima; Boies, Sarah M; Davis, Trent; Perera, Ayesh D; Fishman, Robert S; Shapiro, David A; Henry, Robert

    2003-10-01

    To compare the dose-response relationship following inhalation of regular insulin delivered via the Aerodose insulin inhaler with that following subcutaneously injected regular insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes. Twenty-four patients with type 2 diabetes (21 nonsmoking men, aged 36-80 years) each received two of three doses of 80, 160, or 240 units inhaled regular insulin, delivered via a clinical Aerodose insulin inhaler, and two of three corresponding doses of 8, 16, or 24 units by subcutaneous injection under isoglycemic clamp conditions on 4 separate study days in an incomplete block design study. Glucose infusion rates (GIRs) and serum insulin concentrations were monitored over the following 8 h. Inhaled insulin exhibited significantly shorter time-to-peak insulin levels (T(max) 77 +/- 66 vs. 193 +/- 104 min, P < 0.001) and time-to-peak metabolic effects (T(GIRmax) 240 +/- 94 vs. 353 +/- 60 min, P < 0.001) compared with subcutaneously injected insulin. Comparison of total insulin absorption (insulin area under the curve [AUC]) versus total metabolic effect (GIR-AUC) from 0 to 8 h (group means) revealed overlapping dose-response relationships for both inhaled and subcutaneous injection treatments. Comparison of slopes revealed no significant differences between the inhaled and subcutaneous injection treatment groups (P = 0.6). No significant differences in either relative bioavailability or relative biopotency were found among doses, indicating a consistent subcutaneous injection-to-inhaled dosing conversion ratio among doses. No serious adverse events or clinically relevant changes in lung function were observed. The overlapping dose-response curves of inhaled and subcutaneous treatments together with a consistent relative bioavailability and relative biopotency for inhaled insulin across doses suggest that the Aerodose insulin inhaler will deliver a pharmacologically predictable insulin dose to patients with diabetes similar to that observed following

  17. Differential electrocardiogram efffects in normal and hypertensive rats after inhalation exposure to transition metal rich particulate matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhalation of particulate matter (PM) associated with air pollution causes adverse effects on cardiac function including heightened associations with ischemic heart disease, dysrhythmias, heart failure, and cardiac arrest. Some of these effects have been attributable to transitio...

  18. Differential electrocardiogram efffects in normal and hypertensive rats after inhalation exposure to transition metal rich particulate matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhalation of particulate matter (PM) associated with air pollution causes adverse effects on cardiac function including heightened associations with ischemic heart disease, dysrhythmias, heart failure, and cardiac arrest. Some of these effects have been attributable to transitio...

  19. Inhaled ultrafine particulate matter affects CNS inflammatory processes and may act via MAP kinase signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, M T; Araujo, J A; Nel, A; Sioutas, C; Campbell, A; Cong, P Q; Li, H; Bondy, S C

    2008-05-05

    In addition to evidence that inhalation of ambient particulate matter (PM) can increase cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality, the brain may also constitute a site adversely effected by the environmental presence of airborne particulate matter. We have examined the association between exposure to PM and adverse CNS effects in apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE-/-) mice exposed to two levels of concentrated ultrafine particulate matter in central Los Angeles. Mice were euthanized 24h after the last exposure and brain, liver, heart, lung and spleen tissues were collected and frozen for subsequent bioassays. There was clear evidence of aberrant immune activation in the brains of exposed animals as judged by a dose-related increase in nuclear translocation of two key transcription factors, NF-kappaB and AP-1. These factors are involved in the promotion of inflammation. Increased levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were also found consequent to particulate inhalation suggesting that glial activation was taking place. In order to determine the mechanism by which these events occurred, levels of several MAP kinases involved in activation of these transcription factors were assayed by Western blotting. There were no significant changes in the proportion of active (phosphorylated) forms of ERK-1, IkB and p38. However, the fraction of JNK in the active form was significantly increased in animals receiving the lower concentration of concentrated ambient particles (CAPs). This suggests that the signaling pathway by which these transcription factors are activated involves the activation of JNK.

  20. Air sampling methodology for asphalt fume in asphalt production and asphalt roofing manufacturing facilities: total particulate sampler versus inhalable particulate sampler.

    PubMed

    Calzavara, Thomas S; Carter, Charles M; Axten, Charles

    2003-05-01

    In 2000, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH(R)) changed its 1971 threshold limit value (TLV) for 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) exposure to asphalt from 5 mg/m(3) total particulate (generally < or =40 micrometer [microm] diameter) to 0.5 mg/m(3) inhalable particulate (< or =100 microm aerodynamic diameter) as benzene-soluble aerosol. To date, no inhalable particulate sampling method has been standardized and validated for asphalt fume. Furthermore, much of the historical data were collected using total particulate samplers, and the comparability of total versus inhalable size fractions of asphalt fume is not known. Therefore, the present study compared results from two types of asphalt fume samplers: 1) a traditional total particulate sampler with a 37-mm filter in a closed-face cassette with a 4-mm orifice (NIOSH 5042) versus (2) an inhalable particulate sampler designed by the IOM with a 15-mm orifice. A total of 75 simultaneous pairs of samples were collected, including personal and area samples from 19 roofing and asphalt production facilities operated by 7 different manufacturers. Each sample was analyzed for total mass collected and for benzene-soluble mass. Data from the two sampling methods (total versus inhalable) were comparable for asphalt fumes up to an aerosol concentration of 10 mg/m(3). However, we conclude that the traditional total particulate method is preferable, for this reason: The vast majority of asphalt fume particles are <12.5 microm in diameter. The traditional sampler is designed to collect primarily particles < or =40 microm, while the IOM sampler is optimized for collecting particles < or =100 microm. Thus, the traditional sampler is less likely than the IOM sampler to collect the larger-size fraction of airborne particles, most of which are non-asphalt dust.

  1. Evaluation of bronchodilation from aerosol beta 2 agonists delivered by the Inhal-Aid device to young children.

    PubMed

    Huntley, W; Weinberger, M

    1984-01-01

    The Inhal-Aid is a device that combines a reservoir aerosol delivery system, two one-way valves, and an incentive spirometer to assist in the delivery of medication from metered-dose inhalers. It appears to result in bronchodilatory effect that is similar to that obtained from (9) compressed air driven nebulizer. Further data are needed to determine if the therapeutic advantages of an aerosol receiving chamber with metered-dose inhalers are matched by clinically important consequences for the patient with adequate coordination. For the patient unable to utilize metered-dose inhalers because of inability to coordinate inspiration with activation, however, the Inhal-Aid provides an effective means to conveniently deliver clinically important antiasthmatic medication.

  2. Vaccination against nicotine alters the distribution of nicotine delivered via cigarette smoke inhalation to rats

    PubMed Central

    Pravetoni, M; Keyler, DE; Raleigh, MD; Harris, AC; LeSage, MG; Mattson, CK; Pettersson, S; Pentel, PR

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical models of nicotine vaccine pharmacology have relied on i.v. or s.c. administration of nicotine. Models using cigarette smoke inhalation might more accurately simulate nicotine exposure in smokers. Nicotine vaccine effects were examined in rats using two cigarette smoke exposure models: a 10 minute nose-only exposure (NSE) producing serum nicotine levels equivalent to the nicotine boost from 1 cigarette in a smoker, and a two hour whole-body exposure (WBE) producing serum nicotine levels similar to those associated with regular midday smoking. Vaccination prior to 10 min smoke NSE reduced nicotine distribution to brain by 90%, comparable to its effect on nicotine administered i.v. Vaccination prior to 2 hr smoke WBE reduced nicotine distribution to brain by 35%. The nicotine concentration in broncheoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid obtained after 2 hr WBE was increased by 230% in vaccinated rats but was also increased in rats passively immunized with a nicotine-specific monoclonal antibody, and so was likely due to transfer of antibody from serum rather than local production at the pulmonary mucosa. Nicotine-specific IgA was not detectable in BAL fluid, but titers in serum were appreciable at 21–25% of the IgG titer and could contribute to vaccine efficacy. Both vaccination and passive immunization are effective in reducing nicotine distribution to brain in rats when nicotine is delivered via inhaled cigarette smoke. These data validate results previously obtained in rodents for nicotine vaccines using i.v. or s.c. nicotine dosing and provide a quantitative method for studying aspects of nicotine exposure which are unique to cigarette smoke inhalation. PMID:21333633

  3. Therapeutic equivalence of budesonide/formoterol delivered via breath-actuated inhaler vs pMDI.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Kevin R; Dhand, Rajiv; Trudo, Frank; Uryniak, Tom; Aggarwal, Ajay; Eckerwall, Göran

    2015-02-01

    To assess equivalence of twice daily (bid) budesonide/formoterol (BUD/FM) 160/4.5 μg via breath-actuated metered-dose inhaler (BAI) versus pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI). This 12-week, double-blind, multicenter, parallel-group study, randomized adolescents and adults (aged ≥12 years) with asthma (and ≥3 months daily use of inhaled corticosteroids) to BUD/FM BAI 2 × 160/4.5 μg bid, BUD/FM pMDI 2 × 160/4.5 μg bid, or BUD pMDI 2 × 160 μg bid. Inclusion required prebronchodilator forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) ≥45 to ≤85% predicted, and reversibility of ≥12% in FEV1 (ages 12 to <18 years) or ≥12% and 200 mL (ages ≥18 years). Confirmation that 60-min postdose FEV1 response to BUD/FM pMDI was superior to BUD pMDI was required before equivalence testing. Therapeutic equivalence was shown by treatment effect ratio of BUD/FM BAI vs BUD/FM pMDI on 60-min postdose FEV1 and predose FEV1 within confidence intervals (CIs) of 80-125%. Mean age of 214 randomized patients was 42.7 years. BUD/FM pMDI was superior to BUD pMDI (60-min postdose FEV1 treatment effect ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.06-1.14; p < 0.001). Treatment effect ratios for BUD/FM BAI versus pMDI for 60-min postdose FEV1 (1.01; 95% CI, 0.97-1.05) and predose FEV1 (1.03; 95% CI, 0.99-1.08) were within predetermined CIs for therapeutic equivalence. Adverse event profiles, tolerability, and patient-reported ease of use were similar. BUD/FM 2 × 160/4.5 μg bid BAI is therapeutically equivalent to BUD/FM conventional pMDI. The introduction of BUD/FM BAI would expand options for delivering inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2-agonist combination therapy to patients with moderate-to-severe asthma. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01360021. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Beryllium Concentrations at European Workplaces: Comparison of ‘Total’ and Inhalable Particulate Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Kock, Heiko; Civic, Terence; Koch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    A field study was carried out in order to derive a factor for the conversion of historic worker exposure data on airborne beryllium (Be) obtained by sampling according to the 37-mm closed faced filter cassette (CFC) ‘total’ particulate method into exposure concentration values to be expected when sampling using the ‘Gesamtstaubprobenahmesystem’ (GSP) inhalable sampling convention. Workplaces selected to represent the different copper Be work processing operations that typically occur in Germany and the EU were monitored revealing a broad spectrum of prevailing Be size distributions. In total, 39 personal samples were taken using a 37-mm CFC and a GSP worn side by side for simultaneous collection of the ‘total’ dust and the inhalable particulates, respectively. In addition, 20 static general area measurements were carried out using GSP, CFC, and Respicon samplers in parallel, the latter one providing information on the extra-thoracic fraction of the workplace aerosol. The study showed that there is a linear relationship between the concentrations measured with the CFC and those measured with the GSP sampler. The geometric mean value of the ratios of time-weighted average concentrations determined from GSP and CFC samples of all personal samples was 2.88. The individual values covered a range between 1 and 17 related to differences in size distributions of the Be-containing particulates. This was supported by the area measurements showing that the conversion factor increases with increasing values of the extra-thoracic fraction covering a range between 0 and 79%. PMID:25808693

  5. Beryllium Concentrations at European Workplaces: Comparison of 'Total' and Inhalable Particulate Measurements.

    PubMed

    Kock, Heiko; Civic, Terence; Koch, Wolfgang

    2015-07-01

    A field study was carried out in order to derive a factor for the conversion of historic worker exposure data on airborne beryllium (Be) obtained by sampling according to the 37-mm closed faced filter cassette (CFC) 'total' particulate method into exposure concentration values to be expected when sampling using the 'Gesamtstaubprobenahmesystem' (GSP) inhalable sampling convention. Workplaces selected to represent the different copper Be work processing operations that typically occur in Germany and the EU were monitored revealing a broad spectrum of prevailing Be size distributions. In total, 39 personal samples were taken using a 37-mm CFC and a GSP worn side by side for simultaneous collection of the 'total' dust and the inhalable particulates, respectively. In addition, 20 static general area measurements were carried out using GSP, CFC, and Respicon samplers in parallel, the latter one providing information on the extra-thoracic fraction of the workplace aerosol. The study showed that there is a linear relationship between the concentrations measured with the CFC and those measured with the GSP sampler. The geometric mean value of the ratios of time-weighted average concentrations determined from GSP and CFC samples of all personal samples was 2.88. The individual values covered a range between 1 and 17 related to differences in size distributions of the Be-containing particulates. This was supported by the area measurements showing that the conversion factor increases with increasing values of the extra-thoracic fraction covering a range between 0 and 79%. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  6. Deposition and pharmacokinetics of flunisolide delivered from pressurized inhalers containing non-CFC and CFC propellants.

    PubMed

    Richards, J; Hirst, P; Pitcairn, G; Mahashabde, S; Abramowitz, W; Nolting, A; Newman, S P

    2001-01-01

    Our objective was to assess the deposition and pharmacokinetics of a novel formulation of flunisolide (Aerobid, Forest Laboratories) in hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) 134a delivered by pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI). The design was a two-way crossover investigation in 12 healthy male subjects comparing HFA-134a flunisolide by pMDI versus pMDI plus 50 mL spacer device. Four of these subjects also took part in a two-way crossover investigation comparing chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) flunisolide pMDI versus pMDI plus Aerochamber holding chamber. The imaging technique of gamma scintigraphy was used to quantify total and regional lung deposition of flunisolide. Plasma levels of flunisolide and its major metabolite (6beta-OH flunisolide) were also determined. The spacer and Aerochamber reduced oropharyngeal deposition dramatically for both the HFA and CFC products (mean 59.8 to 14.9% (p < 0.01) of ex-valve (metered) dose for HFA product; 66.3 to 12.3% (p < 0.01) of ex-valve dose for CFC product) owing to deposition of part of the dose on the walls of the add-on devices themselves. Lung deposition averaged 22.6 and 40.4% (p < 0.01) of the ex-valve dose for the HFA formulation used with pMDI alone and with pMDI plus spacer. Mean lung deposition of the CFC formulation delivered via the Aerochamber (mean 23.4%) was higher than that for the CFC pMDI alone (mean 17.0%), but this difference was not statistically significant. Lung deposition expressed as percentage ex-device (delivered) dose averaged 68.3% for HFA pMDI plus spacer and 19.7% for CFC pMDI. Plasma levels of flunisolide were higher for the pMDI plus spacer than for pMDI alone, reflecting higher lung deposition via the spacer, but plasma levels of the 6beta-OH flunisolide metabolite were higher for the pMDI alone as a consequence of higher oropharyngeal deposition. When delivered via the spacer, pulmonary targeting of the flunisolide HFA formulation was improved compared with the CFC formulation, which should benefit

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF 3-D COMPUTER MODELS OF HUMAN LUNG MORPHOLOGY FOR IMPROOVED RISK ASSESSMENT OF INHALED PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    DEVELOPMENT OF 3-D COMPUTER MODELS OF HUMAN LUNG MORPHOLOGY FOR IMPROVED RISK ASSESSMENT OF INHALED PARTICULATE MATTER

    Jeffry D. Schroeter, Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599; Ted B. Martonen, ETD, NHEERL, USEPA, RTP, NC 27711; Do...

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF 3-D COMPUTER MODELS OF HUMAN LUNG MORPHOLOGY FOR IMPROOVED RISK ASSESSMENT OF INHALED PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    DEVELOPMENT OF 3-D COMPUTER MODELS OF HUMAN LUNG MORPHOLOGY FOR IMPROVED RISK ASSESSMENT OF INHALED PARTICULATE MATTER

    Jeffry D. Schroeter, Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599; Ted B. Martonen, ETD, NHEERL, USEPA, RTP, NC 27711; Do...

  9. EFFECTS OF INHALATION OF SOLUBLE METALLIC CONSTITUENTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER ON CARDIOPULMONARY, THERMOREGULATORY, AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN GUINEA PIGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF INHALATION OF SOLUBLE METALLIC CONSTITUENTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER ON CARDIOPULMONARY, THERMOREGULATORY, AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN GUINEA PIGS. JP Nolan1, LB Wichers2, J Stanek3, UP Kodavanti1, MCJ Schladweiler1, PA Evansky1, ER Lappi1, DL Costa1, and WP Watkinson1...

  10. EFFECTS OF INHALATION OF SOLUBLE METALLIC CONSTITUENTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER ON CARDIOPULMONARY, THERMOREGULATORY, AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN GUINEA PIGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF INHALATION OF SOLUBLE METALLIC CONSTITUENTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER ON CARDIOPULMONARY, THERMOREGULATORY, AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN GUINEA PIGS. JP Nolan1, LB Wichers2, J Stanek3, UP Kodavanti1, MCJ Schladweiler1, PA Evansky1, ER Lappi1, DL Costa1, and WP Watkinson1...

  11. Risk assessment of inhalation exposure to Particulate Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in school children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jyethi, D. S.; Khillare, P. S.; Sarkar, S.

    2013-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with the inhalable fraction of particulate matter were determined for one year (2009-10) at an urban site located in proximity of industrial and heavy traffic roads in Delhi, India. PM10 (aerodynamic diameter ≤10 μm) levels were ~11.6 times the World Health Organization standard. Vehicular (59.5%) and coal combustion (40.5%) sources accounted for the high levels of PAHs (range 38.1 ng m-3 - 217.3 ng m-3) with four and five ring PAHs having ~80 % contribution. Atmospheric distribution of total PAHs were heavily influenced (~75%) by the carcinogenic species and the B[a]P equivalent concentrations, through both TEF and MEF approach, exhibited highest exposure risks during winter. Extremely high daily inhalation exposure of PAHs was observed during winter (439.43 ng day-1) followed by monsoon (232.59 ng day-1) and summer (171.08 ng day-1). Daily inhalation exposure of PAHs to school children during a day exhibited the trend: school hours>commuting to school>resting period, in all the seasons. Vehicular source contributions to daily PAH levels were significantly correlated (r=0.94, p<0.001) with the daily inhalation exposure level of school children. It is important to note that health hazards posed by vehicular pollution are born disproportionately by children attending certain schools based on the location of the school. Interestingly, since India is a tropical country, most of the buildings are naturally ventilated and their air exchange rates are higher than heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC)-equipped buildings, resulting into a significant impact of outdoor air on indoor air quality. In the apparent absence of any indoor PAH sources, outdoor concentrations and in turn air exchange rates (that are specific for infiltration and natural ventilation pathways) play a key role in assessing PAH exposure. A conservative estimate of ~11 excess cancer cases in children during childhood and ~ 652 cases for a

  12. Health Outcomes of Exposure to Biological and Chemical Components of Inhalable and Respirable Particulate Matter

    PubMed Central

    Morakinyo, Oyewale Mayowa; Mokgobu, Matlou Ingrid; Mukhola, Murembiwa Stanley; Hunter, Raymond Paul

    2016-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) is a key indicator of air pollution and a significant risk factor for adverse health outcomes in humans. PM is not a self-contained pollutant but a mixture of different compounds including chemical and biological fractions. While several reviews have focused on the chemical components of PM and associated health effects, there is a dearth of review studies that holistically examine the role of biological and chemical components of inhalable and respirable PM in disease causation. A literature search using various search engines and (or) keywords was done. Articles selected for review were chosen following predefined criteria, to extract and analyze data. The results show that the biological and chemical components of inhalable and respirable PM play a significant role in the burden of health effects attributed to PM. These health outcomes include low birth weight, emergency room visit, hospital admission, respiratory and pulmonary diseases, cardiovascular disease, cancer, non-communicable diseases, and premature death, among others. This review justifies the importance of each or synergistic effects of the biological and chemical constituents of PM on health. It also provides information that informs policy on the establishment of exposure limits for PM composition metrics rather than the existing exposure limits of the total mass of PM. This will allow for more effective management strategies for improving outdoor air quality. PMID:27314370

  13. Type I interferon and pattern recognition receptor signaling following particulate matter inhalation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Welding, a process that generates an aerosol containing gases and metal-rich particulates, induces adverse physiological effects including inflammation, immunosuppression and cardiovascular dysfunction. This study utilized microarray technology and subsequent pathway analysis as an exploratory search for markers/mechanisms of in vivo systemic effects following inhalation. Mice were exposed by inhalation to gas metal arc – stainless steel (GMA-SS) welding fume at 40 mg/m3 for 3 hr/d for 10 d and sacrificed 4 hr, 14 d and 28 d post-exposure. Whole blood cells, aorta and lung were harvested for global gene expression analysis with subsequent Ingenuity Pathway Analysis and confirmatory qRT-PCR. Serum was collected for protein profiling. Results The novel finding was a dominant type I interferon signaling network with the transcription factor Irf7 as a central component maintained through 28 d. Remarkably, these effects showed consistency across all tissues indicating a systemic type I interferon response that was complemented by changes in serum proteins (decreased MMP-9, CRP and increased VCAM1, oncostatin M, IP-10). In addition, pulmonary expression of interferon α and β and Irf7 specific pattern recognition receptors (PRR) and signaling molecules (Ddx58, Ifih1, Dhx58, ISGF3) were induced, an effect that showed specificity when compared to other inflammatory exposures. Also, a canonical pathway indicated a coordinated response of multiple PRR and associated signaling molecules (Tlr7, Tlr2, Clec7a, Nlrp3, Myd88) to inhalation of GMA-SS. Conclusion This methodological approach has the potential to identify consistent, prominent and/or novel pathways and provides insight into mechanisms that contribute to pulmonary and systemic effects following toxicant exposure. PMID:22776377

  14. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids ... Cold Medicine Abuse Electronic Cigarettes (E-cigarettes) Fentanyl Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana Marijuana as Medicine MDMA (Ecstasy/ ...

  15. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... place a chemical- soaked rag in their mouth. Abusers may also inhale fumes from a balloon or ... by inhalants usually lasts just a few minutes, abusers often try to prolong it by continuing to ...

  16. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Facts Chat Day: Inhalants Drug Facts Chat Day: Inhalants Print Can you get high off of ... Cool Order Free Materials National Drugs & Alcohol Chat Day Newsletter Sign up to receive National Drug & Alcohol ...

  17. Review of therapeutically equivalent alternatives to short acting β2 adrenoceptor agonists delivered via chlorofluorocarbon-containing inhalers

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, D; Woodcock, A; Walley, T

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—To study the transition from metered dose inhalers using chlorofluorocarbons as propellants (CFC-MDIs) to non-CFC containing devices, a systematic review was conducted of clinical trials which compared the delivery of salbutamol and terbutaline via CFC-MDIs and non-CFC devices.
METHODS—Papers were selected by searching electronic databases (Medline, Cochrane, and BIDS) and further information and studies were sought from pharmaceutical companies. The studies were assessed for their methodological quality.
RESULTS—Fifty three relevant trials were identified. Most were scientifically flawed in terms of study design, comparison of inappropriate doses, and insufficient power for the determination of therapeutic equivalence. Differences between inhaler devices were categorised according to efficacy and potency. Most trials claimed to show therapeutic equivalence, usually for the same doses from the different devices. Two commercially available salbutamol metered dose inhalers using a novel hydrofluorocarbon HFC-134a as propellant were equally as potent and efficacious as conventional CFC-MDIs, as were the Rotahaler and Clickhaler dry powder inhalers (DPIs). Evidence suggests that a dose of 200 µg salbutamol via CFC-MDI may be substituted with 200 µg and 400 µg of salbutamol via Accuhaler and Diskhaler DPIs, respectively. Terbutaline delivered via a Turbohaler DPI is equally as potent and efficacious as terbutaline delivered via a conventional CFC-MDI.
CONCLUSIONS—When substituting non-CFC containing inhalers for CFC-MDIs, attention must be given to differences in inhaler characteristics which may result in variations in pulmonary function.

 PMID:10567628

  18. Scintigraphic Assessment of Deposition of Radiolabeled Fluticasone Delivered from a Nebulizer and Metered Dose Inhaler in 10 Healthy Dogs.

    PubMed

    Chow, K E; Tyrrell, D; Yang, M; Abraham, L A; Anderson, G A; Mansfield, C S

    2017-09-29

    Aerosolized medications increasingly being are used to treat respiratory diseases in dogs. No previous studies assessing respiratory tract deposition of radiolabeled aerosols have been performed in conscious dogs. Assess respiratory tract deposition of radiolabeled, inhalant corticosteroid (fluticasone propionate labeled with (99m) Tc) delivered from a nebulizer and metered dose inhaler (MDI) to healthy dogs. Ten healthy Foxhounds. Prospective, randomized, cross-over pilot study. Initial inhalation method (nebulizer or MDI) was randomly assigned. Treatments were crossed over after a 7-day washout period. Treatments initially were performed using sedation. Dogs were imaged using 2-dimensional planar scintigraphy, with respiratory tract deposition quantified by manual region-of-interest analysis. Deposition calculated as percentage of delivered dose. Six of 10 dogs were randomly selected and reassessed without sedation. Inhalation method had significant effect on respiratory tract deposition (P = 0.027). Higher deposition was achieved by nebulization with mean deposition of 4.2% (standard deviation [SD], 1.4%; range, 1.9-6.1%); whereas MDI treatment achieved a mean of 2.3% (SD, 1.4%; range, 0.2-4.2%). Nebulization achieved higher respiratory tract deposition than MDI in 7 of 10 dogs. No statistical difference (P = 0.68) was found between mean respiratory tract deposition achieved in dogs when unsedated (3.8%; SD, 1.5%) or sedated (3.6%; SD, 1.7%). Study confirms respiratory tract deposition of inhalant medications delivered from a nebulizer and MDI in healthy dogs, breathing tidally with and without sedation. Respiratory tract deposition in these dogs was low compared to reported deposition in adult humans, but similar to reported deposition in children. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  19. Ultrafine and fine particulate matter inhalation decreases exercise performance in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Rundell, Kenneth W; Caviston, Renee

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate effects of PM1 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter 0.02-2 microm) inhalation on exercise performance in healthy subjects. Inhalation of internal combustion-derived PM is associated with adverse effects to the pulmonary and muscle microcirculation. No data are available concerning air pollution and exercise performance. Fifteen healthy college-aged males performed 4 maximal effort 6-min cycle ergometer trials while breathing low or high PM1 to achieve maximal work accumulation (kJ). Low PM1 inhalation trials 1 and 2 were separated by 3 days; then after a 7 day washout, trials 3 and 4 (separated by 3 days) were done while breathing high PM1 generated from a gasoline engine; CO was kept below 10 ppm. Lung function was done after trial 1 to verify nonasthmatic status. Lung function was normal before and after low PM1 exercise. PM1 number counts were not different between high PM1 trials (336,730 +/- 149,206 and 396,200 +/- 82,564 for trial 3 and 4, respectively) and were different from low PM1 trial number counts (2,260 +/- 500) (P < 0.0001). Mean heart rate was not different between trials (189 +/- 6.0, 188 +/- 7.6, 188 +/- 7.6, 187 +/- 7.4, for low and high PM1 trials; respectively). Work accumulated was not different between low PM1 trials (96.1 +/- 9.38 versus 96.6 +/- 10.83 kJ) and the first high PM1 trial (trial 3, 96.8 +/- 10.65 kJ). Work accumulated in the second high PM1 trial 4, 91.3 +/- 10.04 kJ) was less than in low PM1 trials 1 and 2, and high PM1 trial 3 (P = 0.004, P = 0.003, P = 0.0008; respectively). Acute inhalation of high (PM1) typical of many urban environments could impair exercise performance.

  20. Long-term safety of tiotropium delivered by Respimat® SoftMist™ Inhaler: patient selection and special considerations

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Ching Kuo; Say, Gui Quan; Geake, James B

    2016-01-01

    Tiotropium bromide is a long-acting inhaled muscarinic antagonist used in patients with chronic respiratory disease. It has been available since 2002 as a single-dose dry powder formulation via the HandiHaler® dry powder inhaler (DPI) device, and since 2007 as the Respimat® SoftMist™ Inhaler (SMI). The latter is a novel method of medication delivery that utilizes a multidose aqueous solution to deliver the drug as a fine mist. Potential benefits include more efficient drug deposition throughout the respiratory tract, reduced systemic exposure, and greater ease of use and patient satisfaction compared with the use of HandiHaler DPI. Although tiotropium bromide delivered via the HandiHaler DPI has been clearly shown to improve lung function, dyspnea, and quality of life and to reduce exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), there is accumulating evidence regarding the use of tiotropium HandiHaler in other respiratory diseases characterized by airflow limitation, such as asthma and cystic fibrosis. Developed more recently, tiotropium delivered via the Respimat SMI appears to have a similar efficacy and safety profile to the HandiHaler DPI, and early data raising the possibility of safety concerns with its use in COPD have been refuted by more recent evidence. The benefits over the HandiHaler DPI, however, remain unclear. This paper will review the evidence for tiotropium delivered via the Respimat SMI inhaler, in particular as an alternative to the HandiHaler DPI, and will focus on the safety profile for each of the chronic lung diseases in which it has been trialed, as well as an approach to appropriate patient selection. PMID:27703365

  1. Long-term safety of tiotropium delivered by Respimat(®) SoftMist™ Inhaler: patient selection and special considerations.

    PubMed

    Tan, Ching Kuo; Say, Gui Quan; Geake, James B

    2016-01-01

    Tiotropium bromide is a long-acting inhaled muscarinic antagonist used in patients with chronic respiratory disease. It has been available since 2002 as a single-dose dry powder formulation via the HandiHaler(®) dry powder inhaler (DPI) device, and since 2007 as the Respimat(®) SoftMist™ Inhaler (SMI). The latter is a novel method of medication delivery that utilizes a multidose aqueous solution to deliver the drug as a fine mist. Potential benefits include more efficient drug deposition throughout the respiratory tract, reduced systemic exposure, and greater ease of use and patient satisfaction compared with the use of HandiHaler DPI. Although tiotropium bromide delivered via the HandiHaler DPI has been clearly shown to improve lung function, dyspnea, and quality of life and to reduce exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), there is accumulating evidence regarding the use of tiotropium HandiHaler in other respiratory diseases characterized by airflow limitation, such as asthma and cystic fibrosis. Developed more recently, tiotropium delivered via the Respimat SMI appears to have a similar efficacy and safety profile to the HandiHaler DPI, and early data raising the possibility of safety concerns with its use in COPD have been refuted by more recent evidence. The benefits over the HandiHaler DPI, however, remain unclear. This paper will review the evidence for tiotropium delivered via the Respimat SMI inhaler, in particular as an alternative to the HandiHaler DPI, and will focus on the safety profile for each of the chronic lung diseases in which it has been trialed, as well as an approach to appropriate patient selection.

  2. Therapeutic equivalence of inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate with CFC and non-CFC (HFA 134a) propellants both delivered via the Easibreathe inhaler for the treatment of paediatric asthma.

    PubMed

    Farmer, I S; Middle, M; Savic, J; Perri, V L; Herdman, M J

    2000-01-01

    Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC)-containing inhalers for use in the treatment of asthma are to be phased out under the terms of the Montreal Protocol (1). In this multi-centre, randomized, double-blind study, the therapeutic equivalence of two formulations of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) containing CFC or non-CFC (HFA134a) propellant, both delivered via the Easibreathe (Norton Healthcare Ltd, London, U.K.) inhaler, was determined in 229 asthmatic children. Each child received 100 microg doses of BDP (containing either CFC or HFA propellant) twice daily for 12 weeks. Both CFC and HFA formulations produced statistically and clinically significant improvements in patient's lung function and symptom scores when administered via the Easibreathe inhaler. The improvements in mean morning peak expiratory flow (PEF) were 41 l min(-1) and 34 l min(-1) for the BDP-HFA and BDP-CFC products respectively (P<0.001) and for mean evening PEF the improvements were 38 l min(-1) and 38 l min(-1), respectively (P<0.001). Similar findings were demonstrated for the other efficacy parameters. The two formulations were statistically equivalent with respect to efficacy. For mean morning PEF the estimated treatment difference (BDP-CFC/BDP-HFA ratio) was 102.6% (95% CI 99.1, 106.2). Similar equivalence was shown for the other efficacy parameters. Both products were well tolerated, with no difference in the adverse event profiles, effects on 24 h urinary cortisol or Candida colonisation. This study demonstrates that the new formulation of BDP with HFA-134a propellant is equivalent to and directly substitutable for BDP with the older CFC propellant in a dose for dose manner. This should enable a seamless transition from one product to the other when CFC containing products are eventually phased out. In addition this study has also shown that the Easibreathe inhaler is an effective delivery system for use with inhaled products for the treatment of asthma in children.

  3. Efficiency of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Deposition in the Lung Delivered via a Soft Mist Inhaler or Chlorofluorocarbon Metered-Dose Inhaler.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, T R; ZuWallack, R; Rubano, V; Castles, M A; Dewberry, H; Ghafouri, M; Wood, C C

    2016-04-01

    The propellant-free Combivent Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler (CVT-R) was developed to replace the chlorofluorocarbon-propelled Combivent metered-dose inhaler (CVT-MDI). This steady-state pharmacokinetic (PK) substudy evaluated drug lung-delivery efficiency, using data from two phase III safety and efficacy trials. PK parameters were obtained from well-controlled population PK analyses. Area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), maximum observed plasma concentration (C(max)), and minimum observed plasma concentration (C(min)) showed systemic exposure to ipratropium bromide and albuterol delivered via the CVT-R was proportional to ex-mouthpiece delivered dose. Although the labeled dose of ipratropium bromide in the CVT-R was half that in the CVT-MDI, the systemic exposure was comparable. No PK interaction for the ipratropium bromide and albuterol Respimat drug components was demonstrated. Ipratropium bromide alone resulted in similar exposure to the combination of ipratropium bromide and albuterol. These results show that CVT-R delivers drug more efficiently to the lung than CVT-MDI.

  4. Efficiency of Ipratropium Bromide and Albuterol Deposition in the Lung Delivered via a Soft Mist Inhaler or Chlorofluorocarbon Metered‐Dose Inhaler

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor, TR; ZuWallack, R; Rubano, V; Castles, MA; Dewberry, H; Ghafouri, M

    2016-01-01

    The propellant‐free Combivent Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler (CVT‐R) was developed to replace the chlorofluorocarbon‐propelled Combivent metered‐dose inhaler (CVT‐MDI). This steady‐state pharmacokinetic (PK) substudy evaluated drug lung‐delivery efficiency, using data from two phase III safety and efficacy trials. PK parameters were obtained from well‐controlled population PK analyses. Area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC), maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax), and minimum observed plasma concentration (Cmin) showed systemic exposure to ipratropium bromide and albuterol delivered via the CVT‐R was proportional to ex‐mouthpiece delivered dose. Although the labeled dose of ipratropium bromide in the CVT‐R was half that in the CVT‐MDI, the systemic exposure was comparable. No PK interaction for the ipratropium bromide and albuterol Respimat drug components was demonstrated. Ipratropium bromide alone resulted in similar exposure to the combination of ipratropium bromide and albuterol. These results show that CVT‐R delivers drug more efficiently to the lung than CVT‐MDI. PMID:26945929

  5. EFFECTS OF INHALATION OF METALLIC CONSTITUENTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER AIR POLLUTION ON CARDIOPULMONARY AND THERMOREGULATORY PARAMETERS IN HEALTH AND COMPROMISED RATS

    EPA Science Inventory


    EFFECTS OF INHALATION OF METALLIC CONSTITUENTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER AIR POLLUTION ON CARDIOPULMONARY AND THERMOREGULATORY PARAMETERS IN HEALTHY AND COMPROMISED RATS. Watkinson, WP, Campen, MJ, Wichers, LB, Nolan, JP, Kodavanti, UP, Schladweiler, MCJ, Evansky, PA, Lappi, ER,...

  6. EFFECTS OF INHALATION OF METALLIC CONSTITUENTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER AIR POLLUTION ON CARDIOPULMONARY AND THERMOREGULATORY PARAMETERS IN HEALTH AND COMPROMISED RATS

    EPA Science Inventory


    EFFECTS OF INHALATION OF METALLIC CONSTITUENTS OF PARTICULATE MATTER AIR POLLUTION ON CARDIOPULMONARY AND THERMOREGULATORY PARAMETERS IN HEALTHY AND COMPROMISED RATS. Watkinson, WP, Campen, MJ, Wichers, LB, Nolan, JP, Kodavanti, UP, Schladweiler, MCJ, Evansky, PA, Lappi, ER,...

  7. Treatment of acute severe asthma with inhaled albuterol delivered via jet nebulizer, metered dose inhaler with spacer, or dry powder.

    PubMed

    Raimondi, A C; Schottlender, J; Lombardi, D; Molfino, N A

    1997-07-01

    Despite the increasing use of dry powder formulations in the ambulatory setting, there is a paucity of information on the efficacy of this therapeutic modality to treat acute severe asthma. In addition, studies that compared wet nebulization vs metered dose inhalers formulated with chlorofluorocarbon (CFCMDI) attached to holding chambers have yielded discrepant results. Thus, it is unclear which of the three delivery systems would elicit a superior bronchodilator response, particularly in patients with life-threatening asthma. In a prospective, randomized open design, we studied the response to inhaled albuterol (salbutamol) in 27 adult asthmatics presenting to the emergency department (ED) with an FEV1 <30% predicted. Subjects were treated with one of the following regimens (nine subjects in each group): group A, mean (SD) baseline FEV1 of 0.7 (0.2) L, received albuterol solution, 5 mg, via a nebulizer (Puritan-Bennett Raindrop; Lawrenceville, Ga) impelled with oxygen (O2) at 8 L/min; group B, baseline FEV1 of 0.6 (0.15) L, received albuterol, 400 microg, via a CFCMDI attached to a 145-mL valved aerosol holding chamber (Aerochamber; Trudell Medical; London, ON); and group C, baseline FEV1 of 0.6 (0.17) L, received albuterol powder, 400 microg, by another means (Rotahaler; Glaxo; Research Triangle Park, NC). All groups received the respective treatments on arrival in the ED, every 30 min during the first 2 h, and then hourly until the sixth hour. Clinical parameters and FEV1 were recorded on ED admission and 15 min after each dose of albuterol. At the time of ED admission, all patients also received continuous O2 and one dose of I.V. steroids (dexamethasone, 8 mg). The total dose of inhaled albuterol administered during the 6-h treatment was 45 mg of nebulized solution in group A and 3,600 microg of albuterol aerosol and dry powder in groups B and C, respectively. No significant differences were found in the population demographics, baseline FEV1, and arterial

  8. Characteristics of inhalable particulate matter concentration and size distribution from power plants in China

    SciTech Connect

    Honghong Yi; Jiming Hao; Lei Duan; Xinghua Li; Xingming Guo

    2006-09-15

    The collection efficiency of particulate emission control devices (PECDs), particulate matter (PM) emissions, and PM size distribution were determined experimentally at the inlet and outlet of PECDs at five coal-fired power plants. Different boilers, coals, and PECDs are used in these power plants. Measurement in situ was performed by an electrical low-pressure impactor with a sampling system, which consisted of an isokinetic sampler probe, precut cyclone, and two- stage dilution system with a sample line to the instruments. The size distribution was measured over a range from 0.03 to 10 {mu}m. Before and after all of the PECDs, the particle number size distributions display a bimodal distribution. The PM2.5 fraction emitted to atmosphere includes a significant amount of the mass from the coarse particle mode. The controlled and uncontrolled emission factors of total PM, inhalable PM (PM10), and fine PM (PM2.5) were obtained. Electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and baghouse total collection efficiencies are 96.38 99.89% and 99.94%, respectively. The minimum collection efficiency of the ESP and the baghouse both appear in the particle size range of 0.1 1 0 {mu}m. In this size range, ESP and baghouse collection efficiencies are 85.79 98.6% and 99.54%. Real- time measurement shows that the mass and number concentration of PM10 will be greatly affected by the operating conditions of the PECDs. The number of emitted particles increases with increasing boiler load level because of higher combustion temperature. During test run periods, the data reproducibility is satisfactory. 19 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Characteristics of inhalable particulate matter concentration and size distribution from power plants in China.

    PubMed

    Yi, Honghong; Hao, Jiming; Duan, Lei; Li, Xinghua; Guo, Xingming

    2006-09-01

    In this investigation, the collection efficiency of particulate emission control devices (PECDs), particulate matter (PM) emissions, and PM size distribution were determined experimentally at the inlet and outlet of PECDs at five coal-fired power plants. Different boilers, coals, and PECDs are used in these power plants. Measurement in situ was performed by an electrical low-pressure impactor with a sampling system, which consisted of an isokinetic sampler probe, precut cyclone, and two-stage dilution system with a sample line to the instruments. The size distribution was measured over a range from 0.03 to 10 microm. Before and after all of the PECDs, the particle number size distributions display a bimodal distribution. The PM2.5 fraction emitted to atmosphere includes a significant amount of the mass from the coarse particle mode. The controlled and uncontrolled emission factors of total PM, inhalable PM (PM10), and fine PM P(M2.5) were obtained. Electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and baghouse total collection efficiencies are 96.38-99.89% and 99.94%, respectively. The minimum collection efficiency of the ESP and the baghouse both appear in the particle size range of 0.1-1 microm. In this size range, ESP and baghouse collection efficiencies are 85.79-98.6% and 99.54%. Real-time measurement shows that the mass and number concentration of PM10 will be greatly affected by the operating conditions of the PECDs. The number of emitted particles increases with increasing boiler load level because of higher combustion temperature. During test run periods, the data reproducibility is satisfactory.

  10. Health risk assessment of inhalable particulate matter in Beijing based on the thermal environment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin-Yu; Yin, Hao; Xie, Xiao-Dong

    2014-11-28

    Inhalable particulate matter (PM10) is a primary air pollutant closely related to public health, and an especially serious problem in urban areas. The urban heat island (UHI) effect has made the urban PM10 pollution situation more complex and severe. In this study, we established a health risk assessment system utilizing an epidemiological method taking the thermal environment effects into consideration. We utilized a remote sensing method to retrieve the PM10 concentration, UHI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). With the correlation between difference vegetation index (DVI) and PM10 concentration, we utilized the established model between PM10 and thermal environmental indicators to evaluate the PM10 health risks based on the epidemiological study. Additionally, with the regulation of UHI, NDVI and NDWI, we aimed at regulating the PM10 health risks and thermal environment simultaneously. This study attempted to accomplish concurrent thermal environment regulation and elimination of PM10 health risks through control of UHI intensity. The results indicate that urban Beijing has a higher PM10 health risk than rural areas; PM10 health risk based on the thermal environment is 1.145, which is similar to the health risk calculated (1.144) from the PM10 concentration inversion; according to the regulation results, regulation of UHI and NDVI is effective and helpful for mitigation of PM10 health risk in functional zones.

  11. Inhaled Pollutants: The Molecular Scene behind Respiratory and Systemic Diseases Associated with Ultrafine Particulate Matter

    PubMed Central

    Traboulsi, Hussein; Guerrina, Necola; Iu, Matthew; Maysinger, Dusica; Ariya, Parisa; Baglole, Carolyn J.

    2017-01-01

    Air pollution of anthropogenic origin is largely from the combustion of biomass (e.g., wood), fossil fuels (e.g., cars and trucks), incinerators, landfills, agricultural activities and tobacco smoke. Air pollution is a complex mixture that varies in space and time, and contains hundreds of compounds including volatile organic compounds (e.g., benzene), metals, sulphur and nitrogen oxides, ozone and particulate matter (PM). PM0.1 (ultrafine particles (UFP)), those particles with a diameter less than 100 nm (includes nanoparticles (NP)) are considered especially dangerous to human health and may contribute significantly to the development of numerous respiratory and cardiovascular diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and atherosclerosis. Some of the pathogenic mechanisms through which PM0.1 may contribute to chronic disease is their ability to induce inflammation, oxidative stress and cell death by molecular mechanisms that include transcription factors such as nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2). Epigenetic mechanisms including non-coding RNA (ncRNA) may also contribute towards the development of chronic disease associated with exposure to PM0.1. This paper highlights emerging molecular concepts associated with inhalational exposure to PM0.1 and their ability to contribute to chronic respiratory and systemic disease. PMID:28125025

  12. Health Risk Assessment of Inhalable Particulate Matter in Beijing Based on the Thermal Environment

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lin-Yu; Yin, Hao; Xie, Xiao-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Inhalable particulate matter (PM10) is a primary air pollutant closely related to public health, and an especially serious problem in urban areas. The urban heat island (UHI) effect has made the urban PM10 pollution situation more complex and severe. In this study, we established a health risk assessment system utilizing an epidemiological method taking the thermal environment effects into consideration. We utilized a remote sensing method to retrieve the PM10 concentration, UHI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). With the correlation between difference vegetation index (DVI) and PM10 concentration, we utilized the established model between PM10 and thermal environmental indicators to evaluate the PM10 health risks based on the epidemiological study. Additionally, with the regulation of UHI, NDVI and NDWI, we aimed at regulating the PM10 health risks and thermal environment simultaneously. This study attempted to accomplish concurrent thermal environment regulation and elimination of PM10 health risks through control of UHI intensity. The results indicate that urban Beijing has a higher PM10 health risk than rural areas; PM10 health risk based on the thermal environment is 1.145, which is similar to the health risk calculated (1.144) from the PM10 concentration inversion; according to the regulation results, regulation of UHI and NDVI is effective and helpful for mitigation of PM10 health risk in functional zones. PMID:25464132

  13. Correlation between indoor-outdoor inhalable particulate concentrations and meteorological variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Shobokshy, M. S.; Hussein, F. M.

    The inhalable particulate, IP, concentrations have been measured indoors and outdoors at the faculty offices, Mechanical Engineering Department KSU in Riyadh. Indoor measurements have been carried out in two rooms; the first with air conditioning on all the time, and the second without ventilation. The air was sampled simultaneously in the three locations for a period of 20 days. The time variation of IP concentrations, indoor-outdoor ratios and the particle mass mean diameters were determined. A multilinear regression analysis has been carried out to correlate the outdoor IP concentration with meteorological variables. It was determined that wind speed and atmospheric pressure could be used to predict the IP concentration. The ( I/O) ratio in the unventilated room was also correlated with meteorological variables. The principal dust sources and sinks in each test room have been identified and a model has been developed to calculate the ( I/O) ratio for both rooms. The resulted predictive equation for ( I/O) ratio in the unventilated room was used to estimate the volume flow rate of air leaking inside the room in terms of meteorological variables. This equation has also been used to calculate the ( I/O) ratio in the ventilated room and good agreement with experimental results was obtained. The study suggests that meteorological variables have appreciable effects on ( I/O) IP concentration.

  14. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... lack of coordination, euphoria (a feeling of intense happiness), and dizziness. Some users also experience lightheadedness, hallucinations ( ... on the type of inhalant used, the harmful health effects will differ. The table below lists some ...

  15. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... Notes Articles Adolescent Cigarette, Alcohol Use Declines as Marijuana Use Rises ( February 2013 ) Program Helps Troubled Boys ...

  16. Mapping acute systemic effects of inhaled particulate matter and ozone: multiorgan gene expression and glucocorticoid activity.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Errol M; Vladisavljevic, Djordje; Mohottalage, Susantha; Kumarathasan, Prem; Vincent, Renaud

    2013-09-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have demonstrated associations between air pollution and adverse effects that extend beyond respiratory and cardiovascular disease, including low birth weight, appendicitis, stroke, and neurological/neurobehavioural outcomes (e.g., neurodegenerative disease, cognitive decline, depression, and suicide). To gain insight into mechanisms underlying such effects, we mapped gene profiles in the lungs, heart, liver, kidney, spleen, cerebral hemisphere, and pituitary of male Fischer-344 rats immediately and 24h after a 4-h exposure by inhalation to particulate matter (0, 5, and 50mg/m(3) EHC-93 urban particles) and ozone (0, 0.4, and 0.8 ppm). Pollutant exposure provoked differential expression of genes involved in a number of pathways, including antioxidant response, xenobiotic metabolism, inflammatory signalling, and endothelial dysfunction. The mRNA profiles, while exhibiting some interorgan and pollutant-specific differences, were remarkably similar across organs for a set of genes, including increased expression of redox/glucocorticoid-sensitive genes and decreased expression of inflammatory genes, suggesting a possible hormonal effect. Pollutant exposure increased plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and the glucocorticoid corticosterone, confirming activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and there was a corresponding increase in markers of glucocorticoid activity. Although effects were transient and presumably represent an adaptive response to acute exposure in these healthy animals, chronic activation and inappropriate regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are associated with adverse neurobehavioral, metabolic, immune, developmental, and cardiovascular effects. The experimental data are consistent with epidemiological associations of air pollutants with extrapulmonary health outcomes and suggest a mechanism through which such health effects may be induced.

  17. Mapping Acute Systemic Effects of Inhaled Particulate Matter and Ozone: Multiorgan Gene Expression and Glucocorticoid Activity

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Errol M.; Vladisavljevic, Djordje; Mohottalage, Susantha; Kumarathasan, Prem; Vincent, Renaud

    2013-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have demonstrated associations between air pollution and adverse effects that extend beyond respiratory and cardiovascular disease, including low birth weight, appendicitis, stroke, and neurological/neurobehavioural outcomes (e.g., neurodegenerative disease, cognitive decline, depression, and suicide). To gain insight into mechanisms underlying such effects, we mapped gene profiles in the lungs, heart, liver, kidney, spleen, cerebral hemisphere, and pituitary of male Fischer-344 rats immediately and 24h after a 4-h exposure by inhalation to particulate matter (0, 5, and 50mg/m3 EHC-93 urban particles) and ozone (0, 0.4, and 0.8 ppm). Pollutant exposure provoked differential expression of genes involved in a number of pathways, including antioxidant response, xenobiotic metabolism, inflammatory signalling, and endothelial dysfunction. The mRNA profiles, while exhibiting some interorgan and pollutant-specific differences, were remarkably similar across organs for a set of genes, including increased expression of redox/glucocorticoid-sensitive genes and decreased expression of inflammatory genes, suggesting a possible hormonal effect. Pollutant exposure increased plasma levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone and the glucocorticoid corticosterone, confirming activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, and there was a corresponding increase in markers of glucocorticoid activity. Although effects were transient and presumably represent an adaptive response to acute exposure in these healthy animals, chronic activation and inappropriate regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are associated with adverse neurobehavioral, metabolic, immune, developmental, and cardiovascular effects. The experimental data are consistent with epidemiological associations of air pollutants with extrapulmonary health outcomes and suggest a mechanism through which such health effects may be induced. PMID:23805001

  18. [Micronucleus in vitro induced by inhalable particulate matters in moxa smoke].

    PubMed

    Han, Li; Hu, Hai; Yang, Jia; Bai, Hua; Wang, Lei; Liu, Juntian; Huang, Chang; Liu, Yaomeng; Ha, Lue

    2016-05-01

    To investigate whether inhalable particulate matters can cause the damage of chromosome or mitotic apparatus to produce micronucleus, and to evaluate genetic toxicology of moxa smoke on chromosome. By MTT method, the 24 h half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of moxa smoke condensation (MSC) on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells was 0.087 mg/mL. CHO cells, which were cultured in vitro, were divided into a solvent control group, a positive control group (cyclophosphamide as solvent), a low concentration group, a moderate concentration group and a high concentration group. The low concentration group, moderate concentration group and high concentration group were set approximately 1/8, 1/4, 1/2 of IC50, respectively. Whether micronucleus had dose-effect response induced by the damage of chromosome or mitotic apparatus was observed after CHO cells were contaminated by MSC in the low concentration group, moderate concentration group and high concentration group. The rate of micronucleus induced by MSC in the low concentration group, moderate concentration group and high concentration group was higher than that in the solvent control group (all P < 0.05), which presented dosage-effect response. The experiment was repeated 3 times, indicating it was repeatable with statistical significance. High concentration of MSC shows toxicity to induce chromosome damage, which disappears at low concentration. The genetic toxicology is also dependent on concentration, and the concentration of moxa smoke is essential. In clinical treatment, it is noted to control the level of moxa smoke, while the clinical safety standard of moxa smoke concentration is in need of further study.

  19. Analysis of roadside inhalable particulate matter (PM10) in major Korean cities.

    PubMed

    Jo, Wan-Kuen; Park, Jin-Ho

    2005-12-01

    A data analysis of three major Korean cities was conducted to assess roadside inhalable particulate matter 10 microm or smaller in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), including temporal and meteorological variations, over a recent period of 4 to 6 years. The yearly roadside PM10 concentrations presented a well-defined increasing trend or no trend depending on the roadside monitoring station. Most mean values exceeded or approximated the Korean standard of 70 microg/m3 per year for PM10. A representative roadside diurnal trend was characterized by a distinct morning maximum. In most cases, the Sunday roadside concentrations were similar to or somewhat lower than the weekday concentrations, and the PM10 concentrations presented a well-defined seasonal variation, with the maximum concentration in March. The monthly maximum concentrations observed in March were most likely attributable to Asian dust storms. In two metropolitan cities (Seoul and Busan), the frequency of days with roadside PM10 concentrations exceeding the standard of 150 microg/m3 per 24 h was much lower for the roadside monitoring stations than for the residential monitoring station, whereas in the third city (Daegu), this result was reversed. Interestingly, the average maximum concentrations observed for the roadside sites in Seoul and Busan during March were higher than those for the residential sites, suggesting that the roadside concentrations responded more to the dust storms than the residential areas. The relationship between the pollutant concentrations and five important meteorological parameters (solar radiation, wind speed, air temperature, relative humidity, and precipitation) showed that the number and type of meteorological variables included in the equations varied according to the monitoring station or season. Finally, the current results confirmed that attention should be given to the PM10 exposure of residents living near roadways.

  20. Determinants of exposure to inhalable particulate, wood dust, resin acids, and monoterpenes in a lumber mill environment.

    PubMed

    Teschke, K; Demers, P A; Davies, H W; Kennedy, S M; Marion, S A; Leung, V

    1999-05-01

    In a lumber mill in the northern inland region of British Columbia, Canada, we measured inhalable particulate, resin acid, and monoterpene exposures, and estimated wood dust exposures. Potential determinants of exposure were documented concurrently, including weather conditions, tree species, wood conditions, jobs, tasks, equipment used, and certain control measures. Over 220 personal samples were taken for each contaminant. Geometric mean concentrations were 0.98 mg/m3 for inhalable particulate, 0.49 mg/m3 for estimated wood dust, 8.04 micrograms/m3 for total resin acids, and 1.11 mg/m3 for total monoterpenes. Multiple regression models for all contaminants indicated that spruce and pine produced higher exposures than alpine fir or mixed tree species, cleaning up sawdust increased exposures, and personnel enclosure was an effective means of reducing exposures. Sawing wood in the primary breakdown areas of the mill was the main contributor to monoterpene exposures, so exposures were highest for the barker operator, the head rig operator, the canter operator, the board edgers, and a roving utility worker in the sawmill, and lowest in the planer mills (after kiln drying of the lumber) and yard. Cleaning up sawdust, planing kiln-dried lumber, and driving mobile equipment in the yard substantially increased exposures to both inhalable particulate and estimated wood dust. Jobs at the front end of the sawmill where primary breakdown of the logs takes place had lower exposures. Resin acid exposures followed a similar pattern, except that yard driving jobs did not increase exposures.

  1. Advances in asthma and COPD management: delivering CFC-free inhaled therapy using Modulite technology.

    PubMed

    Acerbi, D; Brambilla, G; Kottakis, I

    2007-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and long-acting beta-agonists (LABA) are currently used in the management of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Localized targeted delivery of these drugs into the lungs is achieved by means of two types of inhalation devices; pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs) and dry powder-inhalers (DPIs). For environmental reasons, the chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) propellants used in pMDIs are now being replaced by ozone friendly hydrofluoroalkanes (HFAs). These new generation HFA-based pMDIs, developed to provide effective lung deposition of the active moiety, have a favorable safety and tolerability profile. However, HFA-based re-formulation of LABAs and ICS for pMDIs presents particular technical difficulties, especially in terms of ensuring dose content uniformity. This review focuses on the technology and clinical efficacy of the HFA solution pMDIs using Modulite platform technology (Chiesi Farmaceutici S.p.A). Modulite technology allows the development of HFA solution formulations that can mimic the established CFC-based drug formulations on a microgram to microgram basis and provides formulations with novel particle size distributions that improve on existing delivery systems; by manipulation of aerosol clouds and particle size, the delivery of HFA-formulated drugs can be optimized to either achieve fine particle fractions and deposition patterns similar to established CFC-based drug formulations, thus facilitating the transition to new environment-friendly pMDIs in the clinical setting, or achieve finer drug particles able to penetrate deeper into the bronchi for targeted drug delivery as medical need may dictate. Long-term, multiple-dose clinical studies of Modulite formulations of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP), budesonide and formoterol have been demonstrated to be therapeutically equivalent to their respective previously established CFC or DPI formulations. As a result, a number of Modulite pMDIs have either

  2. Inhalation exposures to particulate matter and carbon monoxide during Ethiopian coffee ceremonies in Addis Ababa: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Keil, Chris; Kassa, Hailu; Brown, Alexander; Kumie, Abera; Tefera, Worku

    2010-01-01

    The unique Ethiopian cultural tradition of the coffee ceremony increases inhalation exposures to combustion byproducts. This pilot study evaluated exposures to particulate matter and carbon monoxide in ten Addis Ababa homes during coffee ceremonies. For coffee preparers the geometric mean (57 μg/m³) and median (72 μg/m³) contributions to an increase in a 24-hour time-weighted average exposure were above World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. At 40% of the study sites the contribution to the 24-hour average exposure was greater than twice the WHO guideline. Similar exposure increases existed for ceremony participants. Particulate matter concentrations may be related to the use of incense during the ceremony. In nearly all homes the WHO guideline for a 60-minute exposure to carbon monoxide was exceeded. Finding control measures to reduce these exposures will be challenging due to the deeply engrained nature of this cultural practice and the lack of availability of alternative fuels.

  3. Evaluation of beclomethasone dipropionate (80 and 160 micrograms/day) delivered via a breath-actuated inhaler for persistent asthma.

    PubMed

    2017-09-08

    -accepted treatments inpatients with asthma, with safety comparable to beclomethasone dipropionate delivered via a metered-dose inhaler.Clinical trial NCT02040779, www.clinicaltrials.gov.

  4. Current Inhalers Deliver Very Small Doses to the Lower Tracheobronchial Airways: Assessment of Healthy and Constricted Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Walenga, Ross L.; Longest, P. Worth

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the regional delivery of conventional aerosol medications, a new whole-lung computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling approach was applied for metered dose inhaler (MDI) and dry powder inhaler (DPI) aerosols delivered to healthy and constricted airways. The CFD approach included complete airways through the third respiratory bifurcation (B3) and applied the new stochastic individual pathway (SIP) modeling technique beyond B3 through the remainder of the conducting airways together with a new model of deposition in the alveolar region. Bronchiolar (B8-B15) deposition fraction (DF) values were low (~1%) for both MDI and DPI aerosols with the healthy geometry, while delivery to the constricted model was even lower, with DF values of 0.89% and 0.81% for the MDI and DPI, respectively. Calculating dose per unit-surface-area for the commercial MDI and DPI products resulted in approximately 10−3 μg/cm2 in the lower tracheobronchial (TB) region of B8-B15 and 10−4 μg/cm2 in the alveolar region. Across the lung, dose per unit-surface-area varied by 2 orders of magnitude, which increased to 4 orders of magnitude when the mouth-throat region was included. The MDI and DPI both provided very low drug dose per unit-surface-area to the small TB and alveolar airways. PMID:26852850

  5. Current Inhalers Deliver Very Small Doses to the Lower Tracheobronchial Airways: Assessment of Healthy and Constricted Lungs.

    PubMed

    Walenga, Ross L; Longest, P Worth

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the regional delivery of conventional aerosol medications, a new whole-lung computational fluid dynamics modeling approach was applied for metered dose inhaler (MDI) and dry powder inhaler (DPI) aerosols delivered to healthy and constricted airways. The computational fluid dynamics approach included complete airways through the third respiratory bifurcation (B3) and applied the new stochastic individual pathway modeling technique beyond B3 through the remainder of the conducting airways together with a new model of deposition in the alveolar region. Bronchiolar (B8-B15) deposition fraction values were low (∼1%) for both MDI and DPI aerosols with the healthy geometry, whereas delivery to the constricted model was even lower, with deposition fraction values of 0.89% and 0.81% for the MDI and DPI, respectively. Calculating dose per unit surface area for the commercial MDI and DPI products resulted in approximately 10(-3) μg/cm(2) in the lower tracheobronchial region of B8-B15 and 10(-4) μg/cm(2) in the alveolar region. Across the lung, dose per unit surface area varied by 2 orders of magnitude, which increased to 4 orders of magnitude when the mouth-throat region was included. The MDI and DPI both provided very low drug dose per unit surface area to the small tracheobronchial and alveolar airways.

  6. In vitro reporter gene transfection via plasmid DNA delivered by metered dose inhaler.

    PubMed

    Bains, Baljinder K; Birchall, James C; Toon, Richard; Taylor, Glyn

    2010-07-01

    Aerosolised DNA administration could potentially advance the treatment of inheritable lung diseases, lung malignancies and provide genetic immunisation against infection. Jet nebulisation, the current standard for introducing DNA formulations into the lung, is inherently inefficient. Pressurised metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) offer a potentially more efficacious and convenient alternative, especially for repeat administration. We aim to modify a novel low-energy nanotechnology process to prepare surfactant-coated pDNA nanoparticles for pulmonary gene delivery via a pMDI. Water-in-oil microemulsions containing green fluorescent protein reporter plasmid were snap-frozen and lyophilised. Lyophilised pDNA, in some cases following a surfactant wash, was incorporated into pMDIs with hydrofluoroalkane 134a (HFA134a) propellant and ethanol as cosolvent. To assess biological functionality, A549 human lung epithelial cells were exposed to aerosolised pDNA particles in the presence of dioleoyl-trimethylammonium propane (DOTAP). Transfection studies demonstrated that pDNA biological functionality was maintained following aerosolisation. In vitro toxicity assays (MTT) showed no significant cell viability loss following aerosolised pDNA treatment. We have demonstrated that pDNA particles can be incorporated into an HFA134a formulation and aerosolised using a standard valve and actuator. Particles prepared by this novel process have potential for stable and efficient delivery of pDNA to the lower respiratory tract via standard pMDI technology.

