Science.gov

Sample records for inherent mercury emissions

  1. REDUCTION OF INHERENT MERCURY EMISSIONS IN PC COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect

    John C. Kramlich; Rebecca N. Sliger

    2000-08-26

    Oxidized mercury has been shown to be more easily removed from power plant flue gas by existing air pollution control equipment (e.g., wet scrubbers) than elemental mercury. The factors that determine how mercury is converted to the oxidized form in practical systems are, however, unknown. The present research focuses on developing an elementary, homogeneous mechanism that describes the oxidation of mercury by chlorine species as it occurs in practical furnaces. The goal is to use this mechanism (1) as a component in an overall homogeneous/heterogeneous mechanism that describes mercury behavior, and (2) to suggest low cost/low impact means of promoting mercury oxidation in furnaces. The results suggest an important role for Hg+Cl {r_arrow} HgCl and HgCl + Cl {r_arrow} HgCl{sub 2}. Here, the Cl is derived by radical attack on HCl in the high-temperature environment. The results suggest that the oxidation occurs during the time that the gases cool to room temperature. The high Cl concentrations from the flame persist into the quench region and provide for the oxidation of Hg to HgCl{sub 2} under lower temperatures where the products are stable. Under this mechanism, no significant HgCl{sub 2} is actually present at the higher temperatures where oxidized mercury is often reported in the literature (e.g., 900 C). Instead, all oxidation occurs as these gases are quenched. The results suggest that means of promoting Cl concentrations in the furnace will increase oxidation.

  2. Mercury Emissions: The Global Context

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Mercury emissions are a global problem that knows no national or continental boundaries. Mercury that is emitted to the air can travel thousands of miles in the atmosphere before it is eventually deposited back to the earth.

  3. 40 CFR 88.311-93 - Emissions standards for Inherently Low-Emission Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... standards for Inherently Low-Emission Vehicles. (a) Certification. (1) Emissions Testing Procedures. A... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emissions standards for Inherently Low-Emission Vehicles. 88.311-93 Section 88.311-93 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  4. 40 CFR 88.311-93 - Emissions standards for Inherently Low-Emission Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standards for Inherently Low-Emission Vehicles. (a) Certification. (1) Emissions Testing Procedures. A... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Emissions standards for Inherently Low-Emission Vehicles. 88.311-93 Section 88.311-93 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  5. 40 CFR 88.311-93 - Emissions standards for Inherently Low-Emission Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standards for Inherently Low-Emission Vehicles. (a) Certification. (1) Emissions Testing Procedures. A... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emissions standards for Inherently Low-Emission Vehicles. 88.311-93 Section 88.311-93 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  6. 40 CFR 88.311-93 - Emissions standards for Inherently Low-Emission Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standards for Inherently Low-Emission Vehicles. (a) Certification. (1) Emissions Testing Procedures. A... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emissions standards for Inherently Low-Emission Vehicles. 88.311-93 Section 88.311-93 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  7. 40 CFR 88.311-93 - Emissions standards for Inherently Low-Emission Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... standards for Inherently Low-Emission Vehicles. (a) Certification. (1) Emissions Testing Procedures. A... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emissions standards for Inherently Low-Emission Vehicles. 88.311-93 Section 88.311-93 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  8. 40 CFR 88.311-98 - Emissions standards for Inherently Low-Emission Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emissions standards for Inherently Low-Emission Vehicles. 88.311-98 Section 88.311-98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... standards for Inherently Low-Emission Vehicles. Section 88.311-98 includes text that specifies...

  9. Geothermal hazards - Mercury emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, S. M.; Siegel, B. Z.

    1975-01-01

    Enthusiasm for intensified geothermal exploration may induce many participants to overlook a long-term potential toxicity hazard possibly associated with the tapping of magmatic steam. The association of high atmospheric Hg levels with geothermal activity has been established both in Hawaii and Iceland, and it has been shown that mercury can be introduced into the atmosphere from fumaroles, hot springs, and magmatic sources. These arguments, extended to thallium, selenium, and other hazardous elements, underscore the need for environmental monitoring in conjunction with the delivery of magmatic steam to the surface.

  10. Mercury emission from crematories in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaoka, M.; Oshita, K.; Takeda, N.; Morisawa, S.

    2009-12-01

    Anthropogenic sources of mercury emissions have a significant impact on global pollution. Therefore, finding uncharacterised sources and assessing the emissions from these sources are important. However, limited data are available worldwide on mercury emissions from crematories. In Japan, 99.9% of dead bodies are cremated, which is the highest percentage in the world, and more than 1600 crematories are in operation. We thus focused on emissions from crematories in Japan. The number of targeted facilities was seven, and we used continuous emission monitoring to measure the mercury concentrations and investigate mercury behaviour. The total mercury concentrations in stack gases were a few μg/Nm3 (normal cubic meters). Considering the time profile of mercury and its species in cremations, the findings confirmed that the mercury in stack gas originated from dental amalgam. The amount of mercury emissions was calculated using the total concentration and gas flow rate. Furthermore, the annual amount of mercury emission from crematories in Japan was estimated by using the total number of corpses. The emission amount was considerably lower than that estimated in the UK. From statistical analyses on population demographics and measurements, future total emissions from crematories were also predicted. As a result, the amount of mercury emitted by crematories will likely increase by 2.6-fold from 2007 to 2037.

  11. Mercury emission from crematories in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaoka, M.; Oshita, K.; Takeda, N.; Morisawa, S.

    2010-04-01

    Anthropogenic sources of mercury emissions have a significant impact on global pollution. Therefore, finding uncharacterised sources and assessing the emissions from these sources are important. However, limited data are available worldwide on mercury emissions from crematories. In Japan, 99.9% of dead bodies are cremated, which is the highest percentage in the world, and more than 1600 crematories are in operation. We thus focused on emissions from crematories in Japan. The number of targeted facilities was seven, and we used continuous emission monitoring to measure the mercury concentrations and investigate mercury behaviour. The total mercury concentrations in stack gases were a few μg/Nm3 (normal cubic meters). Considering the time profile of mercury and its species in cremations, the findings confirmed that the mercury in stack gas originated from dental amalgam. The amount of mercury emissions was calculated using the total concentration and gas flow rate. Furthermore, the annual amount of mercury emission from crematories in Japan was estimated by using the total number of corpses. The emission amount was considerably lower than that estimated in the United Kingdom. From statistical analyses on population demographics and measurements, future total emissions from crematories were also predicted. As a result, the amount of mercury emitted by crematories will likely increase by 2.6-fold from 2007 to 2037.

  12. Virtual atmospheric mercury emission network in China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Sai; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Yafei; Xu, Ming; Liu, Weidong

    2014-01-01

    Top-down analysis of virtual atmospheric mercury emission networks can direct efficient demand-side policy making on mercury reductions. Taking China-the world's top atmospheric mercury emitter-as a case, we identify key contributors to China's atmospheric mercury emissions from both the producer and the consumer perspectives. China totally discharged 794.9 tonnes of atmospheric mercury emissions in 2007. China's production-side control policies should mainly focus on key direct mercury emitters such as Liaoning, Hebei, Shandong, Shanxi, Henan, Hunan, Guizhou, Yunnan, and Inner Mongolia provinces and sectors producing metals, nonmetallic mineral products, and electricity and heat power, while demand-side policies should mainly focus on key underlying drivers of mercury emissions such as Shandong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, and Guangdong provinces and sectors of construction activities and equipment manufacturing. China's interregional embodied atmospheric mercury flows are generally moving from the inland to the east coast. Beijing-Tianjin (with 4.8 tonnes of net mercury inflows) and South Coast (with 3.3 tonnes of net mercury inflows) are two largest net-inflow regions, while North (with 5.3 tonnes of net mercury outflows) is the largest net-outflow region. We also identify primary supply chains contributing to China's virtual atmospheric mercury emission network, which can be used to trace the transfers of production-side and demand-side policy effects.

  13. Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

  14. Radio emission in Mercury magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, J.; Reville, V.; Brun, A. S.; Pantellini, F.; Zarka, P.

    2016-10-01

    Context. Active stars possess magnetized wind that has a direct impact on planets that can lead to radio emission. Mercury is a good test case to study the effect of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) on radio emission driven in the planet magnetosphere. Such studies could be used as proxies to characterize the magnetic field topology and intensity of exoplanets. Aims: The aim of this study is to quantify the radio emission in the Hermean magnetosphere. Methods: We use the magnetohydrodynamic code PLUTO in spherical coordinates with an axisymmetric multipolar expansion for the Hermean magnetic field, to analyze the effect of the IMF orientation and intensity, as well as the hydrodynamic parameters of the solar wind (velocity, density and temperature), on the net power dissipated on the Hermean day and night side. We apply the formalism derived by Zarka et al. (2001, Astrophys. Space Sci., 277, 293), Zarka (2007, Planet. Space Sci., 55, 598) to infer the radio emission level from the net dissipated power. We perform a set of simulations with different hydrodynamic parameters of the solar wind, IMF orientations and intensities, that allow us to calculate the dissipated power distribution and infer the existence of radio emission hot spots on the planet day side, and to calculate the integrated radio emission of the Hermean magnetosphere. Results: The obtained radio emission distribution of dissipated power is determined by the IMF orientation (associated with the reconnection regions in the magnetosphere), although the radio emission strength is dependent on the IMF intensity and solar wind hydro parameters. The calculated total radio emission level is in agreement with the one estimated in Zarka et al. (2001, Astrophys. Space Sci., 277, 293) , between 5 × 105 and 2 × 106 W.

  15. 40 CFR 88.311-98 - Emissions standards for Inherently Low-Emission Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emissions standards for Inherently Low-Emission Vehicles. 88.311-98 Section 88.311-98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.311-98...

  16. Mercury Emission Measurement at a CFB Plant

    SciTech Connect

    John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Lucinda Hamre

    2009-02-28

    In response to pending regulation to control mercury emissions in the United States and Canada, several projects have been conducted to perform accurate mass balances at pulverized coal (pc)-fired utilities. Part of the mercury mass balance always includes total gaseous mercury as well as a determination of the speciation of the mercury emissions and a concentration bound to the particulate matter. This information then becomes useful in applying mercury control strategies, since the elemental mercury has traditionally been difficult to control by most technologies. In this instance, oxidation technologies have proven most beneficial for increased capture. Despite many years of mercury measurement and control projects at pc-fired units, far less work has been done on circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) units, which are able to combust a variety of feedstocks, including cofiring coal with biomass. Indeed, these units have proven to be more problematic because it is very difficult to obtain a reliable mercury mass balance. These units tend to have very different temperature profiles than pc-fired utility boilers. The flexibility of CFB units also tends to be an issue when a mercury balance is determined, since the mercury inputs to the system come from the bed material and a variety of fuels, which can have quite variable chemistry, especially for mercury. In addition, as an integral part of the CFB operation, the system employs a feedback loop to circulate the bed material through the combustor and the solids collection system (the primary cyclone), thereby subjecting particulate-bound metals to higher temperatures again. Despite these issues, CFB boilers generally emit very little mercury and show good native capture. The Energy & Environmental Research Center is carrying out this project for Metso Power in order to characterize the fate of mercury across the unit at Rosebud Plant, an industrial user of CFB technology from Metso. Appropriate solids were collected, and

  17. Mercury emissions from biomass burning in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xin; Li, Mengmeng; Friedli, Hans R; Song, Yu; Chang, Di; Zhu, Lei

    2011-11-01

    Biomass burning covers open fires (forest and grassland fires, crop residue burning in fields, etc.) and biofuel combustion (crop residues and wood, etc., used as fuel). As a large agricultural country, China may produce large quantities of mercury emissions from biomass burning. A new mercury emission inventory in China is needed because previous studies reflected outdated biomass burning with coarse resolution. Moreover, these studies often adopted the emission factors (mass of emitted species per mass of biomass burned) measured in North America. In this study, the mercury emissions from biomass burning in China (excluding small islands in the South China Sea) were estimated, using recently measured mercury concentrations in various biomes in China as emission factors. Emissions from crop residues and fuelwood were estimated based on annual reports distributed by provincial government. Emissions from forest and grassland fires were calculated by combining moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) burned area product with combustion efficiency (ratio of fuel consumption to total available fuels) considering fuel moisture. The average annual emission from biomass burning was 27 (range from 15.1 to 39.9) Mg/year. This inventory has high spatial resolution (1 km) and covers a long period (2000-2007), making it useful for air quality modeling.

  18. Mercury mass flow in iron and steel production process and its implications for mercury emission control.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengyang; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Hai; Gao, Wei; Wu, Qingru; Hao, Jiming

    2016-05-01

    The iron and steel production process is one of the predominant anthropogenic sources of atmospheric mercury emissions worldwide. In this study, field tests were conducted to study mercury emission characteristics and mass flows at two iron and steel plants in China. It was found that low-sulfur flue gas from sintering machines could contribute up to 41% of the total atmospheric mercury emissions, and desulfurization devices could remarkably help reduce the emissions. Coal gas burning accounted for 17%-49% of the total mercury emissions, and therefore the mercury control of coal gas burning, specifically for the power plant burning coal gas to generate electricity, was significantly important. The emissions from limestone and dolomite production and electric furnaces can contribute 29.3% and 4.2% of the total mercury emissions from iron and steel production. More attention should be paid to mercury emissions from these two processes. Blast furnace dust accounted for 27%-36% of the total mercury output for the whole iron and steel production process. The recycling of blast furnace dust could greatly increase the atmospheric mercury emissions and should not be conducted. The mercury emission factors for the coke oven, sintering machine and blast furnace were 0.039-0.047gHg/ton steel, and for the electric furnace it was 0.021gHg/ton steel. The predominant emission species was oxidized mercury, accounting for 59%-73% of total mercury emissions to air.

  19. 76 FR 13851 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... hazardous air pollutant emission standards reflecting the application of the maximum achievable control...), we established that the application of measurement technology to mercury cell rooms is not... requirements, determines is achievable through application of measures, processes, methods, systems...

  20. Method and apparatus for monitoring mercury emissions

    DOEpatents

    Durham, Michael D.; Schlager, Richard J.; Sappey, Andrew D.; Sagan, Francis J.; Marmaro, Roger W.; Wilson, Kevin G.

    1997-01-01

    A mercury monitoring device that continuously monitors the total mercury concentration in a gas. The device uses the same chamber for converting speciated mercury into elemental mercury and for measurement of the mercury in the chamber by radiation absorption techniques. The interior of the chamber is resistant to the absorption of speciated and elemental mercury at the operating temperature of the chamber.

  1. Method and apparatus for monitoring mercury emissions

    DOEpatents

    Durham, M.D.; Schlager, R.J.; Sappey, A.D.; Sagan, F.J.; Marmaro, R.W.; Wilson, K.G.

    1997-10-21

    A mercury monitoring device that continuously monitors the total mercury concentration in a gas. The device uses the same chamber for converting speciated mercury into elemental mercury and for measurement of the mercury in the chamber by radiation absorption techniques. The interior of the chamber is resistant to the absorption of speciated and elemental mercury at the operating temperature of the chamber. 15 figs.

  2. WORKSHOP ON SOURCE EMISSION AND AMBIENT AIR MONITORING OF MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    AN EPA/ORD Workshop on Source Emission and Ambient Air Monitoring of Mercury was held on 9/13-14/99, Bloomington, Minnesota. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss the state-of-the-science in source and ambient air mercury monitoring as well as mercury monitoring research and...

  3. Constraining Modern and Historic Mercury Emissions From Gold Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strode, S. A.; Jaeglé, L.; Selin, N. E.; Sunderland, E.

