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Sample records for inhaled plutonium oxide

  1. Late-occurring pulmonary pathologies following inhalation of mixed oxide (uranium + plutonium oxide) aerosol in the rat.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, N M; Van der Meeren, A; Fritsch, P; Abram, M-C; Bernaudin, J-F; Poncy, J L

    2010-09-01

    Accidental exposure by inhalation to alpha-emitting particles from mixed oxide (MOX: uranium and plutonium oxide) fuels is a potential long-term health risk to workers in nuclear fuel fabrication plants. For MOX fuels, the risk of lung cancer development may be different from that assigned to individual components (plutonium, uranium) given different physico-chemical characteristics. The objective of this study was to investigate late effects in rat lungs following inhalation of MOX aerosols of similar particle size containing 2.5 or 7.1% plutonium. Conscious rats were exposed to MOX aerosols and kept for their entire lifespan. Different initial lung burdens (ILBs) were obtained using different amounts of MOX. Lung total alpha activity was determined by external counting and at autopsy for total lung dose calculation. Fixed lung tissue was used for anatomopathological, autoradiographical, and immunohistochemical analyses. Inhalation of MOX at ILBs ranging from 1-20 kBq resulted in lung pathologies (90% of rats) including fibrosis (70%) and malignant lung tumors (45%). High ILBs (4-20 kBq) resulted in reduced survival time (N = 102; p < 0.05) frequently associated with lung fibrosis. Malignant tumor incidence increased linearly with dose (up to 60 Gy) with a risk of 1-1.6% Gy for MOX, similar to results for industrial plutonium oxide alone (1.9% Gy). Staining with antibodies against Surfactant Protein-C, Thyroid Transcription Factor-1, or Oct-4 showed differential labeling of tumor types. In conclusion, late effects following MOX inhalation result in similar risk for development of lung tumors as compared with industrial plutonium oxide.

  2. Multiplicative effect of inhaled plutonium oxide and benzo (a) pyrene on lung carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Métivier, H.; Wahrendorf, J.; Masse, R.

    1984-01-01

    This study describes the effect of intratracheal instillations (2 X 5 mg) of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) on lung carcinogenesis in rats which had previously inhaled different levels of 239 plutonium oxide (220, 630, 6300 Bq, initial lung burden). Survival decreased with increasing PuO2 exposure and additional B(a)P exposure. The incidence of malignant lung tumours, adjusted for differences in survival, increased in a dose-related fashion with PuO2 dose and was elevated in the presence of additional B(a)P exposure. A multiplicative relative risk model was found to describe reasonably well the observed joint effect. The practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:6087866

  3. Interspecies comparison of the metabolism and dosimetry of inhaled mixed oxides of plutonium and uranium

    SciTech Connect

    Boecker, B.B.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Eidson, A.F.

    1997-12-01

    Three studies were conducted to provide information on the biological fate, distribution of radiation doses among tissues, and implications for potential health consequences of an inhalation exposure to mixed-oxide nuclear fuel materials. In each study, Fischer-344 rats, beagle dogs, and cynomolgus monkeys inhaled one of three aerosols: 750{degrees}C calcined mixed oxides of UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2}, 1750{degrees}C sintered (U,Pu)O{sub 2}, or 850{degrees}C calcined {open_quotes}pure{close_quotes} PuO{sub 2}. These materials were collected from glove-box enclosures immediately after industrial processing of mixed-oxide fuel materials. Lung retention, tissue distribution, and mode of excretion of {sup 238-240}Pu, {sup 241}Am, and uranium (when present) were quantified by radiochemical analysis of tissue and excreta samples from animals sacrificed at selected times to 6.5 yr after inhalation exposure.

  4. Isotopic and elemental composition of plutonium/americium oxides influence pulmonary and extra-pulmonary distribution after inhalation in rats.

    PubMed

    Van der Meeren, A; Grémy, O

    2010-09-01

    The biodistribution of plutonium and americium has been studied in a rat model after inhalation of two PuO(2) powders in lungs and extra-pulmonary organs from 3 d to 3 mo. The main difference between the two powders was the content of americium (approximately 46% and 4.5% of total alpha activity). The PuO(2) with a higher proportion of americium shows an accelerated transfer of activity from lungs to blood as compared to PuO(2) with the lower americium content, illustrated by increased urinary excretion and higher bone and liver actinide retention. The total alpha activity measured reflects mostly the americium biological behavior. The activity contained in epithelial lining fluid, recovered in the acellular phase of broncho-alveolar lavages, mainly contains americium, whereas plutonium remains trapped in macrophages. Epithelial lining fluid could represent a transitional pulmonary compartment prior to translocation of actinides to the blood and subsequent deposition in extra-pulmonary retention organs. In addition, differential behaviors of plutonium and americium are also observed between the PuO(2) powders with a higher dissolution rate for both plutonium and americium being obtained for the PuO(2) with the highest americium content. Our results indicate that the biological behavior of plutonium and americium after translocation into blood differ two-fold: (1) for the two actinides for the same PuO(2) aerosol, and (2) for the same actinide from the two different aerosols. These results highlight the importance of considering the specific behavior of each contaminant after accidental pulmonary intake when assessing extra-pulmonary deposits from the level of activity excreted in urine or for therapeutic strategy decisions.

  5. The effect of isotope on the dosimetry of inhaled plutonium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Guilmette, R.A., Griffith, W.C.; Hickman, A.W.

    1991-12-31

    Results of experimental studies in which animals inhaled {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} or {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} aerosols have shown that the biokinetics and associated radiation dose patterns for these two isotopes differ significantly due to differences in in-vivo solubility caused by the 260-fold difference in specific activity between {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} and {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}. We have adapted a biokinetics and dosimetry model derived from results of the ITRI dog studies to humans and have calculated dose commitments and annual limits on intake (ALI) for both Pu isotopes. Our results show that the ALI calculated in this study is one-third that for class Y {sup 238}Pu from ICRP 30, and one-half or equal to that for class Y {sup 239}Pu, depending on how activity in the thoracic lymph nodes is treated dosimetrically.

  6. Uncertainties on lung doses from inhaled plutonium.

    PubMed

    Puncher, Matthew; Birchall, Alan; Bull, Richard K

    2011-10-01

    In a recent epidemiological study, Bayesian uncertainties on lung doses have been calculated to determine lung cancer risk from occupational exposures to plutonium. These calculations used a revised version of the Human Respiratory Tract Model (HRTM) published by the ICRP. In addition to the Bayesian analyses, which give probability distributions of doses, point estimates of doses (single estimates without uncertainty) were also provided for that study using the existing HRTM as it is described in ICRP Publication 66; these are to be used in a preliminary analysis of risk. To infer the differences between the point estimates and Bayesian uncertainty analyses, this paper applies the methodology to former workers of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA), who constituted a subset of the study cohort. The resulting probability distributions of lung doses are compared with the point estimates obtained for each worker. It is shown that mean posterior lung doses are around two- to fourfold higher than point estimates and that uncertainties on doses vary over a wide range, greater than two orders of magnitude for some lung tissues. In addition, we demonstrate that uncertainties on the parameter values, rather than the model structure, are largely responsible for these effects. Of these it appears to be the parameters describing absorption from the lungs to blood that have the greatest impact on estimates of lung doses from urine bioassay. Therefore, accurate determination of the chemical form of inhaled plutonium and the absorption parameter values for these materials is important for obtaining reliable estimates of lung doses and hence risk from occupational exposures to plutonium.

  7. Low temperature oxidation of plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Art J.; Roussel, Paul

    2013-05-15

    The initial oxidation of gallium stabilized {delta}-plutonium metal at 193 K has been followed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. On exposure to Langmuir quantities of oxygen, plutonium rapidly forms a trivalent oxide followed by a tetravalent plutonium oxide. The growth modes of both oxides have been determined. Warming the sample in vacuum, the tetravalent oxide reduces to the trivalent oxide. The kinetics of this reduction reaction have followed and the activation energy has been determined to be 38.8 kJ mol{sup -1}.

  8. Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal

    DOEpatents

    Coops, Melvin S.

    1992-01-01

    A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

  9. Plutonium Oxide Process Capability Work Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.

    2014-02-28

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked to develop a Pilot-scale Plutonium-oxide Processing Unit (P3U) providing a flexible capability to produce 200g (Pu basis) samples of plutonium oxide using different chemical processes for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. Materials produced can also be used as exercise and reference materials.

  10. Post-accident inhalation exposure and experience with plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J

    1998-06-01

    This paper addresses the issue of inhalation exposure immediately afterward and for a long time following a nuclear accident. For the cases where either a nuclear weapon burns or explodes prior to nuclear fission, or at locations close to a nuclear reactor accident containing fission products, a major concern is the inhalation of aerosolized plutonium (Pu) particles producing alpha-radiation. We have conducted field studies of Pu- contaminated real and simulated accident sites at Bikini, Johnston Atoll, Tonopah (Nevada), Palomares (Spain), Chernobyl, and Maralinga (Australia).

  11. Toxicity of inhaled plutonium dioxide in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Muggenburg, M.A.; Guilmette, R.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.

    1996-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the biological effects of inhaled {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} over the life spans of 144 beagle dogs. The dogs inhaled one of two sizes of monodisperse aerosols of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} to achieve graded levels of initial lung burden (ILB). The aerosols also contained {sup 169}Yb to provide a {gamma}-ray-emitting label for the {sup 238}Pu inhaled by each dog. Excreta were collected periodically over each dog`s life span to estimate plutonium excretion; at death, the tissues were analyzed radiochemically for plutonium activity. The tissue content and the amount of plutonium excreted were used to estimate the ILB. These data for each dog were used in a dosimetry model to estimate the ILB. These data for each dog were used in a dosimetry model to estimate tissue doses. The lung, skeleton and liver received the highest {alpha}-particle doses, ranging from 0.16-68 Gy for the liver. At death, all dogs were necropsied, and all organs and lesions were sampled and examined by histopathology. Findings of non-neoplastic changes included neutropenia and lymphopenia that developed in a dose-related fashion soon after inhalation exposure. These effects persisted for up to 5 years in some animals, but no other health effects could be related to the blood changes observed. Radiation pneumonitis was observed among the dogs with the highest ILBs. Deaths from radiation pneumonitis occurred from 1.5 to 5.4 years after exposure. Tumors of the lung, skeleton and liver occurred beginning at about 3 years after exposure. These findings in dogs suggest that similar dose-related biological effects could be expected in humans accidentally exposed to {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}. 89 refs., 10 figs., 11 tab.

  12. PLUTONIUM METAL: OXIDATION CONSIDERATIONS AND APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Estochen, E.

    2013-03-20

    Plutonium is arguably the most unique of all metals when considered in the combined context of metallurgical, chemical, and nuclear behavior. Much of the research in understanding behavior and characteristics of plutonium materials has its genesis in work associated with nuclear weapons systems. However, with the advent of applications in fuel materials, the focus in plutonium science has been more towards nuclear fuel applications, as well as long term storage and disposition. The focus of discussion included herein is related to preparing plutonium materials to meet goals consistent with non-proliferation. More specifically, the emphasis is on the treatment of legacy plutonium, in primarily metallic form, and safe handling, packaging, and transport to meet non-proliferation goals of safe/secure storage. Elevated temperature oxidation of plutonium metal is the treatment of choice, due to extensive experiential data related to the method, as the oxide form of plutonium is one of only a few compounds that is relatively simple to produce, and stable over a large temperature range. Despite the simplicity of the steps required to oxidize plutonium metal, it is important to understand the behavior of plutonium to ensure that oxidation is conducted in a safe and effective manner. It is important to understand the effect of changes in environmental variables on the oxidation characteristics of plutonium. The primary purpose of this report is to present a brief summary of information related to plutonium metal attributes, behavior, methods for conversion to oxide, and the ancillary considerations related to processing and facility safety. The information provided is based on data available in the public domain and from experience in oxidation of such materials at various facilities in the United States. The report is provided as a general reference for implementation of a simple and safe plutonium metal oxidation technique.

  13. REVIEW OF PLUTONIUM OXIDATION LITERATURE

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.

    2009-11-12

    A brief review of plutonium oxidation literature was conducted. The purpose of the review was to ascertain the effect of oxidation conditions on oxide morphology to support the design and operation of the PDCF direct metal oxidation (DMO) furnace. The interest in the review was due to a new furnace design that resulted in oxide characteristics that are different than those of the original furnace. Very little of the published literature is directly relevant to the DMO furnace operation, which makes assimilation of the literature data with operating conditions and data a convoluted task. The oxidation behavior can be distilled into three regimes, a low temperature regime (RT to 350 C) with a relatively slow oxidation rate that is influenced by moisture, a moderate temperature regime (350-450 C) that is temperature dependent and relies on more or less conventional oxidation growth of a partially protective oxide scale, and high temperature oxidation (> 500 C) where the metal autocatalytically combusts and oxidizes. The particle sizes obtained from these three regimes vary with the finest being from the lowest temperature. It is surmised that the slow growth rate permits significant stress levels to be achieved that help break up the oxides. The intermediate temperatures result in a fairly compact scale that is partially protective and that grows to critical thickness prior to fracturing. The growth rate in this regime may be parabolic or paralinear, depending on the oxidation time and consequently the oxide thickness. The high temperature oxidation is invariant in quiescent or nearly quiescent conditions due to gas blanketing while it accelerates with temperature under flowing conditions. The oxide morphology will generally consist of fine particles (<15 {micro}m), moderately sized particles (15 < x < 250 {micro}m) and large particles (> 250 {micro}m). The particle size ratio is expected to be < 5%, 25%, and 70% for fine, medium and large particles, respectively, for

  14. OXIDATIVE METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM NEPTUNIUM

    DOEpatents

    Beaufait, L.J. Jr.

    1958-06-10

    A method is described of separating neptunium from plutonium in an aqueous solution containing neptunium and plutonium in valence states not greater than +4. This may be accomplished by contacting the solution with dichromate ions, thus oxidizing the neptunium to a valence state greater than +4 without oxidizing any substantial amount of plutonium, and then forming a carrier precipitate which carries the plutonium from solution, leaving the neptunium behind. A preferred embodiment of this invention covers the use of lanthanum fluoride as the carrier precipitate.

  15. Modeling lung cancer risks in laboratory dogs exposed to inhaled plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, E.S.; Park, J.F.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1990-06-01

    These analyses are based on data from a lifespan study of beagle dogs exposed to inhaled plutonium being conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. An important goal of this study is to increase understanding of health risk resulting from this exposure, with particular attention to lung cancer risks. Data on humans exposed to plutonium are inadequate for achieving this goal.

  16. Potentiometric determination of plutonium by sodium bismuthate oxidation.

    PubMed

    Charyulu, M M; Rao, V K; Natarajan, P R

    1984-12-01

    A potentiometric method for the determination of plutonium is described, in which the plutonium is quantitatively oxidized to plutonium(VI) with sodium bismuthate in nitric acid medium, the excess of oxidant is destroyed chemically and plutonium(VI) is reduced to plutonium(IV) with a measured excess of iron(II), the surplus of which is back-titrated with dichromate. For 3-5 mg of plutonium the error is less than 0.2%. For submilligram quantities of plutonium in presence of macro-amounts of uranium the error is below 2.0%.

  17. Hepatic effects of inhaled plutonium dioxide in beagles

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.; Buschbom, R.L.; Dagle, G.E.

    1995-10-01

    The effects of inhaled {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} deposited in the liver of dogs were studied in beagles exposed to initial lung depositions ranging from 5.7 to 2979.7 Bq/g lung. Approximately 20% of the initial lung deposition was translocated to the liver by 1500 days after exposure. Life-span observations revealed that the liver contained 40% of the final body burden of plutonium, second only to the skeleton. Elevated serum liver enzyme activities were observed in dogs with final liver depositions of {ge}0.4 Bq/g, cumulative dose to the liver of {ge}0.18 Gy and annual dose rate {ge}0.02 Gy/year. Enzyme elevations were seen at one dose level lower than that in which bone or lung tumors were observed. Linear regression analysis revealed strong to moderate correlation between cumulative dose and dose rate and time to observed increases in liver enzyme activities. Liver tumors were late occurring neoplasms observed at lower exposure levels where life span was not shortened by lung and bone tumors. 22 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. Adsorption of plutonium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Moritz; Wilson, Richard E; Lee, Sang Soo; Soderholm, L; Fenter, P

    2012-02-07

    Adsorption of monodisperse cubic plutonium oxide nanoparticles ("Pu-NP", [Pu(38)O(56)Cl(x)(H(2)O)(y)]((40-x)+), with a fluorite-related lattice, approximately 1 nm in edge size) to the muscovite (001) basal plane from aqueous solutions was observed in situ (in 100 mM NaCl background electrolyte at pH 2.6). Uptake capacity of the surface quantified by α-spectrometry was 0.92 μg Pu/cm(2), corresponding to 10.8 Pu per unit cell area (A(UC)). This amount is significantly larger than that of Pu(4+) needed for satisfying the negative surface charge (0.25 Pu(4+) for 1 e(-)/A(UC)). The adsorbed Pu-NPs cover 17% of the surface area, determined by X-ray reflectivity (XR). This correlates to one Pu-NP for every 14 unit cells of muscovite, suggesting that each particle compensates the charge of the unit cells onto which it adsorbs as well as those in its direct proximity. Structural investigation by resonant anomalous X-ray reflectivity distinguished two different sorption states of Pu-NPs on the surface at two different regimes of distance from the surface. A fraction of Pu is distributed within 11 Å from the surface. The distribution width matches the Pu-NP size, indicating that this species represents Pu-NPs adsorbed directly on the surface. Beyond the first layer, an additional fraction of sorbed Pu was observed to extend more broadly up to more than 100 Å from the surface. This distribution is interpreted as resulting from "stacking" or aggregation of the nanoparticles driven by sorption and accumulation of Pu-NPs at the interface although these Pu-NPs do not aggregate in the solution. These results are the first in situ observation of the interaction of nanoparticles with a charged mineral-water interface yielding information important to understanding the environmental transport of Pu and other nanophase inorganic species.

  19. COLUMBIC OXIDE ADSORPTION PROCESS FOR SEPARATING URANIUM AND PLUTONIUM IONS

    DOEpatents

    Beaton, R.H.

    1959-07-14

    A process is described for separating plutonium ions from a solution of neutron irradiated uranium in which columbic oxide is used as an adsorbert. According to the invention the plutonium ion is selectively adsorbed by Passing a solution containing the plutonium in a valence state not higher than 4 through a porous bed or column of granules of hydrated columbic oxide. The adsorbed plutonium is then desorbed by elution with 3 N nitric acid.

  20. Hematological effects of inhaled plutonium dioxide in beagles

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.; Buschbom, R.L.; Park, J.F.

    1995-07-01

    A life-span study indicated that plutonium activity in the thoracic lymph nodes is a contributor to development of lymphopenia in beagles exposed to {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}. Significant lymphopenia was found in 67 (58%) beagles given a single nose-only exposure to {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} to result in mean initial lung depositions ranging from 0.69 to 213.3 kBq. Lymphoid atrophy and sclerosis of the thoracic lymph nodes and lymphopenia were observed in exposure-level groups with initial lung depositions {ge}2.5 kBq. Those dogs with final plutonium concentrations in the thoracic lymph nodes {ge}0.4 kBq/g and dose rates {ge}0.01 Gy/day developed lymphopenia. Marked differences existed between chronically lymphopenic dogs and intermittently lymphopenic dogs with regard to initial lung deposition, time to lymphopenic events and absolute lymphocyte concentrations. Linear regression analysis revealed moderate correlation between reduction in lymphocyte values and initial lung deposition, in both magnitude and time of appearance after exposure. Cumulative dose and dose rate appeared to act together to produce initial effects on lymphocyte populations, while dose rate alone appeared to be responsible for the maintenance and subsequent cycles of lymphopenia seen over the life span. No primary tumors were associated with the thoracic lymph nodes in this study, although 70% of the lymphopenic dogs developed lung tumors. 28 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. PROCESS FOR PRODUCTION OF PLUTONIUM FROM ITS OXIDES

    DOEpatents

    Weissman, S.I.; Perlman, M.L.; Lipkin, D.

    1959-10-13

    A method is described for obtaining a carbide of plutonium and two methods for obtaining plutonium metal from its oxides. One of the latter involves heating the oxide, in particular PuO/sub 2/, to a temperature of 1200 to 1500 deg C with the stoichiometrical amount of carbon to fornn CO in a hard vacuum (3 to 10 microns Hg), the reduced and vaporized plutonium being collected on a condensing surface above the reaction crucible. When an excess of carbon is used with the PuO/sub 2/, a carbide of plutonium is formed at a crucible temperature of 1400 to 1500 deg C. The process may be halted and the carbide removed, or the reaction temperature can be increased to 1900 to 2100 deg C at the same low pressure to dissociate the carbide, in which case the plutonium is distilled out and collected on the same condensing surface.

  2. Primary pulmonary sarcoma in a rhesus monkey after inhalation of plutonium dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, F.F.; Brooks, A.L.; Mewhinney, J.A.

    1987-11-01

    A pulmonary fibrosarcoma of bronchial origin was discovered in a Rhesus monkey that died of pulmonary fibrosis 9 years after inhalation of plutonium-239 dioxide and with a radiation dose to lung of 1400 rad (14 Gy). It grew around the major bronchus of the right cardiac lung lobe and extended into the bronchial lumen and into surrounding pulmonary parenchyma. It also readily invaded muscular pulmonary arteries, resulting in infarction and scarring in the right cardiac lobe. Despite this aggressive growth, the tumor did not metastasize. The primary cause of death was severe pulmonary fibrosis involving the alveolar septa and and perivascular and peribronchial interstitium. Bullous or pericitrical emphysema was prominent. The initial lung burden of plutonium in this monkey was 270 nCi (10 kBq) which is equivalent to approximately 500 times the maximum permissible lung burden for man on a radioactivity per unit body weight basis. The time-dose relationship for survival is consistent with that of dogs and baboons that inhaled plutonium dioxide and died with lung tumors.

  3. Effects of inhaled plutonium nitrate on bone and liver in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Dagle, G.E.; Weller, R.E.; Watson, C.R.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1994-04-01

    The life-span biological effects of inhaled soluble, alpha-emitting radionuclides deposited in the skeleton and liver were studied in 5 groups of 20 beagles exposed to initial lung depositions ranging from 0.48 to 518 Bq/g of lung. Average plutonium amounts in the lungs decreased to approximately 1% of the final body deposition in dogs surviving 5 years or more; more than 90% of the final depositions accumulated in the liver and skeleton. The liver-to-skeletal ratio of deposited plutonium was 0.83. The incidence of bone tumors, primarily osteogenic sarcomas causing early mortality, at final group average skeletal depositions of 15.8, 2.1, and 0.5 Bq/g was, respectively, 85%, 50%, and 5%; there were no bone tumors in exposure groups with mean average depositions lower than 0.5 Bq/g. Elevated serum liver enzyme levels were observed in exposure groups down to 1.3 Bq/g. The incidence of liver tumors at final group average liver depositions of 6.9, 1.3, 0.2, and 0.1 Bq/g, was, respectively, 25%, 15%, 15%, and 15%; one hepatoma occurred among 40 control dogs. The risk of the liver cancer produced by inhaled plutonium nitrate was difficult to assess due to the competing risks of life shortening from lung and bone tumors.

  4. Processing of Non-PFP Plutonium Oxide in Hanford Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Susan A.; Delegard, Calvin H.

    2011-03-10

    Processing of non-irradiated plutonium oxide, PuO2, scrap for recovery of plutonium values occurred routinely at Hanford’s Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) in glovebox line operations. Plutonium oxide is difficult to dissolve, particularly if it has been high-fired; i.e., calcined to temperatures above about 400°C and much of it was. Dissolution of the PuO2 in the scrap typically was performed in PFP’s Miscellaneous Treatment line using nitric acid (HNO3) containing some source of fluoride ion, F-, such as hydrofluoric acid (HF), sodium fluoride (NaF), or calcium fluoride (CaF2). The HNO3 concentration generally was 6 M or higher whereas the fluoride concentration was ~0.5 M or lower. At higher fluoride concentrations, plutonium fluoride (PuF4) would precipitate, thus limiting the plutonium dissolution. Some plutonium-bearing scrap also contained PuF4 and thus required no added fluoride. Once the plutonium scrap was dissolved, the excess fluoride was complexed with aluminum ion, Al3+, added as aluminum nitrate, Al(NO3)3•9H2O, to limit collateral damage to the process equipment by the corrosive fluoride. Aluminum nitrate also was added in low quantities in processing PuF4.

  5. PRESSURIZATION OF CONTAINMENT VESSELS FROM PLUTONIUM OXIDE CONTENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Hensel, S.

    2012-03-27

    Transportation and storage of plutonium oxide is typically done using a convenience container to hold the oxide powder which is then placed inside a containment vessel. Intermediate containers which act as uncredited confinement barriers may also be used. The containment vessel is subject to an internal pressure due to several sources including; (1) plutonium oxide provides a heat source which raises the temperature of the gas space, (2) helium generation due to alpha decay of the plutonium, (3) hydrogen generation due to radiolysis of the water which has been adsorbed onto the plutonium oxide, and (4) degradation of plastic bags which may be used to bag out the convenience can from a glove box. The contributions of these sources are evaluated in a reasonably conservative manner.

  6. Plutonium metal and oxide container weld development and qualification

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, R.; Horrell, D.R.; Hoth, C.W.; Pierce, S.W.; Rink, N.A.; Rivera, Y.M.; Sandoval, V.D.

    1996-01-01

    Welds were qualified for a container system to be used for long-term storage of plutonium metal and oxide. Inner and outer containers are formed of standard tubing with stamped end pieces gas-tungsten-arc (GTA) welded onto both ends. The weld qualification identified GTA parameters to produce a robust weld that meets the requirements of the Department of Energy standard DOE-STD-3013-94, ``Criteria for the Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides.``

  7. High-Temperature Oxidation of Plutonium Surrogate Metals and Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, Joshua C.; Krantz, Kelsie E.; Christian, Jonathan H.; Washington, II, Aaron L.

    2016-07-27

    The Plutonium Management and Disposition Agreement (PMDA) is a nuclear non-proliferation agreement designed to remove 34 tons of weapons-grade plutonium from Russia and the United States. While several removal options have been proposed since the agreement was first signed in 2000, processing the weapons-grade plutonium to mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel has remained the leading candidate for achieving the goals of the PMDA. However, the MOX program has received its share of criticisms, which causes its future to be uncertain. One alternative pathway for plutonium disposition would involve oxidizing the metal followed by impurity down blending and burial in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in Carlsbad, New Mexico. This pathway was investigated by use of a hybrid microwave and a muffle furnace with Fe and Al as surrogate materials. Oxidation occurred similarly in the microwave and muffle furnace; however, the microwave process time was significantly faster.

  8. Threshold for Radon-Induced Lung Cancer From Inhaled Plutonium Data.

    PubMed

    Cuttler, Jerry M; Sanders, Charles L

    2015-01-01

    Cohen's lung cancer mortality data, from his test of the LNT theory, do not extend to the no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL) above which inhaled radon decay products begin to induce excess lung cancer mortality. Since there is concern about the level of radon in homes, it is important to set the radon limit near the NOAEL to avoid the risk of losing a health benefit. Assuming that dogs model humans, data from a study on inhaled plutonium dioxide particulates in dogs were assessed, and the NOAEL for radon-induced lung tumors was estimated to be about 2100 Bq/m(3). The US Environmental Protection Agency should consider raising its radon action level from 150 to at least 1000 Bq/m(3).

  9. Threshold for Radon-Induced Lung Cancer From Inhaled Plutonium Data

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    Cohen’s lung cancer mortality data, from his test of the LNT theory, do not extend to the no observed adverse effects level (NOAEL) above which inhaled radon decay products begin to induce excess lung cancer mortality. Since there is concern about the level of radon in homes, it is important to set the radon limit near the NOAEL to avoid the risk of losing a health benefit. Assuming that dogs model humans, data from a study on inhaled plutonium dioxide particulates in dogs were assessed, and the NOAEL for radon-induced lung tumors was estimated to be about 2100 Bq/m3. The US Environmental Protection Agency should consider raising its radon action level from 150 to at least 1000 Bq/m3. PMID:26740812

  10. Leaching behavior of particulate plutonium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Kosiewicz, S.T.; Heaton, R.C.

    1985-08-01

    Different size cuts of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ particles were mixed with deionized water at two temperatures in a shaker bath. The gross plutonium concentration in the water was measured, as well as that portion of the plutonium retained on a 0.1-..mu..m pore filter. The concentration of the plutonium released was primarily a function of the surface area of the particles. The release rate of plutonium into the water for the size cut with particles having diameters between 30 and 20 ..mu..m was 3 ng/m/sup 2//s; this rate is within the range observed in past experiments involving aquatic environments. The amount of material retained by the 0.1-..mu..m filters decreased with increasing time, suggesting that size reduction or removal processes occurred. 6 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  11. Direct reduction of actinide oxide and carbide to metal: Application to the preparation of plutonium metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirlet, J. C.; Müller, W.; Van Audenhove, J.

    1985-06-01

    Three different conversion and refining methods for the preparation of high purity plutonium metal are described: the calciothermic reduction of plutonium oxide followed by electrorefining; the thoriothermic reduction of plutonium oxide followed by selective evaporation; the tantalothermic reduction of plutonium carbide followed by selective evaporation. The calciothermic reduction of plutonium oxide followed by electrorefining is used for the semi-industrial or large scale production of high purity plutonium metal. The rate and yield of preparation and refining is high. With high purity reactants the reduction of the oxide with thorium is well adapted to obtain high purity plutonium metal on the laboratory scale. The tantalothermic reduction of plutonium carbide gives high purity plutonium metal even with impure plutonium starting material (recovered from waste). This results from the high selectivity at the different steps of the process.

  12. Plutonium release from pressed plutonium oxide fuel pellets in aquatic environments

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, J.H.; Steinkruger, F.J.; Matlack, G.M.; Heaton, R.C.; Coffelt, K.P.; Herrera, B.

    1983-12-01

    Plutonium oxide pellets (80% /sup 238/Pu, 40 g each) were exposed to fresh water and sea water at two temperatures for 3 y in enclosed glass chambers. The concentrations of plutonium observed in the waters increased linearly with time throughout the experiment. However, the observed release rates were inversely dependent on temperature and salinity, ranging from 160 ..mu..Ci/day for cold fresh water to 1.4 ..mu..Ci/day for warm sea water. The total releases, including the chamber residues, showed similar dependencies. A major portion (typically greater than 50%) of the released plutonium passed through a 0.1-..mu..m filter, with even larger fractions (greater than 80%) for the fresh water systems.

  13. 1. West facade of Plutonium Concentration Facility (Building 233S), ReductionOxidation ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. West facade of Plutonium Concentration Facility (Building 233-S), Reduction-Oxidation Building (REDOX-202-S) to the right. Looking east. - Reduction-Oxidation Complex, Plutonium Concentration Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  14. HB-Line Plutonium Oxide Data Collection Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, R.; Varble, J.; Jordan, J.

    2015-05-26

    HB-Line and H-Canyon will handle and process plutonium material to produce plutonium oxide for feed to the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). However, the plutonium oxide product will not be transferred to the MFFF directly from HB-Line until it is packaged into a qualified DOE-STD-3013-2012 container. In the interim, HB-Line will load plutonium oxide into an inner, filtered can. The inner can will be placed in a filtered bag, which will be loaded into a filtered outer can. The outer can will be loaded into a certified 9975 with getter assembly in compliance with onsite transportation requirement, for subsequent storage and transfer to the K-Area Complex (KAC). After DOE-STD-3013-2012 container packaging capabilities are established, the product will be returned to HB-Line to be packaged into a qualified DOE-STD-3013-2012 container. To support the transfer of plutonium oxide to KAC and then eventually to MFFF, various material and packaging data will have to be collected and retained. In addition, data from initial HB-Line processing operations will be needed to support future DOE-STD-3013-2012 qualification as amended by the HB-Line DOE Standard equivalency. As production increases, the volume of data to collect will increase. The HB-Line data collected will be in the form of paper copies and electronic media. Paper copy data will, at a minimum, consist of facility procedures, nonconformance reports (NCRs), and DCS print outs. Electronic data will be in the form of Adobe portable document formats (PDFs). Collecting all the required data for each plutonium oxide can will be no small effort for HB-Line, and will become more challenging once the maximum annual oxide production throughput is achieved due to the sheer volume of data to be collected. The majority of the data collected will be in the form of facility procedures, DCS print outs, and laboratory results. To facilitate complete collection of this data, a traveler form will be developed which

  15. Plutonium Speciation in Support of Oxidative-Leaching Demonstration Test

    SciTech Connect

    Sinkov, Sergey I.

    2007-10-31

    Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) is evaluating the plutonium speciation in caustic solutions that reasonably represent the process streams from the oxidative-leaching demonstration test. Battelle—Pacific Northwest Division (PNWD) was contracted to develop a spectrophotometric method to measure plutonium speciation at submicromolar (< 10-6 M) concentrations in alkaline solutions in the presence of chromate and carbonate. Data obtained from the testing will be used to identify the oxidation state of Pu(IV), Pu(V), and Pu(VI) species, which potentially could exist in caustic leachates. Work was initially conducted under contract number 24590-101-TSA-W000-00004 satisfying the needs defined in Appendix C of the Research and Technology Plan TSS A-219 to evaluate the speciation of chromium, plutonium, and manganese before and after oxidative leaching. In February 2007, the contract mechanism was switched to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Operating Contract MOA: 24590-QL-HC9-WA49-00001.

  16. Treatment of accidental intakes of plutonium and americium: guidance notes.

    PubMed

    Ménétrier, F; Grappin, L; Raynaud, P; Courtay, C; Wood, R; Joussineau, S; List, V; Stradling, G N; Taylor, D M; Bérard, Ph; Morcillo, M A; Rencova, J

    2005-06-01

    The scientific basis for the treatment of the contamination of the human body by plutonium, americium and other actinides is reviewed. Guidance Notes are presented for the assistance of physicians and others who may be called upon to treat workers or members of the public who may become contaminated internally with inhaled plutonium nitrate, plutonium tributyl phosphate, americium nitrate or americium oxide.

  17. Determination of plutonium oxidation states in dilute nitric acid by complementary tristimulus colorimetry.

    PubMed

    Silver, G L

    1967-06-01

    The preparation of reference standards for use in complementary tristimulus colorimetry for plutonium is described. Plutonium(III) and (VI) are prepared by hydrazine reduction and silver(II) oxidation, respectively, of plutonium(IV). Plutonium(V) is prepared by reduction of plutonium(VI) with ascorbic or sulphurous acid. A method for computerizing tristimulus colorimetry is presented, and the technique is extended to three dimensions ("quadristimulus colorimetry").

  18. Behavior of plutonium oxide particulates in a simulated Florida environment

    SciTech Connect

    Heaton, R.C.; Patterson, J.H.; Coffelt, K.P.

    1985-08-01

    The behavior of /sup 238/Pu oxide particles (20 to 74 ..mu..m in diameter) deposited on a soil surface was studied by using an environmental test chamber. The soil was obtained from Florida orange groves, and the chamber was set up to simulate a Florida climate. After more than 9 months and more than 60 simulated rainfalls, the plutonium oxide particles remained on top of the soil and showed no evidence of having moved down into the soil column. Plutonium was released into the soil drainages at the rate of 18 ng/m/sup 2//L. This release, which represents a minute portion of the source, appears to correlate with the volume of the drainage rather than with time and probably consists of plutonium attached to very fine soil particles. The average concentration of plutonium observed in the air was 7 fCi/L, which on an absolute basis, represents 8 x 10/sup -12/% of the source material. Thus the generation of airborne plutonium constitutes an insignificant release pathway in terms of the original source. However, the air concentration during, and especially at the beginning of, a rainfall was typically much higher (1400 fCi/L). This concentration decayed rapidly after the end of the rainfall. These results are compared with those from past experiments, and their implications are discussed.

  19. Ultra-small plutonium oxide nanocrystals: an innovative material in plutonium science.

    PubMed

    Hudry, Damien; Apostolidis, Christos; Walter, Olaf; Janssen, Arne; Manara, Dario; Griveau, Jean-Christophe; Colineau, Eric; Vitova, Tonya; Prüssmann, Tim; Wang, Di; Kübel, Christian; Meyer, Daniel

    2014-08-11

    Apart from its technological importance, plutonium (Pu) is also one of the most intriguing elements because of its non-conventional physical properties and fascinating chemistry. Those fundamental aspects are particularly interesting when dealing with the challenging study of plutonium-based nanomaterials. Here we show that ultra-small (3.2±0.9 nm) and highly crystalline plutonium oxide (PuO2 ) nanocrystals (NCs) can be synthesized by the thermal decomposition of plutonyl nitrate ([PuO2 (NO3 )2 ]⋅3 H2 O) in a highly coordinating organic medium. This is the first example reporting on the preparation of significant quantities (several tens of milligrams) of PuO2 NCs, in a controllable and reproducible manner. The structure and magnetic properties of PuO2 NCs have been characterized by a wide variety of techniques (powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), TEM, IR, Raman, UV/Vis spectroscopies, and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry). The current PuO2 NCs constitute an innovative material for the study of challenging problems as diverse as the transport behavior of plutonium in the environment or size and shape effects on the physics of transuranium elements. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. LITERATURE REVIEW FOR OXALATE OXIDATION PROCESSES AND PLUTONIUM OXALATE SOLUBILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C.

    2012-02-03

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign. H Canyon plans to commence conversion of plutonium metal to low-fired plutonium oxide in 2012 for eventual use in the Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX) Facility. The flowsheet includes sequential operations of metal dissolution, ion exchange, elution, oxalate precipitation, filtration, and calcination. All processes beyond dissolution will occur in HB-Line. The filtration step produces an aqueous filtrate that may have as much as 4 M nitric acid and 0.15 M oxalate. The oxalate needs to be removed from the stream to prevent possible downstream precipitation of residual plutonium when the solution is processed in H Canyon. In addition, sending the oxalate to the waste tank farm is undesirable. This report addresses the processing options for destroying the oxalate in existing H Canyon equipment.

  1. Literature review for oxalate oxidation processes and plutonium oxalate solubility

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, C. A.

    2015-10-01

    A literature review of oxalate oxidation processes finds that manganese(II)-catalyzed nitric acid oxidation of oxalate in precipitate filtrate is a viable and well-documented process. The process has been operated on the large scale at Savannah River in the past, including oxidation of 20 tons of oxalic acid in F-Canyon. Research data under a variety of conditions show the process to be robust. This process is recommended for oxalate destruction in H-Canyon in the upcoming program to produce feed for the MOX facility. Prevention of plutonium oxalate precipitation in filtrate can be achieved by concentrated nitric acid/ferric nitrate sequestration of oxalate. Organic complexants do not appear practical to sequester plutonium. Testing is proposed to confirm the literature and calculation findings of this review at projected operating conditions for the upcoming campaign.

  2. Plutonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, David L.; Hecker, Siegfried S.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Neu, Mary P.

    The element plutonium occupies a unique place in the history of chemistry, physics, technology, and international relations. After the initial discovery based on submicrogram amounts, it is now generated by transmutation of uranium in nuclear reactors on a large scale, and has been separated in ton quantities in large industrial facilities. The intense interest in plutonium resulted fromthe dual-use scenario of domestic power production and nuclear weapons - drawing energy from an atomic nucleus that can produce a factor of millions in energy output relative to chemical energy sources. Indeed, within 5 years of its original synthesis, the primary use of plutonium was for the release of nuclear energy in weapons of unprecedented power, and it seemed that the new element might lead the human race to the brink of self-annihilation. Instead, it has forced the human race to govern itself without resorting to nuclear war over the past 60 years. Plutonium evokes the entire gamut of human emotions, from good to evil, from hope to despair, from the salvation of humanity to its utter destruction. There is no other element in the periodic table that has had such a profound impact on the consciousness of mankind.

  3. Risk estimates for deterministic health effects of inhaled weapons grade plutonium.

    PubMed

    Scott, Bobby R; Peterson, Vern L

    2003-09-01

    Risk estimates for deterministic effects of inhaled weapons-grade plutonium (WG Pu) are needed to evaluate potential serious harm to (1) U.S. Department of Energy nuclear workers from accidental or other work-place releases of WG Pu; and (2) the public from terrorist actions resulting in the release of WG Pu to the environment. Deterministic health effects (the most serious radiobiological consequences to humans) can arise when large amounts of WG Pu are taken into the body. Inhalation is considered the most likely route of intake during work-place accidents or during a nuclear terrorism incident releasing WG Pu to the environment. Our current knowledge about radiation-related harm is insufficient for generating precise estimates of risk for a given WG Pu exposure scenario. This relates largely to uncertainties associated with currently available risk and dosimetry models. Thus, rather than generating point estimates of risk, distributions that account for variability/uncertainty are needed to properly characterize potential harm to humans from a given WG Pu exposure scenario. In this manuscript, we generate and summarize risk distributions for deterministic radiation effects in the lungs of nuclear workers from inhaled WG Pu particles (standard isotopic mix). These distributions were developed using NUREG/CR-4214 risk models and time-dependent, dose conversion factor data based on Publication 30 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Dose conversion factors based on ICRP Publication 30 are more relevant to deterministic effects than are the dose conversion factors based on ICRP Publication 66, which relate to targets for stochastic effects. Risk distributions that account for NUREG/CR-4214 parameter and model uncertainties were generated using the Monte Carlo method. Risks were evaluated for both lethality (from radiation pneumonitis) and morbidity (due to radiation-induced respiratory dysfunction) and were found to depend strongly on absorbed

  4. METHOD FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS EMPLOYING AN OXIDE AS A CARRIER FOR FISSION PRODUCTS

    DOEpatents

    Davies, T.H.

    1961-07-18

    Carrier precipitation processes for separating plutonium values from uranium fission products are described. Silicon dioxide or titanium dioxide in a finely divided state is added to an acidic aqueous solution containing hexavalent plutonium ions together with ions of uranium fission products. The supernatant solution containing plutonium ions is then separated from the oxide and the fission products associated therewith.

  5. STAINLESS STEEL INTERACTIONS WITH SALT CONTAINING PLUTONIUM OXIDES

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Z.; Chandler, G.; Dunn, K.; Stefek, T.; Summer, M.

    2010-02-01

    Salt containing plutonium oxide materials are treated, packaged and stored within nested, stainless steel containers based on requirements established in the DOE 3013 Standard. The moisture limit for the stored materials is less than 0.5 weight %. Surveillance activities which are conducted to assess the condition of the containers and assure continuing 3013 container integrity include the destructive examination of a select number of containers to determine whether corrosion attack has occurred as a result of stainless steel interactions with salt containing plutonium oxides. To date, some corrosion has been observed on the innermost containers, however, no corrosion has been noted on the outer containers and the integrity of the 3013 container systems is not expected to be compromised over a 50 year storage lifetime.

  6. A comparison of long-term retention of plutonium oxide in lung based on excretion data with observed lung burdens at autopsy

    SciTech Connect

    Heid, K.R.; Jech, J.J.; Kathren, R.L.; Sula, M.J.

    1985-05-01

    Experience in the nuclear industry has shown that the most frequent route for significant plutonium deposition in man is by inhalation. After an accidental inhalation exposure to plutonium oxide has occurred, an attempt is usually made to determine the lung burden using in-vivo measurement techniques. However, this will not be possible if the amount deposited is less than the detection capability of the counter. Likewise, it may not be possible for even larger intakes if they are first discovered as a results of a routine examination after much of the plutonium has transferred out of the lungs. Under these conditions, the initial lung burden and dose assessment may, of necessity, be based entirely on excretion date. This paper discusses three plutonium inhalation cases for which autopsy data are available to demonstrate the difficulties and uncertainties of such assessments and to emphasize the need for enhanced routine surveillance of the worker and work place to assure that intakes are detected at the time they occur. An in-depth review of the findings for these three cases suggests that the use of urine excretion data applied to ICRP lung model assumption will result in large uncertainties in estimates of the pulmonary burden and lung dose. These estimates will be improved if the material inhaled can be better characterized and by using clearance half times developed for the individual rather than the default values for Class Y material recommended by the ICRP.

  7. Application of Prompt Gamma-Ray Analysis to Identify Electrorefining Salt-Bearing Plutonium Oxide at the Plutonium Finishing Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Fazzari, Dennis M.; Jones, Susan A.; Delegard, Calvin H. )

    2003-09-25

    Prompt gamma-ray analysis is being implemented at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) to screen impure plutonium oxide inventory items, received in the mid-1980s from the Rocky Flats Plant, for the presence of sodium chloride and potassium chloride salts from the electrorefining process. A large fraction of these items are suspected to contain electrorefining salts. Because the salts evaporate at the=950C stabilization temperature mandated for long-term storage under the U.S. Department of Energy plutonium oxide stabilization and storage criteria to plug and corrode process equipment, items found to have these salts qualify for thermal stabilization at 750C. The prompt gamma ray energies characteristic of sodium, potassium, chlorine, and other low atomic weight elements arise from the interaction the light elements with alpha radiation from plutonium and americium radioactive decay. High-resolution gamma ray spectrometers designed to detect energies up to {approx}4.5 MeV are used to gather the high-energy prompt gamma spectra.Observation of the presence of the high-energy gamma peaks representing the natural chlorine-35, sodium-23, and potassium-39 isotopes and the sodium-to-chlorine peak area ratios in the range for plutonium oxide materials known to contain the electrorefining salts give the evidence needed to identify plutonium oxide materials at the PFP that qualify for the lower-temperature processing. Conversely, the absence of these telltale signals in the prompt gamma analysis provides evidence that the materials do not contain the electrorefining salts. Furthermore, based on calibrations using known assayed items, semiquantitative measurement of the quantity of chlorine present in materials containing electrorefining salt also can be performed by using the count rates observed for the chlorine peak, the plutonium quantity present in the measured item, and the plutonium- and chlorine-specific response of the gamma detection system. The origin and

  8. Redox state of plutonium in irradiated mixed oxide fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degueldre, C.; Pin, S.; Poonoosamy, J.; Kulik, D. A.

    2014-03-01

    Nowadays, MOX fuels are used in about 20 nuclear power plants around the world. After irradiation, plutonium co-exists with uranium oxide. Due to the redox sensitive nature of UO2 other plutonium oxides than PuO2 potentially present in the fuel may interact with the matrix. The aim of this study is to determine which plutonium species are present in heterogeneous and homogeneous MOX. The results provided by X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES) for non-irradiated as well as irradiated (center and periphery) homogeneous MOX fuel were published earlier and are completed by Extended X-ray Fine Structure (EXAFS) analysis in this work. The EXAFS signals have been extracted using the ATHENA code and the analyses were carried using EXCURE98 as performed earlier for an analogous element. EXAFS shows that plutonium redox state remains tetravalent in the solid solution and that the minor fraction of trivalent Pu must be below 10%. Independently, the study of homogeneous MOX was also approached by thermodynamics of solid solution of (U,Pu)O2. Such solid solutions were modeled using the Gibbs Energy Minimisation (GEM)-Selektor code (developed at LES, NES, PSI) supported by the literature data on such solid solutions. A comparative study was performed showing which plutonium oxides in their respective mole fractions are more likely to occur in (U,Pu)O2. In the modeling, these oxides were set as ideal and non-ideal solid solutions, as well as separate pure phases. Pu exists mainly as PuO2 in the case of separate phases, but can exist under its reduced forms, PuO1.61 and PuO1.5 in minor fraction i.e. ~15% in ideal solid solution (unlikely) and ~10% in non-ideal solid solution (likely) and at temperature around 1300 K. This combined thermodynamic and EXAFS studies confirm independently the results obtained so far by Pu XANES for the same MOX samples.

  9. Subchronic inhalation of carbon tetrachloride alters the tissue retention of acutely inhaled plutonium-239 nitrate in F344 rats and syrian golden hamsters

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, J.M.; Barr, E.B.; Lundgren, D.L.

    1995-12-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) has been used extensively in the nuclear weapons industry, so it is likely that nuclear plant workers have been exposed to both CCl{sub 4} and plutonium compounds. Future exposures may occur during {open_quotes}cleanup{close_quotes} operations at weapons productions sites such as the Hanford, Washington, and Rocky Flats, Colorado, facilities. Inhalation of 20 and 100 ppm CCl{sub 4} by hamsters reduces uptake of {sup 239}Pu solubilized from lung, shunting the {sup 239}Pu to the skeleton.

  10. MOISTURE AND SURFACE AREA MEASUREMENTS OF PLUTONIUM-BEARING OXIDES

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, M.; Duffey, J.; Livingston, R.; Scogin, J.; Kessinger, G.; Almond, P.

    2009-09-28

    To ensure safe storage, plutonium-bearing oxides are stabilized at 950 C for at least two hours in an oxidizing atmosphere. Stabilization conditions are expected to decompose organic impurities, convert metals to oxides, and result in moisture content below 0.5 wt%. During stabilization, the specific surface area is reduced, which minimizes readsorption of water onto the oxide surface. Plutonium oxides stabilized according to these criteria were sampled and analyzed to determine moisture content and surface area. In addition, samples were leached in water to identify water-soluble chloride impurity content. Results of these analyses for seven samples showed that the stabilization process produced low moisture materials (< 0.2 wt %) with low surface area ({le} 1 m{sup 2}/g). For relatively pure materials, the amount of water per unit surface area corresponded to 1.5 to 3.5 molecular layers of water. For materials with chloride content > 360 ppm, the calculated amount of water per unit surface area increased with chloride content, indicating hydration of hygroscopic salts present in the impure PuO{sub 2}-containing materials. The low moisture, low surface area materials in this study did not generate detectable hydrogen during storage of four or more years.

  11. Thermal and Physical Properties of Plutonium Dioxide Produced from the Oxidation of Metal: a Data Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne, David M.

    2014-01-13

    The ARIES Program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory removes plutonium metal from decommissioned nuclear weapons, and converts it to plutonium dioxide in a specially-designed Direct Metal Oxidation furnace. The plutonium dioxide is analyzed for specific surface area, particle size distribution, and moisture content. The purpose of these analyses is to certify that the plutonium dioxide powder meets or exceeds the specifications of the end-user, and the specifications for the packaging and transport of nuclear materials. Analytical results from plutonium dioxide from ARIES development activities, from ARIES production activities, from muffle furnace oxidation of metal, and from metal that was oxidized over a lengthy time interval in air at room temperature, are presented. The processes studied produce plutonium dioxide powder with distinct differences in measured properties, indicating the significant influence of oxidation conditions on physical properties.

  12. Conceptual Design for the Pilot-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Jones, Susan A.; Rapko, Brian M.

    2014-08-05

    This report describes a conceptual design for a pilot-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide for use as exercise and reference materials, and for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production. This capability is referred to as the Pilot-scale Plutonium oxide Processing Unit (P3U), and it will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including plutonium dioxide (PuO2) dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and conversion to oxide by calcination.

  13. Disinfection of nitrous oxide inhalation equipment.

    PubMed

    Yagiela, J A; Hunt, L M; Hunt, D E

    1979-02-01

    Cross-infection by contaminated equipment is a potential hazard associated with conscious sedation with nitrous oxide and oxygen . Nosocomial infections have occasionally been linked wih the use of unsterile inhalation devices; microbial contamination of sterile nasal hoods routinely occurs during administration of nitrous oxide; and in vitro experiments indicate that subsequent use of contaminated nasal masks may lead to aspiration of microorganisms. Although the incidence of respiratory disease after such contamination is unknown, it is clear that disinfection of the nitrous oxide apparatus between patients is desirable. A simple cleaning method involving alkaline glutaraldehyde is described that provides adequate disinfection of the rubber goods used in the administration of gas. Superiority of this technique over previously recommended cleaning methods is shown.

  14. Effect of microorganisms on the plutonium oxidation states.

    PubMed

    Lukšienė, Benedikta; Druteikienė, Rūta; Pečiulytė, Dalia; Baltrūnas, Dalis; Remeikis, Vidmantas; Paškevičius, Algimantas

    2012-03-01

    Particular microbes from substrates at the low-level radioactive waste repository in the Ignalina NPP territory were exposed to (239)Pu (IV) at low pH under aerobic conditions. Pu(III) and Pu(IV) were separated and quantitatively evaluated using the modified anion exchange method and alpha spectrometry. Tested bacteria Bacillus mycoides and Serratia marcescens were more effective in Pu reduction than Rhodococcus fascians. Fungi Paecillomyces lilacinus and Absidia spinosa var. spinosa as well as bacterium Rhodococcus fascians did not alter the plutonium oxidation state.

  15. The In-Vitro Transport of (238)PLUTONIUM Oxide and (239)PLUTONIUM Oxide Through a Membrane Filter and its Importance for Internal Radiation Dosimetry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Michael Terrance

    These experiments were designed to determine if ('238)PuO(,2), due to its higher specific activity and attendant aggregate recoil, undergoes higher transfer through a membrane filter into an interstitial human alveolar lung fluid simulant than ('239)PuO(,2). The rate at which such transfer occurs was determined in an in-vitro chamber designed to simulate residence characteristics of particles of insoluble plutonium oxides in human alveolar interstitium. The ratio of the rate of ('238)Pu/('239)Pu transfer was 138 (+OR -) 76%. Calculations were performed to assess the importance of this finding in terms of the internal dosimetry of insoluble ('238)Pu using methods and models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Three cases were evaluated, namely integral 50-year dose commitment, urinary excretion after single acute intake and urinary excretion rate during chronic constant intake. It was found that integral 50-year dose commitments were not influenced by the rate of plutonium transfer from the pulmonary compartment to blood. The evaluation of calculated urinary excretion data after a single acute inhalation intake showed that in the early period, up to about 30 days post exposure, urinary excretion of ('238)PuO(,2) may be 2 to 10 times higher than the urinary excretion rate for ('238)PuO(,2) predicted by the ICRP reference model. From about 50 days to approximately 1000 days the calculated urinary excretion rate for ('238)PuO(,2) may be lower than that predicted by the reference model by a factor of 2 to 10. In the case of chronic constant intake the calculated urinary excretion rate for ('238)PuO(,2) may be up to a factor of 2 higher than that predicted by the reference ICRP Model.

  16. METHOD OF MAINTAINING PLUTONIUM IN A HIGHER STATE OF OXIDATION DURING PROCESSING

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, S.G.; Miller, D.R.

    1959-06-30

    This patent deals with the oxidation of tetravalent plutonium contained in an aqueous acid solution together with fission products to the hexavalent state, prior to selective fission product precipitation, by adding to the solution bismuthate or ceric ions as the oxidant and a water-soluble dichromate as a holding oxidant. Both oxidant and holding oxidant are preferably added in greater than stoichiometric quantities with regard to the plutonium present.

  17. Direct Determination of the Intracellular Oxidation State of Plutonium

    PubMed Central

    Gorman-Lewis, Drew; Aryal, Baikuntha P.; Paunesku, Tatjana; Vogt, Stefan; Lai, Barry; Woloschak, Gayle E.; Jensen, Mark P.

    2013-01-01

    Microprobe X-ray absorption near edge structure (μ-XANES) measurements were used to determine directly, for the first time, the oxidation state of intracellular plutonium in individual 0.1 μm2 areas within single rat pheochromocytoma cells (PC12). The living cells were incubated in vitro for 3 hours in the presence of Pu added to the media in different oxidation states (Pu(III), Pu(IV), and Pu(VI)) and in different chemical forms. Regardless of the initial oxidation state or chemical form of Pu presented to the cells, the XANES spectra of the intracellular Pu deposits was always consistent with tetravalent Pu even though the intracellular milieu is generally reducing. PMID:21755934

  18. Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has finalized its Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide. This assessment addresses the potential carcinogenicity from long-term inhalation exposure to ethylene oxide. Now final, this assessment updates the carcinogenicity information in EPA’s 1985 Hea...

  19. Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has finalized its Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide. This assessment addresses the potential carcinogenicity from long-term inhalation exposure to ethylene oxide. Now final, this assessment updates the carcinogenicity information in EPA’s 1985 Hea...

  20. The structure of plutonium(IV) oxide as hydrolysed clusters in aqueous suspensions.

    PubMed

    Ekberg, Christian; Larsson, Kristian; Skarnemark, Gunnar; Ödegaard-Jensen, Arvid; Persson, Ingmar

    2013-02-14

    The behavior of plutonium still puzzles scientists 70 years after its discovery. There are several factors making the chemistry of plutonium interesting including its ability to keep several oxidation states. Another unique property is that the oxidation states +III, +IV, +V and +VI may exist simultaneously in solution. Another property plutonium shares with some other tetravalent metal ions is the ability to form stable polynuclear complexes or colloids. The structures of freshly prepared and five-year old plutonium(IV) colloids are compared with crystalline plutonium(IV) oxide using Pu L(3)-edge EXAFS. It was shown that as the plutonium colloids age they do in fact shrink in size, contrary to previous expectations. The aged colloidal particles are indeed very small with only 3-4 plutonium atoms, and with a structure very similar to solid plutonium(IV) oxide, but with somewhat shorter mean Pu-O bond and Pu···Pu distances indicating a partial oxidation. The very small size of the colloidal particles is further supported by the fact that they do not sediment on heavy ultra-centrifugation.

  1. PROCESS OF SECURING PLUTONIUM IN NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS IN ITS TRIVALENT OXIDATION STATE

    DOEpatents

    Thomas, J.R.

    1958-08-26

    >Various processes for the recovery of plutonium require that the plutonium be obtalned and maintained in the reduced or trivalent state in solution. Ferrous ions are commonly used as the reducing agent for this purpose, but it is difficult to maintain the plutonium in a reduced state in nitric acid solutions due to the oxidizing effects of the acid. It has been found that the addition of a stabilizing or holding reductant to such solution prevents reoxidation of the plutonium. Sulfamate ions have been found to be ideally suitable as such a stabilizer even in the presence of nitric acid.

  2. CONCENTRATION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM IONS, IN AN OXIDATION STATE NOT GREATER THAN +4, IN AQUEOUS ACID SOLUTION

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.; Thompson, S.G.

    1960-06-14

    A process for concentrating plutonium is given in which plutonium is first precipitated with bismuth phosphate and then, after redissolution, precipitated with a different carrier such as lanthanum fluoride, uranium acetate, bismuth hydroxide, or niobic oxide.

  3. Method for removal of plutonium impurity from americium oxides and fluorides

    DOEpatents

    FitzPatrick, J.R.; Dunn, J.G.; Avens, L.R.

    1987-02-13

    Method for removal of plutonium impurity from americium oxides and fluorides. AmF/sub 4/ is not further oxidized to AmF/sub 6/ by the application of O/sub 2/F at room temperature thereto, while plutonium compounds present in the americium sample are fluorinated to volatile PuF/sub 6/, which can readily be separated therefrom, leaving the purified americium oxides and/or fluorides as the solid tetrafluoride thereof.

  4. Method for removal of plutonium impurity from americium oxides and fluorides

    DOEpatents

    FitzPatrick, John R.; Dunn, Jerry G.; Avens, Larry R.

    1987-01-01

    Method for removal of plutonium impurity from americium oxides and fluorides. AmF.sub.4 is not further oxidized to AmF.sub.6 by the application of O.sub.2 F at room temperature, while plutonium compounds present in the americium sample are fluorinated to volatile PuF.sub.6, which can readily be separated therefrom, leaving the purified americium oxides and/or fluorides as the solid tetrafluoride.

  5. Plutonium Oxidation and Subsequent Reduction by Mn (IV) Minerals

    SciTech Connect

    KAPLAN, DANIEL

    2005-09-13

    Plutonium sorbed to rock tuff was preferentially associated with manganese oxides. On tuff and synthetic pyrolusite (Mn{sup IV}O{sub 2}), Pu(IV) or Pu(V) was initially oxidized, but over time Pu(IV) became the predominant oxidation state of sorbed Pu. Reduction of Pu(V/VI), even on non-oxidizing surfaces, is proposed to result from a lower Gibbs free energy of the hydrolyzed Pu(IV) surface species versus that of the Pu(V) or Pu(VI) surface species. This work suggests that despite initial oxidation of sorbed Pu by oxidizing surfaces to more soluble forms, the less mobile form of Pu, Pu(IV), will dominate Pu solid phase speciation during long term geologic storage. The safe design of a radioactive waste or spent nuclear fuel geologic repository requires a risk assessment of radionuclides that may potentially be released into the surrounding environment. Geochemical knowledge of the radionuclide and the surrounding environment is required for predicting subsurface fate and transport. Although difficult even in simple systems, this task grows increasingly complicated for constituents, like Pu, that exhibit complex environmental chemistries. The environmental behavior of Pu can be influenced by complexation, precipitation, adsorption, colloid formation, and oxidation/reduction (redox) reactions (1-3). To predict the environmental mobility of Pu, the most important of these factors is Pu oxidation state. This is because Pu(IV) is generally 2 to 3 orders of magnitude less mobile than Pu(V) in most environments (4). Further complicating matters, Pu commonly exists simultaneously in several oxidation states (5, 6). Choppin (7) reported Pu may exist as Pu(IV), Pu(V), or Pu(VI) oxic natural groundwaters. It is generally accepted that plutonium associated with suspended particulate matter is predominantly Pu(IV) (8-10), whereas Pu in the aqueous phase is predominantly Pu(V) (2, 11-13). The influence of the character of Mn-containing minerals expected to be found in subsurface

  6. Predicted Radiation Output from Several Kilograms of Plutonium Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Shores, Erik Frederick; Solomon, Clell Jeffrey; Myers, Steven Charles; Temple, Brian Allen; Felsher, Paul D.

    2014-11-14

    Neutron and gamma signatures from 3.44 kg of plutonium oxide were predicted with MCNP6 in anticipation of a passive diagnostic measurement campaign. Calculated radiation fields are visualized through use of “FMESH” type tallies. This work is effectively an extension of previous efforts and application of MISC for the photon source term is the main advancement. Large sources of modeling uncertainty include physical can dimensions and thus internal volume and density estimates. Material age is unknown and will also affect the passive gamma signature. The measurement campaign will provide information for model refinement and subsequent simulations. The authors have requested passive data collection on the pair of cans with the largest and smallest mass and such data will be valuable for benchmarking purposes.

  7. Gas generation over plutonium oxides in the 94-1 shelf-life surveillance program.

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, J. M.; Harradine, D. M.; Hill, D. D.; McFarlan, James T.; Padilla, D. D.; Prenger, F. Coyne; Veirs, D. K.; Worl, L. A.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is embarking upon a program to store large quantities of plutonium-bearing materials for up to fifty years. The Los Alamos National Laboratory Shelf Life Project was established to bound the behavior of plutonium-bearing material meeting the DOE 3013 Standard. The shelf life study monitors temperature, pressure and gas composition over oxide materials in a limited number of large-scale 3013 inner containers and in many small-scale containers. For the large-scale study, baseline plutonium oxides, oxides exposed to high-humidity atmospheres, and oxides containing chloride salt impurities are planned. The first large-scale container represents a baseline and contains dry plutonium oxide prepared according to the 3013 Standard. This container has been observed for pressure, temperature and gas compositional changes for less than a year. Results indicate that no detectable changes in pressure and gas composition are observed.

  8. Chemical and Radiochemical Composition of Thermally Stabilized Plutonium Oxide from the Plutonium Finishing Plant Considered as Alternate Feedstock for the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Tingey, Joel M.; Jones, Susan A.

    2005-07-01

    Eighteen plutonium oxide samples originating from the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) on the Hanford Site were analyzed to provide additional data on the suitability of PFP thermally stabilized plutonium oxides and Rocky Flats oxides as alternate feedstock to the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF). Radiochemical and chemical analyses were performed on fusions, acid leaches, and water leaches of these 18 samples. The results from these destructive analyses were compared with nondestructive analyses (NDA) performed at PFP and the acceptance criteria for the alternate feedstock. The plutonium oxide materials considered as alternate feedstock at Hanford originated from several different sources including Rocky Flats oxide, scrap from the Remote Mechanical C-Line (RMC) and the Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF), and materials from other plutonium conversion processes at Hanford. These materials were received at PFP as metals, oxides, and solutions. All of the material considered as alternate feedstock was converted to PuO2 and thermally stabilized by heating the PuO2 powder at 950 C in an oxidizing environment. The two samples from solutions were converted to PuO2 by precipitation with Mg(OH)2. The 18 plutonium oxide samples were grouped into four categories based on their origin. The Rocky Flats oxide was divided into two categories, low- and high-chloride Rocky Flats oxides. The other two categories were PRF/RMC scrap oxides, which included scrap from both process lines and oxides produced from solutions. The two solution samples came from samples that were being tested at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory because all of the plutonium oxide from solutions at PFP had already been processed and placed in 3013 containers. These samples originated at the PFP and are from plutonium nitrate product and double-pass filtrate solutions after they had been thermally stabilized. The other 16 samples originated from thermal stabilization batches before canning at

  9. METHOD OF PREPARING URANIUM, THORIUM, OR PLUTONIUM OXIDES IN LIQUID BISMUTH

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, J.K.; Robb, W.L.; Salmon, O.N.

    1960-11-22

    A method is given for forming compositions, as well as the compositions themselves, employing uranium hydride in a liquid bismuth composition to increase the solubility of uranium, plutonium and thorium oxides in the liquid bismuth. The finely divided oxide of uranium, plutonium. or thorium is mixed with the liquid bismuth and uranium hydride, the hydride being present in an amount equal to about 3 at. %, heated to about 5OO deg C, agitated and thereafter cooled and excess resultant hydrogen removed therefrom.

  10. Safety issues in fabricating mixed oxide fuel using surplus weapons plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Buksa, J.; Badwan, F.; Barr, M.; Motley, F.

    1998-07-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the safety issues and implications of fabricating mixed oxide (MOX) fuel using surplus weapons plutonium. The basis for this assessment is the research done at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in identifying and resolving the technical issues surrounding the production of PuO{sub 2} feed, removal of gallium from the PuO{sub 2} feed, the fabrication of test fuel, and the work done at the LANL plutonium processing facility. The use of plutonium in MOX fuel has been successfully demonstrated in Europe, where the experience has been almost exclusively with plutonium separated from commercial spent nuclear fuel. This experience in safely operating MOX fuel fabrication facilities directly applies to the fabrication and irradiation of MOX fuel made from surplus weapons plutonium. Consequently, this paper focuses on the technical difference between plutonium from surplus weapons, and light-water reactor recycled plutonium. Preliminary assessments and research lead to the conclusion that no new process or product safety concerns will arise from using surplus weapons plutonium in MOX fuel.

  11. Preparation of high purity plutonium oxide for radiochemistry instrument calibration standards and working standards

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, A.S.; Stalnaker, N.D.

    1997-04-01

    Due to the lack of suitable high level National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) traceable plutonium solution standards from the NIST or commercial vendors, the CST-8 Radiochemistry team at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has prepared instrument calibration standards and working standards from a well-characterized plutonium oxide. All the aliquoting steps were performed gravimetrically. When a {sup 241}Am standardized solution obtained from a commercial vendor was compared to these calibration solutions, the results agreed to within 0.04% for the total alpha activity. The aliquots of the plutonium standard solutions and dilutions were sealed in glass ampules for long term storage.

  12. Relativistic density functional theory modeling of plutonium and americium higher oxide molecules.

    PubMed

    Zaitsevskii, Andréi; Mosyagin, Nikolai S; Titov, Anatoly V; Kiselev, Yuri M

    2013-07-21

    The results of electronic structure modeling of plutonium and americium higher oxide molecules (actinide oxidation states VI through VIII) by two-component relativistic density functional theory are presented. Ground-state equilibrium molecular structures, main features of charge distributions, and energetics of AnO3, AnO4, An2On (An=Pu, Am), and PuAmOn, n = 6-8, are determined. In all cases, molecular geometries of americium and mixed plutonium-americium oxides are similar to those of the corresponding plutonium compounds, though chemical bonding in americium oxides is markedly weaker. Relatively high stability of the mixed heptoxide PuAmO7 is noticed; the Pu(VIII) and especially Am(VIII) oxides are expected to be unstable.

  13. Relativistic density functional theory modeling of plutonium and americium higher oxide molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaitsevskii, Andréi; Mosyagin, Nikolai S.; Titov, Anatoly V.; Kiselev, Yuri M.

    2013-07-01

    The results of electronic structure modeling of plutonium and americium higher oxide molecules (actinide oxidation states VI through VIII) by two-component relativistic density functional theory are presented. Ground-state equilibrium molecular structures, main features of charge distributions, and energetics of AnO3, AnO4, An2On (An=Pu, Am), and PuAmOn, n = 6-8, are determined. In all cases, molecular geometries of americium and mixed plutonium-americium oxides are similar to those of the corresponding plutonium compounds, though chemical bonding in americium oxides is markedly weaker. Relatively high stability of the mixed heptoxide PuAmO7 is noticed; the Pu(VIII) and especially Am(VIII) oxides are expected to be unstable.

