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Sample records for inhaled magnesium sulphate

  1. Biological effects of inhaled magnesium sulphate whiskers in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Hori, H; Kasai, T; Haratake, J; Ishimatsu, S; Oyabu, T; Yamato, H; Higashi, T; Tanaka, I

    1994-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were exposed to two types of magnesium sulphate whiskers by inhalation for six hours a day, five days a week, for four weeks (sub-chronic study), or for one year (chronic study) to clarify the biological effects of the whiskers. There were few whiskers detected in the rat lungs even at one day after the exposure, suggesting that they are dissolved and eliminated rapidly from the lungs. To measure the clearance rate of the whiskers from the lungs, an intratracheal instillation was performed in golden hamsters. The half life of the whiskers in the lung was determined as 17.6 minutes by temporally measuring the magnesium concentration up to 80 minutes after the instillation. A histopathological examination indicated a frequent occurrence of adenoma and carcinoma in the year after chronic exposure, but it was not significantly different between exposed and control rats. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8044250

  2. Magnesium sulphate as a new desensitizing agent.

    PubMed

    Liu, G H; Morimoto, M

    1991-07-01

    Various desensitizing agents have been used in clinics to solve the problem of dentinal hypersensitivity (DH), but none of them has been shown to be consistently effective. We here introduce a new type of desensitizing agent, i.e. 4% magnesium sulphate with iontophoresis at 2mA for 3 min. These optimal conditions were determined by animal experiments, while only a minor effect on dentinal issues was observed within 4 weeks after the treatment. When this desensitizing agent was used to treat DH, the cure rate of 62.4% remained steady within the 25-week observation period, while some effect was achieved in all the subjects who participated in the study.

  3. The effect of magnesium on partial sulphate removal from mine water as gypsum.

    PubMed

    Tolonen, Emma-Tuulia; Rämö, Jaakko; Lassi, Ulla

    2015-08-15

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of magnesium on the removal efficiency of sulphate as gypsum from mine water. The precipitation conditions were simulated with MINEQL + software and the simulation results were compared with the results from laboratory jar test experiments. Both the simulation and the laboratory results showed that magnesium in the mine water was maintaining sulphate in a soluble form as magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) at pH 9.6. Thus magnesium was preventing the removal of sulphate as gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O). However, change in the lime precipitation pH from 9.6 to 12.5 resulted in magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) precipitation and improved sulphate removal. Additionally, magnesium hydroxide could act as seed crystals for gypsum precipitation or co-precipitate sulphate further enhancing the removal of sulphate from mine water.

  4. Magnesium sulphate increases lymphocyte adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Von Mandach, U; Bürgi, M; Huch, R; Huch, A

    1993-01-01

    We determined the effect of i.v. magnesium sulphate, which is often combined with beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists for tocolytic therapy, on lymphocyte cyclic AMP production, extracellular magnesium and blood calcium concentrations. Sixteen healthy volunteers received i.v. magnesium sulphate 1 g h-1 over 8 h; seven volunteers also had infusion of NaCl 18 mg h-1 as control. Venous blood was taken pre- and post-infusion to determine basal lymphocyte cyclic AMP and the increase evoked by 0.1 mM isoprenaline, as well as serum and plasma concentrations of total and non-protein-bound magnesium and calcium. Following magnesium sulphate there was a significant rise in the isoprenaline-evoked increase in cyclic AMP (P < 0.05) and in the magnesium concentrations (P < 0.01) and a decrease in the free calcium concentration (P < 0.01). PMID:8385975

  5. Magnesium sulphate increases lymphocyte adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate in humans.

    PubMed

    Von Mandach, U; Bürgi, M; Huch, R; Huch, A

    1993-03-01

    We determined the effect of i.v. magnesium sulphate, which is often combined with beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists for tocolytic therapy, on lymphocyte cyclic AMP production, extracellular magnesium and blood calcium concentrations. Sixteen healthy volunteers received i.v. magnesium sulphate 1 g h-1 over 8 h; seven volunteers also had infusion of NaCl 18 mg h-1 as control. Venous blood was taken pre- and post-infusion to determine basal lymphocyte cyclic AMP and the increase evoked by 0.1 mM isoprenaline, as well as serum and plasma concentrations of total and non-protein-bound magnesium and calcium. Following magnesium sulphate there was a significant rise in the isoprenaline-evoked increase in cyclic AMP (P < 0.05) and in the magnesium concentrations (P < 0.01) and a decrease in the free calcium concentration (P < 0.01).

  6. Development of a Simplified Protocol for Administration of 20% Magnesium Sulphate for Prophylaxis and Treatment of Eclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Lynne; Newby, Brandi D

    2009-01-01

    Background: Magnesium sulphate is a high-risk medication that is used extensively for prophylaxis and treatment of eclampsia. To accommodate recommendations related to fluid restrictions and patient safety, a protocol was developed for the administration of 20% magnesium sulphate. Objectives: To determine whether administration of 20% magnesium sulphate increased the risk of phlebitis relative to 2% to 8% magnesium sulphate solutions, to determine if the institution’s protocol for administration of 20% magnesium sulphate reduced errors during administration, and to identify strategies to further reduce potential errors. Methods: A retrospective chart audit was undertaken for patients who had received magnesium sulphate for prophylaxis of eclampsia from December 2004 to December 2007. A failure mode and effect analysis was used to identify additional safety strategies. Results: A total of 47 patients received magnesium sulphate according to the old administration protocol (2% to 8% solution) and 29 according to the new protocol (20% solution). No evidence of phlebitis was documented for any of these 76 patients. A few errors occurred with changes in rates or concentrations and because of failure to reset the pump after the loading dose, but there was no documented harm to any of the patients. Strategies to further reduce errors in the administration of magnesium sulphate included development of preprinted orders, use of 20% magnesium sulphate for all infusion rates, changes to pump settings to enable use of fractional infusion rates, preparation of magnesium sulphate in mini-bags in the pharmacy, double-check of pump settings by nurses, anesthesiology consult, and distribution of protocols to all areas in the hospital (to limit errors associated with patient transfers). Conclusions: There was no documented phlebitis, and fewer errors occurred when 20% magnesium sulphate was used. Several additional strategies were identified to reduce errors in the administration

  7. Development of an Inhaled Sustained Release Dry Powder Formulation of Salbutamol Sulphate, an Antiasthmatic Drug.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, C; Sathishkumar, K

    2016-01-01

    The present research was aimed to develop and characterize a sustained release dry powder inhalable formulation of salbutamol sulphate. The salbutamol sulphate microparticles were prepared by solvent evaporation method using biodegradable polymer poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) to produce salbutamol sulphate microparticle mixed with carrier respirable grade lactose for oral inhalation of dry powder. The drug content were estimated to produce 1 mg sustained release salbutamol sulphate per dose. Total four formulations K1, K2, K3 and K4 were prepared with 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 ratio of salbutamol sulphate:poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid). The developed formulations were studied for physicochemical properties, in vitro drug relase and Anderson cascade impaction studies. The prepared formulations effectively releases drug for 12 h in diffusion bag studies. Based on dissolution performance the 1:1 ratio of salbutamol sulphate:poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) produces in vitro release 92.57% at 12 h and having particle size of microparticles (D0.5μm) 5.02±0.6 and the pulmonary deposition of dry powder 34.5±3.21 (respiratory fraction in percentage).

  8. Development of an Inhaled Sustained Release Dry Powder Formulation of Salbutamol Sulphate, an Antiasthmatic Drug

    PubMed Central

    Kumaresan, C.; Sathishkumar, K.

    2016-01-01

    The present research was aimed to develop and characterize a sustained release dry powder inhalable formulation of salbutamol sulphate. The salbutamol sulphate microparticles were prepared by solvent evaporation method using biodegradable polymer poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) to produce salbutamol sulphate microparticle mixed with carrier respirable grade lactose for oral inhalation of dry powder. The drug content were estimated to produce 1 mg sustained release salbutamol sulphate per dose. Total four formulations K1, K2, K3 and K4 were prepared with 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 ratio of salbutamol sulphate:poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid). The developed formulations were studied for physicochemical properties, in vitro drug relase and Anderson cascade impaction studies. The prepared formulations effectively releases drug for 12 h in diffusion bag studies. Based on dissolution performance the 1:1 ratio of salbutamol sulphate:poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) produces in vitro release 92.57% at 12 h and having particle size of microparticles (D0.5μm) 5.02±0.6 and the pulmonary deposition of dry powder 34.5±3.21 (respiratory fraction in percentage). PMID:27168692

  9. Assessment of deterioration in RHA-concrete due to magnesium sulphate attack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habeeb, G. A.; Mahmud, H. B.; Hamid, N. B. A. A.

    2010-12-01

    The assessment of magnesium sulphate attack on concretes containing rice husk ash (RHA, 20wt% of the cementitious materials) with various average particle sizes was investigated. The total cementitious materials were 390 kg and the water-to-binder ratio (W/B) was 0.53 for all mixtures. Specimens were initially cured in water for 7 d and then immersed in the 3wt% magnesium sulphate solution for up to 111 d of exposure. The specimens were subjected to drying-wetting cycles to accelerate sulphate attack. In addition to the visual monitoring of the specimens, the concrete specimens were subsequently tested for compressive strength, dynamic modulus of elasticity, and length and mass changes. The results show that the specimens exposed to sulphate attack exhibit higher strength and dynamic modulus than those kept in water. The length change is negligible and can be attributed to the normal swelling of concrete. On the other hand, concretes suffers mass loss and surface spalling and softening; the fine RHA-concrete results in a better resistance. For the accelerated sulphate attack method used in this study, mass change and visual monitoring are recommended for assessing the deterioration degree and the effectiveness of supplementary cementitious materials to resist sulphate attack.

  10. Comparison of the antinociceptive effect of systemic versus intrathecal magnesium sulphate on spinal morphine analgesia.

    PubMed

    Messeha, Medhat M; Boshra, Vivian

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the possible antinociceptive effect of the intravenous (IV) versus the intrathecal (IT) administration of magnesium sulphate prior to spinal morphine analgesia. This research was conducted in two sets: First; experimentally, to compare the antinociceptive effect of IT magnesium sulphate (375 μg/rat) versus IP magnesium sulphate 100 mg/kg), prior to IT morphine (10 μg/rat). Pain was assessed using Randall-Selitto testing, the hot-plate, and formalin tests. A non-significant difference in the nociceptive threshold was observed between IT and IP magnesium sulphate administration prior to IT morphine in rats. Second: clinically, in patients undergoing orthopedic surgery, who received either an IT mixture of 1 mg of morphine with 3 mL hyperbaric 0.5% bupivacaine, an IT mixture of morphine with bupivacaine and 50 mg of magnesium sulphate, or an IT mixture of morphine bupivacaine plus IV 20 mg/kg of magnesium sulphate as a loading dose over 15 min prior to surgery, followed by infusion at a rate of 10 mg/kg/h. Pain was evaluated using a visual analog pain scale (VAS) score at one hour, 6 h and 12 h postoperatively. The use of IT or IV magnesium sulphate, in addition to the spinal morphine caused a significant decrease in the VAS score in the 6(th) and 12(th) post-operative hours with a non-significant difference between both routes. In conclusion the efficacy of systemic magnesium sulphate to potentiate the analgesic effect of intrathecal morphine is a promising and attractive route of choice for postoperative pain relief during spinal anesthesia. Opioid analgesia could be prolonged and the incidence of motor paralysis, common with the intrathecal route of magnesium sulphate administration, reduced.

  11. Magnesium sulphate salts and the history of water on Mars.

    PubMed

    Vaniman, David T; Bish, David L; Chipera, Steve J; Fialips, Claire I; Carey, J William; Feldman, William C

    2004-10-07

    Recent reports of approximately 30 wt% of sulphate within saline sediments on Mars--probably occurring in hydrated form--suggest a role for sulphates in accounting for equatorial H2O observed in a global survey by the Odyssey spacecraft. Among salt hydrates likely to be present, those of the MgSO4*nH2O series have many hydration states. Here we report the exposure of several of these phases to varied temperature, pressure and humidity to constrain their possible H2O contents under martian surface conditions. We found that crystalline structure and H2O content are dependent on temperature-pressure history, that an amorphous hydrated phase with slow dehydration kinetics forms at <1% relative humidity, and that equilibrium calculations may not reflect the true H2O-bearing potential of martian soils. Mg sulphate salts can retain sufficient H2O to explain a portion of the Odyssey observations. Because phases in the MgSO4*nH2O system are sensitive to temperature and humidity, they can reveal much about the history of water on Mars. However, their ease of transformation implies that salt hydrates collected on Mars will not be returned to Earth unmodified, and that accurate in situ analysis is imperative.

  12. Physicochemical and in vitro deposition properties of salbutamol sulphate/ipratropium bromide and salbutamol sulphate/excipient spray dried mixtures for use in dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Corrigan, Deirdre O; Corrigan, Owen I; Healy, Anne Marie

    2006-09-28

    The physicochemical and aerodynamic properties of spray dried powders of the drug/drug mixture salbutamol sulphate/ipratropium bromide were investigated. The in vitro deposition properties of spray dried salbutamol sulphate and the spray dried drug/excipient mixtures salbutamol sulphate/lactose and salbutamol sulphate/PEG were also determined. Spray drying ipratropium bromide monohydrate resulted in a crystalline material from both aqueous and ethanolic solution. The product spray dried from aqueous solution consisted mainly of ipratropium bromide anhydrous. There was evidence of the presence of another polymorphic form of ipratropium bromide. When spray dried from ethanolic solution the physicochemical characterisation suggested the presence of an ipratropium bromide solvate with some anhydrous ipratropium bromide. Co-spray drying salbutamol sulphate with ipratropium bromide resulted in amorphous composites, regardless of solvent used. Particles were spherical and of a size suitable for inhalation. Twin impinger studies showed an increase in the fine particle fraction (FPF) of spray dried salbutamol sulphate compared to micronised salbutamol sulphate. Co-spray dried salbutamol sulphate:ipratropium bromide 10:1 and 5:1 systems also showed an increase in FPF compared to micronised salbutamol sulphate. Most co-spray dried salbutamol sulphate/excipient systems investigated demonstrated FPFs greater than that of micronised drug alone. The exceptions to this were systems containing PEG 4000 20% or PEG 20,000 40% both of which had FPFs not significantly different from micronised salbutamol sulphate. These two systems were crystalline unlike most of the other spray dried composites examined which were amorphous in nature.

  13. The impact of sulphate and magnesium on chloride binding in Portland cement paste

    SciTech Connect

    De Weerdt, K.; Orsáková, D.; Geiker, M.R.

    2014-11-15

    The effect of magnesium and sulphate present in sea water on chloride binding in Portland cement paste was investigated. Ground well hydrated cement paste was exposed to MgCl{sub 2}, NaCl, NaCl + MgCl{sub 2}, MgSO{sub 4} + MgCl{sub 2} and artificial sea water solutions with a range of concentrations at 20 °C. Chloride binding isotherms are determined and pH of the solutions were measured. A selection of samples was examined by SEM-EDS to identify phase changes upon exposure. The experimental data were compared with calculations of a thermodynamic model. Chloride binding from sea water was similar to chloride binding for NaCl solutions. The magnesium content in the sea water lead to a slight decrease in pH, but this did not result in a notable increase in chloride binding. The sulphate present in sea water reduces both chloride binding in C–S–H and AFm phases, as the C–S–H incorporates more sulphates instead of chlorides, and part of the AFm phases converts to ettringite.

  14. Effect of magnesium salts on the sulphation capacity of limestone slurry.

    PubMed

    Ozyuğuran, Ayşe; Altun-Ciftçioğlu, Gökçen; Karatepe, Nilgün; Ersoy-Meriçboyu, Ayşegül

    2006-01-01

    The effect of different magnesium salts such as MgO, MgSO(4).7H2O and Mg(OH)2 on the total sulphation capacities of limestone slurries prepared from five different limestone samples was investigated. Sulphation reactions of slurries were conducted at a constant temperature of 323 K in a gaseous mixture consisting of 5% O2, 10% CO2, 0.5% SO2 and a balance of nitrogene by volume. It was found that the total sulphation capacities of limestone slurries increased with the addition of MgO and Mg(OH)2 salts and decreased with the addition of MgSO4.7H2O salt. Depending on the chemical composition of the limestone samples the total sulphation capacities of limestone slurries were increased between 22.30% and 75.00% by MgO addition and between 23.70% and 69.00% by Mg(OH)2 addition.

  15. Effect of magnesium salts on the sulphation capacity of limestone slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Ozyuguran, A.; Altun-Ciftcioglu, G.; Karatepe, N.; Ersoy-Mericboyu, A.

    2006-09-15

    The effect of different magnesium salts such as MgO, MgSO{sub 4}.7H{sub 2}O and Mg(OH){sub 2} on the total sulphation capacities of limestone slurries prepared from five different limestone samples was investigated. Sulphation reactions of slurries were conducted at a constant temperature of 323 K in a gaseous mixture consisting of 5% O{sub 2}, 10% CO{sub 2}, 0.5% SO{sub 2} and a balance of nitrogen by volume. It was found that the total sulphation capacities of limestone slurries increased with the addition of MgO and Mg(OH){sub 2} salts and decreased with the addition of MgSO{sub 4}.7H{sub 2}O salt. Depending on the chemical composition of the limestone samples the total sulphation capacities of limestone slurries were increased between 22.30% and 75.00% by MgO addition and between 23.70% and 69.00% by Mg(OH){sub 2} addition.

  16. Comparison of salbutamol with normal saline and salbutamol with magnesium sulphate in the treatment of severe acute asthma.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S; Sutradhar, S R; Miah, A H; Bari, M A; Hasan, M J; Alam, M K; Tariquzzaman, M; Sarker, C N

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the efficacy and safety of nebulized magnesium sulphate with salbutamol to normal saline with salbutamol as the initial treatment of severe acute asthma patients. The present study was designed as a randomized open controlled clinical trial. The study was conducted Mymensingh Medical College Hospital over a period of 11 months from December 2009 to October 2010. Patients admitted with severe acute asthma having inclusion criteria were the study population. Among 120 study population 60 were in salbutamol with magnesium sulphate group and 60 were in salbutamol with normal saline group. The study finding showed that peak flow at baseline was similar in two groups. At 10 minutes after nebulization, the mean±SD percentage increase in peak flow was greater in magnesium sulphate group (20±4%) than in the normal saline salbutamol group (13±3%). At 20 minutes the percentage increase in peak flow was greater in magnesium sulphate group (35±7%) than in the normal saline salbutamol group (24±6%) p value <0.001. Magnesium sulphate plus salbutamol group reached PEF near to 60% which is not in saline salbutamol group. There was no significant changed in respiratory rate, pulse rate, systolic, diastolic blood pressure and clinical evidence of unwanted adverse effect.

  17. Magnesium sulphate as an alternative and safe treatment for severe persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn.

    PubMed

    Tolsa, J F; Cotting, J; Sekarski, N; Payot, M; Micheli, J L; Calame, A

    1995-05-01

    Eleven newborns admitted consecutively to the neonatal unit with respiratory failure and severe persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN) were included in a clinical trial to assess the efficacy of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) in the treatment of PPHN. A loading dose of 200 mg/kg MgSO4 was given over 20 minutes, followed by a continuous infusion of 20-150 mg/kg/hour to obtain a magnesium blood concentration between 3.5 and 5.5 mmol/l. Mean (SD) duration of treatment was 75.5 (19.8) hours. No other vasodilatory drug was administered before or during the treatment and patients were not hyperventilated. Mean (SEM) PaO2 values significantly increased from 42.6 (8.8) before treatment to 70.3 (24.1) mm Hg after 24 hours, with no change in pH or PCO2. Oxygen index and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (A-aDO2) were significantly lower after 24 hours; respectively, 46.8 (15.2) to 28.0 (9.0) and 624.3 (11.3) to 590 (58) mm Hg. Mean airway pressure could be significantly reduced from 19.5 (3.1) to 13.9 (3.9) cm H2O after 72 hours. Mean ventilatory time support was 131 hours and mean total oxygen dependency 10 days. No systemic hypotension nor any other adverse effect were noted. All infants survived and the neurodevelopmental assessment was normal at 6 and 12 months of age. It is concluded that magnesium sulphate is a non-aggressive and low-cost treatment of short duration which is easy to apply. It may have a role in the various treatment of PPHN.

  18. Magnesium sulphate as an alternative and safe treatment for severe persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn.

    PubMed Central

    Tolsa, J. F.; Cotting, J.; Sekarski, N.; Payot, M.; Micheli, J. L.; Calame, A.

    1995-01-01

    Eleven newborns admitted consecutively to the neonatal unit with respiratory failure and severe persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN) were included in a clinical trial to assess the efficacy of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) in the treatment of PPHN. A loading dose of 200 mg/kg MgSO4 was given over 20 minutes, followed by a continuous infusion of 20-150 mg/kg/hour to obtain a magnesium blood concentration between 3.5 and 5.5 mmol/l. Mean (SD) duration of treatment was 75.5 (19.8) hours. No other vasodilatory drug was administered before or during the treatment and patients were not hyperventilated. Mean (SEM) PaO2 values significantly increased from 42.6 (8.8) before treatment to 70.3 (24.1) mm Hg after 24 hours, with no change in pH or PCO2. Oxygen index and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (A-aDO2) were significantly lower after 24 hours; respectively, 46.8 (15.2) to 28.0 (9.0) and 624.3 (11.3) to 590 (58) mm Hg. Mean airway pressure could be significantly reduced from 19.5 (3.1) to 13.9 (3.9) cm H2O after 72 hours. Mean ventilatory time support was 131 hours and mean total oxygen dependency 10 days. No systemic hypotension nor any other adverse effect were noted. All infants survived and the neurodevelopmental assessment was normal at 6 and 12 months of age. It is concluded that magnesium sulphate is a non-aggressive and low-cost treatment of short duration which is easy to apply. It may have a role in the various treatment of PPHN. PMID:7796235

  19. Maternal adverse effects of different antenatal magnesium sulphate regimens for improving maternal and infant outcomes: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Antenatal magnesium sulphate, widely used in obstetrics to improve maternal and infant outcomes, may be associated with adverse effects for the mother sufficient for treatment cessation. This systematic review aimed to quantify maternal adverse effects attributed to treatment, assess how adverse effects vary according to different regimens, and explore women’s experiences with this treatment. Methods Bibliographic databases were searched from their inceptions to July 2012 for studies of any design that reported on maternal adverse effects associated with antenatal magnesium sulphate given to improve maternal or infant outcomes. Primary outcomes were life-threatening adverse effects of treatment (death, cardiac arrest, respiratory arrest). For randomised controlled trials, data were meta-analysed, and risk ratios (RR) pooled using fixed-effects or random-effects models. For non-randomised studies, data were tabulated by design, and presented as RR, odds ratios or percentages, and summarised narratively. Results A total of 143 publications were included (21 randomised trials, 15 non-randomised comparative studies, 32 case series and 75 reports of individual cases), of mixed methodological quality. Compared with placebo or no treatment, magnesium sulphate was not associated with an increased risk of maternal death, cardiac arrest or respiratory arrest. Magnesium sulphate significantly increased the risk of 'any adverse effects’ overall (RR 4.62, 95% CI 2.42-8.83; 4 trials, 13,322 women), and treatment cessation due to adverse effects (RR 2.77; 95% CI 2.32-3.30; 5 trials, 13,666 women). Few subgroup differences were observed (between indications for use and treatment regimens). In one trial, a lower dose regimen (2 g/3 hours) compared with a higher dose regimen (5 g/4 hours) significantly reduced treatment cessation (RR 0.05; 95% CI 0.01-0.39, 126 women). Adverse effect estimates from studies of other designs largely supported data from randomised

  20. Review article: Role of magnesium sulphate in the management of Irukandji syndrome: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rathbone, John; Franklin, Richard; Gibbs, Clinton; Williams, David

    2017-02-01

    Signs of Irukandji syndrome (IS) suggest an underlying catecholamine storm with research demonstrating that Carukia barnesi venom causes a significant rise in adrenaline/noradrenaline serum levels. A systematic review was undertaken to ascertain the current evidence in treating IS with magnesium salts. A literature search was conducted using Scopus, Medline and ScienceDirect. Further articles were discarded via title description and/or abstract details. The remaining were read in full, and those identified as not having sufficient information regarding magnesium and patient outcomes were removed. Nine articles were identified. One article was a randomised controlled trial, which concluded that there appears to be no beneficial difference between those patients who received the magnesium sulphate (MgSO4 ) and those who received the placebo and recommended against the use of MgSO4 in IS. Of the remaining eight, one reported the failure of MgSO4 and the remaining seven were case series reporting varying success in its use. This systematic review found insufficient evidence to support any clear recommendation regarding the use of magnesium, but nor was there clear evidence to recommend against its use in IS. Two case series describe significant reduction in key symptoms and hypertension but are a non-randomised albeit prospective series with the limitations accompanying this. The reporting of recrudescence of symptoms with reduction of dose does suggest a dose-response relationship. The evidence for the use of MgSO4 is at best anecdotal, and further research is required to either confirm its benefit or confirm the randomised controlled trial.

  1. Magnesium sulphate and (123)I-MIBG in pheochromocytoma: Two useful techniques for a complicated disease.

    PubMed

    Vendrell, M; Martín, N; Tejedor, A; Ortiz, J T; Muxí, À; Taurà, P

    2016-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a tumour of the chromaffin tissue. It may, through catecholamine release, have deleterious effects on myocardial structure. A 48-year-old woman with a history of hypertension and type II diabetes mellitus (ASA II) was diagnosed of pheochromocytoma-induced myocarditis, which caused severe cardiogenic shock, with an ejection fraction of 20%. Extreme blood pressure swings required aggressive therapy with vasoactive drugs (norepinephrine and dopamine) and an intra-aortic balloon pump, despite which severe haemodynamic instability persisted. Finally, the use of magnesium sulphate allowed for cardiovascular stabilization and weaning off vasoactive drugs prior to surgery. (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy helps not only to functionally confirm tumour tissue, but also to assess severity and prognosis of cardiac failure. Prognosis of pheochromocytoma-induced heart failure can be very poor. The use of these two well-known and relatively simple 'tools' for treatment and prognosis is a helpful option to keep in mind.

  2. Crystallization of inorganic nonlinear optical zinc di-magnesium chloro sulphate (ZDMCS) single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arivuselvi, R.; Ruban Kumar, A.

    2017-02-01

    The growth of inorganic zinc di-magnesium chloro sulphate (ZDMCS) nonlinear optical material from low temperature evaporation technique at ambient temperature has been reported. The dimension of harvested crystal is 28×10×2 mm3 and is possess rectangular shape morphology. The single crystal X-ray diffraction studies confirmed that the grown crystal belongs to the system of trigonal. The S-Cl stretching vibrations and Mg2+ ions present in the sample were observed by FTIR spectrometer. The cut-off wavelength of the grown crystal is about 203 nm is found by UV-visible absorption spectrum. The nonlinear optical efficiency was determined by powder Kurtz Perry technique. EDAX spectrum confirms the presence of elements within the material. Dielectric nature of the sample was analyzed for the frequency range 50 Hz to 5 MHz at different temperatures. The mechanical behaviour of the title compound was investigated using Vicker's microhardness tester.

  3. Evaluation of the efficacy of magnesium sulphate as an adjuvant to lignocaine for intravenous regional anaesthesia for upper limb surgery.

    PubMed

    Narang, S; Dali, J S; Agarwal, M; Garg, R

    2008-11-01

    Several additives have been combined with local anaesthetics for intravenous regional anaesthesia to improve block quality, analgesia and to decrease tourniquet pain. Magnesium sulphate is one potential additive. This prospective, randomised, double-blinded study was conducted in 30 ASA physical status I or II patients undergoing upper limb surgery under tourniquet. In group L, patients received intravenous regional anaesthesia with lignocaine alone (9 ml of 2% lignocaine diluted with normal saline to total volume of 36 ml). Patients in group M received intravenous regional anaesthesia with lignocaine plus magnesium sulphate (6 ml of 25% magnesium sulphate plus 9 ml of 2% lignocaine diluted with normal saline to total volume of 36 ml). Assessment was by observing the response to injection of drug; sensory and motor block and tourniquet pain. The mean time of onset of sensory block was 12.40 and 3.47 minutes in groups L and M respectively (P < 0.001). The average times of onset of motor block in groups L and M were 17 and six minutes respectively (P < 0.001). Of the patients in group M, 66.7% reported moderate to severe pain while the drug was being injected, compared to 20% in group L (P=0.011). There was a statistically significant difference in visual analogue scale for tourniquet pain at 10 and 30 minutes after tourniquet inflation (lower in group M). These findings indicate that magnesium sulphate added as an adjuvant to lignocaine hastens the onset of sensory and motor block and decreases tourniquet pain. However there is increased incidence of transient pain on injection if magnesium sulphate is added.

  4. Comparison of different doses of magnesium sulphate and fentanyl as adjuvants to bupivacaine for infraumbilical surgeries under subarachnoid block

    PubMed Central

    Katiyar, Sarika; Dwivedi, Chhavi; Tipu, Saifullah; Jain, Rajnish K

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Spinal anaesthesia is used for many years for surgeries below the level of umbilicus. It has certain disadvantages such as limited duration of blockade and post-operative analgesia. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of additives fentanyl and magnesium sulphate along with bupivacaine during spinal anaesthesia for prolongation of analgesia and motor blockade. Methods: This randomised study was conducted in 120 patients of either sex of American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II, posted for infraumbilical surgeries. Patients were randomly allocated to four groups and were given the following drugs intrathecally as per group distribution; group A - bupivacaine 15 mg (0.5% heavy) with fentanyl 25 μg, group B - bupivacaine 15 mg (0.5% heavy) with magnesium 100 mg, group C - bupivacaine 15 mg (0.5% heavy) with magnesium 50 mg and group D - bupivacaine 15 mg (0.5% heavy) with 0.5 ml normal saline. Parameters monitored were duration of analgesia along with haemodynamic parameters and side effects. Data were analysed using the Student's t-test for the continuous variables and two-tailed Fisher exact test or Chi-square test for categorical variables. Results: There was significant increase in duration of analgesia in group A (374.37 min) and B (328.13 min) as compared to group C (274.87 min) and D (246.03 min). In group A, all haemodynamic parameters decreased by more than 20%, compared to baseline parameters, which was clinically and statistically significant as compared to other groups. There was also increase in duration of motor blockade in groups A and B. Conclusion: Addition of magnesium sulphate at 100 mg dose or fentanyl 25 μg as adjuvants to intrathecal bupivacaine significantly prolongs the duration of analgesia, though in the given doses, magnesium provides better haemodynamic stability than fentanyl, with fewer side effects. PMID:26379289

  5. Efficacy of Magnesium Sulphate as an Adjunct to Ropivacaine in Local Infiltration for Postoperative Pain Following Lower Segment Caesarean Section

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rupinder M; Singh, Gaganpreet; Singh, Tania; Jarewal, Vikrant; Katyal, Sunil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Intravenous and peri-articular magnesium has been shown to reduce perioperative analgesic consumption. With this background, subcutaneous infiltration was hypothesized to potentiate the subcutaneous infiltration of local anaesthetic agent. Aim To comparatively evaluate the efficacy of magnesium sulphate as an adjunct to ropivacaine in local infiltration for postoperative pain following lower segment cesarean section. Materials and Methods Sixty parturients undergoing cesarean delivery were randomized to either group A or B in a double blinded manner. After uterine and muscle closure but before skin closure, Group A was administered local subcutaneous wound infiltration of Injection (Inj) ropivacaine 0.75% 150 milligram (mg) or 20 millilitres(ml) whereas, group B patients were given a local subcutaneous wound infiltration of Inj magnesium sulphate 750 mg (1.5 ml of Inj 50% Magnesium sulphate) added to Inj ropivacaine 0.75% (18.5 ml) making a total volume of 20 ml. In postoperative period, Heart rate (HR), Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP), Visual Analogue Score (VAS), supplemental analgesic consumption and timing of each subsequent analgesic was noted for the initial 24 hours. Results There was no difference in the timings for the requirement of first Intravenous (IV) rescue analgesic among both the groups (p=0.279). However, the need for 2nd and 3rd doses of rescue analgesics was significantly later in group B and the difference was statistically significant with p-value of 0.034 and 0.031 respectively. The number of patients who were administered 2nd, 3rd and 4th doses of rescue analgesics was significantly greater in group A as compared to group B. None of the patients in group B needed more than 4 doses of rescue analgesia while in group A, 5 patients were administered a rescue analgesic for 5th time. The cumulative analgesic requirement in the initial 24 hours was also greater in group A as compared to group B and the difference was statistically

  6. Intravenous infusion of magnesium sulphate during subarachnoid anaesthesia in hip surgery and its effect on postoperative analgesia: our experience.

    PubMed

    Pastore, A; Lanna, M; Lombardo, N; Policastro, C; Iacovazzo, C

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of degenerative hip joint disease involves modern operative techniques and the use of prosthetic devices individualized on each patient. Being a surgery of considerable importance, great attention is always given by the anaesthesiologist to postoperative analgesia. In general, our goal is to limit the doses of NSAIDs, known to be associated with haemostasis interference and alteration of gastrointestinal apparatus; component of our baseline analgesic protocols after arthroplasty is morphine given parenterally. In order to steadily improve analgesic techniques, which directly impact on patient outcome, we experimented the use of a continuous infusion of magnesium sulphate during subarachnoid anaesthesia. Magnesium sulphate is the drug of choice in case of eclampsia, and pre-eclampsia (for the risk of evolution in eclampsia). According to the most recent findings, this drug has also analgesic properties: its use as an adjunct to analgesia is based on a non-competitive antagonism towards the NMDA receptor and on the blocking of calcium channels: these properties prevent the mechanisms of central sensitization due to nociceptive stimulation of peripheral nerves.

  7. Application and mechanism of inhalation profile improvement of DPI formulations by mechanofusion with magnesium stearate.

    PubMed

    Kumon, Michiko; Machida, Satoshi; Suzuki, Masahiko; Kusai, Akira; Yonemochi, Etsuo; Terada, Katsuhide

    2008-05-01

    In our previous paper, we reported the inhalation properties of dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations containing Compound A and mechanofusion-processed lactose carriers. The mechanofusion process with magnesium stearate (Mg-St) on the lactose carrier enhanced the fine particle fraction (FPF) value of the Andersen cascade impactor (ACI) study. The increase of FPF seemed to be associated with the increase of the dispersibility of drug particles. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the applicability of lactose carrier mechanofusion-processed with Mg-St and (2) to examine the mechanism of FPF alteration by the mechanofusion process applied on the lactose carrier with or without additive. The inhalation profiles of DPI formulations containing four different pharmaceutical compounds were evaluated with an ACI. The dispersibility of the formulations was observed by particle size distribution measurement in the air stream and the adhesive force was measured bydirect separation method. It was found that higher FPF was obtained with lactose mechanofusion-processed with Mg-St as compared to control lactose carriers for all four compounds. This suggested that mechanofusion process with Mg-St is widely applicable in DPI formulations. The homogenization of surface adhesiveness was attributed to the increased FPF of the DPI including lactose mechanofusion-processed with Mg-St, as suggested by the combination of several physicochemical characteristics. Combination of different characterization methods would be of help to clarify the whole mechanism which defines the inhalation properties of DPI formulations.

  8. The effect of magnesium sulphate infusion on the incidence and severity of emergence agitation in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy using sevoflurane anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Abdulatif, M; Ahmed, A; Mukhtar, A; Badawy, S

    2013-10-01

    This randomised, controlled, double-blind study investigated the effects of intra-operative magnesium sulphate administration on the incidence of emergence agitation in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy using sevoflurane anaesthesia. Seventy children were randomly allocated to receive a 30 mg.kg(-1) bolus of intravenous magnesium sulphate after induction of anaesthesia followed by a continuous infusion of 10 mg.kg(-1).h(-1) or an equal volume of saline 0.9%. All children received titrated sevoflurane anaesthesia adjusted to maintain haemodynamic stability. The Pediatric Anesthesia Emergence Delirium scale and the Children's Hospital of Eastern Ontario Score were used for the assessment of postoperative emergence agitation and pain, respectively. Emergence agitation was more common in the control group than in the magnesium group (23 (72%) and 12 (36%), respectively (p = 0.004)), with a relative risk of 0.51 (95% CI 0.31-0.84), an absolute risk reduction of 0.35 (95% CI 0.10-0.54), and number needed to treat of 3 (95% CI 2-9). Postoperative pain scores were comparable in the two groups. Magnesium sulphate reduces the incidence and severity of emergence agitation in children undergoing adenotonsillectomy using sevoflurane anaesthesia and is not associated with increased postoperative side-effects or delayed recovery.

  9. Introduction of an innovation for the reduction of maternal mortality in Kano State, northern Nigeria: a case study of magnesium sulphate.

    PubMed

    Tukur, J; Ogedengbe, C; Nwanchukwu, E; Araoyinbo, I A; Yakasai, I A; Adaji, S E; Ajala, B

    2011-10-01

    In this project, sponsored by the McArthur Foundation and the Population Council, magnesium sulphate was introduced in February 2007 to 10 general hospitals in Kano State, northern Nigeria. Changes were monitored via data collected at the hospital. At an initial training of the trainers' workshop, 25 master trainers were trained. They then conducted step down trainings and trained 160 clinical providers. Within 12 months, 1045 patients were treated with magnesium sulphate. The attributable deaths from eclampsia fell by 42.4%. The community became aware of an improved outcome for eclampsia. The providers expressed satisfaction with the outcome of the treated patients. Four of the master trainers trained 30 clinical providers from the other 25 general hospitals. Initiatives for the reduction of maternal mortality should be evidence-based.

  10. The Magpie Trial: a randomised trial comparing magnesium sulphate with placebo for pre-eclampsia. Outcome for children at 18 months

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Objective To assess the long-term effects of in utero exposure to magnesium sulphate for children whose mothers had pre-eclampsia. Design Assessment at 18 months of age for children whose mothers were recruited to the Magpie Trial (recruitment 1998–2001 ISRCTN 86938761), which compared magnesium sulphate with placebo. Setting Follow-up of children born at 125 centres in 19 countries across five continents. Population A total of 6922 children were born to women randomised before delivery at follow-up centres. Of these, 2271 were not included for logistic reasons and 168 were excluded (101 at a centre where <20% were contacted, 40 whose death or disability was due to a problem at conception or embryogenesis and 27 whose parent/s opted out). Therefore, 4483 children were included in follow-up, of whom 3283 (73%) were contacted. Methods Assessment by questionnaire, with interview and neurodevelopmental testing of selected children. Main outcome measures Death or neurosensory disability at age of 18 months. Results Of those allocated magnesium sulphate, 245/1635 (15.0%) were dead or had neurosensory disability at 18 months compared with 233/1648 (14.1%) allocated placebo (relative risk [RR] 1.06, 95% CI 0.90–1.25), and of survivors, 19/1409 (1.3%) had neurosensory disability at 18 months compared with 27/1442 (1.9%) (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.40–1.29). There were no substantial differences in causes of death or in the risk of individual impairments or disabilities. Conclusions The lower risk of eclampsia following prophylaxis with magnesium sulphate was not associated with a clear difference in the risk of death or disability for children at 18 months. PMID:17166221

  11. The Magpie Trial: a randomised trial comparing magnesium sulphate with placebo for pre-eclampsia. Outcome for women at 2 years

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess long-term effects for women following the use of magnesium sulphate for pre-eclampsia. Design Assessment at 2–3 years after delivery for women recruited to the Magpie Trial (recruitment in 1998–2001, ISRCTN 86938761), which compared magnesium sulphate with placebo for pre-eclampsia. Setting Follow up after discharge from hospital at 125 centres in 19 countries across five continents. Population A total of 7927 women were randomised at the follow-up centres. Of these women, 2544 were not included for logistic reasons and 601 excluded (109 at a centre where <20% of women were contacted, 466 discharged without a surviving child and 26 opted out). Therefore, 4782 women were selected for follow-up, of whom 3375 (71%) were traced. Methods Questionnaire assessment was administered largely by post or in a dedicated clinic. Interview assessment of selected women was performed. Main outcome measures Death or serious morbidity potentially related to pre-eclampsia at follow up, other morbidity and use of health service resources. Results Median time from delivery to follow up was 26 months (interquartile range 19–36). Fifty-eight of 1650 (3.5%) women allocated magnesium sulphate died or had serious morbidity potentially related to pre-eclampsia compared with 72 of 1725 (4.2%) women allocated placebo (relative risk 0.84, 95% CI 0.60–1.18). Conclusions The reduction in the risk of eclampsia following prophylaxis with magnesium sulphate was not associated with an excess of death or disability for the women after 2 years. PMID:17166220

  12. Pre-Study protocol MagPEP: a multicentre randomized controlled trial of magnesium sulphate in the prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute pancreatitis is the most common complication of diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). In spite of continuing research, no pharmacologic agent capable of effectively reducing the incidence of ERCP-induced pancreatitis has found its way into clinical practise. A number of experimental studies suggest that intrapancreatic calcium concentrations play an important role in the initiation of intracellular protease activation, an initiating step in the course of acute pancreatitis. Magnesium can act as a calcium-antagonist and counteracts effects in calcium signalling. It can thereby attenuate the intracellular activation of proteolytic digestive enzymes in the pancreas and reduces the severity of experimental pancreatitis when administered either intravenously or as a food supplement. Methods We designed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III study to test whether the administration of intravenous magnesium sulphate before and after ERCP reduces the incidence and the severity of post-ERCP pancreatitis. A total of 502 adult patients with a medical indication for ERCP are to be randomized to receive either 4930 mg magnesium sulphate (= 20 mmol magnesium) or placebo 60 min before and 6 hours after ERCP. The incidence of clinical post-ERCP pancreatitis, hyperlipasemia, pain levels, use of analgetics and length of hospital stay will be evaluated. Conclusions If magnesium sulphate is found to be effective in preventing post-ERCP pancreatitis, this inexpensive agent with limited adverse effects could be used as a routine pharmacological prophylaxis. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN46556454 PMID:23320650

  13. Study of Effect of Magnesium Sulphate in Management of Acute Organophosphorous Pesticide Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, H. N.; Kannan, Sudheesh; Tejasvi, C.; Duggappa, Devika Rani; Veeranna Gowda, K. M.; Nethra, S. S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Organophosphorus compound poisoning (OPCP) is a major public health problem in developing countries like India. Atropine and oximes remain the main-stay of management. Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) has shown benefit in the management of OPCP. Aims: This study was designed to assess the effect of MgSO4 on outcome in OPCP patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Settings and Design: Double-blind prospective randomized clinical trial in an ICU of tertiary care institution. Methods: One hundred patients (50 in each group) of OPCP, confirmed by history and syndrome of OPCP with low plasma pseudocholinesterase, aged between 18 and 60 years were studied. Magnesium group (Group M) received 4 g of 20% MgSO4 infusion over 30 min at admission to ICU, control group (Group C) received normal saline placebo in the same manner. Patients were assessed for the need for intubation, requirement of atropine, duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of ICU stay, and its effect on mortality. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test for categorical data, independent sample t-test, and paired t-test for nominal data. Results: Demographics and basal serum magnesium levels were comparable. Atropine requirement was higher in Group C (74.82 ± 22.39 mg) compared to Group M (53.11 ± 45.83 mg) (P < 0.001). A total of 33 patients in Group C and 23 patients in Group M required intubation, respectively (P = 0.043). The mean duration of mechanical ventilation was 4.51 ± 2 days in Group C compared to 4.13 ± 1.6 days in Group M (P = 0.45). ICU stay was 5.36 ± 2.018 days in Group C compared to 4.54 ± 1.581 days in Group M (P = 0.026). There was no significant difference in mortality between the groups. Conclusion: Four grams of MgSO4 given to OPCP patients within 24 h of admission to ICU, decreases atropine requirement, need for intubation, and ICU stay. PMID:28298783

  14. Rhubarb Tannins Extract Inhibits the Expression of Aquaporins 2 and 3 in Magnesium Sulphate-Induced Diarrhoea Model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunfang; Zheng, Yanfang; Xu, Wen; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Tannins, a group of major active components of Chinese rhubarb and widely distributed in nature, have a significant antidiarrhoeal activity. Aquaporins (AQPs) 2 and 3 play important roles in regulating water transfer during diarrhoea. The present study aims to determine the effect of the total tannins extract of rhubarb on aquaporins (AQPs) 2 and 3 in diarrhoea mice and HT-29 cells both induced by magnesium sulphate (MgSO4). Our results showed that rhubarb tannins extract (RTE) significantly decreased the faecal water content in colon and evaluation index of defecation of diarrhoea mice. Interestingly, RTE could markedly reduce the mRNA and protein expression levels of AQPs 2 and 3 in apical and lateral mucosal epithelial cells in the colons of diarrhoea mice and HT-29 cells both induced by MgSO4 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, RTE suppressed the production of cyclic monophosphate- (cAMP-) dependent protein kinase A catalytic subunits α (PKA C-α) and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB, Ser133) in MgSO4-induced HT-29 cells. Our data showed for the first time that RTE inhibit AQPs 2 and 3 expression in vivo and in vitro via downregulating PKA/p-CREB signal pathway, which accounts for the antidiarrhoeal effect of RTE. PMID:25215286

  15. Rhubarb tannins extract inhibits the expression of aquaporins 2 and 3 in magnesium sulphate-induced diarrhoea model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunfang; Zheng, Yanfang; Xu, Wen; Wang, Hui; Lin, Na

    2014-01-01

    Tannins, a group of major active components of Chinese rhubarb and widely distributed in nature, have a significant antidiarrhoeal activity. Aquaporins (AQPs) 2 and 3 play important roles in regulating water transfer during diarrhoea. The present study aims to determine the effect of the total tannins extract of rhubarb on aquaporins (AQPs) 2 and 3 in diarrhoea mice and HT-29 cells both induced by magnesium sulphate (MgSO4). Our results showed that rhubarb tannins extract (RTE) significantly decreased the faecal water content in colon and evaluation index of defecation of diarrhoea mice. Interestingly, RTE could markedly reduce the mRNA and protein expression levels of AQPs 2 and 3 in apical and lateral mucosal epithelial cells in the colons of diarrhoea mice and HT-29 cells both induced by MgSO4 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, RTE suppressed the production of cyclic monophosphate- (cAMP-) dependent protein kinase A catalytic subunits α (PKA C-α) and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB, Ser133) in MgSO4-induced HT-29 cells. Our data showed for the first time that RTE inhibit AQPs 2 and 3 expression in vivo and in vitro via downregulating PKA/p-CREB signal pathway, which accounts for the antidiarrhoeal effect of RTE.

  16. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... place a chemical- soaked rag in their mouth. Abusers may also inhale fumes from a balloon or ... by inhalants usually lasts just a few minutes, abusers often try to prolong it by continuing to ...

  17. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Facts Chat Day: Inhalants Drug Facts Chat Day: Inhalants Print Can you get high off of ... Cool Order Free Materials National Drugs & Alcohol Chat Day Newsletter Sign up to receive National Drug & Alcohol ...

  18. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... Notes Articles Adolescent Cigarette, Alcohol Use Declines as Marijuana Use Rises ( February 2013 ) Program Helps Troubled Boys ...

  19. The influence of carrier roughness on adhesion, content uniformity and the in vitro deposition of terbutaline sulphate from dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Flament, Marie-Pierre; Leterme, Pierre; Gayot, Anne

    2004-05-04

    The aim of this study was to establish a correlation between carrier characteristics and the dispersibility of drug from the blend. The influence of the roughness of a commonly used carrier material, lactose monohydrate, on the adhesion, dose uniformity, and aerodynamic properties of a model drug, terbutaline sulphate was investigated. Evaluation of adhesion was carried out with a mechanical sieve and an Alpine air-jet sieve. For the characterisation of lactose roughness, we used image analysis software. Aerodynamic evaluation of fine particle dose and emitted dose was obtained using a twin stage impinger. The study with the mechanical sieve demonstrated that at least 60% of drug adheres to lactose. The Alpine air-jet sieve assays showed there was a correlation between drug separation from a carrier by sieving and that obtained from longer in vitro deposition studies. Adhesion, blend homogeneity and stability are related to the surface roughness of the lactose used as carrier. There is a linear relationship between the parameters "fine particle fraction" and "roughness". A compromise between homogeneity and drug liberation must be found: a certain roughness is necessary to allow for drug adhesion and blend homogeneity, but if too high it will prevent drug liberation after inhalation.

  20. A comparison of intraperitoneal bupivacaine-tramadol with bupivacaine-magnesium sulphate for pain relief after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A prospective, randomised study

    PubMed Central

    Yadava, Anurag; Rajput, Sunil K; Katiyar, Sarika; Jain, Rajnish K

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: In laparoscopic surgeries, intraperitoneal instillation of local anaesthetics and opioids is gaining popularity, for better pain relief. This study compared the quality and duration of post-operative analgesia using intraperitoneal tramadol plus bupivacaine (TB) or magnesium plus bupivacaine (MB). Methods: In this study, 186 patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomly divided into two groups: group TB received intraperitoneal tramadol with bupivacaine and group MB received intraperitoneal magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) with bupivacaine. The visual analogue scale (VAS) to assess pain, haemodynamic variables and side effects were noted and compared at different time points. The primary outcome was to compare the analgesic efficacy and duration of pain relief. The secondary outcomes included comparison of haemodynamic parameters and side effects among the two groups. The data analysis was carried out with unpaired Student's t-test and Chi-square test using software SPSS 20.0 version. Results: The mean of VAS pain score after 1, 2, 4, 6 and 24 h of surgery was more in TB group compared to MB group, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The total rescue analgesia consumption in 24 h after surgery was 2.4 g (mean) of paracetamol in TB group and 1.4 g (mean) of paracetamol in MB group which was statistically significant (P < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in the secondary outcomes. Conclusion: Intraperitoneal instillation of bupivacaine-MgSO4 renders patients relatively pain-free in first 24 h after surgery, with longer duration of pain-free period and less consumption of rescue analgesic as compared to bupivacaine-tramadol combination. PMID:27761040

  1. Efficacy and safety of ipratropium bromide/salbutamol sulphate administered in a hydrofluoroalkane metered-dose inhaler for the treatment of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Amal; Bhargava, Salil; Singh, Virendra; Talwar, Deepak; Whig, Jagdeep; Rebello, Juliet; Purandare, Shrinivas; Gogtay, Jaideep

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) has contributed to the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer resulting in serious health concerns. Ipratropium bromide/salbutamol sulphate CFC-pressurized metered-dose inhalers (IB/SAL-CFC pMDI) have been in widespread use for many years without any apparent ill consequences. This combination has now been reformulated using the hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) propellant. This study sought to establish the clinical noninferiority of a new HFA-containing IB/SAL pMDI to the conventional IB/SAL-CFC pMDI in subjects with mild/moderate COPD. Methods This was a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter study in two consecutive periods: a 14-day run-in period followed by a 85-day treatment period. Eligible mild-to-moderate stable COPD subjects aged 40−75 years were enrolled into the study and entered the run-in period during which subjects withdrew all the bronchodilators, except for salbutamol as rescue medication. Subjects were randomized to 85 days treatment with either IB/SAL-HFA or IB/SAL-CFC, 20 μg qid. Results Of the 290 randomized patients, 249 completed the study. The primary efficacy variable was the change in forced expiratory volume in one second from predose to 60 minutes after dosing on day 85. At the end of the treatment period, the adjusted mean change in forced expiratory volume in one second at 60 minutes was 123 mL in the IB/SAL-HFA pMDI group and 115 mL in the IB/SAL-CFC pMDI group. Because the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval for the between-group difference (−62 mL) was well within the noninferiority margin (−100 mL), the HFA formulation was deemed clinically noninferior to the CFC formulation. This finding was supported by secondary efficacy assessments. Both formulations of IB/SAL were well tolerated during the prolonged multiple dosing. Conclusion It is concluded that IB/SAL-HFA pMDI provides effective bronchodilation of similar degree to that achieved with IB/SAL-CFC p

  2. Molecular and phenetic characterization of the bacterial assemblage of Hot Lake, WA, an environment with high concentrations of magnesium sulphate, and its relevance to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilmer, Brian R.; Eberl, Timothy C.; Cunderla, Brent; Chen, Fei; Clark, Benton C.; Schneegurt, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Hot Lake (Oroville, WA) is an athalassohaline epsomite lake that can have precipitating concentrations of MgSO4 salts, mainly epsomite. Little biotic study has been done on epsomite lakes and it was unclear whether microbes isolated from epsomite lakes and their margins would fall within recognized halotolerant genera, common soil genera or novel phyla. Our initial study cultivated and characterized epsotolerant bacteria from the lake and its margins. Approximately 100 aerobic heterotrophic microbial isolates were obtained by repetitive streak-plating in high-salt media including either 10% NaCl or 2 M MgSO4. The collected isolates were all bacteria, nearly evenly divided between Gram-positive and Gram-negative clades, the most abundant genera being Halomonas, Idiomarina, Marinobacter, Marinococcus, Nesterenkonia, Nocardiopsis and Planococcus. Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Exiguobacterium, Kocuria and Staphylococcus also were cultured. This initial study included culture-independent community analysis of direct DNA extracts of lake margin soil using PCR-based clone libraries and 16S rRNA gene phylogeny. Clones assigned to Gram-positive bacterial clades (70% of total clones) were dominated by sequences related to uncultured actinobacteria. There were abundant Deltaproteobacteria clones related to bacterial sulphur metabolisms and clones of Legionella and Coxiella. These epsomite lake microbial communities seem to be divided between bacteria primarily associated with hyperhaline environments rich in NaCl and salinotolerant relatives of common soil organisms. Archaea appear to be in low abundance and none were isolated, despite near-saturated salinities. Growth of microbes at very high concentrations of magnesium and other sulphates has relevance to planetary protection and life-detection missions to Mars, where scant liquid water may form as deliquescent brines and appear as eutectic liquids.