    2007-12-01

    Mercury emissions from both historic gold and silver mining and modern small-scale gold mining are highly uncertain. Historic mercury emissions can affect the modern atmosphere through reemission from land and ocean, and quantifying mercury emissions from historic gold and silver mining can help constrain modern mining sources. While estimates of mercury emissions during historic gold rushes exceed modern anthropogenic mercury emissions in North America, sediment records in many regions do not show a strong gold rush signal. We use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to determine the spatial footprint of mercury emissions from mining and compare model runs from gold rush periods to sediment and ice core records of historic mercury deposition. Based on records of gold and silver production, we include mercury emissions from North and South American mining of 1900 Mg/year in 1880, compared to modern global anthropogenic emissions of 3400 Mg/year. Including this large mining source in GEOS-Chem leads to an overestimate of the modeled 1880 to preindustrial enhancement ratio compared to the sediment core record. We conduct sensitivity studies to constrain the level of mercury emissions from modern and historic mining that is consistent with the deposition records for different regions.

  4. Fugitive Mercury Emissions From Nevada Gold Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. B.; Eckley, C. S.; Gustin, M.; Marsik, F.

    2008-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) can be released from point sources at gold mines (e.g. stacks associated with ore processing facilities) as well as from diffuse fugitive sources (e.g. waste rock dumps, heap leaches, etc). Fugitive Hg emissions have not been quantified for active gold mines and as such a large knowledge gap exists concerning the magnitude of total emissions from this source type. This study measured fugitive Hg emissions from two active gold mines in Northern Nevada. To contextualize the magnitude of the mine emissions with respect to those associated with natural surfaces, data were collected from undisturbed areas near the mines that are of similar geologic character. The initial results from this project have shown that there is a large range in surface Hg concentrations and associated emissions to the atmosphere from different surface types within a mine as well as between the two mines. At both mines, the lowest surface Hg concentrations and emissions were associated with the alluvium/overburden waste rock dumps. Surface Hg concentrations and emissions at nearby undisturbed sites were of similar magnitude. Surface concentrations and emissions were substantially higher from active heap leaches. In addition to the difference in fluxes for specific materials, measured emissions must be put within the context of material spatial extent and temporal variability. Here we compare Hg emission contributions from mining and undisturbed materials as a function of space and time (diel and seasonal), and illustrate the need for collection of these types of data in order to reduce uncertainties in understanding air-surface Hg exchange.

  5. Mercury emissions control technologies for mixed waste thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, A.; Knecht, M.; Soelberg, N.; Eaton, D.; Roberts, D.; Broderick, T.

    1997-12-31

    EPA has identified wet scrubbing at low mercury feedrates, as well as carbon adsorption via carbon injection into the offgas or via flow through fixed carbon beds, as control technologies that can be used to meet the proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) rule limit for mercury emissions from hazardous waste incinerators. DOE is currently funding demonstrations of gold amalgamation that may also control mercury to the desired levels. Performance data from a variety of sources was reviewed to determine ranges of achievable mercury control. Preliminary costs were estimated for using these technologies to control mercury emissions from mixed waste incineration. Mercury emissions control for mixed waste incineration may need to be more efficient than for incineration of other hazardous wastes because of higher mercury concentrations in some mixed waste streams. However, mercury control performance data for wet scrubbing and carbon adsorption is highly variable. More information is needed to demonstrate control efficiencies that are achievable under various design and operating conditions for wet scrubbing, carbon adsorption, and gold amalgamation technologies. Given certain assumptions made in this study, capital costs, operating costs, and lifecycle costs for carbon injection, carbon beds, and gold amalgamation generally vary for different assumed mercury feedrates and for different offgas flowrates. Assuming that these technologies can in fact provide the necessary mercury control performance, each of these technologies may be less costly than the others for certain mercury feedrates and the offgas flowrates.

  6. Emissions of mercury from the power sector in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyśk, J.; Wyrwa, A.; Pluta, M.

    2011-01-01

    Poland belongs to the European Union countries with the highest mercury emissions. This is mainly related to coal combustion. This paper presents estimates of mercury emissions from power sector in Poland. In this work, the bottom-up approach was applied and over 160 emission point sources were analysed. For each, the characteristics of the whole technological chain starting from fuel quality, boiler type as well as emission controls were taken into account. Our results show that emissions of mercury from brown coal power plants in 2005 were nearly four times greater than those of hard coal power plants. These estimates differ significantly from national statistics and some possible reasons are discussed. For the first time total mercury emissions from the Polish power sector were differentiated into its main atmospheric forms: gaseous elemental (GEM), reactive gaseous (RGM) and particulate-bound mercury. Information on emission source location and the likely vertical distribution of mercury emissions, which can be used in modelling of atmospheric dispersion of mercury is also provided.

  7. Estimate of mercury emissions to the atmosphere from petroleum.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, S M

    2001-12-15

    An estimate of the contribution of mercury to the atmospheric environment from petroleum processed in the United States is constructed from recent data. The estimate is based on a mass balance approach for mercury in crude oil, in refined products, and in waste streams (air, water, solid waste) from refineries. Although there are insufficient data at present to have a high degree of confidence in the mean amount and range of mercury concentrations in crude oil or in refined products, the framework of the estimate should assist direction for the acquisition of additional data. On the basis of selected data that put the estimated mean concentration of total mercury in crude oil close to 10 ppb, it is calculated that the total amount of mercury in U.S. petroleum processed yearly is slightly over 8000 kg/yr. Of this amount, approximately 6000 kg/yr is estimated to be emitted to the atmosphere from combustion of liquid hydrocarbon fuels, which represents about 10% of the U.S. yearly emission rate of atmospheric mercury from coal combustion. The material balance predicts that the amount of mercury in air emissions from all U.S. refineries is on the order of 1500 kg/yr based on the assumption that fugitive mercury emissions from refineries are negligible. Atmospheric emissions of mercury from fuel oil burned in the United States are estimated in the U.S. EPA Mercury Report to Congress to be approximately 10000 kg/yr, and this estimate may be in error on the high side by a factor of 3-10. If the mean amounts of mercury in U.S. distillate and residual fuel oils are in the range of 5-15 ppb, as suggested by more recent data, then U.S. fuel oil combustion should contribute no more that about 1000-3000 kg/yr (emission ratio = 1) of mercury to the atmospheric burden.

  8. Non-point source mercury emission from the Idrija Hg-mine region: GIS mercury emission model.

    PubMed

    Kocman, David; Horvat, Milena

    2011-08-01

    A mercury emission model was developed to estimate non-point source mercury (Hg) emissions occurring over the year from the Idrijca River catchment, draining the area of the world's second largest Hg mine in Idrija, Slovenia. Site-specific empirical correlations between the measured Hg emission fluxes and the parameters controlling the emission (comprising substrate Hg content, soil temperature, solar radiation and soil moisture) were incorporated into the mercury emission model developed using Geographic Information System technology. In this way, the spatial distribution and significance of the most polluted sites that need to be properly managed was assessed. The modelling results revealed that annually approximately 51 kg of mercury are emitted from contaminated surfaces in the catchment (640 km(2)), highlighting that emission from contaminated surfaces contributes significantly to the elevated Hg concentrations in the ambient air of the region. Very variable meteorological conditions in the modelling domain throughout the year resulted in the high seasonal and spatial variations of mercury emission fluxes observed. Moreover, it was found that mercury emission fluxes from surfaces in the Idrija region are 3-4 fold higher than the values commonly used in models representing emissions from global mercuriferous belts. Sensitivity and model uncertainty analysis indicated the importance of knowing not only the amount but also the type of mercury species and their binding in soils in future model development.

  9. 40 CFR 88.312-93 - Inherently Low-Emission Vehicle labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... stroke width not less than 0.5 inches (1.3 centimeters). In addition, the words “INHERENTLY LOW-EMISSION... inches (3.8 centimeters) wide with a stroke width not less than 0.4 inches (1.0 centimeter). In addition...) wide with a stroke width not less than 0.3 inches (0.8 centimeter). In addition, the words...

  10. 40 CFR 88.312-93 - Inherently Low-Emission Vehicle labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... stroke width not less than 0.5 inches (1.3 centimeters). In addition, the words “INHERENTLY LOW-EMISSION... inches (3.8 centimeters) wide with a stroke width not less than 0.4 inches (1.0 centimeter). In addition...) wide with a stroke width not less than 0.3 inches (0.8 centimeter). In addition, the words...

  11. 40 CFR 88.312-93 - Inherently Low-Emission Vehicle labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... stroke width not less than 0.5 inches (1.3 centimeters). In addition, the words “INHERENTLY LOW-EMISSION... inches (3.8 centimeters) wide with a stroke width not less than 0.4 inches (1.0 centimeter). In addition...) wide with a stroke width not less than 0.3 inches (0.8 centimeter). In addition, the words...

  12. 40 CFR 88.312-93 - Inherently Low-Emission Vehicle labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... stroke width not less than 0.5 inches (1.3 centimeters). In addition, the words “INHERENTLY LOW-EMISSION... inches (3.8 centimeters) wide with a stroke width not less than 0.4 inches (1.0 centimeter). In addition...) wide with a stroke width not less than 0.3 inches (0.8 centimeter). In addition, the words...

  13. 40 CFR 88.312-93 - Inherently Low-Emission Vehicle labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... stroke width not less than 0.5 inches (1.3 centimeters). In addition, the words “INHERENTLY LOW-EMISSION... inches (3.8 centimeters) wide with a stroke width not less than 0.4 inches (1.0 centimeter). In addition...) wide with a stroke width not less than 0.3 inches (0.8 centimeter). In addition, the words...

  14. Estimating mercury emissions from a zinc smelter in relation to China's mercury control policies.

    PubMed

    Wang, S X; Song, J X; Li, G H; Wu, Y; Zhang, L; Wan, Q; Streets, D G; Chin, Conrad K; Hao, J M

    2010-10-01

    Mercury concentrations of flue gas at inlet/outlet of the flue gas cleaning, electrostatic demister, reclaiming tower, acid plant, and mercury contents in zinc concentrate and by-products were measured in a hydrometallurgical zinc smelter. The removal efficiency of flue gas cleaning, electrostatic demister, mercury reclaiming and acid plant was about 17.4%, 30.3%, 87.9% and 97.4% respectively. Flue gas cleaning and electrostatic demister captured 11.7% and 25.3% of the mercury in the zinc concentrate, respectively. The mercury reclaiming tower captured 58.3% of the mercury in the zinc concentrate. About 4.2% of the mercury in the zinc concentrate was captured by the acid plant. Consequently, only 0.8% of the mercury in the zinc concentrate was emitted to the atmosphere. The atmospheric mercury emission factor was 0.5 g t(-1) of zinc produced for the tested smelter, indicating that this process offers the potential to effectively reduce mercury emissions from zinc smelting.

  15. Air Contamination by Mercury, Emissions and Transformations-a Review.

    PubMed

    Gworek, Barbara; Dmuchowski, Wojciech; Baczewska, Aneta H; Brągoszewska, Paulina; Bemowska-Kałabun, Olga; Wrzosek-Jakubowska, Justyna

    2017-01-01

    The present and future air contamination by mercury is and will continue to be a serious risk for human health. This publication presents a review of the literature dealing with the issues related to air contamination by mercury and its transformations as well as its natural and anthropogenic emissions. The assessment of mercury emissions into the air poses serious methodological problems. It is particularly difficult to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic emissions and re-emissions from lands and oceans, including past emissions. At present, the largest emission sources include fuel combustion, mainly that of coal, and "artisanal and small-scale gold mining" (ASGM). The distinctly highest emissions can be found in South and South-East Asia, accounting for 45% of the global emissions. The emissions of natural origin and re-emissions are estimated at 45-66% of the global emissions, with the largest part of emissions originating in the oceans. Forecasts on the future emission levels are not unambiguous; however, most forecasts do not provide for reductions in emissions. Ninety-five percent of mercury occurring in the air is Hg(0)-GEM, and its residence time in the air is estimated at 6 to 18 months. The residence times of its Hg(II)-GOM and that in Hgp-TPM are estimated at hours and days. The highest mercury concentrations in the air can be found in the areas of mercury mines and those of ASGM. Since 1980 when it reached its maximum, the global background mercury concentration in the air has remained at a relatively constant level.

  16. Mercury emissions from coal combustion in Silesia, analysis using geostatistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasina, Damian; Zawadzki, Jaroslaw

    2015-04-01

    Data provided by the UNEP's report on mercury [1] shows that solid fuel combustion in significant source of mercury emission to air. Silesia, located in southwestern Poland, is notably affected by mercury emission due to being one of the most industrialized Polish regions: the place of coal mining, production of metals, stone mining, mineral quarrying and chemical industry. Moreover, Silesia is the region with high population density. People are exposed to severe risk of mercury emitted from both: industrial and domestic sources (i.e. small household furnaces). Small sources have significant contribution to total emission of mercury. Official and statistical analysis, including prepared for international purposes [2] did not provide data about spatial distribution of the mercury emitted to air, however number of analysis on Polish public power and energy sector had been prepared so far [3; 4]. The distribution of locations exposed for mercury emission from small domestic sources is interesting matter merging information from various sources: statistical, economical and environmental. This paper presents geostatistical approach to distibution of mercury emission from coal combustion. Analysed data organized in 2 independent levels: individual, bottom-up approach derived from national emission reporting system [5; 6] and top down - regional data calculated basing on official statistics [7]. Analysis, that will be presented, will include comparison of spatial distributions of mercury emission using data derived from sources mentioned above. Investigation will include three voivodeships of Poland: Lower Silesian, Opole (voivodeship) and Silesian using selected geostatistical methodologies including ordinary kriging [8]. References [1] UNEP. Global Mercury Assessment 2013: Sources, Emissions, Releases and Environmental Transport. UNEP Chemicals Branch, Geneva, Switzerland, 2013. [2] NCEM. Poland's Informative Inventory Report 2014. NCEM at the IEP-NRI, 2014. http

  17. Impact of closing Canada's largest point-source of mercury emissions on local atmospheric mercury concentrations.

    PubMed

    Eckley, Chris S; Parsons, Matthew T; Mintz, Rachel; Lapalme, Monique; Mazur, Maxwell; Tordon, Robert; Elleman, Robert; Graydon, Jennifer A; Blanchard, Pierrette; St Louis, Vincent

    2013-09-17

    The Flin Flon, Manitoba copper smelter was Canada's largest point source of mercury emissions until its closure in 2010 after ~80 years of operation. The objective of this study was to understand the variables controlling the local ground-level air mercury concentrations before and after this major point source reduction. Total gaseous mercury (TGM) in air, mercury in precipitation, and other ancillary meteorological and air quality parameters were measured pre- and postsmelter closure, and mercury speciation measurements in air were collected postclosure. The results showed that TGM was significantly elevated during the time period when the smelter operated (4.1 ± 3.7 ng m(-3)), decreased only 20% during the year following its closure, and remained ~2-fold above background levels. Similar trends were observed for mercury concentrations in precipitation. Several lines of evidence indicated that while smelter stack emissions would occasionally mix down to the surface resulting in large spikes in TGM concentrations (up to 61 ng m(-3)), the largest contributor to elevated TGM concentrations before and after smelter closure was from surface-air fluxes from mercury-enriched soils and/or tailings. These findings highlight the ability of legacy mercury, deposited to local landscapes over decades from industrial activities, to significantly affect local air concentrations via emissions/re-emissions.

  18. NOVEL MERCURY OXIDANT AND SORBENT FOR MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors have successfully developed novel efficient and cost-effective sorbent and oxidant for removing mercury from power plant flue gases. These sorbent and oxidant offer great promise for controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants burning a wide range of c...

  19. Emissions of airborne toxics from coal-fired boilers: Mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.; Zaromb, S.