  7. Inhalable Spray-Freeze-Dried Powder with L-Leucine that Delivers Particles Independent of Inspiratory Flow Pattern and Inhalation Device.

    PubMed

    Otake, Hiroko; Okuda, Tomoyuki; Hira, Daiki; Kojima, Haruyoshi; Shimada, Yasuhiro; Okamoto, Hirozazu

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop inhalable particles that can reach deep into the lungs efficiently independent of inhalation patterns of patients and inhalation devices. We prepared porous particles including L-leucine (Leu), a dispersive agent, by a spray-freeze-drying (SFD) method and examined the influence of inspiratory flow patterns and inhalation devices with various inhalation resistances. Four types of SFD powder with different Leu contents (0-10%) were prepared. Scanning electron microscopy and laser diffraction were used to measure the morphology and size distribution of the powders. In-vitro inhalation characteristics were determined using a twin-stage liquid impinger equipped with an inspiratory flow pattern simulator. The effects of Leu on the adhesion force and electrostatic property of the particles were evaluated. The inhalation performance of the powders was improved by the addition of Leu. The powders with Leu showed a high inhalation performance regardless of inspiratory flow patterns and devices. The addition of Leu decreased the adhesion force and increased the surface potential of the powders. The SFD particles with Leu showed high inhalation performance regardless of the inhalation patterns and devices, which was attributed to the decreased adhesion force between particles and increased dispersibility.

  8. Particulate matter inhalation exacerbates cardiopulmonary injury in a rat model of isoproterenol-induced cardiomyopathy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure is linked to cardiovascular events and death, especially among individuals with heart disease. A model of toxic cardiomyopathy was developed in Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure (SHHF) rats to explore potential mechanisms. Rats were...

  9. Particulate matter inhalation exacerbates cardiopulmonary injury in a rat model of isoproterenol-induced cardiomyopathy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure is linked to cardiovascular events and death, especially among individuals with heart disease. A model of toxic cardiomyopathy was developed in Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure (SHHF) rats to explore potential mechanisms. Rats were...

  10. Comparative efficacy of terbutaline sulphate delivered by Turbuhaler dry powder inhaler or pressurised metered dose inhaler with Nebuhaler spacer in children during an acute asthmatic episode.

    PubMed

    Drblik, S; Lapierre, G; Thivierge, R; Turgeon, J; Gaudreault, P; Cummins-McManus, B; Verdy, I; Haddon, J; Lee, J; Spier, S

    2003-04-01

    To compare the efficacy of terbutaline sulphate delivered via Turbuhaler with a pressurised metered dose inhaler (pMDI) connected to Nebuhaler spacer in a population of asthmatic children presenting to emergency departments because of an acute episode of asthma. Randomised double blind, double dummy, parallel study of acute asthma in the emergency department. A total of 112 children (6-16 years), who had a diagnosis of asthma, a baseline FEV1 of 25-60% of predicted normal value (PNV), and the ability to perform spirometry were studied. Patients received two doses of 0.5 mg/10 kg (maximum 2.0 mg) of terbutaline sulphate at time 0 minutes and time 30 minutes. The two groups were also stratified into subgroups based on FEV1: 25-45% and 45.1-60% PNV. FEV1 before treatment and at two 15-minute intervals after each treatment was the main outcome measure. PIF, PEF, heart rate, SpO2, and tremor were also measured at these times. Both the Turbuhaler and pMDI+Nebuhaler groups showed significant increases from baseline to final value in their FEV1 results, 49% and 50% change from baseline to t = 60 min, respectively (p < 0.001) using last value carried forward. No significant difference was found between the two groups for these results. Subanalysis of the stratified groups revealed similar results. In addition, no significant difference was found in the group and subgroup comparisons for heart rate, SpO2, and tremor. Results show that Turbuhaler and pMDI+Nebuhaler are similar in terms of benefit and side effects in the treatment of acute moderate to severe asthma attacks in this study population.

  11. Short-term inhalation of particulate transition metals has little effect on the electrocardiograms of dogs having preexisting cardiac abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Muggenburg, B A; Benson, J M; Barr, E B; Kubatko, J; Tilley, L P

    2003-04-11

    There is growing epidemiological evidence for statistical associations between increases in air pollution, especially particulate matter, and increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Laboratory studies have shown that transition metals contribute strongly to the effects of high lung doses of model particles on changes in the electrocardiograms of animals. The present study evaluated the effects of short-term inhalation exposure to respirable particles of specific oxide and sulfate forms of transition metals on heart rate and the electrocardiogram of old dogs having preexisting cardiac abnormalities. Conscious beagle dogs were exposed by oral inhalation for 3 h on each of 3 successive days to aerosols of manganese, nickel, vanadium, iron, and copper oxides, and nickel and vanadium sulfates as single compounds at concentrations of 0.05 mg/m(3). Electrocardiograms were recorded and evaluated for exposure-related changes in heart rate, heart rate variability, and abnormalities of waveforms. Although the electrocardiograms of this population of dogs having potential age and cardiovascular susceptibility factors reflected their underlying clinical abnormalities, no significant effect of exposure to the transition metal aerosols was observed.

  12. Performance properties of the population bioequivalence approach for in vitro delivered dose for orally inhaled respiratory products.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Beth; Strickland, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Regulatory agencies, industry, and academia have acknowledged that in vitro assessments serve a role in establishing bioequivalence for second-entry drug product approvals as well as innovator post-approval drug product changes. For orally inhaled respiratory products (OIPs), the issues of correctly analyzing in vitro data and interpreting the results within the broader context of therapeutic equivalence have garnered significant attention. One of the recommended statistical tests for in vitro data is the population bioequivalence method (PBE). The current literature for assessing the PBE statistical approach for in vitro data assumes a log normal distribution. This paper focuses on an assessment of that assumption for in vitro delivered dose. Concepts in development of a statistical model are presented. The PBE criterion and hypotheses are written for the case when data follows a normal distribution, rather than log normal. Results of a simulation study are reported, characterizing the performance of the PBE approach when data are expected to be normally distributed, rather than log normal. In these cases, decisions using the PBE approach are not consistent for the same absolute mean difference that the test product is from the reference product. A conclusion of inequivalency will occur more often if the test product dose is lower than the reference product for the same deviation from target. These features suggest that more research is needed for statistical equivalency approaches for in vitro data.

  13. Inhalation Exposures to Particulate Matter and Carbon Monoxide during Ethiopian Coffee Ceremonies in Addis Ababa: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Keil, Chris; Kassa, Hailu; Brown, Alexander; Kumie, Abera; Tefera, Worku

    2010-01-01

    The unique Ethiopian cultural tradition of the coffee ceremony increases inhalation exposures to combustion byproducts. This pilot study evaluated exposures to particulate matter and carbon monoxide in ten Addis Ababa homes during coffee ceremonies. For coffee preparers the geometric mean (57 μg/m3) and median (72 μg/m3) contributions to an increase in a 24-hour time-weighted average exposure were above World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. At 40% of the study sites the contribution to the 24-hour average exposure was greater than twice the WHO guideline. Similar exposure increases existed for ceremony participants. Particulate matter concentrations may be related to the use of incense during the ceremony. In nearly all homes the WHO guideline for a 60-minute exposure to carbon monoxide was exceeded. Finding control measures to reduce these exposures will be challenging due to the deeply engrained nature of this cultural practice and the lack of availability of alternative fuels. PMID:20886061

  14. Respiratory dose of inhaled particulate matter and its health implications in susceptible populations.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) in the air is known to cause adverse health effects, particularly in elderly subjects with respiratory and cardiopulmonary disease. Although observed health effects are likely caused by multiple factors, the respiratory dose is one factor of particular con...

  15. Respiratory dose of inhaled particulate matter and its health implications in susceptible populations.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) in the air is known to cause adverse health effects, particularly in elderly subjects with respiratory and cardiopulmonary disease. Although observed health effects are likely caused by multiple factors, the respiratory dose is one factor of particular con...

  16. Review of the Evidence from Epidemiology, Toxicology, and Lung Bioavailability on the Carcinogenicity of Inhaled Iron Oxide Particulates.

    PubMed

    Pease, Camilla; Rücker, Thomas; Birk, Thomas

    2016-03-21

    Since the iron-age and throughout the industrial age, humans have been exposed to iron oxides. Here, we review the evidence from epidemiology, toxicology, and lung bioavailability as to whether iron oxides are likely to act as human lung carcinogens. Current evidence suggests that observed lung tumors in rats result from a generic particle overload effect and local inflammation that is rat-specific under the dosing conditions of intratracheal instillation. This mode of action therefore, is not relevant to human exposure. However, there are emerging differences seen in vitro, in cell uptake and cell bioavailability between "bulk" iron oxides and "nano" iron oxides. "Bulk" particulates, as defined here, are those where greater than 70% are >100 nm in diameter. Similarly, "nano" iron oxides are defined in this context as particulates where the majority, usually >95% for pure engineered forms of primary particulates (not agglomerates), fall in the range 1-100 nm in diameter. From the weight of scientific evidence, "bulk" iron oxides are not genotoxic/mutagenic. Recent evidence for "nano" iron oxide is conflicting regarding genotoxic potential, albeit genotoxicity was not observed in an in vivo acute oral dose study, and "nano" iron oxides are considered safe and are being investigated for biomedical uses; there is no specific in vivo genotoxicity study on "nano" iron oxides via inhalation. Some evidence is available that suggests, hypothetically due to the larger surface area of "nano" iron oxide particulates, that toxicity could be exerted via the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cell. However, the potential for ROS generation as a basis for explaining rodent tumorigenicity is only apparent if free iron from intracellular "nano" scale iron oxide becomes bioavailable at significant levels inside the cell. This would not be expected from "bulk" iron oxide particulates. Furthermore, human epidemiological evidence from a number of studies suggests that

  17. Chronic inhalation of biomass smoke is associated with DNA damage in airway cells: involvement of particulate pollutants and benzene.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Bidisha; Dutta, Anindita; Roychoudhury, Sanghita; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2013-04-01

    This study examined whether indoor air pollution from biomass fuel burning induces DNA damage in airway cells. For this, sputum cells were collected from 56 premenopausal rural women who cooked with biomass (wood, dung, crop residues) and 49 age-matched controls who cooked with cleaner liquefied petroleum gas. The levels of particulate matters with diameters of less than 10 and 2.5 µm (PM(10) and PM(2.5)) in indoor air were measured using a real-time aerosol monitor. Benzene exposure was monitored by measuring trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) in urine by HPLC-UV. DNA damage was examined by alkaline comet assay in sputum cells. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in sputum cells were measured by flow cytometry and spectrophotometry, respectively. Compared with controls, biomass users had 4 times higher tail percentage DNA, 37% more comet tail length and 5 times more Olive tail moment (p < 0.001) in inflammatory and epithelial cells in sputum, suggesting extensive DNA damage. In addition, women who cooked with biomass had 6 times higher levels of urinary t,t-MA and 2-fold higher levels of ROS generation concomitant with 28% depletion of SOD. Indoor air of biomass-using households had 2-4 times more PM(10) and PM(2.5) than that of controls. After controlling potential confounders, positive association was found between DNA damage parameters, particulate pollution, urinary t,t-MA and ROS. Thus, long-term exposure to biomass smoke induces DNA damage in airway cells and the effect was probably mediated, at least in part, by oxidative stress generated by inhaled particulate matter and benzene. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Lung injury, inflammation and Akt signaling following inhalation of particulate hexavalent chromium

    SciTech Connect

    Beaver, Laura M.; Stemmy, Erik J.; Constant, Stephanie L.; Schwartz, Arnold; Little, Laura G.; Gigley, Jason P.; Chun, Gina; Sugden, Kent D.

    2009-02-15

    Certain particulate hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] compounds are human respiratory carcinogens that release genotoxic soluble chromate, and are associated with fibrosis, fibrosarcomas, adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas of the lung. We postulate that inflammatory processes and mediators may contribute to the etiology of Cr(VI) carcinogenesis, however the immediate (0-24 h) pathologic injury and immune responses after exposure to particulate chromates have not been adequately investigated. Our aim was to determine the nature of the lung injury, inflammatory response, and survival signaling responses following intranasal exposure of BALB/c mice to particulate basic zinc chromate. Factors associated with lung injury, inflammation and survival signaling were measured in airway lavage fluid and in lung tissue. A single chromate exposure induced an acute immune response in the lung, characterized by a rapid and significant increase in IL-6 and GRO-{alpha} levels, an influx of neutrophils, and a decline in macrophages in lung airways. Histological examination of lung tissue in animals challenged with a single chromate exposure revealed an increase in bronchiolar cell apoptosis and mucosal injury. Furthermore, chromate exposure induced injury and inflammation that progressed to alveolar and interstitial pneumonitis. Finally, a single Cr(VI) challenge resulted in a rapid and persistent increase in the number of airways immunoreactive for phosphorylation of the survival signaling protein Akt, on serine 473. These data illustrate that chromate induces both survival signaling and an inflammatory response in the lung, which we postulate may contribute to early oncogenesis.

  19. LUNG INJURY, INFLAMMATION AND AKT SIGNALING FOLLOWING INHALATION OF PARTICULATE HEXAVALENT CHROMIUM

    PubMed Central

    Beaver, Laura M.; Stemmy, Erik J.; Constant, Stephanie L.; Schwartz, Arnold; Little, Laura G.; Gigley, Jason P.; Chun, Gina; Sugden, Kent D.; Ceryak, Susan M.; Patierno, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    Certain particulate hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] compounds are human respiratory carcinogens that release genotoxic soluble chromate, and are associated with fibrosis, fibrosarcomas, adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas of the lung. We postulate that inflammatory processes and mediators may contribute to the etiology of Cr(VI) carcinogenesis, however the immediate (0–24 hours) pathologic injury and immune responses after exposure to particulate chromates have not been adequately investigated. Our aim was to determine the nature of the lung injury, inflammatory response, and survival signaling responses following intranasal exposure of BALB/c mice to particulate basic zinc chromate. Factors associated with lung injury, inflammation and survival signaling were measured in airway lavage fluid and in lung tissue. A single chromate exposure induced an acute immune response in the lung, characterized by a rapid and significant increase in IL-6 and GRO-α levels, an influx of neutrophils, and a decline in macrophages in lung airways. Histological examination of lung tissue in animals challenged with a single chromate exposure revealed an increase in bronchiolar cell apoptosis and mucosal injury. Furthermore, chromate exposure induced injury and inflammation that progressed to alveolar and interstitial pneumonitis. Finally, a single Cr(VI) challenge resulted in a rapid and persistent increase in the number of airways immunoreactive for phosphorylation of the survival signaling protein Akt, on serine 473. These data illustrate that chromate induces both survival signaling and an inflammatory response in the lung, which we postulate may contribute to early oncogenesis. PMID:19109987

  20. Cardiovascular Depression in Rats Exposed to Inhaled Particulate Matter and Ozone: Effects of Diet-Induced Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Katryn; Yang, Hui-yu; Nan, Bin; Morishita, Masako; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Dvonch, J. Timothy; Spino, Catherine; Fink, Gregory D.; Rajagopalan, Sanjay; Sun, Qinghua; Brook, Robert D.; Harkema, Jack R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: High ambient levels of ozone (O3) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) are associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in people with preexisting cardiopulmonary diseases. Enhanced susceptibility to the toxicity of air pollutants may include individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Objective: We tested the hypothesis that cardiovascular responses to O3 and PM2.5 will be enhanced in rats with diet-induced MetS. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fructose diet (HFrD) to induce MetS and then exposed to O3, concentrated ambient PM2.5, or the combination of O3 plus PM2.5 for 9 days. Data related to heart rate (HR), HR variability (HRV), and blood pressure (BP) were collected. Results: Consistent with MetS, HFrD rats were hypertensive and insulin resistant, and had elevated fasting levels of blood glucose and triglycerides. Decreases in HR and BP, which were found in all exposure groups, were greater and more persistent in HFrD rats compared with those fed a normal diet (ND). Coexposure to O3 plus PM2.5 induced acute drops in HR and BP in all rats, but only ND rats adapted after 2 days. HFrD rats had little exposure-related changes in HRV, whereas ND rats had increased HRV during O3 exposure, modest decreases with PM2.5, and dramatic decreases during O3 plus PM2.5 coexposures. Conclusions: Cardiovascular depression in O3- and PM2.5-exposed rats was enhanced and prolonged in rats with HFrD-induced MetS. These results in rodents suggest that people with MetS may be prone to similar exaggerated BP and HR responses to inhaled air pollutants. Citation: Wagner JG, Allen K, Yang HY, Nan B, Morishita M, Mukherjee B, Dvonch JT, Spino C, Fink GD, Rajagopalan S, Sun Q, Brook RD, Harkema JR. 2014. Cardiovascular depression in rats exposed to inhaled particulate matter and ozone: effects of diet-induced metabolic syndrome. Environ Health Perspect 122:27–33; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1307085 PMID:24169565

  1. [Inhalable airborne particulate pollution in sites characterized by dissimilar environmental conditions].

    PubMed

    Paoletti, Luigi; De Berardis, Barbara; Arrizza, Lorenzo

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to characterise from a physico-chemical point of view the airborne particulate matter (PM10) sampled in different sites dissimilar with regard to the weather conditions, the residential density and the industrial activities. The particles were collected by an eight-stage cascade impactor, Andersen particle fractionating sampler. The analysis of the particle samples was performed by a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with a thin-window system for X-ray microanalysis by energy dispersion spectrometry. The hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) on the analytical data revealed the presence of eight different particulate types (particle clusters) in the sampling sites: C-rich particles (cluster 1); Ca and Mg carbonates (cluster 2); Ca sulphates (cluster 3); silica particles (cluster 4); silicates (cluster 5); Fe-rich particles (cluster 6); metal compounds (cluster 7); carbonaceous particles with heavy metals (cluster 8). Data obtained in this study demonstrate a significant correlation between the PM10 composition and the anthropic activities present the sampling site.

  2. A review of ipratropium bromide/fenoterol hydrobromide (Berodual) delivered via Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Kässner, Frank; Hodder, Rick; Bateman, Eric D

    2004-01-01

    Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can be effectively treated by the use of bronchodilator therapies delivered by inhalation. Berodual is a fixed combination of the anticholinergic agent ipratropium bromide (IB) and the beta2-adrenergic agonist fenoterol hydrobromide (FEN). IB/FEN has been available for the treatment of asthma and COPD in a pressurised metered dose inhaler (MDI) [pMDI] formulation for many years. The pMDI is the most widely used device for the delivery of inhaled medications, such as IB/FEN. However, most conventional pMDIs contain chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) propellants, which are currently being withdrawn because of their detrimental effects on the environment. This has resulted in alternative methods of drug delivery being developed. Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler (SMI) is a new generation, propellant-free inhaler that generates a fine, slow-moving cloud (the Soft Mist) which can be easily inhaled. Scintigraphic studies have shown that this improves deposition of drugs in the lung and results in less oropharyngeal deposition than the CFC-MDI. A clinical development programme has been conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of IB/FEN delivered via Respimat SMI with that of IB/FEN via CFC-MDI in the treatment of patients with asthma or COPD. Five clinical studies (two phase II and three phase III) investigated dosages of IB/FEN 5/12.5 microg to 320/800 microg via Respimat SMI in single and multiple dose administration regimens. Four of the trials were conducted in patients with asthma (three in adults and one in children), while one phase III trial was conducted in patients with COPD. In phase III, 2058 patients participated, with a total of 1112 patients treated with IB/FEN via Respimat SMI. In the phase III studies, each dose from Respimat SMI was given in one actuation compared with two actuations with the CFC-MDI. In the paediatric asthma phase III study, all CFC-MDI doses were delivered via a spacer device. The results of

  3. Development of an inhalable, stimuli-responsive particulate system for delivery to deep lung tissue.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Yasmine; Azzazy, Hassan M E; Tammam, Salma; Lamprecht, Alf; Ali, Mohamed Ehab; Schmidt, Annette; Sollazzo, Silvio; Mathur, Sanjay

    2016-10-01

    Lung cancer, the deadliest solid tumor among all types of cancer, remains difficult to treat. This is a result of unavoidable exposure to carcinogens, poor diagnosis, the lack of targeted drug delivery platforms and limitations associated with delivery of drug to deep lung tissues. Development of a non-invasive, patient-convenient formula for the targeted delivery of chemotherapeutics to cancer in deep lung tissue is the aim of this study. The formulation consisted of inhalable polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/maltodextrin (MD)-based microparticles (MPs) encapsulating chitosan (CS) nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with either drug only or drug and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs). Drug release from CS NPs was enhanced with the aid of MNPs by a factor of 1.7 in response to external magnetic field. Preferential toxicity by CS NPs was shown towards tumor cells (A549) in comparison to cultured fibroblasts (L929). The prepared spray freeze dried (SFD) powders for CS NPs and CS MNPs were of the same size at ∼6μm. They had a fine particle fraction (FPF≤5.2μm) of 40-42% w/w and mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of 5-6μm as determined by the Next Generation Impactor (NGI). SFD-MPs of CS MNPs possess higher MMAD due to the high density associated with encapsulated MNPs. The developed formulation demonstrates several capabilities including tissue targeting, controlled drug release, and the possible imaging and diagnostic values (due to its MNPs content) and therefore represents an improved therapeutic platform for drug delivery to cancer in deep lung tissue.

  4. Experimental inhalation injury in the goat.

    PubMed

    Walker, H L; McLeod, C G; McManus, W F

    1981-11-01

    Inhalation injuries are usually produced by inhalation of gaseous or particulate products of incomplete combustion and are rarely due to heat per se unless steam is inhaled. The clinical and anatomic characteristics of an appropriate animal model should mimic the disease encountered clinically. A model of inhalation injury has been produced in anesthetized goats through the use of a modified bee smoker. The smoke is delivered at a low temperature and contains byproducts of incomplete combustion. This reproducible injury produces necrotic tracheobronchitis and bronchiolitis with pseudomembrane and cast formation in association with mild multifocal atelectasis and bronchopneumonia. These lesions spontaneously resolve within 3 weeks without supportive therapy. The upper trachea, protected from smoke injury by the inflated cuff of the endotracheal tube, showed no evidence of injury. This nonlethal injury is proposed as an appropriate model for evaluation of the pathophysiology and treatment of inhalation injury.

  5. Toxicity of inhaled particulate matter on the central nervous system: neuroinflammation, neuropsychological effects and neurodegenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Xiong, Lilin; Tang, Meng

    2017-03-16

    Particulate matter (PM) combined with meteorological factors cause the haze, which brings inconvenience to people's daily life and deeply endanger people's health. Accumulating literature, to date, reported that PM are closely related to cardiopulmonary disease. Outpatient visits and admissions as a result of asthma and heart attacks gradually increase with an elevated concentration of PM. Owing to its special physicochemical property, the brain could be a potential target beyond the cardiopulmonary system. Possible routes of PM to the brain via a direct route or stimulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines have been reported in several documents concerning toxicity of engineered nanoparticles in rodents. Recent studies have demonstrated that PM have implications in oxidative stress, inflammation, dysfunction of cellular organelles, as well as the disturbance of protein homeostasis, promoting neuron loss and exaggerating the burden of central nervous system (CNS). Moreover, the smallest particles (nano-sized particles), which were involved in inflammation, reactive oxygen species (ROS), microglial activation and neuron loss, may accelerate the process of the neurodevelopmental disorder and neurodegenerative disease. Potential or other undiscovered mechanisms are not mutually exclusive but complementary aspects of each other. Epidemiology studies have shown that exposure to PM could bring about neurotoxicity and play a significant role in the etiology of CNS disease, which has been gradually corroborated by in vivo and in vitro studies. This review highlights research advances on the health effects of PM with an emphasis on neurotoxicity. With the hope of enhancing awareness in the public and calling for prevention and protective measures, it is a critical topic that requires proceeding exploration. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Effects of Short-term Exposure to Inhalable Particulate Matter on DNA Methylation of Tandem Repeats

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Liqiong; Byun, Hyang-Min; Zhong, Jia; Motta, Valeria; Barupal, Jitendra; Zheng, Yinan; Dou, Chang; Zhang, Feiruo; McCracken, John P.; Diaz, Anaité; Marco, Sanchez-Guerra; Colicino, Silvia; Schwartz, Joel; Wang, Sheng; Hou, Lifang; Baccarelli, Andrea A.

    2015-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that particulate matter (PM) increases lung cancer risk by triggering systemic inflammation, and leukocyte DNA hypomethylation. However, previous investigations focused on repeated element sequences from LINE-1 and Alu families. Tandem repeats, which display a greater propensity to mutate, and are often hypomethylated in cancer patients, have never been investigated in individuals exposed to PM. We measured methylation of three tandem repeats (SATα, NBL2, D4Z4) by polymerase chain reaction–pyrosequencing on blood samples from truck drivers and office workers (60 per group) in Beijing, China. We used lightweight monitors to measure personal PM2.5 (PM with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm) and elemental carbon (EC, a tracer of PM from vehicular traffic). Ambient PM10 data were obtained from air quality measuring stations. Overall, an interquartile increase in personal PM2.5 and ambient PM10 levels was associated with a significant covariate-adjusted decrease in SATα methylation (−1.35% 5-methyl cytosine [5mC], P = 0.01; and −1.33%5mC; P = 0.01, respectively). Effects from personal PM2.5 and ambient PM10 on SATα methylation were stronger in truck drivers (−2.34%5mC, P = 0.02; −1.44%5mC, P = 0.06) than office workers (−0.95%5mC, P = 0.26; −1.25%5mC, P = 0.12, respectively). Ambient PM10 was negatively correlated with NBL2 methylation in truck drivers (−1.38%5mC, P = 0.03) but not in office workers (1.04%5mC, P = 0.13). Our result suggests that PM exposure is associated with hypomethylation of selected tandem repeats. Measuring tandem-repeat hypomethylation in easy-to-obtain blood specimens might identify individuals with biological effects and potential cancer risk from PM exposure. PMID:24436168

  7. Assessing the inhalation cancer risk of particulate matter bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for the elderly in a retirement community of a mega city in North China.

    PubMed

    Han, Bin; Liu, Yating; You, Yan; Xu, Jia; Zhou, Jian; Zhang, Jiefeng; Niu, Can; Zhang, Nan; He, Fei; Ding, Xiao; Bai, Zhipeng

    2016-10-01

    Assessment of the health risks resulting from exposure to ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is limited by the lack of environmental exposure data among different subpopulations. To assess the exposure cancer risk of particulate carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollution for the elderly, this study conducted a personal exposure measurement campaign for particulate PAHs in a community of Tianjin, a city in northern China. Personal exposure samples were collected from the elderly in non-heating (August-September, 2009) and heating periods (November-December, 2009), and 12 PAHs individuals were analyzed for risk estimation. Questionnaire and time-activity log were also recorded for each person. The probabilistic risk assessment model was integrated with Toxic Equivalent Factors (TEFs). Considering that the estimation of the applied dose for a given air pollutant is dependent on the inhalation rate, the inhalation rate from both EPA exposure factor book was applied to calculate the carcinogenic risk in this study. Monte Carlo simulation was used as a probabilistic risk assessment model, and risk simulation results indicated that the inhalation-ILCR values for both male and female subjects followed a lognormal distribution with a mean of 4.81 × 10(-6) and 4.57 × 10(-6), respectively. Furthermore, the 95 % probability lung cancer risks were greater than the USEPA acceptable level of 10(-6) for both men and women through the inhalation route, revealing that exposure to PAHs posed an unacceptable potential cancer risk for the elderly in this study. As a result, some measures should be taken to reduce PAHs pollution and the exposure level to decrease the cancer risk for the general population, especially for the elderly.

  8. Inhalation Therapy in Horses.

    PubMed

    Cha, Mandy L; Costa, Lais R R

    2017-04-01

    This article discusses the benefits and limitations of inhalation therapy in horses. Inhalation drug therapy delivers the drug directly to the airways, thereby achieving maximal drug concentrations at the target site. Inhalation therapy has the additional advantage of decreasing systemic side effects. Inhalation therapy in horses is delivered by the use of nebulizers or pressured metered dose inhalers. It also requires the use of a muzzle or nasal mask in horses. Drugs most commonly delivered through inhalation drug therapy in horses include bronchodilators, antiinflammatories, and antimicrobials.

  9. Characterization of an area of reference for inhalable particulate matter (PM2.5) associated with genetic biomonitoring in children.

    PubMed

    Silva da Silva, Cristiane; Rossato, Juliana Marzari; Vaz Rocha, Jocelita Aparecida; Vargas, Vera Maria Ferrão

    2015-01-15

    Humans are exposed to health-impairing air pollutants, especially children who are more sensitive to cancer-causing toxins. This study described an area of reference for inhalable particulates (PM2.5) by chemical (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) and mutagenic characterization associated with the genetic biomonitoring of children (aged 5-11 years). The area studied was in a small town in Brazil, used as reference in previous studies. Organic matter of PM2.5 (extracted with dichloromethane) was evaluated for mutagenesis in a Salmonella/microsome (microsuspension) assay, in strains measuring frameshift error (TA98, YG1021 and YG1024) and base pair substitution (TA100) of DNA, in the presence and absence of rat liver metabolization fraction (S9). Exposure was studied analyzing a sample of 45 children using comet assay (peripheral blood lymphocytes) and micronucleus (exfoliated buccal mucosa cells). PM2.5 concentration for the period was 9% (25.89-64.71 μg/m3) events above WHO limit value (25 μg/m3). Mutagenesis responses (revertants/m3) varied from negative (spring) to 8.3±0.69 (autumn) (-S9) and 5.4±0.36 (winter) (+S9), in strain TA98, and for TA100, in spring, from negative to 14.8±4.23 (-S9) and 17.5±2.72 (+S9). YG strain results show mononitroarenes and aromatic amines. Mean biomonitoring values were established for MN, 0.3±0.41 (‰) and for other cell types a variation from 0.6±0.73 (‰), nuclear buds to 57.5±24.92 (‰), karyorrhexis. Comet assay means were 23.1±12.44; 7.3±11.66 and 0.9±2.30 for tail length, intensity and moment, respectively. There was no difference for sex and age for the different parameters. A significant difference in confounding factors was observed for passive smoking and MN induction. PAHs and mutagenesis in the air may be related to local vehicular emissions. These results challenge the definition of areas of reference for air pollution associated with human biomonitoring including the region studied. Copyright © 2014

  10. A pilot study to assess effects of long-term inhalation of airborne particulate matter on early Alzheimer-like changes in the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Dhaval P; Puig, Kendra L; Gorr, Matthew W; Wold, Loren E; Combs, Colin K

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to air pollutants, including particulate matter, results in activation of the brain inflammatory response and Alzheimer disease (AD)-like pathology in dogs and humans. However, the length of time required for inhalation of ambient particulate matter to influence brain inflammation and AD pathology is less clear. Here, we studied the effect of 3 and 9 months of air particulate matter (<2.5 μm diameter, PM2.5) exposure on brain inflammatory phenotype and pathological hallmarks of AD in C57BL/6 mice. Using western blot, ELISA, and cytokine array analysis we quantified brain APP, beta-site APP cleaving enzyme (BACE), oligomeric protein, total Aβ 1-40 and Aβ 1-42 levels, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitrotyrosine-modified proteins, HNE-Michael adducts, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), glial markers (GFAP, Iba-1), pre- and post- synaptic markers (synaptophysin and PSD-95), cyclooxygenase (COX-1, COX-2) levels, and the cytokine profile in PM2.5 exposed and filtered air control mice. Only 9 month PM2.5 exposure increased BACE protein levels, APP processing, and Aβ 1-40 levels. This correlated with a concomitant increase in COX-1 and COX-2 protein levels and a modest alteration in the cytokine profile. These data support the hypothesis that prolonged exposure to airborne particulate matter has the potential to alter brain inflammatory phenotype and promote development of early AD-like pathology.

  11. Particle inhalability at low wind speeds.

    PubMed

    Brown, James S

    2005-12-15

    Accurate quantification of the dose delivered by aerosol exposures is essential for estimating the risk of potential adverse health effects. The fraction of airborne particles that can enter the nose or mouth during inhalation is referred to as the inspirable particulate mass fraction. This inhalable fraction is equivalent to delivered dose for particles greater than approximately 25 microm (aerodynamic particle diameter, d(ae)), which deposit completely and almost exclusively in the extrathoracic airways. Particle inhalability at high wind speeds (1-9 m/s) has been well characterized. However, there is a paucity of data describing the inhalability of particles at low wind speeds (< or =0.3 m/s), which are typical of indoor environments. High-wind-speed criteria poorly describe inhalability at low wind speeds. Based on the aspiration efficiencies of blunt and sharp-edged inlets, a function was developed for oral inhalability, P(I(O)), of particles at low wind speeds. This function predicts a slow decline in P(I(O)) from 0.95 at d(ae)= 8 microm, to 0.5 at d(ae) = 74 microm, and 0.1 at d(ae)= 175 microm. Data available from the literature for inhalability at relatively low wind speeds during oral breathing are well described by this logistic function (r(2)= 0.69).

  12. Modeling Deposition of Inhaled Particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mathematical modeling of the deposition and distribution of inhaled aerosols within human lungs is an invaluable tool in predicting both the health risks associated with inhaled environmental aerosols and the therapeutic dose delivered by inhaled pharmacological drugs. Howeve...

  13. Modeling Deposition of Inhaled Particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mathematical modeling of the deposition and distribution of inhaled aerosols within human lungs is an invaluable tool in predicting both the health risks associated with inhaled environmental aerosols and the therapeutic dose delivered by inhaled pharmacological drugs. Howeve...

  14. EFFECTS OF INHALED COMBUSTION-DERIVED PARTICULATE MATTER ON INDICES OF CARDIAC, PULMONARY, AND THERMOREGULATORY FUNCTION IN SPONTANEOUSLY HYPERTENSIVE RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have shown a positive relationship between elevated levels of ambient particulate matter (PM) and rates of morbidity and mortality; these correlations are further strengthened when limited to individuals with preexisting cardiopulmonary diseases. While si...

  15. Comparison of the systemic pharmacodynamic effects and pharmacokinetics of salmeterol delivered by CFC propellant and non-CFC propellant metered dose inhalers in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Kempsford, Rodger; Handel, Malcolm; Mehta, Rashmi; De Silva, Mariza; Daley-Yates, Peter

    2005-04-01

    This was a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study comparing the systemic pharmacodynamic effects (heart rate and serum potassium) and pharmacokinetics of salmeterol delivered by the non-CFC hydrofluoralkane (HFA) propellant 134a and the CFC propellant (propellant 11/12) metered dose inhalers (MDI) in healthy subjects. At the therapeutic dose (50 microg), salmeterol-mediated systemic pharmacodynamics were equivalent for the HFA and CFC MDIs. Higher doses of salmeterol (150 and 300 microg) produced dose-related beta-agonist pharmacodynamic effects irrespective of the propellant. However, these effects were lower with salmeterol HFA MDI than with the salmeterol CFC MDI at all dose levels. Overall, salmeterol Cmax and AUC(0-t) values were lower for salmeterol HFA compared with salmeterol CFC MDI. At the highest dose (300 microg), where a full pharmacokinetic profile was obtained, exposure to salmeterol delivered by the HFA MDI compared with the salmeterol CFC MDI was 27% and 30% lower for Cmax and AUC(0-t), respectively. Maximum plasma concentrations were generally seen in the first plasma samples taken 5 min after the start of dosing. Salmeterol HFA was well-tolerated. At supratherapeutic doses, adverse events were typical for high-dose salmeterol with fewer adverse events occurring with the HFA compared with the CFC formulation. These data indicate that the salmeterol HFA MDI would not be associated with a significantly different pharmacodynamic, safety and tolerability profile compared with the salmeterol CFC MDI.

  16. RESPIRATORY EFFECTS OF INHALED METAL-RICH PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) IN RATS: INFLUENCE OF SYSTEMIC ANTIOXIDANT DEPLETION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metal-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species and resultant oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of emission-source PM toxicity. We hypothesized that inducing an antioxidant deficit prior to inhalation of metal-rich PM would worsen adverse health outcom...

  17. Effects of pulse-delivered inhaled nitric oxide administration on pulmonary perfusion and arterial oxygenation in dorsally recumbent isoflurane-anesthetized horses.

    PubMed

    Grubb, Tamara L; Lord, Peter F; Berger, Mieth; Larsson, Christina; Rydén, Anneli; Frendin, Jan; Funkquist, Pia; Edner, Anna; Nyman, Görel

    2014-11-01

    To image the spatial distribution of pulmonary blood flow by means of scintigraphy, evaluate ventilation-perfusion (VA/Q) matching and pulmonary blood shunting (Qs/Qt) by means of the multiple inert gas elimination technique (MIGET), and measure arterial oxygenation and plasma endothelin-1 concentrations before, during, and after pulse-delivered inhaled nitric oxide (PiNO) administration to isoflurane-anesthetized horses in dorsal recumbency. 3 healthy adult Standardbreds. Nitric oxide was pulsed into the inspired gases in dorsally recumbent isoflurane-anesthetized horses. Assessment of VA/Q matching, Qs/Qt, and Pao2 content was performed by use of the MIGET, and spatial distribution of pulmonary blood flow was measured by perfusion scintigraphy following IV injection of technetium Tc 99m-labeled macroaggregated human albumin before, during, and 30 minutes after cessation of PiNO administration. During PiNO administration, significant redistribution of blood flow from the dependent regions to the nondependent regions of the lungs was found and was reflected by improvements in VA/Q matching, decreases in Qs/Qt, and increases in Pao2 content, all of which reverted to baseline values at 30 minutes after PiNO administration. Administration of PiNO in anesthetized dorsally recumbent horses resulted in redistribution of pulmonary blood flow from dependent atelectatic lung regions to nondependent aerated lung regions. Because hypoxemia is commonly the result of atelectasis in anesthetized dorsally recumbent horses, the addition of nitric oxide to inhaled gases could be used clinically to alleviate hypoxemia in horses during anesthesia.

  18. Size specific distribution of the atmospheric particulate PCDD/Fs, dl-PCBs and PAHs on a seasonal scale: Implications for cancer risks from inhalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degrendele, Céline; Okonski, Krzysztof; Melymuk, Lisa; Landlová, Linda; Kukučka, Petr; Čupr, Pavel; Klánová, Jana

    2014-12-01

    This study presents the seasonal size distribution of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) in the atmosphere. Particles were sampled from October 2009 to October 2010 on a seasonal basis using a cascade impactor collecting six size fractions at a rural and urban site in the Brno area, Czech Republic. Higher concentrations of PAHs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs were observed in cold seasons at both sites, attributed to the seasonality of the gas-particle partitioning, the increase of emissions and the lower boundary mixing layer in winter. All of the compounds showed a strong accumulation in the fine fraction, with, on average, 71% of ΣPAHs, 73% of ΣPCDD/Fs and 60% of Σdl-PCBs associated with particles <0.95 μm. The human risk assessment via inhalation was addressed and followed the same pattern as for concentrations, with 41 and 7 times higher risk in winter compared to summer at the rural and urban sites, respectively. More than 70% of cancer risks of PAHs, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs was associated with particles <0.95 μm. Moreover, an overestimation of the cancer risk via inhalation of up to 50% occurred when the size distribution of related compounds was not considered.

  19. A Single Transition Metal-Rich Particulate Inhalation Exposure Elicits Concentration-Dependent Cardiovascular Toxicity in Hypertensive Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, investigators in the CALFINE study demonstrated an association between the fine particulate matter (PM)-associated metals, Ni and Fe, in ambient air in nine California counties and increased cardiovascular mortality (Ostro et al. 2007). Residual oil fly ash (ROFA), a wa...

  20. A Single Transition Metal-Rich Particulate Inhalation Exposure Elicits Concentration-Dependent Cardiovascular Toxicity in Hypertensive Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, investigators in the CALFINE study demonstrated an association between the fine particulate matter (PM)-associated metals, Ni and Fe, in ambient air in nine California counties and increased cardiovascular mortality (Ostro et al. 2007). Residual oil fly ash (ROFA), a wa...

  1. Co-exposure to inhaled ambient particulate matter and acrolein alters myocardial synchrony in mice: evidence for TRPA1 involvement

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because air pollution is a complex mixture of constituents, often including particulates and aldehydes, attributing health effects to air pollutants in a given ambient air shed can be difficult when pollutants are studied in isolation. The purpose of this study was to examine the...

  2. Co-exposure to inhaled ambient particulate matter and acrolein alters myocardial synchrony in mice: evidence for TRPA1 involvement

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because air pollution is a complex mixture of constituents, often including particulates and aldehydes, attributing health effects to air pollutants in a given ambient air shed can be difficult when pollutants are studied in isolation. The purpose of this study was to examine the...

  3. Particulate inhalation in rats causes concentration-dependent electrocardiographic, autonomic, and cardiac microRNA expression changes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, investigators in key epidemiologic studies have demonstrated associations between fine particulate matter (PM)-associated metals and increased hospital admissions (Ni and V; Bell et al. 2009) and cardiovascular mortality (Ni and Fe; Ostro et a1. 2007). Residual oil fly ...

  4. Particulate inhalation in rats causes concentration-dependent electrocardiographic, autonomic, and cardiac microRNA expression changes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, investigators in key epidemiologic studies have demonstrated associations between fine particulate matter (PM)-associated metals and increased hospital admissions (Ni and V; Bell et al. 2009) and cardiovascular mortality (Ni and Fe; Ostro et a1. 2007). Residual oil fly ...

  5. The potential for delivery of particulate matter through positive airway pressure devices (CPAP/BPAP).

    PubMed

    Kristo, David; Corcoran, Timothy; O'Connell, Nina; Thomas, Kristina; Strollo, Patrick

    2012-03-01

    Airborne particulate matter may induce health risk with inhalation. Special concerns exist for deployed military personnel with inhaled particulate matter in desert environments. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) used in obstructive sleep apnea may facilitate inhalation of particulate matter. We evaluated the ability of commercial CPAP filter systems to eliminate inhalation of particulate matter. An ultrasonic medical nebulizer (DeVilbliss Ultraneb, DeVilbliss, Somerset, PA) atomized liquid producing "respirable" aerosol. Technetium-99m diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid dissolved in water was also aerosolized to quantify aerosol inhalation. A high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter placed at the patient-hose connection port in the bilevel positive airway pressure (BPAP) device captured the aerosol inbound to the patient. The HEPA filter provided a means to quantify aerosol dose delivered to a simulated patient. Commercial foam and ultrafine filters were assessed with aerosol to determine the simulated patient exposure. Foam and ultrafine filters used together allowed 1.5% or less of aerosol volume to pass through the BPAP system. Foam filters alone allowed an average of 18.9% of aerosol delivered to pass through the BPAP system. Foam and ultrafine filters used together in BPAP systems provide excellent aerosol filtration in this laboratory simulation of BPAP use.

  6. Halogenated flame-retardant concentrations in settled dust, respirable and inhalable particulates and polyurethane foam at gymnastic training facilities and residences.

    PubMed

    La Guardia, Mark J; Hale, Robert C

    2015-06-01

    Halogenated flame-retardants (FRs) are used in a wide array of polymer-containing products. Animal studies and structure-activity modeling exercises suggest that FR exposure may result in detrimental toxicological effects. Workers with extended contact with such polymers (e.g., electronic dismantlers, carpet installers and aircraft personnel) have previously been observed to exhibit elevated body burdens of FRs, e.g., polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Recently, elevated PBDE blood levels were also reported in a non-occupational exposure group, gymnasts. These levels were hypothesized to be related to the large volumes of FR-treated polyurethane foam in gymnastics facilities. To further our understanding of workers' potential exposure, we analyzed FR concentrations in indoor dust and size-fractionated air particulates (respirable (<4 μm) and inhalable (>4 μm)) from gymnastic studios. Values were compared to samples from the homes of coaches employed at these facilities. Polyurethane foam blocks (i.e., pit foam) were also analyzed to characterize potential FR sources. FRs examined included those used to flame-retard polyurethane foam: 8 PBDE congeners, two brominated components of Firemaster 550 (2-ethylhexyl 2, 3, 4, 5-tetrabromobenzoate (TBB) and bis(2-ethylhexyl) 3, 4, 5, 6-tetrabromophthalate (TBPH)) and three chlorinated organophosphates (tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP) and tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP)). Several additional FRs not used in polyurethane were also evaluated. These have also been detected in indoor dust and air and may also lead to adverse health effects. These include: BDE-183 and its replacement product (1, 2-bis(2, 4, 6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), two congeners of the deca-BDE formulation (BDE-206, -209) and their replacement decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and hexabromocyclododecane (α-, β-, γ-HBCD), and tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA)). Pit foam contained multiple

  7. Intake retention fractions developed from models used in the determination of dose coefficients developed for ICRP publication 68--particulate inhalation.

    PubMed

    Potter, Charles A

    2002-11-01

    ICRP Publication 68 presents dose coefficients developed using systems of new models for the respiratory tract and metabolism of certain elements. The utility of these dose coefficients and associated models is limited without a method for calculating intake from bioassay results using the same models as in that publication. The calculation of a radionuclide intake requires values of expected fractions of the intake in bioassay samples collected at specific times after intake. The general system of models has been solved using a commercial software package and a method for solution of systems of first-order linear differential equations that uses eigenvectors and eigenvalues derived from the system of equations. The result of this work is a series of tables of fractions of acute inhalation intakes for different bioassay methods, times, and compound classes for intakes for those elements listed in ICRP Publication 68. The values in these tables can be used for intake calculations, development of bioassay frequencies, and development of action levels.

  8. Surface Energy Determined by Inverse Gas Chromatography as a Tool to Investigate Particulate Interactions in Dry Powder Inhalers.

    PubMed

    Das, Shyamal C; Tucker, Ian G; Stewart, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) usually contain drug particles <6 µm which agglomerate and/ or adhere on the surfaces of large carriers particles. The detachment of drug particles from carriers and de-agglomeration of drug particles into primary particles is essential for drug deposition in the deep lung. These processes are influenced by the surface energy of particles. Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) has been used to determine the surface energy of powder particles used in DPI to characterize materials and to understand aerosolization behaviour. Early studies used an infinite dilution technique to determine nonpolar surface energy and free energy of adsorption for polar interactions separately. Although some correlations were observed with the change in nonpolar surface energy before and after micronization, milling and storage, a lack of consistency in the change of free energy of adsorption was common. Moreover, a consistent relationship between complex de-agglomeration behaviour and surface energy has not been established and there are even some examples of negative correlation. In fact, nonpolar surface energy at infinite dilution is an incomplete representation of powder surface characteristics. The techniques for measuring polar surface energy, total surface energy and surface energy distribution have provided more revealing information about surface energetics of powders. Surface energy distributions determined by IGC or surface energy analyser have been successfully used to understand energetic heterogeneity of surfaces, characterize different polymorphs and understand changes due to micronization, structural relaxation, dry coating and storage. Efforts have been made to utilize surface energy distribution data to calculate powder strength distribution and to explain complex de-agglomeration behaviour of DPI formulations.

  9. A toxicological study of inhalable particulates in an industrial region of Lanzhou City, northwestern China: Results from plasmid scission assay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhenghui; Shao, Longyi; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Jing; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Deng, Zhenzhen; Wang, Zhen; BéruBé, Kelly

    2014-09-01

    The city of Lanzhou in northwestern China experiences serious air pollution episodes in the form of PM10 that is characterized by having high levels of heavy metals. The Xigu District represents the industrial core area of Lanzhou City and is denoted by having the largest petrochemical bases in western China. This study investigates heavy metal compositions and oxidative potential of airborne PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less) collected in Xigu District in the summer and winter of 2010. An in vitro plasmid scission assay (PSA) was employed to study the oxidative potential of airborne PM10 and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used to examine heavy metal compositions. Transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (TEM/EDX) was used to investigate elemental compositions and mixing states of PM10. The average mass concentrations of PM10 collected in Xigu District were generally higher than the national standard for daily PM10 (150 μg/m3). Cr, Zn, Pb and Mn were the most abundant metals in the intact whole particles of PM10. Zn, Mn and As was the most abundant metal in the water-soluble fraction, while Cr, Pb, and V existed primarily in insoluble forms. TD20 values (i.e. toxic dosage of PM10 causing 20% of plasmid DNA damage) varied considerably in both winter and summer (from 19 μg/mL to >1000 μg/mL) but were typically higher in summer, suggesting that the winter PM10 exhibited greater bioreactivity. In addition, the PM10 collected during a dust storm episode had a highest TD20 value and thus the least oxidative damage to supercoiled plasmid DNA, while the particles collected on a hazy day had a lowest TD20 value and thus the highest oxidative damage to supercoiled plasmid DNA. The particles collected on the first day after snow fall and on a day of cold air intrusion exhibited minor oxidative potential (i.e. caused limited DNA damage). The water-soluble Zn, Mn, As, and

  10. Subchronic inhalation of coal dust particulate matter 10 induces bronchoalveolar hyperplasia and decreases MUC5AC expression in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kania, Nia; Setiawan, Bambang; Widjadjanto, Edi; Nurdiana, Nurdiana; Widodo, M Aris; Kusuma, H M S Chandra

    2014-10-01

    Coal dust is a pollutant found in coal mines that are capable of inducing oxidative stress and inflammation, but the effects on lung metaplasia as an early step of carcinogenesis remain unknown. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of PM10 coal dust on lung histology, MUC5AC expression, epidermal growth factor (EGF) expression, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression. An experimental study was done on male Wistar rats, which were divided into the following groups: control groups exposed to coal dust for 14 days (at doses of 6.25 mg/m(3), 12.5 mg/m(3), and 25 mg/m(3)), and the groups exposed to coal dust for 28 days (at doses of 6.25 mg/m(3), 12.5 mg/m(3), and 25 mg/m(3)). EGF expressions in rat lungs were measured by ELISA. EGFR and MUC5AC were measured by a confocal laser scanning microscope. The bronchoalveolar epithelial image of the group exposed to coal dust for 14 and 28 days showed a epithelial rearrangement, hyperplastic (metaplastic) goblet cells, and scattered massive inflammatory cells. The pulmonary parenchymal image of the group of exposed to coal dust for 14 and 28 days showed scattered inflammatory cells filling up the pulmonary alveolar networks, leading to an appearance of thickened parenchymal alveoli until emphysema-like structure. There was no significant difference in MUC5AC, EGF, and EGFR expressions for 14-d exposure (p>0.05). There was no significant difference in EGF and EGFR expressions for 28-d exposure (p>0.05), but there was a significant difference in MUC5AC expression (p<0.05). We concluded that subchronic inhalation of coal dust particulate matter 10 induces bronchoalveolar reactive hyperplasia and rearrangement of epithelial cells which accompanied by decrease expression MUC5AC in male rats.

  11. [Study on the Relationship between the Inhalable Fine Particulate Matter of Xuanwei Coal Combustion and Lung Cancer].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiapeng; Cao, Yu; Huang, Yunchao; Li, Guangjian; Ye, Lianhua; Zhao, Guangqiang; Lei, Yujie; Chen, Xiaobo; Tian, Linwei

    2015-07-01

    背景与目的 云南省宣威地区是中国乃至世界肺癌的高发区,肺癌已成为制约当地社会经济发展和影响社会民生的重要因素。煤炭是当地主要的生活燃料,燃煤是当地室内污染的主要来源。本研究探讨云南宣威不同肺癌发病率地区烟煤燃烧过程中可吸入细颗粒物(fine particulate matter, PM2.5)产出情况,以及不同地区PM2.5成分异同。探讨吸入细颗粒物与当地肺癌高发的关系。方法 收集宣威市来宾镇老林煤矿C1煤层、宝山镇虎场煤矿K7煤层、文兴镇太平煤矿M30煤层的煤矿进行燃烧试验。收集室内的空气中的PM2.5进行称重,元素分析,用电子显微镜观察其形态,对比三种PM2.5异同。对宣威地区的肺癌患者的术后标本进行电子显微镜观察。结果 室内空气中的PM2.5浓度分别为C1煤(8.244±1.460)mg/m³,K7煤(5.066±0.984)mg/m³,K7煤(5.071±1.460)mg/m³;三组空气中PM2.5浓度两两比较差异有统计学意义(Ρ=0.029)。C1煤层中滤膜上的杂质有(Silicon, Si)和氧(Oxygen, O)元素富集,三组滤膜上均发现了碳(Carbon, C),硫(Sulfur, S)的聚集,在部分的滤膜上可见游离的二氧化硅(SiO2),部分滤膜上有铝(Aluminium, Al)、钙(Calcium, Ca)元素的聚集。C1煤层与其他煤层相比所产生颗粒物形态不规则,成团块状,杂质较多。在部分的宣威来宾地区的肺癌患者术后标本中,发现纳米级细颗粒的杂质。结论 C1煤与K7和M30煤燃烧产生的PM2.5不同,PM2.5的成分可能与当地肺癌高发相关。.

  12. Efficacy and safety of inhaled budesonide delivered once or twice daily via HFA-134a in mild to moderate persistent asthma in adult patients. Comparison with budesonide CFC.

    PubMed

    Vastagh, E; Kuna, P; Calistruc, P; Bogdan, M A

    2003-11-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate whether budesonide 4001 microg twice daily (Chiesi Farmaceutici S.p.A.) given with the HFA-134a propellant is equivalent in efficacy and safety to the same dose regimen delivered with the marketed CFC product in adult asthmatics with mild to moderate persistent asthma; the effects of budesonide HFA 800 microg once daily were also studied. After a 2-week run-in, a total number of 98, 103 and 97 patients were assigned to the 12-week treatment with budesonide given with HFA or CFC twice daily (morning and evening), or HFA once daily (morning), respectively. The main outcome variable morning PEFR, as well as evening PEFR and clinical symptoms (day-time and night-time asthma attacks, number of asthma-induced night-time awakenings and overall symptoms' scores) were measured daily by patients. Other standard pulmonary function testing were measured at clinic visits. A blood sample for morning serum dosing (8.00-10.00 AM) was taken at baseline and at endpoint. Adverse events and vital signs were also recorded. Significant improvements at endpoint in morning and evening PEFR, as well as in clinic PEFR and MEF50, were observed in both the twice daily groups only. An exact proof of equivalence between HFA and CFC given twice daily was demonstrated for the primary parameters, morning PEFR (equivalence pre-defined limits were +/- 40.27 l/min, difference between means = 4.0 l/min and 95% CI -6.9-14.9) and secondary parameters as evening PEFR: (limits +/- 40.19 l/min, difference between means = 2.1 l/min and 95% Confidence interval (CI) -9.4-13.5) and FEV1 (limits +/- 0.27 l, difference between means = 0.0 l and 95% CI -0.11-0.10). Less evident (but within limits) proofs of equivalence were shown in the comparisons with the once daily group. No substantial differences between the three groups were observed for the other efficacy variables, including symptoms and use of rescue salbutamol, which significantly improved over the run-in values

  13. SYSTEMIC VASCULAR DISEASE IN MALE B6C3F1 MICE EXPOSED TO PARTICULATE MATTER BY INHALATION: STUDIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Epidemiological studies suggest an association between ambient particulate matter and cardiopulmonary diseases in humans. The mechanisms underlying these health effects are poorly understood. To better understand the potential relationship between particulate-ma...

  14. SYSTEMIC VASCULAR DISEASE IN MALE B6C3F1 MICE EXPOSED TO PARTICULATE MATTER BY INHALATION: STUDIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL TOXICOLOGY PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Epidemiological studies suggest an association between ambient particulate matter and cardiopulmonary diseases in humans. The mechanisms underlying these health effects are poorly understood. To better understand the potential relationship between particulate-ma...

  15. Equivalent asthma control and systemic safety of inhaled budesonide delivered via HFA-134a or CFC propellant in a broad range of doses.

    PubMed

    Grzelewska-Rzymowska, I; Malolepszy, J; de Molina, M; Sladek, K; Zarkovice, J; Siergiejko, Z

    2003-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate an equivalent asthma control and safety of inhaled budesonide 200 microg unit-dose via a spacer device (Jet Spacer, Chiesi Farmaceutici S.p.A.) given with an HFA-134a or CFC propellant in stable patients treated with inhaled corticosteroids. A total number of 270 patients, 134 in the HFA-134a group and 136 in the CFC group, completed a 2-week run-in period and were then randomised to receive a daily dose of inhaled budesonide (low dose: 400 microg, medium dose: 800 microg, high dose: 1200 or 1600 microg), defined on the basis of the dose of previous inhaled steroids given twice daily for 12 weeks. Morning and evening PEFR, intake of rescue salbutamol, number of day-time and night-time asthma attacks, number of night-time awakenings due to asthma and clinical symptoms were recorded daily by patients on diary cards. Pulmonary function tests (FEV1, FVC, PEFR and MEF50) and vital signs were measured at the clinics at study entry, at the start of treatment and after 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks thereafter. Morning serum cortisol (8.00-10.00 AM) was measured at baseline and in the final visit. Adverse events and vital signs were recorded throughout the total study period. Small increases vs. baseline for lung function (more markedly in the high-dose subsets) and significant decreases of symptoms and use of rescue salbutamol were similarly observed in both groups. Equivalence was demonstrated for the primary endpoint morning PEFR (difference between means = -1.51 l/min; 95% CI: -9.40-6.37 l/min; pre-defined limits: +/- 42.16 l/min, i.e. +/- 10% of the reference LSM) as well as for evening PEFR and FEV1, both in the ITT population or on a per-protocol basis. No statistically significant differences between groups were observed in any of the other efficacy variables. A similar proportion of drug-related adverse events was observed in the two groups, without drug-related serious events in either group. No evidence of adrenal depletion

  16. Delivery of propellant soluble drug from a metered dose inhaler.

    PubMed Central

    Ashworth, H L; Wilson, C G; Sims, E E; Wotton, P K; Hardy, J G

    1991-01-01

    The deposition of particulate suspensions delivered from a metered dose inhaler has been investigated extensively. The distribution of propellant, delivered from a metered dose inhaler, was studied by radiolabelling it with technetium-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime. Andersen sampler measurements indicated that half of the dose was associated with particles in the size range 0.5-5 microns diameter. The preparation was administered to healthy subjects by inhalation and deposition was monitored with a gamma camera. Each lung image was divided into an inner, mid, and peripheral zone. The effects on deposition of varying the size of the delivery orifice (0.46, 0.61, and 0.76 mm internal diameters) and the effect of attaching a spacer were assessed. Lung deposition was independent of the orifice size within the actuator. Without the spacer the average dose deposited in the lungs was 39%, with 15% penetrating into the peripheral part of the lungs. Attachment of the spacer to the mouth-piece increased the mean lung deposition to 57% and reduced oropharyngeal deposition. The study has shown that propellant soluble drugs can be delivered efficiently to the lungs from a metered dose inhaler. Images PMID:2038731

  17. Lung deposition of 99mTc-radiolabeled albuterol delivered through a pressurized metered dose inhaler and spacer with facemask or mouthpiece in children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Ditcham, William; Murdzoska, Jasminka; Zhang, Guicheng; Roller, Christina; von Hollen, Dirk; Nikander, Kurt; Devadason, Sunalene G

    2014-08-01

    Research on the use of a pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI) with spacer (pMDI/spacer) in children has indicated oral inhalation via the spacer mouthpiece is more efficient than the combination of oral and nasal inhalation that occurs when a pMDI/spacer is used with a facemask. Changes in pMDI formulations and developments in spacer and facemask designs have highlighted the need for new comparative studies of spacer use, particularly focusing on the age at which children can be taught to transition from use of a pMDI/spacer with facemask to use of the spacer mouthpiece. Twelve children aged 3-5 years (7 males) with stable asthma were recruited. Of these, 10 children (6 males) completed both arms of the study. A transmission scan of each compliant subject was taken using a 37 MBq (99m)Tc flood source. Actuations (2-3) of a (99m)Tc-radiolabeled albuterol pMDI were administered through an antistatic spacer (OptiChamber Diamond) via either a facemask (medium LiteTouch facemask), or the spacer mouthpiece. The subject's inhalation pattern was simultaneously recorded using a pMDI Datalogger, and narrative data relating to tolerance and compliance were documented. Anterior and posterior planar scintigraphic scans were taken immediately after aerosol administration. Mean (SD) lung deposition (% total dose) was 18.1 (9.1)% with the facemask and 22.5 (7.9)% with the spacer mouthpiece (p>0.05). Peripheral lung deposition (expressed as peripheral:central (P:C) ratio) was higher in 7 out of 10 children with the facemask compared with the spacer mouthpiece: 1.3 (0.26) vs. 1.2 (0.35); (p=0.11). Head and neck deposition was higher with use of the facemask compared with the spacer mouthpiece: 19.7 (10.6)% vs. 10.8 (5.3)% (p=0.011). Lung deposition achieved using the spacer with facemask was higher than previously reported, with a difference of only 4.4% of total dose measured compared to the deposition with mouthpiece. This may be due to a combination of factors including p

  18. Inhalation of Carbon Black Nanoparticles Aggravates Pulmonary Inflammation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Saputra, Devina; Yoon, Jin-ha; Park, Hyunju; Heo, Yongju; Yang, Hyoseon; Lee, Eun Ji; Lee, Sangjin; Song, Chang-Woo; Lee, Kyuhong

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of recent studies have focused on the impact of particulate matter on human health. As a model for atmospheric particulate inhalation, we investigated the effects of inhaled carbon black nanoparticles (CBNP) on mice with bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. The CNBPs were generated by a novel aerosolization process, and the mice were exposed to the aerosol for 4 hours. We found that CBNP inhalation exacerbated lung inflammation, as evidenced by histopathology analysis and by the expression levels of interleukin-6 protein, fibronectin, and interferon-γ mRNAs in lung tissues. Notably, fibronectin mRNA expression showed a statistically significant increase in expression after CBNP exposure. These data suggest that the concentration of CBNPs delivered (calculated to be 12.5 μg/m3) can aggravate lung inflammation in mice. Our results also suggest that the inhalation of ultrafine particles like PM 2.5 is an impactful environmental risk factor for humans, particularly in susceptible populations with predisposing lung conditions. PMID:25071917

  19. Subchronic effects of inhaled ambient particulate matter on glucose homeostasis and target organ damage in a type 1 diabetic rat model

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Yuan-Horng; Charles, Chou C.-K.; Wang, Jyh-Seng; Tung, Chun-Liang; Li, Ya-Ru; Lo, Kai; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

    2014-12-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported associations between particulate matter (PM) and cardiovascular effects, and diabetes mellitus (DM) patients might be susceptible to these effects. The chief chronic injuries resulting from DM are small vascular injuries (micro-vascular complications) or large blood vessel injuries (macro-vascular complications). However, toxicological data regarding the effects of PM on DM-related cardiovascular complications is limited. Our objective was to investigate whether subchronic PM exposure alters glucose homeostasis and causes cardiovascular complications in a type 1 DM rat model. We constructed a real world PM{sub 2.5} exposure system, the Taipei Air Pollution Exposure System for Health Effects (TAPES), to continuously deliver non-concentrated PM for subchronic exposure. A type 1 DM rat model was induced using streptozotocin. Between December 22, 2009 and April 9, 2010, DM rats were exposed to PM or to filtered air (FA) using TAPES in Taipei, Taiwan, 24 h/day, 7 days/week, for a total of 16 weeks. The average concentrations (mean [SD]) of PM{sub 2.5} in the exposure and control chambers of the TAPES were 13.30 [8.65] and 0.13 [0.05] μg/m{sup 3}, respectively. Glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was significantly elevated after exposure to PM compared with exposure to FA (mean [SD], 7.7% [3.1%] vs. 4.7% [1.0%], P < 0.05). Interleukin 6 and fibrinogen levels were significantly increased after PM exposure. PM caused focal myocarditis, aortic medial thickness, advanced glomerulosclerosis, and accentuation of tubular damage of the kidney (tubular damage index: 1.76 [0.77] vs. 1.15 [0.36], P < 0.001). PM exposure might induce the macro- and micro-vascular complications in DM through chronic hyperglycemia and systemic inflammation. - Highlights: • The study demonstrated cardiovascular and renal effects of PM in a rat model of DM. • TAPES is a continuous, real world, long-term PM exposure system. • HbA1c, a marker of glycemic

  20. Airways Hyperresponsiveness Following a Single Inhalation Exposure to Doxorubicin-Induced Heart Failure Prevents Airways Transition Metal-Rich Particulate Matter in Hypertensive Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution results in airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR), however it also results in adverse cardiovascular effects, particularly in individuals with underlying cardiovascular disease. The impact of pre-existing cardiac deficit on PM-induced ...