  3. Rapid interrogation of the physical and chemical characteristics of salbutamol sulphate aerosol from a pressurised metered-dose inhaler (pMDI).

    PubMed

    Tong, H-J; Fitzgerald, C; Gallimore, P J; Kalberer, M; Kuimova, M K; Seville, P C; Ward, A D; Pope, F D

    2014-12-21

    Individual micron-sized solid particles from a Salamol® pharmaceutical inhaler are stably captured in air using an optical trap for the first time. Raman spectroscopy of the levitated particles allows online interrogation of composition and deliquescent phase change within a high humidity environment that mimics the particle's travel from inhaler to lung.

  4. A dose-finding randomised controlled trial of magnesium sulphate as an adjuvant in ultrasound-guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Versha; Rana, Shelly; Chaudhary, Sudarshan Kumar; Singh, Jai; Verma, Ravinder Kumar; Sood, Saloni

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aim: Magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) has been used as an adjuvant in brachial plexus block with encouraging results; however, there is no consensus regarding its optimal dose. Thereby, we compared the efficacy of two doses of MgSO4 as an adjuvant in ultrasound (USG) guided supraclavicular brachial plexus block. Methods: Ninety patients, aged 20–60 years, belonging to American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1 or 2, were given USG-guided supraclavicular block. Group B (n = 30) received 20 ml of 0.5%bupivacaine + 5 ml normal saline (NS), Group BM0.5(n = 30) received 20 ml of 0.5%bupivacaine + 3.75 ml NS and 125 mg MgSO4 (1.25 ml) and Group BM1(n = 30) received 20 ml of 0.5%bupivacaine + 2.5 ml NS and 250 mg MgSO4 (2.5 ml). The primary outcome of study was the duration of post-operative analgesia. The normally distributed data were analysed using analysis of variance and categorical data analysed using Chi-square test. Results: Duration of post-operative analgesia was prolonged in Groups BM1 and BM0.5 (665.13 ± 97.874, 475.10 ± 53.294) min respectively as compared to Group B (272.03 ± 40.404 min: P = 0.00). The onset times of sensory and motor block were shorter in Group BM1 (5.17 ± 2.2 min) as compared to Groups BM0.5 and B (8.9 ± 2.3 and 17.7 ± 5.1 min: P = 0.00) respectively. Sensory and motor block durations were prolonged in Group BM1 as compared to BM0.5 and B (P = 0.00). Conclusions: MgSO4 as adjuvant in brachial plexus block increases the duration of post-operative analgesia. MgSO4 in the dose of 250mg has greater efficacy as compared to 125 mg.

  5. Reduced toxicological activity of cigarette smoke by the addition of ammonia magnesium phosphate to the paper of an electrically heated cigarette: subchronic inhalation toxicology.

    PubMed

    Moennikes, O; Vanscheeuwijck, P M; Friedrichs, B; Anskeit, E; Patskan, G J

    2008-05-01

    Cigarette smoke is a complex chemical mixture that causes a variety of diseases, such as lung cancer. With the electrically heated cigarette smoking system (EHCSS), temperatures are applied to the tobacco below those found in conventional cigarettes, resulting in less combustion, reduced yields of some smoke constituents, and decreased activity in some standard toxicological tests. The first generation of electrically heated cigarettes (EHC) also resulted in increased formaldehyde yields; therefore, a second generation of EHC was developed with ammonium magnesium phosphate (AMP) in the cigarette paper in part to address this increase. The toxicological activity of mainstream smoke from these two generations of EHC and of a conventional reference cigarette was investigated in two studies in rats: a standard 90-day inhalation toxicity study and a 35-day inhalation study focusing on lung inflammation. Many of the typical smoke exposure-related changes were found to be less pronounced after exposure to smoke from the second-generation EHC with AMP than to smoke from the first-generation EHC or the conventional reference cigarette, when compared on a particulate matter or nicotine basis. Differences between the EHC without AMP and the conventional reference cigarette were not as prominent. Overall, AMP incorporated in the EHC cigarette paper reduced the inhalation toxicity of the EHCSS more than expected based on the observed reduction in aldehyde yields.

  6. A comparison of magnesium sulphate and sildenafil in the treatment of the newborns with persistent pulmonary hypertension: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Uslu, Sinan; Kumtepe, Soner; Bulbul, Ali; Comert, Serdar; Bolat, Fatih; Nuhoglu, Asiye

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this prospective, randomized and controlled study was to compare the clinical efficacy of intravenous magnesium sulfate (MgSO₄) and oral sildenafil therapies with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. A total of 34 infants in the MgSO₄ group and 31 infants in the sildenafil group completed the study. The time to reach the adequate clinical response [defined as oxygen index (OI) level of <15, a pulmonary artery pressure of < 20 mmHg) was significantly shorter in the sildenafil group (p = 0.002). Duration of mechanical ventilation was longer and the number of the patients requiring inotropic support was higher in the MgSO₄ group (p = 0.001 and p = 0.002, respectively). Although among two groups the difference in OI > 5 as speculated in our hypothesis could only be found at 36 h of the treatment, sildenafil was more effective than MgSO₄ in the treatment of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborns with regard to time to adequate clinical response, duration of mechanical ventilation and support requirement with inotropic agents.

  7. The in vivo cardiovascular effects of box jellyfish Chironex fleckeri venom in rats: efficacy of pre-treatment with antivenom, verapamil and magnesium sulphate.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Sharmaine; Isbister, Geoffrey K; Seymour, Jamie E; Hodgson, Wayne C

    2004-05-01

    Using a new technique to extract venom from the nematocysts, the efficacy of CSL box jellyfish antivenom (AV) and adjunct therapies, verapamil and magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)), were investigated against the in vivo cardiovascular effects of Chironex fleckeri venom in anaesthetised rats. C. fleckeri venom (30 microg/kg; i.v.) produced a transient hypertensive response followed by hypotension and cardiovascular collapse within 4 min of administration. Prophylactic treatment of anaesthetised rats with CSL box jellyfish AV (3000 U/kg; i.v.) did not have any effect on the venom-induced pressor response, but prevented cardiovascular collapse in four out of 10 animals. Administration of verapamil (20mM@0.25 ml/min; i.v.) either alone or in combination with AV, did not have any effect on the C. fleckeri venom-induced pressor response nor the consequent hypotension or cardiovascular collapse of animals. However, the administration of verapamil negated the partially protective effects of AV. Concurrent artificial respiration of animals with the above treatments did not attenuate the C. fleckeri venom-induced cardiovascular effects. MgSO(4) (0.05-0.07M@0.25 ml/min; i.v.) alone did not have any effect on the venom-induced pressor response nor the consequent cardiovascular collapse of animals. However, although combined AV and MgSO(4) administration could not inhibit the transient pressor effect following the administration of C. fleckeri venom, it prevented cardiovascular collapse in all animals. We show for the first time, the cardiovascular effects of a C. fleckeri venom sample free of tentacular contamination and the potential of MgSO(4) as an adjunct therapy for the treatment of potentially fatal C. fleckeri envenomings.

  8. Calcium sulphate in ammonium sulphate solution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, E.C.

    1905-01-01

    Calcium sulphate, at 25?? C., is two-thirds as soluble in dilute (o.i mol per liter) and twice as soluble in concentrated (3 mois per liter) ammonium sulphate solution as in water. The specific electric conductivity of concentrated ammonium sulphate solutions is lessened by saturating with calcium sulphate. Assuming that dissociation of ammonium sulphate takes place into 2NH4?? and SO4" and of calcium sulphate into Ca and SO4" only, and that the conductivity is a measure of such dissociation, the solubility of calcium sulphate in dilute ammonium sulphate solutions is greater than required by the mass-law. The conductivity of the dilute mixtures may be accurately calculated by means of Arrhenius' principle of isohydric solutions. In the data obtained in these calculations, the concentration of non-dissociated calcium sulphate decreases with increasing ammonium sulphate. The work as a whole is additional evidence of the fact that we are not yet in possession of all the factors necessary for reconciling the mass-law to the behavior of electrolytes. The measurements above described were made in the chemical laboratory of the University of Michigan.

  9. Inhaled Steroids

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medications Long-Term Control Medications Inhaled Steroids Inhaled Steroids Make an Appointment Ask a Question Refer Patient ... more about steroids? What are some common inhaled steroids? Common inhaled steroids include: Asmanex ® (mometasone) Alvesco ® (ciclesonide) ...

  10. Sulphate in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Paul A; Elliott, Aoife; Bowling, Francis G

    2015-03-04

    Sulphate is an obligate nutrient for healthy growth and development. Sulphate conjugation (sulphonation) of proteoglycans maintains the structure and function of tissues. Sulphonation also regulates the bioactivity of steroids, thyroid hormone, bile acids, catecholamines and cholecystokinin, and detoxifies certain xenobiotics and pharmacological drugs. In adults and children, sulphate is obtained from the diet and from the intracellular metabolism of sulphur-containing amino acids. Dietary sulphate intake can vary greatly and is dependent on the type of food consumed and source of drinking water. Once ingested, sulphate is absorbed into circulation where its level is maintained at approximately 300 μmol/L, making sulphate the fourth most abundant anion in plasma. In pregnant women, circulating sulphate concentrations increase by twofold with levels peaking in late gestation. This increased sulphataemia, which is mediated by up-regulation of sulphate reabsorption in the maternal kidneys, provides a reservoir of sulphate to meet the gestational needs of the developing foetus. The foetus has negligible capacity to generate sulphate and thereby, is completely reliant on sulphate supply from the maternal circulation. Maternal hyposulphataemia leads to foetal sulphate deficiency and late gestational foetal death in mice. In humans, reduced sulphonation capacity has been linked to skeletal dysplasias, ranging from the mildest form, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, to achondrogenesis Type IB, which results in severe skeletal underdevelopment and death in utero or shortly after birth. Despite being essential for numerous cellular and metabolic functions, the nutrient sulphate is largely unappreciated in clinical settings. This article will review the physiological roles and regulation of sulphate during pregnancy, with a particular focus on animal models of disturbed sulphate homeostasis and links to human pathophysiology.

  11. Sulphate in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Paul A.; Elliott, Aoife; Bowling, Francis G.

    2015-01-01

    Sulphate is an obligate nutrient for healthy growth and development. Sulphate conjugation (sulphonation) of proteoglycans maintains the structure and function of tissues. Sulphonation also regulates the bioactivity of steroids, thyroid hormone, bile acids, catecholamines and cholecystokinin, and detoxifies certain xenobiotics and pharmacological drugs. In adults and children, sulphate is obtained from the diet and from the intracellular metabolism of sulphur-containing amino acids. Dietary sulphate intake can vary greatly and is dependent on the type of food consumed and source of drinking water. Once ingested, sulphate is absorbed into circulation where its level is maintained at approximately 300 μmol/L, making sulphate the fourth most abundant anion in plasma. In pregnant women, circulating sulphate concentrations increase by twofold with levels peaking in late gestation. This increased sulphataemia, which is mediated by up-regulation of sulphate reabsorption in the maternal kidneys, provides a reservoir of sulphate to meet the gestational needs of the developing foetus. The foetus has negligible capacity to generate sulphate and thereby, is completely reliant on sulphate supply from the maternal circulation. Maternal hyposulphataemia leads to foetal sulphate deficiency and late gestational foetal death in mice. In humans, reduced sulphonation capacity has been linked to skeletal dysplasias, ranging from the mildest form, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, to achondrogenesis Type IB, which results in severe skeletal underdevelopment and death in utero or shortly after birth. Despite being essential for numerous cellular and metabolic functions, the nutrient sulphate is largely unappreciated in clinical settings. This article will review the physiological roles and regulation of sulphate during pregnancy, with a particular focus on animal models of disturbed sulphate homeostasis and links to human pathophysiology. PMID:25746011

  12. Inhalation Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... you can inhale that can cause acute internal injuries. Particles in the air from fires and toxic ... and lung diseases worse. Symptoms of acute inhalation injuries may include Coughing and phlegm A scratchy throat ...

  13. Asthma Inhalers

    MedlinePlus

    ... an inhaler into the lungs. But CFCs are ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) that hurt the environment. Manufacturers ... inhalers, that do not rob the atmosphere of ozone. “The FDA [Food and Drug Administration] and various ...

  14. Inhalant Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Who may be abusing inhalants?The most common abusers of inhalants are teenagers, especially those who are ... to your child about the dangers of trying drugs can help him or her make the right ...

  15. Mechanisms involved in the antiplatelet activity of magnesium in human platelets.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Joen-Rong; Hsiao, George; Shen, Ming-Yi; Fong, Tsorng-Harn; Chen, Yi-Win; Lin, Chien-Huang; Chou, Duen-Suey

    2002-12-01

    In this study, magnesium sulphate dose-dependently (0.6-3.0 mmol/l) inhibited platelet aggregation in human platelets stimulated by agonists. Furthermore, magnesium sulphate (3.0 mmol/l) markedly interfered with the binding of fluorescein isothiocanate-triflavin to the glycoprotein (GP)IIb/IIIa complex in platelets stimulated by collagen. Magnesium sulphate (1.5 and 3.0 mmol/l) also inhibited phosphoinositide breakdown and intracellular Ca+2 mobilization in human platelets stimulated by collagen. Magnesium sulphate (3.0 mmol/l) significantly inhibited thromboxane A2 formation stimulated by collagen in platelets. Moreover, magnesium sulphate (1.5 and 3.0 mmol/l) obviously increased the fluorescence of platelet membranes tagged with diphenylhexatriene. In addition, magnesium sulphate (1.5 and 3.0 mmol/l) increased the formation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP) in platelets. Phosphorylation of a protein of Mr 47 000 (P47) was markedly inhibited by magnesium sulphate (1.5 mmol/l). In conclusion, the antiplatelet activity of magnesium sulphate may involve the following two pathways. (1) Magnesium sulphate may initially induce membrane fluidity changes with resulting interference of fibrinogen binding to the GPIIb/IIIa complex, followed by inhibition of phosphoinositide breakdown and thromboxane A2 formation, thereby leading to inhibition of both intracellular Ca2+ mobilization and phosphorylation of P47. (2) Magnesium sulphate might also trigger the formation of cyclic AM, ultimately resulting in inhibition of the phosphorylation of P47 and intracellular Ca+2 mobilization.

  16. Substance use - inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    Substance abuse - inhalants; Drug abuse - inhalants; Drug use - inhalants; Glue - inhalants ... symptoms and may include: Strong cravings for the drug Having mood swings from feeling depressed to agitated ...

  17. Magnesium basics

    PubMed Central

    Ketteler, Markus

    2012-01-01

    As a cofactor in numerous enzymatic reactions, magnesium fulfils various intracellular physiological functions. Thus, imbalance in magnesium status—primarily hypomagnesaemia as it is seen more often than hypermagnesaemia—might result in unwanted neuromuscular, cardiac or nervous disorders. Measuring total serum magnesium is a feasible and affordable way to monitor changes in magnesium status, although it does not necessarily reflect total body magnesium content. The following review focuses on the natural occurrence of magnesium and its physiological function. The absorption and excretion of magnesium as well as hypo- and hypermagnesaemia will be addressed. PMID:26069819

  18. Role of sulphate in development.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Paul Anthony

    2013-09-01

    Sulphate contributes to numerous processes in mammalian physiology, particularly during development. Sulphotransferases mediate the sulphate conjugation (sulphonation) of numerous compounds, including steroids, glycosaminoglycans, proteins, neurotransmitters and xenobiotics, transforming their biological activities. Importantly, the ratio of sulphonated to unconjugated molecules plays a significant physiological role in many of the molecular events that regulate mammalian growth and development. In humans, the fetus is unable to generate its own sulphate and therefore relies on sulphate being supplied from maternal circulation via the placenta. To meet the gestational needs of the growing fetus, maternal blood sulphate concentrations double from mid-gestation. Maternal hyposulphataemia has been linked to fetal sulphate deficiency and late gestational fetal loss in mice. Disorders of sulphonation have also been linked to a number of developmental disorders in humans, including skeletal dysplasias and premature adrenarche. While recognised as an important nutrient in mammalian physiology, sulphate is largely unappreciated in clinical settings. In part, this may be due to technical challenges in measuring sulphate with standard pathology equipment and hence the limited findings of perturbed sulphate homoeostasis affecting human health. This review article is aimed at highlighting the importance of sulphate in mammalian development, with basic science research being translated through animal models and linkage to human disorders.

  19. Magnesium and magnesium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Avedesian, M.; Baker, H.

    1998-12-31

    This new handbook is the most comprehensive publication of engineering information on commercial magnesium alloys under one cover in the last sixty years. Prepared with the cooperation of the International Magnesium Association, it presents the industrial practices currently used throughout the world, as well as the properties of the products critical to their proper application. Contents include: general characteristics; physical metallurgy; melting, refining, alloying, recycling, and powder production; casting; heat treatment; forging, rolling, and extrusion; semisolid processing; forming; joining; cleaning and finishing; selection, application, and properties of grades and alloys; design considerations; mechanical behavior and wear resistance; fatigue and fracture-mechanics; high-temperature strength and creep; corrosion and stress-corrosion cracking; specification.

  20. Ciclesonide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... ciclesonide inhaler while you are near an open flame or a heat source. The inhaler may explode ... inhaler near a heat source or an open flame. Protect the inhaler from freezing and direct sunlight. ...

  1. Fluticasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... aerosol inhaler while you are near an open flame or a heat source. The inhaler may explode ... inhaler near a heat source or an open flame. Protect the inhaler from freezing and direct sunlight. ...

  2. Flunisolide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... flunisolide inhaler while you are near an open flame or a heat source. The inhaler may explode ... inhaler near a heat source or an open flame. Protect the inhaler from freezing and direct sunlight. ...

  3. Inhalation Injury.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    alpha,-antitrypsin resulting cur most often as the result of tracheal in prolonged action of proteases such as or laryngeal damage from the endotra... curs is determined by physicochemical Turbulent airflow, such as at bifurca- properties of the inhaled substance, its tions of the airway, separates

  4. Micronized Organic Magnesium Salts Enhance Opioid Analgesia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bujalska-Zadrożny, Magdalena; Kulik, Kamila; Ordak, Michał; Sasinowska-Motyl, Małgorzata; Gąsińska, Emilia; de Corde, Anna; Kowalczyk, Agnieszka; Sacharczuk, Mariusz; Naruszewicz, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Purpose As previously reported, magnesium sulphate administered parenterally significantly increased an opioid antinociception in different kinds of pain. Since the typical form of magnesium salts are poorly and slowly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract we examined whether their micronized form could increase opioids induced antinociception. Methods In behavioural studies on rats morphine, tramadol and oxycodone together with magnesium (lactate dihydrate, hydroaspartate, chloride) in micronized (particles of size D90 < 50 μm) and conventional forms were used. Changes in pain thresholds were determined using mechanical stimuli. The intestinal absorption of two forms of magnesium lactate dihydrate (at the doses of 7.5 or 15 mg ions) in the porcine gut sac model were also compared. Results Micronized form of magnesium lactate dihydrate or hydroaspartate but not chloride (15 mg of magnesium ions kg-1) enhanced the analgesic activity of orally administered opioids, significantly faster and more effective in comparison to the conventional form of magnesium salts (about 40% for oxycodone administered together with a micronized form of magnesium hydroaspartate). Moreover, in vitro studies of transport across porcine intestines of magnesium ions showed that magnesium salts administered in micronized form were absorbed from the intestines to a greater extent than the normal form of magnesium salts. Conclusions The co-administration of micronized magnesium organic salts with opioids increased their synergetic analgesic effect. This may suggest an innovative approach to the treatment of pain in clinical practice. PMID:27792736

  5. Sulphate absorption across biological membranes.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2016-01-01

    1. Sulphonation is unusual amongst the common Phase II (condensation; synthetic) reactions experienced by xenobiotics, in that the availability of the conjugating agent, sulphate, may become a rate-limiting factor. This sulphate is derived within the body via the oxygenation of sulphur moieties liberated from numerous ingested compounds including the sulphur-containing amino acids. Preformed inorganic sulphate also makes a considerable contribution to this pool. 2. There has been a divergence of opinion as to whether or not inorganic sulphate may be readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and this controversy still continues in some quarters. Even more so, is the vexing question of potential absorption of inorganic sulphate via the lungs and through the skin. 3. This review examines the relevant diverse literature and concludes that sulphate ions may move across biological membranes by means of specific transporters and, although the gastrointestinal tract is by far the major portal of entry, some absorption across the lungs and the skin may take place under appropriate circumstances.

  6. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 54 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2010. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

  7. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 40 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2009. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover, and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

  8. Levalbuterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Levalbuterol comes as a solution (liquid) to inhale by mouth using a nebulizer (machine that turns medication into a mist that can be inhaled), a concentrated solution to be mixed with normal saline and inhaled ...

  9. Production of magnesium metal

    DOEpatents

    Blencoe, James G [Harriman, TN; Anovitz, Lawrence M [Knoxville, TN; Palmer, Donald A [Oliver Springs, TN; Beard, James S [Martinsville, VA

    2010-02-23

    A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention further relates to a process for production of magnesium metal or a magnesium compound where an external source of carbon dioxide is not used in any of the reactions of the process. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

  10. Production of magnesium metal

    DOEpatents

    Blencoe, James G [Harriman, TN; Anovitz, Lawrence M [Knoxville, TN; Palmer, Donald A [Oliver Springs, TN; Beard, James S [Martinsville, VA

    2012-04-10

    A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

  11. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

  12. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60% of US magnesium compounds production in 2001. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater in Florida by Premier Chemicals. They were also recovered from Michigan well brines by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And Premier Chemicals recovered dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias from magnesite in Nevada. Reilly Industries and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah.

  13. Magnesium Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... too much. Deficiencies are typically seen with: Low dietary intake (seen in the elderly, malnourished , and with alcoholism ) Gastrointestinal disorders (such as Crohn's disease) Uncontrolled ... blood levels of magnesium are rarely due to dietary sources but are usually the result of an ...

  14. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties, and Rohm & Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Reilly Industries and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah.

  15. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 52 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2006. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from sea-water by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from brucite by Applied Chemical Magnesias in Texas, from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas from their operations mentioned above. About 59 percent of the magnesium compounds consumed in the United States was used for refractories that are used mainly to line steelmaking furnaces. The remaining 41 percent was consumed in agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental and industrial applications.

  16. Inhalation Therapy in Horses.

    PubMed

    Cha, Mandy L; Costa, Lais R R

    2017-04-01

    This article discusses the benefits and limitations of inhalation therapy in horses. Inhalation drug therapy delivers the drug directly to the airways, thereby achieving maximal drug concentrations at the target site. Inhalation therapy has the additional advantage of decreasing systemic side effects. Inhalation therapy in horses is delivered by the use of nebulizers or pressured metered dose inhalers. It also requires the use of a muzzle or nasal mask in horses. Drugs most commonly delivered through inhalation drug therapy in horses include bronchodilators, antiinflammatories, and antimicrobials.

  17. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production during 2002. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida. They were also recovered from well brines in Michigan by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And they were recovered from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals.

  18. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, seawater and natural brines accounted for 51% of US magnesium compounds production. World magnesia production was estimated to be 14.5 Mt. Most of the production came from China, North Korea, Russia and Turkey. Although no specific production figures are available, Japan and the United States are estimated to account for almost one-half of the world's capacity from seawater and brines.

  19. Formoterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... until you are ready to inhale your dose. Pull off the inhaler cover and twist the mouthpiece open in the direction shown by the arrow on the mouthpiece. Push the buttons on each side to be sure ...

  20. Albuterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Albuterol is used to prevent and treat difficulty breathing, wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and chest tightness ... for oral inhalation is also used to prevent breathing difficulties during exercise. Albuterol inhalation aerosol (Proair HFA, ...

  1. Magnesium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... sources of magnesium: Fruits or vegetables (such as bananas, dried apricots, and avocados) Nuts (such as almonds ... Supplements, National Institutes of Health. Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Magnesium . ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Magnesium-Consumer . ...

  2. Low magnesium level

    MedlinePlus

    Low magnesium level is a condition in which the amount of magnesium in the blood is lower than normal. The medical ... that convert or use energy ( metabolism ). When the level of magnesium in the body drops below normal, ...

  3. Smoke inhalation injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birky, M.

    The cause of death by fires was studied. The present results and information are, however, not enough to reduce loss of life or inhalation injury. The magnitude and type of inhalation injury for civilians and firefighters represents the most inadequately defined human element of accidental fires. Little information is available on compounds other than carbon monoxide, which are responsible for respiration injury or toxicological syndrome. Effective treatment methods for inhalation victims and studies on fatalities, inhalation injury and animals are suggested.

  4. Focus on Inhalants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Challenge: Safe, Disciplines, and Drug-Free Schools, 1994

    1994-01-01

    The use of inhalants is a major health concern among the school-age population. Information presented in this publication dispels the myths about inhalant use and presents common warning signs that alert teachers to a student's use. The short- and long-term effects of inhalant use are described to shed light on the health risks involved. Lesson…

  5. Sulphate efflorescences at the geyser near Pinchollo, southern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciesielczuk, Justyna; Żaba, Jerzy; Bzowska, Grażyna; Gaidzik, Krzysztof; Głogowska, Magdalena

    2013-03-01

    Sulphate mineralization precipitated around a geyser located above the village of Pinchollo, Chivay district and below Hualca Hualca volcano (6025 m a.s.l.) in the Western Cordillera of southern Peru is described. The geyser is one of many manifestations of thermal activity in the Arequipa department. Its age is estimated to be Upper Pleistocene-Holocene, as the discharge point lies at the intersection of a fault system with latitudinal dip-slip fault cutting a volcanic-debris avalanche of probably Pleistocene age. Thermal waters present in the Chivay district are mainly chloride-rich with a neutral pH. They are rich in Li, Sr, and B. The water erupting in the geyser boils at about 85 °C, as it lies at some 4353 m a.s.l. The minerals examined, of various habits and various yellow, orange and white colours were precipitated on the soil and on plants close to the geyser (location 1), on the walls of a 1 m diameter pothole filled with boiling water (location 1a) and at a distance of some 100 m to the west of the geyser (location 2). All are sulphates. Their chemical composition is fairly simple, consisting of Al, Fe, K, Mg, Ca, S, NH4 and O, and all display chemical zoning. But the phase composition is more complex. In all locations, alunogene, copiapite, coquimbite, tschermigite and gypsum are present. Close to the geyser (location 1) magnesium-containing sulphates, namely, boussingaultite and pickeringite also occur. Iron sulphates such as mohrite and rozenite precipitate on the walls of the pothole (location 1a). Sulphates containing potassium such as jarosite, alunite and voltaite-voltaite (Mg) dominate among the efflorescences in location 2, where hematite was also noted. Any quartz and kaolinite or illite/mica admixture identified in some samples derives from adjacent soil. The present geothermal system does not involve the deposition of precious-metal deposits such as those associated with an earlier deep-going epithermal system that scavenged a large volume

  6. 7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood... in the sulphate process of cooking wood pulp, and commonly known as sulphate turpentine or...

  7. 7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood... in the sulphate process of cooking wood pulp, and commonly known as sulphate turpentine or...

  8. 7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood... in the sulphate process of cooking wood pulp, and commonly known as sulphate turpentine or...

  9. 7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood... in the sulphate process of cooking wood pulp, and commonly known as sulphate turpentine or...

  10. 7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood... in the sulphate process of cooking wood pulp, and commonly known as sulphate turpentine or...

  11. Murine T lymphocytes and T-lymphoma cells produce chondroitin sulphate and heparan sulphate proteoglycans and free heparan sulphate glycosaminoglycan.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, A P; Rider, C C

    1991-01-01

    Normal murine splenic T lymphocytes and T-lymphoma cells were incubated with [35S]sulphate in low-sulphate medium for 4 hr. Gel filtration and SDS-PAGE revealed that the radiolabelled macromolecules secreted by these cells were almost exclusively chondroitin sulphate and heparan sulphate proteoglycans of relatively low molecular weight (MW), 100,000-200,000. Triton X-100 extracts of the cells contained similar proteoglycans. Under the conditions employed the incorporation of radiolabel by cells grown in vivo was equally distributed between cell-retained and secreted fractions, whereas cells grown in vitro retained some 75% of incorporated label. In general heparan sulphate predominated over chondroitin sulphate in both secreted and cell-retained fractions. Cell extracts also contained a minor proportion of free glycosaminoglycan, which is almost exclusively heparan sulphate. These chains, like those incorporated into the proteoglycan, were around 12,000 MW. The T-lymphoma cells RDM-4, whether grown in vitro or in vivo, also incorporated a substantial proportion of [35S]sulphate into a single, cell-retained protein, 100,000 MW. No such radiolabelled protein was detectable in T cells. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:1900056

  12. Thermal properties of lithium sulphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suleiman, B. M.; Gustavsson, M.; Karawacki, E.; Lundén, A.

    1997-09-01

    The thermal conductivity and diffusivity of lithium sulphate have been measured simultaneously, using the transient plane source technique over the temperature range 300 - 900 K. The thermal conductivity decreases slowly up to about 640 K, whereupon a distinct rise occurs, indicating the onset of a pre-transitional behaviour, which causes a continuous growth of the conductivity up to the structural phase transition at 851 K, whereupon a very sharp increase occurs. A similar behaviour has been observed for the thermal diffusivity, for which a very sharp dip occurs at the transition point due to the exceptionally large transition enthalpy. The pre-transitional behaviour of heat transport is associated with the librational disorder of the sulphate anions known from Raman scattering studies of both phases (and neutron scattering from the cubic phase), whereas the translational disorder of lithium cations is of hardly any importance. It is thus possible to link the `paddle-wheel' concept of ion migration in the cubic phase to the enhancement of heat transport observed in the `pre-transition' region, as well as to the large difference in heat-transport rates between the monoclinic and cubic phases.

  13. [Inhaled therapy in asthma].

    PubMed

    Plaza Moral, Vicente; Giner Donaire, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Because of its advantages, inhaled administration of aerosolized drugs is the administration route of choice for the treatment of asthma and COPD. Numerous technological advances in the devices used in inhaled therapy in recent decades have boosted the appearance of multiple inhalers and aerosolized drugs. However, this variety also requires that the prescribing physician is aware of their characteristics. The main objective of the present review is to summarize the current state of knowledge on inhalers and inhaled drugs commonly used in the treatment of asthma. The review ranges from theoretical aspects (fundamentals and available devices and drugs) to practical and relevant aspects for asthma care in the clinical setting (therapeutic strategies, education, and adherence to inhalers).

  14. Sulphates Removal from Acid Mine Drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luptáková, Alena; Mačingová, Eva; Kotuličová, Ingrida; Rudzanová, Dominika

    2016-10-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) are a worldwide problem leading to ecological destruction in river basins and the contamination of water sources. AMD are characterized by low pH and high content of heavy metals and sulphates. In order to minimize negative impacts of AMD appropriate treatment techniques has to be chosen. Treatment processes are focused on neutralizing, stabilizing and removing pollutants. From this reason efficient and environmental friendly methods are needed to be developed in order to reduce heavy metals as well as sulphates. Various methods are used for remediation of acid mine drainage, but any of them have been applied under commercial-scale conditions. Their application depends on geochemical, technical, natural, financial, and other factors. The aim of the present work was to interpret the study of biological methods for sulphates removal from AMD out-flowing from the shaft Pech of the deposit Smolmk in Slovak Republic. In the experimental works AMD were used after removal of heavy metals by precipitation and sorption using the synthetic sorbent Slovakite. The base of the studied method for the sulphates elimination was the anaerobic bacterial sulphate reduction using sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) genera Desulfovibrio. SRB represent a group of bacteria that uses sulphates as a terminal electron acceptor for their metabolism. These bacteria realize the conversion of sulphate to hydrogen sulphide under anaerobic conditions. For the purposes of experiments a few variants of the selective medium DSM-63 culture media were used in term of the sulphates and sodium lactate contents in the selective medium as well as sulphates in the studied AMD.

  15. Inhalant allergies in children.

    PubMed

    Mims, James W; Veling, Maria C

    2011-06-01

    Children with chronic or recurrent upper respiratory inflammatory disease (rhinitis) should be considered for inhalant allergies. Risk factors for inhalant allergies in children include a first-degree relative with allergies, food allergy in infancy, and atopic dermatitis. Although inhalant allergies are rare in infancy, inhalant allergies are common in older children and impair quality of life and productivity. Differentiating between viral and allergic rhinitis can be challenging in children, but the child's age, history, and risk factors can provide helpful information. Allergic rhinitis is a risk factor for asthma, and if one is present, medical consideration of the other is warranted.

  16. Inhalant Abuse and Dextromethorphan.

    PubMed

    Storck, Michael; Black, Laura; Liddell, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This review presents current perspectives on epidemiology, detection, and clinical challenges of inhalant abuse and offers advice regarding the medical and mental health providers' roles in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem. Also discussed is the misuse of a specific "over-the-counter" dissociative, dextromethorphan.

  17. Modeling Deposition of Inhaled Particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mathematical modeling of the deposition and distribution of inhaled aerosols within human lungs is an invaluable tool in predicting both the health risks associated with inhaled environmental aerosols and the therapeutic dose delivered by inhaled pharmacological drugs. Howeve...

  18. Vibrational spectroscopic study of sulphated silk proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monti, P.; Freddi, G.; Arosio, C.; Tsukada, M.; Arai, T.; Taddei, P.

    2007-05-01

    Degummed Bombyx mori ( B. m.) silk fibroin fabric and mutant naked pupa cocoons (Nd-s) consisting of almost pure silk sericin were treated with chlorosulphonic acid in pyridine and investigated by FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopies. Untreated silk fibroin and sericin displayed typical spectral features due to characteristic amino acid composition and molecular conformation (prevailing β-sheet with a less ordered structure in sericin). Upon sulphation, the degree of molecular disorder increased in both proteins and new bands appeared. The IR bands at 1049 and 1014 cm -1 were attributed to vibrations of sulphate salts and that at 1385 cm -1 to the νasSO 2 mode of organic covalent sulphates. In the 1300-1180 cm -1 range various contributions of alkyl and aryl sulphate salts, sulphonamides, sulphoamines and organic covalent sulphates, fell. Fibroin covalently bound sulphate groups through the hydroxyl groups of tyrosine and serine, while sericin through the hydroxyl groups of serine, since the δOH vibrations at 1399 cm -1 in IR and at 1408 cm -1 in Raman disappeared almost completely. Finally, the increase of the I850/ I830 intensity ratio of Raman tyrosine doublet in fibroin suggested a change towards a more exposed state of tyrosine residues, in good agreement with the more disordered conformation taken upon sulphation.

  19. Nonthermal Inhalation Injury.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    understand the effects of the various byproducts of combustion on the human body. A thorough knowledge of the physiological mechanisms , relevant...as soon as possible. Overview of Smoke Inhalation Physiology The physiologic mechanisms of injury from smoke inhalation are multiple and complex...to breathe Lower airway obstruction Dyspnea, tachypnea, wheezing, rhonchi, carbonaceous sputum Parenchymal injury Dyspnea, tachypnea, rales Table 1

  20. Inhalants in Peru.

    PubMed

    Lerner, R; Ferrando, D

    1995-01-01

    In Peru, the prevalence and consequences of inhalant abuse appear to be low in the general population and high among marginalized children. Inhalant use ranks third in lifetime prevalence after alcohol and tobacco. Most of the use appears to be infrequent. Among marginalized children, that is, children working in the streets but living at home or children living in the street, the problem of inhalant abuse is a serious problem. Among children working in the streets but living at home, the lifetime prevalence rate for inhalant abuse is high, ranging from 15 to 45 percent depending on the study being cited. For children living in the streets, the use of inhalant is even more severe. As mentioned earlier in this chapter, most of these street children use inhalants on a daily basis. The lack of research on the problem of inhalant abuse is a serious impediment to development of intervention programs and strategies to address this problem in Peru. Epidemiologic and ethnographic research on the nature and extent of inhalant abuse are obvious prerequisites to targeted treatment and preventive intervention programs. The urgent need for current and valid data is underscored by the unique vulnerability of the youthful population at risk and the undisputed harm that results from chronic abuse of inhalants. Nonetheless, it is important to mention several programs that work with street children. Some, such as the Information and Education Center for the Prevention of Drug Abuse, Generation, and Centro Integracion de Menores en Abandono have shelters where street children are offered transition to a less marginal lifestyle. Teams of street educators provide the children with practical solutions and gain their confidence, as well as offer them alternative socialization experiences to help them survive the streets and avoid the often repressive and counterproductive environments typical of many institutions. Most of the children who go through these programs tend to abandon

  1. Choline Magnesium Trisalicylate

    MedlinePlus

    Choline magnesium trisalicylate is used to relieve the pain, tenderness, inflammation (swelling), and stiffness caused by arthritis ... painful shoulder. It is also used to relieve pain and lower fever. Choline magnesium trisalicylate is in ...

  2. Oestrone sulphate, adipose tissue, and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, R A; Thomson, M L; Killen, E

    1985-01-01

    Oestrone sulphate, the oestrogen in highest concentration in the plasma, may play a role in the induction and growth of breast cancers. By enzymolysis and radioimmunoassay, oestrone sulphate concentrations were measured in 3 biological fluids. High concentrations of the conjugate (up to 775 nmol/l) were detected in breast cyst fluids from some premenopausal women, the concentrations in blood plasma (0.91-4.45 nmol/l) being much lower. Concentrations in the plasmas from postmenopausal women with (0.23-4.63 nmol/l) or without (0.18-1.27 nmol/l) breast cancer were still lower. Oestrone sulphate concentration in cow's milk or cream (0.49-0.67 nmol/l) was also low: dietary intake in these fluids is probably of little consequence. The capacity of breast tissues for hydrolysis of oestrone sulphate was examined in two ways: In tissue slices incubated with 85 pM (3H) oestrone sulphate solution at 37 degrees C, cancers (131-412 fmol/g tissue/hr) and adipose tissues (23-132 fmol/g tissue/hr) hydrolysed significantly more sulphate than did benign tissues (1-36 fmol/g tissue/hr). In tissue homogenates incubated with 5-25 microM [3H] oestrone sulphate at 37 degrees much higher capacities for hydrolysis (nmol/g tissue/hr) were demonstrated with a Km of 2-16.5 microM: cancers (34-394) and benign tissues (9-485) had significantly higher sulphatase activities than adipose tissues (9-39). On a protein basis, however, the sulphatase activities in the 3 tissues were comparable. It is concluded that oestrone sulphate is present in breast cysts and blood plasma and that in vitro, the conjugated hormone can be hydrolysed by breast tissues. The biological significance of these findings in vivo remains to be established.

  3. Magnesium and Space Flight

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4–6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4–6-month space missions. PMID:26670248

  4. Magnesium and Space Flight.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott M; Zwart, Sara R

    2015-12-08

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4-6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4-6-month space missions.

  5. Budesonide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Budesonide is used to prevent difficulty breathing, chest tightness, wheezing, and coughing caused by asthma. Budesonide powder for oral inhalation (Pulmicort Flexhaler) is used in adults and children 6 ...

  6. Acetylcysteine Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Acetylcysteine inhalation is used along with other treatments to relieve chest congestion due to thick or abnormal ... that causes problems with breathing, digestion, and reproduction). Acetylcysteine is in a class of medications called mucolytic ...

  7. Zanamivir Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... you use an inhaled medication to treat asthma, emphysema, or other breathing problems and you are scheduled ... the air passages that lead to the lungs); emphysema (damage to air sacs in the lungs); or ...

  8. Ipratropium Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Ipratropium oral inhalation is used to prevent wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and chest tightness in people ... damage to the air sacs in the lungs). Ipratropium is in a class of medications called bronchodilators. ...

  9. Pirbuterol Acetate Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... mouth or throat irritation, rinse your mouth with water, chew gum, or suck sugarless hard candy after using pirbuterol.Inhalation devices require regular cleaning. Once a week, remove the mouthpiece cover, turn ...

  10. Umeclidinium Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... chest tightness caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; a group of diseases that affect the lungs ... Do not use umeclidinium inhalation during a sudden COPD attack. Your doctor will prescribe a short-acting ( ...

  11. Olodaterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... chest tightness caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; a group of diseases that affect the lungs ... Do not use olodaterol inhalation during a sudden COPD attack. Your doctor will prescribe a short-acting ( ...

  12. Inhaled human insulin.

    PubMed

    Strack, Thomas R

    2006-04-01

    The benefit of subcutaneous insulin therapy in patients with diabetes is frequently limited due to difficulty in convincing patients of the importance of multiple daily insulin injections to cope effectively with meal-associated glycemic changes. Thus, the aim of achieving tight glycemic control, which is critical for reducing the risk of long-term diabetes-related complications, frequently remains elusive. The successful development of an inhalable insulin as a noninvasive alternative promises to change the management of diabetes. The first product to become available to patients is inhaled human insulin, a dry-powder formulation packaged into discrete blisters containing 1 or 3 mg of dry-powder human insulin and administered via a unique pulmonary inhaler device. It has recently been approved in both the United States and the European Union for the control of hyperglycemia in adult patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The pharmacokinetic profile of inhaled human insulin closely mimics the natural pattern of insulin secretion, and resembles that of rapid-acting subcutaneous analogs. Similarly to rapid-acting subcutaneous analogs, inhaled human insulin has a more rapid onset of glucose-lowering activity compared to subcutaneous regular insulin, allowing it to be administered shortly before meals. It has a duration of glucose-lowering activity comparable to subcutaneous regular insulin and longer than rapid-acting insulin analogs. Inhaled human insulin effectively controls postprandial glucose concentrations in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes without increasing the risk of hypoglycemia, and even improves fasting glucose levels compared to subcutaneous insulin. Inhaled human insulin has an overall favorable safety profile. There are small reductions in lung function (1-1.5% of total lung forced expiratory volume in the first second [FEV1] capacity) after onset of treatment that are reversible in most patients if treatment is discontinued. Inhaled human

  13. [Magnesium premedication prevents Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in patients with esophageal and hypopharyngeal cancer].

    PubMed

    Hirai, Shiho; Kaida, Sachiko; Ito, Tadaaki; Hasebe, Shinobu; Ueno, Masaki; Udagawa, Harushi; Hayashi, Masahiro

    2013-06-01

    Hypomagnesemia is one of the well-known side effects in patients receiving cisplatin-containing chemotherapy. However, the relevance between hypomagnesemia and cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity remain to be completely elucidated. Although patients with esophageal and hypopharyngeal cancer are susceptible to dehydration, there is no evidence yet that magnesium supplementation for these patients will prevent nephrotoxicity during cisplatin-containing chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of magnesium supplementation on the prevention of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity for patients with esophageal and hypopharyngeal cancer. Twenty-three patients with esophageal or hypopharyngeal cancer were studied over 2 weeks. Ten of them received magnesium supplementation and 13 did not. Magnesium sulphate(20 mEq) was administered before 5-fluorouracil(800mg/m2/24 h/day 1-5)and cisplatin(80mg/m2/day 1)(FP)treatment. The maximum serum creatinine concentration of magnesium-supplemented group demonstrated a significantly lower concentration compared to the non-magnesium-supplemented group(p=0. 018). As a result, magnesium supplementation successfully reduced the incidence rate of nephrotoxicity(p=0. 038). These results showed that magnesium supplementation before FP treatment may be quite beneficial for preventing nephrotoxicity in patients with esophageal and hypopharyngeal cancer, and it is therefore recommended that magnesium be routinely supplemented during FP treatment for esophageal or hypopharyngeal cancer.

  14. Particle engineering using sonocrystallization: salbutamol sulphate for pulmonary delivery.

    PubMed

    Dhumal, Ravindra S; Biradar, Shailesh V; Paradkar, Anant R; York, Peter

    2009-02-23

    The aim of present work was to produce fine elongated crystals of salbutamol sulphate (SS) by sonocrystallization for pulmonary delivery and compare with micronized and spray dried SS (SDSS) for in vitro aerosolization behavior. Application of ultrasound during anti-solvent crystallization resulted in fine elongated crystals (sonocrystallized SS; SCSS) compared to aggregates of large irregular crystals obtained without sonication. Higher sonication amplitude, time, concentration and lower processing temperatures favored formation of smaller crystals with narrow particle size distribution (PSD). SCSS was separated from dispersion by spray drying in the form of loose aggregates (SD-SCSS). The fine particle fraction (FPF) of formulations with coarse lactose carrier in cascade impactor increased from 16.66% for micronized SS to 31.12% for SDSS (obtained by spray drying aqueous SS solution) and 44.21% for SD-SCSS, due to reduced cohesive/adhesive forces and aerodynamic size by virtue of elongated shape of crystals. SD-SCSS was stable without any change in crystallinity and aerodynamic behavior for 3 months at 40 degrees C/75% RH, but amorphous SDSS showed recrystallization with poor aerosolization performance on storage. Sonocrystallization, a rapid and simple technique is reported for production of SS crystals suitable for inhalation delivery.

  15. Asymmetric membrane osmotic capsules for terbutaline sulphate.

    PubMed

    Gobade, N G; Koland, Marina; Harish, K H

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to design an asymmetric membrane capsule, an osmotic pump-based drug delivery system of ethyl cellulose for controlled release of terbutaline sulphate. asymmetric membrane capsules contains pore-forming water soluble additive, sorbitol in different concentrations in the capsule shell membrane, which after coming in contact with water, dissolves, resulting in an in situ formation of a microporous structure. The terbutaline sulphate is a β-adrenoreceptor agonist widely used in the treatment of asthma. The oral dosage regimen of terbutaline sulphate is 5 mg twice or thrice daily, the plasma half-life is approximate 3-4 h and it produces GI irritation with extensive first pass metabolism. Hence, terbutaline sulphate was chosen as a model drug with an aim to develop controlled release system. Different formulations of ethyl cellulose were prepared by phase inversion technique using different concentrations of sorbitol as pore forming agent. It was found that the thickness of the prepared asymmetric membrane capsules was increased with increase in concentration of ethyl cellulose and pore forming agent, i.e. sorbitol. The dye release study in water and 10% sodium chloride solution indicates that, the asymmetric membrane capsules follow osmotic principle to release content. The pores formed due to sorbitol were confirmed by microscopic observation of transverse section of capsule membrane. Data of in vitro release study of terbutaline sulphate from asymmetric membrane capsules indicated that, the capsules prepared with 10% and 12.5% of ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol released as much as 97.44% and 76.27% in 12 h, respectively with zero order release rate. Hence asymmetric membrane capsule of 10% ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol is considered as optimum for controlled oral delivery of terbutaline sulphate.

  16. Asymmetric Membrane Osmotic Capsules for Terbutaline Sulphate

    PubMed Central

    Gobade, N. G.; Koland, Marina; Harish, K. H.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to design an asymmetric membrane capsule, an osmotic pump-based drug delivery system of ethyl cellulose for controlled release of terbutaline sulphate. asymmetric membrane capsules contains pore-forming water soluble additive, sorbitol in different concentrations in the capsule shell membrane, which after coming in contact with water, dissolves, resulting in an in situ formation of a microporous structure. The terbutaline sulphate is a β-adrenoreceptor agonist widely used in the treatment of asthma. The oral dosage regimen of terbutaline sulphate is 5 mg twice or thrice daily, the plasma half-life is approximate 3-4 h and it produces GI irritation with extensive first pass metabolism. Hence, terbutaline sulphate was chosen as a model drug with an aim to develop controlled release system. Different formulations of ethyl cellulose were prepared by phase inversion technique using different concentrations of sorbitol as pore forming agent. It was found that the thickness of the prepared asymmetric membrane capsules was increased with increase in concentration of ethyl cellulose and pore forming agent, i.e. sorbitol. The dye release study in water and 10% sodium chloride solution indicates that, the asymmetric membrane capsules follow osmotic principle to release content. The pores formed due to sorbitol were confirmed by microscopic observation of transverse section of capsule membrane. Data of in vitro release study of terbutaline sulphate from asymmetric membrane capsules indicated that, the capsules prepared with 10% and 12.5% of ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol released as much as 97.44% and 76.27% in 12 h, respectively with zero order release rate. Hence asymmetric membrane capsule of 10% ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol is considered as optimum for controlled oral delivery of terbutaline sulphate. PMID:23204625

  17. Efficacy of intra-articular magnesium for postoperative analgesia in total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xinxian; Wen, Hong; Hu, Yuezheng; Liu, Zhongtang; Pan, Xiaoyun

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy of intra-articular magnesium sulphate and a saline placebo for postoperative pain control following total hip arthroplasty (THA). Sixty patients underwent THA and were randomly allocated into two groups to receive intra-articular injections of either 10 ml magnesium sulphate (100 mg/ml; magnesium group, n=30) or 10 ml normal saline solution (control group, n=30). Postoperative analgesia was maintained by intravenous morphine injection. The outcome measurements were visual analogue score (VAS), morphine consumption and Harris hip score (HHS). The two groups were well matched. The outcome of VAS at rest was significantly lower at postoperative hours 6 and 12 in the magnesium group as compared with the control group, although the difference was insignificant preoperatively and at postoperative hours 2, 4, 24 and 48, and days 3, 7 and 14. This indicator during activity was also lower in the magnesium group at postoperative hour 24 than that of the control group, although the difference was insignificant preoperatively and at hour 48, and days 7 and 14. The consumption of morphine (the total quantity) at 0–6, 6–12 and 0–48 h in the magnesium group was significantly lower than in the control group, although no significant differences were observed at 12–24 and 24–48 h between the groups. The improvements of HHS from preoperative to postoperative scores were statistically significant, however, no significant differences were identified between groups. Thus, the findings indicate that intra-articular magnesium sulphate injections provided improved pain control and reduced the need for morphine when compared with a saline placebo following THA. PMID:28357078

  18. Superplasticity in Thermomechanically Processed High Magnesium Aluminum-Magnesium Alloys.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    California DTIC EECTE JL I 1984 THESIS SUPERPLASTICITY IN THERMOMECHANICALLY PROCESSED HIGH MAGNESIUM ALUMINUM-MAGNESIUM ALLOYS C:L by CD) John J. Becker...High Magnesium Aluminum- March 1984 Magnesium Alloys S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(@) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(&) John J. Becker 9...magnesium, aluminum-magnesium alloys were investigated. The thermomechanical processing itself included warm rolling at 300°C to 94% reduction

  19. A Curious Case of Inhalation Fever Caused by Synthetic Cannabinoid

    PubMed Central

    Chinnadurai, Thiru; Shrestha, Srijan; Ayinla, Raji

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 29 Final Diagnosis: Inhalation fever induced by synthetic cannabinoid Symptoms: Agitation • smoked synthetic cannabinoid Medication: Ringer’s lactate solution • Ceftriaxone • Azithromycin• Magnesium sulfate • Potassium Phosphate • Levofloxacin • Risperidone Clinical Procedure: Chest radiograph • CBC • urine toxicology Specialty: Pulmonology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: This case report describes inhalation fever as an uncommon pulmonary adverse effect of synthetic cannabinoids. Case Report: A 29-year-old man was brought in for severe agitation after smoking K2, a synthetic cannabinoid. He required multiple doses of lorazepam and haloperidol for sedation. His vital signs were notable for a mild fever and tachycardia. Otherwise, the rest of his exam was unremarkable. The laboratory test was significant for leucocytosis and diffuse reticular-nodular and interstitial infiltrates on chest radiograph. Urine drug toxicology was negative. Interestingly, his symptoms and pulmonary infiltrates on the chest radiograph resolved spontaneously after 24 hours of observation. Conclusions: This patient developed transient pulmonary infiltrates and fever following the synthetic cannabinoid inhalation, as seen in self-limiting inhalation fever. Inhalation fever as a consequence of synthetic cannabinoid has not been described previously and there is a need for further research in this field. PMID:27262587

  20. Acute Inhalation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gorguner, Metin; Akgun, Metin

    2010-01-01

    Inhaled substances may cause injury in pulmonary epithelium at various levels of respiratory tract, leading from simple symptoms to severe disease. Acute inhalation injury (AII) is not uncommon condition. There are certain high risk groups but AII may occur at various places including home or workplace. Environmental exposure is also possible. In addition to individual susceptibility, the characteristics of inhaled substances such as water solubility, size of substances and chemical properties may affect disease severity as well as its location. Although AII cases may recover in a few days but AII may cause long-term complications, even death. We aimed to discuss the effects of short-term exposures (minutes to hours) to toxic substances on the lungs. PMID:25610115

  1. Inhalation exposure methodology.

    PubMed Central

    Phalen, R F; Mannix, R C; Drew, R T

    1984-01-01

    Modern man is being confronted with an ever-increasing inventory of potentially toxic airborne substances. Exposures to these atmospheric contaminants occur in residential and commercial settings, as well as in the workplace. In order to study the toxicity of such materials, a special technology relating to inhalation exposure systems has evolved. The purpose of this paper is to provide a description of the techniques which are used in exposing laboratory subjects to airborne particles and gases. The various modes of inhalation exposure (whole body, head only, nose or mouth only, etc.) are described at length, including the advantages and disadvantages inherent to each mode. Numerous literature citations are included for further reading. Among the topics briefly discussed are the selection of appropriate animal species for toxicological testing, and the types of inhalation studies performed (acute, chronic, etc.). PMID:6383799

  2. Detecting sulphate aerosol geoengineering with different methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Y. T. Eunice; Charlton-Perez, Andrew J.; Lott, Fraser C.; Highwood, Eleanor J.