    1991-09-01

    Concerns over emissions of hazardous air Pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue, and the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants was greatly expanded through the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Mercury has been singled out for particular attention because of concerns over possible effects of emissions on human health. This report evaluates available published information on the mercury content of coals mined in the United States, on mercury emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Anthracite and bituminous coals have the highest mean-mercury concentrations, with subbituminous coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in mercury concentrations. Mercury emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific mercury compounds. Variations in emission rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of mercury by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 20% to over 50% have been reported. Reported removals for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems range between 35 and 95%, while spray-dryer/fabric-filter systems have given removals of 75 to 99% on municipal incinerators. In all cases, better data are needed before any definitive judgments can be made. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in mercury control for existing flue-gas-clean-up technologies and summarizes the status of techniques for measuring mercury emissions from combustion sources.

  20. Mercury and halogens in coal--Their role in determining mercury emissions from coal combustion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolker, Allan; Quick, Jeffrey C.; Senior, Connie L.; Belkin, Harvey E.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic pollutant. In its elemental form, gaseous mercury has a long residence time in the atmosphere, up to a year, allowing it to be transported long distances from emission sources. Mercury can be emitted from natural sources such as volcanoes, or from anthropogenic sources, such as coal-fired powerplants. In addition, all sources of mercury on the Earth's surface can re-emit it from land and sea back to the atmosphere, from which it is then redeposited. Mercury in the atmosphere is present in such low concentrations that it is not considered harmful. Once mercury enters the aquatic environment, however, it can undergo a series of biochemical transformations that convert a portion of the mercury originally present to methylmercury, a highly toxic organic form of mercury that accumulates in fish and birds. Many factors contribute to creation of methylmercury in aquatic ecosystems, including mercury availability, sediment and nutrient load, bacterial influence, and chemical conditions. In the United States, consumption of fish with high levels of methylmercury is the most common pathway for human exposure to mercury, leading the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to issue fish consumption advisories in every State. The EPA estimates that 50 percent of the mercury entering the atmosphere in the United States is emitted from coal-burning utility powerplants. An EPA rule, known as MATS (for Mercury and Air Toxics Standards), to reduce emissions of mercury and other toxic pollutants from powerplants, was signed in December 2011. The rule, which is currently under review, specifies limits for mercury and other toxic elements, such as arsenic, chromium, and nickel. MATS also places limits on emission of harmful acid gases, such as hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid. These standards are the result of a 2010 detailed nationwide program by the EPA to sample stack emissions and thousands of shipments of coal to coal-burning powerplants. The United

  1. A CAVITY RINGDOWN SPECTROSCOPY MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher C. Carter, Ph.D.

    2002-01-01

    The first quarter of this project to develop a Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy mercury continuous emission monitor involved acquisition and verification of the laser system to be used, initial cavity design, and initial software development for signal processing and data acquisition.

  2. [Mercury Distribution Characteristics and Atmospheric Mercury Emission Factors of Typical Waste Incineration Plants in Chongqing].

    PubMed

    Duan, Zhen-ya; Su, Hai-tao; Wang, Feng-yang; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shu-xiao; Yu, Bin

    2016-02-15

    Waste incineration is one of the important atmospheric mercury emission sources. The aim of this article is to explore the atmospheric mercury pollution level of waste incineration industry from Chongqing. This study investigated the mercury emissions from a municipal solid waste incineration plant and a medical waste incineration plant in Chongqing. The exhaust gas samples in these two incineration plants were obtained using USA EPA 30B method. The mercury concentrations in the fly ash and bottom ash samples were analyzed. The results indicated that the mercury concentrations of the municipal solid waste and medical waste incineration plant in Chongqing were (26.4 +/- 22.7) microg x m(-3) and (3.1 +/- 0.8) microg x m(-3) in exhaust gas respectively, (5279.2 +/- 798.0) microg x kg(-1) and (11,709.5 +/- 460.5) microg x kg(-1) in fly ash respectively. Besides, the distribution proportions of the mercury content from municipal solid waste and medical waste in exhaust gas, fly ash, and bottom ash were 34.0%, 65.3%, 0.7% and 32.3%, 67.5%, 0.2% respectively; The mercury removal efficiencies of municipal solid waste and medical waste incineration plants were 66.0% and 67.7% respectively. The atmospheric mercury emission factors of municipal solid waste and medical waste incineration plants were (126.7 +/- 109.0) microg x kg(-1) and (46.5 +/- 12.0) microg x kg(-1) respectively. Compared with domestic municipal solid waste incineration plants in the Pearl River Delta region, the atmospheric mercury emission factor of municipal solid waste incineration plant in Chongqing was lower.

  3. Scenarios of global mercury emissions from anthropogenic sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafaj, P.; Bertok, I.; Cofala, J.; Schöpp, W.

    2013-11-01

    This paper discusses the impact of air quality and climate policies on global mercury emissions in the time horizon up to 2050. Evolution of mercury emissions is based on projections of energy consumption for a scenario without any global greenhouse gas mitigation efforts, and for a 2 °C climate policy scenario, which assumes internationally coordinated action to mitigate climate change. The assessment takes into account current air quality legislation in each country, as well as provides estimates of maximum feasible reductions in mercury through 2050. Results indicate significant scope for co-benefits of climate policies for mercury emissions. Atmospheric releases of mercury from anthropogenic sources under the global climate mitigation regime are reduced in 2050 by 45% when compared to the case without climate measures. Around one third of world-wide co-benefits for mercury emissions by 2050 occur in China. An annual Hg-abatement of about 800 tons is estimated for the coal combustion in power sector if the current air pollution legislation and climate policies are adopted in parallel.

  4. Modeling study of natural emissions, source apportionment, and emission control of atmospheric mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetty, Suraj K.

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic pollutant and is important to understand its cycling in the environment. In this dissertation, a number of modeling investigations were conducted to better understand the emission from natural surfaces, the source-receptor relationship of the emissions, and emission reduction of atmospheric mercury. The first part of this work estimates mercury emissions from vegetation, soil and water surfaces using a number of natural emission processors and detailed (LAI) Leaf Area Index data from GIS (Geographic Information System) satellite products. East Asian domain was chosen as it contributes nearly 50% of the global anthropogenic mercury emissions into the atmosphere. The estimated annual natural mercury emissions (gaseous elemental mercury) in the domain are 834 Mg yr-1 with 462 Mg yr-1 contributing from China. Compared to anthropogenic sources, natural sources show greater seasonal variability (highest in simmer). The emissions are significant, sometimes dominant, contributors to total mercury emission in the regions. The estimates provide possible explanation for the gaps between the anthropogenic emission estimates based on activity data and the emission inferred from field observations in the regions. To understand the contribution of domestic emissions to mercury deposition in the United States, the second part of the work applies the mercury model of Community Multi-scale Air Quality Modeling system (CMAQ-Hg v4.6) to apportion the various emission sources attributing to the mercury wet and dry deposition in the 6 United States receptor regions. Contributions to mercury deposition from electric generating units (EGU), iron and steel industry (IRST), industrial point sources excluding EGU and IRST (OIPM), the remaining anthropogenic sources (RA), natural processes (NAT), and out-of-boundary transport (BC) in domain was estimated. The model results for 2005 compared reasonably well to field observations made by MDN (Mercury Deposition Network

  5. AN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) TESTING OF FOUR MERCURY EMISSION SAMPLING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    CEMs - Tekran Instrument Corp. Series 3300 and Thermo Electron's Mercury Freedom System Continuous Emission Monitors (CEMs) for mercury are designed to determine total and/or chemically speciated vapor-phase mercury in combustion emissions. Performance for mercury CEMs are cont...

  6. Atmospheric mercury emissions from polluted gold mining areas (Venezuela).

    PubMed

    García-Sánchez, A; Contreras, F; Adams, M; Santos, F

    2006-12-01

    Soil, waste rock and mud from mercury-gold amalgamation mining areas of El Callao (Venezuela) are highly enriched in Hg (0.5-500 microg g(-1)) relative to natural background concentrations (<0.1 microg g(-1)). Mercury fluxes to the atmosphere from twelve polluted sites of this area were measured in situ (6 a.m. to 8 p.m.) using a Plexiglas flux chamber connected to a portable mercury analyzer (model RA-915+; Lumex, St. Petersburg, Russia). Mercury fluxes ranged between 0.65 and 420.1 microg m(-2) h(-1), and the average flux range during the diurnal hours was 9.1-239.2 microg m(-2) h(-1). These flux values are five orders of magnitude higher than both reported world background Hg fluxes (1-69 ng m(-2) h(-1)) and the regional values, which are in the range 2-10 ng m(-2) h(-1). The flux results obtained in this study are, however, similar to those measured at Hg polluted sites such as chloro-alkali plants or polymetallic ore mining districts (>100,000 ng m(-2) h(-1)). The results from this study also show that Hg emissions from the soil are influenced by solar radiation, soil temperature and soil Hg concentration. Our data suggest that solar radiation may be the dominant factor affecting Hg degrees emission since the major species of mercury in polluted soil is Hg degrees (85-97% of total Hg). The simple release of Hg degrees vapor is probably the dominant process occurring with incident light in the field. The apparent activation energy for mercury emission indicates that the volatilization of mercury mainly occurred as a result of the vaporization of elemental mercury in soil. The degree of Hg emission differed significantly among the soil sites studied, which may be due to variations in soil texture, organic matter content and soil compaction.

  7. Controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, R.

    2009-07-15

    Increasingly stringent US federal and state limits on mercury emissions form coal-fired power plants demand optimal mercury control technologies. This article summarises the successful removal of mercury emissions achieved with activated carbon injection and boiler bromide addition, technologies nearing commercial readiness, as well as several novel control concepts currently under development. It also discusses some of the issues standing in the way of confident performance and cost predictions. In testing conducted on western coal-fired units with fabric filters or TOXECON to date, ACI has generally achieved mercury removal rates > 90%. At units with ESPs, similar performance requires brominated ACI. Alternatively, units firing western coals can use boiler bromide addition to increase flue gas mercury oxidation and downstream capture in a wet scrubber, or to enhance mercury removal by ACI. At eastern bituminous fired units with ESPs, ACI is not as effective, largely due to SO{sub 3} resulting from the high sulfur content of the coal or the use of SO{sub 3} flue gas conditioning to improve ESP performance. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  8. A CAVITY RING-DOWN SPECTROSCOPY MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher C. Carter, Ph.D.

    2003-06-30

    Previous work on the detection of mercury using the cavity ring-down (CRD) technique has concentrated on the detection and characterization of the desired mercury transition. Interferent species present in flue gas emissions have been tested as well as a simulated flue gas stream. Additionally, work has been done on different mercury species such as the elemental and oxidized forms. The next phase of the effort deals with the actual sampling system. This sampling system will be responsible for acquiring a sample stream from the flue gas stack, taking it to the CRD cavity where it will be analyzed and returning the gas stream to the stack. In the process of transporting the sample gas stream every effort must be taken to minimize any losses of mercury to the walls of the sampling system as well as maintaining the mercury in its specific state (i.e. elemental, oxidized, or other mercury compounds). SRD first evaluated a number of commercially available sampling systems. These systems ranged from a complete sampling system to a number of individual components for specific tasks. SRD engineers used some commercially available components and designed a sampling system suited to the needs of the CRD instrument. This included components such as a pyrolysis oven to convert all forms of mercury to elemental mercury, a calibration air source to ensure mirror alignment and quality of the mirror surfaces, and a pumping system to maintain the CRD cavity pressure from atmospheric pressure (760 torr) down to about 50 torr. SRD also began evaluating methods for the CRD instrument to automatically find the center of a mercury transition. This procedure is necessary as the instrument must periodically measure the baseline losses of the cavity off of the mercury resonance and then return to the center of the transition to accurately measure the mercury concentration. This procedure is somewhat complicated due to the isotopic structure of the 254 nm mercury transition. As a result of

  9. A CAVITY RING-DOWN SPECTROSCOPY MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher C. Carter, Ph.D.

    2003-04-01

    Accurate reporting of mercury concentration requires a detailed model that includes experimental parameters that vary, such as: pressure, temperature, concentration, absorption cross-section, and isotopic structure etc. During this quarter a theoretical model has been developed to model the 253.7 nm mercury transition. In addition, while testing the interferent species SO{sub 2}, SRD was able to determine the absorption cross-section experimentally and add this to the theoretical model. Assuming that the baseline losses are due to the mirror reflectivity and SO{sub 2}, SRD can now determine the concentrations of both mercury and SO{sub 2} from the data taken. For the CRD instrument to perform as a continuous emission monitor it will be required to monitor mercury concentrations over extended periods of time. The stability of monitoring mercury concentrations over time with the CRD apparatus was tested during the past quarter. During a test which monitored the mercury concentration every 2 seconds it was found that the standard deviation, of a signal from about 1.25 ppb Hg, was only 30 ppt. SRD continued interferent gas testing during this past quarter. This included creating a simulated flue gas composed of the gases tested individually by SRD. The detection limits for mercury, although dependent on the concentration of SO{sub 2} in the simulated gas matrix, remained well below the ppb range. It was determined that for the gases tested the only measurable changes in the baseline level occurred for SO{sub 2} and mercury. Speciation studies continued with mercury chloride (HgCl{sub 2}). This included checking for spectral speciation with both Hg and HgCl{sub 2} present in the CRD cavity. There was no observable spectral shift. Also a pyrolysis oven was incorporated into the gas delivery system both for tests with HgCl{sub 2} as well as atomization of the entire gas stream. The pyrolysis tests conducted have been inconclusive thus far.

  10. Mercury Emission Control Technologies for PPL Montana-Colstrip Testing

    SciTech Connect

    John P. Kay; Michael L. Jones; Steven A. Benson

    2007-04-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) was asked by PPL Montana LLC (PPL) to provide assistance and develop an approach to identify cost-effective options for mercury control at its coal-fired power plants. The work conducted focused on baseline mercury level and speciation measurement, short-term parametric testing, and week long testing of mercury control technology at Colstrip Unit 3. Three techniques and various combinations of these techniques were identified as viable options for mercury control. The options included oxidizing agents or sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) such as chlorine-based SEA1 and an EERC proprietary SEA2 with and without activated carbon injection. Baseline mercury emissions from Colstrip Unit 3 are comparatively low relative to other Powder River Basin (PRB) coal-fired systems and were found to range from 5 to 6.5 g/Nm3 (2.9 to 3.8 lb/TBtu), with a rough value of approximately 80% being elemental upstream of the scrubber and higher than 95% being elemental at the outlet. Levels in the stack were also greater than 95% elemental. Baseline mercury removal across the scrubber is fairly variable but generally tends to be about 5% to 10%. Parametric results of carbon injection alone yielded minimal reduction in Hg emissions. SEA1 injection resulted in 20% additional reduction over baseline with the maximum rate of 400 ppm (3 gal/min). Week long testing was conducted with the combination of SEA2 and carbon, with injection rates of 75 ppm (10.3 lb/hr) and 1.5 lb/MMacf (40 lb/hr), respectively. Reduction was found to be an additional 30% and, overall during the testing period, was measured to be 38% across the scrubber. The novel additive injection method, known as novel SEA2, is several orders of magnitude safer and less expensive than current SEA2 injection methods. However, used in conjunction with this plant configuration, the technology did not demonstrate a significant level of mercury reduction. Near-future use of this

  11. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF MERCURY CEMS FOR COMBUSTION EMISSIONS MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Continuous emission montiroing systems (CEMS) for mercury (Hg) are receiving increased attention and focus. Their potential use as a compiance assurance tool is of particular interest. While Hg CEMS are currently used in Europe for compliance purposes, use of Hg CEMS in the Unite...

  12. INVESTIGATION OF THE LIGHT ENHANCED EMISSION OF MERCURY FROM NATURALLY ENRICHED SUBSTRATES. (R827622E02)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Incident radiation has been reported to facilitate mercury release from soils. In this study the influence of light on mercury emissions from substrates amended with pure synthetic mercury species, and from naturally and anthropogenically mercury-enriched substrates were inves...