  1. Airways Hyperresponsiveness Following a Single Inhalation Exposure to Doxorubicin-Induced Heart Failure Prevents Airways Transition Metal-Rich Particulate Matter in Hypertensive Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) air pollution results in airways hyperresponsiveness (AHR), however it also results in adverse cardiovascular effects, particularly in individuals with underlying cardiovascular disease. The impact of pre-existing cardiac deficit on PM-induced ...

  2. Assessment of personal exposure to inhalable indoor and outdoor particulate matter for student residents of an academic campus (IIT-Kanpur).

    PubMed

    Devi, J Jai; Gupta, Tarun; Tripathi, S N; Ujinwal, Kamal K

    2009-12-01

    Human exposure to particulate matter can have significant harmful effects on the respiratory and cardiovascular system. These effects vary with number, size, and chemical composition of particulate matter, which vary significantly with space and time. The Indian Institute of Technology-Kanpur (IITK), Kanpur, India, is a relatively clean academic campus in the northwest of a heavily polluted city, Kanpur. The major objectives of the study were to evaluate total exposure of fine and coarse fractions of PM(10) to a typical IITK student resident in different indoor microenvironments within the campus; to evaluate personal exposure to student residents during outdoor trips; and to evaluate personal exposure to a typical student resident carrying out routine activities. In order to account for all the sources of particulate matter exposure, measurements on several different days during the pre-monsoon season were carried out in the most common indoor microenvironments in the campus and during outdoor trips outside the campus. A 15-channel optical particle counter (model 1.108, GRIMM) was used to measure continuous real-time particle size distribution from 0.3 to 20 microm diameter. Using this instrument, exposure for 1 h at different indoor microenvironments was determined. Both the effects of location and activity, which, in turn, account for specific indoor sources and number of occupants, respectively, were carefully evaluated. Re-suspension of particles due to movement of people was found to be a major source of coarse particulate matter exposure. On the other hand, combustion sources led to elevated fine particulate levels. Chalk dust was found to be the major source of fine particulate matter in classrooms. Similar results on other sources of particulate matter are discussed in the paper. To assess the personal average size resolved particulate exposure on a student making a day trip outside the campus, study trips to most common public places in the city in a

  3. Inhaled technosphere regular insulin powder.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Zachary L; Clements, Jennifer N

    2015-11-01

    The lungs are an effective way to deliver insulin for patients with diabetes, but an initial inhaled insulin product was withdrawn from the market because of high cost and inconsistent dosing. This article describes a recently approved inhaled insulin that appears to control blood glucose as well as rapid-acting injectable insulin.

  4. Efficacy of adding multiple doses of oxitropium bromide to salbutamol delivered by means of a metered-dose inhaler with a spacer device in adults with acute severe asthma.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Y; Enomoto, N; Kawamoto, A; Hirai, R; Chida, K

    2000-09-01

    The efficacy of combination therapy adding multiple doses of anticholinergics to beta(2)-agonists to improve outcome has not been established in adults with acute severe asthma. This study was undertaken to compare the outcome of adults with acute severe asthma treated with 4 puffs of salbutamol (100 microg/actuation) every 20 minutes for 3 doses plus 4 puffs of oxitropium bromide (100 microg/actuation) with each of the 3 salbutamol doses versus salbutamol alone administered by means of a metered-dose inhaler with a spacer device. A randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed in 74 patients between 18 and 55 years old presenting to the emergency department (ED) for treatment of acute asthma with a peak expiratory flow (PEF) of 50% or less than the normal predicted value. The primary endpoint was improvement in PEF over the course. The secondary endpoint was the need for additional ED treatment at 120 minutes. The increase in PEF over the course was significantly greater in the oxitropium plus salbutamol treatment group (P <.0001). The mean absolute difference in PEF at 120 minutes for combination therapy compared with salbutamol alone was 37.8 L/min (P =.001). In addition, the proportion of need for additional ED treatment was less in the combination group than the group receiving salbutamol alone (odds ratio, 0.32; 95% confidence interval, 0.11-0.90). Adding multiple doses of oxitropium bromide to salbutamol delivered by means of a metered-dose inhaler with a spacer device for acute severe asthma produces a significant improvement in lung function and reduces the need for additional ED treatment.

  5. Engineering system for simultaneous inhalation exposures of rodents to fine and ultrafine concentrated ambient particulate matter from a common air source

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to elevated levels of ambient particulate matter (PM) smaller than 2.5 11m (PM2.5) has been associated with adverse health effects in both humans and animals. Specific properties of either fine (0.1-2.5 11m), or ultrafine « 0.1 11m) PM responsible for exposure related he...

  6. Engineering system for simultaneous inhalation exposures of rodents to fine and ultrafine concentrated ambient particulate matter from a common air source

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to elevated levels of ambient particulate matter (PM) smaller than 2.5 11m (PM2.5) has been associated with adverse health effects in both humans and animals. Specific properties of either fine (0.1-2.5 11m), or ultrafine « 0.1 11m) PM responsible for exposure related he...

  7. Physico-chemical characterisation of the inhalable particulate matter (PM10) in an urban area: an analysis of the seasonal trend.

    PubMed

    Paoletti, Luigi; De Berardis, Barbara; Diociaiuti, Marco

    2002-06-26

    Between October 1998 and February 2000, 11 particulate samplings were conducted in an urban area of Rome to evaluate the seasonal trend of PM10 characteristics: seven samplings were made at ground-level and four 30 m above ground level. The samples were analysed by scanning electron microscopy equipped with an EDS X-ray attachment and by transmission electron microscopy and an electron energy-loss spectrometer. The airborne particulate matter was characterised from a physico-chemical point of view to provide information on the particle composition and on the compounds carried on their surface. The data sets, consisting of the atomic concentrations of the constituent chemical elements of the fine (PM3.3) and of the coarse (PM10-3.3) particulate, were subjected to cluster analysis to determine the principal components of PM10. In the particulate matter, the statistical analysis methods allowed us to identify seven groups (clusters) of particles: C-rich particles; carbonates; silica; silicates; sulfates; Fe-rich particles; and metals. Carbonaceous and silicate particles with a surface coating containing S were observed. This sulfur-enriched coating turned out to be a PM3.3 feature strongly dependent upon season.

  8. Design of a hybrid computational fluid dynamics-monte carlo radiation transport methodology for radioactive particulate resuspension studies.

    PubMed

    Ali, Fawaz; Waller, Ed

    2014-10-01

    There are numerous scenarios where radioactive particulates can be displaced by external forces. For example, the detonation of a radiological dispersal device in an urban environment will result in the release of radioactive particulates that in turn can be resuspended into the breathing space by external forces such as wind flow in the vicinity of the detonation. A need exists to quantify the internal (due to inhalation) and external radiation doses that are delivered to bystanders; however, current state-of-the-art codes are unable to calculate accurately radiation doses that arise from the resuspension of radioactive particulates in complex topographies. To address this gap, a coupled computational fluid dynamics and Monte Carlo radiation transport approach has been developed. With the aid of particulate injections, the computational fluid dynamics simulation models characterize the resuspension of particulates in a complex urban geometry due to air-flow. The spatial and temporal distributions of these particulates are then used by the Monte Carlo radiation transport simulation to calculate the radiation doses delivered to various points within the simulated domain. A particular resuspension scenario has been modeled using this coupled framework, and the calculated internal (due to inhalation) and external radiation doses have been deemed reasonable. GAMBIT and FLUENT comprise the software suite used to perform the Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations, and Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended is used to perform the Monte Carlo Radiation Transport simulations.

  9. Inhalation Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... you can inhale that can cause acute internal injuries. Particles in the air from fires and toxic ... and lung diseases worse. Symptoms of acute inhalation injuries may include Coughing and phlegm A scratchy throat ...

  10. Inhalant abuse.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Storck, Michael

    2007-05-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet-underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This clinical report reviews key aspects of inhalant abuse, emphasizes the need for greater awareness, and offers advice regarding the pediatrician's role in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem.

  11. Inhalant Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... to every organ over time.Also, if your child abuses inhalants, he or she is likely to try ... How can I start a discussion about inhalant abuse with my child? Other organizationsNational Inhalant Prevention Coalition (NIPC)National Institute ...

  12. Electron paramagnetic resonance study of the generation of reactive oxygen species catalysed by transition metals and quinoid redox cycling by inhalable ambient particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Valavanidis, A; Fiotakis, K; Bakeas, E; Vlahogianni, T

    2005-01-01

    A range of epidemiological studies in the 1990s showed that exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) is associated with adverse health effects in the respiratory system and increased morbidity and mortality rates. Oxidative stress has emerged as a pivotal mechanism that underlies the toxic pulmonary effects of PM. A key question from a variety of studies was whether the adverse health effects of PM are mediated by the carbonaceous particles of their reactive chemical compounds adsorbed into the particles. Experimental evidence showed that PM contains redox-active transition metals, redox cycling quinoids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which act synergistically to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Fine PM has the ability to penetrate deep into the respiratory tree where it overcomes the antioxidant defences in the fluid lining of the lungs by the oxidative action of ROS. From a previous study [Valavanidis A, Salika A, Theodoropoulou A. Generation of hydroxyl radicals by urban suspended particulate air matter. The role of iron ions. Atmospher Environ 2000; 34 : 2379-2386], we established that ferrous ions in PM play an important role in the generation of hydroxyl radicals in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). In the present study, we investigated the synergistic effect of transition metals and persistent quinoid and semiquinone radicals for the generation of ROS without the presence of H2O2. We experimented with airborne particulate matter, such as TSPs (total suspended particulates), fresh automobile exhaust particles (diesel, DEP and gasoline, GEP) and fresh wood smoke soot. Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), we examined the quantities of persistent free radicals, characteristic of a mixture of quinoid radicals with different structures and a carbonaceous core of carbon-centred radicals. We extracted, separated and analysed the quinoid compounds by EPR at alkaline solution (pH 9.5) and by TLC. Also, we studied the direct

  13. Substance use - inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    Substance abuse - inhalants; Drug abuse - inhalants; Drug use - inhalants; Glue - inhalants ... symptoms and may include: Strong cravings for the drug Having mood swings from feeling depressed to agitated ...

  14. Assessment of the Halogen Content of Brazilian Inhalable Particulate Matter (PM10) Using High Resolution Molecular Absorption Spectrometry and Electrothermal Vaporization Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, with Direct Solid Sample Analysis.

    PubMed

    de Gois, Jefferson S; Almeida, Tarcisio S; Alves, Jeferson C; Araujo, Rennan G O; Borges, Daniel L G

    2016-03-15

    Halogens in the atmosphere play an important role in climate change and also represent a potential health hazard. However, quantification of halogens is not a trivial task, and methods that require minimum sample preparation are interesting alternatives. Hence, the aim of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of direct solid sample analysis using high-resolution continuum source molecular absorption spectrometry (HR-CS MAS) for F determination and electrothermal vaporization-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS) for simultaneous Cl, Br, and I determination in airborne inhalable particulate matter (PM10) collected in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil. Analysis using HR-CS MAS was accomplished by monitoring the CaF molecule, which was generated at high temperatures in the graphite furnace after the addition of Ca. Analysis using ETV-ICP-MS was carried out using Ca as chemical modifier/aerosol carrier in order to avoid losses of Cl, Br, and I during the pyrolysis step, with concomitant use of Pd as a permanent modifier. The direct analysis approach resulted in LODs that were proven adequate for halogen determination in PM10, using either standard addition calibration or calibration against a certified reference material. The method allowed the quantification of the halogens in 14 PM10 samples collected in a northeastern coastal city in Brazil. The results demonstrated variations of halogen content according to meteorological conditions, particularly related to rainfall, humidity, and sunlight irradiation.

  15. Quantifying the Reproducibility of Heart Position During Treatment and Corresponding Delivered Heart Dose in Voluntary Deep Inhalation Breath Hold for Left Breast Cancer Patients Treated With External Beam Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, Alyson; Shoushtari, Asal N.; Benedict, Stanley H.; Read, Paul W.; Wijesooriya, Krishni

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Voluntary deep inhalation breath hold (VDIBH) reduces heart dose during left breast irradiation. We present results of the first study performed to quantify reproducibility of breath hold using bony anatomy, heart position, and heart dose for VDIBH patients at treatment table. Methods and Materials: Data from 10 left breast cancer patients undergoing VDIBH whole-breast irradiation were analyzed. Two computed tomography (CT) scans, free breathing (FB) and VDIBH, were acquired to compare dose to critical structures. Pretreatment weekly kV orthogonal images and tangential ports were acquired. The displacement difference from spinal cord to sternum across the isocenter between coregistered planning Digitally Reconstructed Radiographs (DRRs) and kV imaging of bony thorax is a measure of breath hold reproducibility. The difference between bony coregistration and heart coregistration was the measured heart shift if the patient is aligned to bony anatomy. Results: Percentage of dose reductions from FB to VDIBH: mean heart dose (48%, SD 19%, p = 0.002), mean LAD dose (43%, SD 19%, p = 0.008), and maximum left anterior descending (LAD) dose (60%, SD 22%, p = 0.008). Average breath hold reproducibility using bony anatomy across the isocenter along the anteroposterior (AP) plane from planning to treatment is 1 (range, 0-3; SD, 1) mm. Average heart shifts with respect to bony anatomy between different breath holds are 2 {+-} 3 mm inferior, 1 {+-} 2 mm right, and 1 {+-} 3 mm posterior. Percentage dose changes from planning to delivery: mean heart dose (7%, SD 6%); mean LAD dose, ((9%, SD 7%)S, and maximum LAD dose, (11%, SD 11%) SD 11%, p = 0.008). Conclusion: We observed excellent three-dimensional bony registration between planning and pretreatment imaging. Reduced delivered dose to heart and LAD is maintained throughout VDIBH treatment.

  16. The association between ambient inhalable particulate matter and the disease burden of respiratory disease: An ecological study based on ten-year time series data in Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Qiang; Wu, Ziting; Jiang, Guohong; Wu, Xiaoyin; Li, Pei; Ni, Yang; Xiong, Xiuqin; Wang, Xinyan; Parasat; Li, Guoxing; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2017-08-01

    There is limited evidence available worldwide about the quantitative relationship between particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10µm (PM10) and years of life lost (YLL) caused by respiratory diseases (RD), especially regarding long-term time series data. We investigated the quantitative exposure-response association between PM10 and the disease burden of RD. We obtained the daily concentration of ambient pollutants (PM10, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide), temperature and relative humidity data, as well as the death monitoring data from 2001 to 2010 in Tianjin. Then, a time series database was built after the daily YLL of RD was calculated. We applied a generalized additive model (GAM) to estimate the burden of PM10 on daily YLL of RD and to determine the effect (the increase of daily YLL) of every 10μg/m(3) increase in PM10 on health. We found that every 10μg/m(3) increase in PM10 was associated with the greatest increase in YLL of 0.84 (95% CI: 0.45, 1.23) years at a 2-day (current day and previous day, lag01) moving average PM10 concentration for RD. The association between PM10 and YLL was stronger in females and the elderly (≥65 years of age). The association between PM10 and YLL of RD differed according to district. These findings also provide new epidemiological evidence for respiratory disease prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Indoor exposure to environmental cigarette smoke, but not other inhaled particulates associates with respiratory symptoms and diminished lung function in adults.

    PubMed

    Hersoug, Lars-Georg; Husemoen, Lise L N; Sigsgaard, Torben; Madsen, Flemming; Linneberg, Allan

    2010-08-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) can induce airway inflammation and exacerbation of asthma. However, there is limited knowledge about the effects of exposure to indoor sources of PM. We investigated the associations between self-reported exposure to indoor sources of PM and lower airway symptoms and lung function. A population-based cross-sectional study of 3471 persons aged 18-69 years was conducted. Information about exposure to indoor sources of PM and airway symptoms was obtained from a self-administered questionnaire. Exposure to wood stoves, candles and gas cookers was not significantly associated with an increased prevalence of lower respiratory symptoms or decreased lung function. In contrast, persons exposed to environmental tobacco smoke for >5 h/day had a significantly increased risk of 'wheeze' (OR 1.69, 95% CI: 1.24-2.30) and 'chronic cough' (OR 1.57, 95% CI: 1.12-2.20), as well as decreased lung function (FEV(1)% predicted), compared with those who were not exposed. Similar trends were observed in never smokers. In this cross-sectional study of an adult general population, self-reported exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, but not self-reported exposure to wood stoves, candles or gas cookers, appeared to be associated with an increased prevalence of lower airway symptoms and decreased lung function.

  18. Inhaled matters of the heart

    PubMed Central

    Zaky, Ahmed; Ahmad, Aftab; Dell’Italia, Louis J; Jahromi, Leila; Reisenberg, Lee Ann; Matalon, Sadis; Ahmad, Shama

    2015-01-01

    Inhalations of atmospheric pollutants, especially particulate matters, are known to cause severe cardiac effects and to exacerbate preexisting heart disease. Heart failure is an important sequellae of gaseous inhalation such as that of carbon monoxide. Similarly, other gases such as sulphur dioxide are known to cause detrimental cardiovascular events. However, mechanisms of these cardiac toxicities are so far unknown. Increased susceptibility of the heart to oxidative stress may play a role. Low levels of antioxidants in the heart as compared to other organs and high levels of reactive oxygen species produced due to the high energetic demand and metabolic rate in cardiac muscle are important in rendering this susceptibility. Acute inhalation of high concentrations of halogen gases is often fatal. Severe respiratory injury and distress occurs upon inhalation of halogens gases, such as chlorine and bromine; however, studies on their cardiac effects are scant. We have demonstrated that inhalation of high concentrations of halogen gases cause significant cardiac injury, dysfunction, and failure that can be critical in causing mortalities following exposures. Our studies also demonstrated that cardiac dysfunction occurs as a result of a direct insult independent of coexisting hypoxia, since it is not fully reversed by oxygen supplementation. Therefore, studies on offsite organ effects of inhaled toxic gases can impact development of treatment strategies upon accidental or deliberate exposures to these agents. Here we summarize the knowledge of cardiovascular effects of common inhaled toxic gases with the intent to highlight the importance of consideration of cardiac symptoms while treating the victims. PMID:26665179

  19. Health risk of inhalation exposure to sub-10 µm particulate matter and gaseous pollutants in an urban-industrial area in South Africa: an ecological study

    PubMed Central

    Morakinyo, Oyewale Mayowa; Adebowale, Ayo Stephen; Mokgobu, Matlou Ingrid; Mukhola, Murembiwa Stanley

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the health risks associated with exposure to particulate matter (PM10), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3). Design The study is an ecological study that used the year 2014 hourly ambient pollution data. Setting The study was conducted in an industrial area located in Pretoria West, South Africa. The area accommodates a coal-fired power station, metallurgical industries such as a coke plant and a manganese smelter. Data and method Estimate of possible health risks from exposure to airborne PM10, SO2, NO2, CO and O3 was performed using the US Environmental Protection Agency human health risk assessment framework. A scenario-assessment approach where normal (average exposure) and worst-case (continuous exposure) scenarios were developed for intermediate (24-hour) and chronic (annual) exposure periods for different exposure groups (infants, children, adults). The normal acute (1-hour) exposure to these pollutants was also determined. Outcome measures Presence or absence of adverse health effects from exposure to airborne pollutants. Results Average annual ambient concentration of PM10, NO2 and SO2 recorded was 48.3±43.4, 11.50±11.6 and 18.68±25.4 µg/m3, respectively, whereas the South African National Ambient Air Quality recommended 40, 40 and 50 µg/m3 for PM10, NO2 and SO2, respectively. Exposure to an hour's concentration of NO2, SO2, CO and O3, an 8-hour concentration of CO and O3, and a 24-hour concentration of PM10, NO2 and SO2 will not likely produce adverse effects to sensitive exposed groups. However, infants and children, rather than adults, are more likely to be affected. Moreover, for chronic annual exposure, PM10, NO2 and SO2 posed a health risk to sensitive individuals, with the severity of risk varying across exposed groups. Conclusions Long-term chronic exposure to airborne PM10, NO2 and SO2 pollutants may result in health risks among the study population. PMID:28289048

  20. Inhalant abuse

    PubMed Central

    Baydala, L

    2010-01-01

    Inhalant abuse – also known as volatile substance abuse, solvent abuse, sniffing, huffing and bagging – is the deliberate inhalation of a volatile substance to achieve an altered mental state. Inhalant abuse is a worldwide problem that is especially common in individuals from minority and marginalized populations, and is strongly correlated with the social determinants of health. It often affects younger children, compared with other forms of substance abuse, and crosses social and ethnic boundaries. Inhalants are pharmacologically diverse products that are selected for their low price, legal and widespread availability, and ability to rapidly induce euphoria. Chronic abuse is associated with serious and often irreversible effects. Widespread screening and early referrals to treatment programs have resulted in significant improvements in the mental, physical and social conditions of those affected. The present statement reviews critical aspects of inhalant abuse, highlighting new information and data that pertain to Aboriginal children and youth, and provides recommendations for treatment and prevention. PMID:21886449

  1. Dry-powder inhalers in acute asthma.

    PubMed

    Selroos, Olof

    2014-01-01

    An updated literature search was performed to evaluate the efficacy of rapid-acting β2-agonists delivered via dry powder inhalers in the treatment of moderate-to-severe acute asthma. Databases were searched from 1985 up to December 2012. A total of 23 randomized, double-blind or open clinical studies in acute asthma comparing the efficacy of a dry powder inhaler with a pressurized metered-dose inhaler or a nebulizer, and performed under controlled hospital conditions, were identified. This review found that administration of β2-agonist bronchodilators via dry powder inhalers (formoterol, salbutamol, terbutaline and budesonide/formoterol) was effective during severe asthma worsening and acute asthma attacks, and was as effective as established therapies with a pressurized metered-dose inhaler with or without a spacer, or nebulization. These results ensure that patients can rely upon dry powder inhalers equally well as other inhaler devices during episodes of asthma worsening.

  2. Asthma Inhalers

    MedlinePlus

    ... reduce the release of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) into the atmosphere when taking certain asthma medications. Until recently, most ... hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) inhalers, that do not rob the atmosphere of ozone. “The FDA [Food and Drug Administration] ...

  3. Inhaled Steroids

    MedlinePlus

    ... side effects with inhaled steroids are thrush (a yeast infection of the mouth or throat that causes ... There have been concerns regarding the possibility of growth suppression in children. Recent studies have not shown ...

  4. Liposomal formulations for inhalation.

    PubMed

    Cipolla, David; Gonda, Igor; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2013-08-01

    No marketed inhaled products currently use sustained release formulations such as liposomes to enhance drug disposition in the lung, but that may soon change. This review focuses on the interaction between liposomal formulations and the inhalation technology used to deliver them as aerosols. There have been a number of dated reviews evaluating nebulization of liposomes. While the information they shared is still accurate, this paper incorporates data from more recent publications to review the factors that affect aerosol performance. Recent reviews have comprehensively covered the development of dry powder liposomes for aerosolization and only the key aspects of those technologies will be summarized. There are now at least two inhaled liposomal products in late-stage clinical development: ARIKACE(®) (Insmed, NJ, USA), a liposomal amikacin, and Pulmaquin™ (Aradigm Corp., CA, USA), a liposomal ciprofloxacin, both of which treat a variety of patient populations with lung infections. This review also highlights the safety of inhaled liposomes and summarizes the clinical experience with liposomal formulations for pulmonary application.

  5. Inhalation Injury.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    alpha,-antitrypsin resulting cur most often as the result of tracheal in prolonged action of proteases such as or laryngeal damage from the endotra... curs is determined by physicochemical Turbulent airflow, such as at bifurca- properties of the inhaled substance, its tions of the airway, separates

  6. Particulate allergens potentiate allergic asthma in mice through sustained IgE-mediated mast cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Cong; Shelburne, Christopher P.; Li, Guojie; Potts, Erin N.; Riebe, Kristina J.; Sempowski, Gregory D.; Foster, W. Michael; Abraham, Soman N.

    2011-01-01

    Allergic asthma is characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation, and a cellular infiltrate dominated by eosinophils. Numerous epidemiological studies have related the exacerbation of allergic asthma with an increase in ambient inhalable particulate matter from air pollutants. This is because inhalable particles efficiently deliver airborne allergens deep into the airways, where they can aggravate allergic asthma symptoms. However, the cellular mechanisms by which inhalable particulate allergens (pAgs) potentiate asthmatic symptoms remain unknown, in part because most in vivo and in vitro studies exploring the pathogenesis of allergic asthma use soluble allergens (sAgs). Using a mouse model of allergic asthma, we found that, compared with their sAg counterparts, pAgs triggered markedly heightened airway hyperresponsiveness and pulmonary eosinophilia in allergen-sensitized mice. Mast cells (MCs) were implicated in this divergent response, as the differences in airway inflammatory responses provoked by the physical nature of the allergens were attenuated in MC-deficient mice. The pAgs were found to mediate MC-dependent responses by enhancing retention of pAg/IgE/FcεRI complexes within lipid raft–enriched, CD63+ endocytic compartments, which prolonged IgE/FcεRI-initiated signaling and resulted in heightened cytokine responses. These results reveal how the physical attributes of allergens can co-opt MC endocytic circuitry and signaling responses to aggravate pathological responses of allergic asthma in mice. PMID:21285515

  7. Synthetic polyacrylate polymers as particulate intranasal vaccine delivery systems for the induction of mucosal immune response.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Mehfuz; Simerska, Pavla; Toth, Istvan

    2010-04-01

    The nasal route as a site of vaccine delivery for both local and systemic effect is currently of considerable interest. The administration of vaccines to mucosal surfaces such as the nasopharynx associated lymphoid tissues confers many advantages since the nasal mucosa is a primary site through which most inhaled antigens are encountered. However, the success of intranasally delivered mucosal vaccines is limited by lack of effective vaccine formulations or delivery systems suitable for use in humans. This review provides a brief overview of the mucosal immune system at the nasal surface, enhancement techniques for induction of mucosal immune response after intranasal administration of particulate systems and an explanation of the inherent properties of polyacrylate polymer-based particulate systems that may facilitate mucosal immune responses.

  8. Cellular evaluation of the toxicity of combustion derived particulate matter: influence of particle grinding and washing on cellular response.

    PubMed

    Katterman, Matthew E; Birchard, Stephanie; Seraphin, Supapan; Riley, Mark R

    2007-01-01

    There is increasing interest in continual monitoring of air for the presence of inhalation health hazards, such as particulate matter, produced through combustion of fossil fuels. Currently there are no means to rapidly evaluate the relative toxicity of materials or to reliably predict potential health impact due to the complexity of the composition, size, and physical properties of particulate matter. This research evaluates the feasibility of utilizing cell cultures as the biological recognition element of an inhalation health monitoring system. The response of rat lung type II epithelial (RLE-6TN) cells to a variety of combustion derived particulates and their components has been evaluated. The focus of the current work is an evaluation of how particles are delivered to a cellular sensing array and to what degree does washing or grinding of the particles impacts the cellular response. There were significant differences in the response of these lung cells to PM's of varying sources. Mechanical grinding or washing was found to alter the toxicity of some of these particulates; however these effects were strongly dependent on the fuel source. Washing reduced toxicity of oil PM's, but had little effect on those from diesel or coal. Mechanical grinding could significantly increase the toxicity of coal PM's, but not for oil or diesel.

  9. Checklists for the Assessment of Correct Inhalation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Knipel, V; Schwarz, S; Magnet, F S; Storre, J H; Criée, C P; Windisch, W

    2017-02-01

    Introduction For the long-term treatment of obstructive lung diseases inhalation therapy with drugs being delivered directly to the lungs as an aerosol has become the method of choice. However, patient-related mistakes in inhalation techniques are frequent and recognized to be associated with reduced disease control. Since the assessment of patient-mistakes in inhalation has yet not been standardized, the present study was aimed at developing checklists for the assessment of correct inhalation. Methods Checklists were developed in German by an expert panel of pneumologists and professionally translated into English following back-translation procedures. The checklists comparably assessed three major steps of inhalation: 1) inhalation preparation, 2) inhalation routine, and 3) closure of inhalation. Results Checklists for eight frequently used inhalers were developed: Aerolizer, Breezhaler, Diskus (Accuhaler), metered-dose inhaler, Handihaler, Novolizer, Respimat, Turbohaler. Each checklist consists of ten items: three for inhalation preparation, six for inhalation routine, and one for closure of inhalation. Discussion Standardized checklists for frequently used inhalers are available in German and English. These checklists can be used for clinical routines or for clinical trials. All checklists can be downloaded free of charge for non-profit application from the homepage of the German Airway League (Deutsche Atemwegsliga e. V.): www.atemwegsliga.de.

  10. [Ciclesonide -- a new inhaled corticosteroid].

    PubMed

    Ukena, D

    2005-10-01

    Ciclesonide is a novel inhaled corticosteroid delivered as inactive prodrug via a hydrofluoroalkane metered-dose inhaler with a deposition rate of 50 - 60 %. At its target sites, the lungs, ciclesonide is converted to an active metabolite, desisobutyryl-ciclesonide (des-CIC) [so-called on-site activation]. High lipophilicity and formation of local depot prolong pulmonary duration of action, explaining once-daily administration of ciclesonide. High protein binding and rapid clearance reduce systemic interactions. In long-term studies, ciclesonide at doses as high as 1280-1600 microg/d did not suppress biochemical markers of adrenal function. Since ciclesonide is not being activated in the oropharynx, the incidence of local adverse effects is comparable to that of placebo. Compared to other ICS, ciclesonide shows a improved therapeutic index and can, therefore, be regarded as prototype of a new, third generation of inhaled corticosteroids.

  11. Delivering safety

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, N.D.; Spooner, K.G.; Walkden, P.

    2007-07-01

    In the United Kingdom there have been significant recent changes to the management of civil nuclear liabilities. With the formation in April 2005 of the Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA), ownership of the civil nuclear licensed sites in the UK, including the Magnox Reactor Stations, passed to this new organisation. The NDAs mission is to seek acceleration of the nuclear clean up programme and deliver increased value for money and, consequently, are driving their contractors to seek more innovative ways of performing work. British Nuclear Group manages the UK Magnox stations under contract to the NDA. This paper summarises the approach being taken within its Reactor Sites business to work with suppliers to enhance working arrangements at sites, improve the delivery of decommissioning programmes and deliver improvements in safety and environmental performance. The UK Magnox stations are 1. generation gas-graphite reactors, constructed in the 1950's and 1960's. Two stations are currently still operating, three are shut-down undergoing defueling and the other five are being decommissioned. Despite the distractions of industry restructuring, an uncompromising policy of demanding improved performance in conjunction with improved safety and environmental standards has been adopted. Over the past 5 years, this policy has resulted in step-changes in performance at Reactor Sites, with increased electrical output and accelerated defueling and decommissioning. The improvements in performance have been mirrored by improvements in safety (DACR of 0 at 5 sites); environmental standards (reductions in energy and water consumption, increased waste recycling) and the overall health of the workforce (20% reduction in sickness absence). These achievements have, in turn, been recognised by external bodies, resulting in several awards, including: the world's first ISRS and IERS level 10 awards (Sizewell, 2006), the NUMEX plant maintenance award (Bradwell, 2006), numerous Ro

  12. HUMAL ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGE RESPONSES TO AIR POLLUTION PARTICULATES ARE ASSOCIATED WITH INSOLUBLE OCMPONENTS OF COARSE MATERIAL, INCLUDING PARTICULATE ENDOTOXIN

    EPA Science Inventory


    Inhalation of particulate matter in the ambient air has been shown to cause pulmonary morbidity and exacerbate asthma. Alveolar macrophage (AM) are essential for effective removal of inhaled particles and microbes in the lower airways. While some particles minimally effect AM...

  13. HUMAL ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGE RESPONSES TO AIR POLLUTION PARTICULATES ARE ASSOCIATED WITH INSOLUBLE OCMPONENTS OF COARSE MATERIAL, INCLUDING PARTICULATE ENDOTOXIN

    EPA Science Inventory


    Inhalation of particulate matter in the ambient air has been shown to cause pulmonary morbidity and exacerbate asthma. Alveolar macrophage (AM) are essential for effective removal of inhaled particles and microbes in the lower airways. While some particles minimally effect AM...

  14. Ipratropium Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... not use your ipratropium inhaler when you are near a flame or source of heat. The inhaler may explode if it is exposed to very high temperatures.Before you use ipratropium inhalation for the first ...

  15. Beclomethasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... not use your beclomethasone inhaler when you are near a flame or source of heat. The inhaler may explode if it is exposed to very high temperatures.Each beclomethasone inhaler is designed to provide 50, ...

  16. Nicotine Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Nicotine oral inhalation is used to help people stop smoking. Nicotine oral inhalation should be used together with a ... support groups, counseling, or specific behavioral change techniques. Nicotine inhalation is in a class of medications called ...

  17. Albuterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... and airways). Albuterol inhalation aerosol and powder for oral inhalation is also used to prevent breathing difficulties ... years of age and older. Albuterol powder for oral inhalation (Proair Respiclick) is used in children 12 ...

  18. Inhalation toxicology.

    PubMed

    MacFarland, H N

    1975-07-01

    Two kinds of problems associated with developing standardized procedures for the safety evaluation of new compounds are identified. The first of these is the question of the desirability of using such standard methods. It is concluded that a basic set of procedures is to be recommended, but this should be supplemented with special tests as may be indicated. The second problem is connected with the technical difficulties of any given type of assay and is normally dealt with in terms of the state of the art at the time. Assays by the inhalation route tend to be custom designed and do not follow standard protocols. One of the causes of this situation is the propensity of individual investigators to design de novo the equipment used to effect exposure of animals to airborne substances. Second, some confusion exists because investigators do not always appreciate that the concentration-time product is not the same as the true dose received by the exposed subjects and this may lead to anomalies when dose-response relationships are being characterized. It is suggested that interlaboratory studies be undertaken to ascertain the variability that might be expected in independent assays of inhalation toxicity.

  19. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Brent C.; Constant, Stephanie L.; Patierno, Steven R.; Jurjus, Rosalyn A.; Ceryak, Susan M.

    2012-02-15

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ► Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ► Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ► Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ► Particulate Cr

  20. Flunisolide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... your flunisolide inhaler while you are near an open flame or a heat source. The inhaler may explode if it is exposed ... Do not store the inhaler near a heat source or an open flame. Protect the inhaler from freezing and direct ...

  1. Ciclesonide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... your ciclesonide inhaler while you are near an open flame or a heat source. The inhaler may explode if it is exposed ... Do not store the inhaler near a heat source or an open flame. Protect the inhaler from freezing and direct ...

  2. Fluticasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... fluticasone aerosol inhaler while you are near an open flame or a heat source. The inhaler may explode if it is exposed ... Do not store the inhaler near a heat source or an open flame. Protect the inhaler from freezing and direct ...

  3. Use of Respimat Soft Mist inhaler in COPD patients.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Paula

    2006-01-01

    Events of the past decade have stimulated development of new drug formulations and delivery devices that have improved the efficiency, ease of use, and environmental impact of inhaled drug therapy. Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler is a novel, multidose, propellant-free, hand-held, liquid inhaler that represents a new category of inhaler devices. The aerosol cloud generated by Respimat contains a higher fraction of fine particles than most pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) and dry powder inhalers (DPIs), and the aerosol spray exits the inhaler more slowly and for a longer duration than with pMDIs. This translates into higher lung drug deposition and lower oropharyngeal deposition, making it possible to give lower nominal doses of delivered drugs without lowering efficacy. In clinical trials in patients with COPD, bronchodilator drugs delivered from Respimat were equally effective at half of the dose delivered from a pMDI. In one study of inhaler preference, Respimat was preferred over the pMDI by patients with COPD and other obstructive lung diseases. Respimat is a valuable addition to the range of inhaler devices available to the patient with COPD.

  4. A novel sulfur mustard (HD) vapor inhalation exposure system for accurate inhaled dose delivery

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Mark R.; Benson, Eric M.; Kohne, Jonathon W.; Plahovinsak, Jennifer L.; Babin, Michael C.; Platoff, Gennady E.; Yeung, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A custom designed HD exposure system was used to deliver controlled inhaled doses to an animal model through an endotracheal tube. Methods Target HD vapor challenges were generated by a temperature controlled bubbler/aerosol trap, while concentration was monitored near real-time by gas chromatography. Animal breathing parameters were monitored real-time by an in-line pneumotach, pressure transducer, and Buxco pulmonary analysis computer/software. For each exposure, the challenge atmosphere was allowed to stabilize at the desired concentration while the anesthetized animal was provided humidity controlled clean air. Once the target concentration was achieved and stable, a portion of the challenge atmosphere was drawn past the endotracheal tube, where the animal inhaled the exposure ad libitum. During the exposure, HD vapor concentration and animal weight were used to calculate the needed inhaled volume to achieve the target inhaled dose (μg/kg). The exposures were halted when the inhaled volume was achieved. Results The exposure system successfully controlled HD concentrations from 22.2 to 278 mg/m3 and accurately delivered inhaled doses between 49.3 and 1120 μg/kg with actual administered doses being within 4% of the target level. Discussion This exposure system administers specific HD inhaled doses to evaluate physiological effects and for evaluation of potential medical countermeasure treatments. PMID:25291290

  5. [Inhalant-related disorder].

    PubMed

    Mizuhara, Yuki; Tsuchida, Hideto; Fukui, Kenji

    2010-08-01

    Inhalant abuse and dependence are prevalent in adolescent population because inhalants are inexpensive, legal and accessible substance for youth. In Japan, the prevalence of inhalant abuse and dependence is gradually declining in these days, although inhalants can still become a "gateway drug" to other dependent substances such as cocaine and cannabinoids. Inhalant abuse causes show serious mental and somatic symptoms, and mortality in acute and chronic phases, while the abusers are ignorant about it. This paper reviews recent studies that investigate the symptoms and the treatments of inhalant abuse and dependence.

  6. Empirical model for conveniently predicting total and regional lung deposition of inhaled aerosols

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate estimate of a dose of inhaled aerosols is a key factor for estimating potential health risks to exposure to ambient pollutant particulate matter on the one hand, and the therapeutic efficacy of inhaled drug aerosols on the other hand. Particle deposition in the lung is d...

  7. Smoke inhalation injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birky, M.

    The cause of death by fires was studied. The present results and information are, however, not enough to reduce loss of life or inhalation injury. The magnitude and type of inhalation injury for civilians and firefighters represents the most inadequately defined human element of accidental fires. Little information is available on compounds other than carbon monoxide, which are responsible for respiration injury or toxicological syndrome. Effective treatment methods for inhalation victims and studies on fatalities, inhalation injury and animals are suggested.

  8. Focus on Inhalants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Challenge: Safe, Disciplines, and Drug-Free Schools, 1994

    1994-01-01

    The use of inhalants is a major health concern among the school-age population. Information presented in this publication dispels the myths about inhalant use and presents common warning signs that alert teachers to a student's use. The short- and long-term effects of inhalant use are described to shed light on the health risks involved. Lesson…

  9. CBOs Helping Inhalant Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubio, Gloria

    1980-01-01

    Noting the high barrio use of inhalants, the environment often surrounding inhaling, and various treatment approaches, the article describes the programs of several Hispanic community-based organizations in Mexico, Arizona, and California which have been developed to assist inhalant abusers and their families in overcoming the habit. (SB)

  10. Hydrazine inhalation hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yung Hsiang; Chong, C H; Ng, W T; Lim, D

    2007-10-01

    Abstract Hydrazine is a hazardous chemical commonly used as a reactant in rocket and jet fuel cells. Animal studies have demonstrated hepatic changes after hydrazine inhalation. Human case reports of hydrazine inhalation hepatotoxicity are rare. We report a case of mild hepatotoxicity following brief hydrazine vapour inhalation in a healthy young man, which resolved completely on expectant management.

  11. Antitubercular inhaled therapy: opportunities, progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Rajesh; Khuller, G K

    2005-04-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis remains the commonest form of this disease and the development of methods for delivering antitubercular drugs directly to the lungs via the respiratory route is a rational therapeutic goal. The obvious advantages of inhaled therapy include direct drug delivery to the diseased organ, targeting to alveolar macrophages harbouring the mycobacteria, reduced risk of systemic toxicity and improved patient compliance. Research efforts have demonstrated the feasibility of various drug delivery systems employing liposomes, polymeric microparticles and nanoparticles to serve as inhalable antitubercular drug carriers. In particular, nanoparticles have emerged as a remarkably useful tool for this purpose. While some researchers have preferred dry powder inhalers, others have emphasized nebulization. Beginning with the respiratory delivery of a single antitubercular drug, it is now possible to deliver multiple drugs simultaneously with a greater therapeutic efficacy. More experience and expertise have been observed with synthetic polymers, nevertheless, the possibility of using natural polymers for inhaled therapy has yet to be explored. Several key issues such as patient education, cost of treatment, stability and large scale production of drug formulations, etc. need to be addressed before antitubercular inhaled therapy finds its way from theory to clinical reality.

  12. Cardiovascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Fine and Ultrafine Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Older Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Epidemiological studies have shown an association between the incidence of adverse cardiovascular effects and exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM). Advanced age is among the factors identified as conferring susceptibility to PM inhalation. In order to characteri...

  13. Cardiovascular Effects of Concentrated Ambient Fine and Ultrafine Particulate Matter Exposure in Healthy Older Volunteers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Epidemiological studies have shown an association between the incidence of adverse cardiovascular effects and exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM). Advanced age is among the factors identified as conferring susceptibility to PM inhalation. In order to characteri...

  14. Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Nose-Only Inhalation Exposures ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There is a critical need to assess the health effects associated with exposure of commercially produced NPs across the size ranges reflective of that detected in the industrial sectors that are generating, as well as incorporating, NPs into products. Generation of stable and low concentrations of size-fractionated nanoscale aerosols in nose-only chambers can be difficult, and when the aerosol agglomerates during generation, the problems are significantly increased. One problem is that many nanoscale aerosol generators have higher aerosol output and/or airflow than can be accommodated by a nose-only inhalation chamber, requiring much of the generated aerosol to be diverted to exhaust. Another problem is that mixing vessels used to modulate the fluctuating output from aerosol generators can cause substantial wall losses, consuming much of the generated aerosol. Other available aerosol generation systems can produce nanoscale aerosols from nanoparticles (NPs), however these NPs are generated in real time and do not approximate the physical and chemical characteristics of NPs that are commercially produced exposing the workers and the public. The health effects associated with exposure to commercial NP production, which are more morphologically and size heterogeneous, is required for risk assessment. To overcome these problems, a low-consumption dry-particulate nanoscale aerosol generator was developed to deliver stable concentrations in the range of 10–5000 µg

  15. Development of dry salbutamol sulfate powder with high inhalation performance independent of inhalation patterns.

    PubMed

    Hira, Daiki; Okuda, Tomoyuki; Ichihashi, Mika; Kojima, Haruyoshi; Okamoto, Hirokazu

    2012-01-01

    While dry powder inhalations are commonly used to treat pulmonary diseases, their clinical performance depends on patient inspiratory flow patterns. The purpose of this study was to develop a new powder with high and stable therapeutic performance for various patients. We applied the supercritical antisolvent (SCF) method to salbutamol sulfate (SS) to prepare a bulky SS particle (SS-SCF). Tests of in vitro inhalation performance with a human inspiratory flow simulator revealed SS-SCF to be less susceptible to inspiratory flow patterns than milled SS. When inspired, the unique structure seemed to be broken resulting in small fragments that could be delivered to the lungs. However, stability tests under physical stress showed tolerance for transportation and handling. In addition, optimization of the concentration of the SS solution applied to SCF method improved the in vitro inhalation performance of SS-SCF. These results indicated that a unique bulky SS powder prepared by the SCF method was useful for dry powder inhalation.

  16. Range-Finding Risk Assessment of Inhalation Exposure to Nanodiamonds in a Laboratory Environment

    PubMed Central

    Koivisto, Antti J.; Palomäki, Jaana E.; Viitanen, Anna-Kaisa; Siivola, Kirsi M.; Koponen, Ismo K.; Yu, Mingzhou; Kanerva, Tomi S.; Norppa, Hannu; Alenius, Harri T.; Hussein, Tareq; Savolainen, Kai M.; Hämeri, Kaarle J.

    2014-01-01

    This study considers fundamental methods in occupational risk assessment of exposure to airborne engineered nanomaterials. We discuss characterization of particle emissions, exposure assessment, hazard assessment with in vitro studies, and risk range characterization using calculated inhaled doses and dose-response translated to humans from in vitro studies. Here, the methods were utilized to assess workers’ risk range of inhalation exposure to nanodiamonds (NDs) during handling and sieving of ND powder. NDs were agglomerated to over 500 nm particles, and mean exposure levels of different work tasks varied from 0.24 to 4.96 µg·m−3 (0.08 to 0.74 cm−3). In vitro-experiments suggested that ND exposure may cause a risk for activation of inflammatory cascade. However, risk range characterization based on in vitro dose-response was not performed because accurate assessment of delivered (settled) dose on the cells was not possible. Comparison of ND exposure with common pollutants revealed that ND exposure was below 5 μg·m−3, which is one of the proposed exposure limits for diesel particulate matter, and the workers’ calculated dose of NDs during the measurement day was 74 ng which corresponded to 0.02% of the modeled daily (24 h) dose of submicrometer urban air particles. PMID:24840353

  17. Increased Non-conducted P-wave Arrhythmias after a Single Oil Fly Ash Inhalation Exposure in Hypertensive Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to combustion-derived fine particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality especially in individuals with cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. PM inhalation causes several adverse changes in cardiac function that ar...

  18. Increased Non-conducted P-wave Arrhythmias after a Single Oil Fly Ash Inhalation Exposure in Hypertensive Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to combustion-derived fine particulate matter (PM) is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality especially in individuals with cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. PM inhalation causes several adverse changes in cardiac function that ar...

  19. Inhalant abuse by adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kurtzman, T L; Otsuka, K N; Wahl, R A

    2001-03-01

    The deliberate misuse of volatile substances poses a poorly recognized risk for considerable morbidity and mortality in adolescent populations worldwide. The abuse of inhalants continues to be a significant problem among our country's youth. While many household and industrial chemicals can be inhaled, glues, paints, and aerosol propellants are among the most commonly abused. Adolescents are often unaware of the health threats posed by inhalation of solvents. Inhalation can result in serious organ system dysfunction or even sudden death. This review discusses the prevalence of inhalant abuse in the United States, summarizes the various types of substances used, highlights the major physiologic effects of inhalants, and briefly discusses associated risk behaviors, prevention and medical management.

  20. [Inhaled therapy in asthma].

    PubMed

    Plaza Moral, Vicente; Giner Donaire, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Because of its advantages, inhaled administration of aerosolized drugs is the administration route of choice for the treatment of asthma and COPD. Numerous technological advances in the devices used in inhaled therapy in recent decades have boosted the appearance of multiple inhalers and aerosolized drugs. However, this variety also requires that the prescribing physician is aware of their characteristics. The main objective of the present review is to summarize the current state of knowledge on inhalers and inhaled drugs commonly used in the treatment of asthma. The review ranges from theoretical aspects (fundamentals and available devices and drugs) to practical and relevant aspects for asthma care in the clinical setting (therapeutic strategies, education, and adherence to inhalers).

  1. Inhalant Abuse and Dextromethorphan.

    PubMed

    Storck, Michael; Black, Laura; Liddell, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This review presents current perspectives on epidemiology, detection, and clinical challenges of inhalant abuse and offers advice regarding the medical and mental health providers' roles in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem. Also discussed is the misuse of a specific "over-the-counter" dissociative, dextromethorphan.

  2. Inhalant allergies in children.

    PubMed

    Mims, James W; Veling, Maria C

    2011-06-01

    Children with chronic or recurrent upper respiratory inflammatory disease (rhinitis) should be considered for inhalant allergies. Risk factors for inhalant allergies in children include a first-degree relative with allergies, food allergy in infancy, and atopic dermatitis. Although inhalant allergies are rare in infancy, inhalant allergies are common in older children and impair quality of life and productivity. Differentiating between viral and allergic rhinitis can be challenging in children, but the child's age, history, and risk factors can provide helpful information. Allergic rhinitis is a risk factor for asthma, and if one is present, medical consideration of the other is warranted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. ASSESSMENT OF DIOXIN INHALATION EXPOSURES AND ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In the days following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attack on New York City's World Trade Center (WTC) towers, EPA, other federal agencies, and New York City and New York State public health and environmental authorities initiated numerous air monitoring activities to better understand the ongoing impact of emissions from that disaster. Using these data, EPA conducted an inhalation exposure and human health risk assessment. The overall evaluation focused on particulate matter, metals, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxin-like compounds, asbestos, and volatile organic compounds. This paper reports on the analysis of dioxin-like compounds only.Lorber, M. 2003. Assessment of Dioxin Inhalation Exposures and Potential Health Impacts Following the Collapse of the World Trade Center Towers. Organohalogen Compounds 63 (no page numbers). journal article

  4. Inhalation risk in low-gravity spacecraft.

    PubMed

    Todd, P; Sklar, V; Ramirez, W F; Smith, G J; Morgenthaler, G W; McKinnon, J T; Oberdorster, G; Schulz, J

    1994-07-01

    Inhalation risks on long-duration manned spaced flight include gasses chronically released by outgassing of materials, gasses released during spills, thermodegradation events (including fires) with their attendant particulates, and fire extinguishment. As an example, an event in which electronic insulation consisting of polytetrafluoroethylene undergoes thermodegradation on the Space Station Freedom was modeled experimentally and theoretically from the initial chemistry and convective transport through pulmonary deposition in humans. The low-gravity environment was found to impact various stages of event simulation. Critical unknowns were identified, and these include the extent of production of ultrafine particles and polymeric products at the source in low gravity, the transport of ultrafine particles in the spacecraft air quality control system, and the biological response of the lung, including alveolar macrophages, to this inhalation risk in low gravity.

  5. The ADMIT series--issues in inhalation therapy. 5) Inhaler selection in children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Søren; Dubus, Jean Christophe; Crompton, Graham K

    2010-09-01

    Many children with asthma do not use their inhalers correctly and consequently gain little or no therapeutic benefit from the treatment. The focus of inhalation therapy should be on those inhalers which are easiest to use correctly by various groups of children and the amount of tuition and training required to obtain a correct technique. It is recommended that clinicians focus on a limited number of inhalers. Most children can be taught effective inhalation therapy by using a pMDI, a pMDI with a spacer ,or a DPI. Most preschool children can be taught effective use of a pMDI and spacer with a valve system and a face mask. Therefore, this is the preferred mode of delivery in these age groups. When the child is capable of using the spacer without a face mask this administration technique should be adopted. In older children pMDIs are more difficult to use correctly than a pMDI with a spacer, a DPI ,or a breath-actuated pMDI. Because DPIs and breath-actuated pMDIs are more convenient to use these devices are normally considered the preferred inhalation devices in these age groups except for administration of beclometasone dipropionate, which for safety reasons should be delivered by a spacer.

  6. Influences of gender and anthropometric features on inspiratory inhaler acoustics and peak inspiratory flow rate.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Terence E; Holmes, Martin S; Sulaiman, Imran; Costello, Richard W; Reilly, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    Inhalers are hand-held devices used to treat chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Medication is delivered from an inhaler to the user through an inhalation maneuver. It is unclear whether gender and anthropometric features such as age, height, weight and body mass index (BMI) influence the acoustic properties of inspiratory inhaler sounds and peak inspiratory flow rate (PIFR) in inhalers. In this study, healthy male (n=9) and female (n=7) participants were asked to inhale at an inspiratory flow rate (IFR) of 60 L/min in four commonly used inhalers (Turbuhaler(™), Diskus(™), Ellipta(™) and Evohaler(™)). Ambient inspiratory sounds were recorded from the mouthpiece of each inhaler and over the trachea of each participant. Each participant's PIFR was also recorded for each of the four inhalers. Results showed that gender and anthropometric features have the potential to influence the spectral properties of ambient and tracheal inspiratory inhaler sounds. It was also observed that males achieved statistically significantly higher PIFRs in each inhaler in comparison to females (p<;0.05). Acoustic features were found to be significantly different across inhalers suggesting that acoustic features are modulated by the inhaler design and its internal resistance to airflow.

  7. Inhalation of chlorine gas.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J. G.

    1997-01-01

    The clinical features of acute chlorine gas inhalation, and its management are reviewed. Current medical views on the chronic effects of an acute overwhelming exposure on lung function (reactive airways dysfunction syndrome), and the more controversial field of lung disease secondary to repeated inhalations of lower concentrations of chlorine gas are discussed. Images Figure PMID:9519180

  8. Reasons for Inhalant Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joe, George W.; Simpson, D. Dwayne

    1991-01-01

    Among 110 Mexican-American adolescents in a Texas drug abuse program, initial use of toxicant inhalants was related to availability and sensation-seeking, followed by psychological problems, parental and home problems, and peer influence. Quitting inhalant use was related to social pressures, attitude change, and perceived health risks. (Author/SV)

  9. Nonthermal Inhalation Injury.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    understand the effects of the various byproducts of combustion on the human body. A thorough knowledge of the physiological mechanisms , relevant...as soon as possible. Overview of Smoke Inhalation Physiology The physiologic mechanisms of injury from smoke inhalation are multiple and complex...to breathe Lower airway obstruction Dyspnea, tachypnea, wheezing, rhonchi, carbonaceous sputum Parenchymal injury Dyspnea, tachypnea, rales Table 1

  10. Characterization of particulate matter size distributions and indoor concentrations from kerosene and diesel lamps.

    PubMed

    Apple, J; Vicente, R; Yarberry, A; Lohse, N; Mills, E; Jacobson, A; Poppendieck, D

    2010-10-01

    Over one-quarter of the world's population relies on fuel-based lighting. Kerosene lamps are often located in close proximity to users, potentially increasing the risk for respiratory illnesses and lung cancer. Particulate matter concentrations resulting from cook stoves have been extensively studied in the literature. However, characterization of particulate concentrations from fuel-based lighting has received minimal attention. This research demonstrates that vendors who use a single simple wick lamp in high-air-exchange market kiosks will likely be exposed to PM(2.5) concentrations that are an order of magnitude greater than ambient health guidelines. Using a hurricane lamp will reduce exposure to PM(2.5) and PM(10) concentrations by an order of magnitude compared to using a simple wick lamp. Vendors using a single hurricane or pressure lamp may not exceed health standards or guidelines for PM(2.5) and PM(10), but will be exposed to elevated 0.02-0.3 μm particle concentrations. Vendors who change from fuel-based lighting to electric lighting technology for enhanced illumination will likely gain the ancillary health benefit of reduced particulate matter exposure. Vendors exposed only to ambient and fuel-based lighting particulate matter would see over an 80% reduction in inhaled PM(2.5) mass if they switched from a simple wick lamp to an electric lighting technology. Changing lighting technologies to achieve increased efficiency and energy service levels can provide ancillary health benefits. The cheapest, crudest kerosene lamps emit the largest amounts of PM(2.5). Improving affordability and access to better lighting options (hurricane or pressure lamps and lighting using grid or off-grid electricity) can deliver health benefits for a large fraction of the world's population, while reducing the economic and environmental burden of the current fuel-based lighting technologies.

  11. Inhalants in Peru.

    PubMed

    Lerner, R; Ferrando, D

    1995-01-01

    In Peru, the prevalence and consequences of inhalant abuse appear to be low in the general population and high among marginalized children. Inhalant use ranks third in lifetime prevalence after alcohol and tobacco. Most of the use appears to be infrequent. Among marginalized children, that is, children working in the streets but living at home or children living in the street, the problem of inhalant abuse is a serious problem. Among children working in the streets but living at home, the lifetime prevalence rate for inhalant abuse is high, ranging from 15 to 45 percent depending on the study being cited. For children living in the streets, the use of inhalant is even more severe. As mentioned earlier in this chapter, most of these street children use inhalants on a daily basis. The lack of research on the problem of inhalant abuse is a serious impediment to development of intervention programs and strategies to address this problem in Peru. Epidemiologic and ethnographic research on the nature and extent of inhalant abuse are obvious prerequisites to targeted treatment and preventive intervention programs. The urgent need for current and valid data is underscored by the unique vulnerability of the youthful population at risk and the undisputed harm that results from chronic abuse of inhalants. Nonetheless, it is important to mention several programs that work with street children. Some, such as the Information and Education Center for the Prevention of Drug Abuse, Generation, and Centro Integracion de Menores en Abandono have shelters where street children are offered transition to a less marginal lifestyle. Teams of street educators provide the children with practical solutions and gain their confidence, as well as offer them alternative socialization experiences to help them survive the streets and avoid the often repressive and counterproductive environments typical of many institutions. Most of the children who go through these programs tend to abandon

  12. Ultrafine particulate matter exposure in vitro impairs vasorelaxant response in superoxide dismutase 2 deficient and aged murine aortic rings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies positively associate exposure to inhaled ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM) and adverse cardiovascular events. PM-induced oxidative stress is believed to be a key mechanism contributing to the adverse short-term vascular effects of air pollution exposure....

  13. Ultrafine particulate matter exposure in vitro impairs vasorelaxant response in superoxide dismutase 2 deficient and aged murine aortic rings

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies positively associate exposure to inhaled ultrafine particulate matter (UFPM) and adverse cardiovascular events. PM-induced oxidative stress is believed to be a key mechanism contributing to the adverse short-term vascular effects of air pollution exposure....

  14. SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND RATE OF PRODUCTION OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER GENERATED DURING METAL CUTTING

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.; S.K. Dua, Ph.D., C.H.P.; Hillol Guha, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    During deactivation and decommissioning activities, thermal cutting tools, such as plasma torch, laser, and gasoline torch, are used to cut metals. These activities generate fumes, smoke and particulates. These airborne species of matter, called aerosols, may be inhaled if suitable respiratory protection is not used. Inhalation of the airborne metallic aerosols has been reported to cause ill health effects, such as acute respiratory syndrome and chromosome damage in lymphocytes. In the nuclear industry, metals may be contaminated with radioactive materials. Cutting these metals, as in size reduction of gloveboxes and tanks, produces high concentrations of airborne transuranic particles. Particles of the respirable size range (size < 10 {micro}m) deposit in various compartments of the respiratory tract, the fraction and the site in the respiratory tract depending on the size of the particles. The dose delivered to the respiratory tract depends on the size distribution of the airborne particulates (aerosols) and their concentration and radioactivity/toxicity. The concentration of airborne particulate matter in an environment is dependent upon the rate of their production and the ventilation rate. Thus, measuring aerosol size distribution and generation rate is important for (1) the assessment of inhalation exposures of workers, (2) the selection of respiratory protection equipment, and (3) the design of appropriate filtration systems. Size distribution of the aerosols generated during cutting of different metals by plasma torch was measured. Cutting rates of different metals, rate of generation of respirable mass, as well as the fraction of the released kerf that become respirable were determined. This report presents results of these studies. Measurements of the particles generated during cutting of metal plates with a plasma arc torch revealed the presence of particles with mass median aerodynamic diameters of particles close to 0.2 {micro}m, arising from

  15. Albuterol and Ipratropium Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... out of the box and insert the narrow end into the inhaler. You can press the inhaler against a hard surface to be sure it is inserted correctly. Replace the clear plastic base on the inhaler. Hold the inhaler upright with ...