    2016-12-01

    Sulphate aerosol injection has been widely discussed as a possible way to engineer future climate. Monitoring it would require detecting its effects amidst internal variability and in the presence of other external forcings. We investigate how the use of different detection methods and filtering techniques affects the detectability of sulphate aerosol geoengineering in annual-mean global-mean near-surface air temperature. This is done by assuming a future scenario that injects 5 Tg yr‑1 of sulphur dioxide into the stratosphere and cross-comparing simulations from 5 climate models. 64% of the studied comparisons would require 25 years or more for detection when no filter and the multi-variate method that has been extensively used for attributing climate change are used, while 66% of the same comparisons would require fewer than 10 years for detection using a trend-based filter. This highlights the high sensitivity of sulphate aerosol geoengineering detectability to the choice of filter. With the same trend-based filter but a non-stationary method, 80% of the comparisons would require fewer than 10 years for detection. This does not imply sulphate aerosol geoengineering should be deployed, but suggests that both detection methods could be used for monitoring geoengineering in global, annual mean temperature should it be needed.

  3. Detecting sulphate aerosol geoengineering with different methods.

    PubMed

    Lo, Y T Eunice; Charlton-Perez, Andrew J; Lott, Fraser C; Highwood, Eleanor J

    2016-12-15

    Sulphate aerosol injection has been widely discussed as a possible way to engineer future climate. Monitoring it would require detecting its effects amidst internal variability and in the presence of other external forcings. We investigate how the use of different detection methods and filtering techniques affects the detectability of sulphate aerosol geoengineering in annual-mean global-mean near-surface air temperature. This is done by assuming a future scenario that injects 5 Tg yr(-1) of sulphur dioxide into the stratosphere and cross-comparing simulations from 5 climate models. 64% of the studied comparisons would require 25 years or more for detection when no filter and the multi-variate method that has been extensively used for attributing climate change are used, while 66% of the same comparisons would require fewer than 10 years for detection using a trend-based filter. This highlights the high sensitivity of sulphate aerosol geoengineering detectability to the choice of filter. With the same trend-based filter but a non-stationary method, 80% of the comparisons would require fewer than 10 years for detection. This does not imply sulphate aerosol geoengineering should be deployed, but suggests that both detection methods could be used for monitoring geoengineering in global, annual mean temperature should it be needed.

  4. Superconducting oxides containing sulphate and phosphate groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, Angel Bustamante; Scorzelli, R. B.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.; Giordanengo, B.; Elmassalami, M.

    1994-12-01

    The effects of partial substitution of Sr and Ca in YBaCuO related materials containing sulphate and phosphate groups have been investigated. 57Fe Mössbauer measurements were performed on samples doped with lat.% 57Fe and the spectral components related to different Cu sites and oxygen vacancies.

  5. Superconducting oxides containing sulphate and phosphate groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scorzelli, R. B.; Baggio-Saitovitch, E.; Giordanengo, B.; Elmassalami, M.; Dominguez, A. B.; Bustamante Dominguez, A.

    1994-12-01

    The effects of partial substitution of Sr and Ca in Y-Ba-Cu-O related materials containing sulphate and phosphate groups have been investigated. e57Fe Mössbauer measurements were performed on samples doped with lat. % e57Fe and the spectral components related to different Cu sites and oxygen vacancies.

  6. Detecting sulphate aerosol geoengineering with different methods

    PubMed Central

    Lo, Y. T. Eunice; Charlton-Perez, Andrew J.; Lott, Fraser C.; Highwood, Eleanor J.

    2016-01-01

    Sulphate aerosol injection has been widely discussed as a possible way to engineer future climate. Monitoring it would require detecting its effects amidst internal variability and in the presence of other external forcings. We investigate how the use of different detection methods and filtering techniques affects the detectability of sulphate aerosol geoengineering in annual-mean global-mean near-surface air temperature. This is done by assuming a future scenario that injects 5 Tg yr−1 of sulphur dioxide into the stratosphere and cross-comparing simulations from 5 climate models. 64% of the studied comparisons would require 25 years or more for detection when no filter and the multi-variate method that has been extensively used for attributing climate change are used, while 66% of the same comparisons would require fewer than 10 years for detection using a trend-based filter. This highlights the high sensitivity of sulphate aerosol geoengineering detectability to the choice of filter. With the same trend-based filter but a non-stationary method, 80% of the comparisons would require fewer than 10 years for detection. This does not imply sulphate aerosol geoengineering should be deployed, but suggests that both detection methods could be used for monitoring geoengineering in global, annual mean temperature should it be needed. PMID:27976697

  7. The sulphate-reduction alkalinity pump tested

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meister, Patrick; Petrishcheva, Elena

    2016-04-01

    Carbonate precipitation has been suggested to be induced by alkalinity increase during sulphate reduction under anoxic conditions. This mechanism may explain the formation of carbonate deposits in shallow marine environments, either within a redox stratified sediment inhabited by phototrophic microbial mats or in shallow water within the photic zone where sulphidic water is upwelling onto the shelf. The alkalinity pump may work as long as the sulphide is not reoxidized to sulphate, a process that would acidify the surrounding. The alkalinity effect of sulphate reduction was recently tested by Aloisi (2008) for microbial mats using a model approach. He found that sulphate reduction does not significantly increase or even decrease carbonate saturation and is unlikely to have played a significant role through Earth history. The model considers many environmental factors, including the effect of carbonate precipitation itself on the carbonate equilbrium and on the alkalinity. We used a modified version of Aloisi's (2008) model to simulate the saturation states of aragonite, calcite and dolomite without the effects of carbonate precipitation. This is necessary to evaluate the effect of microbial metabolisms exclusively on carbonate saturation, since carbonate precipitation is only the consequence, but not the cause of oversaturation. First results show that the saturation state is increased in the zone of phototrophic CO2 uptake. In contrast, the saturation state is strongly decreased in the zone where dissolved oxygen overlaps with dissolved sulphide. Aerobic sulphide oxidation consumes most of the HS- and dissipates most of the alkalinity produced in the sulphate reduction zone below. Hence, our results are consistent with the findings of Aloisi (2008), and they even more clearly show that sulphate reduction does not induce carbonate precipitation nor contributes to carbonate precipitation in combination with phototrophic CO2 uptake. The alkalinity effect of sulphate

  8. Final report on the safety assessment of aluminum silicate, calcium silicate, magnesium aluminum silicate, magnesium silicate, magnesium trisilicate, sodium magnesium silicate, zirconium silicate, attapulgite, bentonite, Fuller's earth, hectorite, kaolin, lithium magnesium silicate, lithium magnesium sodium silicate, montmorillonite, pyrophyllite, and zeolite.

    PubMed

    Elmore, Amy R

    2003-01-01

    This report reviews the safety of Aluminum, Calcium, Lithium Magnesium, Lithium Magnesium Sodium, Magnesium Aluminum, Magnesium, Sodium Magnesium, and Zirconium Silicates, Magnesium Trisilicate, Attapulgite, Bentonite, Fuller's Earth, Hectorite, Kaolin, Montmorillonite, Pyrophyllite, and Zeolite as used in cosmetic formulations. The common aspect of all these claylike ingredients is that they contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals. Many silicates occur naturally and are mined; yet others are produced synthetically. Typical cosmetic uses of silicates include abrasive, opacifying agent, viscosity-increasing agent, anticaking agent, emulsion stabilizer, binder, and suspending agent. Clay silicates (silicates containing water in their structure) primarily function as adsorbents, opacifiers, and viscosity-increasing agents. Pyrophyllite is also used as a colorant. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has ruled Attapulgite fibers >5 microm as possibly carcinogenic to humans, but fibers <5 microm were not classified as to their carcinogenicity to humans. Likewise, Clinoptilolite, Phillipsite, Mordenite, Nonfibrous Japanese Zeolite, and synthetic Zeolites were not classified as to their carcinogenicity to humans. These ingredients are not significantly toxic in oral acute or short-term oral or parenteral toxicity studies in animals. Inhalation toxicity, however, is readily demonstrated in animals. Particle size, fibrogenicity, concentration, and mineral composition had the greatest effect on toxicity. Larger particle size and longer and wider fibers cause more adverse effects. Magnesium Aluminum Silicate was a weak primary skin irritant in rabbits and had no cumulative skin irritation in guinea pigs. No gross effects were reported in any of these studies. Sodium Magnesium Silicate had no primary skin irritation in rabbits and had no cumulative skin irritation in guinea pigs. Hectorite was nonirritating to the skin of rabbits in a Draize primary skin

  9. MODELING DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling Deposition of Inhaled Particles: ABSTRACT

    The mathematical modeling of the deposition and distribution of inhaled aerosols within human lungs is an invaluable tool in predicting both the health risks associated with inhaled environmental aerosols and the therapeut...

  10. Uncovering the Relationship between Sulphation Patterns and Conformation of Iduronic Acid in Heparan Sulphate.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Po-Hung; Thieker, David F; Guerrini, Marco; Woods, Robert J; Liu, Jian

    2016-07-14

    The L-iduronic acid (IdoA) residue is a critically important structural component in heparan sulphate polysaccharide for the biological functions. The pyranose ring of IdoA is present in (1)C4-chair, (2)SO-skew boat, and less frequently, in (4)C1-chair conformations. Here, we analyzed the conformation of IdoA residue in eight hexasaccharides by NMR. The data demonstrate a correlation between the conformation of IdoA and sulphations in the surrounding saccharide residues. For the 2-O-sulpho IdoA residue, a high degree of sulphation on neighboring residues drives ring dynamics towards the (2)SO-skew boat conformer. In contrast, the nonsulphated IdoA residue is pushed towards the (1)C4-chair conformer when the neighboring residues are highly sulphated. Our data suggest that the conformation of IdoA is regulated by the sulphation pattern of nearby saccharides that is genetically controlled by the heparan sulphate biosynthetic pathway.

  11. Uncovering the Relationship between Sulphation Patterns and Conformation of Iduronic Acid in Heparan Sulphate

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Po-Hung; Thieker, David F.; Guerrini, Marco; Woods, Robert J.; Liu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The L-iduronic acid (IdoA) residue is a critically important structural component in heparan sulphate polysaccharide for the biological functions. The pyranose ring of IdoA is present in 1C4-chair, 2SO-skew boat, and less frequently, in 4C1-chair conformations. Here, we analyzed the conformation of IdoA residue in eight hexasaccharides by NMR. The data demonstrate a correlation between the conformation of IdoA and sulphations in the surrounding saccharide residues. For the 2-O-sulpho IdoA residue, a high degree of sulphation on neighboring residues drives ring dynamics towards the 2SO-skew boat conformer. In contrast, the nonsulphated IdoA residue is pushed towards the 1C4-chair conformer when the neighboring residues are highly sulphated. Our data suggest that the conformation of IdoA is regulated by the sulphation pattern of nearby saccharides that is genetically controlled by the heparan sulphate biosynthetic pathway. PMID:27412370

  12. Uncovering the Relationship between Sulphation Patterns and Conformation of Iduronic Acid in Heparan Sulphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Po-Hung; Thieker, David F.; Guerrini, Marco; Woods, Robert J.; Liu, Jian

    2016-07-01

    The L-iduronic acid (IdoA) residue is a critically important structural component in heparan sulphate polysaccharide for the biological functions. The pyranose ring of IdoA is present in 1C4-chair, 2SO-skew boat, and less frequently, in 4C1-chair conformations. Here, we analyzed the conformation of IdoA residue in eight hexasaccharides by NMR. The data demonstrate a correlation between the conformation of IdoA and sulphations in the surrounding saccharide residues. For the 2-O-sulpho IdoA residue, a high degree of sulphation on neighboring residues drives ring dynamics towards the 2SO-skew boat conformer. In contrast, the nonsulphated IdoA residue is pushed towards the 1C4-chair conformer when the neighboring residues are highly sulphated. Our data suggest that the conformation of IdoA is regulated by the sulphation pattern of nearby saccharides that is genetically controlled by the heparan sulphate biosynthetic pathway.

  13. Inhalants. Specialized Information Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.

    The document presents a collection of articles about inhalant abuse. Article 1 presents findings on the psychophysiological effects related to the use of amyl or butyl nitrate as a "recreational drug." Article 2 suggests a strong association between chronic sniffing of the solvent toulene and irreversible brain damage. Article 3 warns…

  14. Method for production of magnesium

    DOEpatents

    Diaz, A.F.; Howard, J.B.; Modestino, A.J.; Peters, W.A.

    1998-07-21

    A continuous process for the production of elemental magnesium is described. Magnesium is made from magnesium oxide and a light hydrocarbon gas. In the process, a feed stream of the magnesium oxide and gas is continuously fed into a reaction zone. There the magnesium oxide and gas are reacted at a temperature of about 1400 C or greater in the reaction zone to provide a continuous product stream of reaction products, which include elemental magnesium. The product stream is continuously quenched after leaving the reaction zone, and the elemental magnesium is separated from other reaction products. 12 figs.

  15. Method for production of magnesium

    DOEpatents

    Diaz, Alexander F.; Howard, Jack B.; Modestino, Anthony J.; Peters, William A.

    1998-01-01

    A continuous process for the production of elemental magnesium is described. Magnesium is made from magnesium oxide and a light hydrocarbon gas. In the process, a feed stream of the magnesium oxide and gas is continuously fed into a reaction zone. There the magnesium oxide and gas are reacted at a temperature of about 1400.degree. C. or greater in the reaction zone to provide a continuous product stream of reaction products, which include elemental magnesium. The product stream is continuously quenched after leaving the reaction zone, and the elemental magnesium is separated from other reaction products.

  16. Magnesium battery disposal characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soffer, Louis; Atwater, Terrill

    1994-12-01

    This study assesses the disposal characteristics of U.S. Army procured military magnesium batteries under current Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste identification regulations administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Magnesium batteries were tested at 100, 50, 10 and 0 percent remaining state of charge. Present findings indicate that magnesium batteries with less than 50 percent remaining charge do not exceed the federal regulatory limit of 5.0 mg/L for chromium. All other RCRA contaminates were below regulatory limits at all levels of remaining charge. Assay methods, findings, disposal requirements and design implications are discussed.

  17. Magnesium toxicosis in two horses.

    PubMed

    Henninger, R W; Horst, J

    1997-07-01

    Magnesium sulfate, a saline laxative, is often used for treatment of intestinal impactions in horses. Clinical signs of hypermagnesemia are an uncommon complication following oral administration of magnesium sulfate. Overdose of magnesium sulfate in combination with renal insufficiency, hypocalcemia, or compromise of intestinal integrity may predispose horses to magnesium toxicosis. Establishment of diuresis with fluids and IV administration of calcium may provide successful treatment of magnesium toxicosis in horses.

  18. [High-dose magnesium sulfate in the treatment of aconite poisoning].

    PubMed

    Clara, A; Rauch, S; Überbacher, C A; Felgenhauer, N; Drüge, G

    2015-05-01

    This article reports the case of a 62-year-old male patient who ingested the roots of Monkshood (Aconitum napellus) and white hellebore (Veratrum album) dissolved in alcohol with a suicidal intention and suffered cardiotoxic and neurotoxic symptoms. After contacting the Poison Information Centre ventricular arrhythmia was treated with high-dose magnesium sulphate as the only antiarrhythmic agent and subsequently a stable sinus rhythm could be established after approximately 3 h. Aconitum napellus is considered the most poisonous plant in Europe and it is found in gardens, the Alps and the Highlands. Poisoning is mainly caused by the alkaloid aconite that leads to persistent opening and activation of voltage-dependent sodium channels resulting in severe cardiac and neurological toxicity. As no specific antidote is known so far, poisoning is associated with a high mortality. The therapy with high-dose magnesium sulphate is based on in vitro and animal experiments as well as limited clinical case reports.

  19. Food hypersensitivity by inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Daniel A; Bahna, Sami L

    2009-01-01

    Though not widely recognized, food hypersensitivity by inhalation can cause major morbidity in affected individuals. The exposure is usually more obvious and often substantial in occupational environments but frequently occurs in non-occupational settings, such as homes, schools, restaurants, grocery stores, and commercial flights. The exposure can be trivial, as in mere smelling or being in the vicinity of the food. The clinical manifestations can vary from a benign respiratory or cutaneous reaction to a systemic one that can be life-threatening. In addition to strict avoidance, such highly-sensitive subjects should carry self-injectable epinephrine and wear MedicAlert® identification. Asthma is a strong predisposing factor and should be well-controlled. It is of great significance that food inhalation can cause de novo sensitization. PMID:19232116

  20. Treatment of Inhalation Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-21

    injuries not visible with endoscopy. . Thermal and especially chemical inhalation injuries. Direct damage to the surfactant is probably implicated. o...exists a set of indirect alveolar lesions, subordinated to the skin burn itself, which is common in patients with extensive burns. This we call the...normo or hypocapnia. Very likely, a 5th lesional level exists which is the capillary itself(Venus et al). By primary or secondary damage , it affects the

  1. Magnesium blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Magnesium - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight pain. Others feel a prick or stinging. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  2. Interstellar magnesium abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, M. J.; Dufton, P. L.; Hibbert, A.; York, D. G.

    1984-01-01

    An improved evaluation of the Mg II 1240 A doublet oscillator strength is used in conjunction with recently published Copernicus observations to derive accurate Mg II column densities toward 74 stars. These imply an average of 40 percent of interstellar magnesium is in the gaseous phase. Magnesium depletion is examined as a function of various interstellar extinction and density parameters, and the results are briefly discussed in terms of current depletion theories.

  3. Rechargeable Magnesium Power Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Victor R.; Nanjundiah, Chenniah; Orsini, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Rechargeable power cells based on magnesium anodes developed as safer alternatives to high-energy-density cells like those based on lithium and sodium anodes. At cost of some reduction in energy density, magnesium-based cells safer because less susceptible to catastrophic meltdown followed by flames and venting of toxic fumes. Other advantages include ease of handling, machining, and disposal, and relatively low cost.

  4. Magnesium for Future Autos

    SciTech Connect

    Nyberg, Eric A.; Luo, Alan A.; Sadayappan, Kumar; Shi, Wenfang

    2008-10-01

    In the quest for better fuel economy and improved environmental performance, magnesium may well become a metal of choice for constructing lighter, more efficient vehicles. Magnesium is the lightest structural metal, yet it has a high strength-to-weight ratio makes it comparable to steel in many applications. The world’s automakers already use magnesium for individual components. But new alloys and processing methods are needed before the metal can become economically and technologically feasible as a major automotive structural material. This article will explore the formation, challenges and initial results of an international collaboration—the Magnesium Front End Research and Development (MFERD) project—that is leveraging the expertise and resources of Canada, China and the United States to advance the creation of magnesium-intensive vehicles. The MFERD project aims to develop the enabling technologies and knowledge base that will lead to a vehicles that are 50-60 percent lighter, equally affordable, more recyclable and of equal or better quality when compared to today’s vehicles. Databases of information also will be captured in models to enable further alloy and manufacturing process optimization. Finally, a life-cycle analysis of the magnesium used will be conducted.

  5. Electrodeposition of magnesium and magnesium/aluminum alloys

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Anton

    1988-01-01

    Electrolytes and plating solutions for use in processes for electroplating and electroforming pure magnesium and alloys of aluminum and magnesium and also electrodeposition processes. An electrolyte of this invention is comprised of an alkali metal fluoride or a quaternary ammonium halide, dimethyl magnesium and/or diethyl magnesium, and triethyl aluminum and/or triisobutyl aluminum. An electrolyte may be dissolved in an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent to form a plating solution. The proportions of the component compounds in the electrolyte are varied to produce essentially pure magnesium or magnesium/aluminum alloys having varying selected compositions.

  6. Electrodeposition of magnesium and magnesium/aluminum alloys

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, A.

    1988-01-21

    Electrolytes and plating solutions for use in processes for electroplating and electroforming pure magnesium and alloys of aluminum and magnesium and also electrodeposition processes. An electrolyte of this invention is comprised of an alkali metal fluoride or a quaternary ammonium halide, dimethyl magnesium and/or diethyl magnesium, and triethyl aluminum and/or triisobutyl aluminum. An electrolyte may be dissolved in an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent to form a plating solution. The proportions of the component compounds in the electrolyte are varied to produce essentially pure magnesium or magnesium/aluminum alloys having varying selected compositions.

  7. How to Use Metered-Dose Inhalers

    MedlinePlus

    ... inhaler the right way so that the full dose of medication reaches your lungs. You can use ... inhaler.These directions explain how to use metered-dose inhalers. If you are using a different type ...

  8. Isotopic archives of sulphate in speleothems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynn, Peter M.; Fairchild, Ian J.; Baker, Andy; Baldini, James U. L.; McDermott, Frank

    2008-05-01

    The hemispheric impact of industrial emissions upon atmospheric sulphur loading is reflected in the sulphur depositional history recorded in cores from ice sheets. However, these do not reveal regional variations. Recently deposited speleothems are used here as archives of regional sulphur depositional history at two locations within the United Kingdom and Ireland. δ34S-SO4 and δ18O-SO4 present within speleothem carbonate are measured for the first time as part of a dual isotope approach to decode the speleothem sulphur record. The largely refractory nature of δ34S-SO4 under oxidising conditions enables source provenance of atmospheric SO2, whereas the complex cycles of isotopic exchange and fractionation during incorporation of oxygen into sulphate molecules enable δ18O-SO4 signatures to yield insights into ambient environmental conditions and biogeochemical cycling in the ecosystem above the cave. δ34S-SO4 values extracted from speleothem carbonate formed within Browns Folly Mine, UK, range from +3.5 to +5.5‰ and δ18O-SO4 +10.3 to +13.7‰. Both signatures lie within the range expected from sulphate deposition in industrial locations and reflect the transfer of sulphate into speleothem calcite with little fractionation. However, δ18O-SO4 signatures at Crag Cave, western Ireland, are isotopically heavier than expected and approach isotopic equilibrium with δ18O-H2O under reducing conditions. Dual isotope analysis of δ34S-SO4 and δ18O-SO4 optimises the correct identification of sulphur sources and biogeochemical cycling prior to incorporation into the speleothem record. At carefully selected cave sites where drip water flowpaths into the cave remain oxic, speleothems hold the potential to retain records of atmospheric sulphur loading at the local and regional scale.

  9. Activity of sulphate reducing bacteria according to COD/SO4(2-) ratio of acrylonitrile wastewater containing high sulphate.

    PubMed

    Byun, I G; Lee, T H; Kim, Y O; Song, S K; Park, T J

    2004-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the biodegradability of acrylonitrile wastewater, microbial inhibition effect of acrylonitrile wastewater on removal efficiency and the activity of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) according to COD/sulphate ratio. Acrylonitrile wastewater was hardly biodegradable in a biodegradability test, however, SRB activity was 57% for overall consumption of electron donor and it was relatively high value compared to 17% of reference test with glucose. COD removal of acrylonitrile wastewater was improved to 57% and 61% from 20% as the COD/sulphate ratio were 0.5 and 0.3 by sulphate addition to acrylonitrile wastewater. First order reaction rate constants k on organic removal of acrylonitrile wastewater were 0.001, 0.004 and 0.004 at each COD/sulphate ratio of 0.9, 0.5 and 0.3. Thus it was suggested that the activity of SRB was a significant factor for removing organics and sulphate simultaneously in acrylonitrile wastewater.

  10. Influence of mechanical activation on the physical stability of salbutamol sulphate.

    PubMed

    Brodka-Pfeiffer, Katharina; Langguth, Peter; Grass, Peter; Häusler, Heribert

    2003-11-01

    In order to obtain the optimal particle size distribution for pharmaceutical powders in dry powder inhalers the particles have to be micronised. In most cases the process of micronisation is connected with a high input of energy which induces disorder and defects on the surface of the drug particles and as a result changes in the crystallinity. Consequently, changes in the physical stability of the powders may occur. To investigate changes on the physical stability of the powder, different analytical methods are used in the present investigation: laser diffraction, Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), isothermal microcalorimetry and DVS-method.Air-jet-milling is one of the most frequently used techniques in the pharmaceutical industry, in order to obtain particles of respirable size. In the treatise described here the influence of the critical parameters of the process, i.e. feed pressure, grind pressure and feed rate is assessed for salbutamol sulphate. The grind pressure is of utmost importance with respect to particle size distribution and the physical powder stability. For salbutamol sulphate, ground with a MC Jetmill 50, a grind pressure of 6 bar has been found optimal. Pressures below 6 bar are not sufficient to produce the required reduction in particle size. The feed pressure and rate have negligible influence on the powder quality. Furthermore, the micronisation process is optimised to achieve respirable particles while minimising the amorphous content. A correlation between mechanical activation and the amount of the amorphous regions is showed clearly.Air-jet-milling has been compared to ball milling in this investigation. In pilot tests ball milling was not suitable to achieve the needed particle size distribution, however, it generates a specific quantity of amorphous material. With the help of specific amorphous regions in the powder, the sensitivity of the used methods for salbutamol sulphate can be examined.

  11. Inhalation exposure of animals.

    PubMed Central

    Phalen, R F

    1976-01-01

    Relative advantages and disadvantages and important design criteria for various exposure methods are presented. Five types of exposures are discussed: whole-body chambers, head-only exposures, nose or mouth-only methods, lung-only exposures, and partial-lung exposures. Design considerations covered include: air cleaning and conditioning; construction materials; losses of exposure materials; evenness of exposure; sampling biases; animal observation and care; noise and vibration control, safe exhausts, chamber loading, reliability, pressure fluctuations; neck seals, masks, animal restraint methods; and animal comfort. Ethical considerations in use of animals in inhalation experiments are also discussed. PMID:1017420

  12. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate,...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate,...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434... GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic (MgHPO4·3H2O, CAS Reg. No....

  15. Breast cyst fluid heparan sulphate is distinctively N-sulphated depending on apocrine or flattened type.

    PubMed

    Mannello, Ferdinando; Maccari, Francesca; Ligi, Daniela; Santi, Martina; Gatto, Francesco; Linhardt, Robert J; Galeotti, Fabio; Volpi, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    Breast cyst fluid (BCF) contained in gross cists is involved with its many biomolecules in different stages of breast cystic development. Type I apocrine and type II flattened cysts are classified based on biochemical, morphological and hormonal differences, and their different patterns of growth factors and active biocompounds may require different regulation. In a previous paper, hyaluronic acid in a very low content and chondroitin sulphate/dermatan sulphate were identified and characterized in BCF. In this new study, various apocrine and flattened BCFs were analyzed for HS concentration and disaccharide pattern. Apocrine HS was found specifically constituted of N-acetyl groups contrary to flattened HS richer in N-sulphate disaccharides with an overall N-acetylated/N-sulphated ratio significantly increased in apocrine compared with flattened (13.5 vs 3.7). Related to this different structural features, the charge density significantly decreased (~-30%) in apocrine versus flattened BCFs. Finally, no significant differences were observed for HS amount (~0.9-1.3 µg ml(-1) ) between the two BCF types even if a greater content was determined for flattened samples. The specifically N-sulphated sequences in flattened BCF HS can exert biologic capacity by regulating growth factors activity. On the other hand, we cannot exclude a peculiar regulation of the activity of biomolecules in apocrine BCF by HS richer in N-acetylated disaccharides. In fact, the different patterns of growth factors and active biocompounds in the two types of cysts may require different regulation by specific sequences in the HS backbone possessing specific structural characteristics and distinctive chemical groups.

  16. Tinospora cordifolia consumption ameliorates changes in kidney chondroitin sulphate/dermatan sulphate in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Joladarashi, Darukeshwara; Chilkunda, Nandini D; Salimath, Paramahans V

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is known to alter kidney extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Chondroitin sulphate (CS)/dermatan sulphate (DS), an ECM component, which plays an essential role in kidney is altered during diabetes. The focus of this study has been to examine the effect of Tinospora cordifolia (TC) consumption, a potent plant widely used to treat diabetes, on kidney CS/DS. Experimentally induced diabetic rats were fed with diet containing TC at 2·5 and 5 % levels and the effect of it on kidney CS/DS was examined. The CS/DS content and CS:heparan sulphate ratio which was decreased during diabetic condition were ameliorated in TC-fed groups. Disaccharide composition analysis of CS/DS by HPLC showed that decreases in 'E' units and degree of sulphation were modulated in 5 % TC-fed groups. Apparent molecular weight of purified CS/DS from the control rat kidney was found to be 38 kDa which was decreased to 29 kDa in diabetic rat kidney. Rats in 5 % TC-fed groups showed chain length of 38 kDa akin to control rats. Expression of chondroitin 4-O-sulfotransferase-1, dermatan 4-O-sulfotransferase-1 and N-acetylgalactosamine 4 sulphate 6-O-sulfotransferase, enzymes involved in the synthesis of 'E' units which was reduced during diabetic condition, was significantly contained in the 5 % TC-fed group. Purified CS/DS from 5 % TC-fed group was able to bind higher amounts of ECM components, namely type IV collagen and laminin, when compared with untreated diabetic rats. The present results demonstrate that consumption of a diet containing TC at the 5 % level modulates changes in kidney CS/DS which were due to diabetes.

  17. Development of liposomal salbutamol sulfate dry powder inhaler formulation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Hua; Yang, Zhi-Jun; Wu, Heng; Wong, Yuen-Fan; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Liu, Liang

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to develop a formulation of liposomal salbutamol sulfate (SBS) dry powder inhaler (DPI) for the treatment of asthma. Liposomes of high encapsulation efficiency (more than 80%) were prepared by a vesicular phospholipid gel (VPG) technique. SBS VPG liposomes were subjected to lyophilization using different kinds of cryoprotectants in various mass ratios. Coarse lactose (63-106 microm) in different mass ratios was used as a carrier. Magnesium stearate (0.5%) was added as a lubricator. The dry liposomal powders were then crushed by ball milling and sieved through a 400-mesh sieve to control the mean particle size at about 10 microm. The effects of different kinds of cryoprotectants and the amount of lactose carrier on the fine particle fraction (FPF) of SBS were investigated. The results showed that the developed formulation of liposomal dry powder inhaler was obtained using lactose as a cryoprotectant with a mass ratio of lyophilized powder to carrier lactose at 1 : 5; 0.5% magnesium stearate was used as a lubricator. The value of FPF for SBS was 41.51+/-2.22% for this formulation. Sustained release of SBS from the VPG liposomes was found in the in vitro release study. The study results offer the promising possibility of localized pulmonary liposomal SBS delivery in the anhydrous state.

  18. Inhalation delivery of protein therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Kane, Colleen; O'Neil, Karyn; Conk, Michelle; Picha, Kristen

    2013-04-01

    Inhaled therapeutics are used routinely to treat a variety of pulmonary diseases including asthma, COPD and cystic fibrosis. In addition, biological therapies represent the fastest growing segment of approved pharmaceuticals. However, despite the increased availability of biological therapies, nearly all inhaled therapeutics are small molecule drugs with only a single inhaled protein therapeutic approved. There remains a significant unmet need for therapeutics in pulmonary diseases, and biological therapies with potential to alter disease progression represent a significant opportunity to treat these challenging diseases. This review provides a background into efforts to develop inhaled biological therapies and highlights some of the associated challenges. In addition, we speculate on the ideal properties of a biologic therapy for inhaled delivery.

  19. Corrosion in Magnesium and a Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akavipat, Sanay

    Magnesium and a magnesium alloy (AZ91C) have been ion implanted over a range of ions energies (50 to 150 keV) and doses (1 x 10('16) to 2 x 10('17) ions/cm('2)) to modify the corrosion properties of the metals. The corrosion tests were done by anodic polarization in chloride -free and chloride-containing aqueous solutions of a borated -boric acid with a pH of 9.3. Anodic polarization measurements showed that some implantations could greatly reduce the corrosion current densities at all impressed voltages and also increased slightly the pitting potential, which indicated the onset of the chloride attack. These improvements in corrosion resistance were caused by boron implantations into both types of samples. However, iron implantations were found to improve only the magnesium alloy. To study the corrosion in more detail, Scanning Auger Microprobe Spectrometer (SAM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with an X-ray Energy Spectrometry (XES) attachment, and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) measurements were used to analyze samples before, after, and at various corrosion stages. In both the unimplanted pure magnesium and AZ91C samples, anodic polarization results revealed that there were three active corrosion stages (Stages A, C, and E) and two passivating stages (Stages B and D). Examination of Stages A and B in both types of samples showed that only a mild, generalized corrosion had occurred. In Stage C of the TD samples, a pitting breakdown in the initial oxide film was observed. In Stage C of the AZ91C samples, galvanic and intergranular attack around the Mg(,17)Al(,12) intermetallic islands and along the matrix grain boundaries was observed. Stage D of both samples showed the formation of a thick, passivating oxygen containing, probably Mg(OH)(,2) film. In Stage E, this film was broken down by pits, which formed due to the presence of the chloride ions in both types of samples. Stages A through D of the unimplanted samples were not seen in the boron or iron

  20. Magnesium Metabolism and its Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, R

    2003-01-01

    Magnesium is the fourth most abundant cation in the body and plays an important physiological role in many of its functions. Magnesium balance is maintained by renal regulation of magnesium reabsorption. The exact mechanism of the renal regulation is not fully understood. Magnesium deficiency is a common problem in hospital patients, with a prevalence of about 10%. There are no readily available and easy methods to assess magnesium status. Serum magnesium and the magnesium tolerance test are the most widely used. Measurement of ionised magnesium may become more widely available with the availability of ion selective electrodes. Magnesium deficiency and hypomagnesaemia can result from a variety of causes including gastrointestinal and renal losses. Magnesium deficiency can cause a wide variety of features including hypocalcaemia, hypokalaemia and cardiac and neurological manifestations. Chronic low magnesium state has been associated with a number of chronic diseases including diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and osteoporosis. The use of magnesium as a therapeutic agent in asthma, myocardial infarction, and pre-eclampsia is also discussed. Hypermagnesaemia is less frequent than hypomagnesaemia and results from failure of excretion or increased intake. Hypermagnesaemia can lead to hypotension and other cardiovascular effects as well as neuromuscular manifestations. Causes and management of hypermagnesaemia are discussed. PMID:18568054

  1. [Comparative effects of terbutaline sulphate and ipratropium bromide on the respiratory system (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Villate Navarro, J I; Sobradillo Peña, V; Atxotequi Iaraoligoitia, V; Salaverri Nalda, A; Orive Martínez, C

    1980-04-10

    Bronchodilator action of two pharmacologically different drugs have been compared. Ipratropium bromide (Sch 1000) is a synthetic atropine derivative and terbutaline sulphate is a beta-stimulating agent. Twelve asthmatic patients and eight patients with chronic bronquitis received terbutaline 0.50 mg. and ipratropium 0.04 mg by aerosol inhalation. Both drugs were given at random on a consecutive-day schedule. All patients were clinically stable before treatment (basal FEV/VC less than 60 percent). Total lung capacity (TLC) forced expiratory volume (FEV), SRaw, and V'/V curves before and at 15, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after the produce administration were registered. Presence of side-effects was also checked. An intensive bronchodilator action was observed either after inhalation of ipratropium bromide or terbutaline, but statistical studies showed no significant differences between both drugs in relation to intensity and duration of their actions. Sch 1000 caused similar bronchodilator effects in all cases; a more intense effect in patients with chronic bronchitis could not be noticed. Evaluation of V'/V curve, and especially its relation to a same pulmonary volume, pointed out that both drugs act upon small respiratory airways. Advance side-effects were not present.

  2. Effect of crystallisation conditions and feedstock morphology on the aerosolization performance of micronised salbutamol sulphate.

    PubMed

    Shariare, M H; de Matas, M; York, P

    2011-08-30

    Salbutamol sulphate (SS) used in dry powder inhalers requires drug particles in the respirable size range of 1-5 μm to achieve a suitable therapeutic effect. The aim of this study was therefore to determine strategies for controlling drug substance characteristics pre and post-crystallisation to facilitate the production of micronised SS with desirable particle attributes for optimal delivery as an inhaled aerosol. SS batches were crystallised using an antisolvent method to produce a range of crystal morphologies. Air jet milling was then used to reduce the size of crystallised SS particles. Starting materials and micronised batches of SS were characterised in the solid state using a range of techniques with subsequent assessment of aerosol properties. Assessment of the aerodynamic characteristics of micronised SS delivered by DPI (without any carrier) indicated that fine particle fraction and emitted dose as a percentage of the total recovered dose were dependent on the quality attributes of the micronised SS, which were directly linked to the degree of imperfections and the morphology of the crystalline feedstock used in micronisation. Aerosolization performance of micronised SS can be optimised by manipulation of feedstock characteristics through crystal engineering and through definition of optimal processing conditions for micronisation.

  3. Prevention of etomidate-related myoclonus in anesthetic induction by pretreatment with magnesium

    PubMed Central

    Un, Bulent; Ceyhan, Dilek; Yelken, Birgul

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Etomidate frequently leads to myoclonic jerks during anesthetic induction. This study aimed to detect if pretreatment with magnesium decreases myoclonus incidence. METHODS: A hundred ASA (the American Society of Anesthesiologists) I-II patients were included and randomized into 2 groups. Three minutes before etomidate induction of anesthesia (by 0.3 mg/kg intravenous etomidate), Group M received 2.48 mmol (60 mg) intravenous magnesium sulphate and Group P received equal volume of intravenous saline. Myoclonus was evaluated as “present/absent”. RESULTS: The rate of myoclonus was significantly lower in Group M than in Group P (p < 0.01). Hemodynamic parameters revealed no significant difference between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Low dose magnesium pretreatment before etomidate induction of anesthesia significantly reduces unwanted myoclonic jerks and also protects the hemodynamic stability. PMID:22973352

  4. 21 CFR 520.62 - Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. 520.62 Section 520.62 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. (a) Chemical name. 4-(Dimethylamino)-2,2-diphenylvaleramide...

  5. 21 CFR 520.62 - Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. 520.62 Section 520.62 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. (a) Chemical name. 4-(Dimethylamino)-2,2-diphenylvaleramide...

  6. 21 CFR 520.62 - Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. 520.62 Section 520.62 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. (a) Chemical name. 4-(Dimethylamino)-2,2-diphenylvaleramide...

  7. 21 CFR 520.62 - Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. 520.62 Section 520.62 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. (a) Chemical name. 4-(Dimethylamino)-2,2-diphenylvaleramide...

  8. Exubera. Inhale therapeutic systems.

    PubMed

    Bindra, Sanjit; Cefalu, William T

    2002-05-01

    Inhale, in colaboration with Pfizer and Aventis Pharma (formerly Hoechst Marion Roussel; HMR), is developing an insulin formulation utilizing its pulmonary delivery technology for macromolecules for the potential treatment of type I and II diabetes. By July 2001, the phase III program had been completed and the companies had begun to assemble data for MAA and NDA filings; however, it was already clear at this time that additional data might be required for filing. By December 2001, it had been decided that the NDA should include an increased level of controlled, long-term pulmonary safety data in diabetic patients and a major study was planned to be completed in 2002, with the NDA filed thereafter (during 2002). US-05997848 was issued to Inhale Therapeutic Systems in December 1999, and corresponds to WO-09524183, filed in February 1995. Equivalent applications have appeared to date in Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Europe, Finland, Hungary, Japan, Norway, New Zealand, Poland and South Africa. This family of applications is specific to pulmonary delivery of insulin. In February 1999, Lehman Brothers gave this inhaled insulin a 60% probability of reaching market, with a possible launch date of 2001. The analysts estimated peak sales at $3 billion in 2011. In May 2000, Aventis predicted that estimated peak sales would be in excess of $1 billion. In February 2000, Merrill Lynch expected product launch in 2002 and predicted that it would be a multibillion-dollar product. Analysts Merril Lynch predicted, in September and November 2000, that the product would be launched by 2002, with sales in that year of e75 million, rising to euro 500 million in 2004. In April 2001, Merrill Lynch predicted that filing for this drug would occur in 2001. Following the report of the potential delay in regulatory filing, issued in July 2001, Deutsche Banc Alex Brown predicted a filing would take place in the fourth quarter of 2002 and launch would take place in the first

  9. Treatment of diplomonad intestinal parasites with magnesium sulphate at a commercial rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) facility

    PubMed Central

    St-Hilaire, Sophie; Price, Derek; Taylor, Shawna; Groman, David

    2015-01-01

    Rainbow trout (average weight of 2 g) in fresh water experienced high mortality and were infected with a diplomonad intestinal parasite. Tanks of fish experienced an immediate reduction in mortality after an in-feed treatment with 3% Epsom salts for 2 d. Treatments had to be applied several times, but in each case there was a similar reduction in mortality. PMID:26246637

  10. Treatment of diplomonad intestinal parasites with magnesium sulphate at a commercial rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) facility.

    PubMed

    St-Hilaire, Sophie; Price, Derek; Taylor, Shawna; Groman, David

    2015-08-01

    Rainbow trout (average weight of 2 g) in fresh water experienced high mortality and were infected with a diplomonad intestinal parasite. Tanks of fish experienced an immediate reduction in mortality after an in-feed treatment with 3% Epsom salts for 2 d. Treatments had to be applied several times, but in each case there was a similar reduction in mortality.

  11. Sulphate release from building rubble of WWII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekiffer, Beate; Wessolek, Gerd; Vogeler, Iris; Brettholle, Mareike

    2010-05-01

    Sulphate concentration in the upper aquifer of Berlin, Germany is increasing continuously since 40 years. In downtown Berlin they particular exceed the precaution values of drinking water ordinance. We assume that the main source of sulphate in the groundwater is technogenic material, which is part of building rubble from WW II bombing. Nearly 115 Mio t of this material have been deposited in Berlin. Our aim is, ­ to identify rubble components which contain S and to quantify the S-pool of this material ­ to identify factors, influencing the release of SO4 and ­ to predict sulphate release from building rubble of WW II We analyzed total and water soluble S of various components and the fine earth fraction of the soils containing the rubble. We investigated the influence of physical and chemical parameters on the release of SO4 using unsaturated column experiments (With an automatic percolation system). Thereby, the particle size, the flow rate and the pH of the solution has been varied. Among the components, slag shows the highest total S-contents of up to 0,7% . Lignite Coal-ashes from Lusatia, Germany are also rich in SO4. The total S of brick varies between 0,01% and 0,3%. Mortar shows S-Values between 0,08 and 0,12%. In 75% of all samples show total S of less than 0,14%. There was no significant correlation between total S-amount and water-soluble SO4, which is caused by different chemical compounds in the samples. In the percolation experiments technogenic components with grain size <2mm cause a higher density, resulting in a lower percolation velocity. The concentration of ions in the according leachate is higher than in the leachate of coarse fraction (2 - 20mm). Gypsum-rich material (10%) released constant SO4 -concentration over the whole experiment. Slag-rich material released high initial SO4-concentrations which then fastly decreased. We concluded, that the kind of technogenic component and its grain size strongly influences the release of SO4 to the

  12. Magnesium Research and Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Nyberg, Eric A.; Joost, William; Smith, Mark T.

    2009-12-30

    The Magnesium Research and Technical Development (MR&TD) project supports efforts to increase using magnesium in automotive applications, including improving technology, lowering costs and increasing the knowledge needed to enable alloy and manufacturing process optimization. MR&TD supports the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) Magnesium Front End Research and Development (MFERD) project in collaboration with China and Canada. The MR&TD projects also maintains the magnesium bibliographic database at magnesium.pnl.gov.

  13. Inhaled matters of the heart

    PubMed Central

    Zaky, Ahmed; Ahmad, Aftab; Dell’Italia, Louis J; Jahromi, Leila; Reisenberg, Lee Ann; Matalon, Sadis; Ahmad, Shama

    2015-01-01

    Inhalations of atmospheric pollutants, especially particulate matters, are known to cause severe cardiac effects and to exacerbate preexisting heart disease. Heart failure is an important sequellae of gaseous inhalation such as that of carbon monoxide. Similarly, other gases such as sulphur dioxide are known to cause detrimental cardiovascular events. However, mechanisms of these cardiac toxicities are so far unknown. Increased susceptibility of the heart to oxidative stress may play a role. Low levels of antioxidants in the heart as compared to other organs and high levels of reactive oxygen species produced due to the high energetic demand and metabolic rate in cardiac muscle are important in rendering this susceptibility. Acute inhalation of high concentrations of halogen gases is often fatal. Severe respiratory injury and distress occurs upon inhalation of halogens gases, such as chlorine and bromine; however, studies on their cardiac effects are scant. We have demonstrated that inhalation of high concentrations of halogen gases cause significant cardiac injury, dysfunction, and failure that can be critical in causing mortalities following exposures. Our studies also demonstrated that cardiac dysfunction occurs as a result of a direct insult independent of coexisting hypoxia, since it is not fully reversed by oxygen supplementation. Therefore, studies on offsite organ effects of inhaled toxic gases can impact development of treatment strategies upon accidental or deliberate exposures to these agents. Here we summarize the knowledge of cardiovascular effects of common inhaled toxic gases with the intent to highlight the importance of consideration of cardiac symptoms while treating the victims. PMID:26665179

  14. Sulphate release from construction and demolition material in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Stefan; Wessolek, Gerd

    2013-04-01

    In Berlin and many other cities soils are heavily influenced by anthropogenic activities and deposited substrates. A widespread technical substrate in technosols is construction and demolition material from residential and industrial buildings. Existing rubble landfills without sealing facilities pose threats to ground water quality. In the central city of Berlin rising sulphate concentrations of groundwaters (up to 1200 mg/L) are measured since more than two decades. Previous studies point out that the high sulphate concentrations are mainly attributed to World War II rubble. The major part of debris was deposited in form of landfills and contains approximately 0.3 wt% gypsum. The scope of our research is to determine mechanisms of sulphate release from debris material, interactions between sulphate release, soil hydraulic properties and potential sinks of sulphur. To estimate equilibrium concentration and kinetics of sulphate release of various debris components batch and column experiments are conducted. The same method is applied to determine potential adsorptive character of common debris components. To analyse the impacts of soil hydraulic properties on sulphate leaching we carry out soil column experiments with defined upper and lower boundary conditions, varying water flow velocity and induced preferential flow. Simultaneously we monitor sulphate concentration of soil leachate in a 2 m³ lysimeter. First results of the batch experiments show that gypsum from broken stucco is the main source of sulphate in the observed technosols. Other components as mortar and slag show a quite low sulphate release. Similar results are found within the column experiments. For brigs medium and strongly time dependent sulphate release is determined. Concentrations up to 1500 mg/L are measured in the soil leachate from the lysimeter.

  15. Steroid hormone sulphation in lead workers.

    PubMed Central

    Apostoli, P; Romeo, L; Peroni, E; Ferioli, A; Ferrari, S; Pasini, F; Aprili, F

    1989-01-01

    The metabolism of steroid hormones has been investigated in 10 workers exposed to lead and in 10 non-exposed subjects to determine whether lead interferes with the first or second phase reactions of steroid hormone biotransformation, or both. In the exposed workers blood lead concentrations (PbB) ranged from 45 to 69 micrograms/100 ml; in the controls PbB was less than 25 micrograms/100 ml. No statistical differences were found for the total amount of the urinary hormone metabolites, but a drop of about 50% was observed for the sulphated portion. It is suggested that lead interferes with the mechanisms of sulphoconjugation through an effect on the cytosol enzymes sulphotransferase and sulphokinase. PMID:2930732

  16. Umeclidinium and Vilanterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... chest tightness caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; a group of diseases that affect the lungs ... use umeclidinium and vilanterol inhalation during a sudden COPD attack. Your doctor will prescribe a short-acting ( ...

  17. Fluticasone and Vilanterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... and chest tightness caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary (COPD; a group of diseases that affect the lungs ... use fluticasone and vilanterol inhalation during a sudden COPD attack. Your doctor will prescribe a short acting ( ...

  18. Fluticasone and Salmeterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... caused by asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; a group of lung diseases that includes chronic ... and salmeterol during an attack of asthma or COPD. Your doctor will prescribe a short-acting inhaler ...

  19. Concrete under sulphate attack: an isotope study on sulphur sources.

    PubMed

    Mittermayr, Florian; Bauer, Christoph; Klammer, Dietmar; Böttcher, Michael E; Leis, Albrecht; Escher, Peter; Dietzel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The formation of secondary sulphate minerals such as thaumasite, ettringite and gypsum is a process causing severe damage to concrete constructions. A major key to understand the complex reactions, involving concrete deterioration is to decipher the cause of its appearance, including the sources of the involved elements. In the present study, sulphate attack on the concrete of two Austrian tunnels is investigated. The distribution of stable sulphur isotopes is successfully applied to decipher the source(s) of sulphur in the deteriorating sulphate-bearing minerals. Interestingly, δ(34)S values of sulphate in local groundwater and in the deteriorating minerals are mostly in the range from+14 to+27 ‰. These δ(34)S values match the isotope patterns of regional Permian and Triassic marine evaporites. Soot relicts from steam- and diesel-driven trains found in one of the tunnels show δ(34)S values from-3 to+5 ‰, and are therefore assumed to be of minor importance for sulphate attack on the concretes. In areas of pyrite-containing sedimentary rocks, the δ(34)S values of sulphate from damaged concrete range between-1 and+11 ‰. The latter range reflects the impact of sulphide oxidation on local groundwater sulphate.

  20. Potent Inhalational Anesthetics for Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Satuito, Mary; Tom, James

    2016-01-01

    Nitrous oxide and the volatile inhalational anesthetics have defined anxiety and pain control in both dentistry and medicine for over a century. From curious experimentation to spectacular public demonstrations, the initial work of 2 dentists, Horace Wells and William T. G. Morton, persists to this day in modern surgery and anesthesia. This article reviews the history, similarities, differences, and clinical applications of the most popular inhalational agents used in contemporary dental surgical settings. PMID:26866411

  1. Purification and characterization of heparan sulphate proteoglycan from bovine brain.

    PubMed Central

    Park, Y; Yu, G; Gunay, N S; Linhardt, R J

    1999-01-01

    A heparan sulphate proteoglycan was purified from adult bovine brain tissues and its structure was characterized. The major heparan sulphate proteoglycan from whole bovine brain had a molecular mass of >200 kDa on denaturing SDS/PAGE and a core protein size of 66 kDa following the removal of glycosaminoglycan chains. Fractionation on DEAE-Sephacel showed that this proteoglycan consisted of three major forms having high, intermediate and low overall charge. All core proteins were identical in size and reacted with heparan sulphate proteoglycan-stub antibody and an antibody made to a synthetic peptide based on rat glypican. The three forms of proteoglycans had identical peptide maps and their amino acid compositional analysis did not match any of the known glypicans. The internal sequence of a major peptide showed only 37.5% sequence similarity with human glypican 5. The glycosaminoglycan chain sizes of the three forms of this proteoglycan, determined after beta-elimination by PAGE, were identical. The disaccharide compositional analysis on the heparan sulphate chains from the three forms of the proteoglycan, determined by treatment with a mixture of heparin lyases followed by high-resolution capillary electrophoresis, showed that they differed primarily by degree of sulphation. The most highly sulphated proteoglycan isolated had a disaccharide composition similar to heparan sulphate glycosaminoglycans found in brain tissue. Based on their sensitivity to low pH nitrous acid treatment, the N-sulphate groups in these proteoglycans were found to be primarily in the smaller glycosaminoglycan chains. The heparan sulphate proteoglycans were also heavily glycosylated with O-linked glycans and no glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor could be detected. PMID:10585858

  2. Nondestructive spot test method for magnesium and magnesium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, M. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A method for spot test identification of magnesium and various magnesium alloys commonly used in aerospace applications is described. The spot test identification involves color codes obtained when several drops of 3 M hydrochloric acid are placed on the surface to be tested. After approximately thirty seconds, two drops of this reacted acid is transferred to each of two depressions in a spot plate for additions of other chemicals with subsequent color changes indicating magnesium or its alloy.