  13. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; MILIAN, L.; LIPFERT, F.; SUBRAMANIAM, S.; BLAKE, R.

    2005-09-21

    Mercury is a neurotoxin that accumulates in the food chain and is therefore a health concern. The primary human exposure pathway is through fish consumption. Coal-fired power plants emit mercury and there is uncertainty over whether this creates localized hot spots of mercury leading to substantially higher levels of mercury in water bodies and therefore higher exposure. To obtain direct evidence of local deposition patterns, soil and vegetations samples from around three U.S. coal-fired power plants were collected and analyzed for evidence of hot spots and for correlation with model predictions of deposition. At all three sites, there was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. It was estimated that less than 2% of the total mercury emissions from these plants deposited within 15 km of these plants. These small percentages of deposition are consistent with the literature review findings of only minor perturbations in environmental levels, as opposed to hot spots, near the plants. The major objective of the sampling studies was to determine if there was evidence for hot spots of mercury deposition around coal-fired power plants. From a public health perspective, such a hot spot must be large enough to insure that it did not occur by chance, and it must increase mercury concentrations to a level in which health effects are a concern in a water body large enough to support a population of subsistence fishers. The results of this study suggest that neither of these conditions has been met.

  14. Temporal Trend and Spatial Distribution of Speciated Atmospheric Mercury Emissions in China During 1978-2014.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qingru; Wang, Shuxiao; Li, Guoliang; Liang, Sai; Lin, Che-Jen; Wang, Yafei; Cai, Siyi; Liu, Kaiyun; Hao, Jiming

    2016-12-20

    Mercury pollution control has become a global goal. The accurate estimate of long-term mercury emissions in China is critical to evaluate the global mercury budget and the emission reduction potentials. In this study, we used a technology-based approach to compile a consistent series of China's atmospheric mercury emissions at provincial level from 1978 to 2014. China totally emitted 13 294 t of anthropogenic mercury to air during 1978-2014, in which gaseous elemental mercury, gaseous oxidized mercury, and particulate-bound mercury accounted for 58.2%, 37.1%, and 4.7%, respectively. The mercury removed during this period were 2085 t in coal-fired power plants (counting 49% of mercury input), 7259 t in Zn smelting (79%), 771 t in coal-fired industrial boilers (25%), and 658 t in cement production plants (27%), respectively. Annual mercury emissions increased from 147 t in 1978 to 530 t in 2014. Both sectoral and spatial emissions of atmospheric mercury experienced significant changes. The largest mercury emission source evolved from coal-fired industrial boilers before 1998, to zinc smelting during 1999-2004, coal-fired power plants during 2005-2008, finally to cement production after 2009. Coal-fired industrial boilers and cement production have become critical hotpots for China's mercury pollution control.

  15. Enhanced control of mercury emissions through modified speciation

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, C.D.; Mendelsohn, M.H.

    1997-07-01

    In anticipation of possible regulations regarding mercury emissions, research efforts sponsored by DOE, EPRI, and others are investigating the risks posed by mercury emissions, improved techniques for measuring those emissions, and possible control measures. The focus in the control research is on techniques that can be used in conjunction with existing flue-gas-cleanup (FGC) systems in order to minimize additional capital costs and operational complexity. Argonne National Laboratory has supported the DOE Fossil Energy Program for over 15 years with research on advanced environmental control technologies. The emphasis in Argonne`s work has been on integrated systems that combine control of several pollutants. Specific topics have included spray drying for sulfur dioxide and particulate-matter control with high-sulfur coal, combined sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides control technologies, and techniques to enhance mercury control in existing FGC systems. The latter area has focused on low-cost dry sorbents for use with fabric filters or electrostatic precipitators and techniques for improving the capture of mercury in wet flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. This paper presents results from recent work that has studied the effects of several oxidizing agents in combination with typical flue-gas species (e.g., nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide) on the oxidation of Hg{sup 0}.

  16. Mercury emission from a cement factory and its influence on the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuzaki, Norio; Tamura, Ryozo; Hirano, Yuzuru; Mizushima, Yoshio

    Mercury balance was investigated in a cement factory, measuring the mercury concentration in ingredients, fuels, cement and exhaust gases, etc. Daily mercury emission quantity from the factory was estimated to be 1.5 kg, originating mostly from limestone. Gaseous and particulate mercury concentrations in ambient air were 4.1-8.7 ng m -3 and 0.15-0.68 ng m -3, respectively. Particulate mercury concentrations are remarkably higher than the background ones. The influence of mercury emission estimated from the determined mercury levels in the leaves of indicator plants reaches up to 5 km at least from the source. The sum of the mercury quantity deposited from the atmosphere and that taken by leaves of plants in the area within a 5-km radius from the factory was calculated to be about 4% of the entire mercury emitted. The mercury residue was recognized in humus and surface soil in the forest near the factory.

  17. 40 CFR 63.11645 - What are my mercury emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are my mercury emission standards... Area Source Category Standards and Compliance Requirements § 63.11645 What are my mercury emission standards? (a) For existing ore pretreatment processes, you must emit no more than 127 pounds of mercury...

  18. 40 CFR 63.11645 - What are my mercury emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are my mercury emission standards... Area Source Category Standards and Compliance Requirements § 63.11645 What are my mercury emission standards? (a) For existing ore pretreatment processes, you must emit no more than 127 pounds of mercury...

  19. 40 CFR 63.11645 - What are my mercury emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are my mercury emission standards... Area Source Category Standards and Compliance Requirements § 63.11645 What are my mercury emission standards? (a) For existing ore pretreatment processes, you must emit no more than 127 pounds of mercury...

  20. 40 CFR 63.11645 - What are my mercury emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are my mercury emission standards... Area Source Category Standards and Compliance Requirements § 63.11645 What are my mercury emission standards? (a) For existing ore pretreatment processes, you must emit no more than 127 pounds of mercury...

  1. Gaseous mercury emissions from natural sources in Canadian landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, W. H.; Beauchamp, S.; Edwards, G.; Poissant, L.; Rasmussen, P.; Tordon, R.; Dias, G.; Kemp, J.; van Heyst, B.; Banic, C. M.

    2005-09-01

    Field measurements of mercury air-surface exchange from natural settings were made in various Canadian landscapes. Soil and water samples were analyzed for mercury concentrations, and air-surface exchange fluxes from these substrates were determined using dynamic chamber, micrometeorological, or modeling methods. Environmental variables, including air and soil/water temperature, solar radiation, humidity, and wind speed, were monitored concurrently with the air-surface exchange to better understand the processes affecting the environmental cycling of mercury. Average mercury fluxes from aquatic landscapes ranged from 0.0 to 5.0 ng m-2 h-1 with total mercury concentration in water ranging from 0.3 to 6.5 ng L-1. A significant correlation (R2 = 0.47) was found between gaseous Hg fluxes and total Hg concentration in water. Mean gaseous Hg fluxes from forest soils varied from -0.4 to 2.2 ng m-2 h-1, while those from agricultural fields ranged from 1.1 to 2.9 ng m-2 h-1. Non-mineralized bedrock, sand, and till sites yielded fluxes ranging from -0.03 to 5.9 ng m-2 h-1. Mean fluxes from mercuriferous geological substrates at various locations were large compared to non-mercuriferous sites, ranging from 9.1 to 1760 ng m-2 h-1, and represent natural emissions. The corresponding total mercury substrate concentrations ranged from 0.360 to 180 ppm. A significant correlation (R2 = 0.66) was found between Hg fluxes and total Hg concentrations in mineralized and non-mineralized substrates. These gaseous Hg flux measurements represent a significant contribution to understanding natural mercury cycling, but there are still insufficient data and knowledge of processes to properly scale up fluxes from natural sources in Canada.

  2. Mercury enrichment and its effects on atmospheric emissions in cement plants of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fengyang; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Hai; Wu, Qingru; Hao, Jiming

    2014-08-01

    The cement industry is one of the most significant anthropogenic sources of atmospheric mercury emissions worldwide. In this study of three typical Chinese cement plants, mercury in kiln flue gas was sampled using the Ontario Hydro Method (OHM), and solid samples were analyzed. Particulate matter recycling, preheating of raw materials, and the use of coal and flue gas desulfurization derived gypsum contributed to emissions of Hg in the air and to accumulation in cement. Over 90% of the mercury input was emitted into the atmosphere. Mercury emission factors were 0.044-0.072 g/t clinker for the test plants. The major species emitted into the atmosphere from cement plants is oxidized mercury, accounting for 61%-91% of the total mercury in flue gas. The results of this study help improve the accuracy of the mercury emission inventory in China and provide useful information for developing mercury controls.

  3. Quantifying natural source mercury emissions from the Ivanhoe Mining District, north-central Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engle, Mark A.; Gustin, Mae Sexauer; Zhang, Hong

    In order to assess the importance of mercury emissions from naturally enriched sources relative to anthropogenic point sources, data must be collected that characterizes mercury emissions from representative areas and quantifies the influence of various environmental parameters that control emissions. With this information, we will be able to scale up natural source emissions to regional areas. In this study in situ mercury emission measurements were used, along with data from laboratory studies and statistical analysis, to scale up mercury emissions for the naturally enriched Ivanhoe Mining District, Nevada. Results from stepwise multi-variate regression analysis indicated that lithology, soil mercury concentration, and distance from the nearest fault were the most important factors controlling mercury flux. Field and lab experiments demonstrated that light and precipitation enhanced mercury emissions from alluvium with background mercury concentrations. Diel mercury emissions followed a Gaussian distribution. The Gaussian distribution was used to calculate an average daily emission for each lithologic unit, which were then used to calculate an average flux for the entire area of 17.1 ng Hg m -2 h -1. An annual emission of ˜8.7×10 4 g of mercury to the atmosphere was calculated for the 586 km 2 area. The bulk of the Hg released into the atmosphere from the district (˜89%) is from naturally enriched non-point sources and ˜11% is emitted from areas of anthropogenic disturbance where mercury was mined. Mercury emissions from this area exceed the natural emission factor applied to mercury rich belts of the world (1.5 ng m -2 h -1) by an order of magnitude.

  4. A Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy Mercury Continuous Emission Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher C. Carter

    2004-12-15

    The Sensor Research & Development Corporation (SRD) has undertaken the development of a Continuous Emissions Monitor (CEM) for mercury based on the technique of Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRD). The project involved building an instrument for the detection of trace levels of mercury in the flue gas emissions from coal-fired power plants. The project has occurred over two phases. The first phase concentrated on the development of the ringdown cavity and the actual detection of mercury. The second phase dealt with the construction and integration of the sampling system, used to carry the sample from the flue stack to the CRD cavity, into the overall CRD instrument. The project incorporated a Pulsed Alexandrite Laser (PAL) system from Light Age Incorporated as the source to produce the desired narrow band 254 nm ultra-violet (UV) radiation. This laser system was seeded with a diode laser to bring the linewidth of the output beam from about 150 GHz to less than 60 MHz for the fundamental beam. Through a variety of non-linear optics the 761 nm fundamental beam is converted into the 254 nm beam needed for mercury detection. Detection of the mercury transition was verified by the identification of the characteristic natural isotopic structure observed at lower cavity pressures. The five characteristic peaks, due to both natural isotopic abundance and hyperfine splitting, provided a unique identifier for mercury. SRD scientists were able to detect mercury in air down below 10 parts-per-trillion by volume (pptr). This value is dependent on the pressure and temperature within the CRD cavity at the time of detection. Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) absorbs UV radiation in the same spectral region as mercury, which is a significant problem for most mercury detection equipment. However, SRD has not only been able to determine accurate mercury concentrations in the presence of SO{sub 2}, but the CRD instrument can in fact determine the SO{sub 2} concentration as well. Detection of

  5. Control of mercury emissions from stationary coal combustion sources in China: Current status and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2016-11-01

    Coal burning in power plants and industrial boilers is the largest combustion source of mercury emissions in China. Together, power plants and industrial boilers emit around 250 tonnes of mercury each year, or around half of atmospheric mercury emissions from anthropogenic sources in the country. Power plants in China are generally equipped with multi-pollutant control technologies, which offer the co-benefit of mercury removal, while mercury-specific control technologies have been installed in some facilities. In contrast, most industrial boilers have only basic or no flue gas cleaning. A combination of measures, including energy conservation, coal switching and blending, reducing the mercury contents of coals through washing, combustion controls, and flue gas cleaning, can be used to reduce mercury emissions from these stationary combustion sources. More stringent emission standards for the major air pollutants from coal-fired power plants and industrial boiler, along with standards for the previously unregulated mercury, were implemented recently, which is expected to bring significant reduction in their mercury emissions through the necessary upgrades of multi-pollutant and mercury-specific control technologies. Meanwhile, strong monitoring capacity and strict enforcement are necessary to ensure that the combustion sources operate in compliance with the new emission standards and achieve significant reduction in the emissions of mercury and other air pollutants.

  6. Atmospheric mercury emissions from mine wastes and surrounding geologically enriched terrains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gustin, M.S.; Coolbaugh, M.F.; Engle, M.A.; Fitzgerald, B.C.; Keislar, R.E.; Lindberg, S.E.; Nacht, D.M.; Quashnick, J.; Rytuba, J.J.; Sladek, C.; Zhang, H.; Zehner, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    Waste rock and ore associated with Hg, precious and base metal mining, and their surrounding host rocks are typically enriched in mercury relative to natural background concentrations (<0.1 ??g Hg g-1). Mercury fluxes to the atmosphere from mineralized areas can range from background rates (0-15 ng m-2 h-1) to tens of thousands of ng m-2 h-1. Mercury enriched substrate constitutes a long-term source of mercury to the global atmospheric mercury pool. Mercury emissions from substrate are influenced by light, temperature, precipitation, and substrate mercury concentration, and occur during the day and night. Light-enhanced emissions are driven by two processes: desorption of elemental mercury accumulated at the soil:air interface, and photo reduction of mercury containing phases. To determine the need for and effectiveness of regulatory controls on short-lived anthropogenic point sources the contribution of mercury from geologic non-point sources to the atmospheric mercury pool needs to be quantified. The atmospheric mercury contribution from small areas of mining disturbance with relatively high mercury concentrations are, in general, less than that from surrounding large areas of low levels of mercury enrichment. In the arid to semi-arid west-ern United States volatilization is the primary means by which mercury is released from enriched sites.

  7. Global mercury emissions from combustion in light of international fuel trading.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yilin; Wang, Rong; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Chen, Han; Huang, Ye; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Yuanchen; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Liu, Junfeng; Li, Bengang; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin; Coveney, Raymond M; Tao, Shu

    2014-01-01

    The spatially resolved emission inventory is essential for understanding the fate of mercury. Previous global mercury emission inventories for fuel combustion sources overlooked the influence of fuel trading on local emission estimates of many countries, mostly developing countries, for which national emission data are not available. This study demonstrates that in many countries, the mercury content of coal and petroleum locally consumed differ significantly from those locally produced. If the mercury content in locally produced fuels were used to estimate emission, then the resulting global mercury emissions from coal and petroleum would be overestimated by 4.7 and 72%, respectively. Even higher misestimations would exist in individual countries, leading to strong spatial bias. On the basis of the available data on fuel trading and an updated global fuel consumption database, a new mercury emission inventory for 64 combustion sources has been developed. The emissions were mapped at 0.1° × 0.1° resolution for 2007 and at country resolution for a period from 1960 to 2006. The estimated global total mercury emission from all combustion sources (fossil fuel, biomass fuel, solid waste, and wildfires) in 2007 was 1454 Mg (1232-1691 Mg as interquartile range from Monte Carlo simulation), among which elementary mercury (Hg(0)), divalent gaseous mercury (Hg(2+)), and particulate mercury (Hg(p)) were 725, 548, and 181 Mg, respectively. The total emission from anthropogenic sources, excluding wildfires, was 1040 Mg (886-1248 Mg), with coal combustion contributing more than half. Globally, total annual anthropogenic mercury emission from combustion sources increased from 285 Mg (263-358 Mg) in 1960 to 1040 Mg (886-1248 Mg) in 2007, owing to an increased fuel consumption in developing countries. However, mercury emissions from developed countries have decreased since 2000.