  14. Simulation and analysis of the plutonium oxide/metal storage containers subject to various loading conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, C.; Miller, R.F.

    1995-05-01

    The structural and functional requirements of the Plutonium Oxide/Metal Storage Containers are specified in the Report ``Complex 21 Plutonium Storage Facility Material Containment Team Technical Data Report`` [Complex 21, 1993]. There are no existing storage containers designed for long term storage of plutonium and current codes, standards or regulations do not adequately cover this case. As there is no extensive experience with the long term (50+ years) storage of plutonium, the design of high integrity storage containers must address many technical considerations. This analysis discusses a few potential natural phenomena that could theoretically adversely affect the container integrity over time. The plutonium oxide/metal storage container consists of a primary containment vessel (the outer container), a bagless transfer can (the inner container), two vertical plates on top of the primary containment vessel, a circular plate (the flange) supported by the two plates, tube for gas sampling operations mounted at the center of the primary containment vessel top and a spring system being inserted in the cavity between the primary containment vessel and the cap of the bagless transfer can. The dimensions of the plutonium oxide/metal storage container assembly can be found in Figure 2-1. The primary container, the bagless transfer can, and all the attached components are made of Type 304L stainless steel.

  15. Complexation and redox interactions between aqueous plutonium and manganese oxide interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Shaughnessy, Dawn A.; Nitsche, Heino; Booth, Corwin H.; Shuh, David K.; Waychunas, Glenn A.; Wilson, Richard E.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2001-11-01

    The sorption of Pu(VI) and Pu(V) onto manganite (MnOOH) and Hausmannite (Mn3O4) was studied at pH 5. Manganite sorbed 21-24% from a 1x10-4 M plutonium solution and the hausmannite removed between 43-66% of the plutonium. The increased sorption by hausmannite results from its larger surface area (about twice that of manganite) plus a larger number of active surface sites. X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra taken at the Pu LIII edge were compared to standard spectra of plutonium in single oxidation states. Based on these spectra, it appears that both manganite and hausmannite reduce the higher valent plutonium species to Pu(IV). Between 53-59% of the plutonium was present as Pu(IV) in the manganite samples while 55-61% of the plutonium complexed to the hausmannite had also been reduced to Pu(IV). The exact mechanism behind this redox interaction between the plutonium and the manganese needs to be identified.

  16. Plutonium Oxidation State Distribution under Aerobic and Anaerobic Subsurface Conditions for Metal-Reducing Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, D. T.; Swanson, J.; Khaing, H.; Deo, R.; Rittmann, B.

    2009-12-01

    The fate and potential mobility of plutonium in the subsurface is receiving increased attention as the DOE looks to cleanup the many legacy nuclear waste sites and associated subsurface contamination. Plutonium is the near-surface contaminant of concern at several DOE sites and continues to be the contaminant of concern for the permanent disposal of nuclear waste. The mobility of plutonium is highly dependent on its redox distribution at its contamination source and along its potential migration pathways. This redox distribution is often controlled, especially in the near-surface where organic/inorganic contaminants often coexist, by the direct and indirect effects of microbial activity. The redox distribution of plutonium in the presence of facultative metal reducing bacteria (specifically Shewanella and Geobacter species) was established in a concurrent experimental and modeling study under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Pu(VI), although relatively soluble under oxidizing conditions at near-neutral pH, does not persist under a wide range of the oxic and anoxic conditions investigated in microbiologically active systems. Pu(V) complexes, which exhibit high chemical toxicity towards microorganisms, are relatively stable under oxic conditions but are reduced by metal reducing bacteria under anaerobic conditions. These facultative metal-reducing bacteria led to the rapid reduction of higher valent plutonium to form Pu(III/IV) species depending on nature of the starting plutonium species and chelating agents present in solution. Redox cycling of these lower oxidation states is likely a critical step in the formation of pseudo colloids that may lead to long-range subsurface transport. The CCBATCH biogeochemical model is used to explain the redox mechanisms and final speciation of the plutonium oxidation state distributions observed. These results for microbiologically active systems are interpreted in the context of their importance in defining the overall migration

  17. Evaluation of Possible Surrogates for Validation of the Oxidation Furnace for the Plutonium Disposition Project

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, A.

    2007-12-31

    The Plutonium Disposition project (PuD) is considering an alternative furnace design for direct metal oxidation (DMO) of plutonium metal to use as a feed for potential disposition routes. The proposed design will use a retort to oxidize the feed at temperatures up to 500 C. The atmosphere will be controlled using a metered mixture of oxygen, helium and argon to control the oxidation at approximately 400 torr. Since plutonium melts at 664 C, and may potentially react with retort material to form a lower melting point eutectic, the oxidation process will be controlled by metering the flow of oxygen to ensure that the bulk temperature of the material does not exceed this temperature. A batch processing time of <24 hours is desirable to meet anticipated furnace throughput requirements. The design project includes demonstration of concept in a small-scale demonstration test (i.e., small scale) and validation of design in a full-scale test. These tests are recommended to be performed using Pu surrogates due to challenges in consideration of the nature of plutonium and operational constraints required when handling large quantities of accountable material. The potential for spreading contamination and exposing workers to harmful levels of cumulative radioactive dose are motivation to utilize non-radioactive surrogates. Once the design is demonstrated and optimized, implementation would take place in a facility designed to accommodate these constraints. Until then, the use of surrogates would be a safer, less expensive option for the validation phase of the project. This report examines the potential for use of surrogates in the demonstration and validation of the DMO furnace for PuD. This report provides a compilation of the technical information and process requirements for the conversion of plutonium metal to oxide by burning in dry environments. Several potential surrogates were evaluated by various criteria in order to select a suitable candidate for large scale

  18. The underwater coincidence counter (UWCC) for plutonium measurements in mixed oxide fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Eccleston, G.W.; Menlove, H.O.; Abhold, M.; Baker, M.; Pecos, J.

    1998-12-31

    The use of fresh uranium-plutonium mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in light-water reactors (LWR) is increasing in Europe and Japan and it is necessary to verify the plutonium content in the fuel for international safeguards purposes. The UWCC is a new instrument that has been designed to operate underwater and nondestructively measure the plutonium in unirradiated MOX fuel assemblies. The UWCC can be quickly configured to measure either boiling-water reactor (BWR) or pressurized-water reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies. The plutonium loading per unit length is measured using the UWCC to precisions of less than 1% in a measurement time of 2 to 3 minutes. Initial calibrations of the UWCC were completed on measurements of MOX fuel in Mol, Belgium. The MCNP-REN Monte Carlo simulation code is being benchmarked to the calibration measurements to allow accurate simulations for extended calibrations of the UWCC.

  19. Primary liver tumors in beagle dogs exposed by inhalation to aerosols of plutonium-238 dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Gillett, N.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Seiler, F.A.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1988-11-01

    Primary liver tumors developed in Beagle dogs exposed by inhalation to aerosols of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/. Initial deposition of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in the respiratory tract was followed by translocation of a portion of the /sup 238/Pu to the liver and skeleton, which resulted in a large dose commitment and tumor risk to all three tissues. In a population of 144 dogs exposed to /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/, 112 dogs died or were killed 4000 days after /sup 238/Pu exposure, 100 dogs had osteosarcoma, and 28 dogs had lung cancers. At increasing times after exposure, however, liver lesions have become more pronounced. Ten primary liver tumors in nine animals were diagnosed in the dogs dying before 4000 days after exposure. An additional five primary liver tumors in three dogs occurred in 9 animals killed after 4000 days after exposure. The majority of these tumors have been fibrosarcomas. The liver tumors were usually not the cause of death, and rarely metastasized. The occurrence of liver tumors in this study indicates that /sup 238/Pu is an effective hepatic carcinogen. Liver carcinogenesis is assuming an increasing importance in this study at late times after inhalation exposure. These results suggest that the liver may be an important organ at risk for the development of neoplasia in humans at time periods long after inhalation of /sup 238/Pu.

  20. Primary liver tumors in beagle dogs exposed by inhalation to aerosols of plutonium-238 dioxide.

    PubMed Central

    Gillett, N. A.; Muggenburg, B. A.; Mewhinney, J. A.; Hahn, F. F.; Seiler, F. A.; Boecker, B. B.; McClellan, R. O.

    1988-01-01

    Primary liver tumors developed in Beagle dogs exposed by inhalation to aerosols of 238PuO2. Initial deposition of 238PuO2 in the respiratory tract was followed by translocation of a portion of the 238Pu to the liver and skeleton, which resulted in a large dose commitment and tumor risk to all three tissues. In a population of 144 dogs exposed to 238PuO2, 112 dogs died or were killed 4000 days after 238Pu exposure, 100 dogs had osteosarcoma, and 28 dogs had lung cancers. At increasing times after exposure, however, liver lesions have become more pronounced. Ten primary liver tumors in nine animals were diagnosed in the dogs dying before 4000 days after exposure. An additional five primary liver tumors in three dogs occurred in 9 animals killed after 4000 days after exposure. The majority of these tumors have been fibrosarcomas. The liver tumors were usually not the cause of death, and rarely metastasized. The occurrence of liver tumors in this study indicates that 238Pu is an effective hepatic carcinogen. Liver carcinogenesis is assuming an increasing importance in this study at late times after inhalation exposure. These results suggest that the liver may be an important organ at risk for the development of neoplasia in humans at time periods long after inhalation of 238Pu. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:3142267

  1. CONVERSION OF PLUTONIUM TRIFLUORIDE TO PLUTONIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Fried, S.; Davidson, N.R.

    1957-09-10

    A large proportion of the trifluoride of plutonium can be converted, in the absence of hydrogen fluoride, to the tetrafiuoride of plutonium. This is done by heating plutonium trifluoride with oxygen at temperatures between 250 and 900 deg C. The trifiuoride of plutonium reacts with oxygen to form plutonium tetrafluoride and plutonium oxide, in a ratio of about 3 to 1. In the presence of moisture, plutonium tetrafluoride tends to hydrolyze at elevated temperatures and therefore it is desirable to have the process take place under anhydrous conditions.

  2. Inhaled Nitric Oxide in Acute Lung Disease.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    seems likely ECMO extracorporeal membrane oxygenation EDRF endothelial-derived relaxing factor that the potent dose-related selective pulmonary GBS... ECMO ). To evaluate the dose response and time inhaled NO. (Fig. 7). The significant decrease in oxy- course of the pulmonary effects of NO., inspiratory...effects (39, 40). In many of these chil- dren, ECMO has been avoided. Similar improvement _0 has been noted in adult patients undergoing cardio- LPS NO

  3. Hypoadrenocorticism in beagles exposed to aerosols of plutonium-238 dioxide by inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.; Buschbom, R.L.; Dagle, G.E.

    1996-12-01

    Hypoadrenocorticism, known as Addison`s disease in humans, was diagnosed in six beagles after inhalation of at least 1.7 kBq/g lung of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}. Histological examination of adrenal gland specimens obtained at necropsy revealed marked adrenal cortical atrophy in all cases. Autoadiographs showed only slight {alpha}-particle activity. Although the pathogenesis of adrenal cortical atrophy in these dogs is unclear, there is evidence to suggest an automimmune disorder linked to damage resulting from {alpha}-particle irradiation to the lymphatic system.

  4. Plutonium-catalyzed oxidative DNA damage in the absence of significant alpha-particle decay

    SciTech Connect

    Claycamp, H.G.; Luo, D.

    1994-01-01

    Plutonium is considered to be a carcinogen because it emits {alpha} particles that may result in the irradiation of stem cell population. In the present study we show that plutonium can also catalyze reactions that induce hydroxyl radicals in the absence of significant {alpha}-particle irradiation. Using the low specific activity isotope, {sup 242}Pu, experiments were performed under conditions in which chemical generation of hydroxyl radicals was expected to exceed the radiolytic generation by 10{sup 5}-fold. The results showed that markers of oxidative DNA base damage, thymine glycol and 8-oxoguanine could be induced from plutonium-catalyzed reactions of hydrogen peroxide and ascorbate similarly to those occurring in the presence of iron catalysts. Plutonium-242, as a neutralized nitrate in phosphate buffer, was 4.8-fold more efficient than iron at catalyzing the oxidation of ascorbate at pH 7. The results suggest that plutonium complexes could participate in reactions at pH 7 that induce oxidative stress - a significant tumor-promoting factor in generally accepted models of carcinogenesis. 16 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Long-term exposure of pressed plutonium oxide heat sources to aquatic environments

    SciTech Connect

    Heaton, R.C.; Patterson, J.H.; Kosiewicz, S.T.; Matlack, G.M.; Steinkruger, F.J.; Nelson, G.B.; Vanderborgh, N.E.; Coffelt, K.P.; Herrera, B.

    1984-11-01

    Plutonium-238 oxide fuel pellets were exposed to water for 2.5 to 6.4 yr, and the concentration of plutonium in the water was monitored. Water composition and temperature were found to be important factors in determining the rate of plutonium release into the water. Typical release rates ranged from 10 to 40 ng/m/sup 2//s in cold fresh water and from 0.3 to 11 ng/m/sup 2//s in cold sea water. Release rates in sea water varied over time and sometimes were erratic. The plutonium release per unit area did not depend on the size of the PuO/sub 2/ source. The released plutonium was in an extremely fine form, able to pass through 10,000 molecular weight cutoff filters. Apparent differences in the fuel pellet surfaces after exposure suggest that plutonium release is controlled by physical and chemical processes occurring at the solid-liquid interface. Release mechanisms and their implications are discussed.

  6. The growth and evolution of thin oxide films on delta-plutonium surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia Flores, Harry G; Pugmire, David L

    2009-01-01

    The common oxides of plutonium are the dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) and the sesquioxide (Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The structure of an oxide on plutonium metal under air at room temperature is typically described as a thick PuO{sub 2} film at the gas-oxide interface with a thinner PuO{sub 2} film near the oxide-metal substrate interface. In a reducing environment, such as ultra high vacuum, the dioxide (Pu{sup 4+}; O/Pu = 2.0) readily converts to the sesquioxide (Pu{sup 3+}; O/Pu = 1.5) with time. In this work, the growth and evolution of thin plutonium oxide films is studied with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) under varying conditions. The results indicate that, like the dioxide, the sesquioxide is not stable on a very clean metal substrate under reducing conditions, resulting in substoichiometric films (Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3-y}). The Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3-y} films prepared exhibit a variety of stoichiometries (y = 0.2-1) as a function of preparation conditions, highlighting the fact that caution must be exercised when studying plutonium oxide surfaces under these conditions and interpreting resulting data.

  7. Resumption of thermal stabilization of plutonium oxide in Building 707, Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Colorado. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy is proposing thermal stabilization to enhance the safe storage of plutonium at Rocky Flats Plant until decisions are made on long-term storage and disposition of the material. The proposed action is to resume thermal stabilization of pyrophoric plutonium in Building 707 at Rocky Flats Plant. Thermal stabilization would heat the pyrophoric plutonium under controlled conditions in a glovebox furnace to promote full oxidation and convert the material into stable plutonium oxide in the form of PuO{sub 2}. Other activities associated with thermal stabilization would include post-stabilization characterization of non-pyrophoric plutonium and on-site movement of pyrophoric and non-pyrophoric plutonium. This report covers; purpose and need; proposed action; alternatives to the proposed action; affected environment; environmental effects of proposed action and no action alternative; agencies and person consulted; and public participation.

  8. Bronchodilator action of inhaled nitric oxide in guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Dupuy, P M; Shore, S A; Drazen, J M; Frostell, C; Hill, W A; Zapol, W M

    1992-01-01

    The effects of inhaling nitric oxide (NO) on airway mechanics were studied in anesthetized and mechanically ventilated guinea pigs. In animals without induced bronchoconstriction, breathing 300 ppm NO decreased baseline pulmonary resistance (RL) from 0.138 +/- 0.004 (mean +/- SE) to 0.125 +/- 0.002 cmH2O/ml.s (P less than 0.05). When an intravenous infusion of methacholine (3.5-12 micrograms/kg.min) was used to increase RL from 0.143 +/- 0.008 to 0.474 +/- 0.041 cmH2O/ml.s (P less than 0.05), inhalation of 5-300 ppm NO-containing gas mixtures produced a dose-related, rapid, consistent, and reversible reduction of RL and an increase of dynamic lung compliance. The onset of bronchodilation was rapid, beginning within 30 s after commencing inhalation. An inhaled NO concentration of 15.0 +/- 2.1 ppm was required to reduce RL by 50% of the induced bronchoconstriction. Inhalation of 100 ppm NO for 1 h did not produce tolerance to its bronchodilator effect nor did it induce substantial methemoglobinemia (less than 2%). The bronchodilating effects of NO were additive with the effects of inhaled terbutaline, irrespective of the sequence of NO and terbutaline administration. Inhaling aerosol generated from S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine also induced a rapid and profound decrease of RL from 0.453 +/- 0.022 to 0.287 +/- 0.022 cmH2O/ml.s, which lasted for over 15 min in guinea pigs broncho-constricted with methacholine. Our results indicate that low levels of inhaled gaseous NO, or an aerosolized NO-releasing compound are potent bronchodilators in guinea pigs. PMID:1644915

  9. Supplementary documentation for an Environmental Impact Statement regarding the Pantex Plant: radiological consequences of immediate inhalation of plutonium dispersed by postulated accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, J.C.; Olsher, R.H.; Graf, J.M.

    1982-12-01

    This report documents work performed in support of preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) regarding the Department of Energy's (DOE) Pantex Plant near Amarillo, Texas. It describes methods used to estimate potential health consequences offsite resulting from inhalation of plutonium dispersed by each of several postulated accidents. The primary topic of this report is the delayed health effects of the plutonium in a nonnuclear detonation debris inhaled directly by members of the population in the cloud path. The expected form and size of the plutonium particles are derived from experimental data obatined in the Roller Coaster test series of 1963. Retention characteristics based on the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) Task Group Lung Model and organ dose calculations based on a modified computer model are described. Health risk estimates based on organ dose are made using appropriate risk factors recommended by international radiation protection organizations. The relative seriousness of each accident at each alternative site is assessed on the basis of the health risk estiamtes.

  10. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids ... Cold Medicine Abuse Electronic Cigarettes (E-cigarettes) Fentanyl Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana Marijuana as Medicine MDMA (Ecstasy/ ...

  11. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... place a chemical- soaked rag in their mouth. Abusers may also inhale fumes from a balloon or ... by inhalants usually lasts just a few minutes, abusers often try to prolong it by continuing to ...

  12. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Facts Chat Day: Inhalants Drug Facts Chat Day: Inhalants Print Can you get high off of ... Cool Order Free Materials National Drugs & Alcohol Chat Day Newsletter Sign up to receive National Drug & Alcohol ...

  13. Gas Generation over Plutonium Oxides in the 94-1 Shelf-Life Surveillance Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, John M.; Hill, Dallas D.; McFarlan, James T.; Padilla, Dennis D.; Prenger, F. Coyne; Veirs, D. Kirk; Worl, Laura A.

    2003-08-13

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is embarking upon a program to store large quantities of plutoniumbearing materials for up to fifty years. The Los Alamos National Laboratory Shelf Life Project was established to bound the behavior of plutoniumbearing material meeting the DOE 3013 Standard. The shelf life study monitors temperature, pressure and gas composition over oxide materials in a limited number of large-scale 3013 inner containers and in many small-scale containers. For the large-scale study, baseline plutonium oxides, oxides exposed to high-humidity atmospheres, and oxides containing chloride salt impurities are planned. The first largescale container represents a baseline and contains dry plutonium oxide prepared according to the 3013 Standard. This container has been observed for pressure, temperature and gas compositional changes for less than a year. Results indicate that no detectable changes in pressure and gas composition are observed.

  14. Design of the Laboratory-Scale Plutonium Oxide Processing Unit in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Meier, David E.; Tingey, Joel M.; Casella, Amanda J.; Delegard, Calvin H.; Edwards, Matthew K.; Orton, Robert D.; Rapko, Brian M.; Smart, John E.

    2015-05-01

    This report describes a design for a laboratory-scale capability to produce plutonium oxide (PuO2) for use in identifying and validating nuclear forensics signatures associated with plutonium production, as well as for use as exercise and reference materials. This capability will be located in the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The key unit operations are described, including PuO2 dissolution, purification of the Pu by ion exchange, precipitation, and re-conversion to PuO2 by calcination.

  15. Survey of Worldwide Light Water Reactor Experience with Mixed Uranium-Plutonium Oxide Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Cowell, B.S.; Fisher, S.E.

    1999-02-01

    The US and the Former Soviet Union (FSU) have recently declared quantities of weapons materials, including weapons-grade (WG) plutonium, excess to strategic requirements. One of the leading candidates for the disposition of excess WG plutonium is irradiation in light water reactors (LWRs) as mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) fuel. A description of the MOX fuel fabrication techniques in worldwide use is presented. A comprehensive examination of the domestic MOX experience in US reactors obtained during the 1960s, 1970s, and early 1980s is also presented. This experience is described by manufacturer and is also categorized by the reactor facility that irradiated the MOX fuel. A limited summary of the international experience with MOX fuels is also presented. A review of MOX fuel and its performance is conducted in view of the special considerations associated with the disposition of WG plutonium. Based on the available information, it appears that adoption of foreign commercial MOX technology from one of the successful MOX fuel vendors will minimize the technical risks to the overall mission. The conclusion is made that the existing MOX fuel experience base suggests that disposition of excess weapons plutonium through irradiation in LWRs is a technically attractive option.

  16. Materials identification and surveillance project item evaluation. Item: Impure mixture of plutonium oxide and uranium oxide (PUUOXBC05)

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, T.; Appert, Q.; Davis, C.

    1997-06-01

    In this report Los Alamos researchers characterize properties relevant to storage of an impure mixture of plutonium oxide and uranium oxide (impure mixed oxide (MOX) that is composed of 43.8 mass % plutonium and 17.8 mass % uranium) in accordance with the department of Energy (DOE) standard DOE-STD-3013-96. This is the first sample of an impure mixture of plutonium oxide and uranium oxide to be evaluated by the materials identification and surveillance project. Methods used to characterize the mixture include mass loss-on-calcination measurements, mass loss-on-ignition (LOI) measurements, elemental analysis, plutonium and uranium isotopic analysis, particle analyses measurements, X-ray powder diffraction, thermal desorption mass spectrometry (TDMS), and surface-area analyses. LOI measurements show a steady decrease in magnitude as the calcining temperature is increased. In contrast, calcining at progressively increasing temperatures does not appear to significantly change the specific surface area of the impure MOX. The LOI value for the powder after final 950 C calcination is 0.4 mass %. Water and carbon dioxide are the major gaseous products formed at all temperatures.

  17. Method for dissolving plutonium dioxide

    DOEpatents

    Tallent, Othar K.

    1978-01-01

    The fluoride-catalyzed, non-oxidative dissolution of plutonium dioxide in HNO.sub.3 is significantly enhanced in rate by oxidizing dissolved plutonium ions. It is believed that the oxidation of dissolved plutonium releases fluoride ions from a soluble plutonium-fluoride complex for further catalytic action.

  18. Plutonium oxidation and subsequent reduction by Mn(IV) minerals in Yucca Mountain tuff.

    PubMed

    Powell, Brian A; Duff, Martine C; Kaplan, Daniel I; Fjeld, Robert A; Newville, Matthew; Hunter, Douglas B; Bertsch, Paul M; Coates, John T; Eng, Peter; Rivers, Mark L; Serkiz, Steven M; Sutton, Stephen R; Triay, Ines R; Vaniman, David T

    2006-06-01

    Plutonium oxidation state distribution on Yucca Mountain tuff and synthetic pyrolusite (beta-MnO2) suspensions was measured using synchrotron X-ray micro-spectroscopy and microimaging techniques as well as ultrafiltration/solventextraction techniques. Plutonium sorbed to the tuff was preferentially associated with manganese oxides. For both Yucca Mountain tuff and synthetic pyrolusite, Pu(IV) or Pu(V) was initially oxidized to more mobile Pu(V/VI), but over time, the less mobile Pu(IV) became the predominant oxidation state of the sorbed Pu. The observed stability of Pu(IV) on oxidizing surfaces (e.g., pyrolusite), is proposed to be due to the formation of a stable hydrolyzed Pu(IV) surface species. These findings have important implications in estimating the risk associated with the geological burial of radiological waste in areas containing Mn-bearing minerals, such as at the Yucca Mountain or the Hanford Sites, because plutonium will be predominantly in a much less mobile oxidation state (i.e., Pu(IV)) than previously suggested (i.e., Pu(V/VI).

  19. Efficacy of inhaled nitric oxide in preterm neonates.

    PubMed

    Love, Lauren E; Bradshaw, Wanda T

    2012-02-01

    Over the past 20 years, the recognition of nitric oxide (NO) as an endothelial-derived vasodilator has led to remarkable advances in vascular biology awareness. The signaling molecule NO, produced by NO synthase, is a molecule that is widespread in the body and important in multiple organ systems. Soon after its discovery, investigators found NO to be a potent pulmonary vasodilator in term neonates. Nitric oxide has come to perform a key function in neonatal therapy and management since its identification, especially in those with respiratory failure. It is conventionally used in the neonatal population for the treatment of persistent pulmonary hypertension, resulting in hypoxic respiratory failure of the term or near-term newborn. Inhaled NO has been successful in acutely improving oxygenation and in reducing the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation treatment. In recent years, the efficacy of inhaled NO for the prevention of pulmonary disability as well as its neuroprotective capabilities in preterm infants has been explored.

  20. Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has finalized its Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide. This assessment addresses the potential carcinogenicity from long-term inhalation exposure to ethylene oxide. Now final, this assessment updates the carcinogenicity information in EPA’s 1985 Health Assessment Document. EPA’s program and regional offices may use this assessment to inform decisions to protect human health. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House Offices before public release. Consistent with the May 2009 IRIS assessment development process, all written comments on IRIS assessments submitted by other federal agencies and White House Offices are made publicly available. Accordingly, interagency comments and the interagency science consultation materials provided to other agencies, including interagency review drafts of the IRIS Toxicological Review of Ammonia and the charge to external peer reviewers, are posted on this site.

  1. [Recommendations for inhaled nitric oxide treatment in the newborn diseases].

    PubMed

    2001-09-01

    The recommendations in this document highlight current indications for inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) treatment in the newborn by clearly differentiating between those that are supported by scientific evidence and those for which evidence is still lacking. However, the use of this treatment in preterm infants and in those with congenital heart disease has not yet been scientifically approved. We discuss the methodology, dosage and adverse effects of iNO administration, as well as the reasons for its ineffectiveness.

  2. [Recommendations for inhaled nitric oxide treatment in the newborn].

    PubMed

    Figueras Aloy, J; Castillo Salinas, F; Elorza Fernández, D; Sánchez-Luna, M; Pérez Rodríguez, J

    2006-03-01

    The recommendations in this document describe the current indications for inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) treatment in the newborn and clearly distinguish between those supported by scientific evidence and those for which evidence is still lacking, such as its use in preterm infants. The methodology for iNO administration, its dosage and the main secondary effects are discussed, and the reasons for lack of response to this treatment are analyzed.

  3. Determination of filter pore size for use in HB line phase II production of plutonium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Shehee, T.; Crowder, M.; Rudisill, T.

    2014-08-01

    H-Canyon and HB-Line are tasked with the production of plutonium oxide (PuO2) from a feed of plutonium (Pu) metal. The PuO2 will provide feed material for the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility. After dissolution of the Pu metal in H-Canyon, plans are to transfer the solution to HB-Line for purification by anion exchange. Anion exchange will be followed by plutonium(IV) oxalate precipitation, filtration, and calcination to form PuO2. The filtrate solutions, remaining after precipitation, contain low levels of Pu ions, oxalate ions, and may include solids. These solutions are transferred to H-Canyon for disposition. To mitigate the criticality concern of Pu solids in a Canyon tank, past processes have used oxalate destruction or have pre-filled the Canyon tank with a neutron poison. The installation of a filter on the process lines from the HB-Line filtrate tanks to H-Canyon Tank 9.6 is proposed to remove plutonium oxalate solids. This report describes SRNL’s efforts to determine the appropriate pore size for the filters needed to perform this function. Information provided in this report aids in developing the control strategies for solids in the process.

  4. Effect of cooling rate on achieving thermodynamic equilibrium in uranium-plutonium mixed oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vauchy, Romain; Belin, Renaud C.; Robisson, Anne-Charlotte; Hodaj, Fiqiri

    2016-02-01

    In situ X-ray diffraction was used to study the structural changes occurring in uranium-plutonium mixed oxides U1-yPuyO2-x with y = 0.15; 0.28 and 0.45 during cooling from 1773 K to room-temperature under He + 5% H2 atmosphere. We compare the fastest and slowest cooling rates allowed by our apparatus i.e. 2 K s-1 and 0.005 K s-1, respectively. The promptly cooled samples evidenced a phase separation whereas samples cooled slowly did not due to their complete oxidation in contact with the atmosphere during cooling. Besides the composition of the annealing gas mixture, the cooling rate plays a major role on the control of the Oxygen/Metal ratio (O/M) and then on the crystallographic properties of the U1-yPuyO2-x uranium-plutonium mixed oxides.

  5. Development program to recycle and purify plutonium-238 oxide fuel from scrap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Louis D.; Silver, Gary L.; Avens, Larry R.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Espinoza, Jacob; Foltyn, Elizabeth M.; Rinehart, Gary H.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has initiated a development program to recover & purify plutonium-238 oxide from impure sources. A glove box line has been designed and a process flowsheet developed to perform this task on a large scale. Our initial effort has focused on purification of 238PuO2 fuel that fails to meet General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) specifications because of impurities. The most notable non-actinide impurity was silicon, but aluminum, chromium, iron and nickel were also near or in excess of limits specified by GPHS fuel powder specifications. 234U was by far the largest actinide impurity observed in the feed material because it is the daughter product of 238Pu by alpha decay. An aqueous method based on nitric acid was selected for purification of the 238PuO2 fuel. All aqueous processing used high purity reagents, and was performed in PTFE apparatus to minimize introduction of new contaminants. Impure 238PuO2 was finely milled, then dissolved in refluxing HNO3/HF and the solution filtered. The dissolved 238Pu was adjusted to the trivalent state by an excess of reducing reagents to compensate for radiolytic effects, precipitated as plutonium(III) oxalate, and recovered by filtration. The plutonium(III) oxalate was subsequently calcined to convert the plutonium to the oxide. Decontamination factors for silicon, phosphorus and uranium were excellent. Decontamination factors for aluminum, chromium, iron and nickel were very good. The purity of the 238PuO2 recovered from this operation was significantly better than specifications. Efforts continue to develop the capability for efficient, safe, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable methods to recover and purify 238PuO2 fuel in a glove box environment. Plutonium-238 materials targeted for recovery includes impure oxide and scrap items that are lean in 238Pu values.

  6. Recycle of scrap plutonium-238 oxide fuel to support future radioisotope applications

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, L.D.; Espinoza, J.M.; Ramsey, K.B.; Rinehart, G.H.; Silver, G.L.; Purdy, G.M.; Jarvinen, G.D.

    1997-11-01

    The Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory has initiated a development program to recover and purify plutonium-238 oxide from impure feed sources in a glove box environment. A glove box line has been designed and a chemistry flowsheet developed to perform this recovery task at large scale. The initial demonstration effort focused on purification of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel by HNO{sub 3}/HF dissolution, followed by plutonium(III) oxalate precipitation and calcination to an oxide. Decontamination factors for most impurities of concern in the fuel were very good, producing {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel significantly better in purity than specified by General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) fuel powder specifications. The results are encouraging for recycle of relatively impure plutonium-238 oxide and scrap residue items into fuel for useful applications. A sufficient quantity of purified {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel was recovered from the process to allow fabrication of a GPHS unit for testing. The high specific activity of plutonium-238 magnifies the consequences and concerns of radioactive waste generation. This work places an emphasis on development of waste minimization technologies to complement the aqueous processing operation. Results from experiments allowing more time for neutralized solutions of plutonium-238 to precipitate resulted in decontamination to about 1 millicurie/L. Combining ultrafiltration treatment with addition of a water-soluble polymer designed to coordinate Pu, allowed solutions to be decontaminated to about 1 microcurie/L. Efforts continue to develop a capability for efficient, safe, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable methods to recover and purify {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} fuel.

  7. Recycle of scrap plutonium-238 oxide fuel to support future radioisotope applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Louis D.; Purdy, Geraldine M.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ramsey, Kevin; Silver, Gary L.; Espinoza, Jacob; Rinehart, Gary H.

    1998-01-01

    The Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division of Los Alamos National Laboratory has initiated a development program to recover & purify plutonium-238 oxide from impure feed sources in a glove box environment. A glove box line has been designed and a chemistry flowsheet developed to perform this recovery task at large scale. The initial demonstration effort focused on purification of 238PuO2 fuel by HNO3/HF dissolution, followed by plutonium(III) oxalate precipitation and calcination to an oxide. Decontamination factors for most impurities of concern in the fuel were very good, producing 238PuO2 fuel significantly better in purity than specified by General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) fuel powder specifications. A sufficient quantity of purified 238PuO2 fuel was recovered from the process to allow fabrication of a GPHS unit for testing. The results are encouraging for recycle of relatively impure plutonium-238 oxide and scrap residue items into fuel for useful applications. The high specific activity of plutonium-238 magnifies the consequences and concerns of radioactive waste generation. This work places an emphasis on development of waste minimization technologies to complement the aqueous processing operation. Results from experiments on neutralized solutions of plutonium-238 resulted in decontamination to about 1 millicurie/L. Combining ultrafiltration treatment with addition of a water-soluble polymer designed to coordinate Pu, allowed solutions to be decontaminated to about 1 microcurie/L. Efforts continue to develop a capability for efficient, safe, cost-effective, and environmentally acceptable methods to recover and purify 238PuO2 fuel.

  8. Nitrous oxide inhalation among adolescents: prevalence, correlates, and co-occurrence with volatile solvent inhalation.

    PubMed

    Garland, Eric L; Howard, Matthew O; Perron, Brian E

    2009-12-01

    Few studies have examined the prevalence of nitrous oxide (NO) inhalation or co-occurrence of NO and volatile solvent (VS) use in adolescents. Study aims were to (1) describe the independent and conjoint prevalence of NO and VS use in incarcerated youth, (2) compare adolescent users of both NO and VS inhalants (NO+VS) to users of NO-only, VS-only, and nonusers of NO and VS (NO/VNS nonusers) with regard to demographic, psychological, and behavioral characteristics, and (3) conduct logistic regression analyses identifying correlates of NO use. Residents (N = 723) of Missouri Division of Youth Services were assessed with standardized psychosocial measures. Participants averaged 15.5 (SD = 1.2) years of age, were ethnically diverse and predominantly male. Lifetime prevalence of NO use was 15.8%. NO+VS users evidenced greater impairments compared to NO+VS nonusers. VS-only users evidenced impairments that were similar in kind but at lower prevalences compared to those displayed by NO+VS users, whereas NO-only youth had profiles that were similar to those of NO/VS nonusers. Psychiatric disorders, polydrug use, and temperamental fearlessness were correlates of NO use. NO+VS users were at high risk for behavioral and emotional problems. Screening and interventions for NO and VS inhalant use should be implemented in juvenile justice facilities.

  9. Nitrous Oxide Inhalation Among Adolescents: Prevalence, Correlates, and Co-Occurrence with Volatile Solvent Inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Eric L.; Howard, Matthew O.; Perron, Brian E.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined the prevalence of nitrous oxide (NO) inhalation or co-occurrence of NO and volatile solvent (VS) use in adolescents. Study aims were to (1) describe the independent and conjoint prevalence of NO and VS use in incarcerated youth, (2) compare adolescent users of both NO and VS inhalants (NO+VS) to users of NO-only, VS-only, and nonusers of NO and VS (NO/VS nonusers) with regard to demographic, psychological, and behavioral characteristics, and (3) conduct logistic regression analyses identifying correlates of NO use. Residents (N = 723) of Missouri Division of Youth Services were assessed with standardized psychosocial measures. Participants averaged 15.5 (SD = 1.2) years of age, were ethnically diverse and predominantly male. Lifetime prevalence of NO use was 15.8%. NO+VS users evidenced greater impairments compared to NO+VS nonusers. VS-only users evidenced impairments that were similar in kind but at lower prevalences compared to those displayed by NO+VS users, whereas NO-only youth had profiles that were similar to those of NO/VS nonusers. Psychiatric disorders, polydrug use, and temperamental fearlessness were correlates of NO use. NO+VS users were at high risk for behavioral and emotional problems. Screening and interventions for NO and VS inhalant use should be implemented in juvenile justice facilities. PMID:20235440

  10. Use of inhaled nitric oxide in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Praveen

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide, an important signaling molecule with multiple regulatory effects throughout the body, is an important tool for the treatment of full-term and late-preterm infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn and hypoxemic respiratory failure. Several randomized controlled trials have evaluated its role in the management of preterm infants ≤ 34 weeks' gestational age with varying results. The purpose of this clinical report is to summarize the existing evidence for the use of inhaled nitric oxide in preterm infants and provide guidance regarding its use in this population.

  11. Criticality experiments with mixed oxide fuel pin arrays in plutonium-uranium nitrate solution

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, R.C. ); Smolen, G.R. )

    1988-08-01

    A series of critical experiments was completed with mixed plutonium-uranium solutions having a Pu/(Pu + U) ratio of approximately 0.22 in a boiler tube-type lattice assembly. These experiments were conducted as part of the Criticality Data Development Program between the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan. A complete description of the experiments and data are included in this report. The experiments were performed with an array of mixed oxide fuel pins in aqueous plutonium-uranium solutions. The fuel pins were contained in a boiler tube-type tank and arranged in a 1.4 cm square pitch array which resembled cylindrical geometry. One experiment was perfomed with the fuel pins removed from the vessel. The experiments were performed with a water reflector. The concentration of the solutions in the boiler tube-type tank was varied from 4 to 468 g (Pu + U)/liter. The ratio of plutonium to total heavy metal (plutonium plus uranium) was approximately 0.22 for all experiments.

  12. Potentiometric determination of plutonium by argentic oxidation, ferrous reduction and dichromate titration.

    PubMed

    Drummond, J L; Grant, R A

    1966-03-01

    A simple and rapid method is described for the routine determination of plutonium with a coefficient of variation of better than 0.2%. It is directly applicable to nitrate solutions containing a large amount of uranium; moderate amounts of iron, molybdenum, fluoride and phosphate do not interfere. Chromium, cerium and manganese interfere quantitatively, and the procedure may also prove convenient for the determination of these elements. The plutonium is oxidised to the sexivalent state with argentic oxide in nitric acid solution, and the excess of oxidant is destroyed by reaction with sulphamic acid. A weighed small excess of iron(II) solution is then added, and the excess is titrated potentiometrically with standard potassium dichromate solution using polarised gold indicator electrodes. The whole determination is performed in one vessel at room temperature, and takes about 20 min.

  13. Inhaled nitric oxide in chronic obstructive lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tiihonen, J.; Hakola, P.; Paanila, J.; Turtiainen . Dept. of Forensic Psychiatry)

    1993-01-30

    During an investigation of the effect of nitric oxide on the pulmonary circulation the authors had the opportunity to give nitric oxide to a patient with longstanding obstructive airway disease, with successful results. A 72-year-old man with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was referred to the institution for assessment of pulmonary vascular reactivity to acetylcholine and nitric oxide. Acetylcholine was infused into the main pulmonary artery followed 15 min later by an inhalation of 80 parts per million (ppm) nitric oxide. Heart rate and systemic arterial and pulmonary arterial pressures were continuously monitored. Throughout the study the inspired oxygen concentration was kept constant at 98%. Nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide concentrations were monitored while nitric oxide was delivered. The infusion of acetylcholine resulted in a small increase in pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance. Nitric oxide produced a substantial fall in pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance with a concomitant increase in systemic arterial oxygen tension. These results suggest that endothelium-dependent relaxation of the pulmonary vasculature was impaired in the patient and that exogenous nitric oxide was an effective pulmonary vasodilator. In-vitro investigation of explanted airways disease suggests not only that endothelium-dependent pulmonary artery relaxation is impaired but also that the dysfunction is related to pre-existing hypoxemia and hypercapnia. Nitric oxide inhibits proliferation of cultured vascular smooth muscle cells and might alter the pulmonary vascular remodeling characteristic of patients with chronic obstructive airways disease.

  14. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... lack of coordination, euphoria (a feeling of intense happiness), and dizziness. Some users also experience lightheadedness, hallucinations ( ... on the type of inhalant used, the harmful health effects will differ. The table below lists some ...

  15. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... Notes Articles Adolescent Cigarette, Alcohol Use Declines as Marijuana Use Rises ( February 2013 ) Program Helps Troubled Boys ...

  16. Protective effects of hydrogen sulfide inhalation on oxidative stress in rats with cotton smoke inhalation-induced lung injury

    PubMed Central

    HAN, ZHI-HAI; JIANG, YI; DUAN, YUN-YOU; WANG, XIAO-YANG; HUANG, YAN; FANG, TING-ZHENG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism by which hydrogen sulfide (H2S) inhalation protects against oxidative stress in rats with cotton smoke inhalation-induced lung injury. A total of 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were separated randomly into four groups, which included the control, H2S, smoke and smoke + H2S groups. A rat model of cotton smoke inhalation-induced lung injury was established following inhalation of 30% oxygen for 6 h. In addition, H2S (80 ppm) was inhaled by the rats in the H2S and smoke + H2S groups for 6 h following smoke or sham-smoke inhalation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were performed to measure various indices in the rat lung homogenate, while the levels of nuclear factor (NF)-κBp65 in the lung tissue of the rats were determined and semiquantitatively analyzed using immunohistochemistry. In addition, quantitative fluorescence polymerase chain reaction was employed to detect the mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the rat lung tissue. The concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), inducible iNOS and NF-κBp65, as well as the sum-integrated optical density of NF-κBp65 and the relative mRNA expression of iNOS, in the rat lung tissue from the smoke + H2S group were significantly lower when compared with the smoke group. The concentrations of MDA, NO, iNOS and NF-κBp65 in the H2S group were comparable to that of the control group. Therefore, inhalation of 80 ppm H2S may reduce iNOS mRNA transcription and the production of iNOS and NO in rats by inhibiting NF-κBp65 activation, subsequently decreasing oxidative stress and cotton smoke inhalation-induced lung injury. PMID:26170929

  17. Pneumomediastinum Secondary to Barotrauma after Recreational Nitrous Oxide Inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Jeddy, H.; Bhutta, H.; Lorenzi, B.; Charalabopoulos, A.

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a seventeen-year-old patient, admitted in the care of the surgical team following inhalation of nitrous oxide at high pressure, leading to extensive pneumomediastinum and surgical emphysema. We discuss the subsequent investigations and management for this patient. In the absence of history of airway injury and respiratory problems including asthma and with no oesophageal perforation on investigations, the diagnostic and management challenges encountered have been discussed which will help in future management of similar cases. PMID:27957356

  18. Direct oxide reduction (DOR) solvent salt recycle in pyrochemical plutonium recovery operations

    SciTech Connect

    Fife, K.W.; Bowersox, D.F.; Davis, C.C.; McCormick, E.D.

    1987-02-01

    One method used at Los Alamos for producing plutonium metal is to reduce the oxide with calcium metal in molten CaCl/sub 2/ at 850/sup 0/C. The solvent CaCl/sub 2/ from this reduction step is currently discarded as low-level radioactive waste because it is saturated with the reaction by-product, CaO. We have developed and demonstrated a molten salt technique for rechlorinating the CaO, thereby regenerating the CaCl/sub 2/ and incorporating solvent recycle into the batch PuO/sub 2/ reduction process. We discuss results from the process development experiments and present our plans for incorporating the technique into an advanced design for semicontinuous plutonium metal production.

  19. The underwater coincidence counter for plutonium measurements in mixed-oxide fuel assemblies manual

    SciTech Connect

    G. W. Eccleston; H. O. Menlove; M. Abhold; M. Baker; J. Pecos

    1999-05-01

    This manual describes the Underwater Coincidence Counter (UWCC) that has been designed for the measurement of plutonium in mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel assemblies prior to irradiation. The UWCC uses high-efficiency {sup 3}He neutron detectors to measure the spontaneous-fission and induced-fission rates in the fuel assembly. Measurements can be made on MOX fuel assemblies in air or underwater. The neutron counting rate is analyzed for singles, doubles, and triples time correlations to determine the {sup 240}Pu effective mass per unit length of the fuel assembly. The system can verify the plutonium loading per unit length to a precision of less than 1% in a measurement time of 2 to 3 minutes. System design, components, performance tests, and operational characteristics are described in this manual.

  20. DOE nuclear material packaging manual: storage container requirements for plutonium oxide materials

    SciTech Connect

    Veirs, D Kirk

    2009-01-01

    Loss of containment of nuclear material stored in containers such as food-pack cans, paint cans, or taped slip lid cans has generated concern about packaging requirements for interim storage of nuclear materials in working facilities such as the plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). In response, DOE has recently issued DOE M 441.1 'Nuclear Material Packaging Manual' with encouragement from the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. A unique feature compared to transportation containers is the allowance of filters to vent flammable gases during storage. Defining commonly used concepts such as maximum allowable working pressure and He leak rate criteria become problematic when considering vented containers. Los Alamos has developed a set of container requirements that are in compliance with 441.1 based upon the activity of heat-source plutonium (90% Pu-238) oxide, which bounds the requirements for weapons-grade plutonium oxide. The pre and post drop-test He leak rates depend upon container size as well as the material contents. For containers that are routinely handled, ease of handling and weight are a major consideration. Relatively thin-walled containers with flat bottoms are desired yet they cannot be He leak tested at a differential pressure of one atmosphere due to the potential for plastic deformation of the flat bottom during testing. The He leak rates and He leak testing configuration for containers designed for plutonium bearing materials will be presented. The approach to meeting the other manual requirements such as corrosion and thermal degradation resistance will be addressed. The information presented can be used by other sites to evaluate if their conditions are bounded by LANL requirements when considering procurement of 441.1 compliant containers.

  1. PROCESS FOR PURIFYING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Mastick, D.F.; Wigner, E.P.

    1958-05-01

    A method is described of separating plutonium from small amounts of uranium and other contaminants. An acidic aqueous solution of higher valent plutonium and hexavalent uranium is treated with a soluble iodide to obtain the plutonium in the plus three oxidation state while leaving the uranium in the hexavalent state, adding a soluble oxalate such as oxalic acid, and then separating the insoluble plus the plutonium trioxalate from the solution.

  2. Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In December 2016, EPA finalized its Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide. EPA’s evaluation was reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House Offices in October 2016, before public release. Consistent with the May 2009 IRIS assessment development process, all written comments on IRIS assessments submitted by other federal agencies and White House Offices are made publicly available. Accordingly, interagency comments and the interagency science discussion materials provided to other agencies, including interagency review drafts of the EPA’s Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide, are posted on this site. Note: No major science comments were received on the Interagency Science Discussion Draft. The Toxicological Review and charge were reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House Offices before public release. Consistent with the May 2009 IRIS assessment development process, all written comments on IRIS assessments submitted by other federal agencies and White House Offices are made publicly available. Accordingly, interagency comments and the interagency science consultation materials provided to other agencies, including interagency review drafts of the IRIS Toxicological Review of Ammonia and the charge to external peer reviewers, are posted on this site.

  3. Inhaled nitric oxide aggravates phosgene model of acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Li; Hai, Chun-Xu; Pauluhn, Jürgen

    2011-11-01

    The principal acute mode of action of inhaled phosgene gas is related to an increase alveolar fluid exudation under pathologic conditions. This paper considers some aspects in modeling phosgene-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in an acute rat bioassay and whether edema formation can be modulated by inhaled nitric oxide (iNO). Protein analysis in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid is amongst the most sensitive method to quantify the phosgene-induced non-cardiogenic, pulmonary high-permeability edema following acute inhalation exposure. Maximum concentrations in BAL-protein occur within one day postexposure, typically within a latency period up to about 15 h as a consequence of an increasingly exhausted lymphatic drainage. An almost similar sensitivity was given by the functional endpoint 'enhanced pause (Penh)' when measured by non-invasive whole-body barometric plethysmography over a time period of 20 h. The magnitude of edema formation follows a concentration x time (C¹xt) relationship, although animal model-specific deviations may occur at very short exposure durations (1-20 min) due to a rodent-specific, reflexively induced transient decreased ventilation. This has to be accounted for when simulating accidental exposure scenarios to study the mechanisms involved in pharmacological modulation of fluid transport in this type of ALI. Therefore, a special focus has to be given to the dosimetry of inhaled phosgene, otherwise any change in effect magnitude, as a result of under-dosing of phosgene, may be misconceived as promising therapy. This study demonstrates that accidental exposures can be modeled best in rats by exposure durations of at least 20-30 min. Lung function measurements (Penh) show that pathophysiological effects appear to occur concomitant with the exposure to phosgene; however, its full clinical manifestation requires a gross imbalance of pulmonary fluid clearance. When applying this concept, post-phosgene exposure iNO at 1.5 ppm × 6 h or

  4. [Technology of nitrous oxide/oxygen inhalation sedation and its clinical application in pediatric dentistry].

    PubMed

    Zhong, Tian; Hu, Daoyong

    2014-02-01

    Dental fear is a common problem in pediatric dentistry. Therefore, sedation for pediatric patients is an essential tool for anxiety management. Nitrous oxide/oxygen inhalation sedation is a safe, convenient, effective way to calm children. The review is about the technology of nitrous oxide/oxygen inhalation sedation and its clinical application in pediatric dentistry.

  5. Use of inhaled nitric oxide in the new born period: results from the European Inhaled Nitric Oxide Registry.

    PubMed

    Dewhurst, Chris; Ibrahim, Hafis; Göthberg, Sylvia; Jónsson, Baldvin; Subhedar, Nimish

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to present data relating to the use of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) in newborn infants included in the European Inhaled Nitric Oxide Registry. Demographic, clinical and therapeutic data from seven European centres are reported. Univariate analyses were performed to identify factors associated with acute response to iNO and survival without extra corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). A total of 112 newborn infants received iNO, with 40% being less than 34 weeks gestational age. The commonest indication for iNO was secondary pulmonary hypertension. Acute response to iNO was more common in infants with a higher oxygenation index (median OI 32.7 vs 22.6, p = 0.040), although acute response did not predict survival without ECMO. Infants who survived without ECMO had a lower OI prior to therapy (median OI 24 vs 43, p = 0.009), were commenced on a higher starting dose (median dose 20 ppm vs 10 ppm p = 0.013) and received a lower maintenance dose (median dose 10 vs 17 ppm, p = 0.027) than those who died or received ECMO. Collating and reporting data about iNO therapy in neonates across a number of European centres using a web-based system is feasible. These data may be used to monitor the clinical use of iNO, identify adverse effects, generate research hypotheses and promote high standards in the clinical use of iNO.

  6. Analysis of pressurization of plutonium oxide storage vials during a postulated fire

    SciTech Connect

    Laurinat, J.; Kesterson, M.; Hensel, S.

    2015-02-10

    The documented safety analysis for the Savannah River Site evaluates the consequences of a postulated 1000 °C fire in a glovebox. The radiological dose consequences for a pressurized release of plutonium oxide powder during such a fire depend on the maximum pressure that is attained inside the oxide storage vial. To enable evaluation of the dose consequences, pressure transients and venting flow rates have been calculated for exposure of the storage vial to the fire. A standard B vial with a capacity of approximately 8 cc was selected for analysis. The analysis compares the pressurization rate from heating and evaporation of moisture adsorbed onto the plutonium oxide contents of the vial with the pressure loss due to venting of gas through the threaded connection between the vial cap and body. Tabulated results from the analysis include maximum pressures, maximum venting velocities, and cumulative vial volumes vented during the first 10 minutes of the fire transient. Results are obtained for various amounts of oxide in the vial, various amounts of adsorbed moisture, different vial orientations, and different surface fire exposures.

  7. Plutonium distribution and oxidation states in a reactor leaching ponds system

    SciTech Connect

    Ibrahim, S.; Culp, T. )

    1989-10-01

    Concentrations of 239,240Pu and 238Pu in water, net plankton (algal material), suspended particulates and sediment, as well as Pu oxidation states in filtered water, were determined in a test reactor leaching ponds system in southeastern Idaho. The highest Pu concentration in the ponds system was found in net plankton, and concentrations varied significantly between sampling dates. Plutonium Concentration Ratios (CR) for plankton ranged from 3 X 10(4) to 4 X 10(5). The lowest Pu concentration was found in filtered water, primarily because of the absence of complexing agents. The majority of Pu in filtered water was in true solution (60-87%) or present in colloidal particles smaller than 0.22 micron. Plutonium association with sediment was inversely related to particle size. The environmental distribution coefficients (Kd) for Pu ranged from 1.6 X 10(4) to 1.2 X 10(5) reflecting the importance of sediments as the main reservoir for Pu in the ponds system. No significant differences were noted between CR or Kd values for 239,240Pu and 238Pu. The reduced Pu oxidation states (III and IV) fractions ranged from 57% to 71% of the total dissolved Pu in water. This is in contrast with oxidation states distribution from other large aquatic systems (Great Lakes and the Irish Sea) where Pu is predominately in oxidized (V and VI) forms.

  8. Plutonium worker dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Birchall, Alan; Puncher, M; Harrison, J; Riddell, A; Bailey, M R; Khokryakov, V; Romanov, S

    2010-05-01

    Epidemiological studies of the relationship between risk and internal exposure to plutonium are clearly reliant on the dose estimates used. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is currently reviewing the latest scientific information available on biokinetic models and dosimetry, and it is likely that a number of changes to the existing models will be recommended. The effect of certain changes, particularly to the ICRP model of the respiratory tract, has been investigated for inhaled forms of (239)Pu and uncertainties have also been assessed. Notable effects of possible changes to respiratory tract model assumptions are (1) a reduction in the absorbed dose to target cells in the airways, if changes under consideration are made to the slow clearing fraction and (2) a doubling of absorbed dose to the alveolar region for insoluble forms, if evidence of longer retention times is taken into account. An important factor influencing doses for moderately soluble forms of (239)Pu is the extent of binding of dissolved plutonium to lung tissues and assumptions regarding the extent of binding in the airways. Uncertainty analyses have been performed with prior distributions chosen for application in epidemiological studies. The resulting distributions for dose per unit intake were lognormal with geometric standard deviations of 2.3 and 2.6 for nitrates and oxides, respectively. The wide ranges were due largely to consideration of results for a range of experimental data for the solubility of different forms of nitrate and oxides. The medians of these distributions were a factor of three times higher than calculated using current default ICRP parameter values. For nitrates, this was due to the assumption of a bound fraction, and for oxides due mainly to the assumption of slower alveolar clearance. This study highlights areas where more research is needed to reduce biokinetic uncertainties, including more accurate determination of particle transport rates

  9. LAB-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF PLUTONIUM PURIFICATION BY ANION EXCHANGE, PLUTONIUM (IV) OXALATE PRECIPITATION, AND CALCINATION TO PLUTONIUM OXIDE TO SUPPORT THE MOX FEED MISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, M.; Pierce, R.

    2012-08-22

    H-Canyon and HB-Line are tasked with the production of PuO{sub 2} from a feed of plutonium metal. The PuO{sub 2} will provide feed material for the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility. After dissolution of the Pu metal in H-Canyon, the solution will be transferred to HB-Line for purification by anion exchange. Subsequent unit operations include Pu(IV) oxalate precipitation, filtration and calcination to form PuO{sub 2}. This report details the results from SRNL anion exchange, precipitation, filtration, calcination, and characterization tests, as requested by HB-Line1 and described in the task plan. This study involved an 80-g batch of Pu and employed test conditions prototypical of HB-Line conditions, wherever feasible. In addition, this study integrated lessons learned from earlier anion exchange and precipitation and calcination studies. H-Area Engineering selected direct strike Pu(IV) oxalate precipitation to produce a more dense PuO{sub 2} product than expected from Pu(III) oxalate precipitation. One benefit of the Pu(IV) approach is that it eliminates the need for reduction by ascorbic acid. The proposed HB-Line precipitation process involves a digestion time of 5 minutes after the time (44 min) required for oxalic acid addition. These were the conditions during HB-line production of neptunium oxide (NpO{sub 2}). In addition, a series of small Pu(IV) oxalate precipitation tests with different digestion times were conducted to better understand the effect of digestion time on particle size, filtration efficiency and other factors. To test the recommended process conditions, researchers performed two nearly-identical larger-scale precipitation and calcination tests. The calcined batches of PuO{sub 2} were characterized for density, specific surface area (SSA), particle size, moisture content, and impurities. Because the 3013 Standard requires that the calcination (or stabilization) process eliminate organics, characterization of PuO{sub 2} batches monitored the

  10. Solvent extraction system for plutonium colloids and other oxide nano-particles

    DOEpatents

    Soderholm, Lynda; Wilson, Richard E; Chiarizia, Renato; Skanthakumar, Suntharalingam

    2014-06-03

    The invention provides a method for extracting plutonium from spent nuclear fuel, the method comprising supplying plutonium in a first aqueous phase; contacting the plutonium aqueous phase with a mixture of a dielectric and a moiety having a first acidity so as to allow the plutonium to substantially extract into the mixture; and contacting the extracted plutonium with second a aqueous phase, wherein the second aqueous phase has a second acidity higher than the first acidity, so as to allow the extracted plutonium to extract into the second aqueous phase. The invented method facilitates isolation of plutonium polymer without the formation of crud or unwanted emulsions.

  11. Disposition of Uranium -233 (sup 233U) in Plutonium Metal and Oxide at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Freiboth, Cameron J.; Gibbs, Frank E.

    2000-03-01

    This report documents the position that the concentration of Uranium-233 ({sup 233}U) in plutonium metal and oxide currently stored at the DOE Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is well below the maximum permissible stabilization, packaging, shipping and storage limits. The {sup 233}U stabilization, packaging and storage limit is 0.5 weight percent (wt%), which is also the shipping limit maximum. These two plutonium products (metal and oxide) are scheduled for processing through the Building 371 Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (PuSPS). This justification is supported by written technical reports, personnel interviews, and nuclear material inventories, as compiled in the ''History of Uranium-233 ({sup 233}U) Processing at the Rocky Flats Plant In Support of the RFETS Acceptable Knowledge Program'' RS-090-056, April 1, 1999. Relevant data from this report is summarized for application to the PuSPS metal and oxide processing campaigns.

  12. Redox Bias in Loss on Ignition Moisture Measurement for Relatively Pure Plutonium-Bearing Oxide Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Eller, P. G.; Stakebake, J. L.; Cooper, T. D.

    2002-02-26

    This paper evaluates potential analytical bias in application of the Loss on Ignition (LOI) technique for moisture measurement to relatively pure (plutonium assay of 80 wt.% or higher) oxides containing uranium that have been stabilized according to stabilization and storage standard DOE-STD-3013-2000 (STD- 3013). An immediate application is to Rocky Flats (RF) materials derived from high-grade metal hydriding separations subsequently treated by multiple calcination cycles. Specifically evaluated are weight changes due to oxidation/reduction of multivalent impurity oxides that could mask true moisture equivalent content measurement. Process knowledge and characterization of materials representing complex-wide materials to be stabilized and packaged according to STD-3013, and particularly for the immediate RF target stream, indicate that oxides of uranium, iron and gallium are the only potential multivalent constituents expected to be present above 0.5 wt.%. The evaluation show s that of these constituents, with few exceptions, only uranium oxides can be present at a sufficient level to produce weight gain biases significant with respect to the LOI stability test. In general, these formerly high-value, high-actinide content materials are reliably identifiable by process knowledge and measurement. Significant bias also requires that UO2 components remain largely unoxidized after calcination and are largely converted to U3O8 during LOI testing at only slightly higher temperatures. Based on well-established literature, it is judged unlikely that this set of conditions will be realized in practice. We conclude that it is very likely that LOI weight gain bias will be small for the immediate target RF oxide materials containing greater than 80 wt.% plutonium plus a much smaller uranium content. Recommended tests are in progress to confirm these expectations and to provide a more authoritative basis for bounding LOI oxidation/reduction biases. LOI bias evaluation is more

  13. Dissolution of plutonium oxide in nitric acid at high hydrofluoric acid concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Kazanjian, A.R.; Stevens, J.R.

    1984-06-15

    The dissolution of plutonium dioxide in nitirc acid (HNO/sub 3/) at high hydrofluoric acid (HF) concentrations has been investigated. Dissolution rate curves were obtained using 12M HNO/sub 3/ and HF at concentrations varying from 0.05 to 1.0 molar. The dissolution rate increased with HF concentration up to 0.2M and then decreased at higher concentrations. There was very little plutonium dissolved at 0.7 and 1.0M HF because of the formation of insoluble PuF/sub 4/. Various oxidizing agents were added to 12M HNO/sub 3/-1M HF dissolvent to oxidize Pu(IV) to Pu(VI) and prevent the formation of PuF/sub 4/. Ceric (Ce(IV)) and silver (Ag(II)) ions were the most effective in dissolving PuO/sub 2/. Although these two oxidants greatly increased the dissolution rate, the rates were not as rapid as those obtained with 12M HNO/sub 3/-0.2M HF.

  14. Inhaled nitric oxide induces cerebrovascular effects in anesthetized pigs.

    PubMed

    Kuebler, W M; Kisch-Wedel, H; Kemming, G I; Meisner, F; Bruhn, S; Koehler, C; Flondor, M; Messmer, K; Zwissler, B

    2003-09-11

    Although inhaled nitric oxide (NO(i)) is considered to act selectively on pulmonary vessels, EEG abnormalities and even occasional neurotoxic effects of NO(i) have been proposed. Here, we investigated cerebrovascular effects of increasing concentrations of 5, 10 and 50 ppm NO(i) in seven anesthetized pigs. Cerebral hemodynamics were assessed non-invasively by use of near-infared spectroscopy and indicator dilution techniques. NO(i) increased cerebral blood volume significantly and reversibly. This effect was not attributable to changes of macrohemodynamic parameters or arterial blood gases. Simultaneously, cerebral transit time increased while cerebral blood flow remained unchanged. These data demonstrate a vasodilatory action of NO(i) in the cerebral vasculature, which may occur preferentially in the venous compartment.

  15. Structure Determination of Plutonium Oxide Precipitates Formed from Aqueous Plutonium IV and V Solutions and in the Presence of Goethite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Z.; Zavarin, M.; Zhao, P.; Begg, J.; Kersting, A. B.

    2012-12-01

    A series of aqueous Pu(IV) and Pu(V) batch sorption experiments with goethite (α-FeOOH) in a pH 8 ± 0.5 buffer solution (5mM NaCl + 0.7 mM NaHCO3) at room temperature (25 °C) were performed. Intrinsic Pu colloids were synthesized in alkaline solution (pH 8, 25 °C) and acidic solution (0.1 M HNO3, ~80 °C for 10-20 min), respectively, for comparison. Morphology, distribution and crystal structure of Pu oxide precipitates, as well as interaction between the Pu precipitates and goethite, were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Pu oxide precipitates formed from the sorption experiments consist of 3-5 nm primary crystalline particles (nanocrystals) irrespective of the initial form of Pu. The Pu oxide nanocrystals adopt two different crystal structures, either fcc PuO2 or bcc Pu4O7. The relative abundance of one form over the other depends on the initial form of Pu, Pu concentration, and the presence of goethite. For the high Pu concentration sorption cases (>9,000 nmol/m2 goethite), fcc PuO2 is the predominant phase occurring in both aqueous Pu(IV) and Pu(V) samples. In the Pu(IV) samples, the fcc PuO2 nanocrystals form mainly as a product of hydrolysis in solution. In the Pu(V) samples, the fcc PuO2 nanocrystals form by redox reactions dominantly occurring on goethite surface following the sorption of Pu(V). At lower Pu concentrations, the bcc Pu4O7 becomes dominant in the presence of goethite. The bcc Pu4O7 forms directly on the goethite surface as a 3-5 nm isolated nanocrystal in both Pu(IV) and Pu(V) samples and has specific crystallographic orientation relationships to goethite. Nucleation of the bcc Pu4O7 may occur by substitution of Pu(III) at the Fe(III) position on the goethite surface. In the absence of goethite, the intrinsic Pu colloids formed in alkaline solution (pH 8, 25 °C) are also comprised of 3-5 nm fcc PuO2 nanocrystals. As for the intrinsic Pu colloids precipitated from the acidic solution (0.1 M HNO3) at an elevated

  16. Use of nitric oxide inhalation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Ashutosh, K.; Phadke, K.; Jackson, J. F.; Steele, D.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Inhalation of nitric oxide with oxygen could be a promising treatment in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and pulmonary hypertension. However, the current methods of delivery of NO are cumbersome and unsuitable for long term use. The present study was undertaken to investigate the safety and efficacy of a mixture of nitric oxide (NO) and oxygen administered via a nasal cannula for 24 hours in patients with oxygen dependent COPD.
METHODS—Twenty five parts per million (ppm) of NO was administered by inhalation combined with supplemental oxygen at a flow rate of 2 l/min via a nasal cannula for 24 hours to 11 ambulatory men with stable, oxygen dependent COPD. Room air with supplemental oxygen at 2 l/min was administered in an identical manner for another 24 hours as control therapy in a randomised, double blind, crossover fashion to all patients. Pulmonary function tests, exercise tolerance, dyspnoea grade, and lung volumes were measured at baseline, 24, and 48 hours. Pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), cardiac output (CO), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), arterial blood gas tensions, and minute ventilation were measured at baseline, after 30 minutes and 24 hours of breathing NO and oxygen. Venous admixture ratio (Qs/Qt) and dead space ratio (Vd/Vt) were also calculated. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and NO in the inhaled and ambient air were monitored continuously. Differences in pulmonary function, arterial blood gas tensions, pulmonary haemodynamics, exercise tolerance, and dyspnoea between oxygen and NO breathing periods were analysed for significance using paired t tests.
RESULTS—A significant (p<0.05) fall was observed in PVR (183.1 (116.05) and 137.2 (108.4) dynes.s.cm-3 before and after breathing NO for 24 hours, respectively) with NO administration without significant changes in symptoms, pulmonary function, arterial oxygen tension, or exercise tolerance.
CONCLUSIONS—NO at a concentration of 25 ppm

  17. In vitro dissolution of respirable aerosols of industrial uranium and plutonium mixed-oxide nuclear fuels.

    PubMed

    Eidson, A F; Mewhinney, J A

    1983-12-01

    Dissolution characteristics of mixed-oxide nuclear fuels are important considerations for prediction of biological behavior of inhaled particles. Four representative industrial mixed-oxide powders were obtained from fuel fabrication enclosures. Studies of the dissolution of Pu, Am and U from aerosol particles of these materials in a serum simulant solution and in 0.1M HCl showed: (1) dissolution occurred at a rapid rate initially and slowed at longer times, (2) greater percentages of U dissolved than Pu or Am: with the dissolution rates of U and Pu generally reflecting the physical nature of the UO2-PuO2 matrix, (3) the temperature history of industrial mixed-oxides could not be reliably related to Pu dissolution except for a 3-5% increase when incorporated into a solid solution by sintering at 1750 degrees C, and (4) dissolution in the serum simulant agreed with the in vivo UO2 dissolution rate and suggested the dominant role of mechanical processes in PuO2 clearance from the lung. The rapid initial dissolution rate was shown to be related, in part, to an altered surface layer. The advantages and uses of in vitro solubility data for estimation of biological behavior of inhaled industrial mixed oxides, such as assessing the use of chelation therapy and interpretation of urinary excretion data, are discussed. It was concluded that in vitro solubility tests were useful, simple and easily applied to individual materials potentially inhaled by humans.

  18. PREPARATION OF PLUTONIUM HALIDES

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, N.R.; Katz, J.J.

    1958-11-01

    A process ls presented for the preparation of plutonium trihalides. Plutonium oxide or a compound which may be readily converted to plutonlum oxide, for example, a plutonium hydroxide or plutonlum oxalate is contacted with a suitable halogenating agent. Speciflc agents mentioned are carbon tetrachloride, carbon tetrabromide, sulfur dioxide, and phosphorus pentachloride. The reaction is carried out under superatmospberic pressure at about 300 icient laborato C.