  3. Highly Soluble Alkoxide Magnesium Salts for Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Chen; Guo, Bingkun; Jiang, Deen; Custelcean, Radu; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    A unique class of air-stable and non-pyrophoric magnesium electrolytes has been developed based on alkoxide magnesium compounds. The crystals obtained from this class of electrolytes exhibit a unique structure of tri-magnesium cluster, [Mg3Cl3(OR)2(THF)6]+ [(THF)MgCl3] . High reversible capacities and good rate capabilities were obtained in Mg-Mo6S8 batteries using these new electrolytes at both 20 and 50 oC.

  4. Inhaler Technique in Asthma: How Does It Relate to Patients' Preferences and Attitudes Toward Their Inhalers?

    PubMed Central

    Jahedi, Lia; Downie, Sue R.; Saini, Bandana; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Correct inhaler technique can increase medication efficacy, reducing both dose and side effects. Patient preference for inhaler device has not been fully explored, and we hypothesized that if patients have a preference and can choose their inhaler, they might be more likely to use it correctly. Our aim was to determine the preferences, attitudes, and perceptions of patients with asthma toward their inhalers, and to evaluate whether any of these factors were related to inhalation technique. Methods: Twenty-five patients with asthma (mean age 43.1 years) participated. Qualitative semi-structured interviews and quantitative patient satisfaction and preference questionnaires (PASAPQ) were used to explore patients' preferences, attitudes, and perceptions about their inhalers. Objective inhalation technique assessment was performed. Data were triangulated to identify characteristics that could indicate a relationship between inhaler technique, satisfaction, preference, and decision making. Results: Themes from qualitative interviews were as follows: asthma inhalers and expectations; inhaler preference; characteristics of an ideal inhaler; perceived effectiveness of inhalers; and inhalers and patient decision making. PASAPQ scores indicated that all patients were at least “somewhat satisfied” with their inhalers, regardless of technique. Only 12% of inhalers were used correctly, despite pilot PASAPQ data suggesting that most patients were confident with their technique. The inhaler technique was unlikely to be related to satisfaction, perception of inhaler devices, or choice in device selection. Patients with correct inhaler technique were more aware of their asthma and expressed motivation to achieve optimal asthma control. Conclusions: The majority of the asthmatic patients did not use their inhaler(s) correctly, despite most having confidence in their technique. Patients attributed confidence in their inhaler technique to their belief that

  5. Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine and recovery of barium as a barium salt mixture.

    PubMed

    Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Zvimba, John N; Mulopo, Jean; Motaung, Solly

    2013-01-01

    Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine using barium hydroxide and recovery of the barium salts has been investigated. The sodium sulphate-rich brine treated with different dosages of barium hydroxide to precipitate barium sulphate showed sulphate removal from 13.5 g/L to less than 400 mg/L over 60 min using a barium to sulphate molar ratio of 1.1. The thermal conversion of precipitated barium sulphate to barium sulphide achieved a conversion yield of 85% using coal as both a reducing agent and an energy source. The recovery of a pure mixture of barium salts from barium sulphide, which involved dissolution of barium sulphide and reaction with ammonium hydroxide resulted in recovery of a mixture of barium carbonate (62%) and barium hydroxide (38%), which is a critical input raw material for barium salts based acid mine drainage (AMD) desalination technologies. Under alkaline conditions of this barium salt mixture recovery process, ammonia gas is given off, while hydrogen sulfide is retained in solution as bisulfide species, and this provides basis for ammonium hydroxide separation and recovery for reuse, with hydrogen sulfide also recoverable for further industrial applications such as sulfur production by subsequent stripping.

  6. [New inhalation anesthetics].

    PubMed

    Conzen, P; Nuscheler, M

    1996-08-01

    Recently, two new halogenated volatile anaesthetics, sevoflurane and desflurane, have been approved for clinical use in Germany. Their low solubility in blood is the most important common property, and this represents the most obvious difference from the inhalational anaesthetics currently used. Extensive clinical and experimental evaluations have confirmed the superior pharmacokinetic properties predicted. Both sevoflurane and desflurane provide more rapid emergence from anaesthesia, permit easier titration of the anaesthetic dose during maintenance and offer more rapid recovery from anaesthesia. For sevoflurane, there are additional advantages: a pleasant odor, negligible airway irritation, and excellent pharmacodynamic characteristics that even provide cardiovascular stability comparable to isoflurane. A certain disadvantage and source of potential nephrotoxicity result from the metabolism of sevoflurane (2-5%) to anorganic fluoride and degradation to compound A in carbon dioxide absorbents. The extensive clinical data reported to date have revealed no evidence that sevoflurane has adverse renal effects. New insight into the pathomechanism of nephrotoxicity associated with either production of fluoride or compound A may well support clinical experience. Desflurane strongly resists in vivo metabolism and because of this it appears to be devoid of toxicity. Nevertheless, potential side-effects may result from degradation in dry absorbents and subsequent release of CO, from its extreme pungency and irritating airway effects. Thus, desflurane is not recommended for induction of anaesthesia, especially in children. The tendency for desflurane transiently to stimulate sympathetic activity, especially at concentrations above 1.0 MAC, limits its application in patients with cardiac disease.

  7. Constraining magnesium cycling in marine sediments using magnesium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, J. A.; Schrag, D. P.

    2010-09-01

    Magnesium concentrations in deep-sea sediment pore-fluids typically decrease down core due to net precipitation of dolomite or clay minerals in the sediments or underlying crust. To better characterize and differentiate these processes, we have measured magnesium isotopes in pore-fluids and sediment samples from Ocean Drilling Program sites (1082, 1086, 1012, 984, 1219, and 925) that span a range of oceanographic settings. At all sites, magnesium concentrations decrease with depth. At sites where diagenetic reactions are dominated by the respiration of organic carbon, pore-fluid δ 26Mg values increase with depth by as much as 2‰. Because carbonates preferentially incorporate 24Mg (low δ 26Mg), the increase in pore-fluid δ 26Mg values at these sites is consistent with the removal of magnesium in Mg-carbonate (dolomite). In contrast, at sites where the respiration of organic carbon is not important and/or weatherable minerals are abundant, pore-fluid δ 26Mg values decrease with depth by up to 2‰. The decline in pore-fluid δ 26Mg at these sites is consistent with a magnesium sink that is isotopically enriched relative to the pore-fluid. The identity of this enriched magnesium sink is likely clay minerals. Using a simple 1D diffusion-advection-reaction model of pore-fluid magnesium, we estimate rates of net magnesium uptake/removal and associated net magnesium isotope fractionation factors for sources and sinks at all sites. Independent estimates of magnesium isotope fractionation during dolomite precipitation from measured δ 26Mg values of dolomite samples from sites 1082 and 1012 are very similar to modeled net fractionation factors at these sites, suggesting that local exchange of magnesium between sediment and pore-fluid at these sites can be neglected. Our results indicate that the magnesium incorporated in dolomite is 2.0-2.7‰ depleted in δ 26Mg relative to the precipitating fluid. Assuming local exchange of magnesium is minor at the rest of the

  8. Magnesium fluoride recovery method

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Richard L.; McKenzie, Donald E.

    1989-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is contacted with an acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a particulate solid product. The particulate solid product is separated from the liquid and treated at least two more times with acid to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium fluoride substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than about 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the acid treatment and preferably the acid is sulfuric acid having a strength of about 1.0 Normal.

  9. Magnesium in Prevention and Therapy.

    PubMed

    Gröber, Uwe; Schmidt, Joachim; Kisters, Klaus

    2015-09-23

    Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral in the body. It has been recognized as a cofactor for more than 300 enzymatic reactions, where it is crucial for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) metabolism. Magnesium is required for DNA and RNA synthesis, reproduction, and protein synthesis. Moreover, magnesium is essential for the regulation of muscular contraction, blood pressure, insulin metabolism, cardiac excitability, vasomotor tone, nerve transmission and neuromuscular conduction. Imbalances in magnesium status-primarily hypomagnesemia as it is seen more common than hypermagnesemia-might result in unwanted neuromuscular, cardiac or nervous disorders. Based on magnesium's many functions within the human body, it plays an important role in prevention and treatment of many diseases. Low levels of magnesium have been associated with a number of chronic diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease (e.g., stroke), migraine headaches, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

  10. Low brain magnesium in migraine

    SciTech Connect

    Ramadan, N.M.; Halvorson, H.; Vande-Linde, A.; Levine, S.R.; Helpern, J.A.; Welch, K.M.

    1989-10-01

    Brain magnesium was measured in migraine patients and control subjects using in vivo 31-Phosphorus Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. pMg and pH were calculated from the chemical shifts between Pi, PCr and ATP signals. Magnesium levels were low during a migraine attack without changes in pH. We hypothesize that low brain magnesium is an important factor in the mechanism of the migraine attack.

  11. Folic acid improve developmental toxicity induced by aluminum sulphates.

    PubMed

    Yassa, Heba A; George, Safaa M; Mohamed, Heba K

    2017-03-01

    Aluminum sulphate has a significant toxic effects for humans. Aluminum is one of the most abundant metal on the Earth crust. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of short term exposure to aluminum sulphate on the bone development of the fetuses in rats, and if folic acid has a protective role upon that effects or not. Forty female rats were used, ten per group, GI served as negative control (receive nothing except normal feeding and water), GII served as positive control (receive water by gastric gavage), GIII treated with aluminum sulphate orally by gastric gavage and GIV treated with aluminum sulphate with folic acid. Mating occurred and known by presence of vaginal plug in the female rats. Rats were killed on day 18 of gestation.

  12. Genetics of sulphate assimilation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe (a short review).

    PubMed

    Simonics, T; Bánszky, Luca; Maráz, Anna

    2002-01-01

    Sulphur plays an important role in yeasts, especially in the biosynthesis of methionine and cysteine. The inorganic sulphur source, sulphate, is taken up by the cells via the sulphate-permease(s). After its transport, it is activated and subsequently reduced to sulphide or serves as a donor for sulphurylation reactions. Selenate anion (SeO4(2-)), which has the same metabolic pathway as sulphate, is toxic for the cells of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. We isolated selenate resistant mutants which cannot utilize sulphate, therefore they need organic sulphur source for growth. One of the selenate resistant mutants was successively transformed with S. pombe genomic libraries and the gene complementing the selenate resistance was identified as that of coding for the ATP-sulphurylase enzyme.

  13. Pneumoconiosis after sericite inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Algranti, E; Handar, A; Dumortier, P; Mendonca, E; Rodrigues, G; Santos, A; Mauad, T; Dolhnikoff, M; De Vuyst, P; Saldiva, P; Bussacos, M

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To investigate and describe the radiological, clinical, and pathological changes in miners and millers exposed to sericite dust with mineralogical characteristics of inhaled dust. Methods: The working premises were visited to examine the sericite processing and to classify the jobs according to make qualitative evaluation. Respirable dust was collected and the amount of crystalline silica and particle size distribution were measured. Forty four workers were examined by a standard questionnaire for respiratory symptoms, spirometry, and chest x ray. Material from an open lung biopsy was reviewed for histopathological and mineralogical analysis, together with sericite samples from the work site to compare the mineral characteristics in lung lesions and work area. Results: Respirable dust contained 4.5–10.0% crystalline silica. Particle size distribution showed a heavy burden of very fine particles (23–55%) with a mean diameter of <0.5 µm. Mean age of sericite miners was 41.0 (11.9) and mean number of years of exposure was 13.5 (10.1). In 52.3% of workers (23/44), chest radiographs presented a median category of 1/0 or above, and 18.2% (8/44) had a reduced FEV1. There was a significant association between exposure indices and x ray category. Histological studies of the lung biopsy showed lesions compatible with mixed dust fibrosis with no silicotic nodules. x Ray diffraction analysis of the lung dust residue and the bulk samples collected from work area showed similar mineralogical characteristics. Muscovite and kaolinite were the major mineral particle inclusions in the lung. Conclusion: Exposure to fine sericite particles is associated with the development of functional and radiological changes in workers inducing mixed dust lesions, which are distinct histologically from silicosis. PMID:15723874

  14. Sorption of endosulphan sulphate in soil organic matter.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Raja; Atwater, James W; Hall, Ken J; Parkinson, Paula

    2011-12-01

    Sorption of endosulphan sulphate in soil organic matter was investigated using Standard Elliot soil humic acid (HA) and soil fulvic acid (FA) at two ionic strengths (0.001 and 0.01). It was observed that divalent calcium ion and ionic strength affect the sorption of endosulphan sulphate in HA. All the experiments were carried out at pH 6.7 +/- 0.1. In the presence and absence of calcium (ionic strength 0.001), the solubility enhancement method was used to estimate the sorption coefficients of endosulphan sulphate in HA. For FA, the solubility enhancement method was used to estimate the sorption coefficients at an ionic strength of 0.001 (in the presence of calcium) and 0.01. The presence of calcium was found to significantly enhance (alpha = 0.01) the solubility of endosulphan sulphate in HA. Sorption coefficients at pH 6.7, obtained using the solubility enhancement method, were found to be 10-21 L/g in HA and 6 L/g in FA (in the presence of calcium). Increase in ionic strength from 0.001 to 0.01 decreased the sorption of endosulphan sulphate in HA. The effect of ionic strength and calcium on the sorption of endosulphan sulphate was most satisfactorily explained on the basis of the Donnan volume.

  15. [Magnesium disorder in metabolic bone diseases].

    PubMed

    Ishii, Akira; Imanishi, Yasuo

    2012-08-01

    Magnesium is abundantly distributed among the body. The half of the magnesium exists in the bone. In addition, magnesium is the second most abundant intracellular cation in vertebrates and essential for maintaining physiological function of the cells. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that magnesium deficiency is a risk factor for osteoporosis. The mechanism of bone fragility caused by magnesium deficiency has been intensely studied using animal models of magnesium deficiency. Magnesium deficiency causes decreased osteoblastic function and increased number of osteoclasts. Magnesium deficiency also accelerates mineralization in bone. These observations suggest that disturbed bone metabolic turnover and mineralization causes bone fragility.

  16. Magnesium Hall Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, James J.

    2015-01-01

    This Phase II project is developing a magnesium (Mg) Hall effect thruster system that would open the door for in situ resource utilization (ISRU)-based solar system exploration. Magnesium is light and easy to ionize. For a Mars- Earth transfer, the propellant mass savings with respect to a xenon Hall effect thruster (HET) system are enormous. Magnesium also can be combusted in a rocket with carbon dioxide (CO2) or water (H2O), enabling a multimode propulsion system with propellant sharing and ISRU. In the near term, CO2 and H2O would be collected in situ on Mars or the moon. In the far term, Mg itself would be collected from Martian and lunar regolith. In Phase I, an integrated, medium-power (1- to 3-kW) Mg HET system was developed and tested. Controlled, steady operation at constant voltage and power was demonstrated. Preliminary measurements indicate a specific impulse (Isp) greater than 4,000 s was achieved at a discharge potential of 400 V. The feasibility of delivering fluidized Mg powder to a medium- or high-power thruster also was demonstrated. Phase II of the project evaluated the performance of an integrated, highpower Mg Hall thruster system in a relevant space environment. Researchers improved the medium power thruster system and characterized it in detail. Researchers also designed and built a high-power (8- to 20-kW) Mg HET. A fluidized powder feed system supporting the high-power thruster was built and delivered to Busek Company, Inc.

  17. Magnesium reduction of uranium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Elliott, G.R.B.

    1985-08-13

    A method and apparatus are provided for reducing uranium oxide with magnesium to form uranium metal. The reduction is carried out in a molten-salt solution of density greater than 3.4 grams per cubic centimeter, thereby allowing the uranium product to sink and the magnesium oxide byproduct to float, consequently allowing separation of product and byproduct.

  18. Magnesium substitution in brushite cements.

    PubMed

    Alkhraisat, Mohammad Hamdan; Cabrejos-Azama, Jatsue; Rodríguez, Carmen Rueda; Jerez, Luis Blanco; Cabarcos, Enrique López

    2013-01-01

    The use of magnesium-doped ceramics has been described to modify brushite cements and improve their biological behavior. However, few studies have analyzed the efficiency of this approach to induce magnesium substitution in brushite crystals. Mg-doped ceramics composed of Mg-substituted β-TCP, stanfieldite and/or farringtonite were reacted with primary monocalcium phosphate (MCP) in the presence of water. The cement setting reaction has resulted in the formation of brushite and newberyite within the cement matrix. Interestingly, the combination of SAED and EDX analyses of single crystal has indicated the occurrence of magnesium substitution within brushite crystals. Moreover, the effect of magnesium ions on the structure, and mechanical and setting properties of the new cements was characterized as well as the release of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions. Further research would enhance the efficiency of the system to incorporate larger amounts of magnesium ions within brushite crystals.

  19. Magnesium in Prevention and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gröber, Uwe; Schmidt, Joachim; Kisters, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral in the body. It has been recognized as a cofactor for more than 300 enzymatic reactions, where it is crucial for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) metabolism. Magnesium is required for DNA and RNA synthesis, reproduction, and protein synthesis. Moreover, magnesium is essential for the regulation of muscular contraction, blood pressure, insulin metabolism, cardiac excitability, vasomotor tone, nerve transmission and neuromuscular conduction. Imbalances in magnesium status—primarily hypomagnesemia as it is seen more common than hypermagnesemia—might result in unwanted neuromuscular, cardiac or nervous disorders. Based on magnesium’s many functions within the human body, it plays an important role in prevention and treatment of many diseases. Low levels of magnesium have been associated with a number of chronic diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease (e.g., stroke), migraine headaches, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). PMID:26404370

  20. Bone mineral response to ammonium sulphate offered as a lick supplement in beef calves.

    PubMed

    Motsei, L E; Beighle, D E

    2006-03-01

    Sixteen Bonsmara calves (4 males, 12 females) between 10 and 18 months of age were blocked according to age and sex and randomly assigned to 2 groups. They were offered licks containing bone meal and salt (50:50 ratio) (control) and bone meal and ammonium sulphate (NH4SO4) at 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, and 18% (treatment) to evaluate the effects of dietary anions on bone phosphate (P) concentration. Bone P concentration was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the NH4SO4 group compared with the control group, indicating that NH4SO4 was able to increase the P content of bone at each of the 6 concentrations used in the lick relative to the control animals, thereby improving the P status of the animals. Ammonium sulphate at 15% and 18 % in the lick also significantly (P < 0.05) increased bone P compared with the lower concentrations of NH4SO4. Bone calcium (Ca) fluctuated as a result of the acidogenic lick. There was absorption of Ca when P was being resorbed and resorption of Ca when P was being absorbed into and out of bone. Bone Ca:P ratio ranged from 3.2 to 6.4 among the control group and 1.6 to 4.3 among the treatment group. Animals receiving the acidogenic lick had a higher percentage ash compared to the control group for most of the experimental period. Bone magnesium (Mg) fluctuated in response to the acidogenic lick, and it was difficult to show a relationship between bone Mg and Ca or P. The overall mean cortical bone thickness was significantly (P < 0.05) greater in treatment (1.60 mm) compared with control (1.43 mm) calves and this was also true at sampling periods 2, 4, 5 and 6. Bone thickness followed bone P and not bone Ca. Results from this research indicate that the addition of ammonium sulphate to a lick had a beneficial effect in improving the P status by increasing bone P and improving the mineral status of bone by increasing the thickness of cortical bone and percentage ash.

  1. 6-Sulphated Chondroitins Have a Positive Influence on Axonal Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Rachel; Rosahl, Thomas W.; Whiting, Paul J.; Fawcett, James W.; Kwok, Jessica C. F.

    2011-01-01

    Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) upregulated in the glial scar inhibit axon regeneration via their sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Chondroitin 6-sulphotransferase-1 (C6ST-1) is upregulated after injury leading to an increase in 6-sulphated GAG. In this study, we ask if this increase in 6-sulphated GAG is responsible for the increased inhibition within the glial scar, or whether it represents a partial reversion to the permissive embryonic state dominated by 6-sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Using C6ST-1 knockout mice (KO), we studied post-injury changes in chondroitin sulphotransferase (CSST) expression and the effect of chondroitin 6-sulphates on both central and peripheral axon regeneration. After CNS injury, wild-type animals (WT) showed an increase in mRNA for C6ST-1, C6ST-2 and C4ST-1, but KO did not upregulate any CSSTs. After PNS injury, while WT upregulated C6ST-1, KO showed an upregulation of C6ST-2. We examined regeneration of nigrostriatal axons, which demonstrate mild spontaneous axon regeneration in the WT. KO showed many fewer regenerating axons and more axonal retraction than WT. However, in the PNS, repair of the median and ulnar nerves led to similar and normal levels of axon regeneration in both WT and KO. Functional tests on plasticity after the repair also showed no evidence of enhanced plasticity in the KO. Our results suggest that the upregulation of 6-sulphated GAG after injury makes the extracellular matrix more permissive for axon regeneration, and that the balance of different CSs in the microenvironment around the lesion site is an important factor in determining the outcome of nervous system injury. PMID:21747937

  2. Talcum induced pneumoconiosis following inhalation of adulterated marijuana, a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Talcosis, a granulomatous inflammation of the lungs caused by inhalation of talcum dust, is a rare form of pneumoconiosis. Besides inhalative occupational exposure, intravenous abuse of adulterated drugs is a major cause for this condition. Minerals such as talcum (magnesium silicate) and sand (predominant silicon dioxide) are used to increase both volume and weight of illicit substances. In intravenous heroin-abuse, talcosis is a well-known complication. Here we describe a case of talcosis caused by inhalative abuse of adulterated marijuana. Clinical history A 29-year old man presented with persistent fever, dyspnea and cervical emphysema. He admitted consumption of 'cut' marijuana for several years, preferentially by water pipe smoking. Morphologic findings Lung-biopsies showed chronic interstitial lung disease, anthracotic pigments and birefringent material. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy revealed silicon-containing particles (1-2 μm) and fine aluminum particles (< 1 μm), magnesium and several other elements forming a spectrum compatible with the stated water pipe smoking of talcum-adulterated marijuana. Conclusions The exacerbated chronic interstitial lung disease in a 29-year old patient could be attributed to his prolonged abuse of talcum-adulterated marjuana by histopathology and x-ray spectroscopy. Since cannabis consumption is widely spread among young adults, it seems to be justified to raise attention to this form of interstitial pulmonary disease. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnomx.eu/vs/krause/html/start.html. PMID:22420484

  3. Studies on the metabolism of oestrone sulphate. Comparative perfusions of oestrone and oestrone sulphate through isolated rat livers

    PubMed Central

    Höller, Michael; Grochtmann, Wilhelm; Napp, Mechthild; Breuer, Heinz

    1977-01-01

    The metabolism of [4-14C]oestrone and of [6,7-3H2]oestrone sulphate was studied during cyclic perfusion and once-through perfusion of the isolated rat liver. The following results were obtained. 1. As shown by once-through perfusion, the two steroids are metabolized differently during the first passage through the organ. [4-14C]Oestrone was taken up by the liver and partly delivered as oestradiol-17β and oestriol into the medium. After uptake of [6,7-3H2]oestrone sulphate, only oestrone, liberated by hydrolysis, was delivered into the medium; no oestradiol-17β or oestriol could be detected in the medium after one passage through the organ. This indicates that intracellular oestrone, which was taken up as such, and oestrone, which derived from intracellular hydrolysis, may be metabolized in different compartments of the liver cell. 2. The results of the cyclic perfusion showed that intracellular oestrone is preferentially conjugated with glucuronic acid, and subsequently excreted into the bile. Intracellular oestrone sulphate is preferably reduced to oestradiol sulphate, thus indicating that oestrone sulphate is a better substrate for the 17β-hydroxy steroid oxidoreductase than is oestrone. 3. Albumin-bound oestrone sulphate acts as a large reservoir, and in contrast with free oestrone is protected from enzyme attack by its strong binding to albumin. 4. Oestrone sulphate is partly converted into the hormonally active oestrone by liver tissue. This suggests that liver not only inactivates oestrogens, but also provides the organism with oestrone, which is subsequently readily taken up by other organs. PMID:597232

  4. INHALATION EXPOSURE-RESPONSE METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Inhalation Exposure-Response Analysis Methodology Document is expected to provide guidance on the development of the basic toxicological foundations for deriving reference values for human health effects, focusing on the hazard identification and dose-response aspects of the ...

  5. Parental Influence on Inhalant Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltazar, Alina; Hopkins, Gary; McBride, Duane; Vanderwaal, Curt; Pepper, Sara; Mackey, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the dynamics of the relationship between parents and their adolescent children and their association with lifetime and past-month inhalant usage. The population studied was seventh- through ninth-grade students in rural Idaho (N = 570). The authors found a small, but consistent, significant inverse…

  6. TARGETED DELIVERY OF INHALED PROTEINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ETD-02-047 (Martonen) GPRA # 10108

    TARGETED DELIVERY OF INHALED PROTEINS
    T. B. Martonen1, J. Schroeter2, Z. Zhang3, D. Hwang4, and J. S. Fleming5
    1Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park...

  7. Inhalant Use in Florida Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siqueira, Lorena; Crandall, Lee A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine (1) the prevalence of use, (2) risk and protective factors for use of inhalants in Florida youth. Methods: The Florida Youth Substance Abuse Survey 2004 is a comprehensive assessment of youth substance abuse attitudes and practices obtained by sampling youth from sixty-five counties. Results: The sample consisted of 60,345…

  8. Synthesis of magnesium diboride by magnesium vapor infiltration process (MVIP)

    DOEpatents

    Serquis, Adriana C.; Zhu, Yuntian T.; Mueller, Frederick M.; Peterson, Dean E.; Liao, Xiao Zhou

    2003-01-01

    A process of preparing superconducting magnesium diboride powder by heating an admixture of solid magnesium and amorphous boron powder or pellet under an inert atmosphere in a Mg:B ratio of greater than about 0.6:1 at temperatures and for time sufficient to form said superconducting magnesium diboride. The process can further include exposure to residual oxygen at high synthesis temperatures followed by slow cooling. In the cooling process oxygen atoms dissolved into MgB.sub.2 segregated to form nanometer-sized coherent Mg(B,O) precipitates in the MgB.sub.2 matrix, which can act as flux pinning centers.

  9. Fractionation of bamboo hemicelluloses by graded saturated ammonium sulphate.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ying; Zhang, Bing; Qi, Xian-Ming; Peng, Feng; Yao, Chun-Li; Sun, Run-Cang

    2015-09-20

    The hemicelluloses were isolated with 10% KOH at 25°C from dewaxed and delignified bamboo powder. The alkali-soluble hemicelluloses from Sinocalamus affinis were fractionated by ammonium sulphate precipitation method. The bamboo alkali-soluble hemicelluloses yielded seven hemicellulosic fractions obtained at 0, 5, 15, 25, 40, 55, and 70% saturation with ammonium sulphate. It was found that the more branched hemicelluloses were precipitated at higher ammonium sulphate concentrations (55 and 70%), the more linear hemicelluloses were precipitated at lower ammonium sulphate concentrations (0, 5, 15, 25, and 40%). The molecular weights of hemicellulosic fractions become lower from 35,270 (H0) to 18,680 (H70)gmol(-1) with the increasing concentrations of saturated ammonium sulphate from 0 to 70%. Based on the FT-IR, (1)H, (13)C and 2D HSQC NMR studies, the alkali-soluble hemicelluloses were 4-O-methyl-glucuronoarabinoxylans composed of the (1→4)-linked β-d-xylopyranosyl backbone with branches at O-3 of α-L-arabinofuranosyl or at O-2 of 4-O-methyl-α-d-glucuronic acid.

  10. Dietary magnesium and urolithiasis in growing calves.

    PubMed

    Kallfelz, F A; Ahmed, A S; Wallace, R J; Sasangka, B H; Warner, R G

    1987-01-01

    The effect of high levels of dietary magnesium (1.4%) alone or in combination with elevated calcium (1.8%) or phosphorus (1.6%) on growth and health of male calves was evaluated during a nine week feeding trial after weaning. Twenty calves were randomly divided into 4 feeding groups consisting of controls, high magnesium, high magnesium and calcium or high magnesium and phosphorus. Elevated dietary minerals caused decreased feed intake and growth rate. Blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine levels were greatly elevated in calves fed high magnesium or magnesium and phosphorus and serum urea nitrogen was moderately elevated in calves fed high magnesium and calcium. These elevations suggested the occurrence of renal damage as a result of microcrystalline obstruction of renal tubules. Serum magnesium levels were three times normal in calves fed high magnesium or magnesium and phosphorus, but only twice normal in calves fed high magnesium and calcium. High dietary magnesium resulted in a significant depression in blood calcium level. This effect was somewhat overcome by additional dietary calcium Three calves fed the high magnesium diet and two calves fed the high magnesium and phosphorus diet developed urinary tract obstruction. The chemical composition of uroliths recovered from these calves was calcium apatite. Elevated dietary magnesium has been shown to be a cause of urolithiasis in growing male calves. Additional dietary calcium, but not phosphorus, appears to protect calves against urolithiasis induced by elevated dietary magnesium.

  11. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium oxide. 184.1431 Section 184.1431 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Magnesium oxide (MgO, CAS Reg. No. 1309-48-4... powder (light) or a relatively dense white powder (heavy) by heating magnesium hydroxide or...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in...

  14. Mineral resource of the month: magnesium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium is the eighthmost abundant element in Earth’s crust, and the second-most abundant metal ion in seawater. Although magnesium is found in more than 60 minerals, only brucite, dolomite, magnesite and carnallite are commercially important for their magnesium content. Magnesium and its compounds also are recovered from seawater, brines found in lakes and wells, and bitterns (salts).

  15. 21 CFR 184.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 184.1431 Section 184.1431 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Magnesium oxide (MgO, CAS Reg. No... bulky white powder (light) or a relatively dense white powder (heavy) by heating magnesium hydroxide...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium hydroxide. 184.1428 Section 184.1428 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2, CAS... a white precipitate by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a water soluble magnesium salt or...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 184.1428 Section 184.1428... GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2, CAS Reg. No. 1309-42-8) occurs... addition of sodium hydroxide to a water soluble magnesium salt or by hydration of reactive grades...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 184.1431 Section 184.1431 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Magnesium oxide (MgO, CAS Reg. No... bulky white powder (light) or a relatively dense white powder (heavy) by heating magnesium hydroxide...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 184.1431 Section 184.1431 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Magnesium oxide (MgO, CAS Reg. No... bulky white powder (light) or a relatively dense white powder (heavy) by heating magnesium hydroxide...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 184.1431 Section 184.1431 Food... GRAS § 184.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Magnesium oxide (MgO, CAS Reg. No. 1309-48-4) occurs naturally as... a relatively dense white powder (heavy) by heating magnesium hydroxide or carbonate. Heating...

  7. Magnesium deficiency: What is our status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low magnesium intake has been implicated in a broad range of cardiometabolic conditions, including diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Dietary magnesium and total body magnesium status have a widely-used but imperfect biomarker in serum magnesium. Despite serum magnesium’s limitation...

  8. The study of minerals under simulated planetary conditions: Experiments of hydrated sulphates at environmental conditions of martian surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Mateo-Martí, E.; Fernández-Remolar, D.

    2007-08-01

    Minerals on planetary surfaces are usually identified comparing remote infrared spectral data to laboratory mineral databases obtained under terrestrial conditions. However, environmental conditions at other planetary surfaces could produce alterations on the standard mineral spectra. Spectroscopic signals of hydrated magnesium, calcium and hydroxlated iron sulphates have been recently detected on surface of Mars. Some experiments using environmental conditions at the martian surface (temperature and pressure ranges; atmospheric composition, including water vapor content; and ultraviolet radiation) of different sulphates have been performed in order to both, constrain the stability of the hydrated phases and detect any possible modification in their spectra. Experiments have been done in a simulation chamber located in Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid. The equipment has been developed for a wide range of simulation conditions, including a range of irradiation sources, and the implementation of analytical techniques, including IR and UV spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The equipment consists of a main vacuum chamber with dimensions of 50 cm long x 40 cm diameter, a second internal chamber connected by differential pumping with the main one, and a third side chamber for the gases analysis using a mass spectrometer. Chambers pressures are monitorized by different pirani-penning gauges. A liquid nitrogen cooling system is connected to the sample holder, and a gas system allows the mixing of gases and water.

  9. [Magnesium: a kardio-renal viewpoint].

    PubMed

    Brandenburg, Vincent Matthias; Kaesler, Nadine; Kramann, Rafael; Floege, Jürgen; Marx, Nikolaus

    2016-10-01

    Disturbances in magnesium homeostasis are frequent clinical conditions, particularly the prevalence of hypomagnesaemia is high. However, it remains an open question which laboratory method is optimal to assess the magnesium level in the body. Most frequently physicians measure total magnesium in serum. Many associative data from observational studies point towards an association between low magnesium levels and increased cardiovascular risk as well as increased mortality. Vice versa, normal-to-high magnesium levels in patients with advanced renal failure translate to a better outcome. The present review summarizes our knowledge on protective effects of magnesium. Additionally, we address the limited evidence supporting targeted magnesium supplementation.

  10. Corrosion Performance of Inconel 625 in High Sulphate Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Azzura

    2016-05-01

    Inconel 625 (UNS N06625) is a type of nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy with excellent corrosion resistance in a wide range of corrosive media, being especially resistant to pitting and crevice corrosion. However, in aggressive environment, Inconel 625 will suffer corrosion attack like other metals. This research compared the corrosion performance of Inconel 625 when exposed to higher sulphate content compared to real seawater. The results reveal that Inconel 625 is excellent in resist the corrosion attack in seawater. However, at increasing temperature, the corrosion resistance of this metal decrease. The performance is same in seawater with high sulphate content at increasing temperature. It can be concluded that sulphate promote perforation on Inconel 625 and become aggressive agents that accelerate the corrosion attack.

  11. Confession of a Magnesium Battery.

    PubMed

    Bucur, Claudiu B; Gregory, Thomas; Oliver, Allen G; Muldoon, John

    2015-09-17

    Magnesium is an ideal metal anode that has nearly double the volumetric capacity of lithium metal with a very negative reduction potential of -2.37 vs SHE. A significant advantage of magnesium is the apparent lack of dendrite formation during charging, which overcomes major safety and performance challenges encountered with using lithium metal anodes. Here, we highlight major recent advances in nonaqueous Mg electrochemistry, notably the development of electrolytes and cathodes, and discuss some of the challenges that must be overcome to realize a practical magnesium battery.

  12. Microwave assisted synthesis of nano sized sulphate doped hydroxyapatite

    SciTech Connect

    Alshemary, Ammar Z.; Goh, Yi-Fan; Akram, Muhammad; Razali, Ili Rabihah; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq; Hussain, Rafaqat

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ► Phase pure nano-sized sulphur doped hydroxyapatite has been synthesized. ► TEM analysis confirmed formation of needle shaped structure. ► Lattice parameters and cell volume increased with increase in sulphate doping. ► Crystallite size decreased as sulphate content inside the structure increased. ► Degree of crystallinity decreased with increase in sulphate substitution. - Abstract: Inorganic sulphate is required by all mammalian cells to function properly, it is the fourth most abundant anion in the human plasma. Sulphate ions are the major source of sulphur which is considered an important element for sustenance of life as it is present in the essential amino and is required by cells to function properly. In this study we have successfully substituted sulphate ions (SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}) into hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6−x}(SO{sub 4}){sub x}(OH){sub 2−x}) lattice via ion exchange process with phosphate group. Concentration of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions was varied between X = 0.05–0.5, using (Ca (NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O), ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4}) and (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) as starting materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform IR spectroscopy (FTIR), showed that the substitution of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions into the lattice resulted in peak broadening and reduced peak height due to the amorphous nature and reduced crystallinity of the resulting HA powder. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis confirmed the formation of needle shaped particles of 41 nm size with homogenous and uniform distribution of element within the HA structure.

  13. Magnesium: Engineering the Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X. B.; Yang, H. Y.; Abbott, T. B.; Easton, M. A.; Birbilis, N.

    2012-06-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys provide numerous benefits as lightweight materials; however, industrial deployment of Mg in most instances requires anticorrosion coatings. Engineering the Mg surface is an area that has been undergoing intense research recently. Surface engineering commences with the "pretreatment" step, which can be used to modify the surface composition and morphology, resulting in surface enrichment or depletion of alloying elements. Following this, electrochemical plating (including electro- and electroless plating) and conversion coatings have emerged as common means of coating Mg. In this study, we present the key aspects relating to the science and technology associated with pretreatment, electrochemical plating, and conversion coatings. This is followed by experimental examples of engineered surfaces of industrial relevance.

  14. [Effects of Instruction on Inhalation Techniques Using iPads - Web Application "Inhalation Lessons"].

    PubMed

    Kogawa, Noriko; Ito, Reiko; Gon, Yasuhiro; Maruoka, Shuichiro; Hashimoto, Shu

    2015-12-01

    Instruction on inhalation techniques for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD)and asthma patients being treated with inhalants have sufficient therapeutic effects and are important to maintain adherence. However, problems continue to exist, including time constraints of medical staff that have a large number of patients and a lack of knowledge on inhalation instruction methods. A web application,"Inhalation Lessons,'for the iPad has been developed. It explains inhalation methods, and consists of videos and review tests. Instruction on inhalation techniques was performed using this application for patients that use Diskus, and the effects were examined. As a result, there are significant improvements in the inhalation techniques of patients after viewing the"Inhalation Lessons'application. Uniform instruction on inhalation techniques can be performed even in the field of homecare.

  15. Sulphate metabolism of selenate-resistant Schizosaccharomyces pombe mutants.

    PubMed

    Bánszky, Luca; Simonics, Tibor; Maráz, Anna

    2003-10-01

    Selenate-resistant mutants were obtained from several strains of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The obtained mutants all belonged to the same genetic complementation group. They were low in sulphate uptake activity and in ATP sulphurylase activity. They grew on medium containing sulphite, thiosulphate, cysteine or glutathione but not methionine as the sole source of sulphur. From these results, the mutants were concluded to carry mutations in the ATP sulphurylase gene. Inability of the mutants to utilize methionine as a sulphur source is rationalized by the absence of the reverse transsulphurylation pathway in this organism; wild type strains must utilize methionine as a sulphur source after it is degraded to give rise to sulphate.

  16. [Inhalant abusers and psychiatric symptoms].

    PubMed

    Okudaira, K; Yabana, T; Takahashi, H; Iizuka, H; Nakajima, K; Saito, A

    1996-01-01

    There are different opinions about the cause of chronic psychiatric symptoms observed in drug abusers between Japanese and foreign psychiatrists. The Japanese seem to recognize the chronic psychosis as the result of drug abuse. In the other hand, foreigners diagnose these cases as dual diagnosis of drug abuse and psychosis. Authors studied the problem in this research. One of the authors has examined 120 inhalant abusers of all, in- and out-patients in Kanagawa Prefectural Center of Psychiatry, Serigaya Hospital from 1991 to 1995. These patients were classified into three groups: psychosis group (23 patients), dependence group (51 patients) and abuse group (46 patients) according to their clinical courses and psychiatric symptoms. The psychosis group consists of patients who showed psychiatric symptoms such as hallucination, delusion and thought disturbance for long time after detoxification. The dependence group contains patients whose inhalant dependence was severe and met DSM-4 Diagnostic Criteria for Substance Dependence, but manifested no chronic psychiatric symptoms after detoxification. The patients belonging to abuse group were at the earlier stages of inhalant abuse and had no chronic psychiatric symptoms. The average age of the first inhalant abuse was 14.7 years old in the psychosis group, 14.8 years in the dependence group and 14.7 years in the abuse group. The average years of abuse was 9.0 years in the psychosis group, and 8.5 years in the dependence group. There was little difference between these two groups. The psychosis patients manifested chronic symptoms 5.7 years on average after the first abuse of inhalants. About one forth (26.1%) of the psychosis patients and only 5.9% of the dependence patients had family history of schizophrenia. The difference was statistically significant. These results suggest that chronic psychiatric symptoms are caused not only by inhalant abuse, but also by the genetic factors of psychosis of each patient. There have

  17. In defense of magnesium sulfate.

    PubMed

    Elliott, John P; Lewis, David F; Morrison, John C; Garite, Thomas J

    2009-06-01

    Magnesium sulfate has been used by obstetricians for more than 25 years to treat preterm labor. Magnesium sulfate is effective in delaying delivery for at least 48 hours in patients with preterm labor when used in higher dosages. There do not seem to be any harmful effects of the drug on the fetus, and indeed there is a neuroprotective effect in reducing the incidence of cerebral palsy in premature newborns weighing less than 1,500 g.

  18. Magnesium Repair by Cold Spray

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    were conducted using microstructural analysis, hardness, bond strength, and corrosion testing. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Cold spray, magnesium, aluminum ... corrosion pitting are the primary causes for removing the components from service. In addition, any repair must be confined to nonstructural areas of...unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The U.S. Army has experienced significant corrosion problems with magnesium alloys that are used to

  19. Inhalation therapy in mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Maccari, Juçara Gasparetto; Teixeira, Cassiano; Gazzana, Marcelo Basso; Savi, Augusto; Dexheimer-Neto, Felippe Leopoldo; Knorst, Marli Maria

    2015-01-01

    Patients with obstructive lung disease often require ventilatory support via invasive or noninvasive mechanical ventilation, depending on the severity of the exacerbation. The use of inhaled bronchodilators can significantly reduce airway resistance, contributing to the improvement of respiratory mechanics and patient-ventilator synchrony. Although various studies have been published on this topic, little is known about the effectiveness of the bronchodilators routinely prescribed for patients on mechanical ventilation or about the deposition of those drugs throughout the lungs. The inhaled bronchodilators most commonly used in ICUs are beta adrenergic agonists and anticholinergics. Various factors might influence the effect of bronchodilators, including ventilation mode, position of the spacer in the circuit, tube size, formulation, drug dose, severity of the disease, and patient-ventilator synchrony. Knowledge of the pharmacological properties of bronchodilators and the appropriate techniques for their administration is fundamental to optimizing the treatment of these patients. PMID:26578139

  20. Neptunium-237 inhalation in rats.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, M F; Ruemmler, P S; Buschbom, R L

    1986-12-01

    Groups of rats were exposed to aerosols of 237Np nitrate to determine clearance rates, retention and distribution at various intervals after inhalation. Initial lung burdens (ILB) after 237Np inhalation by three treatment groups were 0.12, 0.19 and 0.37 mu Ci/kg, respectively. Radiochemical analyses of animals killed at 4, 8, 14, 28 and 90 d, as well as data for others maintained until they became moribund, showed that their lung clearance followed a three-compartment model, clearance half-times for which were 1, 35, and 10,000 d, respectively. Only 3% of the ILB was retained after 90 d; 12% of that burden had translocated to the skeleton at 750 d; the half-time for skeletal retention was 2500 d. A single tumor was the only malignancy detected in the lungs of the 35 animals allowed to survive the early phase of the study.

  1. Inhaled anesthetics: an historical overview.

    PubMed

    Whalen, Francis X; Bacon, Douglas R; Smith, Hugh M

    2005-09-01

    Inhalational agents have played a pivotal role in anesthesia history. The first publicly demonstrated anesthetic of the modern era, diethyl ether, was an inhalational anesthetic. The attributes of a good agent, ability to rapidly induce anesthesia, with limited side effects has led research efforts for over a hundred and fifty years. The explosion hazard was largely conquered with the development of the halogenated agents in the 1950s. Rapid emergence, with limited nausea and vomiting continue to drive discovery efforts, yet the 'modern' agents continue to improve upon those in the past. The future holds promise, but perhaps the most interesting contrast over time is the ability to rapidly introduce new agents into practice. From James Young Simpson's dinner table one evening to the operating suite the next day, modern agents take decades from first synthesis to clinical introduction.

  2. Cement from magnesium substituted hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Lilley, K J; Gbureck, U; Knowles, J C; Farrar, D F; Barralet, J E

    2005-05-01

    Brushite cement may be used as a bone graft material and is more soluble than apatite in physiological conditions. Consequently it is considerably more resorbable in vivo than apatite forming cements. Brushite cement formation has previously been reported by our group following the mixture of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and phosphoric acid. In this study, brushite cement was formed from the reaction of nanocrystalline magnesium-substituted hydroxyapatite with phosphoric acid in an attempt to produce a magnesium substituted brushite cement. The presence of magnesium was shown to have a strong effect on cement composition and strength. Additionally the presence of magnesium in brushite cement was found to reduce the extent of brushite hydrolysis resulting in the formation of HA. By incorporating magnesium ions in the apatite reactant structure the concentration of magnesium ions in the liquid phase of the cement was controlled by the dissolution rate of the apatite. This approach may be used to supply other ions to cement systems during setting as a means to manipulate the clinical performance and characteristics of brushite cements.

  3. Monitoring of sulphate attack on hardened cement paste studied by synchrotron XRD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroh, J.; Meng, B.; Emmerling, F.

    2015-10-01

    The complex matter of external sulphate attack on cement-based construction materials is still not completely understood. The concentration of sulphate is a crucial factor for the formation of secondary phases and phase transitions of cement hydrates due to sulphate ingress into the microstructure. The sulphate attack on building materials for high and low sulphate concentrations was monitored by laboratory experiments. Hardened cement paste consisting of ordinary Portland cement (CEM I) were exposed to aqueous solutions of sodium sulphate for 18 months. Three sample compositions were used for this research, including different supplementary cementitious materials (SCM). The phase composition was determined for different time spans by high resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Cross sections of exposed cement prisms were investigated as a representation of the microstructural profile. Based on the data, a temporal and spatial determination of the stages of the sulphate attack and the deterioration course was possible. Cement matrices blended with slag showed the highest resistance against sulphate attack.

  4. Inhaled Therapies for Pulmonary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hill, Nicholas S; Preston, Ioana R; Roberts, Kari E

    2015-06-01

    The inhaled route has a number of attractive features for treatment of pulmonary hypertension, including delivery of drug directly to the target organ, thus enhancing pulmonary specificity and reducing systemic adverse effects. It can also improve ventilation/perfusion matching by dilating vessels supplying ventilated regions, thus improving gas exchange. Furthermore, it can achieve higher local drug concentrations at a lower overall dose, potentially reducing drug cost. Accordingly, a number of inhaled agents have been developed to treat pulmonary hypertension. Most in current use are prostacyclins, including epoprostenol, which has been cleared for intravenous applications but is used off-label in acute care settings as a continuously nebulized medication. Aerosolized iloprost and treprostinil are both prostacyclins that have been cleared by the FDA to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Both require frequent administration (6 and 4 times daily, respectively), and both have a tendency to cause airway symptoms, including cough and wheeze, which can lead to intolerance. These agents cannot be used to substitute for the infused routes of prostacyclin because they do not permit delivery of medication at high doses. Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) is cleared for the treatment of primary pulmonary hypertension in newborns. It is also used off-label to test acute vasoreactivity in PAH during right-heart catheterization and to treat acute right-heart failure in hospitalized patients. In addition, some studies on long-term application of INO either have been recently completed with results pending or are under consideration. In the future, because of its inherent advantages in targeting the lung, the inhaled route is likely to be tested using a variety of small molecules that show promise as PAH therapies.

  5. Magnesium and Dialysis: The Neglected Cation.

    PubMed

    Alhosaini, Mohamad; Leehey, David J

    2015-09-01

    Disorders of magnesium homeostasis are very common in dialysis patients but have received scant attention. In this review, we address measurement of plasma magnesium, magnesium balance and the factors that affect magnesium flux during dialysis, the prevalence of hypo- and hypermagnesemia in dialysis patients, and the potential clinical significance of hypo- and hypermagnesemia in dialysis patients. Many factors can affect plasma magnesium concentration, including diet, nutritional status (including plasma albumin level), medications (such as proton pump inhibitors), and dialysis prescription. Further interventional studies to determine the effect of normalization of plasma magnesium concentration on clinical outcomes are needed. At the present time, we recommend that predialysis plasma magnesium be measured on a regular basis, with the dialysate magnesium concentration adjusted to maintain plasma magnesium concentration within the normal range.

  6. Brain permeability of inhaled corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Arya, Vikram; Issar, Manish; Wang, Yaning; Talton, James D; Hochhaus, Guenther

    2005-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if the permeability of inhaled corticosteroids entering the brain is reduced and if P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transporters are involved. Currently employed inhaled corticosteroids were given intravenously and intratracheally to rats at a dose of 100 microg kg-1. An ex-vivo receptor binding assay was used to monitor over 12 h the glucocorticoid receptor occupancy in the brain and a systemic reference organ (kidney). The involvement of P-gp in the brain permeability of triamcinolone acetonide was assessed in wild-type mice and mdr1a(-/-) knockout mice (mice lacking the gene for expressing P-gp). After both forms of administration, the average brain receptor occupancies were 20-56% of those of the reference organ, with the more lipophilic drugs showing a more pronounced receptor occupation. While the receptor occupancies in the liver of wild-type and mdr1a(-/-) mice were similar after administration of triamcinolone acetonide, brain receptor occupancies in mdr1a(-/-) mice were significantly greater (mdr1a(-/-): 47.6%, 40.2-55.0%, n=14; 2; wild-type: 11.5+/-33.0%, n=14; 3). Penetration into the brain for inhaled corticosteroids (especially those of lower lipophilicity) is reduced. Experiments in mdr1a(-/-) mice confirmed the involvement of P-gp transporters. Further studies are needed to assess whether potential drug interactions at the transporter level are of pharmacological significance.

  7. Stability of ceftiofur sodium and cefquinome sulphate in intravenous solutions.

    PubMed

    Dołhań, Agnieszka; Jelińska, Anna; Bębenek, Marcelina

    2014-01-01

    Stability of ceftiofur sodium and cefquinome sulphate in intravenous solutions was studied. Chromatographic separation and quantitative determination were performed by using a high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-DAD detection. During the stability study, poly(vinylchloride) minibags were filled with a solution containing 5 mg of ceftiofur sodium or cefquinome sulphate and diluted to 0.2 mg/mL with suitable intravenous solution depending on the test conditions. The solutions for the study were protected from light and stored at room temperature (22°C), refrigerated (6°C), frozen (-20°C) for 30 days, and then thawed at room temperature. A comparison of results obtained at 22°C and 6°C for the same intravenous solutions showed that temperature as well as components of solutions and their concentration had an influence on the stability of ceftiofur sodium and cefquinome sulphate. It was found that ceftiofur sodium and cefquinome sulphate dissolved in intravenous solutions used in this study may be stored at room temperature and at 6°C for up to 48 h.

  8. Stability of Ceftiofur Sodium and Cefquinome Sulphate in Intravenous Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Jelińska, Anna; Bębenek, Marcelina

    2014-01-01

    Stability of ceftiofur sodium and cefquinome sulphate in intravenous solutions was studied. Chromatographic separation and quantitative determination were performed by using a high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-DAD detection. During the stability study, poly(vinylchloride) minibags were filled with a solution containing 5 mg of ceftiofur sodium or cefquinome sulphate and diluted to 0.2 mg/mL with suitable intravenous solution depending on the test conditions. The solutions for the study were protected from light and stored at room temperature (22°C), refrigerated (6°C), frozen (−20°C) for 30 days, and then thawed at room temperature. A comparison of results obtained at 22°C and 6°C for the same intravenous solutions showed that temperature as well as components of solutions and their concentration had an influence on the stability of ceftiofur sodium and cefquinome sulphate. It was found that ceftiofur sodium and cefquinome sulphate dissolved in intravenous solutions used in this study may be stored at room temperature and at 6°C for up to 48 h. PMID:25025091

  9. Electrochemical studies of zinc nickel codeposition in sulphate bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou-Krisha, Mortaga M.

    2005-11-01

    The electrodeposition of Zn-Ni alloys from a sulphate bath was studied under different conditions. The bath had the composition 0.40 M sodium sulphate, 0.01 M sulphuric acid, 0.16 M boric acid, 0.20 M zinc sulphate and 0.20 M nickel sulphate. It is found that the plating bath temperature has a great effect on the cyclic voltammograms, galvanostatic measurements during electrodeposition, and consequently linear polarization resistance for corrosion study and the alloy composition. Under the examined conditions, the electrodeposition of the alloys was of anomalous type. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed that the alloys consisted of the δ-phase (Ni 3Zn 22) or a mixture of the two phases δ and γ (Ni 5Zn 21). The comparison between Ni deposition and Zn-Ni codeposition revealed that the remarkable inhibition of Ni deposition takes place due to the presence of Zn 2+ in the plating bath. The Ni deposition starts at -0.85 V in the bath of Ni deposition only, but the deposition starts at more negative potentials in the codeposition bath although the concentration of Ni 2+ is the same in the both baths.