  8. Mercury emissions from burning of biomass from temperate North American forests: laboratory and airborne measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedli, H. R.; Radke, L. F.; Lu, J. Y.; Banic, C. M.; Leaitch, W. R.; MacPherson, J. I.

    The emission of mercury from biomass burning was investigated in laboratory experiments and the results confirmed in airborne measurements on a wildfire near Hearst, Ont. Mercury contained in vegetation (live, dead, coniferous, deciduous) was essentially completely released in laboratory burns in the form of gaseous elemental mercury and mercury contained in particles. Replicate burns of dry Ponderosa needles indicated a linear relationship between emitted mercury and fuel mass loss. Regionally collected fuels showed the same behavior as the replicate burns, i.e. essentially total removal of mercury. Mercury released from fuel could be accounted for as gaseous and particulate mercury in the smoke. The mercury content of regionally collected fuels varied between 14 and 70 ng/g on a dry mass (dm) basis. The smoke plume from a small wildfire was investigated with a research aircraft yielding a mean output of 0.15±0.02 ng/m 3 of elemental mercury for each ppm of CO 2 emitted. The particulate mercury determined by sampling at specific points in the plume was <0.083 ng/m 3 compared to elemental mercury of 0.56 ng/m 3 for the same air, supporting the conclusion that most of the mercury was emitted in the gaseous elemental form. Emission factors for the high/low mercury content samples of the laboratory burns were 14-71×10 -6 and 112×10 -6 g Hg/kg (dm) fuel for the wildfire. The difference is believed to be the contribution of mercury released from fire-heated soil. Mercury budgets extrapolated from this single wildfire gave upper emission limits of 66 t/yr for temperate/boreal forests. This large source estimate must be refined and included in future regional and global models. Forests are sinks for mercury already in the atmosphere, thus the wildfire "source" is part of the overall cycling of mercury originating from other sources.

  9. JV Task 98 - Controlling Mercury Emissions for Utilities Firing Lignites from North America

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Benson

    2007-06-15

    This project compiled and summarized the findings and conclusions of research, development, and demonstration projects on controlling mercury from lignite coals. A significant amount of work has been conducted since 1994 on mercury in lignite, mercury measurement in flue gases, sorbent, sorbent enhancement additives, oxidation agent development, and full-scale demonstration of mercury control technologies. This report is focused on providing the lignite industry with an understanding of mercury issues associated with the combustion of lignite, as well as providing vital information on the methods to control mercury emissions in coal-fired power plants.

  10. An assessment of costs and benefits associated with mercury emission reductions from major anthropogenic sources.

    PubMed

    Pacyna, Jozef M; Sundseth, Kyrre; Pacyna, Elisabeth G; Jozewicz, Wojciech; Munthe, John; Belhaj, Mohammed; Aström, Stefan

    2010-03-01

    Several measures are available for reducing mercury emissions; however, these measures differ with regard to emission control efficiency, cost, and environmental benefits obtained through their implementation. Measures that include the application of technology, such as technology to remove mercury from flue gases in electric power plants, waste incinerators, and smelters, are rather expensive compared with nontechnological measures. In general, dedicated mercury removal is considerably more expensive than a co-benefit strategy, using air pollution control equipment originally designed to limit emissions of criterion pollutants, such as particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, or oxides of nitrogen. Substantial benefits can be achieved globally by introducing mercury emission reduction measures because they reduce human and wildlife exposure to methyl mercury. Although the reduction potential is greatest with the technological measures, technological and nontechnological solutions for mercury emissions and exposure reductions can be carried out in parallel.

  11. Optimizing Technology to Reduce Mercury and Acid Gas Emissions from Electric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2005-01-31

    Revised maps and associated data show potential mercury, sulfur, and chlorine emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin. Existing coal mining and coal washing practices result in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hot-side ESP, cold-side ESP, or hot-side ESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cold-side ESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum net mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions.

  12. Atmospheric mercury emissions and speciation at the sulphur bank mercury mine superfund site, Northern California.

    PubMed

    Nacht, David M; Gustin, Mae Sexauer; Engle, Mark A; Zehner, Richard E; Giglini, Anthony D

    2004-04-01

    One pathway for release of mercury (Hg) from naturally enriched sites is emission to the atmosphere. Elemental Hg, when emitted, will enter the global atmospheric pool. In contrast, if reactive gaseous Hg or Hg2+ (as HgCl2, HgBr2, or HgOH2) is formed, it will most likely be deposited locally. This study focused on the measurement of elemental Hg flux and reactive gaseous Hg concentrations at the Sulphur Bank Superfund Site, an area of natural Hg enrichment with anthropogenic disturbance and ongoing geothermal activity. Mean Hg emissions ranged from 14 to 11000 ng m(-2) h(-1), with the highest emissions from anthropogenically disturbed materials. Reactive gaseous Hg concentrations were the highest ever reported for a natural setting (0.3-76 ng m(-3)). Measured Hg fluxes were used within a Geographic Information System to estimate mercury releases to the atmosphere from the site. Results indicated approximately 17 kg of Hg y(-1) of is emitted to the atmosphere from the 3.8 km2 area, with half from mine waste, ore, and tailing piles and half from relatively undisturbed naturally enriched substrate.

  13. Mercury and plants in contaminated soils. 1: Uptake, partitioning, and emission to the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, T.L.; Gustin, M.S.; Fernandez, G.C.J.; Taylor, G.E. Jr.

    1998-10-01

    The uptake, distribution, and subsequent emission of mercury to the atmosphere were investigated in five plant species (Lepidium latifolium [L.], Artemisia douglasiana [Bess in Hook], Caulanthus sp. [S. Watson], Fragaria vesca [L.], and Eucalyptus globulus [Labill]) with different ecological and physiological attributes. Transfer coefficients for mercury in the soil-plant system were calculated. Plant-to-atmosphere emissions of mercury were determined using a controlled environment gas-exchange system and ranged from 10 to 93 mg/m{sup 2}/h in the light; emissions in the dark were an order of magnitude less. Transfer coefficients for mercury within the soil-plant system increased acropetally (root-to-leaf axis) by orders of magnitude. Estimated mercury emissions from plants in the Carson River Drainage Basin of Nevada over the growing season (0.5 mg/m{sup 2}) add to the previously reported soil mercury emissions (8.5 mg/m{sup 2}), resulting in total landscape emissions of 9 mg/m{sup 2}. For L. latifolium, 70% of the mercury taken up by the roots during the growing season was emitted to the atmosphere. For every one molecule of mercury retained in foliage of L. latifolium, 12 molecules of mercury were emitted. Within this arid ecosystem, mercury emissions are a dominant pathway of the mercury cycle. Plants function as conduits for the interfacial transport of mercury from the geosphere to the atmosphere, and this role is undervalued in models of the behavior of mercury in terrestrial exosystems and in the atmosphere on a global scale.

  14. Mercury

    MedlinePlus

    ... the lungs Medicine to remove mercury and heavy metals from the body INORGANIC MERCURY For inorganic mercury ... Baum CR. Mercury: Heavy metals and inorganic agents. In: Shannon MW, ... and Winchester's Clinical Management of Poisoning and Drug ...

  15. Mercury emissions of a coal-fired power plant in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigelt, Andreas; Slemr, Franz; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Pirrone, Nicola; Bieser, Johannes; Bödewadt, Jan; Esposito, Giulio; van Velthoven, Peter F. J.

    2016-11-01

    Hg / SO2, Hg / CO, NOx / SO2 (NOx being the sum of NO and NO2) emission ratios (ERs) in the plume of the coal-fired power plant (CFPP), Lippendorf, near Leipzig, Germany, were determined within the European Tropospheric Mercury Experiment (ETMEP) aircraft campaign in August 2013. The gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) fraction of mercury emissions was also assessed. Measured Hg / SO2 and Hg / CO ERs were within the measurement uncertainties consistent with the ratios calculated from annual emissions in 2013 reported by the CFPP operator, while the NOx / SO2 ER was somewhat lower. The GOM fraction of total mercury emissions, estimated using three independent methods, was below ˜ 25 %. This result is consistent with other findings and suggests that GOM fractions of ˜ 40 % of CFPP mercury emissions in current emission inventories are overestimated.

  16. Mercury emission and speciation of coal-fired power plants in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. X.; Zhang, L.; Li, G. H.; Wu, Y.; Hao, J. M.; Pirrone, N.; Sprovieri, F.; Ancora, M. P.

    2010-02-01

    Comprehensive field measurements are needed to understand the mercury emissions from Chinese power plants and to improve the accuracy of emission inventories. Characterization of mercury emissions and their behavior were measured in six typical coal-fired power plants in China. During the tests, the flue gas was sampled simultaneously at inlet and outlet of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), electrostatic precipitators (ESP), and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) using the Ontario Hydro Method (OHM). The pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash and gypsum were also sampled in the field. Mercury concentrations in coal burned in the measured power plants ranged from 17 to 385 μg/kg. The mercury mass balances for the six power plants varied from 87 to 116% of the input coal mercury for the whole system. The total mercury concentrations in the flue gas from boilers were at the range of 1.92-27.15 μg/m3, which were significantly related to the mercury contents in burned coal. The mercury speciation in flue gas right after the boiler is influenced by the contents of halogen, mercury, and ash in the burned coal. The average mercury removal efficiencies of ESP, ESP plus wet FGD, and ESP plus dry FGD-FF systems were 24%, 73% and 66%, respectively, which were similar to the average removal efficiencies of pollution control device systems in other countries such as US, Japan and South Korea. The SCR system oxidized 16% elemental mercury and reduced about 32% of total mercury. Elemental mercury, accounting for 66-94% of total mercury, was the dominant species emitted to the atmosphere. The mercury emission factor was also calculated for each power plant.

  17. Mercury emission and speciation of coal-fired power plants in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Zhang, L.; Li, G.; Wu, Y.; Hao, J.; Pirrone, N.; Sprovieri, F.; Ancora, M. P.

    2009-11-01

    Comprehensive field measurements are needed to understand the mercury emissions from Chinese power plants and to improve the accuracy of emission inventories. Characterization of mercury emissions and their behavior were measured in six typical coal-fired power plants in China. During the tests, the flue gas was sampled simultaneously at inlet and outlet of selective catalyst reduction (SCR), electrostatic precipitators (ESP), and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) using the Ontario Hydro Method (OHM). The pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash and gypsum were also sampled in the field. Mercury concentrations in coal burned in the measured power plants ranged from 17 to 385 μg/kg. The mercury mass balances for the six power plants varied from 87 to 116% of the input coal mercury for the whole system. The total mercury concentrations in the flue gas from boilers were at the range of 1.92-27.15 μg/m3, which were significantly related to the mercury contents in burned coal. The mercury speciation in flue gas right after the boiler is influenced by the contents of halogen, mercury, and ash in the burned coal. The average mercury removal efficiencies of ESP, ESP plus wet FGD, and ESP plus dry FGD-FF systems were 24%, 73% and 66%, respectively, which were similar to the average removal efficiencies of pollution control device systems in other countries such as US, Japan and South Korea. The SCR system oxidized 16% elemental mercury and reduced about 32% of total mercury. Elemental mercury, accounting for 66-94% of total mercury, was the dominant species emitted to the atmosphere. The mercury emission factor was also calculated for each power plant.

  18. Mercury emission inventory and its spatial characteristics in the Pearl River Delta region, China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Junyu; Ou, Jiamin; Mo, Ziwei; Yin, Shasha

    2011-12-15

    A 3 km × 3 km gridded mercury emission inventory in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region for 2008 was compiled from the best available emission factors and official statistical data. The inventory presented a comprehensive estimation of anthropogenic mercury sources and roughly estimated the emissions from natural sources. The total mercury emissions in the PRD region for the year of 2008 are estimated to be 17,244 kg, of which 85% released as Hg(0), 11% as Hg(2+), and 4% as Hg(P). Anthropogenic activities are dominant sources, accounting for 91% of the total emissions, while natural sources constitute the remaining emissions. Ranking by cities, Foshan produces the largest mercury emissions, followed by Dongguan, Guangzhou and Jiangmen. Coal combustion, municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration, fluorescent lamp and battery production are dominant contributors, responsible for 28%, 21%, 19% and 16% of the anthropogenic emissions, respectively. The high contribution of MSW incineration results from the rapid growth of MSW incineration in this region, reflecting a new trend of mercury emissions in China, especially in the fast developing regions. This implies the urgent need for further investigation of mercury emissions and the importance of controlling mercury emissions from MSW incineration.

  19. Control of mercury emissions from coal fired electric uitlity boilers: An update

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coal-fired power plants in the U.S. are known to be the major anthropogenic source of domestic mercury emissions. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently proposed to reduce emissions of mercury from these plants. In March 2005, EPA plans to promulgate final regulat...

  20. PRELIMINARY PERFORMANCE AND COST ESTIMATES OF MERCURY EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS FOR ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory


    The paper discusses preliminary performance and cost estimates of mercury emission control options for electric utility boilers. Under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, EPA had to determine whether mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants should be regulated. To a...

  1. Update of mercury emissions from China's primary zinc, lead and copper smelters, 2000-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Q. R.; Wang, S. X.; Zhang, L.; Song, J. X.; Yang, H.; Meng, Y.

    2012-07-01

    China is the largest anthropogenic mercury emitter in the world, where primary nonferrous metal smelting process is regarded as one of the most significant emission sources. In this study, atmospheric mercury emissions from primary zinc, lead and copper smelters in China during 2000-2010 were estimated using a technology-based methodology with comprehensive consideration of mercury concentration in concentrates, smelting process, mercury removal efficiencies of air pollution control devices (APCDs) and installation rate of a certain type of APCD combination. Our study indicated that atmospheric mercury emission from nonferrous metal smelters in 2000, 2003, 2005, 2007 and 2010 was 67.6, 100.1 86.7 80.6 and 72.5 t, respectively. In 2010, the mercury in metal concentrates consumed by primary zinc, lead and copper smelters were 543 t. The mercury emitted into atmosphere, fly ash, other solids, waste water and acid was 72.5, 61.5, 2.0, 3774 and 27.2 t, respectively. Mercury retrieved directly from flue gas as byproduct of nonferrous metal smelting was about 2.4 t. The amounts of mercury emitted into atmosphere were 39.4, 30.6 and 2.5 t from primary zinc, lead and copper smelters, respectively. The largest amount of mercury was emitted from Gansu province, followed by Henan, Yunnan, Hunan, Inner Mongolia and Shaanxi provinces. The average mercury removal efficiency was 90.5%, 71.2% and 91.8% in zinc, lead, and copper smelters, respectively.

  2. Improved model for mercury emission, transport and deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gbor, Philip K.; Wen, Deyong; Meng, Fan; Yang, Fuquan; Zhang, Baoning; Sloan, James J.