  19. Detailed Destructive Post-Irradiation Examinations of Mixed Uranium and Plutonium Oxide Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Delashmitt, Jeffrey {Jeff} S; Keever, Tamara {Tammy} Jo; Smith, Rob R; Hexel, Cole R; Ilgner, Ralph H

    2010-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) Fissile Materials Disposition Program (FMDP) is pursuing disposal of surplus weapons-usable plutonium by reactor irradiation as the fissile constituent of MOX fuel. Lead test assemblies (LTAs) have been irradiated for approximately 36 months in Duke Energy's Catawba-1 nuclear power plant (NPP). Per the mixed oxide (MOX) fuel topical report, approved by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), destructive post-irradiation examinations (PIEs) are to be performed on second cycle rods (irradiated to an average burnup of approximately 45 GWd/MTHM). The Radiochemical Analysis Group (RAG) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is currently performing the detailed destructive post-irradiation examinations (PIE) on four of the mixed uranium and plutonium oxide fuel rods. The analytical process involves dissolution of designated fuel segments in a shielded hot cell for high precision quantification of select fission products and actinide isotopes employing isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) among other analyses. The hot cell dissolution protocol to include the collection and subsequent alkaline fusion digestion of the fuel's acid resistant metallic particulates will be presented. Although the IDMS measurements of the fission products and actinide isotopes will not be completed by the time of the 51st INMM meeting, the setup and testing of the HPLC chromatographic separations in preparation for these measurements will be discussed.

  20. SMALL-SCALE TESTING OF PLUTONIUM (IV) OXALATE PRECIPITATION AND CALCINATION TO PLUTONIUM OXIDE TO SUPPORT THE MOX FEED MISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Crowder, M.; Pierce, R.; Scogin, J.; Daniel, G.; King, W.

    2012-06-25

    The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, SRNL conducted a series of experiments to produce calcined plutonium (Pu) oxide and measure the physical properties and water adsorption of that material. This data will help define the process operating conditions and material handling steps for HB-Line. An anion exchange column experiment produced 1.4 L of a purified 52.6 g/L Pu solution. Over the next nine weeks, seven Pu(IV) oxalate precipitations were performed using the same stock Pu solution, with precipitator feed acidities ranging from 0.77 M to 3.0 M nitric acid and digestion times ranging from 5 to 30 minutes. Analysis of precipitator filtrate solutions showed Pu losses below 1% for all precipitations. The four larger precipitation batches matched the target oxalic acid addition time of 44 minutes within 4 minutes. The three smaller precipitation batches focused on evaluation of digestion time and the oxalic acid addition step ranged from 25-34 minutes because of pump limitations in the low flow range. Following the precipitations, 22 calcinations were performed in the range of 610-690 C, with the largest number of samples calcined at either 650 or 635 C. Characterization of the resulting PuO{sub 2} batches showed specific surface areas in the range of 5-14 m{sup 2}/g, with 16 of the 22 samples in the range of 5-10 m2/g. For samples analyzed with typical handling (exposed to ambient air for 15-45 minutes with relative humidities of 20-55%), the moisture content as measured by Mass Spectrometry ranged from 0.15 to 0.45 wt % and the total mass loss at 1000 C, as measured by TGA, ranged from 0.21 to 0.58 wt %. For the samples calcined between 635 and 650 C, the moisture content without extended exposure ranged from 0.20 to 0.38 wt %, and the TGA mass loss ranged from 0.26 to 0.46 wt %. Of these latter samples, the samples

  1. Therapeutic application of inhaled nitric oxide in adult cardiac surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Makker, Robina; Mehta, Yatin; Trehan, Naresh; Bapna, Rk

    2006-01-01

    Increased pulmonary vascular resistance can be detrimental to the cardiac output in post-operative cardiac surgical patients. Pulmonary vasodilator therapy by systemic pharmacologic agents is non-selective. Inhaled nitric oxide is a selective pulmonary vasodilator and does not cause systemic hypotension. In this prospective study, 14 adult post-operative cardiac surgical patients with pulmonary hypertension underwent inhaled nitric oxide therapy and their hemodynamic changes were evaluated. Inhaled nitric oxide was administered in doses of 5 ppm-25 ppm. The result was a decrease in pulmonary vascular resistance from 456.57 +/- 137.13 to 357.64 +/- 119.80 dynes-sec- Continued. - See Free Full Text.

  2. Two- and 13-week inhalation toxicities of indium-tin oxide and indium oxide in rats.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Kasuke; Gotoh, Kaoru; Kasai, Tatsuya; Aiso, Shigetoshi; Nishizawa, Tomoshi; Ohnishi, Makoto; Ikawa, Naoki; Eitaki, Yoko; Yamada, Kenichi; Arito, Heihachiro; Fukushima, Shoji

    2011-01-01

    Two- and 13-week inhalation toxicities of indium-tin oxide (ITO) and indium oxide (IO) were characterized for risk assessments of workers exposed to ITO. F344 rats of both sexes were exposed by inhalation to ITO or IO aerosol for 6 h/day, 5 day/wk for 2 wk at 0, 0.1, 1, 10 or 100 mg/m(3) or 13 wk at 0, 0.1 or 1 mg/m(3). An aerosol generator and inhalation exposure system was constructed. Blood and lung contents of indium were elevated in a dose-related manner in the ITO- and IO-exposed rats. ITO and IO particles were deposited in the lung, mediastinal lymph node and nasal-associated lymphoid tissue. Exposures to ITO and IO induced alveolar proteinosis, infiltrations of alveolar macrophages and inflammatory cells and alveolar epithelial hyperplasia in addition to increased lung weight. ITO affected the lung more severely than IO did. Fibrosis of alveolar wall developed and some of these lesions worsened at the end of the 26-week post-exposure period. Persistent pulmonary lesions including alveolar proteinosis and macrophage infiltration occurred after 2- and 13-week inhalation exposures of rats to ITO and IO. Fibrosis of alveolar wall developed later. These lesions occurred after ITO exposure at the same concentration as the current occupational exposure limit in the USA and at blood indium levels below the biological exposure index in Japan for indium.

  3. High temperature X-ray diffraction study of the oxidation products and kinetics of uranium-plutonium mixed oxides.

    PubMed

    Strach, Michal; Belin, Renaud C; Richaud, Jean-Christophe; Rogez, Jacques

    2014-12-15

    The oxidation products and kinetics of two sets of mixed uranium-plutonium dioxides containing 14%, 24%, 35%, 46%, 54%, and 62% plutonium treated in air were studied by means of in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) from 300 to 1773 K every 100 K. The first set consisted of samples annealed 2 weeks before performing the experiments. The second one consisted of powdered samples that sustained self-irradiation damage. Results were compared with chosen literature data and kinetic models established for UO2. The obtained diffraction patterns were used to determine the temperature of the hexagonal M3O8 (M for metal) phase formation, which was found to increase with Pu content. The maximum observed amount of the hexagonal phase in wt % was found to decrease with Pu addition. We conclude that plutonium stabilizes the cubic phases during oxidation, but the hexagonal phase was observed even for the compositions with 62 mol % Pu. The results indicate that self-irradiation defects have a slight impact on the kinetics of oxidation and the lattice parameter even after the phase transformation. It was concluded that the lattice constant of the high oxygen phase was unaffected by the changes in the overall O/M when it was in equilibrium with small quantities of M3O8. We propose that the observed changes in the high oxygen cubic phase lattice parameter are a result of either cation migration or an increase in the miscibility of oxygen in this phase. The solubility of Pu in the hexagonal phase was estimated to be below 14 mol % even at elevated temperatures.

  4. Oxidation behaviour of plutonium rich (U, Pu)C and (U, Pu)O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sali, S. K.; Kulkarni, N. K.; Phatak, Rohan; Agarwal, Renu

    2016-10-01

    Oxidation behaviour of (U0.3Pu0.7)C1.06 was investigated in air by heating samples up to 1073 K and 1273 K. Thermogravimetry (TG) of the samples and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) of the intermediate products were used to understand the phenomenon taking place during this process. Theoretical calculations were carried out to understand the multiple phase changes taking place during oxidation of carbide. Theoretical results were validated by XRD analysis of the products obtained at different stages of oxidation. The final oxidized products were found to be a single FCC phase with O/M = 2.15 (M = U + Pu). Oxidation kinetic studies of (U0.3Pu0.7)O2 and (U0.47Pu0.53)O2 were carried out in dry air, using thermogravimetry, under non-isothermal conditions. The activation energy of oxidation was found to be 49 and 70 kJ/mol, respectively. Lattice parameter dependence on Pu/M and O/M of plutonium rich mixed oxide (MOX) was established using combined results of XRD and TG analysis of (U0.3Pu0.7)O2+x and (U0.47Pu0.53)O2+x.

  5. Dissolution of Neptunium and Plutonium Oxides Using a Catalyzed Electrolytic Process

    SciTech Connect

    Hylton, TD

    2004-10-25

    This report discusses the scoping study performed to evaluate the use of a catalyzed electrolytic process for dissolving {sup 237}Np oxide targets that had been irradiated to produce {sup 238}Pu oxide. Historically, these compounds have been difficult to dissolve, and complete dissolution was obtained only by adding hydrofluoric acid to the nitric acid solvent. The presence of fluoride in the mixture is undesired because the fluoride ions are corrosive to tank and piping systems and the fluoride ions cause interferences in the spectrophotometric analyses. The goal is to find a dissolution method that will eliminate these issues and that can be incorporated into a processing system to support the domestic production and purification of {sup 238}Pu. This study evaluated the potential of cerium(IV) ions, a strong oxidant, to attack and dissolve the oxide compounds. In the dissolution process, the cerium(IV) ions are reduced to cerium(III) ions, which are not oxidants. Therefore, an electrolytic process was incorporated to continuously convert cerium(III) ions back to cerium(IV) ions so that they can dissolve more of the oxide compounds. This study showed that the neptunium and plutonium oxides were successfully dissolved and that more development work should be performed to optimize the procedure.

  6. Inhaled nitric oxide augments nitric oxide transport on sickle cell hemoglobin without affecting oxygen affinity

    PubMed Central

    Gladwin, Mark T.; Schechter, Alan N.; Shelhamer, James H.; Pannell, Lewis K.; Conway, Deirdre A.; Hrinczenko, Borys W.; Nichols, James S.; Pease-Fye, Margaret E.; Noguchi, Constance T.; Rodgers, Griffin P.; Ognibene, Frederick P.

    1999-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) inhalation has been reported to increase the oxygen affinity of sickle cell erythrocytes. Also, proposed allosteric mechanisms for hemoglobin, based on S-nitrosation of β-chain cysteine 93, raise the possibilty of altering the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease by inhibiting polymerization or by increasing NO delivery to the tissue. We studied the effects of a 2-hour treatment, using varying concentrations of inhaled NO. Oxygen affinity, as measured by P50, did not respond to inhaled NO, either in controls or in individuals with sickle cell disease. At baseline, the arterial and venous levels of nitrosylated hemoglobin were not significantly different, but NO inhalation led to a dose-dependent increase in mean nitrosylated hemoglobin, and at the highest dosage, a significant arterial-venous difference emerged. The levels of nitrosylated hemoglobin are too low to affect overall hemoglobin oxygen affinity, but augmented NO transport to the microvasculature seems a promising strategy for improving microvascular perfusion. PMID:10510334

  7. Catalyzed Electrolytic Plutonium Oxide Dissolution (CEPOD): The past seventeen years and future potential

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, J.L.; Bray, L.A.; Wheelwright, E.J.; Bryan, G.H.

    1990-07-01

    Catalyzed Electrolytic Plutonium Oxide Dissolution (CEPOD) was first demonstrated at PNL in early 1974 in work funded by EXXON Corporation. That work was aimed at dissolution of Pu-containing residues remaining in mixed-oxide reactor fuels dissolution and was first publicly disclosed in 1981. The process dissolves PuO{sub 2} in an anolyte containing small (catalytic) amounts of elements that form kinetically fast, strongly oxidizing ions. These are continuously regenerated at the anode. Catalysts used, in their oxidized form, include Ag{sup 2+}, Ce{sup 4+}, Co{sup 3+}, and AmO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. This paper reviews the chemistry involved in CEPOD and the results of its application to the dissolution of the Pu content of a variety of PuO{sub 2}-containing materials such as off-standard oxide, fuels dissolution residues, incinerator ash, contaminated soils, and other scrapes or wastes. Results are presented for both laboratory-scale and plant-scale dissolvers. Spin-off applications such as decontamination of metallic surfaces and destruction of organics are discussed. 27 refs., 14 figs.

  8. Application of molten salt oxidation for the minimization and recovery of plutonium-238 contaminated wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wishau, R.; Ramsey, K.B.; Montoya, A.

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents the technical and economic feasibility of molten salt oxidation technology as a volume reduction and recovery process for {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste. Combustible low-level waste material contaminated with {sup 238}Pu residue is destroyed by oxidation in a 900 C molten salt reaction vessel. The combustible waste is destroyed creating carbon dioxide and steam and a small amount of ash and insoluble {sup 2328}Pu in the spent salt. The valuable {sup 238}Pu is recycled using aqueous recovery techniques. Experimental test results for this technology indicate a plutonium recovery efficiency of 99%. Molten salt oxidation stabilizes the waste converting it to a non-combustible waste. Thus installation and use of molten salt oxidation technology will substantially reduce the volume of {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste. Cost-effectiveness evaluations of molten salt oxidation indicate a significant cost savings when compared to the present plans to package, or re-package, certify and transport these wastes to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant for permanent disposal. Clear and distinct cost advantages exist for MSO when the monetary value of the recovered {sup 238}Pu is considered.

  9. Temperament as a Predictor of Nitrous Oxide Inhalation Sedation Success.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Travis M; Griffith, Thomas M; Lane, Katherine J; Thikkurissy, Sarat; Scott, JoAnna M

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about implications of temperament for children who receive nitrous oxide inhalation sedation (N2O/O2) for dental care. The aim of this study was to investigate whether child temperament is associated with success in N2O/O2. Child-caregiver dyads were enrolled from patients aged 36-95 months receiving dental care with N2O/O2 at a university-based pediatric dental clinic. To assess child temperament, 48 caregivers completed the Children's Behavior Questionnaire Short Form. Patient behavior was abstracted from Frankl scores recorded in the patient's chart. The overall behavioral failure rate was 15% (n = 7/48). There was no significant difference in sedation outcome associated with sex, health, insurance status, or complexity of treatment provided. Sedation outcome was significantly associated with the broad temperament domain of Effortful Control and its subscales Attentional Focusing and Inhibitory Control. The Negative Affectivity subscales of Frustration, Sadness, and Soothability and the Extraversion/Surgency subscales Activity and Impulsivity were also significantly associated with sedation outcome. The results of this study suggest that Effortful Control is associated with behavior during dental treatment with N2O/O2. The subscales of Attention Focusing, Inhibitory Control, Frustration, Fear, Sadness, Soothability, Activity, and Impulsivity may also be important determinants of child behavior during dental treatment.

  10. Decay Heat Calculations for PWR and BWR Assemblies Fueled with Uranium and Plutonium Mixed Oxide Fuel using SCALE

    SciTech Connect

    Ade, Brian J; Gauld, Ian C

    2011-10-01

    In currently operating commercial nuclear power plants (NPP), there are two main types of nuclear fuel, low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, and mixed-oxide uranium-plutonium (MOX) fuel. The LEU fuel is made of pure uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2} or UOX) and has been the fuel of choice in commercial light water reactors (LWRs) for a number of years. Naturally occurring uranium contains a mixture of different uranium isotopes, primarily, {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U. {sup 235}U is a fissile isotope, and will readily undergo a fission reaction upon interaction with a thermal neutron. {sup 235}U has an isotopic concentration of 0.71% in naturally occurring uranium. For most reactors to maintain a fission chain reaction, the natural isotopic concentration of {sup 235}U must be increased (enriched) to a level greater than 0.71%. Modern nuclear reactor fuel assemblies contain a number of fuel pins potentially having different {sup 235}U enrichments varying from {approx}2.0% to {approx}5% enriched in {sup 235}U. Currently in the United States (US), all commercial nuclear power plants use UO{sub 2} fuel. In the rest of the world, UO{sub 2} fuel is still commonly used, but MOX fuel is also used in a number of reactors. MOX fuel contains a mixture of both UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2}. Because the plutonium provides the fissile content of the fuel, the uranium used in MOX is either natural or depleted uranium. PuO{sub 2} is added to effectively replace the fissile content of {sup 235}U so that the level of fissile content is sufficiently high to maintain the chain reaction in an LWR. Both reactor-grade and weapons-grade plutonium contains a number of fissile and non-fissile plutonium isotopes, with the fraction of fissile and non-fissile plutonium isotopes being dependent on the source of the plutonium. While only RG plutonium is currently used in MOX, there is the possibility that WG plutonium from dismantled weapons will be used to make MOX for use in US reactors. Reactor-grade plutonium

  11. Effects of combined exposure of F344 rats to inhaled Plutonium-239 dioxide and a chemical carcinogen (NNK)

    SciTech Connect

    Lundgren, D.L.; Carlton, W.W.; Griffith, W.C.

    1995-12-01

    Workers in nuclear weapons facilities have a significant potential for exposure to chemical carcinogens and to radiation from external sources or from internally deposited radionuclides such as {sup 239}Pu. Although the carcinogenic effects of inhaled {sup 239}Pu and many chemicals have been studied individually, very little information is available on their combined effects. One chemical carcinogen that workers could be exposed to via tobacco smoke is the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(N-methyl-n-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), a product of tobacco curing and the pyrolysis of nicotine in tobacco. NNK causes lung tumors in rats, regardless of the route of administration and to a lesser extent liver, nasal, and pancreatic tumors. From the results presented, it can be concluded that exposure to a chemical carcinogen (NNK) in combination with {alpha}-particle radiation from inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} acts in, at best, an additive manner in inducing lung cancer in rats.

  12. Nasal and oral contribution to inhaled and exhaled nitric oxide: a study in tracheotomized patients.

    PubMed

    Törnberg, D C F; Marteus, H; Schedin, U; Alving, K; Lundberg, J O N; Weitzberg, E

    2002-05-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is produced at different sites in the human airways and may have several physiological effects. Orally-produced NO seems to contribute to the levels found in exhaled air. Autoinhalation of nasal NO increases oxygenation and reduces pulmonary artery pressure in humans. The aim of this study was to measure the concentration and output of NO during nasal, oral and tracheal controlled exhalation and inhalation. Ten tracheotomized patients and seven healthy subjects were studied. The mean+/-SEM fraction of exhaled NO from the nose, mouth and trachea was 56+/-8, 14+/-4 and 6+/-1 parts per billion (ppb), respectively. During single-breath nasal, oral and tracheal inhalation the fraction of inhaled NO was 64+/-14, 11+/-3 and 4+/-1, respectively. There was a marked flow dependency on nasal NO output in the healthy subjects, which was four-fold greater at the higher flow rates, during inhalation when compared to exhalation. There is a substantial contribution of nasal and oral nitric oxide during both inhalation and exhalation. Nasal nitric oxide output is markedly higher during inhalation, reaching levels similar to those that are found to have clinical effects in the trachea. These findings have implications for the measurement of nitric oxide in exhaled air and the physiological effects of autoinhaled endogenous nitric oxide.

  13. Comparison of bone cancer risks in beagle dogs for inhaled plutonium-238 dioxide, inhaled strontium-90 chloride, and injected strontium-90

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, W.C.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Hahn, F.F.

    1995-12-01

    There is a continuing need to understand dose-response relationships for ionizing radiation in order to protect the health of the public and nuclear workers from undue exposures. However, relatively few human populations have been exposed to doses of radiation high enough to cause observable, long-term health effects from which to derive dose-response relationships. This is particularly true for internally deposited radionuclides, although much effort has been devoted to epidemiological studies of the few types of exposures available, including lung cancers in uranium miners form the inhalation of the radioactive decay products of Ra, liver cancers in patients injected with Thorotrast X-ray contrast medium containing Th, bone cancers in radium dial painters who ingested Ra, and bone cancers in patients who received therapeutic doses of Ra. These four types of exposures to internally deposited radionuclides provide a basis for understanding the health effects of many other radionuclides for which a potential for exposure exists. However, potential exposures to internally deposited radionuclides may differ in many modifying factors, such as route of exposure, population differences, and physical, chemical, and elemental forms of radionuclides. The only means available to study many of these modifying factors has been in laboratory animals, and to then extrapolate the results to humans. Three conclusions can be drawn from this example.

  14. PREPARATION OF PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Kolodney, M.

    1959-07-01

    Methods are presented for the electro-deposition of plutonium from fused mixtures of plutonium halides and halides of the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals. Th salts, preferably chlorides and with the plutonium prefer ably in the trivalent state, are placed in a refractory crucible such as tantalum or molybdenam and heated in a non-oxidizing atmosphere to 600 to 850 deg C, the higher temperatatures being used to obtain massive plutonium and the lower for the powder form. Electrodes of graphite or non reactive refractory metals are used, the crucible serving the cathode in one apparatus described in the patent.

  15. Apparatus and process for the electrolytic reduction of uranium and plutonium oxides

    DOEpatents

    Poa, David S.; Burris, Leslie; Steunenberg, Robert K.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

    1991-01-01

    An apparatus and process for reducing uranium and/or plutonium oxides to produce a solid, high-purity metal. The apparatus is an electrolyte cell consisting of a first container, and a smaller second container within the first container. An electrolyte fills both containers, the level of the electrolyte in the first container being above the top of the second container so that the electrolyte can be circulated between the containers. The anode is positioned in the first container while the cathode is located in the second container. Means are provided for passing an inert gas into the electrolyte near the lower end of the anode to sparge the electrolyte and to remove gases which form on the anode during the reduction operation. Means are also provided for mixing and stirring the electrolyte in the first container to solubilize the metal oxide in the electrolyte and to transport the electrolyte containing dissolved oxide into contact with the cathode in the second container. The cell is operated at a temperature below the melting temperature of the metal product so that the metal forms as a solid on the cathode.

  16. Mixed oxide fuels testing in the advanced test reactor to support plutonium disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Ryskamp, J.M.; Sterbentz, J.W.; Chang, G.S.

    1995-09-01

    An intense worldwide effort is now under way to find means of reducing the stockpile of weapons-grade plutonium. One of the most attractive solutions would be to use WGPu as fuel in existing light water reactors (LWRs) in the form of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel - i.e., plutonia (PUO{sub 2}) mixed with urania (UO{sub 2}). Before U.S. reactors could be used for this purpose, their operating licenses would have to be amended. Numerous technical issues must be resolved before LWR operating licenses can be amended to allow the use of MOX fuel. These issues include the following: (1) MOX fuel fabrication process verification, (2) Whether and how to use burnable poisons to depress MOX fuel initial reactivity, which is higher than that of urania, (3) The effects of WGPu isotopic composition, (4) The feasibility of loading MOX fuel with plutonia content up to 7% by weight, (5) The effects of americium and gallium in WGPu, (6) Fission gas release from MOX fuel pellets made from WGPu, (7) Fuel/cladding gap closure, (8) The effects of power cycling and off-normal events on fuel integrity, (9) Development of radial distributions of burnup and fission products, (10) Power spiking near the interfaces of MOX and urania fuel assemblies, and (11) Fuel performance code validation. We have performed calculations to show that the use of hafnium shrouds can produce spectrum adjustments that will bring the flux spectrum in ATR test loops into a good approximation to the spectrum anticipated in a commercial LWR containing MOX fuel while allowing operation of the test fuel assemblies near their optimum values of linear heat generation rate. The ATR would be a nearly ideal test bed for developing data needed to support applications to license LWRs for operation with MOX fuel made from weapons-grade plutonium. The requirements for planning and implementing a test program in the ATR have been identified.

  17. Cleaning up the Legacy of the Cold War: Plutonium Oxides and the Role of Synchrotron Radiation Research

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, David Lewis

    2015-01-21

    The deceptively simple binary formula of AnO2 belies an incredibly complex structural nature, and propensity to form mixed-valent, nonstoichiometric phases of composition AnO2±x. For plutonium, the very formation of PuO2+x has challenged a long-established dogma, and raised fundamental questions for long-term storage and environmental migration. This presentation covers two aspects of Los Alamos synchrotron radiation studies of plutonium oxides: (1) the structural chemistry of laboratory-prepared AnO2+x systems (An = U, Pu; 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.25) determined through a combination of x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (XAFS) and x-ray scattering of laboratory prepared samples; and (2) the application of synchrotron radiation towards the decontamination and decommissioning of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. Making the case for particle transport mechanisms as the basis of plutonium and americium mobility, rather than aqueous sorption-desorption processes, established a successful scientific basis for the dominance of physical transport processes by wind and water. The scientific basis was successful because it was in agreement with general theory on insolubility of PuO2 in oxidation state IV, results of ultrafiltration analyses of field water/sediment samples, XAFS analyses of soil, sediment, and concrete samples, and was also in general agreement with on-site monitoring data. This understanding allowed Site contractors to rapidly move to application of soil erosion and sediment transport models as the means of predicting plutonium and americium transport, which led to design and application of site-wide soil erosion control technology to help control downstream concentrations of plutonium and americium in streamflow.

  18. Performance of Thorium-Based Mixed Oxide Fuels for the Consumption of Plutonium in Current and Advanced Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Kevan Dean; Herring, James Stephen

    2003-07-01

    A renewed interest in thorium-based fuels has arisen lately based on the need for proliferation resistance, longer fuel cycles, higher burnup, and improved waste form characteristics. Recent studies have been directed toward homogeneously mixed, heterogeneously mixed, and seed-and-blanket thorium-uranium oxide fuel cycles that rely on "in situ" use of the bred-in 233U. However, due to the higher initial enrichment required to achieve acceptable burnups, these fuels are encountering economic constraints. Thorium can nevertheless play a large role in the nuclear fuel cycle, particularly in the reduction of plutonium inventories. While uranium-based mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel will decrease the amount of plutonium in discharged fuel, the reduction is limited due to the breeding of more plutonium (and higher actinides) from the 238U. Here, we present calculational results and a comparison of the potential burnup of a thorium-based and uranium-based mixed-oxide fuel in a light water reactor. Although the uranium-based fuels outperformed the thorium-based fuels in achievable burnup, a depletion comparison of the initially charged plutonium (both reactor and weapons grade) showed that the thorium-based fuels outperformed the uranium-based fuels by more that a factor of 2, where >70% of the total plutonium in the thorium-based fuel is consumed during the cycle. This is significant considering that the achievable burnups of the thorium-based fuels were 1.4 to 4.6 times less than the uranium-based fuels for similar plutonium enrichments. For equal specific burnups of ~60 MWd/kg (i.e., using variable plutonium weight percentages to give the desired burnup), the thorium-based fuels still outperform the uranium-based fuels by more than a factor of 2, where the total plutonium consumption in a three-batch, 18-month cycle was 60 to 70%. This is fairly significant considering that 10 to 15% (by weight) more plutonium is needed in the thorium-based fuels as compared to the uranium

  19. Comparison of inhaled milrinone, nitric oxide and prostacyclin in acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Martin; Corsilli, Daniel; Williamson, David R; Brosseau, Marc; Bellemare, Patrick; Delisle, Stéphane; Nguyen, Anne QN; Varin, France

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the safety and efficacy of inhaled milrinone in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS Open-label prospective cross-over pilot study where fifteen adult patients with hypoxemic failure meeting standard ARDS criteria and monitored with a pulmonary artery catheter were recruited in an academic 24-bed medico-surgical intensive care unit. Random sequential administration of iNO (20 ppm) or nebulized epoprostenol (10 μg/mL) was done in all patients. Thereafter, inhaled milrinone (1 mg/mL) alone followed by inhaled milrinone in association with inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) was administered. A jet nebulization device synchronized with the mechanical ventilation was use to administrate the epoprostenol and the milrinone. Hemodynamic measurements and partial pressure of arterial oxygen (PaO2) were recorded before and after each inhaled therapy administration. RESULTS The majority of ARDS were of pulmonary cause (n = 13) and pneumonia (n = 7) was the leading underlying initial disease. Other pulmonary causes of ARDS were: Post cardiopulmonary bypass (n = 2), smoke inhalation injury (n = 1), thoracic trauma and pulmonary contusions (n = 2) and aspiration (n = 1). Two patients had an extra pulmonary cause of ARDS: A polytrauma patient and an intra-abdominal abscess Inhaled nitric oxide, epoprostenol, inhaled milrinone and the combination of inhaled milrinone and iNO had no impact on systemic hemodynamics. No significant adverse events related to study medications were observed. The median increase of PaO2 from baseline was 8.8 mmHg [interquartile range (IQR) = 16.3], 6.0 mmHg (IQR = 18.4), 6 mmHg (IQR = 15.8) and 9.2 mmHg (IQR = 20.2) respectively with iNO, epoprostenol, inhaled milrinone, and iNO added to milrinone. Only iNO and the combination of inhaled milrinone and iNO had a statistically significant effect on PaO2. CONCLUSION When comparing the effects of inhaled NO, milrinone and epoprostenol, only NO significantly improved oxygenation

  20. Investigation Of In-Line Monitoring Options At H Canyon/HB Line For Plutonium Oxide Production

    SciTech Connect

    Sexton, L.

    2015-10-14

    H Canyon and HB Line have a production goal of 1 MT per year of plutonium oxide feedstock for the MOX facility by FY17 (AFS-2 mission). In order to meet this goal, steps will need to be taken to improve processing efficiency. One concept for achieving this goal is to implement in-line process monitoring at key measurement points within the facilities. In-line monitoring during operations has the potential to increase throughput and efficiency while reducing costs associated with laboratory sample analysis. In the work reported here, we mapped the plutonium oxide process, identified key measurement points, investigated alternate technologies that could be used for in-line analysis, and initiated a throughput benefit analysis.

  1. Plutonium storage criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, D.; Ascanio, X.

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy has issued a technical standard for long-term (>50 years) storage and will soon issue a criteria document for interim (<20 years) storage of plutonium materials. The long-term technical standard, {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides,{close_quotes} addresses the requirements for storing metals and oxides with greater than 50 wt % plutonium. It calls for a standardized package that meets both off-site transportation requirements, as well as remote handling requirements from future storage facilities. The interim criteria document, {open_quotes}Criteria for Interim Safe Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Solid Materials{close_quotes}, addresses requirements for storing materials with less than 50 wt% plutonium. The interim criteria document assumes the materials will be stored on existing sites, and existing facilities and equipment will be used for repackaging to improve the margin of safety.

  2. Plutonium 239 Equivalency Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, J

    2011-05-31

    This document provides the basis for converting actual weapons grade plutonium mass to a plutonium equivalency (PuE) mass of Plutonium 239. The conversion can be accomplished by performing calculations utilizing either: (1) Isotopic conversions factors (CF{sub isotope}), or (2) 30-year-old weapons grade conversion factor (CF{sub 30 yr}) Both of these methods are provided in this document. Material mass and isotopic data are needed to calculate PuE using the isotopic conversion factors, which will provide the actual PuE value at the time of calculation. PuE is the summation of the isotopic masses times their associated isotopic conversion factors for plutonium 239. Isotopic conversion factors are calculated by a normalized equation, relative to Plutonium 239, of specific activity (SA) and cumulated dose inhalation affects based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). The isotopic conversion factors for converting weapons grade plutonium to PuE are provided in Table-1. The unit for specific activity (SA) is curies per gram (Ci/g) and the isotopic SA values come from reference [1]. The cumulated dose inhalation effect values in units of rem/Ci are based on 50-yr committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE). A person irradiated by gamma radiation outside the body will receive a dose only during the period of irradiation. However, following an intake by inhalation, some radionuclides persist in the body and irradiate the various tissues for many years. There are three groups CEDE data representing lengths of time of 0.5 (D), 50 (W) and 500 (Y) days, which are in reference [2]. The CEDE values in the (W) group demonstrates the highest dose equivalent value; therefore they are used for the calculation.

  3. Effect of inhaled nitric oxide on pulmonary hemodynamics after acute lung injury in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Romand, J.A.; Pinsky, M.R.; Firestone, L.; Zar, H.A.; Lancaster, J.R. Jr. )

    1994-03-01

    Increased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and mismatch in ventilation-to-perfusion ratio characterize acute lung injury (ALI). Pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa) decreases when nitric oxide (NO) is inhaled during hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV); thus NO inhalation may reduce PVR and improve gas exchange in ALI. The authors studied the hemodynamic and gas exchange effects of NO inhalation during HPV and then ALI in eight anesthetized open-chest mechanically ventilated dogs. Right atrial pressure, Ppa, and left ventricular and arterial pressures were measured, and cardiac output was estimated by an aortic flow probe. Shunt and dead space were also estimated. The effect of 5-min exposures to 0, 17, 28, 47, and 0 ppm inhaled NO was recorded during hyperoxia, hypoxia, and oleic acid-induced ALI. During ALI, partial [beta]-adrenergic blockage (propanolol, 0.15 mg/kg iv) was induced and 74 ppm NO was inhaled. Nitrosylhemoglobin (NO-Hb) and methemoglobin (MetHb) levels were measured. During hyperoxia, NO inhalation had no measurable effects. Hypoxia increased Ppa and calculated PVR, both of which decreased with 17 ppm NO. ALI decreased arterial Po[sub 2] and increased airway pressure, shunt, and dead space ventilation. Ppa and PVR were greater during ALI than during hyperoxia. NO inhalation had no measurable effect during ALI before or after [beta]-adrenergic blockage. MetHb remained low, and NO-Hb was unmeasurable. Bolus infusion of nitroglycerin (15 [mu]g) induced an immediate decrease in Ppa and PVR during ALI. Short-term NO inhalation does not affect PVR or gas exchange in dogs with oleic acid-induced ALI, nor does it increase NO-Hb or MetHb. In contrast, NO can diminish hypoxia-induced elevations in pulmonary vascular tone. These data suggest that NO inhalation selectively dilates the pulmonary circulation and specifically reduces HPV but not oleic acid-induced increases in pulmonary vasomotor tone. 28 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. [Application of inhaled nitric oxide in extreme preterm neonates with with BPD].

    PubMed

    Radulova, P; Slancheva, B

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) from birth in preterm neonates with BPD improves endogenous surfactant function as well as lung growth, angiogenesis, and alveologenesis. As a result there is a reduction in the frequency of the "new" form of BPD in neonates under 28 weeks of gestation and birth weight under 1000 gr. Delivery of inhaled nitric oxide is a new method of prevention of chronic lung disease. According to a large number of randomized trials iNO in premature neonates reduces pulmonary morbidity and leads to a reduction of the mortality in this population of patients. This new therapy does not have serious side effects.

  5. Introduction of Inhaled Nitrous Oxide and Oxygen for Pain Management during Labour - Evaluation of Patients' and Midwives' Satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Dammer, U; Weiss, C; Raabe, E; Heimrich, J; Koch, M C; Winkler, M; Faschingbauer, F; Beckmann, M W; Kehl, S

    2014-07-01

    Aim: Effective pain management during labour is important because pain affects the birth experience. Epidural analgesia is effective but often it may not be possible; however, inhaled analgesia offers another option. Use of inhaled nitrous oxide and oxygen for pain management in labour is well established in obstetrics but is still not used much in Germany. This study aimed to investigate the acceptance of the inhaled analgesia of inhaled nitrous oxide and oxygen by midwives and pregnant women during labour. Material and Methods: In this observational study carried out between April and September 2013, a total of 66 pregnant women received inhaled nitrous oxide and oxygen during labour on request and after prior assessment of suitability. After the birth, all of the women and the responsible midwives were interviewed about their experience and satisfaction with the inhaled analgesia. Results: A statistically significant reduction of pain was achieved with nitrous oxide and oxygen. The inhaled analgesia was mostly used by women who refused epidural analgesia. The likelihood of using inhaled nitrous oxide and oxygen again was reported as higher for patients who tolerated it well (p = 0.0129) and used it in the second stage of labour (p = 0.0003) and when bearing down (p = 0.0008). Conclusion: Inhaled nitrous oxide and oxygen is an effective method for pain management during labour and is accepted well by women in labour and by midwives.

  6. An experimental study of grain growth in mixed oxide samples with various microstructures and plutonium concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Uffelen, P.; Botazzoli, P.; Luzzi, L.; Bremier, S.; Schubert, A.; Raison, P.; Eloirdi, R.; Barker, M. A.

    2013-03-01

    Samples of (U, Pu)O2 Mixed Oxide (MOX) with various microstructure and plutonium contents ranging between 4% and 25% have been submitted to a series of heat treatments in order to assess grain growth between 1350 and 1750 °C. XRD measurements on the samples indicated that they were not affected by modifications in the oxygen-to-metal ratio during annealing. The grain size distributions inferred by means of image analysis of metallographic pictures reveal that, when taking into account the experimental uncertainties, the grain growth kinetics are similar to those observed in conventional UO2 fuel that was also tested under the same conditions. An analysis of experimental data available in the open literature for both UO2 and MOX fuel leads to the same conclusion. It is therefore suggested that grain growth models for UO2 fuel can be applied to MOX fuel for fuel performance simulations, when taking into consideration the uncertainties pertaining to grain growth measurements.

  7. Oxidation state and local structure of plutonium reacted with magnetite, mackinawite, and chukanovite.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Regina; Fellhauer, David; Altmaier, Marcus; Neck, Volker; Rossberg, Andre; Fanghänel, Thomas; Charlet, Laurent; Scheinost, Andreas C

    2011-09-01

    Due to their redox reactivity, surface sorption characteristics, and ubiquity as corrosion products or as minerals in natural sediments, iron(II)-bearing minerals control to a large extent the environmental fate of actinides. Pu-L(III)-edge XANES and EXAFS spectra were used to investigate reaction products of aqueous (242)Pu(III) and (242)Pu(V) reacted with magnetite, mackinawite, and chukanovite under anoxic conditions. As Pu concentrations in the liquid phase were rapidly below detection limit, oxidation state and local structure of Pu were determined for Pu associated with the solid mineral phase. Pu(V) was reduced in the presence of all three minerals. A newly identified, highly specific Pu(III)-sorption complex formed with magnetite. Solid PuO(2) phases formed in the presence of mackinawite and chukanovite; in the case of chukanovite, up to one-third of plutonium was also present as Pu(III). This highlights the necessity to consider, under reducing anoxic conditions, Pu(III) species in addition to tetravalent PuO(2) for environmental risk assessment. Our results also demonstrate the necessity to support thermodynamic calculations with spectroscopic data.

  8. Americium characterization by X-ray fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy in plutonium uranium mixed oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degueldre, Claude; Cozzo, Cedric; Martin, Matthias; Grolimund, Daniel; Mieszczynski, Cyprian

    2013-06-01

    Plutonium uranium mixed oxide (MOX) fuels are currently used in nuclear reactors. The actinides in these fuels need to be analyzed after irradiation for assessing their behaviour with regard to their environment and the coolant. In this work the study of the atomic structure and next-neighbour environment of Am in the (Pu,U)O2 lattice in an irradiated (60 MW d kg-1) MOX sample was performed employing micro-X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) and micro-X-ray absorption fine structure (µ-XAFS) spectroscopy. The chemical bonds, valences and stoichiometry of Am (˜0.66 wt%) are determined from the experimental data gained for the irradiated fuel material examined in its peripheral zone (rim) of the fuel. In the irradiated sample Am builds up as Am3+ species within an [AmO8]13- coordination environment (e.g. >90%) and no (<10%) Am(IV) or (V) can be detected in the rim zone. The occurrence of americium dioxide is avoided by the redox buffering activity of the uranium dioxide matrix.

  9. PRECIPITATION METHOD FOR THE SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM AND RARE EARTHS

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, S.G.

    1960-04-26

    A method of purifying plutonium is given. Tetravalent plutonium is precipitated with thorium pyrophosphate, the plutonium is oxidized to the tetravalent state, and then impurities are precipitated with thorium pyrophosphate.

  10. Comparing Inhaled Ultrafine versus Fine Zinc Oxide Particles in Healthy Adults

    PubMed Central

    Beckett, William S.; Chalupa, David F.; Pauly-Brown, Andrea; Speers, Donna M.; Stewart, Judith C.; Frampton, Mark W.; Utell, Mark J.; Huang, Li-Shan; Cox, Christopher; Zareba, Wojciech; Oberdörster, Günter

    2005-01-01

    Rationale: Zinc oxide is a common, biologically active constituent of particulate air pollution as well as a workplace toxin. Ultrafine particles (< 0.1 μm diameter) are believed to be more potent than an equal mass of inhaled accumulation mode particles (0.1–1.0 μm diameter). Objectives: We compared exposure–response relationships for respiratory, hematologic, and cardiovascular endpoints between ultrafine and accumulation mode zinc oxide particles. Methods: In a human inhalation study, 12 healthy adults inhaled 500 μg/m3 of ultrafine zinc oxide, the same mass of fine zinc oxide, and filtered air while at rest for 2 hours. Measurements and Main Results: Preexposure and follow-up studies of symptoms, leukocyte surface markers, hemostasis, and cardiac electrophysiology were conducted to 24 hours post-exposure. Induced sputum was sampled 24 hours after exposure. No differences were detected between any of the three exposure conditions at this level of exposure. Conclusions: Freshly generated zinc oxide in the fine or ultrafine fractions inhaled by healthy subjects at rest at a concentration of 500 μg/m3 for 2 hours is below the threshold for acute systemic effects as detected by these endpoints. PMID:15735058

  11. Two-Year Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Ventilated Preterm Infants Treated with Inhaled Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Michele C.; Hibbs, Anna Maria; Martin, Camilia R.; Cnaan, Avital; Keller, Roberta L.; Vittinghoff, Eric; Martin, Richard J.; Truog, William E.; Ballard, Philip L.; Zadell, Arlene; Wadlinger, Sandra R.; Coburn, Christine E.; Ballard, Roberta A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective In a randomized multi-center trial, we demonstrated that inhaled nitric oxide begun between 7 and 21 days and treated for 24 days significantly increased survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in ventilated premature infants weighing < 1250 g. Since some preventative BPD treatments are associated with neurodevelopmental impairment, we designed a follow-up study to assess the safety of nitric oxide. Study design Our hypothesis was that inhaled nitric oxide will not increase neurodevelopmental impairment compared with placebo. We prospectively evaluated neurodevelopmental and growth outcomes at 24 months PMA in 477 (89%) of 535 surviving infants enrolled in the trial. Results In the treated group, 109 of 243 children (45%) had neurodevelopmental impairment (moderate or severe cerebral palsy, bilateral blindness, bilateral hearing loss or score of less than 70 on the Bayley Scales II), compared with 114 of 234 (49%) in the placebo group (Relative Risk 0.92; 95% confidence interval, 0.75 to 1.12; p = 0.39). No differences on any subcomponent of neurodevelopmental impairment or growth variables were found between inhaled nitric oxide or placebo. Conclusions Inhaled nitric oxide improved survival free of bronchopulmonary dysplasia with no adverse neurodevelopmental effects at 2 years of age. PMID:20138299

  12. Management of plutonium contaminated waste

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    This study surveys the current management schemes for plutonium contaminated wastes arising from a reference mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant, and identifies possible areas of future research. It also outlines strategies for the future management of plutonium contaminated wastes. Topics of discussion include: the quantities and characteristics of various plutonium contaminated wastes produced by a plant; the current waste management practices for both solid and liquid plutonium contaminated wastes, considering measurement methods, transportation, storage and disposal; current practice for the problems of decommissioning and decontamination, and possible methods for the recovery of plutonium contaminated wastes.

  13. LOCALIZED CORROSION OF AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELEXPOSED TO MIXTURES OF PLUTONIUM OXIDE AND CHLORIDE SALTS

    SciTech Connect

    Zapp, P; Kerry Dunn, K; Jonathan Duffey, J; Ron Livingston, R; Zane Nelson, Z

    2008-11-21

    Laboratory corrosion tests were conducted to investigate the corrosivity of moist plutonium oxide/chloride (PuO{sub 2}/Cl-) salt mixtures on 304L and 316L stainless steel coupons. The tests exposed flat coupons for pitting evaluation and 'teardrop' stressed coupons for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) evaluation at room temperature to various mixtures of PuO{sub 2} and chloride-bearing salts for periods up to 500 days. The two flat coupons were placed so that the solid oxide/salt mixture contacted about one half of the coupon surface. One teardrop coupon was placed in contact with solid mixture; the second teardrop was in contact with the headspace gas only. The mixtures were loaded with nominally 0.5 wt % water under a helium atmosphere. Observations of corrosion ranged from superficial staining to pitting and SCC. The extent of corrosion depended on the total salt concentration and on the composition of the salt. The most significant corrosion was found in coupons that were exposed to 98 wt % PuO{sub 2}, 2 wt % chloride salt mixtures that contained calcium chloride. SCC was observed in two 304L stainless steel teardrop coupons exposed in solid contact to a mixture of 98 wt % PuO{sub 2}, 0.9 wt % NaCl, 0.9 wt % KCl, and 0.2 wt % CaCl{sub 2}. The cracking was associated with the heat-affected zone of an autogenous weld that ran across the center of the coupon. Cracking was not observed in coupons exposed to the headspace gas, nor in coupons exposed to other mixtures with either 0.92 wt% CaCl{sub 2} or no CaCl{sub 2}. The corrosion results point to the significance of the interaction between water loading and the concentration of the hydrating salt CaCl{sub 2} in the susceptibility of austenitic stainless steels to corrosion.

  14. Cold blast furnace syndrome: a new source of toxic inhalation by nitrogen oxides

    PubMed Central

    Tague, I; Llewellin, P; Burton, K; Buchan, R; Yates, D

    2004-01-01

    Methods: Fourteen workers developed acute respiratory symptoms shortly after exposure to "air blast" from blast furnace tuyeres. These included chest tightness, dyspnoea, rigors, and diaphoresis. Chest radiographs showed pulmonary infiltrates, and lung function a restrictive abnormality. This report includes a description of clinical features of the affected workers and elucidation of the probable cause of the outbreak. Results: Clinical features and occupational hygiene measurements suggested the most likely cause was inhalation of nitrogen oxides at high pressure and temperature. While the task could not be eliminated, engineering controls were implemented to control the hazard. No further cases have occurred. Conclusions: "Cold blast furnace syndrome" represents a previously undescribed hazard of blast furnace work, probably due to inhalation of nitrogen oxides. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute toxic inhalational injuries in blast furnace workers. PMID:15090669

  15. Thinner inhalation effects on oxidative stress and DNA repair in a rat model of abuse.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Alfaro, Minerva; Cárabez-Trejo, Alfonso; Gallegos-Corona, Marco-Antonio; Pedraza-Aboytes, Gustavo; Hernández-Chan, Nancy Georgina; Leo-Amador, Guillermo Enrique

    2010-04-01

    Humans can come into contact with thinner by occupational exposure or by intentional inhalation abuse. Numerous studies of workers for genotoxic effects of thinner exposure have yielded conflicting results, perhaps because co-exposure to variable other compounds cannot be avoided in workplace exposure studies. In contrast, there is no data concerning the genotoxic effects of intentional inhalation abuse. The aim of this project was to examine the genotoxic effects of thinner inhalation in an animal model of thinner abuse (rats exposed to 3000 ppm toluene, a high solvent concentration over a very short, 15 min time period, twice a day for 6 weeks). The data presented here provides evidence that thinner inhalation in our experimental conditions is able to induce weight loss, lung abnormalities and oxidative stress. This oxidative stress induces oxidative DNA damage that is not a characteristic feature of genotoxic damage. No significant difference in DNA damage and DNA repair (biomarkers of genotoxicity) in lymphocytes from thinner-treated and control rats was found. Lead treatment was used as a positive control in these assays. Finally, bone marrow was evaluated as a biomarker of cellular alteration associated with thinner inhalation. The observed absence of hemopoietic and genetic toxicity could be explained in part by the absence of benzene, the only carcinogenic component of thinner; however, benzene is no longer a common component of thinner. In conclusion, thinner did not cause genotoxic effects in an experimental model of intentional abuse despite the fact that thinner inhalation induces oxidative stress. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Biodistribution of inhaled metal oxide nanoparticles mimicking occupational exposure: a preliminary investigation using enhanced darkfield microscopy.

    PubMed

    Guttenberg, Marissa; Bezerra, Leonardo; Neu-Baker, Nicole M; Del Pilar Sosa Idelchik, María; Elder, Alison; Oberdörster, Günter; Brenner, Sara A

    2016-10-01

    Inhalation exposure to engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) may result in adverse pulmonary and/or systemic health effects. In this study, enhanced darkfield microscopy (EDFM) was used as a novel approach to visualizing industrial metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs) (silica, ceria, or alumina) in multiple tissue types following inhalation in rats mimicking occupational exposures. Advantages of EDFM over electron microscopy (EM) include reduced cost, time, and ease of sample preparation and operation. Following 4-6 hour inhalation exposures at three concentrations (3.5-34.0 mg/m(3) ), lungs and secondary organs were harvested at 24 hours or 7 days post-exposure and prepared for brightfield (BF) microscopy and EDFM. NPs were visualized within the lung and associated lymphatic tissues and in major organs of excretion (liver, spleen, kidney). EDFM also revealed NPs within pulmonary blood vessels and localization within specific regions of toxicological relevance in liver and kidney, indicating pathways of excretion. Results demonstrate the utility of EDFM for rapid direct visualization of NPs in various tissue types and suggest the potential for metal oxide NPs to distribute to secondary tissues following inhalation exposure. Confirmation of the composition, distribution, and relative abundance of inhaled NPs will be pursued by combining EDFM with hyperspectral imaging (HSI) and mapping.

  17. Organ weight changes in mice after long-term inhalation exposure to manganese oxides nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeman, T.; Buchtová, M.; Dočekal, B.; Míšek, I.; Navrátil, J.; Mikuška, P.; Šerý, O.; Večeřa, Z.

    2015-05-01

    Recently, it has been proven that manganese from inhaled particles of manganese compounds can accumulate in the internal organs of laboratory animals. Nevertheless, there were only a few researches dealing with changes in body morphology induced by inhalation of these particles, even though results of some studies indicate existence of such changes. The aim of our research was to assess the effect of inhaled manganese oxides nanoparticles on weight of internal organs. For this purpose a long-term inhalation experiment on laboratory mice was performed, during which the mice were exposed to MnO.Mn2O3 nanoparticles in concentration 2 × 106 particles/cm3 for 17 weeks, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Manganese oxides nanoparticles were synthesized continuously via aerosol route in a hot wall tube flow reactor using thermal decomposition of metal organic precursor manganese(II)acetylacetonate in the flow tube reactor at temperature 750 °C in the presence of 30 vol% of oxygen. It was proven that inhaled nanoparticles can influence the weight of internal organs of mice. Moreover, it was discovered that the resulting change in weight of selected organs is disproportional. The mice from the experimental group had statistically significantly lighter kidneys, liver and spleen and heavier pancreas compared to the mice from the control group.

  18. Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide (2016 Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In December 2016, EPA finalized its Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide. EPA’s evaluation was reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House Offices in October 2016, before public release. Consistent with the May 2009 IRIS asse...

  19. 75 FR 43535 - NIH Consensus Development Conference on Inhaled Nitric Oxide Therapy for Premature Infants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health NIH Consensus Development Conference on Inhaled Nitric..., brain development, and brain function. Nitric oxide is a chemical compound in gas form that is sometimes..., thereby reducing progression to bronchopulmonary dysplasia and improving long-term lung health and...

  20. Inhaled nitric oxide in preterm infants with prolonged preterm rupture of the membranes: a case series.

    PubMed

    Semberova, J; O'Donnell, S M; Franta, J; Miletin, J

    2015-04-01

    The available evidence does not support the routine use of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) in the care of premature infants. We present a case series of 22 preterm infants born after prolonged preterm premature rupture of membranes and oligohydramnios with respiratory failure. Oxygenation index decreased significantly after commencement of iNO.

  1. Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide (2016 Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In December 2016, EPA finalized its Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide. EPA’s evaluation was reviewed internally by EPA and by other federal agencies and White House Offices in October 2016, before public release. Consistent with the May 2009 IRIS asse...

  2. Influence of Sources on Plutonium Mobility and Oxidation State Transformations in Vadose Zone Sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan,D.; Powell, B.; Duff, M.; Demirkanli, D.; Denham, M.; Fjeld, R.; Molz, F.

    2007-01-01

    Well-defined solid sources of Pu(III) (PuCl3), Pu(IV) (Pu (NO3)4 and Pu (C2O4)2), and Pu(VI) (PuO2(NO3)2) were placed in lysimeters containing vadose zone sediments and exposed to natural weather conditions for 2 or 11 years. The objective of this study was to measure the release rate of Pu and the changes in the Pu oxidation states from these Pu sources with the intent to develop a reactive transport model source-term. Pu(III) and Pu(IV) sources had identical Pu concentration depth profiles and similar Pu release rates. Source release data indicate that PuIV(C2O4)2 was the least mobile, whereas PuVIO2(NO3)2 was the most mobile. Synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) revealed that Pu was very unevenly distributed on the sediment and Mn concentrations were too low (630 mg kg-1) and perhaps of the wrong mineralogy to influence Pu distribution. The high stability of sorbed Pu(IV) is proposed to be due to the formation of a stable hydrolyzed Pu(IV) surface species. Plutonium X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES) analysis conducted on sediment recovered at the end of the study from the PuIV(NO3)4- and PuIIICl3-amended lysimeters contained essentially identical Pu distributions: approximately 37% Pu(III), 67% Pu(IV), 0% Pu(V), and 0% Pu(VI). These results were similar to those using a wet chemistry Pu oxidation state assay, except the latter method did not detect any Pu(III) present on the sediment but instead indicated that 93-98% of the Pu existed as Pu(IV). This discrepancy was likely attributable to incomplete extraction of sediment Pu(III) by the wet chemistry method. Although Pu has been known to exist in the +3 oxidation state under microbially induced reducing conditions for decades, to our knowledge, this is the first observation of steady-state Pu(III) in association with natural sediments. On the basis of thermodynamic considerations, Pu(III) has a wide potential distribution, especially in acidic environments, and as such may warrant further

  3. Source Book on Plutonium and Its Decontamination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1973-09-24

    Data Entered) UNCLASIFIED 20. ABSTRACT (Continued) |development of the coupled differential equations, based on the 1965 and the proposed 1973...61 XV Some Foreign Plutonium Decontamination Standards . . ...... 63 XVI Variability of Sol Sampling Data .... ..... .... 64 XVII Criteria for...Scheduling Feces Samples . . .......... 66 XVIII Types of Data which may be Coliected for Plutonium Inhalation Incidents . 66 XIX Percent Efficiencies for

  4. Plutonium Oxide Containment and the Potential for Water-Borne Transport as a Consequence of ARIES Oxide Processing Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Wayne, David Matthew; Rowland, Joel C.

    2015-02-01

    The question of oxide containment during processing and storage has become a primary concern when considering the continued operability of the Plutonium Facility (PF-4) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). An Evaluation of the Safety of the Situation (ESS), “Potential for Criticality in a Glovebox Due to a Fire” (TA55-ESS-14-002-R2, since revised to R3) first issued in May, 2014 summarizes these concerns: “The safety issue of fire water potentially entering a glovebox is: the potential for the water to accumulate in the bottom of a glovebox and result in an inadvertent criticality due to the presence of fissionable materials in the glovebox locations and the increased reflection and moderation of neutrons from the fire water accumulation.” As a result, the existing documented safety analysis (DSA) was judged inadequate and, while it explicitly considered the potential for criticality resulting from water intrusion into gloveboxes, criticality safety evaluation documents (CSEDs) for the affected locations did not evaluate the potential for fire water intrusion into a glovebox.

  5. [A preliminary observation on the effects of inhaled nitric oxide on bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Yang, Y; Weng, X

    1995-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a vasodilator as well as a bronchodilator. In order to estimate the therapeutic effects of NO on bronchial asthma, 10 patients in acute exacerbation stage were selected for this study. 40 ppm NO was inhaled for 20 minutes. The clinical stage and pulmonary function were evaluated instantly. The results showed that subjective symptoms were relieved and wheezing rales decreased to a different extent, FEV1 and PEF improved significantly (P < 0.05). It is suggested that low concentration NO inhalation can be used as a therapeutic measure for bronchial asthma.

  6. Plutonium controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    The toxicity of plutonium is discussed, particularly in relation to controversies surrounding the setting of radiation protection standards. The sources, amounts of, and exposure pathways of plutonium are given and the public risk estimated. (ACR)

  7. Inhaled nitric oxide exacerbated phorbol-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hen I; Chu, Shi Jye; Hsu, Kang; Wang, David

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we determined the effect of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) on the acute lung injury induced by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) in isolated rat lung. Typical acute lung injury was induced successfully by PMA during 60 min of observation. PMA (2 microg/kg) elicited a significant increase in microvascular permeability, (measured using the capillary filtration coefficient Kfc), lung weight gain, lung weight/body weight ratio, pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) and protein concentration of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Pretreatment with inhaled NO (30 ppm) significantly exacerbated acute lung injury. All of the parameters reflective of lung injury increased significantly except PAP (P<0.05). Coadministration of Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (5 mM) attenuated the detrimental effect of inhaled NO in PMA-induced lung injury, except for PAP. In addition, L-NAME (5 mM) significantly attenuated PMA-induced acute lung injury except for PAP. These experimental data suggest that inhaled NO significantly exacerbated acute lung injury induced by PMA in rats. L-NAME attenuated the detrimental effect of inhaled NO.

  8. Effects of inhaled nitric oxide on regional blood flow are consistent with intravascular nitric oxidedelivery

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Richard O.; Schechter, Alan N.; Panza, Julio A.; Ognibene, Frederick P.; Pease-Fye, Margaret E.; Waclawiw, Myron A.; Shelhamer, James H.; Gladwin, Mark T.

    2001-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) may be stabilized by binding to hemoglobin, by nitrosating thiol-containing plasma molecules, or by conversion to nitrite, all reactions potentially preserving its bioactivity in blood. Here we examined the contribution of blood-transported NO to regional vascular tone in humans before and during NO inhalation. While breathing room air and then room air with NO at 80 parts per million, forearm blood flow was measured in 16 subjects at rest and after blockade of forearm NO synthesis with NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) followed by forearm exercise stress. L-NMMA reduced blood flow by 25% and increased resistance by 50%, an effect that was blocked by NO inhalation. With NO inhalation, resistance was significantly lower during L-NMMA infusion, both at rest and during repetitive hand-grip exercise. S-nitrosohemoglobin and plasma S-nitrosothiols did not change with NO inhalation. Arterial nitrite levels increased by 11% and arterial nitrosyl(heme)hemoglobin levels increased tenfold to the micromolar range, and both measures were consistently higher in the arterial than in venous blood. S-nitrosohemoglobin levels were in the nanomolar range, with no significant artery-to-vein gradients. These results indicate that inhaled NO during blockade of regional NO synthesis can supply intravascular NO to maintain normal vascular function. This effect may have application for the treatment of diseases characterized by endothelial dysfunction. PMID:11457881

  9. The Effect of Inhaled Nitric Oxide on Smoke Inhalation Injury in an Ovine Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-08-01

    maceuticals, West Orange, NJ), and bronchoalveolar lavage (1.5 mL/kg/ h ). (BAL) was performed under mechanical ventilation. Twenty milliliters of 0.9...carboxyhemoglobin levels, and platelet counts. Methe- moglobin in group 2 was significantly higher than in 10 group 1 at 3 hours and for the duration of the study...decreases free cytosolic calcium lev- moglobin with production of nitrite and nitrate, which es.4 - 6’ 27 Nitric oxide also appears to inhibit the are then

  10. Toxicity and bio-accumulation of inhaled cerium oxide nanoparticles in CD1 mice.

    PubMed

    Aalapati, Srinivas; Ganapathy, Selvam; Manapuram, Saikumar; Anumolu, Goparaju; Prakya, Balakrishna Murthy

    2014-11-01

    Male CD1 mice were subjected to nose-inhalation exposure of CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs) for 0, 7, 14 or 28 days with 14 or 28 days of recovery time at an aerosol concentration of 2 mg/m(3). Markers of lung injury and pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1beta, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6 and macrophage inflammatory protein-2) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), oxidative stress in lungs, bio-accumulation, and histopathology of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tissues were assessed. BALF analysis revealed the induction of pulmonary inflammation, as evident by an increase in the influx of neutrophils with a significant secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines that lead to generation of oxidative stress and cytotoxicity, as is evident by induction of lipid peroxidation, depletion of glutathione and increased BALF lactate dehydrogenase and protein. The histopathological examination revealed that these inhaled CeO2 NPs were located all over the pulmonary parenchyma, inducing a severe, chronic, active inflammatory response characterised by necrosis, proteinosis, fibrosis and well-formed discrete granulomas in the pulmonary tissue and tubular degeneration leading to coagulative necrosis in kidneys. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer results showed a significant bio-accumulation of these particles in the pulmonary and extrapulmonary tissues, even after one month of post-inhalation exposure. Together, these findings suggest that inhalation exposure of CeO2 NPs can induce pulmonary and extrapulmonary toxicity.

  11. PROCESS OF PRODUCING SHAPED PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Anicetti, R.J.

    1959-08-11

    A process is presented for producing and casting high purity plutonium metal in one step from plutonium tetrafluoride. The process comprises heating a mixture of the plutonium tetrafluoride with calcium while the mixture is in contact with and defined as to shape by a material obtained by firing a mixture consisting of calcium oxide and from 2 to 10% by its weight of calcium fluoride at from 1260 to 1370 deg C.

  12. Recent plutonium science and technology at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    Plutonium research and development (R and D) at ORNL has generally followed development of the nuclear fuel cycle. Basic plutonium chemistry studies have diminished since the mid-1970s; however, significant efforts have been made recently to determine fundamental characteristics of the aqueous plutonium polymer and to develop thermodynamic representations of plutonium oxides. Some studies have also been made on plutonium phosphates related to waste isolation and on definition of the oxidation states of environmental plutonium. The remaining work has been supported by the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program (CFRP) and includes: (1) establishment of boundary limits for polymer formation in Purex systems; (2) preparation of mixed uranium-plutonium oxide microspheres by internal gelation sol-gel techniques; (3) direct thermal denitration of aqueous systems; and (4) plutonium/uranium extraction from spent fast reactor fuels.

  13. Anti-oxidative aspect of inhaled anesthetic gases against acute brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tuo; Sun, Yang; Zhang, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Acute brain injury is a critical and emergent condition in clinical settings, which needs to be addressed urgently. Commonly acute brain injuries include traumatic brain injury, ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes. Oxidative stress is a key contributor to the subsequent injuries and impedes the reparative process after acute brain injury; therefore, facilitating an anti-oxidative approach is important in the care of those diseases. Readiness to deliver and permeability to blood brain barrier are essential for the use of this purpose. Inhaled anesthetic gases are a group of such agents. In this article, we discuss the anti-oxidative roles of anesthetic gases against acute brain injury. PMID:28217295

  14. Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Nose-Only Inhalation Exposures ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    There is a critical need to assess the health effects associated with exposure of commercially produced NPs across the size ranges reflective of that detected in the industrial sectors that are generating, as well as incorporating, NPs into products. Generation of stable and low concentrations of size-fractionated nanoscale aerosols in nose-only chambers can be difficult, and when the aerosol agglomerates during generation, the problems are significantly increased. One problem is that many nanoscale aerosol generators have higher aerosol output and/or airflow than can be accommodated by a nose-only inhalation chamber, requiring much of the generated aerosol to be diverted to exhaust. Another problem is that mixing vessels used to modulate the fluctuating output from aerosol generators can cause substantial wall losses, consuming much of the generated aerosol. Other available aerosol generation systems can produce nanoscale aerosols from nanoparticles (NPs), however these NPs are generated in real time and do not approximate the physical and chemical characteristics of NPs that are commercially produced exposing the workers and the public. The health effects associated with exposure to commercial NP production, which are more morphologically and size heterogeneous, is required for risk assessment. To overcome these problems, a low-consumption dry-particulate nanoscale aerosol generator was developed to deliver stable concentrations in the range of 10–5000 µg

  15. Americium characterization by X-ray fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy in plutonium uranium mixed oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Degueldre, Claude Cozzo, Cedric; Martin, Matthias; Grolimund, Daniel; Mieszczynski, Cyprian

    2013-06-01

    Plutonium uranium mixed oxide (MOX) fuels are currently used in nuclear reactors. The actinides in these fuels need to be analyzed after irradiation for assessing their behaviour with regard to their environment and the coolant. In this work the study of the atomic structure and next-neighbour environment of Am in the (Pu,U)O₂ lattice in an irradiated (60 MW d kg⁻¹) MOX sample was performed employing micro-X-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) and micro-X-ray absorption fine structure (µ-XAFS) spectroscopy. The chemical bonds, valences and stoichiometry of Am (~0.66 wt%) are determined from the experimental data gained for the irradiated fuel material examined in its peripheral zone (rim) of the fuel. In the irradiated sample Am builds up as Am³⁺ species within an [AmO₈]¹³⁻ coordination environment (e.g. >90%) and no (<10%) Am(IV) or (V) can be detected in the rim zone. The occurrence of americium dioxide is avoided by the redox buffering activity of the uranium dioxide matrix. - Graphical abstract: Americium LIII XAFS spectra recorded for the irradiated MOX sub-sample in the rim zone for a 300 μm×300 μm beam size area investigated over six scans of 4 h. The records remain constant during multi-scan. The analysis of the XAFS signal shows that Am is found as trivalent in the UO₂ matrix. This analytical work shall open the door of very challenging analysis (speciation of fission product and actinides) in irradiated nuclear fuels. - Highlights: • Americium was characterized by microX-ray absorption spectroscopy in irradiated MOX fuel. • The americium redox state as determined from XAS data of irradiated fuel material was Am(III). • In the sample, the Am³⁺ face an AmO₈¹³⁻coordination environment in the (Pu,U)O₂ matrix. • The americium dioxide is reduced by the uranium dioxide matrix.

  16. Effects of nitric oxide inhalation on pulmonary serial vascular resistances in ARDS.

    PubMed

    Rossetti, M; Guénard, H; Gabinski, C

    1996-11-01

    The pulmonary vasculature site of action of nitric oxide (NO) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is still unknown. Seven patients were studied during the early stage of ARDS. The bedside pulmonary artery single-occlusion technique, which allows estimation of the pulmonary capillary pressure (Pcap) and segmental pulmonary vascular resistance, was used without NO or with increasing inhaled NO concentrations (15 and 25 parts per million [ppm]). Systemic circulatory parameters remained unaltered during 15 ppm NO inhalation, whereas 25 ppm NO inhalation slightly decreased mean systemic arterial pressure from 76.7 +/- 5.1 (mean +/- SEM) to 69 +/- 5.2 mm Hg (p < 0.01). Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppam) and mean pulmonary capillary pressure (Pcapm) fell during 25 ppm NO inhalation from 27.4 +/- 3.5 to 21 +/- 2.2 mm Hg (p < 0.001) and from 14.8 +/- 1.5 to 10.7 +/- 1.4 mm Hg (p < 0.001) respectively, the total pulmonary resistance decreased by 28% (p < 0.01). The resistance of the capillary-venous compartment fell during 25 ppm NO inhalation from 100 +/- 16 to 47 +/- 16 dyn x s x m(2) x cm(-5) (p < 0.01), whereas the pulmonary arterial resistance was unchanged. In these patients NO inhalation during the early stage of ARDS reduces selectively Ppam and Pcapm by decreasing the pulmonary capillary-venous resistance. This latter effect may reduce the filtration through the capillary bed and hence alveolar edema during ARDS.

  17. Effects of nitric oxide inhalation on pulmonary gas exchange during exercise in highly trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Durand, F; Mucci, P; Safont, L; Prefaut, C

    1999-02-01

    The pathophysiology of exercise-induced hypoxaemia in elite athletes is still unclear but several studies indicate that a diffusion limitation, which could be explained by an interstitial pulmonary oedema, is a major contributing factor. Stress failure would induce a haemodynamical interstitial oedema with inflammatory reaction and release of mediators like histamine. Histamine release was found to be correlated with the hypoxaemia in elite athletes. If stress failure is involved, inhalation of pulmonary vasodilatators such as nitric oxide during exercise in athletes should induce an inhibition of the histamine release and a reversal of the hypoxaemia. Nine male endurance-trained young athletes performed two randomized exercise tests: one without and the other with 15 p.p.m. of inhaled NO. Measurements of histamine release and arterial blood gas analysis were performed at rest and at 50, 75 and 100% VO2max. At rest, inhaled NO induced a decrease in PaO2 and an increase in (Ai-a)DO2 suggesting increased perfusion of units with low V(A)/Q. During exercise, NO inhalation suppressed the histamine release observed without NO and induced a moderation in the decrease in PaO2 and the increase in (Ai-a)DO2 observed between 75 and 100% of VO2max (P < 0.005). In conclusion, this study showed that NO inhalation inhibited exercise-induced histamine release in highly trained athletes, but we were unable to confirm the suppression of exercise-induced hypoxaemia (EIH). An unexpected result was that inhaled NO seemed to have a marked effect on arterial oxygenation in highly trained-athletes, by disturbing gas exchanges.