  10. Stromal accumulation of chondroitin sulphate in mammary tumours of dogs

    PubMed Central

    Hinrichs, U; Rutteman, G R; Nederbragt, H

    1999-01-01

    To contribute to the investigation of the composition of the extracellular matrix in epithelial tumours, mammary gland tissues of dogs (including tumours, hyperplasias and normal tissue as well as metastatic lesions in lymph nodes and lung) were studied histochemically and immunohistochemically for distribution of sulphated glycosaminoglycans (s-GAGs). The formaline-fixed tissue was stained by alcian blue at pH 5.8, using the ‘critical electrolyte concentration’ to study the degree of sulphation of s-GAGs. s-GAGs were characterized by degradation with enzymes and nitrous acid and by immunohistochemistry with two anti-chondroitin sulphate monoclonal antibodies. The light microscopic investigation of s-GAG deposits revealed a limited number of patterns of their distribution. The main s-GAGs found in the mammary gland tumours of dogs and in metastatic lesions were chondroitin sulphate (CS) and heparin/heparan sulphate (HEP/HS). CS accumulated in diffuse structures between epithelial cells as well as around clusters of tumour cells. The latter pattern, possibly representing a mesenchymal reaction to the tumour, was present in 74% of the tumours, and in 67% of these, highly sulphated CS was present. A diffuse accumulation of CS was present almost exclusively in complex and mixed tumours; because of the expression of the 3B3 epitope for CS in immature cartilage the spindle cells of complex tumours are argued to be the precursors of the cartilage in mixed tumours. HEP/HS was stored mainly in mast cells that were found in increased numbers in hyperplasias and tumours. By pretreatment of microscopic slides with chondroitinase AC or ABC immunostaining of fibronectin could be made possible in areas in which CS was abundantly present, suggesting that CS may mask fibronectin epitopes. It is concluded that CS with different degrees of sulphation is the most important s-GAG in the extracellular matrix of mammary tumours of dogs. CS and other s-GAGs accumulate at different

  11. Oral chondroprotection with nutraceuticals made of chondroitin sulphate plus glucosamine sulphate in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Bottegoni, Carlo; Muzzarelli, Riccardo A A; Giovannini, Francesca; Busilacchi, Alberto; Gigante, Antonio

    2014-08-30

    Oral supplementation of chondroitin sulphate plus glucosamine helps repair the articular surface in osteoarthritis. Chondroitin-S reduces the concentration of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and transcription factor involved in inflammation. GlcN.S enhances cartilage specific matrix components and prevents collagen degeneration in chondrocytes by inhibiting hydrolytic enzymes, and preventing the oxidation of lipids and proteins. Chondroitin-S plus GlcN.S are slow-acting drugs that alleviate pain and partly restore joint function in OA patients. Orally administered pharmaceutical-grade chondroitin-S plus GlcN.S stabilize the joint space narrowing and significantly decrease the number of patients with new erosive OA. They are safe and no adverse events have ever been reported; they are recommended by EULAR and OARSI. The cost/effectiveness of the oral chondroitin-S plus GlcN.S therapy derives from the reduction of costs for physiotherapy, and for gastroprotective and non-steroidal drugs. The synergistic association of these two world-widely preferred nutraceuticals is a step forward in the management of OA.

  12. [Inhalation therapy: inhaled generics, inhaled antidotes, the future of anti-infectives and the indications of inhaled pentamidine. GAT aerosolstorming, Paris 2012].

    PubMed

    Peron, N; Le Guen, P; Andrieu, V; Bardot, S; Ravilly, S; Oudyi, M; Dubus, J-C

    2013-12-01

    The working group on aerosol therapy (GAT) of the Société de pneumologie de langue française (SPLF) organized its third "Aerosolstorming" in 2012. During the course of one day, different aspects of inhaled therapy were discussed, and these will be treated separately in two articles, this one being the first. Inhaled products represent a large volume of prescriptions both in the community and in hospital settings and they involve various specialties particularly ENT and respiratory care. Technical aspects of the development of these products, their mode of administration and compliance with their indications are key elements for the effective therapeutic use of inhaled treatments. In this first article, we will review issues concerning generic inhaled products, the existence of inhaled antidotes, new anti-infective agents and indications for inhaled pentamidine.

  13. Methods for Derivation of Inhalation Reference Concentrations and Application of Inhalation Dosimetry

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's methodology for estimation of inhalation reference concentrations (RfCs) as benchmark estimates of the quantitative dose-response assessment of chronic noncancer toxicity for individual inhaled chemicals.

  14. Magnesium and healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Veronese, Nicola; Zanforlini, Bruno Micael; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg) is relatively stable in the intracellular compartment, although decreases linearly with advancing age. This begs the question as to whether Mg could be used as biomarker of aging. A biomarker of aging is a biological parameter of an organism that, in the absence of disease, better predicts functional capability at a later age than the chronological age. Bone and muscle Mg content might be useful biomarkers, but the need for biopsies and the heterogeneous distribution of Mg in bones and muscles strongly limit the application of these methods in clinical practice. Similar considerations can be made for urinary Mg assessment, particularly after a loading test. Markers of Mg in blood seem fairly unreliable as biomarkers of aging since they are strongly dependent upon renal function, do not reflect the intracellular Mg status, and, in some investigations, are within normal ranges although other Mg parameters are not. Other investigations (e.g. nuclear magnetic resonance with fluorescent probes) seem to be promising, but their availability remains limited.

  15. The Toxicity of Inhaled Sulphur Mustard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    acetyl -L- cysteine (Mucomyst™; NAC ), in ameliorating inhaled HD-induced lung injury was then assessed in the established model. This work was conducted...J and Sciuto AM. N- acetyl -L- cysteine ( NAC ) Protects Against Inhaled Sulfur Mustard (HD) Poisoning in the Large Swine. Clinical Toxicology, 2012...2012. N- acetyl -L- cysteine ( NAC ) Protects against inhaled sulfur mustard (HD) poisoning in the large swine. Clinical Toxicology; in preparation

  16. Sulphation of proteins secreted by a human hepatoma-derived cell line. Sulphation of N-linked oligosaccharides on alpha 2HS-glycoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Hortin, G; Green, E D; Baenziger, J U; Strauss, A W

    1986-01-01

    Several human glycoproteins, including alpha 1-antitrypsin, alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, transferrin, caeruloplasmin and alpha 2HS-glycoprotein, synthesized by the hepatoma-derived cell line HepG2 were observed to contain covalently linked sulphate. These proteins were estimated to contain about 0.1 mol of sulphate/mol of protein. The most abundant of the sulphated glycoproteins, alpha 2HS-glycoprotein, was analysed in detail. All of the sulphate on this protein was attached to N-linked oligosaccharides which contained sialic acid and resisted release by endoglycosidase H. Several independent analytical approaches established that approx. 10% of the molecules of alpha 2HS-glycoprotein contained sulphate. Our results suggest that a number of human plasma proteins contain small amounts of sulphate linked to oligosaccharides. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. PMID:3017304

  17. A preliminary study of the effects of glucosamine sulphate and chondroitin sulphate on surgically treated and untreated focal cartilage damage.

    PubMed

    Kamarul, T; Ab-Rahim, S; Tumin, M; Selvaratnam, L; Ahmad, T S

    2011-03-15

    The effects of Glucosamine Sulphate (GS) and Chondroitin Sulphate (CS) on the healing of damaged and repaired articular cartilage were investigated. This study was conducted using 18 New Zealand white rabbits as experimental models. Focal cartilage defects, surgically created in the medial femoral condyle, were either treated by means of autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) or left untreated as controls. Rabbits were then divided into groups which received either GS+/-CS or no pharmacotherapy. Three rabbits from each group were sacrificed at 12 and 24 weeks post-surgery. Knees dissected from rabbits were then evaluated using gross quantification of repair tissue, glycosaminoglycan (GAG) assays, immunoassays and histological assessments. It was observed that, in contrast to untreated sites, surfaces of the ACI-repaired sites appeared smooth and continuous with the surrounding native cartilage. Histological examination demonstrated a typical hyaline cartilage structure; with proteoglycans, type II collagen and GAGs being highly expressed in repair areas. The improved regeneration of these repair sites was also noted to be significant over time (6 months vs. 3 months) and in GS and GS+CS groups compared to the untreated (without pharmacotherapy) group. Combination of ACI and pharmacotherapy (with glucosamine sulphate alone/ or with chondroitin sulphate) may prove beneficial for healing of damaged cartilage, particularly in relation to focal cartilage defects.

  18. System and process for production of magnesium metal and magnesium hydride from magnesium-containing salts and brines

    DOEpatents

    McGrail, Peter B.; Nune, Satish K.; Motkuri, Radha K.; Glezakou, Vassiliki-Alexandra; Koech, Phillip K.; Adint, Tyler T.; Fifield, Leonard S.; Fernandez, Carlos A.; Liu, Jian

    2016-11-22

    A system and process are disclosed for production of consolidated magnesium metal products and alloys with selected densities from magnesium-containing salts and feedstocks. The system and process employ a dialkyl magnesium compound that decomposes to produce the Mg metal product. Energy requirements and production costs are lower than for conventional processing.

  19. [Development of biodegradable magnesium-based biomaterials].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shengfa; Xu, Li; Huang, Nan

    2009-04-01

    Magnesium is a macroelement which is indispensable to human bodies. As a lightweight metal with high specific strength and favorable biocompatibility, magnesium and its alloys have been introduced in the field of biomedical materials research and have a broad application prospect. It is possible to develop new type of biodegradable medical magnesium alloys by use of the poor corrosion resistance of magnesium. Bioabsorbable magnesium stents implanted in vivo could mechanically support the vessel in a short term, effectly prevent the acute coronary occlusion and in-stent restenosis, and then be gradully biodegraded and completely absorbed in a long term. Osteoconductive bioactivity in magnesium-based alloys could promote the apposition growth of bone tissue. This paper reviews the progress of magnesium and its alloys applied in bone tissue and cardiovascular stents, and the prospect of the future research of magnesium-based biomaterials is discussed.

  20. Magnesium/Calcium Competition at Excitable Membranes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belzer, Bill; Fry, Panni

    1998-01-01

    Considers some consequences of altering intracellular calcium supply by magnesium concentration changes. Focuses on using this procedure as an exercise with allied health students as they witness therapeutic uses of magnesium and other calcium entry inhibitors. (DDR)

  1. Magnesium silicide intermetallic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gh.; Gill, H. S.; Varin, R. A.

    1993-11-01

    Methods of induction melting an ultra-low-density magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) intermetallic and its alloys and the resulting microstructure and microhardness were studied. The highest quality ingots of Mg2Si alloys were obtained by triple melting in a graphite crucible coated with boron nitride to eliminate reactivity, under overpressure of high-purity argon (1.3 X 105 Pa), at a temperature close to but not exceeding 1105 °C ± 5 °C to avoid excessive evaporation of Mg. After establishing the proper induction-melting conditions, the Mg-Si binary alloys and several Mg2Si alloys macroalloyed with 1 at. pct of Al, Ni, Co, Cu, Ag, Zn, Mn, Cr, and Fe were induction melted and, after solidification, investigated by optical microscopy and quantitative X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Both the Mg-rich and Si-rich eutectic in the binary alloys exhibited a small but systematic increase in the Si content as the overall composition of the binary alloy moved closer toward the Mg2Si line compound. The Vickers microhardness (VHN) of the as-solidified Mg-rich and Si-rich eutectics in the Mg-Si binary alloys decreased with increasing Mg (decreasing Si) content in the eutectic. This behavior persisted even after annealing for 75 hours at 0.89 pct of the respective eutectic temperature. The Mg-rich eutectic in the Mg2Si + Al, Ni, Co, Cu, Ag, and Zn alloys contained sections exhibiting a different optical contrast and chemical composition than the rest of the eutectic. Some particles dispersed in the Mg2Si matrix were found in the Mg2Si + Cr, Mn, and Fe alloys. The EDS results are presented and discussed and compared with the VHN data.

  2. Sulphate-climate coupling over the past 300,000 years in inland Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Yoshinori; Uemura, Ryu; Motoyama, Hideaki; Suzuki, Toshitaka; Miyake, Takayuki; Hirabayashi, Motohiro; Hondoh, Takeo

    2012-10-04

    Sulphate aerosols, particularly micrometre-sized particles of sulphate salt and sulphate-adhered dust, can act as cloud condensation nuclei, leading to increased solar scattering that cools Earth's climate. Evidence for such a coupling may lie in the sulphate record from polar ice cores, but previous analyses of melted ice-core samples have provided only sulphate ion concentrations, which may be due to sulphuric acid. Here we present profiles of sulphate salt and sulphate-adhered dust fluxes over the past 300,000 years from the Dome Fuji ice core in inland Antarctica. Our results show a nearly constant flux of sulphate-adhered dust through glacial and interglacial periods despite the large increases in total dust flux during glacial maxima. The sulphate salt flux, however, correlates inversely with temperature, suggesting a climatic coupling between particulate sulphur and temperature. For example, the total sulphate salt flux during the Last Glacial Maximum averages 5.78 mg m(-2) yr(-1), which is almost twice the Holocene value. Although it is based on a modern analogue with considerable uncertainties when applied to the ice-core record, this analysis indicates that the glacial-to-interglacial decrease in sulphate would lessen the aerosol indirect effects on cloud lifetime and albedo, leading to an Antarctic warming of 0.1 to 5 kelvin.

  3. Stable isotope fractionation related to technically enhanced bacterial sulphate degradation in lignite mining sediments.

    PubMed

    Knöller, Kay; Jeschke, Christina; Simon, André; Gast, Martin; Hoth, Nils

    2012-01-01

    A mine dump aquifer in the Lusatian lignite mining district, Germany, is contaminated with acid mine drainage (AMD). The only natural process that can counteract the effects of the contamination is bacterial sulphate reduction. The technical measures chosen to handle the contamination include the injection of glycerol into the aquifer to supply electron donors and to accelerate the growth and activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria. An initial assessment of the hydrochemical conditions in the aquifer showed that sulphate concentrations are subject to alteration due to flow-related processes. Consequently, the decision whether sulphate reduction is occurring in the investigated aquifer section was based on the stable isotopic composition of dissolved sulphate and sulphide, which were used in combination with sulphate concentrations. The significant enrichment of both heavy sulphur and heavy oxygen in the remaining sulphate pool and a characteristic isotope fractionation pattern are a clear evidence for the activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria utilising the injected glycerol as an electron donor. This activity seemed to intensify over the observation period. The spatial distribution of sulphate reduction activity, however, appeared to be highly inhomogeneous. Rather than occurring ubiquitously, sulphate reduction activity seemed to concentrate in a defined reaction zone. Regardless of the inhomogeneous distribution, the overall turnover of sulphate during the period of investigation proves the applicability of this enhanced natural attenuation method to handle the restoration of aquifers contaminated with AMD.

  4. Solid-state rechargeable magnesium battery

    DOEpatents

    Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun; Liu, Tianbiao; Li, Guosheng

    2016-09-06

    Embodiments of a solid-state electrolyte comprising magnesium borohydride, polyethylene oxide, and optionally a Group IIA or transition metal oxide are disclosed. The solid-state electrolyte may be a thin film comprising a dispersion of magnesium borohydride and magnesium oxide nanoparticles in polyethylene oxide. Rechargeable magnesium batteries including the disclosed solid-state electrolyte may have a coulombic efficiency .gtoreq.95% and exhibit cycling stability for at least 50 cycles.

  5. 21 CFR 184.1440 - Magnesium stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium stearate. 184.1440 Section 184.1440 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1440 Magnesium stearate. (a) Magnesium stearate (Mg(C17H34COO)2, CAS Reg. No. 557-04-0) is the magnesium salt of stearic acid. It is produced as a white precipitate...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1440 - Magnesium stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium stearate. 184.1440 Section 184.1440 Food... GRAS § 184.1440 Magnesium stearate. (a) Magnesium stearate (Mg(C17H34COO)2, CAS Reg. No. 557-04-0) is the magnesium salt of stearic acid. It is produced as a white precipitate by the addition of...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium carbonate. 184.1425 Section 184.1425 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Magnesium carbonate (molecular formula approximately (MgCO3)4·Mg(OH)2·5H2O, CAS Reg. No. 39409-82-0) is also known as magnesium...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS Reg. No. 10034-99-8) occurs naturally as the mineral epsomite. It is prepared by neutralization of magnesium oxide, hydroxide,...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1440 - Magnesium stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium stearate. 184.1440 Section 184.1440 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1440 Magnesium stearate. (a) Magnesium stearate (Mg(C17H34COO)2, CAS Reg. No. 557-04-0) is the magnesium salt of stearic acid. It is produced as a white precipitate...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1440 - Magnesium stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium stearate. 184.1440 Section 184.1440 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1440 Magnesium stearate. (a) Magnesium stearate (Mg(C17H34COO)2, CAS Reg. No. 557-04-0) is the magnesium salt of stearic acid. It is produced as a white precipitate...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium carbonate. 184.1425 Section 184.1425... GRAS § 184.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Magnesium carbonate (molecular formula approximately (MgCO3)4·Mg(OH)2·5H2O, CAS Reg. No. 39409-82-0) is also known as magnesium carbonate hydroxide. It is a...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1440 - Magnesium stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium stearate. 184.1440 Section 184.1440 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1440 Magnesium stearate. (a) Magnesium stearate (Mg(C17H34COO)2, CAS Reg. No. 557-04-0) is the magnesium salt of stearic acid. It is produced as a white precipitate...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS Reg. No. 7786-30-3) is a... prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in aqueous hydrochloric acid solution...

  14. 76 FR 69284 - Pure Magnesium From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... COMMISSION Pure Magnesium From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... order on pure magnesium from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... USITC Publication 4274 (October 2011), entitled Pure Magnesium from China: Investigation No....

  15. Synthesis of superconducting magnesium diboride objects

    DOEpatents

    Finnemore, Douglas K.; Canfield, Paul C.; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Ostenson, Jerome E.; Petrovic, Cedomir; Cunningham, Charles E.; Lapertot, Gerard

    2003-08-15

    A process to produce magnesium diboride objects from boron objects with a similar form is presented. Boron objects are reacted with magnesium vapor at a predetermined time and temperature to form magnesium diboride objects having a morphology similar to the boron object's original morphology.

  16. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  17. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.1431 Section 582.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  19. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 184.1428 Section 184.1428... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium hydroxide... is prepared as a white precipitate by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a water soluble...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.1431 Section 582.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  2. 21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium labeling. 201.71 Section 201.71 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.71 Magnesium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the magnesium...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 184.1428 Section 184.1428... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium hydroxide... is prepared as a white precipitate by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a water soluble...

  4. 21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium labeling. 201.71 Section 201.71 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.71 Magnesium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the magnesium...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium carbonate. 582.1425 Section 582.1425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Product. Magnesium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  6. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  7. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  8. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.1431 Section 582.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  10. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  11. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  12. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium carbonate. 582.1425 Section 582.1425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Product. Magnesium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  14. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  15. 21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium labeling. 201.71 Section 201.71 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.71 Magnesium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the magnesium...

  16. 21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium labeling. 201.71 Section 201.71 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.71 Magnesium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the magnesium...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 184.1428 Section 184.1428... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium hydroxide... is prepared as a white precipitate by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a water soluble...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium carbonate. 582.1425 Section 582.1425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Product. Magnesium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  19. Synthesis Of Superconducting Magnesium Diboride Objects.

    DOEpatents

    Finnemore, Douglas K.; Canfield, Paul C.; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Ostenson, Jerome E.; Petrovic, Cedomir; Cunningham, Charles E.; Lapertot, Gerard

    2003-07-08

    A process to produce magnesium diboride objects from boron objects with a similar form is presented. Boron objects are reacted with magnesium vapor at a predetermined time and temperature to form magnesium diboride objects having a morphology similar to the boron object's original morphology.

  20. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  1. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.1431 Section 582.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.1431 Section 582.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium carbonate. 582.1425 Section 582.1425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Product. Magnesium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium carbonate. 582.1425 Section 582.1425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Product. Magnesium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  7. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  8. Inhalant initiation and the relationship of inhalant use to the use of other substances.

    PubMed

    Shamblen, Stephen R; Miller, Ted

    2012-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that inhalant use is primarily isolated to youthful experimentation; however, a growing body of evidence suggests that inhalant use (a) occurs after use of common substances of experimentation (e.g., alcohol, marijuana), (b) can persist into later life, and (c) is associated with severe consequences. The current study examined the sequencing of substances relative to inhalants and the post-initiation correlates of inhalant use between youth and young adulthood in nationally representative Add Health data. Analyses examined the relationship of substance of initiation to use of other substances, as well as an examination of the relationship between substance use and consequences. The analyses suggest that (a) those initiating their substance use careers with inhalants often go on to use hard drugs, (b) inhalant use likely occurs after alcohol and marijuana use, and (c) inhalant use during adolescence was associated with health and criminal consequences in both adolescence and young adulthood.

  9. How to use an inhaler - with spacer

    MedlinePlus

    ... After using your inhaler, rinse your mouth with water, gargle, and spit. This helps reduce side effects from your medicine. ... If you see powder in or around the hole, clean your inhaler. ... cap in warm water. Let them air dry overnight. In the morning, ...

  10. How to use an inhaler - no spacer

    MedlinePlus

    ... After using your inhaler, rinse your mouth with water, gargle, and spit. This helps reduce side effects from your medicine. ... If you see powder in or around the hole, clean your inhaler. ... cap in warm water. Let them air dry overnight. In the morning, ...

  11. Investigation of Inhalation Anthrax Case, United States

    PubMed Central

    Blaney, David; Shadomy, Sean; Lehman, Mark; Pesik, Nicki; Tostenson, Samantha; Delaney, Lisa; Tiller, Rebekah; DeVries, Aaron; Gomez, Thomas; Sullivan, Maureen; Blackmore, Carina; Stanek, Danielle; Lynfield, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Inhalation anthrax occurred in a man who vacationed in 4 US states where anthrax is enzootic. Despite an extensive multi-agency investigation, the specific source was not detected, and no additional related human or animal cases were found. Although rare, inhalation anthrax can occur naturally in the United States. PMID:24447835

  12. Investigation of inhalation anthrax case, United States.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Jayne; Blaney, David; Shadomy, Sean; Lehman, Mark; Pesik, Nicki; Tostenson, Samantha; Delaney, Lisa; Tiller, Rebekah; DeVries, Aaron; Gomez, Thomas; Sullivan, Maureen; Blackmore, Carina; Stanek, Danielle; Lynfield, Ruth

    2014-02-01

    Inhalation anthrax occurred in a man who vacationed in 4 US states where anthrax is enzootic. Despite an extensive multi-agency investigation, the specific source was not detected, and no additional related human or animal cases were found. Although rare, inhalation anthrax can occur naturally in the United States.

  13. Parent's Guide to Preventing Inhalant Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... child or someone you know is an inhalant abuser, what can you do to help? Be alert for symptoms of inhalant abuse. If you suspect there's a problem, you should consider seeking professional help. Contact a local drug rehabilitation center or other services available in your ...

  14. [Spectrophotometric determination of trace cadmium in polyferric sulphate flocculent].

    PubMed

    Zheng, H; Gao, J; Yu, Z

    2000-08-01

    A new sensitive method for determining trace cadmium in polyferric sulphate flocculent is proposed in the paper. The new sensitive method is spectrophotometric method. The color reagents are the butylrhodamin B and potassium iodide. The surfactant is the polyvingl alcohol(PVA). The maximum absorbency wavelength is 607 nm. The molar absorptivity is 4.99 x 10(5) L.mol-1.cm-1. The sandell sensitivity is 2.25 x 10(-4) micrograms Cd2+.cm-2. The Beer's law is obeyed for Cd(II) in the range of 0-1.5 micrograms.25 mL-1. The recovery is 96%-105% and the sample processing procedure is simple. This method has been applied to determination of trace Cd(II) in polyferric sulphate flocculent. The determining results are satisfactory.

  15. Ammonium sulphate precipitation overestimates titres of anti-peptide antisera.

    PubMed

    Roth, B; Barkas, T

    1984-01-01

    Precipitation by 50% final saturation of ammonium sulphate, a method commonly used to estimate titres and affinity constants of antibodies, was found consistently to overestimate the titre of anti-peptide antisera when compared with other antibody precipitants. The effect could not be attributed to non-IgG fractions, and similar overestimations were found when pure IgG was used. We suggest that the lower values represent a more physiologically relevant estimation.

  16. Antifertility effects of tetradecyl sodium sulphate in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, R E; Nevin, R S; Allen, D J; Jones, C D; Goettel, M E; Burck, P J

    1983-07-01

    Acrosin and acrosomal hyaluronidase were inhibited by tetradecyl sodium sulphate (TDSS) in vitro at concentrations of less than 10(-4) M. TDSS prevented the removal in vitro of the cumulus oophorus by testicular hyaluronidase and the zona pellucida by acrosin. TDSS had a contraceptive effect in rabbits when administered intravaginally before coitus or released at levels of 1-3 micrograms/day from intrauterine silicone rubber devices.

  17. Sulphate and desertification signals in Middle Eastern temperature trends

    SciTech Connect

    Nasrallah, H.A.; Balling, R.C. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    Analysis of Middle Eastern annual temperature anomalies over the past 40 years reveals statistically significant warming over this time period of 0.07 C per decade. The warming is most pronounced over the spring season and least apparent in the winter season. Spatial analysis reveals a positive relationship between Middle Eastern warming and the degree of human-induced desertification and a negative relationship between local warming and the atmospheric concentration of sulphate.

  18. Luminescence of potassium sulphate crystals doped by Eu3+ ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koketai, T.; Tussupbekova, A.; Baltabekov, A.; Mussenova, E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents results of the study some spectral-luminescent properties of potassium sulphate crystals activated europium trivalent ions. The observed changes might be connected with the fact of crystals having Eu3+ ions and NO3 - impurity ions. There was a proposition of the possibility of selective creation of impurity centers with the help of using various salts is normal for all the transition metal ions.

  19. Experimental inhalation injury in the goat.

    PubMed

    Walker, H L; McLeod, C G; McManus, W F

    1981-11-01

    Inhalation injuries are usually produced by inhalation of gaseous or particulate products of incomplete combustion and are rarely due to heat per se unless steam is inhaled. The clinical and anatomic characteristics of an appropriate animal model should mimic the disease encountered clinically. A model of inhalation injury has been produced in anesthetized goats through the use of a modified bee smoker. The smoke is delivered at a low temperature and contains byproducts of incomplete combustion. This reproducible injury produces necrotic tracheobronchitis and bronchiolitis with pseudomembrane and cast formation in association with mild multifocal atelectasis and bronchopneumonia. These lesions spontaneously resolve within 3 weeks without supportive therapy. The upper trachea, protected from smoke injury by the inflated cuff of the endotracheal tube, showed no evidence of injury. This nonlethal injury is proposed as an appropriate model for evaluation of the pathophysiology and treatment of inhalation injury.

  20. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... area of the brain that gets damaged. The hippocampus, for example, is responsible for memory, so someone ... stimulants like cocaine and narcotics like heroin or morphine can kill you immediately. The old standbys like ...

  1. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Naloxone Pain Prevention Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications Funding Funding Opportunities Clinical Research Post-Award Concerns General Information Grant & Contract Application ...

  2. Magnesium Diboride Current Leads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panek, John

    2010-01-01

    A recently discovered superconductor, magnesium diboride (MgB2), can be used to fabricate conducting leads used in cryogenic applications. Dis covered to be superconducting in 2001, MgB2 has the advantage of remaining superconducting at higher temperatures than the previously used material, NbTi. The purpose of these leads is to provide 2 A of electricity to motors located in a 1.3 K environment. The providing environment is a relatively warm 17 K. Requirements for these leads are to survive temperature fluctuations in the 5 K and 11 K heat sinks, and not conduct excessive heat into the 1.3 K environment. Test data showed that each lead in the assembly could conduct 5 A at 4 K, which, when scaled to 17 K, still provided more than the required 2 A. The lead assembly consists of 12 steelclad MgB2 wires, a tensioned Kevlar support, a thermal heat sink interface at 4 K, and base plates. The wires are soldered to heavy copper leads at the 17 K end, and to thin copper-clad NbTi leads at the 1.3 K end. The leads were designed, fabricated, and tested at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe - Institut foer Technische Physik before inclusion in Goddard's XRS (X-Ray Spectrometer) instrument onboard the Astro-E2 spacecraft. A key factor is that MgB2 remains superconducting up to 30 K, which means that it does not introduce joule heating as a resistive wire would. Because the required temperature ranges are 1.3-17 K, this provides a large margin of safety. Previous designs lost superconductivity at around 8 K. The disadvantage to MgB2 is that it is a brittle ceramic, and making thin wires from it is challenging. The solution was to encase the leads in thin steel tubes for strength. Previous designs were so brittle as to risk instrument survival. MgB2 leads can be used in any cryogenic application where small currents need to be conducted at below 30 K. Because previous designs would superconduct only at up to 8 K, this new design would be ideal for the 8-30 K range.

  3. Physicochemical properties, cytotoxicity, and antimicrobial activity of sulphated zirconia nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Mftah, Ae; Alhassan, Fatah H; Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna Sadiq; El Zowalaty, Mohamed Ezzat; Webster, Thomas J; Sh-eldin, Mohammed; Rasedee, Abdullah; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Rashid, Shah Samiur

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle sulphated zirconia with Brønsted acidic sites were prepared here by an impregnation reaction followed by calcination at 600°C for 3 hours. The characterization was completed using X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Brunner-Emmett-Teller surface area measurements, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the anticancer and antimicrobial effects were investigated for the first time. This study showed for the first time that the exposure of cancer cells to sulphated zirconia nanoparticles (3.9–1,000 μg/mL for 24 hours) resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth, as determined by (4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays. Similar promising results were observed for reducing bacteria functions. In this manner, this study demonstrated that sulphated zirconia nanoparticles with Brønsted acidic sites should be further studied for a wide range of anticancer and antibacterial applications. PMID:25632233

  4. Following mechanical activation of salbutamol sulphate during ball-milling with isothermal calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Gaisford, Simon; Dennison, Mansa; Tawfik, Mahmoud; Jones, Matthew D

    2010-06-30

    Formulation of actives for pulmonary delivery with dry powder inhaler devices frequently requires a particle size reduction step. The high-energy forces imparted to a material during milling, as well as reducing particle size, can cause a significant change in physicochemical properties, in particular mechanical activation of the surface (manifested as generation of amorphous regions) which can affect formulated product performance. It is not clear whether particle size reduction occurs prior to, or concomitantly with, generation of amorphous content. In this study the formation of amorphous content with time in crystalline salbutamol sulphate was quantified with isothermal gas perfusion calorimetry as the sample was ball-milled. The data showed that the most particle size reduction occurred initially (d(0.5) dropping from 12.83+/-0.4 to 4.2+/-0.4 within 5 min). During this time period, no detectable amorphous content was observed. Between 5 and 15 min milling time the particle size distribution remained relatively constant but the amorphous content increased non-linearly with time. After 20 min milling time the particle size increased slightly. The data suggest that particle size reduction occurs initially upon application of a force to the crystal. Once maximum particle size reduction has occurred the crystal absorbs the force being applied and the crystal lattice becomes disordered. After extended milling the conditions in the ball mill (heat and/or humidity) may cause crystallisation of some of the amorphous material resulting in particle-particle fusion. It would appear that the ball-milling process could be optimised to achieve the desired particle size distribution but without any loss of crystalline structure.

  5. Major Minerals - Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium, magnesium and phosphorus are essential elements critically important for the function of the musculoskeletal system, including the formation and transduction of energy and the maintenance of healthy bone. The major calcium concern for physically active healthy middle-aged adults is to consu...

  6. Inhalation injury: epidemiology, pathology, treatment strategies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Lung injury resulting from inhalation of smoke or chemical products of combustion continues to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Combined with cutaneous burns, inhalation injury increases fluid resuscitation requirements, incidence of pulmonary complications and overall mortality of thermal injury. While many products and techniques have been developed to manage cutaneous thermal trauma, relatively few diagnosis-specific therapeutic options have been identified for patients with inhalation injury. Several factors explain slower progress for improvement in management of patients with inhalation injury. Inhalation injury is a more complex clinical problem. Burned cutaneous tissue may be excised and replaced with skin grafts. Injured pulmonary tissue must be protected from secondary injury due to resuscitation, mechanical ventilation and infection while host repair mechanisms receive appropriate support. Many of the consequences of smoke inhalation result from an inflammatory response involving mediators whose number and role remain incompletely understood despite improved tools for processing of clinical material. Improvements in mortality from inhalation injury are mostly due to widespread improvements in critical care rather than focused interventions for smoke inhalation. Morbidity associated with inhalation injury is produced by heat exposure and inhaled toxins. Management of toxin exposure in smoke inhalation remains controversial, particularly as related to carbon monoxide and cyanide. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment has been evaluated in multiple trials to manage neurologic sequelae of carbon monoxide exposure. Unfortunately, data to date do not support application of hyperbaric oxygen in this population outside the context of clinical trials. Cyanide is another toxin produced by combustion of natural or synthetic materials. A number of antidote strategies have been evaluated to address tissue hypoxia associated with cyanide exposure. Data

  7. Transcriptional response of Medicago truncatula sulphate transporters to arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis with and without sulphur stress.

    PubMed

    Casieri, Leonardo; Gallardo, Karine; Wipf, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Sulphur is an essential macronutrient for plant growth, development and response to various abiotic and biotic stresses due to its key role in the biosynthesis of many S-containing compounds. Sulphate represents a very small portion of soil S pull and it is the only form that plant roots can uptake and mobilize through H(+)-dependent co-transport processes implying sulphate transporters. Unlike the other organically bound forms of S, sulphate is normally leached from soils due to its solubility in water, thus reducing its availability to plants. Although our knowledge of plant sulphate transporters has been growing significantly in the past decades, little is still known about the effect of the arbuscular mycorrhiza interaction on sulphur uptake. Carbon, nitrogen and sulphur measurements in plant parts and expression analysis of genes encoding putative Medicago sulphate transporters (MtSULTRs) were performed to better understand the beneficial effects of mycorrhizal interaction on Medicago truncatula plants colonized by Glomus intraradices at different sulphate concentrations. Mycorrhization significantly promoted plant growth and sulphur content, suggesting increased sulphate absorption. In silico analyses allowed identifying eight putative MtSULTRs phylogenetically distributed over the four sulphate transporter groups. Some putative MtSULTRs were transcribed differentially in roots and leaves and affected by sulphate concentration, while others were more constitutively transcribed. Mycorrhizal-inducible and -repressed MtSULTRs transcripts were identified allowing to shed light on the role of mycorrhizal interaction in sulphate uptake.

  8. A SEARCH FOR MAGNESIUM IN EUROPA'S ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Hoerst, S. M.; Brown, M. E.

    2013-02-20

    Europa's tenuous atmosphere results from sputtering of the surface. The trace element composition of its atmosphere is therefore related to the composition of Europa's surface. Magnesium salts are often invoked to explain Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer spectra of Europa's surface, thus magnesium may be present in Europa's atmosphere. We have searched for magnesium emission in the Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph archival spectra of Europa's atmosphere. Magnesium was not detected and we calculate an upper limit on the magnesium column abundance. This upper limit indicates that either Europa's surface is depleted in magnesium relative to sodium and potassium, or magnesium is not sputtered as efficiently resulting in a relative depletion in its atmosphere.

  9. Respiratory disorders associated with heavy inhalation exposure to dolomite dust

    PubMed Central

    Neghab, M; Abedini, R; Soltanzadeh, A; Iloon Kashkooli, A; Ghayoomi, S M A

    2012-01-01

    Background Although dolomite is classified as a relatively non-toxic, nuisance dust, little information exists as to its potential to produce respiratory disorders following occupational exposure. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the possible effects, if any, of heavy inhalation exposure to this chemical on the prevalence of respiratory symptoms, functional impairments and radiographic abnormalities of the lungs. Methods The study population consisted of a group of 39 exposed subjects engaged in digging and excavating activities that were in operation for building a local dam, as well as 40 healthy non-exposed employees that served as the referent group. Subjects were interviewed and respiratory symptoms questionnaires, as suggested by the American Thoracic Society (ATS), were completed for them. Thereafter, they underwent chest X-ray and lung function tests. Additionally, using routine gravimetric techniques, personal dust monitoring for airborne inhalable and respirable dust was carried out at different dusty work sites. Finally to determine the chemical composition of the dust, it was analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique. Results XRF revealed that the major component (50.52%) of the dust was calcium magnesium carbonate, dolomite. Additionally, levels of exposure to inhalable and respirable dust were estimated to be 51.7±24.31 and 23.0±18.11mg/m3, respectively. Statistical analysis of the data showed that symptoms such as regular cough, phlegm, wheezing, productive cough and shortness of breath were significantly (p<0.05) more prevalent among exposed workers. Similarly, the ratio of FEV1/FVC in exposed subjects was significantly different from that of non-exposed individuals. In contrast, no significant abnormalities were observed in the chest radiographs of both groups. Conclusions In conclusion, while these data cast doubt on the notion that dolomite is a harmless chemical, they provide evidence in favour of the proposition that

  10. Particle inhalability at low wind speeds.

    PubMed

    Brown, James S

    2005-12-15

    Accurate quantification of the dose delivered by aerosol exposures is essential for estimating the risk of potential adverse health effects. The fraction of airborne particles that can enter the nose or mouth during inhalation is referred to as the inspirable particulate mass fraction. This inhalable fraction is equivalent to delivered dose for particles greater than approximately 25 microm (aerodynamic particle diameter, d(ae)), which deposit completely and almost exclusively in the extrathoracic airways. Particle inhalability at high wind speeds (1-9 m/s) has been well characterized. However, there is a paucity of data describing the inhalability of particles at low wind speeds (< or =0.3 m/s), which are typical of indoor environments. High-wind-speed criteria poorly describe inhalability at low wind speeds. Based on the aspiration efficiencies of blunt and sharp-edged inlets, a function was developed for oral inhalability, P(I(O)), of particles at low wind speeds. This function predicts a slow decline in P(I(O)) from 0.95 at d(ae)= 8 microm, to 0.5 at d(ae) = 74 microm, and 0.1 at d(ae)= 175 microm. Data available from the literature for inhalability at relatively low wind speeds during oral breathing are well described by this logistic function (r(2)= 0.69).

  11. Dynamics of airflow in a short inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Bates, A. J.; Doorly, D. J.; Cetto, R.; Calmet, H.; Gambaruto, A. M.; Tolley, N. S.; Houzeaux, G.; Schroter, R. C.

    2015-01-01

    During a rapid inhalation, such as a sniff, the flow in the airways accelerates and decays quickly. The consequences for flow development and convective transport of an inhaled gas were investigated in a subject geometry extending from the nose to the bronchi. The progress of flow transition and the advance of an inhaled non-absorbed gas were determined using highly resolved simulations of a sniff 0.5 s long, 1 l s−1 peak flow, 364 ml inhaled volume. In the nose, the distribution of airflow evolved through three phases: (i) an initial transient of about 50 ms, roughly the filling time for a nasal volume, (ii) quasi-equilibrium over the majority of the inhalation, and (iii) a terminating phase. Flow transition commenced in the supraglottic region within 20 ms, resulting in large-amplitude fluctuations persisting throughout the inhalation; in the nose, fluctuations that arose nearer peak flow were of much reduced intensity and diminished in the flow decay phase. Measures of gas concentration showed non-uniform build-up and wash-out of the inhaled gas in the nose. At the carina, the form of the temporal concentration profile reflected both shear dispersion and airway filling defects owing to recirculation regions. PMID:25551147

  12. Inhalation challenge in humidifier fever.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J H; Cockcroft, A

    1981-05-01

    When exposed to an amount of contaminated humidifier water roughly equivalent to that inhaled over an 8-hour period at their work place, four out of six subjects developed symptoms of humidifier fever. Two non-exposed subjects failed to react to the same challenge. Characteristic lung function, temperature and leucocyte changes were recorded; however, a fall in gas transfer previously reported was not seen. That the reaction was immunologically mediated and not due to endotoxin activity was shown by a negative pyrogen response in rabbits inoculated intravenously with concentrated humidifier water. The nature of the immune response has not as yet been evaluated but it does not reside with the ability of humidifier fever antigens to activate complement. Skin testing produced an immediate weal and flare in the four subjects with precipitins and may reflect the presence of short-term anaphylactic IgG antibody.

  13. Inhaled Corticosteroids and Bone Health

    PubMed Central

    Chee, Carolyn; Sellahewa, Luckni; Pappachan, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the cornerstones in the management of bronchial asthma and some cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Although ICS are claimed to have low side effect profiles, at high doses they can cause systemic adverse effects including bone diseases such as osteopenia, osteoporosis and osteonecrosis. Corticosteroids have detrimental effects on function and survival of osteoblasts and osteocytes, and with the prolongation of osteoclast survival, induce metabolic bone disease. Glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis (GIO) can be associated with major complications such as vertebral and neck of femur fractures. The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) published criteria in 2010 for the management of GIO. ACR recommends bisphosphonates along with calcium and vitamin D supplements as the first-line agents for GIO management. ACR recommendations can be applied to manage patients on ICS with a high risk of developing metabolic bone disease. This review outlines the mechanisms and management of ICS-induced bone disease. PMID:25674178

  14. A sulphur deficiency-induced gene, sdi1, involved in the utilization of stored sulphate pools under sulphur-limiting conditions has potential as a diagnostic indicator of sulphur nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Howarth, Jonathan R; Parmar, Saroj; Barraclough, Peter B; Hawkesford, Malcolm J

    2009-02-01

    A sulphate deficiency-induced gene, sdi1, has been identified by cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis utilizing field-grown, nutrient-deficient wheat (Triticum aestivum var. Hereward). The expression of sdi1 was specifically induced in leaf and root tissues in response to sulphate deficiency, but was not induced by nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium or magnesium deficiency. Expression was also shown to increase in plant tissues as the external sulphate concentration in hydroponically grown plants was reduced from 1.0 to 0.0 mm. On this basis, sdi1 gene expression has potential as a sensitive indicator of sulphur nutritional status in wheat. Genome-walking techniques were used to clone the 2.7-kb region upstream of sdi1 from genomic DNA, revealing several cis-element motifs previously identified as being associated with sulphur responses in plants. The Arabidopsis thaliana gene most highly homologous to sdi1 is At5g48850, which was also demonstrated to be induced by sulphur deficiency, an observation confirmed by the analysis of microarray data available in the public domain. The expression of Atsdi1 was induced more rapidly than previously characterized sulphur-responsive genes in the period immediately following the transfer of plants to sulphur-deficient medium. Atsdi1 T-DNA 'knockout' mutants were shown to maintain higher tissue sulphate concentrations than wild-type plants under sulphur-limiting conditions, indicating a role in the utilization of stored sulphate under sulphur-deficient conditions. The structural features of the sdi1 gene and its application in the genetic determination of the sulphur nutritional status of wheat crops are discussed.

  15. 42 CFR 84.90 - Breathing resistance test; inhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; inhalation. 84.90...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.90 Breathing resistance test; inhalation. (a) Resistance to inhalation... machine as described in § 84.88. (b) The inhalation resistance of open-circuit apparatus shall not...

  16. 42 CFR 84.90 - Breathing resistance test; inhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; inhalation. 84.90...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.90 Breathing resistance test; inhalation. (a) Resistance to inhalation... machine as described in § 84.88. (b) The inhalation resistance of open-circuit apparatus shall not...

  17. Animal model of sensitization by inhalation.

    PubMed Central

    Barboriak, J J; Knoblock, H W; Hensley, G T; Gombas, O F; Fink, J N

    1976-01-01

    Groups of rats exposed to daily inhalation challenge with aerosolized pigeon serum developed precipitating antibody within 2 weeks and definitive granulomatous inflammatory changes in the lung after 7 weeks of exposure. The dissociation of the two responses to an inhalation challenge indicate that the rat model may serve for screening of the various inhalant antigens for their sensitizing potential, and for investigation of the contributory role of some of the factors involved in the pathogenesis of hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:939055

  18. Hydrogen as a substrate for methanogenesis and sulphate reduction in anaerobic saltmarsh sediment.

    PubMed

    Abram, J W; Nedwell, D B

    1978-04-27

    Hydrogen gas stimulated sulphate reduction in a saltmarsh sediment and the importance of H2 transferred from organotrophic bacteria to the sulphate-reducers is discussed. beta-fluorolactate inhibited sulphate reduction whether lactate, ethanol or hydrogen was being used as growth substrate. When added to sediment beta-fluorolactate inhibited sulphate reduction with a consequent increase in methane production. Addition of H2 stimulated methanogenesis in sediment and this stimulation was greater if CO2 was also present. Hydrogen availability was the primary limitation of methanogenesis but the low concentration of dissolved CO2 in seawater may limit methane production even if H2 is available. The removal of inhibition of methanogenesis by the use of fluorolactate to suppress sulphate reduction or by the provision of hydrogen indicates competitive inhibition of methanogens by sulphate reducers utilizing transferred hydrogen.

  19. Magnesium: its role in nutrition and carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Blaszczyk, Urszula; Duda-Chodak, Aleksandra

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium (Mg2+) plays a key role in many essential cellular processes such as intermediary metabolism, DNA replication and repair, transporting potassium and calcium ions, cell proliferation together with signalling transduction. Dietary sources rich in magnesium are whole and unrefined grains, seeds, cocoa, nuts, almonds and green leafy vegetables. Hard water is also considered to be an important source of magnesium beneficial to human health. The daily dietary intake of magnesium is however frequently found to be below that recommended in Western countries. Indeed, it is recognised that magnesium deficiency may lead to many disorders of the human body, where for instance magnesium depletion is believed to play an important role in the aetiology of the following; cardiovascular disease (including thrombosis, atherosclerosis, ishaemic heart disease, myocardial infarction, hypertension, arrhythmias and congestive heart failure in human), as well as diabetes mellitus, gastrointestinal (GI) tract disease, liver cirrhosis and diseases of the thyroid and parathyroid glands. Insufficient dietary intake of magnesium may also significantly affect the development and exacerbation ofADHD (Attention Deficit- Hyperactivity Disorder) symptoms in children. The known links between magnesium and carcinogenesis still remain unclear and complex, with conflicting results being reported from many experimental, epidemiological and clinical studies; further knowledge is thus required. Mg2+ ions are enzyme cofactors involved in DNA repair mechanisms that maintain genomic stability and fidelity. Any magnesium deficiencies could thereby cause a dysfunction of these systems to occur leading to DNA mutations. Magnesium deficiency may also be associated with inflammation and increased levels of free radicals where both inflammatory mediators and free radicals so arising could cause oxidative DNA damage and therefore tumour formation. The presented review article now provides a summary

  20. Magnesium Sulphate for Eclampsia and Fetal Neuroprotection: A Comparative Analysis of Protocols Across Canadian Tertiary Perinatal Centres.

    PubMed

    De Silva, Dane A; Sawchuck, Diane; von Dadelszen, Peter; Basso, Melanie; Synnes, Anne R; Liston, Robert M; Magee, Laura A

    2015-11-01

    Contexte : L’utilisation de sulfate de magnésium (MgSO4) a été recommandée à des fins de neuroprotection fœtale dans le but de prévenir l’infirmité motrice cérébrale; des sociétés nationales adoptent d’ailleurs de nouvelles lignes directrices quant à son utilisation. Un projet de transfert des connaissances visant la mise en œuvre des lignes directrices canadiennes est en cours. Le rôle du MgSO4 en ce qui concerne la neuroprotection fœtale ne peut être abordé sans que l’on mentionne son utilisation dans le cadre de la prophylaxie et de la prise en charge de l’éclampsie. Ainsi, pour explorer la standardisation de l’utilisation de MgSO4 au Canada, nous avons cherché à comparer les protocoles locaux qui en régissent l’utilisation en matière d’éclampsie et de neuroprotection fœtale dans les centres périnataux tertiaires. Méthodes : Nous avons demandé à 25 centres périnataux tertiaires canadiens de nous soumettre leurs protocoles quant à l’utilisation du MgSO4 aux fins de la neuroprotection fœtale et de la prophylaxie / prise en charge de l’éclampsie. Les renseignements que nous avons tirés de ces protocoles comprenaient la date du protocole, les définitions des indications de traitement, les détails de l’administration du MgSO4, le monitorage maternel et fœtal, l’antidote pour contrer la toxicité et les symptômes anormaux nécessitant l’offre de soins médicaux. Des analyses descriptives ont été utilisées pour comparer les protocoles de ces centres aux définitions connues de la prééclampsie. Des données issues du Réseau périnatal canadien (RPC) ont été utilisées pour vérifier ce qui se faisait dans le cadre de la pratique clinique. Résultats : Vingt-deux des 25 centres nous ont soumis leurs protocoles de prévention / prise en charge de l’éclampsie. Onze de ces centres nous ont fourni une définition de ce qui était considéré comme une prééclampsie justifiant une prise en charge; cinq des 22 centres ne préconisaient que la prise en charge de la prééclampsie grave. Les critères des interventions de traitement et de monitorage variaient d’un centre à l’autre. Seize des 22 sites comptant des protocoles présentaient des données issues du RPC. Au sein d’un groupe de 635 femmes connaissant une prééclampsie, 422 (66,5 %) ont reçu du MgSO4. Vingt des 25 centres nous ont fourni leurs protocoles de neuroprotection fœtale. Les définitions des indications étaient uniformes d’un site à l’autre, sauf en ce qui concerne le seuil en matière d’âge gestationnel. Conclusion : Cette étude avance que les protocoles locaux ne concordent souvent pas avec les données probantes publiées. Bien que cela puisse être attribuable aux pratiques institutionnelles locales, des processus pertinents doivent être mis en place pour maximiser l’uniformité de la pratique et améliorer les soins offerts aux patientes.

  1. Nitric oxide degradation of heparin and heparan sulphate.

    PubMed Central

    Vilar, R E; Ghael, D; Li, M; Bhagat, D D; Arrigo, L M; Cowman, M K; Dweck, H S; Rosenfeld, L

    1997-01-01

    NO is a bioactive free radical produced by NO synthase in various tissues including vascular endothelium. One of the degradation products of NO is HNO2, an agent known to degrade heparin and heparan sulphate. This report documents degradation of heparin by cultured endothelial-cell-derived as well as exogenous NO. An exogenous narrow molecular-mass preparation of heparin was recovered from the medium of cultured endothelial cells using strong-anion exchange. In addition, another narrow molecular-mass preparation of heparin was gassed with exogenous NO under argon. Degradation was evaluated by gel-filtration chromatography. Since HNO2 degrades heparin under acidic conditions, the reaction with NO gas was studied under various pH conditions. The results show that the degradation of exogenous heparin by endothelial cells is inhibited by NO synthase inhibitors. Exogenous NO gas at concentrations as low as 400 p.p.m. degrades heparin and heparan sulphate. Exogenous NO degrades heparin at neutral as well as acidic pH. Endothelial-cell-derived NO, as well as exogenous NO gas, did not degrade hyaluronan, an unrelated glycosaminoglycan that resists HNO2 degradation. Peroxynitrite, a metabolic product of the reaction of NO with superoxide, is an agent that degrades hyaluronan; however, peroxynitrite did not degrade heparin. Thus endothelial-cell-derived NO is capable of degrading heparin and heparan sulphate via HNO2 rather than peroxynitrite. These observations may be relevant to various pathophysiological processes in which extracellular matrix is degraded, such as bone development, apoptosis, tissue damage from inflammatory responses and possible release of growth factors and cytokines. PMID:9182706

  2. Unintended consequences of atmospheric injection of sulphate aerosols.

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Patrick Vane; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Goldstein, Barry

    2010-10-01

    Most climate scientists believe that climate geoengineering is best considered as a potential complement to the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, rather than as an alternative to it. Strong mitigation could achieve the equivalent of up to -4Wm{sup -2} radiative forcing on the century timescale, relative to a worst case scenario for rising CO{sub 2}. However, to tackle the remaining 3Wm{sup -2}, which are likely even in a best case scenario of strongly mitigated CO{sub 2} releases, a number of geoengineering options show promise. Injecting stratospheric aerosols is one of the least expensive and, potentially, most effective approaches and for that reason an examination of the possible unintended consequences of the implementation of atmospheric injections of sulphate aerosols was made. Chief among these are: reductions in rainfall, slowing of atmospheric ozone rebound, and differential changes in weather patterns. At the same time, there will be an increase in plant productivity. Lastly, because atmospheric sulphate injection would not mitigate ocean acidification, another side effect of fossil fuel burning, it would provide only a partial solution. Future research should aim at ameliorating the possible negative unintended consequences of atmospheric injections of sulphate injection. This might include modeling the optimum rate and particle type and size of aerosol injection, as well as the latitudinal, longitudinal and altitude of injection sites, to balance radiative forcing to decrease negative regional impacts. Similarly, future research might include modeling the optimum rate of decrease and location of injection sites to be closed to reduce or slow rapid warming upon aerosol injection cessation. A fruitful area for future research might be system modeling to enhance the possible positive increases in agricultural productivity. All such modeling must be supported by data collection and laboratory and field testing to enable iterative modeling to increase the

  3. Transformation of external sulphate and its effect on phosphorus mobilization in Lake Moshui, Wuhan, China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fenfang; Zou, Jiajia; Hua, Yumei; Zhang, Shaohui; Liu, Guanglong; Zhu, Duanwei

    2015-11-01

    Average concentrations of sulphate in lakes continue to increase sharply. The response of phosphorus to sulphate input is of great importance due to the relationship between eutrophication and ecological health. A four-week experiment was conducted under simulated conditions using samples from a heavily polluted lake, Lake Moshui, in Wuhan, China, to examine the influence of external sulphate on phosphorus release and the transformation of sulphate. The results showed that the diffusion of sulphate into the sediments promoted the proliferation of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and the reduction of sulphate. Acetic acid was consumed due to sulphate reduction. The soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and soluble Fe measured with diffusive equilibration in thin-films (DET) probes increased significantly after the input of sulphate. The content of SRP was consistent with the variation in both the SRB number and the S(0) content in the sediments. The maximum SRP concentration of 100.43 mg L(-1) was recorded 3 cm below the sediment-water interface on the 29th d, which was more than twice the value of the control. There was a positive correlation between concentrations of Fe and SRP in the overlying water and the pore water of the sediments.