  16. Use of inhaler devices in pediatric asthma.

    PubMed

    De Benedictis, Fernando Maria; Selvaggio, David

    2003-01-01

    Inhalation is the preferred route for asthma therapy, since it offers a rapid onset of drug action, requires smaller doses, and reduces systemic effects compared with other routes of administration. Unfortunately, inhalation devices are frequently used in an empirical manner rather than on evidence-based awareness.A wide variety of nebulizers are available. Conventional jet nebulizers are highly inefficient, as much of the aerosol is wasted during exhalation. However, incorporating an extra open vent into the system has considerably increased the amount of drug that patients receive. Breath-assisted open vent nebulizers limit the loss of aerosol during exhalation, but are dependent on the patient's inspiratory flow. Ultrasonic nebulizers produce a high mass output and have a short nebulization time, but are inefficient for delivering suspensions or viscous solutions. Adaptive aerosol delivery devices release a precise dose that is tailored to the individual patient's breathing pattern. Nebulizers have several drawbacks, and their use should be limited to patients who cannot correctly manage other devices.Pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDI) are practical, cheap and multidose. However, there are several problems with their use. Breath-actuated MDI are easy to use and can be activated by very low flow. However, young children may not be able to use them efficiently. Dry powder inhalers (DPI) are portable and easy to use. They are indicated either for rescue bronchodilator therapy or for regular treatment with inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting bronchodilators. The use of spacers reduces oropharyngeal deposition and improves drug delivery to the lung. Spacers do not require patient coordination, but some general rules must be followed for their optimal use.Thus, the choice of a delivery device mainly depends on the age of the patient, the drug to be administered and the condition to be treated. Proper education is also essential when prescribing an inhalation

  17. Use of Respimat® Soft Mist™ Inhaler in COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Paula

    2006-01-01

    Events of the past decade have stimulated development of new drug formulations and delivery devices that have improved the efficiency, ease of use, and environmental impact of inhaled drug therapy. Respimat® Soft Mist™ Inhaler is a novel, multidose, propellant-free, hand-held, liquid inhaler that represents a new category of inhaler devices. The aerosol cloud generated by Respimat contains a higher fraction of fine particles than most pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) and dry powder inhalers (DPIs), and the aerosol spray exits the inhaler more slowly and for a longer duration than with pMDIs. This translates into higher lung drug deposition and lower oropharyngeal deposition, making it possible to give lower nominal doses of delivered drugs without lowering efficacy. In clinical trials in patients with COPD, bronchodilator drugs delivered from Respimat were equally effective at half of the dose delivered from a pMDI. In one study of inhaler preference, Respimat was preferred over the pMDI by patients with COPD and other obstructive lung diseases. Respimat is a valuable addition to the range of inhaler devices available to the patient with COPD. PMID:18046862

  18. Investigation of Appropriate Inhalation Technique for Mometasone Furoate Dry Powder Inhaler.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Haruko; Ito, Kanako; Mihashi, Hirokazu; Shiraishi, Yasuyuki; Takayanagi, Risa; Yamada, Yasuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish an appropriate inhalation method with a mometasone furoate dry powder inhaler (MF-DPI). Utilizing a tone-based inhalation training device, we investigated the maximum peak inspiratory flow rate time (Tmax PIFR) and peak inspiratory flow rate (PIFR) to determine whether either had an influence on lung deposition with use of an MF-DPI. A low tone indicated a PIFR of 28 L/min and a high tone that of 40 L/min, while 60 L/min was considered to be the standard. We established an inhalation profile in consideration of a human inhalation pattern, in which Tmax PIFR was set at 0.5 s (Tmax PIFR 0.5 s) and 2.5 s (Tmax PIFR 2.5 s). The reference cut-off value derived with a cascade impactor test was used for evaluation of the rate of delivered dose in the lung, which was the amount of drug from stage 3 to 7 at all PIFRs. We then investigated the relationship of the fine particle fraction (FPF) with the claimed dose at Tmax PIFR of 0.5 s and PIFR. There were no differences among the Tmax PIFR values for the doses emitted from the device or for the rate of delivered doses in stages 3-7. However, FPF for the claimed dose at 40 L/min was significantly lower than that at 60 L/min, which was dependent on PIFR. Our results showed that PIFR but not Tmax PIFR has an effect on lung deposition after inhalation with an MF-DPI.

  19. [Health significance of inhaled particles].

    PubMed

    Gillissen, A; Gessner, C; Hammerschmidt, S; Hoheisel, G; Wirtz, H

    2006-03-24

    Particulates refer to particles, dust, dirt, soot and aerosol mists that has suspended in the surrounding air. They may consist of solids of various forms including fibres or liquids. Long term exposure to silicon dioxide containing dusts (crystalline silica: quartz, tridymite, cristobalite, coesite, stishovite) may cause pneumoconiosis in the form of acute or/either chronic silicosis. Asbestos refers to a divers family of crystalline hydrated fibrous siliates typically exhibiting a greater tha 3:1 length ot diameter ratio. It is subdivided into serpentine (Chrysotile) and amphibole (crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite, tremolite, actinolite). Exposure to asbestos fibres may cause lung fibrosis and promote cancer of the lung or the pleura. Besides the induction of malignant diseases dust exposure may result in obstructive as well as restrictive lung diseases which may be compensate in case of the recognition as a occupational diseases. Other occupational exposures leading to pneumoconiosis are caused be talc, or metals including aluminium containing dusts. Also the group of man-made mineral (MMMFs) or vitreous fibres (MMVFs), including glass wool, rock wool, slag wool, glass filaments, microfibres, refractory ceramic fibres are bioactive under certain experimental conditions. Although it has been shown that MMMFs may cause malignancies when injected intraperitoneally in high quantities in rodents, inhalation trials and human studies could not reproduce these results in the same precision. Fine particles (particulate matter = PM) comprise one of the most widespread and harmful air pollutants in the industrialized world. PM may cause worsening of asthma and other respiratory diseases, reduce lung function development in children, potentially increased the risk of premature death in the elderly and enhance mortality from cardiac diseases. Because of the small size PM2.5 is seen to be even more hazardous than PM10.

  20. Cromolyn Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... dry air, or by inhaling substances such as pet dander, pollen, dust mites, or chemicals, such as ... disposed of in special ways to ensure that pets, children, and other people cannot consume them. However, ...

  1. Insulin Human Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Insulin inhalation is used in combination with a long-acting insulin to treat type 1 diabetes (condition in which the body does not produce insulin and therefore cannot control the amount of sugar ...

  2. Pirbuterol Acetate Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... bronchodilators. It works by relaxing and opening air passages in the lungs, making it easier to breathe. ... and stays up. Hold the inhaler around the middle and shake gently several times. Continue to hold ...

  3. Zanamivir Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... you use an inhaled medication to treat asthma, emphysema, or other breathing problems and you are scheduled ... the air passages that lead to the lungs); emphysema (damage to air sacs in the lungs); or ...

  4. Indacaterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... LABAs). It works by relaxing and opening air passages in the lungs, making it easier to breathe. ... use extra doses of indacaterol. Call your doctor right away.Indacaterol inhalation controls the symptoms of COPD ...

  5. Budesonide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Budesonide is used to prevent difficulty breathing, chest tightness, wheezing, and coughing caused by asthma. Budesonide powder for oral inhalation (Pulmicort Flexhaler) is used in adults and children 6 ...

  6. Acetylcysteine Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Acetylcysteine inhalation is used along with other treatments to relieve chest congestion due to thick or abnormal ... that causes problems with breathing, digestion, and reproduction). Acetylcysteine is in a class of medications called mucolytic ...

  7. Overview of inhalation toxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Dorato, M A

    1990-01-01

    The development of inhalation toxicology as a distinct discipline can be traced back well over one hundred years. The technology has advanced in terms of materials and designs used to construct inhalation chambers and the equipment used to generate controlled test atmospheres of a wide variety of gases, vapors, dusts, and droplets. Consideration of metered dose inhalers, a relatively recent concern, has led to the design of new equipment for administering this unique dosage form. The parameters used to evaluate inhalation toxicity are similar to those used for any other route of administration. In addition, there are some unique procedures for early screening of pulmonary toxicity, especially within a series of related chemicals. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. PMID:2200660

  8. Umeclidinium Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... chest tightness caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; a group of diseases that affect the lungs ... Do not use umeclidinium inhalation during a sudden COPD attack. Your doctor will prescribe a short-acting ( ...

  9. Olodaterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... chest tightness caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; a group of diseases that affect the lungs ... Do not use olodaterol inhalation during a sudden COPD attack. Your doctor will prescribe a short-acting ( ...

  10. Epidemiology of inhalant use.

    PubMed

    Medina-Mora, María Elena; Real, Tania

    2008-05-01

    The aim of the present article is to review recent research on the prevalence and correlates of inhalant use. During the review period more prevalence studies have been conducted in the developing world, adding information to the ongoing studies that are periodically undertaken in the more developed countries. These studies suggest that inhalant use is widespread among children and adolescents and is increasing among females in the developing and developed world. Not all surveys report inhalants as a separate group from other illegal substances; data by type of inhalants are even rarer, and few studies address abuse or dependence. New evidence suggests lower reliability rates for the diagnostic criteria of dependence as compared with other substances, suggesting the need for a review including the evidence of withdrawal. Studies conducted in the period identify vulnerable groups and suggest an increased risk of injecting drug use, HIV, suicidality and psychiatric disorders among inhalant users. The extension of inhalant abuse and its adverse consequences argues for greater efforts to advance classification and to increase knowledge through research, including the evaluation of prevention and treatment models.

  11. Effect of inhaler design variables on paediatric use of dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Lexmond, Anne J; Kruizinga, Tonnis J; Hagedoorn, Paul; Rottier, Bart L; Frijlink, Henderik W; de Boer, Anne H

    2014-01-01

    Age appropriateness is a major concern of pulmonary delivery devices, in particular of dry powder inhalers (DPIs), since their performance strongly depends on the inspiratory flow manoeuvre of the patient. Previous research on the use of DPIs by children focused mostly on specific DPIs or single inspiratory parameters. In this study, we investigated the requirements for a paediatric DPI more broadly using an instrumented test inhaler. Our primary aim was to assess the impact of airflow resistance on children's inspiratory flow profiles. Additionally, we investigated children's preferences for airflow resistance and mouthpiece design and how these relate to what may be most suitable for them. We tested 98 children (aged 4.7-12.6 years), of whom 91 were able to perform one or more correct inhalations through the test inhaler. We recorded flow profiles at five airflow resistances ranging from 0.025 to 0.055 kPa0.5.min.L-1 and computed various inspiratory flow parameters from these recordings. A sinuscope was used to observe any obstructions in the oral cavity during inhalation. 256 flow profiles were included for analysis. We found that both airflow resistance and the children's characteristics affect the inspiratory parameters. Our data suggest that a medium-high resistance is both suitable for and well appreciated by children aged 5-12 years. High incidences (up to 90%) of obstructions were found, which may restrict the use of DPIs by children. However, an oblong mouthpiece that was preferred the most appeared to positively affect the passageway through the oral cavity. To accommodate children from the age of 5 years onwards, a DPI should deliver a sufficiently high fine particle dose within an inhaled volume of 0.5 L and at a peak inspiratory flow rate of 25-40 L.min-1. We recommend taking these requirements into account for future paediatric inhaler development.

  12. Inhalant Use and Inhalant Use Disorders in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Matthew O.; Bowen, Scott E.; Garland, Eric L.; Perron, Brian E.; Vaughn, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    More than 22 million Americans age 12 and older have used inhalants, and every year more than 750,000 use inhalants for the first time. Despite the substantial prevalence and serious toxicities of inhalant use, it has been termed “the forgotten epidemic.” Inhalant abuse remains the least-studied form of substance abuse, although research on its epidemiology, neurobiology, treatment, and prevention has accelerated in recent years. This review examines current findings in these areas, identifies gaps in the research and clinical literatures pertaining to inhalant use, and discusses future directions for inhalant-related research and practice efforts. PMID:22003419

  13. The Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler, a Novel Inhaled Drug Delivery Device.

    PubMed

    Perriello, Emily A; Sobieraj, Diana M

    2016-01-01

    Summary The Respimat SMI offers a novel delivery mechanism for the management of primarily COPD, but asthma as well. Presently, four different medications, as monotherapy or a combination of two active ingredients, are available using the Respimat SMI technology. Multiple studies have demonstrated safety and efficacy of these drugs when delivered via Respimat SMI. Patients tend to prefer the Respimat SMI over traditional inhaler devices, as it overcomes some of the disadvantages posed by traditional delivery devices.

  14. Human exposure to particulate matter potentially contaminated with sin nombre virus.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Kyle S; Kuenzi, Amy; Douglass, Richard J; Hart, Julie; Carver, Scott

    2013-06-01

    The most common mechanism for human exposure to hantaviruses throughout North America is inhalation of virally contaminated particulates. However, risk factors associated with exposure to particulates potentially contaminated with hantaviruses are generally not well understood. In North America, Sin Nombre virus (SNV) is the most common hantavirus that infects humans, causing hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, which has a significant mortality rate (approximately 35%). We investigated human exposure to particulate matter and evaluated the effects of season, location (sylvan and peridomestic environment), and activity (walking and sweeping) on generation of particulates at the breathing zone (1.5 m above the ground). We found greater volumes of small inhalable particulates during the spring and summer compared to the fall and winter seasons and greater volumes of small inhalable particulates produced in peridomestic, compared to sylvan, environments. Also, greater volumes of particulates were generated at the breathing zone while walking compared to sweeping. Results suggest that more aerosolized particles were generated during the spring and summer months. Our findings suggest that simply moving around in buildings is a significant source of human exposure to particulates, potentially contaminated with SNV, during spring and summer seasons. These findings could be advanced by investigation of what particle sizes SNV is most likely to attach to, and where in the respiratory tract humans become infected.

  15. Primary and secondary particulate matter intake fraction from different height emission sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parvez, Fatema; Lamancusa, Carmen; Wagstrom, Kristina

    2017-09-01

    This study uses intake fraction, the fraction of emissions that are inhaled, to compare potential particulate matter exposure among different height emission sources. We use the Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT) in the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) to estimate intake fraction for primary and secondary particulate matter species from different height emission sources. We develop an approach to quantify intake fraction for both primary and secondary particulate matter species emitted from all types of emission sources in the contiguous United States. To compute intake fraction for secondary particulate matter species, we consider the inhalation of the precursor gas and condensed species based on the common atomic unit between the emitted gas and particulate matter product. Our calculated intake fraction varies from 1.0 to 4.9 per million for primary particulate matter, 0.4 to almost 6.0 per million for secondary species, including inhalation of both particulate matter and the relevant precursor species. Intake fraction is consistently higher in the winter than the summer for all species from all emission heights. The shortest height sources, which include area sources, display intake fractions over an order of magnitude greater than more elevated sources.

  16. Inhaled human insulin.

    PubMed

    Strack, Thomas R

    2006-04-01

    The benefit of subcutaneous insulin therapy in patients with diabetes is frequently limited due to difficulty in convincing patients of the importance of multiple daily insulin injections to cope effectively with meal-associated glycemic changes. Thus, the aim of achieving tight glycemic control, which is critical for reducing the risk of long-term diabetes-related complications, frequently remains elusive. The successful development of an inhalable insulin as a noninvasive alternative promises to change the management of diabetes. The first product to become available to patients is inhaled human insulin, a dry-powder formulation packaged into discrete blisters containing 1 or 3 mg of dry-powder human insulin and administered via a unique pulmonary inhaler device. It has recently been approved in both the United States and the European Union for the control of hyperglycemia in adult patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The pharmacokinetic profile of inhaled human insulin closely mimics the natural pattern of insulin secretion, and resembles that of rapid-acting subcutaneous analogs. Similarly to rapid-acting subcutaneous analogs, inhaled human insulin has a more rapid onset of glucose-lowering activity compared to subcutaneous regular insulin, allowing it to be administered shortly before meals. It has a duration of glucose-lowering activity comparable to subcutaneous regular insulin and longer than rapid-acting insulin analogs. Inhaled human insulin effectively controls postprandial glucose concentrations in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia, and even improves fasting glucose levels compared to subcutaneous insulin. Inhaled human insulin has an overall favorable safety profile. There are small reductions in lung function (1-1.5% of total lung forced expiratory volume in the first second [FEV1] capacity) after onset of treatment that are reversible in most patients if treatment is discontinued. Inhaled human

  17. Triple inhaled therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Montuschi, Paolo; Malerba, Mario; Macis, Giuseppe; Mores, Nadia; Santini, Giuseppe

    2016-11-01

    Combining individual drugs in a single inhaler is the most convenient way to deliver triple therapy. A long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonist (LAMA) added to an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)/long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonist (LABA) fixed-dose combination (FDC) can improve efficacy of pharmacological treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). New inhaled ICS/LABA/LAMA FDCs, including fluticasone furoate/vilanterol/umeclidinium, budesonide/formoterol/glycopyrronium and beclometasone/formoterol/glycopyrronium, are in Phase III of clinical development for COPD. Triple inhaled therapy might be particularly useful in patients with severe to very severe COPD, above all in those with peripheral blood or sputum eosinophilia, asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (ACOS) or frequent exacerbators. Future prospective studies should assess efficacy and safety of triple ICS/LABA/LAMA therapy in selected COPD phenotypes.

  18. [Inhaled treatments in cystic fibrosis: what's new in 2013?].

    PubMed

    Dubus, J-C; Bassinet, L; Chedevergne, F; Delaisi, B; Desmazes-Dufeu, N; Reychler, G; Vecellio, L

    2014-04-01

    In the past few years some new inhaled drugs and inhalation devices have been proposed for the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Breath-controlled nebulizers allow increased pulmonary deposition, with a lower variability and a shorter delivery time. The new dry powder formulations of tobramycin, colistine and mannitol require a change in the inhalation technique which must be slow and deep. In the field of the inhaled mucolytic drugs, hypertonic saline and mannitol have an indication in some patients. With regard to antibiotics, dry-powder tobramycin and colistine can be substituted for the same drug delivered by nebulization. Nebulized aztreonam needs more studies to determine its place. These new treatments represent a definite advance for cystic fibrosis patients and need to be known by all practitioners. Their position in our therapeutic arsenal remains to be accurately defined. Copyright © 2013 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Effectiveness of Inhalant Abuse Legislation.

    PubMed

    Batis, Jeffery C

    2017-01-28

    Since peaking in the 1990s, inhalant abuse has steadily decreased over the past two decades. Concurrently, nearly every state has passed legislation aimed at minimizing inhalant abuse. While males have historically been more likely to abuse inhalants than females, there is no longer a sex effect in self-reported rates of inhalant abuse. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of anti-inhalant abuse legislation on self-reported rates of inhalant abuse, in high school age males and females. Beginning in 1993, the CDC's biannual Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey asked respondents if they have ever used inhalants to get high. Data from these surveys were collected, along with the date of passage of anti-inhalant abuse legislation in 46 of 50 states. ANOVAs were conducted to assess the effect of legislation on self-reported inhalant abuse rates. There were no significant main effects or interactions that demonstrated that inhalant abuse rates decreased in males or females following passage of legislation aimed at decreasing inhalant abuse. Conclusion/Importance: To date, 46 of 50 states have passed laws aimed at minimizing inhalant abuse, and while inhalant abuse rates have been decreasing for the past two decades, there is no evidence that this decline is related to enactment of these laws. Further research is needed to determine the cause of the decrease in inhalant abuse. The laws may benefit from amendments to include options for treatment.

  20. Inhaled Formulation Design for the Treatment of Lung Infections.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Contreras, Lucila; Yadav, Khushwant S

    2015-01-01

    Lung infections may be bacterial, viral or fungal and they are typically treated with oral or parenteral antibiotics. Inhaled dry powder formulations offer unique opportunities for treating lung infections with enhanced effectiveness and stability. Since drug delivery to the lungs requires chronic and repeated administration of larger amounts of therapeutics, dry powder formulations are attractive alternatives to deliver drugs directly to the lungs as they are not limited by solubility issues and they are regarded as being more stable than liquid dosage forms. This state-of-the-art review presents the use of inhaled formulations for tuberculosis as a main focus, but also for other diseases such as bronchiectasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia and respiratory infections occurring as complications during lung transplants. Opportunities for the use of inhaled therapies and other respiratory diseases or as prevention or antidotes against warfare agents are offered. Typical and novel inhaled formulations that have been used as well as preclinical and clinical studies and evaluation of these inhaled therapies are discussed for each disease state. Lastly, the use of inhaled therapies as an alternative to end the emergence of drug resistant strains is discussed along with the risks of increasing these resistant strains if the inhaled therapy is not designed based on dosing regimens established by wellplanned pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies.

  1. PARTICULATE MATTER, OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Particulate matter (PM), a component of air pollution has been epidemiologically associated with sudden deaths, cardiovascular and respiratory illnesses. The effects are more pronounced in patients with pre-existing conditions such as asthma, diabetes or obstructive pulmonary disorders. Clinical and experimental studies have historically focused on the cardiopulmonary effects of PM. However, since PM particles carry numerous biocontaminants that are capable of triggering free radical production and cytokine release, the possibility that PM may affect organs systems sensitive to oxidative stress must be considered. Four independent studies that summarize the neurochemical and neuropathological changes found in the brains of PM exposed animals are described here. These were recently presented at two 2007 symposia sponsored by the Society of Toxicology (Charlotte, NC) and the International Neurotoxicology Association (Monterey, CA). Particulates are covered with biocontaminants (e.g., endotoxins, mold, pollen) which convey free radical activity that can damage the lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins of target cells on contact and stimulate inflammatory cytokine release. Although, the historical focus of PM toxicity has been cardiopulmonary targets, it is now appreciated that inhaled nano-size (<100 nm) particles quickly exit the lungs and enter the circulation where they distribute to various organ systems (l.e., liver, kidneys, testes, lymph nodes) (Takenaka et aI

  2. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1988-11-08

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

  3. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, L.W.

    1988-01-26

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover. 4 figs.

  4. Combustor for fine particulate coal

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1988-01-01

    A particulate coal combustor with two combustion chambers is provided. The first combustion chamber is toroidal; air and fuel are injected, mixed, circulated and partially combusted. The air to fuel ratio is controlled to avoid production of soot or nitrogen oxides. The mixture is then moved to a second combustion chamber by injection of additional air where combustion is completed and ash removed. Temperature in the second chamber is controlled by cooling and gas mixing. The clean stream of hot gas is then delivered to a prime mover.

  5. Inhaled insulin--does it become reality?

    PubMed

    Siekmeier, R; Scheuch, G

    2008-12-01

    After more than 80 years of history the American and European Drug Agencies (FDA and EMEA) approved the first pulmonary delivered version of insulin (Exubera) from Pfizer/Nektar early 2006. However, in October 2007, Pfizer announced it would be taking Exubera off the market, citing that the drug had failed to gain market acceptance. Since 1924 various attempts have been made to get away from injectable insulin. Three alternative delivery methods where always discussed: Delivery to the upper nasal airways or the deep lungs, and through the stomach. From these, the delivery through the deep lungs is the most promising, because the physiological barriers for the uptake are the smallest, the inspired aerosol is deposited on a large area and the absorption into the blood happens through the extremely thin alveolar membrane. However, there is concern about the long-term effects of inhaling a growth protein into the lungs. It was assumed that the large surface area over which the insulin is spread out would minimize negative effects. But recent news indicates that, at least in smokers, the bronchial tumour rate under inhaled insulin seems to be increased. These findings, despite the fact that they are not yet statistical significant and in no case found in a non-smoker, give additional arguments to stop marketing this approach. Several companies worked on providing inhalable insulin and the insulin powder inhalation system Exubera was the most advanced technology. Treatment has been approved for adults only and patients with pulmonary diseases (e.g., asthma, emphysema, COPD) and smokers (current smokers and individuals who recently quitted smoking) were excluded from this therapy. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of Exubera are similar to those found with short-acting subcutaneous human insulin or insulin analogs. It is thus possible to use Exubera as a substitute for short-acting human insulin or insulin analogs. Typical side effects of inhaled insulin were coughing

  6. Inhalation a significant exposure route for chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Schreder, Erika D; Uding, Nancy; La Guardia, Mark J

    2016-05-01

    Chlorinated organophosphate flame retardants (ClOPFRs) are widely used as additive flame retardants in consumer products including furniture, children's products, building materials, and textiles. Tests of indoor media in homes, offices, and other environments have shown these compounds are released from products and have become ubiquitous indoor pollutants. In house dust samples from Washington State, U.S.A., ClOPFRs were the flame retardants detected in the highest concentrations. Two ClOPFRs, tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDCPP or TDCIPP) and tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate (TCEP), have been designated as carcinogens, and there is growing concern about the toxicity of the homologue tris(1-chloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TCPP or TCIPP). In response to concerns about exposure to these compounds, the European Union and a number of U.S. states have taken regulatory action to restrict their use in certain product categories. To better characterize exposure to ClOPFRs, inhalation exposure was assessed using active personal air samplers in Washington State with both respirable and inhalable particulate fractions collected to assess the likelihood particles penetrate deep into the lungs. Concentrations of ∑ClOPFRs (respirable and inhalable) ranged from 97.1 to 1190 ng m(-3) (mean 426 ng m(-3)), with TCPP detected at the highest concentrations. In general, higher levels were detected in the inhalable particulate fraction. Total intake of ClOPFRs via the inhalation exposure route was estimated to exceed intake via dust ingestion, indicating that inhalation is an important route that should be taken into consideration in assessments of these compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution

    MedlinePlus

    ... Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution Contact Us Share Most PM particles form in ... and cause serious health effects. Particulate Matter (PM) Pollution PM Basics What is PM, and how does ...

  8. Inhalable desert dust, urban emissions, and potentially biotoxic metals in urban Saharan-Sahelian air

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, Virginia H.; Majewski, Michael S.; Konde, Lassana; Wolf, Ruth E.; Otto, Richard D.; Tsuneoka, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    Saharan dust incursions and particulates emitted from human activities degrade air quality throughout West Africa, especially in the rapidly expanding urban centers in the region. Particulate matter (PM) that can be inhaled is strongly associated with increased incidence of and mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and cancer. Air samples collected in the capital of a Saharan–Sahelian country (Bamako, Mali) between September 2012 and July 2013 were found to contain inhalable PM concentrations that exceeded World Health Organization (WHO) and US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) PM2.5 and PM10 24-h limits 58 – 98% of days and European Union (EU) PM10 24-h limit 98% of days. Mean concentrations were 1.2-to-4.5 fold greater than existing limits. Inhalable PM was enriched in transition metals, known to produce reactive oxygen species and initiate the inflammatory response, and other potentially bioactive and biotoxic metals/metalloids. Eroded mineral dust composed the bulk of inhalable PM, whereas most enriched metals/metalloids were likely emitted from oil combustion, biomass burning, refuse incineration, vehicle traffic, and mining activities. Human exposure to inhalable PM and associated metals/metalloids over 24-h was estimated. The findings indicate that inhalable PM in the Sahara–Sahel region may present a threat to human health, especially in urban areas with greater inhalable PM and transition metal exposure.

  9. Inhalable desert dust, urban emissions, and potentially biotoxic metals in urban Saharan-Sahelian air.

    PubMed

    Garrison, V H; Majewski, M S; Konde, L; Wolf, R E; Otto, R D; Tsuneoka, Y

    2014-12-01

    Saharan dust incursions and particulates emitted from human activities degrade air quality throughout West Africa, especially in the rapidly expanding urban centers in the region. Particulate matter (PM) that can be inhaled is strongly associated with increased incidence of and mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and cancer. Air samples collected in the capital of a Saharan-Sahelian country (Bamako, Mali) between September 2012 and July 2013 were found to contain inhalable PM concentrations that exceeded World Health Organization (WHO) and US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) PM2.5 and PM10 24-h limits 58 - 98% of days and European Union (EU) PM10 24-h limit 98% of days. Mean concentrations were 1.2-to-4.5 fold greater than existing limits. Inhalable PM was enriched in transition metals, known to produce reactive oxygen species and initiate the inflammatory response, and other potentially bioactive and biotoxic metals/metalloids. Eroded mineral dust composed the bulk of inhalable PM, whereas most enriched metals/metalloids were likely emitted from oil combustion, biomass burning, refuse incineration, vehicle traffic, and mining activities. Human exposure to inhalable PM and associated metals/metalloids over 24-h was estimated. The findings indicate that inhalable PM in the Sahara-Sahel region may present a threat to human health, especially in urban areas with greater inhalable PM and transition metal exposure.

  10. Acute Inhalation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gorguner, Metin; Akgun, Metin

    2010-01-01

    Inhaled substances may cause injury in pulmonary epithelium at various levels of respiratory tract, leading from simple symptoms to severe disease. Acute inhalation injury (AII) is not uncommon condition. There are certain high risk groups but AII may occur at various places including home or workplace. Environmental exposure is also possible. In addition to individual susceptibility, the characteristics of inhaled substances such as water solubility, size of substances and chemical properties may affect disease severity as well as its location. Although AII cases may recover in a few days but AII may cause long-term complications, even death. We aimed to discuss the effects of short-term exposures (minutes to hours) to toxic substances on the lungs. PMID:25610115

  11. Inhalation exposure methodology.

    PubMed Central

    Phalen, R F; Mannix, R C; Drew, R T

    1984-01-01

    Modern man is being confronted with an ever-increasing inventory of potentially toxic airborne substances. Exposures to these atmospheric contaminants occur in residential and commercial settings, as well as in the workplace. In order to study the toxicity of such materials, a special technology relating to inhalation exposure systems has evolved. The purpose of this paper is to provide a description of the techniques which are used in exposing laboratory subjects to airborne particles and gases. The various modes of inhalation exposure (whole body, head only, nose or mouth only, etc.) are described at length, including the advantages and disadvantages inherent to each mode. Numerous literature citations are included for further reading. Among the topics briefly discussed are the selection of appropriate animal species for toxicological testing, and the types of inhalation studies performed (acute, chronic, etc.). PMID:6383799

  12. NICKEL SPECIATION OF URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin C. Galbreath; Charlene R. Crocker; Carolyn M. Nyberg; Frank E. Huggins; Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-10-01

    A four-step sequential Ni extraction method, summarized in Table AB-1, was evaluated for identifying and quantifying the Ni species occurring in urban total suspended particulate (TSP) matter and fine particulate matter (<10 {micro}m [PM{sub 10}] and <2.5 {micro}m [PM{sub 2.5}] in aerodynamic diameter). The extraction method was originally developed for quantifying soluble, sulfidic, elemental, and oxidic forms of Ni that may occur in industrial atmospheres. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to evaluate the Ni species selectivity of the extraction method. Uncertainties in the chemical speciation of Ni in urban PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} greatly affect inhalation health risk estimates, primarily because of the large variability in acute, chronic, and cancer-causing effects for different Ni compounds.

  13. Metallochaperones: bind and deliver

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenzweig, A.C.

    2010-03-08

    Metallochaperones deliver metal ions directly to target proteins via specific protein-protein interactions. Recent research has led to a molecular picture of how some metallochaperones bind metal ions, recognize their partner proteins, and accomplish metal ion transfer.

  14. MODELING DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling Deposition of Inhaled Particles: ABSTRACT

    The mathematical modeling of the deposition and distribution of inhaled aerosols within human lungs is an invaluable tool in predicting both the health risks associated with inhaled environmental aerosols and the therapeut...

  15. MODELING DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling Deposition of Inhaled Particles: ABSTRACT

    The mathematical modeling of the deposition and distribution of inhaled aerosols within human lungs is an invaluable tool in predicting both the health risks associated with inhaled environmental aerosols and the therapeut...

  16. Who Can Use an Inhaler?

    MedlinePlus

    ... it can help stop breathing problems related to asthma. Inhalers are small and easily fit into your pocket or backpack. Research shows that even young kids can use inhalers, especially when they're used with a spacer . There are two types of inhalers: Metered (say: ...

  17. Comparison of the aerosol velocity and spray duration of Respimat Soft Mist inhaler and pressurized metered dose inhalers.

    PubMed

    Hochrainer, Dieter; Hölz, Hubert; Kreher, Christoph; Scaffidi, Luigi; Spallek, Michael; Wachtel, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    Apart from particle size distribution, spray velocity is one of the most important aerosol characteristics that influence lung deposition of inhaled drugs. The time period over which the aerosol is released (spray duration) is also important for coordination of inhalation. Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler (SMI) is a new generation, propellant-free inhaler that delivers drug to the lung much more efficiently than pressurised metered dose inhalers (pMDIs). The objective of this study was to compare the velocity and spray duration of aerosol clouds produced by Respimat SMI with those from a variety of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) pMDIs. All inhalers contained solutions or suspensions of bronchodilators. A videorecording method was used to determine the aerosol velocity. For spray duration, the time for generation of the Soft Mist by Respimat SMI was initially determined using three different methods (videorecording [techniques A and B], laser light diffraction and rotating disc). Videorecording was then used to compare the spray duration of Respimat SMI with those from the other inhalers. The Soft Mist produced by Respimat SMI moved much more slowly and had a more prolonged duration than aerosol clouds from pMDIs (mean velocity at a 10-cm distance from the nozzle: Respimat SMI, 0.8 m/sec; pMDIs, 2.0-8.4 m/sec; mean duration: Respimat SMI, 1.5 sec; pMDIs, 0.15-0.36 sec). These characteristics should result in improved lung and reduced oropharyngeal deposition, and are likely to simplify coordination of inhaler actuation and inhalation compared with pMDIs.

  18. Inhalants. Specialized Information Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.

    The document presents a collection of articles about inhalant abuse. Article 1 presents findings on the psychophysiological effects related to the use of amyl or butyl nitrate as a "recreational drug." Article 2 suggests a strong association between chronic sniffing of the solvent toulene and irreversible brain damage. Article 3 warns…

  19. Inhalants. Specialized Information Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.

    The document presents a collection of articles about inhalant abuse. Article 1 presents findings on the psychophysiological effects related to the use of amyl or butyl nitrate as a "recreational drug." Article 2 suggests a strong association between chronic sniffing of the solvent toulene and irreversible brain damage. Article 3 warns…

  20. Exposure assessment of particulates of diesel and natural gas fuelled buses in silico.

    PubMed

    Pietikäinen, Mari; Oravisjärvi, Kati; Rautio, Arja; Voutilainen, Arto; Ruuskanen, Juhani; Keiski, Riitta L

    2009-12-15

    Lung deposition estimates of particulate emissions of diesel and natural gas (CNG) fuelled vehicles were studied by using in silico methodology. Particulate emissions and particulate number size distributions of two Euro 2 petroleum based diesel buses and one Euro 3 gas bus were measured. One of the petroleum based diesel buses used in the study was equipped with an oxidation catalyst on the vehicle (DI-OC) while the second had a partial-DPF catalyst (DI-pDPF). The third bus used was the gas bus with an oxidation catalyst on the vehicle (CNG-OC). The measurements were done using a transient chassis dynamometer test cycle (Braunschweig cycle) and an Electric Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) with formed particulates in the size range of 7 nm to 10 microm. The total amounts of the emitted diesel particulates were 88-fold for DI-OC and 57-fold for DI-pDPF compared to the total amount of emitted CNG particulates. Estimates for the deposited particulates were computed with a lung deposition model ICRP 66 using in-house MATLAB scripts. The results were given as particulate numbers and percentages deposited in five different regions of the respiratory system. The percentages of particulates deposited in the respiratory system were 56% for DI-OC, 51% for DI-pDPF and 77% for CNG-OC of all the inhaled particulates. The result shows that under similar conditions the total lung dose of particulates originating from petroleum diesel fuelled engines DI-OC and DI-pDPF was more than 60-fold and 35-fold, respectively, compared to the lung dose of particulates originating from the CNG fuelled engine. The results also indicate that a majority (35-50%) of the inhaled particulates emitted from the tested petroleum diesel and CNG engines penetrate deep into the unciliated regions of the lung where gas-exchange occurs.

  1. Inhalation exposure to haloacetic acids and haloketones during showering.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xu; Weisel, Clifford P

    2003-02-01

    Inhalation exposure to haloacetic acids (HAAs) and haloketones (HKs) in contaminated drinking water occurs during showering. The size distribution of the aerosols generated by a shower was determined using an eight size-range particle counter, which measured particles from 0.1 to >2 microm. An exponential increase in aerosol numbers was observed while the shower water was on, while the aerosol numbers declined exponentially once the water was turned off. The half-lives of the shower aerosols were longer than 5 min after the shower water was turned off. Although the majority of the shower-generated aerosols were smaller than 0.3 microm, these aerosols only contributed approximately 2% to the measured total aerosol mass. The total shower-generated particulate HAA and HK concentrations collected on an open face filter were approximately 6.3 and 0.13 microg/m3, respectively, for shower water HAA and HK concentrations of 250 and 25 microg/L, respectively. The vapor-phase HK concentrations were 25-50 microg/m3. The estimate of the dose from inhalation exposure of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in the particulate phase indicate that they represent less than 1% of the ingestion dose, so inhalation is not expected to be an important exposure route to nonvolatile water contaminants or the portion of volatile DBPs that stay in the particulate phase, unless the lung is the target organ. The vapor-phase levels of volatile HKs, though, are significantly higher and can contribute greater than 10% of the ingestion dose during a shower. Thus, risk assessment to the these DBPs needs to consider the inhalation route.

  2. An acoustic method of automatically evaluating patient inhaler technique.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Martin S; D'Arcy, Shona; Costello, Richard W; Reilly, Richard B

    2013-01-01

    Chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) affect millions of people worldwide. Inhalers are devices utilized to deliver medication in small doses directly to the airways in the treatment of asthma and COPD. Despite the proven effectiveness of inhaler medication in controlling symptoms, many patients suffer from technique errors leading to decreased levels of medication efficacy. This study employs a recording device attached to a commonly used dry powder inhaler (DPI) to obtain the acoustic signals of patients taking their inhaler medication. The audio files provide information on how a patient uses their inhaler over a period of one month. Manually listening to such a large quantity of audio files would be a time consuming and monotonous process and therefore an algorithm that could automatically carry out this task would be of great benefit. An algorithm was thus designed and developed to detect inhalation, exhalation and blister events in the audio signals, analyze the quantity of each event, the order in which the events took place and finally provide a score on the overall performance. The algorithm was tested on a dataset of 185 audio files obtained from five community dwelling asthmatic patients in real world environments. Evaluation of the algorithm on this dataset revealed that it had an accuracy of 92.8% in deciding the correct technique score compared to manual detection methods.

  3. Inhaled Antibiotic Therapy in Chronic Respiratory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Maselli, Diego J.; Keyt, Holly; Restrepo, Marcos I.

    2017-01-01

    The management of patients with chronic respiratory diseases affected by difficult to treat infections has become a challenge in clinical practice. Conditions such as cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF bronchiectasis require extensive treatment strategies to deal with multidrug resistant pathogens that include Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Burkholderia species and non-tuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM). These challenges prompted scientists to deliver antimicrobial agents through the pulmonary system by using inhaled, aerosolized or nebulized antibiotics. Subsequent research advances focused on the development of antibiotic agents able to achieve high tissue concentrations capable of reducing the bacterial load of difficult-to-treat organisms in hosts with chronic respiratory conditions. In this review, we focus on the evidence regarding the use of antibiotic therapies administered through the respiratory system via inhalation, nebulization or aerosolization, specifically in patients with chronic respiratory diseases that include CF, non-CF bronchiectasis and NTM. However, further research is required to address the potential benefits, mechanisms of action and applications of inhaled antibiotics for the management of difficult-to-treat infections in patients with chronic respiratory diseases. PMID:28509852

  4. Therapy and prophylaxis of inhaled biological toxins.

    PubMed

    Paddle, Brian M

    2003-01-01

    This review highlights the current lack of therapeutic and prophylactic treatments for use against inhaled biological toxins, especially those considered as potential biological warfare (BW) or terrorist threats. Although vaccine development remains a priority, the use of rapidly deployable adjunctive therapeutic or prophylactic drugs could be life-saving in severe cases of intoxication or where vaccination has not been possible or immunity not established. The current lack of such drugs is due to many factors. Thus, methods involving molecular modelling are limited by the extent to which the cellular receptor sites and mode of action and structure of a toxin need to be known. There is also our general lack of knowledge of what effect individual toxins will have when inhaled into the lungs - whether and to what extent the action will be cell specific and cytotoxic or rather an acute inflammatory response requiring the use of immunomodulators. Possible sources of specific high-affinity toxin antagonists being investigated include monoclonal antibodies, selected oligonucleotides (aptamers) and derivatized dendritic polymers (dendrimers). The initial selection of suitable agents of these kinds can be made using cytotoxicity assays involving cultured normal human lung cells and a range of suitable indicators. The possibility that a mixture of selected antibody, aptamer or dendrimer-based materials for one or more toxins could be delivered simultaneously as injections or as inhaled aerosol sprays should be investigated. Copyright Crown Copyright 2003. Reproduced with the permission of Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. MECHANISMS OF ACTION OF INHALED FIBERS, PARTICLES AND NANOPARTICLES IN LUNG AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: A symposium on the mechanisms of action of inhaled airborne particulate matter (PM),pathogenic particles and fibers such as silica and asbestos, and nanomaterials, defined as synthetic particles or fibers less than 100 nm in diameter, was held on October 27 and 28,
    ...

  6. Assessment of Airborne Particles. Fundamentals, Applications, and Implications to Inhalation Toxicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Thomas T., Ed.; And Others

    Concern over chemical and radioactive particulate matter in industry and over rapidly increasing air pollution has stimulated research both on the properties of airborne particles and methods for assessing them and on their biological effects following inhalation. The Third Rochester International Conference on Environmental Toxicity was,…

  7. MECHANISMS OF ACTION OF INHALED FIBERS, PARTICLES AND NANOPARTICLES IN LUNG AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: A symposium on the mechanisms of action of inhaled airborne particulate matter (PM),pathogenic particles and fibers such as silica and asbestos, and nanomaterials, defined as synthetic particles or fibers less than 100 nm in diameter, was held on October 27 and 28,
    ...

  8. 42 CFR 84.177 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... air from adversely affecting filters, except where filters are specifically designed to resist... DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.177 Inhalation and exhalation valves... external influence; and (3) Designed and constructed to prevent inward leakage of contaminated air. ...

  9. 42 CFR 84.177 - Inhalation and exhalation valves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... air from adversely affecting filters, except where filters are specifically designed to resist... DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.177 Inhalation and exhalation valves... external influence; and (3) Designed and constructed to prevent inward leakage of contaminated air. ...

  10. Assessment of Airborne Particles. Fundamentals, Applications, and Implications to Inhalation Toxicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercer, Thomas T., Ed.; And Others

    Concern over chemical and radioactive particulate matter in industry and over rapidly increasing air pollution has stimulated research both on the properties of airborne particles and methods for assessing them and on their biological effects following inhalation. The Third Rochester International Conference on Environmental Toxicity was,…

  11. Can solar power deliver?

    PubMed

    Nelson, Jenny; Emmott, Christopher J M

    2013-08-13

    Solar power represents a vast resource which could, in principle, meet the world's needs for clean power generation. Recent growth in the use of photovoltaic (PV) technology has demonstrated the potential of solar power to deliver on a large scale. Whilst the dominant PV technology is based on crystalline silicon, a wide variety of alternative PV materials and device concepts have been explored in an attempt to decrease the cost of the photovoltaic electricity. This article explores the potential for such emerging technologies to deliver cost reductions, scalability of manufacture, rapid carbon mitigation and new science in order to accelerate the uptake of solar power technologies.

  12. Chlorine Gas Inhalation

    PubMed Central

    White, Carl W.; Martin, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Humans can come into contact with chlorine gas during short-term, high-level exposures due to traffic or rail accidents, spills, or other disasters. By contrast, workplace and public (swimming pools, etc.) exposures are more frequently long-term, low-level exposures, occasionally punctuated by unintentional transient increases. Acute exposures can result in symptoms of acute airway obstruction including wheezing, cough, chest tightness, and/or dyspnea. These findings are fairly nonspecific, and might be present after exposures to a number of inhaled chemical irritants. Clinical signs, including hypoxemia, wheezes, rales, and/or abnormal chest radiographs may be present. More severely affected individuals may suffer acute lung injury (ALI) and/or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Up to 1% of exposed individuals die. Humidified oxygen and inhaled β-adrenergic agents are appropriate therapies for victims with respiratory symptoms while assessments are underway. Inhaled bicarbonate and systemic or inhaled glucocorticoids also have been reported anecdotally to be beneficial. Chronic sequelae may include increased airways reactivity, which tends to diminish over time. Airways hyperreactivity may be more of a problem among those survivors that are older, have smoked, and/or have pre-existing chronic lung disease. Individuals suffering from irritant-induced asthma (IIA) due to workplace exposures to chlorine also tend to have similar characteristics, such as airways hyperresponsiveness to methacholine, and to be older and to have smoked. Other workplace studies, however, have indicated that workers exposed to chlorine dioxide/sulfur dioxide have tended to have increased risk for chronic bronchitis and/or recurrent wheezing attacks (one or more episodes) but not asthma, while those exposed to ozone have a greater incidence of asthma. Specific biomarkers for acute and chronic exposures to chlorine gas are currently lacking. Animal models for chlorine gas

  13. Food hypersensitivity by inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Daniel A; Bahna, Sami L

    2009-01-01

    Though not widely recognized, food hypersensitivity by inhalation can cause major morbidity in affected individuals. The exposure is usually more obvious and often substantial in occupational environments but frequently occurs in non-occupational settings, such as homes, schools, restaurants, grocery stores, and commercial flights. The exposure can be trivial, as in mere smelling or being in the vicinity of the food. The clinical manifestations can vary from a benign respiratory or cutaneous reaction to a systemic one that can be life-threatening. In addition to strict avoidance, such highly-sensitive subjects should carry self-injectable epinephrine and wear MedicAlert® identification. Asthma is a strong predisposing factor and should be well-controlled. It is of great significance that food inhalation can cause de novo sensitization. PMID:19232116

  14. Treatment of Inhalation Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-21

    injuries not visible with endoscopy. . Thermal and especially chemical inhalation injuries. Direct damage to the surfactant is probably implicated. o...exists a set of indirect alveolar lesions, subordinated to the skin burn itself, which is common in patients with extensive burns. This we call the...normo or hypocapnia. Very likely, a 5th lesional level exists which is the capillary itself(Venus et al). By primary or secondary damage , it affects the

  15. Diesel particulate control

    SciTech Connect

    Bertelsen, F.I. )

    1988-01-01

    Diesel particulates, because of their chemical composition and extremely small size, have raised health and welfare issues. Health experts have expressed concern that they contribute to or aggravate chronic lung diseases such as asthma, bronchitis and emphysema, and there is the lingering issue about the potential cancer risk from exposure to diesel particulate. Diesel particulates impair visibility, soil buildings, contribute to structural damage through corrosion and give off a pungent odor. Diesel trucks, buses and cars together are such a significant and growing source of particulate emissions. Such vehicles emit 30 to 70 times more particulate matter than gasoline vehicles equipped with catalytic converters. Diesel engines currently power the majority of larger trucks and buses. EPA predicted that, if left uncontrolled, diesel particulate from motor vehicles would increase significantly. Diesel particulate emissions from motor vehicles are particularly troublesome because they frequently are emitted directly into the breathing zone where we work and recreate. The U.S. Congress recognized the risks posed by diesel particulate and as part of the 1977 Clean Air Act Amendments established specific, technology-forcing requirements for controlling these emissions. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in 1980 established particulate standards for automobiles and light trucks and in 1985, heavy trucks and buses. California, concerned that EPA standards would not adequately protect its citizens, adopted its own set of standards for passenger cars and light trucks. This paper discusses emerging technologies proposed to address the problem.

  16. Inhaled chemotherapy in lung cancer: future concept of nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Zarogoulidis, Paul; Chatzaki, Ekaterini; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Domvri, Kalliopi; Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Goldberg, Eugene P; Karamanos, Nikos; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Regional chemotherapy was first used for lung cancer 30 years ago. Since then, new methods of drug delivery and pharmaceuticals have been investigated in vitro, and in animals and humans. An extensive review of drug delivery systems, pharmaceuticals, patient monitoring, methods of enhancing inhaled drug deposition, safety and efficacy, and also additional applications of inhaled chemotherapy and its advantages and disadvantages are presented. Regional chemotherapy to the lung parenchyma for lung cancer is feasible and efficient. Safety depends on the chemotherapy agent delivered to the lungs and is dose-dependent and time-dependent. Further evaluation is needed to provide data regarding early lung cancer stages, and whether regional chemotherapy can be used as neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment. Finally, inhaled chemotherapy could one day be administered at home with fewer systemic adverse effects.

  17. Inhaled chemotherapy in lung cancer: future concept of nanomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Zarogoulidis, Paul; Chatzaki, Ekaterini; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Domvri, Kalliopi; Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Goldberg, Eugene P; Karamanos, Nikos; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2012-01-01

    Regional chemotherapy was first used for lung cancer 30 years ago. Since then, new methods of drug delivery and pharmaceuticals have been investigated in vitro, and in animals and humans. An extensive review of drug delivery systems, pharmaceuticals, patient monitoring, methods of enhancing inhaled drug deposition, safety and efficacy, and also additional applications of inhaled chemotherapy and its advantages and disadvantages are presented. Regional chemotherapy to the lung parenchyma for lung cancer is feasible and efficient. Safety depends on the chemotherapy agent delivered to the lungs and is dose-dependent and time-dependent. Further evaluation is needed to provide data regarding early lung cancer stages, and whether regional chemotherapy can be used as neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment. Finally, inhaled chemotherapy could one day be administered at home with fewer systemic adverse effects. PMID:22619512

  18. Vehicular particulate matter emissions in road tunnels in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Ccoyllo, Odón R; Ynoue, Rita Y; Martins, Leila D; Astolfo, Rosana; Miranda, Regina M; Freitas, Edmilson D; Borges, Alessandro S; Fornaro, Adalgiza; Freitas, Helber; Moreira, Andréa; Andrade, Maria F

    2009-02-01

    In the metropolitan area of São Paulo, Brazil, ozone and particulate matter (PM) are the air pollutants that pose the greatest threat to air quality, since the PM and the ozone precursors (nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds) are the main source of air pollution from vehicular emissions. Vehicular emissions can be measured inside road tunnels, and those measurements can provide information about emission factors of in-use vehicles. Emission factors are used to estimate vehicular emissions and are described as the amount of species emitted per vehicle distance driven or per volume of fuel consumed. This study presents emission factor data for fine particles, coarse particles, inhalable particulate matter and black carbon, as well as size distribution data for inhalable particulate matter, as measured in March and May of 2004, respectively, in the Jânio Quadros and Maria Maluf road tunnels, both located in São Paulo. The Jânio Quadros tunnel carries mainly light-duty vehicles, whereas the Maria Maluf tunnel carries light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles. In the Jânio Quadros tunnel, the estimated light-duty vehicle emission factors for the trace elements copper and bromine were 261 and 220 microg km(-1), respectively, and 16, 197, 127 and 92 mg km(-1), respectively, for black carbon, inhalable particulate matter, coarse particles and fine particles. The mean contribution of heavy-duty vehicles to the emissions of black carbon, inhalable particulate matter, coarse particles and fine particles was, respectively 29, 4, 6 and 6 times higher than that of light-duty vehicles. The inhalable particulate matter emission factor for heavy-duty vehicles was 1.2 times higher than that found during dynamometer testing. In general, the particle emissions in São Paulo tunnels are higher than those found in other cities of the world.

  19. Inhalability for aerosols at ultra-low windspeeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleeth, Darrah K.; Vincent, James H.

    2009-02-01

    Most previous experimental studies of aerosol inhalability were conducted in wind tunnels for windspeeds greater than 0.5 ms-1. While that body of work was used to establish a convention for the inhalable fraction, results from studies in calm air chambers (for essentially zero windspeed) are being discussed as the basis of a modified criterion. However, information is lacking for windspeeds in the intermediate range, which - it so happens - pertain to most actual workplaces. With this in mind, we have developed a new experimental system to assess inhalability - and, ultimately, personal sampler performance - for aerosols with particle aerodynamic diameter within the range from about 9 to 90 μm for ultra-low windspeed environments from about 0.1 to 0.5 ms1. This new system contains an aerosol test facility, fully described elsewhere, that combines the physical attributes and performance characteristics of moving air wind tunnels and calm air chambers, both of which have featured individually in previous research. It also contains a specially-designed breathing, heated, life-sized mannequin that allows for accurate recovery of test particulate material that has been inhaled. Procedures have been developed that employ test aerosols of well-defined particle size distribution generated mechanically from narrowly-graded powders of fused alumina. Using this new system, we have conducted an extensive set of new experiments to measure the inhalability of a human subject (as represented by the mannequin), aimed at filling the current knowledge gap for conditions that are more realistic than those embodied in most previous research. These data reveal that inhalability throughout the range of interest is significantly different based on windspeed, indicating a rise in aspiration efficiency as windspeed decreases. Breathing flowrate and mode of breathing (i.e. nose versus mouth breathing) did not show significant differences for the inhalability of aerosols. On the whole

  20. Particulate Air Pollution: The Particulars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, James E.

    1973-01-01

    Describes some of the causes and consequences of particulate air pollution. Outlines the experimental procedures for measuring the amount of particulate materials that settles from the air and for observing the nature of particulate air pollution. (JR)

  1. Pitch based foam with particulate

    SciTech Connect

    Klett, James W.

    2001-01-01

    A thermally conductive, pitch based foam composite having a particulate content. The particulate alters the mechanical characteristics of the foam without severely degrading the foam thermal conductivity. The composite is formed by mixing the particulate with pitch prior to foaming.

  2. Particulate Air Pollution: The Particulars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, James E.

    1973-01-01

    Describes some of the causes and consequences of particulate air pollution. Outlines the experimental procedures for measuring the amount of particulate materials that settles from the air and for observing the nature of particulate air pollution. (JR)

  3. Airborne particulate discriminator

    DOEpatents

    Creek, Kathryn Louise; Castro, Alonso; Gray, Perry Clayton

    2009-08-11

    A method and apparatus for rapid and accurate detection and discrimination of biological, radiological, and chemical particles in air. A suspect aerosol of the target particulates is treated with a taggant aerosol of ultrafine particulates. Coagulation of the taggant and target particles causes a change in fluorescent properties of the cloud, providing an indication of the presence of the target.

  4. Particulate matter fugitive dusts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    Topics covered in this conference include: Review of EPA's cost/benefit analysis for additional regulation of surface coal mines; Particulate monitoring on the Kilauea East Rift, Hawaii, and The MEDUSA sampling system: case histories in the measurement of particulate matter with wide spectrum analysis.

  5. Particulate fracture during deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llorca, J.; Martin, A.; Ruiz, J.; Elices, M.

    1993-07-01

    The mechanisms of deformation and failure in a 2618 Al alloy reinforced with 15 vol pct SiC particilates were studied and compared with those of the unreinforced alloy, processed by spray forming as well. Tensile and fracture toughness tests were carried out on naturally aged and peak-aged specimens. The broken specimens were sliced through the middle, and the geometric features of fractured and intact particulates were measured. The experimental observations led to the conclusion that failure took place by the progressive fracture of the particulates until a critical volume fraction was reached. An influence of the particulate size and aspect ratio on the probability of fracture was found, the large and elongated particulates being more prone to fail, and the fracture stress in the particulates seemed to obey the Weibull statistics. The dif- ferences in ductility found between the naturally aged and peak-aged composites were explained in terms of the number of broken particulates as a function of the applied strain. Numerical simulations of the deformation process indicated that the stresses acting on the particulates are higher in the peak-aged material, precipitating the specimen failure. Moreover, the compressive residual stresses induced on the SiC during water quenching delayed the onset of particulate breakage in the naturally aged material.

  6. In Vitro Dosing Performance of the ELLIPTA® Dry Powder Inhaler Using Asthma and COPD Patient Inhalation Profiles Replicated with the Electronic Lung (eLung™)

    PubMed Central

    Leggett, Richard; Pang, Cheng; Charles, Stephen; Gillett, Ben; Prime, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: To evaluate the in vitro dose delivery characteristics of approved asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) therapies delivered via the ELLIPTA® dry powder inhaler across inhalation endpoints representative of the target patient population, using the Electronic Lung (eLung™) to replicate inhaler-specific patient inhalation profiles that were previously recorded in vivo. Methods: Selected profiles, representative of the range of inhalation endpoints achieved by patients with all severities of asthma and COPD, were replicated using the eLung breathing simulator in conjunction with an oropharyngeal cast. A Next Generation Impactor was coupled to the eLung to determine the aerodynamic particle size distribution of the ex-throat dose (ETD) of asthma and COPD therapies delivered via the ELLIPTA inhaler. Delivered dose (DD), ETD, and fine particle dose (FPD; defined as a mass of active substance less than 5 μm) were determined for fluticasone furoate (FF)/vilanterol (VI) 100/25 μg and 200/25 μg (asthma and COPD), umeclidinium (UMEC)/VI 62.5/25 μg (COPD only), FF 100 μg and 200μg monotherapy (asthma only), and UMEC 62.5 μg monotherapy (COPD only). Results: Inhalation profiles replicated by eLung covered a wide range of peak inspiratory flow rates (41.6–136.9 L/min), pressure drops (1.2–13.8 kPa), and inhaled volumes through the inhaler (0.7–4.2L). DD was consistent across the range of patient representative inhalation parameters for all components (FF, VI, and UMEC) of each therapy assessed; although ETD and FPD were also generally consistent, some small variation was observed. Dose delivery was consistent for each of the components, whether delivered as mono- or combination therapy. Conclusions: The in vitro performance of the ELLIPTA inhaler has been demonstrated for the delivery of FF/VI, UMEC/VI, FF monotherapy, and UMEC monotherapy. Across a range of inspiratory profiles, DD was consistent, while ETD

  7. In Vitro Dosing Performance of the ELLIPTA® Dry Powder Inhaler Using Asthma and COPD Patient Inhalation Profiles Replicated with the Electronic Lung (eLung™).

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Melanie; Leggett, Richard; Pang, Cheng; Charles, Stephen; Gillett, Ben; Prime, David

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the in vitro dose delivery characteristics of approved asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) therapies delivered via the ELLIPTA(®) dry powder inhaler across inhalation endpoints representative of the target patient population, using the Electronic Lung (eLung™) to replicate inhaler-specific patient inhalation profiles that were previously recorded in vivo. Selected profiles, representative of the range of inhalation endpoints achieved by patients with all severities of asthma and COPD, were replicated using the eLung breathing simulator in conjunction with an oropharyngeal cast. A Next Generation Impactor was coupled to the eLung to determine the aerodynamic particle size distribution of the ex-throat dose (ETD) of asthma and COPD therapies delivered via the ELLIPTA inhaler. Delivered dose (DD), ETD, and fine particle dose (FPD; defined as a mass of active substance less than 5 μm) were determined for fluticasone furoate (FF)/vilanterol (VI) 100/25 μg and 200/25 μg (asthma and COPD), umeclidinium (UMEC)/VI 62.5/25 μg (COPD only), FF 100 μg and 200μg monotherapy (asthma only), and UMEC 62.5 μg monotherapy (COPD only). Inhalation profiles replicated by eLung covered a wide range of peak inspiratory flow rates (41.6-136.9 L/min), pressure drops (1.2-13.8 kPa), and inhaled volumes through the inhaler (0.7-4.2L). DD was consistent across the range of patient representative inhalation parameters for all components (FF, VI, and UMEC) of each therapy assessed; although ETD and FPD were also generally consistent, some small variation was observed. Dose delivery was consistent for each of the components, whether delivered as mono- or combination therapy. The in vitro performance of the ELLIPTA inhaler has been demonstrated for the delivery of FF/VI, UMEC/VI, FF monotherapy, and UMEC monotherapy. Across a range of inspiratory profiles, DD was consistent, while ETD and FPD showed little flow dependency.

  8. How to Use Metered-Dose Inhalers

    MedlinePlus

    ... inhaler the right way so that the full dose of medication reaches your lungs. You can use ... inhaler.These directions explain how to use metered-dose inhalers. If you are using a different type ...

  9. Inhalation exposure of animals.

    PubMed Central

    Phalen, R F

    1976-01-01

    Relative advantages and disadvantages and important design criteria for various exposure methods are presented. Five types of exposures are discussed: whole-body chambers, head-only exposures, nose or mouth-only methods, lung-only exposures, and partial-lung exposures. Design considerations covered include: air cleaning and conditioning; construction materials; losses of exposure materials; evenness of exposure; sampling biases; animal observation and care; noise and vibration control, safe exhausts, chamber loading, reliability, pressure fluctuations; neck seals, masks, animal restraint methods; and animal comfort. Ethical considerations in use of animals in inhalation experiments are also discussed. PMID:1017420

  10. Comparative Toxicity of Biodiesel Exhaust and Petroleum Diesel Exhaust Particulate Matter Using WKY Rat Alveolar Machrophages

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to fine ambient particulate matter <2.5um (PM2.5) can induce airway inflammation, cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Combustion of petroleum diesel and biodiesel contributes to PM2.5. Possible toxicity caused by inhalation of biodiesel emission particles (BioDEP) h...

  11. EFFECT OF METAL REMOVAL ON THE TOXICITY OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER FROM THE UTAH VALLEY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract:
    Epidemiological studies have linked the inhalation of airborne particulate matter (PM) to increased morbidity and mortality in humans. However, the mechanism(s) of toxicity of these particles remains unclear. Some hypotheses state that the toxicity might stem fro...

  12. Comparative Toxicity of Biodiesel Exhaust and Petroleum Diesel Exhaust Particulate Matter Using WKY Rat Alveolar Machrophages

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to fine ambient particulate matter <2.5um (PM2.5) can induce airway inflammation, cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. Combustion of petroleum diesel and biodiesel contributes to PM2.5. Possible toxicity caused by inhalation of biodiesel emission particles (BioDEP) h...

  13. 42 CFR 84.170 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... inhalation pressure to draw the ambient air through the air-purifying filter elements (filters) to remove... particulate contaminants (e.g., dusts, fumes, mists) that are not immediately dangerous to life or health and... classified into three series, N-, R-, and P-series. The N-series filters are restricted to use in those...

  14. Comparative In Vivo and Ex Vivo Toxicity Studies of Wildfire Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhalation of particulate matter (PM) generated from biomass burning is of concern particularly as the frequency and severity of wildfires have been increasing. Size-fractionated PM samples (ultrafine, <0.2 µm; fine, 0.2-2.5 µm; coarse, 2.5-10 µm) were colle...

  15. Comparative In Vivo and Ex Vivo Toxicity Studies of Wildfire Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhalation of particulate matter (PM) generated from biomass burning is of concern particularly as the frequency and severity of wildfires have been increasing. Size-fractionated PM samples (ultrafine, <0.2 µm; fine, 0.2-2.5 µm; coarse, 2.5-10 µm) were colle...