  18. Plutonium dissolution process

    DOEpatents

    Vest, Michael A.; Fink, Samuel D.; Karraker, David G.; Moore, Edwin N.; Holcomb, H. Perry

    1996-01-01

    A two-step process for dissolving plutonium metal, which two steps can be carried out sequentially or simultaneously. Plutonium metal is exposed to a first mixture containing approximately 1.0M-1.67M sulfamic acid and 0.0025M-0.1M fluoride, the mixture having been heated to a temperature between 45.degree. C. and 70.degree. C. The mixture will dissolve a first portion of the plutonium metal but leave a portion of the plutonium in an oxide residue. Then, a mineral acid and additional fluoride are added to dissolve the residue. Alteratively, nitric acid in a concentration between approximately 0.05M and 0.067M is added to the first mixture to dissolve the residue as it is produced. Hydrogen released during the dissolution process is diluted with nitrogen.

  19. Inhaled nitric oxide in premature infants: effect on tracheal aspirate and plasma nitric oxide metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Posencheg, M A; Gow, A J; Truog, W E; Ballard, R A; Cnaan, A; Golombek, S G; Ballard, P L

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is a potential new therapy for prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia and brain injury in premature infants. This study examined dose-related effects of iNO on NO metabolites as evidence of NO delivery. Study Design: A subset of 102 premature infants in the NO CLD trial, receiving 24 days of iNO (20 p.p.m. decreasing to 2 p.p.m.) or placebo, were analyzed. Tracheal aspirate (TA) and plasma samples collected at enrollment and at intervals during study gas were analyzed for NO metabolites. Result: iNO treatment increased NO metabolites in TA at 20 and 10 p.p.m. (1.7- to 2.3-fold vs control) and in plasma at 20, 10, and 5 p.p.m. (1.6- to 2.3-fold). In post hoc analysis, treated infants with lower metabolite levels at entry had an improved clinical outcome. Conclusion: iNO causes dose-related increases in NO metabolites in the circulation as well as lung fluid, as evidenced by TA analysis, showing NO delivery to these compartments. PMID:19812581

  20. A calibration to predict the concentrations of impurities in plutonium oxide by prompt gamma analysis: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Narlesky, Joshua E.; Foster, Lynn A.; Kelly, Elizabeth J.; Murray, Roy E., IV

    2009-12-01

    Over 5,500 containers of excess plutonium-bearing materials have been packaged for long-term storage following the requirements of DOE-STD- 3013. Knowledge of the chemical impurities in the packaged materials is important because certain impurities, such as chloride salts, affect the behavior of the material in storage leading to gas generation and corrosion when sufficient moisture also is present. In most cases, the packaged materials are not well characterized, and information about the chemical impurities is limited to knowledge of the material’s processing history. The alpha-particle activity from the plutonium and americium isotopes provides a method of nondestructive self-interrogation to identify certain light elements through the characteristic, prompt gamma rays that are emitted from alpha-particle-induced reactions with these elements. Gamma-ray spectra are obtained for each 3013 container using a highresolution, coaxial high-purity germanium detector. These gamma-ray spectra are scanned from 800 to 5,000 keV for characteristic, prompt gamma rays from the detectable elements, which include lithium, beryllium, boron, nitrogen, oxygen, fluorine, sodium, magnesium, aluminum, silicon, phosphorus, chlorine, and potassium. The lower limits of detection for these elements in a plutonium-oxide matrix increase with atomic number and range from 100 or 200 ppm for the lightest elements such as lithium and beryllium, to 19,000 ppm for potassium. The peak areas from the characteristic, prompt gamma rays can be used to estimate the concentration of the light-element impurities detected in the material on a semiquantitative basis. The use of prompt gamma analysis to assess impurity concentrations avoids the expense and the risks generally associated with performing chemical analysis on radioactive materials. The analyzed containers are grouped by impurity content, which helps to identify high-risk containers for surveillance and in sorting materials before packaging.

  1. Quantitative cancer risk assessment for ethylene oxide inhalation in occupational settings.

    PubMed

    Valdez-Flores, Ciriaco; Sielken, Robert L; Teta, M Jane

    2011-10-01

    The estimated occupational ethylene oxide (EO) exposure concentrations corresponding to specified extra risks are calculated for lymphoid mortality as the most appropriate endpoint, despite the lack of a statistically significant exposure-response relationship. These estimated concentrations are for occupational exposures--40 years of occupational inhalation exposure to EO from age 20 to age 60 years. The estimated occupational inhalation exposure concentrations (ppm) corresponding to specified extra risks of lymphoid mortality to age 70 years in a population of male and female EO workers are based on Cox proportional hazards models of the most recent updated epidemiology cohort mortality studies of EO workers and a standard life-table calculation. An occupational exposure at an inhalation concentration of 2.77 ppm EO is estimated to result in an extra risk of lymphoid mortality of 4 in 10,000 (0.0004) in the combined worker population of men and women from the two studies. The corresponding estimated concentration decreases slightly to 2.27 ppm when based on only the men in the updated cohorts combined. The difference in these estimates reflects the difference between combining all of the available data or focusing on only the men and excluding the women who did not show an increase in lymphoid mortality with EO inhalation exposure. The results of sensitivity analyses using other mortality endpoints (all lymphohematopoietic tissue cancers, leukemia) support the choice of lymphoid tumor mortality for estimation of extra risk.

  2. Greater nasal nitric oxide output during inhalation: Effects on air temperature and water content

    PubMed Central

    Holden, William E.; Sippel, Jeffrey M.; Nelson, Bella; Giraud, George D.

    2010-01-01

    The nose conditions the temperature and humidity of nasal air, and the nasal mucosal vasculature supplies heat and water for these processes. We hypothesize that nitric oxide (NO) modulates these processes through vasoactive effects on nasal mucosal vasculature. We measured the temperature, humidity and NO concentrations of nasal air during inhalation and exhalation across the nose and calculated net heat, water and NO output before (controls, n = 7) and after inhibition of NO synthase by topical L-NAME (N=5) in healthy humans. We found that calculated NO output across the nasal passages is approximately three-fold greater during inhalation (503 ± 105 nL/min) compared with exhalation (162 ± 56 nL/min). Moreover, topical administration of L-NAME decreased nasal air temperature and humidity conditioning and NO output, but these effects were limited to inhalation. We conclude that nasal NO output is greater during inhalation than exhalation in humans. Our findings also support a role of nasal NO in temperature and humidity conditioning of nasal air. PMID:18952009

  3. Inhaled Cadmium Oxide Nanoparticles: Their in Vivo Fate and Effect on Target Organs

    PubMed Central

    Dumkova, Jana; Vrlikova, Lucie; Vecera, Zbynek; Putnova, Barbora; Docekal, Bohumil; Mikuska, Pavel; Fictum, Petr; Hampl, Ales; Buchtova, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    The increasing amount of heavy metals used in manufacturing equivalently increases hazards of environmental pollution by industrial products such as cadmium oxide (CdO) nanoparticles. Here, we aimed to unravel the CdO nanoparticle destiny upon their entry into lungs by inhalations, with the main focus on the ultrastructural changes that the nanoparticles may cause to tissues of the primary and secondary target organs. We indeed found the CdO nanoparticles to be transported from the lungs into secondary target organs by blood. In lungs, inhaled CdO nanoparticles caused significant alterations in parenchyma tissue including hyperemia, enlarged pulmonary septa, congested capillaries, alveolar emphysema and small areas of atelectasis. Nanoparticles were observed in the cytoplasm of cells lining bronchioles, in the alveolar spaces as well as inside the membranous pneumocytes and in phagosomes of lung macrophages. Nanoparticles even penetrated through the membrane into some organelles including mitochondria and they also accumulated in the cytoplasmic vesicles. In livers, inhalation caused periportal inflammation and local hepatic necrosis. Only minor changes such as diffusely thickened filtration membrane with intramembranous electron dense deposits were observed in kidney. Taken together, inhaled CdO nanoparticles not only accumulated in lungs but they were also transported to other organs causing serious damage at tissue as well as cellular level. PMID:27271611

  4. Effect of nitric oxide inhalation on gas exchange in acute severe pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Federico P; Amado, Veronica M; Roca, Josep; Torres, Antoni; Nicolas, Josep M; Rodriguez-Roisin, Robert; Barberà, Joan A

    2013-06-15

    Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) causes selective pulmonary vasodilatation and may improve gas exchange. The study was aimed to evaluate the acute effects of inhaled NO on pulmonary gas exchange in severe unilateral pneumonia, where hypoxemia results from increased intrapulmonary shunt. We studied 8 patients without preexisting lung disease (59±18 yr; 4M/4F) with early unilateral severe pneumonia and respiratory failure. Pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics and gas exchange, including ventilation-perfusion (V;A/Q;) distributions, were measured at baseline and while breathing 5 and 40 parts per million (ppm) of NO. Inhaled NO caused a dose-dependent fall in pulmonary vascular resistance (by 12% and 21%, with 5 and 40ppm, respectively; p<0.01, each) and improvement of PaO2 (by 25% and 23%; p<0.05, each), owing to the reduction of intrapulmonary shunt (by 23% and 27%; p<0.05, each), without changes in the amount of perfusion to low V;A/Q; ratio alveolar units. Patients with greater baseline intrapulmonary shunt exhibited greater improvement in arterial oxygenation (r(2)=0.55, p<0.05). We conclude that low doses of inhaled NO improve pulmonary gas exchange in acute severe pneumonia.

  5. Greater nasal nitric oxide output during inhalation: effects on air temperature and water content.

    PubMed

    Holden, William E; Sippel, Jeffrey M; Nelson, Bella; Giraud, George D

    2009-01-01

    The nose conditions the temperature and humidity of nasal air, and the nasal mucosal vasculature supplies heat and water for these processes. We hypothesize that nitric oxide (NO) modulates these processes through vasoactive effects on nasal mucosal vasculature. We measured the temperature, humidity and NO concentrations of nasal air during inhalation and exhalation across the nose and calculated net heat, water and NO output before (controls, n=7) and after inhibition of NO synthase by topical l-NAME (N=5) in healthy humans. We found that calculated NO output across the nasal passages is approximately three-fold greater during inhalation (503+/-105 nL/min) compared with exhalation (162+/-56 nL/min). Moreover, topical administration of l-NAME decreased nasal air temperature and humidity conditioning and NO output, but these effects were limited to inhalation. We conclude that nasal NO output is greater during inhalation than exhalation in humans. Our findings also support a role of nasal NO in temperature and humidity conditioning of nasal air.

  6. Inhaled Cadmium Oxide Nanoparticles: Their in Vivo Fate and Effect on Target Organs.

    PubMed

    Dumkova, Jana; Vrlikova, Lucie; Vecera, Zbynek; Putnova, Barbora; Docekal, Bohumil; Mikuska, Pavel; Fictum, Petr; Hampl, Ales; Buchtova, Marcela

    2016-06-03

    The increasing amount of heavy metals used in manufacturing equivalently increases hazards of environmental pollution by industrial products such as cadmium oxide (CdO) nanoparticles. Here, we aimed to unravel the CdO nanoparticle destiny upon their entry into lungs by inhalations, with the main focus on the ultrastructural changes that the nanoparticles may cause to tissues of the primary and secondary target organs. We indeed found the CdO nanoparticles to be transported from the lungs into secondary target organs by blood. In lungs, inhaled CdO nanoparticles caused significant alterations in parenchyma tissue including hyperemia, enlarged pulmonary septa, congested capillaries, alveolar emphysema and small areas of atelectasis. Nanoparticles were observed in the cytoplasm of cells lining bronchioles, in the alveolar spaces as well as inside the membranous pneumocytes and in phagosomes of lung macrophages. Nanoparticles even penetrated through the membrane into some organelles including mitochondria and they also accumulated in the cytoplasmic vesicles. In livers, inhalation caused periportal inflammation and local hepatic necrosis. Only minor changes such as diffusely thickened filtration membrane with intramembranous electron dense deposits were observed in kidney. Taken together, inhaled CdO nanoparticles not only accumulated in lungs but they were also transported to other organs causing serious damage at tissue as well as cellular level.

  7. Potential hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures in legacy plutonium oxide packages at Oak Ridge

    SciTech Connect

    Veirs, Douglas K.

    2014-07-07

    An approach to estimate the maximum hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures within sealed containers is described and applied to a set of packages containing high-purity plutonium dioxide. The approach uses experimentally determined maximum hydrogen and oxygen partial pressures and scales the experimentally determined pressures to the relevant packaged material properties. The important material properties are the specific wattage and specific surface area (SSA). Important results from the experimental determination of maximum partial pressures are (1) the ratio of hydrogen to oxygen is stoichiometric, and (2) the maximum pressures increase with increasing initial rates of production. The material properties that influence the rates are the material specific wattage and the SSA. The unusual properties of these materials, high specific wattage and high SSA, result in higher predicted maximum pressures than typical plutonium dioxide in storage. The pressures are well within the deflagration range for mixtures of hydrogen and oxygen.

  8. PREPARATION OF HALIDES OF PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Garner, C.S.; Johns, I.B.

    1958-09-01

    A dry chemical method is described for preparing plutonium halides, which consists in contacting plutonyl nitrate with dry gaseous HCl or HF at an elevated temperature. The addition to the reaction gas of a small quantity of an oxidizing gas or a reducing gas will cause formation of the tetra- or tri-halide of plutonium as desired.

  9. Oxidative stress markers in Thoroughbred horses after castration surgery under inhalation anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Tsuzuki, Nao; Sasaki, Naoki; Kusano, Kanichi; Endo, Yoshiro; Torisu, Shidow

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been reported to occur during surgery. It is important to reduce intraoperative oxidative stress to improve the postoperative prognosis. However, there are no reports regarding oxidative stress related to surgery in horses. In the present study, we measured pre and postsurgical diacron-reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP); the oxidative stress index (OSI) was then calculated (OSI=d-ROMs/BAP × 100). d-ROMs were not significantly different between the pre and postsurgical periods. However, BAP significantly decreased after surgery (P=0.02), and OSI significantly increased after surgery (P=0.02). Based on these results, it suggested that castration surgery under inhalation anesthesia decreases the antioxidant potential and causes oxidative stress in horses.

  10. Oxidative stress markers in Thoroughbred horses after castration surgery under inhalation anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    TSUZUKI, Nao; SASAKI, Naoki; KUSANO, Kanichi; ENDO, Yoshiro; TORISU, Shidow

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oxidative stress has been reported to occur during surgery. It is important to reduce intraoperative oxidative stress to improve the postoperative prognosis. However, there are no reports regarding oxidative stress related to surgery in horses. In the present study, we measured pre and postsurgical diacron-reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP); the oxidative stress index (OSI) was then calculated (OSI=d-ROMs/BAP × 100). d-ROMs were not significantly different between the pre and postsurgical periods. However, BAP significantly decreased after surgery (P=0.02), and OSI significantly increased after surgery (P=0.02). Based on these results, it suggested that castration surgery under inhalation anesthesia decreases the antioxidant potential and causes oxidative stress in horses. PMID:27330401

  11. OXIDATIVE STRESS IN A RAT MODEL OF COTTON SMOKE INHALATION-INDUCED PULMONARY INJURY.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhi-Hai; Jiang, Yi; Duan, Yun-You; Wang, Xiao-Yang; Huang, Yan; Fang, Ting-Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury refers to airway and lung parenchyma injury and general chemical damage caused by inhaling toxic gases and substances. The aim of this study was to explore the oxidative stress mechanism of cotton smoke inhalation-induced pulmonary injury in a rat model. Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group, 6 h group, and 24 h group (six rats in each group), which duplicated previous rat cotton smoke-inhalation injury models. Rats in 6 h and 24 h groups were euthanised at 6 h and 24 h after smoke inhalation, respectively. ELISA method was used to detect indicators in the rats' lung tissue. Quantitative iNOS mRNA and γ-GCS mRNA measurements were performed using a fluorescence PCR method. The concentrations of MDA, NO, iNOS, γ-GCS, iNOS mRNA, and the relative expression of γ-GCS mRNA in the rats' lung tissues in 6 h and 24 h groups were higher than control group (P < 0.05), and the concentration of NO and relative expressions of iNOS mRNA and γ-GCS mRNA in 24 h group were significantly higher than 6 h group (P < 0.05). The concentrations of GSH in 24 h and 6 h groups were significantly lower than control group (P < 0.05), and that in 24 h group was even significantly lower than 6 h group (P < 0.05). In rats with cotton smoke inhalation-induced pulmonary injury, the increased iNOS mRNA transcription can cause increase of iNOS synthesis and promotion of NO synthesis. The increased γ-GCS mRNA transcription can cause increase of γ-GCS synthesis and but decrease of GSH concentration. The activation of the antioxidant system is insufficient to combat oxidative stress damage. So the oxidant/antioxidant system is imbalanced, leading to gradual aggravation of lung injury.

  12. Room-temperature oxidation of hypostoichiometric uranium-plutonium mixed oxides U1-yPuyO2-x - A depth-selective approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vauchy, Romain; Robisson, Anne-Charlotte; Belin, Renaud C.; Martin, Philippe M.; Scheinost, Andreas C.; Hodaj, Fiqiri

    2015-10-01

    In the present work, TGA, XAS and XRD were used to evidence the spontaneous oxidation of biphasic U1-yPuyO2-x samples, with y = 0.28 and 0.45, at room temperature and upon exposure to low moisture and oxygen contents. The oxidation occurs within very short timescales (e.g. O/M ratio increasing from 1.94 to 1.98 within ∼1 μm surface layer in ∼50 h). The combined use of these three complementary methods offered a depth-selective approach from the sample's bulk to its surface and allowed a thorough understanding of the underlying processes involved during the formation of the oxidized layer and of its thickening with time. We believe our results to be of interest in the prospect of fabricating hypo-stoichiometric uranium-plutonium mixed oxides since mastering the oxygen content is a crucial point for many of the fuel properties.

  13. The Biological Chemistry of Nitric Oxide as It Pertains to the Extrapulmonary Effects of Inhaled Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Gow, Andrew J.

    2006-01-01

    The chemical properties of nitric oxide (NO) have been studied for over 200 years. However, it is only within the last 20 years that the biological implications of this chemistry have been considered. The classical model of NO action within the vasculature centers on production in the endothelium, diffusion to the smooth muscle, and subsequent activation of guanylate cyclase via binding to its heme iron. In the context of this model, it is difficult to conceptualize extrapulmonary effects of inhaled NO. However, NO possesses complex redox chemistry and is capable of forming a range of nitrogen oxide species and is therefore capable of interacting with a variety of biomolecules. Of particular interest is its reaction with reduced cysteine to form an S-nitrosothiol (SNO). SNOs are formed throughout NO biology and are a post-translational modification that has been shown to regulate many proteins under physiologic conditions. Hemoglobin, which was considered to be solely a consumer of NO, can form SNO in a conformationally dependent manner, which allows for the transport of inhaled NO beyond the realm of the lung. Higher oxides of nitrogen are capable of modifying proteins via nitration of tyrosines, which has been shown to occur under pathologic conditions. By virtue of its redox reactivity, one can appreciate that inhaled NO has a variety of routes by which it can act and that these routes may lead to extrapulmonary effects. PMID:16565423

  14. The biological chemistry of nitric oxide as it pertains to the extrapulmonary effects of inhaled nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Gow, Andrew J

    2006-04-01

    The chemical properties of nitric oxide (NO) have been studied for over 200 years. However, it is only within the last 20 years that the biological implications of this chemistry have been considered. The classical model of NO action within the vasculature centers on production in the endothelium, diffusion to the smooth muscle, and subsequent activation of guanylate cyclase via binding to its heme iron. In the context of this model, it is difficult to conceptualize extrapulmonary effects of inhaled NO. However, NO possesses complex redox chemistry and is capable of forming a range of nitrogen oxide species and is therefore capable of interacting with a variety of biomolecules. Of particular interest is its reaction with reduced cysteine to form an S-nitrosothiol (SNO). SNOs are formed throughout NO biology and are a post-translational modification that has been shown to regulate many proteins under physiologic conditions. Hemoglobin, which was considered to be solely a consumer of NO, can form SNO in a conformationally dependent manner, which allows for the transport of inhaled NO beyond the realm of the lung. Higher oxides of nitrogen are capable of modifying proteins via nitration of tyrosines, which has been shown to occur under pathologic conditions. By virtue of its redox reactivity, one can appreciate that inhaled NO has a variety of routes by which it can act and that these routes may lead to extrapulmonary effects.

  15. Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is initiating a public comment period prior to peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of ethylene oxide (cancer) that will appear in the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. EPA seeks external peer review on how the Agency responded to the SAB panel recommendations, the exposure-response modeling of epidemiologic data, including new analyses since the 2007 external peer review, and on the adequacy, transparency, and clarity of the revised draft. The peer review will include an opportunity for the public to address the peer reviewers.

  16. Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is initiating a public comment period prior to peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of ethylene oxide (cancer) that will appear in the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. EPA seeks external peer review on how the Agency responded to the SAB panel recommendations, the exposure-response modeling of epidemiologic data, including new analyses since the 2007 external peer review, and on the adequacy, transparency, and clarity of the revised draft. The peer review will include an opportunity for the public to address the peer reviewers.

  17. Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is seeking peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of ethylene oxide (cancer) that will appear in the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. EPA seeks external peer review on how the Agency responded to the SAB panel recommendations, the exposure-response modeling of epidemiologic data, including new analyses since the 2007 external peer review, and on the adequacy, transparency, and clarity of the revised draft. The peer review will include an opportunity for the public to address the peer reviewers.

  18. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Kimball, David Bryan; Skidmore, Bradley Evan

    2016-06-22

    Acqueous Chloride mission is to recover plutonium and americium from pyrochemical residues (undesirable form for utilization and storage) and generate plutonium oxide and americium oxide. Plutonium oxide is recycled into Pu metal production flowsheet. It is suitable for storage. Americium oxide is a valuable product, sold through the DOE-OS isotope sales program.

  19. The feasibility of using molten carbonate corrosion for separating a nuclear surrogate for plutonium oxide from silicon carbide inert matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ting; Baney, Ronald H.; Tulenko, James

    2010-10-01

    Silicon carbide is one of the prime candidates as a matrix material in inert matrix fuels (IMF) being designed to reduce the plutonium inventories. Since complete fission and transmutation is not practical in a single in-core run, it is necessary to separate the non-transmuted actinide materials from the silicon carbide matrix for recycling. In this work, SiC was corroded in sodium carbonate (Na 2CO 3) and potassium carbonate (K 2CO 3), to form water soluble sodium or potassium silicate. Separation of the transuranics was achieved by dissolving the SiC corrosion product in boiling water. Ceria (CeO 2), which was used as a surrogate for plutonium oxide (PuO 2), was not corroded in these molten salt environments. The molten salt depth, which is a distance between the salt/air interface to the upper surface of SiC pellets, significantly affected the rate of corrosion. The corrosion was faster in K 2CO 3 than in Na 2CO 3 molten salt at 1050 °C, when the initial molten salt depths were kept the same for both salts.

  20. Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On September 22, 2006, the draft Evaluation of the Carinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide (EPA/635/R-06/003) and the draft charge to external peer reviewers were released for external peer review and public comment. This draft was reviewed by EPA’s Science Advisory Board (SAB) and the expert panel’s final report was made available December 21, 2007. Since that time the Agency implemented the May 2009 IRIS assessment development process in which other federal agencies and the Executive Offices of the President are provided two opportunities to comment on IRIS human health assessments; Interagency Science Consultation (Step 3) prior to public comment/peer review and Interagency Science Discussion (Step 6b) following peer review. In July, 2011, the draft assessment incorporating the SAB recommendations (December 2007) was sent to other federal agencies and Executive Offices of the President as part of Step 6 of the IRIS process. Following the May 2009 process, all written comments submitted by other agencies will be made publicly available. Accordingly, the interagency comments for ethylene oxide and the interagency science discussion materials provided to the other agencies are posted on this site. Note: After further consideration EPA has decided to undertake an additional peer review of the revised draft assessment on how the Agency responded to the SAB panel recommendations (December 2007), the exposure-response modeling of epidemiologic data, including n

  1. ADSORPTION-BISMUTH PHOSPHATE METHOD FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Russell, E.R.; Adamson, A.W.; Boyd, G.E.

    1960-06-28

    A process is given for separating plutonium from uranium and fission products. Plutonium and uranium are adsorbed by a cation exchange resin, plutonium is eluted from the adsorbent, and then, after oxidation to the hexavalent state, the plutonium is contacted with a bismuth phosphate carrier precipitate.

  2. Toxicologic evaluation of tungsten: 28-day inhalation study of tungsten blue oxide in rats.

    PubMed

    Rajendran, Narayanan; Hu, Shu-Chieh; Sullivan, Dennis; Muzzio, Miguel; Detrisac, Carol J; Venezia, Carmen

    2012-12-01

    The toxicity and toxicokinetics of tungsten blue oxide (TBO) were examined. TBO is an intermediate in the production of tungsten powder, and has shown the potential to cause cellular damage in in vitro studies. However, in vivo evidence seems to indicate a lack of adverse effects. The present study was undertaken to address the dearth of longer-term inhalation toxicity studies of tungsten oxides by investigating the biological responses induced by TBO when administered via nose-only inhalation to rats at levels of 0.08, 0.325, and 0.65 mg TBO/L of air for 6 h/day for 28 consecutive days, followed by a 14-day recovery period. Inhaled TBO was absorbed systemically and blood levels of tungsten increased as inhaled concentration increased. Among the tissues analyzed for tungsten levels, lung, femur and kidney showed increased levels, with lung at least an order of magnitude greater than kidney or femur. By exposure day 14, tungsten concentration in tissues had reached steady-state. Increased lung weight was noted for both terminal and recovery animals and was attributed to deposition of TBO in the lungs, inducing a macrophage influx. Microscopic evaluation of tissues revealed a dose-related increase in alveolar pigmented macrophages, alveolar foreign material and individual alveolar foamy macrophages in lung. After a recovery period there was a slight reduction in the incidence and severity of histopathological findings. Based on the absence of other adverse effects, the increased lung weights and the microscopic findings were interpreted as nonadverse response to exposure and were not considered a specific reaction to TBO.

  3. Evaluation of Pulmonary Toxicity of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Following Inhalation and Intratracheal Instillation

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Yasuo; Izumi, Hiroto; Yoshiura, Yukiko; Tomonaga, Taisuke; Oyabu, Takako; Myojo, Toshihiko; Kawai, Kazuaki; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Shimada, Manabu; Kubo, Masaru; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Kitajima, Shinichi; Kuroda, Etsushi; Kawaguchi, Kenji; Sasaki, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    We conducted inhalation and intratracheal instillation studies of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in order to examine their pulmonary toxicity. F344 rats were received intratracheal instillation at 0.2 or 1 mg of ZnO nanoparticles with a primary diameter of 35 nm that were well-dispersed in distilled water. Cell analysis and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were analyzed at three days, one week, one month, three months, and six months after the instillation. As the inhalation study, rats were exposed to a concentration of inhaled ZnO nanoparticles (2 and 10 mg/m3) for four weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week). The same endpoints as in the intratracheal instillation study were analyzed at three days, one month, and three months after the end of the exposure. In the intratracheal instillation study, both the 0.2 and the 1.0 mg ZnO groups had a transient increase in the total cell and neutrophil count in the BALF and in the expression of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1, CINC-2, chemokine for neutrophil, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an oxidative stress marker, in the BALF. In the inhalation study, transient increases in total cell and neutrophil count, CINC-1,-2 and HO-1 in the BALF were observed in the high concentration groups. Neither of the studies of ZnO nanoparticles showed persistent inflammation in the rat lung, suggesting that well-dispersed ZnO nanoparticles have low toxicity. PMID:27490535

  4. Preferential decorporation of americium by pulmonary administration of DTPA dry powder after inhalation of aged PuO(2) containing americium in rats.

    PubMed

    Grémy, Olivier; Tsapis, Nicolas; Chau, Quang; Renault, Daniel; Abram, Marie-Claire; Van der Meeren, Anne

    2010-11-01

    After inhalation of plutonium oxides containing various percentages of americium in rats, we identified an acellular transient pulmonary compartment, the epithelial lining fluid (ELF), in which a fraction of actinide oxides dissolve prior to absorption and subsequent extrapulmonary deposit. Chelation therapy is usually considered to be poorly efficient after inhalation of actinide oxides. However, in the present study, prompt pulmonary administration of diethylenetraminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) as a dry powder led to a decrease in actinide content in ELF together with a limitation of bone and liver deposits. Because americium is more soluble than plutonium, higher amounts of americium were found in ELF, extrapulmonary tissues and urine. Our results also demonstrated that the higher efficacy of DTPA on americium compared to plutonium in ELF induced a preferential inhibition of extrapulmonary deposit and a greater urinary excretion of americium compared to plutonium. All together, our data justify the use of an early and local DTPA treatment after inhalation of plutonium oxide aerosols in which americium can be in high proportion such as in aged compounds.

  5. Evaluation of existing United States` facilities for use as a mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility for plutonium disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Beard, C.A.; Buksa, J.J.; Chidester, K.; Eaton, S.L.; Motley, F.E.; Siebe, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    A number of existing US facilities were evaluated for use as a mixed-oxide fuel fabrication facility for plutonium disposition. These facilities include the Fuels Material Examination Facility (FMEF) at Hanford, the Washington Power Supply Unit 1 (WNP-1) facility at Hanford, the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP) at Barnwell, SC, the Fuel Processing Facility (FPF) at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), and the P-reactor at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The study consisted of evaluating each facility in terms of available process space, available building support systems (i.e., HVAC, security systems, existing process equipment, etc.), available regional infrastructure (i.e., emergency response teams, protective force teams, available transportation routes, etc.), and ability to integrate the MOX fabrication process into the facility in an operationally-sound manner that requires a minimum amount of structural modifications.

  6. Effect of Inhaled β2-Agonist on Exhaled Nitric Oxide in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Amer, Mostafa; Cowan, Jan; Gray, Andrew; Brockway, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The fractional exhaled nitric oxide measured at an expiratory flow of 50mL/s (FENO50) is a marker of airway inflammation, and high levels are associated with greater response to steroid treatment. In asthma, FENO50 increases with bronchodilation and decreases with bronchoconstriction, the latter potentially causing an underestimate of the degree of airway inflammation when asthma worsens. It is unknown whether the same effect occurs in chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). Likewise, it is not known whether changes in airway calibre in COPD patients alter flow-independent parameters describing pulmonary nitric oxide exchange, such as the maximal flux of nitric oxide (NO) from the proximal airway compartment (J’awNO) and the distal airway/alveolar concentration of NO (CANO). We recruited 24 patients with COPD and performed FENO analysis at multiple expiratory flows before and after treatment with inhaled β2-agonist bronchodilator therapy. For the 21 patients analysed, FENO50 rose from 17.1 (1.4) ppb (geometric mean (geometric SD)) at baseline, to 19.3 (1.3) ppb after bronchodilator therapy, an increase of 2.2 ppb (95% CI, 0.7–3.6; P = 0.005). There were non-significant changes in flow-independent NO parameters. The change in FENO50 correlated positively with the change in J’awNO (rs = 0.67, P < 0.001; rs = 0.62, P = 0.002 before and after correction for axial back-diffusion respectively) following bronchodilation. Inhaled bronchodilator therapy can increase exhaled nitric oxide measurements in COPD. The standardisation of inhaled bronchodilator therapy before FENO analysis in COPD patients should therefore be considered in both research and clinical settings. PMID:27258087

  7. Pulmonary toxicity in mice by 2- and 13-week inhalation exposures to indium-tin oxide and indium oxide aerosols.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Kasuke; Nishizawa, Tomoshi; Eitaki, Yoko; Ohnishi, Makoto; Noguchi, Tadashi; Arito, Heihachiro; Fukushima, Shoji

    2011-01-01

    Inhalation toxicities of indium-tin oxide (ITO) and indium oxide (IO) in mice were characterized in comparison with those previously reported in rats. B6C3F(1) mice of both sexes were exposed by inhalation to ITO or IO aerosol for 6 h/day, 5 day/wk for 2 wk at 0, 0.1, 1, 10 or 100 mg/m(3) or 13 wk at 0, 0.1or 1 mg/m(3). ITO and IO particles were deposited in the lung, mediastinal lymph node (MLN) and nasal-associated lymphoid tissue. Alveolar proteinosis, infiltrations of alveolar macrophages and inflammatory cells and increased lung weight were induced by 2- and 13-week exposures to ITO and IO, while alveolar epithelial hyperplasia occurred only in the 2-week exposures. Thickened pleural wall, hyperplastic MLN, extramedullary hematopoiesis in the spleen and increased levels of erythrocyte parameters were induced by 13-week exposure to ITO. The ITO- and IO-induced pulmonary lesions were milder in mice than those previously reported in rats, and the fibrotic lesions were different between these two species. Indium levels in the lung and pooled blood were analyzed in the mice exposed to ITO and IO for 13 wk. In the 13-week inhalation exposure of mice to ITO, alveolar proteinosis and significantly increased lung weight were induced at the same exposure concentration as the current threshold limit value for indium and its compounds.

  8. Plutonium inventories for stabilization and stabilized materials

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.K.

    1996-05-01

    The objective of the breakout session was to identify characteristics of materials containing plutonium, the need to stabilize these materials for storage, and plans to accomplish the stabilization activities. All current stabilization activities are driven by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 94-1 (May 26, 1994) and by the recently completed Plutonium ES&H Vulnerability Assessment (DOE-EH-0415). The Implementation Plan for accomplishing stabilization of plutonium-bearing residues in response to the Recommendation and the Assessment was published by DOE on February 28, 1995. This Implementation Plan (IP) commits to stabilizing problem materials within 3 years, and stabilizing all other materials within 8 years. The IP identifies approximately 20 metric tons of plutonium requiring stabilization and/or repackaging. A further breakdown shows this material to consist of 8.5 metric tons of plutonium metal and alloys, 5.5 metric tons of plutonium as oxide, and 6 metric tons of plutonium as residues. Stabilization of the metal and oxide categories containing greater than 50 weight percent plutonium is covered by DOE Standard {open_quotes}Criteria for Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides{close_quotes} December, 1994 (DOE-STD-3013-94). This standard establishes criteria for safe storage of stabilized plutonium metals and oxides for up to 50 years. Each of the DOE sites and contractors with large plutonium inventories has either started or is preparing to start stabilization activities to meet these criteria.

  9. Controlling the oxygen potential to improve the densification and the solid solution formation of uranium-plutonium mixed oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berzati, Ségolène; Vaudez, Stéphane; Belin, Renaud C.; Léchelle, Jacques; Marc, Yves; Richaud, Jean-Christophe; Heintz, Jean-Marc

    2014-04-01

    Diffusion mechanisms occurring during the sintering of oxide ceramics are affected by the oxygen content of the atmosphere, as it imposes the nature and the concentration of structural defects in the material. Thus, the oxygen partial pressure, p(O2), of the sintering gas has to be precisely controlled, otherwise a large dispersion in various parameters, critical for the manufacturing of ceramics such as nuclear oxides fuels, is likely to occur. In the present work, the densification behaviour and the solid solution formation of a mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) were investigated. The initial mixture, composed of 70% UO2 + 30% PuO2, was studied at p(O2) ranging from 10-15 to 10-4 atm up to 1873 K both with dilatometry and in situ high temperature X-ray diffraction. This study has shown that the initial oxides UO2+x and PuO2-x first densify during heating and then the solid solution formation starts at about 200 K higher. The densification and the formation of the solid solution both occur at a lower temperature when p(O2) increases. Based on this result, it is possible to better define the sintering atmosphere, eventually leading to optimized parameters such as density, oxygen stoichiometry and cations homogenization of nuclear ceramics and of a wide range of industrial ceramic materials.

  10. Evaluation of nitrogen dioxide scavengers during delivery of inhaled nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, L; Rydgren, G

    1998-09-01

    We have analysed the ability of three nitrogen dioxide absorbing materials (soda lime, noXon and zeolite) to act as nitrogen dioxide scavengers during delivery of inhaled nitric oxide. Different mixtures of gas were produced in a ventilator (Servo Ventilator 300) and passed through an inspiratory tube. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and nitric oxide were measured in the distal part of the tube, with and without the gas having passed through a canister containing the different filter materials. Our findings indicated that nitrogen dioxide was absorbed effectively by all filter materials but that there was re-formation of nitrogen dioxide from nitric oxide and oxygen in or immediately after the canister. This initial production of nitrogen dioxide was very rapid and could not be prevented by the use of scavengers. Thus soda lime and zeolite had no practical effect as scavengers in this delivery system, and the effect of noXon was very slight.

  11. Inhaled nitric oxide as an adjunct to suction thrombectomy for pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Faintuch, Salomão; Lang, Elvira V; Cohen, Robert I; Pinto, Duane S

    2004-11-01

    Pulmonary suction thrombectomy can be a successful interventional tool in the treatment of pulmonary thromboembolism. Removal of clot burden typically results in prompt recovery of hemodynamic stability and improved oxygenation. However, in rare cases, clot removal does not sufficiently improve the clinical situation. Herein, two patients with massive pulmonary thromboembolism are presented whose condition improved only after they received nitric oxide as an adjunct to pulmonary suction thrombectomy. The treatment with this inhalable vasodilator was based on the hypothesis that prolonged ischemia had induced microcirculatory vasospasm, persistent after removal of the central clot.

  12. Inhaled Nitric Oxide in preterm infants: a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Preterm infants requiring assisted ventilation are at significant risk of both pulmonary and cerebral injury. Inhaled Nitric Oxide, an effective therapy for pulmonary hypertension and hypoxic respiratory failure in the full term infant, has also been studied in preterm infants. The most recent Cochrane review of preterm infants includes 11 studies and 3,370 participants. The results show a statistically significant reduction in the combined outcome of death or chronic lung disease (CLD) in two studies with routine use of iNO in intubated preterm infants. However, uncertainty remains as a larger study (Kinsella 2006) showed no significant benefit for iNO for this combined outcome. Also, trials that included very ill infants do not demonstrate significant benefit. One trial of iNO treatment at a later postnatal age reported a decrease in the incidence of CLD. The aim of this individual patient meta-analysis is to confirm or refute these potentially conflicting results and to determine the extent to which patient or treatment characteristics may explain the results and/or may predict benefit from inhaled Nitric Oxide in preterm infants. Methods/Design The Meta-Analysis of Preterm Patients on inhaled Nitric Oxide (MAPPiNO) Collaboration will perform an individual patient data meta-analysis to answer these important clinical questions. Studies will be included if preterm infants receiving assisted ventilation are randomized to receive inhaled Nitric Oxide or to a control group. The individual patient data provided by the Collaborators will be analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis where possible. Binary outcomes will be analyzed using log-binomial regression models and continuous outcomes will be analyzed using linear fixed effects models. Adjustments for trial differences will be made by including the trial variable in the model specification. Discussion Thirteen (13) trials, with a total of 3567 infants are eligible for inclusion in the MAPPiNO systematic

  13. Inhaled Nitric Oxide Improves Outcomes After Successful Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Minamishima, Shizuka; Kida, Kotaro; Tokuda, Kentaro; Wang, Huifang; Sips, Patrick Y.; Kosugi, Shizuko; Mandeville, Joseph B.; Buys, Emmanuel S.; Brouckaert, Peter; Liu, Philip K.; Liu, Christina H.; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Ichinose, Fumito

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Sudden cardiac arrest (CA) is a leading cause of death worldwide. Breathing nitric oxide (NO) reduces ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in animal models and in patients. The objective of this study was to learn whether inhaled NO improves outcomes after CA and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Methods and Results Adult male mice were subjected to potassium-induced CA for 7.5 min whereupon CPR was performed with chest compression and mechanical ventilation. One hour after CPR, mice were extubated and breathed air alone or air supplemented with 40 parts per million (ppm) NO for 23h. Mice that were subjected to CA/CPR and breathed air exhibited a poor 10-day survival rate (4/13), depressed neurological and left ventricular (LV) function, and increased caspase-3 activation and inflammatory cytokine induction in the brain. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed brain regions with marked water diffusion abnormality 24h after CA/CPR in mice that breathed air. Breathing air supplemented with NO for 23h starting 1h after CPR attenuated neurological and LV dysfunction 4 days after CA/CPR and markedly improved 10-day survival rate (11/13, P=0.003 vs Air). The protective effects of inhaled NO on the outcome after CA/CPR were associated with reduced water diffusion abnormality, caspase-3 activation, and cytokine induction in the brain and increased serum NOx levels. Deficiency of the α1 subunit of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC), a primary target of NO, abrogated the ability of inhaled NO to improve outcomes after CA/CPR. Conclusions These results suggest that NO inhalation after CA and successful CPR improves outcome via sGC-dependent mechanisms. PMID:21931083

  14. Pulmonary toxicity of well-dispersed cerium oxide nanoparticles following intratracheal instillation and inhalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimoto, Yasuo; Izumi, Hiroto; Yoshiura, Yukiko; Tomonaga, Taisuke; Oyabu, Takako; Myojo, Toshihiko; Kawai, Kazuaki; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Shimada, Manabu; Kubo, Masaru; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Kitajima, Shinichi; Kuroda, Etsushi; Kawaguchi, Kenji; Sasaki, Takeshi

    2015-11-01

    We performed inhalation and intratracheal instillation studies of cerium dioxide (CeO2) nanoparticles in order to investigate their pulmonary toxicity, and observed pulmonary inflammation not only in the acute and but also in the chronic phases. In the intratracheal instillation study, F344 rats were exposed to 0.2 mg or 1 mg of CeO2 nanoparticles. Cell analysis and chemokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were analyzed from 3 days to 6 months following the instillation. In the inhalation study, rats were exposed to the maximum concentration of inhaled CeO2 nanoparticles (2, 10 mg/m3, respectively) for 4 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week). The same endpoints as in the intratracheal instillation study were examined from 3 days to 3 months after the end of the exposure. The intratracheal instillation of CeO2 nanoparticles caused a persistent increase in the total and neutrophil number in BALF and in the concentration of cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC)-1, CINC-2, chemokine for neutrophil, and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an oxidative stress marker, in BALF during the observation time. The inhalation of CeO2 nanoparticles also induced a persistent influx of neutrophils and expression of CINC-1, CINC-2, and HO-1 in BALF. Pathological features revealed that inflammatory cells, including macrophages and neutrophils, invaded the alveolar space in both studies. Taken together, the CeO2 nanoparticles induced not only acute but also chronic inflammation in the lung, suggesting that CeO2 nanoparticles have a pulmonary toxicity that can lead to irreversible lesions.

  15. Inhaled nitric oxide and arterial oxygen tension in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and severe pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Y.; Higenbottam, T. W.; d Diaz; Cremona, G.; Akamine, S.; Barbera, J. A.; Rodriguez-Roisin, R.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Inhaled nitric oxide (NO) is a selective pulmonary vasodilator which can improve gas exchange in acute lung injury. However, it is uncertain that this effect on arterial oxygenation can be generalised to all lung diseases. METHODS: The effects of inhaled NO on gas exchange were studied in nine patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), 11 patients with severe pulmonary hypertension, and 14 healthy volunteers. A randomized sequence of 40 ppm of NO or air was inhaled for 20 minutes through an orofacial mask. RESULTS: Inhaled NO reduced mean (SE) transcutaneous arterial oxygen tension (TcPO2) from 9.6 (0.3) to 8.9 (0.4) kPa in healthy volunteers and from 7.4 (0.6) to 7.0 (0.5) kPa in patients with COPD. There was no change in TcPO2 in patients with severe pulmonary hypertension. During inhalation of NO and air no change occurred in transcutaneous arterial carbon dioxide tension (TcPCO2), arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) measured by pulse oximeter, or cardiac output determined by the transthoracic impedance method. CONCLUSIONS: Inhaled NO does not improve TcPO2 nor increase cardiac output in normal subjects and patients with COPD, suggesting that inhaled NO worsens gas exchange. This could represent inhaled NO overriding hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in COPD. The finding that TcPO2 also fell when normal subjects inhaled NO suggests that a similar mechanism normally contributes to optimal gas exchange. Whilst inhaled NO can improve oxygenation, this effect should not be considered to be a general response but is dependent on the type of lung disease. 


 PMID:9059470

  16. Plutonium in Concentrated Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Sue B.; Delegard, Calvin H.

    2002-08-01

    Complex, high ionic strength media are used throughout the plutonium cycle, from its processing and purification in nitric acid, to waste storage and processing in alkaline solutions of concentrated electrolytes, to geologic disposal in brines. Plutonium oxidation/reduction, stability, radiolysis, solution and solid phase chemistry have been studied in such systems. In some cases, predictive models for describing Pu chemistry under such non-ideal conditions have been developed, which are usually based on empirical databases describing specific ion interactions. In Chapter 11, Non-Ideal Systems, studies on the behavior of Pu in various complex media and available model descriptions are reviewed.

  17. Study on Equilibrium Characteristics of Thorium-Plutonium-Minor Actinides Mixed Oxides Fuel in PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Waris, A.; Permana, S.; Kurniadi, R.; Su'ud, Z.; Sekimoto, H.

    2010-06-22

    A study on characteristics of thorium-plutonium-minor actinides utilization in the pressurized water reactor (PWR) with the equilibrium burnup model has been conducted. For a comprehensive evaluation, several fuel cycles scenario have been included in the present study with the variation of moderator-to-fuel volume ratio (MFR) of PWR core design. The results obviously exhibit that the neutron spectra grow to be harder with decreasing of the MFR. Moreover, the neutron spectra also turn into harder with the rising number of confined heavy nuclides. The required {sup 233}U concentration for criticality of reactor augments with the increasing of MFR for all heavy nuclides confinement and thorium and uranium confinement in PWR.

  18. Air transport of plutonium metal: content expansion initiative for the plutonium air transportable (PAT01) packaging

    SciTech Connect

    Caviness, Michael L; Mann, Paul T

    2010-01-01

    The National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) has submitted an application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the air shipment of plutonium metal within the Plutonium Air Transportable (PAT-1) packaging. The PAT-1 packaging is currently authorized for the air transport of plutonium oxide in solid form only. The INMM presentation will provide a limited overview of the scope of the plutonium metal initiative and provide a status of the NNSA application to the NRC.

  19. PROCESS FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM IMPURITIES

    DOEpatents

    Wahl, A.C.

    1957-11-12

    A method is described for separating plutonium from aqueous solutions containing uranium. It has been found that if the plutonium is reduced to its 3+ valence state, and the uranium present is left in its higher valence state, then the differences in solubility between certain salts (e.g., oxalates) of the trivalent plutonium and the hexavalent uranium can be used to separate the metals. This selective reduction of plutonium is accomplished by adding iodide ion to the solution, since iodide possesses an oxidation potential sufficient to reduce plutonium but not sufficient to reduce uranium.

  20. Plutonium immobilization feed batching system concept report

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S.

    2000-07-19

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with high level waste glass for permanent storage. Feed batching is one of the first process steps involved with first stage plutonium immobilization. It will blend plutonium oxide powder before it is combined with other materials to make pucks. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization feed batching process preliminary concept, batch splitting concepts, and includes a process block diagram, concept descriptions, a preliminary equipment list, and feed batching development areas.

  1. Inhaled nitric oxide pretreatment but not posttreatment attenuates ischemia-reperfusion-induced pulmonary microvascular leak.

    PubMed

    Chetham, P M; Sefton, W D; Bridges, J P; Stevens, T; McMurtry, I F

    1997-04-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) pulmonary edema probably reflects a leukocyte-dependent, oxidant-mediated mechanism. Nitric oxide (NO) attenuates leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions and I/R-induced microvascular leak. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) agonists reverse and prevent I/R-induced microvascular leak, but reversal by inhaled NO (INO) has not been tested. In addition, the role of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) activation in the NO protection effect is unknown. Rat lungs perfused with salt solution were grouped as either I/R, I/R with INO (10 or 50 ppm) on reperfusion, or time control. Capillary filtration coefficients (Kfc) were estimated 25 min before ischemia (baseline) and after 30 and 75 min of reperfusion. Perfusate cell counts and lung homogenate myeloperoxidase activity were determined in selected groups. Additional groups were treated with either INO (50 ppm) or isoproterenol (ISO-10 microM) after 30 min of reperfusion. Guanylyl cyclase was inhibited with 1H-[1,2,4]Oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ-15 microM), and Kfc was estimated at baseline and after 30 min of reperfusion. (1) Inhaled NO attenuated I/R-induced increases in Kfc. (2) Cell counts were similar at baseline. After 75 min of reperfusion, lung neutrophil retention (myeloperoxidase activity) and decreased perfusate neutrophil counts were similar in all groups. (3) In contrast to ISO, INO did not reverse microvascular leak. (4) 8-bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-br-cGMP) prevented I/R-induced microvascular leak in ODQ-treated lungs, but INO was no longer effective. Inhaled NO attenuates I/R-induced pulmonary microvascular leak, which requires sGC activation and may involve a mechanism independent of inhibition of leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions. In addition, INO is ineffective in reversing I/R-induced microvascular leak.

  2. Combined exogenous surfactant and inhaled nitric oxide therapy for lung ischemia-reperfusion injury in minipigs.

    PubMed

    Warnecke, G; Strüber, M; Fraud, S; Hohlfeld, J M; Haverich, A

    2001-05-15

    The combined application of exogenous surfactant and inhaled nitric oxide was evaluated for prevention of ischemia-reperfusion injury of the lung. Left lungs were selectively perfused in 18 minipigs in situ with cold preservation solution. After 90 min of warm ischemia, the lungs were reperfused and the right pulmonary artery and bronchus were ligated (control group, n=6). Exogenous surfactant was instilled via bronchoscopy during ischemia (surfactant group, n=6). In a third group, surfactant was applied, followed by administration of inhaled nitric oxide (surfactant+NO group, n=6). Hemodynamic and respiratory parameters were recorded for 7 hr, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was obtained before and after reperfusion for measurement of surface tension, small aggregate/large aggregate ratio, protein and phospholipid contents, and a differential cell count. Control group animals survived for 3.7+/-1.4 hr. In both surfactant-treated groups, five out of six animals survived the observation period (P<0.001). Dynamic compliance of the lung was decreased in control animals (P<0.001). In the surfactant+NO group, arterial PO2 was higher than in both other groups (P<0.001). BALF cell count and histology showed reduced neutrophil infiltration in surfactant+NO-treated lungs. Surface tension assessed in BALF with a pulsating bubble surfactometer was severely impaired in control animals (gammamin, 14.82+/-9.95 mN/m), but maintained in surfactant-treated (gammamin, 1.11+/-0.56 mN/m) and surfactant+NO-treated animals (gammamin, 3.90+/-2.35 mN/m, P=0.02). Administration of exogenous surfactant in lung reperfusion injury results in improved lung compliance. The addition of inhaled NO improves arterial oxygenation and reduces neutrophil extravasation compared with surfactant treatment alone.

  3. A summary of volatile impurity measurements and gas generation studies on MISSTD-1, a high-purity plutonium oxide produced by low-temperature calcination of plutonium oxalate

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, John M.; Narlesky, Joshua E.; Veirs, Douglas K.

    2012-06-08

    Plutonium dioxide of high specific surface area was subjected to long-term tests of gas generation in sealed containers. The material preparation and the storage conditions were outside the bounds of acceptable parameters defined by DOE-STD-3013-2012 in that the material was stabilized to a lower temperature than required and had higher moisture content than allowed. The data provide useful information for better defining the bounding conditions for safe storage. Net increases in internal pressure and transient increases in H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} were observed, but were well within the bounds of gas compositions previously shown to not threaten integrity of 3013 containers.

  4. Role of inhaled nitric oxide in ischaemia-reperfusion injury in the perfused rabbit lung.

    PubMed

    Ishibe, Y; Liu, R; Ueda, M; Mori, K; Miura, N

    1999-09-01

    We have tested if inhaled nitric oxide (NO) is beneficial in ischaemia-reperfusion (IR) lung injury using an isolated perfused rabbit lung model. Ischaemia for 60 min was followed by reperfusion and ventilation with nitric oxide 40 ppm (n = 6) or without nitric oxide ventilation (n = 6) for 60 min. In the control group (n = 6), the lungs were perfused continuously for 120 min. Permeability coefficient (Kfc) and vascular resistance (PVR) were measured serially for 60 min after reperfusion. We also determined the left lung W/D ratio and measured nitric oxide metabolites (NOx) and cGMP concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid from the right lung. IR increased Kfc, PVR and W/D followed by decreased cGMP. Ventilation with nitric oxide restored these changes by preventing the decrease in cGMP. Differences in NOx concentrations in BAL fluid between the control and IR groups were not statistically significant. Our results indicate that IR impaired pulmonary vascular function and resulted in microvascular constriction and leakage. Ventilation with nitric oxide from the beginning of the reperfusion period improved pulmonary dysfunction such as vasoconstriction and capillary leak by restoring cGMP concentrations.

  5. Inhalation toxicology of automotive emissions as affected by an oxidation exhaust catalyst.

    PubMed

    Hysell, D K; Moore, W; Hinners, R; Malanchuk, M; Miller, R; Stara, J F

    1975-04-01

    Preliminary data are given on the acute inhalation toxicology of automotive emissions as affected by an oxidation exhaust catalyst. The catalyst effectively reduced CO and HC in the exhause which apparently had an effect (at least in a closed exposure system) on oxidant and NO2 levels by altering the HC/NOx ratio. There was a resultant reduction in biological effects due to the exposure. The catalyst altered the type of particulate to one which probably contained sulfuric acid as a major component. No evidence was present in these acute exposures to suggest a toxic response due to the higher sulfate emissions or possible catalyst attrition products. The effects of long-term exposure have not yet been investigated.

  6. Anti-inflammatory effects of inhaled nitric oxide are optimized at lower oxygen concentration in experimental Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Sun, Z; Sun, B; Wang, X; Wang, W; Zhu, L

    2006-10-01

    To evaluate whether antiinflammatory effects of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) in experimental Klebsiella pneumoniae pneumonia may be affected by oxygen levels in association with cytokine response and NO synthase (NOS) activity. Healthy adult rats were intratracheally instilled with live Klebsiella pneumoniae to induce pneumonia (P) or with sterile saline as a control (C) group. Group C was allocated to room air (CA) and inhaled NO (CNO, NO = 20 parts per million) groups. Group P was divided into 6 groups (n = 8 - 10) exposed to room air (PA), inhaled NO (PNO), low oxygen (40%, PLO), inhaled NO and low oxygen (PLONO), high oxygen (100%, PHO), and inhaled NO and high oxygen (98%, PHONO). After 24 h exposure, intraalveolar cells, expression of proinflammatory cytokines, nuclear transcription factor (NF-kappaB), myeloperoxidase (MPO) and NOS activities, characteristic of lung inflammatory mechanisms, were measured. All the pneumonia groups had pneumonia whereas CA and CNO had no or mild lung inflammation. Compared to the PA, significantly decreased recruitment of alveolar neutrophils was found in the PNO, along with lower NF-kappaB and MPO activity, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Similar trends were found between the PLONO and PLO in alleviation of lung inflammation. However, PHONO significantly enhanced recruitment of alveolar neutrophils and pulmonary MPO activity associated with increased TNF-alpha. Inhaled NO improved bacterial clearance, reduced total proteins in alveoli, and ICAM-1 expression irrespective of oxygen levels. Inhaled NO and/or low and high oxygen partially restored constitutive NOS activity whereas high oxygen or together with inhaled NO depressed inducible NOS activity. The overall beneficial effects of inhaled NO in anti-inflammation in the mature lungs with K. pneumoniae pneumonia are in favor of a combination with lower level of oxygen, which warrants clinical verification in the treatment of

  7. Curium analysis in plutonium uranium mixed oxide by x-ray fluorescence and absorption fine structure spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Degueldre, C; Borca, C; Cozzo, C

    2013-10-15

    Plutonium uranium mixed oxide (MOX) fuels are being used in commercial nuclear reactors. The actinides in these fuels need to be analyzed after irradiation for assessing their behaviour with regards to their environment and the coolant. In this work the study of the local occurrence, speciation and next-neighbour environment of curium (Cm) in the (Pu,U)O2 lattice within an irradiated (60 MW d kg(-1) average burn-up) MOX sample was performed employing micro-x-ray fluorescence (µ-XRF) and micro-x-ray absorption fine structure (µ-XAFS) spectroscopy. The chemical bonds, valences and stoichiometry of Cm (≈ 0.7 wt% in the rim and ≈ 0.03 wt% in the centre) are determined from the experimental data gained for the irradiated fuel material examined in its centre and peripheral (rim) zones of the fuel. Curium occurrence is also reduced from the centre (hot) to the periphery (colder) because of the condensation of these volatile oxides. In the irradiated sample Cm builds up as Cm(3+) species (>90%) within a [CmO8](13-) or [CmO7](11-) coordination environment and no (<10%) Cm(IV) can be detected in the rim zone. Curium dioxide is reduced because of the redox buffering activity of the uranium dioxide matrix and of its thermodynamic instability.

  8. [Effect of acute phosgene inhalation on antioxidant enzymes, nitric oxide and nitric-oxide synthase in rats].

    PubMed

    Qin, Xu-jun; Hai, Chun-xu; Liang, Xin; Wang, Peng; Chen, Hong-li; Liu, Rui

    2004-06-01

    To study the effect of acute phosgene inhalation on the antioxidant enzymes, nitric oxide (NO) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in rats. Phosgene was produced by decomposing bis (trichdomethyl) carbonate in the presence of N,N-dimethyl formamide. SD rats were randomly divided into two groups: control and phosgene exposure groups. In a special experimental device with equipment modulating the gas flow, phosgene exposed rats inhaled phosgene quantitatively for five minutes. Two hours later, all the rats were sacrificed and the ratio of wet weight to dried weight of lung (WW/DW) was calculated. Peripheral blood, serum and liver were collected to examine the activities of antioxidant enzymes including glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), NOS, and NO level. The total content of proteins were also determined. The WW/DW ratio of lung in phosgene exposure group was much higher than that in control group (P < 0.01). The activities of GST in serum and liver of phosgene exposure group increased significantly (P < 0.05). The activities of SOD, CAT, GSHPx and NOS in serum or blood and liver of phosgene exposure group were also increased significantly (P < 0.05). But the content of NO was significantly decreased (P < 0.01). Acute phosgene inhalation may cause a dramatically changes of several antioxidant enzyme activities, and acute injury of liver to some extent in rats. The latter is related to reactive oxygen species. But the elevation of antioxidant enzyme activities suggests that antioxidative treatment for acute phosgene poisoning should not be considered first.

  9. Aqueous biphasic plutonium oxide extraction process with pH and particle control

    DOEpatents

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.

    1997-04-29

    A method is described for simultaneously partitioning a metal oxide and silica from a material containing silica and the metal oxide, using a biphasic aqueous medium having immiscible salt and polymer phases. 2 figs.

  10. TRANSGENIC OVEREXPRESSION OF NEUROGLOBIN ATTENUATES FORMATION OF SMOKE INHALATION-INDUCED OXIDATIVE DNA DAMAGE, IN VIVO, IN THE MOUSE BRAIN

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Heung Man; Greeley, George H.; Englander, Ella W.

    2011-01-01

    Acute inhalation of combustion smoke causes neurological deficits in survivors. Inhaled smoke includes carbon monoxide, noxious gases and hypoxic environment, which disrupt oxygenation and generate free radicals. To replicate a smoke inhalation scenario, we developed experimental model of acute exposure to smoke for the awake mouse/rat and detected induction of biomarkers of oxidative stress. These include inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory complexes and formation of oxidative DNA damage in the brain. DNA damage is likely to contribute to neuronal dysfunction and progression of brain injury. In search for strategies to attenuate the smoke initiated brain injury, we produced a transgenic mouse overexpressing the neuronal globin protein, neuroglobin. Neuroglobin was found neuroprotective in diverse models of ischemic/hypoxic/toxic brain injuries. Here, we report lesser inhibition of respiratory complex I and reduced formation of smoke-induced DNA damage in neuroglobin transgene when compared to the wild-type mouse brain. DNA damage was assessed using the standard comet assay, as well as a modified comet assay done in conjunction with an enzyme, which excises oxidized guanines that form readily under conditions of oxidative stress. Both comet assays revealed that overexpressed neuroglobin attenuates the formation of oxidative DNA damage, in vivo, in the brain. These findings suggest that elevated neuroglobin exerts neuroprotection in part, by decreasing the impact of acute smoke inhalation on integrity of neuronal DNA. PMID:22001746

  11. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1959-04-14

    The separation of plutonium from aqueous inorganic acid solutions by the use of a water immiscible organic extractant liquid is described. The plutonium must be in the oxidized state, and the solvents covered by the patent include nitromethane, nitroethane, nitropropane, and nitrobenzene. The use of a salting out agents such as ammonium nitrate in the case of an aqueous nitric acid solution is advantageous. After contacting the aqueous solution with the organic extractant, the resulting extract and raffinate phases are separated. The plutonium may be recovered by any suitable method.

  12. Purification of aqueous plutonium chloride solutions via precipitation and washing.

    SciTech Connect

    Stroud, M. A.; Salazar, R. R.; Abney, Kent David; Bluhm, E. A.; Danis, J. A.

    2003-01-01

    Pyrochemical operations at Los Alamos Plutonium Facility (TA-55) use high temperature melt s of calcium chloride for the reduction of plutonium oxide to plutonium metal and hi gh temperature combined melts of sodium chloride and potassium chloride mixtures for the electrorefining purification of plutonium metal . The remaining plutonium and americium are recovered from thes e salts by dissolution in concentrated hydrochloric acid followed by either solvent extraction or io n exchange for isolation and ultimately converted to oxide after precipitation with oxalic acid . Figur e 1 illustrates the current aqueous chloride flow sheet used for plutonium processing at TA-55 .

  13. Original Research: Evaluation of pulmonary response to inhaled tungsten (IV) oxide nanoparticles in golden Syrian hamsters

    PubMed Central

    Prajapati, Milankumar V; Adebolu, Olujoba O; Morrow, Benjamin M

    2016-01-01

    Extensive industrial and military uses of tungsten have raised the possibilities of human occupational and environmental exposure to nanoparticles of this metal, with concomitant health concerns. The goal of this study was to investigate the potential mechanism of pulmonary toxicity associated with inhaled tungsten (IV) oxide nanoparticles (WO3 NPs) in Golden Syrian Hamsters. Animals exposed to WO3 NPs via inhalation were divided into three groups — control and two treatment groups exposed to either 5 or 10 mg/m3 of aerosolized WO3 NPs for 4 h/day for four days. A long-term exposure study (4 h/day for eight days) was also carried out using an additional three groups. Pulmonary toxicity assessed by examining changes in cell numbers, lactate dehydrogenase activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, total protein content, TNF-α, and HMGB1 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids showed a significant difference when compared to control (P < 0.05). The molecular mechanism was established by assessing protein expression of cathepsin B, TXNIP, NLRP3, ASC, IL-1β and caspase-1. Western blot analysis indicated a 1.5 and 1.7 fold changes in NLRP3 in treatment groups (5 mg/m3, P < 0.05 and 10 mg/m3, P < 0.01, respectively), whereas levels of cathepsin B were 1.3 fold higher in lung tissue exposed to WO3 NPs suggesting activation of inflammasome pathway. Morphological changes studied using light and electron microscopy showed localization of nanoparticles and subsequent perturbation in airway epithelia, macrophages, and interstitial areas of alveolar structures. Results from the current study indicate that inhalation exposure to WO3 NPs may induce cytotoxicity, morphological changes, and lung injury via pyroptotic cell death pathway caused by activation of caspase-1. PMID:27534980

  14. Pulmonary vascular effects of pulsed inhaled nitric oxide in COPD patients with pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hajian, Bita; De Backer, Jan; Vos, Wim; Van Holsbeke, Cedric; Ferreira, Francisca; Quinn, Deborah A; Hufkens, Annemie; Claes, Rita; De Backer, Wilfried

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is often associated with secondary pulmonary hypertension (PH), which worsens prognosis. PH can be lowered by oxygen, but also by inhaled nitric oxide (NO), which has the potential to improve the health status of these patients. NO is an important mediator in vascular reactions in the pulmonary circulation. Oral compounds can act through NO-mediated pathways, but delivering pulsed inhaled NO (iNO) directly to the airways and pulmonary vasculature could equally benefit patients. Therefore, a proof-of-concept study was performed to quantify pulmonary blood vessel caliber changes after iNO administration using computed tomography (CT)-based functional respiratory imaging (FRI). Methods Six patients with secondary PH due to COPD received “pulsed” iNO in combination with oxygen for 20 minutes via a nasal cannula. Patients underwent a high-resolution CT scan with contrast before and after iNO. Using FRI, changes in volumes of blood vessels and associated lobes were quantified. Oxygen saturation and blood pressure were monitored and patients were asked about their subjective feelings. Results Pulmonary blood vessel volume increased by 7.06%±5.37% after iNO. A strong correlation (Ω20=0.32, P=0.002) was obtained between ventilation and observed vasodilation, suggesting that using the pulsed system, iNO is directed toward the ventilated zones, which consequently experience more vasodilation. Patients did not develop oxygen desaturation, remained normotensive, and perceived an improvement in their dyspnea sensation. Conclusion Inhalation of pulsed NO with oxygen causes vasodilation in the pulmonary circulation of COPD patients, mainly in the well-ventilated areas. A high degree of heterogeneity was found in the level of vasodilation. Patients tend to feel better after the treatment. Chronic use trials are warranted. PMID:27462149

  15. [Inhaled nitric oxide: a physiologic treatment of persistent pulmonary arterial hypertension in the newborn].

    PubMed

    Thébaud, B; Mercier, J C

    1997-10-01

    Fetal pulmonary circulation is characterized by high resistance and low pulmonary blood flow. Right-to-left shunting through the foramen ovale and/or patent ductus arteriosus is necessary to perfuse the placenta and insure fetal life. At birth, pulmonary arterial blood flow increases immediately by 8- to 10-fold, and allows pulmonary gas exchange and postnatal life. In some circumstances, this adaptation to extra-uterine life is inadequate, because of persistent high pulmonary resistance (PPHN). Due to the lack of a selective pulmonary vasodilator, the treatment of this syndrome remained purely symptomatic using high oxygen levels and barotraumatic mechanical hyperventilation. When this medical treatment failed, the only alternative was extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The discovery of the major role of various endothelium-derived factors including nitric oxide (NO) in the control of vascular reactivity led to dramatic switches in the concepts of severe neonatal respiratory failure and the therapeutic approach of PPHN. It was shown, first in experimental animals then in a few infants with hypoxemic respiratory failure, that NO inhalation selectively vasodilated the vasoconstricted pulmonary vessels, and reversed right-to-left shunting and refractory hypoxemia. Whether inhaled NO also reduces mortality and/or morbidity in hypoxic infants remains to be proven by appropriate randomized clinical trials. However, not only PPHN is associated with pulmonary diseases of various etiologies and underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms, but also inhaled NO is used in conjunction with other validated therapeutic strategies including ante- or postnatal steroids, exogenous surfactants, and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation. Thus, the relevant primary endpoint might be not only crude survival but the most physiological and economical way of obtaining it.

  16. Extrapulmonary effects of inhaled nitric oxide: role of reversible S-nitrosylation of erythrocytic hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Timothy J; Doctor, Allan

    2006-04-01

    Early applications of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO), typically in the treatment of diseases marked by acute pulmonary hypertension, were met by great enthusiasm regarding the purported specificity of iNO: vasodilation by iNO was specific to the lung (without a change in systemic vascular resistance), and within the lung, NO activity was said to be confined spatially and temporally by Hb within the vascular lumen. Underlying these claims were classical views of NO as a short-lived paracrine hormone that acts largely through the heme groups of soluble guanylate cyclase, and whose potential activity is terminated on encountering the hemes of red blood cell (RBC) Hb. These classical views are yielding to a broader paradigm, in which NO-related signaling is achieved through redox-related NO adducts that endow NO synthase products with the ability to act at a distance in space and time from NO synthase itself. Evidence supporting the biological importance of such stable NO adducts is probably strongest for S-nitrosothiols (SNOs), in which NO binds to critical cysteine residues in proteins or peptides. The circulating RBC is a major SNO reservoir, and RBC Hb releases SNO-related bioactivity peripherally on O2 desaturation. These new paradigms describing NO transport also provide a plausible mechanistic understanding of the increasingly recognized peripheral effects of inhaled NO. An explanation for the peripheral actions of inhaled NO is discussed here, and the rationale and results of attempts to exploit the "NO delivery" function of the RBC are reviewed.