    Most regional models that have been developed to study the behaviour of mercury (Hg) in the environment do not include detailed treatment of natural (i.e. non-anthropogenic) Hg emissions. We have developed a Hg emission model including natural sources; incorporated it into the CMAQ-Hg model (US EPA) and used it to study the behaviour of Hg in the atmosphere. Our natural Hg emission model uses an algorithm based on meteorology to calculate the emission from vegetation, soil and water using Hg concentrations in soil and water. Using our new model, we carried out simulations for the months of May to September 2000 inclusive on a domain covering eastern North America containing 75 by 70 grid cells at a resolution of 36 km. The simulated daily average natural Hg emission flux varied between 1.8 and 3.7 ng m -2 h -1, with the maximum occurring in July. The simulation found that the total natural emission averaged across the domain is about twice the anthropogenic emission. Hg concentration in the air and wet deposition amounts were higher in the eastern part of the domain than in the western part and reflected both local sources and transport. We report for the first time comparisons of hourly and daily Hg concentrations measured by CAMNet monitoring stations with model simulations done at the same timescales. The correlation coefficients ( R) between modelled daily average total gaseous Hg concentrations and measurements for Point Petre, Egbert and Burnt Island are between 0.74 and 0.82. Neglecting natural emissions led to poorer correlations (between 0.22 and 0.51), indicating the importance of including an accurate and detailed treatment of natural Hg emissions in atmospheric Hg models.

  3. Annual emissions of mercury to the atmosphere from natural sources in Nevada and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coolbaugh, M.F.; Gustin, M.S.; Rytuba, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The impact of natural source emissions on atmospheric mercury concentrations and the biogeochemical cycle of mercury is not known. To begin to assess this impact, mercury emissions to the atmosphere were scaled up for three areas naturally enriched in mercury: the Steamboat Springs geothermal area, Nevada, the New Idria mercury mining district, California, and the Medicine Lake volcano, California. Data used to scale up area emissions included mercury fluxes, measured in-situ using field flux chambers, from undisturbed and disturbed geologic substrates, and relationships between mercury emissions and geologic rock types, soil mercury concentrations, and surface heat flux. At select locations mercury fluxes were measured for 24 h and the data were used to adjust fluxes measured at different times of the day to give an average daily flux. This adjustment minimized daily temporal variability, which is observed for mercury flux because of light and temperature effects. Area emissions were scaled spatially and temporally with GIS software. Measured fluxes ranged from 0.3 to approximately 50 ng m-2 h-1 at undisturbed sites devoid of mercury mineralization, and to greater than 10,000 ng m-2 h-1 from substrates that were in areas of mercury mining. Area-averaged fluxes calculated for bare soil at Steamboat Springs, New Idria, and Medicine Lake of 181, 9.2, and 2 ng m-2 h-1, respectively, are greater than fluxes previously ascribed to natural non-point sources, indicating that these sources may be more significant contributors of mercury to the atmosphere than previously realized.

  4. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, D.D.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; ET AL.

    2004-03-30

    A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. There are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows (Lopez et al. 2003)). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg(0) in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg

  5. Mercury emission to atmosphere from primary Zn production in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Guanghui; Feng, Xinbin; Li, Zhonggen; Qiu, Guangle; Shang, Lihai; Liang, Peng; Wang, Dingyong; Yang, Yongkui

    2010-09-15

    Emissions of mercury (Hg) to air have regional and global impacts through long range transport in the atmosphere. Primary Zn production is regarded as an important anthropogenic Hg source in China, but research on its Hg emission is limited. To gain a better understanding of Hg emissions from Zn production activities in China, field investigations at four industrial-scale Zn production plants using electrostatic process with Hg removal (HP-WR), electrostatic process without Hg removal (HP-WOR), retort Zn production (RZ), imperial smelting process (ISP), and one artisanal Zn smelting process (AZ) were carried out. In the investigation, Hg emission factors are defined as how much Hg was emitted to the atmosphere per ton Zn produced during various Zn production methods and were estimated by using mass balance method. The results showed that the estimated Hg emission factors of Zn production were 5.7+/-4.0 g Hg t(-1) Zn for HP-WR, 31+/-22 g Hg t(-1) Zn for HP-WOR, 34+/-71 g Hg t(-1) Zn for RZ, 122+/-122 g Hg t(-1) Zn g t(-1) for ISP, and 75+/-115 g Hg t(-1) Zn for AZ. Approximately 80.7-104.2 t year(-1) of Hg was emitted to atmosphere from primary Zn production during the period of 2002-2006 in China.

  6. Particulate-phase mercury emissions from biomass burning ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Mercury (Hg) emissions from biomass burning (BB) are an important source of atmospheric Hg and a major factor driving the interannual variation of Hg concentrations in the troposphere. The greatest fraction of Hg from BB is released in the form of elemental Hg (Hg0(g)). However, little is known about the fraction of Hg bound to particulate matter (HgP) released from BB, and the factors controlling this fraction are also uncertain. In light of the aims of the Minamata Convention to reduce intentional Hg use and emissions from anthropogenic activities, the relative importance of Hg emissions from BB will have an increasing impact on Hg deposition fluxes. Hg speciation is one of the most important factors determining the redistribution of Hg in the atmosphere and the geographical distribution of Hg deposition. Using the latest version of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFEDv4.1s) and the global Hg chemistry transport model, ECHMERIT, the impact of Hg speciation in BB emissions, and the factors which influence speciation, on Hg deposition have been investigated for the year 2013. The role of other uncertainties related to physical and chemical atmospheric processes involving Hg and the influence of model parametrisations were also investigated, since their interactions with Hg speciation are complex. The comparison with atmospheric HgP concentrations observed at two remote sites, Amsterdam Island (AMD) and Manaus (MAN), in the Amazon showed a significant improve

  7. Waste Coal Fines Reburn for NOx and Mercury Emission Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Johnson; Chetan Chothani; Bernard Breen

    2008-04-30

    Injection of coal-water slurries (CWS) made with both waste coal and bituminous coal was tested for enhanced reduction of NO{sub x} and Hg emissions at the AES Beaver Valley plant near Monaca, PA. Under this project, Breen Energy Solutions (BES) conducted field experiments on the these emission reduction technologies by mixing coal fines and/or pulverized coal, urea and water to form slurry, then injecting the slurry in the upper furnace region of a coal-fired boiler. The main focus of this project was use of waste coal fines as the carbon source; however, testing was also conducted using pulverized coal in conjunction with or instead of waste coal fines for conversion efficiency and economic comparisons. The host site for this research and development project was Unit No.2 at AES Beaver Valley cogeneration station. Unit No.2 is a 35 MW Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) front-wall fired boiler that burns eastern bituminous coal. It has low NO{sub x} burners, overfire air ports and a urea-based selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system for NO{sub x} control. The back-end clean-up system includes a rotating mechanical ash particulate removal and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber. Coal slurry injection was expected to help reduce NOx emissions in two ways: (1) Via fuel-lean reburning when the slurry is injected above the combustion zone. (2) Via enhanced SNCR reduction when urea is incorporated into the slurry. The mercury control process under research uses carbon/water slurry injection to produce reactive carbon in-situ in the upper furnace, promoting the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal-fired power boilers. By controlling the water content of the slurry below the stoichiometric requirement for complete gasification, water activated carbon (WAC) can be generated in-situ in the upper furnace. As little as 1-2% coal/water slurry (heat input basis) can be injected and generate sufficient WAC for mercury

  8. After the Clean Air Mercury Eule: prospects for reducing mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jana B. Milford; Alison Pienciak

    2009-04-15

    Recent court decisions have affected the EPA's regulation of mercury emissions from coal burning, but some state laws are helping to clear the air. In 2005, the US EPA issued the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR), setting performance standards for new coal-fired power plants and nominally capping mercury emissions form new and existing plants at 38 tons per year from 2010 to 2017 and 15 tpy in 2018 and thereafter; these down from 48.5 tpy in 1999. To implement the CAMR, 21 states with non-zero emissions adopted EPA's new source performance standards and cap and trade program with little or no modification. By December 2007, 23 other states had proposed or adopted more stringent requirements; 16 states prohibited or restricted interstate trading of mercury emissions. On February 2008, the US Court of Appeal for the District of Columbia Circuit unanimously vacated the CAMR. This article assesses the status of mercury emission control requirements for coal-fired power plants in the US in light of this decision, focusing on state actions and prospects for a new federal rule. 34 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Mercury study report to Congress. Volume 6. An ecological assessment for anthropogenic mercury emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, J.W.

    1997-12-01

    In this volume, an ecological assessment for anthropogenic mercury emissions is developed. Exposures of wildlife species to methylmercury through the aquatic food chain are compared with toxicity data calculated in the development of criteria for the protection of fish-eating avian and mammalian wildlife. Descriptions of mercury impacts on biota are provided in the problem formulation chapter. Estimates are provided of mercury deposition on a local scale in areas near emissions point sources. the distributions of selected fish-consuming wildlife species are overlaid with predicted high mercury areas of high concern (e.g., areas with low-pH surface water) and compared with predicted deposition of anthropogenic mercury emissions. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for mercury in fish vary widely. Field data were used to calculate representive mean BAFs for different trophic levels based on dissolved methylmercury. Methylmercury criteria for the protection of piscivorous avian and mammalian wildlife are provided. This volume of the draft Report analyzes sources of variability and uncertainty in these estimates and identifies data that would strengthen the certainty of these findings.

  10. Mercury Production and Use in Colonial Andean Silver Production: Emissions and Health Implications

    PubMed Central

    Hagan, Nicole A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Colonial cinnabar mining and refining began in Huancavelica, Peru, in 1564. With a local source of mercury, the amalgamation process was adopted to refine silver in Potosí, Bolivia, in the early 1570s. As a result, large quantities of mercury were released into the environment. Objectives: We used archival, primary, and secondary sources to develop the first estimate of mercury emissions from cinnabar refining in Huancavelica and to revise previous estimates of emissions from silver refining in Potosí during the colonial period (1564–1810). Discussion: Although other estimates of historical mercury emissions have recognized Potosí as a significant source, Huancavelica has been overlooked. In addition, previous estimates of mercury emissions from silver refining under-estimated emissions because of unrecorded (contra-band) production and volatilization of mercury during processing and recovery. Archival descriptions document behavioral and health issues during the colonial period that are consistent with known effects of mercury intoxication. Conclusions: According to our calculations, between 1564 and 1810, an estimated 17,000 metric tons of mercury vapor were emitted from cinnabar smelting in Huancavelica, and an estimated 39,000 metric tons were released as vapor during silver refining operations in Potosí. Huancavelica and Potosí combined contributed > 25% of the 196,000 metric tons of mercury vapor emissions in all of Latin America between 1500 and 1800. The historical record is laden with evidence of mercury intoxication consistent with effects recognized today. Our estimates serve as the foundation of investigations of present-day contamination in Huancavelica and Potosí resulting from historical emissions of mercury. PMID:22334094

  11. Radiative Forcing associated with Particulate Carbon Emissions resulting from the Use of Mercury Control Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clack, H.; Penner, J. E.; Lin, G.

    2013-12-01

    Mercury is a persistent, toxic metal that bio-accumulates within the food web and causes neurological damage and fetal defects in humans. The U.S. was the first country to regulate the leading anthropogenic source of mercury into the atmosphere: coal combustion for electric power generation. The U.S. EPA's 2005 Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) was replaced and further tightened in 2012 by the Mercury and Air Toxics Standard (MATS), which required existing coal-fired utilities to reduce their mercury emissions by approximately 90% by 2015. Outside the U.S., the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has passed the legally binding Minamata global mercury treaty that compels its signatory countries to prevent and reduce the emission and release of mercury. The most mature technology for controlling mercury emissions from coal combustion is the injection into the flue gas of powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorbents having chemically treated surfaces designed to rapidly oxidize and adsorb mercury. However, such PAC is known to have electrical properties that make it difficult to remove from flue gas via electrostatic precipitation, by far the most common particulate control technology used in countries such as the U.S., India, and China which rely heavily on coal for power generation. As a result, PAC used to control mercury emissions can be emitted into the atmosphere, the sub-micron fraction of which may result in unintended radiative forcing similar to black carbon (BC). Here, we estimate the potential increases in secondary BC emissions, those not produced from combustion but arising instead from the use of injected PAC for mercury emission reduction. We also calculate the radiative forcing associated with these secondary BC emissions by using a global atmospheric chemical transport model coupled with a radiative transfer model.

  12. Nevada STORMS project: Measurement of mercury emissions from naturally enriched surfaces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gustin, M.S.; Lindberg, S.; Marsik, F.; Casimir, A.; Ebinghaus, R.; Edwards, G.; Hubble-Fitzgerald, C.; Kemp, R.; Kock, H.; Leonard, T.; London, J.; Majewski, M.; Montecinos, C.; Owens, J.; Pilote, M.; Poissant, L.; Rasmussen, P.; Schaedlich, F.; Schneeberger, D.; Schroeder, W.; Sommar, J.; Turner, R.; Vette, A.; Wallschlaeger, D.; Xiao, Z.; Zhang, H.

    1999-01-01

    Diffuse anthropogenic and naturally mercury-enriched areas represent long-lived sources of elemental mercury to the atmosphere. The Nevada Study and Tests of the Release of Mercury From Soils (STORMS) project focused on the measurement of mercury emissions from a naturally enriched area. During the project, concurrent measurements of mercury fluxes from naturally mercury-enriched substrate were made September 1-4, 1997, using four micrometeorological methods and seven field flux chambers. Ambient air mercury concentrations ranged from 2 to nearly 200 ng m-3 indicating that the field site is a source of atmospheric mercury. The mean daytime mercury fluxes, during conditions of no precipitation, measured with field chambers were 50 to 360 ng m-2 h-1, and with the micrometeorological methods were 230 to 600 ng m-2 h-1. This wide range in mercury emission rates reflects differences in method experimental designs and local source strengths. Mercury fluxes measured by many field chambers were significantly different (p < 0.05) but linearly correlated. This indicates that field chambers responded similarly to environmental conditions, but differences in experimental design and site heterogeneity had a significant influence on the magnitude of mercury fluxes. Data developed during the field study demonstrated that field flux chambers are ideal for assessment of the physicochemical processes driving mercury flux and development of an understanding of the magnitude of the influence of individual factors on flux. In general, mean mercury fluxes measured with micrometeorological methods during daytime periods were nearly 3 times higher than mean fluxes measured with field flux chambers. Micrometeorological methods allow for derivation of a representative mercury flux occurring from an unconstrained system and provide an assessment of the actual magnitude and variability of fluxes occurring from an area. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Potential mercury emissions from fluorescent lamps production and obsolescence in mainland China.

    PubMed

    Tan, Quanyin; Li, Jinhui

    2016-01-01

    The use of fluorescent lamps has expanded rapidly all over the world in recent years, because of their energy-saving capability. Consequently, however, mercury emissions from production, breakage, and discard of the lamps are drawing increasing concern from the public. This article focuses on evaluating the amount of mercury used for fluorescent lamp production, as well as the potential mercury emissions during production and breakage, in mainland China. It is expected to provide a comprehensive understanding about the risks present in the mercury from fluorescent lamps, and to know about the impacts of the policies on fluorescent lamps after their implementation. It is estimated that, in 2020, mercury consumption will be about 11.30-15.69 tonnes, a significant reduction of 34.9%-37.4% from that used in 2013, owing to improvement in mercury dosing dosage technology and tighter limitations on mercury content in fluorescent lamps. With these improvements, the amount of mercury remaining in fluorescent lamps and released during production is estimated to be 10.71-14.86 and 0.59-0.83 tonnes, respectively; the mercury released from waste fluorescent lamps is estimated to be about 5.37-7.59 tonnes. Also, a significant reduction to the mercury emission can be expected when a collection and treatment system is well established and conducted in the future.