  16. Absorption and metabolic effect of inhaled insulin: intrapatient variability after inhalation via the Aerodose insulin inhaler in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Perera, Ayesh D; Kapitza, Christoph; Nosek, Leszek; Fishman, Robert S; Shapiro, David A; Heise, Tim; Heinemann, Lutz

    2002-12-01

    To compare the intrapatient variability of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic responses to inhaled regular insulin (INH) delivered via the Aerodose Insulin Inhaler with that of subcutaneously injected regular insulin (SC) in patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 15 patients with type 2 diabetes (nonsmokers, 10 men, aged 47-77 years) received two 240-unit doses of INH, delivered via a clinical Aerodose Insulin Inhaler and two 24-unit doses of SC under euglycemic clamp conditions on four separate study days. Glucose infusion rates (GIRs) and serum insulin concentrations were monitored over the following 8 h. Comparisons of intrapatient coefficients of variation (CV) were used to assess the reproducibility of INH versus SC. INH showed a bioavailability (0-8 h postdosing) of 16% and biopotency of 13% relative to SC. Comparison of the CVs (%) for area under the curve for serum insulin and GIR between INH and SC showed no significant differences between the treatments during 0-3 h (19% for INH versus 23% for SC) or 0-8 h (22% for INH versus 16% for SC). INH exhibited a shorter time to peak insulin concentration (T(max) [mean +/- SD] 76 +/- 51 vs. 193 +/- 66 min) and shorter time to peak metabolic effect (T(GIRmax) 170 +/- 53 vs. 244 +/- 75 min) compared with SC (P < 0.001). No adverse events were observed. Comparable dosing reproducibility and shorter time to peak action of INH compared with SC suggest that INH delivered via the Aerodose Insulin Inhaler can provide reliable preprandial dosing of insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  17. American Indian Adolescent Inhalant Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurman, Pamela Jumper; Green, Vicki A.

    1997-01-01

    A study of inhalant use among 87 American Indian boarding school students aged 10-18 found that inhalant use was negatively related to participation in traditional tribal activities for both males and females and was also related to measures of cognitive ability and cognitive egocentrism for males. (Contains 43 references.) (SV)

  18. Hydrodynamics of viscous inhalant flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    True, Aaron C.; Crimaldi, John P.

    2017-05-01

    Inhalant flows draw fluid into an orifice from a reservoir and are ubiquitous in engineering and biology. Surprisingly, there is a lack of quantitative information on viscous inhalant flows. We consider here laminar flows (Reynolds number Re≤100 ) developing after impulsive inhalation begins. We implement finite element simulations of flows with varying Re and extraction height h (orifice height above a bottom bed). Numerical results are experimentally validated using particle image velocimetry measurements in a physical model for a representative flow case in the middle of the Re-h parameter space. We use two metrics to characterize the flow in space and time: regions of influence (ROIs), which describe the spatial extent of the flow field, and inhalation volumes, which describe the initial distribution of inhaled fluid. The transient response for all Re features an inviscid sinklike component at early times followed by a viscous diffusive component. At lower Re, diffusion entrains an increasing volume of fluid over time, enlarging the ROI indefinitely. In some geometries, these flows spatially bifurcate, with some fluid being inhaled through the orifice and some bypassing into recirculation. At higher Re, inward advection dominates outward viscous diffusion and the flow remains trapped in a sinklike state. Both ROIs and inhalation volumes are strongly dependent on Re and extraction height, suggesting that organisms or engineers could tune these parameters to achieve specific inhalation criteria.

  19. Iloprost inhalation in mild asthma.

    PubMed

    Majeski, Elizabeth; Hoskins, Aimee; Dworski, Ryszard; Sheller, James R

    2012-11-01

    To determine the feasibility of administering iloprost by inhalation in patients with mild atopic asthma. Volunteers underwent supervised inhalation of iloprost in the clinic with measurement of spirometry and blood pressure for 2 hours. The volunteers then inhaled iloprost four times daily at a dose of 2.5 or 5 μg for 14 days. Spirometry, asthma questionnaires, peak flow diaries, measurement of methacholine responsiveness, and exhaled nitric oxide concentrations were obtained prior to and after the treatment period. Chronic inhalation of iloprost (2.5-5 μg) did not alter spirometry or methacholine responsiveness. Inhaled iloprost in carefully selected volunteers with mild asthma appears to be a suitable intervention to explore the effects of prostacyclin in human asthma.

  20. Inhalation delivery of protein therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Kane, Colleen; O'Neil, Karyn; Conk, Michelle; Picha, Kristen

    2013-04-01

    Inhaled therapeutics are used routinely to treat a variety of pulmonary diseases including asthma, COPD and cystic fibrosis. In addition, biological therapies represent the fastest growing segment of approved pharmaceuticals. However, despite the increased availability of biological therapies, nearly all inhaled therapeutics are small molecule drugs with only a single inhaled protein therapeutic approved. There remains a significant unmet need for therapeutics in pulmonary diseases, and biological therapies with potential to alter disease progression represent a significant opportunity to treat these challenging diseases. This review provides a background into efforts to develop inhaled biological therapies and highlights some of the associated challenges. In addition, we speculate on the ideal properties of a biologic therapy for inhaled delivery.

  1. The impact of particle size selective sampling methods on occupational assessment of airborne beryllium particulates.

    PubMed

    Sleeth, Darrah K

    2013-05-01

    In 2010, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) formally changed its Threshold Limit Value (TLV) for beryllium from a 'total' particulate sample to an inhalable particulate sample. This change may have important implications for workplace air sampling of beryllium. A history of particle size-selective sampling methods, with a special focus on beryllium, will be provided. The current state of the science on inhalable sampling will also be presented, including a look to the future at what new methods or technology may be on the horizon. This includes new sampling criteria focused on particle deposition in the lung, proposed changes to the existing inhalable convention, as well as how the issues facing beryllium sampling may help drive other changes in sampling technology.

  2. Neurological impacts from inhalation of pollutants and the nose-brain connection.

    PubMed

    Lucchini, R G; Dorman, D C; Elder, A; Veronesi, B

    2012-08-01

    The effects of inhaled particles have focused heavily on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Most studies have focused on inhaled metals, whereas less information is available for other particle types regarding the effects on the brain and other extra-pulmonary organs. We review here the key available literature on nanoparticle uptake and transport through the olfactory pathway, the experimental data from animal and in vitro studies, and human epidemiological observations. Nanoparticles (<0.1 μm in one dimension) may easily reach the brain from the respiratory tract via sensory neurons and transport from the distal alveoli into the blood or lymph as free particles or inside phagocytic cells. These mechanisms and subsequent biologic responses may be influenced by the chemical composition of inhaled particles. Animal studies with ambient particulate matter and certain other particles show alterations in neuro-inflammatory markers of oxidative stress and central neurodegeneration. Human observations indicate motor, cognitive, and behavioral changes especially after particulate metal exposure in children. Exposure to co-pollutants and/or underlying disease states could also impact both the biokinetics and effects of airborne particles in the brain. Data are needed from the areas of inhalation, neurology, and metal toxicology in experimental and human studies after inhalation exposure. An increased understanding of the neurotoxicity associated with air pollution exposure is critical to protect susceptible individuals in the workplace and the general population.

  3. NEUROLOGICAL IMPACTS FROM INHALATION OF POLLUTANTS AND THE NOSE-BRAIN CONNECTION

    PubMed Central

    RG, Lucchini; DC, Dorman; A, Elder; B, Veronesi

    2012-01-01

    The effects of inhaled particles have focused heavily on the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Most studies have focused on inhaled metals, whereas less information is available for other particle types regarding the effects on the brain and other extra-pulmonary organs. We review here the available literature on nanoparticle uptake and transport through the olfactory pathway, the experimental data from animal and in vitro studies, and human epidemiological observations. Nanoparticles (< 0.1 μm in one dimension) may easily reach the brain from the respiratory tract via sensory neurons and transport from the distal alveoli into the blood or lymph as free particles or inside phagocytic cells. These mechanisms and subsequent biologic responses may be influenced by the chemical composition of inhaled particles. Animal studies with ambient particulate matter and certain other particles show alterations in neuro-inflammatory markers of oxidative stress and central neurodegeneration. Human observations indicate motor, cognitive, and behavioral changes especially after particulate metal exposure in children. Exposure to co-pollutants and/or underlying disease states could also impact both the biokinetics and effects of airborne particles in the brain. Data are needed from the areas of inhalation, neurology, and metal toxicology in experimental and human studies after inhalation exposure. An increased understanding of the neurotoxicity associated with air pollution exposure is critical to protect susceptible individuals in the workplace and the general population. PMID:22178536

  4. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of soluble and particulate cobalt in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hong; Smith, Leah J; Holmes, Amie L; Zheng, Tongzhang; Pierce Wise, John

    2016-05-01

    Cobalt is a toxic metal used in various industrial applications leading to adverse lung effects by inhalation. Cobalt is considered a possible human carcinogen with the lung being a primary target. However, few studies have considered cobalt-induced toxicity in human lung cells, especially normal lung epithelial cells. Therefore, in this study, we sought to determine the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of particulate and soluble cobalt in normal primary human lung epithelial cells. Cobalt oxide and cobalt chloride were used as representative particulate and soluble cobalt compounds, respectively. Exposure to both particulate and soluble cobalt induced a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and intracellular cobalt ion levels. Based on intracellular cobalt ion levels, we found that soluble and particulate cobalt induced similar cytotoxicity while soluble cobalt was more genotoxic than particulate cobalt. These data indicate that cobalt compounds are cytotoxic and genotoxic to human lung epithelial cells. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. [The investigation of air ion and particulates condition in Tianzhu Mountain].

    PubMed

    Xiu, Y L

    1990-05-01

    In order to monitor the distribution of atmospheric air ion and particulates in Tianzhu Mountain region, two observation points were established in Tianzhu Mountain in April, 1989. The results showed that the average concentration of air anode ion was 680/cm3, cathode ion 650/cm3. the range of single electrode coefficient is comfortable feeling, air quality index is 0.71 up to standard B grade (clean air), Total average concentration of suspended particulates was 0.242 mg/m3, average concentration of inhalation particulates was 0.168 mg/m3. Seventy percent particulates had diameters less than 10 microns, and thirty percent greater than 10 microns in total suspended particulates.

  6. Fluidizing device for solid particulates

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.

    A flexible whip suspended in a hopper is caused to impact against fibrous and irregularly shaped particulates in the hopper to fluidize the particulates and facilitate the flow of the particulates through the hopper. The invention provides for the flow of particulates at a substantially constant mass flow rate and uses a minimum of energy.

  7. Inhaled alpha 1-antitrypsin: gauging patient interest in a new treatment.

    PubMed

    Monk, Richard; Graves, Michael; Williams, Pamela; Strange, Charlie

    2013-08-01

    Given the high cost of plasma derived intravenous alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT), a more efficient method of delivery to the lungs is desirable. Inhaled AAT has been shown feasible for the treatment of alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) and is currently in clinical trials. To better understand patient preferences about possible inhaled AAT therapy, a survey was conducted to explore patient attitudes. We conducted an email based survey of patients in the Alpha-1 Foundation Research Registry with AATD on intravenous AAT replacement. Respondents were asked to rate their interest in hypothetical nebulized or dry powder inhaled AAT. Respondents reported high levels of interest in both dried powder inhaler and nebulizer delivered inhaled AAT. The interest in dried powder inhaled was higher than interest in nebulized AAT (71% vs 64%, p = 0.0001). The interest in dried powder inhaled AAT was particularly high in respondents currently on bronchodilator therapy (p = 0.0053). Patients were just as likely to use or not use the product if it required 20% more out of pocket cost. There is a high level of patient interest in the development of a commercially available inhaled AAT replacement product.

  8. Exubera. Inhale therapeutic systems.

    PubMed

    Bindra, Sanjit; Cefalu, William T

    2002-05-01

    Inhale, in colaboration with Pfizer and Aventis Pharma (formerly Hoechst Marion Roussel; HMR), is developing an insulin formulation utilizing its pulmonary delivery technology for macromolecules for the potential treatment of type I and II diabetes. By July 2001, the phase III program had been completed and the companies had begun to assemble data for MAA and NDA filings; however, it was already clear at this time that additional data might be required for filing. By December 2001, it had been decided that the NDA should include an increased level of controlled, long-term pulmonary safety data in diabetic patients and a major study was planned to be completed in 2002, with the NDA filed thereafter (during 2002). US-05997848 was issued to Inhale Therapeutic Systems in December 1999, and corresponds to WO-09524183, filed in February 1995. Equivalent applications have appeared to date in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Europe, Finland, Hungary, Japan, Norway, New Zealand, Poland and South Africa. This family of applications is specific to pulmonary delivery of insulin. In February 1999, Lehman Brothers gave this inhaled insulin a 60% probability of reaching market, with a possible launch date of 2001. The analysts estimated peak sales at $3 billion in 2011. In May 2000, Aventis predicted that estimated peak sales would be in excess of $1 billion. In February 2000, Merrill Lynch expected product launch in 2002 and predicted that it would be a multibillion-dollar product. Analysts Merril Lynch predicted, in September and November 2000, that the product would be launched by 2002, with sales in that year of e75 million, rising to euro 500 million in 2004. In April 2001, Merrill Lynch predicted that filing for this drug would occur in 2001. Following the report of the potential delay in regulatory filing, issued in July 2001, Deutsche Banc Alex Brown predicted a filing would take place in the fourth quarter of 2002 and launch would take place in the first

  9. [Advances in the research of pathogenesis and treatment of severe smoke inhalation injury].

    PubMed

    Feng, Shengjuan; Jia, Chiyu; Liu, Zhen; Lyu, Xiaowu

    2016-02-01

    Among the fire victims, respiratory tract injury resulted from smoke inhalation is the major cause of death. Particulate substances in smoke, toxic and harmful gas, and chemical substances act together would rapidly induce the occurrence of dramatic pathophysiologic reaction in the respiratory tract, resulting in acute injury to the respiratory tract, thus inducing serious injury to it and acute respiratory distress syndrome, leading to death of the victims. In recent years, the pathophysiologic mechanism of severe smoke inhalation injury has been gradually clarified, thus appreciable advances in its treatment have been achieved. This paper is a brief review of above-mentioned aspects.

  10. Commentary on Inhaled 239PuO2 in Dogs — A Prophylaxis against Lung Cancer?

    DOE PAGES

    Cuttler, Jerry M.; Feinendegen, Ludwig E.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies on the effect of inhaled plutonium-dioxide particulates and the incidence of lung tumors in dogs reveal beneficial effects when the cumulative alpha-radiation dose is low. There is a threshold at an exposure level of about 100 cGy for excess tumor incidence and reduced lifespan. The observations conform to the expectations of the radiation hormesis dose-response model and contradict the predictions of the LNT hypothesis. These studies suggest investigating the possibility of employing low-dose alpha-radiation, such as from 239PuO2 inhalation, as a prophylaxis against lung cancer.

  11. Commentary on Inhaled 239PUO2 in Dogs — A Prophylaxis Against Lung Cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Feinendegen, Ludwig E.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies on the effect of inhaled plutonium-dioxide particulates and the incidence of lung tumors in dogs reveal beneficial effects when the cumulative alpha-radiation dose is low. There is a threshold at an exposure level of about 100 cGy for excess tumor incidence and reduced lifespan. The observations conform to the expectations of the radiation hormesis dose-response model and contradict the predictions of the LNT hypothesis. These studies suggest investigating the possibility of employing low-dose alpha-radiation, such as from 239PuO2 inhalation, as a prophylaxis against lung cancer. PMID:26675366

  12. Particulate Concentration Levels in Chinatown, Oakland, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, B.; Yeung, A.; Yu, J. F.

    2007-12-01

    Chinatown is located near the center of the busy business district of downtown Oakland, California. It is one of the most inhabited and congested areas in the City of Oakland, averaging 4,000 vehicles and 3,000 pedestrians per hour at a key intersection in the center of the neighborhood. Particles produced by automobiles and construction can settle into the bronchi of lungs and induce asthma attacks, irritate cardiovascular tissue, and possibly lead to lung cancer and death. Particulate pollution is a serious problem that is estimated to cause between 20,000 and 50,000 deaths per year in the US alone. Hence, evaluation of the air quality of the Chinatown neighborhood is important, because it helps to address issues that are of great concern to residents of the area. The primary goal of our project was to measure particulate concentration levels at various intersections in Oakland's Chinatown to determine if the air quality met U.S. EPA standards, and to take note of any trends that may occur over a period of months. We were primarily concerned with particles that are 2.5 micrometers diameter and smaller, as smaller particles are easily inhaled and directly affect the respiratory system. We were interested in identifying any intersections that may have had significantly higher levels than other intersections. Using a map of Chinatown, we chose 12 intersections and made measurements at these points over the course of six months, beginning in February and ending in July of 2007. Particulate matter measurements were made using a FLUKE 893 Particle Counter. Measurements recorded on the first day of our study, February 4, 2007, which was the day of an annual street festival, yielded the highest values for particulate matter concentration in our dataset. This was followed by a significant drop in concentration the following week, and then a gradual increase of concentration as the months progressed. No one location yielded values significantly higher than any other, and

  13. Inhalant abuse in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Michael; Frampton, Laura; Fountain, John

    2006-05-05

    To describe patterns of inhalant abuse in New Zealand and discuss management. Calls to the National Poisons Centre (NPC) from January 1 2003 to December 31 2004 were analysed. In addition, deaths following inhalational abuse were identified from the Institute of Environmental Science and Research Limited (ESR) database for 2001 and 2002 and available data for 2003. Seventy calls were classified as relating to inhalational abuse incidents. In abusers whose age was known, 83% were between 11 and 20 years, and 61% were male. Over half (44/70) of the calls involved abuse of propane or butane, either alone or in combination with a synthetic pyrethroid. ESR coronial data identified 11 inhalant abuse related deaths, most commonly attributed to cardiac effects. 73% of deaths were in teenagers and all but one fatality involved propane and/or butane. Inhalant abuse is a persisting problem in New Zealand. NPC and ESR data demonstrate that teenagers are more likely to abuse inhalants than other age groups and butane and propane are the inhalants of choice. Acute management can be difficult, with significant mortality and morbidity. Continued education and other preventive measures are essential to help curb an extremely dangerous practice.

  14. Concurrent use of metered dose inhalers without spacer and dry powder inhalers by asthmatic children adversely affect proper inhalation technique

    PubMed Central

    Alotaibi, Saad; Hassan, Walid M; Alhashimi, Hashim

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is a common chronic disease of children. A good control of symptoms will improve quality of patient life. Inhalation technique is an important aspect in the management of asthma. The better the inhalation technique the better the lung deposition of asthma therapy especially inhaled corticosteroids. This will lead to better control of symptoms and improve adherence to treatment. In the following study the inhalation technique of asthma devices were compared using inhalation technique score system. The asthma devices studied were metered dose inhalers (pressurized MDI) without spacers and dry powder inhalers (DPI). The hypothesis studied was that the inhalation technique score of dry powder inhalers will be adversely affected with concurrent use of metered dose inhalers without spacers. PMID:21760757

  15. Concurrent use of metered dose inhalers without spacer and dry powder inhalers by asthmatic children adversely affect proper inhalation technique.

    PubMed

    Alotaibi, Saad; Hassan, Walid M; Alhashimi, Hashim

    2011-06-14

    Asthma is a common chronic disease of children. A good control of symptoms will improve quality of patient life. Inhalation technique is an important aspect in the management of asthma. The better the inhalation technique the better the lung deposition of asthma therapy especially inhaled corticosteroids. This will lead to better control of symptoms and improve adherence to treatment. In the following study the inhalation technique of asthma devices were compared using inhalation technique score system. The asthma devices studied were metered dose inhalers (pressurized MDI) without spacers and dry powder inhalers (DPI). The hypothesis studied was that the inhalation technique score of dry powder inhalers will be adversely affected with concurrent use of metered dose inhalers without spacers.

  16. Avian inhalation exposure chamber

    DOEpatents

    Briant, J.K.; Driver, C.J.

    1992-05-05

    An exposure system is designed for delivering gaseous material ranging in particle size from 0.4 micrometers to 20.0 micrometers uniformly to the heads of experimental animals, primarily birds. The system includes a vertical outer cylinder and a central chimney with animal holding bottles connected to exposure ports on the vertical outer cylinder. 2 figs.

  17. Avian inhalation exposure chamber

    DOEpatents

    Briant, James K.; Driver, Crystal J.

    1992-01-01

    An exposure system for delivering gaseous material ranging in particle size from 0.4 micrometers to 20.0 micrometers uniformly to the heads of experimental animals, primarily birds. The system includes a vertical outer cylinder and a central chimney with animal holding bottles connected to exposure ports on the vertical outer cylinder.

  18. The importance of inhaler devices: the choice of inhaler device may lead to suboptimal adherence in COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Darbà, Josep; Ramírez, Gabriela; Sicras, Antoni; Francoli, Pablo; Torvinen, Saku; Sánchez-de la Rosa, Rainel

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to identify factors associated with poor adherence to COPD treatment in patients receiving a fixed-dose combination (FDC) of inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β2-agonist (ICS/LABA), focusing on the importance of inhaler devices. Methods We conducted a retrospective and multicenter study based on a review of medical registries between 2007 and 2012 of COPD patients (n=1,263) treated with ICS/LABA FDC, whose medical devices were either dry powder inhalers (DPIs) or pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDI). Medication adherence included persistence outcomes through 18 months and medication possession ratios. Data on exacerbations, comorbidities, demographic characteristics, and health care resource utilization were also included as confounders of adherence. Results The analyses revealed that COPD patients whose medication was delivered through a DPI were less likely to have medication adherence compared to patients with pMDI, after adjusting for confounding factors, especially active ingredients. Younger groups of patients were less likely to be adherent compared to the oldest group. Smoker men were less likely to be adherent compared to women and non-smokers. Comorbidities decreased the probability of treatment adherence. Those patients that visited their doctor once a month were more likely to adhere to their medication regimen; however, suboptimal adherence was more likely to occur among those patients who visited more than three times per month their doctor. We also found that worsening of COPD is negatively associated with adherence. Conclusion According to this study, inhaler devices influence patients’ adherence to long-term COPD medication. We also found that DPIs delivering ICS/LABA FDC had a negative impact on adherence. Patients’ clinic and socioeconomic characteristics were associated with adherence. PMID:26604733

  19. A review of the development of Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler.

    PubMed

    Dalby, R; Spallek, M; Voshaar, T

    2004-09-28

    Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler (SMI) is a new generation inhaler from Boehringer Ingelheim developed for use with respiratory drugs. The device functions by forcing a metered dose of drug solution through a unique and precisely engineered nozzle (the uniblock), producing two fine jets of liquid that converge at a pre-set angle. The collision of these two jets generates the soft mist. The soft mist contains a high fine particle fraction of approximately 65 to 80%. This is higher than aerosol clouds from conventional portable inhaler devices, such as pressurised metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) and dry powder inhalers (DPIs). In addition, the relatively long generation time of the aerosol cloud (approximately 1.5s) facilitates co-ordination of inhalation and actuation--a major problem with pMDIs. These features, together with the slow velocity of the soft mist, result in larger amounts of the drug reaching the lungs and less being deposited in the oropharynx compared with either pMDIs or DPIs. Generation of the soft mist from Respimat SMI is purely mechanical, so propellants are not necessary. The innovative design of Respimat SMI, using water-based drug formulations, ensures patients receive consistent and reliable doses of the drug with each actuation. The device was initially tested in scintigraphic lung deposition studies and produced encouraging results when compared with the chlorofluorocarbon-based pMDI (CFC-MDI). Subsequent clinical studies have confirmed that Respimat SMI is effective and safe in delivering bronchodilators to patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  20. Preclinical safety evaluation of inhaled cyclosporine in propylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Noonberg, Sarah; Steigerwalt, Ronald; Lynch, Maryellen; Kovelesky, Rosemary A; Rodríguez, Carlos A; Sprugel, Katherine; Turner, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    Cyclosporine inhalation solution has the potential to improve outcomes following lung transplantation by delivering high concentrations of an immunosuppressant directly to the allograft while minimizing systemic drug exposure and associated toxicity. The objective of these studies was to evaluate the potential toxicity of aerosolized cyclosporine formulated in propylene glycol when given by inhalation route to rats and dogs for 28 days. Sprague-Dawley rats received total inhaled doses of 0 (air), 0 (vehicle, propylene glycol), 7.4, 24.3, and 53.9 mg cyclosporine/kg/day. In a separate study, beagle dogs were exposed to 0, 4.4, 7.7, and 9.7 mg cyclosporine/kg/day. Endpoints used to evaluate potential toxicity of inhaled cyclosporine were clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, respiratory functions, toxicokinetics, and clinical/anatomic pathology. Daily administration of aerosolized cyclosporine did not result in observable accumulation of cyclosporine in blood or lung tissue. Toxicokinetic analysis from the rat study showed that the exposure of cyclosporine was approximately 18 times higher in the lung tissue compared to the blood. Systemic effects were consistent with those known for cyclosporine. There was no unexpected systemic toxicity or clinically limiting local respiratory toxicity associated with inhalation exposure to cyclosporine inhalation solution at exposures up to 2.7 times the maximum human exposure in either rats or dogs. There were no respiratory or systemic effects of high doses of propylene glycol relative to air controls. These preclinical studies demonstrate the safety of aerosolized cyclosporine in propylene glycol and support its continued clinical investigation in patients undergoing allogeneic lung transplantation.

  1. Pharmacokinetic Comparison of a Unit Dose Dry Powder Inhaler with a Multidose Dry Powder Inhaler for Delivery of Fluticasone Furoate.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Rashmi; Moore, Alison; Riddell, Kylie; Joshi, Shashidhar; Chan, Robert

    2017-05-02

    , these data support further evaluation of the UD-DPI as a potential device for delivering inhaled respiratory drugs.

  2. Higher lung deposition with Respimat Soft Mist inhaler than HFA-MDI in COPD patients with poor technique.

    PubMed

    Brand, Peter; Hederer, Bettina; Austen, George; Dewberry, Helen; Meyer, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Aerosols delivered by Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler (SMI) are slower-moving and longer-lasting than those from pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs), improving the efficiency of pulmonary drug delivery to patients. In this four-way cross-over study, adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and with poor pMDI technique received radiolabelled Berodual (fenoterol hydrobromide 50 microg/ipratropium bromide 20 microg) via Respimat SMI or hydrofluoroalkane (HFA)-MDI (randomized order) on test days 1 and 2, with no inhaler technique training. The procedure was repeated on test days 3 and 4 after training. Deposition was measured by gamma scintigraphy. All 13 patients entered (9 males, mean age 62 years; FEV1 46% of predicted) inhaled too fast at screening (peak inspiratory flow rate [IF]: 69-161 L/min). Whole lung deposition was higher with Respimat SMI than with pMDI for untrained (37% of delivered dose vs 21% of metered dose) and trained patients (53% of delivered vs 21% of metered dose) (P(Sign-Test) = 0.15; P(ANOVA) < 0.05). Training also improved inhalation profiles (slower average and peak IF as well as longer breath-hold time). Drug delivery to the lungs with Respimat SMI is more efficient than with pMDI, even with poor inhaler technique. Teaching patients to hold their breath as well as to inhale slowly and deeply increased further lung deposition using Respimat SMI.

  3. Particulate Matter (PM) Basics

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Particle pollution is the term for a mixture of solid particles and liquid droplets found in the air. These include inhalable coarse particles, with diameters between 2.5 micrometers and 10 micrometers, and fine particles, 2.5 micrometers and smaller.

  4. Umeclidinium and Vilanterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... chest tightness caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; a group of diseases that affect the lungs ... use umeclidinium and vilanterol inhalation during a sudden COPD attack. Your doctor will prescribe a short-acting ( ...

  5. Fluticasone and Vilanterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... and chest tightness caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary (COPD; a group of diseases that affect the lungs ... use fluticasone and vilanterol inhalation during a sudden COPD attack. Your doctor will prescribe a short acting ( ...

  6. Fluticasone and Salmeterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; a group of lung diseases that includes chronic ... and salmeterol during an attack of asthma or COPD. Your doctor will prescribe a short-acting inhaler ...

  7. Assessing Inhalation Exposures Associated with ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Journal Article This paper presents a simulation-based approach for assessing short-term, water-distribution-system-wide inhalation exposures that could result from showering and the use of humidifiers during contamination events.

  8. Whole-body nanoparticle aerosol inhalation exposures.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jinghai; Chen, Bean T; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Frazer, Dave; Castranova, Vince; McBride, Carroll; Knuckles, Travis L; Stapleton, Phoebe A; Minarchick, Valerie C; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R

    2013-05-07

    Inhalation is the most likely exposure route for individuals working with aerosolizable engineered nano-materials (ENM). To properly perform nanoparticle inhalation toxicology studies, the aerosols in a chamber housing the experimental animals must have: 1) a steady concentration maintained at a desired level for the entire exposure period; 2) a homogenous composition free of contaminants; and 3) a stable size distribution with a geometric mean diameter < 200 nm and a geometric standard deviation σg < 2.5 (5). The generation of aerosols containing nanoparticles is quite challenging because nanoparticles easily agglomerate. This is largely due to very strong inter-particle forces and the formation of large fractal structures in tens or hundreds of microns in size (6), which are difficult to be broken up. Several common aerosol generators, including nebulizers, fluidized beds, Venturi aspirators and the Wright dust feed, were tested; however, none were able to produce nanoparticle aerosols which satisfy all criteria (5). A whole-body nanoparticle aerosol inhalation exposure system was fabricated, validated and utilized for nano-TiO2 inhalation toxicology studies. Critical components: 1) novel nano-TiO2 aerosol generator; 2) 0.5 m(3) whole-body inhalation exposure chamber; and 3) monitor and control system. Nano-TiO2 aerosols generated from bulk dry nano-TiO2 powders (primary diameter of 21 nm, bulk density of 3.8 g/cm(3)) were delivered into the exposure chamber at a flow rate of 90 LPM (10.8 air changes/hr). Particle size distribution and mass concentration profiles were measured continuously with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and an electric low pressure impactor (ELPI). The aerosol mass concentration (C) was verified gravimetrically (mg/m(3)). The mass (M) of the collected particles was determined as M = (Mpost-Mpre), where Mpre and Mpost are masses of the filter before and after sampling (mg). The mass concentration was calculated as C = M

  9. Infusion of guaifenesin, ketamine, and medetomidine in combination with inhalation of sevoflurane versus inhalation of sevoflurane alone for anesthesia of horses.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Kazuto; Muir, William W; Tsubakishita, Sae; Abrahamsen, Eric; Lerch, Phillip; Izumisawa, Yasuharu; Kotani, Tadao

    2002-10-15

    To evaluate effects of infusion of guaifenesin, ketamine, and medetomidine in combination with inhalation of sevoflurane versus inhalation of sevoflurane alone for anesthesia of horses. Randomized clinical trial. 40 horses. Horses were premedicated with xylazine and anesthetized with diazepam and ketamine. Anesthesia was maintained by infusion of guaifenesin, ketamine, and medetomidine and inhalation of sevoflurane (20 horses) or by inhalation of sevoflurane (20 horses). A surgical plane of anesthesia was maintained by controlling the inhaled concentration of sevoflurane. Sodium pentothal was administered as necessary to prevent movement in response to surgical stimulation. Hypotension was treated with dobutamine; hypoxemia and hypercarbia were treated with intermittent positive-pressure ventilation. The quality of anesthetic induction, maintenance, and recovery and the quality of the transition to inhalation anesthesia were scored. The delivered concentration of sevoflurane (ie, the vaporizer dial setting) was significantly lower and the quality of transition to inhalation anesthesia and of anesthetic maintenance were significantly better in horses that received the guaifenesin-ketamine-medetomidine infusion than in horses that did not. Five horses, all of which received sevoflurane alone, required administration of pentothal. Recovery time and quality of recovery were not significantly different between groups, but horses that received the guaifenesin-ketamine-medetomidine infusion required fewer attempts to stand. Results suggest that in horses, the combination of a guaifenesin-ketamine-medetomidine infusion and inhalation of sevoflurane resulted in better transition and maintenance phases while improving cardiovascular function and reducing the number of attempts needed to stand after the completion of anesthesia, compared with inhalation of sevoflurane.

  10. Potent Inhalational Anesthetics for Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Satuito, Mary; Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide and the volatile inhalational anesthetics have defined anxiety and pain control in both dentistry and medicine for over a century. From curious experimentation to spectacular public demonstrations, the initial work of 2 dentists, Horace Wells and William T. G. Morton, persists to this day in modern surgery and anesthesia. This article reviews the history, similarities, differences, and clinical applications of the most popular inhalational agents used in contemporary dental surgical settings. PMID:26866411

  11. Potent Inhalational Anesthetics for Dentistry.

    PubMed

    Satuito, Mary; Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide and the volatile inhalational anesthetics have defined anxiety and pain control in both dentistry and medicine for over a century. From curious experimentation to spectacular public demonstrations, the initial work of 2 dentists, Horace Wells and William T. G. Morton, persists to this day in modern surgery and anesthesia. This article reviews the history, similarities, differences, and clinical applications of the most popular inhalational agents used in contemporary dental surgical settings.

  12. Adrenal suppression in asthmatic children receiving low-dose inhaled budesonide: comparison between dry powder inhaler and pressurized metered-dose inhaler attached to a spacer.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Shmuel; Einot, Tsurit; Algur, Nurit; Schwartz, Shimshon; Greenberg, Alan C; Picard, Elie; Virgilis, Dov; Kerem, Eitan

    2002-12-01

    Dry powder inhalers (DPI) have in recent years become a common mode for administration of inhaled corticosteroids for preventive therapy of asthma. Inhaled steroids delivered by DPI achieve increased lung deposition compared with pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDI), which is associated with increased therapeutic effect. This may be associated with increased systemic absorption. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of adrenal suppression in children using low-dose budesonide given by DPI, as compared with pMDI attached to a large-volume spacer device (pMDI + spacer). In an open-labeled crossover study, 15 asthmatic children aged 5 to 15 years received 200 microg of inhaled budesonide twice daily by DPI (Turbuhaler, Astra, Draco AB, Lund, Sweden) and by pMDI + spacer, 1 month each, in a randomized order. Twenty-four-hour urine collections were performed at baseline and at the end of each of the 2 months of the study period, and urinary cortisol and creatinine were measured. Baseline urinary cortisol:creatinine was 0.038 +/- 0.012 microg/mg, similar in both groups. After 1 month of DPI therapy, urinary cortisol:creatinine was reduced by 27 +/- 16% to 0.028 +/- 0.012 microg/mg (P = 0.018). Urinary cortisol:creatinine after 1 month of pMDI + spacer therapy was similar to baseline 0.037 +/- 0.019 microg/mg (P = 0.78). Treatment of asthmatic children with budesonide 400 microg daily given via a DPI for 1 month was associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression. This effect was not observed with the same dose of budesonide administered via pMDI + spacer. This indicates that systemic absorption might be reduced with pMDI + spacer therapy.

  13. Dry powder inhalers and the right things to remember: a concept review.

    PubMed

    Dal Negro, Roberto W

    2015-01-01

    Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) are widely and increasingly used in clinical practice because they represent a substantial advancement in inhalation technology. The effectiveness of a powdered drug to inhale depends on the inspiratory flow rate generated by the patient and on the turbulence produced by the intrinsic resistance of the DPI. While the inspiratory flow is variable with the patient's ability and conditions, the turbulence is differently sized within each device because depending of its technical design. There are higher - medium-, and low-resistance devices. With low-resistance DPIs, the disaggregation and the microdispersion of the drug highly depend on the patient's inhalation airflow rate, because the role of the resistance-induced turbulence is obviously negligible in these cases. This flow-rate dependency is minimized in the presence of a sufficient regimen of turbulence as in the case of medium-resistance DPIs. Both the disaggregation and the micro-dispersion of the powdered drug are optimized in these circumstances even in the absence of a maximal inspiratory flow rate. The low resistance DPIs should not be regarded as the best performer DPIs because their intrinsic low-resistance regimen requires a higher inspiratory airflow rate and effort, which frequently cannot be achieved by subjects suffering from a disease-induced airflow limitation. Only when the ratio between the inhalation flow rate and the DPI intrinsic resistance is balanced, the speed of the particulate, the distribution of the drug within the lung, and the variability of the effective inhaled dose are optimized.

  14. Overview of testing methods used in inhalation toxicity: from facts to artifacts.

    PubMed

    Pauluhn, Jürgen

    2003-04-11

    For smaller rodent species, homogenous in size and growth, small head or nose-only chambers are commonly used up to subchronic exposure durations, whereas larger whole-body exposure chambers are used for long-term exposures or exposure paradigms exceeding the normal working day. The advantages and disadvantages of each different technique have already been identified and published in detail. It is often believed best that whole-body inhalation chambers simulate potential human exposure to environmental chemicals or pesticides and this serves as a justification for preferring this mode of exposure. However, real-life exposure conditions of humans cannot be readily duplicated. A comparable mode of exposure may be employed rather than duplicating both the exposure regimens and atmospheres similar to those present in real-world settings. Especially in inhalation studies with complex mixtures, in which atmosphere generation is difficult to control, non-homogenous exposure atmospheres and artifacts are more likely to occur in larger whole-body chambers than in the smaller nose-only inhalation chambers. Inhalation studies with complex mixtures not only face all the challenges of traditional inhalation toxicity testing, but also they are frequently subject to artifacts not readily detected. Thus, a disproportionation of volatile and particulate constituents might occur in inhalation chambers depend on selected technical features, i.e., whether a dynamic or (quasi)static mode of exposure is chosen. Inappropriate timing of the sampling of biological specimens may lead to the underestimation of effects, especially in whole-body exposed animals.

  15. Inhaled therapeutics for prevention and treatment of pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Safdar, Amar; Shelburne, Samuel A.; Evans, Scott E.; Dickey, Burton F.

    2015-01-01

    The lungs are the most common site of serious infection owing to their large surface area exposed to the external environment and minimum barrier defense. However, this architecture makes the lungs readily available for topical therapy. Therapeutic aerosols include those directed towards improving mucociliary clearance of pathogens, stimulation of innate resistance to microbial infection, cytokine stimulation of immune function and delivery of antibiotics. In our opinion inhaled antimicrobials are underused, especially in patients with difficult-to-treat lung infections. The use of inhaled antimicrobial therapy has become an important part of the treatment of airway infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis and the prevention of invasive fungal infection in patients undergoing heart and lung transplantation. Cytokine inhaled therapy has also been explored in the treatment of neoplastic and infectious disease. The choice of pulmonary drug delivery systems remains critical as air-jet and ultrasonic nebulizer may deliver sub-optimum drug concentration if not used properly. In future development of this field, we recommend an emphasis on the study of the use of aerosolized hypertonic saline solution to reduce pathogen burden in the airways of subjects infected with microbes of low virulence, stimulation of innate resistance to prevent pneumonia in immunocompromised subjects using cytokines or synthetic pathogen-associated molecular pattern analogues and more opportunities for the use of inhaled antimicrobials. These therapeutics are still in their infancy but show great promise. PMID:19538104

  16. Size analysis of suspension inhalation aerosols by inertial separation methods.

    PubMed

    Hallworth, G W; Andrews, U G

    1976-12-01

    The particle size distribution of beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) aerosols delivered from pressurized metered dose suspension inhalers has been measured with three cascaded inertial separation instruments, the Casella Cascade Impactor, Multistage Liquid Impinger and Cascade Centripeter. Various methods for collecting the emitted aerosol before measurement have been examined. A bent glass tubular 'throat', used as a simulated oro-pharynx, collects 35-60% of the emitted dose by impingement of the wet spray cone in the throat. The aerosol passing through the throat has a similar but somewhat finer size distribution to that collected by firing directly into a large flask. The three cascaded instruments give similar results which in the Multistage Liquid Impinger also resemble those given by a salbutamol inhaler. The mass fraction (35-60%) emitted from the oral adaptor which is of a size capable of deep lung penetration ( less than 4 mum) is much higher than the fraction (10-16%) found in the lungs of dogs after inhalation of aerosol. The size distributions resemble those determined by microscopy and are expressed as aerodynamic sizes, thus showing that the particles approximate to unit density spheres. The performance of two simpler devices, Kirk's apparatus and the Harwell size selective air sampler are also assessed, the latter shows some promise for the simple evaluation of the respirable fraction of inhalation aerosols.

  17. Compliance with inhaled asthma medication in preschool children.

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, N. A.; Ferguson, A. E.; Aitchison, T. C.; Paton, J. Y.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Previous studies have shown poor compliance with regular drug therapy in children and adults with asthma. In preschool children the parents supervise and are responsible for drug administration, but little is known of compliance in this group. In addition, there are few data on the patterns of drug use of inhaled prophylactic asthma therapy or of the relation between compliance and symptom control. A study was undertaken to address these issues with the hypothesis that parental supervision would result in good compliance. METHODS--The subjects were 29 asthmatic children aged 15 months to five years already established on inhaled prophylactic medication delivered through a large volume spacer. The prescribed drug regimens varied between subjects. This was an observational study using an electronic inhaler timer device to record the date and time of each actuation of the aerosol canister. Diary cards were used for parallel recording of symptoms and parentally reported compliance with a drug regimen. RESULTS--Variable and generally poor compliance was demonstrated with a median of 50% of study days with full compliance (subject range 0-94%) and an overall median of 77% of prescribed doses of therapy taken during the study period. No relation was found between frequency of prescribed regimen and good compliance. Day care was associated with poorer compliance. No relation between good compliance and low symptom scores was found. CONCLUSION--Compliance with inhaled prophylactic therapy is poor in preschool children with asthma whose medication is administered under parental supervision. Images PMID:8553301

  18. Inhaled therapeutics for prevention and treatment of pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Safdar, Amar; Shelburne, Samuel A; Evans, Scott E; Dickey, Burton F

    2009-07-01

    The lungs are the most common site of serious infection owing to their large surface area exposed to the external environment and minimum barrier defense. However, this architecture makes the lungs readily available for topical therapy. Therapeutic aerosols include those directed towards improving mucociliary clearance of pathogens, stimulation of innate resistance to microbial infection, cytokine stimulation of immune function and delivery of antibiotics. In our opinion inhaled antimicrobials are underused, especially in patients with difficult-to-treat lung infections. The use of inhaled antimicrobial therapy has become an important part of the treatment of airway infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis and the prevention of invasive fungal infection in patients undergoing heart and lung transplantation. Cytokine inhaled therapy has also been explored in the treatment of neoplastic and infectious disease. The choice of pulmonary drug delivery systems remains critical as air-jet and ultrasonic nebulizer may deliver sub-optimum drug concentration if not used properly. In future development of this field, we recommend an emphasis on the study of the use of aerosolized hypertonic saline solution to reduce pathogen burden in the airways of subjects infected with microbes of low virulence, stimulation of innate resistance to prevent pneumonia in immunocompromised subjects using cytokines or synthetic pathogen-associated molecular pattern analogues and more opportunities for the use of inhaled antimicrobials. These therapeutics are still in their infancy but show great promise.

  19. Asthma patients prefer Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler to Turbuhaler.

    PubMed

    Hodder, Rick; Reese, Pat Ray; Slaton, Terra

    2009-01-01

    Device satisfaction and preference are important patient-reported outcomes to consider when choosing inhaled therapy. A subset of adults (n = 153) with moderate or severe asthma participating in a randomized parallel-group, double-dummy trial that compared the efficacy and safety of 12 weeks' treatment with budesonide delivered via Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler (SMI) (200 or 400 microg bd) or Turbuhaler dry powder inhaler (400 microg bd), completed a questionnaire on patient device preference and satisfaction (PASAPQ) as part of a psychometric validation. As the study used a double-dummy design to maintain blinding, patients used and assessed both devices, rating their satisfaction with, preference for, and willingness to continue using each device. The mean age of patients was 41 years, 69% were female and the mean duration of disease was 16 years. Total PASAPQ satisfaction scores were 85.5 and 76.9 for Respimat SMI and Turbuhaler respectively (p < 0.0001); 112 patients (74%) preferred Respimat SMI and 26 (17%) preferred Turbuhaler. Fourteen subjects (9%) indicated no preference for either inhaler. Willingness to continue using Respimat SMI was higher than that for Turbuhaler (mean scores: 80/100 and 62/100, respectively). Respimat SMI was preferred to Turbuhaler by adult asthma patients who used both devices in a clinical trial setting.

  20. Reversibility of pulmonary function after inhaling salbutamol in different doses and body postures in asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Visser, R; Kelderman, S; de Jongh, F H C; van der Palen, J; Thio, B J

    2015-10-01

    Pulmonary medication is often delivered in the form of medical aerosols designed for inhalation. Recently, breath actuated inhalers (BAI's) gained popularity as they can be used without spacers. A major drawback of BAI's is the impaction in the upper airway. Stretching the upper airway by a forward leaning body posture with the neck extended ("sniffing position") during inhalation may reduce upper airway impaction and improve pulmonary deposition. Aim of this study was to investigate the reversibility of lung function with different doses salbutamol inhaled with a BAI in the forward leaning posture compared to the standard posture in asthmatic children. 22 clinically stable asthmatic children, 5-14 years old, performed four reversibility measurements. Children inhaled 200 μg or 400 μg salbutamol with a BAI in the standard or in the forward leaning posture with the neck extended in a randomized single-blinded cross-over design. Reversibility of lung function after inhaling salbutamol in the forward leaning posture was not significantly different compared to inhalation in the standard posture. Mean FEV1 reversibility was significantly greater after inhaling 400 μg salbutamol compared to 200 μg salbutamol in the standard posture (9.4% ± 9.5% versus 4.5% ± 7.5%, difference 4.9% (95CI 0.9; 9.0%); p = 0.021). In clinically stable asthmatic children, inhalation of salbutamol with a BAI in a forward leaning posture does not increase reversibility of lung function. Inhalation of 400 μg compared to 200 μg salbutamol with a BAI does improve reversibility. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Void/particulate detector

    DOEpatents

    Claytor, Thomas N.; Karplus, Henry B.

    1985-01-01

    Voids and particulates are detected in a flowing stream of fluid contained in a pipe by a detector which includes three transducers spaced about the pipe. A first transducer at a first location on the pipe transmits an ultrasonic signal into the stream. A second transducer detects the through-transmission of the signal at a second location and a third transducer at a third location upstream from the first location detects the back-scattering of the signal from any voids or particulates. To differentiate between voids and particulates a fourth transducer is positioned at a fourth location which is also upstream from the first location. The back-scattered signals are normalized with the through-transmission signal to minimize temperature fluctuations.

  2. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley Miller; Rich Gebert; William Swanson

    1999-11-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in a manner that has not been done before. The AHPC concept consists of a combination of fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two collection methods, both in the particulate collection step and in the transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emission with conventional ESPs, and it solves the problem of reentrainment and collection of dust in conventional baghouses. The AHPC is currently being tested at the 2.7-MW scale at the Big Stone power station.

  3. A protocol to evaluate the fibrogenic potential of inhaled materials.

    PubMed

    Bennett, I P; Pigott, G H; Isaacs, K

    1988-12-01

    A protocol to provide a more rapid assessment of the fibrogenic potential of an inhaled particulate has been developed. Young rats are exposed nose-only for 6 h/day, 7 days a week for 28 days to a respirable aerosol of the test compound. After exposure the rats are kept for up to 1 year, followed by histopathological assessment of the lung. Interim sacrifices could allow an estimate of the rate and severity of the development of any fibrogenic lesion. The protocol has been evaluated for chrysotile asbestos, alpha-quartz and titanium dioxide using rats of both sexes and two different ages at first exposure. The results indicate that there are no significant differences in either the rate, type or extent of lesion provoked by a 28-day exposure period when compared with the more conventional 1-year exposure period studies. It can be concluded that neither sex nor age at first exposure cause any biologically significant differences in response, although young rats would be used in practice. Only one sex need be investigated. The protocol offers considerable benefits over conventional inhalation studies for fibrogenicity (where a 1-year exposure period followed by a further 1-year holding period is usual) by virtue of time, specificity (in the absence of continued exposure the development of any lesion can be studied free from initial inflammatory response) and cost, and could be incorporated into a standard subacute inhalation study design. The results obtained are also of more physiological relevance than studies based on intratracheal instillation.

  4. Inhaler Technique in Asthma: How Does It Relate to Patients' Preferences and Attitudes Toward Their Inhalers?

    PubMed Central

    Jahedi, Lia; Downie, Sue R.; Saini, Bandana; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Correct inhaler technique can increase medication efficacy, reducing both dose and side effects. Patient preference for inhaler device has not been fully explored, and we hypothesized that if patients have a preference and can choose their inhaler, they might be more likely to use it correctly. Our aim was to determine the preferences, attitudes, and perceptions of patients with asthma toward their inhalers, and to evaluate whether any of these factors were related to inhalation technique. Methods: Twenty-five patients with asthma (mean age 43.1 years) participated. Qualitative semi-structured interviews and quantitative patient satisfaction and preference questionnaires (PASAPQ) were used to explore patients' preferences, attitudes, and perceptions about their inhalers. Objective inhalation technique assessment was performed. Data were triangulated to identify characteristics that could indicate a relationship between inhaler technique, satisfaction, preference, and decision making. Results: Themes from qualitative interviews were as follows: asthma inhalers and expectations; inhaler preference; characteristics of an ideal inhaler; perceived effectiveness of inhalers; and inhalers and patient decision making. PASAPQ scores indicated that all patients were at least “somewhat satisfied” with their inhalers, regardless of technique. Only 12% of inhalers were used correctly, despite pilot PASAPQ data suggesting that most patients were confident with their technique. The inhaler technique was unlikely to be related to satisfaction, perception of inhaler devices, or choice in device selection. Patients with correct inhaler technique were more aware of their asthma and expressed motivation to achieve optimal asthma control. Conclusions: The majority of the asthmatic patients did not use their inhaler(s) correctly, despite most having confidence in their technique. Patients attributed confidence in their inhaler technique to their belief that

  5. Inhaler Technique in Asthma: How Does It Relate to Patients' Preferences and Attitudes Toward Their Inhalers?

    PubMed

    Jahedi, Lia; Downie, Sue R; Saini, Bandana; Chan, Hak-Kim; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia

    2017-02-01

    Correct inhaler technique can increase medication efficacy, reducing both dose and side effects. Patient preference for inhaler device has not been fully explored, and we hypothesized that if patients have a preference and can choose their inhaler, they might be more likely to use it correctly. Our aim was to determine the preferences, attitudes, and perceptions of patients with asthma toward their inhalers, and to evaluate whether any of these factors were related to inhalation technique. Twenty-five patients with asthma (mean age 43.1 years) participated. Qualitative semi-structured interviews and quantitative patient satisfaction and preference questionnaires (PASAPQ) were used to explore patients' preferences, attitudes, and perceptions about their inhalers. Objective inhalation technique assessment was performed. Data were triangulated to identify characteristics that could indicate a relationship between inhaler technique, satisfaction, preference, and decision making. Themes from qualitative interviews were as follows: asthma inhalers and expectations; inhaler preference; characteristics of an ideal inhaler; perceived effectiveness of inhalers; and inhalers and patient decision making. PASAPQ scores indicated that all patients were at least "somewhat satisfied" with their inhalers, regardless of technique. Only 12% of inhalers were used correctly, despite pilot PASAPQ data suggesting that most patients were confident with their technique. The inhaler technique was unlikely to be related to satisfaction, perception of inhaler devices, or choice in device selection. Patients with correct inhaler technique were more aware of their asthma and expressed motivation to achieve optimal asthma control. The majority of the asthmatic patients did not use their inhaler(s) correctly, despite most having confidence in their technique. Patients attributed confidence in their inhaler technique to their belief that their inhaler was effective. Most patients had not been

  6. Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    SciTech Connect

    M. Wasiolek

    2006-06-05

    physical attributes of airborne particulate matter, such as the airborne concentrations of particles and their sizes. The conditions of receptor exposure (duration of exposure in various microenvironments), breathing rates, and dosimetry of inhaled particulates are discussed in more detail in ''Characteristics of the Receptor for the Biosphere Model'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172827]).

  7. [New inhalation anesthetics].

    PubMed

    Conzen, P; Nuscheler, M

    1996-08-01

    Recently, two new halogenated volatile anaesthetics, sevoflurane and desflurane, have been approved for clinical use in Germany. Their low solubility in blood is the most important common property, and this represents the most obvious difference from the inhalational anaesthetics currently used. Extensive clinical and experimental evaluations have confirmed the superior pharmacokinetic properties predicted. Both sevoflurane and desflurane provide more rapid emergence from anaesthesia, permit easier titration of the anaesthetic dose during maintenance and offer more rapid recovery from anaesthesia. For sevoflurane, there are additional advantages: a pleasant odor, negligible airway irritation, and excellent pharmacodynamic characteristics that even provide cardiovascular stability comparable to isoflurane. A certain disadvantage and source of potential nephrotoxicity result from the metabolism of sevoflurane (2-5%) to anorganic fluoride and degradation to compound A in carbon dioxide absorbents. The extensive clinical data reported to date have revealed no evidence that sevoflurane has adverse renal effects. New insight into the pathomechanism of nephrotoxicity associated with either production of fluoride or compound A may well support clinical experience. Desflurane strongly resists in vivo metabolism and because of this it appears to be devoid of toxicity. Nevertheless, potential side-effects may result from degradation in dry absorbents and subsequent release of CO, from its extreme pungency and irritating airway effects. Thus, desflurane is not recommended for induction of anaesthesia, especially in children. The tendency for desflurane transiently to stimulate sympathetic activity, especially at concentrations above 1.0 MAC, limits its application in patients with cardiac disease.

  8. Microwave regenerated particulate trap

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, A.C. Jr.; Yonushonis, T.M.; Haberkamp, W.C.; Mako, F.; Len, L.K,; Silberglitt, R.; Ahmed, I.

    1997-12-31

    It has been demonstrated that a fibrous particulate filter can extract particulate matter from the diesel exhaust. However, additional engineering efforts remains to achieve the design target of 90%. It has also be shown that with minor modifications magnetrons produced for home ovens can endure a simulated diesel operating environment. Much work remains to develop a robust product ready to complete extensive engine testing and evaluation. These efforts include: (1) additional environmental testing of magnetrons; (2) vibration testing of the filter in the housing; (3) evaluating alternative methods/designs to seal the center bore; and (4) determining the optimum coating thickness that provides sufficient structural integrity while maintaining rapid heating rates.

  9. Inhalant Withdrawal as a Clinically Significant Feature of Inhalant Dependence Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Perron, Brian E.; Howard, Matthew O.; Vaughn, Michael G.; Jarman, Christopher N.

    2009-01-01

    Inhalant use is the intentional inhalation of vapors from commercial products or specific chemical agents for the purpose of achieving intoxication. Inhalants are among the most common and pernicious forms of substance use and the least studied of the major drugs. Diagnosis of inhalant dependence, according to the DSM-IV [1] excludes inhalant withdrawal symptoms, as expert opinion has suggested that an inhalant withdrawal syndrome is neither common nor clinically significant. This article draws from multiple sources of data to suggest that withdrawal symptoms can be part of inhalant dependence and are clinically significant. This hypothesis needs rigorous evaluation to ensure the diagnostic validity of inhalant use disorders. PMID:19632058

  10. Adverse consequences of acute inhalant intoxication.

    PubMed

    Garland, Eric L; Howard, Matthew O

    2011-04-01

    Inhalants are widely misused by adolescents and are among the most toxic of psychoactive substances. This investigation examined the prevalence and correlates of adverse consequences of acute inhalant intoxication. Adolescent inhalant users (n = 279) in residential care completed structured interviews including assessments of the characteristics of their inhalant use. Multivariate logistic and linear regression and path analyses identified correlates of adverse inhalant intoxication-related experiences. Results of this study indicated that high-risk behaviors and adverse outcomes experienced during episodes of inhalant intoxication were common in this sample. High-frequency inhalant users were significantly more likely than moderate- and low-frequency users to experience adverse consequences of inhalant intoxication. Certain risky behaviors and consequences, such as engaging in unprotected sex or acts of physical violence while high on inhalants, were dramatically more common among high-frequency users than low-frequency users. Prior traumatic experiences, trait impulsivity, self-medication use of inhalants, and polydrug use were significant correlates of adverse inhalant-intoxication-related consequences. Adverse events and high-risk behaviors commonly occurred during episodes of inhalant intoxication in this sample of adolescents. High-frequency inhalant users and youth who used inhalants to medicate negative affective states were at elevated risk for such events.

  11. Quantification of Aerosol Hydrofluoroalkane HFA-134a Elimination in the Exhaled Human Breath Following Inhaled Corticosteroids Administration

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hye-Won; Barletta, Barbara; Yoonessi, Leila; Meinardi, Simone; Leu, Szu-Yun; Radom-Aizik, Shlomit; Randhawa, Inderpal; Nussbaum, Eliezer; Blake, Donald R.; Cooper, Dan M.

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and β2-agonists are the primary pharmacotherapies of asthma management. However, suboptimal medication compliance is common in asthmatics and is associated with increased morbidity. We hypothesized that exhaled breath measurements of the aerosol used in the inhaled medications might prove useful as surrogate marker for asthma medication compliance. To explore this, ten healthy controls were recruited and randomly assigned to inhaled corticosteroids (Flovent HFA) or short acting bronchodilators (Proventil HFA). Both inhalers contain HFA-134a as aerosol propellant. Exhaled breath sampling and pulmonary function tests were performed prior to the inhaler medication dispersion, immediately after inhalation, then at 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, and 48 hours post administration. At baseline, mean (SD) levels of HFA-134a in the breath were 252 (156) pptv. Immediately after inhalation, HFA-134a breath levels increased to 300 X106 pptv and were still well above ambient levels 24 hours post administration. The calculated ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s over forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) did not change over time following inhaler administration. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that breath HFA-134a levels can be used to assess inhaler medication compliance. It may also be used to evaluate how effectively the medicine is delivered. PMID:26155923

  12. [Inhaled medication and inhalation devices for lung disease].

    PubMed

    Solé, Amparo; Girón, Rosa Ma

    2015-09-01

    Nebulized antibiotic therapy is an attractive therapeutic option given the high concentration obtained from the drug at the site of infection, minimizing the adverse effects and possible drug interactions. Inhalation of drugs as treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) related lung disease has been proven to be highly effective. Consequently, an increasing number of drugs and devices have been developed for CF lung disease or are currently under development. Other limited areas of experience in this field are lung transplant recipients, immunosuppressed patients, bronchiectasis and ventilated patients. In this review document we analyse the current status of the inhaled medications, their modes of administration and indications and their results as well as side effects. Specifically we address antibiotics, and additionally, we review the current knowledge on devices for inhalation therapy with regard to optimal particle sizes and characteristics of wet nebulisers, dry powder and metered dose inhalers. Several factors contribute to a highly variable pulmonary drug deposition as the devices, the physical properties of the administered antimicrobial agent, the type of respiratory disease and the inhalation technique. Despite many clinicians have obtained a valuable experience from the aerosolized administration of antimicrobials and persuaded of their efficacy and safety. However, RCTs out of CF are needed to answer important clinical questions, such as what is the appropriate dose, the optimal delivery device, the optimal way of drug administration, as well as the exact therapeutic role and pharmacokinetic profile of aerosolized drug.

  13. Relative lung bioavailability of generic sodium cromoglycate inhalers used with and without a spacer device.

    PubMed

    Aswania, O; Chrystyn, H

    2001-01-01

    The relative lung bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate following inhalation has been evaluated using urinary drug excretion in nine healthly volunteers. Each inhaled four 5 mg sodium cromoglycate doses from a generic metered dose inhaler (MDI) and when it was attached to large volume spacer (MDI + VOL). A breath-actuated MDI was also evaluated either used on its own (EB) or attached to a small volume spacer tube (EBO). The mean (SD) urinary excretion of sodium cromoglycate in the first 30 min post-inhalation was 34.1 (20.2), 211.7 (123.5), 29.3 (19.5) and 52.8 (36.0) microg following MDI, MDI+VOL, EB and EBO, respectively. The cumulative mean (SD) urinary excretion of sodium cromoglycate over the 24 h post-inhalation was 364.7 (266.2), 1227.1 (459.0), 280.2 (155.4) and 429.5 (176.7) microg. A metered dose inhaler attached to a large volume spacer delivers more sodium cromoglycate to the lungs than any other inhalation method.

  14. Temperature of gas delivered from ventilators.

    PubMed

    Chikata, Yusuke; Onodera, Mutsuo; Imanaka, Hideaki; Nishimura, Masaji

    2013-01-01

    Although heated humidifiers (HHs) are the most efficient humidifying device for mechanical ventilation, some HHs do not provide sufficient humidification when the inlet temperature to the water chamber is high. Because portable and home-care ventilators use turbines, blowers, pistons, or compressors to inhale in ambient air, they may have higher gas temperature than ventilators with piping systems. We carried out a bench study to investigate the temperature of gas delivered from portable and home-care ventilators, including the effects of distance from ventilator outlet, fraction of inspiratory oxygen (FIO2), and minute volume (MV). We evaluated five ventilators equipped with turbine, blower, piston, or compressor system. Ambient air temperature was adjusted to 24°C ± 0.5°C, and ventilation was set at FIO2 0.21, 0.6, and 1.0, at MV 5 and 10 L/min. We analyzed gas temperature at 0, 40, 80, and 120 cm from ventilator outlet and altered ventilator settings. While temperature varied according to ventilators, the outlet gas temperature of ventilators became stable after, at the most, 5 h. Gas temperature was 34.3°C ± 3.9°C at the ventilator outlet, 29.5°C ± 2.2°C after 40 cm, 25.4°C ± 1.2°C after 80 cm and 25.1°C ± 1.2°C after 120 cm (P < 0.01). FIO2 and MV did not affect gas temperature. Gas delivered from portable and home-care ventilator was not too hot to induce heated humidifier malfunctioning. Gas soon declined when passing through the limb.

  15. Metered dose inhaler with spacer versus dry powder inhaler for delivery of salbutamol in acute exacerbations of asthma: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lodha, Rakesh; Gupta, Gaurav; Baruah, Bedanta Prakash; Nagpal, Rajiv; Kabra, S K

    2004-01-01

    Delivery of various drugs by aerosol inhalation is the mainstay of treatment of asthma. Many delivery systems have been developed for children, each having its own advantages and disadvantages. Studies comparing the clinical efficacy of metered dose inhalers (MDI) and dry powder inhalers (DPI) in the treatment of acute exacerbations of asthma in children are limited. We conducted a study to compare the response to salbutamol inhalation delivered by metered dose inhaler with a spacer versus rotahaler (DPI) in children presenting with mild or moderate acute exacerbations of asthma. Children in the age group of 5-15 years who presented with a mild or moderate acute exacerbation of asthma were randomized to receive 400 micrograms salbutamol by either a MDI with spacer or a DPI. The changes in the wheezing and accessory muscle scores, SaO2, and PEFR were recorded and subjected to statistical tests for significance. One hundred and fifty three children were studied; 78 were assigned to the MDI-spacer group and 75 to rotahaler (DPI) group. After receiving treatment, the PEFR improved by about 11% in both the groups. The oxygen saturation increased by 2% in both the groups. Within each group, the improvement in PEFR, SaO2, wheeze and accessory muscle score after the treatment was statistically significant. In both the groups the children co-operated equally well. Metered dose inhaler with spacer and dry powder inhaler have equal efficacy in delivering salbutamol in therapy of mild to moderate acute exacerbations of bronchial asthma in children between 5-15 years of age.