  17. Actinide Oxidation State and O/M Ratio in Hypostoichiometric Uranium-Plutonium-Americium U0.750Pu0.246Am0.004O2-x Mixed Oxides.

    PubMed

    Vauchy, Romain; Belin, Renaud C; Robisson, Anne-Charlotte; Lebreton, Florent; Aufore, Laurence; Scheinost, Andreas C; Martin, Philippe M

    2016-03-07

    Innovative americium-bearing uranium-plutonium mixed oxides U1-yPuyO2-x are envisioned as nuclear fuel for sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors (SFRs). The oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratio, directly related to the oxidation state of cations, affects many of the fuel properties. Thus, a thorough knowledge of its variation with the sintering conditions is essential. The aim of this work is to follow the oxidation state of uranium, plutonium, and americium, and so the O/M ratio, in U0.750Pu0.246Am0.004O2-x samples sintered for 4 h at 2023 K in various Ar + 5% H2 + z vpm H2O (z = ∼ 15, ∼ 90, and ∼ 200) gas mixtures. The O/M ratios were determined by gravimetry, XAS, and XRD and evidenced a partial oxidation of the samples at room temperature. Finally, by comparing XANES and EXAFS results to that of a previous study, we demonstrate that the presence of uranium does not influence the interactions between americium and plutonium and that the differences in the O/M ratio between the investigated conditions is controlled by the reduction of plutonium. We also discuss the role of the homogeneity of cation distribution, as determined by EPMA, on the mechanisms involved in the reduction process.

  18. Inhaled nitric oxide for the adjunctive therapy of severe malaria: Protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Severe malaria remains a major cause of global morbidity and mortality. Despite the use of potent anti-parasitic agents, the mortality rate in severe malaria remains high. Adjunctive therapies that target the underlying pathophysiology of severe malaria may further reduce morbidity and mortality. Endothelial activation plays a central role in the pathogenesis of severe malaria, of which angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) has recently been shown to function as a key regulator. Nitric oxide (NO) is a major inhibitor of Ang-2 release from endothelium and has been shown to decrease endothelial inflammation and reduce the adhesion of parasitized erythrocytes. Low-flow inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) gas is a US FDA-approved treatment for hypoxic respiratory failure in neonates. Methods/Design This prospective, parallel arm, randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded clinical trial compares adjunctive continuous inhaled nitric oxide at 80 ppm to placebo (both arms receiving standard anti-malarial therapy), among Ugandan children aged 1-10 years of age with severe malaria. The primary endpoint is the longitudinal change in Ang-2, an objective and quantitative biomarker of malaria severity, which will be analysed using a mixed-effects linear model. Secondary endpoints include mortality, recovery time, parasite clearance and neurocognitive sequelae. Discussion Noteworthy aspects of this trial design include its efficient sample size supported by a computer simulation study to evaluate statistical power, meticulous attention to complex ethical issues in a cross-cultural setting, and innovative strategies for safety monitoring and blinding to treatment allocation in a resource-constrained setting in sub-Saharan Africa. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01255215 PMID:21752262

  19. Translocation of Inhaled Ultrafine Manganese Oxide Particles to the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Elder, Alison; Gelein, Robert; Silva, Vanessa; Feikert, Tessa; Opanashuk, Lisa; Carter, Janet; Potter, Russell; Maynard, Andrew; Ito, Yasuo; Finkelstein, Jacob; Oberdörster, Günter

    2006-01-01

    Background Studies in monkeys with intranasally instilled gold ultrafine particles (UFPs; < 100 nm) and in rats with inhaled carbon UFPs suggested that solid UFPs deposited in the nose travel along the olfactory nerve to the olfactory bulb. Methods To determine if olfactory translocation occurs for other solid metal UFPs and assess potential health effects, we exposed groups of rats to manganese (Mn) oxide UFPs (30 nm; ~ 500 μg/m3) with either both nostrils patent or the right nostril occluded. We analyzed Mn in lung, liver, olfactory bulb, and other brain regions, and we performed gene and protein analyses. Results After 12 days of exposure with both nostrils patent, Mn concentrations in the olfactory bulb increased 3.5-fold, whereas lung Mn concentrations doubled; there were also increases in striatum, frontal cortex, and cerebellum. Lung lavage analysis showed no indications of lung inflammation, whereas increases in olfactory bulb tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA (~ 8-fold) and protein (~ 30-fold) were found after 11 days of exposure and, to a lesser degree, in other brain regions with increased Mn levels. Macrophage inflammatory protein-2, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and neuronal cell adhesion molecule mRNA were also increased in olfactory bulb. With the right nostril occluded for a 2-day exposure, Mn accumulated only in the left olfactory bulb. Solubilization of the Mn oxide UFPs was < 1.5% per day. Conclusions We conclude that the olfactory neuronal pathway is efficient for translocating inhaled Mn oxide as solid UFPs to the central nervous system and that this can result in inflammatory changes. We suggest that despite differences between human and rodent olfactory systems, this pathway is relevant in humans. PMID:16882521

  20. Methods to improve routine bioassay monitoring for freshly separated, poorly transported plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Bihl, D.E.; Lynch, T.P.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Sula, M.J.

    1988-09-01

    Several human cases involving inhalation of plutonium oxide at Hanford have shown clearance half-times from the lung that are much longer than the 500-day half-time recommended for class Y plutonium in Publication 30 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection(ICRP). The more tenaciously retained material is referred to as super class Y plutonium. The ability to detect super class Y plutonium by current routine bioassay measurements is shown to be poor. Pacific Northwest Laboratory staff involved in the Hanford Internal Dosimetry Program investigated four methods to se if improvements in routine monitoring of workers for fresh super class Y plutonium are feasible. The methods were lung counting, urine sampling, fecal sampling, and use of diethylenetriaminepentaacetate (DTPA) to enhance urinary excretion. Use of DTPA was determined to be not feasible. Routine fecal sampling was found to be feasible but not recommended. Recommendations were made to improve the detection level for routine annual urinalysis and routine annual lung counting. 12 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Prevention of ischemia-reperfusion lung injury by inhaled nitric oxide in neonatal piglets.

    PubMed

    Barbotin-Larrieu, F; Mazmanian, M; Baudet, B; Détruit, H; Chapelier, A; Libert, J M; Dartevelle, P; Hervé, P

    1996-03-01

    Lung ischemia-reperfusion results in a decrease in the release of nitric oxide (NO) by the pulmonary endothelium. NO may have lung-protective effects by decreasing neutrophil accumulation in the lung. We tested whether NO inhalation would attenuate reperfusion-induced endothelial dysfunction and increases in microvascular permeability and total pulmonary vascular resistance (RT) by preventing neutrophil lung accumulation. After baseline determinations of RT, coefficient of filtration (Kfc), and circulating neutrophil counts, isolated neonatal piglet lungs were subjected to a 1-h period of ischemia followed by a 1-h period of blood reperfusion and reventilation with or without addition of NO (10 ppm). NO prevented reperfusion-induced increases in RT and Kfc, as well as the decrease in circulating neutrophils. After reperfusion, increases in Kfc were correlated with decreases in circulating neutrophils. NO prevented reperfusion-induced decrease in endothelium-dependent relaxation in precontracted pulmonary arterial rings. This demonstrates that inhaled NO prevents microvascular injury, endothelial dysfunction, and pulmonary neutrophil accumulation in a neonatal piglet model of lung ischemia-reperfusion.

  2. Opportunities for mixed oxide fuel testing in the advanced test reactor to support plutonium disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Terry, W.K.; Ryskamp, J.M.; Sterbentz, J.W.

    1995-08-01

    Numerous technical issues must be resolved before LWR operating licenses can be amended to allow the use of MOX fuel. These issues include the following: (1) MOX fuel fabrication process verification; (2) Whether and how to use burnable poisons to depress MOX fuel initial reactivity, which is higher than that of urania; (3) The effects of WGPu isotopic composition; (4) The feasibility of loading MOX fuel with plutonia content up to 7% by weight; (5) The effects of americium and gallium in WGPu; (6) Fission gas release from MOX fuel pellets made from WGPu; (7) Fuel/cladding gap closure; (8) The effects of power cycling and off-normal events on fuel integrity; (9) Development of radial distributions of burnup and fission products; (10) Power spiking near the interfaces of MOX and urania fuel assemblies; and (11) Fuel performance code validation. The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory possesses many advantages for performing tests to resolve most of the issues identified above. We have performed calculations to show that the use of hafnium shrouds can produce spectrum adjustments that will bring the flux spectrum in ATR test loops into a good approximation to the spectrum anticipated in a commercial LWR containing MOX fuel while allowing operation of the test fuel assemblies near their optimum values of linear heat generation rate. The ATR would be a nearly ideal test bed for developing data needed to support applications to license LWRs for operation with MOX fuel made from weapons-grade plutonium. The requirements for planning and implementing a test program in the ATR have been identified. The facilities at Argonne National Laboratory-West can meet all potential needs for pre- and post-irradiation examination that might arise in a MOX fuel qualification program.

  3. Thermal-mechanical performance modeling of thorium-plutonium oxide fuel and comparison with on-line irradiation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insulander Björk, Klara; Kekkonen, Laura

    2015-12-01

    Thorium-plutonium Mixed OXide (Th-MOX) fuel is considered for use in light water reactors fuel due to some inherent benefits over conventional fuel types in terms of neutronic properties. The good material properties of ThO2 also suggest benefits in terms of thermal-mechanical fuel performance, but the use of Th-MOX fuel for commercial power production demands that its thermal-mechanical behavior can be accurately predicted using a well validated fuel performance code. Given the scant operational experience with Th-MOX fuel, no such code is available today. This article describes the first phase of the development of such a code, based on the well-established code FRAPCON 3.4, and in particular the correlations reviewed and chosen for the fuel material properties. The results of fuel temperature calculations with the code in its current state of development are shown and compared with data from a Th-MOX test irradiation campaign which is underway in the Halden research reactor. The results are good for fresh fuel, whereas experimental complications make it difficult to judge the adequacy of the code for simulations of irradiated fuel.

  4. The effect of albedo neutrons on the neutron multiplication of small plutonium oxide samples in a PNCC chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourva, L. C.-A.; Croft, S.; Weaver, D. R.

    2002-03-01

    This paper describes how to evaluate the effect of neutrons reflected from parts of a passive neutron coincidence chamber on the neutron leakage self-multiplication, ML, of a fissile sample. It is shown that albedo neutrons contribute, in the case of small plutonium bearing samples, to a significant part of ML, and that their effect has to be taken into account in the relationship between the measured coincidence count rates and the 240Pu effective mass of the sample. A simple one-interaction model has been used to write the balance of neutron gains and losses in the material when exposed to the re-entrant neutron flux. The energy and intensity profiles of the re-entrant flux have been parameterised using Monte Carlo MCNP TM calculations. This technique has been implemented for the On Site Laboratory neutron/gamma counter within the existing MEPL 1.0 code for the determination of the neutron leakage self-multiplication. Benchmark tests of the resulting MEPL 2.0 code with MCNP TM calculations showed that for typical safeguard samples the newly developed code estimates ( ML-1) to within 1% of the MCNP TM results. The precision of these results along with the rapidity of the proposed calculation method therefore make the use of a "known ML" approach for solving the Böhnel equations very attractive when measuring density controlled gram size PuO 2 or Mixed Oxide (MOX) samples.

  5. A Calibration to Predict the Concentrations of Impurities in Plutonium Oxide by Prompt Gamma Analysis Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Narlesky, Joshua Edward; Kelly, Elizabeth J.

    2015-09-10

    This report documents the new PG calibration regression equation. These calibration equations incorporate new data that have become available since revision 1 of “A Calibration to Predict the Concentrations of Impurities in Plutonium Oxide by Prompt Gamma Analysis” was issued [3] The calibration equations are based on a weighted least squares (WLS) approach for the regression. The WLS method gives each data point its proper amount of influence over the parameter estimates. This gives two big advantages, more precise parameter estimates and better and more defensible estimates of uncertainties. The WLS approach makes sense both statistically and experimentally because the variances increase with concentration, and there are physical reasons that the higher measurements are less reliable and should be less influential. The new magnesium calibration includes a correction for sodium and separate calibration equation for items with and without chlorine. These additional calibration equations allow for better predictions and smaller uncertainties for sodium in materials with and without chlorine. Chlorine and sodium have separate equations for RICH materials. Again, these equations give better predictions and smaller uncertainties chlorine and sodium for RICH materials.

  6. Inhaled nitric oxide reduces endothelial activation and parasite accumulation in the brain, and enhances survival in experimental cerebral malaria.

    PubMed

    Serghides, Lena; Kim, Hani; Lu, Ziyue; Kain, Dylan C; Miller, Chris; Francis, Roland C; Liles, W Conrad; Zapol, Warren M; Kain, Kevin C

    2011-01-01

    The host immune response contributes to the onset and progression of severe malaria syndromes, such as cerebral malaria. Adjunctive immunomodulatory strategies for severe malaria may improve clinical outcome beyond that achievable with artemisinin-based therapy alone. Here, we report that prophylaxis with inhaled nitric oxide significantly reduced systemic inflammation (lower TNF, IFNγ and MCP-1 in peripheral blood) and endothelial activation (decreased sICAM-1 and vWF, and increased angiopoeitin-1 levels in peripheral blood) in an experimental cerebral malaria model. Mice that received inhaled nitric oxide starting prior to infection had reduced parasitized erythrocyte accumulation in the brain, decreased brain expression of ICAM-1, and preserved vascular integrity compared to control mice.Inhaled nitric oxide administered in combination with artesunate, starting as late as 5.5 days post-infection, improved survival over treatment with artesunate alone (70% survival in the artesunate only vs. 100% survival in the artesunate plus iNO group, p = 0.03). These data support the clinical investigation of inhaled nitric oxide as a novel adjunctive therapy in patients with severe malaria.

  7. Assay of impure plutonium oxide with the large neutron multiplicity counter for IAEA verification of excess weapons material at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    Langner, D.G.; Franco, J.B.; Larsen, R.K.

    1997-11-01

    The large neutron multiplicity counter (LNMC), also known as the 30-gal.-drum neutron multiplicity counter, has now been used successfully by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for the Initial Physical Inventory Verification (IPIV) and the first annual Physical Inventory Verification (PIV) of excess weapons plutonium oxide at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS). These excess plutonium oxide materials contain a variety of impurities. They are stored two cans to a 10-gal.-drum. The drums contain from 1.3 to 4.0 kg of plutonium. The isotopic declarations vary from can to can but the material averages 6% {sup 240}Pu. During the IPIV, 94 samples were measured in the LNMC; 19 were measured during the PIV. The assays for all but a single drum agreed to within three standard deviations of the declared value. This problematic drum could not be measured by the LNMC because of its unusually high neutron emission rate. In this paper we will report on the overall performance of the LNMC in these inspections.

  8. Ethylene Oxide: Acute Four-Hour and One-Hour Inhalation Toxicity Testing in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Snellings, William M.; Nachreiner, Donald J.; Pottenger, Lynn H.

    2011-01-01

    Ethylene oxide was tested on groups of rats for either 4-hour or 1-hour inhalation exposure, followed by 14 days of observation. Groups of five Sprague-Dawley rats/sex were exposed, and clinical signs and mortality were recorded. Clinical signs noted included irregular breathing, absence of certain reflexes, and tremors. Rats that died had moderate to severe pulmonary congestion. The calculated LC50 values, reported as ppm by volume (with 95% confidence limits), were as follows. 4-hour LC50 values were 1972 (1887 to 2061) ppm for males; 1537 (1391 to 1698) ppm for females; 1741 (1655 to 1831) ppm for the combined sexes. The 1-hour LC50 values were 5748 (5276 to 6262) ppm for males; 4439 (4034 to 4884) ppm for females; 5029 (4634 to 5459) ppm for the combined sexes. PMID:21785591

  9. Inhaled nitric oxide for preterm premature rupture of membranes, oligohydramnios, and pulmonary hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Chock, Valerie Y; Van Meurs, Krisa P; Hintz, Susan R; Ehrenkranz, Richard A; Lemons, James A; Kendrick, Douglas E; Stevenson, David K

    2009-04-01

    We sought to determine if inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) administered to preterm infants with premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), oligohydramnios, and pulmonary hypoplasia improved oxygenation, survival, or other clinical outcomes. Data were analyzed from infants with suspected pulmonary hypoplasia, oligohydramnios, and PPROM enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Development Neonatal Research Network Preemie Inhaled Nitric Oxide (PiNO) trial, where patients were randomized to receive placebo (oxygen) or iNO at 5 to 10 ppm. Outcome variables assessed were PaO (2) response, mortality, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). Twelve of 449 infants in the PiNO trial met criteria. Six infants received iNO and six received placebo. The iNO group had a mean increase in PaO (2) of 39 +/- 50 mm Hg versus a mean decrease of 11 +/- 15 mm Hg in the control group. Mortality was 33% versus 67%, BPD (2/5) 40% versus (2/2) 100%, and severe IVH or PVL (1/5) 20% versus (1/2) 50% in the iNO and control groups, respectively. None of these changes were statistically significant. Review of a limited number of cases from a large multicenter trial suggests that iNO use in the setting of PPROM, oligohydramnios, and suspected pulmonary hypoplasia improves oxygenation and may decrease the rate of BPD and death without increasing severe IVH or PVL. However, the small sample size precludes definitive conclusions. Further studies are required to determine if iNO is of benefit in this specific patient population.

  10. Airway irritation, inflammation, and toxicity in mice following inhalation of metal oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Søren T; Jackson, Petra; Poulsen, Steen S; Levin, Marcus; Jensen, Keld A; Wallin, Håkan; Nielsen, Gunnar D; Koponen, Ismo K

    2016-11-01

    Metal oxide nanoparticles are used in a broad range of industrial processes and workers may be exposed to aerosols of the particles both during production and handling. Despite the widespread use of these particles, relatively few studies have been performed to investigate the toxicological effects in the airways following inhalation. In the present study, the acute (24 h) and persistent (13 weeks) effects in the airways after a single exposure to metal oxide nanoparticles were studied using a murine inhalation model. Mice were exposed 60 min to aerosols of either ZnO, TiO2, Al2O3 or CeO2 and the deposited doses in the upper and lower respiratory tracts were calculated. Endpoints were acute airway irritation, pulmonary inflammation based on analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell composition, DNA damage assessed by the comet assay and pulmonary toxicity assessed by protein level in BAL fluid and histology. All studied particles reduced the tidal volume in a concentration-dependent manner accompanied with an increase in the respiratory rate. In addition, ZnO and TiO2 induced nasal irritation. BAL cell analyses revealed both neutrophilic and lymphocytic inflammation 24-h post-exposure to all particles except TiO2. The ranking of potency regarding induction of acute lung inflammation was Al2O3 = TiO2 < CeO2 ≪ ZnO. Exposure to CeO2 gave rise to a more persistent inflammation; both neutrophilic and lymphocytic inflammation was seen 13 weeks after exposure. As the only particles, ZnO caused a significant toxic effect in the airways while TiO2 gave rise to DNA-strand break as shown by the comet assay.

  11. Airway irritation, inflammation, and toxicity in mice following inhalation of metal oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Søren T.; Jackson, Petra; Poulsen, Steen S.; Levin, Marcus; Jensen, Keld A.; Wallin, Håkan; Nielsen, Gunnar D.; Koponen, Ismo K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Metal oxide nanoparticles are used in a broad range of industrial processes and workers may be exposed to aerosols of the particles both during production and handling. Despite the widespread use of these particles, relatively few studies have been performed to investigate the toxicological effects in the airways following inhalation. In the present study, the acute (24 h) and persistent (13 weeks) effects in the airways after a single exposure to metal oxide nanoparticles were studied using a murine inhalation model. Mice were exposed 60 min to aerosols of either ZnO, TiO2, Al2O3 or CeO2 and the deposited doses in the upper and lower respiratory tracts were calculated. Endpoints were acute airway irritation, pulmonary inflammation based on analyses of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell composition, DNA damage assessed by the comet assay and pulmonary toxicity assessed by protein level in BAL fluid and histology. All studied particles reduced the tidal volume in a concentration-dependent manner accompanied with an increase in the respiratory rate. In addition, ZnO and TiO2 induced nasal irritation. BAL cell analyses revealed both neutrophilic and lymphocytic inflammation 24-h post-exposure to all particles except TiO2. The ranking of potency regarding induction of acute lung inflammation was Al2O3 = TiO2 < CeO2 ≪ ZnO. Exposure to CeO2 gave rise to a more persistent inflammation; both neutrophilic and lymphocytic inflammation was seen 13 weeks after exposure. As the only particles, ZnO caused a significant toxic effect in the airways while TiO2 gave rise to DNA-strand break as shown by the comet assay. PMID:27323801

  12. Brain suppression of AP-1 by inhaled diesel exhaust and reversal by cerium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lung, Shyang; Cassee, Flemming R; Gosens, Ilse; Campbell, Arezoo

    2014-08-01

    One of the uses of cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria, CeO2) is as a diesel fuel additive to improve fuel efficiency. Gene/environment interactions are important determinants in the etiology of age-related disorders. Thus, it is possible that individuals on high-fat diet and genetic predisposition to vascular disease may be more vulnerable to the adverse health effects of particle exposure. The aim of this pilot study was to test the hypothesis that inhalation of diesel exhaust (DE) or diesel exhaust-containing cerium oxide nanoparticles (DCeE) induces stress in the brain of a susceptible animal model. Atherosclerotic prone, apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE(-/-)) mice fed a high-fat diet, were exposed by inhalation to purified air (control), DE or DCeE. The stress-responsive transcription factor, activator protein-1 (AP-1), was significantly decreased in the cortical and subcortical fraction of the brain after DE exposure. The addition of nanoceria to the diesel fuel reversed this effect. The activation of another stress-related transcription factor (NF-κB) was not inhibited. AP-1 is composed of complexes of the Jun and/or Fos family of proteins. Exposure to DCeE caused c-Jun activation and this may be a mechanism by which addition of nanoceria to the fuel reversed the effect of DE exposure on AP-1 activation. This pilot study demonstrates that exposure to DE does impact the brain and addition of nanoceria may be protective. However, more extensive studies are necessary to determine how DE induced reduction of AP-1 activity and compensation by nanoceria impacts normal function of the brain.

  13. Validation of MCNP6 Version 1.0 with the ENDF/B-VII.1 Cross Section Library for Plutonium Metals, Oxides, and Solutions on the High Performance Computing Platform Moonlight

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Bryan Scott; Gough, Sean T.

    2016-12-05

    This report documents a validation of the MCNP6 Version 1.0 computer code on the high performance computing platform Moonlight, for operations at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) that involve plutonium metals, oxides, and solutions. The validation is conducted using the ENDF/B-VII.1 continuous energy group cross section library at room temperature. The results are for use by nuclear criticality safety personnel in performing analysis and evaluation of various facility activities involving plutonium materials.

  14. Acute and subchronic toxicity of inhaled toluene in male Long Evans rats: oxidative stress markers in brain

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Research interested in oxidative stress markers following exposure to VOCsThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Kodavanti , P., J. Royland , D.A. Moore-Smith, J. Beas, J. Richards , T. Beasley , P. Evansky , and P.J. Bushnell. Acute and Subchronic Toxicity of Inhaled Toluene in Male Long-Evans Rats: Oxidative Stress Markers in Brain. NEUROTOXICOLOGY. Elsevier B.V., Amsterdam, NETHERLANDS, 51: 10-19, (2015).

  15. Improved Radiation Dosimetry/Risk Estimates to Facilitate Environmental Management of Plutonium Contaminated Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Bobby R.; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Zhou, Yue; Tokarskaya, Zoya B.; Zhuntova, Galina V.

    2003-06-11

    Our Phase II research evaluated health risks associated with inhaled plutonium. Our research objectives were to: (1) extend our stochastic model for deposition of plutonium in the respiratory tract to include additional key variability and uncertainty; (2) generate and analyze risk distributions for deterministic effects in the lung from inhaled plutonium that reflect risk model uncertainty; (3) acquire an improved understanding of key physiological effects of inhaled plutonium, based on evaluations of clinical data (e.g., hematological, respiratory function, chromosomal aberrations in lymphocytes) for Mayak workers in Russia who inhaled plutonium-239; (4) develop biological dosimetry for plutonium-239 that was inhaled by some Mayak workers (with unknown intake) based on clinical data for other workers with known plutonium-239 intake; (5) critically evaluate the validity of the linear no-threshold (LNT) risk model as it relates to cancer risks from inhaled plutonium-239 (base d on Mayak worker data); and (6) evaluate respirator filter penetration frequencies for airborne plutonium aerosols using surrogate high-density metals.

  16. Weapons-grade plutonium dispositioning. Volume 4. Plutonium dispositioning in light water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Sterbentz, J.W.; Olsen, C.S.; Sinha, U.P.

    1993-06-01

    This study is in response to a request by the Reactor Panel Subcommittee of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Committee on International Security and Arms Control (CISAC) to evaluate the feasibility of using plutonium fuels (without uranium) for disposal in existing conventional or advanced light water reactor (LWR) designs and in low temperature/pressure LWR designs that might be developed for plutonium disposal. Three plutonium-based fuel forms (oxides, aluminum metallics, and carbides) are evaluated for neutronic performance, fabrication technology, and material and compatibility issues. For the carbides, only the fabrication technologies are addressed. Viable plutonium oxide fuels for conventional or advanced LWRs include plutonium-zirconium-calcium oxide (PuO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}-CaO) with the addition of thorium oxide (ThO{sub 2}) or a burnable poison such as erbium oxide (Er{sub 2}O{sub 3}) or europium oxide (Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}) to achieve acceptable neutronic performance. Thorium will breed fissile uranium that may be unacceptable from a proliferation standpoint. Fabrication of uranium and mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuels is well established; however, fabrication of plutonium-based oxide fuels will require further development. Viable aluminum-plutonium metallic fuels for a low temperature/pressure LWR include plutonium aluminide in an aluminum matrix (PuAl{sub 4}-Al) with the addition of a burnable poison such as erbium (Er) or europium (Eu). Fabrication of low-enriched plutonium in aluminum-plutonium metallic fuel rods was initially established 30 years ago and will require development to recapture and adapt the technology to meet current environmental and safety regulations. Fabrication of high-enriched uranium plate fuel by the picture-frame process is a well established process, but the use of plutonium would require the process to be upgraded in the United States to conform with current regulations and minimize the waste streams.

  17. WET METHOD OF PREPARING PLUTONIUM TRIBROMIDE

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, N.R.; Hyde, E.K.

    1958-11-11

    S> The preparation of anhydrous plutonium tribromide from an aqueous acid solution of plutonium tetrabromide is described, consisting of adding a water-soluble volatile bromide to the tetrabromide to provide additional bromide ions sufficient to furnish an oxidation-reduction potential substantially more positive than --0.966 volt, evaporating the resultant plutonium tribromides to dryness in the presence of HBr, and dehydrating at an elevated temperature also in the presence of HBr.

  18. Direct vitrification of plutonium-containing materials (PCM`s) with the glass material oxidation and dissolution system (GMODS)

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, C.W. Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.; Rudolph, J.C.; Haas, P.A.; Malling, G.F.; Elam, K.; Ott, L.

    1995-10-30

    The end of the cold war has resulted in excess PCMs from nuclear weapons and associated production facilities. Consequently, the US government has undertaken studies to determine how best to manage and dispose of this excess material. The issues include (a) ensurance of domestic health, environment, and safety in handling, storage, and disposition, (b) international arms control agreements with Russia and other countries, and (c) economics. One major set of options is to convert the PCMs into glass for storage or disposal. The chemically inert characteristics of glasses make them a desirable chemical form for storage or disposal of radioactive materials. A glass may contain only plutonium, or it may contain plutonium along with other radioactive materials and nonradioactive materials. GMODS is a new process for the direct conversion of PCMs (i.e., plutonium metal, scrap, and residues) to glass. The plutonium content of these materials varies from a fraction of a percent to pure plutonium. GMODS has the capability to also convert other metals, ceramics, and amorphous solids to glass, destroy organics, and convert chloride-containing materials into a low-chloride glass and a secondary clean chloride salt strewn. This report is the initial study of GMODS for vitrification of PCMs as input to ongoing studies of plutonium management options. Several tasks were completed: initial analysis of process thermodynamics, initial flowsheet analysis, identification of equipment options, proof-of-principle experiments, and identification of uncertainties.

  19. PROCESS OF FORMING PLUOTONIUM SALTS FROM PLUTONIUM EXALATES

    DOEpatents

    Garner, C.S.

    1959-02-24

    A process is presented for converting plutonium oxalate to other plutonium compounds by a dry conversion method. According to the process, lower valence plutonium oxalate is heated in the presence of a vapor of a volatile non- oxygenated monobasic acid, such as HCl or HF. For example, in order to produce plutonium chloride, the pure plutonium oxalate is heated to about 700 deg C in a slow stream of hydrogen plus HCl. By the proper selection of an oxidizing or reducing atmosphere, the plutonium halide product can be obtained in either the plus 3 or plus 4 valence state.

  20. Pulmonary effects of inhaled zinc oxide in human subjects, guinea pigs, rats, and rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, T.; Chen, L.C.; Fine, J.M.; Schlesinger, R.B.; Su, W.Y.; Kimmel, T.A.; Amdur, M.O. )

    1992-08-01

    Occupational exposure to freshly formed zinc oxide (ZnO) particles (less than 1.0 micron aerodynamic diameter) produces a well-characterized response known as metal fume fever. An 8-hr threshold limit value (TLV) of 5 mg/m3 has been established to prevent adverse health effects because of exposure to ZnO fumes. Because animal toxicity studies have demonstrated pulmonary effects near the current TLV, the present study examined the time course and dose-response of the pulmonary injury produced by inhaled ZnO in guinea pigs, rats, rabbits, and human volunteers. The test animals were exposed to 0, 2.5, or 5.0 mg/m3 ZnO for up to 3 hr and their lungs lavaged. Both the lavage fluid and recovered cells were examined for evidence of inflammation or altered cell function. The lavage fluid from guinea pigs and rats exposed to 5 mg/m3 had significant increases in total cells, lactate dehydrogenase, beta-glucuronidase, and protein content. These changes were greatest 24 hr after exposure. Guinea pig alveolar macrophage function was depressed as evidenced by in vitro phagocytosis of opsonized latex beads. Significant changes in lavage fluid parameters were also observed in guinea pigs and rats exposed to 2.5 mg/m3 ZnO. In contrast, rabbits showed no increase in biochemical or cellular parameters following a 2-hr exposure to 5 mg/m3 ZnO. Differences in total lung burden of ZnO, as determined in additional animals by atomic absorption spectroscopy, appeared to account for the observed differences in species responses. Although the lungs of guinea pigs and rats retained approximately 20% and 12% of the inhaled dose, respectively, rabbits retained only 5%.

  1. Producing nitric oxide by pulsed electrical discharge in air for portable inhalation therapy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Binglan; Muenster, Stefan; Blaesi, Aron H; Bloch, Donald B; Zapol, Warren M

    2015-07-01

    Inhalation of nitric oxide (NO) produces selective pulmonary vasodilation and is an effective therapy for treating pulmonary hypertension in adults and children. In the United States, the average cost of 5 days of inhaled NO for persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn is about $14,000. NO therapy involves gas cylinders and distribution, a complex delivery device, gas monitoring and calibration equipment, and a trained respiratory therapy staff. The objective of this study was to develop a lightweight, portable device to serve as a simple and economical method of producing pure NO from air for bedside or portable use. Two NO generators were designed and tested: an offline NO generator and an inline NO generator placed directly within the inspiratory line. Both generators use pulsed electrical discharges to produce therapeutic range NO (5 to 80 parts per million) at gas flow rates of 0.5 to 5 liters/min. NO was produced from air, as well as gas mixtures containing up to 90% O2 and 10% N2. Potentially toxic gases produced in the plasma, including nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and ozone (O3), were removed using a calcium hydroxide scavenger. An iridium spark electrode produced the lowest ratio of NO2/NO. In lambs with acute pulmonary hypertension, breathing electrically generated NO produced pulmonary vasodilation and reduced pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance index. In conclusion, electrical plasma NO generation produces therapeutic levels of NO from air. After scavenging to remove NO2 and O3 and filtration to remove particles, electrically produced NO can provide safe and effective treatment of pulmonary hypertension.

  2. Lung injury via oxidative stress in mice induced by inhalation exposure to rocket kerosene.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bingxin; Li, Chenglin; Wang, Jianying; Wu, Jihua; Si, Shaoyan; Liu, Zhiguo; Li, Jianzhong; Zhang, Jianzhong; Cui, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Rocket kerosene (RK) is a new rocket propellant. Toxicity occurs if a high level of RK is inhaled. To study the toxicity of RK in lung and the mechanisms of RK-induced lung jury, a total of 72 male ICR mice (1.5 months, adult) were randomly assigned to the RK exposure group (RKEG) and normal control group (NCG). Mice were whole-body exposed to room air or aerosol of 18000 mg/m3 RK for 4 hours. Histopathological analysis was performed to evaluate the pulmonary lesions. Oxidative stress was assessed by assay of MDA, SOD, GSH-PX and TAOC. Inflammatory response was estimated by detecting inflammatory cell counts, TNF-α and IL-6 protein levels in serum. The results showed that after 2 to 6 hours of RK exposure, pulmonary vascular dilatation, congestion and edematous widening of the alveolar septum were noted. After 12 to 24 hours post-exposure, diffuse hemorrhage in alveolar space were found, along with the progressive pulmonary vascular dilatation and edematous widening of alveolar septum. During 3 to 7 days of RK-exposure, inflammatory cells were scattered in the lung tissue. The pathological alterations of the lung were alleviated after 14 days post-exposure, and showed significant improvement after 21 days post-exposure. After 30 days of RK exposure, the pathological changes in the lung tissue were nearly recovered except the local thickening of the alveolar wall. Compared with NCG, RK inhalation produced a significant increase of MDA levels and a significant decrease of SOD, GSH-Px and TAOC activity in the lung after 2 hours post-exposure (P<0.05). There were significant increases of TNF-α and IL-6 protein levels in serum of mice in RKEG after 2, 6 and 12 hours and 1, 4 and 7 days post-exposure compared with NCG (P<0.05). TNF-α protein levels had a sharp increase after 4 days of exposure. IL-6 protein level was increased at early phase of experiment and then gradually decreased along with the prolonged course of exposure. Considering that the RK-induced lung

  3. Lung injury via oxidative stress in mice induced by inhalation exposure to rocket kerosene

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bingxin; Li, Chenglin; Wang, Jianying; Wu, Jihua; Si, Shaoyan; Liu, Zhiguo; Li, Jianzhong; Zhang, Jianzhong; Cui, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Rocket kerosene (RK) is a new rocket propellant. Toxicity occurs if a high level of RK is inhaled. To study the toxicity of RK in lung and the mechanisms of RK-induced lung jury, a total of 72 male ICR mice (1.5 months, adult) were randomly assigned to the RK exposure group (RKEG) and normal control group (NCG). Mice were whole-body exposed to room air or aerosol of 18000 mg/m3 RK for 4 hours. Histopathological analysis was performed to evaluate the pulmonary lesions. Oxidative stress was assessed by assay of MDA, SOD, GSH-PX and TAOC. Inflammatory response was estimated by detecting inflammatory cell counts, TNF-α and IL-6 protein levels in serum. The results showed that after 2 to 6 hours of RK exposure, pulmonary vascular dilatation, congestion and edematous widening of the alveolar septum were noted. After 12 to 24 hours post-exposure, diffuse hemorrhage in alveolar space were found, along with the progressive pulmonary vascular dilatation and edematous widening of alveolar septum. During 3 to 7 days of RK-exposure, inflammatory cells were scattered in the lung tissue. The pathological alterations of the lung were alleviated after 14 days post-exposure, and showed significant improvement after 21 days post-exposure. After 30 days of RK exposure, the pathological changes in the lung tissue were nearly recovered except the local thickening of the alveolar wall. Compared with NCG, RK inhalation produced a significant increase of MDA levels and a significant decrease of SOD, GSH-Px and TAOC activity in the lung after 2 hours post-exposure (P < 0.05). There were significant increases of TNF-α and IL-6 protein levels in serum of mice in RKEG after 2, 6 and 12 hours and 1, 4 and 7 days post-exposure compared with NCG (P < 0.05). TNF-α protein levels had a sharp increase after 4 days of exposure. IL-6 protein level was increased at early phase of experiment and then gradually decreased along with the prolonged course of exposure. Considering that the RK-induced lung

  4. Economic evaluation of inhaled nitric oxide in preterm infants undergoing mechanical ventilation.

    PubMed

    Zupancic, John A F; Hibbs, Anna Maria; Palermo, Lisa; Truog, William E; Cnaan, Avital; Black, Dennis M; Ballard, Philip L; Wadlinger, Sandra R; Ballard, Roberta A

    2009-11-01

    In the previously reported Nitric Oxide for Chronic Lung Disease (NO CLD) trial, ventilated preterm infants who received a course of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) between 7 and 21 days of life had a significant improvement in survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), as well as a shorter duration of admission and ventilation. However, the price for the drug may be a barrier to widespread use. We sought to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness of iNO therapy to prevent BPD in infants of <1250 g birth weight. We used patient-level data from the NO CLD randomized trial. The study took a third-party payer perspective and measured costs and effects through hospital discharge. We applied previously reported hospital per-diem costs stratified according to intensity of ventilatory support, nitric oxide costs from standard market prices, and professional (physician) fees from the Medicare fee schedule. We compared log transformed costs by using multivariable modeling and performed incremental cost-effectiveness analysis with estimation of uncertainty through nonparametric bootstrapping. The mean cost per infant was $193125 in the placebo group and $194702 in the iNO group (adjusted P = .17). The point estimate for the incremental cost per additional survivor without BPD was $21297. For infants in whom iNO was initiated between 7 and 14 days of life, the mean cost per infant was $187407 in the placebo group and $181525 in the iNO group (adjusted P = .46). In this group of early treated infants, there was a 71% probability that iNO actually decreased costs while improving outcomes. Despite its higher price relative to many other neonatal therapies, iNO in this trial was not associated with higher costs of care, an effect that is likely due to its impact on length of stay and ventilation. Indeed, for infants who receive nitric oxide between 7 and 14 days of life, the therapy seemed to lower costs while improving outcomes.

  5. Effects of inhaled manganese on biomarkers of oxidative stress in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Michael D; Erikson, Keith M; Dobson, Allison W; Fitsanakis, Vanessa A; Dorman, David C; Aschner, Michael

    2006-09-01

    Manganese (Mn) is a ubiquitous and essential element that can be toxic at high doses. In individuals exposed to high levels of this metal, Mn can accumulate in various brain regions, leading to neurotoxicity. In particular, Mn accumulation in the mid-brain structures, such as the globus pallidus and striatum, can lead to a Parkinson's-like movement disorder known as manganism. While the mechanism of this toxicity is currently unknown, it has been postulated that Mn may be involved in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) through interaction with intracellular molecules, such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, produced within mitochondria. Conversely, Mn is a required component of an important antioxidant enzyme, Mn superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), while glutamine synthetase (GS), a Mn-containing astrocyte-specific enzyme, is exquisitely sensitive to oxidative stress. To investigate the possible role of oxidative stress in Mn-induced neurotoxicity, a series of inhalation studies was performed in neonatal and adult male and female rats as well as senescent male rats exposed to various levels of airborne-Mn for periods of time ranging from 14 to 90 days. Oxidative stress was then indirectly assessed by measuring glutathione (GSH), metallothionein (MT), and GS levels in several brain regions. MT and GS mRNA levels and regional brain Mn concentrations were also determined. The collective results of these studies argue against extensive involvement of ROS in Mn neurotoxicity in rats of differing genders and ages. There are, however, instances of changes in individual endpoints consistent with oxidative stress in certain brain tissues.

  6. Pulmonary expression of nitric oxide synthase isoforms in sheep with smoke inhalation and burn injury.

    PubMed

    Cox, Robert A; Jacob, Sam; Oliveras, Gloria; Murakami, Kazunori; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Traber, Lillian; Schmalstieg, Frank C; Herndon, David N; Traber, Daniel L; Hawkins, Hal K

    2009-03-01

    Previous studies have indicated increased plasma levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase in lung. This study further examines the pulmonary expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms in an ovine model of acute lung injury induced by smoke inhalation and burn injury (S+B injury). Female range bred sheep (4 per group) were sacrificed at 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 hours after injury and immunohistochemistry was performed in tissues for various NOS isoforms. The study indicates that in uninjured sheep lung, endothelial (eNOS) is constitutively expressed in the endothelial cells associated with the airways and parenchyma, and in macrophages. Similarly, neuronal (nNOS) is constitutively present in the mucous cells of the epithelium and in neurons of airway ganglia. In uninjured lung, inducible (iNOS) was present in bronchial secretory cells and macrophages. In tissue after S+B injury, new expression of iNOS was evident in bronchial ciliated cells, basal cells, and mucus gland cells. In the parenchyma, a slight increase in iNOS immunostaining was seen in type I cells at 12 and 24 hours after injury only. Virtually no change in eNOS or nNOS was seen after injury.

  7. Radionuclide Basics: Plutonium

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Plutonium (chemical symbol Pu) is a radioactive metal. Plutonium is considered a man-made element. Plutonium-239 is used to make nuclear weapons. Pu-239 and Pu-240 are byproducts of nuclear reactor operations and nuclear bomb explosions.

  8. URANOUS IODATE AS A CARRIER FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Miller, D.R.; Seaborg, G.T.; Thompson, S.G.

    1959-12-15

    A process is described for precipitating plutonium on a uranous iodate carrier from an aqueous acid solution conA plutonium solution more concentrated than the original solution can then be obtained by oxidizing the uranium to the hexavalent state and dissolving the precipitate, after separating the latter from the original solution, by means of warm nitric acid.

  9. Behavior of metallic fission products in uranium plutonium mixed oxide fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, I.; Furuya, H.; Arima, T.; Idemitsu, K.; Yamamoto, K.

    1999-08-01

    Metallic fission products, ruthenium, rhodium, technetium, palladium, and molybdenum, exist in irradiated oxide fuels as metallic inclusions. In this work, the radial distributions of metallic inclusion constituents in the fuel specimen irradiated to a peak burnup of 7-13 at.% were observed with an electron probe microanalysis. Palladium concentration is high at the periphery in all the specimens. Molybdenum shows the same tendency for the 13 at.% burnup specimen. These results showed the significant difference between experimental data and calculations with ORIGEN-2 at such high burnups, which suggested that the migration of palladium and molybdenum was controlled mainly by diffusion of gaseous species containing each metal along the fuel temperature gradient.

  10. Inhaled nitric oxide decreases pulmonary endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression and activity in normal newborn rat lungs.

    PubMed

    Hua-Huy, Thông; Duong-Quy, Sy; Pham, Hoa; Pansiot, Julien; Mercier, Jean-Christophe; Baud, Olivier; Dinh-Xuan, Anh Tuan

    2016-01-01

    Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is commonly used in the treatment of very ill pre-term newborns. Previous studies showed that exogenous NO could affect endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activity and expression in vascular endothelial cell cultures or adult rat models, but this has never been fully described in newborn rat lungs. We therefore aimed to assess the effects of iNO on eNOS expression and activity in newborn rats. Rat pups, post-natal day (P) 0 to P7, and their dams were placed in a chamber containing NO at 5 ppm (iNO-5 ppm group) or 20 ppm (iNO-20 ppm group), or in room air (control group). Rat pups were sacrificed at P7 and P14 for evaluation of lung eNOS expression and activity. At P7, eNOS protein expression in total lung lysates, in bronchial and arterial sections, was significantly decreased in the iNO-20 ppm versus control group. At P14, eNOS expression was comparable among all three groups. The amounts of eNOS mRNA significantly differed at P7 between the iNO-20 ppm and control groups. NOS activity decreased in the iNO-20 ppm group at P7 and returned to normal levels at P14. There was an imbalance between superoxide dismutase and NOS activities in the iNO-20 ppm group at P7. Inhalation of NO at 20 ppm early after birth decreases eNOS gene transcription, protein expression and enzyme activity. This decrease might account for the rebound phenomenon observed in patients treated with iNO.

  11. [The effect of subchronic inhalations of nitric oxide on metabolic processes in blood of experimental animals].

    PubMed

    Soloveva, A G; Peretyagin, S P

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic processes were investigated in plasma and erythrocytes of Wistar rats exposed to daily 10-min sessions of NO inhalation for 30 days. These included determination of glucose and lactate, catalase activity, and activities of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and catalase. NO inhalation in a concentration of 20 ppm, 50 ppm and 100 ppm caused an increase in glucose and lactate. Inhalation of 100 ppm NO also increased catalase activity. Inhalation of all NO concentrations resulted in a decrease of ALDH activity, while the decrease in LDH activity was observed at NO concentrations of 50-100 ppm.

  12. MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF PLUTONIUM-BEARING OXIDES STORED IN STAINLESS STEEL CONTAINERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kessinger, G.; Almond, P.; Bridges, N.; Bronikowski, M.; Crowder, M.; Duffey, J.; Livingston, R.; Mcelwee, M.; Missimer, D.; Scogin, J.; Summer, M.; Jurgensen, A.

    2010-02-01

    The destructive examination (DE) of 3013 containers after storage is part of the Surveillance and Monitoring Program based on the Department of Energy's standard for long-term storage of Pu (DOE-STD-3013). The stored, Pu-bearing materials may contain alkali halide contamination that varies from trace amounts of salt to about 50 weight percent, with smaller fractions of other compounds and oxides. These materials were characterized prior to packaging, and surveillance characterizations are conducted to determine the behavior of the materials during long term storage. The surveillance characterization results are generally in agreement with the pre-surveillance data. The predominant phases identified by X-ray diffraction are in agreement with the expected phase assemblages of the as-received materials. The measured densities are in reasonable agreement with the expected densities of materials containing the fraction of salts and actinide oxide specified by the pre-surveillance data. The radiochemical results are generally in good agreement with the pre-surveillance data for mixtures containing 'weapons grade' Pu (nominally 94% {sup 239}Pu and 6% {sup 240}Pu); however, the ICP-MS results from the present investigation generally produce lower concentrations of Pu than the pre-surveillance analyses. For mixtures containing 'fuel grade' Pu (nominally 81-93% {sup 239}Pu and 7-19% {sup 240}Pu), the ICP-MS results from the present investigation appear to be in better agreement with the pre-surveillance data than the radiochemistry results.

  13. Preparation of Small Well Characterized Plutonium Oxide Reference Materials and Demonstration of the Usefulness of Such Materials for Nondestructive Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    B.A. Guillen; S.T. Hsue; J.Y Huang; P.A. Hypes; S.M. Long; C.R. Rudy; P.A. Russo; J.E. Stewart; D.J. Temer

    2003-01-01

    Calibration of neutron coincidence and multiplicity counters for passive nondestructive analysis (NDA) of plutonium requires knowledge of the detector efficiency parameters. These are most often determined empirically. Bias from multiplication and unknown impurities may be incurred even with small plutonium metal samples. Five sets of small, pure plutonium metal standards prepared with well-known geometry and very low levels of impurities now contribute to determining accurate multiplication corrections. Recent measurements of these metal standards, with small but well-defined multiplication and negligible yield of other than fission neutrons, demonstrate an improved characterization and calibration of neutron coincidence/multiplicity counters. The precise knowledge of the mass and isotopic composition of each standard also contributes significantly to verifying the accuracy of the most precise calorimetry and gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements.

  14. Plutonium story

    SciTech Connect

    Seaborg, G T

    1981-09-01

    The first nuclear synthesis and identification (i.e., the discovery) of the synthetic transuranium element plutonium (isotope /sup 238/Pu) and the demonstration of its fissionability with slow neutrons (isotope /sup 239/Pu) took place at the University of California, Berkeley, through the use of the 60-inch and 37-inch cyclotrons, in late 1940 and early 1941. This led to the development of industrial scale methods in secret work centered at the University of Chicago's Metallurgical Laboratory and the application of these methods to industrial scale production, at manufacturing plants in Tennessee and Washington, during the World War II years 1942 to 1945. The chemical properties of plutonium, needed to devise the procedures for its industrial scale production, were studied by tracer and ultramicrochemical methods during this period on an extraordinarily urgent basis. This work, and subsequent investigations on a worldwide basis, have made the properties of plutonium very well known. Its well studied electronic structure and chemical properties give it a very interesting position in the actinide series of inner transition elements.

  15. Plutonium Story

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Seaborg, G. T.

    1981-09-01

    The first nuclear synthesis and identification (i.e., the discovery) of the synthetic transuranium element plutonium (isotope /sup 238/Pu) and the demonstration of its fissionability with slow neutrons (isotope /sup 239/Pu) took place at the University of California, Berkeley, through the use of the 60-inch and 37-inch cyclotrons, in late 1940 and early 1941. This led to the development of industrial scale methods in secret work centered at the University of Chicago's Metallurgical Laboratory and the application of these methods to industrial scale production, at manufacturing plants in Tennessee and Washington, during the World War II years 1942 to 1945. The chemical properties of plutonium, needed to devise the procedures for its industrial scale production, were studied by tracer and ultramicrochemical methods during this period on an extraordinarily urgent basis. This work, and subsequent investigations on a worldwide basis, have made the properties of plutonium very well known. Its well studied electronic structure and chemical properties give it a very interesting position in the actinide series of inner transition elements.

  16. Relative Humidity and the Susceptibility of Austenitic Stainless Steel to Stress Corrosion Cracking in an impure Plutonium Oxide Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Zapp, P.; Duffey, J.; Lam, P.; Dunn, K.

    2010-05-05

    Laboratory tests to investigate the corrosivity of moist plutonium oxide/chloride salt mixtures on 304L and 316L stainless steel coupons showed that corrosion occurred in selected samples. The tests exposed flat coupons for pitting evaluation and 'teardrop' stressed coupons for stress corrosion cracking (SCC) evaluation at room temperature to various mixtures of PuO{sub 2} and chloride-bearing salts for periods up to 500 days. The exposures were conducted in sealed containers in which the oxide-salt mixtures were loaded with about 0.6 wt % water from a humidified helium atmosphere. Observations of corrosion ranged from superficial staining to pitting and SCC. The extent of corrosion depended on the total salt concentration, the composition of the salt and the moisture present in the test environment. The most significant corrosion was found in coupons that were exposed to 98 wt % PuO{sub 2}, 2 wt % chloride salt mixtures that contained calcium chloride and 0.6 wt% water. SCC was observed in two 304L stainless steel teardrop coupons exposed in solid contact to a mixture of 98 wt % PuO{sub 2}, 0.9 wt % NaCl, 0.9 wt % KCl, and 0.2 wt % CaCl{sub 2}. The cracking was associated with the heat-affected zone of an autogenous weld that ran across the center of the coupon. Cracking was not observed in coupons exposed to the headspace gas above the solid mixture, or in coupons exposed to other mixtures with either no CaCl{sub 2} or 0.92 wt% CaCl{sub 2}. SCC was present where the 0.6 wt % water content exceeded the value needed to fully hydrate the available CaCl{sub 2}, but was absent where the water content was insufficient. These results reveal the significance of the relative humidity in the austenitic stainless steels environment to their susceptibility to corrosion. The relative humidity in the test environment was controlled by the water loading and the concentration of the hydrating salts such as CaCl{sub 2}. For each salt or salt mixture there is a threshold relative

  17. Nanoparticle Inhalation Increases Microvascular Oxidative Stress and Compromises Nitric Oxide Bioavailability

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have shown that pulmonary nanoparticle exposure impairs endothelium dependent dilation in systemic arterioles. However, the mechanism(s) through which this effect occurs are unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify alterations in the production of oxidative stress an...

  18. Nanoparticle Inhalation Increases Microvascular Oxidative Stress and Compromises Nitric Oxide Bioavailability

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have shown that pulmonary nanoparticle exposure impairs endothelium dependent dilation in systemic arterioles. However, the mechanism(s) through which this effect occurs are unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify alterations in the production of oxidative stress an...

  19. Computation Results from a Parametric Study to Determine Bounding Critical Systems of Homogeneously Water-Moderated Mixed Plutonium--Uranium Oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, Y.

    2001-01-11

    This report provides computational results of an extensive study to examine the following: (1) infinite media neutron-multiplication factors; (2) material bucklings; (3) bounding infinite media critical concentrations; (4) bounding finite critical dimensions of water-reflected and homogeneously water-moderated one-dimensional systems (i.e., spheres, cylinders of infinite length, and slabs that are infinite in two dimensions) that were comprised of various proportions and densities of plutonium oxides and uranium oxides, each having various isotopic compositions; and (5) sensitivity coefficients of delta k-eff with respect to critical geometry delta dimensions were determined for each of the three geometries that were studied. The study was undertaken to support the development of a standard that is sponsored by the International Standards Organization (ISO) under Technical Committee 85, Nuclear Energy (TC 85)--Subcommittee 5, Nuclear Fuel Technology (SC 5)--Working Group 8, Standardization of Calculations, Procedures and Practices Related to Criticality Safety (WG 8). The designation and title of the ISO TC 85/SC 5/WG 8 standard working draft is WD 14941, ''Nuclear energy--Fissile materials--Nuclear criticality control and safety of plutonium-uranium oxide fuel mixtures outside of reactors.'' Various ISO member participants performed similar computational studies using their indigenous computational codes to provide comparative results for analysis in the development of the standard.

  20. Americium and plutonium release behavior from irradiated mixed oxide fuel during heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, I.; Suto, M.; Miwa, S.; Hirosawa, T.; Koyama, S.

    2013-06-01

    The release behavior of Pu and Am was investigated under the reducing atmosphere expected in sodium cooled fast reactor severe accidents. Irradiated Pu and U mixed oxide fuels were heated at maximum temperatures of 2773 K and 3273 K. EPMA, γ-ray spectrometry and α-ray spectrometry for released and residual materials revealed that Pu and Am can be released more easily than U under the reducing atmosphere. The respective release rate coefficients for Pu and Am were obtained as 3.11 × 10-4 min-1 and 1.60 × 10-4 min-1 at 2773 K under the reducing atmosphere with oxygen partial pressure less than 0.02 Pa. Results of thermochemical calculations indicated that the main released chemical forms would likely be PuO for Pu and Am for Am under quite low oxygen partial pressure.

  1. The hydriding resistance of plutonium oxides and mononitride: A view from ab initio molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Bo; Liu, Haifeng; Song, Haifeng

    2015-06-01

    Based on the non-local van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF)+ U scheme, we carry out the ab initio molecular dynamics study of the interaction dynamics for H2 molecules impingement against Pu-oxides and mononitride surfaces. We show that except for the weak physisorption, both PuO2 and PuN surfaces are so difficult of access that almost all of H2 molecules will bounce back to the vacuum when their initial kinetic energies are not sufficient. Although the dissociative adsorption of H2 on PuO2 surfaces is found to be exothermic, the collision-induced dissociation barriers of H2 are very high (up to 2.2 eV). However, PuO2 overlayer on Pu-metal can be reduced to α-Pu2O3 drived by oxygen-lean conditions, and H2 can penetrate and diffuse in α-Pu2O3 easily. As a result, α-Pu2O3 can promote the hydriding process of Pu. Unlike PuO2, PuN is found to be one kind of stable and uniform passivation layer against Pu-hydriding. Specifically, the incorporation of PuN and H-atom is proven to be thermodynamically unstable. Overall, our current study reveals the mechanical and chemical resistances of Pu-oxide and Pu-nitride to hydrogen corrosion, which have strong implications to the understanding of the surface corrosion and passivation of Pu metal. This work was supported by the FDST of CAEP under Grant No. 9090707.

  2. 30-y follow-up of a Pu/Am inhalation case.

    PubMed

    Wernli, Christian; Eikenberg, Jost; Marzocchi, Olaf; Breustedt, Bastian; Oestreicher, Ursula; Romm, Horst; Gregoratto, Demetrio; Marsh, James

    2015-04-01

    In 1983, a young man inhaled accidentally a large amount of plutonium and americium. This case was carefully followed until 2013. Since no decorporation measures had been taken, the undisturbed metabolism of Pu and Am can be derived from the data. First objective was to determine the amount of inhaled radionuclides and to estimate committed effective dose. In vivo and excretion measurements started immediately after the inhalation, and for quality assurance, all types of measurements were performed by different labs in Europe and the USA. After dose assessment by various international groups were completed, the measurements were continued to produce scientific data for model validation. The data have been analysed here to estimate lung absorption parameter values for the inhaled plutonium and americium oxide using the proposed new ICRP Human Respiratory Tract Model. As supplement to the biokinetic modelling, biological data from three different cytogenetic markers have been added. The estimated committed effective dose is in the order of 1 Sv. The subject is 30 y after the inhalation, of good health, according to a recent medical check-up.

  3. Thermophysical properties of perovskite type alkaline-earth metals and plutonium complex oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Sato, Isamu; Hirosawa, Takashi; Kurosaki, Ken; Muta, Hiroaki; Yamanaka, Shinsuke

    2012-03-01

    Polycrystalline specimens of strontium plutonate, SrPuO3, have been prepared by mixing the appropriate amounts of PuO2 and SrCO3 powders followed by reacting and sintering at 1600 K under the flowing gas atmosphere of dry-air. The sintered specimens had a single phase of orthorhombic perovskite structure and were crack-free. The elastic moduli of SrPuO3 were determined from the longitudinal and shear sound velocities. The Debye temperature was also determined from the sound velocities and lattice parameter measurements. The thermal conductivity of SrPuO3 was calculated from the measured density at room temperature, literature values of heat capacity, and thermal diffusivity measured by laser flash method in vacuum. Although the thermal conductivity of SrPuO3 slightly decreased with increasing temperature to 800 K, the range of change was extremely narrow and the temperature dependence did not completely follow the 1/T law. The thermal conductivity of SrPuO3 was lower than those of other perovskite type oxides.

  4. First-principles local density approximation + U and generalized gradient approximation + U study of plutonium oxides.

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Zhang, Ping; Zhao, Xian-Geng

    2008-02-28

    The electronic structure and properties of PuO2 and Pu2O3 have been studied from first principles by the all-electron projector-augmented-wave method. The local density approximation+U and the generalized gradient approximation+U formalisms have been used to account for the strong on-site Coulomb repulsion among the localized Pu 5f electrons. We discuss how the properties of PuO2 and Pu2O3 are affected by the choice of U as well as the choice of exchange-correlation potential. Also, oxidation reaction of Pu2O3, leading to formation of PuO2, and its dependence on U and exchange-correlation potential have been studied. Our results show that by choosing an appropriate U, it is promising to correctly and consistently describe structural, electronic, and thermodynamic properties of PuO2 and Pu2O3, which enable the modeling of redox process involving Pu-based materials possible.

  5. Understanding the interactions of neptunium and plutonium ions with graphene oxide: scalar-relativistic DFT investigations.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qun-Yan; Lan, Jian-Hui; Wang, Cong-Zhi; Zhao, Yu-Liang; Chai, Zhi-Fang; Shi, Wei-Qun

    2014-11-06

    Due to the vast application potential of graphene oxide (GO)-based materials in nuclear waste processing, it is of pivotal importance to investigate the interaction mechanisms between actinide cations such as Np(V) and Pu(IV, VI) ions and GO. In this work, we have considered four types of GOs modified by hydroxyl, carboxyl, and carbonyl groups at the edge and epoxy group on the surface, respectively. The structures, bonding nature, and binding energies of Np(V) and Pu(IV, VI) complexes with GOs have been investigated systematically using scalar-relativistic density functional theory (DFT). Geometries and harmonic frequencies suggest that Pu(IV) ions coordinate more easily with GOs compared to Np(V) and Pu(VI) ions. NBO and electron density analyses reveal that the coordination bond between Pu(IV) ions and GO possesses more covalency, whereas for Np(V) and Pu(VI) ions electrostatic interaction dominates the An-OG bond. The binding energies in aqueous solution reveal that the adsorption abilities of all GOs for actinide ions follow the order of Pu(IV) > Pu(VI) > Np(V), which is in excellent agreement with experimental observations. It is expected that this study can provide useful information for developing more efficient GO-based materials for radioactive wastewater treatment.

  6. Inhaled Nitric Oxide Decreases Leukocyte Trafficking in the Neonatal Mouse Lung During Exposure to >95% Oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Melissa J.; Stenger, Michael R.; Joshi, Mandar S.; Welty, Stephen E.; Bauer, John Anthony; Nelin, Leif D.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic lung injury in the neonate is termed bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). These patients generally require supplemental oxygen therapy, and hyperoxia has been implicated in the pathogenesis of BPD. The concomitant use of oxygen and inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) may result in the generation of reactive nitrogen species, or may have an anti-inflammatory effect in the neonatal lung. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to >95% O2 in neonatal mice would increase trafficking of leukocytes into the lung, and that the addition of iNO to >95% O2 would decrease this leukocyte trafficking. Hyperoxia resulted in fewer alveoli, increased presence of neutrophils and macrophages, and decreased number of mast cells within the lung parenchyma. Adding iNO to hyperoxia prevented the hyperoxia-induced changes and resulted in the numbers of alveoli, neutrophils, macrophages, and mast cells approximating those found in controls (room air exposure). Intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), two factors responsible for leukocyte recruitment, were upregulated by hyperoxic exposure, but the addition of iNO to the hyperoxic exposure prevented the hyperoxia-induced upregulation of ICAM and MCP-1. These data demonstrate that iNO alters the hyperoxia-induced recruitment of leukocytes into the lung. PMID:19915514

  7. Effect of inhaled nitric oxide on cerebrospinal fluid and blood nitrite concentrations in newborn lambs

    PubMed Central

    Conahey, George R.; Power, Gordon G.; Hopper, Andrew O.; Terry, Michael H.; Kirby, Laura S.; Blood, Arlin B.

    2009-01-01

    Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has many extrapulmonary effects. As the half-life of NO in blood is orders of magnitude less than the circulation time from lungs to the brain, the mediator of systemic effects of iNO is unknown. We hypothesized that concentrations of nitrite, a circulating byproduct of NO with demonstrated NO bioactivity, would increase in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during iNO therapy. iNO (80ppm) was given to six newborn lambs and results compared to six control lambs. Blood and CSF nitrite concentrations increased two-fold in response to iNO. cGMP increased in blood but not CSF suggesting brain guanylate cyclase activity was not increased. When sodium nitrite was infused intravenously blood and CSF nitrite levels increased within 10 min and reached similar levels of 14.6±1.5 µM after 40 min. The reactivity of nitrite in hemoglobin-free brain homogenates was investigated, with the findings that nitrite did not disappear nor did measurable amounts of s-nitroso, n-nitroso, or iron-nitrosyl-species appear. We conclude that although nitrite diffuses freely between blood and CSF, due to its lack of reactivity in the brain, nitrite’s putative role as the mediator of the systemic effects of iNO is limited to intravascular reactions. PMID:18535482

  8. Inhaled nitric oxide in adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Monsalve-Naharro, José Ángel; Domingo-Chiva, Esther; García Castillo, Sergio; Cuesta-Montero, Pablo; Jiménez-Vizuete, José María

    2017-03-01

    In some patients, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) leads to life-threatening refractory hypoxemia developing. Physicians may consider hypoxemic rescue therapies in an attempt to improve oxygenation in these patients while on conventional mechanical ventilation support. Use of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) in ARDS is one of the most widely-studied pharmacological interventions over the past two decades. Its efficacy was examined in several randomized clinical trials and has undergone meta-analyses. Although iNO treatment was associated with improved oxygenation, researchers unfortunately never demonstrated a concomitant decrease in mortality or any improved outcome. Hence the current evidence suggests that iNO should not be routinely used in patients with ARDS however may be considered as adjunct therapy to tentatively improve oxygenation while other therapies are being considered in patients with severely hypoxemic ARDS.This review focuses on the therapeutic use of iNO in adult ARDS patients. We set out some recommendations for its use as rescue therapy against refractory hypoxemia.

  9. Organ Dysfunction among Piglets Treated with Inhaled Nitric Oxide and Intravenous Hydrocortisone during Prolonged Endotoxin Infusion

    PubMed Central

    Göranson, Sofie Paues; Goździk, Waldemar; Harbut, Piotr; Ryniak, Stanisław; Zielinski, Stanisław; Haegerstrand, Caroline Gillis; Kübler, Andrzej; Hedenstierna, Göran; Frostell, Claes; Albert, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Objective It has previously been shown that a combination of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) and intravenous (IV) steroid attenuates endotoxin-induced organ damage in a 6-hour porcine endotoxemia model. We aimed to further explore these effects in a 30-hour model with attention to clinically important variables. Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting University animal laboratory. Subjects Domestic piglets (n = 30). Interventions Animals were randomized into 5 groups (n = 6 each): 1) Controls, 2) LPS-only (endotoxin/lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion), 3) LPS + iNO, 4) LPS + IV steroid, 5) LPS + iNO + IV steroid. Measurements and Main Results Exposure to LPS temporarily increased pulmonary artery mean pressure and impeded renal function with elevated serum creatinine and acidosis compared to a control group over the 30-hour study period. Double treatment with both iNO and IV steroid tended to blunt the deterioration in renal function, although the only significant effect was on Base Excess (p = 0.045). None of the LPS + iNO + IV steroid treated animals died during the study period, whereas one animal died in each of the other LPS-infused groups. Conclusions This study suggests that combined early therapy with iNO and IV steroid is associated with partial protection of kidney function after 30 hours of experimental LPS infusion. PMID:24827456

  10. Inhaled Nitric Oxide Use in Preterm Infants in California Neonatal Intensive Care Units

    PubMed Central

    Handley, Sara C.; Steinhorn, Robin H.; Hopper, Andrew O.; Govindaswami, Balaji; Bhatt, Dilip R.; Van Meurs, Krisa P.; Ariagno, Ronald L.; Gould, Jeffrey B.; Lee, Henry C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) exposure in preterm infants and variation in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) use. Study Design This was a retrospective cohort study of infants, 22–33+6/7 weeks gestational age (GA), during 2005–2013. Analyses were stratified by GA and included population characteristics, iNO use over time and hospital variation. Result Of 65 824 infants, 1 718 (2.61%) received iNO. Infants, 22–24+6/7 weeks GA, had the highest incidence of iNO exposure (6.54%). Community NICUs (n = 77, median hospital use rate 0.7%) used less iNO than regional NICUs (n = 23, median hospital use rate 5.8%). In 22–24+6/7 week GA infants the median rate in regional centers was 10.6% (hospital IQR 3.8%–22.6%). Conclusion iNO exposure varied with GA and hospital level, with the most use in extremely premature infants and regional centers. Variation reflects a lack of consensus regarding the appropriate use of iNO for preterm infants. PMID:27031320

  11. PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Ritter, D.M.

    1959-01-13

    An improvement is presented in the process for recovery and decontamination of plutonium. The carrier precipitate containing plutonium is dissolved and treated with an oxidizing agent to place the plutonium in a hexavalent oxidation state. A lanthanum fluoride precipitate is then formed in and removed from the solution to carry undesired fission products. The fluoride ions in the reniaining solution are complexed by addition of a borate sueh as boric acid, sodium metaborate or the like. The plutonium is then reduced and carried from the solution by the formation of a bismuth phosphate precipitate. This process effects a better separation from unwanted flssion products along with conccntration of the plutonium by using a smaller amount of carrier.

  12. New Fecal Method for Plutonium and Americium

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, S.L. III

    2000-06-27

    A new fecal analysis method that dissolves plutonium oxide was developed at the Westinghouse Savannah River Site. Diphonix Resin (Eichrom Industries), is used to pre-concentrate the actinides from digested fecal samples. A rapid microwave digestion technique is used to remove the actinides from the Diphonix Resin, which effectively extracts plutonium and americium from acidic solutions containing hydrofluoric acid. After resin digestion, the plutonium and americium are recovered in a small volume of nitric acid that is loaded onto small extraction chromatography columns, TEVA Resin and TRU Resin (Eichrom Industries). The method enables complete dissolution of plutonium oxide and provides high recovery of plutonium and americium with good removal of thorium isotopes such as thorium-228.

  13. Application of molten salt oxidation for the minimization and recovery of plutonium-238 contaminated wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Wishau, R.