  4. Stable isotopic evidence for anaerobic maintained sulphate discharge in a polythermal glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, A. H.

    2016-03-01

    To understand the sources and sinks of sulphate and associated biogeochemical processes in a High Arctic environment, late winter snowpacks, the summer melt-waters and rock samples were collected and analysed for major ions and stable isotope tracers (δ18O, δ34S). The SO42bar/Clbar ratio reveal that more than 87% of sulphate (frequently > 95%) of total sulphate carried by the subglacial runoff and proglacial streams was derived from non-snowpack sources. The proximity of non-snowpack sulphate δ34S (∼8-19‰) to the δ34S of the major rocks in the vicinity (∼-6 to +18‰) suggest that the non-snowpack sulphate was principally derived from rock weathering. Furthermore, Ca2++Mg2+/SO42ˉ molar shows that sulphate acquisition in the meltwaters was controlled by two major processes: 1) coupled-sulphide carbonate weathering (molar ratio ∼ 2) and, 2) re-dissolution of secondary salts (molar ratio ∼ 1). The δ34S-SO4 = +19.4‰ > δ34S-S of rock, accompanied by increased sulphate concentration also indicates an input from re-dissolution of secondary salts. Overall, δ18O composition of these non-snowpack sulphate (-11.9 to -2.2‰) mostly stayed below the threshold δ18O value (-6.7 to -3.3‰) for minimum O2 condition, suggesting that certain proportion of sulphate was regularly supplied from anaerobic sulphide oxidation.

  5. Collagen fibril formation in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate.

    PubMed Central

    Dombi, G W; Halsall, H B

    1985-01-01

    Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) was used to weaken both the electrostatic and the hydrophobic interactions during collagen fibrillogenesis in vitro. The rate and extent of fibril formation as well as fibril morphology were affected by SDS concentration. Both the formation of large fibrils at 0.3 mM-SDS and the complete cessation of fibril formation at 0.5 mM-SDS were considered to be the result of SDS-induced conformational changes in the non-helical telopeptides. A possible mechanism of SDS interaction with the N-terminal and the distal region of the C-terminal telopeptides is offered. Images Fig. 5. PMID:4026797

  6. Myocardial damage after inhalation of chloramines.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Castro, Alejandro; Holanda, Maria Soledad; Canas, Borja S; Morlote, Jesús G; Minambres, Eduardo; Prieto Solis, José A

    2006-04-01

    The objective of this case report was to document a rare case of myocardial damage, in the context of an accidental inhalation of chloramines, demonstrated by electrocardiogram and myocardium-specific enzymes.

  7. Asthma Inhalers: Which One's Right for You?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the medication is released by breathing in a deep, fast breath. Available types include a dry powder ... and convenient to carry. Doesn't require a deep, fast inhaled breath. Doesn't require a deep, ...

  8. 1H-n.m.r. investigation of naturally occurring and chemically oversulphated dermatan sulphates. Identification of minor monosaccharide residues.

    PubMed Central

    Bossennec, V; Petitou, M; Perly, B

    1990-01-01

    The 1H-n.m.r. spectra of various dermatan sulphate preparations present, besides the major signals of the basic disaccharide unit, several other minor signals. We have assigned most of them by n.m.r., using two-dimensional proton-proton double-quantum-correlation and nuclear-Overhauser-effect spectroscopy experiments. This allowed us to identify 2-O-sulphated L-iduronic acid and D-glucuronic acid residues as well as 6-sulphated N-acetylgalactosamine (presumably 4-O-sulphated as well). 2-O-Sulphated iduronic acid was present to similar extents (6-10% of total uronic acids) in pig skin dermatan sulphate and pig intestine dermatan sulphate, whereas glucuronic acid represented 17% of the uronic acid of pig skin dermatan sulphate and was virtually absent (1%) from the other preparation. 6-O-Sulphated N-acetylgalactosamine was present in minor amounts in pig intestine dermatan sulphate only. The influence of sulphation of iduronic acid units on their conformation was assessed by using chemically oversulphated pig intestine dermatan sulphate. Introduction of sulphate groups in this unit in dermatan sulphate tends to shift the conformational equilibrium towards the 1C4 conformer. PMID:2339978

  9. The sulphated carbohydrate-protein linkage region isolated from chondroitin 4-sulphate chains of inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Yamada, S; Oyama, M; Kinugasa, H; Nakagawa, T; Kawasaki, T; Nagasawa, S; Khoo, K H; Morris, H R; Dell, A; Sugahara, K

    1995-05-01

    Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor (ITI) in human plasma has a unique structural architecture composed of three polypeptide chains (H1, H2 and L chains), which are linked to each other through a chondroitin 4-sulphate chain. The structure of the carbohydrate-protein linkage region of the chondroitin 4-sulphate chain attached to the L chain was investigated. The peptide-chondroitin sulphate fraction was isolated by anion-exchange chromatography after exhaustive digestion with lysyl endopeptidase and then V8 protease. The chondroitin 4-sulphate chain was released from the peptides by beta-elimination using NaB3H4 and then digested with chondroitinase ABC. These treatments resulted in a single 3H-labelled hexasaccharide alditol fraction derived from the linkage region which had been associated with the L chain. Chemical and enzymatic analyses as well as fast-atom bombardment-mass spectrometry (FAB-MS) analysis revealed that the 3H-labelled hexasaccharide alditol had the following structure: delta HexA-alpha 1-3GalNAc(4-sulphate)beta 1-4GlcA beta 1-3Gal(4-sulphate)beta 1-3Gal beta 1-4Xyl-ol (where delta HexA is 4-deoxy-alpha-L-threo-hex-4-enepyranosyluronic acid and Xyl-ol is xylitol). The structure contained the novel 4-sulphated Gal residue, which was previously demonstrated in a linkage hexasaccharide isolated from chondroitin 4-sulphate of rat chondrosarcoma (Sugahara et al., J. Biol. Chem., 263, 10168-10174, 1988) and of whale cartilage (Sugahara et al., Eur. J. Biochem., 202, 805-811, 1991). The above disulphated hexasaccharide alditol was the only component detected in the linkage region fraction of the chondroitin 4-sulphate chain of ITI, which implies some biological significance of this novel structure.

  10. Method for magnesium sulfate recovery

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Richard L.; Grantham, LeRoy F.

    1987-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

  11. Method for magnesium sulfate recovery

    DOEpatents

    Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.

    1987-08-25

    A method is described for obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7,000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1,000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

  12. ARDS following inhalation of hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Bansal, D P; Ambegaonkar, Rahul; Radhika, P; Sharma, Manish

    2011-02-01

    The clinical spectrum of Inhalation injury can range from mild cough to a devastating ARDS. We herewith present a patient who is a goldsmith by occupation and his work consists of dissolving gold in Hydrochloric acid. He had accidentally inhaled fumes of Hydrochloric acid and presented with cough and breathlessness, later on required mechanical ventilation for ARDS and improved. This highlights the importance of not to neglect mild symptoms like cough and dyspnea in such a scenario which may have some hidden catastrophe.

  13. [Magnesium deficiency and therapy in cardiac arrhythmias: recommendations of the German Society for Magnesium Research].

    PubMed

    Vierling, W; Liebscher, D-H; Micke, O; von Ehrlich, B; Kisters, K

    2013-05-01

    Aim of the recommendations of the German Society for Magnesium Research: Recognition and compensation of magnesium deficiency in patients with risk factors for cardiac arrhythmias or manifest rhythm disturbances. Prevention of arrhythmias by administration of magnesium. Therapeutic administration of magnesium in patients with arrhythmias with and without magnesium deficiency. The current state of knowledge claims for considering the status of magnesium and the possibility of a therapeutic intervention with magnesium within the concept of the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The use of magnesium as single agent or as an adjunct to other therapeutic actions in the prevention and therapy of cardiac arrhythmias can be effective and, in case of oral administration, very safe. In case of parenteral administration, it is important to use adequate doses, monitor cardiovascular and neuromuscular parameters and to consider contraindications.

  14. Substrate and method for the formation of continuous magnesium diboride and doped magnesium diboride wire

    DOEpatents

    Suplinskas, Raymond J.; Finnemore, Douglas; Bud'ko, Serquei; Canfield, Paul

    2007-11-13

    A chemically doped boron coating is applied by chemical vapor deposition to a silicon carbide fiber and the coated fiber then is exposed to magnesium vapor to convert the doped boron to doped magnesium diboride and a resultant superconductor.

  15. Microstructural Effects on the Spall Properties of ECAE Magnesium and Magnesium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Cyril

    2015-06-01

    Magnesium and magnesium alloys are light weight materials and hence, are being increasingly employed as light armor in military applications. However, because of its limited slip systems (HCP) magnesium and magnesium alloys are relatively brittle as compared to FCC and BCC lattice structures. For this study, the effects of microstructure on the spall properties of magnesium and magnesium alloys processed using Equi-Channel Angular Extrusion (ECAE) were investigated using a 51 mm and 105 mm bore gas guns. Symmetric spall and recovery plate impact experiments were performed at impact velocities ranging from approximately 100 m/s and 400 m/s. Free surface velocity profiles of the shocked samples were obtained using Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV). The spall strength and Hugoniot Elastic Limit (HEL) were extracted from the free surface velocity profiles. In addition, the microstructures of the pre-shocked and post-shocked magnesium and magnesium alloys were acquired using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM).

  16. Lightweight Heat Pipes Made from Magnesium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, John N.; Zarembo, Sergei N.; Eastman, G. Yale

    2010-01-01

    Magnesium has shown promise as a lighter-weight alternative to the aluminum alloys now used to make the main structural components of axially grooved heat pipes that contain ammonia as the working fluid. Magnesium heat-pipe structures can be fabricated by conventional processes that include extrusion, machining, welding, and bending. The thermal performances of magnesium heat pipes are the same as those of equal-sized aluminum heat pipes. However, by virtue of the lower mass density of magnesium, the magnesium heat pipes weigh 35 percent less. Conceived for use aboard spacecraft, magnesium heat pipes could also be attractive as heat-transfer devices in terrestrial applications in which minimization of weight is sought: examples include radio-communication equipment and laptop computers.

  17. Magnesium alloy applications in automotive structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easton, Mark; Beer, Aiden; Barnett, Matthew; Davies, Chris; Dunlop, Gordon; Durandet, Yvonne; Blacket, Stuart; Hilditch, Tim; Beggs, Peter

    2008-11-01

    The use of magnesium alloys in structural applications has great potential for the lightweighting of transportation vehicles. Research within the CAST Cooperative Research Centre has tackled some of the important issues related to the use of magnesium in structural applications. To this end, a new alloy with extrudability and properties similar to 6000 series aluminum alloys has been developed. Furthermore, a method of laser heating magnesium alloys before self-piercing riveting has enabled high-integrity joining between magnesium components or between magnesium and dissimilar metals. In this paper, new technologies and improved understanding of the deformation behavior of wrought magnesium alloys are discussed in light of key metallurgical features such as alloy composition, grain size, and work hardening rate.

  18. Catalysts comprising magnesium and a transition metal

    SciTech Connect

    Bujadoux, K.

    1984-10-09

    A catalyst comprising the product obtained by bringing into contact a compound of magnesium comprising at least one species selected from the group consisting of magnesium monohalides (MgX), halo-magnesium hydrides (HMgX) and magnesium hydride (MgH/sub 2/), X being a halogen and the said species MgX or HMgX being obtained by thermal decomposition of a powdery organo-magnesium halide R/sub 1/MgX wherein R/sub 1/ is an organic radical; and at least one halide of a transistion metal selected from the group consisting of titanium and vanadium, the valency of said metal in said halide being lower than or equal to 3, the quantities being such that the atomic ratio of magnesium to said transistion metal is between 1 and 25, and a catalyst system including the catalyst that is suitable for use in the polymerization of olefins and particularly ethylene.

  19. Assessing inhalation injury in the emergency room

    PubMed Central

    Tanizaki, Shinsuke

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory tract injuries caused by inhalation of smoke or chemical products are related to significant morbidity and mortality. While many strategies have been built up to manage cutaneous burn injuries, few logical diagnostic strategies for patients with inhalation injuries exist and almost all treatment is supportive. The goals of initial management are to ensure that the airway allows adequate oxygenation and ventilation and to avoid ventilator-induced lung injury and substances that may complicate subsequent care. Intubation should be considered if any of the following signs exist: respiratory distress, stridor, hypoventilation, use of accessory respiratory muscles, blistering or edema of the oropharynx, or deep burns to the face or neck. Any patients suspected to have inhalation injuries should receive a high concentration of supplemental oxygen to quickly reverse hypoxia and to displace carbon monoxide from protein binding sites. Management of carbon monoxide and cyanide exposure in smoke inhalation patients remains controversial. Absolute indications for hyperbaric oxygen therapy do not exist because there is a low correlation between carboxyhemoglobin levels and the severity of the clinical state. A cyanide antidote should be administered when cyanide poisoning is clinically suspected. Although an ideal approach for respiratory support of patients with inhalation injuries do not exist, it is important that they are supported using techniques that do not further exacerbate respiratory failure. A well-organized strategy for patients with inhalation injury is critical to reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:27147888

  20. CE study of neuroprotective humanin peptide and its derivatives: interactions with phosphate, sulphate, alkylsulphonates and sulphated-beta-CD.

    PubMed

    Havel, Josef; Li, Rong; Macka, Mirek

    2008-02-01

    Humanin (HN), Met-Ala-Pro-Arg-Gly-Phe-Ser-Cys-Leu-Leu-Leu-Leu-Thr-Ser-Glu-IIe-Asp-Leu-Pro-Val-Lys-Arg-Arg-Ala, recently discovered in the human brain, is an important neuroprotective peptide. Some derivatives of HN show even higher biological activity, for example [G-14]-HN, where Ser at position 14 is replaced with Gly. As structurally related HN peptide derivatives have similar chemical properties, their separation by CE is difficult. In this work, the electrophoretic behaviour of HN derivatives including [G-14]-HN, a tryptophan HN derivative [W-14]-HN, several other HN derivatives and HN fragments was studied. While phosphate buffer was used as the general BGE, the effects of the buffer concentration and various additives were examined, including sulphate, heptane sulphonate, 2-morpholinoethanesulphonic acid N-[tris(hydroxymethyl)methyl]-2-aminoethane sulphonic acid (TES), sulphated-beta-CD and beta-CD. Separation efficiency of 200,000 theoretical plates was achieved in a BGE of 80 mM phosphate at pH 2.5 where seven out of nine major peaks were partially separated. By investigating the influence of concentration of the interrogated ions on peptides migration, the association between positively charged protonated sites of peptides and various anions was proved. Especially a strong interaction with phosphate, sulphate and sulphonate groups was established. Conditional stability constant of the [Pep(z+), (H(2)PO(4)(-))(n)](z - n) ion associate (n = 1) for [G-14]-HN equals to log K approximately 1.78.

  1. Nanotechnology Corrosion Pretreatment for Magnesium Alloys

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-29

    Pretreatment for Magnesium Alloys AMS-SAE-M-3171, Type IV Replacement on AZ91D Glycolic Nitrate Pickle (GNP) (1 min) PT-60 (3 min) 0 hr SST 1 4 3 2...Nanotechnology Corrosion Pretreatment for Magnesium Alloys Mr. Jules F. Senske and Mr. Daniel Schmidt Army Research Development and...SUBTITLE Nanotechnology Corrosion Pretreatment for Magnesium Alloys 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  2. IMPROVED MAGNESIUM OXIDE SLIP CASTING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Stoddard, S.D.; Nuckolls, D.E.

    1963-12-31

    A process for making an aqueous magnesium oxide slip casting slurry comprising the steps of mixing finely ground fused magnesium oxide with water, milling the slurry for at least 30 hours at a temperature of 2-10 deg C (the low temperature during milling inhibiting the formation of hydrated magnesium oxide), discharging the slurry from the mill, adding hydrochloric acid as a deflocculent, and adding a scum inhibitor is presented. (AEC)

  3. 21 CFR 184.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium carbonate. 184.1425 Section 184.1425... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Magnesium carbonate (molecular formula approximately (MgCO3)4·Mg(OH)2·5H2O, CAS Reg. No. 39409-82-0) is also known as...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium carbonate. 184.1425 Section 184.1425... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Magnesium carbonate (molecular formula approximately (MgCO3)4·Mg(OH)2·5H2O, CAS Reg. No. 39409-82-0) is also known as...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium carbonate. 184.1425 Section 184.1425... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Magnesium carbonate (molecular formula approximately (MgCO3)4·Mg(OH)2·5H2O, CAS Reg. No. 39409-82-0) is also known as...

  6. Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan and embryonic brain enlargement in the chick.

    PubMed

    Gato, A; Moro, J A; Alonso, M I; Pastor, J F; Represa, J J; Barbosa, E

    1993-07-01

    Previous studies of the early development of the neural tube have shown the existence of an intraneural fluid, which causes a positive pressure inside this primordium, and seems to play a key role in the early development of the central nervous system. In the present study we investigated the composition and synthesis of this intraneural fluid. By using a sequential method, which includes fixation with glutaraldehyde plus cetylpyridinium chloride, opening the neural cavity after critical point drying and scanning electron microscopy analysis, we found a water-soluble extracellular matrix that filled up the brain vesicles of chick embryos at the earliest stages of the neural tube. An ultrastructural study of the neural epithelium during these stages revealed the existence of a secretion process in the neural cells toward the apical side, the future neural cavity. An immunocytochemical study to assess the nature of the secreted material has shown that the intraneural matrix contains chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan, which appeared homogeneously distributed throughout the neural cavity. Our findings demonstrate that the intraneural liquid is a fluid of complex composition and includes chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan as an osmotically active molecule. This suggests a morphogenetic role for the proteoglycan during early brain enlargement. The neural ectoderm is a polarized epithelium from early developmental stages and secretes the intraneural matrix.

  7. 21 CFR 862.1495 - Magnesium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... magnesium levels in serum and plasma. Magnesium measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of hypomagnesemia (abnormally low plasma levels of magnesium) and hypermagnesemia (abnormally high plasma levels...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1495 - Magnesium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... magnesium levels in serum and plasma. Magnesium measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of hypomagnesemia (abnormally low plasma levels of magnesium) and hypermagnesemia (abnormally high plasma levels...

  9. 21 CFR 862.1495 - Magnesium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... magnesium levels in serum and plasma. Magnesium measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of hypomagnesemia (abnormally low plasma levels of magnesium) and hypermagnesemia (abnormally high plasma levels...

  10. 21 CFR 862.1495 - Magnesium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... magnesium levels in serum and plasma. Magnesium measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of hypomagnesemia (abnormally low plasma levels of magnesium) and hypermagnesemia (abnormally high plasma levels...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1495 - Magnesium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... magnesium levels in serum and plasma. Magnesium measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of hypomagnesemia (abnormally low plasma levels of magnesium) and hypermagnesemia (abnormally high plasma levels...

  12. Intestinal circulation during inhalation anesthesia

    SciTech Connect

    Tverskoy, M.; Gelman, S.; Fowler, K.C.; Bradley, E.L.

    1985-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the influence of inhalational agents on the intestinal circulation in an isolated loop preparation. Sixty dogs were studied, using three intestinal segments from each dog. Selected intestinal segments were pumped with aortic blood at a constant pressure of 100 mmHg. A mixture of /sub 86/Rb and 9-microns spheres labeled with /sup 141/Ce was injected into the arterial cannula supplying the intestinal loop, while mesenteric venous blood was collected for activity counting. A very strong and significant correlation was found between rubidium clearance and microsphere entrapment (r = 0.97, P less than 0.0001). Nitrous oxide anesthesia was accompanied by a higher vascular resistance (VR), lower flow (F), rubidium clearance (Cl-Rb), and microspheres entrapment (Cl-Sph) than pentobarbital anesthesia, indicating that the vascular bed in the intestinal segment was constricted and flow (total and nutritive) decreased. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia were accompanied by a much lower arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVDO/sub 2/) and oxygen uptake than pentobarbital or nitrous oxide. Compared with pentobarbital, enflurane anesthesia was not accompanied by marked differences in VR, F, Cl-Rb, and Cl-Sph; halothane at 2 MAC decreased VR and increased F and Cl-Rb while isoflurane increased VR and decreased F. alpha-Adrenoceptor blockade with phentolamine (1 mg . kg-1) abolished isoflurane-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting that the increase in VR was mediated via circulating catecholamines.

  13. Evidence for bicarbonate-dependent magnesium reabsorption.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, A; Langberg, H; Dibona, G; Kiil, F

    1983-01-01

    During ethacrynic acid administration about 50% of the filtered load of magnesium is reabsorbed. To examine whether the remaining component of magnesium reabsorption is bicarbonate-dependent, i.e. varies with factors known to alter passive reabsorption, experiments were performed in anesthetized dogs. During ethacrynic acid administration MgCl2 infusion raised the plasma concentration of magnesium (PMg) from 0.64 +/- 0.05 to 3.06 +/- 0.27 mM and doubled magnesium reabsorption. The infusion of acetazolamide at high PMg reduced bicarbonate reabsorption by 41 +/- 3% and magnesium reabsorption by 31 +/- 16%. When plasma pH was reduced to 7.04 +/- 0.02 and increased to 7.83 +/- 0.02 by altering PCO2 at a constant plasma bicarbonate concentration of 31.2 +/- 0.8 mM, magnesium and bicarbonate reabsorption were correlated (r = 0.82). The infusion of mannitol, which acts by reducing passive solute transport without affecting bicarbonate reabsorption, halved magnesium reabsorption. By combining mannitol and acetazolamide infusions, only 6 +/- 4% of the filtered magnesium was still reabsorbed. These results indicate that the reabsorption of magnesium remaining after the infusion of ethacrynic acid and after raising PMg varies with changes in PCO2 and is inhibited by the infusion of acetazolamide and mannitol as expected for bicarbonate-dependent passive reabsorption.

  14. Characterization and assessment of dermal and inhalable nickel exposures in nickel production and primary user industries.

    PubMed

    Hughson, G W; Galea, K S; Heim, K E

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the levels of nickel in the skin contaminant layer of workers involved in specific processes and tasks within the primary nickel production and primary nickel user industries. Dermal exposure samples were collected using moist wipes to recover surface contamination from defined areas of skin. These were analysed for soluble and insoluble nickel species. Personal samples of inhalable dust were also collected to determine the corresponding inhalable nickel exposures. The air samples were analysed for total inhalable dust and then for soluble, sulfidic, metallic, and oxidic nickel species. The workplace surveys were carried out in five different workplaces, including three nickel refineries, a stainless steel plant, and a powder metallurgy plant, all of which were located in Europe. Nickel refinery workers involved with electrolytic nickel recovery processes had soluble dermal nickel exposure of 0.34 microg cm(-2) [geometric mean (GM)] to the hands and forearms. The GM of soluble dermal nickel exposure for workers involved in packing nickel salts (nickel chloride hexahydrate, nickel sulphate hexahydrate, and nickel hydroxycarbonate) was 0.61 microg cm(-2). Refinery workers involved in packing nickel metal powders and end-user powder operatives in magnet production had the highest dermal exposure (GM = 2.59 microg cm(-2) soluble nickel). The hands, forearms, face, and neck of these workers all received greater dermal nickel exposure compared with the other jobs included in this study. The soluble nickel dermal exposures for stainless steel production workers were at or slightly above the limit of detection (0.02 microg cm(-2) soluble nickel). The highest inhalable nickel concentrations were observed for the workers involved in nickel powder packing (GM = 0.77 mg m(-3)), although the soluble component comprised only 2% of the total nickel content. The highest airborne soluble nickel exposures were associated with refineries using

  15. Laser-induced Magnesium Production from Magnesium Oxide for Renewable Magnesium Energy Cycle.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Shi-Hua; Yabe, Takashi; Baasandash, Choijil; Sato, Yuji; Ichikawa, Masashi; Nakatsuka, Masashi; Fukushima, Chika; Uchida, Shigeaki; Ohkubo, Tomomasa

    2010-10-01

    We succeeded in reducing magnesium [Mg] from magnesium oxide [MgO] by laser irradiation. The laser-induced vapor temperature was measured to be approximately 5000 K on the irradiating spot, where MgO separated into Mg and oxygen [O] atoms through thermal dissociation. The Mg vapor was intercepted a cooper plate, forming solid deposits on it. However, the presence of oxygen, resulting from MgO dissociation, leads to Mg oxidization in the course of vapor cooling. The deoxidization process results in lower Mg fraction in the deposits and degrades energy recovery efficiency from laser irradiation. To quench this recombination, we also employed silicon as reducing agents to capture oxygen in favor of Mg extraction. In these experiments, the molar ratio effect (MgO:Si = 1:0-1) on the magnesium fractions and energy efficiencies were measured by means of a chemical reaction. The maximal energy efficiency, %, was obtained at the ratio of MgO:Si = 1:0.5. This ratio is lower than that of the Pidgeon process with Mg:Si = 1:1 resulting in a lower energy efficiency of %. This implies laser-induced Mg production is a economical process of using reducing agents with large throughput. The usage of laser radiation generated from solar energy for Mg metallurgy will significantly reduce CO2 emission.

  16. [Inhalation therapy by dose-inhalers: analysis of patients performance and possibilities for improvement].

    PubMed

    Petro, W; Schuppenies, A

    2005-05-01

    Inhalation therapy in chronic obstructive airways disease requires an efficient inhalation technique. This study analyses step by step the mistakes made in the usage of different MDIs, relates these to patient information prior to the testing and examines several teaching procedures for improvement of knowledge and performance of the inhalation technique. 125 patients suffering from COPD were assigned to six different groups according to their background knowledge in the inhalation technique. The performance was assessed in standardized single steps and as overall performance. Furthermore the efficacy of an interactive pc-based-training program was evaluated. The worst performance was seen in patients who only used the suppliers medication leaflet as a guide. Patients trained in outpatient clinics as well as patients trained in small groups during an inpatient stay showed a better performance. A high improvement rate was seen in prior MDI naive patients after they had undergone the interactive pc-based training program. Most problems were detected in the application step "exhalation before inhalation" and in the actuation-inhalation step. Besides the classical and the pc-based training the use of MDI phantoms showed very good results. The practical conclusion of this study is that the ability of patients to use inhalation pharmacotherapy efficiently needs improvement. Training programs of different intensity lead to a different outcome in performance and knowledge depending on prior knowledge. Inhalation pharmacotherapy without adequate training is insufficient.

  17. Automatic identification and accurate temporal detection of inhalations in asthma inhaler recordings.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Martin S; Le Menn, Marine; D'Arcy, Shona; Rapcan, Viliam; MacHale, Elaine; Costello, Richard W; Reilly, Richard B

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is chronic airways disease characterized by recurrent attacks of breathlessness and wheezing. Adherence to medication regimes is a common failing for asthmatic patients and there exists a requirement to monitor such patients' adherence. The detection of inhalations from recordings of inhaler use can provide empirical evidence about patients' adherence to their asthma medication regime. Manually listening to recordings of inhaler use is a tedious and time consuming process and thus an algorithm which can automatically and accurately carry out this task would be of great value. This study employs a recording device attached to a commonly used dry powder inhaler to record the acoustic signals of patients taking their prescribed medication. An algorithm was developed to automatically detect and accurately demarcate inhalations from the acoustic signals. This algorithm was tested on a dataset of 255 separate recordings of inhaler use in real world environments. The dataset was obtained from 12 asthma outpatients who attended a respiratory clinic over a three month period. Evaluation of the algorithm on this dataset achieved sensitivity of 95%, specificity of 94% and an accuracy of 89% in detecting inhalations compared to manual inhalation detection.

  18. Inhalant Initiation and the Relationship of Inhalant Use to the Use of Other Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamblen, Stephen R.; Miller, Ted

    2012-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that inhalant use is primarily isolated to youthful experimentation; however, a growing body of evidence suggests that inhalant use (a) occurs after use of common substances of experimentation (e.g., alcohol, marijuana), (b) can persist into later life, and (c) is associated with severe consequences. The current study…

  19. Checklists for the Assessment of Correct Inhalation Therapy.

    PubMed

    Knipel, V; Schwarz, S; Magnet, F S; Storre, J H; Criée, C P; Windisch, W

    2017-02-01

    Introduction For the long-term treatment of obstructive lung diseases inhalation therapy with drugs being delivered directly to the lungs as an aerosol has become the method of choice. However, patient-related mistakes in inhalation techniques are frequent and recognized to be associated with reduced disease control. Since the assessment of patient-mistakes in inhalation has yet not been standardized, the present study was aimed at developing checklists for the assessment of correct inhalation. Methods Checklists were developed in German by an expert panel of pneumologists and professionally translated into English following back-translation procedures. The checklists comparably assessed three major steps of inhalation: 1) inhalation preparation, 2) inhalation routine, and 3) closure of inhalation. Results Checklists for eight frequently used inhalers were developed: Aerolizer, Breezhaler, Diskus (Accuhaler), metered-dose inhaler, Handihaler, Novolizer, Respimat, Turbohaler. Each checklist consists of ten items: three for inhalation preparation, six for inhalation routine, and one for closure of inhalation. Discussion Standardized checklists for frequently used inhalers are available in German and English. These checklists can be used for clinical routines or for clinical trials. All checklists can be downloaded free of charge for non-profit application from the homepage of the German Airway League (Deutsche Atemwegsliga e. V.): www.atemwegsliga.de.

  20. Effect of Disease Severity in Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease on Inhaler-Specific Inhalation Profiles Through the ELLIPTA® Dry Powder Inhaler

    PubMed Central

    de Backer, Wilfried; Hamilton, Melanie; Cahn, Anthony; Preece, Andrew; Kelleher, Dennis; Baines, Amanda; Moore, Alison; Brealey, Noushin; Moynihan, Jackie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Two studies were undertaken to characterize the maximal effort inhalation profiles of healthy subjects and patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) through a moderate-resistance dry powder inhaler (DPI). Correlations between inhaler-specific inhalation characteristics and inhaler-independent lung function parameters were investigated. Methods: Healthy subjects (n = 15), patients with mild, moderate, or severe asthma (n = 45), and patients with mild, moderate, severe, or very-severe COPD (n = 60) were included in the studies. Inhalation pressure drop versus time profiles were recorded using an instrumented ELLIPTA® DPI or bespoke resistor component with equivalent resistivity. Inhaler-independent lung function assessments included pharyngometry, spirometry, plethysmography, and diffusion. Results: For the inhaler-specific inhalation profiles, the mean maximal effort peak inspiratory flow rates (PIFRs) varied across the subgroups from 65.8–110.6 L/min (range: 41.6–142.9). Peak pressure drop, PIFR, inhaled volume, and average inhalation flow rate (primary endpoints) did not differ markedly between healthy subjects and patients with asthma or mild COPD. Moderate, severe, and very-severe COPD patients demonstrated lower mean peak pressure drops, PIFRs and inhaled volumes, which tended to decrease with increasing COPD severity. Severe and very-severe COPD patients demonstrated shorter mean inhalation times compared with all other participants. Inhaler-independent lung function parameters were consistent with disease severity, and statistically significant (p < 0.05) strong correlations (R > 0.7) with components of the inhaler-specific inhalation profiles were observed in the COPD cohort; correlations in the asthma cohort tended to be weaker. Conclusions: All participants achieved a maximal effort PIFR ≥ 41.6 L/min through the moderate resistance of the ELLIPTA inhaler. Patients with asthma

  1. Olfactory deposition of inhaled nanoparticles in humans

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Guilherme J. M.; Schroeter, Jeffry D.; Kimbell, Julia S.

    2016-01-01

    Context Inhaled nanoparticles can migrate to the brain via the olfactory bulb, as demonstrated in experiments in several animal species. This route of exposure may be the mechanism behind the correlation between air pollution and human neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Objectives This manuscript aims to (1) estimate the dose of inhaled nanoparticles that deposit in the human olfactory epithelium during nasal breathing at rest and (2) compare the olfactory dose in humans with our earlier dose estimates for rats. Materials and methods An anatomically-accurate model of the human nasal cavity was developed based on computed tomography scans. The deposition of 1–100 nm particles in the whole nasal cavity and its olfactory region were estimated via computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Our CFD methods were validated by comparing our numerical predictions for whole-nose deposition with experimental data and previous CFD studies in the literature. Results In humans, olfactory dose of inhaled nanoparticles is highest for 1–2 nm particles with approximately 1% of inhaled particles depositing in the olfactory region. As particle size grows to 100 nm, olfactory deposition decreases to 0.01% of inhaled particles. Discussion and conclusion Our results suggest that the percentage of inhaled particles that deposit in the olfactory region is lower in humans than in rats. However, olfactory dose per unit surface area is estimated to be higher in humans due to their larger minute volume. These dose estimates are important for risk assessment and dose-response studies investigating the neurotoxicity of inhaled nanoparticles. PMID:26194036

  2. Extracellular killing of inhaled pneumococci in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Coonrod, J.D.; Marple, S.; Holmes, G.P.; Rehm, S.R.

    1987-12-01

    Early clearance of inhaled Staphylococcus aureus is believed to be caused by phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages. In murine models inhaled pneumococci are cleared even more rapidly than S. aureus. Conventional opsonins appear to play no role in this clearance, and recently it has been shown that murine alveolar lining material contains free fatty acids and other soluble factors that are directly bactericidal for pneumococci. To determine whether non-phagocytic factors are involved in pneumococcal clearance, we compared the site of killing of inhaled pneumococci and S. aureus in rats using histologic methods and bronchoalveolar lavage. Spontaneous lysis of pneumococci was prevented by use of autolysin-defective pneumococci or by substitution of ethanolamine for choline in the cell wall. Histologic studies showed that the percent of inhaled staphylococci associated with alveolar macrophages always exceeded the percent of staphylococci cleared, whereas there was little association of pneumococci with macrophages during clearance. Analysis of the intracellular or extracellular location of iron 59 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of rats that had inhaled aerosols of /sup 59/Fe-labeled bacteria suggested that staphylococci were killed predominantly in macrophages and pneumococci in the extracellular space. When /sup 59/Fe-labeled pneumococci or staphylococci were ingested and killed by macrophages in vitro, the /sup 59/Fe remained with the macrophages, suggesting that the extracellular location of /sup 59/Fe during pneumococcal killing in vivo was not caused by rapid turnover of /sup 59/Fe in macrophages. Studies of the site of killing of inhaled type 25 pneumococci labeled exclusively in the cell wall with carbon 14-ethanolamine confirmed the results obtained with /sup 59/Fe-labeled pneumococci. Thus, early killing of inhaled pneumococci, unlike staphylococci, appears to take place outside of macrophages.

  3. Interdiffusion of magnesium and iron dopants in gallium nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Tomonobu; Kitatani, Takeshi; Terano, Akihisa; Mochizuki, Kazuhiro

    2015-03-01

    The interdiffusion of magnesium and iron in gallium nitride (GaN), i.e., magnesium-iron interdiffusion, was investigated using magnesium-doped GaN layers on iron-doped GaN substrates. The investigation confirms that the magnesium-iron interdiffusion strongly depends on the concentrations of magnesium and iron, that is, it occurs when the iron and magnesium concentrations are high (magnesium: 2 × 1020 cm-3 iron: 2 × 1019 cm-3). It also confirms that diffused iron in the magnesium-doped GaN layer acts as a nonradiative recombination center in GaN.

  4. Correlation analysis between sulphate content and leaching of sulphates in recycled aggregates from construction and demolition wastes.

    PubMed

    Barbudo, Auxi; Galvín, Adela P; Agrela, Francisco; Ayuso, Jesús; Jiménez, Jose Ramón

    2012-06-01

    In some recycled aggregates applications, such as component of new concrete or roads, the total content of soluble sulphates should be measured and controlled. Restrictions are usually motivated by the resistance or stability of the new structure, and in most cases, structural concerns can be remedied by the use of techniques such as sulphur-resistant cements. However, environmental risk assessment from recycling and reuse construction products is often forgotten. The purpose of this study is to analyse the content of soluble sulphate on eleven recycled aggregates and six samples prepared in laboratory by the addition of different gypsum percentages. As points of reference, two natural aggregates were tested. An analysis of the content of the leachable amount of heavy metals regulated by European regulation was included. As a result, the correlation between solubility and leachability data allow suggest a limiting gypsum amount of 4.4% on recycled aggregates. This limit satisfies EU Landfill Directive criteria, which is currently used as reference by public Spanish Government for recycled aggregates in construction works.

  5. Massive Volcanic SO2 Oxidation and Sulphate Aerosol Deposition in Cenozoic North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volcanic eruptions release a large amount of sulphur dioxide (SO2) into the atmosphere. SO2 is oxidized to sulphate and can subsequently form sulphate aerosol, which can affect the Earth's radiation balance, biologic productivity and high-altitude ozone co...

  6. Effect of aerobic exercise against vanadyl sulphate-induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Fatemeh; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi; Kargarfard, Mehdi; Eshraghi-Jazi, Fatemeh; Talebi, Ardeshir; Shirdavani, Soheila

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Vanadium compounds are insulin like drugs which are accompanied with nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity as their major side effects. Aerobic exercise is well known as an approach to reduce the side effects of many drugs. Objectives: This study was designed to determine the role of aerobic exercise against vanadyl sulphate induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in male rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups. Group I had aerobic exercise on a treadmill 5 days/week for 6 weeks. Group II received vanadyl sulphate (50 mg/kg/week; i.p.) for 6 weeks. Group III had combination of exercise and vanadyl sulphate therapy as groups 1 and 2. At the end of study, blood samples were obtained, and the animals were sacrificed for the tissues injury determination. Results: Vanadyl sulphate alone increased serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), and kidney weight (KW) and kidney tissue damage score (KTDS) (P<0.05). These observations revealed nephrotoxicity induced by vanadyl sulphate, although exercise training did not attenuate these results. In addition, vanadyl sulphate alone induced liver tissue damage score and exercise training intensified it insignificantly, while the serum levels of aspartate amino transferase and alanine amino transferase were greater in exercise alone group than others groups. Conclusion: Aerobic exercise could not attenuate vanadyl sulphate induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. These findings must be considered when vanadyl sulphate is suggested as insulin like drug. PMID:27689120

  7. The TMS Magnesium Committee: Committed to the Advancement of Global Magnesium Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sillekens, Wim H.; Nyberg, Eric A.

    2011-04-21

    The TMS Magnesium Committee was established in the year 2000 as a spin-off of the Reactive Metals Committee, triggered by the strong global growth of magnesium being used in a variety of structural lightweight applications since the mid-1990’s. Since then the committee has seen a distinct development in terms of size, participation and focus. The article at hand outlines this development by recapitulating the output of its two main activities: the annual Magnesium Technology Symposia and the JOM Special Issues dedicated to magnesium research and development. Further records on the Magnesium Committee are available from the committee homepage (accessible through http://members.tms.org).

  8. Comparative efficacy of ropivacaine and levobupivacaine in combined femoral and lateral femoral cutaneous nerve block with adjuvant magnesium for post-operative analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Khairnar, Prakash; Agarwal, Munisha; Verma, Uttam Chandra; Kumar, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Patients with burns may require multiple surgeries, but poor general condition and underlying protein energy malnutrition make them unsuitable candidates for general or spinal anaesthesia. This study evaluated the role of magnesium sulphate as an adjuvant with levobupivacaine and ropivacaine used in combined femoral and lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN) blocks in burn patients with relative sparing of thigh portion. Methods: This prospective, randomised, double-blind study included 54 adult patients of 18–65 years age, undergoing split-thickness skin graft harvest from the thigh, allotted to three equal groups of 18 each. Group L patients received femoral nerve (FN) block with 15 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine and 8 mL for LFCN block; Group LM patients received 14 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine along with 1.0 mL of 15% magnesium sulphate for FN block, 7.5 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine with 0.5 mL of 15% of magnesium sulphate to LFCN block and Group R patients received 15 mL of 0.5% ropivacaine for FN block and 8 mL of 0.5% ropivacaine for LFCN block. Time to block onset and complete surgical block, duration of analgesia, total analgesic dose and the overall analgesia satisfaction score were measured in the first 24 h post-operatively. Quantitative data were analysed with ANOVA and qualitative data subjected to Chi-square tests. Intergroup comparison was performed with independent t-test. Results: The duration of post-operative analgesia did not differ with the addition of magnesium (P = 0.610). Time to onset of the block was significantly decreased with the addition of magnesium (P = 0.0341), but time to complete surgical block onset was similar across the groups. Conclusion: Both ropivacaine and levobupivacaine have good perioperative analgesic efficacy. Magnesium as an analgesia adjuvant with levobupivacaine does not prolong the duration of post-operative analgesia. PMID:27601742

  9. [Health significance of inhaled particles].

    PubMed

    Gillissen, A; Gessner, C; Hammerschmidt, S; Hoheisel, G; Wirtz, H

    2006-03-24

    Particulates refer to particles, dust, dirt, soot and aerosol mists that has suspended in the surrounding air. They may consist of solids of various forms including fibres or liquids. Long term exposure to silicon dioxide containing dusts (crystalline silica: quartz, tridymite, cristobalite, coesite, stishovite) may cause pneumoconiosis in the form of acute or/either chronic silicosis. Asbestos refers to a divers family of crystalline hydrated fibrous siliates typically exhibiting a greater tha 3:1 length ot diameter ratio. It is subdivided into serpentine (Chrysotile) and amphibole (crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite, tremolite, actinolite). Exposure to asbestos fibres may cause lung fibrosis and promote cancer of the lung or the pleura. Besides the induction of malignant diseases dust exposure may result in obstructive as well as restrictive lung diseases which may be compensate in case of the recognition as a occupational diseases. Other occupational exposures leading to pneumoconiosis are caused be talc, or metals including aluminium containing dusts. Also the group of man-made mineral (MMMFs) or vitreous fibres (MMVFs), including glass wool, rock wool, slag wool, glass filaments, microfibres, refractory ceramic fibres are bioactive under certain experimental conditions. Although it has been shown that MMMFs may cause malignancies when injected intraperitoneally in high quantities in rodents, inhalation trials and human studies could not reproduce these results in the same precision. Fine particles (particulate matter = PM) comprise one of the most widespread and harmful air pollutants in the industrialized world. PM may cause worsening of asthma and other respiratory diseases, reduce lung function development in children, potentially increased the risk of premature death in the elderly and enhance mortality from cardiac diseases. Because of the small size PM2.5 is seen to be even more hazardous than PM10.

  10. An overview of geoengineering of climate using stratospheric sulphate aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Rasch, Philip J.; Tilmes, S.; Turco, Richard P.; Robock, Alan; Oman, Luke; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Stenchikov, Georgiy; Garcia, Rolando R.

    2010-01-01

    We provide an overview of geoengineering by stratospheric sulphate aerosols. The state of understanding about this topic as of early 2008 is reviewed, summarizing the past 30 years of work in the area, highlighting some very recent studies using climate models, and discussing methods used to deliver sulphur species to the stratosphere. The studies reviewed here suggest that sulphate aerosols can counteract the globally averaged temperature increase associated with increasing greenhouse gases, and reduce changes to some other components of the Earth system. There are likely to be remaining regional climate changes after geoengineering, with some regions experiencing significant changes in temperature or precipitation. The aerosols also serve as surfaces for heterogeneous chemistry resulting in increased ozone depletion. The delivery of sulphur species to the stratosphere in a way that will produce particles of the right size is shown to be a complex and potentially very difficult task. Two simple delivery scenarios are explored, but similar exercises will be needed for other suggested delivery mechanisms. While the introduction of the geoengineering source of sulphate aerosol will perturb the sulphur cycle of the stratosphere signicantly, it is a small perturbation to the total (stratosphere and troposphere) sulphur cycle. The geoengineering source would thus be a small contributor to the total global source of ‘acid rain’ that could be compensated for through improved pollution control of anthropogenic tropospheric sources. Some areas of research remain unexplored. Although ozone may be depleted, with a consequent increase to solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) energy reaching the surface and a potential impact on health and biological populations, the aerosols will also scatter and attenuate this part of the energy spectrum, and this may compensate the UVB enhancement associated with ozone depletion. The aerosol will also change the ratio of diffuse to direct energy

  11. An overview of geoengineering of climate using stratospheric sulphate aerosols.

    PubMed

    Rasch, Philip J; Tilmes, Simone; Turco, Richard P; Robock, Alan; Oman, Luke; Chen, Chih-Chieh; Stenchikov, Georgiy L; Garcia, Rolando R

    2008-11-13

    We provide an overview of geoengineering by stratospheric sulphate aerosols. The state of understanding about this topic as of early 2008 is reviewed, summarizing the past 30 years of work in the area, highlighting some very recent studies using climate models, and discussing methods used to deliver sulphur species to the stratosphere. The studies reviewed here suggest that sulphate aerosols can counteract the globally averaged temperature increase associated with increasing greenhouse gases, and reduce changes to some other components of the Earth system. There are likely to be remaining regional climate changes after geoengineering, with some regions experiencing significant changes in temperature or precipitation. The aerosols also serve as surfaces for heterogeneous chemistry resulting in increased ozone depletion. The delivery of sulphur species to the stratosphere in a way that will produce particles of the right size is shown to be a complex and potentially very difficult task. Two simple delivery scenarios are explored, but similar exercises will be needed for other suggested delivery mechanisms. While the introduction of the geoengineering source of sulphate aerosol will perturb the sulphur cycle of the stratosphere signicantly, it is a small perturbation to the total (stratosphere and troposphere) sulphur cycle. The geoengineering source would thus be a small contributor to the total global source of 'acid rain' that could be compensated for through improved pollution control of anthropogenic tropospheric sources. Some areas of research remain unexplored. Although ozone may be depleted, with a consequent increase to solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) energy reaching the surface and a potential impact on health and biological populations, the aerosols will also scatter and attenuate this part of the energy spectrum, and this may compensate the UVB enhancement associated with ozone depletion. The aerosol will also change the ratio of diffuse to direct energy

  12. DMS Sulphate and MSA as tracers of marine biogenic productivity in an Arctic snowpack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasiuta, V.; Norman, A.; Marshall, S.

    2007-12-01

    Sources, seasonal patterns, and spatial variations of snowpack sulphate of the Prince of Wales Icefield, Ellesmere Island were assessed using δ34S values along with major ion and MSA concentrations. Snowpack sulphate concentrations and δ34S values diminished with elevation and inland distance suggesting that the proximal North Water Polynya was the major sulphate source with additional sources affecting specific regions. Snowpack δ34S values in depth profile reflected seasonal cycles of marine biogenic, anthropogenic, and sea-salt aerosols with appreciable contributions of marine biogenic sulphate to virtually every depth horizon. A proximal April/May marine biogenic source was indicated, with DMS oxidation occurring near the marine boundary layer, and the possibility of additional oxidation at higher atmospheric levels. Depositional patterns of DMS sulphate and MSA indicate they were oxidized from DMS at different elevations in the atmosphere and that their deposition routes differed.

  13. Isotope composition of sulphate in acid mine drainage as measure of bacterial oxidation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, B.E.; Wheeler, M.C.; Nordstrom, D.K.

    1984-01-01

    The formation of acid waters by oxidation of pyrite-bearing ore deposits, mine tailing piles, and coal measures is a complex biogeochemical process and is a serious environmental problem. We have studied the oxygen and sulphur isotope geochemistry of sulphides, sulphur, sulphate and water in the field and in experiments to identify sources of oxygen and reaction mechanisms of sulphate formation. Here we report that the oxygen isotope composition of sulphate in acid mine drainage shows a large variation due to differing proportions of atmospheric- and water-derived oxygen from both chemical and bacterially-mediated oxidation. 18O-enrichment of sulphate results from pyrite oxidation facilitated by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans in aerated environments. Oxygen isotope analysis may therefore be useful in monitoring the effectiveness of abatement programmes designed to inhibit bacterial oxidation. Sulphur isotopes show no significant fractionation between pyrite and sulphate, indicating the quantitative insignificance of intermediate oxidation states of sulphur under acid conditions. ?? 1984 Nature Publishing Group.

  14. Gypsum precipitation/dissolution as an explanation of the decrease of sulphate concentration during seawater intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomis-Yagües, V.; Boluda-Botella, N.; Ruiz-Beviá, F.

    2000-02-01

    The precipitation of gypsum during the intrusion of seawater in a coastal aquifer is shown to be a possible cause of the decrease of the sulphate concentration with respect to the conservative freshwater/seawater mixing observed in many field studies. Results of previously published laboratory column experiments and the application of a multicomponent reactive transport model show that gypsum precipitates during the first stages of seawater intrusion, causing a decrease in sulphate concentration. As the resultant front advances, the water becomes undersaturated with respect to gypsum when the content of seawater <50%. At that point, water samples exhibit a deficit of sulphate of several mmol/l, in the range of the field values reported in papers on intrusion in coastal aquifers. Thus, in addition to bacterial sulphate reduction by organic matter, gypsum precipitation is a possible explanation for the non-conservative behaviour of sulphate during seawater intrusion.

  15. Application of anaerobic biological treatment for sulphate removal in viscose industry wastewater.

    PubMed

    Parravicini, V; Svardal, K; Kroiss, H

    2007-01-01

    Long term lab-scale and bench-scale experiments were performed to investigate the feasibility of the anaerobic process to treat wastewater from a pulp and viscose fibre industry. Anaerobic wastewater treatment enables an advantageous combination of COD, sulphate and zinc removal from viscose wastewater. The aim of the investigations was to evaluate the influence of the free sulphide concentration on COD and sulphate removal efficiency and on the substrate competition between sulphate reducing and methanogenic bacteria. Since the wastewater did not contain enough COD for complete sulphate removal it was of major interest to determine favourable process conditions to steer the substrate competition in favour of sulphate reduction. Further experiments at bench-scale permitted us to evaluate applicable COD-loading rates and gain fundamental information about process stability and optimization for large-scale implementation. The present work will deal with the most relevant experimental results achieved and with important technological aspects of anaerobic treatment of viscose wastewater.

  16. Propofol and magnesium attenuate isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation via inhibiting mitochondrial permeability transition pore

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The inhalation anesthetic isoflurane has been shown to open the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) and induce caspase activation and apoptosis, which may lead to learning and memory impairment. Cyclosporine A, a blocker of mPTP opening might attenuate the isoflurane-induced mPTP opening, lessening its ripple effects. Magnesium and anesthetic propofol are also mPTP blockers. We therefore set out to determine whether propofol and magnesium can attenuate the isoflurane-induced caspase activation and mPTP opening. Methods We investigated the effects of magnesium sulfate (Mg2+), propofol, and isoflurane on the opening of mPTP and caspase activation in H4 human neuroglioma cells stably transfected to express full-length human amyloid precursor protein (APP) (H4 APP cells) and in six day-old wild-type mice, employing Western blot analysis and flowcytometry. Results Here we show that Mg2+ and propofol attenuated the isoflurane-induced caspase-3 activation in H4-APP cells and mouse brain tissue. Moreover, Mg2+ and propofol, the blockers of mPTP opening, mitigated the isoflurane-induced mPTP opening in the H4-APP cells. Conclusion These data illustrate that Mg2+ and propofol may ameliorate the isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity by inhibiting its mitochondrial dysfunction. Pending further studies, these findings may suggest the use of Mg2+ and propofol in preventing and treating anesthesia neurotoxicity. PMID:22901676

  17. Antitubercular inhaled therapy: opportunities, progress and challenges.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Rajesh; Khuller, G K

    2005-04-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis remains the commonest form of this disease and the development of methods for delivering antitubercular drugs directly to the lungs via the respiratory route is a rational therapeutic goal. The obvious advantages of inhaled therapy include direct drug delivery to the diseased organ, targeting to alveolar macrophages harbouring the mycobacteria, reduced risk of systemic toxicity and improved patient compliance. Research efforts have demonstrated the feasibility of various drug delivery systems employing liposomes, polymeric microparticles and nanoparticles to serve as inhalable antitubercular drug carriers. In particular, nanoparticles have emerged as a remarkably useful tool for this purpose. While some researchers have preferred dry powder inhalers, others have emphasized nebulization. Beginning with the respiratory delivery of a single antitubercular drug, it is now possible to deliver multiple drugs simultaneously with a greater therapeutic efficacy. More experience and expertise have been observed with synthetic polymers, nevertheless, the possibility of using natural polymers for inhaled therapy has yet to be explored. Several key issues such as patient education, cost of treatment, stability and large scale production of drug formulations, etc. need to be addressed before antitubercular inhaled therapy finds its way from theory to clinical reality.