  16. Fluidizing device for solid particulates

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, J.P.; Scahill, J.W.

    1984-06-27

    A flexible whip or a system of whips with novel attachments is suspended in a hopper and is caused to impact against fibrous and irregularly shaped particulates in the hopper to fluidize the particulates and facilitate the flow of the particulates through the hopper. The invention provides for the flow of particulates at a substantially constant mass flow rate and uses a minimum of energy.

  17. Fluidizing device for solid particulates

    DOEpatents

    Diebold, James P.; Scahill, John W.

    1986-01-01

    A flexible whip or a system of whips with novel attachments is suspended in a hopper and is caused to impact against fibrous and irregularly shaped particulates in the hopper to fluidize the particulates and facilitate the flow of the particulates through the hopper. The invention provides for the flow of particulates at a substantially constant mass flow rate and uses a minimum of energy.

  18. Estimation of inhaled airborne particle number concentration by subway users in Seoul, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minhae; Park, Sechan; Namgung, Hyeong-Gyu; Kwon, Soon-Bark

    2017-08-25

    Exposure to airborne particulate matter (PM) causes several diseases in the human body. The smaller particles, which have relatively large surface areas, are actually more harmful to the human body since they can penetrate deeper parts of the lungs or become secondary pollutants by bonding with other atmospheric pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides. The purpose of this study is to present the number of PM inhaled by subway users as a possible reference material for any analysis of the hazards to the human body arising from the inhalation of such PM. Two transfer stations in Seoul, Korea, which have the greatest number of users, were selected for this study. For 0.3-0.422 μm PM, particle number concentration (PNC) was highest outdoors but decreased as the tester moved deeper underground. On the other hand, the PNC between 1 and 10 μm increased as the tester moved deeper underground and showed a high number concentration inside the subway train as well. An analysis of the particles to which subway users are actually exposed to (inhaled particle number), using particle concentration at each measurement location, the average inhalation rate of an adult, and the average stay time at each location, all showed that particles sized 0.01-0.422 μm are mostly inhaled from the outdoor air whereas particles sized 1-10 μm are inhaled as the passengers move deeper underground. Based on these findings, we expect that the inhaled particle number of subway users can be used as reference data for an evaluation of the hazards to health caused by PM inhalation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Brief inhalation of asbestos compromises superoxide production in cells from bronchoalveolar lavage.

    PubMed

    Petruska, J M; Marsh, J; Bergeron, M; Mossman, B T

    1990-02-01

    Production of superoxide (O-.2) was measured in alveolar macrophages (AM) exposed to asbestos in vitro and in cells obtained from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of rats inhaling asbestos. Steady state levels of O-.2 released by AM in vitro were dose and time dependent in response to crocidolite, chrysotile, and opsonized zymosan, a particulate used to trigger O-.2 generation. In contrast, an inhalation exposure for 1 h to crocidolite or for 6 days to either crocidolite or chrysotile asbestos resulted in a decreased production of O-.2 by BAL cells. Likewise, BAL cells from rats inhaling chrysotile for 1 h or crocidolite for 9 days exhibited a diminished capacity to secrete O-.2 when challenged with the particulate opsonized zymosan. Diminished generation of O-.2 by asbestos occurred in BAL cell populations containing either significantly increased numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and lymphocytes (6- and 9-day exposures) or 99% AM (1-h exposure). Thus, these novel observations suggest that short-term inhalation of asbestos compromises the ability of BAL cells to produce O-.2 in the presence or absence of an additional phagocytic stimulus.

  20. Particulate and multiphase processes

    SciTech Connect

    Ariman, T.; Veziroglu, T.N.

    1987-01-01

    This three-volume set provides information in particulate and multiphase processes. Authorities investigate four key areas of current scientific and engineering interest: aerosol science and technology; contamination analysis and control; suspensions and slurry transport; and fine particle powder science and technology.

  1. Analysis of microsize particulates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, M. B.; Farlow, N. H.; Ferry, G. V.

    1972-01-01

    Unique methods for analyzing individual particles ranging in size from 0.01 to 1000 micrometers have been developed for investigation of nature of cosmic dust. Methods are applicable to particulate aerosols and contaminants characteristically encountered in studies of air pollution and in experiments designed to abate pollution.

  2. Instructions for Sampling Particulates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekman, Frank

    This technical report presents detailed instructions for sampling particulates. The table of contents includes sections on Introduction, Volume Determinations, Apparatus - Assembly and Operation, Sampling Techniques, and Acknowledgment. Six charts, 24 graphs, and one diagram are appended to facilitate sampling, as well as sections on Isokinetic…

  3. Pneumoconiosis after sericite inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Algranti, E; Handar, A; Dumortier, P; Mendonca, E; Rodrigues, G; Santos, A; Mauad, T; Dolhnikoff, M; De Vuyst, P; Saldiva, P; Bussacos, M

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To investigate and describe the radiological, clinical, and pathological changes in miners and millers exposed to sericite dust with mineralogical characteristics of inhaled dust. Methods: The working premises were visited to examine the sericite processing and to classify the jobs according to make qualitative evaluation. Respirable dust was collected and the amount of crystalline silica and particle size distribution were measured. Forty four workers were examined by a standard questionnaire for respiratory symptoms, spirometry, and chest x ray. Material from an open lung biopsy was reviewed for histopathological and mineralogical analysis, together with sericite samples from the work site to compare the mineral characteristics in lung lesions and work area. Results: Respirable dust contained 4.5–10.0% crystalline silica. Particle size distribution showed a heavy burden of very fine particles (23–55%) with a mean diameter of <0.5 µm. Mean age of sericite miners was 41.0 (11.9) and mean number of years of exposure was 13.5 (10.1). In 52.3% of workers (23/44), chest radiographs presented a median category of 1/0 or above, and 18.2% (8/44) had a reduced FEV1. There was a significant association between exposure indices and x ray category. Histological studies of the lung biopsy showed lesions compatible with mixed dust fibrosis with no silicotic nodules. x Ray diffraction analysis of the lung dust residue and the bulk samples collected from work area showed similar mineralogical characteristics. Muscovite and kaolinite were the major mineral particle inclusions in the lung. Conclusion: Exposure to fine sericite particles is associated with the development of functional and radiological changes in workers inducing mixed dust lesions, which are distinct histologically from silicosis. PMID:15723874

  4. Design characteristics for facilities which process hazardous particulate

    SciTech Connect

    Abeln, S.P.; Creek, K.; Salisbury, S.

    1998-12-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is establishing a research and processing capability for beryllium. The unique properties of beryllium, including light weight, rigidity, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and nuclear properties make it critical to a number of US defense and aerospace programs. Concomitant with the unique engineering properties are the health hazards associated with processing beryllium in a particulate form and the potential for worker inhalation of aerosolized beryllium. Beryllium has the lowest airborne standard for worker protection compared to all other nonradioactive metals by more than an order of magnitude. This paper describes the design characteristics of the new beryllium facility at Los Alamos as they relate to protection of the workforce. Design characteristics to be reviewed include; facility layout, support systems to minimize aerosol exposure and spread, and detailed review of the ventilation system design for general room air cleanliness and extraction of particulate at the source.

  5. Feeder for particulate material

    SciTech Connect

    Christofer, D.E.; Stock, A.J.

    1981-03-24

    Feeder apparatus for feeding at a controlled variable rate particulate solid material, such as coal, from a supply conduit located above a gravimetric feeder to a discharge chute located below the feeder. The particulate material flows to the feeder from the supply conduit along a path having a generally vertical center line and the discharge chute provides a flow path having a generally vertical center line closely laterally spaced relative to the center line of flow to the feeder. The feeder apparatus has a horizontally extending housing with an upwardly facing inlet through which the material flows to the feeder and a downwardly facing outlet forming part of the discharge chute through which the material flows from the feeder. Within the housing is a main feeder conveyor including an endless belt with a generally horizontal span adapted to receive at one end the particulate material flowing to the feeder and to convey in a layer a measured quantity of material a horizontal distance across weighing means to an exit zone at the opposite end of the belt, the horizontal distance being substantially greater than the spacing between the center lines of flow to the feeder and through such discharge chute. Associated with the main feeder conveyor is a gravimetric control system for controlling the amount of material deposited on the belt. Particulate material that drops off the main conveyor belt at the exit zone is received on a return belt conveyor and carried in a reverse direction a sufficient distance to bring the material to the discharge chute. Cooperation between the main feeder conveyor and the return conveyor permits gravimetric feeding of particulate material to the discharge chute that is closely laterally spaced to the flow path of material to the main conveyor by a distance that is substantially less than the length of travel of the material on the main conveyor.

  6. Hypotension and AV block after diesel exhaust exposure in heart failure-prone rats: role of gaseous and particulate components

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute inhalations ofdiesel engine exhaust (DE) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) have been demonstrated to provoke adverse cardiac events in humans with preexisting heart disease. Electrophysiologic dysfunction and autonomic imbalance are among the mechanisms widely held to und...

  7. Hypotension and AV block after diesel exhaust exposure in heart failure-prone rats: role of gaseous and particulate components

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute inhalations ofdiesel engine exhaust (DE) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) have been demonstrated to provoke adverse cardiac events in humans with preexisting heart disease. Electrophysiologic dysfunction and autonomic imbalance are among the mechanisms widely held to und...

  8. Inhalant Abuse: Is Your Child at Risk?

    MedlinePlus

    ... can be valuable as well. With help, your child can end inhalant abuse and learn how to make healthy choices for a lifetime. References Baydala L. Inhalant abuse. Paediatrics and Child Health. 2010;15:443. Results from the 2013 ...

  9. Asthma Inhalers: Which One's Right for You?

    MedlinePlus

    ... medication in these inhalers by breathing in a deep, fast breath. There are multiple-dose devices, which ... and convenient to carry. Doesn't require a deep, fast, inhaled breath. Doesn't require a deep, ...

  10. Huffing: prehospital identification & treatment of inhalant abuse.

    PubMed

    Criss, Liz

    2009-05-01

    Sniffing. Huffing. Bagging. These street terms describe methods of inhaling toxic chemicals to achieve mind-altering states of intoxication or euphoria. Just about anything in the house that comes in spray form can be used as an inhalant.

  11. Clinical use of nebulized budesonide inhalation suspension in a child with asthma.

    PubMed

    Skoner, D P; Angelini, B L; Friday, G; Gentile, D

    1999-10-01

    Childhood asthma contributes to significant morbidity among patients and significantly impacts the quality of life and daily routines of their caregivers. The parents or caregivers assume responsibility for tasks that children are too young to perform; this often includes daily administration of controller medications and nightly administration of reliever medications. Most young children do not have the coordination or understanding to effectively use pressurized metered-dose inhalers or inhalation-driven devices; thus nebulizer therapy often is preferred for children younger than 4 years of age. Budesonide inhalation suspension will be the first inhaled corticosteroid available for children younger than 4 years of age and the first inhaled corticosteroid for delivery by nebulization in the United States. This is a case report of a 3-year-old boy who received budesonide inhalation suspension as part of several double-blind and open-label studies evaluating the drug. Before study entry, the boy was experiencing more breakthrough wheezing episodes at night than the parents were used to, resulting in an increase in nighttime awakenings that required nebulizer therapy. These nighttime awakenings had a substantial impact on the quality of life of the entire family and interfered with the parents' ability to function at work. Even though they wanted to have more children, this situation discouraged them from doing so. Budesonide inhalation suspension improved overall asthma control and was well tolerated. The boy had a decrease in nighttime symptoms and an increase in both height and weight percentiles for his age. Importantly, use of budesonide inhalation suspension in this boy eased the management of severe asthma and improved the quality of life of the entire family. The parents subsequently decided to have a second child. Budesonide inhalation suspension represents a major breakthrough for infants and young children by providing a formulation that, on approval, can

  12. Development of Respimat(®) Soft Mist™ Inhaler and its clinical utility in respiratory disorders.

    PubMed

    Dalby, Richard N; Eicher, Joachim; Zierenberg, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    The Respimat(®) Soft Mist™ Inhaler (SMI) (Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Ingelheim, Germany) was developed in response to the need for a pocket-sized device that can generate a single-breath, inhalable aerosol from a drug solution using a patient-independent, reproducible, and environmentally friendly energy supply. This paper describes the design and evolution of this innovative device from a laboratory concept model and the challenges that were overcome during its development and scaleup to mass production. A key technical breakthrough was the uniblock, a component combining filters and nozzles and made of silicon and glass, through which drug solution is forced using mechanical power. This allows two converging jets of solution to collide at a controlled angle, generating a fine aerosol of inhalable droplets. The mechanical energy comes from a spring which is tensioned by twisting the base of the device before use. Additional features of the Respimat(®) SMI include a dose indicator and a lockout mechanism to avoid the problems of tailing-off of dose size seen with pressurized metered dose inhalers. The Respimat(®) SMI aerosol cloud has a unique range of technical properties. The high fine particle fraction allied with the low velocity and long generation time of the aerosol translate into a higher fraction of the emitted dose being deposited in the lungs compared with aerosols from pressurized metered dose inhalers and dry powder inhalers. These advantages are realized in clinical trials in adults and children with obstructive lung diseases, which have shown that the efficacy and safety of a pressurized metered dose inhaler formulation of a combination bronchodilator can be matched by a Respimat(®) SMI formulation containing only one half or one quarter of the dose delivered by a pressurized metered dose inhaler. Patient satisfaction with the Respimat(®) SMI is high, and the long duration of the spray is of potential benefit to patients who have

  13. Perceived Risk of Harm and Intentions of Future Inhalant Use among Adolescent Inhalant Users

    PubMed Central

    Perron, Brian E.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To identify predictors of perceived a) risk of harm associated with inhalant use and b) intention to use inhalants among adolescent inhalant users. Method Participants were 279 lifetime inhalant users (Mage = 15.5, 84 % male) identified in a statewide survey of 723 adolescents in Missouri Division of Youth Services’ residential care for antisocial conduct. Youth completed interviews assessing inhalant and other drug use, psychiatric symptoms, and antisocial traits/behavior. Results More than one-third (37%) of youth perceived experimental inhalant use as of slight or no risk; one-in-eight (11.9 %) youth perceived regular inhalant use as of slight or no risk. Risk perceptions of experimental and regular inhalant use were not associated with intentions to use. Youth with friends/sibling inhalant who use inhalants were less likely to perceive risks associated with experimental and regular inhalant use compared to youth without friends/sibling users. Adolescents who were younger and those with more extensive substance abuse problems, prior problems with inhalants, greater current psychiatric distress, friends/sibling who use inhalants were significantly more likely to report intentions of future inhalant use than their counterparts. Conclusions Assessment of substance use among youth, particularly those in the criminal justice system, should include an assessment of inhalants. Intervention efforts should include addressing misperceptions of risk associated with inhalants and developing strategies for managing social network influences. PMID:18524500

  14. Void/particulate detector

    DOEpatents

    Claytor, T.N.; Karplus, H.B.

    1983-09-26

    Apparatus for detecting voids and particulates in a flowing stream of fluid contained in a pipe may comprise: (a) a transducer for transmitting an ultrasonic signal into the stream, coupled to the pipe at a first location; (b) a second transducer for detecting the through-transmission of said signal, coupled to the pipe at a second location; (c) a third transducer for detecting the back-scattering of said signal, coupled to the pipe at a third location, said third location being upstream from said first location; (d) circuit means for normalizing the back-scattered signal from said third transducer to the through-transmitted signal from said second transducer; which normalized signal provides a measure of the voids and particulates flowing past said first location.

  15. Rigid particulate matter sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Matthew

    2011-02-22

    A sensor to detect particulate matter. The sensor includes a first rigid tube, a second rigid tube, a detection surface electrode, and a bias surface electrode. The second rigid tube is mounted substantially parallel to the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the first rigid tube. The detection surface electrode is disposed to face the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed on an outer surface of the second rigid tube. The bias surface electrode is disposed to face the detection surface electrode on the first rigid tube. An air gap exists between the detection surface electrode and the bias surface electrode to allow particulate matter within an exhaust stream to flow between the detection and bias surface electrodes.

  16. Inhalant Use by Canadian Aboriginal Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Heather; Charles, Grant; Collins, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    Study followed youth who received treatment for inhalant abuse. Many came from backgrounds marked by isolation, poverty, family violence, and substance abuse. Average age the youths first used inhalants was 9.72 years. Model predicted those who abused inhalants immediately before admission, were described as unmotivated in treatment, and were…

  17. A study comparing the clinical pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of triamcinolone acetonide HFA-134a metered-dose inhaler and budesonide dry-powder inhaler following inhalation administration.

    PubMed

    Argenti, D; Shah, B; Heald, D

    2000-05-01

    The impending phaseout of chlorofluorocarbons as propellants in pressurized metered-dose inhalers used in the treatment of asthma has resulted in the development of alternative devices to deliver drug to the pulmonary airways. These alternative devices include metered-dose inhalers using environmentally friendly hydroflurocarbon propellants and breath-actuated dry-powder inhalers. The purpose of this study was to compare the single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of a newly developed hydroflurocarbon formulation of triamcinolone acetonide (Azmacort HFA 225 mcg Inhalation Aerosol) to that of the dry-powder formulation of budesonide (Pulmicort Turbuhaler 200 mcg). This three-way crossover study used 18 normal healthy subjects each receiving a 675 mcg dose of triamcinolone acetonide, 600 mcg dose of budesonide, or placebo twice a day for 5 days. Serial plasma samples were collected after the first and last dose of test medication for pharmacokinetic analysis. Pharmacodynamics were assessed by changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function as measured by 8 a.m. serum cortisol, 24-hour overnight serum cortisol AUC(0-24), and 24-hour urinary-free cortisol after the last evening dose of test drug. Tolerability was assessed through physical examinations, vital signs, 12-lead ECG, routine clinical labs, and adverse events recording. Both compounds were systemically absorbed. However, no significant drug accumulation was noted with chronic dosing. Chronic dosing did result in a statistically significant 20% reduction in basal 24-hour serum cortisol AUC(0-24) for both compounds. There were no clinically significant abnormalities in physical examination, vital signs, 12-lead ECG, or routine clinical labs noted during the study. Overall, the study drugs were well tolerated, with adverse events characterized as mild to moderate in severity.

  18. Regenerable particulate filter

    DOEpatents

    Stuecker, John N.; Cesarano, III, Joseph; Miller, James E.

    2009-05-05

    A method of making a three-dimensional lattice structure, such as a filter used to remove particulates from a gas stream, where the physical lattice structure is designed utilizing software simulation from pre-defined mass transfer and flow characteristics and the designed lattice structure is fabricated using a free-form fabrication manufacturing technique, where the periodic lattice structure is comprised of individual geometric elements.

  19. Modeling of Particulate Emissions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    vaporization CxHy H H2 C2H2 Alkylated- aromatics naphthenes Gas-phase kinetics PAH C2H2 . .... CO inception Surface growth & coalescence ageing...coagulation oxidation.... carbonization 14 Modeling Particulate Emissions Soot Formation Kinetics 2 1016 1 ]HC[kdt dS = Inception: Dimerization of...pyrene (and other 202 amu species), after Appel, et al, 2000. (Full detailed kinetics required!) Surface Growth: Mass growth (via acetylene addition

  20. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley J. Miller; Grant L. Schelkoph; Grant E. Dunham

    2000-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the US Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and recollection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hour parametric tests and 100-hour proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency.

  1. Parental Influence on Inhalant Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltazar, Alina; Hopkins, Gary; McBride, Duane; Vanderwaal, Curt; Pepper, Sara; Mackey, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the dynamics of the relationship between parents and their adolescent children and their association with lifetime and past-month inhalant usage. The population studied was seventh- through ninth-grade students in rural Idaho (N = 570). The authors found a small, but consistent, significant inverse…

  2. TARGETED DELIVERY OF INHALED PROTEINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ETD-02-047 (Martonen) GPRA # 10108

    TARGETED DELIVERY OF INHALED PROTEINS
    T. B. Martonen1, J. Schroeter2, Z. Zhang3, D. Hwang4, and J. S. Fleming5
    1Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park...

  3. Acculturation Influences on Inhalant Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Mark E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Analyses of data on 110 Mexican-American adolescent inhalant users and 78 of their mothers indicate that level of acculturation, cultural factors, and socioeconomic factors did not directly affect youth's drug use and criminality but may have had indirect effects through socialization and psychological factors. Contains 22 references. (Author/SV)

  4. Inhalant Use in Florida Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siqueira, Lorena; Crandall, Lee A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine (1) the prevalence of use, (2) risk and protective factors for use of inhalants in Florida youth. Methods: The Florida Youth Substance Abuse Survey 2004 is a comprehensive assessment of youth substance abuse attitudes and practices obtained by sampling youth from sixty-five counties. Results: The sample consisted of 60,345…

  5. TARGETED DELIVERY OF INHALED PROTEINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ETD-02-047 (Martonen) GPRA # 10108

    TARGETED DELIVERY OF INHALED PROTEINS
    T. B. Martonen1, J. Schroeter2, Z. Zhang3, D. Hwang4, and J. S. Fleming5
    1Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park...

  6. Parental Influence on Inhalant Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltazar, Alina; Hopkins, Gary; McBride, Duane; Vanderwaal, Curt; Pepper, Sara; Mackey, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the dynamics of the relationship between parents and their adolescent children and their association with lifetime and past-month inhalant usage. The population studied was seventh- through ninth-grade students in rural Idaho (N = 570). The authors found a small, but consistent, significant inverse…

  7. Inhalant Use in Florida Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siqueira, Lorena; Crandall, Lee A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine (1) the prevalence of use, (2) risk and protective factors for use of inhalants in Florida youth. Methods: The Florida Youth Substance Abuse Survey 2004 is a comprehensive assessment of youth substance abuse attitudes and practices obtained by sampling youth from sixty-five counties. Results: The sample consisted of 60,345…

  8. INHALATION EXPOSURE-RESPONSE METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Inhalation Exposure-Response Analysis Methodology Document is expected to provide guidance on the development of the basic toxicological foundations for deriving reference values for human health effects, focusing on the hazard identification and dose-response aspects of the ...

  9. INHALATION EXPOSURE-RESPONSE METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Inhalation Exposure-Response Analysis Methodology Document is expected to provide guidance on the development of the basic toxicological foundations for deriving reference values for human health effects, focusing on the hazard identification and dose-response aspects of the ...

  10. A novel propellant-free inhalation drug delivery system for cardiovascular drug safety evaluation in conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Markert, Michael; Klumpp, Anja; Trautmann, Thomas; Guth, Brian

    2004-01-01

    Estimation of possible cardiovascular side effects belongs to the safety assessment of every drug candidate. This paper describes a new strategy for treating conscious labrador dogs with drugs by inhalation using a specially designed mask and a novel inhaler device. Labrador dogs (male or female) were used that had transducers implanted for the measurement of left ventricular and descending aortic blood pressures and an ECG for use together with a telemetry system. Administration by inhalation was achieved using a novel delivery device. The Respimat device is a propellant-free inhaler to deliver aerosols from solutions. The new system was evaluated using Formoterol with four dogs using a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Three doses of Formoterol (0.6, 1.2, and 2.4 microg/kg, dissolved in 60% ethanol) were administered by inhalation together with a vehicle (60% ethanol) treatment by applying three inhalations, each consisting of 10 microl solution. Formoterol increased HR, QRS-interval, QT-interval, and LVPdP/dtmax and dose-dependently decreased systolic and diastolic BP. This effect lasted up to 14 h. Drug administration by inhalation in the conscious labrador dog using the Respimat is a useful new model for safety pharmacology studies of new drug candidates that are intended to be given by inhalation in the clinic.

  11. Copper-dependent inflammation and nuclear factor-kappaB activation by particulate air pollution.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, T; Ghio, A J; Reed, W; Samet, J; Zagorski, J; Quay, J; Carter, J; Dailey, L; Hoidal, J R; Devlin, R B

    1998-09-01

    Particulate air pollution causes increased cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality, but the chemical determinants responsible for its biologic effects are not understood. We studied the effect of total suspended particulates collected in Provo, Utah, an area where an increase in respiratory symptoms in relation to levels of particulate pollution has been well documented. Provo particulates caused cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-dependent inflammation of rat lungs. Provo particulates stimulated interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 production, increased IL-8 messenger RNA (mRNA) and enhanced expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in cultured BEAS-2B cells, and stimulated IL-8 secretion in primary cultures of human bronchial epithelium. Cytokine secretion was preceded by activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and was reduced by treatment of cultures with superoxide dismutase, deferoxamine, or N-acetylcysteine. These biologic effects were replicated by culturing BEAS cells with quantities of Cu2+ found in Provo extract. IL-8 secretion by BEAS cells could be modified by addition of normal constituents of airway lining fluid to the culture medium. Mucin significantly reduced IL-8 secretion, and ceruloplasmin significantly increased IL-8 secretion and activation of NF-kappaB. These findings suggest that copper ions may cause some of the biologic effects of inhaled particulate air pollution in the Provo region of the United States, and may provide an explanation for the sensitivity of asthmatic individuals to Provo particulates that has been observed in epidemiologic studies.

  12. Commentary on Inhaled 239PuO2 in Dogs — A Prophylaxis against Lung Cancer?

    SciTech Connect

    Cuttler, Jerry M.; Feinendegen, Ludwig E.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies on the effect of inhaled plutonium-dioxide particulates and the incidence of lung tumors in dogs reveal beneficial effects when the cumulative alpha-radiation dose is low. There is a threshold at an exposure level of about 100 cGy for excess tumor incidence and reduced lifespan. The observations conform to the expectations of the radiation hormesis dose-response model and contradict the predictions of the LNT hypothesis. These studies suggest investigating the possibility of employing low-dose alpha-radiation, such as from 239PuO2 inhalation, as a prophylaxis against lung cancer.

  13. Development of a murine nose-only inhalation model of influenza: comparison of disease caused by instilled and inhaled A/PR/8/34

    PubMed Central

    Bowen, Larry E.; Rivers, Katie; Trombley, John E.; Bohannon, J. Kyle; Li, Shixiong X.; Boydston, Jeremy A.; Eichelberger, Maryna C.

    2012-01-01

    Influenza continues to cause widespread disease and death during winter months. In preclinical studies to evaluate the potential efficacy of drugs and vaccines, influenza challenge virus is usually instilled into the noses of animals in the form of large liquid drops. Since inhalation of aerosolized influenza is commonly associated with human transmission, instillation of challenge virus raises uncertainty about the applicability of results. In order to compare the challenge methods, we established conditions to generate influenza aerosols with a mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of 1 μm that were delivered to mice in a nose-only inhalation system. In this report, we describe the system and compare the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of instilled and inhaled A/PR/8/34 (PR8) in BALB/c mice. The estimated LD50 for inhaled virus was 8.7 plaque forming units (PFU) and the mean time to death was 7.7 days, whereas the estimated LD50 for instilled virus was 51.6 PFU and the mean time to death was 8.2 days. Our results show that mice are more sensitive to inhaled virus than virus delivered by intranasal instillation. The murine nose-only inhalation model of influenza infection can be used to infect large numbers of animals simultaneously with well-characterized, homogenous PR8 bioaerosol in a controlled and reproducible manner. This model provides the means to evaluate the efficacy of drug and vaccine candidates against the relevant route of challenge, thereby providing data that may better predict clinical outcome. PMID:22919665

  14. Multiple dose pharmacokinetics of inhaled loxapine in subjects on chronic, stable antipsychotic regimens

    PubMed Central

    Riesenberg, Robert A.; Cassella, James V.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled, parallel‐group study was to determine the pharmacokinetic characteristics, safety, and tolerability of multiple doses of inhaled loxapine aerosol in subjects on a stable, oral, chronic antipsychotic regimen. Loxapine was delivered by means of a unique thermally generated aerosol comprising drug particles of a size designed for deep lung delivery and absorption. Thirty‐two subjects were randomized 1:1:1:1 to receive inhaled loxapine (total doses of 15, 20, or 30 mg) or inhaled placebo administered in 3 divided doses, given 4 hours apart. Following inhalation, the median Tmax was 2 minutes, and concentrations declined to about half Cmax approximately 5 minutes later across the 3 dose levels. The dose proportionality across data from this study combined with data from the single‐dose study showed a slope (90%CI) of log AUCinf versus log dose of 0.818 (0.762–0.875) across the 8 doses (n = 60 subjects) studied, indicating reasonable dose proportionality. The most common adverse events were cough (3 of 32, 9%), sedation (3 of 32, 9%), and dysgeusia (2 of 32, 6%). The inhalation of multiple doses of inhaled loxapine were well tolerated in study subjects and provided a safe, well‐tolerated means for rapidly and reliably achieving therapeutic plasma concentrations of loxapine. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00555412 PMID:25808074

  15. Determination of the relative bioavailability of salbutamol to the lung following inhalation.

    PubMed Central

    Hindle, M; Chrystyn, H

    1992-01-01

    1. The urinary excretion of salbutamol and its sulphate metabolite was measured following oral (4 mg) and inhaled (4 x 100 micrograms) administration of salbutamol. 2. Total urinary recovery of salbutamol and its sulphate conjugate indicated a mean (s.d.) relative bioavailability of 92.2 (24.8) % following inhalation compared with oral administration. 3. The mean (s.d.) elimination half-lives of salbutamol and its sulphate conjugate were 5.7 (1.4) and 4.1 (2.1) h, respectively, after oral administration and following inhalation they were 6.1 (2.1) and 5.1 (1.0) h, respectively. 4. Following oral and inhaled administration it was found that in the first 30 min the mean (s.d.) percentage of the dose excreted in the urine as unchanged salbutamol was 0.18 (0.14) and 2.06 (0.80) %, respectively (P < 0.01). The drug content of a urine sample taken 30 min after inhalation is, therefore, considered to be representative of the amount of drug delivered to the lungs. It is proposed that this method can be used to evaluate the relative bioavailability of salbutamol to the lung following inhalation by different techniques and devices. PMID:1457264

  16. Using acoustics to estimate inspiratory flow rate and drug removed from a dry powder inhaler.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Martin S; Seheult, Jansen; Geraghty, Colm; D'Arcy, Shona; Costello, Richard W; Reilly, Richard B

    2013-01-01

    Morbidity and mortality rates of chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are rising. There is a strong requirement for more effective management of these chronic diseases. Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) are one kind of devices currently employed to deliver medication aimed at controlling asthma and COPD symptoms. Despite their proven effectiveness when used correctly, some patients are unable to reach the inspiratory flow rate required to remove medication from the breath actuated devices and as a result, the medication does not reach the airways. This study employs an acoustic recording device, attached to a common DPI to record the audio signals of simulated inhalations. A rotameter was used to measure the flow rate through the inhaler while a milligram weighing scale was used to measure the amount of drug removed from each simulated inhalation. It was found that a strong correlation existed (R(2)>0.96) when average power, median amplitude, root mean square and mean absolute deviation were used to predict peak inspiratory flow rate. At a flow of 30 L/Min (mean absolute deviation=0.0049), it was found that 77% of the total emitted dose was removed from the inhaler. Results indicate that acoustic measurements may be used in the prediction of inspiratory flow rate and quantity of medication removed from an inhaler.

  17. Nebulizers or pressurized metered-dose inhalers in the treatment of asthma exacerbations.

    PubMed

    Radzik, Daniele; Peroni, Diego G; Pescollderungg, Lydia; Piacentini, Giorgio L; Chatzimichail, Atanasio; Boner, Attilio L

    2005-01-01

    The use of inhaled beta2-agonists delivered by a metered-dose inhaler (MDI) with a holding chamber (spacer) actually is considered the best treatment for childhood acute asthma. However, its use in daily practice still seems rather limited. The aim of this study was to investigate, using a questionnaire, the use of a nebulizer or MDI as the first-line method for delivering inhaled beta2-agonists in children with acute asthma. A questionnaire was developed and distributed to 22 pediatric departments and to 131 family pediatricians (FPs) in northeast Italy. We showed that in the hospitals the episodes of acute asthma usually were treated with bronchodilators administered by wet nebulization (95.45%). This was the case also for FPs (70.9%). However, 29.1% of FPs usually advised the use of an MDI/holding chamber to children with acute asthma. Despite the established efficacy of inhaled beta2-agonists administrated with an MDI compared with wet nebulization in acute asthma, this practice still is rather limited. The use of wet nebulization was more evident in hospital settings compared with community medicine. Emergency room visits may represent a missed opportunity to promote an effective method of delivering bronchodilators in childhood asthma.

  18. Spatially resolved intake fraction estimates for primary and secondary particulate matter in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamancusa, Carmen; Parvez, Fatema; Wagstrom, Kristina

    2017-02-01

    This study uses intake fraction, the fraction of emissions that are inhaled from a given source, to quantify how emissions from different regions proportionally contribute to human exposure to both primary and secondary particulate matter species. The intake fraction for secondary species is defined using the common atomic constituents between precursor species and products, allowing estimates to include both primary and secondary species. The Particulate Matter Source Apportionment Technology (PSAT) in the Comprehensive Air Quality Model with Extensions (CAMx) regional air quality model is used to calculate the intake fraction for twenty-five source regions throughout the contiguous United States over four seasons. The calculations use spatially explicit emissions and population density to more accurately capture the variation in intake fraction between regions. The spatially explicit emissions allow for the calculation of spatial trends and variations within the intake fraction. More specifically it allows for the calculation of the amount of intake that occurs within a given distance of the emissions source or source region. Based on the results sulfate inhalation occurs over larger distances than other particulate matter species. For most regions, a substantial fraction (>75%) of the inhalation occurs within 50 km for all seasons, demonstrating that efforts to reduce emissions will have the largest health impact on the local community. Furthermore the distance over which 75% of the inhalation occurs increases by 20% for all species during the winter and a larger percentage of pollutants emitted during the winter are inhaled relative to pollutants emitted during other seasons. This demonstrates that emission reductions during the winter will have a greater impact on health than reductions during other seasons.

  19. Relative bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate to the lung following inhalation, using urinary excretion

    PubMed Central

    Aswania, O A; Corlett, S A; Chrystyn, H

    1999-01-01

    Aims To determine if a urinary excretion method, previously described for salbutamol, could also indicate the relative bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate to the lung following inhalation from a metered dose inhaler. Method Inhaled (INH), inhaled+oral charcoal (INHC), oral (ORAL) and oral+oral charcoal (ORALC) 20 mg doses of sodium cromoglycate were given via a randomised cross-over design to 11 healthy volunteers trained on how to use a metered dose inhaler. Urine samples were collected at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and up to 24 h post dosing and the sodium cromoglycate urinary concentration was measured using a high performance liquid chromatographic method. Results No sodium cromoglycate was detected in the urine up to 24 h following ORALC dosing. A mean (s.d.) of 3.6 (4.3) μg, 10.4 (10.9) μg and 83.7 (71.1) μg of the ORAL dose was excreted, in the urine, during the 0.5, 1.0 and 24 h post dose collection periods, respectively. Following INH dosing, the renal excretion was significantly higher (P < 0.01) with 32.9 (14.5) μg, 61.2 (28.3) μg and 305.6 (82.3) μg excreted, respectively. The SCG excreted at 0.5, 1.0 and 24 h collection periods following INHC dosing were 26.3 (8.4) μg, 49.3 (18.1) μg and 184.9 (98.4) μg, respectively. There was no significant difference between the excretion rate of sodium cromoglycate following INHC when compared with INH dosing in the first 0.5 and 1.0 h. Conclusions The urinary excretion of sodium cromoglycate in the first 0.5 h post inhalation can be used to compare the relative lung deposition of two inhaled products or of the same product using different inhalation techniques. This represents the relative bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate to the lung following inhalation. Similar 24 h urinary excretion of sodium cromoglycate can be use to compare the total dose delivered to the body from two different inhalation products/inhalation methods. This represents the relative bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate to the body

  20. Experimental observations of dry powder inhaler dose fluidisation.

    PubMed

    Tuley, Rob; Shrimpton, John; Jones, Matthew D; Price, Rob; Palmer, Mark; Prime, Dave

    2008-06-24

    Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) are widely used to deliver respiratory medication as a fine powder. This study investigates the physical mechanism of DPI operation, assessing the effects of geometry, inhalation and powder type on dose fluidisation. Patient inhalation through an idealised DPI was simulated as a linearly increasing pressure drop across three powder dose reservoir geometries permitting an analysis of shear and normal forces on dose evacuation. Pressure drop gradients of 3.3, 10 and 30 kPa s(-1)were applied to four powder types (glass, aluminium, and lactose 6 and 16% fines) and high speed video of each powder dose fluidisation was recorded and quantitatively analysed. Two distinct mechanisms are identified, labelled 'fracture' and 'erosion'. 'Fracture' mode occurs when the initial evacuation occurs in several large agglomerates whilst 'erosion' mode occurs gradually, with successive layers being evacuated by the high speed gas flow at the bed/gas interface. The mechanism depends on the powder type, and is independent of the reservoir geometries or pressure drop gradients tested. Both lactose powders exhibit fracture characteristics, while aluminium and glass powders fluidise as an erosion. Further analysis of the four powder types by an annular shear cell showed that the fluidisation mechanism cannot be predicted using bulk powder properties.

  1. The effect of smoke inhalation on pulmonary surfactant.

    PubMed Central

    Nieman, G F; Clark, W R; Wax, S D; Webb, S R

    1980-01-01

    This paper details efforts to define the primary pathophysiology of acute smoke inhalation without the variables of infection, burns, or fluid resuscitation. A standard dose of smoke (wood and kerosene) was delivered at 37 C to mongrel dogs. The parameters studied included blood gases, carboxyhemoglobin, pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics, respiratory mechanics, surface tension area curves as an indication of surfactant activity, and in vivo photomicroscopy. The FiO2 of the smoke was 17 volumes per cent; the carbon monoxide 17,000 ppm. Immediately following smoke exposure, dense, nonsegmental atelectasis developed. Hemodynamic changes were insignificant, but the PaO2 fell to 49 mmHg; the right to left shunt rose from 5 to 41%. Surfactant reduction was significant: enough to cause an increase in the minimum surface tension from 7 to 22 dynes/cm. This surfactant loss may explain the atelectasis seen and the marked instability of subpleural alveolar walls. The data collected are consistent and support the acute inactivation of surfactant as one of the primary pathophysiologic events in smoke inhalation. The clinical correlation is good; surfactant loss may explain why victims of smoke inhalation are so vulnerable to fluid administration if they have thermal burns as well effectiveness of medical devices. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:6892674

  2. Inhaled gene delivery: a formulation and delivery approach.

    PubMed

    Gomes Dos Reis, Larissa; Svolos, Maree; Hartwig, Benedikt; Windhab, Norbert; Young, Paul M; Traini, Daniela

    2017-03-01

    Gene therapy is a potential alternative to treat a number of diseases. Different hurdles are associated with aerosol gene delivery due to the susceptibility of plasmid DNA (pDNA) structure to be degraded during the aerosolization process. Different strategies have been investigated in order to protect and efficiently deliver pDNA to the lungs using non-viral vectors. To date, no successful therapy involving non-viral vectors has been marketed, highlighting the need for further investigation in this field. Areas covered: This review is focused on the formulation and delivery of DNA to the lungs, using non-viral vectors. Aerosol gene formulations are divided according to the current delivery systems for the lung: nebulizers, dry powder inhalers and pressurized metered dose inhalers; highlighting its benefits, challenges and potential application. Expert opinion: Successful aerosol delivery is achieved when the supercoiled DNA structure is protected during aerosolization. A formulation strategy or compounds that can protect, stabilize and efficiently transfect DNA into the cells is desired in order to produce an effective, low-cost and safe formulation. Nebulizers and dry powder inhalers are the most promising approaches to be used for aerosol delivery, due to the lower shear forces involved. In this context it is also important to highlight the importance of considering the 'pDNA-formulation-device system' as an integral part of the formulation development for a successful nucleic acid delivery.

  3. Capsaicin inhalation in man and the effects of sodium cromoglycate.

    PubMed Central

    Collier, J. G.; Fuller, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    The inhalation of capsaicin for 1 min, delivered as an aerosol by nebulising solutions of capsaicin at concentrations of 2-65 mumol 1(-1), caused dose-dependent coughing in normal volunteers and subjects with mild asthma. Capsaicin did not cause a feeling of breathlessness, and had no effect on forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) measured at the 1st, 5th and 9th min after the challenge was completed. Coughing started within seconds of applying the face mask, continued throughout the minute of capsaicin inhalation, and stopped within seconds of the mask being removed. In any one subject the number of coughs was reproducible when repeated on the same day or after an interval of several days. Experiments using local anaesthesia applied to the buccal mucosa or larynx indicated that the cough was caused by the stimulation of capsaicin-sensitive nerve terminals situated in the larynx. Cough response was not altered by the prior inhalation of sodium cromoglycate. PMID:6423016

  4. Combustion-derived nanoparticulate induces the adverse vascular effects of diesel exhaust inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Nicholas L.; Miller, Mark R.; Lucking, Andrew J.; Beveridge, Jon; Flint, Laura; Boere, A. John F.; Fokkens, Paul H.; Boon, Nicholas A.; Sandstrom, Thomas; Blomberg, Anders; Duffin, Rodger; Donaldson, Ken; Hadoke, Patrick W.F.; Cassee, Flemming R.; Newby, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Aim Exposure to road traffic and air pollution may be a trigger of acute myocardial infarction, but the individual pollutants responsible for this effect have not been established. We assess the role of combustion-derived-nanoparticles in mediating the adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution. Methods and results To determine the in vivo effects of inhalation of diesel exhaust components, 16 healthy volunteers were exposed to (i) dilute diesel exhaust, (ii) pure carbon nanoparticulate, (iii) filtered diesel exhaust, or (iv) filtered air, in a randomized double blind cross-over study. Following each exposure, forearm blood flow was measured during intra-brachial bradykinin, acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside, and verapamil infusions. Compared with filtered air, inhalation of diesel exhaust increased systolic blood pressure (145 ± 4 vs. 133 ± 3 mmHg, P< 0.05) and attenuated vasodilatation to bradykinin (P= 0.005), acetylcholine (P= 0.008), and sodium nitroprusside (P< 0.001). Exposure to pure carbon nanoparticulate or filtered exhaust had no effect on endothelium-dependent or -independent vasodilatation. To determine the direct vascular effects of nanoparticulate, isolated rat aortic rings (n= 6–9 per group) were assessed in vitro by wire myography and exposed to diesel exhaust particulate, pure carbon nanoparticulate and vehicle. Compared with vehicle, diesel exhaust particulate (but not pure carbon nanoparticulate) attenuated both acetylcholine (P< 0.001) and sodium-nitroprusside (P= 0.019)-induced vasorelaxation. These effects were partially attributable to both soluble and insoluble components of the particulate. Conclusion Combustion-derived nanoparticulate appears to predominately mediate the adverse vascular effects of diesel exhaust inhalation. This provides a rationale for testing environmental health interventions targeted at reducing traffic-derived particulate emissions. PMID:21753226

  5. Combustion-derived nanoparticulate induces the adverse vascular effects of diesel exhaust inhalation.

    PubMed

    Mills, Nicholas L; Miller, Mark R; Lucking, Andrew J; Beveridge, Jon; Flint, Laura; Boere, A John F; Fokkens, Paul H; Boon, Nicholas A; Sandstrom, Thomas; Blomberg, Anders; Duffin, Rodger; Donaldson, Ken; Hadoke, Patrick W F; Cassee, Flemming R; Newby, David E

    2011-11-01

    Exposure to road traffic and air pollution may be a trigger of acute myocardial infarction, but the individual pollutants responsible for this effect have not been established. We assess the role of combustion-derived-nanoparticles in mediating the adverse cardiovascular effects of air pollution. To determine the in vivo effects of inhalation of diesel exhaust components, 16 healthy volunteers were exposed to (i) dilute diesel exhaust, (ii) pure carbon nanoparticulate, (iii) filtered diesel exhaust, or (iv) filtered air, in a randomized double blind cross-over study. Following each exposure, forearm blood flow was measured during intra-brachial bradykinin, acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside, and verapamil infusions. Compared with filtered air, inhalation of diesel exhaust increased systolic blood pressure (145 ± 4 vs. 133 ± 3 mmHg, P< 0.05) and attenuated vasodilatation to bradykinin (P= 0.005), acetylcholine (P= 0.008), and sodium nitroprusside (P< 0.001). Exposure to pure carbon nanoparticulate or filtered exhaust had no effect on endothelium-dependent or -independent vasodilatation. To determine the direct vascular effects of nanoparticulate, isolated rat aortic rings (n= 6-9 per group) were assessed in vitro by wire myography and exposed to diesel exhaust particulate, pure carbon nanoparticulate and vehicle. Compared with vehicle, diesel exhaust particulate (but not pure carbon nanoparticulate) attenuated both acetylcholine (P< 0.001) and sodium-nitroprusside (P= 0.019)-induced vasorelaxation. These effects were partially attributable to both soluble and insoluble components of the particulate. Combustion-derived nanoparticulate appears to predominately mediate the adverse vascular effects of diesel exhaust inhalation. This provides a rationale for testing environmental health interventions targeted at reducing traffic-derived particulate emissions.

  6. Particulate emission reduction using additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rising, B.

    1998-07-01

    A particulate emission reduction study using a large industrial combustion turbine was undertaken. With heavy oil, both the mass particulate rate and smoke emissions exceeded original emission projections. Extensive particulate (gravimetric) emission tests were conducted to define the problem, and to assess specific corrective actions. Physical characterization of the particulate emissions revealed that the particulates from heavy oil were much larger than those found from lighter distillates. A review of the available literature on the subject was undertaken. Methods that were found to be effective at reducing smoke emissions were selected as a starting point. From this information, various techniques, including water injection, emulsification, and additive injection were evaluated to address both the visible smoke emissions and the particulate emission. Only the use of metal based fuel additives was found to be effective in reducing both visible smoke emissions and particulates. From vendor information, different additive time was selected for evaluation. Because of the complex chemistry of the fuel and additive mixtures, the vendor was required to optimize the additive carrier. Additives reduced particulates produced from the burning of heavy oil, but were found to be relatively ineffective with lighter distillate oils. Extensive chemical and physical characterization of the particulates were undertaken. From heavy oil, the particulates were found to be physically larger, greater than 5 microns. The additive was most effective on the heavy oils, but did not appear to alter the particulate size distribution. Additives did not appear to have any impact on the conversion of fuel bond sulfur into sulfuric acid mist. Additive dosage ratios were found which reduced the total particulate emission signature to meet current environmental requirements, while also nearly eliminating the plume visibility issues.

  7. Space station particulate contamination environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. R.; Clifton, K. S.

    1988-01-01

    The origin of particulate contamination on the Space Station will mostly be from pre-launch operations. The adherence and subsequent release of these particles during space flight are discussed. Particle size, release velocity, and release direction are important in determining particle behavior in the vicinity of the vehicle. The particulate environment at the principal science instrument locations is compared to the space shuttle bay environment. Recommendations for possibly decreasing the particulate contamination are presented.

  8. [Effects of Instruction on Inhalation Techniques Using iPads - Web Application "Inhalation Lessons"].

    PubMed

    Kogawa, Noriko; Ito, Reiko; Gon, Yasuhiro; Maruoka, Shuichiro; Hashimoto, Shu

    2015-12-01

    Instruction on inhalation techniques for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD)and asthma patients being treated with inhalants have sufficient therapeutic effects and are important to maintain adherence. However, problems continue to exist, including time constraints of medical staff that have a large number of patients and a lack of knowledge on inhalation instruction methods. A web application,"Inhalation Lessons,'for the iPad has been developed. It explains inhalation methods, and consists of videos and review tests. Instruction on inhalation techniques was performed using this application for patients that use Diskus, and the effects were examined. As a result, there are significant improvements in the inhalation techniques of patients after viewing the"Inhalation Lessons'application. Uniform instruction on inhalation techniques can be performed even in the field of homecare.

  9. Plume temperature emitted from metered dose inhalers.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, G; Church, T; Lewis, D; Meakin, B

    2011-02-28

    The temperature of the drug cloud emitted from a pressurised metered dose inhaler (pMDI) may result in patient discomfort and inconsistent or non-existent dose delivery to the lungs. The effects of variations in formulation (drug, propellant, co-solvent content) and device hardware (metering volume, actuator orifice diameter, add-on devices) upon the temperature of pMDI plumes, expressed as replicate mean minimum values (MMPT), collected into a pharmacopoeial dose unit sampling apparatus (DUSA), have been investigated. Ten commercially available and two development products, including chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) suspensions and hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) solutions or suspensions, were examined together with a number of drug products in late stage development and a variety of HFA 134a placebo pMDIs. Plume temperatures were observed to be lowest in the proximity of the product's actuator mouthpiece where rapid flashing and evaporation of the formulation's propellant and volatile excipients cause cooling. The ability to control plume temperature by judicious choice of formulation co-solvent content, metering volume and the actuator orifice diameter is identified. An ethanol based HFA 134a formulation delivered through a fine orifice is inherently warmer than one with 100% HFA 134a vehicle delivered through a coarse actuator orifice. Of the 10 commercial products evaluated, MMPTs ranged from -54 to +4°C and followed the formulation class rank order, HFA suspensions

  10. Perceived risk of harm and intentions of future inhalant use among adolescent inhalant users.

    PubMed

    Perron, Brian E; Howard, Matthew O

    2008-09-01

    To identify predictors of perceived (a) risk of harm associated with inhalant use and (b) intention to use inhalants among adolescent inhalant users. Participants were 279 lifetime inhalant users (M(age)=15.5, 84% male) identified in a statewide survey of 723 adolescents in Missouri Division of Youth Services' residential care for antisocial conduct. Youth completed interviews assessing inhalant and other drug use, psychiatric symptoms, and antisocial traits/behavior. More than one-third (37%) of youth perceived experimental inhalant use as of slight or no risk; one-in-eight (11.9%) youth perceived regular inhalant use as of slight or no risk. Risk perceptions of experimental and regular inhalant use were not associated with intentions to use. Youth with friends/siblings who use inhalants were less likely to perceive risks associated with experimental and regular inhalant use compared to youth without friends/sibling users. Adolescents who were younger and those with more extensive substance abuse problems, prior problems with inhalants, greater current psychiatric distress, and friends/siblings who use inhalants were significantly more likely to report intentions of future inhalant use than their counterparts. Assessments of substance use among youth, particularly those in the criminal justice system, should include an assessment of inhalant use. Intervention efforts should focus on developing strategies for managing social network influences.

  11. Size-selective sampling of particulates using a physiologic sampling pump.

    PubMed

    Lee, Larry A; Lee, Eun Gyung; Lee, Taekhee; Kim, Seung Won; Slaven, James E; Harper, Martin

    2011-03-01

    Recent laboratory research indicates physiologic sampling of gas and vapor may provide more representative estimates of personal exposures than traditional methods. Modifications to the physiologic sampling pump (PSP) used in that research are described which extend its usefulness to size-selective sampling of particulates. PSPs used in previous research varied motor speed to keep sampling proportional to the subject's inhalation. This caused airflow and particle velocities through the collection device to continually change making those pumps unsuitable for sampling particulates. The modified implementation of the PSP pulls a constant airflow into and through a cyclone, then uses valves to either direct the airflow through, or divert the airflow around, the sampling filter. By using physiologic inputs to regulate the fraction of each second that air flows through the sampling filter, samples may be collected in proportion to inhalation rate. To evaluate the performance of a functional prototype 5 different sizes of monodisperse aerosols of ammonium fluorescein were generated by a vibrating orifice aerosol generator and introduced into a calm air chamber. To simulate different inhalation rates the valves of the PSP were energized using 9 different duty cycles. Efficiency curves are presented and compared to a standard respirable convention by bias mapping. The performance of the modified cyclone used in the PSP sampling head compared favorably with a commercially available cyclone of the same model, operating at a constant airflow (± 10% over almost all the size distributions of concern). The new method makes physiologic sampling of the respirable fraction of particulates feasible.

  12. A Preference Study of Two Placebo Dry Powder Inhalers in Adults with COPD: ELLIPTA® Dry Powder Inhaler (DPI) versus DISKUS® DPI.

    PubMed

    Yun Kirby, Suyong; Zhu, Chang-Qing; Kerwin, Edward M; Stanford, Richard H; Georges, George

    2016-01-01

    Patients' preference is an important factor in selecting an inhaler treatment for COPD. The DISKUS® dry powder inhaler (DPI), which has been available to deliver several COPD medications for a decade, and the ELLIPTA® DPI, developed for the delivery of newer once-daily medications for patients with COPD, were studied in terms of patient preference and inhaler-specific attributes. We conducted a randomized, open-label, crossover study in patients with COPD. Patients used placebo ELLIPTA DPI once daily and placebo DISKUS DPI twice daily, for ∼1 week each, while continuing their COPD medications. Endpoints were: inhaler preference based on size of the numbers on the dose-counter (primary); the number of steps needed and inhaler size (secondary); and based on comfort of the mouthpiece, ease of opening, overall preference, and dosing regimen preference ('other'). Safety assessments included adverse events (AEs). A total of 287 patients were randomized. A significantly (p < 0.001) larger proportion of patients preferred the ELLIPTA DPI over DISKUS DPI for each of the tested attributes and overall, and preferred once-daily over twice-daily dosing. AEs were reported for 36 patients (13%); one (dry mouth) was considered to be related to the placebo-containing DISKUS DPI. Three patients had five non-fatal serious AEs, none were deemed inhaler-related. This study demonstrated that more patients with COPD preferred five specific inhaler attributes of the ELLIPTA DPI over DISKUS DPI and overall, and preferred once-daily versus twice-daily dosing. Safety profiles were consistent with those expected for COPD.

  13. Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Treado; Oksana Klueva; Jeffrey Beckstead

    2008-12-31

    Aerosol threat detection requires the ability to discern between threat agents and ambient background particulate matter (PM) encountered in the environment. To date, Raman imaging technology has been demonstrated as an effective strategy for the assessment of threat agents in the presence of specific, complex backgrounds. Expanding our understanding of the composition of ambient particulate matter background will improve the overall performance of Raman Chemical Imaging (RCI) detection strategies for the autonomous detection of airborne chemical and biological hazards. Improving RCI detection performance is strategic due to its potential to become a widely exploited detection approach by several U.S. government agencies. To improve the understanding of the ambient PM background with subsequent improvement in Raman threat detection capability, ChemImage undertook the Airborne Particulate Threat Assessment (APTA) Project in 2005-2008 through a collaborative effort with the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), under cooperative agreement number DE-FC26-05NT42594. During Phase 1 of the program, a novel PM classification based on molecular composition was developed based on a comprehensive review of the scientific literature. In addition, testing protocols were developed for ambient PM characterization. A signature database was developed based on a variety of microanalytical techniques, including scanning electron microscopy, FT-IR microspectroscopy, optical microscopy, fluorescence and Raman chemical imaging techniques. An automated particle integrated collector and detector (APICD) prototype was developed for automated collection, deposition and detection of biothreat agents in background PM. During Phase 2 of the program, ChemImage continued to refine the understanding of ambient background composition. Additionally, ChemImage enhanced the APICD to provide improved autonomy, sensitivity and specificity. Deliverables included a Final Report detailing our

  14. [Inhalant abusers and psychiatric symptoms].

    PubMed

    Okudaira, K; Yabana, T; Takahashi, H; Iizuka, H; Nakajima, K; Saito, A

    1996-01-01

    There are different opinions about the cause of chronic psychiatric symptoms observed in drug abusers between Japanese and foreign psychiatrists. The Japanese seem to recognize the chronic psychosis as the result of drug abuse. In the other hand, foreigners diagnose these cases as dual diagnosis of drug abuse and psychosis. Authors studied the problem in this research. One of the authors has examined 120 inhalant abusers of all, in- and out-patients in Kanagawa Prefectural Center of Psychiatry, Serigaya Hospital from 1991 to 1995. These patients were classified into three groups: psychosis group (23 patients), dependence group (51 patients) and abuse group (46 patients) according to their clinical courses and psychiatric symptoms. The psychosis group consists of patients who showed psychiatric symptoms such as hallucination, delusion and thought disturbance for long time after detoxification. The dependence group contains patients whose inhalant dependence was severe and met DSM-4 Diagnostic Criteria for Substance Dependence, but manifested no chronic psychiatric symptoms after detoxification. The patients belonging to abuse group were at the earlier stages of inhalant abuse and had no chronic psychiatric symptoms. The average age of the first inhalant abuse was 14.7 years old in the psychosis group, 14.8 years in the dependence group and 14.7 years in the abuse group. The average years of abuse was 9.0 years in the psychosis group, and 8.5 years in the dependence group. There was little difference between these two groups. The psychosis patients manifested chronic symptoms 5.7 years on average after the first abuse of inhalants. About one forth (26.1%) of the psychosis patients and only 5.9% of the dependence patients had family history of schizophrenia. The difference was statistically significant. These results suggest that chronic psychiatric symptoms are caused not only by inhalant abuse, but also by the genetic factors of psychosis of each patient. There have

  15. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intravenous and inhaled fluticasone furoate in healthy Caucasian and East Asian subjects

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Ann; Bal, Joanne; Cheesbrough, Anne; Hamilton, Melanie; Kempsford, Rodger

    2014-01-01

    AIM The aim of the study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of inhaled and intravenous (i.v.) fluticasone furoate (FF) in healthy Caucasian, Chinese, Japanese and Korean subjects. METHOD This was an open label, randomized, two way crossover study in healthy Caucasian, Chinese, Japanese and Korean subjects (n = 20 per group). Inhaled FF (200 μg for 7 days, then 800 μg for 7 days from a dry powder inhaler [DPI]) was administered in one treatment period and i.v.FF (250 μg infusion) in the other. FF PK and serum cortisol (inhaled 200 μg only) were compared between the ethnic groups using analysis of variance. P450 CYP3A4 activity and safety were also assessed. RESULTS Ethnic differences in i.v. FF PK were accounted for by body weight differences. CYP3A4 activity was similar across the groups. Higher FF systemic exposure was seen following inhaled dosing in Chinese, Japanese and Korean subjects compared with Caucasian subjects. Absolute bioavailability was greater (36%–55%) in all East Asian groups than for Caucasian subjects following inhaled FF 800 μg. Deconvolution analysis suggested inhaled FF resided in the lung of East Asian subjects longer than for Caucasians (time for 90% to be absorbed [t90]: 29.1–30.8 h vs. 21.4 h). In vitro simulation method predicted comparable delivered lung dose across ethnic groups. Serum cortisol weighted mean was similar between Caucasians and Chinese or Koreans, while in Japanese was on average 22% lower than in Caucasians. All FF treatments were safe and well tolerated. CONCLUSION Modestly higher (<50%) FF systemic exposure seen in East Asian subjects following inhaled dosing was not associated with a clinically significant effect on serum cortisol, suggesting that a clinical dose adjustment in East Asian subjects is not required. PMID:24152086

  16. Inhaled treprostinil and pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Nadler, Samuel T; Edelman, Jeffrey D

    2010-01-01

    Multiple conditions result in development of pulmonary hypertension. Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is the subclassification of pulmonary hypertension, in which known or unknown underlying conditions lead to similar intrinsic alterations in the pulmonary vasculature. PAH is a progressive condition characterized by restricted blood flow through the pulmonary circulation leading to poor survival in the absence of effective therapy. Over the last two decades, new therapeutic agents have substantially improved the course and prognosis for PAH patients. Three available classes of drugs, ie, prostacyclins, endothelin receptor antagonists, and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors provide multiple options for treatment of PAH. Endothelin receptor antagonists and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors are administered orally, whereas prostacyclin therapies are delivered by continuous intravenous or subcutaneous infusion, or as aerosols by nebulization. Because of the risks and inconveniences associated with administration, prostacyclins are typically reserved for patients with more advanced disease or progression despite oral therapy. Inhaled administration may be a safer and easier route for prostacyclin administration. Treprostinil is a prostacyclin analog that has been demonstrated to be effective when administered by continuous subcutaneous or intravenous infusion, and more recently by nebulization. PMID:21191432

  17. A comparison of the results from intra-pleural and intra-peritoneal studies with those from inhalation and intratracheal tests for the assessment of pulmonary responses to inhalable dusts and fibres.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Gail; Bevan, Ruth; Harrison, Paul

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to compare results from inhalation studies with those from intraperitoneal and intrapleural tests, where available, for a number of fibrous and particulate test materials. The objective is to determine how well intraperitoneal/intrapleural studies predict the pathological responses observed in more standard in vivo studies of pulmonary toxicity, with a particular focus on carcinogenicity. Published toxicity data was obtained for a number of materials including asbestos, wollastonite, MMVFs (including glass fibres, stone wools and RCF), silicon carbide whiskers, potassium octatitanate, quartz, kevlar, polypropylene and titanium dioxide. For some of the fibrous material reviewed, there is conformity between the results of intraperitoneal and inhalation tests such that they are either consistently positive or consistently negative. For the remaining fibrous materials reviewed, intraperitoneal and inhalation tests give different results, with positive results in the intraperitoneal test not being reflected by positive inhalation results. It is suggested that the intraperitoneal test can be used to exonerate a dust or fibre (because if negative in the intraperitoneal test it is extremely unlikely to be positive in either inhalation or intratracheal tests) but should not be used to positively determine that a dust or fibre is carcinogenic by inhalation. We would argue against the use of intraperitoneal tests for human health risk assessment except perhaps for the purpose of exoneration of a material from classification as a carcinogen.

  18. Computer controlled multi-walled carbon nanotube inhalation exposure system.

    PubMed

    McKinney, Walter; Chen, Bean; Frazer, Dave

    2009-10-01

    Inhalation exposure systems are necessary tools for determining the dose-response relationship of inhaled toxicants under a variety of exposure conditions. The objective of this project was to develop an automated computer controlled system to expose small laboratory animals to precise concentrations of airborne multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). An aerosol generator was developed which was capable of suspending a respirable fraction of multi-walled carbon nanotubes from bulk material. The output of the generator was used to expose small laboratory animals to constant aerosol concentrations up to 12 mg/m(3). Particle distribution and morphology of the MWCNT aerosol delivered to the exposure chamber were measured and compared to samples previously taken from air inside a facility that produces MWCNT. The comparison showed the MWCNT generator was producing particles similar in size and shape to those found in a work environment. The inhalation exposure system combined air flow controllers, particle monitors, data acquisition devices, and custom software with automatic feedback control to achieve constant and repeatable exposure chamber temperature, relative humidity, pressure, aerosol concentration, and particle size distribution. The automatic control algorithm was capable of maintaining the mean aerosol concentration to within 0.1 mg/m(3) of the selected target value, and it could reach 95% of the target value in less than 10 minutes during the start-up of an inhalation exposure. One of the major advantages of this system was that once the exposure parameters were selected, a minimum amount of operator intervention was required over the exposure period.