    1998-05-01

    Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is proposed as a {sup 238}Pu waste treatment technology that should be developed for volume reduction and recovery of {sup 238}Pu and as an alternative to the transport and permanent disposal of {sup 238}Pu waste to the WIPP repository. In MSO technology, molten sodium carbonate salt at 800--900 C in a reaction vessel acts as a reaction media for wastes. The waste material is destroyed when injected into the molten salt, creating harmless carbon dioxide and steam and a small amount of ash in the spent salt. The spent salt can be treated using aqueous separation methods to reuse the salt and to recover 99.9% of the precious {sup 238}Pu that was in the waste. Tests of MSO technology have shown that the volume of combustible TRU waste can be reduced by a factor of at least twenty. Using this factor the present inventory of 574 TRU drums of {sup 238}Pu contaminated wastes is reduced to 30 drums. Further {sup 238}Pu waste costs of $22 million are avoided from not having to repackage 312 of the 574 drums to a drum total of more than 4,600 drums. MSO combined with aqueous processing of salts will recover approximately 1.7 kilograms of precious {sup 238}Pu valued at 4 million dollars (at $2,500/gram). Thus, installation and use of MSO technology at LANL will result in significant cost savings compared to present plans to transport and dispose {sup 238}Pu TRU waste to the WIPP site. Using a total net present value cost for the MSO project as $4.09 million over a five-year lifetime, the project can pay for itself after either recovery of 1.6 kg of Pu or through volume reduction of 818 drums or a combination of the two. These savings show a positive return on investment.

  14. Analysis of pulmonary surfactant in rat lungs after inhalation of nanomaterials: Fullerenes, nickel oxide and multi-walled carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Kadoya, Chikara; Lee, Byeong-Woo; Ogami, Akira; Oyabu, Takako; Nishi, Ken-ichiro; Yamamoto, Makoto; Todoroki, Motoi; Morimoto, Yasuo; Tanaka, Isamu; Myojo, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    The health risks of inhalation exposure to engineered nanomaterials in the workplace are a major concern in recent years, and hazard assessments of these materials are being conducted. The pulmonary surfactant of lung alveoli is the first biological entity to have contact with airborne nanomaterials in inhaled air. In this study, we retrospectively evaluated the pulmonary surfactant components of rat lungs after a 4-week inhalation exposure to three different nanomaterials: fullerenes, nickel oxide (NiO) nanoparticles and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), with similar levels of average aerosol concentration (0.13-0.37 mg/m(3)). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of the rat lungs stored after previous inhalation studies was analyzed, focusing on total protein and the surfactant components, such as phospholipids and surfactant-specific SP-D (surfactant protein D) and the BALF surface tension, which is affected by SP-B and SP-C. Compared with a control group, significant changes in the BALF surface tension and the concentrations of phospholipids, total protein and SP-D were observed in rats exposed to NiO nanoparticles, but not in those exposed to fullerenes. Surface tension and the levels of surfactant phospholipids and proteins were also significantly different in rats exposed to MWCNTs. The concentrations of phospholipids, total protein and SP-D and BALF surface tension were correlated significantly with the polymorphonuclear neutrophil counts in the BALF. These results suggest that pulmonary surfactant components can be used as measures of lung inflammation.

  15. Modified INOvent for delivery of inhaled nitric oxide during cardiac MRI.

    PubMed

    Devendra, Ganesh P; Hart, Stephen A; Kim, Yuli Y; Setser, Randy M; Flamm, Scott D; Krasuski, Richard A

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of delivering NO through a modified system to allow clearance of the magnetic field and thus compatibility with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Nitric oxide (NO) is an inhalational, selective pulmonary vasodilator with a wide range of applications in a variety of disease states, including diseases that affect the right ventricle. Accurate assessment of dynamic changes in right ventricular function necessitates CMR; however, delivery of NO is only possible using equipment that is not magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) compatible (INOvent delivery system, Ohmeda, Inc., Madison, WI, USA). The INOvent delivery system was modified by using 35 ft. of standard oxygen tubing to allow NO delivery through an electrical conduit and into the MRI suite. The concentrations of oxygen (O(2)), nitrogen dioxide (a harmful byproduct, NO(2)) and NO were measured in triplicate using the built-in electrochemical analyzer on the INOvent. After confirmation of safety, the system was used to administer drug to a patient x, and dynamic MRI measurements were performed. When the standard INOvent was set to administer 40 ppm of NO, the mean/standard deviation of gas delivered was as follows: NO: 42/0 ppm; NO(2): 0.3/0.1 ppm; and O(2): 93/0 ppm. In comparison, the gas delivery of the modified INOvent was follows: NO: 41/0 ppm; NO(2): 0.5/0 ppm; and O(2): 93.7/0.6 ppm. During administration to an index patient with severe pulmonic insufficiency (PI), a measurable reduction in PI was observed by CMR. Nitric oxide can be administered through 35 ft. of standard oxygen tubing without significantly affecting dose delivery. This technique has potential application in patients with right-sided structural heart disease for determination of dynamic physiological changes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of exercise exposure on toxic interactions between inhaled oxidant and aldehyde air pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    Mautz, W.J.; Kleinman, M.T.; Phalen, R.F.; Crocker, T.T.

    1988-01-01

    Respiratory tract injury resulting from inhalation of mixtures of ozone (O3) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and of O3 and formaldehyde (HCHO) was studied in Sprague-Dawley rats under exposure conditions of rest and exercise. Focal inflammatory injury induced in lung parenchyma by O3 exposure was measured morphometrically and HCHO injury to the nasal respiratory epithelium was measured by cell turnover using tritium-labeled thymidine. Mixtures of O3 (0.35 or 0.6 ppm) with NO2 (respectively 0.6 or 2.5 ppm) doubled the level of lung injury produced by O3 alone in resting exposures to the higher concentrations and in exercising exposures to the lower concentrations. Formaldehyde (10 ppm) mixed with O3 (0.6 ppm) resulted in reduced lung injury compared to O3 alone in resting exposures, but exercise exposure to the mixture did not show an antagonistic interaction. Nasal epithelial injury from HCHO exposure was enhanced when O3 was present in a mixture. Mixtures of O3 and NO2 at high and low concentrations formed respectively 0.73 and 0.02 ppm nitric acid (HNO3) vapor. Chemical interactions among the oxidants, HNO3, and other reaction products (N2O5 and nitrate radical) and lung tissue may be the basis for the O3-NO2 synergism. Increased dose and dose rate associated with exercise exposure may explain the presence of synergistic interaction at lower concentrations than observed in resting exposure. No oxidation products were detected in O3-HCHO mixtures, and the antagonistic interaction observed in lung tissue during resting exposure may result from irritant breathing pattern interactions.

  17. Fate and toxic effects of inhaled ultrafine cadmium oxide particles in the rat lung.

    PubMed

    Takenaka, S; Karg, E; Kreyling, W G; Lentner, B; Schulz, H; Ziesenis, A; Schramel, P; Heyder, J

    2004-01-01

    Female Fischer 344 rats were exposed to ultrafine cadmium oxide particles, generated by spark discharging, for 6 h at a concentration of 70 microg Cd/m(3) (1 x 10(6)/cm(3)) (40 nm modal diameter). Lung morphology and quantification of Cd content/concentration by inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-mass spectrometry were performed on days 0, 1, 4, and 7 after exposure. Cd content in the lung on day 0 was 0.53 +/- 0.12 microg/lung, corresponding to 19% of the estimated total inhaled cumulative dose, and the amount remained constant throughout the study. In the liver no significant increase of Cd content was found up to 4 days. A slight but statistically significant increase was observed in the liver on day 7. We found neither exposure-related morphological changes of lungs nor inflammatory responses in lavaged cells. Another group of rats were exposed to a higher concentration of ultrafine CdO particles (550 microg Cd/m(3) for 6 h, 51 nm modal diameter). The rats were sacrificed immediately and 1 day after exposure. The lavage study performed on day 0 showed an increase in the percentage of neutrophils. Multifocal alveolar inflammation was seen histologically on day 0 and day 1. Although the Cd content in the lung was comparable between day 0 and day 1 (3.9 microg/lung), significant elevation of Cd levels in the liver and kidneys was observed on both days. Two of 4 rats examined on day 0 showed elevation of blood cadmium, indicating systemic translocation of a fraction of deposited Cd from the lung in this group. These results and comparison with reported data using fine CdO particles indicate that inhalation of ultrafine CdO particles results in efficient deposition in the rat lung. With regard to the deposition dose, adverse health effects of ultrafine CdO and fine CdO appear to be comparable. Apparent systemic translocation of Cd took place only in animals exposed to a high concentration that induced lung injury.

  18. Welding Plutonium Storage Containers

    SciTech Connect

    HUDLOW, SL

    2004-04-20

    The outer can welder (OCW) in the FB-Line Facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is a Gas Tungsten Arc Weld (GTAW) system used to create outer canisters compliant with the Department of Energy 3013 Standard, DOE-STD-3013-2000, Stabilization, Packaging, and Storage of Plutonium-Bearing Materials. The key welding parameters controlled and monitored on the outer can welder Data Acquisition System (DAS) are weld amperage, weld voltage, and weld rotational speed. Inner 3013 canisters from the Bagless Transfer System that contain plutonium metal or plutonium oxide are placed inside an outer 3013 canister. The canister is back-filled with helium and welded using the outer can welder. The completed weld is screened to determine if it is satisfactory by reviewing the OCW DAS key welding parameters, performing a helium leak check, performing a visual examination by a qualified weld inspector, and performing digital radiography of the completed weld. Canisters with unsatisfactory welds are cut open and repackaged. Canisters with satisfactory welds are deemed compliant with the 3013 standard for long-term storage.

  19. PLUTONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Chynoweth, W.

    1959-06-16

    The preparation of low-melting-point plutonium alloys is described. In a MgO crucible Pu is placed on top of the lighter alloying metal (Fe, Co, or Ni) and the temperature raised to 1000 or 1200 deg C. Upon cooling, the alloy slug is broke out of the crucible. With 14 at. % Ni the m.p. is 465 deg C; with 9.5 at. % Fe the m.p. is 410 deg C; and with 12.0 at. % Co the m.p. is 405 deg C. (T.R.H.) l6262 l6263 ((((((((Abstract unscannable))))))))

  20. 77 FR 1920 - Second Amended Notice of Intent To Modify the Scope of the Surplus Plutonium Disposition...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... component) and the conversion of plutonium metal originating from pits to feed material for the Mixed Oxide... component). The remainder is non-pit plutonium, which includes plutonium oxides and metal in a variety of... ``to refine the quantity and types of surplus weapons-usable plutonium material, evaluate additional...

  1. PRODUCTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL

    DOEpatents

    Lyon, W.L.; Moore, R.H.

    1961-01-17

    A process is given for producing plutonium metal by the reduction of plutonium chloride, dissolved in alkali metal chloride plus or minus aluminum chloride, with magnesium or a magnesium-aluminum alloy at between 700 and 800 deg C and separating the plutonium or plutonium-aluminum alloy formed from the salt.

  2. A Plutonium Storage Container Pressure Measurement Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Grim, T.J.

    2002-05-10

    Plutonium oxide and metal awaiting final disposition are currently stored at the Savannah River Site in crimp sealed food pack cans. Surveillances to ensure continued safe storage of the cans include periodic lid deflection measurements using a mechanical device.

  3. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Maddock, A.G.; Smith, F.

    1959-08-25

    A method is described for separating plutonium from uranium and fission products by treating a nitrate solution of fission products, uranium, and hexavalent plutonium with a relatively water-insoluble fluoride to adsorb fission products on the fluoride, treating the residual solution with a reducing agent for plutonium to reduce its valence to four and less, treating the reduced plutonium solution with a relatively insoluble fluoride to adsorb the plutonium on the fluoride, removing the solution, and subsequently treating the fluoride with its adsorbed plutonium with a concentrated aqueous solution of at least one of a group consisting of aluminum nitrate, ferric nitrate, and manganous nitrate to remove the plutonium from the fluoride.

  4. Translocation and biokinetic behavior of nanoscaled europium oxide particles within 5 days following an acute inhalation in rats.

    PubMed

    Creutzenberg, Otto; Kock, Heiko; Schaudien, Dirk

    2016-03-01

    Nanoscaled europium oxide (Eu2O3) particles were inhaled by rats after acute exposure and the potential translocation of particles followed by chemical analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was investigated. An aqueous dispersion (phosphate buffer/bovine serum albumin) of a commercially available Eu2O3 particle fraction consisting partially of nanoscaled particles was aerosolized with pressurized air. After rapid evaporation, rats inhaled the dry aerosol for 6 h in a single exposure resulting in an alveolar calculated dose of approximately 39.5 μg Eu2O3. Using chemical analysis, 36.8 μg Eu2O3 was detected 1 h after lung inhalation. The amount declined slightly to 34.5 μg after 1 day and 35.0 μg after 5 days. The liver showed an increase of Eu2O3 from 32.3 ng 1 h up to 294 ng 5 days after inhalation. Additionally, lung-associated lymph nodes, thymus, kidneys, heart and testis exhibited an increase of europium over the period investigated. In the blood, the highest amount of europium was found 1 h after treatment whereas feces, urine and mesenteric lymph nodes revealed the highest amount 1 day after treatment. Using TEM analysis, particles could be detected only in lungs, and in the liver, no particles were detectable. In conclusion, the translocation of Eu2O3 within 5 days following inhalation could be determined very precisely by chemical analysis. A translocation of Eu2O3 particulate matter to liver was not detectable by TEM analysis; thus, the overproportional level of 0.8% of the lung load observed in the liver after 5 days suggests a filtering effect of dissolved europium with accumulation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Spectrophotometric determination of plutonium-239 based on the spectrum of plutonium(III) chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Temer, D.J.; Walker, L.F.

    1994-07-01

    This report describes a spectrophotometric method for determining plutonium-239 (Pu-239) based on the spectrum of Pu(III) chloride. The authors used the sealed-reflux technique for the dissolution of plutonium oxide with hydrochloric acid (HCl) and small amounts of nitric and hydrofluoric acids. To complex the fluoride, they added zirconium, and to reduce plutonium to Pu(III), they added ascorbic acid. They then adjusted the solution to a concentration of 2 M HCl and measured the absorbances at five wavelengths of the Pu(III) chloride spectrum. This spectrophotometric determination can also be applied to samples of plutonium metal dissolved in HCl.

  6. Inhaled nitric oxide plus iloprost in the setting of post-left assist device right heart dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Theofani; Prokakis, Christos; Athanasopoulos, Georgios; Thanopoulos, Apostolos; Rellia, Panagiota; Zarkalis, Dimitrios; Kogerakis, Nektarios; Koletsis, Efstratios N; Bairaktaris, Andreas

    2012-09-01

    Pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction may complicate the implantation of a left ventricular assist device (LVAD). We examined whether inhaled vasodilators can sufficiently reduce RV afterload, avoiding the need for temporary RV mechanical support. The study includes 7 patients with RV dysfunction after LVAD insertion. Treatment consisted of inotropes, inhaled nitric oxide (10 ppm), and iloprost (10 μg) in repeated doses. Full hemodynamic profile was obtained before inhalation, during administration of inhaled NO alone (before and after iloprost), as well as after the first two doses of inhaled iloprost. Tricuspid annular velocity was estimated at baseline and before and after adding iloprost. There was a statistically significant reduction in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP), RV systolic pressure, and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, and a considerable increase in LVAD flow, LV flow rate index, and tricuspid annular velocity at all points of evaluation versus baseline. By the end of the protocol, MPAP/mean systemic arterial pressure, and PVR/systemic vascular resistance ratios were reduced by 0.17±0.03 (95% confidence interval, 0.10 to 0.25, p=0.001) and 0.12±0.025 (95% confidence interval, 0.06 to 0.18; p=0.003), respectively. The tricuspid annular velocity increased by 2.3±0.18 cm/s (95% confidence interval, 1.83 to 2.73 cm/s; p<0.001). Pairwise comparisons before and after iloprost showed an important decrease in PVR (p=0.022), MPAP (p=0.001), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (p=0.002), and RV systolic pressure (p<0.001), and a rise in tricuspid annular velocity (p=0.008). Inhaled vasodilators mainly affected the pulmonary vasculature. Combination treatment with inhaled NO and iloprost sufficiently decreased PVR and MPAP on the basis of an additive effect, improved RV function, and avoided the need for RV assist device. Copyright © 2012 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by

  7. Oxygen self-diffusion in polycrystalline uranium-plutonium mixed oxide U0.55Pu0.45O2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vauchy, Romain; Robisson, Anne-Charlotte; Bienvenu, Philippe; Roure, Ingrid; Hodaj, Fiqiri; Garcia, Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Atomic transport properties in uranium-plutonium mixed oxides U1-yPuyO2 are of essential concern because they impact numerous aspects of their physicochemical behavior at all stages of the fuel cycle. In this paper, we report oxygen tracer diffusion coefficients in homogeneous U0.55Pu0.45O2 mixed oxide. The study is based on tracer diffusion coefficient measurements obtained using Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) following diffusion annealing involving gas-solid 18O/16O isotopic exchange. As for other fundamental material properties governed by the nature and behavior of point defects, we show that a careful study of tracer diffusion coefficients as a function of oxygen partial pressure and temperature is liable to provide insight into prevailing diffusion mechanisms. Under the conditions studied in this work, it appears that oxygen diffusion is vacancy mediated.

  8. STRIPPING PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Kolodney, M.

    1959-10-01

    A method for removing silver, nickel, cadmium, zinc, and indium coatings from plutonium objects while simultaneously rendering the plutonium object passive is described. The coated plutonium object is immersed as the anode in an electrolyte in which the plutonium is passive and the coating metal is not passive, using as a cathode a metal which does not dissolve rapidly in the electrolyte. and passing an electrical current through the electrolyte until the coating metal is removed from the plutonium body.

  9. Inhaled nitric oxide for the brain dead donor with neurogenic pulmonary edema during anesthesia for organ donation: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun Sun; Lee, A-Ran; Lee, Sang Hyun; Kim, An Suk; Park, Soon Eun; Cho, Young Woo

    2014-01-01

    Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) in brain dead organ donors occurring after an acute central nervous system insult threatens organ preservation of potential organ donors and the outcome of organ donation. Hence the active and immediate management of NPE is critical. In this case, a 50-year-old male was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for organ donation. He was hypoxic due to NPE induced by spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage and intraventricular hemorrhage. Protective ventilatory management, intermittent recruitment maneuvers, and supportive treatment were maintained in the ICU and the operating room (OR). Despite this management, the hypoxemia worsened after the OR admission. So inhaled nitric oxide (NO) therapy was performed during the operation, and the hypoxic phenomena showed remarkable improvement. The organ retrieval was successfully completed. Therefore, NO inhalation can be helpful in the improvement of hypoxemia caused by NPE in brain dead organ donors during anesthesia for the organ donation. PMID:25237451

  10. Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FeNO) and Spirometry as Indicators of Inhalation Exposure to Chemical Agents in Pathology Workers.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Ritsuko Arakawa; Irokawa, Toshiya; Ogawa, Hiromasa; Ohkouchi, Shinya; Tabata, Masao; Togashi, Susumu; Nakamura, Takeshi; Ohisa, Noriko; Nikkuni, Etsuhiro; Miura, Emiri; Yoshida, Kaoru; Inomata, Hiroshi; Kurosawa, Hajime

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and spirometry can be used as indices to evaluate adverse health effects of low-concentrated chemical inhalation exposure, mainly to formaldehyde. Thirty-three subjects (pathology technicians) and 30 controls (workers without handling any chemicals in the same hospitals) participated in this study. All participants underwent FeNO measurement and spirometry before and after 5 days of work. FeNO significantly increased in the subjects with a history of asthma (P < 0.05), whereas forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) decreased in the subjects (P < 0.05). Furthermore, work duration and pre-work levels of FEV1 in the subjects had a significant association. The results suggest that FeNO, FVC, and FEV1 represent effective health-effect indices of low-concentrated chemical inhalation exposure.

  11. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of inhaled trichloroethylene and its oxidative metabolites in B6C3F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, M S; Burton, G A; Fisher, J W

    1999-02-01

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for inhaled trichloroethylene (TCE) was developed for B6C3F1 mice. Submodels described four P450-mediated metabolites of TCE, which included chloral hydrate (CH), free and glucuronide-bound trichloroethanol (TCOH-f and TCOH-b), trichloroacetic acid (TCA), and dichloroacetic acid (DCA). Inhalation time course studies were carried out for calibration of the model by exposing mice to TCE vapor concentrations of either 100 or 600 ppm for 4 h. At several time points, mice were euthanized and blood, liver, kidney, lung, and fat were collected and analyzed for TCE and its oxidative metabolites. Peak blood TCE concentrations were 0.86 and 7.32 microgram/mL, respectively, in mice exposed to 100 and 600 ppm TCE. The model overpredicted the mixed venous blood and tissue concentrations of TCE for mice of both exposure groups. Fractional absorption of inhaled TCE was proposed to explain the discrepancy between the model predictions and the TCE blood time course data. When fractional absorption (53%) of inhaled TCE was incorporated into the model, a comprehensive description of the uptake, distribution, and clearance of TCE in the blood was obtained. Fractional uptake of inhaled TCE was further verified by collecting TCE in exhaled breath following a 4-h constant concentration exposure to TCE and validation was provided by testing the model against TCE blood concentrations from an independent data set. The submodels adequately simulated the distribution and clearance kinetics of CH and TCOH-f in blood and the lungs, TCOH-b in the blood, and TCA and DCA, which were respectively detected for up to 43 and 14 h postexposure in blood and livers of mice exposed to 600 ppm TCE. This is the first extensive tissue time course study of the major metabolites of TCE following an inhalation exposure to TCE and the PBPK model predictions were in good general agreement with the observed kinetics of the oxidative metabolites formed in mice

  12. Modified titrimetric determination of plutonium using photometric end-point detection

    SciTech Connect

    Baughman, W.J.; Dahlby, J.W.

    1980-04-01

    A method used at LASL for the accurate and precise assay of plutonium metal was modified for the measurement of plutonium in plutonium oxides, nitrate solutions, and in other samples containing large quantities of plutonium in oxidized states higher than +3. In this modified method, the plutonium oxide or other sample is dissolved using the sealed-reflux dissolution method or other appropriate methods. Weighed aliquots, containing approximately 100 mg of plutonium, of the dissolved sample or plutonium nitrate solution are fumed to dryness with an HC1O/sub 4/-H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ mixture. The dried residue is dissolved in dilute H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, and the plutonium is reduced to plutonium (III) with zinc metal. The excess zinc metal is dissolved with HCl, and the solution is passed through a lead reductor column to ensure complete reduction of the plutonium to plutonium (III). The solution, with added ferroin indicator, is then titrated immediately with standardized ceric solution to a photometric end point. For the analysis of plutonium metal solutions, plutonium oxides, and nitrate solutions, the relative standard deviation are 0.06, 0.08, and 0.14%, respectively. Of the elements most likely to be found with the plutonium, only iron, neptunium, and uranium interfere. Small amounts of uranium and iron, which titrate quantitatively in the method, are determined by separate analytical methods, and suitable corrections are applied to the plutonium value. 4 tables, 4 figures.

  13. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Measurements of Plutonium-bearing Oxide in DOE-STD-3013-2000 Containers Using Calorimetry and Gamma Isotopic Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Dearborn, D M; Keeton, S C

    2004-06-23

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) routinely uses calorimetry and gamma isotopic analyses (Cal/Iso) for the accountability measurement of plutonium (Pu) bearing items. In the past 15 years, the vast majority of those items measured by Cal/Iso were contained in a thin-walled convenience can enclosed in another thin-walled outer container. However, LLNL has recently begun to use DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers as well. These DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers are comprised of a stainless steel convenience can enclosed in welded stainless steel primary and secondary containers. In addition to the fact that the wall thickness of the DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers is much greater than that of other containers in our experience, the DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers appear to have larger thermal insulation characteristics. To date, we have derived Pu-mass values from Cal/Iso measurements of 74 different DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers filled with Pu-bearing oxide or mixed uranium-plutonium (U-Pu) oxide material. Both water-bath and air-bath calorimeters were used for these measurements and both use software to predict when thermal equilibrium is attained. Our experience has shown that after apparent equilibrium has been attained, at least one more complete cycle, and sometimes two or three more complete cycles, is required to gain a measure of true thermal equilibrium. Otherwise, the derived Pu-mass values are less than would be expected from a combination of previously measured Pu-bearing items and would contribute to increased loss in our inventory difference determinations. Conclusions and recommendations drawn from LLNL experience with measurements of Pu mass in Pu-bearing oxide or mixed U-Pu oxide in DOE-STD-3013-2000 containers using the Cal/Iso technique are included.

  14. Plutonium stabilization and packaging system

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    This document describes the functional design of the Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (Pu SPS). The objective of this system is to stabilize and package plutonium metals and oxides of greater than 50% wt, as well as other selected isotopes, in accordance with the requirements of the DOE standard for safe storage of these materials for 50 years. This system will support completion of stabilization and packaging campaigns of the inventory at a number of affected sites before the year 2002. The package will be standard for all sites and will provide a minimum of two uncontaminated, organics free confinement barriers for the packaged material.

  15. Use of inhaled nitric oxide in pediatric cardiac intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Erkut; Haydin, Sertaç; Tanıdır, İbrahim Cansaran; Özyılmaz, İsa; Ergül, Yakup; Erek, Ersin; Güzeltaş, Alper; Ödemiş, Ender; Bakır, İhsan

    2016-04-01

    Experience with administration of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) in pediatric cardiac intensive care unit was retrospectively reviewed. Data from 32 pediatric patients treated with iNO between 2011 and 2012 were collected. Patients were divided into 3 groups: Group I comprised postoperative patients, Group II comprised newborns with persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPH), and Group III comprised patients with primary pulmonary hypertension (PH) or Eisenmenger's syndrome. Age, sex, weight, primary diagnosis, arterial blood sample, pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), systemic arterial pressure (SAP), and oxygen saturation levels were analyzed. Groups I, II, and III included 25, 3, and 4 patients, respectively. Median weight was 8 kg (range: 3-40 kg), and median age was 7 months (range: 2 days-10 years). On average, iNO treatment was initiated at the 12th hour after admission to the unit (range: 1-48 hours) and continued for a median duration of 24 hours (range: 12-168 hours). Systolic PAP was 40±15 mmHg, mean SAP was 57±18 mmHg, PAP/SAP ratio was 0.69, and oxygen saturation levels were 88% prior to iNO treatment. Following iNO treatment, PAP decreased to 24±9 mmHg (p<0.05), PAP/SAP ratio decreased to 0.4 (p<0.05), SAP showed no change (60±12 mmHg), and saturation levels increased to 98% (p<0.05). Seven patients died during follow-up (Group I, n=5; Group II, n=1; Group III, n=1). iNO seems to effectively reduce PAP, and can be used effectively and safely to prevent pulmonary hypertensive crises in pediatric cardiac intensive care units.

  16. Impact of Stewardship on Inhaled Nitric Oxide Utilization in a Neonatal ICU.

    PubMed

    Elmekkawi, Amir; More, Kiran; Shea, Jennifer; Sperling, Christina; Da Silva, Zelia; Finelli, Michael; Rolnitsky, Asaph; Jankov, Robert P

    2016-10-01

    Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) remains the "gold standard" therapy for hypoxemic respiratory failure in newborns. Despite good quality evidence to guide iNO use in this population, we observed considerable practice variation, particularly in timing and rate of weaning. To promote evidence-based practice, we launched an iNO stewardship program in April 2013. Our objective was to determine whether iNO stewardship led to changes in iNO utilization and weaning. We conducted a quality improvement project in an outborn quaternary NICU, targeting improved iNO guideline compliance. We compared patterns of iNO utilization between 2 cohorts: prestewardship (April 2011-March 2013; retrospective data collection) and poststewardship (April 2013-March 2015; prospective data collection). Eighty-seven neonates received 88 courses of iNO in the 2 years prestewardship, and 64 neonates received 64 courses of iNO in the 2 years poststewardship. There were no significant differences (P > .05) in patient demographics, in the proportion of patients receiving iNO "off-label," in proportion initiated at the referring hospital, or in outcomes (death or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation). There were significant (P < .05) reductions in median total hours on iNO per patient (47 vs 20; P < .001), in iNO hours per patient from maximum dose to initial wean (28 vs 9; P < .01), and in hours from initial wean to discontinuation (14 vs 8; P < .05). The introduction of iNO stewardship was associated with improved adherence to evidence-based guidelines and an overall reduction in total and per-patient iNO use. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Transpulmonary flux of S-nitrosothiols and pulmonary vasodilation during nitric oxide inhalation: role of transport.

    PubMed

    Torok, Jordan A; Brahmajothi, Mulugu V; Zhu, Hongmei; Tinch, Brian T; Auten, Richard L; McMahon, Timothy J

    2012-07-01

    Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is used to treat pulmonary hypertension and is being investigated for prevention of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in neonates. Extrapulmonary effects of iNO are widely recognized, but the underlying chemistry and pharmacology are poorly understood. Growing evidence suggests that, in addition to acting via diffusion, NO can be converted into nitrosants capable of reacting with endogenous L-cysteine (L-Cys) in the alveolar lining fluid, forming S-nitrosothiol (SNO)-L-cysteine (CSNO). CSNO can then enter cells via the type L amino acid transporter (LAT). To determine the influence of LAT and supplemental L-Cys on the functional activity of iNO and transpulmonary movement of SNOs or other related species, we exposed C57Bl6 mice to nebulized L-Cys or D-cysteine (D-Cys) and/or LAT competitors. Isolated lungs were then perfused with physiologic buffer while effluent was collected to assay perfusate SNOs. Nebulized L-Cys, but not D-Cys, augmented the iNO-induced increase in circulating SNOs in the effluent without altering iNO-induced pulmonary vasodilation. Addition to the perfusate of either L-leucine (L-Leu) or 2-amino-2-norborane carboxylic acid, two distinct LAT competitors, inhibited appearance in the perfusate of SNOs in L-Cys-exposed lungs; a higher concentration of L-Leu significantly inhibited the iNO-induced pulmonary vasodilation as well as SNO accumulation. We conclude that iNO-induced pulmonary vasodilation and the transpulmonary movement of iNO-derived SNOs are mediated in part by formation of extracellular CSNO, uptake by alveolar epithelial LAT, and/or export by LAT from the pulmonary endothelium into the circulation. Therapies that exploit and optimize LAT-dependent SNO transport might improve the efficacy of and clinical outcomes with NO-based therapy by improving systemic SNO delivery.

  18. Repeated inhalations of diesel exhaust particles and oxidatively damaged DNA in young oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Risom, Lotte; Dybdahl, Marianne; Møller, Peter; Wallin, Håkan; Haug, Terje; Vogel, Ulla; Klungland, Arne; Loft, Steffen

    2007-02-01

    DNA repair may prevent increased levels of oxidatively damaged DNA from prolonged oxidative stress induced by, e.g. exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP). We studied oxidative damage to DNA in broncho-alveolar lavage cells, lungs, and liver after 4 x 1.5 h inhalations of DEP (20 mg/m3) in Ogg1-/- and wild type (WT) mice with similar extent of inflammation. DEP exposure increased lung levels of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in Ogg1-/- mice, whereas no effect on 8-oxodG or oxidized purines in terms of formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) sites was observed in WT mice. In both unexposed and exposed Ogg1-/- mice the level of FPG sites in the lungs was 3-fold higher than in WT mice. The high basal level of FPG sites in Ogg1-/- mice probably saturated the assay and prevented detection of DEP-generated damage. In conclusion, Ogg1-/- mice have elevated pulmonary levels of FPG sites and accumulate genomic 8-oxodG after repeated inhalations of DEP.

  19. Beneficial Effects of Concomitant Neuronal and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition in Ovine Burn and Inhalation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Matthias; Hamahata, Atsumori; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Cox, Robert A.; Nakano, Yoshimitsu; Westphal, Martin; Traber, Lillian D.; Herndon, David N.; Traber, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Different isoforms of nitric oxide synthase are critically involved in the development of pulmonary failure secondary to acute lung injury. Here we tested the hypothesis that simultaneous blockade of inducible and neuronal nitric oxide synthase effectively prevents the pulmonary lesions in an ovine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) induced by combined burn and smoke inhalation injury. Chronically instrumented sheep were allocated to a sham-injured group (n = 6), an injured and untreated group (n = 6), or an injured group treated with simultaneous infusion of selective inducible and neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitors (n = 5). The injury was induced by 48 breath of cotton smoke and a 3rd degree burn of 40% total body surface area. All sheep were mechanically ventilated and fluid resuscitated. The injury induced severe pulmonary dysfunction as indicated by decreases in PaO2/FiO2 ratio and increases in pulmonary shunt fraction, ventilatory pressures, lung lymph flow, and lung wet/dry weight ratio. The treatment fully prevented the elevations in lymph and plasma nitrate/nitrite levels, pulmonary shunting, ventilatory pressures, lung lymph flow, and wet/dry weight ratio and significantly attenuated the decline in PaO2/FiO2 ratio. In conclusion, simultaneous blockade of inducible and neuronal nitric oxide synthase exerts beneficial pulmonary effects in an ovine model of ARDS secondary to combined burn and smoke inhalation injury. This novel treatment strategy may represent a useful therapeutic adjunct for patients with these injuries. PMID:21263377

  20. Application of PGNAA to plutonium surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Prettyman, T.H.; Foster, L.A.; Staples, P.

    1997-12-01

    Prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is a well-established tool for nondestructive elemental analysis of bulk samples. At Los Alamos National Laboratory we are investigating the use of PGNAA as a diagnostic tool for a number of applications, particularly matrix characterization for nondestructive assay and plutonium surveillance. Surveillance is an essential feature of most plutonium facility operations, including routine material processing and research, short-term storage, and processing operations prior to disposal or long-term storage. The ability to identify and assay specific elements from gamma-ray-produced active neutron interrogation (e.g., by neutron capture, nonelastic scattering, and the decay of activation products) makes PGNAA an ideal tool for surveillance. For example, PGNAA can help confirm item descriptions (for example, plutonium chloride versus plutonium oxide). This feature is particularly important in operations involving poorly characterized legacy materials where the material form could adversely impact plutonium-processing operations.

  1. On the multi-reference nature of plutonium oxides: PuO22+, PuO2, PuO3 and PuO2(OH)2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boguslawski, Katharina; Réal, Florent; Tecmer, Paweł; Duperrouzel, Corinne; Gomes, André Severo Pereira; Legeza, Örs; Ayers, Paul W.; Vallet, Valérie

    Actinide-containing complexes present formidable challenges for electronic structure methods due to the large number of degenerate or quasi-degenerate electronic states arising from partially occupied 5f and 6d shells. Conventional multi-reference methods can treat active spaces that are often at the upper limit of what is required for a proper treatment of species with complex electronic structures, leaving no room for verifying their suitability. In this work we address the issue of properly defining the active spaces in such calculations, and introduce a protocol to determine optimal active spaces based on the use of the Density Matrix Renormalization Group algorithm and concepts of quantum information theory. We apply the protocol to elucidate the electronic structure and bonding mechanism of volatile plutonium oxides (PuO$_3$ and PuO$_2$(OH)$_2$), species associated with nuclear safety issues for which little is known about the electronic structure and energetics. We show how, within a scalar relativistic framework, orbital-pair correlations can be used to guide the definition of optimal active spaces which provide an accurate description of static/non-dynamic electron correlation, as well as to analyse the chemical bonding beyond a simple orbital model. From this bonding analysis we are able to show that the addition of oxo- or hydroxo-groups to the plutonium dioxide species considerably changes the pi-bonding mechanism with respect to the bare triatomics, resulting in bent structures with considerable multi-reference character.

  2. Electrochemical investigation into the mechanism of plutonium reduction in electrorefining

    SciTech Connect

    McCurry, L.E.; Moy, G.M.M.

    1987-01-01

    Currently impure plutonium metal is purified at Los Alamos National Laboratory by a molten salt electrorefining process. Electrorefining is an effective method for producing high-purity plutonium metal (> 99.95%). In general this process involves the oxidation of impure plutonium metal from a molten plutonium anode or a solvent metal/plutonium anode, transport of plutonium ions through a molten salt electrolyte, and reduction of the plutonium ions at a tungsten cathode to pure plutonium metal. Purification of the plutonium metal from impurities is based on the difference in free energies of formation between the various metallic impurities associated with plutonium. To obtain a better understanding of the overall electrorefining process and its inefficiencies, an electrochemical investigation into the mechanism for plutonium reduction in a typical electrorefining environment was undertaken. Cyclic voltammetry was selected as the method for determining the electrode mechanism for plutonium reduction at tungsten electrodes. In addition to the standard electrorefining melt (equimolar NaCl-KCl), additional melts that were being investigated in our solvent anode work were also investigated. With insight gained from this investigation, it was hoped that a better selection of electrorefining operating parameters could be obtained.

  3. Surplus Plutonium Disposition Final Environmental Impact Statement

    SciTech Connect

    N /A

    1999-11-19

    In December 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published the ''Storage and Disposition of Weapons-Usable Fissile Materials Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (Storage and Disposition PEIS)'' (DOE 1996a). That PEIS analyzes the potential environmental consequences of alternative strategies for the long-term storage of weapons-usable plutonium and highly enriched uranium (HEU) and the disposition of weapons-usable plutonium that has been or may be declared surplus to national security needs. The Record of Decision (ROD) for the ''Storage and Disposition PEIS'', issued on January 14, 1997 (DOE 1997a), outlines DOE's decision to pursue an approach to plutonium disposition that would make surplus weapons-usable plutonium inaccessible and unattractive for weapons use. DOE's disposition strategy, consistent with the Preferred Alternative analyzed in the ''Storage and Disposition PEIS'', allows for both the immobilization of some (and potentially all) of the surplus plutonium and use of some of the surplus plutonium as mixed oxide (MOX) fuel in existing domestic, commercial reactors. The disposition of surplus plutonium would also involve disposal of both the immobilized plutonium and the MOX fuel (as spent nuclear fuel) in a potential geologic repository.

  4. One-Year Respiratory Outcomes of Preterm Infants Enrolled in the Nitric Oxide[H1] (to Prevent) Chronic Lung Disease Trial of Inhaled Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Hibbs, Anna Maria; Walsh, Michele C.; Martin, Richard J.; Truog, William E.; Lorch, Scott A.; Alessandrini, Evaline; Cnaan, Avital; Palermo, Lisa; Wadlinger, Sandra R.; Coburn, Christine E.; Ballard, Philip L.; Ballard, Roberta A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To identify whether inhaled nitric oxide treatment decreased indicators of long-term pulmonary morbidities after discharge from the NICU. Study design The NO CLD trial enrolled preterm infants (<1250g) between 7–21 days of age who were ventilated and at high risk for BPD. Follow-up occurred at 12 ± 3 months of age adjusted for prematurity; long-term pulmonary morbidities and other outcomes were reported by parents during structured blinded interviews. Results 456 infants (85%) were seen at 1 yr. Compared with control infants, infants randomized to inhaled nitric oxide received significantly less bronchodilators [odds ratio (OR) 0.53 (95% confidence interval 0.36–0.78)], inhaled steroids [OR 0.50 (0.32–0.77)], systemic steroids [OR 0.56 (0.32–0.97)], diuretics [OR 0.54 (0.34–0.85)], and supplemental oxygen [OR 0.65 (0.44–0.95)] after discharge from neonatal intensive care. There were no significant differences between parental report of re-hospitalizations [OR 0.83 (0.57–1.21)] or wheezing or whistling in the chest [OR 0.70 (0.48–1.03)]. Conclusions Infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide received fewer outpatient respiratory medications than the control group. However, any decision to institute routine use of this dosing regimen should also take into account the results of the 24 month neurodevelopmental assessment. PMID:18534620

  5. Fluorescence imaging microscopy of leukocytes-endothelium interaction in rat mesenteric microcirculation after endotoxin injection: role of inhaled nitric oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mordon, Serge R.; Neviere, Remi; Marechal, Xavier-Marie; Buys, Bruno; Dhelin, Guy; Lesage, Jean C.; Mathieu, D.; Guery, Benoit; Chopin, Claude

    1999-02-01

    The adhesion of leukocytes to microvascular endothelium has been recognized as an important factor in the development of multiple organ dysfunction after a septic insult. We tested the hypothesis whether inhaled NO would reduce leukocyte rolling and / or leukocyte adhesion in the mesenteric venule preparation in endotoxemic rats. This study was performed with fluorescence imaging microscopy using a closed chamber for in vivo mesentery visualization. Leukocytes were selectively stained with acridine red. Compared to saline, endotoxemia was associated with increases in the flux of rolling leukocytes and in adherent and emigrated leukocytes. Inhaled nitric oxide treatment had no effects on leukocyte behavior in saline treated rats, whereas it reduced adherent and emigrated leukocytes in endotoxin-treated rats. In conclusion, we demonstrated that endotoxemia-induced leukocyte infiltration was related to an increase in the number of rolling leukocytes and subsequent adhesion and emigration in the mesenteric venule. Our results clearly showed that inhaled NO reduces leukocyte adhesion and transmigration in mesenteric venule of endotoxemic rats presumably by interfering with specific cell adhesion molecules.

  6. Methoxyflurane and Nitrous Oxide as Obstetric Analgesics. II.—A Comparison by Self-administered Intermittent Inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Peter L.; Rosen, M.; Mushin, W. W.; Jones, E. V.

    1969-01-01

    Methoxyflurane (0·35%) in air and nitrous oxide/oxygen (50%/50%) self-administered intermittently in the usual way have been compared as analgesics for labour. There were 25 patients in each group. Objective assessment by an anaesthetist showed that methoxyflurane is the more effective analgesic, and this was supported by the opinion of the multiparae. Nausea and vomiting were significantly less with methoxyflurane. Fifty per cent. nitrous oxide in oxygen given intermittently does not appear to be the best analgesic concentration. Nevertheless, since a considerable variation in sensitivity exists, it would probably be unwise to consider the introduction of higher concentrations for use by unsupervised midwives. This trial confirms the predictions made by us using a method for screening inhalational analgesics, in which methoxyflurane and nitrous oxide were given continuously. PMID:4895339

  7. Effect of Inhaling Cymbopogon martinii Essential Oil and Geraniol on Serum Biochemistry Parameters and Oxidative Stress in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Bruna Fernanda Murbach Teles; Braga, Camila Pereira; dos Santos, Klinsmann Carolo; Barbosa, Lidiane Nunes; Rall, Vera Lúcia Mores; Sforcin, José Maurício; Fernandes, Ana Angélica Henrique; Fernandes Júnior, Ary

    2014-01-01

    The effects of the inhalation of Cymbopogon martinii essential oil (EO) and geraniol on Wistar rats were evaluated for biochemical parameters and hepatic oxidative stress. Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n = 8): G1 was control group, treated with saline solution; G2 received geraniol; and G3 received C. martinii EO by inhalation during 30 days. No significant differences were observed in glycemia and triacylglycerol levels; G2 and G3 decreased (P < 0.05) total cholesterol level. There were no differences in serum protein, urea, aspartate aminotransferase activity, and total hepatic protein. Creatinine levels increased in G2 but decreased in G3. Alanine aminotransferase activity and lipid hydroperoxide were higher in G2 than in G3. Catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were higher in G3. C. martinii EO and geraniol increased glutathione peroxidase. Oxidative stress caused by geraniol may have triggered some degree of hepatic toxicity, as verified by the increase in serum creatinine and alanine aminotransferase. Therefore, the beneficial effects of EO on oxidative stress can prevent the toxicity in the liver. This proves possible interactions between geraniol and numerous chemical compounds present in C. martinii EO. PMID:25574396

  8. Innate immune activation by inhaled lipopolysaccharide, independent of oxidative stress, exacerbates silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Brass, David M; Spencer, Jennifer C; Li, Zhuowei; Potts-Kant, Erin; Reilly, Sarah M; Dunkel, Mary K; Latoche, Joseph D; Auten, Richard L; Hollingsworth, John W; Fattman, Cheryl L

    2012-01-01

    Acute exacerbations of pulmonary fibrosis are characterized by rapid decrements in lung function. Environmental factors that may contribute to acute exacerbations remain poorly understood. We have previously demonstrated that exposure to inhaled lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induces expression of genes associated with fibrosis. To address whether exposure to LPS could exacerbate fibrosis, we exposed male C57BL/6 mice to crystalline silica, or vehicle, followed 28 days later by LPS or saline inhalation. We observed that mice receiving both silica and LPS had significantly more total inflammatory cells, more whole lung lavage MCP-1, MIP-2, KC and IL-1β, more evidence of oxidative stress and more total lung hydroxyproline than mice receiving either LPS alone, or silica alone. Blocking oxidative stress with N-acetylcysteine attenuated whole lung inflammation but had no effect on total lung hydroxyproline. These observations suggest that exposure to innate immune stimuli, such as LPS in the environment, may exacerbate stable pulmonary fibrosis via mechanisms that are independent of inflammation and oxidative stress.

  9. Analysis of plutonium isotope ratios including (238)Pu/(239)Pu in individual U-Pu mixed oxide particles by means of a combination of alpha spectrometry and ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Esaka, Fumitaka; Yasuda, Kenichiro; Suzuki, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Yutaka; Magara, Masaaki

    2017-04-01

    Isotope ratio analysis of individual uranium-plutonium (U-Pu) mixed oxide particles contained within environmental samples taken from nuclear facilities is proving to be increasingly important in the field of nuclear safeguards. However, isobaric interferences, such as (238)U with (238)Pu and (241)Am with (241)Pu, make it difficult to determine plutonium isotope ratios in mass spectrometric measurements. In the present study, the isotope ratios of (238)Pu/(239)Pu, (240)Pu/(239)Pu, (241)Pu/(239)Pu, and (242)Pu/(239)Pu were measured for individual Pu and U-Pu mixed oxide particles by a combination of alpha spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). As a consequence, we were able to determine the (240)Pu/(239)Pu, (241)Pu/(239)Pu, and (242)Pu/(239)Pu isotope ratios with ICP-MS after particle dissolution and chemical separation of plutonium with UTEVA resins. Furthermore, (238)Pu/(239)Pu isotope ratios were able to be calculated by using both the (238)Pu/((239)Pu+(240)Pu) activity ratios that had been measured through alpha spectrometry and the (240)Pu/(239)Pu isotope ratios determined through ICP-MS. Therefore, the combined use of alpha spectrometry and ICP-MS is useful in determining plutonium isotope ratios, including (238)Pu/(239)Pu, in individual U-Pu mixed oxide particles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Genotoxicity of styrene-7,8-oxide and styrene in Fisher 344 rats: a 4-week inhalation study.

    PubMed

    Gaté, Laurent; Micillino, Jean-Claude; Sébillaud, Sylvie; Langlais, Cristina; Cosnier, Frédéric; Nunge, Hervé; Darne, Christian; Guichard, Yves; Binet, Stéphane

    2012-06-20

    The cytogenetic alterations in leukocytes and the increased risk for leukemia, lymphoma, or all lymphohematopoietic cancer observed in workers occupationally exposed to styrene have been associated with its hepatic metabolisation into styrene-7,8-oxide, an epoxide which can induce DNA damages. However, it has been observed that styrene-7,8-oxide was also found in the atmosphere of reinforced plastic industries where large amounts of styrene are used. Since the main route of exposure to these compounds is inhalation, in order to gain new insights regarding their systemic genotoxicity, Fisher 344 male rats were exposed in full-body inhalation chambers, 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks to styrene-7,8-oxide (25, 50, and 75 ppm) or styrene (75, 300, and 1000 ppm). Then, the induction of micronuclei in circulating reticulocytes and DNA strand breaks in leukocytes using the comet assay was studied at the end of the 3rd and 20th days of exposure. Our results showed that neither styrene nor styrene-7,8-oxide induced a significant increase of the micronucleus frequency in reticulocytes or DNA strand breaks in white blood cells. However, in the presence of the formamidopyridine DNA glycosylase, an enzyme able to recognize and excise DNA at the level of some oxidized DNA bases, a significant increase of DNA damages was observed at the end of the 3rd day of treatment in leukocytes from rats exposed to styrene but not to styrene-7,8-oxide. This experimental design helped to gather new information regarding the systemic genotoxicity of these two chemicals and may be valuable for the risk assessment associated with an occupational exposure to these molecules.

  11. Inhaled corticosteroid dose response using domiciliary exhaled nitric oxide in persistent asthma: the FENOtype trial.

    PubMed

    Anderson, William J; Short, Philip M; Williamson, Peter A; Lipworth, Brian J

    2012-12-01

    International guidelines advocate a standard approach to asthma management for all, despite its heterogeneity. "Personalized" treatment of inflammatory asthma phenotypes confers superior benefits. We wished to evaluate dose response to inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) in patients with asthma with an elevated fractional exhaled nitric oxide (Feno) phenotype using domiciliary measurements. We performed a randomized, crossover trial in 21 patients with mild to moderate persistent asthma receiving ICSs with elevated Feno (>30 parts per billion [ppb]) that increased further (>10 ppb) after ICS washout. Patients were randomized to 2 weeks of either fluticasone propionate 50 μg bid (FP100) or 250 μg bid (FP500). The primary outcome was response in diurnal domiciliary Feno levels. Secondary outcomes included mannitol challenge, serum eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP), blood eosinophil count, and asthma control questionnaire. We found significant dose-related reductions of diurnal Feno compared with baseline - morning Feno: baseline = 71 ppb (95% CI, 61-83 ppb); FP100 = 34 ppb (95% CI, 29-40 ppb), P < .001; FP500 = 27 ppb (95% CI, 22-33 ppb), P < .001; and significant dose separation for morning, P < .05, and evening, P < .001. Time-series Feno displayed exponential decay: FP100 R² = 0.913, half-life = 69 h (95% CI, 50-114 h); FP500 R² = 0.966, half-life = 55 h (95% CI, 45-69 h), as well as diurnal variation. The Asthma Control Questionnaire showed significant improvements exceeding the minimal important difference (>0.5) with values in keeping with controlled asthma (<0.75) after each dose: FP100 = 0.48 (95% CI, 0.24-0.71), P = .004; FP500 = 0.37 (95% CI, 0.18-0.57), P = .001. All other secondary inflammatory related outcomes (mannitol, ECP, and eosinophils) showed significant improvements from baseline but no dose separation. There is a significant dose response of diurnal Feno to ICS in patients with asthma with an elevated Feno phenotype, which translates into well

  12. Tracheal and bronchoalveolar permeability changes in rats inhaling oxidant atmospheres during rest or exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Bhalla, D.K.; Mannix, R.C.; Lavan, S.M.; Phalen, R.F.; Kleinman, M.T.; Crocker, T.T.

    1987-01-01

    Permeability of tracheal and bronchoalveolar airways of rats was measured and used to examine the effects of inhaled oxidant-containing atmospheres. The atmospheres studied were (a) ozone (O/sub 3/) at 0.6 ppm (1.2 mg/m3) or 0.8 ppm (1.6 mg/m3); (b) nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) at 6 ppm (11.3 mg/m3) or 12 ppm (22.6 mg/m3); (c) O3 + NO/sub 2/ at 0.6 ppm (1.2 mg/m3) and 2.5 ppm (4.7 mg/m3), respectively; and (d) a 7-component particle and gas mixture (complex atmosphere) representing urban air pollution in a photochemical environment. The rats were exposed for 2 h. The effects of exercise during exposure were evaluated by exposing additional groups in an enclosed treadmill. Exposure of resting rats to 0.8 ppm O/sub 3/ increased tracheal permeability to DTPA and bronchoalveolar permeability to diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) at 1 h after the exposure. Bronchoalveolar, but not tracheal, permeability remained elevated at 24 h after the exposure. Exercise during exposure to O/sub 3/ increased permeability to both tracers in the tracheal and the bronchoalveolar zones, and prolonged the duration of increased permeability in the tracheal zone from 1 h to 24 h, and in the bronchoalveolar zone from 24 h to 48 h. Permeability in the tracheal and bronchoalveolar zones of rats exposed at rest to 6 or 12 ppm NO/sub 2/ did not differ from controls. However, rats exposed during exercise to 12 ppm NO/sub 2/ for 2 h developed a significant increase in tracheal and bronchoalveolar permeability to DTPA and BSA at 1 h, but not at 24 or 48 h, after exposure. Exposure at rest to 0.6 ppm O/sub 3/ plus 2.5 ppm NO/sub 2/ significantly increased bronchoalveolar permeability at 1 and 24 h after exposure, although exposure at rest to 0.6 ppm O/sub 3/ alone increased bronchoalveolar permeability only at 1 h after exposure.

  13. Role of Inhaled Nitric Oxide in the Management of Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Juliette Lucinda; Bronicki, Ronald A.; Anas, Nick

    2016-01-01

    To date, there have been several systematic reviews with meta-analysis that have shown no reduction in mortality with the use of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Importantly, these reports fail to make a distinction between the pediatric and adult patient. The number of adult patients in these reviews are far greater than the number of pediatric patients, which makes it difficult to interpret the data regarding the role of iNO on the pediatric population. Extrapolating data from the adult population to the pediatric population is complicated as we know that physiology and the body’s response to disease can be different between adult and pediatric patients. iNO has been demonstrated to improve outcomes in term and near-term infants with hypoxic respiratory failure associated with pulmonary hypertension. Recently, Bronicki et al. published a prospective randomized control trial investigating the impact of iNO on the pediatric patient population with acute respiratory failure. In this study, a benefit of decreased duration of mechanical ventilation and an increased rate of ECMO-free survival was demonstrated in patients who were randomized to receiving iNO, suggesting that there may be benefit to the use of iNO in pediatric ARDS (PARDS) that has not been demonstrated in adults. iNO has repeatedly been shown to transiently improve oxygenation in all age groups, and yet neonates and pediatric patients have shown improvement in other outcomes that have not been seen in adults. The mechanism that explains improvement with the use of iNO in these patient populations are not well understood but does not appear to be solely a result of sustained improvement in oxygenation. There are physiologic studies that suggest alternative mechanisms for explaining the positive effects of iNO, such as platelet aggregation inhibition and reduction in systemic inflammation. Hence, the role of iNO by various mechanisms and in various

  14. APPLICATION OF COLUMN EXTRACTION METHOD FOR IMPURITIES ANALYSIS ON HB-LINE PLUTONIUM OXIDE IN SUPPORT OF MOX FEED PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, M.; Diprete, D.; Wiedenman, B.

    2012-03-20

    The current mission at H-Canyon involves the dissolution of an Alternate Feedstocks 2 (AFS-2) inventory that contains plutonium metal. Once dissolved, HB-Line is tasked with purifying the plutonium solution via anion exchange, precipitating the Pu as oxalate, and calcining to form plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}). The PuO{sub 2} will provide feed product for the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility, and the anion exchange raffinate will be transferred to H-Canyon. The results presented in this report document the potential success of the RE resin column extraction application on highly concentrated Pu samples to meet MOX feed product specifications. The original 'Hearts Cut' sample required a 10000x dilution to limit instrument drift on the ICP-MS method. The instrument dilution factors improved to 125x and 250x for the sample raffinate and sample eluent, respectively. As noted in the introduction, the significantly lower dilutions help to drop the total MRL for the analyte. Although the spike recoveries were half of expected in the eluent for several key elements, they were between 94-98% after Nd tracer correction. It is seen that the lower ICD limit requirements for the rare earths are attainable because of less dilution. Especially important is the extremely low Ga limit at 0.12 {mu}g/g Pu; an ICP-MS method is now available to accomplish this task on the sample raffinate. While B and V meet the column A limits, further development is needed to meet the column B limits. Even though V remained on the RE resin column, an analysis method is ready for investigation on the ICP-MS, but it does not mean that V cannot be measured on the ICP-ES at a low dilution to meet the column B limits. Furthermore, this column method can be applicable for ICP-ES as shown in Table 3-2, in that it trims the sample of Pu, decreasing and sometimes eliminating Pu spectral interferences.

  15. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, M.L.

    1991-12-31

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800{degree}C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800{degrees}C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density.

  16. Plutonium waste incineration using pyrohydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    Waste generated by Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium operations includes a contaminated organic waste stream. A conventional method for disposing of the organic waste stream and recovering the nuclear material is by incineration. When the organic material is burned, the plutonium remains in the incinerator ash. Plutonium recovery from incinerator ash is highly dependent on the maximum temperature to which the oxide is exposed. Recovery via acid leaching is reduced for a high fired ash (>800{degree}C), while plutonium oxides fired at lower decomposition temperatures (400--800{degrees}C) are more soluble at any given acid concentration. To determine the feasibility of using a lower temperature process, tests were conducted using an electrically heated, controlled-air incinerator. Nine nonradioactive, solid, waste materials were batch-fed and processed in a top-heated cylindrical furnace. Waste material processing was completed using a 19-liter batch over a nominal 8-hour cycle. A processing cycle consisted of 1 hour for heating, 4 hours for reacting, and 3 hours for chamber cooling. The water gas shift reaction was used to hydrolyze waste materials in an atmosphere of 336% steam and 4.4% oxygen. Throughput ranged from 0.14 to 0.27 kg/hr depending on the variability in the waste material composition and density.

  17. In vitro dissolution study of plutonium in aerosol particles from the Mayak PA: a tool for individualised dose estimates.

    PubMed

    Aladova, E E; Romanov, S A; Guilmette, R A; Khokhryakov, V F; Suslova, K G

    2007-01-01

    Chronic inhalation of Pu particles during Mayak processing is a potential concern for workers. Of the many particle properties that affect individualised dose estimates, particle solubility in lung fluids can be most important. This study compares in vitro dissolution rates of several plutonium industrial compounds present at different stages of the Mayak processing cycle using three different solvents. The results are then used to develop values of absorption parameters for individual dose assessments. In this study, the dissolution rates of nitrate, oxide and mixed plutonium aerosols were determined using a serum ultrafiltrate stimulant (SUF), phagolysosomal simulant fluid and Ringer's solution, all using a static system. According to the results obtained with SUF, Pu nitrate is absorbed into the blood to a larger extent than predicted using model parameters currently applied for Mayak workers. Absorption into the blood of 21.5 vs. 3% of deposited nuclide as current model predicts results in underestimation of systemic burden and overestimation of the lung dose. These data are being used to provide improved retrospective dose assessments for inhaled plutonium aerosols.

  18. Reducing Agents Decrease the Oxidative Burst and Improve Clinical Outcomes in COPD Patients: A Randomised Controlled Trial on the Effects of Sulphurous Thermal Water Inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Gnesini, Giulia; Forini, Giacomo; Marku, Brunilda; Pauletti, Alessia; Padovani, Anna; Casolari, Paolo; Taurino, Liliana; Ferraro, Andrea; Chicca, Milva; Ciaccia, Adalberto; Papi, Alberto; Pinamonti, Silvano

    2013-01-01

    Background. Inhalation of thermal water with antioxidant properties is empirically used for COPD. Aims. To evaluate the effects of sulphurous thermal water (reducing agents) on airway oxidant stress and clinical outcomes in COPD. Methods. Forty moderate-to-severe COPD patients were randomly assigned to receive 12-day inhalation with sulphurous thermal water or isotonic saline. Patients were assessed for superoxide anion (O2−) production in the exhaled breath condensate and clinical outcomes at recruitment, the day after the conclusion of the 12-day inhalation treatment, and one month after the end of the inhalation treatment. Results. Inhalation of reducing agents resulted in a significant reduction of O2− production in exhaled breath condensate of COPD patients at the end of the inhalatory treatment and at followup compared to baseline. A significant improvement in the COPD assessment test (CAT) questionnaire was shown one month after the end of the inhalatory treatment only in patients receiving sulphurous water. Conclusion. Thermal water inhalation produced an in vivo antioxidant effect and improvement in health status in COPD patients. Larger studies are required in order to evaluate whether inhalation of thermal water is able to modify relevant clinical outcomes of the disease (the study was registered at clinicaltrial.gov—identifier: NCT01664767). PMID:24453924

  19. Reducing agents decrease the oxidative burst and improve clinical outcomes in COPD patients: a randomised controlled trial on the effects of sulphurous thermal water inhalation.

    PubMed

    Contoli, Marco; Gnesini, Giulia; Forini, Giacomo; Marku, Brunilda; Pauletti, Alessia; Padovani, Anna; Casolari, Paolo; Taurino, Liliana; Ferraro, Andrea; Chicca, Milva; Ciaccia, Adalberto; Papi, Alberto; Pinamonti, Silvano

    2013-01-01

    Inhalation of thermal water with antioxidant properties is empirically used for COPD. To evaluate the effects of sulphurous thermal water (reducing agents) on airway oxidant stress and clinical outcomes in COPD. Forty moderate-to-severe COPD patients were randomly assigned to receive 12-day inhalation with sulphurous thermal water or isotonic saline. Patients were assessed for superoxide anion (O2 (-)) production in the exhaled breath condensate and clinical outcomes at recruitment, the day after the conclusion of the 12-day inhalation treatment, and one month after the end of the inhalation treatment. Inhalation of reducing agents resulted in a significant reduction of O2 (-) production in exhaled breath condensate of COPD patients at the end of the inhalatory treatment and at followup compared to baseline. A significant improvement in the COPD assessment test (CAT) questionnaire was shown one month after the end of the inhalatory treatment only in patients receiving sulphurous water. Thermal water inhalation produced an in vivo antioxidant effect and improvement in health status in COPD patients. Larger studies are required in order to evaluate whether inhalation of thermal water is able to modify relevant clinical outcomes of the disease (the study was registered at clinicaltrial.gov-identifier: NCT01664767).

  20. METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Brown, H.S.; Hill, O.F.

    1958-02-01

    Plutonium hexafluoride is a satisfactory fluorinating agent and may be reacted with various materials capable of forming fluorides, such as copper, iron, zinc, etc., with consequent formation of the metal fluoride and reduction of the plutonium to the form of a lower fluoride. In accordance with the present invention, it has been found that the reactivity of plutonium hexafluoride with other fluoridizable materials is so great that the process may be used as a method of separating plutonium from mixures containing plutonium hexafluoride and other vaporized fluorides even though the plutonium is present in but minute quantities. This process may be carried out by treating a mixture of fluoride vapors comprising plutonium hexafluoride and fluoride of uranium to selectively reduce the plutonium hexafluoride and convert it to a less volatile fluoride, and then recovering said less volatile fluoride from the vapor by condensation.

  1. Plutonium Training Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Balatsky, Galya Ivanovna; Wolkov, Benjamin

    2015-03-26

    This report was created to examine the current state of plutonium training in the United States and to discover ways in which to ensure that the next generation of plutonium workers are fully qualified.

  2. PREPARATION OF PLUTONIUM TRIFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Burger, L.L.; Roake, W.E.

    1961-07-11

    A process of producing plutonium trifluoride by reacting dry plutonium(IV) oxalate with chlorofluorinated methane or ethane at 400 to 450 deg C and cooling the product in the absence of oxygen is described.

  3. SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY OF INHALED TOLUENE IN RATS: IMMUNOLOGY, CARDIAC GENE EXPRESSION AND MARKERS OF OXIDATIVE STRESS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The health effects of long-term exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are poorly understood, due primarily to insufficient human exposure data and inconsistent animal models. To develop a rodent model of long-term exposure to VOCs, a sub-chronic inhalation study with mult...

  4. SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY OF INHALED TOLUENE IN RATS: OXIDATIVE STRESS MARKERS IN BRAIN.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of long-term exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which is of concern to the EPA, are poorly understood, primarily due to insufficient information about human exposure and unreliable animal models. A sub-chronic inhalation study with multiple endpoints was c...

  5. SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY OF INHALED TOLUENE IN RATS: IMMUNOLOGY, CARDIAC GENE EXPRESSION AND MARKERS OF OXIDATIVE STRESS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The health effects of long-term exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are poorly understood, due primarily to insufficient human exposure data and inconsistent animal models. To develop a rodent model of long-term exposure to VOCs, a sub-chronic inhalation study with mult...

  6. SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY OF INHALED TOLUENE IN RATS: OXIDATIVE STRESS MARKERS IN BRAIN.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of long-term exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which is of concern to the EPA, are poorly understood, primarily due to insufficient information about human exposure and unreliable animal models. A sub-chronic inhalation study with multiple endpoints was c...

  7. SEPARATION OF URANIUM, PLUTONIUM, AND FISSION PRODUCTS

    DOEpatents

    Spence, R.; Lister, M.W.

    1958-12-16

    Uranium and plutonium can be separated from neutron-lrradiated uranium by a process consisting of dissolvlng the lrradiated material in nitric acid, saturating the solution with a nitrate salt such as ammonium nitrate, rendering the solution substantially neutral with a base such as ammonia, adding a reducing agent such as hydroxylamine to change plutonium to the trivalent state, treating the solution with a substantially water immiscible organic solvent such as dibutoxy diethylether to selectively extract the uranium, maklng the residual aqueous solutlon acid with nitric acid, adding an oxidizing agent such as ammonlum bromate to oxidize the plutonium to the hexavalent state, and selectlvely extracting the plutonium by means of an immlscible solvent, such as dibutoxy dlethyletber.

  8. PLUTONIUM CLEANING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Kolodney, M.

    1959-12-01

    A method is described for rapidly removing iron, nickel, and zinc coatings from plutonium objects while simultaneously rendering the plutonium object passive. The method consists of immersing the coated plutonium object in an aqueous acid solution containing a substantial concentration of nitrate ions, such as fuming nitric acid.

  9. PLUTONIUM-THORIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Schonfeld, F.W.

    1959-09-15

    New plutonium-base binary alloys useful as liquid reactor fuel are described. The alloys consist of 50 to 98 at.% thorium with the remainder plutonium. The stated advantages of these alloys over unalloyed plutonium for reactor fuel use are easy fabrication, phase stability, and the accompanying advantuge of providing a means for converting Th/sup 232/ into U/sup 233/.

  10. Adaptation of the ICRP publication 66 respiratory tract model to data on plutonium biokinetics for Mayak workers.

    PubMed

    Khokhryakov, V F; Suslova, K G; Vostrotin, V V; Romanov, S A; Eckerman, K F; Krahenbuhl, M P; Miller, S C

    2005-02-01

    The biokinetics of inhaled plutonium were analyzed using compartment models representing their behavior within the respiratory tract, the gastrointestinal tract, and in systemic tissues. The processes of aerosol deposition, particle transport, absorption, and formation of a fixed deposit in the respiratory tract were formulated in the framework of the Human Respiratory Tract Model described in ICRP Publication 66. The values of parameters governing absorption and formation of the fixed deposit were established by fitting the model to the observations in 530 autopsy cases. The influence of smoking on mechanical clearance of deposited plutonium activity was considered. The dependence of absorption on the aerosol transportability, as estimated by in vitro methods (dialysis), was demonstrated. The results of this study were compared to those obtained from an earlier model of plutonium behavior in the respiratory tract, which was based on the same set of autopsy data. That model did not address the early phases of respiratory clearance and hence underestimated the committed lung dose by about 25% for plutonium oxides. Little difference in lung dose was found for nitrate forms.

  11. Design-Only Conceptual Design Report: Plutonium Immobilization Plant

    SciTech Connect

    DiSabatino, A.; Loftus, D.

    1999-01-01

    This design-only conceptual design report was prepared to support a funding request by the Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition for engineering and design of the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will be used to immobilize up to 50 tonnes of surplus plutonium. The siting for the Plutonium Immobilization Plant will be determined pursuant to the site-specific Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement in a Plutonium Deposition Record of Decision in early 1999. This document reflects a new facility using the preferred technology (ceramic immobilization using the can-in-canister approach) and the preferred site (at Savannah River). The Plutonium Immobilization Plant accepts plutonium from pit conversion and from non-pit sources and, through a ceramic immobilization process, converts the plutonium into mineral-like forms that are subsequently encapsulated within a large canister of high-level waste glass. The final immobilized product must make the plutonium as inherently unattractive and inaccessible for use in nuclear weapons as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors and must be suitable for geologic disposal. Plutonium immobilization at the Savannah River Site uses: (1) A new building, the Plutonium Immobilization Plant, which will convert non-pit surplus plutonium to an oxide form suitable for the immobilization process, immobilize plutonium in a titanate-based ceramic form, place cans of the plutonium-ceramic forms into magazines, and load the magazines into a canister; (2) The existing Defense Waste Processing Facility for the pouring of high-level waste glass into the canisters; and (3) The Actinide Packaging and Storage Facility to receive and store feed materials. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant uses existing Savannah River Site infra-structure for analytical laboratory services, waste handling, fire protection, training, and other support utilities and services. The Plutonium Immobilization Plant

  12. Review of the Evidence from Epidemiology, Toxicology, and Lung Bioavailability on the Carcinogenicity of Inhaled Iron Oxide Particulates.