  14. Mercury re-emission in flue gas multipollutants simultaneous absorption system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yue; Wang, Qingfeng; Mei, Rongjun; Wang, Haiqiang; Weng, Xiaole; Wu, Zhongbiao

    2014-12-02

    Recently, simultaneous removal of SO2, NOx and oxidized mercury in wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) scrubber has become a research focus. Mercury re-emission in traditional WFGD system has been widely reported due to the reduction of oxidized mercury by sulfite ions. However, in multipollutants simultaneous absorption system, the formation of a large quantity of nitrate and nitrite ions as NOx absorption might also affect the reduction of oxidized mercury in the aqueous absorbent. As such, this paper studied the effects of nitrate and nitrite ions on mercury re-emission and its related mechanism. Experimental results revealed that the nitrate ions had neglected effect on mercury re-emission while the nitrite ions could greatly change the mercury re-emission behaviors. The nitrite ions could initially improve the Hg(0)-emission through the decomposition of HgSO3NO2(-), but with a further increase in the concentration, they would then inhibit the reduction of bivalent mercury owing to the formation of Hg-nitrite complex [Hg(NO2)x(2-x)]. In addition, the subsequent addition of Cl(-) could further suppress the Hg(0) emission, where the formation of a stable Hg-SO3-NO2-Cl complex was assumed to be the main reason for such strong inhibition effect.

  15. Initial estimates of mercury emissions to the atmosphere from global biomass burning.

    PubMed

    Friedli, H R; Arellano, A F; Cinnirella, S; Pirrone, N

    2009-05-15

    The average global annual mercury emission estimate from biomass burning (BMB) for 1997-2006 is 675 +/- 240 Mg/year. This is equivalentto 8% of all currently known anthropogenic and natural mercury emissions. By season, the largest global emissions occur in August and September, the lowest during northern winters. The interannual variability is large and region-specific, and responds to drought conditions. During this particular time period, the largest mercury emissions are from tropical and boreal Asia, followed by Africa and South America. They do not coincide with the largest carbon biomass burning emissions, which originate from Africa. Frequently burning grasslands in Africa and Australia, and agricultural waste burning globally, contribute relatively little to the mercury budget The released mercury from BMB is eventually deposited locally and globally and contributes to the formation of toxic bioaccumulating methyl mercury. Furthermore, increasing temperature in boreal regions, where the largest soil mercury pools reside, is expected to exacerbate mercury emission because of more frequent larger, and more intense fires.

  16. Comparion of Mercury Emissions Between Circulating Fluidized Bed Boiler and Pulverized Coal Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. J.; Duan, Y. F.; Zhao, C. S.

    Mercury emissions between a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) utility boiler and two pulverized coal (PC) boilers equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESP) were in situ measured and compared. The standard Ontario Hydro Method (OHM) was used to sample the flue gas before and after the ESP. Various mercury speciations such as Hg0, Hg2+ and Hgp in flue gas and total mercury in fly ashes were analyzed. The results showed that the mercury removal rate of the CFB boiler is nearly 100%; the mercury emission in stack is only 0.028 g/h. However, the mercury removal rates of the two PC boilers are 27.56% and 33.59% respectively, the mercury emissions in stack are 0.80 and 51.78 g/h respectively. It concluded that components of the ESP fly ashes especially their unburnt carbons have remarkable influence on mercury capture. Pore configurations of fine fly ash particles have non-ignored impacts on mercury emissions.

  17. Emissivity measurements of Mercury analogue materials from the Berlin Emissivity Database (BED)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maturilli, A.; Helbert, J.; Moroz, L.

    To determine the planetary surfaces composition, remote sensing infrared spectroscopy is a suitable and powerful method of investigation. Past, present and future missions to bodies in the solar system include in their payload instruments measuring the emerging radiation in the infrared range. The MERTIS instrument, a TIR spectrometer combined with a radiometer, is part of the scientific payload of the ESA BepiColombo mission to Mercury, scheduled for 2013. The Berlin Emissivity Database (BED) is an emissivity spectral library of planetary analogue materials, essential for the interpretation of the measured data. Our unique database is focused on relatively fine-grained size separates, providing a realistic basis for interpretation of thermal emission spectra of Mercury and other planetary bodies. The BED spectral library currently contains emissivity spectra of plagioclase and potassium feldspars, low Ca and high Ca pyroxenes, olivine, elemental sulfur and a lunar highland soil sample measured in the wavelength range from 7 to 22 µm as a function of particle size. For each sample we measured the spectra of four particle size separates ranging from 0 to 250 µm. The device we used is built at DLR (Berlin) and is coupled to a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (Bruker IFS 88), purged with dry air and equipped with a cooled detector (MCT). All spectra were acquired with a spectral resolution of 4 cm-1 . We present here the emissivity spectra of a basic set of analogue materials reflecting the current knowledge of the surface composition of Mercury. We are currently working to upgrade our emissivity facility: a new spectrometer (Bruker VERTEX 80v) and new detectors will allow us to measure the emissivity of samples in the wavelength range from 1 to 50 µm, even in a vacuum environment.

  18. Mercury speciation and emissions from coal combustion in Guiyang, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shunlin; Feng, Xinbin; Qiu, Jianrong; Yin, Guoxun; Yang, Zaichan

    2007-10-01

    Although China has been regarded as one of the largest anthropogenic mercury emission source with coal combustion, so far the actual measurements of Hg species and Hg emissions from the combustion and the capture of Hg in Chinese emission control devices were very limited. Aiming at Hg mercury species measurements in Guiyang, the capital city of Guizhou province in Southwest China, we studied flue gases of medium-to-small-sized industrial steam coal-firing boiler (10-30 t/h) with no control devices, medium-to-small-sized industrial steam coal-firing boiler with WFGD and large-scale coal combustion with ESPs using Ontario Hytro method. We obtained mercury emission factors of the three representative coal combustion and estimated mercury emissions in Guiyang in 2003, as well as the whole province from 1986 to 2002. Coal combustion in Guiyang emitted 1898 kg mercury to the atmosphere, of which 36% Hg is released from power plants, 41% from industrial coal combustion, and 23% from domestic users, and 267 kg is Hg(p), 813 kg is Hg(2+) and 817 kg is Hg0. Mercury emission in Guizhou province increased sharply from 5.8 t in 1986 to 16.4 t in 2002. With the implementation of national economic strategy of China's Western Development, the annual mercury emission from coal combustion in the province is estimated to be about 32 t in 2015.

  19. Mercury speciation and emissions from coal combustion in Guiyang, southwest China

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, S.L.; Feng, X.B.; Qiu, H.R.; Yin, G.X.; Yang, Z.C.

    2007-10-15

    Although China has been regarded as one of the largest anthropogenic mercury emission source with coal combustion, so far the actual measurements of Hg species and Hg emissions from the combustion and the capture of Hg in Chinese emission control devices were very limited. Aiming at Hg mercury species measurements in Guiyang, the capital city of Guizhou province in Southwest China, we studied flue gases of medium-to-small-sized industrial steam coal-firing boiler (10-30 t/h) with no control devices, medium-to-small-sized industrial steam coal-firing boiler with WFGD and large-scale coal combustion with ESPs using Ontario Hytro method. We obtained mercury emission factors of the three representative coal combustion and estimated mercury emissions in Guiyang in 2003, as well as the whole province from 1986 to 2002. Coal combustion in Guiyang emitted 1898 kg mercury to the atmosphere, of which 36% Hg is released from power plants, 41% from industrial coal combustion, and 23% from domestic users, and 267 kg is Hg{sup P}, 813 kg is Hg{sup 2+} and 817 kg is Hg{sup 0}. Mercury emission in Guizhou province increased sharply from 5.8 t in 1986 to 16.4 t in 2002. With the implementation of national economic strategy of China's Western Development, the annual mercury emission from coal combustion in the province is estimated to be about 32 t in 2015.

  20. A CAVITY RING-DOWN SPECTROSCOPY MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher C. Carter

    2004-03-31

    The construction of the sampling system was completed during the past quarter. The sampling system has been built on a 3 feet x 4 feet x 2 inch breadboard table. The laser system, all the associated optics, and the mounts and hardware needed to couple the UV light into the fiber optic have also been condensed and placed on an identical 3 feet x 4 feet x 2 inch breadboard table. This reduces the footprint of each system for ease of operation at a field test facility. The two systems are only connected with a fiber optic, to bring the UV light to the CRD cavity, and a single coaxial cable used to apply a voltage to the diode seed laser to scan the frequency over the desired mercury transition. SRD software engineers applied a couple of software fixes to correct the problems of the diode seed laser drifting or mode hopping. Upon successful completion of the software fixes another long-term test was conducted. A nearly 3 day long, 24 hours/day, test was run to test out the new subroutines. Everything appeared to work as it should and the mercury concentrations were accurately reported for the entire test, with the exception of a small interval of time when the intensity of the UV light dropped low enough that the program was no longer triggering properly. After adjusting the power of the laser the program returned to proper operation. With the successful completion of a relatively long test SRD software engineer incorporated the new subroutine into an entirely new program. This program operates the CRD instrument automatically as a continuous emissions monitor for mercury. In addition the program also reports the concentration of SO{sub 2} determined in the sample flue gas stream. Various functions, operation of, and a description of the new program have been included with this report. This report concludes the technical work associated with Phase II of the Cavity Ring-Down project for the continuous detection of trace levels of mercury. The project is presently

  1. Impact of mercury emissions from historic gold and silver mining: Global modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strode, Sarah; Jaeglé, Lyatt; Selin, Noelle E.

    We compare a global model of mercury to sediment core records to constrain mercury emissions from the 19th century North American gold and silver mining. We use information on gold and silver production, the ratio of mercury lost to precious metal produced, and the fraction of mercury lost to the atmosphere to calculate an a priory mining inventory for the 1870s, when the historical gold rush was at its highest. The resulting global mining emissions are 1630 Mg yr -1, consistent with previously published studies. Using this a priori estimate, we find that our 1880 simulation over-predicts the mercury deposition enhancements archived in lake sediment records. Reducing the mining emissions to 820 Mg yr -1 improves agreement with observations, and leads to a 30% enhancement in global deposition in 1880 compared to the pre-industrial period. For North America, where 83% of the mining emissions are located, deposition increases by 60%. While our lower emissions of atmospheric mercury leads to a smaller impact of the North American gold rush on global mercury deposition than previously estimated, it also implies that a larger fraction of the mercury used in extracting precious metals could have been directly lost to local soils and watersheds.

  2. Mercury transformation and speciation in flue gases from anthropogenic emission sources: a critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Wang, S. X.; Wu, Q. R.; Wang, F. Y.; Lin, C.-J.; Zhang, L. M.; Hui, M. L.; Hao, J. M.

    2015-11-01

    Mercury transformation mechanisms and speciation profiles are reviewed for mercury formed in and released from flue gases of coal-fired boilers, non-ferrous metal smelters, cement plants, iron and steel plants, municipal solid waste incinerators, and biomass burning. Mercury in coal, ores and other raw materials is released to flue gases in the form of Hg0 during combustion or smelting in boilers, kilns or furnaces. Decreasing temperature from over 800 °C to below 300 °C in flue gases leaving boilers, kilns or furnaces promotes homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) to gaseous divalent mercury (Hg2+), with a portion of Hg2+ adsorbed onto fly ash to form particulate-bound mercury (Hgp). Halogen is the primary oxidizer for Hg0 in flue gases, and active components (e.g.,TiO2, Fe2O3, etc.) on fly ash promote heterogeneous oxidation and adsorption processes. In addition to mercury removal, mercury transformation also occurs when passing through air pollution control devices (APCDs), affecting the mercury speciation in flue gases. In coal-fired power plants, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system promotes mercury oxidation by 34-85 %, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and fabric filter (FF) remove over 99 % of Hgp, and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFGD) captures 60-95 % of Hg2+. In non-ferrous metal smelters, most Hg0 is converted to Hg2+ and removed in acid plants (APs). For cement clinker production, mercury cycling and operational conditions promote heterogeneous mercury oxidation and adsorption. The mercury speciation profiles in flue gases emitted to the atmosphere are determined by transformation mechanisms and mercury removal efficiencies by various APCDs. For all the sectors reviewed in this study, Hgp accounts for less than 5 % in flue gases. In China, mercury emission has a higher fraction (66-82 % of total mercury) in flue gases from coal combustion, in contrast to a greater Hg2+ fraction (29-90 %) from non

  3. Influence of limestone characteristics on mercury re-emission in WFGD systems.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-González, Raquel; Díaz-Somoano, Mercedes; Martínez-Tarazona, M Rosa

    2013-03-19

    This work evaluates the influence of the effect of the properties of limestones on their reactivity and the re-emission of mercury under typical wet scrubber conditions. The influence of the composition, particle size, and porosity of limestones on their reactivity and the effect of sorbent concentration, pH, redox potential, and the sulphite and iron content of the slurry on Hg(0) re-emission was assessed. A small particle size, a high porosity and a low magnesium content increased the high reactivity of the limestones. Moreover, it was found that the higher the reactivity of the sample the greater the amount of mercury captured in the scrubber. Although sulphite ions did not cause the re-emission of mercury from the suspensions of the gypsums, the limestones enriched in iron increased Hg(0) re-emission under low oxygen conditions. It was observed that the low pH values of the gypsum suspensions favored the cocapture of mercury because Fe(2+) formation was avoided. The partitioning of the mercury in the byproducts of the scrubber depended on the impurities of the limestones rather than on their particle size. No leaching of mercury from the gypsum samples occurred suggesting that mercury was either tightly bound to the impurities of the limestone or was transformed into insoluble mercury species.

  4. Atmospheric mercury emissions in Australia from anthropogenic, natural and recycled sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Peter F.; Morrison, Anthony L.; Malfroy, Hugh J.; Cope, Martin; Lee, Sunhee; Hibberd, Mark L.; Meyer, C. P. (Mick); McGregor, John

    2012-12-01

    The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has begun a process of developing a legally binding instrument to manage emissions of mercury from anthropogenic sources. The UNEP Governing Council has concluded that there is sufficient evidence of significant global adverse impacts from mercury to warrant further international action; and that national, regional and global actions should be initiated as soon as possible to identify populations at risk and to reduce human generated releases. This paper describes the development of, and presents results from, a comprehensive, spatially and temporally resolved inventory of atmospheric mercury emissions from the Australian landmass. Results indicate that the best estimate of total anthropogenic emissions of mercury to the atmosphere in 2006 was 15 ± 5 tonnes. Three industrial sectors contribute substantially to Australian anthropogenic emissions: gold smelting (˜50%, essentially from a single site/operation), coal combustion in power plants (˜15%) and alumina production from bauxite (˜12%). A diverse range of other sectors contribute smaller proportions of the emitted mercury, but industrial emissions account for around 90% of total anthropogenic mercury emissions. The other sectors include other industrial sources (mining, smelting, and cement production) and the use of products containing mercury. It is difficult to determine historical trends in mercury emissions given the large uncertainties in the data. Estimates for natural and re-emitted emissions from soil, water, vegetation and fires are made using meteorological models, satellite observations of land cover and soil and vegetation type, fuel loading, fire scars and emission factors which account for the effects of temperature, insolation and other environmental variables. These natural and re-emitted sources comfortably exceed the anthropogenic emissions, and comprise 4-12 tonnes per year from vegetation, 70-210 tonnes per year from soils, and 21-63 tonnes

  5. Mercury

    MedlinePlus

    Mercury is an element that is found in air, water and soil. It has several forms. Metallic mercury is a shiny, silver-white, odorless liquid. If ... with other elements to form powders or crystals. Mercury is in many products. Metallic mercury is used ...

  6. Potential hazards of brominated carbon sorbents for mercury emission control.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Teresa M; Xu, Zhenghe

    2015-02-17

    Mercury is a toxic air pollutant, emitted from the combustion of coal. Activated Carbon (AC) or other carbon sorbent (CS) injection into coal combustion flue gases can remove elemental mercury through an adsorption process. Recently, a brominated CS with biomass ash as the carbon source (Br-Ash) was developed as an alternative for costly AC-based sorbent for mercury capture. After mercury capture, these sorbents are disposed in landfill, and the stability of bromine and captured mercury is of paramount importance. The objective of this study is to determine the fate of mercury and bromine from Br-Ash and brominated AC after their service. Mercury and bromine leaching tests were conducted using the standard toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP). The mercury was found to be stable on both the Br-Ash and commercial brominated AC sorbents, while the bromine leached into the aqueous phase considerably. Mercury pulse injection tests on the sorbent material after leaching indicate that both sorbents retain significant mercury capture capability even after the majority of bromine was removed. Testing of the Br-Ash sorbent over a wider range of pH and liquid:solid ratios resulted in leaching of <5% of mercury adsorbed on the Br-Ash. XPS analysis indicated more organically bound Br and less metal-Br bonds after leaching.