  19. The morphology of smoke inhalation injury in sheep.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, G B; Langlinais, P C; Shimazu, T; Okerberg, C V; Mason, A D; Pruitt, B A

    1991-11-01

    Pulmonary injury resulting from inhalation of chemical and particulate products of incomplete combustion is one of the principal determinants of mortality following burn injury. In this study, the histopathology of inhalation injury was examined in sheep. Mild, moderate, or severe smoke injury was produced in anesthetized sheep by insufflation with various doses of ambient temperature smoke, generated by burning polyethylene, wood pulp, and nonwoven cellulose pads. A total of 64 sheep were exposed and evaluated at times ranging from 15 minutes to 4 weeks after exposure. Morphologic changes in the lungs were studied using light microscopy and both transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The primary, dose-responsive injury observed was acute cell membrane damage in the trachea and bronchi leading to edema, progressive necrotic tracheobronchitis with pseudomembrane formation, and airway obstruction. These inflammatory and occlusive effects were followed by congestion, alveolar space edema, atelectasis, and bronchopneumonia. Morphologic changes occurring in the alveolar epithelium following high smoke dosage included intracellular edema in type-I cells, changes in the membrane-bound vacuoles of type-II cells, and septal thickening caused by interstitial edema. No capillary endothelial changes were observed.

  20. Polymer degradation and ultrafine particles: Potential inhalation hazards for astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferin, J.; Oberdörster, G.

    When Teflon is heated the developing fumes produce in exposed humans an influenza-like syndrome (polymer fume fever) or also severe toxic effects like pulmonary edema, pneumonitis and death. The decomposition products and the resulting health effects are temperature-dependent. The toxic effects seem to be related to the ultrafine particulate fraction of the fume. To test the hypothesis that exposure to ultrafine particles results in an increased interstitialization of the particles which is accompanied by an acute pathological inflammation, rats were exposed to titanium dioxide (TiO 2) particles by intratracheal instillation and by inhalation. Both acute intratracheal instillation and subchronic inhalation studies on rats show that ultrafine TiO 2 particles (˜20 nm diameter) access the pulmonary interstitium to a larger extent than fine particles (˜250 nm diameter) and that they elicit an inflammatory response as indicated by PMN increase in lavaged cells. The release of ultrafine particles into the air of an enclosed environment from a thermodegradation event or from other sources is a potential hazard for astronauts. Knowing the mechanisms of action is a prerequisite for technical or medical countermeasures.

  1. Inhaled anesthetics: an historical overview.

    PubMed

    Whalen, Francis X; Bacon, Douglas R; Smith, Hugh M

    2005-09-01

    Inhalational agents have played a pivotal role in anesthesia history. The first publicly demonstrated anesthetic of the modern era, diethyl ether, was an inhalational anesthetic. The attributes of a good agent, ability to rapidly induce anesthesia, with limited side effects has led research efforts for over a hundred and fifty years. The explosion hazard was largely conquered with the development of the halogenated agents in the 1950s. Rapid emergence, with limited nausea and vomiting continue to drive discovery efforts, yet the 'modern' agents continue to improve upon those in the past. The future holds promise, but perhaps the most interesting contrast over time is the ability to rapidly introduce new agents into practice. From James Young Simpson's dinner table one evening to the operating suite the next day, modern agents take decades from first synthesis to clinical introduction.

  2. Inhalation therapy in mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Maccari, Juçara Gasparetto; Teixeira, Cassiano; Gazzana, Marcelo Basso; Savi, Augusto; Dexheimer-Neto, Felippe Leopoldo; Knorst, Marli Maria

    2015-01-01

    Patients with obstructive lung disease often require ventilatory support via invasive or noninvasive mechanical ventilation, depending on the severity of the exacerbation. The use of inhaled bronchodilators can significantly reduce airway resistance, contributing to the improvement of respiratory mechanics and patient-ventilator synchrony. Although various studies have been published on this topic, little is known about the effectiveness of the bronchodilators routinely prescribed for patients on mechanical ventilation or about the deposition of those drugs throughout the lungs. The inhaled bronchodilators most commonly used in ICUs are beta adrenergic agonists and anticholinergics. Various factors might influence the effect of bronchodilators, including ventilation mode, position of the spacer in the circuit, tube size, formulation, drug dose, severity of the disease, and patient-ventilator synchrony. Knowledge of the pharmacological properties of bronchodilators and the appropriate techniques for their administration is fundamental to optimizing the treatment of these patients. PMID:26578139

  3. Neptunium-237 inhalation in rats.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, M F; Ruemmler, P S; Buschbom, R L

    1986-12-01

    Groups of rats were exposed to aerosols of 237Np nitrate to determine clearance rates, retention and distribution at various intervals after inhalation. Initial lung burdens (ILB) after 237Np inhalation by three treatment groups were 0.12, 0.19 and 0.37 mu Ci/kg, respectively. Radiochemical analyses of animals killed at 4, 8, 14, 28 and 90 d, as well as data for others maintained until they became moribund, showed that their lung clearance followed a three-compartment model, clearance half-times for which were 1, 35, and 10,000 d, respectively. Only 3% of the ILB was retained after 90 d; 12% of that burden had translocated to the skeleton at 750 d; the half-time for skeletal retention was 2500 d. A single tumor was the only malignancy detected in the lungs of the 35 animals allowed to survive the early phase of the study.

  4. Recognition and prevention of inhalant abuse.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Carrie E; Loomis, Glenn A

    2003-09-01

    Inhalant abuse is a prevalent and often overlooked form of substance abuse in adolescents. Survey results consistently show that nearly 20 percent of children in middle school and high school have experimented with inhaled substances. The method of delivery is inhalation of a solvent from its container, a soaked rag, or a bag. Solvents include almost any household cleaning agent or propellant, paint thinner, glue, and lighter fluid. Inhalant abuse typically can cause a euphoric feeling and can become addictive. Acute effects include sudden sniffing death syndrome, asphyxia, and serious injuries (e.g., falls, burns, frostbite). Chronic inhalant abuse can damage cardiac, renal, hepatic, and neurologic systems. Inhalant abuse during pregnancy can cause fetal abnormalities. Diagnosis of inhalant abuse is difficult and relies almost entirely on a thorough history and a high index of suspicion. No specific laboratory tests confirm solvent inhalation. Treatment is generally supportive, because there are no reversal agents for inhalant intoxication. Education of young persons and their parents is essential to decrease experimentation with inhalants.

  5. Particulate technology issues

    SciTech Connect

    Pontius, D.H.; Vann Bush, P.

    1992-12-01

    Advanced systems for power generation based on coal combustion or gasification will require effective particulate control both for protection of equipment in the gas stream and for compliance with environmental regulations. These new classes of systems will require efficient removal of particles from gas streams at high temperature and high pressure. Primary candidates for particulate control are various types of ceramic filter systems; however, the long-term effects of hot gases and fine particles on the structure and filtration effectiveness of potential filter materials require further study. Thermal gradients induced by pulse cleaning are also of concern. Long-term ``patch tests`` will be conducted on ceramic disks of the same materials used in the fabrication of ceramic candles and ceramic crossflow filters. The primary issues to be addressed in these tests are the long-term physical, thermal, and chemical stability of the ceramic materials; long-term pressure drop and filtration characteristics of the ceramic filters; potential for irreversible blinding of filter elements; and long term performance and reliability of auxiliary hardware, such as the tube sheet and pulse cleaning systems. Each long-term patch test will require about 3 to 4 months of nearly continuous operation.

  6. A novel inhaled multi-pronged attack against respiratory bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sie Huey; Teo, Jeanette; Heng, Desmond; Zhao, Yanli; Ng, Wai Kiong; Chan, Hak-Kim; Tan, Li Teng; Tan, Reginald B H

    2015-04-05

    Airway mucus hypersecretion is a common clinical feature of many severe respiratory diseases, and when complicated by a recalcitrant bacterial infection, the whole treatment regimen thereby becomes more challenging and protracted. The accumulation of thickened mucus secretions in the lower airways provides a nutrient-rich breeding ground for bacteria that promotes their growth and limits the ease of effective eradication. Unfortunately, no direct-inhaled dry powder formulation to treat these respiratory mucoid infections more effectively is available commercially. This work therefore seeks to develop a highly-efficacious ternary dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation (ciprofloxacin hydrochloride (CIP), gatifloxacin hydrochloride (GAT) and ambroxol hydrochloride (AMB)) capable of delivering a novel multi-pronged attack (synergy, quorum quenching and mucociliary clearance) on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a common respiratory bacteria found in mucoid infections. The powders were prepared via spray drying, evaluated on their aerosol performance via a multi-stage liquid impinger (MSLI) and tested for their efficacies in bacteria-spiked artificial sputum medium (ASM). The optimized particles were of respirable-size (d50 of ∼1.61±0.03μm) and slightly corrugated. When dispersed via an Aerolizer® inhaler at 60L/min, the powder showed concomitant in vitro deposition, minimal capsule, device and throat retention, and highly promising and uniform fine particle fractions (of the loaded dose) of ∼64-69%, which was a vast improvement over the singly-delivered actives. Favourably, when tested on bacteria-spiked ASM, the optimized ternary formulation (with AMB) was more effective at killing bacteria (i.e. faster rate of killing) than just the synergistic antibiotics alone (binary formulation; without AMB). In conclusion, a ternary antibiotic-(non-antibiotic) DPI formulation involving a unique multi-pronged attack mechanism was successfully pioneered and optimized for mucoid

  7. Inhaled Therapies for Pulmonary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hill, Nicholas S; Preston, Ioana R; Roberts, Kari E

    2015-06-01

    The inhaled route has a number of attractive features for treatment of pulmonary hypertension, including delivery of drug directly to the target organ, thus enhancing pulmonary specificity and reducing systemic adverse effects. It can also improve ventilation/perfusion matching by dilating vessels supplying ventilated regions, thus improving gas exchange. Furthermore, it can achieve higher local drug concentrations at a lower overall dose, potentially reducing drug cost. Accordingly, a number of inhaled agents have been developed to treat pulmonary hypertension. Most in current use are prostacyclins, including epoprostenol, which has been cleared for intravenous applications but is used off-label in acute care settings as a continuously nebulized medication. Aerosolized iloprost and treprostinil are both prostacyclins that have been cleared by the FDA to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Both require frequent administration (6 and 4 times daily, respectively), and both have a tendency to cause airway symptoms, including cough and wheeze, which can lead to intolerance. These agents cannot be used to substitute for the infused routes of prostacyclin because they do not permit delivery of medication at high doses. Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) is cleared for the treatment of primary pulmonary hypertension in newborns. It is also used off-label to test acute vasoreactivity in PAH during right-heart catheterization and to treat acute right-heart failure in hospitalized patients. In addition, some studies on long-term application of INO either have been recently completed with results pending or are under consideration. In the future, because of its inherent advantages in targeting the lung, the inhaled route is likely to be tested using a variety of small molecules that show promise as PAH therapies.

  8. Brain permeability of inhaled corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Arya, Vikram; Issar, Manish; Wang, Yaning; Talton, James D; Hochhaus, Guenther

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if the permeability of inhaled corticosteroids entering the brain is reduced and if P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transporters are involved. Currently employed inhaled corticosteroids were given intravenously and intratracheally to rats at a dose of 100 microg kg-1. An ex-vivo receptor binding assay was used to monitor over 12 h the glucocorticoid receptor occupancy in the brain and a systemic reference organ (kidney). The involvement of P-gp in the brain permeability of triamcinolone acetonide was assessed in wild-type mice and mdr1a(-/-) knockout mice (mice lacking the gene for expressing P-gp). After both forms of administration, the average brain receptor occupancies were 20-56% of those of the reference organ, with the more lipophilic drugs showing a more pronounced receptor occupation. While the receptor occupancies in the liver of wild-type and mdr1a(-/-) mice were similar after administration of triamcinolone acetonide, brain receptor occupancies in mdr1a(-/-) mice were significantly greater (mdr1a(-/-): 47.6%, 40.2-55.0%, n=14; 2; wild-type: 11.5+/-33.0%, n=14; 3). Penetration into the brain for inhaled corticosteroids (especially those of lower lipophilicity) is reduced. Experiments in mdr1a(-/-) mice confirmed the involvement of P-gp transporters. Further studies are needed to assess whether potential drug interactions at the transporter level are of pharmacological significance.

  9. Apparatus for particulate matter analysis

    DOEpatents

    Gundel, Lara A.; Apte, Michael G.; Hansen, Anthony D.; Black, Douglas R.

    2007-01-30

    The apparatus described herein is a miniaturized system for particle exposure assessment (MSPEA) for the quantitative measurement and qualitative identification of particulate content in gases. The present invention utilizes a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) or other mass-sensitive temperature compensated acoustic wave resonator for mass measurement. Detectors and probes and light sources are used in combination for the qualitative determination of particulate matter.

  10. Characterization and Cytotoxic Assessment of Ballistic Aerosol Particulates for Tungsten Alloy Penetrators into Steel Target Plates

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Brenda I.; Murr, Lawrence E.; Suro, Raquel M.; Gaytan, Sara M.; Ramirez, Diana A.; Garza, Kristine M.; Schuster, Brian E.

    2010-01-01

    The nature and constituents of ballistic aerosol created by kinetic energy penetrator rods of tungsten heavy alloys (W-Fe-Ni and W-Fe-Co) perforating steel target plates was characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. These aerosol regimes, which can occur in closed, armored military vehicle penetration, are of concern for potential health effects, especially as a consequence of being inhaled. In a controlled volume containing 10 equispaced steel target plates, particulates were systematically collected onto special filters. Filter collections were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) which included energy-dispersive (X-ray) spectrometry (EDS). Dark-field TEM identified a significant nanoparticle concentration while EDS in the SEM identified the propensity of mass fraction particulates to consist of Fe and FeO, representing target erosion and formation of an accumulating debris field. Direct exposure of human epithelial cells (A549), a model for lung tissue, to particulates (especially nanoparticulates) collected on individual filters demonstrated induction of rapid and global cell death to the extent that production of inflammatory cytokines was entirely inhibited. These observations along with comparisons of a wide range of other nanoparticulate species exhibiting cell death in A549 culture may suggest severe human toxicity potential for inhaled ballistic aerosol, but the complexity of the aerosol (particulate) mix has not yet allowed any particular chemical composition to be identified. PMID:20948926

  11. Characterization and cytotoxic assessment of ballistic aerosol particulates for tungsten alloy penetrators into steel target plates.

    PubMed

    Machado, Brenda I; Murr, Lawrence E; Suro, Raquel M; Gaytan, Sara M; Ramirez, Diana A; Garza, Kristine M; Schuster, Brian E

    2010-09-01

    The nature and constituents of ballistic aerosol created by kinetic energy penetrator rods of tungsten heavy alloys (W-Fe-Ni and W-Fe-Co) perforating steel target plates was characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. These aerosol regimes, which can occur in closed, armored military vehicle penetration, are of concern for potential health effects, especially as a consequence of being inhaled. In a controlled volume containing 10 equispaced steel target plates, particulates were systematically collected onto special filters. Filter collections were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM) which included energy-dispersive (X-ray) spectrometry (EDS). Dark-field TEM identified a significant nanoparticle concentration while EDS in the SEM identified the propensity of mass fraction particulates to consist of Fe and FeO, representing target erosion and formation of an accumulating debris field. Direct exposure of human epithelial cells (A549), a model for lung tissue, to particulates (especially nanoparticulates) collected on individual filters demonstrated induction of rapid and global cell death to the extent that production of inflammatory cytokines was entirely inhibited. These observations along with comparisons of a wide range of other nanoparticulate species exhibiting cell death in A549 culture may suggest severe human toxicity potential for inhaled ballistic aerosol, but the complexity of the aerosol (particulate) mix has not yet allowed any particular chemical composition to be identified.

  12. Characterization of airborne and bulk particulate from iron and steel manufacturing facilities.

    PubMed

    Machemer, Steven D

    2004-01-15

    Characterization of airborne and bulk particulate material from iron and steel manufacturing facilities, commonly referred to as kish, indicated graphite flakes and graphite flakes associated with spherical iron oxide particles were unique particle characteristics useful in identifying particle emissions from iron and steel manufacturing. Characterization of airborne particulate material collected in receptor areas was consistent with multiple atmospheric release events of kish particles from the local iron and steel facilities into neighboring residential areas. Kish particles deposited in nearby residential areas included an abundance of graphite flakes, tens of micrometers to millimeters in size, and spherical iron oxide particles, submicrometer to tens of micrometers in size. Bulk kish from local iron and steel facilities contained an abundance of similar particles. Approximately 60% of blast furnace kish by volume consisted of spherical iron oxide particles in the respirable size range. Basic oxygen furnace kish contained percent levels of strongly alkaline components such as calcium hydroxide. In addition, concentrations of respirable Mn in airborne particulate in residential areas and at local iron and steel facilities were approximately 1.6 and 53 times the inhalation reference concentration of 0.05 microg/m3 for chronic inhalation exposure of Mn, respectively. Thus, airborne release of kish may pose potential respirable particulate, corrosive, or toxic hazards for human health and/or a corrosive hazard for property and the environment.

  13. Bioaccessibility of palladium and platinum in urban aerosol particulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puls, Christoph; Limbeck, Andreas; Hann, Stephan

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate potential health hazards caused by environmental Platinum Group Elements (PGEs), bioaccessibility of the metals in question needs to be assessed. To gain appropriate data, airborne particulate matter samples of different size fractions (total suspended particles as well as PM10 and PM2.5) were taken in downtown Vienna, an urban site primarily polluted by traffic. Total PGE concentrations in these samples were in the low picogram per cubic meter range, as determined by ID-ICP-MS after microwave digestion. For elimination of elements interfering with the accurate quantification, the digested samples were subjected to a cleaning procedure involving cation exchange. For determination of the bioaccessible fraction, it was assumed that inhaled particles are removed from the respiratory system by mucociliary clearance and subsequently ingested. Accordingly, the solubility of PGE in synthetic gastric juice was investigated by batch extraction of particulate matter samples followed by microwave assisted UV-digestion, cation exchange cleanup and ID-ICP-MS. The acquired data was used to calculate the bioaccessible fraction of Pd and Pt in airborne particulate matter. Average GIT-extractable fractions for Pd and Pt in TSP were 41% and 27%, in PM10 34% and 26%, respectively, thus exceeding previously determined values for bioaccessibility of PGE from ground catalyst materials by up to an order of magnitude.

  14. ENGINE EXHAUST PARTICULATE AND GAS PHASE CONTRIBUTIONS TO VASCULAR TOXICITY

    PubMed Central

    Campen, Matthew; Robertson, Sarah; Lund, Amie; Lucero, Joann; McDonald, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular health effects of near-roadway pollution appear more substantial than other sources of air pollution. The underlying cause of this phenomenon may simply be concentration-related, but the possibility remains that gases and particulate matter (PM) may physically interact and further enhance systemic vascular toxicity. To test this, we utilized a common hypercholesterolemic mouse model (Apolipoprotein E-null) exposed to mixed vehicular emissions (MVE; combined gasoline and diesel exhausts) for 6 h/d × 50 days, with additional permutations of removing PM by filtration and also removing gaseous species from PM by denudation. Several vascular bioassays, including matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) protein, 3-nitrotyrosine, and plasma-induced vasodilatory impairments, highlighted that the whole emissions, containing both particulate and gaseous components, was collectively more potent than MVE-derived PM or gas mixtures, alone. Thus, we conclude that inhalation of fresh whole emissions induce greater systemic vascular toxicity than either the particulate or gas phase alone. These findings lend credence to the hypothesis that the near-roadway environment may have a more focused public health impact due to gas-particle interactions. PMID:24730681

  15. [Form of the particulate matter ambient air standards in China].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuai; Ding, Jun-Nan; Wang, Rui-Bin; Li, Jian-Jun; Meng, Xiao-Yan; Yang, Bin; Lin, Hong

    2014-02-01

    Based on the principles from the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United States, an analysis was conducted to study the form of 24-hour standard of particulate matter in China by methods of statistical regression, proportional rollback and controlling contrast maps, using the monitoring data of inhalable particulate matter (PM10) from 120 cities in China during year 2005 to 2012. It was found that for cities in China, when the annual arithmetic mean of PM10 was equal to the national standard, the non-exceedance rates of daily average PM10 in most cities were higher than 95.0% , and the average rate for all cities was 97.1%. The average non-exceedance rate was 96.3% for cities in North China and Northwest China, 96.6% for Northeast China, 97.2% for East China and Central South China, and 98.1% for Southwest China. When the 97th percentile was chosen as the form of 24-hour standard of particulate matter for China, the 24-hour standard had an equal controlling strength with the annual standard. The 24-hour standard will become the controlling standard when larger percentiles were chosen, otherwise the contrary. By considering together the statistical characteristics of PM10 level in China, the robustness of the percentiles and protection of human health, the 95th percentile was suitable as the preferred form of the 24-hour standard of PM10 and PM2.5 in China.

  16. Inhalation exposure system used for acute and repeated-dose methyl isocyanate exposures of laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Adkins, B; O'Connor, R W; Dement, J M

    1987-06-01

    Laboratory animals were exposed by inhalation for 2 hr/day (acute) or 6 hr/day (four consecutive days, repeated dose) to methyl isocyanate (MIC). Exposures were conducted in stainless steel and glass inhalation exposure chambers placed in stainless steel, wire mesh cages. MIC was delivered with nitrogen via stainless steel and Teflon supply lines. Chamber concentrations ranged from 0 to 60 ppm and were monitored continuously with infrared spectrophotometers to 1 ppm and at 2-hr intervals to 20 ppb with a high performance liquid chromatograph equipped with a fluorescence detector. Other operational parameters monitored on a continuous basis included chamber temperature (20-27 degrees C), relative humidity (31-64%), static (transmural) pressure (-0.3 in.), and flow (300-500 L/min). The computer-assistance system interfaced with the inhalation exposure laboratory is described in detail, including the analytical instrumentation calibration system used throughout this investigation.

  17. Dry Powder Inhalers: A Focus on Advancements in Novel Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Administration of drug molecules by inhalation route for treatment of respiratory diseases has the ability to deliver drugs, hormones, nucleic acids, steroids, proteins, and peptides, particularly to the site of action, improving the efficacy of the treatment and consequently lessening adverse effects of the treatment. Numerous inhalation delivery systems have been developed and studied to treat respiratory diseases such as asthma, COPD, and other pulmonary infections. The progress of disciplines such as biomaterials science, nanotechnology, particle engineering, molecular biology, and cell biology permits further improvement of the treatment capability. The present review analyzes modern therapeutic approaches of inhaled drugs with special emphasis on novel drug delivery system for treatment of various respiratory diseases. PMID:27867663

  18. [Inhalation therapy: inhaled generics, inhaled antidotes, the future of anti-infectives and the indications of inhaled pentamidine. GAT aerosolstorming, Paris 2012].

    PubMed

    Peron, N; Le Guen, P; Andrieu, V; Bardot, S; Ravilly, S; Oudyi, M; Dubus, J-C

    2013-12-01

    The working group on aerosol therapy (GAT) of the Société de pneumologie de langue française (SPLF) organized its third "Aerosolstorming" in 2012. During the course of one day, different aspects of inhaled therapy were discussed, and these will be treated separately in two articles, this one being the first. Inhaled products represent a large volume of prescriptions both in the community and in hospital settings and they involve various specialties particularly ENT and respiratory care. Technical aspects of the development of these products, their mode of administration and compliance with their indications are key elements for the effective therapeutic use of inhaled treatments. In this first article, we will review issues concerning generic inhaled products, the existence of inhaled antidotes, new anti-infective agents and indications for inhaled pentamidine.

  19. Methods for Derivation of Inhalation Reference Concentrations and Application of Inhalation Dosimetry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's methodology for estimation of inhalation reference concentrations (RfCs) as benchmark estimates of the quantitative dose-response assessment of chronic noncancer toxicity for individual inhaled chemicals.

  20. Inhalant withdrawal as a clinically significant feature of inhalant dependence disorder.

    PubMed

    Perron, Brian E; Howard, Matthew O; Vaughn, Michael G; Jarman, Christopher N

    2009-12-01

    Inhalant use is the intentional inhalation of vapors from commercial products or specific chemical agents for the purpose of achieving intoxication. Inhalants are among the most common and pernicious forms of substance use and the least studied of the major drugs. Diagnosis of inhalant dependence, according to the DSM-IV [Weintraub E, Gandhi D, Robinson C. Medical complications due to mothball abuse. South Med J 2000;93:427-9] excludes inhalant withdrawal symptoms, as expert opinion has suggested that an inhalant withdrawal syndrome is neither common nor clinically significant. This article draws from multiple sources of data to suggest that withdrawal symptoms can be part of inhalant dependence and are clinically significant. This hypothesis needs rigorous evaluation to ensure the diagnostic validity of inhalant use disorders.

  1. Small things make a big difference: particulate matter and exercise.

    PubMed

    Cutrufello, Paul T; Smoliga, James M; Rundell, Kenneth W

    2012-12-01

    The increased risk of morbidity and mortality among adults and children with pre-existing cardiovascular or respiratory illness from emission-derived particulate matter (PM) is well documented. However, the detrimental effects of PM inhalation on the exercising, healthy population is still in question. This review will focus on the acute and chronic responses to PM inhalation during exercise and how PM exposure influences exercise performance. The smaller ultrafine PM (<0.01 μm aerodynamic diameter) appears to have the most severe health consequences compared with the larger coarse PM (2.5 < PM <10 μm aerodynamic diameter). While the response to PM inhalation may affect those with a pre-existing condition, the healthy population is not immune to the effects of PM inhalation, especially during exercise. This population, including the competitive athlete, is susceptible to pulmonary inflammation, decreased lung function (both acute and chronic in nature), the increased risk of asthma, vascular endothelial dysfunction, mild elevations in pulmonary artery pressure and diminished exercise performance. PM exposure is usually associated with vehicular traffic, but other sources of PM, including small engines from lawn and garden equipment, cigarette smoke, wood smoke and cooking, may also impair health and performance. The physiological effects of PM are dependent on the source of PM, various environmental factors, physical attributes and nature of exercise. There are a number of measures an athlete can take to reduce exposure to PM, as well as the deleterious effects that result from the inevitable exposure to PM. Considering the acute and chronic physiological responses to PM inhalation, individuals living and exercising in urban areas in close proximity to major roadways should consider ambient air pollution levels (in particular, PM and ozone) prior to engaging in vigorous exercise, and those exposed to PM through other sources may need to make lifestyle alterations

  2. Telephonic Monitoring and Optimization of Inhaler Technique

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Philip; Young, Henry N.; Knobloch, Mary Jo

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Improper inhaler technique is a common problem affecting asthma control and healthcare costs. Telephonic asthma management can increase access to care while reducing costs and hospitalizations. However, no reliable method has been established for telephonically evaluating and correcting inhaler technique. Objective The purpose of this study was to pilot test a method for assessing and correcting patient inhaler technique via telephone. Methods Participants (n=30) were adults with asthma using metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) and diskus inhalers. A pharmacist was located in one room and communicated via telephone with a participant in another room. The pharmacist telephonically assessed and taught inhaler technique. Participants were video-recorded, and videos were later examined by a second pharmacist to visually evaluate inhaler technique. Participants were assigned pre- and posteducation inhaler technique scores for the telephonic and video assessments. Scores were based on summated scales for MDI (0–9) and diskus (0–11) inhalers. Paired samples t-tests were used to compare telephone and video assessments. Results Findings indicated a significant difference between the telephone and video assessments of MDI technique (p<0.05); however, no difference was found for the diskus inhaler. Comparing pre- and posteducation inhaler technique for MDI and diskus, mean scores significantly improved from 5.7 to 7.8 (p<0.05) and from 8.5 to 10.4 (p<0.05), respectively. Conclusions The telephonic method was able to improve and detect some deficiencies in patients' inhaler technique. However, modifications and further investigation will more clearly determine the role and value of such a telephonic intervention. PMID:21943162

  3. The Toxicity of Inhaled Sulphur Mustard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    acetyl -L- cysteine (Mucomyst™; NAC ), in ameliorating inhaled HD-induced lung injury was then assessed in the established model. This work was conducted...J and Sciuto AM. N- acetyl -L- cysteine ( NAC ) Protects Against Inhaled Sulfur Mustard (HD) Poisoning in the Large Swine. Clinical Toxicology, 2012...2012. N- acetyl -L- cysteine ( NAC ) Protects against inhaled sulfur mustard (HD) poisoning in the large swine. Clinical Toxicology; in preparation

  4. The Toxicity of Inhaled Sulphur Mustard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-01

    model. The thiol compound, N- acetyl -L- cysteine ( NAC - Mucomyst™) was chosen due to its anti-oxidant and mucolytic effects, administered via the inhaled...other beneficial therapies. Sulfur mustard, pig, inhalation, toxicology, pathology, physiology, N- acetyl -L- cysteine ( NAC ) 347 bjjugg@dstl.gov.uk 4...Finally, the efficacy of the commercial off the shelf (COTS) drug, N- acetyl -L- cysteine (Mucomyst™; NAC ), in ameliorating inhaled HD-induced lung

  5. Ventilator add-on for delivering PET tracer gases.

    PubMed

    Kaisti, Kaike K; Mäkitalo, Jukka; Sipilä, Hannu T; Teräs, Mika I P; Scheinin, Harry

    2004-06-01

    The increasing use of PET for assessing cerebral blood flow, oxygen metabolism, and blood volume in critically ill patients has created a need for reliable technical solutions for delivering (15)O-tracer gases to mechanically ventilated subjects. Our objective was to create such a solution. We designed a ventilator add-on unit that enables complex functional brain studies using labeled oxygen and carbon monoxide gases as tracers. The unit manages both steady-state and bolus inhalations, and the latter can be manually initiated using a remote trigger. All parts conducting breathing gases can be sterilized. The unit can be operated during both spontaneous pressure support breathing and volume-controlled ventilation. It supports the standard safety features and alarms of the ventilator and includes an overflow valve in the bolus reservoir. The count rate curves obtained using the new unit were similar to those from the standard bag-inhalation method. The unit we describe offers an economical and easily operated solution for providing uninterrupted ventilator treatment while performing PET brain studies, and the provided treatment meets intensive care criteria.

  6. Pressure driven particulate flows

    SciTech Connect

    Ingher, M.S.; Mondy, L.A.

    1996-03-01

    Numerical simulations of pressure-driven particulate Stokes flows are performed in cylindrical and rectangular conduits using a parallel boundary element code. Spherical particles are randomly placed in the conduits and a pressure drop between the ends of the conduits is imposed by the boundary conditions to induce a Poiseuille-like flow field. The instantaneous velocities of the particles are then calculated, as well as the additional pressure drop necessary to maintain a constant flow rate. Because the results depend on the spatial distribution of the particles, several random configurations of particles are examined for each case. Depending on two different interpretations of the numerical results, the solid phase can be represented as either leading or lagging the fluid phase. Both of the analyses and interpretations are presented.

  7. Particulate erosion mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veerabhadrarao, P.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Particulate damage and erosion of ductile metals are today plaguing design and field engineers in diverse fields of engineering and technology. It was found that too many models and theories were proposed leading to much speculation from debris analysis and failure mechanism postulations. Most theories of solid particle erosion are based on material removal models which do not fully represent the actual physical processes of material removal. The various mechanisms proposed thus far are: melting, low-cycle fatigue, extrusion, delamination, shear localization, adhesive material transfer, etc. The experimental data on different materials highlighting the observed failure modes of the deformation and cutting wear processes using optical and scanning electron microscopy are presented. The most important mechanisms proved from the experimental observations of the specimens exposed to both spherical and angular particles are addressed, and the validity of the earlier theories discussed. Both the initial stages of damage and advanced stages of erosion were studied to gain a fundamental understanding of the process.

  8. Inhalant use and suicidality among incarcerated youth.

    PubMed

    Freedenthal, Stacey; Vaughn, Michael G; Jenson, Jeffrey M; Howard, Matthew O

    2007-09-06

    Studies consistently indicate that inhalant use is associated with increased mental health problems in adolescents, but few investigations have focused on the potential relationship of inhalant use to suicidality (ideation or attempt). This study examined how different levels of volatile solvent use relate to suicidal ideation and attempted suicide among 723 incarcerated youth (mean age=15.5, S.D.=1.2; 87% male) in Missouri, and whether any associations between solvent use and suicidality differ by gender. In bivariate analyses, severity of inhalant use was positively associated with histories of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt for both boys and girls. In multivariate analyses, inhalant use disorders remained significantly associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempt histories even after adjusting for general level of psychiatric symptoms, prior trauma, other substance use, gender, and additional potential confounders. Inhalant use without abuse or dependence also significantly related to suicidal ideation in multivariate analyses, but an interaction between gender and inhalant use signified this relationship was stronger for girls. Inhalant use disorders in incarcerated youth, as well as inhalant use without abuse or dependence (particularly in girls), may signal elevated suicide risk. Suicide risk assessments should, therefore, include questions about inhalation of volatile solvents such as paint, gasoline, and household cleaners.

  9. Inhalant use and suicidality among incarcerated youth

    PubMed Central

    Freedenthal, Stacey; Vaughn, Michael G.; Jenson, Jeffrey M.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2007-01-01

    Studies consistently indicate that inhalant use is associated with increased mental health problems in adolescents, but few investigations have focused on the potential relationship of inhalant use to suicidality (ideation or attempt). This study examined how different levels of volatile solvent use relate to suicidal ideation and attempted suicide among 723 incarcerated youth (mean age = 15.5, S.D. = 1.2; 87% male) in Missouri, and whether any associations between solvent use and suicidality differ by gender. In bivariate analyses, severity of inhalant use was positively associated with histories of suicidal ideation and suicide attempt for both boys and girls. In multivariate analyses, inhalant use disorders remained significantly associated with suicidal ideation and suicide attempt histories even after adjusting for general level of psychiatric symptoms, prior trauma, other substance use, gender, and additional potential confounders. Inhalant use without abuse or dependence also significantly related to suicidal ideation in multivariate analyses, but an interaction between gender and inhalant use signified this relationship was stronger for girls. Inhalant use disorders in incarcerated youth, as well as inhalant use without abuse or dependence (particularly in girls), may signal elevated suicide risk. Suicide risk assessments should, therefore, include questions about inhalation of volatile solvents such as paint, gasoline, and household cleaners. PMID:17433572

  10. The ELLIPTA® Dry Powder Inhaler: Design, Functionality, In Vitro Dosing Performance and Critical Task Compliance by Patients and Caregivers.

    PubMed

    Grant, Andrew C; Walker, Richard; Hamilton, Melanie; Garrill, Karl

    2015-12-01

    Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) are commonly used for the delivery of inhaled medications, and should provide consistent, efficient dosing, be easy to use correctly, and be liked by patients; these attributes can all affect patient compliance and therefore treatment efficacy. The ELLIPTA(®) DPI was developed for the delivery of once-daily therapies for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It has moderate resistance to airflow and can hold one or two blister strips, with each blister containing a sealed single dose of medication. Monotherapies can be delivered by the single-strip configuration and, in the two-strip configuration, one dose from each strip can be aerosolized simultaneously to allow combination therapies to be delivered, which enables the formulations for each product to be developed individually, since they are stored separately until the point of administration. There are three principal operating steps to administer a dose: open, inhale, close. This article summarizes the design, functionality, and in vitro dose-delivery characteristics of the ELLIPTA inhaler, and describes the results of human factors validation tests, designed to assess the performance of critical tasks required to use the inhaler. Results from the in vitro studies indicate that the ELLIPTA inhaler performs consistently with respect to in vitro dose delivery characteristics at a range of flow rates that can be achieved by the target population (≥30 L/min) and over its 30-day in-use life. Data from the human factors validation tests demonstrated that almost all participants (≥97%) were able to complete each of the steps required to prepare a dose for inhalation without error. Overall, the ELLIPTA inhaler has a versatile single- or two-strip design that allows it to be used for the delivery of a range of treatment options. It also improves patient ease-of-use when compared with the DISKUS(®) DPI.

  11. The ELLIPTA® Dry Powder Inhaler: Design, Functionality, In Vitro Dosing Performance and Critical Task Compliance by Patients and Caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Andrew C.; Hamilton, Melanie; Garrill, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) are commonly used for the delivery of inhaled medications, and should provide consistent, efficient dosing, be easy to use correctly, and be liked by patients; these attributes can all affect patient compliance and therefore treatment efficacy. The ELLIPTA® DPI was developed for the delivery of once-daily therapies for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It has moderate resistance to airflow and can hold one or two blister strips, with each blister containing a sealed single dose of medication. Monotherapies can be delivered by the single-strip configuration and, in the two-strip configuration, one dose from each strip can be aerosolized simultaneously to allow combination therapies to be delivered, which enables the formulations for each product to be developed individually, since they are stored separately until the point of administration. There are three principal operating steps to administer a dose: open, inhale, close. This article summarizes the design, functionality, and in vitro dose-delivery characteristics of the ELLIPTA inhaler, and describes the results of human factors validation tests, designed to assess the performance of critical tasks required to use the inhaler. Results from the in vitro studies indicate that the ELLIPTA inhaler performs consistently with respect to in vitro dose delivery characteristics at a range of flow rates that can be achieved by the target population (≥30 L/min) and over its 30-day in-use life. Data from the human factors validation tests demonstrated that almost all participants (≥97%) were able to complete each of the steps required to prepare a dose for inhalation without error. Overall, the ELLIPTA inhaler has a versatile single- or two-strip design that allows it to be used for the delivery of a range of treatment options. It also improves patient ease-of-use when compared with the DISKUS® DPI. PMID:26372466

  12. [Suspended particulates and lung health].

    PubMed

    Neuberger, Manfred; Moshammer, Hanns

    2004-01-01

    Based on several severe air pollution episodes, a temporal correlation between high concentrations of particulate matter (PM) and SO2 pollution and acute increases in respiratory and cardiopulmonary mortality had been established in Vienna for the 1970's. After air pollution had decreased in Austria in the 1980's--as documented by data on SO2, and total suspended particles (TSP)--no such associations between day-to-day changes of SO2 and TSP and mortality have been documented any more, however, traffic related pollutants like fine particles and NO2 remained a problem. Therefore, short term effects of PM on lung function, morbidity and mortality were investigated in Vienna, Linz, Graz and a rural control area. Long-term exposure and chronic disease--even more important for public health--were studied in repeated cross-sectional, a mixed longitudinal and a birth cohort study on school children in the city of Linz. Lung function growth was found impaired from long-term exposure to air pollutants and improved in districts where ambient air pollution had decreased. Where only TSP and SO2 had decreased, no continuous improvement of small airway function was found and end-expiratory flow rates stayed impaired where NO2-reduction from technical improvements of cars and industry was counterbalanced by increase of motorized (diesel) traffic. Remaining acute effects of ambient air pollution in 2001 from PM, NO2 and co-pollutants found in a time series study also show that continuing efforts are necessary. Active surface of particles inhaled several hours to days before spirometry was found related to short-term reductions in forced vital capacity-FVC (p<0.01), forced expiratory volume in one second-FEV1 (p<0.01) and maximal expiratory flow rate at 50% of vital capacity-MEF50 (p<0.05). In pupils with asthma or previous airway obstruction 4-week-diaries proved that the following symptoms increased with acute exposure to higher active surface of particles: wheezing (p<0

  13. Do inhaled carbon nanoparticles translocate directly into the circulation in humans?

    PubMed

    Mills, Nicholas L; Amin, Nadia; Robinson, Simon D; Anand, Atul; Davies, John; Patel, Dilip; de la Fuente, Jesus M; Cassee, Flemming R; Boon, Nicholas A; Macnee, William; Millar, Alistair M; Donaldson, Ken; Newby, David E

    2006-02-15

    Increased exposure to particulate air pollution (PM(10)) is a risk factor for death and hospitalization with cardiovascular disease. It has been suggested that the nanoparticulate component of PM(10) is capable of translocating into the circulation with the potential for direct effects on the vasculature. The study's aim was to determine the extent to which inhaled technetium-99m ((99m)Tc)-labeled carbon nanoparticles (Technegas) were able to access the systemic circulation. Ten healthy volunteers inhaled Technegas and blood samples were taken sequentially over the following 6 h. Technegas particles were 4-20 nm in diameter and aggregated to a median particle diameter of approximately 100 nm. Radioactivity was immediately detected in blood, with levels increasing over 60 min. Thin-layer chromatography of whole blood identified a species that moved with the solvent front, corresponding to unbound (99m)Tc-pertechnetate, which was excreted in urine. There was no evidence of particle-bound (99m)Tc at the origin. gamma Camera images demonstrated high levels of Technegas retention (95.6 +/- 1.7% at 6 h) in the lungs, with no accumulation of radioactivity detected over the liver or spleen. The majority of (99m)Tc-labeled carbon nanoparticles remain within the lung up to 6 h after inhalation. In contrast to previous published studies, thin-layer chromatography did not support the hypothesis that inhaled Technegas carbon nanoparticles pass directly from the lungs into the systemic circulation.

  14. Comparing Inhaled Ultrafine versus Fine Zinc Oxide Particles in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Beckett, William S.; Chalupa, David F.; Pauly-Brown, Andrea; Speers, Donna M.; Stewart, Judith C.; Frampton, Mark W.; Utell, Mark J.; Huang, Li-Shan; Cox, Christopher; Zareba, Wojciech; Oberdörster, Günter

    2005-01-01

    Rationale: Zinc oxide is a common, biologically active constituent of particulate air pollution as well as a workplace toxin. Ultrafine particles (< 0.1 μm diameter) are believed to be more potent than an equal mass of inhaled accumulation mode particles (0.1–1.0 μm diameter). Objectives: We compared exposure–response relationships for respiratory, hematologic, and cardiovascular endpoints between ultrafine and accumulation mode zinc oxide particles. Methods: In a human inhalation study, 12 healthy adults inhaled 500 μg/m3 of ultrafine zinc oxide, the same mass of fine zinc oxide, and filtered air while at rest for 2 hours. Measurements and Main Results: Preexposure and follow-up studies of symptoms, leukocyte surface markers, hemostasis, and cardiac electrophysiology were conducted to 24 hours post-exposure. Induced sputum was sampled 24 hours after exposure. No differences were detected between any of the three exposure conditions at this level of exposure. Conclusions: Freshly generated zinc oxide in the fine or ultrafine fractions inhaled by healthy subjects at rest at a concentration of 500 μg/m3 for 2 hours is below the threshold for acute systemic effects as detected by these endpoints. PMID:15735058

  15. A Survey of Inhalant Use Disorders among Delinquent Youth: Prevalence, Clinical Features, and Latent Structure of DSM-IV Diagnostic Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Matthew O; Perron, Brian E

    2009-01-01

    Background Inhalant use is among the most pernicious and poorly understood forms of adolescent substance use. Many youth in the juvenile justice system have used inhalants, but little is known about inhalant use disorders (IUDs) in antisocial youth populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence, clinical features, and latent structure of DSM-IV IUDs in a state population of antisocial youth. Methods Cross-sectional survey conducted in 2003. Of 740 youth residing in Missouri State Division of Youth Services' (MDYS) residential treatment facilities at the time the study was conducted, 723 (97.7%) completed interviews. Eighty-seven percent were male, with a mean age of 15.5 (SD = 1.2). Nearly 4 in 10 youth (38.5%; n = 279) reported lifetime inhalant use. Youth ranged from very mildly to severely antisocial. Results Of 279 inhalant users, 52 (18.6%) met DSM-IV inhalant abuse criteria and 79 (28.3%) met inhalant dependence criteria. Five of 10 IUD criteria were met by > 10% of the total sample. Latent class analyses demonstrated a substantial concordance between DSM-IV-defined IUDs and an empirically-derived classification based on responses to DSM-IV IUD diagnostic criteria. Conclusion IUDs and constituent criteria were prevalent among youth in the juvenile justice system. Two groups of problem inhalant users were identified, symptomatic users-DSM-IV inhalant abuse and highly symptomatic users-DSM-IV inhalant dependence, which differed primarily in severity of inhalant-related problems. Inhalant screening, prevention and treatment efforts in juvenile justice settings are rarely delivered, but critically needed. PMID:19267939

  16. A survey of inhalant use disorders among delinquent youth: prevalence, clinical features, and latent structure of DSM-IV diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Howard, Matthew O; Perron, Brian E

    2009-03-08

    Inhalant use is among the most pernicious and poorly understood forms of adolescent substance use. Many youth in the juvenile justice system have used inhalants, but little is known about inhalant use disorders (IUDs) in antisocial youth populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence, clinical features, and latent structure of DSM-IV IUDs in a state population of antisocial youth. Cross-sectional survey conducted in 2003. Of 740 youth residing in Missouri State Division of Youth Services' (MDYS) residential treatment facilities at the time the study was conducted, 723 (97.7%) completed interviews. Eighty-seven percent were male, with a mean age of 15.5 (SD = 1.2). Nearly 4 in 10 youth (38.5%; n = 279) reported lifetime inhalant use. Youth ranged from very mildly to severely antisocial. Of 279 inhalant users, 52 (18.6%) met DSM-IV inhalant abuse criteria and 79 (28.3%) met inhalant dependence criteria. Five of 10 IUD criteria were met by > 10% of the total sample. Latent class analyses demonstrated a substantial concordance between DSM-IV-defined IUDs and an empirically-derived classification based on responses to DSM-IV IUD diagnostic criteria. IUDs and constituent criteria were prevalent among youth in the juvenile justice system. Two groups of problem inhalant users were identified, symptomatic users-DSM-IV inhalant abuse and highly symptomatic users-DSM-IV inhalant dependence, which differed primarily in severity of inhalant-related problems. Inhalant screening, prevention and treatment efforts in juvenile justice settings are rarely delivered, but critically needed.

  17. Magnetic characterization of airborne particulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, W.; Doh, S.; Yu, Y.

    2010-12-01

    Burning fossil fuels from vehicles, domestics, industries and power plants in the large urban or industrial areas emit significant quantity of anthropogenic particulates which become a potential threat to human health. Here, we present temporal variability of particulate pollution associated with compositional differences, using magnetic measurements and electron microscopic observations. Six different grain-sizes of airborne particulates have been collected by filtering from 10 precipitation events in Seoul, Korea from February 2009 to June 2009. Magnetic concentration proxies show relatively better (R2 >0.6) and poorer correlations (R2 <0.3) with the masses of samples filtered by >0.45 μm and <0.45 μm sizes, respectively, suggesting the usefulness of magnetic characterization for the >0.45 μm particulates. Temporally, magnetic concentrations are higher in the cold season than the warm season. In particular, a significant increase of magnetic concentration is observed in 3 μm and 1 μm filters after the Chinese wind-blown dust events, indicating additional influx of fine-grained anthropogenic particulates into Seoul. Microscopic observations identify that increase of magnetic concentration is highly linked with the frequent occurrence of combustion derived particulates (i.e., carbon and/or sulfur mixed particles) than natural alumino-silicates. Overall, the present study demonstrates that magnetic measurements efficiently reflect the concentration of particulates produced from fossil-fuel combustion among the airborne particles from various sources.

  18. Distribution of 125Iricin in mice following aerosol inhalation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Doebler, J.A.; Wiltshire, N.D.; Mayer, T.W.; Estep, J.E.; Moeller, R.B.

    1995-12-31

    Studies were conducted to examine the uptake and redistribution of 251Iricin from the lungs of mice following nose-only aerosol inhalation exposure. Radiolabelled contents were measured in lung and various extra-pulmonary tissues 15 min through 30 h following 10 min aerosol exposures. Pharmacokinetic analyses were performed on whole organ data obtained for lungs, stomach, liver and spleen. Radioactivity within the lungs, maximal at 15 min post-exposure, was eliminated in a biexponential fashion with a long Beta half-life (approx. 40 h). Large amounts of radiolabel were also found within the gastrointestinal tract. Radiolabel within the stomach exhibited an absorption phase and two-compartment elimination. Radiolabel content of many other tissues, including known accumulation sites for intravenously administered toxin, was significantly (p < 0,05) increased (relative to 15 min post-exposure) in association with the early elimination of radiolabel from the lungs, but levels in these tissues were very low and did not increase after 4 h post-exposure. The only exception was our sample of trachea, which showed delayed elevations in radiolabel (peak at 24 h); this pattern was attributable to the contained thyroid (not removed at necropsy) and its trapping of free (125I released) upon tissue 125Iricin degradation. The overall data indicate that ricin administered by aerosol inhalation is delivered to both respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts; however, it is not extensively transported from either tract to other potential target sites. Ricin delivered to the lungs is primarily sequestered within the lungs until degradation. Only small amounts of ricin delivered to the gastrointestinal tract are absorbed into the circulation.

  19. Inhaled hyperosmolar agents for bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Hart, Anna; Sugumar, Karnam; Milan, Stephen J; Fowler, Stephen J; Crossingham, Iain

    2014-05-12

    Mucus retention in the lungs is a prominent feature of bronchiectasis. The stagnant mucus becomes chronically colonised with bacteria, which elicit a host neutrophilic response. This fails to eliminate the bacteria, and the large concentration of host-derived protease may contribute to the airway damage. The sensation of retained mucus is itself a cause of suffering, and the failure to maintain airway sterility probably contributes to the frequent respiratory infections experienced by many patients.Hypertonic saline inhalation is known to accelerate tracheobronchial clearance in many conditions, probably by inducing a liquid flux into the airway surface, which alters mucus rheology in a way favourable to mucociliary clearance. Inhaled dry powder mannitol has a similar effect. Such agents are an attractive approach to the problem of mucostasis, and deserve further clinical evaluation. To determine whether inhaled hyperosmolar substances are effective in the treatment of bronchiectasis. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register, trials registries, and the reference lists of included studies and review articles. Searches are current up to April 2014. Any randomised controlled trial (RCT) using hyperosmolar inhalation in patients with bronchiectasis not caused by cystic fibrosis. Two review authors assessed studies for suitability. We used standard methods recommended by The Cochrane Collaboration. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria of the review (1021 participants).Five studies on 833 participants compared inhaled mannitol with placebo but poor outcome reporting meant we could pool very little data and most outcomes were reported by only one study. One 12-month trial on 461 participants provided results for exacerbations and demonstrated an advantage for mannitol in terms of time to first exacerbation (median time to exacerbation 165 versus 124 days for mannitol and placebo respectively (hazard ratio (HR) 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0

  20. Threshold for Radon-Induced Lung Cancer From Inhaled Plutonium Data.

    PubMed

    Cuttler, Jerry M; Sanders, Charles L

    2015-01-01

    Cohen's lung cancer mortality data, from his test of the LNT theory, do not extend to the no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL) above which inhaled radon decay products begin to induce excess lung cancer mortality. Since there is concern about the level of radon in homes, it is important to set the radon limit near the NOAEL to avoid the risk of losing a health benefit. Assuming that dogs model humans, data from a study on inhaled plutonium dioxide particulates in dogs were assessed, and the NOAEL for radon-induced lung tumors was estimated to be about 2100 Bq/m(3). The US Environmental Protection Agency should consider raising its radon action level from 150 to at least 1000 Bq/m(3).

  1. Threshold for Radon-Induced Lung Cancer From Inhaled Plutonium Data

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    Cohen’s lung cancer mortality data, from his test of the LNT theory, do not extend to the no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL) above which inhaled radon decay products begin to induce excess lung cancer mortality. Since there is concern about the level of radon in homes, it is important to set the radon limit near the NOAEL to avoid the risk of losing a health benefit. Assuming that dogs model humans, data from a study on inhaled plutonium dioxide particulates in dogs were assessed, and the NOAEL for radon-induced lung tumors was estimated to be about 2100 Bq/m3. The US Environmental Protection Agency should consider raising its radon action level from 150 to at least 1000 Bq/m3. PMID:26740812

  2. Difference in resistance to humidity between commonly used dry powder inhalers: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Janson, Christer; Lööf, Thomas; Telg, Gunilla; Stratelis, Georgios; Nilsson, Folke

    2016-01-01

    Multi-dose dry powder inhalers (DPIs) are commonly used in asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD) treatment. A disadvantage is their sensitivity to humidity. In real life, DPIs are periodically exposed to humid conditions, which may affect aerosol characteristics and lung deposition. This study compared DPI aerosol performance after exposure to humidity. Budesonide (BUD) inhalers (Turbuhaler; Novolizer; Easyhaler) and budesonide/formoterol (BUD/FORM) inhalers (Turbuhaler; Spiromax; Easyhaler) were stored in 75% relative humidity (RH) at both ambient temperature and at −0 °C. Delivered dose (DD) and fine-particle dose (FPD) were tested in vitro before and after storage. BUD inhalers: Turbuhaler and Novolizer showed only small decreases (<15%) in FPD in 40 °C/75% RH, whereas FPD for Easyhaler decreased by >60% (P=0.01) after 1.5 months of storage. Easyhaler also decreased significantly after 6 months of storage in ambient/75%RH by 25% and 54% for DD and FPD, respectively, whereas only small decreases were seen for Turbuhaler and Novolizer (<15%). BUD/FORM inhalers: Turbuhaler and Spiromax DD were unchanged in 40 °C/75% RH, whereas Easyhaler showed a small decrease. FPD (budesonide) decreased for Turbuhaler, Spiromax and Easyhaler by 18%, 10% and 68% (all significant), respectively, at 40 °C/75% RH. In ambient/75%RH, DD was unchanged for all inhalers, whereas FPD (budesonide) decreased for Spiromax (7%, P=0.02) and Easyhaler (34%, (P<0.01)). There are significant differences in device performance after exposure to humid conditions. A clinically relevant decrease of more than half FPD was seen for one of the inhalers, a decrease that may affect patients’ clinical outcomes. Prescriber and patient knowledge on device attributes are essential to ensure optimal drug delivery to the lungs. PMID:27853177

  3. Prevalence, timing, and predictors of transitions from inhalant use to inhalant use disorders.

    PubMed

    Perron, Brian E; Howard, Matthew O; Maitra, Samopriyo; Vaughn, Michael G

    2009-03-01

    Few studies of the natural history of DSM-IV inhalant substance use disorders (I-SUDs) have been conducted. This investigation examined the prevalence, timing, and predictors of transitions from inhalant use to formal I-SUDs among inhalant users within a nationally representative sample. Participants were 664 U.S. residents participating in the 2000-2001 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions who reported lifetime inhalant use. Respondents completed structured interviews assessing DSM-IV psychiatric/substance use disorders. Bivariate and Cox regression analyses were conducted to identify risk factors for transitions from inhalant use to I-SUDs. Nearly one in five (19.4%) persons initiating inhalant use developed an I-SUD. Most I-SUD transitions were to inhalant abuse rather than inhalant dependence. Risk for development of I-SUDs was greatest in the first year following initiation of inhalant use and low thereafter. Multivariate proportional hazards models indicated that presence of a mood/anxiety disorder (HR=7.7, CI=3.1-18.9) or alcohol use disorder (HR=11.9, CI=5.46-26.00) antedating initiation of inhalant use predicted significantly elevated risk for I-SUDs, whereas being married conferred a lower risk for onset of I-SUDs. I-SUDs were relatively common among inhalant users, generally occurred in the year following initiation of inhalant use, and were associated with early-onset mood/anxiety and alcohol use disorders. Given the young average age at onset of inhalant use and the rapidity with which most I-SUDs developed, interventions directed to adolescents who have initiated inhalant use might be effective in reducing the proportion of inhalant users who develop I-SUDs.

  4. Development and Comparison of New High Efficiency Dry Powder Inhalers for Carrier-Free Formulations

    PubMed Central

    Behara, Srinivas R.B.; Longest, P. Worth; Farkas, Dale R.; Hindle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    High efficiency dry powder inhalers (DPIs) were developed and tested for use with carrier-free formulations across a range of different inhalation flow rates. Performance of a previously reported DPI was compared with two new designs in terms of emitted dose (ED) and aerosolization characteristics using in vitro experiments. The two new designs oriented the capsule chamber (CC) at different angles to the main flow passage, which contained a 3D rod array for aerosol deaggregation. Computational fluid dynamics simulations of a previously developed deaggregation parameter, the NDSD, were used to explain device performance. Orienting the CC at 90° to the mouthpiece, the CC90-3D inhaler provided the best performance with an ED=73.4%, fine particle fractions (FPF) less than 5µm and 1µm of 95.1% and 31.4%, respectively, and a MMAD=1.5µm. For the carrier-free formulation, deaggregation was primarily influenced by capsule aperture position and the NDSD parameter. The new CC-3D inhalers reduced the percent difference in FPF and MMAD between low and high flows by 1–2 orders of magnitude compared with current commercial devices. In conclusion, the new CC-3D inhalers produced extremely high quality aerosols with little sensitivity to flow rate and are expected to deliver approximately 95% of the ED to the lungs. PMID:24307605

  5. Dry Powder Formulation of Plasmid DNA and siRNA for Inhalation.

    PubMed

    Chow, Michael Y T; Lam, Jenny K W

    2015-01-01

    Nucleic acid therapeutics has huge potential for the treatment of a wide range of diseases including respiratory diseases. Plasmid DNA (pDNA) and small interfering RNA (siRNA) are the two most widely investigated nucleic acids for therapeutic development. However, efficient and safe delivery of nucleic acids is still a major hurdle in translating nucleic acid therapy into clinical practice. For the treatment of respiratory diseases, administration via inhalation is the most direct and effective way to deliver therapeutic nucleic acids to the lungs. Although liquid aerosol formulation is investigated in most of the studies, it is not desirable in terms of maintaining the stability of nucleic acid especially during long-term storage. This problem could be circumvented by formulating the therapeutic nucleic acids into dry powder for inhalation, and should be considered as the future direction of developing inhalable nucleic acids. In this review, the three major particle engineering methods investigated for the preparation of inhalable pDNA and siRNA formulations, including spray drying (SD), spray freeze drying (SFD) and supercritical fluid (SFC) drying, are discussed and compared. Moreover, common assessment methods and the challenges of evaluating the biological activities of inhalable nucleic acid powders are also reviewed.

  6. Liposome Delivery Systems for Inhalation: A Critical Review Highlighting Formulation Issues and Anticancer Applications.

    PubMed

    Rudokas, Mindaugas; Najlah, Mohammad; Alhnan, Mohamed Albed; Elhissi, Abdelbary

    2016-01-01

    This is a critical review on research conducted in the field of pulmonary delivery of liposomes. Issues relating to the mechanism of nebulisation and liposome composition were appraised and correlated with literature reports of liposome formulations used in clinical trials to understand the role of liposome size and composition on therapeutic outcome. A major highlight was liposome inhalation for the treatment of lung cancers. Many in vivo studies that explored the potential of liposomes as anticancer carrier systems were evaluated, including animal studies and clinical trials. Liposomes can entrap anticancer drugs and localise their action in the lung following pulmonary delivery. The safety of inhaled liposomes incorporating anticancer drugs depends on the anticancer agent used and the amount of drug delivered to the target cancer in the lung. The difficulty of efficient targeting of liposomal anticancer aerosols to the cancerous tissues within the lung may result in low doses reaching the target site. Overall, following the success of liposomes as inhalable carriers in the treatment of lung infections, it is expected that more focus from research and development will be given to designing inhalable liposome carriers for the treatment of other lung diseases, including pulmonary cancers. The successful development of anticancer liposomes for inhalation may depend on the future development of effective aerosolisation devices and better targeted liposomes to maximise the benefit of therapy and reduce the potential for local and systemic adverse effects.

  7. Deposition of inhaled nanoparticles in the rat nasal passages: dose to the olfactory region.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Guilherme J M; Kimbell, Julia S

    2009-12-01

    In vivo experiments have shown that nanoparticles depositing in the rat olfactory region can translocate to the brain via the olfactory nerve. Quantitative predictions of the dose delivered by inhalation to the olfactory region are needed to clarify this route of exposure and to evaluate the dose-response effects of exposure to toxic nanoparticles. Previous in vivo and in vitro studies quantified the percentage of inhaled nanoparticles that deposit in the rat nasal passages, but olfactory dose was not determined. The dose to specific nasal epithelium types is expected to vary with inhalation rate and particle size. The purpose of this investigation, therefore, was to develop estimates of nanoparticle deposition in the nasal and, more specifically, olfactory regions of the rat. A three-dimensional, anatomically accurate, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the rat nasal passages was employed to simulate inhaled airflow and to calculate nasal deposition efficiency. Particle sizes from 1 to 100 nm and airflow rates of 288, 432, and 576 ml/min (1, 1.5, and 2 times the estimated resting minute volume) were simulated. The simulations predicted that olfactory deposition is maximum at 6-9% of inhaled material for 3- to 4-nm particles. The spatial distribution of deposited particles was predicted to change significantly with particle size, with 3-nm particles depositing mostly in the anterior nose, while 30-nm particles were more uniformly distributed throughout the nasal passages.

  8. Lung deposition of salbutamol in healthy human subjects from the MAGhaler dry powder inhaler.

    PubMed

    Newman, S; Malik, S; Hirst, R; Pitcairn, G; Heide, A; Pabst, J; Dinkelaker, A; Fleischer, W

    2002-12-01

    The MAGhaler (Mundipharma GmbH) is a multidose dry powder inhaler (DPI) containing a novel formulation of drug and lactose compacted by an isostatic pressing technique (GGU GmbH). On actuation, a precise dose is metered from a compacted ring-shaped drug tablet. In this study, the lung deposition of salbutamol from this device has been assessed. Ten healthy non-smoking subjects completed a two-way cross-over study assessing the pulmonary deposition of salbutamol (200 microg) from the MAGhaler at high (60 l/min) and low (30 l/min) peak inhaled flow rates (PIFRs), representing maximal and sub-maximal inspiratory efforts. The formulation was radiolabelled with 99mTc, and lung and oropharyngeal depositions were quantified by gamma scintigraphyThe mean (SD)% ofthe delivered dose deposited in the lungs was 26.4 (4.3)% at 60 l/min and 21.1 (5.1)% at 30 l/min (P < 0.05), corresponding to mean lung depositions of 52.8 and 42.2 microg salbutamol, respectively. The distribution of drug within different lung regions did not vary significantly with inhaled flow rate. The data provided proof of concept for the novel inhaler device and the innovative drug formulation. In comparison with previous deposition data obtained with other DPIs, the lung deposition was relatively high, relatively reproducible (coefficient of variation 16% at 60 l/min) and relatively insensitive to the change in peak inhaled flow rate.