  18. Inhaled linalool-induced sedation in mice.

    PubMed

    Linck, Viviane Moura; da Silva, Adriana Lourenço; Figueiró, Micheli; Piato, Angelo Luis; Herrmann, Ana Paula; Dupont Birck, Franciele; Caramão, Elina Bastos; Nunes, Domingos Sávio; Moreno, Paulo Roberto H; Elisabetsky, Elaine

    2009-04-01

    Linalool is a monoterpene often found as a major component of essential oils obtained from aromatic plant species, many of which are used in traditional medical systems as hypno-sedatives. Psychopharmacological evaluations of linalool (i.p. and i.c.v.) revealed marked sedative and anticonvulsant central effects in various mouse models. Considering this profile and alleged effects of inhaled lavender essential oil, the purpose of this study was to examine the sedative effects of inhaled linalool in mice. Mice were placed in an inhalation chamber during 60 min, in an atmosphere saturated with 1% or 3% linalool. Immediately after inhalation, animals were evaluated regarding locomotion, barbiturate-induced sleeping time, body temperature and motor coordination (rota-rod test). The 1% and 3% linalool increased (p<0.01) pentobarbital sleeping time and reduced (p<0.01) body temperature. The 3% linalool decreased (p<0.01) locomotion. Motor coordination was not affected. Hence, linalool inhaled for 1h seems to induce sedation without significant impairment in motor abilities, a side effect shared by most psycholeptic drugs.

  19. IRIS Toxicological Review of Formaldehyde (Inhalation) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    UPDATE EPA is currently revising its Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) assessment of formaldehyde to address the 2011 NAS peer review recommendations. This assessment addresses both noncancer and cancer human health effects that are relevant to assessing the risks from chronic inhalation exposure to formaldehyde. To facilitate discussion of several scientific issues pertinent to the assessment, EPA convened a state-of-the-science workshop on April 30 and May 1, 2014. This workshop focused on the following three themes: Evidence pertaining to the influence of formaldehyde that is produced endogenously (by the body during normal biological processes) on the toxicity of inhaled formaldehyde, and implications for the health assessment; Mechanistic evidence relevant to formaldehyde inhalation exposure and lymphohematopoietic cancers (leukemia and lymphomas); and Epidemiological research examining the potential association between formaldehyde exposure and lymphohematopoietic cancers (leukemia and lymphomas). June 2010: EPA is conducting an independent expert peer review by the National Academy of Sciences and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of Formaldehyde-Inhalation that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. This draft IRIS health assessment addresses both noncancer and cancer human health effects that may result from chronic inhal

  20. Deposition and biokinetics of inhaled nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Particle biokinetics is important in hazard identification and characterization of inhaled particles. Such studies intend to convert external to internal exposure or biologically effective dose, and may help to set limits in that way. Here we focus on the biokinetics of inhaled nanometer sized particles in comparison to micrometer sized ones. The presented approach ranges from inhaled particle deposition probability and retention in the respiratory tract to biokinetics and clearance of particles out of the respiratory tract. Particle transport into the blood circulation (translocation), towards secondary target organs and tissues (accumulation), and out of the body (clearance) is considered. The macroscopically assessed amount of particles in the respiratory tract and secondary target organs provides dose estimates for toxicological studies on the level of the whole organism. Complementary, microscopic analyses at the individual particle level provide detailed information about which cells and subcellular components are the target of inhaled particles. These studies contribute to shed light on mechanisms and modes of action eventually leading to adverse health effects by inhaled nanoparticles. We review current methods for macroscopic and microscopic analyses of particle deposition, retention and clearance. Existing macroscopic knowledge on particle biokinetics and microscopic views on particle organ interactions are discussed comparing nanometer and micrometer sized particles. We emphasize the importance for quantitative analyses and the use of particle doses derived from real world exposures. PMID:20205860

  1. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Anticaking Agents § 182.2437 Magnesium silicate. (a) Product....

  2. Magnesium: Is It a Viable Option?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    strike - High alkalinity • Magnesium strike – High alkalinity • Electroless Nickel - formulated to prevent attach of magnesium. Success Stories...ionic palladium, palladium reducer, electroless copper and electroless nickel. The initial results were encouraging: We were able to Get the parts

  3. Sulphate, more than a nutrient, protects the microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii from cadmium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mera, Roi; Torres, Enrique; Abalde, Julio

    2014-03-01

    Sulphur is an essential macroelement that plays important roles in living organisms. The thiol rich sulphur compounds, such as cysteine, γ-Glu-Cys, glutathione and phytochelatins participate in the tolerance mechanisms against cadmium toxicity. Plants, algae, yeasts and most prokaryotes cover their demand for reduced sulphur by reduction of inorganic sulphate. The aim of this study was to investigate, using a bifactorial experimental design, the effect of different sulphate concentrations in the nutrient solution on cadmium toxicity in the freshwater microalga Chlamydomonas moewusii. Cell growth, kinetic parameters of sulphate utilization and intracellular concentrations of low-molecular mass thiol compounds were determined. A mathematical model to describe the growth of this microalga based on the effects of sulphate and cadmium was obtained. An ANOVA revealed an interaction between them, 16% of the effect sizes was explained by this interaction. A higher amount of sulphate in the culture medium allowed a higher cadmium tolerance due to an increase in the thiol compound biosynthesis. The amount of low-molecular mass thiol compounds, mainly phytochelatins, synthesized by this microalga was significantly dependent on the sulphate and cadmium concentrations; the higher phytochelatin content was obtained in cultures with 4 mg Cd/L and 1mM sulphate. The maximum EC50 value (based on nominal cadmium concentration) reached for this microalga was 4.46 ± 0.42 mg Cd/L when the sulphate concentration added to the culture medium was also 1mM. An increase in the sulphate concentration, in deficient environments, could alleviate the toxic effect of this metal; however, a relative excess is also negative. The results obtained showed a substrate inhibition for this nutrient. An uncompetitive model for sulphate was chosen to establish the mathematical model that links both factors.

  4. Antimicrobial activity of flavanoid sulphates and other fractions of Argyreia speciosa (Burm.f) Boj.

    PubMed

    Habbu, P V; Mahadevan, K M; Shastry, R A; Manjunatha, H

    2009-02-01

    Antimicrobial activity of flavanoid sulphates and different fractions of A. speciosa root was studied against bacteria, fungi and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 Rv sensitive strain by in vitro and in vivo assays. Flavanoid sulphates such as quercetin 3'7 di-O methyl 3- sulphate and kaempferol 7-O methyl 3-sulphate were isolated from the n-butanol fraction of 80% methanolic extract of the plant. The structures of the isolated flavanoids were confirmed by spectral studies. Ethyl acetate (EAAS) fraction and flavanoid sulphates inhibited the growth of M. tuberculosis Rv sensitive strain at MIC values 50 and 25 microg/ml, respectively. Ethanolic fraction (EtAS) showed significant inhibition of gram positive organism with a MIC of 31.25 microg/ml. More inhibition was observed with a less MIC (2 microg/ml) for flavanoid sulphates against Klebsiella pneumoniae, a gram negative organism and it is almost comparable with the standards. Interestingly, chloroform fraction alone exhibited significant antifungal activity with a MIC of 100 microg/ml. A synergistic effect between flavanoids sulphates and commercially available antitubercular drugs was observed with FIC index of 0.443 +/- 0.245, 0.487 +/- 0.247 for isoniazid and 0.468 +/- 0.333, 0.417 +/- 0.345 for rifampicin, whereas EAAS fraction showed partial synergistic effect. A synergistic effect was observed for EAAS fraction and flavanoids sulphates with FIC index < 0.5 with antibiotics. Hemolysis assay on RBCs suggested that EAAS and flavanoids sulphates exhibited least cellular toxicity to erythrocytes as compared to chloramphenicol. In vivo studies in mice infected with K. pneumoniae demonstrated that on day 10 post treatment of different fractions and isolated compounds of A. speciosa, about 60% of the animals treated with EAAS, 70% of animals treated with flavanoids sulphates and 40% of animals treated with EtAS were survived.

  5. Massive volcanic SO(2) oxidation and sulphate aerosol deposition in Cenozoic North America.

    PubMed

    Bao, Huiming; Yu, Shaocai; Tong, Daniel Q

    2010-06-17

    Volcanic eruptions release a large amount of sulphur dioxide (SO(2)) into the atmosphere. SO(2) is oxidized to sulphate and can subsequently form sulphate aerosol, which can affect the Earth's radiation balance, biologic productivity and high-altitude ozone concentrations, as is evident from recent volcanic eruptions. SO(2) oxidation can occur via several different pathways that depend on its flux and the atmospheric conditions. An investigation into how SO(2) is oxidized to sulphate-the oxidation product preserved in the rock record-can therefore shed light on past volcanic eruptions and atmospheric conditions. Here we use sulphur and triple oxygen isotope measurements of atmospheric sulphate extracted from tuffaceous deposits to investigate the specific oxidation pathways from which the sulphate was formed. We find that seven eruption-related sulphate aerosol deposition events have occurred during the mid-Cenozoic era (34 to 7 million years ago) in the northern High Plains, North America. Two extensively sampled ash beds display a similar sulphate mixing pattern that has two distinct atmospheric secondary sulphates. A three-dimensional atmospheric sulphur chemistry and transport model study reveals that the observed, isotopically discrete sulphates in sediments can be produced only in initially alkaline cloudwater that favours an ozone-dominated SO(2) oxidation pathway in the troposphere. Our finding suggests that, in contrast to the weakly acidic conditions today, cloudwater in the northern High Plains may frequently have been alkaline during the mid-Cenozoic era. We propose that atmospheric secondary sulphate preserved in continental deposits represents an unexploited geological archive for atmospheric SO(2) oxidation chemistry linked to volcanism and atmospheric conditions in the past.

  6. Surface enhanced raman spectroscopy studies on triglycine sulphate single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parameswari, A.; Mohamed Asath, R.; Premkumar, R.; Milton Franklin Benial, A.

    2017-01-01

    Adsorption characteristics of triglycine sulphate (TGS) on silver (Ag) surface were investigated based on density functional theory calculations and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) technique. The single crystals of TGS were grown by slow evaporation method. Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were prepared by solution combustion method and characterized. The calculated and observed structural parameters of TGS molecule were compared. Raman and SERS spectra for TGS single crystal were studied experimentally and validated theoretically. Frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs) analysis was carried out for TGS and TGS adsorbed on Ag surface. The second harmonic generation measurements confirm the nonlinear optical (NLO) activity of the TGS molecule. SERS spectral analysis reveals that the TGS adsorbed as tilted orientation on the silver surface. The theoretical and experimental results evidence the suitability of the grown TGS single crystal for optoelectronic applications.

  7. Giant barocaloric effects at low pressure in ferrielectric ammonium sulphate

    PubMed Central

    Lloveras, P.; Stern-Taulats, E.; Barrio, M.; Tamarit, J.-Ll.; Crossley, S.; Li, W.; Pomjakushin, V.; Planes, A.; Mañosa, Ll.; Mathur, N. D.; Moya, X.

    2015-01-01

    Caloric effects are currently under intense study due to the prospect of environment-friendly cooling applications. Most of the research is centred on large magnetocaloric effects and large electrocaloric effects, but the former require large magnetic fields that are challenging to generate economically and the latter require large electric fields that can only be applied without breakdown in thin samples. Here we use small changes in hydrostatic pressure to drive giant inverse barocaloric effects near the ferrielectric phase transition in ammonium sulphate. We find barocaloric effects and strengths that exceed those previously observed near magnetostructural phase transitions in magnetic materials. Our findings should therefore inspire the discovery of giant barocaloric effects in a wide range of unexplored ferroelectric materials, ultimately leading to barocaloric cooling devices. PMID:26607989

  8. Bioactivity and applications of sulphated polysaccharides from marine microalgae.

    PubMed

    Raposo, Maria Filomena de Jesus; de Morais, Rui Manuel Santos Costa; Bernardo de Morais, Alcina Maria Miranda

    2013-01-23

    Marine microalgae have been used for a long time as food for humans, such as Arthrospira (formerly, Spirulina), and for animals in aquaculture. The biomass of these microalgae and the compounds they produce have been shown to possess several biological applications with numerous health benefits. The present review puts up-to-date the research on the biological activities and applications of polysaccharides, active biocompounds synthesized by marine unicellular algae, which are, most of the times, released into the surrounding medium (exo- or extracellular polysaccharides, EPS). It goes through the most studied activities of sulphated polysaccharides (sPS) or their derivatives, but also highlights lesser known applications as hypolipidaemic or hypoglycaemic, or as biolubricant agents and drag-reducers. Therefore, the great potentials of sPS from marine microalgae to be used as nutraceuticals, therapeutic agents, cosmetics, or in other areas, such as engineering, are approached in this review.

  9. Bioactivity and Applications of Sulphated Polysaccharides from Marine Microalgae

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus Raposo, Maria Filomena; de Morais, Rui Manuel Santos Costa; de Morais, Alcina Maria Miranda Bernardo

    2013-01-01

    Marine microalgae have been used for a long time as food for humans, such as Arthrospira (formerly, Spirulina), and for animals in aquaculture. The biomass of these microalgae and the compounds they produce have been shown to possess several biological applications with numerous health benefits. The present review puts up-to-date the research on the biological activities and applications of polysaccharides, active biocompounds synthesized by marine unicellular algae, which are, most of the times, released into the surrounding medium (exo- or extracellular polysaccharides, EPS). It goes through the most studied activities of sulphated polysaccharides (sPS) or their derivatives, but also highlights lesser known applications as hypolipidaemic or hypoglycaemic, or as biolubricant agents and drag-reducers. Therefore, the great potentials of sPS from marine microalgae to be used as nutraceuticals, therapeutic agents, cosmetics, or in other areas, such as engineering, are approached in this review. PMID:23344113

  10. Giant barocaloric effects at low pressure in ferrielectric ammonium sulphate.

    PubMed

    Lloveras, P; Stern-Taulats, E; Barrio, M; Tamarit, J-Ll; Crossley, S; Li, W; Pomjakushin, V; Planes, A; Mañosa, Ll; Mathur, N D; Moya, X

    2015-11-26

    Caloric effects are currently under intense study due to the prospect of environment-friendly cooling applications. Most of the research is centred on large magnetocaloric effects and large electrocaloric effects, but the former require large magnetic fields that are challenging to generate economically and the latter require large electric fields that can only be applied without breakdown in thin samples. Here we use small changes in hydrostatic pressure to drive giant inverse barocaloric effects near the ferrielectric phase transition in ammonium sulphate. We find barocaloric effects and strengths that exceed those previously observed near magnetostructural phase transitions in magnetic materials. Our findings should therefore inspire the discovery of giant barocaloric effects in a wide range of unexplored ferroelectric materials, ultimately leading to barocaloric cooling devices.

  11. Giant barocaloric effects at low pressure in ferrielectric ammonium sulphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloveras, P.; Stern-Taulats, E.; Barrio, M.; Tamarit, J.-Ll.; Crossley, S.; Li, W.; Pomjakushin, V.; Planes, A.; Mañosa, Ll.; Mathur, N. D.; Moya, X.

    2015-11-01

    Caloric effects are currently under intense study due to the prospect of environment-friendly cooling applications. Most of the research is centred on large magnetocaloric effects and large electrocaloric effects, but the former require large magnetic fields that are challenging to generate economically and the latter require large electric fields that can only be applied without breakdown in thin samples. Here we use small changes in hydrostatic pressure to drive giant inverse barocaloric effects near the ferrielectric phase transition in ammonium sulphate. We find barocaloric effects and strengths that exceed those previously observed near magnetostructural phase transitions in magnetic materials. Our findings should therefore inspire the discovery of giant barocaloric effects in a wide range of unexplored ferroelectric materials, ultimately leading to barocaloric cooling devices.

  12. Multifunctional chondroitin sulphate for cartilage tissue-biomaterial integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dong-An; Varghese, Shyni; Sharma, Blanka; Strehin, Iossif; Fermanian, Sara; Gorham, Justin; Fairbrother, D. Howard; Cascio, Brett; Elisseeff, Jennifer H.

    2007-05-01

    A biologically active, high-strength tissue adhesive is needed for numerous medical applications in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Integration of biomaterials or implants with surrounding native tissue is crucial for both immediate functionality and long-term performance of the tissue. Here, we use the biopolymer chondroitin sulphate (CS), one of the major components of cartilage extracellular matrix, to develop a novel bioadhesive that is readily applied and acts quickly. CS was chemically functionalized with methacrylate and aldehyde groups on the polysaccharide backbone to chemically bridge biomaterials and tissue proteins via a twofold covalent link. Three-dimensional hydrogels (with and without cells) bonded to articular cartilage defects. In in vitro and in vivo functional studies this approach led to mechanical stability of the hydrogel and tissue repair in cartilage defects.

  13. Magnesium in obstetric anesthesia and intensive care.

    PubMed

    Kutlesic, Marija S; Kutlesic, Ranko M; Mostic-Ilic, Tatjana

    2017-02-01

    Magnesium, one of the essential elements in the human body, has numerous favorable effects that offer a variety of possibilities for its use in obstetric anesthesia and intensive care. Administered as a single intravenous bolus dose or a bolus followed by continuous infusion during surgery, magnesium attenuates stress response to endotracheal intubation, and reduces intraoperative anesthetic and postoperative analgesic requirements, while at the same time preserving favorable hemodynamics. Applied as part of an intrathecal or epidural anesthetic mixture, magnesium prolongs the duration of anesthesia and diminishes total postoperative analgesic consumption with no adverse maternal or neonatal effects. In obstetric intensive care, magnesium represents a first-choice medication in the treatment and prevention of eclamptic seizures. If used in recommended doses with close monitoring, magnesium is a safe and effective medication.

  14. Intravesical chondroitin sulphate for interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hennessy, DB; Curry, D; Cartwright, C; Downey, P; Pahuja, A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) is a chronic inflammatory condition of the bladder. Bladder instillation is one avenue of treatment but evidence for its effectiveness is limited. Chondroitin sulphate solution 2.0% (Urocyst) is a glycosaminoglycan (GAG) replenishment therapy instilled for patients with IC/PBS. We assessed its effectiveness for treating IC/PBS in Northern Ireland. Methods Patients with IC/PBS were assessed with the O'Leary-Sant interstitial cystitis index score and global response assessment questionnaire prior to commencing treatment. Assessment with these questionnaires was performed after 6 treatments (10 weeks) and again after 10 treatments (24 weeks). Assessment end points were pain, urgency, symptom score and problem score. Results Data was collected on 10 patients, 9 female and 1 male. 6 patients had failed RIMSO-50 dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) 50% treatment prior. At baseline the mean pain score was 6.6, urgency score 7.00, symptom score 13.5 and problem score 12.5. After 24 weeks the mean pain score fell to 2.0, urgency score to 1.80, symptom score to 6.89 and problem score to 5.67. At 10 weeks the global response to treatment was 100%. Nocturia was the first symptom to improve with urgency and pain following. No side effects were noted during instillation and all patients tolerated the treatments. Conclusion IC/PBS is a difficult disease to treat. It requires a multimodal approach. We found that intravesical chondroitin sulphate reduced pain, urgency and O'Leary-Sant symptom and problem scores in patients with IC/PBS. All patients tolerated the treatment and no side effects were reported. PMID:26668417

  15. Experimental study of the replacement of calcite by calcium sulphates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Agudo, E.; Putnis, C. V.; Hövelmann, J.; Álvarez-Lloret, P.; Ibáñez-Velasco, A.; Putnis, A.

    2015-05-01

    Among the most relevant mineral replacement reactions are those involving sulphates and carbonates, which have important geological and technological implications. Here it is shown experimentally that during the interaction of calcite (CaCO3) cleavage surfaces with sulphate-bearing acidic solutions, calcite is ultimately replaced by gypsum (CaSO4 2H2O) and anhydrite (CaSO4), depending on the reaction temperature. Observations suggest that this occurs most likely via an interface-coupled dissolution-precipitation reaction, in which the substrate is replaced pseudomorphically by the product. At 120 and 200 °C gypsum and/or bassanite (CaSO4·0.5H2O) form as precursor phases for the thermodynamically stable anhydrite. Salinity promotes the formation of less hydrated precursor phases during the replacement of calcite by anhydrite. The reaction stops before equilibrium with respect to calcite is reached and during the course of the reaction most of the bulk solutions are undersaturated with respect to the precipitating phase(s). A mechanism consisting of the dissolution of small amounts of solid in a thin layer of fluid at the mineral-fluid interface and the subsequent precipitation of the product phase from this layer is in agreement with these observations. PHREEQC simulations performed in the framework of this mechanism highlight the relevance of transport and surface reaction kinetics on the volume change associated with the CaCO3-CaSO4 replacement. Under our experimental conditions, this reaction occurs with a positive volume change, which ultimately results in passivation of the unreacted substrate before calcite attains equilibrium with respect to the bulk solution.

  16. Comparison of magnesium status using X-ray dispersion analysis following magnesium oxide and magnesium citrate treatment of healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Shechter, Michael; Saad, Tomer; Shechter, Alon; Koren-Morag, Nira; Silver, Burton B; Matetzky, Shlomi

    2012-03-01

    The magnesium content in food consumed in the Western world is steadily decreasing. Hypomagnesemia is associated with increased incidence of diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, all-cause and coronary artery disease mortality. We investigated the impact of supplemental oral magnesium citrate versus magnesium oxide on intracellular magnesium levels ([Mg2+]i) and platelet function in healthy subjects with no apparent heart disease. In a randomized, prospective, double-blind, crossover study, 41 (20 women) healthy volunteers [mean age 53±8 (range 31-75) years] received either magnesium oxide monohydrate tablets (520 mg/day of elemental magnesium) or magnesium citrate tablets (295.8 mg/day of elemental magnesium) for one month (phase 1), followed by a four-week wash-out period, and then crossover treatment for one month (phase 2). [Mg2+]i was assessed from sublingual cells through x-ray dispersion (normal values 37.9±4.0 mEq/L), serum magnesium levels, platelet aggregation, and quality-of-life questionnaires were assessed before and after each phase. Oral magnesium oxide, rather than magnesium citrate, significantly increased [Mg2+]i (34.4±3 versus 36.3±2 mEq/L, p<0.001 and 34.7±2 versus 35.4±2 mEq/L, p=0.097; respectively), reduced total cholesterol (201±37 versus 186±27 mg/dL, p=0.016 and 187±28 versus 187±25 mg/dL, p=0.978; respectively) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (128±22 versus 120±25 mg/dL, p=0.042 and 120±23 versus 121±22 mg/dL, p=0.622; respectively). Noteworthy is that both treatments significantly reduced epinephrine-induced platelet aggregation (78.9±16% versus 71.7±23%, p=0.013 and 81.3±15% versus 73.3±23%, p=0.036; respectively). Thus, oral magnesium oxide treatment significantly improved [Mg2+]i, total and LDL cholesterol compared with magnesium citrate, while both treatments similarly inhibited platelet aggregation in healthy subjects with no apparent heart disease.

  17. A novel sulfur mustard (HD) vapor inhalation exposure system for accurate inhaled dose delivery

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Mark R.; Benson, Eric M.; Kohne, Jonathon W.; Plahovinsak, Jennifer L.; Babin, Michael C.; Platoff, Gennady E.; Yeung, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A custom designed HD exposure system was used to deliver controlled inhaled doses to an animal model through an endotracheal tube. Methods Target HD vapor challenges were generated by a temperature controlled bubbler/aerosol trap, while concentration was monitored near real-time by gas chromatography. Animal breathing parameters were monitored real-time by an in-line pneumotach, pressure transducer, and Buxco pulmonary analysis computer/software. For each exposure, the challenge atmosphere was allowed to stabilize at the desired concentration while the anesthetized animal was provided humidity controlled clean air. Once the target concentration was achieved and stable, a portion of the challenge atmosphere was drawn past the endotracheal tube, where the animal inhaled the exposure ad libitum. During the exposure, HD vapor concentration and animal weight were used to calculate the needed inhaled volume to achieve the target inhaled dose (μg/kg). The exposures were halted when the inhaled volume was achieved. Results The exposure system successfully controlled HD concentrations from 22.2 to 278 mg/m3 and accurately delivered inhaled doses between 49.3 and 1120 μg/kg with actual administered doses being within 4% of the target level. Discussion This exposure system administers specific HD inhaled doses to evaluate physiological effects and for evaluation of potential medical countermeasure treatments. PMID:25291290

  18. Vapor inhalation of alcohol in rats.

    PubMed

    Gilpin, Nicholas W; Richardson, Heather N; Cole, Maury; Koob, George F

    2008-07-01

    Alcohol dependence constitutes a neuroadaptive state critical for understanding alcoholism, and various methods have been utilized to induce alcohol dependence in animals, one of which is alcohol vapor exposure. Alcohol vapor inhalation provides certain advantages over other chronic alcohol exposure procedures that share the ultimate goal of producing alcohol dependence in rats. Chronic alcohol vapor inhalation allows the experimenter to control the dose, duration, and pattern of alcohol exposure. Also, this procedure facilitates testing of somatic and motivational aspects of alcohol dependence. Chronic exposure to alcohol vapor produces increases in alcohol-drinking behavior, increases in anxiety-like behavior, and reward deficits in rats. Alcohol vapor inhalation as a laboratory protocol is flexible, and the parameters of this procedure can be adjusted to accommodate the specific aims of different experiments. This unit describes the options available to investigators using this procedure for dependence induction, when different options are more or less appropriate, and the implications of each.

  19. Interactions between magnesium and psychotropic drugs.

    PubMed

    Nechifor, Mihai

    2008-06-01

    Psychotropic drugs (antidepressants, antimanic drugs, antipsychotics, analgesic opioids, and others) are among the most frequently used medicines. Between these drugs and magnesium there are pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions. Erythrocyte magnesium is decreased in patients with severe major depression (MD) vs normal subjects (44 +/- 2.7 mg/L in MD group vs 59.1 +/- 3.2 mg/L in control group, p < 0.01). Therapy with sertraline, 150 mg/day p.o. -21 days or with amitryptiline 3 x 25 mg/day p.o. 28 days increases significantly erythrocyte concentration of magnesium (56.9 +/- 5.22 mg/L after sertraline vs 44 +/- 2.7 mg/L before sertraline, p < 0.01). In patients with acute paranoid schizophrenia, erythrocyte magnesium concentration is decreased vs healthy subjects. Haloperidol, 8 mg/day, p.o. for 21 days or risperidone, 6 mg/day p.o. for 21 days have increased significantly erythrocyte magnesium concentration (46.21 +/- 3.1 mg/L before haloperidol and 54.6 +/- 2.7 mg/L after haloperidol, p < 0.05). Antimanic drugs (mood stabilizers) as carbamazepine, 600 mg/day, p.o., 4 weeks and sodium valproate, 900 mg/day p.o., 4 weeks, increased significantly magnesium in patients with bipolar disorder type I. Increased magnesium status positively correlated with enhancement of the clinical state. The existent data sustain the idea that an increase of erythrocyte magnesium is involved in the mechanism of action of some psychotropic drugs. Magnesium supply decreased the intensity of morphine-induced physical drug dependence. In heroin addicts, the plasma magnesium concentration is decreased.

  20. Inhaled Antibiotics for Lower Airway Infections

    PubMed Central

    Quon, Bradley S.; Goss, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    Inhaled antibiotics have been used to treat chronic airway infections since the 1940s. The earliest experience with inhaled antibiotics involved aerosolizing antibiotics designed for parenteral administration. These formulations caused significant bronchial irritation due to added preservatives and nonphysiologic chemical composition. A major therapeutic advance took place in 1997, when tobramycin designed for inhalation was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Attracted by the clinical benefits observed in CF and the availability of dry powder antibiotic formulations, there has been a growing interest in the use of inhaled antibiotics in other lower respiratory tract infections, such as non-CF bronchiectasis, ventilator-associated pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mycobacterial disease, and in the post–lung transplant setting over the past decade. Antibiotics currently marketed for inhalation include nebulized and dry powder forms of tobramycin and colistin and nebulized aztreonam. Although both the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency have approved their use in CF, they have not been approved in other disease areas due to lack of supportive clinical trial evidence. Injectable formulations of gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, ceftazidime, and amphotericin are currently nebulized “off-label” to manage non-CF bronchiectasis, drug-resistant nontuberculous mycobacterial infections, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and post-transplant airway infections. Future inhaled antibiotic trials must focus on disease areas outside of CF with sample sizes large enough to evaluate clinically important endpoints such as exacerbations. Extrapolating from CF, the impact of eradicating organisms such as P. aeruginosa in non-CF bronchiectasis should also be evaluated. PMID:24673698

  1. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

    2009-01-01

    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  2. INHALATION EXPOSURE-RESPONSE ASSESSMENTS FOR FIVE CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhalation exposure-response assessments for five chemicals (acrolein, ethylene oxide, hexachlorocyclopentadiene, hydrogen sulfide, and phosgene) for less-than-lifetime durations are being developed to inform the development of the Inhalation Exposure-Response Analysis Methodolog...

  3. Analysis Methods of Magnesium Chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohmann, Sven; Ditze, André; Scharf, Christiane

    2015-11-01

    The quality of recycled magnesium from chips depends strongly on their exposure to inorganic and organic impurities that are added during the production processes. Different kinds of magnesium chips from these processes were analyzed by several methods. In addition, the accuracy and effectiveness of the methods are discussed. The results show that the chips belong either to the AZ91, AZ31, AM50/60, or AJ62 alloy. Some kinds of chips show deviations from the above-mentioned normations. Different impurities result mainly from transition metals and lime. The water and oil content does not exceed 25%, and the chip size is not more than 4 mm in the diameter. The sieve analysis shows good results for oily and wet chips. The determination of oil and water shows better results for the application of a Soxhlet compared with the addition of lime and vacuum distillation. The most accurate values for the determination of water and oil are obtained by drying at 110°C (for water) and washing with acetone (for oil) by hand.

  4. Identifying acid salts of magnesium

    SciTech Connect

    Plumb, R.; Thivierge, R.F. Jr.; Xu, W.W.

    1987-11-05

    In preliminary work they found that significant quantities of certain nitrogen oxides and of sulfuric acid were absorbed by lower hydrates of magnesium sulfate. It appeared that acid salts were being formed but the known chemistry of group IIA (group 2) sulfates and acid sulfates which was worked out many years ago did not provide an explanation of their observations. They developed a new technique for delineating the solidus boundary of ternary mixtures using friability tests and applied it to the systems of interest. Magnesium acid salt hydrates with compositions on the solidus boundary could be readily identified. X-ray powder patterns confirmed the existence of two previously unknown ternary compounds, Mg/sub 2/(HSO/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ x 4H/sub 2/O and Mg(HSO/sub 4/)/sub 2/ x H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ x 3H/sub 2/O. Mixed acid sulfate-nitrate-hydrates could be detected but fuming at room temperatures interfered with quantitative determinations of the solidus boundary and X-ray measurements.

  5. Tape casting of magnesium oxide.

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, Alicia; Corral, Erica L.; Loehman, Ronald E.; Bencoe, Denise Nora; Reiterer, Markus; Shah, Raja A.

    2008-02-01

    A tape casting procedure for fabricating ceramic magnesium oxide tapes has been developed as a method to produce flat sheets of sintered MgO that are thin and porous. Thickness of single layer tapes is in the range of 200-400 {micro}m with corresponding surface roughness values in the range of 10-20 {micro}m as measured by laser profilometry. Development of the tape casting technique required optimization of pretreatment for the starting magnesium oxide (MgO) powder as well as a detailed study of the casting slurry preparation and subsequent heat treatments for sintering and final tape flattening. Milling time of the ceramic powder, plasticizer, and binder mixture was identified as a primary factor affecting surface morphology of the tapes. In general, longer milling times resulted in green tapes with a noticeably smoother surface. This work demonstrates that meticulous control of the entire tape casting operation is necessary to obtain high-quality MgO tapes.

  6. Magnesium status and the effect of magnesium supplementation in feline hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, L M; Brown, D J; Smith, F W; Rush, J E

    1997-01-01

    Magnesium deficiency has been associated with the development of cardiovascular disease in several species. Cats may be predisposed to alterations in magnesium status because of recent changes in the composition of commercial feline diets. The purposes of this study were 1) to examine the dietary history of cats with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), 2) to study magnesium status of cats with HCM compared to normal cats, and 3) to determine the effects of magnesium supplementation in cats with HCM. In part 1 of the study, diets of 65 cats with HCM were examined retrospectively. Forty of the 45 cats for which diets could be determined (89%) ate a diet designed to be magnesium-restricted and/or to produce an acidic urine. In part 2 of the study, 10 cats with HCM were compared to 10 healthy control cats for serum creatinine and magnesium; urine creatinine and magnesium, urine specific gravity and pH, and fractional excretion of magnesium. Urine creatinine and specific gravity were higher in control cats than in cats with HCM. No other differences were found between the 2 groups. In part 3, cats with HCM were supplemented with either 210 mg magnesium chloride (n = 15) or 210 mg lactose (n = 15) for 12 wk. No differences between the 2 groups were found for changes in either magnesium status or echocardiographic parameters. However, the 30 cats with HCM, as a group, did show significant improvements in measures of cardiac hypertrophy over the 12-week period. This was likely the result of treatment with other medications, rather than the magnesium supplementation. The results of this study suggest that cats with HCM are likely to be fed magnesium-restricted diets, but that they do not appear to have altered magnesium status compared to healthy controls. PMID:9243004

  7. Pregnenolone sulphate-independent inhibition of TRPM3 channels by progesterone.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Yasser; Tumova, Sarka; Green, Ben L; Seymour, Victoria A L; Woods, Daniel M; Agarwal, Anil K; Naylor, Jacqueline; Jiang, Shannon; Picton, Helen M; Porter, Karen E; O'Regan, David J; Muraki, Katsuhiko; Fishwick, Colin W G; Beech, David J

    2012-01-01

    Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 3 (TRPM3) is a widely expressed calcium-permeable non-selective cation channel that is stimulated by high concentrations of nifedipine or by physiological steroids that include pregnenolone sulphate. Here we sought to identify steroids that inhibit TRPM3. Channel activity was studied using calcium-measurement and patch-clamp techniques. Progesterone (0.01-10μM) suppressed TRPM3 activity evoked by pregnenolone sulphate. Progesterone metabolites and 17β-oestradiol were also inhibitory but the effects were relatively small. Dihydrotestosterone was an inhibitor at concentrations higher than 1μM. Corticosteroids lacked effect. Overlay assays indicated that pregnenolone sulphate, progesterone and dihydrotestosterone bound to TRPM3. In contrast to dihydrotestosterone, progesterone inhibited nifedipine-evoked TRPM3 activity or activity in the absence of an exogenous activator, suggesting a pregnenolone sulphate-independent mechanism of action. Dihydrotestosterone, like a non-steroid look-alike compound, acted as a competitive antagonist at the pregnenolone sulphate binding site. Progesterone inhibited endogenous TRPM3 in vascular smooth muscle cells. Relevance of TRPM3 or the progesterone effect to ovarian cells, which have been suggested to express TRPM3, was not identified. The data further define a chemical framework for competition with pregnenolone sulphate at TRPM3 and expand knowledge of steroid interactions with TRPM3, suggesting direct steroid binding and pregnenolone sulphate-independent inhibition by progesterone.

  8. Nanocrosses of lead sulphate as the negative active material of lead acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi; Gao, Pengran; Bu, Xianfu; Kuang, Guizhi; Liu, Wei; Lei, Lixu

    2014-10-01

    Lead sulphate transforms into PbO2 and Pb in the positive and negative electrodes, respectively, when a lead acid battery is charged, thus, it is an active material. It is also generally acknowledged that sulphation results in the failure of lead acid batteries; therefore, it is very interesting to find out how to make lead sulphate more electrochemically active. Here, we demonstrate that nanocrystalline lead sulphate can be used as excellent negative active material in lead acid batteries. The lead sulphate nanocrystals, which are prepared by a facile chemical precipitation of aqueous lead acetate and sodium sulphate in a few minutes, look like crosses with diameter of each arm being 100 nm to 3 μm. The electrode is effectively formed in much shorter time than traditional technique, yet it discharges a capacity of 103 mA h g-1 at the current density of 120 mA g-1, which is 24% higher than that discharged by the electrode made from leady oxide under the same condition. During 100% DOD cycles, more than 80% of that capacity remains in 550 cycles. These results show that lead sulphate can be a nice negative active material in lead acid batteries.

  9. Sulphation of acetaminophen by the human cytosolic sulfotransferases: a systematic analysis.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Akihiro; Liu, Ming-Yih; Kurogi, Katsuhisa; Sakakibara, Yoichi; Saeki, Yuichi; Suiko, Masahito; Liu, Ming-Cheh

    2015-12-01

    Sulphation is known to be critically involved in the metabolism of acetaminophen in vivo. This study aimed to systematically identify the major human cytosolic sulfotransferase (SULT) enzyme(s) responsible for the sulphation of acetaminophen. A systematic analysis showed that three of the twelve human SULTs, SULT1A1, SULT1A3 and SULT1C4, displayed the strongest sulphating activity towards acetaminophen. The pH dependence of the sulphation of acetaminophen by each of these three SULTs was examined. Kinetic parameters of these three SULTs in catalysing acetaminophen sulphation were determined. Moreover, sulphation of acetaminophen was shown to occur in HepG2 human hepatoma cells and Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells under the metabolic setting. Of the four human organ samples tested, liver and intestine cytosols displayed considerably higher acetaminophen-sulphating activity than those of lung and kidney. Collectively, these results provided useful information concerning the biochemical basis underlying the metabolism of acetaminophen in vivo previously reported.

  10. Carbon isotope equilibration during sulphate-limited anaerobic oxidation of methane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshinaga, Marcos Y.; Holler, Thomas; Goldhammer, Tobias; Wegener, Gunter; Pohlman, John W.; Brunner, Benjamin; Kuypers, Marcel M. M.; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Elvert, Marcus

    2014-03-01

    Collectively, marine sediments comprise the largest reservoir of methane on Earth. The flux of methane from the sea bed to the overlying water column is mitigated by the sulphate-dependent anaerobic oxidation of methane by marine microbes within a discrete sedimentary horizon termed the sulphate-methane transition zone. According to conventional isotope systematics, the biological consumption of methane leaves a residue of methane enriched in 13C (refs , , ). However, in many instances the methane within sulphate-methane transition zones is depleted in 13C, consistent with the production of methane, and interpreted as evidence for the intertwined anaerobic oxidation and production of methane. Here, we report results from experiments in which we incubated cultures of microbial methane consumers with methane and low levels of sulphate, and monitored the stable isotope composition of the methane and dissolved inorganic carbon pools over time. Residual methane became progressively enriched in 13C at sulphate concentrations above 0.5 mM, and progressively depleted in 13C below this threshold. We attribute the shift to 13C depletion during the anaerobic oxidation of methane at low sulphate concentrations to the microbially mediated carbon isotope equilibration between methane and carbon dioxide. We suggest that this isotopic effect could help to explain the 13C-depletion of methane in subseafloor sulphate-methane transition zones.

  11. Recreational atmospheric pollution episodes: Inhalable metalliferous particles from firework displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Teresa; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Cruz Minguillón, Mari; Pey, Jorge; Rodriguez, Sergio; Vicente Miró, José; Felis, Carles; Gibbons, Wes

    The use of fireworks creates an unusual and distinctive anthropogenic atmospheric pollution event. We report on aerosol samples collected during Las Fallas in Valencia, a 6-day celebration famous for its firework displays, and add comparative data on firework- and bonfire-contaminated atmospheric aerosol samples collected from elsewhere in Spain (Barcelona, L'Alcora, and Borriana) and during the Guy Fawkes celebrations in London. Specific high-profile official firework events during Las Fallas included the afternoon Mascletà and the nightly aerial displays (especially in the climactic final 2 days of the fiesta) and were accompanied by pollution spikes in suspended particles, NO, SO 2, and the creation and dispersal of an aerosol cloud enriched in a range of metallic elements. Notable metal aerosol concentration increases recorded during Las Fallas were potassium (from 500 to 5900 ng m -3), aluminium (as Al 2O 3 from around 600 to 2200 ng m -3), titanium (from 200 to 700 ng m -3), magnesium (from 100 to 500 ng m -3), lead (from 17 to 379 ng m -3), barium (from 39 to 322 ng m -3), strontium (from 3 to 112 ng m -3), copper (from 12 to 71 ng m -3), and antimony (from 1 to 52 ng m -3). Firework-contaminated aerosols of similarly metalliferous composition were also identified at the other monitoring sites, although different sites show variations attributable to other sources such as bonfires and local industry. Unusual levels of the trace elements Ba, Sr and (to a lesser extent) Cu, always in proportions with Ba dominant, along with strongly enhanced K, Pb, and Sb, are identified as being particularly characteristic of firework aerosols. Although firework-related recreational pollution episodes are transient in nature, they are highly concentrated, contribute significantly to total annual metal emissions, and are on average fine enough to be easily inhaled and a health risk to susceptible individuals.

  12. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  13. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  14. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  15. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  16. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  17. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  18. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  19. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  20. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  1. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  2. 42 CFR 84.90 - Breathing resistance test; inhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; inhalation. 84.90...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.90 Breathing resistance test; inhalation. (a) Resistance to inhalation airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece while the apparatus is operated by a...

  3. 42 CFR 84.90 - Breathing resistance test; inhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; inhalation. 84.90...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.90 Breathing resistance test; inhalation. (a) Resistance to inhalation airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece while the apparatus is operated by a...

  4. 42 CFR 84.90 - Breathing resistance test; inhalation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Breathing resistance test; inhalation. 84.90...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.90 Breathing resistance test; inhalation. (a) Resistance to inhalation airflow will be measured in the facepiece or mouthpiece while the apparatus is operated by a...

  5. 40 CFR 79.61 - Vehicle emissions inhalation exposure guideline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., densities and shapes, and to predict where in the respiratory tract such particles may be deposited. It... to particles which are capable of being inhaled and may be deposited anywhere within the respiratory...) Principles and design criteria of inhalation exposure systems. Proper conduct of inhalation toxicity...

  6. Physical Symptoms and Psychological Distress among Inhalant Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joe, George W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Among 110 Mexican-American adolescents with varying drug use histories, self-reported physical health problems were not related to inhalant use history, but blood analyses indicated a relationship between extensive inhalant use and liver problems. Psychological distress symptoms were related to inhalant use and physical symptoms. Contains 23…

  7. Formation of secondary carbonates and native sulphur in sulphate-rich Messinian strata, Sicily

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegenbalg, S. B.; Brunner, B.; Rouchy, J. M.; Birgel, D.; Pierre, C.; Böttcher, M. E.; Caruso, A.; Immenhauser, A.; Peckmann, J.

    2010-05-01

    Microbially formed authigenic carbonates accompanied by native sulphur are present in the 'Calcare Solfifero' below a thick succession of gypsum deposited during the Messinian salinity crisis in Sicily. We sampled these carbonates and associated sulphur in five former sulphur mines to subject them to a detailed petrographic and geochemical study in order to explore their different modes of formation. Native sulphur formed in conjunction with microbial sulphate reduction, which is reflected in its depletion in 34S ( δ34S values as low as - 2‰ vs. V-CDT) and an enrichment of 34S in the residual sulphate ( δ34S values as high as + 61‰). The oxidation of organic matter by sulphate reduction increased alkalinity, inducing precipitation of secondary carbonate minerals. A set of authigenic limestones lacking sulphate minerals, but characterized by pseudomorphs after gypsum and high δ18O values (as high as + 9‰ vs. V-PDB) reflects syngenetic mineral formation within evaporitic settings. Low δ13C values (as low as - 52‰ vs. V-PDB) reveal that these carbonate phases were formed by microbial sulphate reduction coupled to the oxidation of biogenic methane. Another set of authigenic carbonates that replaced sulphate minerals is typified by low δ18O values (as low as - 4‰). These carbonates formed epigenetically during later diagenesis following compaction. Dissolution of gypsum or anhydrite by meteoric waters delivered the sulphate for microbial sulphate reduction. Low carbon isotope values of these carbonates (- 29 to - 5‰) indicate that carbonate was derived from the oxidation of crude oil and possibly minor methane, partly involving different degrees of admixture of dissolved carbonate from other sources. Although the studied rocks with their vast amounts of secondary carbonate minerals and sulphur seem to indicate a similar genesis at first glance - having formed by biogeochemical transformations of sulphate and hydrocarbons - this study reveals that these

  8. Monitoring Biodegradation of Magnesium Implants with Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Daoli; Wang, Tingting; Guo, Xuefei; Kuhlmann, Julia; Doepke, Amos; Dong, Zhongyun; Shanov, Vesselin N.; Heineman, William R.

    2016-04-01

    Magnesium and its alloys exhibit properties such as high strength, light weight, and in vivo corrosion that make them promising candidates for the development of biodegradable metallic implant materials for bone repair, stents and other medical applications. Sensors have been used to monitor the corrosion of magnesium and its alloys by measuring the concentrations of the following corrosion products: magnesium ions, hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. The corrosion characterization system with home-made capillary pH and Mg2+ microsensors has been developed for real-time detection of magnesium corrosion in vitro. A hydrogen gas sensor was used to monitor the corrosion of magnesium by measuring the concentration of the hydrogen gas reaction product in vivo. The high permeability of hydrogen through skin allows transdermal monitoring of the biodegradation of a magnesium alloy implanted beneath the skin by detecting hydrogen gas at the skin surface. The sensor was used to map hydrogen concentration in the vicinity of an implanted magnesium alloy.

  9. Formation of magnesium silicate hydrate (M-S-H) cement pastes using sodium hexametaphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Tingting; Vandeperre, Luc J.; Cheeseman, Christopher R.

    2014-11-15

    Magnesium silicate hydrate (M-S-H) gel is formed by the reaction of brucite with amorphous silica during sulphate attack in concrete and M-S-H is therefore regarded as having limited cementing properties. The aim of this work was to form M-S-H pastes, characterise the hydration reactions and assess the resulting properties. It is shown that M-S-H pastes can be prepared by reacting magnesium oxide (MgO) and silica fume (SF) at low water to solid ratio using sodium hexametaphosphate (NaHMP) as a dispersant. Characterisation of the hydration reactions by x-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis shows that brucite and M-S-H gel are formed and that for samples containing 60 wt.% SF and 40 wt.% MgO all of the brucites react with SF to form M-S-H gel. These M-S-H cement pastes were found to have compressive strengths in excess of 70 MPa.

  10. The reversibility of dissimilatory sulphate reduction and the cell-internal multi-step reduction of sulphite to sulphide: insights from the oxygen isotope composition of sulphate.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Benjamin; Einsiedl, Florian; Arnold, Gail L; Müller, Inigo; Templer, Stefanie; Bernasconi, Stefano M

    2012-01-01

    Dissimilatory sulphate reduction (DSR) leads to an overprint of the oxygen isotope composition of sulphate by the oxygen isotope composition of water. This overprint is assumed to occur via cell-internally formed sulphuroxy intermediates in the sulphate reduction pathway. Unlike sulphate, the sulphuroxy intermediates can readily exchange oxygen isotopes with water. Subsequent to the oxygen isotope exchange, these intermediates, e.g. sulphite, are re-oxidised by reversible enzymatic reactions to sulphate, thereby incorporating the oxygen used for the re-oxidation of the sulphur intermediates. Consequently, the rate and expression of DSR-mediated oxygen isotope exchange between sulphate and water depend not only on the oxygen isotope exchange between sulphuroxy intermediates and water, but also on cell-internal forward and backward reactions. The latter are the very same processes that control the extent of sulphur isotope fractionation expressed by DSR. Recently, the measurement of multiple sulphur isotope fractionation has successfully been applied to obtain information on the reversibility of individual enzymatically catalysed steps in DSR. Similarly, the oxygen isotope signature of sulphate has the potential to reveal complementary information on the reversibility of DSR. The aim of this work is to assess this potential. We derived a mathematical model that links sulphur and oxygen isotope effects by DSR, assuming that oxygen isotope effects observed in the oxygen isotopic composition of ambient sulphate are controlled by the oxygen isotope exchange between sulphite and water and the successive cell-internal oxidation of sulphite back to sulphate. Our model predicts rapid DSR-mediated oxygen isotope exchange for cases where the sulphur isotope fractionation is large and slow exchange for cases where the sulphur isotope fractionation is small. Our model also demonstrates that different DSR-mediated oxygen isotope equilibrium values are observed, depending on the

  11. Room temperature magnesium electrorefining by using non-aqueous electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jesik; Jung, Yeojin; Kusumah, Priyandi; Dilasari, Bonita; Ku, Heesuk; Kim, Hansu; Kwon, Kyungjung; Lee, Churl Kyoung

    2016-09-01

    The increasing usage of magnesium inevitably leads to a fast increase in magnesium scrap, and magnesium recycling appears extremely beneficial for cost reduction, preservation of natural resources and protection of the environment. Magnesium refining for the recovery of high purity magnesium from metal scrap alloy (AZ31B composed of magnesium, aluminum, zinc, manganese and copper) at room temperature is investigated with a non-aqueous electrolyte (tetrahydrofuran with ethyl magnesium bromide). A high purity (99.999%) of electrorefined magneisum with a smooth and dense surface is obtained after potentiostatic electrolysis with an applied voltage of 2 V. The selective dissolution of magnesium from magnesium alloy is possible by applying an adequate potential considering the tolerable impurity level in electrorefined magnesium and processing time. The purity estimation method suggested in this study can be useful in evaluating the maximum content of impurity elements.

  12. Acidic conjugate of phenols in insects; glucoside phosphate and glucoside sulphate derivatives.

    PubMed

    Ngah, W Z; Smith, J N

    1983-06-01

    Conjugates of p-nitrophenol in nine species of insects were identified by paper chromatography and ionophoresis as the glucoside, the sulphate, the phosphate and the glucoside phosphate. Metabolites with similar properties to the glucoside phosphates were also formed from 8-hydroxyquinoline, 1-naphthol and 4-methylumbelliferone in Tenebrio larvae. Tenebrio larvae also metabolized p-nitrophenol to a compound believed to be p-nitrophenyl glucoside-6-sulphate. None of the nine species of insect used was able to metabolize [14C]benzoic acid to a glucoside-phosphate or glucoside-sulphate conjugate.

  13. Continuous Inhalation of Ipratropium Bromide for Acute Asthma Refractory to β2-agonist Treatment.

    PubMed

    Koumbourlis, Anastassios C; Mastropietro, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    To present the case of a patient with persistent bronchospasm, refractory to treatment with β2-agonists, that resolved promptly with continuous inhalation of large dose (1000 mcg/hr) ipratropium bromide, and to discuss the possibility of tolerance to β2-agonists as the cause for his failure to respond to adrenergic medications. The patient had received multiple doses of albuterol, as well as subcutaneous terbutaline (0.3 mg), intravenous magnesium sulfate (1 g) and intravenous dexamethasone (10 mg) prior to his admission to the intensive care unit. He remained symptomatic despite systemic intravenous steroids, continuous intravenous terbutaline (up to 0.6 mcg/kg/min), and continuous nebulized albuterol (up to 20 mg/hr for 57 hr) followed by 49 hours of continuous levalbuterol (7 mg/hr). Due to the lack of response, all β2-agonists were discontinued at 106 hours post-admission, and he was started on large dose ipratropium bromide (1000 mcg/hr) by continuous nebulization. Clinical improvement was evident within 1 hour and complete resolution of his symptoms within 4 hours. Continuous inhalation of large dose ipratropium bromide may be an effective regimen for the treatment of patients hospitalized with acute asthma who are deemed to be nonresponsive and/or tolerant to β2-agonist therapy.

  14. Inhaled short-acting bronchodilators for managing emergency childhood asthma: an overview of reviews.

    PubMed

    Pollock, M; Sinha, I P; Hartling, L; Rowe, B H; Schreiber, S; Fernandes, R M

    2017-02-01

    International guidelines provide conflicting recommendations on how to use bronchodilators to manage childhood acute wheezing conditions in the emergency department (ED), and there is variation within and among countries in how these conditions are managed. This may be reflective of uncertainty about the evidence. This overview of systematic reviews (SRs) aimed to synthesize, appraise, and present all SR evidence on the efficacy and safety of inhaled short-acting bronchodilators to treat asthma and wheeze exacerbations in children 0-18 years presenting to the ED. Searching, review selection, data extraction and analysis, and quality assessments were conducted using methods recommended by The Cochrane Collaboration. Thirteen SRs containing 56 relevant trials and 5526 patients were included. Results demonstrate the efficacy of short-acting beta-agonist (SABA) delivered by metered-dose inhaler as first-line therapy for younger and older children (hospital admission decreased by 44% in younger children, and ED length of stay decreased by 33 min in older children). Short-acting anticholinergic (SAAC) should be added to SABA for older children in severe cases (hospital admission decreased by 27% and 74% when compared to SABA and SAAC alone, respectively). Continuous nebulization, addition of magnesium sulfate to SABA, and levosalbutamol compared to salbutamol cannot be recommended in routine practice.