    PubMed

    Pease, Camilla; Rücker, Thomas; Birk, Thomas

    2016-03-21

    Since the iron-age and throughout the industrial age, humans have been exposed to iron oxides. Here, we review the evidence from epidemiology, toxicology, and lung bioavailability as to whether iron oxides are likely to act as human lung carcinogens. Current evidence suggests that observed lung tumors in rats result from a generic particle overload effect and local inflammation that is rat-specific under the dosing conditions of intratracheal instillation. This mode of action therefore, is not relevant to human exposure. However, there are emerging differences seen in vitro, in cell uptake and cell bioavailability between "bulk" iron oxides and "nano" iron oxides. "Bulk" particulates, as defined here, are those where greater than 70% are >100 nm in diameter. Similarly, "nano" iron oxides are defined in this context as particulates where the majority, usually >95% for pure engineered forms of primary particulates (not agglomerates), fall in the range 1-100 nm in diameter. From the weight of scientific evidence, "bulk" iron oxides are not genotoxic/mutagenic. Recent evidence for "nano" iron oxide is conflicting regarding genotoxic potential, albeit genotoxicity was not observed in an in vivo acute oral dose study, and "nano" iron oxides are considered safe and are being investigated for biomedical uses; there is no specific in vivo genotoxicity study on "nano" iron oxides via inhalation. Some evidence is available that suggests, hypothetically due to the larger surface area of "nano" iron oxide particulates, that toxicity could be exerted via the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cell. However, the potential for ROS generation as a basis for explaining rodent tumorigenicity is only apparent if free iron from intracellular "nano" scale iron oxide becomes bioavailable at significant levels inside the cell. This would not be expected from "bulk" iron oxide particulates. Furthermore, human epidemiological evidence from a number of studies suggests that

  13. Spectrophotometers for plutonium monitoring in HB-line

    SciTech Connect

    Lascola, R. J.; O'Rourke, P. E.; Kyser, E. A.; Immel, D. M.; Plummer, J. R.; Evans, E. V.

    2016-02-12

    This report describes the equipment, control software, calibrations for total plutonium and plutonium oxidation state, and qualification studies for the instrument. It also provides a detailed description of the uncertainty analysis, which includes source terms associated with plutonium calibration standards, instrument drift, and inter-instrument variability. Also included are work instructions for instrument, flow cell, and optical fiber setup, work instructions for routine maintenance, and drawings and schematic diagrams.

  14. Hematological responses after inhaling {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}: An extrapolation from beagle dogs to humans

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, B.R.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Welsh, C.A.; Angerstein, D.A.

    1994-11-01

    The alpha emitter plutonium-238 ({sup 238}Pu), which is produced in uranium-fueled, light-water reactors, is used as a thermoelectric power source for space applications. Inhalation of a mixed oxide form of Pu is the most likely mode of exposure of workers and the general public. Occupational exposures to {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} have occurred in association with the fabrication of radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Organs and tissue at risk for deterministic and stochastic effects of {sup 238}Pu-alpha irradiation include the lung, liver, skeleton, and lymphatic tissue. Little has been reported about the effects of inhaled {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} on peripheral blood cell counts in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate hematological responses after a single inhalation exposure of Beagle dogs to alpha-emitting {sup 238}PuO{sub 2} particles and to extrapolate results to humans.

  15. Recovery of plutonium from nitric acid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Muscatello, A.C.; Saba, M.T.; Navratil, J.D.

    1986-12-21

    Seven candidate materials, each contained in a static-bed column, have been evaluated for removing plutonium from nitric acid waste. Three materials have insufficient capacity for plutonium: TBP (tri-n-butylphosphate) sorbed on Amberlite XAD-4 resin, O phi D(IB)CMPO (octylphenyl-N, N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide) sorbed on XAD-4, and Amberlite IRA-938 anion exchange resin. The remaining four materials reduced 10/sup -3/ g/l plutonium in 7.2M HNO/sub 3/ to low 10/sup -5/ g/l for 80 bed volumes (BV). The 10% breakthrough capacities for 3 x 10/sup -2/ g/l plutonium are: TOPO (tri-n-octylphosphine oxide) on XAD-4 - 1800 BV, DHDECMP (dihexyl-N, N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate) on XAD-4 - 960 BV, Dowex 1 x 4 - 840 BV, and DHDECMP + TBP - 640 BV. Based on these results and generally poor elution of all materials, TOPO on XAD-4 is recommended as the best candidate for recovery of plutonium followed by acid digestion or combustion of the TOPO to recover the concentrated plutonium.

  16. Titanium nanoparticle inhalation induces renal fibrosis in mice via an oxidative stress upregulated transforming growth factor-β pathway.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-Tong; Wu, Cheng-Tien; Huang, Kuo-How; Lin, Wei-Chou; Chen, Chang-Mu; Guan, Siao-Syun; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Liu, Shing-Hwa

    2015-03-16

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (Nano-TiO2) are gradually being used extensively in clinical settings, industry, and daily life. Accumulation studies showed that Nano-TiO2 exposure is able to cause injuries in various animal organs, including the lung, liver, spleen, and kidney. However, it remains unclear whether exposure of Nano-TiO2 by inhalation causes renal fibrosis. Here, we investigated the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS)/reactive nitrogen species (RNS) related signaling molecules in chronic renal damage after Nano-TiO2 inhalation in mice. Mice were treated with Nano-TiO2 (0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mg/week) or microparticle-TiO2 (0.5 mg/week) by nonsurgical intratracheal instillation for 4 weeks. The results showed that Nano-TiO2 inhalation increased renal pathological changes in a dose-dependent manner. No renal pathological changes were observed in microparticle-TiO2-instilled mice. Nano-TiO2 (0.5 mg/week) possessed the ability to precipitate in the kidneys, determined by transmission electron microscopy and increased serum levels of blood urea nitrogen. The expressions of markers of ROS/RNS and renal fibrosis markers, including nitrotyrosine, inducible nitric oxide synthase, hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), heme oxygenase 1, transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ), and collagen I, determined by immunohistochemical staining were increased in the kidneys. Furthermore, Nano-TiO2-induced renal injury could be mitigated by iNOS inhibitor aminoguanidine and ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine treatment in transcription level. The in vitro experiments showed that Nano-TiO2 significantly and dose-dependently increased the ROS production and the expressions of HIF-1α and TGFβ in human renal proximal tubular cells, which could be reversed by N-acetylcysteine treatment. Taken together, these results suggest Nano-TiO2 inhalation might induce renal fibrosis through a ROS/RNS-related HIF-1α-upregulated TGF-β signaling pathway.

  17. Hemodynamic effects of combination therapy with inhaled nitric oxide and iloprost in patients with pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular dysfunction after high-risk cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Theofani; Koletsis, Efstratios N; Prokakis, Christos; Rellia, Panagiota; Thanopoulos, Apostolos; Theodoraki, Kassiani; Zarkalis, Dimitrios; Sfyrakis, Petros

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hemodynamic effects of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) plus aerosolized iloprost in patients with pulmonary hypertension/right ventricular dysfunction after cardiac surgery. A retrospective study. A single center. Eight consecutive patients with valve disease and postextracorporeal circulation (ECC) pulmonary hypertension/right ventricular dysfunction. The continuous inhalation of nitric oxide (10 ppm) and iloprost, 10 μg, in repeated doses. The hemodynamic profile was obtained before inhalation, during the administration of inhaled NO alone (prior and after iloprost), and after the first 2 doses of iloprost. Tricuspid annular velocity and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion were estimated at baseline and before and after adding iloprost. At the end of the protocol, there were significant decreases in pulmonary vascular resistance (p < 0.001), the mean pulmonary arterial pressure (p < 0.001), and the mean pulmonary artery pressure/mean arterial pressure ratio (p = 0.006). Both tricuspid annular velocity (p < 0.001) and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (p < 0.001) increased. The cardiac index (p < 0.001) and venous blood oxygen saturation (p = 0.001) increased throughout the evaluation period. Each iloprost dose was associated with further decreases in pulmonary vascular resistances/pressure. By comparing data at the beginning of inhaled NO with those after the second dose of iloprost, the authors noticed decreases in pulmonary vascular resistances (p = 0.004) and the mean pulmonary artery pressure (p = 0.017) and rises in tricuspid annular velocity (p < 0.001) and tricuspid annular systolic plane systolic excursion (p < 0.001). Inhaled NO and iloprost significantly reduced pulmonary hypertension and contributed to the improvement in right ventricular function. Inhaled NO and iloprost have additive effects on pulmonary vasculature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Cost effectiveness and budget impact analysis of inhaled nitric oxide in a neonatal unit from the perspective of the public health system].

    PubMed

    Kilchemmann Fuentes, Carlos; Vallejos Vallejos, Carlos; Román Navarro, Andrés

    Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is currently the first-line therapy in severe hypoxaemic respiratory failure of the newborn. Most of regional neonatal centres in Chile do not have this therapeutic alternative. To determine the cost effectiveness of inhaled nitric oxide in the treatment of respiratory failure associated with pulmonary hypertension of the newborn compared to the usual care, including the transfer to a more complex unit. A clinical decision tree was designed from the perspective of Chilean Public Health Service. Incremental cost effectiveness rates (ICER) were calculated, deterministic sensitivity analysis was performed, and probabilistic budget impact was estimated using: TreeAge Pro Healthcare 2014 software. The iNO option leads to an increase in mean cost of $ 11.7 million Chilean pesos (€15,000) per patient treated, with an ICER compared with the usual care of $23 million pesos (€30,000) in case of death or ECMO avoided. By sensitising the results by incidence, it was found that from 7 cases and upwards treated annually, inhaled nitric oxide is less costly than the transfer to a more complex unit. From the perspective of a Chilean regional hospital, incorporating inhaled nitric oxide into the management of neonatal respiratory failure is the optimal alternative in most scenarios. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Inhalation of Uranium Oxide Aerosols: CNS Deposition, Neurotoxicity, and Role in Gulf War Illness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-10-01

    aerosol particle sizes were all respirable, ranging from 1.6 to 2.4 pm MMAD . Fifteen rats exposed to U0 3, the most soluble of the compounds used, died 2...maintained for the necessary duration. Also, aerosols were evaluated for particle size and chemical purity. Inhalation exposures Before exposure, rats were...deposition in glomeruli. Table 8 shows uranium MDL and sample size for the re-exposed animals. Table 8 . Uranium MDL + SD (mgi g) in re-exposed animals

  20. Successful treatment of acute respiratory distress syndrome after hysterectomy for life-threatening atonic bleeding by inhaled nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Ayaka; Hashiba, Eiji; Otomo, Noriaki; Muraoka, Masatoshi; Kimura, Futoshi; Hirota, Kazuyoshi

    2011-10-01

    We report a case of a 33-year-old female who developed severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) after emergency hysterectomy for life-threatening atonic bleeding. A marked decline in pulmonary oxygenation was observed during the surgery, which led to a diagnosis of ARDS. Following admission to the intensive care unit, hypoxia became critical, with a PaO(2)/F(I)O(2) value of 52 even after recruitment maneuvers. Inhaled nitric oxide (NO 10 ppm) was administered to the patient as a rescue treatment, resulting in a gradual but dramatic improvement in pulmonary oxygenation. Although several randomized trials have failed to confirm the beneficial effects of NO on morbidity in patients with ARDS, NO administration is worth consideration as treatment prior to invasive treatments, such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, for patients with acute lung injury/ARDS.

  1. CSER 96-023: CSER for PFP glovebox HC-21A with 4.4 kilogram plutonium cans

    SciTech Connect

    Wittekind, W.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-17

    This criticality safety evaluation report addresses the criticality impact of increasing plutonium oxide content from 2.5 kg oxide storage cans to 5.0 kg oxide Pu storage cans. Glovebox HC-21A is used to move plutonium metal buttons from cans into furnace boats prior to transferring them to the muffle furnace gloveboxes. Glovebox HC-21A supports muffle furnace operations where plutonium buttons are burned to form paw, (H/Pu < 2). The paw, is returned to glovebox HC-21A and sieved and packed into the 4.,f kg Pu cans. The plutonium mass limit is set at 7.5 kg plutonium when plutonium metal is present. The plutonium mass limit is set at 15. kg plutonium when no plutonium metal is present. Additionally, there are other requirements to assure criticality safety during this operation.

  2. Regulation of caveolin-1 expression, nitric oxide production and tissue injury by tumor necrosis factor-alpha following ozone inhalation.

    PubMed

    Fakhrzadeh, Ladan; Laskin, Jeffrey D; Laskin, Debra L

    2008-03-15

    Alveolar macrophages (AM) and inflammatory mediators including nitric oxide and peroxynitrite contribute to ozone-induced lung injury. The generation of these mediators is regulated, in part, by the transcription factor NF-kappaB. We previously demonstrated a critical role for NF-kappaB p50 in ozone-induced injury. In the present studies mechanisms regulating NF-kappaB activation in the lung after ozone inhalation were analyzed. Treatment of wild type (WT) mice with ozone (0.8 ppm, 3 h) resulted in a rapid increase in NF-kappaB binding activity in AM, which persisted for at least 12 h. This was not evident in mice lacking TNFalpha which are protected from ozone-induced injury; there was also no evidence of nitric oxide or peroxynitrite production in lungs from these animals. These data demonstrate that TNFalpha plays a role in NF-kappaB activation and toxicity. TNFalpha signaling involves PI-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (PKB), and p44/42 MAP kinase (MAPK) which are important in NF-kappaB activation. Ozone Inhalation resulted in rapid and transient increases in p44/42 MAPK and PI3K/PKB in AM from WT mice, which was evident immediately after exposure. Caveolin-1, a transmembrane protein that negatively regulates PI3K/PKB and p44/42 MAPK signaling, was downregulated in AM from WT mice after ozone exposure. In contrast, ozone had no effect on caveolin-1, PI3K/PKB or p44/42 MAPK expression in AM from TNFalpha knockout mice. These data, together with our findings that TNFalpha suppressed caveolin-1 expression in cultured AM, suggest that TNFalpha and downstream signaling mediate activation of NF-kappaB and the regulation of inflammatory genes important in ozone toxicity, and that this process is linked to caveolin-1.

  3. Plutonium oxalate precipitation for trace elemental determination in plutonium materials

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ning; Gallimore, David; Lujan, Elmer; Garduno, Katherine; Walker, Laurie; Taylor, Fiona; Thompson, Pam; Tandon, Lav

    2015-05-26

    In this study, an analytical chemistry method has been developed that removes the plutonium (Pu) matrix from the dissolved Pu metal or oxide solution prior to the determination of trace impurities that are present in the metal or oxide. In this study, a Pu oxalate approach was employed to separate Pu from trace impurities. After Pu(III) was precipitated with oxalic acid and separated by centrifugation, trace elemental constituents in the supernatant were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy with minimized spectral interferences from the sample matrix.

  4. Plutonium oxalate precipitation for trace elemental determination in plutonium materials

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, Ning; Gallimore, David; Lujan, Elmer; ...

    2015-05-26

    In this study, an analytical chemistry method has been developed that removes the plutonium (Pu) matrix from the dissolved Pu metal or oxide solution prior to the determination of trace impurities that are present in the metal or oxide. In this study, a Pu oxalate approach was employed to separate Pu from trace impurities. After Pu(III) was precipitated with oxalic acid and separated by centrifugation, trace elemental constituents in the supernatant were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy with minimized spectral interferences from the sample matrix.

  5. Twenty-Eight-Day Repeated Inhalation Toxicity Study of Nano-Sized Neodymium Oxide in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Soon; Lim, Cheol-Hong; Shin, Seo-Ho; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2017-07-01

    Neodymium is a future-oriented material due to its unique properties, and its use is increasing in various industrial fields worldwide. However, the toxicity caused by repeated exposure to this metal has not been studied in detail thus far. The present study was carried out to investigate the potential inhalation toxicity of nano-sized neodymium oxide (Nd2O3) following a 28-day repeated inhalation exposure in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Male rats were exposed to nano-sized Nd2O3-containing aerosols via a nose-only inhalation system at doses of 0 mg/m(3), 0.5 mg/m(3), 2.5 mg/m(3), and 10 mg/m(3) for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week over a 28-day period, followed by a 28-day recovery period. During the experimental period, clinical signs, body weight, hematologic parameters, serum biochemical parameters, necropsy findings, organ weight, and histopathological findings were examined; neodymium distribution in the major organs and blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and oxidative stress in lung tissues were analyzed. Most of the neodymium was found to be deposited in lung tissues, showing a dose-dependent relationship. Infiltration of inflammatory cells and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) were the main observations of lung histopathology. Infiltration of inflammatory cells was observed in the 2.5 mg/m(3) and higher dose treatment groups. PAP was observed in all treatment groups accompanied by an increase in lung weight, but was observed to a lesser extent in the 0.5 mg/m(3) treatment group. In BALF analysis, total cell counts, including macrophages and neutrophils, lactate dehydrogenase, albumin, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, increased significantly in all treatment groups. After a 4-week recovery period, these changes were generally reversed in the 0.5 mg/m(3) group, but were exacerbated in the 10 mg/m(3) group. The lowest-observed-adverse-effect concentration of nano-sized Nd2O3 was determined to be 0.5 mg/m(3), and the target organ was determined to

  6. Twenty-Eight-Day Repeated Inhalation Toxicity Study of Nano-Sized Neodymium Oxide in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Soon; Lim, Cheol-Hong; Shin, Seo-Ho; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2017-01-01

    Neodymium is a future-oriented material due to its unique properties, and its use is increasing in various industrial fields worldwide. However, the toxicity caused by repeated exposure to this metal has not been studied in detail thus far. The present study was carried out to investigate the potential inhalation toxicity of nano-sized neodymium oxide (Nd2O3) following a 28-day repeated inhalation exposure in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Male rats were exposed to nano-sized Nd2O3-containing aerosols via a nose-only inhalation system at doses of 0 mg/m3, 0.5 mg/m3, 2.5 mg/m3, and 10 mg/m3 for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week over a 28-day period, followed by a 28-day recovery period. During the experimental period, clinical signs, body weight, hematologic parameters, serum biochemical parameters, necropsy findings, organ weight, and histopathological findings were examined; neodymium distribution in the major organs and blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and oxidative stress in lung tissues were analyzed. Most of the neodymium was found to be deposited in lung tissues, showing a dose-dependent relationship. Infiltration of inflammatory cells and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) were the main observations of lung histopathology. Infiltration of inflammatory cells was observed in the 2.5 mg/m3 and higher dose treatment groups. PAP was observed in all treatment groups accompanied by an increase in lung weight, but was observed to a lesser extent in the 0.5 mg/m3 treatment group. In BALF analysis, total cell counts, including macrophages and neutrophils, lactate dehydrogenase, albumin, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, increased significantly in all treatment groups. After a 4-week recovery period, these changes were generally reversed in the 0.5 mg/m3 group, but were exacerbated in the 10 mg/m3 group. The lowest-observed-adverse-effect concentration of nano-sized Nd2O3 was determined to be 0.5 mg/m3, and the target organ was determined to be the lung

  7. PROCESS USING POTASSIUM LANTHANUM SULFATE FOR FORMING A CARRIER PRECIPITATE FOR PLUTONIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Angerman, A.A.

    1958-10-21

    A process is presented for recovering plutonium values in an oxidation state not greater than +4 from fluoride-soluble fission products. The process consists of adding to an aqueous acidic solution of such plutonium values a crystalline potassium lanthanum sulfate precipitate which carries the plutonium values from the solution.

  8. Procedure for plutonium determination using Pu(VI) spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, L.F.; Temer, D.J.; Jackson, D.D.

    1996-09-01

    This document describes a simple spectrophotometric method for determining total plutonium in nitric acid solutions based on the spectrum of Pu(VI). Plutonium samples in nitric acid are oxidized to Pu(VI) with Ce(IV) and the net absorbance at the 830 nm peak is measured.

  9. Microdosimetry of plutonium in beagle dog lung

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.R.; Roesch, W.C.

    1980-08-01

    A better understanding of the microdosimetry of internally-deposited radionuclides should provide new clues to the complex relationships between organ dose distribution and early or late biological effects. Our current interest is the microdosimetry of plutonium and other alpha emitters in the lung. Since the lung is an inhomogeneous tissue, it was necessary to characterize the microscopic distributions of alveolar tissue, air space, and epithelial cell nuclei to define source-target parameters. A statistical representation of the microstructure of beagle dog lung was developed from automated image analysis of specimens from three healthy adult male dogs. The statistical distributions obtained constituted a data base from which it was possible to calculate both the energy dissipation of an alpha particle as it traversed a straight line path through pulmonary tissue, and the probability of intersecting a potentially sensitive biological site in the cell. Computer methods were modified to accomodate tissues with air space regions such as one finds in lung tissue. With the lung model description, these methods were used to determine probability density curves in specific energy for inhaled plutonium aerosols. It was assumed that the activity was randomly distributed on alveolar walls. Calculated examples are given for various activities of inhaled plutonium point sources deposited in lung tissue.

  10. METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Heal, H.G.

    1960-02-16

    BS>A method of separating plutonium from aqueous nitrate solutions of plutonium, uranium. and high beta activity fission products is given. The pH of the aqueous solution is adjusted between 3.0 to 6.0 with ammonium acetate, ferric nitrate is added, and the solution is heated to 80 to 100 deg C to selectively form a basic ferric plutonium-carrying precipitate.

  11. PLUTONIUM-ZIRCONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Schonfeld, F.W.; Waber, J.T.

    1960-08-30

    A series of nuclear reactor fuel alloys consisting of from about 5 to about 50 at.% zirconium (or higher zirconium alloys such as Zircaloy), balance plutonium, and having the structural composition of a plutonium are described. Zirconium is a satisfactory diluent because it alloys readily with plutonium and has desirable nuclear properties. Additional advantages are corrosion resistance, excellent fabrication propenties, an isotropie structure, and initial softness.

  12. Ceramification: A plutonium immobilization process

    SciTech Connect

    Rask, W.C.; Phillips, A.G.

    1996-05-01

    This paper describes a low temperature technique for stabilizing and immobilizing actinide compounds using a combination process/storage vessel of stainless steel, in which measured amounts of actinide nitrate solutions and actinide oxides (and/or residues) are systematically treated to yield a solid article. The chemical ceramic process is based on a coating technology that produces rare earth oxide coatings for defense applications involving plutonium. The final product of this application is a solid, coherent actinide oxide with process-generated encapsulation that has long-term environmental stability. Actinide compounds can be stabilized as pure materials for ease of re-use or as intimate mixtures with additives such as rare earth oxides to increase their degree of proliferation resistance. Starting materials for the process can include nitrate solutions, powders, aggregates, sludges, incinerator ashes, and others. Agents such as cerium oxide or zirconium oxide may be added as powders or precursors to enhance the properties of the resulting solid product. Additives may be included to produce a final product suitable for use in nuclear fuel pellet production. The process is simple and reduces the time and expense for stabilizing plutonium compounds. It requires a very low equipment expenditure and can be readily implemented into existing gloveboxes. The process is easily conducted with less associated risk than proposed alternative technologies.

  13. Continuous plutonium dissolution apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, F.G.; Tesitor, C.N.

    1974-02-26

    This invention is concerned with continuous dissolution of metals such as plutonium. A high normality acid mixture is fed into a boiler vessel, vaporized, and subsequently condensed as a low normality acid mixture. The mixture is then conveyed to a dissolution vessel and contacted with the plutonium metal to dissolve the plutonium in the dissolution vessel, reacting therewith forming plutonium nitrate. The reaction products are then conveyed to the mixing vessel and maintained soluble by the high normality acid, with separation and removal of the desired constituent. (Official Gazette)

  14. North Korean plutonium production

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, D.

    1994-12-01

    In 1992, as part of its obligations under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, North Korea declared that it had earlier separated about 100 grams of plutonium from damaged fuel rods removed from a 25 megawatt-thermal (MW{sub t}) gas-graphite reactor at Yongbyon. The plutonium was separated at the nearby {open_quotes}Radiochemical Laboratory.{close_quotes} Separated plutonium is the raw ingredient for making nuclear weapons, but 100 grams is too little to make a crude bomb. Based on intelligence reports and IAEA inspections, North Korea may have separated enough plutonium for a nuclear weapon. Regardless of whether this is true, there is no doubt that North Korea has enough weapons-grade plutonium in spent fuel to make four or five nuclear weapons. But it cannot turn this plutonium into nuclear weapons unless it separates the plutonium from the spent fuel. Preventing the North from separating any more plutonium must remain a global priority. The IAEA must also be able to verify North Korea`s past nuclear activities and determine the amount of plutonium North Korea may have diverted in the past.

  15. Disposal of Surplus Weapons Grade Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    H. Alsaed; P. Gottlieb

    2000-09-12

    The Office of Fissile Materials Disposition is responsible for disposing of inventories of surplus US weapons-usable plutonium and highly enriched uranium as well as providing, technical support for, and ultimate implementation of, efforts to obtain reciprocal disposition of surplus Russian plutonium. On January 4, 2000, the Department of Energy issued a Record of Decision to dispose of up to 50 metric tons of surplus weapons-grade plutonium using two methods. Up to 17 metric tons of surplus plutonium will be immobilized in a ceramic form, placed in cans and embedded in large canisters containing high-level vitrified waste for ultimate disposal in a geologic repository. Approximately 33 metric tons of surplus plutonium will be used to fabricate MOX fuel (mixed oxide fuel, having less than 5% plutonium-239 as the primary fissile material in a uranium-235 carrier matrix). The MOX fuel will be used to produce electricity in existing domestic commercial nuclear reactors. This paper reports the major waste-package-related, long-term disposal impacts of the two waste forms that would be used to accomplish this mission. Particular emphasis is placed on the possibility of criticality. These results are taken from a summary report published earlier this year.

  16. Plutonium Finishing Plant safety evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) previously known as the Plutonium Process and Storage Facility, or Z-Plant, was built and put into operation in 1949. Since 1949 PFP has been used for various processing missions, including plutonium purification, oxide production, metal production, parts fabrication, plutonium recovery, and the recovery of americium (Am-241). The PFP has also been used for receipt and large scale storage of plutonium scrap and product materials. The PFP Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) was prepared by WHC to document the hazards associated with the facility, present safety analyses of potential accident scenarios, and demonstrate the adequacy of safety class structures, systems, and components (SSCs) and operational safety requirements (OSRs) necessary to eliminate, control, or mitigate the identified hazards. Documented in this Safety Evaluation Report (SER) is DOE`s independent review and evaluation of the PFP FSAR and the basis for approval of the PFP FSAR. The evaluation is presented in a format that parallels the format of the PFP FSAR. As an aid to the reactor, a list of acronyms has been included at the beginning of this report. The DOE review concluded that the risks associated with conducting plutonium handling, processing, and storage operations within PFP facilities, as described in the PFP FSAR, are acceptable, since the accident safety analyses associated with these activities meet the WHC risk acceptance guidelines and DOE safety goals in SEN-35-91.

  17. A Note on the Reaction of Hydrogen and Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Noone, Bailey C

    2012-08-15

    Plutonium hydride has many practical and experimental purposes. The reaction of plutonium and hydrogen has interesting characteristics, which will be explored in the following analysis. Plutonium is a radioactive actinide metal that emits alpha particles. When plutonium metal is exposed to air, the plutonium oxides and hydrides, and the volume increases. PuH{sub 2} and Pu{sub 2}O{sub 3} are the products. Hydrogen is a catalyst for plutonium's corrosion in air. The reaction can take place at room temperature because it is fairly insensitive to temperature. Plutonium hydride, or PuH{sub 2}, is black and metallic. After PuH{sub 2} is formed, it quickly flakes off and burns. The reaction of hydrogen and plutonium is described as pyrophoric because the product will spontaneously ignite when oxygen is present. This tendency must be considered in the storage of metal plutonium. The reaction is characterized as reversible and nonstoichiometric. The reaction goes as such: Pu + H{sub 2} {yields} PuH{sub 2}. When PuH{sub 2} is formed, the hydrogen/plutonium ratio is between 2 and 2.75 (approximately). As more hydrogen is added to the system, the ratio increases. When the ratio exceeds 2.75, PuH{sub 3} begins to form along with PuH{sub 2}. Once the ratio surpasses 2.9, only PuH{sub 3} remains. The volume of the plutonium sample increases because of the added hydrogen and the change in crystal structure which the sample undergoes. As more hydrogen is added to a system of metal plutonium, the crystal structure evolves. Plutonium has a crystal structure classified as monoclinic. A monoclinic crystal structure appears to be a rectangular prism. When plutonium reacts with hydrogen, the product PuH{sub 2}, becomes a fluorite structure. It can also be described as a face centered cubic structure. PuH{sub 3} forms a hexagonal crystal structure. As plutonium evolves from metal plutonium to plutonium hydride to plutonium trihydride, the crystal structure evolves from monoclinic to

  18. Structural Properties and Charge Distribution of the Sodium Uranium, Neptunium, and Plutonium Ternary Oxides: A Combined X-ray Diffraction and XANES Study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Anna L; Martin, Philippe; Prieur, Damien; Scheinost, Andreas C; Raison, Philippe E; Cheetham, Anthony K; Konings, Rudy J M

    2016-02-15

    The charge distributions in α-Na2UO4, Na3NpO4, α-Na2NpO4, Na4NpO5, Na5NpO6, Na2PuO3, Na4PuO5, and Na5PuO6 are investigated in this work using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy at the U-L3, Np-L3, and Pu-L3 edges. In addition, a Rietveld refinement of monoclinic Na2PuO3, in space group C2/c, is reported for the first time, and the existence of the isostructural Na2NpO3 phase is revealed. In contrast to measurements in solution, the number of published XANES data for neptunium and plutonium solid phases with a valence state higher than IV is very limited. The present results cover a wide range of oxidation states, namely, IV to VII, and can serve as reference for future investigations. The sodium actinide series show a variety of local coordination geometries, and correlations between the shape of the XANES spectra and the local structural environments are discussed herein.

  19. Ozone Inhalation Impairs Coronary Artery Dilation via Intracellular Oxidative Stress: Evidence for Serum-Borne Factors as Drivers of Systemic Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Paffett, Michael L.; Zychowski, Katherine E.; Sheppard, Lianne; Robertson, Sarah; Weaver, John M.; Lucas, Selita N.; Campen, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    Ambient ozone (O3) levels are associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms driving extrapulmonary toxicity remain unclear. This study examined the coronary vascular bed of rats in terms of constrictive and dilatory responses to known agonists following a single O3 inhalation exposure. In addition, serum from exposed rats was used in ex vivo preparations to examine whether bioactivity and toxic effects of inhaled O3 could be conveyed to extrapulmonary systems via the circulation. We found that 24 h following inhalation of 1 ppm O3, isolated coronary vessels exhibited greater basal tone and constricted to a greater degree to serotonin stimulation. Vasodilation to acetylcholine (ACh) was markedly diminished in coronary arteries from O3-exposed rats, compared with filtered air-exposed controls. Dilation to ACh was restored by combined superoxide dismutase and catalase treatment, and also by NADPH oxidase inhibition. When dilute (10%) serum from exposed rats was perfused into the lumen of coronary arteries from unexposed, naïve rats, the O3-induced reduction in vasodilatory response to ACh was partially recapitulated. Furthermore, following O3 inhalation, serum exhibited a nitric oxide scavenging capacity, which may partially explain blunted ACh-mediated vasodilatory responses. Thus, bioactivity from inhalation exposures may be due to compositional changes of the circulation. These studies shed light on possible mechanisms of action that may explain O3-associated cardiac morbidity and mortality in humans. PMID:25962394

  20. Inhalation Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... you can inhale that can cause acute internal injuries. Particles in the air from fires and toxic ... and lung diseases worse. Symptoms of acute inhalation injuries may include Coughing and phlegm A scratchy throat ...

  1. Organ burden and pulmonary toxicity of nano-sized copper (II) oxide particles after short-term inhalation exposure.

    PubMed

    Gosens, Ilse; Cassee, Flemming R; Zanella, Michela; Manodori, Laura; Brunelli, Andrea; Costa, Anna Luisa; Bokkers, Bas G H; de Jong, Wim H; Brown, David; Hristozov, Danail; Stone, Vicki

    2016-10-01

    Increased use of nanomaterials has raised concerns about the potential for undesirable human health and environmental effects. Releases into the air may occur and, therefore, the inhalation route is of specific interest. Here we tested copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) after repeated inhalation as hazard data for this material and exposure route is currently lacking for risk assessment. Rats were exposed nose-only to a single exposure concentration and by varying the exposure time, different dose levels were obtained (C × T protocol). The dose is expressed as 6 h-concentration equivalents of 0, 0.6, 2.4, 3.3, 6.3, and 13.2 mg/m(3) CuO NPs, with a primary particle size of 10 9.2-14 nm and an MMAD of 1.5 μm. Twenty-four hours after a 5-d exposure, dose-dependent lung inflammation and cytotoxicity were observed. Histopathological examinations indicated alveolitis, bronchiolitis, vacuolation of the respiratory epithelium, and emphysema in the lung starting at 2.4 mg/m(3). After a recovery period of 22 d, limited inflammation was still observed, but only at the highest dose of 13.2 mg/m(3). The olfactory epithelium in the nose degenerated 24 h after exposure to 6.3 and 13.2 mg/m(3), but this was restored after 22 d. No histopathological changes were detected in the brain, olfactory bulb, spleen, kidney and liver. A 5-d, 6-h/day exposure equivalent to an aerosol of agglomerated CuO NPs resulted in a dose-dependent toxicity in rats, which almost completely resolved during a 3-week post-exposure period.

  2. Inflammatory Mediators in Tracheal Aspirates of Preterm Infants Participating in a Randomized Trial of Inhaled Nitric Oxide

    PubMed Central

    Amann, Elena; Uhlig, Ulrike; Yang, Yang; Fuchs, Hans W.; Zemlin, Michael; Mercier, Jean-Christophe; Maier, Rolf F.; Hummler, Helmut D.; Uhlig, Stefan; Thome, Ulrich H.

    2017-01-01

    Background Ventilated preterm infants frequently develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) which is associated with elevated inflammatory mediators in their tracheal aspirates (TA). In animal models of BPD, inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has been shown to reduce lung inflammation, but data for human preterm infants is missing. Methods Within a European multicenter trial of NO inhalation for preterm infants to prevent BPD (EUNO), TA was collected to determine the effects of iNO on pulmonary inflammation. TA was collected from 43 premature infants randomly assigned to receive either iNO or placebo gas (birth weight 530–1230 g, median 800 g, gestational age 24 to 28 2/7 weeks, median 26 weeks). Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, interferon γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, acid sphingomyelinase (ASM), neuropeptide Y and leukotriene B4 were measured in serial TA samples from postnatal day 2 to 14. Furthermore, TA levels of nitrotyrosine and nitrite were determined under iNO therapy. Results The TA levels of IP-10, IL-6, IL-8, MIP-1α, IL-1β, ASM and albumin increased with advancing postnatal age in critically ill preterm infants, whereas nitrotyrosine TA levels declined in both, iNO-treated and placebo-treated infants. The iNO treatment generally increased nitrite TA levels, whereas nitrotyrosine TA levels were not affected by iNO treatment. Furthermore, iNO treatment transiently reduced early inflammatory and fibrotic markers associated with BPD development including TGF-β1, IP-10 and IL-8, but induced a delayed increase of ASM TA levels. Conclusion Treatment with iNO may have played a role in reducing several inflammatory and fibrotic mediators in TA of preterm infants compared to placebo-treated infants. However, survival without BPD was not affected in the main EUNO trial. Trial registration NCT00551642 PMID:28046032

  3. Organ burden and pulmonary toxicity of nano-sized copper (II) oxide particles after short-term inhalation exposure

    PubMed Central

    Gosens, Ilse; Cassee, Flemming R.; Zanella, Michela; Manodori, Laura; Brunelli, Andrea; Costa, Anna Luisa; Bokkers, Bas G. H.; de Jong, Wim H.; Brown, David; Hristozov, Danail; Stone, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Increased use of nanomaterials has raised concerns about the potential for undesirable human health and environmental effects. Releases into the air may occur and, therefore, the inhalation route is of specific interest. Here we tested copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) after repeated inhalation as hazard data for this material and exposure route is currently lacking for risk assessment. Methods: Rats were exposed nose-only to a single exposure concentration and by varying the exposure time, different dose levels were obtained (C × T protocol). The dose is expressed as 6 h-concentration equivalents of 0, 0.6, 2.4, 3.3, 6.3, and 13.2 mg/m3 CuO NPs, with a primary particle size of 10 9.2–14 nm and an MMAD of 1.5 μm. Results: Twenty-four hours after a 5-d exposure, dose-dependent lung inflammation and cytotoxicity were observed. Histopathological examinations indicated alveolitis, bronchiolitis, vacuolation of the respiratory epithelium, and emphysema in the lung starting at 2.4 mg/m3. After a recovery period of 22 d, limited inflammation was still observed, but only at the highest dose of 13.2 mg/m3. The olfactory epithelium in the nose degenerated 24 h after exposure to 6.3 and 13.2 mg/m3, but this was restored after 22 d. No histopathological changes were detected in the brain, olfactory bulb, spleen, kidney and liver. Conclusion: A 5-d, 6-h/day exposure equivalent to an aerosol of agglomerated CuO NPs resulted in a dose-dependent toxicity in rats, which almost completely resolved during a 3-week post-exposure period. PMID:27132941

  4. Effects from a 90-day inhalation toxicity study with cerium oxide and barium sulfate nanoparticles in rats.

    PubMed

    Schwotzer, Daniela; Ernst, Heinrich; Schaudien, Dirk; Kock, Heiko; Pohlmann, Gerhard; Dasenbrock, Clemens; Creutzenberg, Otto

    2017-07-12

    Nanomaterials like cerium oxide and barium sulfate are frequently processed in industrial and consumer products and exposure of humans and other organisms is likely. Generally less information is given on health effects and toxicity, especially regarding long-term exposure to low nanoparticle doses. Since inhalation is still the major route of uptake the present study focused on pulmonary effects of CeO2NM-212 (0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0 mg/m(3)) and BaSO4NM-220 nanoparticles (50.0 mg/m(3)) in a 90-day exposure setup. To define particle-related effects and potential mechanisms of action, observations in histopathology, bronchoalveolar lavage and immunohistochemistry were linked to pulmonary deposition and clearance rates. This further allows evaluation of potential overload related effects. Lung burden values increased with increasing nanoparticle dose levels and ongoing exposure. At higher doses, cerium clearance was impaired, suggesting lung overload. Barium elimination was extremely rapid and without any signs of overload. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis and histopathology revealed lung tissue inflammation with increasing severity and post-exposure persistency for CeO2. Also, marker levels for genotoxicity and cell proliferation were significantly increased. BaSO4 showed less inflammation or persistency of effects and particularly affected the nasal cavity. CeO2 nanoparticles penetrate the alveolar space and affect the respiratory tract after inhalation mainly in terms of inflammation. Effects at low dose levels and post-exposure persistency suggest potential long-term effects and a notable relevance for human health. The generated data might be useful to improve nanoparticle risk assessment and threshold value generation. Mechanistic investigations at conditions of non-overload and absent inflammation should be further investigated in future studies.

  5. Inhalant abuse.

    PubMed

    Williams, Janet F; Storck, Michael

    2007-05-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet-underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This clinical report reviews key aspects of inhalant abuse, emphasizes the need for greater awareness, and offers advice regarding the pediatrician's role in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem.

  6. Method for dissolving delta-phase plutonium

    DOEpatents

    Karraker, David G.

    1992-01-01

    A process for dissolving plutonium, and in particular, delta-phase plutonium. The process includes heating a mixture of nitric acid, hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) and potassium fluoride to a temperature between 40.degree. and 70.degree. C., then immersing the metal in the mixture. Preferably, the nitric acid has a concentration of not more than 2M, the HAN approximately 0.66M, and the potassium fluoride 0.1M. Additionally, a small amount of sulfamic acid, such as 0.1M can be added to assure stability of the HAN in the presence of nitric acid. The oxide layer that forms on plutonium metal may be removed with a non-oxidizing acid as a pre-treatment step.

  7. Interaction of divalent plutonium and curium

    SciTech Connect

    Mikheev, N.B.; Kazakevich, M.Z.; Rumer, I.A.

    1988-11-01

    It has been established that at plutonium concentrations ranging from 10/sup -5/ to 10/sup -4/ mole % the oxidation potentials of the Pu/sup 3 +//Pu/sup 2 +/ and Cm/sup 3 +//Cm/sup 2 +/ pairs increased by 0.15-0.2 V due to the dimerization of Pu/sup 2 +/ and the formation of mixed dimers of plutonium and curium. Promethium(2+) does not have a similar ability to form mixed dimers owing to the fact that Pm/sup 2 +/ does not have a free d electron. The oxidation potential of the Pm/sup 3 +//Pm/sup 2 +/ pair does not vary in the presence of massive quantities of plutonium

  8. Inhalant Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... to every organ over time.Also, if your child abuses inhalants, he or she is likely to try ... How can I start a discussion about inhalant abuse with my child? Other organizationsNational Inhalant Prevention Coalition (NIPC)National Institute ...

  9. Concomitant Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibition Enhances Myocardial Protection by Inhaled Nitric Oxide in Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Lux, Arpad; Pokreisz, Peter; Swinnen, Melissa; Caluwe, Ellen; Gillijns, Hilde; Szelid, Zsolt; Merkely, Bela; Janssens, Stefan P

    2016-02-01

    Enhanced cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) signaling may attenuate myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R) and improve left ventricular (LV) functional recovery after myocardial infarction (MI). We investigated the cardioprotection afforded by inhaled NO (iNO), the phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5)-specific inhibitor tadalafil (TAD), or their combination (iNO+TAD) in C57Bl6J mice subjected to 6-minute left anterior descending artery ligation followed by reperfusion. We measured plasma and cardiac concentrations of cGMP during early reperfusion, quantified myocardial necrosis and inflammation by serial troponin-I (TnI) and myeloperoxidase-positive cell infiltration at day 3, and evaluated LV function and remodeling after 4 weeks using echocardiography and pressure-conductance catheterization. Administration of iNO, TAD, or both during I/R was safe and hemodynamically well tolerated. Compared with untreated mice (CON), only iNO+TAD increased plasma and cardiac-cGMP levels during early reperfusion (80 ± 12 versus 36 ± 6 pmol/ml and 0.15 ± 0.02 versus 0.05 ± 0.01 pmol/mg protein, P < 0.05 for both). Moreover, iNO+TAD reduced TnI at 4 hours to a greater extent (P < 0.001 versus CON) than either alone (P < 0.05 versus CON) and was associated with significantly less myocardial inflammatory cell infiltration at day 3. After 4 weeks and compared with CON, iNO+TAD was associated with increased fractional shortening (43 ± 1 versus 33 ± 2%, P < 0.01), larger stroke volumes (14.9 ± 1.2 versus 10.2 ± 0.9 μl, P < 0.05), enhanced septal and posterior wall thickening (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively), and attenuated LV dilatation (P < 0.001), whereas iNO or TAD alone conferred less benefit. Thus, iNO+TAD has superior efficacy to limit early reperfusion injury and attenuate adverse LV remodeling. Combination of inhaled NO with a long-acting PDE5 inhibitor may represent a promising strategy to reduce ischemic damage following reperfusion and better preserve LV

  10. DELTA PHASE PLUTONIUM ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Cramer, E.M.; Ellinger, F.H.; Land. C.C.

    1960-03-22

    Delta-phase plutonium alloys were developed suitable for use as reactor fuels. The alloys consist of from 1 to 4 at.% zinc and the balance plutonium. The alloys have good neutronic, corrosion, and fabrication characteristics snd possess good dimensional characteristics throughout an operating temperature range from 300 to 490 deg C.

  11. PLUTONIUM-CERIUM ALLOY

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-01-01

    An alloy is presented for use as a reactor fuel. The binary alloy consists essentially of from about 5 to 90 atomic per cent cerium and the balance being plutonium. A complete phase diagram for the cerium--plutonium system is given.

  12. ELECTRODEPOSITION OF PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Wolter, F.J.

    1957-09-10

    A process of electrolytically recovering plutonium from dilute aqueous solutions containing plutonium ions comprises electrolyzing the solution at a current density of about 0.44 ampere per square centimeter in the presence of an acetate-sulfate buffer while maintaining the pH of the solution at substantially 5 and using a stirred mercury cathode.

  13. 31. VIEW OF A WORKER HOLDING A PLUTONIUM 'BUTTON.' PLUTONIUM, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. VIEW OF A WORKER HOLDING A PLUTONIUM 'BUTTON.' PLUTONIUM, A MAN-MADE SUBSTANCE, WAS RARE. SCRAPS RESULTING FROM PRODUCTION AND PLUTONIUM RECOVERED FROM RETIRED NUCLEAR WEAPONS WERE REPROCESSED INTO VALUABLE PURE-PLUTONIUM METAL (9/19/73). - Rocky Flats Plant, Bounded by Indiana Street & Routes 93, 128 & 72, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  14. Magnetic separation as a plutonium residue enrichment process

    SciTech Connect

    Avens, L.R.; McFarlan, J.T.; Gallegos, U.F.

    1989-01-01

    We have subjected several plutonium contaminated residues to Open Gradient Magnetic Separation (OGMS) on an experimental scale. Separation of graphite, bomb reduction sand, and bomb reduction sand, and bomb reduction sand, slag, and crucible, resulted in a plutonium rich fraction and a plutonium lean fraction. The lean fraction varied between about 20% to 85% of the feed bulk. The plutonium content of the lean fraction can be reduced from about 2% in the feed to the 0.1% to 0.5% range dependent on the portion of the feed rejected to this lean fraction. These values are low enough in plutonium to meet economic discard limits and be considered for direct discard. Magnetic separation of direct oxide reduction and electrorefining pyrochemical salts gave less favorable results. While a fraction very rich in plutonium could be obtained, the plutonium content of the lean fraction was to high for direct discard. This may still have chemical processing applications. OGMS experiments at low magnetic field strength on incinerator ash did give two fractions but the plutonium content of each fraction was essentially identical. Thus, no chemical processing advantage was identified for magnetic separation of this residue. The detailed results of these experiments and the implications for OGMS use in recycle plutonium processing are discussed. 4 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-COBALT AND PLUTONIUM-CERIUM-NICKEL ALLOYS

    DOEpatents

    Coffinberry, A.S.

    1959-08-25

    >New plutonium-base teroary alloys useful as liquid reactor fuels are described. The alloys consist of 10 to 20 atomic percent cobalt with the remainder plutonium and cerium in any desired proportion, with the plutonium not in excess of 88 atomic percent; or, of from 10 to 25 atomic percent nickel (or mixture of nickel and cobalt) with the remainder plutonium and cerium in any desired proportion, with the plutonium not in excess of 86 atomic percent. The stated advantages of these alloys over unalloyed plutonium for reactor fuel use are a lower melting point and a wide range of permissible plutonium dilution.

  16. Plutonium bioaccumulation in seabirds.

    PubMed

    Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara I; Skwarzec, Bogdan; Fabisiak, Jacek

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the paper was plutonium (²³⁸Pu and ²³⁹⁺²⁴⁰Pu) determination in seabirds, permanently or temporarily living in northern Poland at the Baltic Sea coast. Together 11 marine birds species were examined: 3 species permanently residing in the southern Baltic, 4 species of wintering birds and 3 species of migrating birds. The obtained results indicated plutonium is non-uniformly distributed in organs and tissues of analyzed seabirds. The highest plutonium content was found in the digestion organs and feathers, the smallest in skin and muscles. The plutonium concentration was lower in analyzed species which feed on fish and much higher in herbivorous species. The main source of plutonium in analyzed marine birds was global atmospheric fallout.

  17. Plutonium Immobilization Canister Loading

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, E.L.

    1999-01-26

    This disposition of excess plutonium is determined by the Surplus Plutonium Disposition Environmental Impact Statement (SPD-EIS) being prepared by the Department of Energy. The disposition method (Known as ''can in canister'') combines cans of immobilized plutonium-ceramic disks (pucks) with vitrified high-level waste produced at the SRS Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This is intended to deter proliferation by making the plutonium unattractive for recovery or theft. The envisioned process remotely installs cans containing plutonium-ceramic pucks into storage magazines. Magazines are then remotely loaded into the DWPF canister through the canister neck with a robotic arm and locked into a storage rack inside the canister, which holds seven magazines. Finally, the canister is processed through DWPF and filled with high-level waste glass, thereby surrounding the product cans. This paper covers magazine and rack development and canister loading concepts.

  18. The oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor mediates vascular effects of inhaled vehicle emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: To determine vascular signaling pathways involved in air pollution (vehicular engine emission) exposure -induced exacerbation of atherosclerosis, associated with onset of clinical cardiovascular events. Objective: To elucidate the role of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) and its ...

  19. Inhaled Diesel Emissions Generated with Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Fuel Additive Induce Adverse Pulmonary and Systemic Effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Cerium oxide nanoparticles added to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency but leads to altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. Here, we evaluated whether DECe res...

  20. The oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor mediates vascular effects of inhaled vehicle emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: To determine vascular signaling pathways involved in air pollution (vehicular engine emission) exposure -induced exacerbation of atherosclerosis, associated with onset of clinical cardiovascular events. Objective: To elucidate the role of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) and its ...

  1. Inhaled Diesel Emissions Generated with Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Fuel Additive Induce Adverse Pulmonary and Systemic Effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Cerium oxide nanoparticles added to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency but leads to altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. Here, we evaluated whether DECe res...

  2. Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition: Plutonium Packaging, Storage and Transportation and Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Jardine, L J; Borisov, G B

    2004-07-21

    A fifth annual Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition meeting organized by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) was held February 16-18, 2004, at the State Education Center (SEC), 4 Aerodromnya Drive, St. Petersburg, Russia. The meeting discussed Excess Weapons Plutonium Disposition topics for which LLNL has the US Technical Lead Organization responsibilities. The technical areas discussed included Radioactive Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal, Plutonium Oxide and Plutonium Metal Packaging, Storage and Transportation and Spent Fuel Packaging, Storage and Transportation. The meeting was conducted with a conference format using technical presentations of papers with simultaneous translation into English and Russian. There were 46 Russian attendees from 14 different Russian organizations and six non-Russian attendees, four from the US and two from France. Forty technical presentations were made. The meeting agenda is given in Appendix B and the attendance list is in Appendix C.

  3. Comparative Plutonium-239 Dose Assessment for Three Desert Sites: Maralinga, Australia; Palomares, Spain; and the Nevada Test Site, USA - Before and After Remedial Action

    SciTech Connect

    Church, B W; Shinn, J; Williams, G A; Martin, L J; O'Brien, R S; Adams, S R

    2000-07-14

    As a result of nuclear weapons testing and accidents, plutonium has been distributed into the environment. The areas close to the sites of these tests and accidental dispersions contain plutonium deposition of such a magnitude that health authorities and responsible officials have mandated that the contaminated areas be protected, generally through isolation or removal of the contaminated areas. In recent years remedial actions have taken place at all these sites. For reasons not entirely clear, the public perceives radiation exposure risk to be much greater than the evidence would suggest [1]. This perception seems to be particularly true for plutonium, which has often been ''demonized'' in various publications as the ''most hazardous substance known to man'' [2]. As the position statement adapted by the Health Physics Society explains, ''Plutonium's demonization is an example of how the public has been misled about radiation's environmental and health threats generally, and in cases like plutonium, how it has developed a warped ''risk perception'' that does not reflect reality'' [3]. As a result of this risk perception and ongoing debate surrounding environmental plutonium contamination, remedial action criteria are difficult to establish. By examining the data available before and after remedial actions taken at the three sites discussed in our report, we hope to present data that will illustrate that plutonium measured as aged deposition (older than several months) does not present as high a dose or risk as many had expected. The authors show that even though dose to the lung from inhalation (the primary pathway for the high-fired plutonium oxide particles present at these sites) is reduced, such a reduction is achieved at significant cost. The cost comes from damage to the environment, large expenditures per hectare rehabilitated, and the risk to occupational workers. This paper specifically examines sites that are similar in many ways. These sites were chosen

  4. Tissue distribution of inhaled micro- and nano-sized cerium oxide particles in rats: results from a 28-day exposure study.

    PubMed

    Geraets, Liesbeth; Oomen, Agnes G; Schroeter, Jeffry D; Coleman, Victoria A; Cassee, Flemming R

    2012-06-01

    In order to obtain more insight into the tissue distribution, accumulation, and elimination of cerium oxide nanoparticles after inhalation exposure, blood and tissue kinetics were investigated during and after a 28-day inhalation study in rats with micro- and nanocerium oxide particles (nominal primary particle size: < 5000, 40, and 5-10 nm). Powder aerosolization resulted in comparable mass median aerodynamic diameter (1.40, 1.17, and 1.02 μm). After single exposure, approximately 10% of the inhaled dose was measured in lung tissue, as was also estimated by a multiple path particle dosimetry model (MPPD). Though small differences in pulmonary deposition efficiencies of cerium oxide were observed, no consistent differences in pulmonary deposition between the micro- and nanoparticles were observed. Each cerium oxide sample was also distributed to tissues other than lung after a single 6-h exposure, such as liver, kidney, and spleen and also brain, testis, and epididymis. No clear particle size-dependent effect on extrapulmonary tissue distribution was observed. Repeated exposure to cerium oxide resulted in significant accumulation of the particles in the (extra)pulmonary tissues. In addition, tissue clearance was shown to be slow, and, overall, insignificant amounts of cerium oxide were eliminated from the body at 48- to 72-h post-exposure. In conclusion, no clear effect of the primary particle size or surface area on pulmonary deposition and extrapulmonary tissue distribution could be demonstrated. This is most likely explained by similar aerodynamic diameter of the cerium oxide particles in air because of the formation of aggregates and irrespective possible differences in surface characteristics. The implications of the accumulation of cerium oxide particles for systemic toxicological effects after repeated chronic exposure via ambient air are significant and require further exploration.

  5. Recommended plutonium release fractions from postulated fires. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kogan, V.; Schumacher, P.M.

    1993-12-01

    This report was written at the request of EG&G Rocky Flats, Inc. in support of joint emergency planning for the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) by EG&G and the State of Colorado. The intent of the report is to provide the State of Colorado with an independent assessment of any respirable plutonium releases that might occur in the event of a severe fire at the plant. Fire releases of plutonium are of interest because they have been used by EG&G to determine the RFP emergency planning zones. These zones are based on the maximum credible accident (MCA) described in the RFP Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) of 1980, that MCA is assumed to be a large airplane crashing into a RFP plutonium building.The objective of this report was first, to perform a worldwide literature review of relevant release experiments from 1960 to the present and to summarize those findings, and second, to provide recommendations for application of the experimental data to fire release analyses at Rocky Flats. The latter step requires translation between experimental and expected RFP accident parameters, or ``scaling.`` The parameters of particular concern are: quantities of material, environmental parameters such as the intensity of a fire, and the physico-chemical forms of the plutonium. The latter include plutonium metal, bulk plutonium oxide powder, combustible and noncombustible wastes contaminated with plutonium oxide powder, and residues from plutonium extraction processes.

  6. Substance use - inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    Substance abuse - inhalants; Drug abuse - inhalants; Drug use - inhalants; Glue - inhalants ... symptoms and may include: Strong cravings for the drug Having mood swings from feeling depressed to agitated ...

  7. Chemical species of plutonium in Hanford radioactive tank waste

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, G.S.

    1997-10-22

    Large quantities of radioactive wastes have been generated at the Hanford Site over its operating life. The wastes with the highest activities are stored underground in 177 large (mostly one million gallon volume) concrete tanks with steel liners. The wastes contain processing chemicals, cladding chemicals, fission products, and actinides that were neutralized to a basic pH before addition to the tanks to prevent corrosion of the steel liners. Because the mission of the Hanford Site was to provide plutonium for defense purposes, the amount of plutonium lost to the wastes was relatively small. The best estimate of the amount of plutonium lost to all the waste tanks is about 500 kg. Given uncertainties in the measurements, some estimates are as high as 1,000 kg (Roetman et al. 1994). The wastes generally consist of (1) a sludge layer generated by precipitation of dissolved metals from aqueous wastes solutions during neutralization with sodium hydroxide, (2) a salt cake layer formed by crystallization of salts after evaporation of the supernate solution, and (3) an aqueous supernate solution that exists as a separate layer or as liquid contained in cavities between sludge or salt cake particles. The identity of chemical species of plutonium in these wastes will allow a better understanding of the behavior of the plutonium during storage in tanks, retrieval of the wastes, and processing of the wastes. Plutonium chemistry in the wastes is important to criticality and environmental concerns, and in processing the wastes for final disposal. Plutonium has been found to exist mainly in the sludge layers of the tanks along with other precipitated metal hydrous oxides. This is expected due to its low solubility in basic aqueous solutions. Tank supernate solutions do not contain high concentrations of plutonium even though some tanks contain high concentrations of complexing agents. The solutions also contain significant concentrations of hydroxide which competes with other

  8. Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide (2011 Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On September 22, 2006, the draft Evaluation of the Carinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide (EPA/635/R-06/003) and the draft charge to external peer reviewers were released for external peer review and public comment. This draft was reviewed by EPA’s Science Advisory Board (SAB)...

  9. Evaluation of the Inhalation Carcinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide (2011 Interagency Science Discussion Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On September 22, 2006, the draft Evaluation of the Carinogenicity of Ethylene Oxide (EPA/635/R-06/003) and the draft charge to external peer reviewers were released for external peer review and public comment. This draft was reviewed by EPA’s Science Advisory Board (SAB)...

  10. Mechanisms of plutonium sorption to mineral oxide surfaces: new insights with implications for colloid-enhanced migration

    SciTech Connect

    Schwantes, J. M.; Santschi, Peter H.

    2010-11-01

    New equilibrium and kinetic models have been developed to describe rate-limited sorption and desorption of Pu onto and off of mineral oxide surfaces using a generic approach to estimate sorption constants that require minimal laboratory calibrations. Equilibrium reactions describing a total of six surface species were derived from a combination of empirical relationships previously described in the literature and generated as part of this work.

  11. Inhalation vs. aspiration of single-walled carbon nanotubes in C57BL/6 mice: inflammation, fibrosis, oxidative stress, and mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Shvedova, A. A.; Kisin, E.; Murray, A. R.; Johnson, V. J.; Gorelik, O.; Arepalli, S.; Hubbs, A. F.; Mercer, R. R.; Keohavong, P.; Sussman, N.; Jin, J.; Yin, J.; Stone, S.; Chen, B. T.; Deye, G.; Maynard, A.; Castranova, V.; Baron, P. A.; Kagan, V. E.

    2008-01-01

    Nanomaterials are frontier technological products used in different manufactured goods. Because of their unique physicochemical, electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) are finding numerous applications in electronics, aerospace devices, computers, and chemical, polymer, and pharmaceutical industries. SWCNT are relatively recently discovered members of the carbon allotropes that are similar in structure to fullerenes and graphite. Previously, we (47) have reported that pharyngeal aspiration of purified SWCNT by C57BL/6 mice caused dose-dependent granulomatous pneumonia, oxidative stress, acute inflammatory/cytokine responses, fibrosis, and decrease in pulmonary function. To avoid potential artifactual effects due to instillation/agglomeration associated with SWCNT, we conducted inhalation exposures using stable and uniform SWCNT dispersions obtained by a newly developed aerosolization technique (2). The inhalation of nonpurified SWCNT (iron content of 17.7% by weight) at 5 mg/m3, 5 h/day for 4 days was compared with pharyngeal aspiration of varying doses (5–20 μg per mouse) of the same SWCNT. The chain of pathological events in both exposure routes was realized through synergized interactions of early inflammatory response and oxidative stress culminating in the development of multifocal granulomatous pneumonia and interstitial fibrosis. SWCNT inhalation was more effective than aspiration in causing inflammatory response, oxidative stress, collagen deposition, and fibrosis as well as mutations of K-ras gene locus in the lung of C57BL/6 mice. PMID:18658273

  12. Dehydration of plutonium or neptunium trichloride hydrate

    DOEpatents

    Foropoulos, J. Jr.; Avens, L.R.; Trujillo, E.A.

    1992-03-24

    A process is described for preparing anhydrous actinide metal trichlorides of plutonium or neptunium by reacting an aqueous solution of an actinide metal trichloride selected from the group consisting of plutonium trichloride or neptunium trichloride with a reducing agent capable of converting the actinide metal from an oxidation state of +4 to +3 in a resultant solution, evaporating essentially all the solvent from the resultant solution to yield an actinide trichloride hydrate material, dehydrating the actinide trichloride hydrate material by heating the material in admixture with excess thionyl chloride, and recovering anhydrous actinide trichloride.

  13. Dehydration of plutonium or neptunium trichloride hydrate

    DOEpatents

    Foropoulos, Jr., Jerry; Avens, Larry R.; Trujillo, Eddie A.

    1992-01-01

    A process of preparing anhydrous actinide metal trichlorides of plutonium or neptunium by reacting an aqueous solution of an actinide metal trichloride selected from the group consisting of plutonium trichloride or neptunium trichloride with a reducing agent capable of converting the actinide metal from an oxidation state of +4 to +3 in a resultant solution, evaporating essentially all the solvent from the resultant solution to yield an actinide trichloride hydrate material, dehydrating the actinide trichloride hydrate material by heating the material in admixture with excess thionyl chloride, and recovering anhydrous actinide trichloride is provided.

  14. Inhaled nitric oxide therapy increases blood nitrite, nitrate, and s-nitrosohemoglobin concentrations in infants with pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Yomna I; Ninnis, Janet R; Hopper, Andrew O; Deming, Douglas D; Zhang, Amy X; Herring, Jason L; Sowers, Lawrence C; McMahon, Timothy J; Power, Gordon G; Blood, Arlin B

    2012-02-01

    To measure the circulating concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) adducts with NO bioactivity after inhaled NO (iNO) therapy in infants with pulmonary hypertension. In this single center study, 5 sequential blood samples were collected from infants with pulmonary hypertension before, during, and after therapy with iNO (n = 17). Samples were collected from a control group of hospitalized infants without pulmonary hypertension (n = 16) and from healthy adults for comparison (n = 12). After beginning iNO (20 ppm) whole blood nitrite levels increased approximately two-fold within 2 hours (P<.01). Whole blood nitrate levels increased to 4-fold higher than baseline during treatment with 20 ppm iNO (P<.01). S-nitrosohemoglobin increased measurably after beginning iNO (P<.01), whereas iron nitrosyl hemoglobin and total hemoglobin-bound NO-species compounds did not change. Treatment of pulmonary hypertensive infants with iNO results in increases in levels of nitrite, nitrate, and S-nitrosohemoglobin in circulating blood. We speculate that these compounds may be carriers of NO bioactivity throughout the body and account for peripheral effects of iNO in the brain, heart, and other organs. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Derivation of inhalation toxicity reference values for propylene oxide using mode of action analysis: example of a threshold carcinogen.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, Lisa M; Kirman, Christopher R; Albertini, Richard J; Tan, Yu-Mei; Clewell, Harvey J; Filser, Johannes G; Csanády, György; Pottenger, Lynn H; Banton, Marcy I; Graham, Cynthia J; Andrews, Larry S; Papciak, Raymond J; Gargas, Michael L

    2009-01-01

    Propylene oxide (PO) is an important industrial chemical used primarily in the synthesis of other compounds. Inhalation carcinogenesis studies in rodents, with no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAELs) of 100 and 200 ppm, have revealed that chronic, high exposure to PO can induce tumors at the site of contact. Despite these characteristics, there is no evidence that typical environmental or occupational exposures to PO constitute a health risk for humans. The nongenotoxic effects of PO (glutathione depletion and cell proliferation) that augment its DNA-reactive and non-DNA-reactive genotoxicity are expected to be similar in humans and rodents. Available evidence on mode-of-action suggests that cancer induction by PO at the site of contact in rodents is characterized by a practical threshold. Human toxicity reference values for potential carcinogenic effects of PO were derived based on nasal tumors identified in rodent studies and specified uncertainty factors. The 95% lower confidence limit on the dose producing a 10% increase in additional tumor risk (LED10) was calculated using the rat and mouse data sets. The human reference values derived from the rat and mouse LED10 values were 0.7 and 0.5 ppm PO, respectively. A similar noncancer reference value, 0.4 ppm, was derived on the basis of non-neoplastic nasal effects in rats.

  16. Comparative hazard identification of nano- and micro-sized cerium oxide particles based on 28-day inhalation studies in rats.

    PubMed

    Gosens, Ilse; Mathijssen, Liesbeth E A M; Bokkers, Bas G H; Muijser, Hans; Cassee, Flemming R

    2014-09-01

    There are many uncertainties regarding the hazard of nanosized particles compared to the bulk material of the parent chemical. Here, the authors assess the comparative hazard of two nanoscale (NM-211 and NM-212) and one microscale (NM-213) cerium oxide materials in 28-day inhalation toxicity studies in rats (according to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development technical guidelines). All three materials gave rise to a dose-dependent pulmonary inflammation and lung cell damage but without gross pathological changes immediately after exposure. Following NM-211 and NM-212 exposure, epithelial cell injury was observed in the recovery groups. There was no evidence of systemic inflammation or other haematological changes following exposure of any of the three particle types. The comparative hazard was quantified by application of the benchmark concentration approach. The relative toxicity was explored in terms of three exposure metrics. When exposure levels were expressed as mass concentration, nanosized NM-211 was the most potent material, whereas when expression levels were based on surface area concentration, micro-sized NM-213 material induced the greatest extent of pulmonary inflammation/damage. Particles were equipotent based on particle number concentrations. In conclusion, similar pulmonary toxicity profiles including inflammation are observed for all three materials with little quantitative differences. Systemic effects were virtually absent. There is little evidence for a dominant predicting exposure metric for the observed effects.

  17. Inhalation exposure during spray application and subsequent sanding of a wood sealant containing zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Michael R; West, Gavin H; Burrelli, Leonard G; Dresser, Daniel; Griffin, Kelsey N; Segrave, Alan M; Perrenoud, Jon; Lippy, Bruce E

    2017-07-01

    Nano-enabled construction products have entered into commerce. There are concerns about the safety of manufactured nanomaterials, and exposure assessments are needed for a more complete understanding of risk. This study assessed potential inhalation exposure to ZnO nanoparticles during spray application and power sanding of a commercially available wood sealant and evaluated the effectiveness of local exhaust ventilation in reducing exposure. A tradesperson performed the spraying and sanding inside an environmentally-controlled chamber. Dust control methods during sanding were compared. Filter-based sampling, electron microscopy, and real-time particle counters provided measures of exposure. Airborne nanoparticles above background levels were detected by particle counters for all exposure scenarios. Nanoparticle number concentrations and particle size distributions were similar for sanding of treated versus untreated wood. Very few unbound nanoparticles were detected in aerosol samples via electron microscopy, rather nano-sized ZnO was contained within, or on the surface of larger airborne particles. Whether the presence of nanoscale ZnO in these aerosols affects toxicity merits further investigation. Mass-based exposure measurements were below the NIOSH Recommended Exposure Limit for Zn, although there are no established exposure limits for nanoscale ZnO. Local exhaust ventilation was effective, reducing airborne nanoparticle number concentrations by up to 92% and reducing personal exposure to total dust by at least 80% in terms of mass. Given the discrepancies between the particle count data and electron microscopy observations, the chemical identity of the airborne nanoparticles detected by the particle counters remains uncertain. Prior studies attributed the main source of nanoparticle emissions during sanding to copper nanoparticles generated from electric sander motors. Potentially contrary results are presented suggesting the sander motor may not have been

  18. Sheltering effectiveness against plutonium provided by buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelmann, Rudolf J.

    Air exchange rates for residences and office buildings under sheltering conditions only, that is, with doors and windows closed and fans off, are selected from the literature and correlated with wind speed and indoor-outdoor temperature difference. These exchange rates are found to be substantially less than those used previously in calculating the protection offered by sheltering. Graphed values of the ratio of interior:outside, time-integrated concentrations (the Dose Reduction Factor, DRF) are presented as a function of time. These apply to both gases and particulates. Especially for plumes of short duration, the resultant DRFs make sheltering a highly competitive protective action against the inhalation pathway. The inhalation DRFs are the most favorable for depositing materials. Example DRFs are calculated and graphed for 2 μm aerodynamic diameter particles, as representing respirable plutonium (Pu).