  9. Adolescent inhalant use, abuse and dependence.

    PubMed

    Perron, Brian E; Howard, Matthew O

    2009-07-01

    To compare adolescent inhalant users without DSM-IV inhalant use disorders (IUDs) to youth with IUDs (i.e. abuse or dependence) across demographic, psychosocial and clinical measures. Cross-sectional survey with structured psychiatric interviews. Facilities (n = 32) comprising the Missouri Division of Youth Services (MDYS) residential treatment system for juvenile offenders. Participants Current MDYS residents (n = 723); 97.7% of residents participated. Most youth were male (87%) and in mid-adolescence (mean = 15.5 years, standard deviation = 1.2, range = 11-20); more than one-third (38.6%, n = 279) reported life-time inhalant use. Antisocial behavior, temperament, trauma-exposure, suicidality, psychiatric symptoms and substance-related problems. Among life-time inhalant users, 46.9% met criteria for a life-time DSM-IV IUD (inhalant abuse = 18.6%, inhalant dependence = 28.3%). Bivariate analyses showed that, in comparison to non-users, inhalant users with and without an IUD were more likely to be Caucasian, live in rural or small towns, have higher levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms, evidence more impulsive and fearless temperaments and report more past-year antisocial behavior and life-time suicidality, traumatic experiences and global substance use problems. A monotonic relationship between inhalant use, abuse and dependence and adverse outcomes was observed, with comparatively high rates of dysfunction observed among inhalant-dependent youth. Multivariate regression analyses showed that inhalant users with and without an IUD had greater levels of suicidal ideation and substance use problems than non-users. Youth with IUDs have personal histories characterized by high levels of trauma, suicidality, psychiatric distress, antisocial behavior and substance-related problems. A monotonic relationship between inhalant use, abuse and dependence and serious adverse outcomes was observed.

  10. Micromechanics for particulate reinforced composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Goldberg, Robert K.; Mital, Subodh K.

    1996-01-01

    A set of micromechanics equations for the analysis of particulate reinforced composites is developed using the mechanics of materials approach. Simplified equations are used to compute homogenized or equivalent thermal and mechanical properties of particulate reinforced composites in terms of the properties of the constituent materials. The microstress equations are also presented here to decompose the applied stresses on the overall composite to the microstresses in the constituent materials. The properties of a 'generic' particulate composite as well as those of a particle reinforced metal matrix composite are predicted and compared with other theories as well as some experimental data. The micromechanics predictions are in excellent agreement with the measured values.

  11. Inhalant abuse: youth at risk.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Nancy R; Falsafi, Nasrin

    2013-08-01

    Inhalant abuse is a significant problem affecting many people, particularly youth. The easy availability of products containing volatile substances (e.g., aerosol sprays, cleaning products, paint) provides opportunity for mind-altering experiences. Unfortunately, serious complications such as brain, cardiovascular, liver, and renal damage or even death may ensue. Adolescents perceive the risk as low, and parents may be unaware of the risks. Health care providers, particularly psychiatric nurses, should undertake strategies of prevention, assessment, and treatment of this challenging problem. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  12. Intravenous versus inhalation anaesthesia for one-lung ventilation.

    PubMed

    Módolo, Norma S P; Módolo, Marília P; Marton, Marcos A; Volpato, Enilze; Monteiro Arantes, Vinícius; do Nascimento Junior, Paulo; El Dib, Regina P

    2013-07-11

    This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in The Cochrane Library, Issue 2, 2008.The technique called one-lung ventilation can confine bleeding or infection to one lung, prevent rupture of a lung cyst or, more commonly, facilitate surgical exposure of the unventilated lung. During one-lung ventilation, anaesthesia is maintained either by delivering an inhalation anaesthetic to the ventilated lung or by infusing an intravenous anaesthetic. It is possible that the method chosen to maintain anaesthesia may affect patient outcomes. Inhalation anaesthetics may impair hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) and increase intrapulmonary shunt and hypoxaemia. The objective of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of intravenous versus inhalation anaesthesia for one-lung ventilation. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); The Cochrane Library (2012, Issue 11); MEDLINE (1966 to November 2012); EMBASE (1980 to November 2012); Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS, 1982 to November 2012) and ISI web of Science (1945 to November 2012), reference lists of identified trials and bibliographies of published reviews. We also contacted researchers in the field. No language restrictions were applied. The date of the most recent search was 19 November 2012. The original search was performed in June 2006. We included randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomized controlled trials of intravenous (e.g. propofol) versus inhalation (e.g. isoflurane, sevoflurane, desflurane) anaesthesia for one-lung ventilation in both surgical and intensive care participants. We excluded studies of participants who had only one lung (i.e. pneumonectomy or congenital absence of one lung). Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information. We included in this updated review 20 studies that enrolled 850 participants, all of which

  13. ADVANCED HYBRID PARTICULATE COLLECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Zhuang; Stanley J. Miller; Michelle R. Olderbak; Rich Gebert

    2001-12-01

    A new concept in particulate control, called an advanced hybrid particulate collector (AHPC), is being developed under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The AHPC combines the best features of electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses in an entirely novel manner. The AHPC concept combines fabric filtration and electrostatic precipitation in the same housing, providing major synergism between the two methods, both in the particulate collection step and in transfer of dust to the hopper. The AHPC provides ultrahigh collection efficiency, overcoming the problem of excessive fine-particle emissions with conventional ESPs, and solves the problem of reentrainment and re-collection of dust in conventional baghouses. Phase I of the development effort consisted of design, construction, and testing of a 5.7-m{sup 3}/min (200-acfm) working AHPC model. Results from both 8-hr parametric tests and 100-hr proof-of-concept tests with two different coals demonstrated excellent operability and greater than 99.99% fine-particle collection efficiency. Since all of the developmental goals of Phase I were met, the approach was scaled up in Phase II to a size of 255 m{sup 3}/min (9000 acfm) (equivalent in size to 2.5 MW) and was installed on a slipstream at the Big Stone Power Plant. For Phase II, the AHPC at Big Stone Power Plant was operated continuously from late July 1999 until mid-December 1999. The Phase II results were highly successful in that ultrahigh particle collection efficiency was achieved, pressure drop was well controlled, and system operability was excellent. For Phase III, the AHPC was modified into a more compact configuration, and components were installed that were closer to what would be used in a full-scale commercial design. The modified AHPC was operated from April to July 2000. While operational results were acceptable during this time, inspection of bags in the summer of 2000 revealed some membrane damage to the fabric that appeared to be

  14. Inhalation intake of ambient air pollution in California's South Coast Air Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Julian D.; Granvold, Patrick W.; Hoats, Abigail S.; McKone, Thomas E.; Deakin, Elizabeth; W Nazaroff, William

    Reliable estimates of inhalation intake of air pollution and its distribution among a specified population are important for environmental epidemiology, health risk assessment, urban planning, and environmental policy. We computed distributional characteristics of the inhalation intake of five pollutants for a group of ˜25,000 people (˜29,000 person-days) living in California's South Coast Air Basin. Our approach incorporates four main inputs: temporally resolved information about people's location (latitude and longitude), microenvironment, and activity level; temporally and spatially explicit model determinations of ambient concentrations; stochastically determined microenvironmental adjustment factors relating the exposure concentration to the ambient concentration; and, age-, gender-, and activity-specific breathing rates. Our study is restricted to pollutants of outdoor origin, i.e. it does not incorporate intake in a microenvironment from direct emissions into that microenvironment. Median estimated inhalation intake rates (μg d -1) are 53 for benzene, 5.1 for 1,3-butadiene, 8.7×10 -4 for hexavalent chromium in fine particulate matter (Cr-PM 2.5), 30 for diesel fine particulate matter (DPM 2.5), and 68 for ozone. For the four primary pollutants studied, estimated median intake rates are higher for non-whites and for individuals in low-income households than for the population as a whole. For ozone, a secondary pollutant, the reverse is true. Accounting for microenvironmental adjustment factors, population mobility and temporal correlations between pollutant concentrations and breathing rates affects the estimated inhalation intake by 40% on average. The approach presented here could be extended to quantify the impact on intakes and intake distributions of proposed changes in emissions, air quality, and urban infrastructure.

  15. Influence of delivery devices on efficacy of inhaled fluticasone propionate: a comparative study in stable asthma patients.

    PubMed

    Kolasani, Bhanu Prakash; Lanke, Venu Madhavi; Diyya, Sudheer

    2013-09-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids are the preferred treatment for long-term control of all grades of persistent asthma. These are administered by various delivery devices with very little information whether these devices can affect the efficacy of inhaled corticosteroids. Fluticasone propionate is a relatively new inhalational corticosteroid compared to older ones like beclomethasone and budesonide. Aims & Objective: To assess the relative efficacy of fluticasone propionate administered from different delivery devices to adult patients of chronic stable bronchial asthma as measured by pulmonary function test parameters. This prospective study was undertaken to assess the relative efficacy of fluticasone propionate administered from different delivery devices to adult patients of chronic stable bronchial asthma as measured by pulmonary function test parameters. Fourty eight subjects were administered, fluticasone propionate (250 μg) by dry powder inhaler, metered dose inhaler, metered dose inhaler with spacer and fluticasone (1mg) via nebulizer consecutively each week for four weeks under direct supervision. Pulmonary function test was done before and one hour after administration of the drug on each visit. After excluding nine patients who were lost to follow up, data was analysed for the remaining thirty nine patients and no significant difference in peak expiratory flow rate (p=0.77), forced expiratory volume in one second (p=0.95), forced vital capacity (p=0.24) and forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity ratio (p=0.22) was seen after giving fluticasone by different devices. Fluticasone propionate delivered by different devices like dry powder inhaler, metered dose inhaler, metered dose inhaler with spacer and nebulizer have similar effect on lung function in patients of chronic stable bronchial asthma and may be used interchangeably.

  16. Inhaler mishandling is very common in patients with chronic airflow obstruction and long-term home nebuliser use.

    PubMed

    Melani, Andrea S; Canessa, PierAldo; Coloretti, Isotta; DeAngelis, Giuseppe; DeTullio, Renato; Del Donno, Mario; Giacobbe, Raffaela; Scarlato, Ines; Serafini, Antonella; Barbato, Natalino; Vaghi, Adriano; Sestini, Piersante

    2012-05-01

    Inhalers and nebulisers are devices used for delivering aerosolised drugs in subjects with Chronic Airflow Obstruction (CAO). This multicentre, cross-sectional observational study was performed in a large population of outpatients with CAO regularly using home aerosol therapy and referring to chest clinics. The aims of the study were to compare the characteristics of the group of subjects with CAO who were using home nebulisers but also experienced with inhalers vs. those only using inhalers and to investigate whether the first group of subjects was particularly prone to inhaler misuse. Information was gained evaluating the responses to a standardised questionnaire on home aerosol therapy and the observations of inhaler technique. We enrolled 1527 patients (58% males; mean ± SE; aged 61.1 ± 0.4 years; FEV1% pred 69.9 ± 0.6; 51% and 44% respectively suffering from COPD and asthma) who were only inhaler users (OIU group) and 137 (85% males; aged 67.7 ± 1.3 years; FEV1% pred 62.3 ± 2.9; 60% and 23% respectively suffering from COPD and asthma) who were using both nebulisers and inhalers (NIU group). Nebuliser users were older, had more severe obstruction, related symptoms and health care resources utilisation. Nebulisers users performed more critical inhalers errors than those of the OIU group (49% vs. 36%; p = 0.009). We conclude that our patients with CAO and regular nebuliser treatment had advanced age, severe respiratory conditions and common inhaler misuse. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Electrically heated particulate filter restart strategy

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI; Ament, Frank [Troy, MI

    2011-07-12

    A control system that controls regeneration of a particulate filter is provided. The system generally includes a propagation module that estimates a propagation status of combustion of particulate matter in the particulate filter. A regeneration module controls current to the particulate filter to re-initiate regeneration based on the propagation status.

  18. Inhalant Abuse: A Call for Attention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Mary B.

    1998-01-01

    The percentage of youth inhaling volatile substances is on the rise in the United States. Professional literature has been critical of the helping professions for not doing enough to address this problem adequately. This article attempts to heighten the awareness of the mental health profession by defining inhalant abuse, its consequences, and…

  19. Investigation of inhalation anthrax case, United States.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Jayne; Blaney, David; Shadomy, Sean; Lehman, Mark; Pesik, Nicki; Tostenson, Samantha; Delaney, Lisa; Tiller, Rebekah; DeVries, Aaron; Gomez, Thomas; Sullivan, Maureen; Blackmore, Carina; Stanek, Danielle; Lynfield, Ruth

    2014-02-01

    Inhalation anthrax occurred in a man who vacationed in 4 US states where anthrax is enzootic. Despite an extensive multi-agency investigation, the specific source was not detected, and no additional related human or animal cases were found. Although rare, inhalation anthrax can occur naturally in the United States.

  20. Investigation of Inhalation Anthrax Case, United States

    PubMed Central

    Blaney, David; Shadomy, Sean; Lehman, Mark; Pesik, Nicki; Tostenson, Samantha; Delaney, Lisa; Tiller, Rebekah; DeVries, Aaron; Gomez, Thomas; Sullivan, Maureen; Blackmore, Carina; Stanek, Danielle; Lynfield, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation anthrax occurred in a man who vacationed in 4 US states where anthrax is enzootic. Despite an extensive multi-agency investigation, the specific source was not detected, and no additional related human or animal cases were found. Although rare, inhalation anthrax can occur naturally in the United States. PMID:24447835

  1. Inhalant initiation and the relationship of inhalant use to the use of other substances.

    PubMed

    Shamblen, Stephen R; Miller, Ted

    2012-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that inhalant use is primarily isolated to youthful experimentation; however, a growing body of evidence suggests that inhalant use (a) occurs after use of common substances of experimentation (e.g., alcohol, marijuana), (b) can persist into later life, and (c) is associated with severe consequences. The current study examined the sequencing of substances relative to inhalants and the post-initiation correlates of inhalant use between youth and young adulthood in nationally representative Add Health data. Analyses examined the relationship of substance of initiation to use of other substances, as well as an examination of the relationship between substance use and consequences. The analyses suggest that (a) those initiating their substance use careers with inhalants often go on to use hard drugs, (b) inhalant use likely occurs after alcohol and marijuana use, and (c) inhalant use during adolescence was associated with health and criminal consequences in both adolescence and young adulthood.

  2. Interventions to improve inhaler technique for people with asthma.

    PubMed

    Normansell, Rebecca; Kew, Kayleigh M; Mathioudakis, Alexander G

    2017-03-13

    narratively. We graded the results and presented evidence in 'Summary of findings' tables for each comparison. Primary outcomes were inhaler technique, asthma control and exacerbations requiring at least oral corticosteroids (OCS). This review includes 29 parallel randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (n = 2210), although not all reported relevant or useable data. All participants had asthma, and follow-up ranged from 2 to 26 weeks. Most studies were at low or unclear risk of selection and attrition biases and at high risk for biases associated with blinding. We considered most of the evidence to be of low quality owing to these biases and to imprecision in the estimates of effect.We classified studies into three comparisons: enhanced face-to-face training session(s), multi-media-delivered inhaler training (e.g. DVD, computer app or game) and technique feedback devices. Differences between interventions, populations and outcome measures limited quantitative analyses, particularly for exacerbations, adverse events, unscheduled visits to a healthcare provider and absenteeism from work or school.Enhanced inhaler technique education and multi-media training improved technique in most studies immediately after the intervention and at follow-up, although the variety of checklists used meant that this was difficult to assess reliably. For both adults and children, how and when inhaler technique was assessed appeared to affect whether inhaler technique improved and by how much.Analyses of the numbers of people who demonstrated correct or 'good enough' technique were generally more useful than checklist scores. Adult studies of enhanced education showed benefit when this metric was used at 2 to 26 weeks' follow-up (odds ratio (OR) 5.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.83 to 13.65; 258 participants; three studies; 31 per 100 with correct technique in the control group compared with 69 (95% CI 45 to 86) in the education group; moderate-quality evidence). A similar result was seen in

  3. Delivering Science on Day One

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Timothy J.

    2016-03-01

    While benchmarking software is useful for testing the performance limits and stability of Argonne National Laboratory’s new Theta supercomputer, there is no substitute for running real applications to explore the system’s potential. The Argonne Leadership Computing Facility’s Theta Early Science Program, modeled after its highly successful code migration program for the Mira supercomputer, has one primary aim: to deliver science on day one. Here is a closer look at the type of science problems that will be getting early access to Theta, a next-generation machine being rolled out this year.

  4. Measurement of vehicle particulate emissions.

    PubMed Central

    Beltzer, M

    1975-01-01

    A constant volume sampler (CVS) compatible auto exhaust particulate sampling system has been built which samples exhaust isokinetically at constant temperature. This system yields internally consistent results and is capable of frequent and convenient operation. PMID:50931

  5. Toxicological Assessment of Noxious Inhalants

    PubMed Central

    Kleinsasser, N. H.; Sassen, A. W.; Wallner, B. W.; Staudenmaier, R.; Harréus, U. A.; Richter, E.

    2004-01-01

    In the past centuries mankind has been exposed to various forms of air pollution not only at his occupational but also in his social environment. He mainly gets exposed with these pollutants through the respiratory organs and partially absorbs them into the body. Many of these airborne substances can be harmful for humans and some of them may account for tumorigenic effects. The following essay describes the main features of toxicological assessment of inhalative environmental and workplace xenobiotics. The essay also explains relevant characteristics and limit values of noxious compounds and gases and depicts modern testing methods. To this end, emphasis is given on methods characterizing the different stages of tumorigenic processes. Various test systems have been developed which can be used in vivo, ex vivo or in vitro. They are to a great part based on the evidence of changes in DNA or particular genes of cells. Among others they have highlighted the impact of interindividual variability on enzymatic activation of xenobiotics and on susceptibility of the host to tumor diseases. Unfortunately, for many inhalative environmental noxious agents no sufficient risk profiles have been developed. The completion of these profiles should be the goal of toxicological assessment in order to allow reasonable socioeconomic or individual-based risk reduction. PMID:22073045

  6. Pegasus delivers SLS engine section

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-03

    NASA engineers install test hardware for the agency's new heavy lift rocket, the Space Launch System, into a newly constructed 50-foot structural test stand at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. In the stand, hydraulic cylinders will be electronically controlled to push, pull, twist and bend the test article with millions of pounds of force. Engineers will record and analyze over 3,000 channels of data for each test case to verify the capabilities of the engine section and validate that the design and analysis models accurately predict the amount of loads the core stage can withstand during launch and ascent. The engine section, recently delivered via NASA's barge Pegasus from NASA's Michoud Assembly Facility, is the first of four core stage structural test articles scheduled to be delivered to Marshall for testing. The engine section, located at the bottom of SLS's massive core stage, will house the rocket's four RS-25 engines and be an attachment point for the two solid rocket boosters.

  7. Pegasus delivers SLS engine section

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-18

    NASA engineers install test hardware for the agency's new heavy lift rocket, the Space Launch System, into a newly constructed 50-foot structural test stand at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. In the stand, hydraulic cylinders will be electronically controlled to push, pull, twist and bend the test article with millions of pounds of force. Engineers will record and analyze over 3,000 channels of data for each test case to verify the capabilities of the engine section and validate that the design and analysis models accurately predict the amount of loads the core stage can withstand during launch and ascent. The engine section, recently delivered via NASA's barge Pegasus from NASA's Michoud Assembly Facility, is the first of four core stage structural test articles scheduled to be delivered to Marshall for testing. The engine section, located at the bottom of SLS's massive core stage, will house the rocket's four RS-25 engines and be an attachment point for the two solid rocket boosters.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of fluticasone propionate multidose, inhalation-driven, novel, dry powder inhaler versus a prevailing dry powder inhaler and a metered-dose inhaler.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Michael; Song, Sharon; Steinfeld, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    A novel inhalation-driven multidose dry powder inhaler (MDPI) that eliminates the need for the patient to coordinate device actuation with inhalation has been developed for delivery of inhaled asthma medications. To characterize the pharmacokinetics of single-dose fluticasone propionate (Fp) MDPI compared with single doses of Fp dry powder inhaler (DPI) and a metered-dose inhaler (MDI) in healthy subjects. This was a single-center, open-label, randomized, three-period crossover, single-dose pilot study in healthy adults ages 18 to 45 years. Eligible subjects (N = 18) were randomized to one of six treatment sequences that contained three treatment arms: Fp MDPI 400 μg/inhalation × two inhalations (800 μg total dose); Fp DPI 250 μg/inhalation × four (1000 μg total dose); and Fp MDI 220 μg/inhalation × four (880 μg total dose). Pharmacokinetics (area under concentration-versus-time curve [AUC], maximum plasma concentration [Cmax], time to Cmax [tmax], and elimination half-life [t½]), safety, and tolerability were assessed for each treatment. Plasma Fp concentration-versus-time curves were comparable across treatments. Geometric mean AUC0-t and Cmax for Fp MDPI 800 μg were 19% and 18% higher, respectively, compared with Fp DPI 1000 μg, and 47% and 82% higher, respectively, compared with Fp MDI 880 μg. Median tmax (60.0-60.6 minutes) and median t1/2 (9.1-9.8 hours) were comparable across the three treatments. Single-dose Fp was well tolerated, with no new safety issues noted. Single-dose administration of Fp MDPI 800 μg produced systemic exposure comparable with those for Fp DPI 1000 μg and Fp MDI 880 μg.

  9. Electrical diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V; Ament, Frank

    2013-12-31

    An exhaust system that processes exhaust generated by an engine includes a diesel particulate filter (DPF) that is disposed downstream of the engine and that filters particulates from the exhaust. An electrical heater is disposed upstream of the DPF and selectively heats the exhaust to initiate combustion of the particulates within the exhaust as it passes therethrough. Heat generated by combustion of the particulates induces combustion of particulates within the DPF.

  10. Can a Short Video Improve Inhaler Use in Urban Youth?

    PubMed Central

    Lehr, Victoria Tutag; French, Nathan; Giuliano, Christopher Alan

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The primary aim was to determine whether watching a short video in the inpatient setting could produce an immediate improvement in pediatric patients' asthma knowledge and inhaler technique. METHODS This prospective, quasi-experimental, pre-post study was conducted in a single center, in Detroit, Michigan, which primarily serves an urban, African-American population. Patients were eligible if they were between 8- and 16-years-old, had asthma, and would be discharged with an albuterol metered-dose inhaler. The primary outcome was improvement in the composite score of a knowledge and technique assessment before and after watching a 5-minute video. The lead author developed the video with content validation by pharmacists, pediatricians, elementary school teachers, and a pediatric health education specialist. Secondary outcomes at 30 days included change in asthma control and whether the video was revisited after discharge. RESULTS Thirty patients were enrolled. Their average age was 11 ± 2.1 years; they were primarily African American (83%), female (53%), and insured by Medicaid (87%). The composite score of technique assessment and written quiz increased by 3.53 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.81 to 4.85) of a possible 16 points after watching the video. There was no significant change in asthma control at 30 days as measured by the asthma control test (2, 95% CI −0.53 to 4.53). Eight of 22 patients revisited the video after discharge. CONCLUSIONS A brief educational video delivered during a pediatric inpatient visit in an urban medical center resulted in an immediate improvement in patients' disease knowledge and inhaler technique. PMID:28943825

  11. Inhalation injury: epidemiology, pathology, treatment strategies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Lung injury resulting from inhalation of smoke or chemical products of combustion continues to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Combined with cutaneous burns, inhalation injury increases fluid resuscitation requirements, incidence of pulmonary complications and overall mortality of thermal injury. While many products and techniques have been developed to manage cutaneous thermal trauma, relatively few diagnosis-specific therapeutic options have been identified for patients with inhalation injury. Several factors explain slower progress for improvement in management of patients with inhalation injury. Inhalation injury is a more complex clinical problem. Burned cutaneous tissue may be excised and replaced with skin grafts. Injured pulmonary tissue must be protected from secondary injury due to resuscitation, mechanical ventilation and infection while host repair mechanisms receive appropriate support. Many of the consequences of smoke inhalation result from an inflammatory response involving mediators whose number and role remain incompletely understood despite improved tools for processing of clinical material. Improvements in mortality from inhalation injury are mostly due to widespread improvements in critical care rather than focused interventions for smoke inhalation. Morbidity associated with inhalation injury is produced by heat exposure and inhaled toxins. Management of toxin exposure in smoke inhalation remains controversial, particularly as related to carbon monoxide and cyanide. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment has been evaluated in multiple trials to manage neurologic sequelae of carbon monoxide exposure. Unfortunately, data to date do not support application of hyperbaric oxygen in this population outside the context of clinical trials. Cyanide is another toxin produced by combustion of natural or synthetic materials. A number of antidote strategies have been evaluated to address tissue hypoxia associated with cyanide exposure. Data

  12. Development of asthmatic inflammation in mice following early-life exposure to ambient environmental particulates and chronic allergen challenge

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Cristan; Siegle, Jessica S.; Shadie, Alexander M.; Nikolaysen, Stina; Garthwaite, Linda; Hansbro, Nicole G.; Foster, Paul S.; Kumar, Rakesh K.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Childhood exposure to environmental particulates increases the risk of development of asthma. The underlying mechanisms might include oxidant injury to airway epithelial cells (AEC). We investigated the ability of ambient environmental particulates to contribute to sensitization via the airways, and thus to the pathogenesis of childhood asthma. To do so, we devised a novel model in which weanling BALB/c mice were exposed to both ambient particulate pollutants and ovalbumin for sensitization via the respiratory tract, followed by chronic inhalational challenge with a low mass concentration of the antigen. We also examined whether these particulates caused oxidant injury and activation of AEC in vitro. Furthermore, we assessed the potential benefit of minimizing oxidative stress to AEC through the period of sensitization and challenge by dietary intervention. We found that characteristic features of asthmatic inflammation developed only in animals that received particulates at the same time as respiratory sensitization, and were then chronically challenged with allergen. However, these animals did not develop airway hyper-responsiveness. Ambient particulates induced epithelial injury in vitro, with evidence of oxidative stress and production of both pro-inflammatory cytokines and Th2-promoting cytokines such as IL-33. Treatment of AEC with an antioxidant in vitro inhibited the pro-inflammatory cytokine response to these particulates. Ambient particulates also induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression following administration to weanling mice. However, early-life dietary supplementation with antioxidants did not prevent the development of an asthmatic inflammatory response in animals that were exposed to particulates, sensitized and challenged. We conclude that injury to airway epithelium by ambient environmental particulates in early life is capable of promoting the development of an asthmatic inflammatory response in sensitized and antigen-challenged mice

  13. Acute pulmonary toxicity of urban particulate matter and ozone.

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, R.; Bjarnason, S. G.; Adamson, I. Y.; Hedgecock, C.; Kumarathasan, P.; Guénette, J.; Potvin, M.; Goegan, P.; Bouthillier, L.

    1997-01-01

    We have investigated the acute lung toxicity of urban particulate matter in interaction with ozone. Rats were exposed for 4 hours to clean air, ozone (0.8 ppm), the urban dust EHC-93 (5 mg/m3 or 50 mg/m3), or ozone in combination with urban dust. The animals were returned to clean air for 32 hours and then injected (intraperitoneally) with [3H]thymidine to label proliferating cells and killed after 90 minutes. The lungs were fixed by inflation, embedded in glycol methacrylate, and processed for light microscopy autoradiography. Cell labeling was low in bronchioles (0.14 +/- 0.04%) and parenchyma (0.13 +/- 0.02%) of air control animals. Inhalation of EHC-93 alone did not induce cell labeling. Ozone alone increased (P < 0.05) cell labeling (bronchioles, 0.42 +/- 0.16%; parenchyma, 0.57 +/- 0.21%), in line with an acute reparative cell proliferation. The effects of ozone were clearly potentiated by co-exposure with either the low (3.31 +/- 0.31%; 0.99 +/- 0.18%) or the high (4.45 +/- 0.51%; 1.47 +/- 0.18%) concentrations of urban dust (ozone X EHC-93, P < 0.05). Cellular changes were most notable in the epithelia of terminal bronchioles and alveolar ducts and did not distribute to the distal parenchyma. Enhanced DNA synthesis indicates that particulate matter from ambient air can exacerbate epithelial lesions in the lungs. This may extend beyond air pollutant interactions, such as to effects of inhaled particles in the lungs of compromised individuals. Images Figure 1 PMID:9403707

  14. Exploring the role of quantitative feedback in inhaler technique education: a cluster-randomised, two-arm, parallel-group, repeated-measures study

    PubMed Central

    Toumas-Shehata, Mariam; Price, David; Amin Basheti, Iman; Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Feedback is a critical component of any educational intervention. When it comes to feedback associated with inhaler technique education, there is a lack of knowledge on its role or its potential to solve the major issue of poor inhaler technique. Aims: This study aims to explore the role of feedback in inhaler technique education and its impact on the inhaler technique of patients over time. Methods: A parallel-group, repeated-measures study was conducted in the community pharmacy in which the effectiveness of current best practice inhaler technique education utilising qualitative visual feedback (Group 1) was compared with a combination of qualitative and quantitative visual feedback (Group 2). The impact of these two interventions on inhaler technique maintenance was evaluated. Community pharmacists were randomly allocated to recruit people with asthma who were using a dry powder inhaler. At Visit 1 their inhaler technique was evaluated and education delivered and they were followed up at Visit 2 (1 month later). Results: Both educational interventions resulted in an increase in the proportion of patients with correct inhaler technique: from 4% to 51% in Group 1 and from 6% to 83% in Group 2 (Pearson’s Chi-Squared, P=0.03, n=49, and Pearson’s Chi-Squared, P=0.01, n=48, respectively). The magnitude of improvement was statistically significantly higher for Group 2 compared with Group 1 (n=97, P=0.02, Pearson’s Chi-Square test). Conclusions: The nature of feedback has an impact on the effectiveness of inhaler technique education with regard to correct inhaler technique maintenance over time. PMID:25393603

  15. Pump for delivering heated fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabelman, E. E. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A thermomechanical pump particularly suited for use in pumping a warming fluid obtained from an RTG (Radioisotope Thermal Generator) through science and flight instrumentation aboard operative spacecraft is described. The invention is characterized by a pair of operatively related cylinders, each including a reciprocating piston head dividing the cylinder into a pressure chamber confining therein a vaporizable fluid, and a pumping chamber for propelling the warming fluid, and a fluid delivery circuit for alternately delivering the warming fluid from the RTG through the pressure chamber of one cylinder to the pumping chamber of the other cylinder, whereby the vaporizable fluid within the pair of pressure chambers alternately is vaporized and condensed for driving the associated pistons in pumping and intake strokes.

  16. PLGA particulate delivery systems for subunit vaccines: Linking particle properties to immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Silva, A L; Soema, P C; Slütter, B; Ossendorp, F; Jiskoot, W

    2016-04-02

    Among the emerging subunit vaccines are recombinant protein- and synthetic peptide-based vaccine formulations. However, proteins and peptides have a low intrinsic immunogenicity. A common strategy to overcome this is to co-deliver (an) antigen(s) with (an) immune modulator(s) by co-encapsulating them in a particulate delivery system, such as poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) particles. Particulate PLGA formulations offer many advantages for antigen delivery as they are biocompatible and biodegradable; can protect the antigens from degradation and clearance; allow for co-encapsulation of antigens and immune modulators; can be targeted to antigen presenting cells; and their particulate nature can increase uptake and cross-presentation by mimicking the size and shape of an invading pathogen. In this review we discuss the pros and cons of using PLGA particulate formulations for subunit vaccine delivery and provide an overview of formulation parameters that influence their adjuvanticity and the ensuing immune response.

  17. PLGA particulate delivery systems for subunit vaccines: Linking particle properties to immunogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Silva, A. L.; Soema, P. C.; Slütter, B.; Ossendorp, F.; Jiskoot, W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Among the emerging subunit vaccines are recombinant protein- and synthetic peptide-based vaccine formulations. However, proteins and peptides have a low intrinsic immunogenicity. A common strategy to overcome this is to co-deliver (an) antigen(s) with (an) immune modulator(s) by co-encapsulating them in a particulate delivery system, such as poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) particles. Particulate PLGA formulations offer many advantages for antigen delivery as they are biocompatible and biodegradable; can protect the antigens from degradation and clearance; allow for co-encapsulation of antigens and immune modulators; can be targeted to antigen presenting cells; and their particulate nature can increase uptake and cross-presentation by mimicking the size and shape of an invading pathogen. In this review we discuss the pros and cons of using PLGA particulate formulations for subunit vaccine delivery and provide an overview of formulation parameters that influence their adjuvanticity and the ensuing immune response. PMID:26752261

  18. The future of combining inhaled drugs for COPD.

    PubMed

    Bjerg, Anders; Lundbäck, Bo; Lötvall, Jan

    2012-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally, and its prevalence is projected to continue to increase owing to trends in smoking. Treatment of COPD has evolved from the initial adaptations of drugs and treatment strategies successfully used in asthma into more specific pharmacological strategies following global guidelines. Bronchodilating anticholinergic and beta-2-stimulating agents and anti-inflammatory corticosteroid drugs delivered by inhalators are the mainstay of COPD treatment. Despite significant progress, current pharmacotherapies neither fully alleviate the airway obstruction in COPD, nor reverse the progressive nature of the disease. This review discusses inhalation therapies which have recently become clinically available or are being developed, with focus on combination therapies. There is accumulating evidence that the combination of two or all three drug classes, triple therapy, is superior to single drug therapy. Several fixed combinations of both currently available and novel molecules will be launched for clinical use within the next few years. Also, improved understanding of subgroups within the clinical spectrum of COPD, is likely to offer new potentials to improve COPD care.

  19. Repurposing tromethamine as inhaled therapy to treat CF airway disease

    PubMed Central

    Alaiwa, Mahmoud H. Abou; Launspach, Janice L.; Sheets, Kelsey A.; Rivera, Jade A.; Gansemer, Nicholas D.; Taft, Peter J.; Thorne, Peter S.; Welsh, Michael J.; Stoltz, David A.

    2016-01-01

    In cystic fibrosis (CF), loss of CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) anion channel activity causes airway surface liquid (ASL) pH to become acidic, which impairs airway host defenses. One potential therapeutic approach is to correct the acidic pH in CF airways by aerosolizing HCO3– and/or nonbicarbonate pH buffers. Here, we show that raising ASL pH with inhaled HCO3– increased pH. However, the effect was transient, and pH returned to baseline values within 30 minutes. Tromethamine (Tham) is a buffer with a long serum half-life used as an i.v. formulation to treat metabolic acidosis. We found that Tham aerosols increased ASL pH in vivo for at least 2 hours and enhanced bacterial killing. Inhaled hypertonic saline (7% NaCl) is delivered to people with CF in an attempt to promote mucus clearance. Because an increased ionic strength inhibits ASL antimicrobial factors, we added Tham to hypertonic saline and applied it to CF sputum. We found that Tham alone and in combination with hypertonic saline increased pH and enhanced bacterial killing. These findings suggest that aerosolizing the HCO3–-independent buffer Tham, either alone or in combination with hypertonic saline, might be of therapeutic benefit in CF airway disease. PMID:27390778

  20. Dynamics of airflow in a short inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Bates, A. J.; Doorly, D. J.; Cetto, R.; Calmet, H.; Gambaruto, A. M.; Tolley, N. S.; Houzeaux, G.; Schroter, R. C.

    2015-01-01

    During a rapid inhalation, such as a sniff, the flow in the airways accelerates and decays quickly. The consequences for flow development and convective transport of an inhaled gas were investigated in a subject geometry extending from the nose to the bronchi. The progress of flow transition and the advance of an inhaled non-absorbed gas were determined using highly resolved simulations of a sniff 0.5 s long, 1 l s−1 peak flow, 364 ml inhaled volume. In the nose, the distribution of airflow evolved through three phases: (i) an initial transient of about 50 ms, roughly the filling time for a nasal volume, (ii) quasi-equilibrium over the majority of the inhalation, and (iii) a terminating phase. Flow transition commenced in the supraglottic region within 20 ms, resulting in large-amplitude fluctuations persisting throughout the inhalation; in the nose, fluctuations that arose nearer peak flow were of much reduced intensity and diminished in the flow decay phase. Measures of gas concentration showed non-uniform build-up and wash-out of the inhaled gas in the nose. At the carina, the form of the temporal concentration profile reflected both shear dispersion and airway filling defects owing to recirculation regions. PMID:25551147

  1. Inhaled Corticosteroids and Bone Health

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Carolyn; Sellahewa, Luckni; Pappachan, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the cornerstones in the management of bronchial asthma and some cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Although ICS are claimed to have low side effect profiles, at high doses they can cause systemic adverse effects including bone diseases such as osteopenia, osteoporosis and osteonecrosis. Corticosteroids have detrimental effects on function and survival of osteoblasts and osteocytes, and with the prolongation of osteoclast survival, induce metabolic bone disease. Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO) can be associated with major complications such as vertebral and neck of femur fractures. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) published criteria in 2010 for the management of GIO. ACR recommends bisphosphonates along with calcium and vitamin D supplements as the first-line agents for GIO management. ACR recommendations can be applied to manage patients on ICS with a high risk of developing metabolic bone disease. This review outlines the mechanisms and management of ICS-induced bone disease. PMID:25674178

  2. Inhalation challenge in humidifier fever.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J H; Cockcroft, A

    1981-05-01

    When exposed to an amount of contaminated humidifier water roughly equivalent to that inhaled over an 8-hour period at their work place, four out of six subjects developed symptoms of humidifier fever. Two non-exposed subjects failed to react to the same challenge. Characteristic lung function, temperature and leucocyte changes were recorded; however, a fall in gas transfer previously reported was not seen. That the reaction was immunologically mediated and not due to endotoxin activity was shown by a negative pyrogen response in rabbits inoculated intravenously with concentrated humidifier water. The nature of the immune response has not as yet been evaluated but it does not reside with the ability of humidifier fever antigens to activate complement. Skin testing produced an immediate weal and flare in the four subjects with precipitins and may reflect the presence of short-term anaphylactic IgG antibody.

  3. Pediatric in vitro and in silico models of deposition via oral and nasal inhalation.

    PubMed

    Carrigy, Nicholas B; Ruzycki, Conor A; Golshahi, Laleh; Finlay, Warren H

    2014-06-01

    Respiratory tract deposition models provide a useful method for optimizing the design and administration of inhaled pharmaceutical aerosols, and can be useful for estimating exposure risks to inhaled particulate matter. As aerosol must first pass through the extrathoracic region prior to reaching the lungs, deposition in this region plays an important role in both cases. Compared to adults, much less extrathoracic deposition data are available with pediatric subjects. Recently, progress in magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scans to develop pediatric extrathoracic airway replicas has facilitated addressing this issue. Indeed, the use of realistic replicas for benchtop inhaler testing is now relatively common during the development and in vitro evaluation of pediatric respiratory drug delivery devices. Recently, in vitro empirical modeling studies using a moderate number of these realistic replicas have related airway geometry, particle size, fluid properties, and flow rate to extrathoracic deposition. Idealized geometries provide a standardized platform for inhaler testing and exposure risk assessment and have been designed to mimic average in vitro deposition in infants and children by replicating representative average geometrical dimensions. In silico mathematical models have used morphometric data and aerosol physics to illustrate the relative importance of different deposition mechanisms on respiratory tract deposition. Computational fluid dynamics simulations allow for the quantification of local deposition patterns and an in-depth examination of aerosol behavior in the respiratory tract. Recent studies have used both in vitro and in silico deposition measurements in realistic pediatric airway geometries to some success. This article reviews the current understanding of pediatric in vitro and in silico deposition modeling via oral and nasal inhalation.

  4. Evaluation of a Novel Nicotine Inhaler Device: Part 1—Arterial and Venous Pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Hearn, Alex; Redfern, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In the United Kingdom, licensed nicotine-containing products can be recommended to reduce the harm associated with smoking. Many smokers find currently available nicotine replacement products unsatisfactory. The arterial and venous pharmacokinetics (PK) of nicotine delivered via a novel inhaler device were determined. Methods: Results are reported for Parts A (N = 18) and C (N = 18) of a 4-part (A–D) Phase I study. Participants (18–55 years, ≥10 cigarettes/day, smoking within 1hr of waking, expired carbon monoxide >10 ppm on screening) orally inhaled 2 single doses of nicotine (2 of 3 dose levels [0.22, 0.45, and 0.67 mg]) (Part A) and repeated hourly doses of 0.67mg nicotine for 12hr (Part C), via the novel device. Arterial and venous PK and tolerability were assessed. Results: In Part A, mean arterial plasma nicotine concentrations at 2min after the start of inhalation were 1.10, 2.06, and 2.59ng/mL for the 0.22, 0.45, and 0.67mg doses, respectively. Mean maximum arterial plasma nicotine concentrations (C max) were 2.11, 3.73, and 4.38ng/mL and mean times to C max were 10.2, 7.3, and 6.5min after the start of inhalation for the 0.22, 0.45, and 0.67mg doses, respectively. In Part C, the mean pre- and postdose venous plasma nicotine concentration increased steadily and fluctuated in the range 8–10mg/mL after 9hr. The novel device was well tolerated; most adverse events were mild. Conclusion: The novel inhaler device delivers nicotine rapidly into the systemic circulation and offers a viable alternative to cigarettes for those finding it difficult to quit the behavioral and sensorial aspects of smoking. PMID:25385878

  5. Hydrocarbon-enhanced particulate filter regeneration via microwave ignition

    DOEpatents

    Gonze, Eugene V.; Brown, David B.

    2010-02-02

    A regeneration method for a particulate filter includes estimating a quantity of particulate matter trapped within the particulate filter, comparing the quantity of particulate matter to a predetermined quantity, heating at least a portion of the particulate filter to a combustion temperature of the particulate matter, and introducing hydrocarbon fuel to the particulate filter. The hydrocarbon fuel facilitates combustion of the particulate matter to regenerate the particulate filter.

  6. Household insecticides: evaluation and assessment of inhalation toxicity: a workshop summary.

    PubMed

    Achmadi, U F; Pauluhn, J

    1998-03-01

    Particularly in tropical countries household insecticides are used on a day-by-day basis to control mosquitoes, other crawling and flying insects to prevent the spread of vector-borne diseases. The products used most often are spray-cans, oil-sprays, mosquito coils as well as slow-release vaporising systems such as mats and liquid vaporiser. The extent and duration of exposure of humans is highly dependent on the type of product used. The objective of this workshop was to analyse the necessity and feasibility of inhalation studies with household insecticides taking into account the specific constrains associated with each type of end-use product. The standardisation of inhalation studies with regard to the generation of test atmospheres, mode and duration of exposure, and selection of adequate toxicological endpoints were addressed. Due to the complex nature of exposure atmospheres generated by some household insecticides, viz. mosquito coils, it is scientifically challenging to characterise the pathomechanism of most concern, since irritant combustion gases, volatile and semi-volatile organic substances, particulates (soot), condensation aerosols and re-condensed substances onto particulates may act independently, synergistically or mixture specific. It has been concluded that for the comparative safety evaluation and risk assessment of indoor insecticide end-use products generally recognised guidance for harmonised inhalation testing is required: 1) For high-dose release products, such as spray-cans, acute inhalation testing appears to be most relevant. 2) For low-dose, slow-release devices, subchronic inhalation studies of 13-weeks, duration of exposure 6 hours/day for 5 consecutive days per week, should be performed on rats preferably with the end-use product. A dose-range finding study of 2-weeks duration, daily exposure, should be available for the justification of dose selection and to demonstrate that the findings of 5 days/week exposure is not different

  7. Development of Respimat® Soft Mist™ Inhaler and its clinical utility in respiratory disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dalby, Richard N; Eicher, Joachim; Zierenberg, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    The Respimat® Soft Mist™ Inhaler (SMI) (Boehringer Ingelheim International GmbH, Ingelheim, Germany) was developed in response to the need for a pocket-sized device that can generate a single-breath, inhalable aerosol from a drug solution using a patient-independent, reproducible, and environmentally friendly energy supply. This paper describes the design and evolution of this innovative device from a laboratory concept model and the challenges that were overcome during its development and scaleup to mass production. A key technical breakthrough was the uniblock, a component combining filters and nozzles and made of silicon and glass, through which drug solution is forced using mechanical power. This allows two converging jets of solution to collide at a controlled angle, generating a fine aerosol of inhalable droplets. The mechanical energy comes from a spring which is tensioned by twisting the base of the device before use. Additional features of the Respimat® SMI include a dose indicator and a lockout mechanism to avoid the problems of tailing-off of dose size seen with pressurized metered dose inhalers. The Respimat® SMI aerosol cloud has a unique range of technical properties. The high fine particle fraction allied with the low velocity and long generation time of the aerosol translate into a higher fraction of the emitted dose being deposited in the lungs compared with aerosols from pressurized metered dose inhalers and dry powder inhalers. These advantages are realized in clinical trials in adults and children with obstructive lung diseases, which have shown that the efficacy and safety of a pressurized metered dose inhaler formulation of a combination bronchodilator can be matched by a Respimat® SMI formulation containing only one half or one quarter of the dose delivered by a pressurized metered dose inhaler. Patient satisfaction with the Respimat® SMI is high, and the long duration of the spray is of potential benefit to patients who have

  8. Mutagens and carcinogens in size-classified air particulates of a northern Italian town.

    PubMed

    Monarca, S; Crebelli, R; Feretti, D; Zanardini, A; Fuselli, S; Filini, L; Resola, S; Bonardelli, P G; Nardi, G

    1997-10-20

    This research was designed to examine the presence of mutagenic/carcinogenic compounds in urban airborne particulate matter in relation to particles aerodynamic size. Inhalable (< 10 microns) airborne particulate (PM-10) was collected at a low traffic site in an industrialized Northern Italian town, using a high volume sampler equipped with a cascade impactor for particles fractionation. The organic extracts of different fractions were examined for mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA98/1,8-DNP6 using the microsuspension procedure, and for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content by gas chromatography. Size fractionated particles were also analysed for heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd, Cr, Ni, V) using plasma spectrophotometry. The results of mutagenicity and chemical analyses indicate that, at the site investigated, inhalable particulate was largely made of fine (< 0.5 micron) particles, which accounted for most of PAHs and mutagenicity. A similar pattern of distribution was found for heavy metals, which were relatively more abundant in small (< 1.5 microns) particles compared to coarser ones.

  9. Improved delivery of fenoterol plus ipratropium bromide using Respimat compared with a conventional metered dose inhaler.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, J; Freund, E; Beckers, B; Hinzmann, R

    2001-02-01

    Asthma can be effectively treated by the use of bronchodilator therapies administered by inhalation. The objective of this study was to describe the dose-response relationship of combined doses of fenoterol hydrobromide (F) and ipratropium bromide (I) (F/I) delivered via Respimat, a soft mist inhaler, and to establish the Respimat dose which is as efficacious and as safe as the standard marketed dose of F/I (100/40 microg) which is delivered via a conventional metered dose inhaler (MDI). In a double-blind (within device) cross-over study with a balanced incomplete block design, 62 patients with stable bronchial asthma (mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 63% predicted) were randomized at five study centres to receive five out of eight possible treatments: placebo, F/I 12.5/5, 25/10, 50/20, 100/40 or 200/80 microg delivered via Respimat; F/I 50/20 or 100/40 microg delivered via MDI. Pulmonary function results were based on the per-protocol dataset, comprising 47 patients. All F/I doses produced greater increases in FEV1 than placebo. A log-linear dose-response was obtained for the average increase in FEV1 up to 6 h (AUC0-6 h) and peak FEV1 across the dose range administered by Respimat. Statistically, therapeutic equivalence was not demonstrated between any F/I dose administered by Respimat compared with the MDI. However 12.5/5 and 25/10 microg F/I administered via Respimat were closest (slightly superior) to the F/I dose of 100/40 microg delivered via MDI. Pharmacokinetic data from 34 patients indicated a two-fold greater systemic availability of both drugs following inhalation by Respimat compared to MDI. In general, the active treatments were well tolerated and safe with regard to vital signs, electrocardiography, laboratory parameters and adverse events. In conclusion, combined administration of fenoterol hydrobromide and ipratropium bromide via Respimat, is as effective and as safe as higher doses given via a metered dose inhaler.

  10. Inhalant use and disorders among adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Ringwalt, Christopher L

    2006-10-15

    To examine the patterns of adult inhalant use and correlates of inhalant use disorder. We drew study data from the 2002 and 2003 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). We used logistic regression to identify the characteristics associated both with inhalant use and inhalant use disorder. One in 10 of all adults had used an inhalant at least once in their lives, and 0.5% used one in the past year. Among all past year inhalant users, 8% met the criteria for an inhalant use disorder (i.e., 6.6% for abuse and 1.1% for dependence) within that period. We found an increased prevalence of past year inhalant use among young adults aged 18-25 years, Asians, past year alcohol abusers and dependents, lifetime drug users, white women, and men reporting symptoms of serious mental illness. Inhalant-using adults who met the criteria for an inhalant use disorder were predominantly adults aged 35-49 years and were less educated, had received recent professional treatment for emotional or psychological problems, used inhalants weekly, and had a coexisting alcohol use disorder. The patterns and consequences of adult inhalant use differ from those of adolescents. Compared with adolescent inhalant users, adult users tend not to initiate inhalant use until adulthood, use inhalants less frequently, use fewer inhalants, and are less likely to engage in criminal activities.

  11. Inhalant Use and Disorders among Adults in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Ringwalt, Christopher L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective To examine the patterns of adult inhalant use and correlates of inhalant use disorder. Method We drew study data from the 2002 and 2003 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). We used logistic regression to identify the characteristics associated both with inhalant use and inhalant use disorder. Results One in ten of all adults had used an inhalant at least once in their lives, and 0.5% used one in the past year. Among all past year inhalant users, 8% met the criteria for an inhalant use disorder (i.e., 6.6% for abuse and 1.1% for dependence) within that period. We found an increased prevalence of past year inhalant use among young adults aged 18–25, Asians, past year alcohol abusers and dependents, lifetime drug users, white women, and men reporting symptoms of serious mental illness. Inhalant-using adults who met the criteria for an inhalant use disorder were predominantly adults aged 35–49 and were less educated, had received recent professional treatment for emotional or psychological problems, used inhalants weekly, and had a coexisting alcohol use disorder. Conclusion The patterns and consequences of adult inhalant use differ from those of adolescents. Compared with adolescent inhalant users, adult users tend not to initiate inhalant use until adulthood, use inhalants less frequently, use fewer inhalants, and are less likely to engage in criminal activities. PMID:16581202

  12. 42 CFR 84.90 - Breathing resistance test; inhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; inhalation. 84.90...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.90 Breathing resistance test; inhalation. (a) Resistance to inhalation... machine as described in § 84.88. (b) The inhalation resistance of open-circuit apparatus shall not...

  13. 42 CFR 84.90 - Breathing resistance test; inhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; inhalation. 84.90...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.90 Breathing resistance test; inhalation. (a) Resistance to inhalation... machine as described in § 84.88. (b) The inhalation resistance of open-circuit apparatus shall not...

  14. Inhalable DNase I microparticles engineered with biologically active excipients.

    PubMed

    Osman, Rihab; Al Jamal, Khuloud T; Kan, Pei-Lee; Awad, Gehanne; Mortada, Nahed; El-Shamy, Abd-Elhameed; Alpar, Oya

    2013-12-01

    Highly viscous mucus poses a big challenge for the delivery of particulates carrying therapeutics to patients with cystic fibrosis. In this study, surface modifying DNase I loaded particles using different excipients to achieve better lung deposition, higher enzyme stability or better biological activity had been exploited. For the purpose, controlled release microparticles (MP) were prepared by co-spray drying DNase I with the polymer poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) and the biocompatible lipid surfactant 1,2-dipalmitoyl-Sn-phosphatidyl choline (DPPC) using various hydrophilic excipients. The effect of the included modifiers on the particle morphology, size, zeta potential as well as enzyme encapsulation efficiency, biological activity and release had been evaluated. Powder aerosolisation performance and particle phagocytosis by murine macrophages were also investigated. The results showed that more than 80% of enzyme activity was recovered after MP preparation and that selected surface modifiers greatly increased the enzyme encapsulation efficiency. The particle morphology was greatly modified altering in turn the powders inhalation indices where dextran, ovalbumin and chitosan hydrochloride increased considerably the respirable fraction compared to the normal hydrophilic carriers lactose and PVP. Despite of the improved aerosolisation caused by chitosan hydrochloride, yet retardation of chitosan coated particles in artificial mucus samples discouraged its application. On the other hand, dextran and polyanions enhanced DNase I effect in reducing cystic fibrosis mucus viscosity. DPPC proved good ability to reduce particles phagocytic uptake even in the presence of the selected adjuvants. The prepared MP systems were biocompatible with lung epithelial cells. To conclude, controlled release DNase I loaded PLGA-MP with high inhalation indices and enhanced mucolytic activity on CF sputum could be obtained by surface modifying the particles with PGA or dextran.

  15. Pulmonary effects of inhaled diesel exhaust in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Sunil, Vasanthi R.; Patel, Kinal J.; Mainelis, Gediminas; Turpin, Barbara J.; Ridgely, Sherritta; Laumbach, Robert J.; Kipen, Howard M.; Nazarenko, Yevgen; Veleeparambil, Manoj; Gow, Andrew J.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2010-01-01

    Pulmonary morbidity and mortality resulting from exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) increases with age. The present studies analyzed potential mechanisms underlying increased susceptibility of the elderly to PM using diesel exhaust (DE) as a model. Mice (2 m and 18 m) were exposed to DE (0, 300, and 1000 μg/m3) for 3 h once (single) or 3 h/day for 3 days (repeated). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL), serum and lung tissue were collected 0 and 24 h later. Exposure to DE resulted in structural alterations in the lungs of older but not younger mice, including patchy thickening of the alveolar septa and inflammatory cell localization in alveolar spaces. These effects were most pronounced 24 h after a single exposure to the higher dose of DE. Significant increases in BAL nitrogen oxides were also noted in older mice, as well as expression of lipocalin 24p3, an oxidative stress marker in the lung with no effects in younger mice. Following DE inhalation, expression of Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFα) was upregulated in lungs of both younger and older mice; however, this was attenuated in older animals. Whereas exposure to DE resulted in increases in lung Interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression in both older and younger mice, IL-8 increased only in older animals. In younger mice, constitutive expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) decreased after DE exposure, while in older mice, constitutive MnSOD was not detectable and DE had no effect on expression of this antioxidant. Taken together, these results suggest that altered generation of inflammatory mediators and MnSOD may contribute to increased susceptibility of older mice to inhaled DE. PMID:19729031

  16. Metal induced inhalation exposure in urban population: A probabilistic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widziewicz, Kamila; Loska, Krzysztof

    2016-03-01

    The paper was aimed at assessing the health risk in the populations of three Silesian cities: Bielsko-Biała, Częstochowa and Katowice exposed to the inhalation intake of cadmium, nickel and arsenic present in airborne particulate matter. In order to establish how the exposure parameters affects risk a probabilistic risk assessment framework was used. The risk model was based on the results of the annual measurements of As, Cd and Ni concentrations in PM2.5 and the sets of data on the concentrations of those elements in PM10 collected by the Voivodship Inspectorate of Environmental Protection over 2012-2013 period. The risk was calculated as an incremental lifetime risk of cancer (ILCR) in particular age groups (infants, children, adults) following Monte Carlo approach. With the aim of depicting the effect the variability of exposure parameters exerts on the risk, the initial parameters of the risk model: metals concentrations, its infiltration into indoor environment, exposure duration, exposure frequency, lung deposition efficiency, daily lung ventilation and body weight were modeled as random variables. The distribution of inhalation cancer risk due to exposure to ambient metals concentrations was LN (1.80 × 10-6 ± 2.89 × 10-6) and LN (6.17 × 10-7 ± 1.08 × 10-6) for PM2.5 and PM10-bound metals respectively and did not exceed the permissible limit of the acceptable risk. The highest probability of contracting cancer was observed for Katowice residents exposed to PM2.5 - LN (2.01 × 10-6 ± 3.24 × 10-6). Across the tested age groups adults were approximately one order of magnitude at higher risk compared to infants. Sensitivity analysis showed that exposure duration (ED) and body weight (BW) were the two variables, which contributed the most to the ILCR.

  17. Animal model of sensitization by inhalation.

    PubMed Central

    Barboriak, J J; Knoblock, H W; Hensley, G T; Gombas, O F; Fink, J N

    1976-01-01

    Groups of rats exposed to daily inhalation challenge with aerosolized pigeon serum developed precipitating antibody within 2 weeks and definitive granulomatous inflammatory changes in the lung after 7 weeks of exposure. The dissociation of the two responses to an inhalation challenge indicate that the rat model may serve for screening of the various inhalant antigens for their sensitizing potential, and for investigation of the contributory role of some of the factors involved in the pathogenesis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:939055

  18. Efficacy and safety of ipratropium bromide plus fenoterol inhaled via Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler vs. a conventional metered dose inhaler plus spacer in children with asthma.

    PubMed

    von Berg, Andrea; Jeena, Prakash M; Soemantri, Peter A; Vertruyen, André; Schmidt, Peter; Gerken, Fronke; Razzouk, Hassan

    2004-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of ipratropium bromide/fenoterol hydrobromide (IB/FEN; Berodual) delivered from the novel propellant-free Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler (SMI) with that from a chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) metered-dose inhaler (MDI) plus spacer in children with asthma. The study followed a multicenter, randomized, double-blind (within Respimat SMI), parallel-group design. During the 2-week run-in period, patients received two actuations of CFC-MDI tid (IB 20 microg/FEN 50 microg per actuation) via a spacer (Aerochamber) (MDI 40/100). Patients (n=535) were then randomized to: Respimat SMI containing IB 10 microg/FEN 25 microg (Respimat SMI 10/25), IB 20 microg/FEN 50 microg (Respimat SMI 20/50), one actuation tid or CFC-MDI containing IB 20 microg/FEN 50 microg per actuation (in total 1B 40 microg/FEN 100 microg), or two actuations tid via Aerochamber (MDI 40/100), for 4 weeks. The primary endpoint was the change in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) during the first 60 min after dosing (area under the curve from 0-1 h [AUC(0-1 h)]) on day 29. Analysis of the primary endpoint demonstrated that the efficacy of Respimat SMI 10/25 and 20/50 was equivalent to or greater than that of MDI 40/100. Similar results indicating that Respimat SMI 10/25 and 20/50 were not inferior to MDI 40/100 were also found on days 1 and 15. Analyses of other secondary endpoints supported these results. The safety profile of Respimat SMI was comparable to that of the CFC-MDI plus spacer. In conclusion, IB/FEN delivered via Respimat SMI is at least as effective as, and is as safe as, when delivered via CFC-MDI plus Aerochamber in children with asthma. Use of Respimat SMI thus enables a 2-4-fold reduction in the nominal dose of IB/FEN, and obviates the need for a spacer. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Effects of inhaled CO administration on acute lung injury in baboons with pneumococcal pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Fredenburgh, Laura E; Kraft, Bryan D; Hess, Dean R; Harris, R Scott; Wolf, Monroe A; Suliman, Hagir B; Roggli, Victor L; Davies, John D; Winkler, Tilo; Stenzler, Alex; Baron, Rebecca M; Thompson, B Taylor; Choi, Augustine M; Welty-Wolf, Karen E; Piantadosi, Claude A

    2015-10-15

    Inhaled carbon monoxide (CO) gas has therapeutic potential for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome if a safe, evidence-based dosing strategy and a ventilator-compatible CO delivery system can be developed. In this study, we used a clinically relevant baboon model of Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia to 1) test a novel, ventilator-compatible CO delivery system; 2) establish a safe and effective CO dosing regimen; and 3) investigate the local and systemic effects of CO therapy on inflammation and acute lung injury (ALI). Animals were inoculated with S. pneumoniae (10(8)-10(9) CFU) (n = 14) or saline vehicle (n = 5); in a subset with pneumonia (n = 5), we administered low-dose, inhaled CO gas (100-300 ppm × 60-90 min) at 0, 6, 24, and/or 48 h postinoculation and serially measured blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels. We found that CO inhalation at 200 ppm for 60 min is well tolerated and achieves a COHb of 6-8% with ambient CO levels ≤ 1 ppm. The COHb level measured at 20 min predicted the 60-min COHb level by the Coburn-Forster-Kane equation with high accuracy. Animals given inhaled CO + antibiotics displayed significantly less ALI at 8 days postinoculation compared with antibiotics alone. Inhaled CO was associated with activation of mitochondrial biogenesis in the lung and with augmentation of renal antioxidative programs. These data support the feasibility of safely delivering inhaled CO gas during mechanical ventilation and provide preliminary evidence that CO may accelerate the resolution of ALI in a clinically relevant nonhuman primate pneumonia model.

  20. Effects of inhaled CO administration on acute lung injury in baboons with pneumococcal pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Bryan D.; Hess, Dean R.; Harris, R. Scott; Wolf, Monroe A.; Suliman, Hagir B.; Roggli, Victor L.; Davies, John D.; Winkler, Tilo; Stenzler, Alex; Baron, Rebecca M.; Thompson, B. Taylor; Choi, Augustine M.; Welty-Wolf, Karen E.; Piantadosi, Claude A.

    2015-01-01

    Inhaled carbon monoxide (CO) gas has therapeutic potential for patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome if a safe, evidence-based dosing strategy and a ventilator-compatible CO delivery system can be developed. In this study, we used a clinically relevant baboon model of Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia to 1) test a novel, ventilator-compatible CO delivery system; 2) establish a safe and effective CO dosing regimen; and 3) investigate the local and systemic effects of CO therapy on inflammation and acute lung injury (ALI). Animals were inoculated with S. pneumoniae (108-109 CFU) (n = 14) or saline vehicle (n = 5); in a subset with pneumonia (n = 5), we administered low-dose, inhaled CO gas (100–300 ppm × 60–90 min) at 0, 6, 24, and/or 48 h postinoculation and serially measured blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels. We found that CO inhalation at 200 ppm for 60 min is well tolerated and achieves a COHb of 6–8% with ambient CO levels ≤ 1 ppm. The COHb level measured at 20 min predicted the 60-min COHb level by the Coburn-Forster-Kane equation with high accuracy. Animals given inhaled CO + antibiotics displayed significantly less ALI at 8 days postinoculation compared with antibiotics alone. Inhaled CO was associated with activation of mitochondrial biogenesis in the lung and with augmentation of renal antioxidative programs. These data support the feasibility of safely delivering inhaled CO gas during mechanical ventilation and provide preliminary evidence that CO may accelerate the resolution of ALI in a clinically relevant nonhuman primate pneumonia model. PMID:26320156