  15. Transrepression and transactivation potencies of inhaled glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Dirks, N L; Li, S; Huth, B; Hochhaus, G; Yates, C R; Meibohm, B

    2008-12-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of inhaled glucocorticoids is primarily mediated through transrepression of pro-inflammatory transcription factors such as AP-1 and NF-kappaB, while systemic side effects are largely attributed to transactivation via glucocorticoid response elements (GRE) in the promoter region of responsive genes. The objective of this study is to investigate whether inhaled corticosteroids exhibit differences in their transactivation and transrepression potencies. A549 human alveolar epithelial type II like cells, stably transfected with a reporter plasmid containing an AP-1, NF-kappaB or GRE induced secreted alkaline phosphatase reporter gene (SEAP), were exposed to a panel of concentrations of the six inhaled and three systemic glucocorticoids. Glucocorticoid-induced changes in SEAP expression were quantified by chemiluminescence. For eight glucocorticoids (budesonide, desisobutyryl-cicle-sonide, dexamethasone, flunisolide, fluocortolone, fluticasone propionate, mometasone furoate, prednisolone) the EC50 for NF-kappaB mediated transrepression was significantly larger than that for both transactivation and transrepression via AP-1. For the remaining glucocorticoid (triamcinolone acetonide), it was greater than that for transactivation. It is concluded that, within the studied cell system, inhaled corticosteroids did not exhibit preferential transrepression, but had higher potencies for transactivation than for transrepression via NF-kappaB and had differential potencies for the two transrepression pathways.

  16. Patterns of Inhalant Use among Incarcerated Youth

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Susan M.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2015-01-01

    Inhalant use is especially prevalent among antisocial youth and can have serious health consequences. However, the extant literature has not investigated how use of various inhalants may co-occur among incarcerated youth. This study begins to address this gap in the literature by using latent class analyses to form distinct typologies of inhalant use. Study participants were residents (N = 723) of 27 Missouri Division of Youth Services facilities. Interviews assessed psychiatric symptoms, antisocial traits, delinquency, trauma, suicidality, and substance use behaviors. The mean age of the mostly male, ethnically diverse sample was 15.5 (S.D. = 1.2) years old. The study revealed the following classes of inhalant use: (1) severe polyinhalant use; (2) moderate polyinhalant use; (3) gas and permanent marker use; and (4) low-use. Compared to the low-use class, members of the severe polyinhalant use class had experienced more than double the rate of head injuries, the highest rates of traumatic experiences, and the highest rates of mental illness diagnoses. The gas and markers class had the highest rate of reporting hearing voices, followed by the severe polyinhalant use class, and the moderate polyinhalant use class. Results of this study underscore the need to address the high rate of head injuries and mental health diagnoses that contribute to severe polyinhalant use. PMID:26333159

  17. Inhalant Use in Latina Early Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guzmán, Bianca L.; Kouyoumdjian, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine how lifetime use and extent of use of inhalants by Latina girls is impacted by age, acculturation, grades, ditching, sexual behaviors (light petting, heavy petting, and going all the way) and sexual agency. A total of 273 females who self-identified as being Latina whose mean age was 13.94 completed…

  18. 40 CFR 798.2450 - Inhalation toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... respiratory tract such particles may be deposited. This term is used in contrast to measured or geometric... within the respiratory tract. (3) The geometric mean diameter or the median diameter is the calculated... respiratory tract from the trachea to the alveoli. For man, inhalable diameter is considered as 15...

  19. 40 CFR 798.2450 - Inhalation toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... respiratory tract such particles may be deposited. This term is used in contrast to measured or geometric... within the respiratory tract. (3) The geometric mean diameter or the median diameter is the calculated... respiratory tract from the trachea to the alveoli. For man, inhalable diameter is considered as 15...

  20. Manganese Inhalation as a Parkinson Disease Model

    PubMed Central

    Ordoñez-Librado, José Luis; Anaya-Martínez, Verónica; Gutierrez-Valdez, Ana Luisa; Colín-Barenque, Laura; Montiel-Flores, Enrique; Avila-Costa, Maria Rosa

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the effects of divalent and trivalent Manganese (Mn2+/Mn3+) mixture inhalation on mice to obtain a novel animal model of Parkinson disease (PD) inducing bilateral and progressive dopaminergic cell death, correlate those alterations with motor disturbances, and determine whether L-DOPA treatment improves the behavior, to ensure that the alterations are of dopaminergic origin. CD-1 male mice inhaled a mixture of Manganese chloride and Manganese acetate, one hour twice a week for five months. Before Mn exposure, animals were trained to perform motor function tests and were evaluated each week after the exposure. By the end of Mn exposure, 10 mice were orally treated with 7.5 mg/kg L-DOPA. After 5 months of Mn mixture inhalation, striatal dopamine content decreased 71%, the SNc showed important reduction in the number of TH-immunopositive neurons, mice developed akinesia, postural instability, and action tremor; these motor alterations were reverted with L-DOPA treatment. Our data provide evidence that Mn2+/Mn3+ mixture inhalation produces similar morphological, neurochemical, and behavioral alterations to those observed in PD providing a useful experimental model for the study of this neurodegenerative disease. PMID:21209715

  1. Systemic Effects of Inhaled Corticosteroids: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Dhruti; Puttanna, Amar; Balagopal, Viswanatha

    2014-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are common medications, used in respiratory medicine for controlling conditions such as asthma and other obstructive airway diseases. The systemic effects of oral corticosteroids are well known and established; inhaled steroids have been known to cause relatively minor and localized adverse effects such as oral candidiasis. However, less attention has been paid to their systemic effects. Although currently there is a paucity of prospective studies demonstrating the systemic effects of inhaled corticosteroids, there are numerous retrospective studies adding evidence to this link. Inhaled corticosteroids can affect the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis, bone density and growth, eyes, skin and immunity including an increased risk of pneumonia. Clinicians are recommended to aim for the lowest possible dose to avoid these systemic side effects. Fluticasone is more likely to cause systemic effects compared to budesonide. Newer ICS molecules such as ciclesonide may be more beneficial in reducing such systemic complications on prolonged use. This paper provides an updated overview of the common systemic effects encountered with ICS treatment. PMID:25674175

  2. Subacute Inhalation Toxicity of 3-Methylpentane

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Yong Hyun; Shin, Seo-Ho; Han, Jeong Hee; Lee, Yong-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    3-Methylpentane (C6H14, CAS No. 96-14-0), isomer of hexane, is a colorless liquid originating naturally from petroleum or natural gas liquids. 3-Methylpentane has been used as a solvent in organic synthesis, as a lubricant, and as a raw material for producing carbon black. There is limited information available on the inhalation toxicity of 3-methylpentane, and the aim of this study was to determine its subacute inhalation toxicity. According to OECD Test Guideline 412 (subacute inhalation toxicity: 28-day study), Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to 0, 284, 1,135, and 4,540 ppm of 3-methylpentane for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks via whole-body inhalation. Mortality, clinical signs, body weights, food consumption, hematology, serum chemistry, organ weights, and gross and histopathological findings were compared between control and all exposure groups. No mortality or remarkable clinical signs were observed during the study. No gross or histopathological lesions, or adverse effects on body weight, food consumption, hematology, serum chemistry, and organ weights were observed in any male or female rats in all exposure groups, although some statistically significant changes were observed in food consumption, serum chemistry, and organ weights. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) for 3-methylpentane above 4,540 ppm/6 hr/day, 5 days/week for rats. PMID:27437092

  3. Magnesium doping of boron nitride nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Legg, Robert; Jordan, Kevin

    2015-06-16

    A method to fabricate boron nitride nanotubes incorporating magnesium diboride in their structure. In a first embodiment, magnesium wire is introduced into a reaction feed bundle during a BNNT fabrication process. In a second embodiment, magnesium in powder form is mixed into a nitrogen gas flow during the BNNT fabrication process. MgB.sub.2 yarn may be used for superconducting applications and, in that capacity, has considerably less susceptibility to stress and has considerably better thermal conductivity than these conventional materials when compared to both conventional low and high temperature superconducting materials.

  4. Patient preferences for inhaler devices in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: experience with Respimat Soft Mist inhaler.

    PubMed

    Hodder, Richard; Price, David

    2009-01-01

    Current guidelines for the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) recommend the regular use of inhaled bronchodilator therapy in order to relieve symptoms and prevent exacerbations. A variety of inhaler devices are currently available to COPD patients, and the choice of device is an important consideration because it can influence patients' adherence to treatment, and thus potentially affect the long-term outcome. The Respimat((R)) Soft Mist Inhaler (SMI) generates a slow-moving aerosol with a high fine particle fraction, resulting in deposition of a higher proportion of the dose in the lungs than pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs) or some dry powder inhalers (DPIs). We review clinical studies of inhaler satisfaction and preference comparing Respimat((R)) SMI against other inhalers in COPD patients. Using objective and validated patient satisfaction instruments, Respimat((R)) SMI was consistently shown to be well accepted by COPD patients, largely due to its inhalation and handling characteristics. In comparative studies with pMDIs, the patient total satisfaction score with Respimat((R)) SMI was statistically and clinically significantly higher than with the pMDI. In comparative studies with DPIs, the total satisfaction score was statistically significantly higher than for the Turbuhaler((R)) DPI, but only the performance domain of satisfaction was clinically significantly higher for Respimat((R)) SMI. Whether the observed higher levels of patient satisfaction reported with Respimat((R)) SMI might be expected to result in improved adherence to therapy and thus provide benefits consistent with those recently shown to be associated with sustained bronchodilator treatment in patients with COPD remains to be proven.

  5. [Inhalation therapy with Respimat soft inhaler in patients with COPD and asthma].

    PubMed

    Voshaar, T; Hausen, T; Kardos, P; Köhler, D; Schultze-Werninghaus, G; Schürmann, W; Vogelmeier, C

    2005-01-01

    Developing more effective and convenient inhalation devices for the treatment of obstructive pulmonary diseases is at least as important as designing new drugs. In recent years, existing inhalation systems have undergone many technical modifications and there have also been many new developments. All of these systems have their own particular attributes and characteristics. Two fundamentally different modes of operation are represented by propellant-driven metered-dose inhalers (pMDI) on the one hand and dry powder inhalers (DPI) on the other. However, none of the systems developed so far can be considered ideal. The Respimat Soft Inhaler (Respimat SI) was developed in the light of experience with previous systems and was launched in Germany at the beginning of 2004. The aim in developing this new type of inhaler was to avoid the well-known drawbacks typically associated with pMDI and DPI. The Respimat SI requires neither a chemical propellant nor batteries. The active ingredients are dissolved in water and the solution is atomised using mechanical energy only imparted by a spring which, when released, provides the power to force the solution through an extremely fine nozzle system. Two fine jets of liquid are produced. They converge at an optimised angle and the resulting impact generates a fine mist which is slow-moving and lasts for about 1.5 seconds; moreover, a high proportion of the droplets fall into the fine particle fraction. All of these features allow excellent lung deposition and reduced oropharyngeal deposition. Coordination between actuation and inhalation is less critical as compared with pMDI due to the fact that the mist is both slow-moving and long-lasting. A further advantage is that the mist is generated independently of the patient's inspiratory flow. The Respimat SI meets the requirements for an ideal inhaler better than any other previous device and must therefore be regarded as a significant new development.

  6. Dispersibility of lactose fines as compared to API in dry powders for inhalation.

    PubMed

    Thalberg, Kyrre; Åslund, Simon; Skogevall, Marcus; Andersson, Patrik

    2016-05-17

    This work investigates the dispersion performance of fine lactose particles as function of processing time, and compares it to the API, using Beclomethasone Dipropionate (BDP) as model API. The total load of fine particles is kept constant in the formulations while the proportions of API and lactose fines are varied. Fine particle assessment demonstrates that the lactose fines have higher dispersibility than the API. For standard formulations, processing time has a limited effect on the Fine Particle Fraction (FPF). For formulations containing magnesium stearate (MgSt), FPF of BDP is heavily influenced by processing time, with an initial increase, followed by a decrease at longer mixing times. An equation modeling the observed behavior is presented. Surprisingly, the dispersibility of the lactose fines present in the same formulation remains unaffected by mixing time. Magnesium analysis demonstrates that MgSt is transferred to the fine particles during the mixing process, thus lubrication both BDP and lactose fines, which leads to an increased FPF. Dry particle sizing of the formulations reveals a loss of fine particles at longer mixing times. Incorporation of fine particles into the carrier surfaces is believed to be behind this, and is hence a mechanism of importance as regards the dispersion performance of dry powders for inhalation.

  7. Magnesium Recycling of Partially Oxidized, Mixed Magnesium-Aluminum Scrap through Combined Refining and Solid Oxide Membrane Electrolysis Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaofei Guan; Peter A. Zink; Uday B. Pal; Adam C. Powell

    2012-01-01

    Pure magnesium (Mg) is recycled from 19g of partially oxidized 50.5wt.% Mg-Aluminum (Al) alloy. During the refining process, potentiodynamic scans (PDS) were performed to determine the electrorefining potential for magnesium. The PDS show that the electrorefining potential increases over time as the magnesium content inside the Mg-Al scrap decreases. Up to 100% percent of magnesium is refined from the Mg-Al scrap by a novel refining process of dissolving magnesium and its oxide into a flux followed by vapor phase removal of dissolved magnesium and subsequently condensing the magnesium vapor. The solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis process is employed in the refining system to enable additional recycling of magnesium from magnesium oxide (MgO) in the partially oxidized Mg-Al scrap. The combination of the refining and SOM processes yields 7.4g of pure magnesium.

  8. Magnesium Recycling of Partially Oxidized, Mixed Magnesium-Aluminum Scrap Through Combined Refining and Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Xiaofei; Zink, Peter; Pal, Uday

    2012-03-11

    Pure magnesium (Mg) is recycled from 19g of partially oxidized 50.5wt.%Mg-Aluminum (Al) alloy. During the refining process, potentiodynamic scans (PDS) were performed to determine the electrorefining potential for magnesium. The PDS show that the electrorefining potential increases over time as the Mg content inside the Mg-Al scrap decreases. Up to 100% percent of magnesium is refined from the Mg-Al scrap by a novel refining process of dissolving magnesium and its oxide into a flux followed by vapor phase removal of dissolved magnesium and subsequently condensing the magnesium vapors in a separate condenser. The solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis process is employed in the refining system to enable additional recycling of magnesium from magnesium oxide (MgO) in the partially oxidized Mg-Al scrap. The combination of the refining and SOM processes yields 7.4g of pure magnesium; could not collect and weigh all of the magnesium recovered.

  9. Structural differences and the presence of unsubstituted amino groups in heparan sulphates from different tissues and species.

    PubMed Central

    Toida, T; Yoshida, H; Toyoda, H; Koshiishi, I; Imanari, T; Hileman, R E; Fromm, J R; Linhardt, R J

    1997-01-01

    This study presents a comparison of heparan sulphate chains isolated from various porcine and bovine tissues. 1H-NMR spectroscopy (500 MHz) was applied for structural and compositional studies on intact heparan sulphate chains. After enzymic digestion of heparan sulphate using heparin lyase I (EC 4.2.2.7) II and III (EC 4.2.2.8), the compositions of unsaturated disaccharides obtained were determined by analytical capillary electrophoresis. Correlations between the N-sulphated glucosamine residues and O-sulphation and between iduronic acid content and total sulphation were discovered using the data obtained by NMR and disaccharide analysis. Heparan sulphate chains could be classified into two groups based on the sulphation degree and the iduronic acid content. Heparan sulphate chains with a high degree of sulphation possessed also a significant number of iduronic acid residues and were isolated exclusively from porcine brain, liver and kidney medulla. The presence and amount of N-unsubstituted glucosamine residues (GlcNp) was established in all of the heparan sulphates examined. The structural context in which this residue occurs was demonstrated to be: high sulphation domain --> 4)-beta-D-GlcAp-(1 --> 4)-alpha-D-GlcNp-(1 --> 4)-beta-D-GlcAp-(1 --> low sulphation domain (where GlcNp is 2-amino-2-deoxyglucopyranose, and GlcAp is glucopyranosyluronic acid), based on the isolation and characterization of a novel, heparin lyase III-derived, GlcNp containing tetrasaccharide and hexasaccharide. The results presented suggest that structural differences may play a role in important biological events controlled by heparan sulphate in different tissues. PMID:9065769

  10. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 179, which is incorporated by reference. Magnesium phosphate, tribasic, meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 180, which...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 179, which is incorporated by reference. Magnesium phosphate, tribasic, meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 180, which...

  12. Carbon Monoxide as an Electron Donor for the Biological Reduction of Sulphate

    PubMed Central

    Parshina, Sofiya N.; Sipma, Jan; Henstra, Anne Meint; Stams, Alfons J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Several strains of Gram-negative and Gram-positive sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are able to use carbon monoxide (CO) as a carbon source and electron donor for biological sulphate reduction. These strains exhibit variable resistance to CO toxicity. The most resistant SRB can grow and use CO as an electron donor at concentrations up to 100%, whereas others are already severely inhibited at CO concentrations as low as 1-2%. Here, the utilization, inhibition characteristics, and enzymology of CO metabolism as well as the current state of genomics of CO-oxidizing SRB are reviewed. Carboxydotrophic sulphate-reducing bacteria can be applied for biological sulphate reduction with synthesis gas (a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide) as an electron donor. PMID:20628586

  13. Deterioration of hardened cement paste under combined sulphate-chloride attack investigated by synchrotron XRD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroh, J.; Meng, B.; Emmerling, F.

    2016-06-01

    The exact mechanisms of the phase transitions caused by a combined sulphate-chloride attack are discussed controversially. The main points concern the mutual influences of sulphate and chloride ions during the secondary binding processes of these anions within cement hydrate phases. We simulated combined sulphate-chloride attack under laboratory conditions using solutions containing NaCl and Na2SO4 in different concentrations. Three sample compositions were used for the preparation of the specimens. In two of them, 30% of Portland cement was replaced by supplementary cementitious materials (fly ash, slag). The phase distribution in the samples was determined using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The analysis with high spatial resolution allows the localisation of the secondary phase formation in the microstructural profile of the sample. A mechanism of the phase developments under combined sulphate-chloride attack is derived.

  14. Indoxyl sulphate and kidney disease: Causes, consequences and interventions.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Robert J; Small, David M; Vesey, David A; Johnson, David W; Francis, Ross; Vitetta, Luis; Gobe, Glenda C; Morais, Christudas

    2016-03-01

    In the last decade, chronic kidney disease (CKD), defined as reduced renal function (glomerular filtration rate (GFR) < 60 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) ) and/or evidence of kidney damage (typically manifested as albuminuria) for at least 3 months, has become one of the fastest-growing public health concerns worldwide. CKD is characterized by reduced clearance and increased serum accumulation of metabolic waste products (uremic retention solutes). At least 152 uremic retention solutes have been reported. This review focuses on indoxyl sulphate (IS), a protein-bound, tryptophan-derived metabolite that is generated by intestinal micro-organisms (microbiota). Animal studies have demonstrated an association between IS accumulation and increased fibrosis, and oxidative stress. This has been mirrored by in vitro studies, many of which report cytotoxic effects in kidney proximal tubular cells following IS exposure. Clinical studies have associated IS accumulation with deleterious effects, such as kidney functional decline and adverse cardiovascular events, although causality has not been conclusively established. The aims of this review are to: (i) establish factors associated with increased serum accumulation of IS; (ii) report effects of IS accumulation in clinical studies; (iii) critique the reported effects of IS in the kidney, when administered both in vivo and in vitro; and (iv) summarize both established and hypothetical therapeutic options for reducing serum IS or antagonizing its reported downstream effects in the kidney.

  15. Immunoablation of cells expressing the NG2 chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan

    PubMed Central

    Leoni, Giampaolo; Rattray, Marcus; Fulton, Daniel; Rivera, Andrea; Butt, Arthur M

    2014-01-01

    Expression of the transmembrane NG2 chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan (CSPG) defines a distinct population of NG2-glia. NG2-glia serve as a regenerative pool of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in the adult central nervous system (CNS), which is important for demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis, and are a major component of the glial scar that inhibits axon regeneration after CNS injury. In addition, NG2-glia form unique neuron–glial synapses with unresolved functions. However, to date it has proven difficult to study the importance of NG2-glia in any of these functions using conventional transgenic NG2 ‘knockout' mice. To overcome this, we aimed to determine whether NG2-glia can be targeted using an immunotoxin approach. We demonstrate that incubation in primary anti-NG2 antibody in combination with secondary saporin-conjugated antibody selectively kills NG2-expressing cells in vitro. In addition, we provide evidence that the same protocol induces the loss of NG2-glia without affecting astrocyte or neuronal numbers in cerebellar brain slices from postnatal mice. This study shows that targeting the NG2 CSPG with immunotoxins is an effective and selective means for killing NG2-glia, which has important implications for studying the functions of these enigmatic cells both in the normal CNS, and in demyelination and degeneration. PMID:24252088

  16. Formulation and Evaluation of Fast Dissolving Film for Salbutamol Sulphate.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Suneel; Hingawe, Nilesh; Shah, Keyur; Patil, Arun

    2015-01-23

    The present study was aimed to formulate stable, readily dispersible and quick release taste masked fast dis solving film of Salbutamol sulphate by utilizing fast dissolving drug delivery techno logy. This avoids the use of expensive and non-conventional equipments like freeze dryer or spray dryers. It also avoids the time consuming conventional pro cesses like compression and costly polymers. The optimized films were evaluated for film thickness, folding endurance, disintegration time, dissolution time and drug content. The in -vitro dissolution studies were carried out in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) and simulated salivary fluid (pH 6.8). The prepared films were found to be uniform and flexible and more than 90% of the drug was found to be released from the film within 8 min which is a desirable characteristic for fast abso rp tion. FT-IR and DSC studies revealed that there was no interaction between drug and excipients used and the drug was stable in the formulation. The in - vivo disintegration time and taste evaluation studies were carried out in h u man volunteers. These results revealed that there was no bitter taste; no irritation and good mouth feel of o p timized batch.

  17. Copper remediation by Eichhornia spp. and sulphate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dave, Shailesh; Damani, Maitry; Tipre, Devayani

    2010-01-15

    Eichhornia spp. biomass was collected from Chandola Lake, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Point of zero charge of the biomass was pH 7.3. Flask study showed pH 5 and 2-3h contact time as optimum conditions for copper sorption with 67.25% copper removal. At the end of 24h of contact time, copper removal reached to 85.0%, from 100 ppm copper containing solution. Copper loading capacity of the biomass ranged between 9.9 and 28.5 mg g(-1) of biomass. To understand the interaction among pH, temperature, presence of nickel and zinc in the system, 2(4) factorial experiment was performed. Under the experimental conditions pH and interactions between pH-nickel, temperature-pH and temperature-pH-nickel-zinc were found to be significant with 60-74.7% copper removal. Langmuir isotherm was better fit as compared to Freundlich isotherm and pseudo-second order equation gave R(2) of 0.999 for biosorption kinetic of Eichhornia biomass. Reactor study showed 90% overall copper removal from 24 L of copper containing waste studied and sulphate-reducing bacteria played a significant role. SEMquant element analysis showed increase from 41.66% to 53.93%, 1.02-19.73% and 0.0-12.39% of chloride, aluminium and copper respectively in the loaded biomass as compare to unexposed biomass.

  18. Immunoablation of cells expressing the NG2 chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan.

    PubMed

    Leoni, Giampaolo; Rattray, Marcus; Fulton, Daniel; Rivera, Andrea; Butt, Arthur M

    2014-02-01

    Expression of the transmembrane NG2 chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan (CSPG) defines a distinct population of NG2-glia. NG2-glia serve as a regenerative pool of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in the adult central nervous system (CNS), which is important for demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis, and are a major component of the glial scar that inhibits axon regeneration after CNS injury. In addition, NG2-glia form unique neuron-glial synapses with unresolved functions. However, to date it has proven difficult to study the importance of NG2-glia in any of these functions using conventional transgenic NG2 'knockout' mice. To overcome this, we aimed to determine whether NG2-glia can be targeted using an immunotoxin approach. We demonstrate that incubation in primary anti-NG2 antibody in combination with secondary saporin-conjugated antibody selectively kills NG2-expressing cells in vitro. In addition, we provide evidence that the same protocol induces the loss of NG2-glia without affecting astrocyte or neuronal numbers in cerebellar brain slices from postnatal mice. This study shows that targeting the NG2 CSPG with immunotoxins is an effective and selective means for killing NG2-glia, which has important implications for studying the functions of these enigmatic cells both in the normal CNS, and in demyelination and degeneration.

  19. Mechanical properties of calcium sulphate/hydroxyapatite cement.

    PubMed

    Lei, Dang; Wardlaw, D; Hukins, D W L

    2006-01-01

    Setting times, volume after setting, injectability and hardness (at 37 degrees C in contact with Ringer's solution) were determined for cements made of mixtures of calcium sulphate hemihydrate (CS) and hydroxyapatite (HA) with a range of compositions. The purpose of these experiments was to determine the behaviour of a mixture that could be used as an injectable cement for orthopaedic applications, including spinal fusion. A suitable mixture consisted of 60% CS and 40% HA by mass; a slurry was made by mixing solid (36 g) with water (15 cm(3)). The slurry had initial and final setting times of 5.7+/-1.3 min and 19.6+/-0.7 min (mean +/- standard deviation), respectively. The hardness of the cement did not systematically increase or decrease in the 72 h following the final setting time. The volume of the cement was 99.8+/-0.4% of the volume of the initial slurry, i.e. there was negligible shrinkage on setting. It was able to withstand a pressure of 7.3+/-1.2 MPa, applied by a hemispherical indenter before the onset of permanent damage, indicating adequate strength for spinal fusion.

  20. Interplay between transglutaminases and heparan sulphate in progressive renal scarring

    PubMed Central

    Burhan, Izhar; Furini, Giulia; Lortat-Jacob, Hugues; Atobatele, Adeola G.; Scarpellini, Alessandra; Schroeder, Nina; Atkinson, John; Maamra, Mabrouka; Nutter, Faith H.; Watson, Philip; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Johnson, Timothy S.; Verderio, Elisabetta A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Transglutaminase-2 (TG2) is a new anti-fibrotic target for chronic kidney disease, for its role in altering the extracellular homeostatic balance leading to excessive build-up of matrix in kidney. However, there is no confirmation that TG2 is the only transglutaminase involved, neither there are strategies to control its action specifically over that of the conserved family-members. In this study, we have profiled transglutaminase isozymes in the rat subtotal nephrectomy (SNx) model of progressive renal scarring. All transglutaminases increased post-SNx peaking at loss of renal function but TG2 was the predominant enzyme. Upon SNx, extracellular TG2 deposited in the tubulointerstitium and peri-glomerulus via binding to heparan sulphate (HS) chains of proteoglycans and co-associated with syndecan-4. Extracellular TG2 was sufficient to activate transforming growth factor-β1 in tubular epithelial cells, and this process occurred in a HS-dependent way, in keeping with TG2-affinity for HS. Analysis of heparin binding of the main transglutaminases revealed that although the interaction between TG1 and HS is strong, the conformational heparin binding site of TG2 is not conserved, suggesting that TG2 has a unique interaction with HS within the family. Our data provides a rationale for a novel anti-fibrotic strategy specifically targeting the conformation-dependent TG2-epitope interacting with HS. PMID:27694984

  1. Immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of chondroitin sulphate

    PubMed Central

    du Souich, Patrick; García, Antonio G; Vergés, Josep; Montell, Eulàlia

    2009-01-01

    Chondroitin sulphate (CS) is a natural glycosaminoglycan present in the extracellular matrix and is formed by the 1–3 linkage of D-glucuronic acid to N-acetylgalactosamine. In chondrocytes, CS diminishes interleukin-1 p (IL-1p)-induced increases in p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk1/2) phosphorylation, and decreases nuclear factor-KB (NF-kB) nuclear translocation and as a consequence, reduces the formation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1 p and TNF-a, and pro-inflammatory enzymes, such as phospholipase A2 (PLA2), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS-2). The mechanism of action of CS explains its beneficial effect on the cartilage, synovial membrane and subchondral bone. On the other hand, in vivo, CS given orally prevents hepatic NF-κB nuclear translocation, suggesting that systemic CS may elicit an anti-inflammatory effect in many tissues besides the articulation. There is preliminary evidence showing that in human beings, CS may be of benefit in other diseases where inflammation is an essential marker, such as psoriasis and atherosclerosis. The review of the literature suggest that CS might also be of interest for the treatment of other diseases with an inflammatory and/or autoimmune character, such as inflammatory bowel disease, degenerative diseases of the central nervous system and stroke, multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases. PMID:19522843

  2. Purification of IgG from serum with caprylic acid and ammonium sulphate precipitation is not superior to ammonium sulphate precipitation alone.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, J G; Elazhary, Y

    1989-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) from bovine serum raised against Aeromonas Salmonicida was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation (ASP) or caprylic acid treatment followed by ammonium sulphate precipitation (CAAS). Purity of IgG samples prepared by both methods were examined by High Performance Gel Permeation Chromatography, electrophoresis and antibody activity assay. Results suggest that IgG prepared by ASP is better than that obtained by CAAS method in terms of the yield of the IgG monomers and the recovery of the antibody activity.

  3. [Inhalation therapy: inhaled corticosteroids in ENT, development and technical challenges of powder inhalers, nebulisers synchronized with breathing and aerosol size distribution. GAT aerosolstorming, Paris 2012].

    PubMed

    Le Guen, P; Peron, N; Durand, M; Pourchez, J; Cavaillon, P; Reychler, G; Vecellio, L; Dubus, J-C

    2013-10-01

    The working group on aerosol therapy (GAT) of the Société de Pneumologie de Langue Française (SPLF) has organized its third Aerosolstorming in 2012. During one single day, different aspects of inhaled therapies have been treated and are detailed in two articles, this one being the second. This text deals with the indications of inhaled corticosteroids in ENT, the development and technical challenges of powder inhalers, the advantages and disadvantages of each type of technologies to measure the particle sizes of inhaled treatments.

  4. Deposition of corticosteroid aerosol in the human lung by Respimat Soft Mist inhaler compared to deposition by metered dose inhaler or by Turbuhaler dry powder inhaler.

    PubMed

    Pitcairn, Gary; Reader, Sandie; Pavia, Demetri; Newman, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Fourteen mild-to-moderate asthmatic patients completed a randomized four-way crossover scintigraphic study to determine the lung deposition of 200 microg budesonide inhaled from a Respimat Soft Mist Inhaler (Respimat SMI), 200 microg budesonide inhaled from a Turbuhaler dry powder inhaler (Turbuhaler DPI, used with fast and slow peak inhaled flow rates), and 250 microg beclomethasone dipropionate inhaled from a pressurized metered dose inhaler (Becloforte pMDI). Mean (range) whole lung deposition of drug from the Respimat SMI (51.6 [46-57]% of the metered dose) was significantly (p < 0.001) greater than that from the Turbuhaler DPI used with both fast and slow inhaled flow rates (28.5 [24-33]% and 17.8 [14-22]%, respectively) or from the Becloforte pMDI (8.9 [6-12]%). The deposition pattern within the lungs was more peripheral for Respimat SMI than for Turbuhaler DPI. The results of this study showed that Respimat SMI deposited corticosteroid more efficiently in the lungs than either of two widely used inhaler devices, Turbuhaler DPI or Becloforte pMDI.

  5. Magnesium-titanium alloys for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Ilona

    Magnesium has been identified as a promising biodegradable implant material because it does not cause systemic toxicity and can reduce stress shielding. However, it corrodes too quickly in the body. Titanium, which is already used ubiquitously for implants, was chosen as the alloying element because of its proven biocompatibility and corrosion resistance in physiological environments. Thus, alloying magnesium with titanium is expected to improve the corrosion resistance of magnesium. Mg-Ti alloys with a titanium content ranging from 5 to 35 at.-% were successfully synthesized by mechanical alloying. Spark plasma sintering was identified as a processing route to consolidate the alloy powders made by ball-milling into bulk material without destroying the alloy structure. This is an important finding as this metastable Mg-Ti alloy can only be heated up to max. 200C° for a limited time without reaching the stable state of separated magnesium and titanium. The superior corrosion behavior of Mg 80-Ti20 alloy in a simulated physiological environment was shown through hydrogen evolution tests, where the corrosion rate was drastically reduced compared to pure magnesium and electrochemical measurements revealed an increased potential and resistance compared to pure magnesium. Cytotoxicity tests on murine pre-osteoblastic cells in vitro confirmed that supernatants made from Mg-Ti alloy were no more cytotoxic than supernatants prepared with pure magnesium. Mg and Mg-Ti alloys can also be used to make novel polymer-metal composites, e.g., with poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) to avoid the polymer's detrimental pH drop during degradation and alter its degradation pattern. Thus, Mg-Ti alloys can be fabricated and consolidated while achieving improved corrosion resistance and maintaining cytocompatibility. This work opens up the possibility of using Mg-Ti alloys for fracture fixation implants and other biomedical applications. KEYWORDS: Magnesium, titanium, corrosion

  6. Nuclear reactor shield including magnesium oxide

    DOEpatents

    Rouse, Carl A.; Simnad, Massoud T.

    1981-01-01

    An improvement in nuclear reactor shielding of a type used in reactor applications involving significant amounts of fast neutron flux, the reactor shielding including means providing structural support, neutron moderator material, neutron absorber material and other components as described below, wherein at least a portion of the neutron moderator material is magnesium in the form of magnesium oxide either alone or in combination with other moderator materials such as graphite and iron.

  7. Inhaled insulin--does it become reality?

    PubMed

    Siekmeier, R; Scheuch, G

    2008-12-01

    After more than 80 years of history the American and European Drug Agencies (FDA and EMEA) approved the first pulmonary delivered version of insulin (Exubera) from Pfizer/Nektar early 2006. However, in October 2007, Pfizer announced it would be taking Exubera off the market, citing that the drug had failed to gain market acceptance. Since 1924 various attempts have been made to get away from injectable insulin. Three alternative delivery methods where always discussed: Delivery to the upper nasal airways or the deep lungs, and through the stomach. From these, the delivery through the deep lungs is the most promising, because the physiological barriers for the uptake are the smallest, the inspired aerosol is deposited on a large area and the absorption into the blood happens through the extremely thin alveolar membrane. However, there is concern about the long-term effects of inhaling a growth protein into the lungs. It was assumed that the large surface area over which the insulin is spread out would minimize negative effects. But recent news indicates that, at least in smokers, the bronchial tumour rate under inhaled insulin seems to be increased. These findings, despite the fact that they are not yet statistical significant and in no case found in a non-smoker, give additional arguments to stop marketing this approach. Several companies worked on providing inhalable insulin and the insulin powder inhalation system Exubera was the most advanced technology. Treatment has been approved for adults only and patients with pulmonary diseases (e.g., asthma, emphysema, COPD) and smokers (current smokers and individuals who recently quitted smoking) were excluded from this therapy. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of Exubera are similar to those found with short-acting subcutaneous human insulin or insulin analogs. It is thus possible to use Exubera as a substitute for short-acting human insulin or insulin analogs. Typical side effects of inhaled insulin were coughing

  8. The ADMIT series - Issues in inhalation therapy. 4) How to choose inhaler devices for the treatment of COPD.

    PubMed

    Vincken, Walter; Dekhuijzen, Pn Richard; Barnes, Peter

    2010-03-01

    For patients with COPD, inhalation is the preferred route of administration of respiratory drugs for both maintenance and acute treatment. Numerous inhaler types and devices have been developed, each with their own particularities, advantages and disadvantages. Nevertheless, published COPD management guidelines pay little attention to the optimal choice of inhaler devices for COPD patients. Although efficacy and safety are the primary factors determining the choice of an inhaler device, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) directly comparing the efficacy and safety of different inhalers in COPD patients are scarce. Systematic reviews on this subject failed to find significant differences between devices for any of the clinical outcomes studied. When selecting a device for the delivery of inhaled drugs in 'real life' patients with COPD, other factors should be considered. These include availability and affordability of the inhaled drugs and inhaler devices, the uniformity of inhaler devices when several drugs are to be inhaled, the ability of patients to handle correctly the selected device - in particular taking into account the advanced age of the average COPD patient, and finally the patient's preference. The prescribing clinician's task is to provide comprehensive instructions for correct handling of the device and to review regularly the patient's inhalation technique.

  9. Immunological Response to Biodegradable Magnesium Implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichler, Karin; Fischerauer, Stefan; Ferlic, Peter; Martinelli, Elisabeth; Brezinsek, Hans-Peter; Uggowitzer, Peter J.; Löffler, Jörg F.; Weinberg, Annelie-Martina

    2014-04-01

    The use of biodegradable magnesium implants in pediatric trauma surgery would render surgical interventions for implant removal after tissue healing unnecessary, thereby preventing stress to the children and reducing therapy costs. In this study, we report on the immunological response to biodegradable magnesium implants—as an important aspect in evaluating biocompatibility—tested in a growing rat model. The focus of this study was to investigate the response of the innate immune system to either fast or slow degrading magnesium pins, which were implanted into the femoral bones of 5-week-old rats. The main alloying element of the fast-degrading alloy (ZX50) was Zn, while it was Y in the slow-degrading implant (WZ21). Our results demonstrate that degrading magnesium implants beneficially influence the immune system, especially in the first postoperative weeks but also during tissue healing and early bone remodeling. However, rodents with WZ21 pins showed a slightly decreased phagocytic ability during bone remodeling when the degradation rate reached its maximum. This may be due to the high release rate of the rare earth-element yttrium, which is potentially toxic. From our results we conclude that magnesium implants have a beneficial effect on the innate immune system but that there are some concerns regarding the use of yttrium-alloyed magnesium implants, especially in pediatric patients.

  10. Oxalate metabolism in magnesium-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Rattan, V; Thind, S K; Jethi, R K; Sidhu, H; Nath, R

    1993-06-01

    Male weanling rats were maintained on magnesium-deficient diet for 30 d and compared with pair-fed control rats fed magnesium-supplemented diet. Magnesium deficiency led to slow growth and finally to a significant decrease in body weight (P < 0.001) accompanied by a significant hypomagnesaemia, hypomagnesuria and hyperoxaluria (P < 0.001 in each case) in experimental rats as compared to the control rats. Magnesium deficiency altered the glyoxylate metabolism in the liver and kidney mitochondria by significantly decreasing glyoxylate oxidation (by 26 per cent in liver and 17 per cent in kidney) and activity of alpha-ketoglutarate:glyoxylate carboligase enzyme (by 35 per cent in liver and 27 per cent in kidney) in the experimental animals. A significant increase in the specific activities of glycolic acid oxidase (P < 0.001) and glycolic acid dehydrogenase (P < 0.01) and a significant decrease in alanine transaminase (P < 0.01) was also observed in magnesium-deficient rats. No change in liver and kidney lactate dehydrogenase was observed. Thus magnesium deficiency in rats leads to accumulation of glyoxylate in the tissues, a part of which is converted into oxalate, thereby promoting hyperoxaluria.

  11. Application of sugarcane bagasse for passive anaerobic biotreatment of sulphate rich wastewaters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Ali; Qazi, Javed Iqbal

    2016-06-01

    Biological treatment of sulphate-rich wastewaters employing dissimilatory sulphate reducing bacteria as remedial agents is an attractive technique and has gained importance in the last few years. Industrial effluents enriched with sulphates are generally deficient in electron donors. And thus cannot be treated biologically without supplementation of carbon through an external source. For scalable operations, however, the carbon source must not be expensive. In this context, present study reports the efficiency of biological sulphate reduction using sugarcane bagasse as a cost-effective carbon source. An average 0.00391 ± 0.001 gL-1 day-1 (3.91 mgL-1 day-1) sulphate reduction was observed reaching maximally to 0.00466 ± 0.001 gL-1 day-1 (4.66 mgL-1 day-1) while employing Desulfovibrio fructosovorans-HAQ2 and Desulfovibrio piger-HAQ6 in a 60-day trial of anaerobic incubation using sugarcane bagasse as growth substrate. These findings will be helpful in developing economical bioremediation processes tending to operate for a longer period of time to reduce sulphate contents of contaminated waters.

  12. Isolation and characterisation of putative adhesins from Helicobacter pylori with affinity for heparan sulphate proteoglycan.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Bustos, E; Ochoa, J L; Wadström, T; Ascencio, F

    2001-03-01

    A pool of heparan sulphate-binding proteins (HSBPs) from Helicobacter pylori culture supernates was obtained by sequential ammonium sulphate precipitation and affinity chromatography on heparin-Sepharose. The chromatographic procedure yielded one major fraction that contained proteins with heparan sulphate affinity as revealed by inhibition studies of heparan sulphate binding to H. pylori cells. Preparative iso-electric focusing, SDS-PAGE and blotting experiments, with peroxidase(POD)-labelled heparan sulphate as a probe, indicated the presence of two major extracellular proteins with POD-heparan sulphate affinity. One protein had a molecular mass of 66.2 kDa and a pI of 5.4, whilst the second protein had a molecular mass of 71.5 kDa and a pI of 5.0. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the 71.5-kDa HSBP did not show homology to any other heparin-binding protein, nor to known proteins of H. pylori, whereas the 66.2-kDa HSBP showed a high homology to an Escherichia coli chaperon protein and equine haemoglobin. A third HSBP was isolated from an outer-membrane protein (OMP) fraction of H. pylori cells with a molecular mass of 47.2 kDa. The amino acid sequence of an internal peptide of the OMP-HSBP did not show homology to the extracellular HSBP of H. pylori, or to another microbial HSBP.

  13. Sulphate production by Paracoccus pantotrophus ATCC 35512 from different sulphur substrates: sodium thiosulphate, sulphite and sulphide.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Daniel Derrossi; Andrino, Felipe Gabriel; Possedente de Lira, Simone; Fornaro, Adalgiza; Corção, Gertrudes; Brandelli, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    One of the problems in waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) is the increase in emissions of hydrogen sulphide (H2S), which can cause damage to the health of human populations and ecosystems. To control emissions of this gas, sulphur-oxidizing bacteria can be used to convert H2S to sulphate. In this work, sulphate detection was performed by spectrophotometry, ion chromatography and atomic absorption spectrometry, using Paracoccus pantotrophus ATCC 35512 as a reference strain growing in an inorganic broth supplemented with sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3·5H2O), sodium sulphide (Na2S) or sodium sulphite (Na2SO3), separately. The strain was metabolically competent in sulphate production. However, it was only possible to observe significant differences in sulphate production compared to abiotic control when the inorganic medium was supplemented with sodium thiosulphate. The three methods for sulphate detection showed similar patterns, although the chromatographic method was the most sensitive for this study. This strain can be used as a reference for sulphate production in studies with sulphur-oxidizing bacteria originating from environmental samples of WWTPs.

  14. Sulphated glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans in the developing vertebral column of juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    PubMed

    Hannesson, Kirsten O; Ytteborg, Elisabeth; Takle, Harald; Enersen, Grethe; Bæverfjord, Grete; Pedersen, Mona E

    2015-08-01

    In the present study, the distribution of sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) in the developing vertebral column of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) at 700, 900, 1100 and 1400 d° was examined by light microscopy. The mineralization pattern was outlined by Alizarin red S and soft structures by Alcian blue. The temporal and spatial distribution patterns of different types of GAGs: chondroitin-4-sulphate/dermatan sulphate, chondroitin-6-sulphate, chondroitin-0-sulphate and keratan sulphate were addressed by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies against the different GAGs. The specific pattern obtained with the different antibodies suggests a unique role of the different GAG types in pattern formation and mineralization. In addition, the distribution of the different GAG types in normal and malformed vertebral columns from 15 g salmon was compared. A changed expression pattern of GAGs was found in the malformed vertebrae, indicating the involvement of these molecules during the pathogenesis. The molecular size of proteoglycans (PGs) in the vertebrae carrying GAGs was analysed with western blotting, and mRNA transcription of the PGs aggrecan, decorin, biglycan, fibromodulin and lumican by real-time qPCR. Our study reveals the importance of GAGs in development of vertebral column also in Atlantic salmon and indicates that a more comprehensive approach is necessary to completely understand the processes involved.

  15. Characteristics and antioxidant of Ulva intestinalis sulphated polysaccharides extracted with different solvents.

    PubMed

    Peasura, Napassorn; Laohakunjit, Natta; Kerdchoechuen, Orapin; Wanlapa, Sorada

    2015-11-01

    Ulva intestinalis, a tubular green seaweed, is a rich source of nutrient, especially sulphated polysaccharides. Sulphated polysaccharides from U. intestinalis were extracted with distilled water, 0.1N HCl, and 0.1N NaOH at 80°C for 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24h to study the effect of the extraction solvent and time on their chemical composition and antioxidant activity. Different types of solvents and extraction time had a significant influence on the chemical characteristics and antioxidant activity (p<0.05). Monosaccharide composition and FT-IR spectra analyses revealed that sulphated polysaccharides from all solvent extractions have a typical sugar backbone (glucose, rhamnose, and sulphate attached at C-2 or C-3 of rhamnose). Sulphated polysaccharides extracted with acid exhibited greater antioxidant activity than did those extracted with distilled water and alkali. The results indicated that solvent extraction could be an efficacious method for enhancing antioxidant activity by distinct molecular weight and chemical characteristic of sulphated polysaccharides.

  16. Determination of steryl sulphates in invertebrate tissue by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Neto, Renato R; Thompson, Anu; Wolff, George A

    2005-11-01

    A method for the identification and quantification of underivatised steryl sulphates in invertebrates by liquid chromatography (LC) coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS) involving a single cleanup step has been developed. Negative electrospray ionisation and positive and negative atmospheric-pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) spectra of steryl sulphate showed pseudomolecular ions ([M+H-H2SO4]+ or [M-H]-). Collision-induced dissociation (CID) was efficient only in positive APCI. LC-MS in negative APCI was least susceptible to interference and possible differences in response factors. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio of 3) based on cholest-5-enyl-3-sulphate in positive and negative APCI modes are 3.66 and 0.73 pmol microL(-1), respectively. Calibration plots and response factors for cholest-5-enyl-3-sulphate relative to the internal standard, cholecalciferyl-3-sulphate, in both positive and negative polarities, were linear in the concentration range from 1.22 to 16.4 pmol microL(-1) with good coefficients of determination (R2 > 0.98). It is suggested that the structure elucidation of steryl sulphates is best achieved in CID positive APCI mode, whereas their quantification should be carried out using negative APCI.

  17. Aerodynamic characteristics of nebulized terbutaline sulphate using the Andersen Cascade Impactor compared to the Next Generation Impactor.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahim, Mohamed E

    2011-04-01

    Characterization of the aerosol emitted from nebulizers is determined using the Next Generation Impactor (NGI). The Andersen Cascade Impactor (ACI) was previously used but the limitation of high flow rate used decreased its uses. We have investigated the use of ACI with different operational conditions compared to the NGI methodology. NGI was operated at a flow rate of 15 L min⁻¹ after cooling at 5°C for 90 min. ACI was operated using flow rates 15 and 28.3 L min⁻¹ at room (ROOM) temperature and after cooling at 5 °C for 60 min (COLD). ACI was also operated using a flow rate 15 L min⁻¹ through the nebulizer T-piece with a flow rate 28.3 L min⁻¹ through ACI (15 Mix) using the mixing valve at ROOM and COLD. Two nebulizer systems, the Sidestream (SIDE) and the Aeroneb Pro (AERO) were used to nebulize terbutaline sulphate respiratory solution. Overall there was a highly significant difference (P < 0.001) between different ACI operating conditions for FPF and MMAD of both nebulizer systems. The ACI at higher flow rate increased the evaporation effect whilst cooling minimized evaporation of both nebulizer systems. Hence cooling and using slow flow rate minimizes evaporation effects with ACI. The ACI 15COLD results were similar to that of NGI. That supports the use of ACI at inhalation flow rate 15 L min⁻¹ without fear of domination of gravity on ACI stages.

  18. Rapid Transition from Inhaled Iloprost to Inhaled Treprostinil in Patients with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Bourge, Robert C; Tapson, Victor F; Safdar, Zeenat; Benza, Raymond L; Channick, Richard N; Rosenzweig, Erika B; Shapiro, Shelley; White, Richard James; McSwain, Christopher Shane; Gotzkowsky, Stephen Karl; Nelsen, Andrew C; Rubin, Lewis J

    2013-01-01

    Background Inhaled treprostinil is a prostacyclin analog approved for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) that may provide a more convenient treatment option for patients receiving inhaled iloprost while maintaining the clinical benefit of inhaled prostacyclin therapy. Aims In this open-label safety study, 73 PAH patients were enrolled with primarily World Health Organization Class II (56%) or III (42%) symptoms. At baseline, most patients (93%) were receiving 5 μg of iloprost per dose but 38% of patients reported a dosing frequency below the labeled rate of 6–9 times daily. Patients initiated inhaled treprostinil at 3 breaths four times daily (qid) at the immediate next scheduled iloprost dose. The primary objective was to assess the safety of rapid transition from iloprost to inhaled treprostinil; clinical status and quality of life were also assessed. Results Most patients (84%) achieved the target treprostinil dose of 9 breaths qid and remained on study until transition to commercial therapy (89%). The most frequent adverse events (AEs) were cough (74%), headache (44%), and nausea (30%), and five patients prematurely discontinued study drug due to AE (n = 3), disease progression (n = 1), or death (n = 1). At week 12, the time spent on daily treatment activities was reduced compared to baseline, with a mean total savings of 1.4 h per day. Improvements were also observed at week 12 for 6-min walk distance (+16.0; P < 0.001), N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (−74 pg/mL; P = 0.001), and the Cambridge Pulmonary Hypertension Outcome Review (all domains P < 0.001). Conclusions Pulmonary arterial hypertension patients can be safely transitioned from inhaled iloprost to inhaled treprostinil while maintaining clinical status. PMID:22970909

  19. Effect of inhaler design variables on paediatric use of dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Lexmond, Anne J; Kruizinga, Tonnis J; Hagedoorn, Paul; Rottier, Bart L; Frijlink, Henderik W; de Boer, Anne H

    2014-01-01

    Age appropriateness is a major concern of pulmonary delivery devices, in particular of dry powder inhalers (DPIs), since their performance strongly depends on the inspiratory flow manoeuvre of the patient. Previous research on the use of DPIs by children focused mostly on specific DPIs or single inspiratory parameters. In this study, we investigated the requirements for a paediatric DPI more broadly using an instrumented test inhaler. Our primary aim was to assess the impact of airflow resistance on children's inspiratory flow profiles. Additionally, we investigated children's preferences for airflow resistance and mouthpiece design and how these relate to what may be most suitable for them. We tested 98 children (aged 4.7-12.6 years), of whom 91 were able to perform one or more correct inhalations through the test inhaler. We recorded flow profiles at five airflow resistances ranging from 0.025 to 0.055 kPa0.5.min.L-1 and computed various inspiratory flow parameters from these recordings. A sinuscope was used to observe any obstructions in the oral cavity during inhalation. 256 flow profiles were included for analysis. We found that both airflow resistance and the children's characteristics affect the inspiratory parameters. Our data suggest that a medium-high resistance is both suitable for and well appreciated by children aged 5-12 years. High incidences (up to 90%) of obstructions were found, which may restrict the use of DPIs by children. However, an oblong mouthpiece that was preferred the most appeared to positively affect the passageway through the oral cavity. To accommodate children from the age of 5 years onwards, a DPI should deliver a sufficiently high fine particle dose within an inhaled volume of 0.5 L and at a peak inspiratory flow rate of 25-40 L.min-1. We recommend taking these requirements into account for future paediatric inhaler development.

  20. Magnesium phosphate glass cements with ceramic-type properties

    SciTech Connect

    Sugama, T.; Kukacka, L.E.

    1984-03-13

    Rapid setting magnesium phosphate (Mg glass) cementitious materials consisting of magnesium phosphate cement paste, polyborax and water-saturated aggregate exhibiting rapid setting and high early strength characteristics. The magnesium glass cement is prepared from a cation-leachable powder and a bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid such as an aqueous solution of diammonium phosphate and ammonium polyphosphate. The cation-leachable powder includes a mixture of two different magnesium oxide powders processed and sized differently which when mixed with the bivalent metallic ion-accepting liquid provides the magnesium glass cement consisting primarily of magnesium ortho phosphate tetrahydrate, with magnesium hydroxide and magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate also present. The polyborax serves as a set-retarder. The resulting magnesium mono-and polyphosphate cements are particularly suitable for use as a cementing matrix in rapid repair systems for deteriorated concrete structures as well as construction materials and surface coatings for fireproof structures.