  19. Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This Plutonium Vulnerability Management Plan describes the Department of Energy`s response to the vulnerabilities identified in the Plutonium Working Group Report which are a result of the cessation of nuclear weapons production. The responses contained in this document are only part of an overall, coordinated approach designed to enable the Department to accelerate conversion of all nuclear materials, including plutonium, to forms suitable for safe, interim storage. The overall actions being taken are discussed in detail in the Department`s Implementation Plan in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-1. This is included as Attachment B.

  20. Progress on plutonium stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Hurt, D.

    1996-05-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has safety oversight responsibility for most of the facilities where unstable forms of plutonium are being processed and packaged for interim storage. The Board has issued recommendations on plutonium stabilization and has has a considerable influence on DOE`s stabilization schedules and priorities. The Board has not made any recommendations on long-term plutonium disposition, although it may get more involved in the future if DOE develops plans to use defense nuclear facilities for disposition activities.

  1. PLUTONIUM SEPARATION METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Beaufait, L.J. Jr.; Stevenson, F.R.; Rollefson, G.K.

    1958-11-18

    The recovery of plutonium ions from neutron irradiated uranium can be accomplished by bufferlng an aqueous solutlon of the irradiated materials containing tetravalent plutonium to a pH of 4 to 7, adding sufficient acetate to the solution to complex the uranyl present, adding ferric nitrate to form a colloid of ferric hydroxide, plutonlum, and associated fission products, removing and dissolving the colloid in aqueous nitric acid, oxldizlng the plutonium to the hexavalent state by adding permanganate or dichromate, treating the resultant solution with ferric nitrate to form a colloid of ferric hydroxide and associated fission products, and separating the colloid from the plutonlum left in solution.

  2. PLUTONIUM ELECTROREFINING CELLS

    DOEpatents

    Mullins, L.J. Jr.; Leary, J.A.; Bjorklund, C.W.; Maraman, W.J.

    1963-07-16

    Electrorefining cells for obtaining 99.98% plutonium are described. The cells consist of an impure liquid plutonium anode, a molten PuCl/sub 3/-- alkali or alkaline earth metal chloanode, a molten PuCl/sub 3/-alkali or alkaline earth metal chloride electrolyte, and a nonreactive cathode, all being contained in nonreactive ceramic containers which separate anode from cathode by a short distance and define a gap for the collection of the purified liquid plutonium deposited on the cathode. Important features of these cells are the addition of stirrer blades on the anode lead and a large cathode surface to insure a low current density. (AEC)

  3. Plutonium radiation surrogate

    DOEpatents

    Frank, Michael I [Dublin, CA

    2010-02-02

    A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

  4. Assessment of Oxidative Stress in Lungs from Sheep After Inhalation of Wood Smoke

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    hypoxia. Plasma and expired breath samples were collected pre-smoke, and 6, 12, 18, 24, 36 and 48 h after smoke exposure. Sheep were euthanatized 48... h after smoke exposure and lung and airway sections were evaluated histologically for injury and biochemically for indices of oxidative stress. Plasma...thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were 66 and 69% higher than controls after moderate and severe smoke exposure at 48 h , whereas total

  5. Inhalation of Uranium Oxide Aerosois: CNS Deposition, Neurotoxicity, and Role in Gulf War Illness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    depleted uranium, nose-brain barrier, Gulf War Disease, neurotoxicity, toxicity 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF...increase our understanding of mechanisms underlying toxicity by looking at early signs of DNA damage and repair, as well as markers of oxidative stress...the increased sensitivity to kidney toxicity . One kidney and one lung from each sacrificed animal will undergo histopathological examination

  6. The biological effects of subacute inhalation of diesel exhaust following addition of cerium oxide nanoparticles in atherosclerosis-prone mice

    SciTech Connect

    Cassee, Flemming R.; Campbell, Arezoo; Boere, A. John F.; McLean, Steven G.; Krystek, Petra; Gosens, Ilse; Miller, Mark R.

    2012-05-15

    Background: Cerium oxide (CeO{sub 2}) nanoparticles improve the burning efficiency of fuel, however, little is known about health impacts of altered emissions from the vehicles. Methods: Atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE{sup -/-}) mice were exposed by inhalation to diluted exhaust (1.7 mg/m{sup 3}, 20, 60 or 180 min, 5 day/week, for 4 weeks), from an engine using standard diesel fuel (DE) or the same diesel fuel containing 9 ppm cerium oxide nanoparticles (DCeE). Changes in hematological indices, clinical chemistry, atherosclerotic burden, tissue levels of inflammatory cytokines and pathology of the major organs were assessed. Results: Addition of CeO{sub 2} to fuel resulted in a reduction of the number (30%) and surface area (10%) of the particles in the exhaust, whereas the gaseous co-pollutants were increased (6-8%). There was, however, a trend towards an increased size and complexity of the atherosclerotic plaques following DE exposure, which was not evident in the DCeE group. There were no clear signs of altered hematological or pathological changes induced by either treatment. However, levels of proinflammatory cytokines were modulated in a brain region and liver following DCeE exposure. Conclusions: These results imply that addition of CeO{sub 2} nanoparticles to fuel decreases the number of particles in exhaust and may reduce atherosclerotic burden associated with exposure to standard diesel fuel. From the extensive assessment of biological parameters performed, the only concerning effect of cerium addition was a slightly raised level of cytokines in a region of the central nervous system. Overall, the use of cerium as a fuel additive may be a potentially useful way to limit the health effects of vehicle exhaust. However, further testing is required to ensure that such an approach is not associated with a chronic inflammatory response which may eventually cause long-term health effects.

  7. The biological effects of subacute inhalation of diesel exhaust following addition of cerium oxide nanoparticles in atherosclerosis-prone mice☆

    PubMed Central

    Cassee, Flemming R.; Campbell, Arezoo; Boere, A. John F.; McLean, Steven G.; Duffin, Rodger; Krystek, Petra; Gosens, Ilse; Miller, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles improve the burning efficiency of fuel, however, little is known about health impacts of altered emissions from the vehicles. Methods Atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE−/−) mice were exposed by inhalation to diluted exhaust (1.7 mg/m3, 20, 60 or 180 min, 5 day/week, for 4 weeks), from an engine using standard diesel fuel (DE) or the same diesel fuel containing 9 ppm cerium oxide nanoparticles (DCeE). Changes in hematological indices, clinical chemistry, atherosclerotic burden, tissue levels of inflammatory cytokines and pathology of the major organs were assessed. Results Addition of CeO2 to fuel resulted in a reduction of the number (30%) and surface area (10%) of the particles in the exhaust, whereas the gaseous co-pollutants were increased (6–8%). There was, however, a trend towards an increased size and complexity of the atherosclerotic plaques following DE exposure, which was not evident in the DCeE group. There were no clear signs of altered hematological or pathological changes induced by either treatment. However, levels of proinflammatory cytokines were modulated in a brain region and liver following DCeE exposure. Conclusions These results imply that addition of CeO2 nanoparticles to fuel decreases the number of particles in exhaust and may reduce atherosclerotic burden associated with exposure to standard diesel fuel. From the extensive assessment of biological parameters performed, the only concerning effect of cerium addition was a slightly raised level of cytokines in a region of the central nervous system. Overall, the use of cerium as a fuel additive may be a potentially useful way to limit the health effects of vehicle exhaust. However, further testing is required to ensure that such an approach is not associated with a chronic inflammatory response which may eventually cause long-term health effects. PMID:22507957

  8. PROCESS USING BISMUTH PHOSPHATE AS A CARRIER PRECIPITATE FOR FISSION PRODUCTS AND PLUTONIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Finzel, T.G.

    1959-03-10

    A process is described for separating plutonium from fission products carried therewith when plutonium in the reduced oxidation state is removed from a nitric acid solution of irradiated uranium by means of bismuth phosphate as a carrier precipitate. The bismuth phosphate carrier precipitate is dissolved by treatment with nitric acid and the plutonium therein is oxidized to the hexavalent oxidation state by means of potassium dichromate. Separation of the plutonium from the fission products is accomplished by again precipitating bismuth phosphate and removing the precipitate which now carries the fission products and a small percentage of the plutonium present. The amount of plutonium carried in this last step may be minimized by addition of sodium fluoride, so as to make the solution 0.03N in NaF, prior to the oxidation and prccipitation step.

  9. Nitrous oxide inhalation is a safe and effective way to facilitate procedures in paediatric outpatient departments

    PubMed Central

    Ekbom, K; Jakobsson, J; Marcus, C

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of nitrous oxide treatment given to children presenting procedural problems in a paediatric outpatient department. Methods: The study comprised 70 children 6–18 years old. Two different groups were studied. (1) Children presenting with problems in establishing venous cannulation (VC) (n = 50). The patients were randomised to conventional treatment (CO); cutaneous application of EMLA or nitrous oxide treatment (NO); N2O and EMLA. (2) Anxious children/children undergoing painful procedures who repeatedly come to the clinic (n = 20). These children underwent two procedures with CO/NO, the order of priority being randomised. Altogether the study included 90 procedures. Main outcome measures were procedure time, number of attempts required to establish VC, pain, and evaluation. Results: All procedures were performed with NO while four VC (8%) were not possible to perform with CO. The number of attempts required to establish VC was lower when using NO (median 2, range 2–9), compared with CO (median 4, range 2–9). The estimated pain was lower with NO. The total mean time required was similar for NO and CO when the time required for the NO procedure was included. One complication, tinnitus, was observed; it disappeared within 3 minutes. Conclusion: The pretreatment with nitrous oxide is a time effective and safe method for use at paediatric outpatient departments to reduce pain, facilitate venous cannulation, and thereby reduce the number of costly cancellations of planned procedures. PMID:16177164

  10. ESTIMATING IMPURITIES IN SURPLUS PLUTONIUM FOR DISPOSITION

    SciTech Connect

    Allender, J.; Moore, E.

    2013-07-17

    The United States holds at least 61.5 metric tons (MT) of plutonium that is permanently excess to use in nuclear weapons programs, including 47.2 MT of weapons-grade plutonium. Surplus inventories will be stored safely by the Department of Energy (DOE) and then transferred to facilities that will prepare the plutonium for permanent disposition. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) operates a Feed Characterization program for the Office of Fissile Materials Disposition of the National Nuclear Security Administration and the DOE Office of Environmental Management. Many of the items that require disposition are only partially characterized, and SRNL uses a variety of techniques to predict the isotopic and chemical properties that are important for processing through the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility and alternative disposition paths. Recent advances in laboratory tools, including Prompt Gamma Analysis and Peroxide Fusion treatment, provide data on the existing inventories that will enable disposition without additional, costly sampling and destructive analysis.

  11. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM URANIUM AND FISSION PRODUCT VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Maddock, A.G.; Booth, A.H.

    1960-09-13

    Separation of plutonium present in small amounts from neutron irradiated uranium by making use of the phenomenon of chemisorption is described. Plutonium in the tetravalent state is chemically absorbed on a fluoride in solid form. The steps for the separation comprise dissolving the irradiated uranium in nitric acid, oxidizing the plutonium in the resulting solution to the hexavalent state, adding to the solution a soluble calcium salt which by the common ion effect inhibits dissolution of the fluoride by the solution, passing the solution through a bed or column of subdivided calcium fluoride which has been sintered to about 8OO deg C to remove the chemisorbable fission products, reducing the plutonium in the solution thus obtained to the tetravalent state, and again passing the solution through a similar bed or column of calcium fluoride to selectively absorb the plutonium, which may then be recovered by treating the calcium fluoride with a solution of ammonium oxalate.

  12. Pyrochemical recovery of plutonium from calcium fluoride reduction slag

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, D.C.

    A pyrochemical method of recovering finely dispersed plutonium metal from calcium fluoride reduction slag is claimed. The plutonium-bearing slag is crushed and melted in the presence of at least an equimolar amount of calcium chloride and a few percent metallic calcium. The calcium chloride reduces the melting point and thereby decreases the viscosity of the molten mixture. The calcium reduces any oxidized plutonium in the mixture and also causes the dispersed plutonium metal to coalesce and settle out as a separate metallic phase at the bottom of the reaction vessel. Upon cooling the mixture to room temperature, the solid plutonium can be cleanly separated from the overlying solid slag, with an average recovery yield on the order of 96 percent.

  13. Plutonium immobilization ceramic feed batching component test report

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, S.A.

    1999-10-04

    The Plutonium Immobilization Facility will encapsulate plutonium in ceramic pucks and seal the pucks inside welded cans. Remote equipment will place these cans in magazines and the magazines in a Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) canister. The DWPF will fill the canister with high level waste glass for permanent storage. Ceramic feed batching (CFB) is one of the first process steps involved with first stage plutonium immobilization. The CFB step will blend plutonium oxide powder before it is combined with other materials to make pucks. This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization CFB process preliminary concept (including a process block diagram), batch splitting component test results, CFB development areas, and FY 1999 and 2000 CFB program milestones.

  14. Process modeling of plutonium conversion and MOX fabrication for plutonium disposition

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, K. L.

    1998-10-01

    Two processes are currently under consideration for the disposition of 35 MT of surplus plutonium through its conversion into fuel for power production. These processes are the ARIES process, by which plutonium metal is converted into a powdered oxide form, and MOX fuel fabrication, where the oxide powder is combined with uranium oxide powder to form ceramic fuel. This study was undertaken to determine the optimal size for both facilities, whereby the 35 MT of plutonium metal will be converted into fuel and burned for power. The bounding conditions used were a plutonium concentration of 3-7%, a burnup of 20,000-40,000 MWd/MTHM, a core fraction of 0.1 to 0.4, and the number of reactors ranging from 2-6. Using these boundary conditions, the optimal cost was found with a plutonium concentration of 7%. This resulted in an optimal throughput ranging from 2,000 to 5,000 kg Pu/year. The data showed minimal costs, resulting from throughputs in this range, at 3,840, 2,779, and 3,497 kg Pu/year, which results in a facility lifetime of 9.1, 12.6, and 10.0 years, respectively.

  15. Sonochemical Digestion of High-Fired Plutonium Dioxide Samples

    SciTech Connect

    Sinkov, Sergei I.; Lumetta, Gregg J.

    2006-10-12

    This work was performed as part of a broader effort to automate analytical methods for determining plutonium and other radioisotopes in environmental samples. The work described here represented a screening study to evaluate the effect of applying ultrasonic irradiation to dissolve high-fired plutonium oxide. The major findings of this work can be summarized as follows: (1) High-fired plutonium oxide does not undergo measurable dissolution when sonicated in nitric acid solutions, even at a high concentration range of nitric acid where the calculated thermodynamic solubility of plutonium oxide exceeds the ?g/mL level. (2) Applying organic complexants (nitrilotriacetic acid) and reductants (hydroxyurea) in 1.5 M nitric acid does not significantly increase the dissolution compared with digestion in nitric acid alone. Nearly all (99.5%) of the plutonium oxide remains undissolved under these conditions. (3) The action of a strong inorganic reductant, titanium trichloride in 25 wt% HCl, results in 40% dissolution of the plutonium oxide when the titanium trichloride concentration is ?1 wt% under sonication. (4) Oxidative treatment of plutonium oxide by freshly dissolved AgO ({approx}20 mg/mL) in 1.5 M nitric acid with sonication resulted in 95% plutonium oxide dissolution. However, the same treatment of plutonium oxide mechanically mixed with 50 mg of Columbia River sediment (CRS) results in a significant decrease of dissolution yield of plutonium oxide (<20% dissolved at the same AgO loading) because of parasitic consumption of AG(II) by oxidizable components of the CRS. (5) Digesting plutonium oxide in HF resulted in dissolution yields slightly higher than 80% for HF concentration from 6 M to 14 M. Sonication did not result in any improvement in dissolution efficiency in HF. (6) Mixed nitric acid/HF solutions result in a higher dissolution yield of plutonium oxide compared with digestion in HF alone (at the same HF concentrations). Practically quantitative dissolution

  16. Plutonium Chemistry in the UREX+ Separation Processes

    SciTech Connect

    ALena Paulenova; George F. Vandegrift, III; Kenneth R. Czerwinski

    2009-10-01

    The project "Plutonium Chemistry in the UREX+ Separation Processes” is led by Dr. Alena Paulenova of Oregon State University under collaboration with Dr. George Vandegrift of ANL and Dr. Ken Czerwinski of the University of Nevada at Las Vegas. The objective of the project is to examine the chemical speciation of plutonium in UREX+ (uranium/tributylphosphate) extraction processes for advanced fuel technology. Researchers will analyze the change in speciation using existing thermodynamics and kinetic computer codes to examine the speciation of plutonium in aqueous and organic phases. They will examine the different oxidation states of plutonium to find the relative distribution between the aqueous and organic phases under various conditions such as different concentrations of nitric acid, total nitrates, or actinide ions. They will also utilize techniques such as X-ray absorbance spectroscopy and small-angle neutron scattering for determining plutonium and uranium speciation in all separation stages. The project started in April 2005 and is scheduled for completion in March 2008.

  17. Oxidation states, geometries, and electronic structures of plutonium tetroxide PuO4 isomers: is octavalent Pu viable?

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Xu, Wen-Hua; Su, Jing; Schwarz, W H E; Li, Jun

    2013-12-16

    In neutral chemical compounds, the highest known oxidation state of all elements in the Periodic Table is +VIII. While PuO4 is viewed as an exotic Pu(+VIII) complex, we have shown here that no stable electronic homologue of octavalent RuO4 and OsO4 exists for PuO4, even though Pu has the same number of eight valence electrons as Ru and Os. Using quantum chemical approaches at the levels of quasi-relativistic DFT, MP2, CCSD(T), and CASPT2, we find the ground state of PuO4 as a quintet (5)C2v-(PuO2)(+)(O2)(-) complex with the leading valence configuration of an (f(3))plutonyl(V) unit, loosely coupled to a superoxido (π*(3))O2(-) ligand. This stable isomer is likely detectable as a transient species, while the previously suggested planar (1)D4h-Pu(VIII)O4 isomer is only metastable. Through electronic structure analyses, the bonding and the oxidation states are explained and rationalized. We have predicted the characteristics of the electronic and vibrational spectra to assist future experimental identification of (PuO2)(+)(O2)(-) by IR, UV-vis, and ionization spectroscopy.

  18. TECHNICAL BASIS FOR DOE STANDARD 3013 EQUIVALENCY SUPPORTING REDUCED TEMPERATURE STABILIZATION OF OXALATE-DERIVED PLUTONIUM OXIDE PRODUCED BY THE HB-LINE FACILITY AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, J.; Livingston, R.; Berg, J.; Veirs, D.

    2012-07-02

    The HB-Line (HBL) facility at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is designed to produce high-purity plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) which is suitable for future use in production of Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuel. The MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) requires PuO{sub 2} feed to be packaged per the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Standard 3013 (DOE-STD-3013) to comply with the facility's safety basis. The stabilization conditions imposed by DOE-STD-3013 for PuO{sub 2} (i.e., 950 C for 2 hours) preclude use of the HBL PuO{sub 2} in direct fuel fabrication and reduce the value of the HBL product as MFFF feedstock. Consequently, HBL initiated a technical evaluation to define acceptable operating conditions for production of high-purity PuO{sub 2} that fulfills the DOE-STD-3013 criteria for safe storage. The purpose of this document is to demonstrate that within the defined operating conditions, the HBL process will be equivalent for meeting the requirements of the DOE-STD-3013 stabilization process for plutonium-bearing materials from the DOE complex. The proposed 3013 equivalency reduces the prescribed stabilization temperature for high-purity PuO{sub 2} from oxalate precipitation processes from 950 C to 640 C and places a limit of 60% on the relative humidity (RH) at the lowest material temperature. The equivalency is limited to material produced using the HBL established flow sheet, for example, nitric acid anion exchange and Pu(IV) direct strike oxalate precipitation with stabilization at a minimum temperature of 640 C for four hours (h). The product purity must meet the MFFF acceptance criteria of 23,600 {micro}g/g Pu (i.e., 2.1 wt %) total impurities and chloride content less than 250 {micro}g/g of Pu. All other stabilization and packaging criteria identified by DOE-STD-3013-2012 or earlier revisions of the standard apply. Based on the evaluation of test data discussed in this document, the expert judgment of the authors supports packaging the HBL product under a 3013

  19. Plutonium: Requiem or reprieve

    SciTech Connect

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1996-01-01

    Many scientific discoveries have had profound effects on humanity and its future. However, the discovery of fissionable characteristics of a man-made element, plutonium, discovered in 1941 by Glenn Seaborg and associates, has probably had the greatest impact on world affairs. Although about 20 new elements have been synthesized since 1940, element 94 unarguably had the most dramatic impact when it was introduced to the world as the core of the nuclear bomb dropped on Nagasaki. Ever since, large quantities of this element have been produced, and it has had a major role in maintaining peace during the past 50 years. in addition, the rapid spread of nuclear power technology worldwide contributed to major growth in the production of plutonium as a by-product. This article discusses the following issues related to plutonium: plutonium from Nuclear Power Generation; environmental safety and health issues; health effects; safeguards issues; extended storage; disposal options.

  20. Increase in oxidative stress levels following welding fume inhalation: a controlled human exposure study.

    PubMed

    Graczyk, Halshka; Lewinski, Nastassja; Zhao, Jiayuan; Sauvain, Jean-Jacques; Suarez, Guillaume; Wild, Pascal; Danuser, Brigitta; Riediker, Michael

    2016-06-10

    Tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding represents one of the most widely used metal joining processes in industry. It has been shown to generate a large majority of particles at the nanoscale and to have low mass emission rates when compared to other types of welding. Despite evidence that TIG fume particles may produce reactive oxygen species (ROS), limited data is available for the time course changes of particle-associated oxidative stress in exposed TIG welders. Twenty non-smoking male welding apprentices were exposed to TIG welding fumes for 60 min under controlled, well-ventilated settings. Exhaled breathe condensate (EBC), blood and urine were collected before exposure, immediately after exposure, 1 h and 3 h post exposure. Volunteers participated in a control day to account for oxidative stress fluctuations due to circadian rhythm. Biological liquids were assessed for total reducing capacity, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA), and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentrations at each time point. A linear mixed model was used to assess within day and between day differences. Significant increases in the measured biomarkers were found at 3 h post exposure. At 3 h post exposure, we found a 24 % increase in plasma-H2O2 concentrations ([95%CI: 4 % to 46 %], p = 0.01); a 91 % increase in urinary-H2O2 ([2 % to 258 %], p = 0.04); a 14 % increase in plasma-8-OHdG ([0 % to 31 %], p = 0.049); and a 45 % increase in urinary-8-OHdG ([3 % to 105 %], p = 0.03). Doubling particle number concentration (PNC) exposure was associated with a 22 % increase of plasma-8-OHdG at 3 h post exposure (p = 0.01). A 60-min exposure to TIG welding fume in a controlled, well-ventilated setting induced acute oxidative stress at 3 h post exposure in healthy, non-smoking apprentice welders not chronically exposed to welding fumes. As mass concentration of TIG welding fume particles is very low when compared to other types of welding, it is

  1. New nuclear safe plutonium ceramic compositions with neutron poisons for plutonium storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadykto, B. A.; Timofeeva, L. F.

    2000-07-01

    A complex of works is conducted to study the possibility of reprocessing surplus weapon-grade plutonium to a critical-mass-free composition with neutron poison. Nuclear safe ceramic compositions of PuO2 with four most efficient neutron poisons, Hf, Gd, Li, and B, are fabricated in the laboratory. Various methods for fabrication of the compositions with PuO2 depending on neutron poison element are used and studied: a — by sintering initial component powders; b — by impregnation of a porous skeleton made of neutron poison oxide with plutonium sol-gel; c — by sintering microspheres made of plutonium oxide with neutron poison (B4C), with the microspheres having a coating completely absorbing alpha particles.

  2. Nitrous oxide inhalation as a fad. Dangers in uncontrolled sniffing for psychedelic effect.

    PubMed

    Dillon, J B

    1967-06-01

    "LAUGHING GAS is the newest thing for kids seeking kicks," the Stanford Daily reports. "They sniff it."So begins a news story in the Los Angeles Times of 26 January 1967. The story continues:"It's the latest way to travel, or so say a growing group of devotees on the campus," the university student paper said. "It can produce much the same effects as psychedelic drugs, they claim, and it's cheaper to obtain."One student said he buys the gas, nitrous oxide, from a medical supply house. ;They think I am anesthetizing rats,' he explained."Campus medical authorities said the gas, sniffed ;in sufficient amounts... could produce all the states of anesthesia, including the final stage-death.'"

  3. Occupational exposure to nitrous oxide during procedural pain control in children: a comparison of different inhalation techniques and scavenging systems.

    PubMed

    Messeri, Andrea; Amore, Elena; Dugheri, Stefano; Bonari, Alessandro; Pompilio, Ilenia; Arcangeli, Giulio; Rizzo, Giuliana

    2016-09-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2 O 50% in oxygen) is commonly used for painful procedures in children. Potential negative health effects associated with chronic workplace exposure limit its use. Safe occupational N2 O exposure concentrations are below 25 ppm environmental concentration as a time-weighted average (TWA) and below 200 ppm as a short-time exposure level (STEL) of 15 min. The aim was to assess occupational exposure of staff during nitrous oxide administration to children using different inhalation delivery devices and scavenging systems. Staff nitrous oxide exposure during use of a double face mask (DFM) with or without a demand valve (DV) was compared with a conventional single face mask (FM). We also compared exposure using the hospital central scavenging system with a portable evacuation system. N2 O concentrations, representing exposure values, were monitored within proximity to staff. Urine N2 O concentration was measured in staff administering the N2 O at the end of the procedural session. The mean and median values of TWA and STEL within the working area were lower than recommended values in the DFM (10.8, 11.6 ppm for TWA; 13.9, 11.0 ppm for STEL) and DFM-DV groups (2.3, 2.8 ppm for TWA; 4.4, 3.5 ppm for STEL) using the portable evacuation system. The N2 O urine exposure in DFM-DV group was lower than DFM group: a mean difference of 9.56 ppm (95% CI 2.65-16.46). Staff N2 O urinary concentrations were within safe biological limits in both the DFM and DFM-DV groups. High exposure concentrations to N2 O were recorded in all FM and FM-DV environmental and biological samples. The DFM system, with or without a DV, connected to a portable evacuation system during N2 O administration to children for painful procedures kept N2 O levels within the local environment below recommended limits. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Impact of Fission Products Impurity on the Plutonium Content of Metal- and Oxide- Fuels in Sodium Cooled Fast Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Hikaru Hiruta; Gilles Youinou

    2013-09-01

    This short report presents the neutronic analysis to evaluate the impact of fission product impurity on the Pu content of Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) metal- and oxide- fuel fabrication. The similar work has been previously done for PWR MOX fuel [1]. The analysis will be performed based on the assumption that the separation of the fission products (FP) during the reprocessing of UOX spent nuclear fuel assemblies is not perfect and that, consequently, a certain amount of FP goes into the Pu stream used to fabricate SFR fuels. Only non-gaseous FPs have been considered (see the list of 176 isotopes considered in the calculations in Appendix 1 of Reference 1). Throughout of this report, we define the mixture of Pu and FPs as PuFP. The main objective of this analysis is to quantify the increase of the Pu content of SFR fuels necessary to maintain the same average burnup at discharge independently of the amount of FP in the Pu stream, i.e. independently of the PuFP composition. The FP losses are considered element-independent, i.e., for example, 1% of FP losses mean that 1% of all non-gaseous FP leak into the Pu stream.

  5. [Comparative study of the effect on oxidative damage in rats inhaled by nano-sized and micro-sized silicon dioxide].

    PubMed

    Jin, Cuihong; Jin, Yihe; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Cuixia

    2008-01-01

    To compare the changes of oxidative damage in rats inhaled by nano-sized and micro-sized silicon dioxide. 36 male rats were randomly divided into two control groups and four experimental groups which was inhaled by nano-sized and micro-sized silicon dioxide respectively at the concentration of 300 mg/m3 for 2 hours and the activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-Px and the contents of H2O2, GSH and MDA of the liver, kidney, brain were determinated 24h and 48h after inhalation. The contents of H2O2 in all organs in nano-sized groups increased significantly while increased in micro-size groups only in liver and kidney at 24h and in brain at 48h. On the contrary, the activities of CAT in nano-sized group were lower than those in micro-sized group. Superoxide anion contents increased only in the brain of nano-sized group. The activities of SOD decreased significantly in nano-sized groups in kidney at 24h and brain but not in micro-sized groups. The content of GSH decreased only in liver at 24h. The activities of GSH-PX decreased significantly in nano-sized compared with control group and were lower significantly in brain than those in micro-sized group. The contents of MDA increased in all nano-sized groups but only in liver and brain in micro-sized group. The total anti-oxygen activities decreased in all nano-sized groups, but only in kidney at 24h and brain in micro-sized group, especially more significantly in brain at 48h in nano-sized than micro-sized group. While the activity in kidney in nano-sized group increased at 48h comparing to at 24h. Nano-sized silicon dioxide could induce oxidative damage more easily than micro-sized silicon dioxide. Through comparing different interval, it was found that the degree of oxidative damage at 48h after inhalation inferior to that at 24h after inhalation, which could be associated with the repair of the body against the oxidative damage.

  6. Comparison of acute hemodynamic effects of aerosolized iloprost and inhaled nitric oxide in adult congenital heart disease with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Caojin, Zhang; Yigao, Huang; Tao, Huang; Wenhui, Huang; Chunli, Xia; Xinsheng, Huang

    2012-01-01

    To compare the acute hemodynamic effects of aerosolized iloprost and inhaled nitric oxide (NO) in adult congenital heart disease (CHD) patients with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). One hundred and eighty five adult CHDs with severe PAH were nonrandomized into two groups (iloprost, n=127; NO, n=58). Various hemodynamic parameters were measured before and after iloprost or NO inhalation. Iloprost and NO inhalation resulted in significant reductions in pulmonary arterial pressure (from 110.6±21.8 mmHg to 105.5±22.3 mmHg, p<0.05; from 113.1±18.7 mmHg to 107.2±19.9 mmHg, p<0.05, respectively) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) (from 13.4±8.3 Wood units to 9.6±6.4 Wood units, p<0.01; from 13.7±7.1 Wood units to 9.3±4.9 Wood units, p<0.01, respectively) and increases in pulmonary blood flow (from 6.7±3.3 L/min to 9.4±5.8 L/min, p<0.05; from 6.6±3.1 L/min to 9.6±5.9 L/min, p<0.01, respectively) and the Qp/Qs ratio (from 1.5±0.8 to 2.1±1.4, p<0.01; from 1.5±0.8 to 2.0±1.3, p<0.01, respectively). When the effects of inhaled iloprost and NO were compared, similar reductions in pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance were observed. Aerosolized iloprost and inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) were generally well tolerated and no patient experienced any side effects during inhalation. Aerosolized iloprost can be effectively and safely used and might be an alternative to NO for testing pulmonary vascular reactivity and treating severe PAH in adult CHD patients.

  7. Adverse Effects of Hemorrhagic Shock Resuscitation with Stored Blood are Ameliorated by Inhaled Nitric Oxide in Lambs

    PubMed Central

    Baron, David M.; Beloiartsev, Arkadi; Nakagawa, Akito; Martyn, Trejeeve; Stowell, Christopher P.; Malhotra, Rajeev; Mayeur, Claire; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Zapol, Warren M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Transfusion of stored red blood cells (RBCs) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in trauma patients. Plasma hemoglobin scavenges nitric oxide (NO), which can cause vasoconstriction, induce inflammation and activate platelets. We hypothesized that transfusion of RBCs stored for prolonged periods would induce adverse effects (pulmonary vasoconstriction, tissue injury, inflammation, and platelet activation) in lambs subjected to severe hemorrhagic shock, and that concurrent inhalation of NO would prevent these adverse effects. Design Animal study. Setting Research laboratory at the Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. Subjects Seventeen awake Polypay-breed lambs. Interventions Lambs were subjected to 2 h of hemorrhagic shock by acutely withdrawing 50% of their blood volume. Lambs were resuscitated with autologous RBCs stored for 2 h or less (fresh) or 39±2 (mean±SD) days (stored). Stored RBCs were administered with or without breathing NO (80 ppm) during resuscitation and for 21 h thereafter. Measurements and Main Results We measured hemodynamic and oxygenation parameters, markers of tissue injury and inflammation, plasma hemoglobin concentrations, and platelet activation. Peak pulmonary arterial pressure was higher after resuscitation with stored than with fresh RBCs (24±4 vs. 14±2 mmHg, p<0.001) and correlated with peak plasma hemoglobin concentrations (R2=0.56, p=0.003). At 21 h after resuscitation, pulmonary myeloperoxidase activity was higher in lambs resuscitated with stored than with fresh RBCs (11±2 vs. 4±1 U/g, p=0.007). Furthermore, transfusion of stored RBCs increased plasma markers of tissue injury and sensitized platelets to adenosine diphosphate activation. Breathing NO prevented the pulmonary hypertension, and attenuated the pulmonary myeloperoxidase activity, as well as tissue injury and sensitization of platelets to adenosine diphosphate. Conclusions Our data suggest that resuscitation of lambs from hemorrhagic

  8. Association between inflammatory mediators and response to inhaled nitric oxide in a model of endotoxin-induced lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Trachsel, Sebastien; Deby-Dupont, Ginette; Maurenbrecher, Edwige; Nys, Monique; Lamy, Maurice; Hedenstierna, Göran

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) allows selective pulmonary vasodilation in acute respiratory distress syndrome and improves PaO2 by redistribution of pulmonary blood flow towards better ventilated parenchyma. One-third of patients are nonresponders to INO, however, and it is difficult to predict who will respond. The aim of the present study was to identify, within a panel of inflammatory mediators released during endotoxin-induced lung injury, specific mediators that are associated with a PaO2 response to INO. Methods After animal ethics committee approval, pigs were anesthetized and exposed to 2 hours of endotoxin infusion. Levels of cytokines, prostanoid, leucotriene and endothelin-1 (ET-1) were sampled prior to endotoxin exposure and hourly thereafter. All animals were exposed to 40 ppm INO: 28 animals were exposed at either 4 hours or 6 hours and a subgroup of nine animals was exposed both at 4 hours and 6 hours after onset of endotoxin infusion. Results Based on the response to INO, the animals were retrospectively placed into a responder group (increase in PaO2 ≥ 20%) or a nonresponder group. All mediators increased with endotoxin infusion although no significant differences were seen between responders and nonresponders. There was a mean difference in ET-1, however, with lower levels in the nonresponder group than in the responder group, 0.1 pg/ml versus 3.0 pg/ml. Moreover, five animals in the group exposed twice to INO switched from responder to nonresponder and had decreased ET-1 levels (3.0 (2.5 to 7.5) pg/ml versus 0.1 (0.1 to 2.1) pg/ml, P < 0.05). The pulmonary artery pressure and ET-1 level were higher in future responders to INO. Conclusions ET-1 may therefore be involved in mediating the response to INO. PMID:18954441

  9. Inhaled nitric oxide alleviates hyperoxia suppressed phosphatidylcholine synthesis in endotoxin-induced injury in mature rat lungs

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Xiaohui; Guo, Chunbao; Huang, Shibing; Sun, Bo

    2006-01-01

    Background We investigated efficacy of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) in modulation of metabolism of phosphatidylcholine (PC) of pulmonary surfactant and in anti-inflammatory mechanism of mature lungs with inflammatory injury. Methods Healthy adult rats were divided into a group of lung inflammation induced by i.v. lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or a normal control (C) for 24 h, and then exposed to: room air (Air), 95% oxygen (O), NO (20 parts per million, NO), both O and NO (ONO) as subgroups, whereas [3H]-choline was injected i.v. for incorporation into PC of the lungs which were processed subsequently at 10 min, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h, respectively, for measurement of PC synthesis and proinflammatory cytokine production. Results LPS-NO subgroup had the lowest level of labeled PC in total phospholipids and disaturated PC in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue (decreased by 46–59%), along with the lowest activity of cytidine triphosphate: phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (-14–18%) in the lungs, compared to all other subgroups at 4 h (p < 0.01), but not at 8 and 12 h. After 24-h, all LPS-subgroups had lower labeled PC than the corresponding C-subgroups (p < 0.05). LPS-ONO had higher labeled PC in total phospholipids and disaturated PC, activity of cytidylyltransferase, and lower activity of nuclear transcription factor-κB and expression of proinflammatory cytokine mRNA, than that in the LPS-O subgroup (p < 0.05). Conclusion In LPS-induced lung inflammation in association with hyperoxia, depressed PC synthesis and enhanced proinflammatory cytokine production may be alleviated by iNO. NO alone only transiently suppressed the PC synthesis as a result of lower activity of cytidylyltransferase. PMID:16403237

  10. Comparison of inhaled nitric oxide with aerosolized iloprost for treatment of pulmonary hypertension in children after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Loukanov, Tsvetomir; Bucsenez, Dietrich; Springer, Wolfgang; Sebening, Christian; Rauch, Helmut; Roesch, Eva; Karck, Matthias; Gorenflo, Matthias

    2011-07-01

    Pilot study to compare the effect of inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) and aerosolized iloprost in preventing perioperative pulmonary hypertensive crises (PHTCs). Guidelines recommend the use of iNO to treat PHTCs, but treatment with iNO is not an ideal vasodilator. Aerosolized iloprost may be a possible alternative to iNO in this setting. Investigator-initiated, open-label, randomized clinical trial in 15 infants (age range 77-257 days) with left-to-right shunt (11 out of 15 with additional trisomy 21), and pulmonary hypertension (i.e. mean pulmonary artery pressure [PAP] >25 mmHg) after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients were randomized to treatment with iNO at 10 ppm or aerosolized iloprost at 0.5 µg/kg (every 2 h). The observation period was 72 h after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of PHTCs; the secondary endpoints were mean PAP, duration of mechanical ventilation, safety of administration, and in-hospital mortality. Seven patients received iNO and eight patients received iloprost. During the observation period, 13 of the 15 patients had at least one major or minor PHTC. There was no difference between the groups with regard to the frequency of PHTCs, mean PAP and duration of mechanical ventilation (p > 0.05). In this pilot study, aerosolized iloprost had a favorable safety profile. Larger trials are needed to compare its efficacy to iNO for the treatment of perioperative pulmonary hypertension. However, neither treatment alone abolished the occurrence of PHTCs.

  11. Inhalant abuse

    PubMed Central

    Baydala, L

    2010-01-01

    Inhalant abuse – also known as volatile substance abuse, solvent abuse, sniffing, huffing and bagging – is the deliberate inhalation of a volatile substance to achieve an altered mental state. Inhalant abuse is a worldwide problem that is especially common in individuals from minority and marginalized populations, and is strongly correlated with the social determinants of health. It often affects younger children, compared with other forms of substance abuse, and crosses social and ethnic boundaries. Inhalants are pharmacologically diverse products that are selected for their low price, legal and widespread availability, and ability to rapidly induce euphoria. Chronic abuse is associated with serious and often irreversible effects. Widespread screening and early referrals to treatment programs have resulted in significant improvements in the mental, physical and social conditions of those affected. The present statement reviews critical aspects of inhalant abuse, highlighting new information and data that pertain to Aboriginal children and youth, and provides recommendations for treatment and prevention. PMID:21886449

  12. Response to comments received from the State of Colorado and the public on the Environmental Assessment for resumption of thermal stabilization of plutonium oxide in Building 707

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) prepared this document to respond to comments from the State of Colorado and the public on the draft Environmental Assessment (EA) for the Resumption of Thermal Stabilization of Plutonium Oxide in Building 707 at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) in Golden, Colorado. The draft EA was provided to the State of Colorado and the public on September 8, 1993, for a comment period of 60 days. The Department`s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Procedures (10 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 1021.301) requires that prior to approval of the EA, DOE is to allow the host State and Indian Tribe a period of from 14 to 30 days to review and comment on the EA. The Department established a comment period of 60 days for this EA in response to requests by the public during the first public meeting on July 7, 1993, before preparation of the EA. Other issues raised at the July 7 meeting included the range of alternatives to be considered, the time period for preparation of the EA, and the amount of material to be thermally stabilized. These and other comments made by the public at that meeting were carefully considered in preparation of the EA. In addition to providing the preapproval draft EA to the State of Colorado, DOE distributed the EA to all persons and groups on the RFP public information mailing list and placed the EA and reference documents in the DOE Public Reading Rooms in the RFP area. A public meeting was held on October 6, 1993, to hear public comments on the draft EA. All comments on the draft EA, those received both at the October 6 public meeting and through correspondence, have been reproduced in their entirety in this Response to Comments document. Responses to the commenters` questions and concerns are provided, and changes made to the body of the EA are indicated in the responses. All comments received have been considered in the revision of the EA.

  13. Inhaled Diesel Emissions Generated with Cerium Oxide Nanoparticle Fuel Additive Induce Adverse Pulmonary and Systemic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Snow, Samantha J.; McGee, John; Miller, Desinia B.; Bass, Virginia; Schladweiler, Mette C.; Thomas, Ronald F.; Krantz, Todd; King, Charly; Ledbetter, Allen D.; Richards, Judy; Weinstein, Jason P.; Conner, Teri; Willis, Robert; Linak, William P.; Nash, David; Wood, Charles E.; Elmore, Susan A.; Morrison, James P.; Johnson, Crystal L.; Gilmour, Matthew Ian; Kodavanti, Urmila P.

    2014-01-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Cerium oxide nanoparticles added to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency but leads to altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. Here, we evaluated whether DECe results in greater adverse pulmonary effects compared with DE. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to filtered air, DE, or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days. N-acetyl glucosaminidase activity was increased in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of rats exposed to DECe but not DE. There were also marginal but insignificant increases in several other lung injury biomarkers in both exposure groups (DECe > DE for all). To further characterize DECe toxicity, rats in a second study were exposed to filtered air or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days or 4 weeks. Tissue analysis indicated a concentration- and time-dependent accumulation of lung and liver cerium followed by a delayed clearance. The gas-phase and high concentration of DECe increased lung inflammation at the 2-day time point, indicating that gas-phase components, in addition to particles, contribute to pulmonary toxicity. This effect was reduced at 4 weeks except for a sustained increase in BALF γ-glutamyl transferase activity. Histopathology and transmission electron microscopy revealed increased alveolar septa thickness due to edema and increased numbers of pigmented macrophages after DECe exposure. Collectively, these findings indicate that DECe induces more adverse pulmonary effects on a mass basis than DE. In addition, lung accumulation of cerium, systemic translocation to the liver, and delayed clearance are added concerns to existing health effects of DECe. PMID:25239632

  14. An evaluation of a new analyser for inhaled nitric oxide administration.

    PubMed

    Carter, B; Holt, M; Tibballs, J; Hochmann, M; Osborne, A

    1998-02-01

    We examined the ability of a new combined nitric oxide (NO)/nitrogen dioxide (NO2) electrochemical analyser (PrinterNOx, Micro Medical Limited, Chatham, Kent, England) to measure NO and NO2 concentrations. The PrinterNOx was compared to a chemiluminescence analyser (42H, Thermo Environmental Instruments Inc, Franklin MA, U.S.A.). NO and NO2 were generated in a standard ventilator circuit using a paediatric ventilator (900C, Siemens Elema, Sweden) connected to an artificial lung (260li, TTL Test Lung, Michigan Instruments, MI, U.S.A.). Forty-four paired NO measurements ranging from 2.56 ppm to 74.6 ppm and 50 paired NO2 measurements ranging from 0.0 ppm to 5.39 ppm were obtained. For the measurement of NO the PrinterNOx showed a tendency to overestimate the chemiluminescence analyser. Regression analysis showed a close relationship between the two analysers with r2 = 0.9981 and a regression equation of y = 1.1658 x +0.0197. In the more clinically important range of 0-25 ppm, r2 increased to 0.9996 with a regression equation of y = 1.1984 x -0.4657. Conversely the PrinterNOx underestimated the chemiluminescence analyser for the measurement of NO2. The regression equation describing this relationship was y = 0.879 x -0.0447 (r2 = 0.9993). We conclude that the PrinterNOx is of sufficient accuracy to be of clinical use in the administration of NO.

  15. Inhaled diesel emissions generated with cerium oxide nanoparticle fuel additive induce adverse pulmonary and systemic effects.

    PubMed

    Snow, Samantha J; McGee, John; Miller, Desinia B; Bass, Virginia; Schladweiler, Mette C; Thomas, Ronald F; Krantz, Todd; King, Charly; Ledbetter, Allen D; Richards, Judy; Weinstein, Jason P; Conner, Teri; Willis, Robert; Linak, William P; Nash, David; Wood, Charles E; Elmore, Susan A; Morrison, James P; Johnson, Crystal L; Gilmour, Matthew Ian; Kodavanti, Urmila P

    2014-12-01

    Diesel exhaust (DE) exposure induces adverse cardiopulmonary effects. Cerium oxide nanoparticles added to diesel fuel (DECe) increases fuel burning efficiency but leads to altered emission characteristics and potentially altered health effects. Here, we evaluated whether DECe results in greater adverse pulmonary effects compared with DE. Male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to filtered air, DE, or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days. N-acetyl glucosaminidase activity was increased in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of rats exposed to DECe but not DE. There were also marginal but insignificant increases in several other lung injury biomarkers in both exposure groups (DECe > DE for all). To further characterize DECe toxicity, rats in a second study were exposed to filtered air or DECe for 5 h/day for 2 days or 4 weeks. Tissue analysis indicated a concentration- and time-dependent accumulation of lung and liver cerium followed by a delayed clearance. The gas-phase and high concentration of DECe increased lung inflammation at the 2-day time point, indicating that gas-phase components, in addition to particles, contribute to pulmonary toxicity. This effect was reduced at 4 weeks except for a sustained increase in BALF γ-glutamyl transferase activity. Histopathology and transmission electron microscopy revealed increased alveolar septa thickness due to edema and increased numbers of pigmented macrophages after DECe exposure. Collectively, these findings indicate that DECe induces more adverse pulmonary effects on a mass basis than DE. In addition, lung accumulation of cerium, systemic translocation to the liver, and delayed clearance are added concerns to existing health effects of DECe.

  16. Plutonium stabilization and handling quality assurance program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, E.V.

    1998-04-22

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP) identifies project quality assurance requirements for all contractors involved in the planning and execution of Hanford Site activities for design, procurement, construction, testing and inspection for Project W-460, Plutonium Stabilization and Handling. The project encompasses procurement and installation of a Stabilization and Packaging System (SPS) to oxidize and package for long term storage remaining plutonium-bearing special nuclear materials currently in inventory at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), and modification of vault equipment to allow storage of resulting packages of stabilized SNM.

  17. METHOD OF SEPARATING PLUTONIUM FROM LANTHANUM FLUORIDE CARRIER

    DOEpatents

    Watt, G.W.; Goeckermann, R.H.

    1958-06-10

    An improvement in oxidation-reduction type methods of separating plutoniunn from elements associated with it in a neutron-irradiated uranium solution is described. The method relates to the separating of plutonium from lanthanum ions in an aqueous 0.5 to 2.5 N nitric acid solution by 'treating the solution, at room temperature, with ammonium sulfite in an amount sufficient to reduce the hexavalent plutonium present to a lower valence state, and then treating the solution with H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ thereby forming a tetravalent plutonium peroxide precipitate.

  18. Spiked Alloy Production for Accelerated Aging of Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Wilk, P A; McNeese, J A; Dodson, K E; Williams, W L; Krikorian, O H; Blau, M S; Schmitz, J E; Bajao, F G; Mew, D A; Matz, T E; Torres, R A; Holck, D M; Moody, K J; Kenneally, J M

    2009-07-10

    The accelerated aging effects on weapons grade plutonium alloys are being studied using {sup 238}Pu-enriched plutonium metal to increase the rate of formation of defect structures. Pyrochemical processing methods have been used to produce two {sup 238}Pu-spiked plutonium alloys with nominal compositions of 7.5 wt% {sup 238}Pu. Processes used in the preparation of the alloys include direct oxide reduction of PuO{sub 2} with calcium and electrorefining. Rolled disks were prepared from the spiked alloys for sampling. Test specimens were cut out of the disks for physical property measurements.

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF SURPLUS PLUTONIUM FOR DISPOSITION OPTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Allender, J; Edwin Moore, E; Scott Davies, S

    2008-07-15

    The United States (U.S.) has identified 61.5 metric tons (MT) of plutonium that is permanently excess to use in nuclear weapons programs, including 47.2 MT of weapons-grade plutonium. Except for materials that remain in use for programs outside of national defense, including programs for nuclear-energy development, the surplus inventories will be stored safely by the Department of Energy (DOE) and then transferred to facilities that will prepare the plutonium for permanent disposition. Some items will be disposed as transuranic waste, low-level waste, or spent fuel. The remaining surplus plutonium will be managed through: (1) the Mixed Oxide (MOX) Fuel Fabrication Facility (FFF), to be constructed at the Savannah River Site (SRS), where the plutonium will be converted to fuel that will be irradiated in civilian power reactors and later disposed to a high-level waste (HLW) repository as spent fuel; (2) the SRS H-Area facilities, by dissolving and transfer to HLW systems, also for disposal to the repository; or (3) alternative immobilization techniques that would provide durable and secure disposal. From the beginning of the U.S. program for surplus plutonium disposition, DOE has sponsored research to characterize the surplus materials and to judge their suitability for planned disposition options. Because many of the items are stored without extensive analyses of their current chemical content, the characterization involves three interacting components: laboratory sample analysis, if available; non-destructive assay data; and rigorous evaluation of records for the processing history for items and inventory groups. This information is collected from subject-matter experts at inventory sites and from materials stabilization and surveillance programs, in cooperation with the design agencies for the disposition facilities. This report describes the operation and status of the characterization program.

  20. Pyrochemical processing of plutonium. Technology review report

    SciTech Connect

    Coops, M.S.; Knighton, J.B.; Mullins, L.J.

    1982-09-08

    Non-aqueous processes are now in routine use for direct conversion of plutonium oxide to metal, molten salt extraction of americium, and purification of impure metals by electrorefining. These processes are carried out at elevated temperatures in either refractory metal crucibles or magnesium-oxide ceramics in batch-mode operation. Direct oxide reduction is performed in units up to 700 gram PuO/sub 2/ batch size with molten calcium metal as the reductant and calcium chloride as the reaction flux. Americium metal is removed from plutonium metal by salt extraction with molten magnesium chloride. Electrorefining is used to isolate impurities from molten plutonium by molten salt ion transport in a controlled potential oxidation-reduction cell. Such cells can purify five or more kilograms of impure metal per 5-day electrorefining cycle. The product metal obtained is typically > 99.9% pure, starting from impure feeds. Metal scrap and crucible skulls are recovered by hydriding of the metallic residues and recovered either as impure metal or oxide feeds.

  1. Automated controlled-potential coulometer for plutonium determination

    SciTech Connect

    Hollen, R.M.; Jackson, D.D.

    1981-05-01

    The automated controlled-potential coulometer for the determination of plutonium described in this report is the second in a series of automated instruments designed to determine plutonium and uranium contents in nuclear fuel cycle materials. The measurement precision of the instrument is 0.1% relative standard deviation at the 5-mg plutonium level. A highly selective method of analysis was developed, involving reduction of plutonium to Pu(III) in a 5.5 M hydrochloric acid-0.015 M sulfamic acid electrolyte; oxidation of diverse ions, but not Pu(III); addition of phosphate complexant to reduce the Pu(III)-Pu(IV) potential; and oxidation of Pu(III) to Pu(IV) as the measurement step. Construction details of the mechanical and electrical systems of the instrument and control-system software are described, along with instrument preoperational adjustments and tests and sample analysis operations.

  2. METHOD OF MAKING PLUTONIUM DIOXIDE

    DOEpatents

    Garner, C.S.

    1959-01-13

    A process is presented For converting both trivalent and tetravalent plutonium oxalate to substantially pure plutonium dioxide. The plutonium oxalate is carefully dried in the temperature range of 130 to300DEC by raising the temperature gnadually throughout this range. The temperature is then raised to 600 C in the period of about 0.3 of an hour and held at this level for about the same length of time to obtain the plutonium dioxide.

  3. METHOD OF PRODUCING PLUTONIUM TETRAFLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Tolley, W.B.; Smith, R.C.

    1959-12-15

    A process is presented for preparing plutonium tetrafluoride from plutonium(IV) oxalate. The oxalate is dried and decomposed at about 300 deg C to the dioxide, mixed with ammonium bifluoride, and the mixture is heated to between 50 and 150 deg C whereby ammonium plutonium fluoride is formed. The ammonium plutonium fluoride is then heated to about 300 deg C for volatilization of ammonium fluoride. Both heating steps are preferably carried out in an inert atmosphere.

  4. Plutonium Disposition Now!

    SciTech Connect

    Buckner, M.R.

    1995-05-24

    A means for use of existing processing facilities and reactors for plutonium disposition is described which requires a minimum capital investment and allows rapid implementation. The scenario includes interim storage and processing under IAEA control, and fabrication into MOX fuel in existing or planned facilities in Europe for use in operating reactors in the two home countries. Conceptual studies indicate that existing Westinghouse four-loop designs can safety dispose of 0.94 MT of plutonium per calendar year. Thus, it would be possible to consume the expected US excess stockpile of about 50 MT in two to three units of this type, and it is highly likely that a comparable amount of the FSU excess plutonium could be deposed of in a few VVER-1000`s. The only major capital project for this mode of plutonium disposition would be the weapons-grade plutonium processing which could be done in a dedicated international facility or using existing facilities in the US and FSU under IAEA control. This option offers the potential for quick implementation at a very low cost to the governments of the two countries.

  5. METHOD FOR DISSOLVING LANTHANUM FLUORIDE CARRIER FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOEpatents

    Koshland, D.E. Jr.; Willard, J.E.

    1961-08-01

    A method is described for dissolving lanthanum fluoride precipitates which is applicable to lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitation processes for recovery of plutonium values from aqueous solutions. The lanthanum fluoride precipitate is contacted with an aqueous acidic solution containing dissolved zirconium in the tetravalent oxidation state. The presence of the zirconium increases the lanthanum fluoride dissolved and makes any tetravalent plutonium present more readily oxidizable to the hexavalent state. (AEC)

  6. Aqueous Solution Chemistry of Plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, David L.

    2014-01-28

    Things I have learned working with plutonium: Chemistry of plutonium is complex; Redox equilibria make Pu solution chemistry particularly challenging in the absence of complexing ligands; Understanding this behavior is key to successful Pu chemistry experiments; There is no suitable chemical analog for plutonium.

  7. Plutonium-DTPA Model Application with USTUR Case 0269.

    PubMed

    Konzen, Kevin; Brey, Richard; Miller, Scott

    2016-01-01

    A plutonium-DTPA (Pu-DTPA) biokinetic model was introduced that had originated from the study of a plutonium-contaminated wound. This work evaluated the extension of the Pu-DTPA model to United States Transuranium and Uranium Registry (USTUR) Case 0269 involving an acute inhalation of a plutonium nitrate aerosol. Chelation was administered intermittently for the first 7 mo as Ca-EDTA, mostly through intravenous injection, with Ca-DTPA treatments administered approximately 2.5 y post intake. Urine and fecal bioassays were collected following intake for several years. Tissues were collected and analyzed for plutonium content approximately 38 y post intake. This work employed the Pu-DTPA model for predicting the urine and fecal bioassay and final tissue quantity at autopsy. The Pu-DTPA model was integrated with two separate plutonium systemic models (i.e., ICRP Publication 67 and its proposed modification). This work illustrated that the Pu-DTPA model was useful for predicting urine and fecal bioassay, including final tissue quantity, 38 y post intake.

  8. Plutonium immobilization plant using ceramic in existing facilities at the Savannah River site

    SciTech Connect

    DiSabatino, A., LLNL

    1998-06-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) accepts plutonium (Pu) from pit conversion and from non-pit sources, and through a ceramic immobilization process converts the plutonium into an immobilized form that can be disposed of in a high level waste (HLW) repository. This immobilization process is shown conceptually in Figure 1-1. The objective is to make an immobilized form, suitable for geologic disposal, in which the plutonium is as inherently unattractive and inaccessible as the plutonium in spent fuel from commercial reactors. The ceramic immobilization alternative presented in this report consists of first converting the surplus material to an oxide, followed by incorporating the plutonium oxide into a titanate-based ceramic material that is placed in metal cans.

  9. Asthma Inhalers

    MedlinePlus

    ... reduce the release of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) into the atmosphere when taking certain asthma medications. Until recently, most ... hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) inhalers, that do not rob the atmosphere of ozone. “The FDA [Food and Drug Administration] ...

  10. Inhaled Steroids

    MedlinePlus

    ... side effects with inhaled steroids are thrush (a yeast infection of the mouth or throat that causes ... There have been concerns regarding the possibility of growth suppression in children. Recent studies have not shown ...

  11. SULFIDE METHOD PLUTONIUM SEPARATION

    DOEpatents

    Duffield, R.B.

    1958-08-12

    A process is described for the recovery of plutonium from neutron irradiated uranium solutions. Such a solution is first treated with a soluble sullide, causing precipitation of the plutoniunn and uraniunn values present, along with those impurities which form insoluble sulfides. The precipitate is then treated with a solution of carbonate ions, which will dissolve the uranium and plutonium present while the fission product sulfides remain unaffected. After separation from the residue, this solution may then be treated by any of the usual methods, such as formation of a lanthanum fluoride precipitate, to effect separation of plutoniunn from uranium.

  12. Superconductivity in plutonium compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrao, J. L.; Bauer, E. D.; Mitchell, J. N.; Tobash, P. H.; Thompson, J. D.

    2015-07-01

    Although the family of plutonium-based superconductors is relatively small, consisting of four compounds all of which crystallize in the tetragonal HoCoGa5 structure, these materials serve as an important bridge between the known Ce- and U-based heavy fermion superconductors and the high-temperature cuprate superconductors. Further, the partial localization of 5f electrons that characterizes the novel electronic properties of elemental plutonium appears to be central to the relatively high superconducting transition temperatures that are observed in PuCoGa5, PuRhGa5, PuCoIn5, and PuRhIn5.

  13. Low-level detection and quantification of Plutonium(III, IV, V,and VI) using a liquid core waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Richard E.; Hu, Yung-Jin; Nitsche, Heino

    2003-06-28

    Understanding the aqueous chemistry of plutonium, in particular in environmental conditions, is often complicated by plutonium's complex redox chemistry. Because plutonium possesses four oxidation states, all of which can coexist in solution, a reliable method for the identification of these oxidation states is needed. The identification of plutonium oxidation states at low levels in aqueous solution is often accomplished through an indirect determination using series of liquid-liquid extraction procedures using oxidation state specific reagents such as HDEHP and TTA. While these methods, coupled with radioactive counting techniques provide superior limits of detection they may influence the plutonium redox equilibrium, are time consuming, waste intensive and costly. Other analytical methods such as mass spectrometry and radioactive counting as stand alone methods provide excellent detection limits but lack the ability to discriminate between the oxidation states of the plutonium ions in solution.

  14. Health effects from the inhalation of oxidant air pollutants as related to the immune system. Final report. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Osebold, J.W.; Zee, Y.C.

    1985-07-01

    The investigations dealt with links between ozone inhalation and lung diseases. Mice exposed to ozone both continuously and intermittently in four-day cycles showed allergic sensitization to the test antigen (ovalbumin) when compaired to mice maintained in ambeint air. An adjuvant (inactivated Bordetella pertussis cells) administered to mice augmented the immunological response to the test antigen with periodic exposure to ozone. Guinea pigs were tested for allergic sensitization from ozone exposure similar to human asthma, but this trial was not definitive. Ozone inhalation reduced the severity of pneumonia in mice from influenza virus infection, even when ozone and virus exposures were timed to produce maximal edema in the lung.

  15. Inhaled nitric oxide in term/late preterm neonates with hypoxic respiratory failure: estimating the financial impact of earlier use.

    PubMed

    Konduri, G Ganesh; Menzin, Joseph; Frean, Molly; Lee, Terry; Potenziano, Jim; Singer, Joel

    2015-01-01

    We reported recently that early use of inhaled nitric oxide therapy (iNO) for term and late preterm infants with hypoxic respiratory failure (HRF) at an oxygenation index (OI) of ≥15 and <20 is associated with earlier discharge from the hospital, relative to babies treated at OI ≥25. The objective of the present analysis is to determine whether earlier use of iNO in this cohort leads to lower cost of medical care. We used a decision-analytic model, which was developed to compare hospital resource use and costs associated with early versus standard use of iNO in HRF. The model population included infants with moderate HRF caused by primary pulmonary hypertension with an OI ≥15 and <20. A hypothetical case population of 1000 patients was assumed and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were completed where all the clinical inputs into the model were varied. Two deterministic sensitivity analyses were also completed, one surrounding the hospital cost inputs and another surrounding the cost of iNO. Early iNO was associated with fewer hospital days, fewer days of ventilation and fewer hours on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). In probabilistic sensitivity analyses, total costs per patient were $88,518 ± $7574 and $92,581 ± $9664 for early iNO and standard iNO, respectively. The probability of early iNO being cost-effective was approximately 72%, based on a willingness to pay $100,000 or less to prevent ECMO therapy and/or death. In both deterministic sensitivity analyses, early iNO was cost-saving. Our analysis shows that early use of iNO at an OI of ≥15 and <20 may be associated with shorter hospitalizations and a decreased cost of care for term/late preterm infants with HRF associated with pulmonary hypertension. Our results are based on clinical data from a single trial; future research using data from real-world practice is warranted.

  16. Acute and subchronic toxicity of inhaled toluene in male Long-Evans rats: Oxidative stress markers in brain.

    PubMed

    Kodavanti, Prasada Rao S; Royland, Joyce E; Moore-Smith, Debra A; Besas, Jonathan; Richards, Judy E; Beasley, Tracey E; Evansky, Paul; Bushnell, Philip J

    2015-12-01

    The effects of exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which are of concern to the EPA, are poorly understood, in part because of insufficient characterization of how human exposure duration impacts VOC effects. Two inhalation studies with multiple endpoints, one acute and one subchronic, were conducted to seek effects of the VOC, toluene, in rats and to compare the effects between acute and subchronic exposures. Adult male Long-Evans rats were exposed to toluene vapor (n=6 per group) at a concentration of 0 or 1019 ± 14 ppm for 6h in the acute study and at 0 ± 0, 10 ± 1.4, 97 ± 7, or 995 ± 43 ppm for 6h/d, 5d/week for 13 weeks in the subchronic study. For the acute study, brains were dissected on ice within 30 min of the end of exposure, while for the subchronic study, brains were dissected 18 h after the last exposure. Frontal cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, and striatum were assayed for a variety of oxidative stress (OS) parameters including total aconitase (TA), protein carbonyls, glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GRD), glutathione transferase (GST), γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase (GCS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidants (TAS), NADPH quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1), and NADH ubiquinone reductase (UBIQ-RD) activities using commercially available kits. Following acute exposure, UBIQ-RD, GCS and GRD were increased significantly only in the cerebellum, while TAS was increased in frontal cortex. On the other hand, subchronic exposure affected several OS markers including increases in NQO1 and UBIQ-RD. The effect of subchronic toluene exposure on SOD and TAS was greater in the striatum than in the other brain regions. TA activity (involved in maintaining iron homeostasis and an indicator of DNA damage) was inhibited in striatum and cerebellum, increased in hippocampus, and unchanged in frontal cortex. Protein carbonyls increased significantly in both the frontal cortex and cerebellum. In general, the results showed that

  17. Treatment of human contamination with plutonium and americium: would orally administered Ca- or Zn-DTPA be effective?

    PubMed

    Taylor, David M; Hodgson, Susan A; Stradling, Neil

    2007-01-01

    Accidental or deliberate dispersion of plutonium (Pu) and americium (Am) into the public environment could contaminate large numbers of people by inhalation. If measures to reduce the internal dose are considered appropriate, oral administration of either calcium (Ca) or zinc (Zn) diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid (DTPA) would be the simplest treatment. Published experimental data from rats on the effects of oral DTPA on the retention of inhaled Pu and Am show that: (1) orally administered Zn-DTPA is as effective as repeated intravenous injection for the decorporation of Pu and Am inhaled as nitrates, although higher dosages are required; (2) oral Zn-DTPA appears to be an effective treatment for Am dioxide but not Pu dioxide; (3) maximum decorporation of Pu, by oral or intravenous administration, requires a large molar excess of Zn-DTPA over Pu (>1 x 10(6)); (4) neither oral nor injected Zn-DTPA are likely to be effective for Pu oxides, nor when Pu and Am nitrates are mixed with other dusts. It is concluded that oral administration of a simple aqueous solution of Zn-DTPA could be an important treatment in accident or emergency scenarios after intake of pure chemical forms of Pu and Am, which are highly or moderately soluble in biological fluids. However, more research is needed on the efficacy of treatment when these forms are mixed with other materials. Importantly, studies designed to increase the efficiency of uptake of DTPA from the gastrointestinal tract could appreciably reduce the dosage.

  18. Iloprost inhalation in mild asthma.

    PubMed

    Majeski, Elizabeth; Hoskins, Aimee; Dworski, Ryszard; Sheller, James R

    2012-11-01

    To determine the feasibility of administering iloprost by inhalation in patients with mild atopic asthma. Volunteers underwent supervised inhalation of iloprost in the clinic with measurement of spirometry and blood pressure for 2 hours. The volunteers then inhaled iloprost four times daily at a dose of 2.5 or 5 μg for 14 days. Spirometry, asthma questionnaires, peak flow diaries, measurement of methacholine responsiveness, and exhaled nitric oxide concentrations were obtained prior to and after the treatment period. Chronic inhalation of iloprost (2.5-5 μg) did not alter spirometry or methacholine responsiveness. Inhaled iloprost in carefully selected volunteers with mild asthma appears to be a suitable intervention to explore the effects of prostacyclin in human asthma.

  19. On the multi-reference nature of plutonium oxides: PuO2(2+), PuO2, PuO3 and PuO2(OH)2.

    PubMed

    Boguslawski, Katharina; Réal, Florent; Tecmer, Paweł; Duperrouzel, Corinne; Gomes, André Severo Pereira; Legeza, Örs; Ayers, Paul W; Vallet, Valérie

    2017-02-08

    Actinide-containing complexes present formidable challenges for electronic structure methods due to the large number of degenerate or quasi-degenerate electronic states arising from partially occupied 5f and 6d shells. Conventional multi-reference methods can treat active spaces that are often at the upper limit of what is required for a proper treatment of species with complex electronic structures, leaving no room for verifying their suitability. In this work we address the issue of properly defining the active spaces in such calculations, and introduce a protocol to determine optimal active spaces based on the use of the Density Matrix Renormalization Group algorithm and concepts of quantum information theory. We apply the protocol to elucidate the electronic structure and bonding mechanism of volatile plutonium oxides (PuO3 and PuO2(OH)2), species associated with nuclear safety issues for which little is known about the electronic structure and energetics. We show how, within a scalar relativistic framework, orbital-pair correlations can be used to guide the definition of optimal active spaces which provide an accurate description of static/non-dynamic electron correlation, as well as to analyse the chemical bonding beyond a simple orbital model. From this bonding analysis we are able to show that the addition of oxo- or hydroxo-groups to the plutonium dioxide species considerably changes the π-bonding mechanism with respect to the bare triatomics, resulting in bent structures with a considerable multi-reference character.

  20. Neutronic Benchmarks for the Utilization of Mixed-Oxide Fuel: Joint U.S./Russian Progress Report for Fiscal Year 1997 - Volume 4, Part 2--Saxton Plutonium Program Critical Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Abdurrahman, NM

    2000-10-12

    Critical experiments with water-moderated, single-region PuO{sub 2}-UO{sub 2} or UO{sub 2}, and multiple-region PuO{sub 2}-UO{sub 2}- and UO{sub 2}-fueled cores were performed at the CRX reactor critical facility at the Westinghouse Reactor Evaluation Center (WREC) at Waltz Mill, Pennsylvania in 1965 [1]. These critical experiments were part of the Saxton Plutonium Program. The mixed oxide (MOX) fuel used in these critical experiments and then loaded in the Saxton reactor contained 6.6 wt% PuO{sub 2} in a mixture of PuO{sub 2} and natural UO{sub 2}. The Pu metal had the following isotopic mass percentages: 90.50% {sup 239}Pu; 8.57% {sup 239}Pu; 0.89% {sup 240}Pu; and 0.04% {sup 241}Pu. The purpose of these critical experiments was to verify the nuclear design of Saxton partial plutonium cores while obtaining parameters of fundamental significance such as buckling, control rod worth, soluble poison worth, flux, power peaking, relative pin power, and power sharing factors of MOX and UO{sub 2} lattices. For comparison purposes, the core was also loaded with uranium dioxide fuel rods only. This series is covered by experiments beginning with the designation SX.