  7. Mercury transformation and speciation in flue gases from anthropogenic emission sources: a critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Wu, Qingru; Wang, Fengyang; Lin, Che-Jen; Zhang, Leiming; Hui, Mulin; Yang, Mei; Su, Haitao; Hao, Jiming

    2016-02-01

    Mercury transformation mechanisms and speciation profiles are reviewed for mercury formed in and released from flue gases of coal-fired boilers, non-ferrous metal smelters, cement plants, iron and steel plants, waste incinerators, biomass burning and so on. Mercury in coal, ores, and other raw materials is released to flue gases in the form of Hg0 during combustion or smelting in boilers, kilns or furnaces. Decreasing temperature from over 800 °C to below 300 °C in flue gases leaving boilers, kilns or furnaces promotes homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation of Hg0 to gaseous divalent mercury (Hg2+), with a portion of Hg2+ adsorbed onto fly ash to form particulate-bound mercury (Hgp). Halogen is the primary oxidizer for Hg0 in flue gases, and active components (e.g., TiO2, Fe2O3, etc.) on fly ash promote heterogeneous oxidation and adsorption processes. In addition to mercury removal, mercury transformation also occurs when passing through air pollution control devices (APCDs), affecting the mercury speciation in flue gases. In coal-fired power plants, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system promotes mercury oxidation by 34-85 %, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and fabric filter (FF) remove over 99 % of Hgp, and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFGD) captures 60-95 % of Hg2+. In non-ferrous metal smelters, most Hg0 is converted to Hg2+ and removed in acid plants (APs). For cement clinker production, mercury cycling and operational conditions promote heterogeneous mercury oxidation and adsorption. The mercury speciation profiles in flue gases emitted to the atmosphere are determined by transformation mechanisms and mercury removal efficiencies by various APCDs. For all the sectors reviewed in this study, Hgp accounts for less than 5 % in flue gases. In China, mercury emission has a higher Hg0 fraction (66-82 % of total mercury) in flue gases from coal combustion, in contrast to a greater Hg2+ fraction (29-90 %) from non-ferrous metal smelting, cement and

  8. Model estimate of mercury emission from natural sources in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetty, Suraj K.; Lin, Che-Jen; Streets, David G.; Jang, Carey

    East Asia is one of the largest source regions that release mercury into the atmosphere. Although extensive studies have been devoted to estimating the anthropogenic mercury emission, little is known about mercury emission from natural sources in the region. In this study, we adapt the algorithms developed previously, coupled with detailed GIS data and satellite LAI products, to estimate mercury emission from natural sources including vegetation, soil, and water surfaces in an East Asian domain containing 164 × 97 grid cells at a spatial resolution of 36 km. Seasonal simulations were performed to project the annual emission quantity. The simulated emission shows strong diurnal and seasonal variations due to meteorology and vegetation coverage. The annual emission in the form of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) from the domain in 2001 is estimated to be 834 Mg, with 462 Mg contributed from China. The estimated GEM emission is comparable to the reported anthropogenic emission of 575 ± 261 Mg (56% GEM, 32% reactive gaseous mercury, 12% particulate mercury; Wu, Y., Wang, S., Streets, D.G., Hao, J., Chan, M., Jiang, J., 2006. Trends in anthropogenic mercury emissions in China from 1995 to 2003. Environmental Science & Technology 40, 5312-5318) in China for the year 2001, and dominates the anthropogenic emission during the warm season. Combining the anthropogenic and natural emission estimates, the total mercury emission from China is 776-1298 Mg, with GEM being in the range of 660-1000 Mg. The latter is similar to the GEM emission quantity inferred from aircraft measurement (765 Mg; Friedli, H.R., Radke, L.F., Prescott, R., Li, P., Woo, J.-H., Carmichael, G.R., 2004. Mercury in the atmosphere around Japan, Korea and China as observed during the 2001 ACE Asia field campaign: measurements, distributions, sources, and implications. Journal of Geophysical Research 109, D19 S25) and modeling estimate (1140 Mg; Pan, L., Chai, T., Carmichael, G.R., Tang, Y., Streets, G

  9. Atmospheric mercury pollution at an urban site in central Taiwan: mercury emission sources at ground level.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiaoyan; Liu, Chia-Kuan; Huang, Ci-Song; Fang, Guor-Cheng

    2012-04-01

    Total gaseous mercury (Hg) (TGM), gaseous oxidized Hg (GOM), and particulate-bound Hg (PBM) concentrations and dry depositions were measured at an urban site in central Taiwan. The concentrations were 6.14±3.91 ng m(-3), 332±153, and 71.1±46.1 pg m(-3), respectively. These results demonstrate high Hg pollution at the ground level in Taiwan. A back trajectory plot shows the sources of the high TGM concentration were in the low atmosphere (<500 m) and approximately 50% of the air masses coming from upper troposphere (>500 m) were associated with low TGM concentrations. This finding implies that Hg is trapped in the low atmosphere and comes from local Hg emission sources. The conditional probability function (CPF) reveals that the plumes of high TGM concentrations come from the south and northwest of the site. The plume from the south comes from two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs). However, no significant Hg point source is located to the northwest of the site; therefore, the plumes from the northwest are hypothesized to be related to the combustion of agricultural waste. Dry deposition fluxes of Hg measured at this site considerably exceeded those measured in North America. Overall, this area is regarded as a highly Hg contaminated area because of local Hg emission sources.

  10. A CAVITY RINGDOWN SPECTROSCOPY MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher C. Carter, Ph.D.

    2002-10-01

    Work on the Cavity Ring-Down (CRD) mercury spectrometer this past quarter concentrated on the actual detection of mercury and the beginning of flue gas interference testing. After obtaining the initial mercury signal detection was done at various pressures and concentrations. The Alexandrite laser system used for the CRD spectrometer has a narrow enough linewidth to spectrally resolve the isotopic structure of mercury. This includes both isotopic frequency shifts as well as hyperfine splittings due to a couple of the odd isotopes of mercury. Initial flue gas inteferent testing concentrated on SO{sub 2}, which is expected to cause the greatest interference with mercury detection due to its absorption of ultra-violet light in the same region as that of the mercury atomic line.

  11. Joint EPA/DOE demonstration program for total mercury continuous emissions monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, D.B.; Rauenzahn, H.S.; Stevens, F.M.

    1997-06-01

    Continuous emissions monitoring of mercury from hazardous waste thermal treatment processes is desired for verification of emission compliance, process control, and public safety perception. Continuous real-time monitoring of mercury would permit actual measurement of mercury emissions and permit measurement of real-time (actual) mercury emissions and allow accurate (realistic) human risk assessment from hazardous thermal treatment facility operation. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed regulations that require the use of total mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) on incinerators, boilers, and industrial furnaces that burn hazardous waste. These proposed regulations also include draft performance specifications for mercury CEMs. This paper describes an ongoing joint EPA/DOE program to identify and demonstrate commercially available mercury CEMs that can meet the proposed EPA performance specification and includes initial instrument test results obtained. The complete demonstration consists of a six month performance test of several commercially available total mercury CEMs at a commercial cement kiln that co-fires hazardous waste. During the performance test, several indicators of CEM performance will be evaluated (as required in the proposed performance specification), including; zero and calibration drift, relative accuracy through comparison to EPA manual Reference Methods, calibration error through testing with calibration standards, and specific interference tests. The results of this extensive test program will be used to either confirm availability of mercury CEMs that meet the requirements in the proposed EPA performance specification, provide the necessary data for revision of the proposed mercury CEM performance specification, or reveal the need for further instrument development prior to deployment.

  12. Fact Sheet: Reducing Mercury Air Emissions through New Technology for Safer, Cleaner Gold Shops

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    We have an opportunity to address this problem. We can improve the health of mining communities, and of people throughout the world whose fish and other food sources are impacted by global mercury emissions.

  13. MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM BRAKE WEAR ASSOCIATED WITH ON-ROAD VEHICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper will focus on brake wear emissions of mercury and trace metals collected from 16 in-use light-duty vehicles (14 gasoline and 2 diesel) on a chassis dynamometer over the course of urban drive cycles.

  14. Global emissions of mercury to the atmosphere in 2005 and their 2020 scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Sundseth, Kyrre; Munthe, John; Wilson, Simon; Leaner, Joy

    2010-05-01

    About the three quarters of the total anthropogenic emissions of mercury in the year 2005 estimated to be 1930 tonnes comes from sources where mercury is emitted as a by-product, and the rest is emitted during various applications of mercury. The largest emissions of Hg to the global atmosphere occur from combustion of fossil fuels, mainly coal in utility, industrial, and residential boilers (almost 47 %), followed by artisanal mining (almost 17 %), non-ferrous metal production, including gold production (13.5%) and cement production (about 9.5 %). Doing nothing for the improvement of the Hg emission reductions (so-called Status Quo - SQ scenario) will cause an increase of the emissions in 2020 by almost 100 % compared to the 2020 Extended Emission Control (EXEC) emission reduction scenario. Even larger increase is estimated when the 2020 SQ scenario of Hg emissions is compared with the 2020 Maximum Feasible Technical Reduction (MFTR) emission reduction scenario. The EXEC scenario assumes economic progress at a rate dependent on the future development of industrial technologies and emission control technologies, i.e. mercury-reducing technology currently generally employed throughout Europe and North America would be implemented elsewhere. It further assumes that emissions control measures currently implemented or committed to in Europe to reduce mercury emission to air or water would be implemented around the world. The MFTR scenario assumes implementation of all solutions/ measures leading to the maximum degree of reduction of mercury emissions and its loads discharged to any environment; cost is taken into account but only as a secondary consideration. Emissions of Hg in various industrial sectors, such as cement production and metal manufacturing in the year 2020 can be 2 to 3 times larger if nothing will be done to improve emission control in comparison with the EXEC scenario.

  15. [Characteristic of Mercury Emissions and Mass Balance of the Typical Iron and Steel Industry].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-hui; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Ding-yong; Luo, Cheng-zhong; Yang, Xi; Xu, Feng

    2015-12-01

    To preliminarily discuss the mercury emission characteristics and its mass balance in each process of the iron and steel production, a typical iron and steel enterprise was chosen to study the total mercury in all employed materials and estimate the input and output of mercury during the steel production process. The results showed that the mercury concentrations of input materials in each technology ranged 2.93-159.11 µg · kg⁻¹ with the highest level observed in ore used in blast furnace, followed by coal of sintering and blast furnace. The mercury concentrations of output materials ranged 3.09-18.13 µg · kg⁻¹ and the mercury concentration of dust was the highest, followed by converter slag. The mercury input and the output in the coking plant were 1346.74 g · d⁻¹ ± 36.95 g · d⁻¹ and 177.42 g · d⁻¹ ± 13.73 g · d⁻¹, respectively. In coking process, mercury mainly came from the burning of coking coal. The sintering process was the biggest contributor for mercury input during the iron and steel production with the mercury input of 1075. 27 g · d⁻¹ ± 60.89 g · d⁻¹ accounting for 68.06% of the total mercury input during this production process, and the ore powder was considered as the main mercury source. For the solid output material, the output in the sintering process was 14.15 g · d⁻¹ ± 0.38 g · d⁻¹, accounting for 22.61% of the total solid output. The mercury emission amount from this studied iron and steel enterprise was estimated to be 553.83 kg in 2013 with the emission factor of 0.092 g · t⁻¹ steel production. Thus, to control the mercury emissions, iron and steel enterprises should combine with production practice, further reduce energy consumption of coking and sintering, or improve the quality of raw materials and reduce the input of mercury.

  16. Mercury emission and dispersion models from soils contaminated by cinnabar mining and metallurgy.

    PubMed

    Llanos, Willians; Kocman, David; Higueras, Pablo; Horvat, Milena

    2011-12-01

    The laboratory flux measurement system (LFMS) and dispersion models were used to investigate the kinetics of mercury emission flux (MEF) from contaminated soils. Representative soil samples with respect to total Hg concentration (26-9770 μg g(-1)) surrounding a decommissioned mercury-mining area (Las Cuevas Mine), and a former mercury smelter (Cerco Metalúrgico de Almadenejos), in the Almadén mercury mining district (South Central Spain), were collected. Altogether, 14 samples were analyzed to determine the variation in mercury emission flux (MEF) versus distance from the sources, regulating two major environmental parameters comprising soil temperature and solar radiation. In addition, the fraction of the water-soluble mercury in these samples was determined in order to assess how MEF from soil is related to the mercury in the aqueous soil phase. Measured MEFs ranged from less than 140 to over 10,000 ng m(-2) h(-1), with the highest emissions from contaminated soils adjacent to point sources. A significant decrease of MEF was then observed with increasing distance from these sites. Strong positive effects of both temperature and solar radiation on MEF was observed. Moreover, MEF was found to occur more easily in soils with higher proportions of soluble mercury compared to soils where cinnabar prevails. Based on the calculated Hg emission rates and with the support of geographical information system (GIS) tools and ISC AERMOD software, dispersion models for atmospheric mercury were implemented. In this way, the gaseous mercury plume generated by the soil-originated emissions at different seasons was modeled. Modeling efforts revealed that much higher emissions and larger mercury plumes are generated in dry and warm periods (summer), while the plume is smaller and associated with lower concentrations of atmospheric mercury during colder periods with higher wind activity (fall). Based on the calculated emissions and the model implementation, yearly emissions from

  17. Assessment of atmospheric mercury emission reduction measures relevant for application in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Hlawiczka, S.; Fudala, J.

    2008-03-15

    Fuel combustion for heat and power generation, together with cement production, were the most significant sources of anthropogenic atmospheric mercury emission in Poland in 2003, with 57 and 27% of Hg emission, respectively. It was found that in Poland, Hg emission reduction measures need to be focused on the energy generation sector. Sorbent injection upstream of an electrostatic precipitator or fabric filter, mercury oxidation upstream of a wet or dry flue gas desulphurisation installation, together with Hg capture on sorbents, should be considered as priority in Polish conditions. This refers mainly to fuel combustion processes but also to the production of cement. For economic reasons it seems advisable that, apart from activated carbons as sorbents, application of zeolites obtained from power plant fly ash should also be considered. Application of primary methods seems to be very promising in Polish conditions, although they should be considered rather as an additional option apart from sorbent injection as the best option. Switching from coal to liquid and gaseous fuels shows the highest potential for reducing Hg emission. For chlorine production using the mercury cell electrolysis method, strict monitoring of Hg emissions and good housekeeping of Hg releasing processes seems a promising approach, but the main activity should focus on changing mercury-based technologies into membrane cell methods. Emission abatement potential for the atmospheric mercury in Poland has been roughly assessed, showing that in perspective of 2015, the emission could be reduced to about 25% of the anthropogenic atmospheric Hg emission in 2003.

  18. Global mercury emissions to the atmosphere from anthropogenic and natural sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirrone, N.; Cinnirella, S.; Feng, X.; Finkelman, R. B.; Friedli, H. R.; Leaner, J.; Mason, R.; Mukherjee, A. B.; Stracher, G. B.; Streets, D. G.; Telmer, K.

    2010-07-01

    This paper provides an up-to-date assessment of global mercury emissions from anthropogenic and natural sources. On an annual basis, natural sources account for 5207 Mg of mercury released to the global atmosphere, including the contribution from re-emission processes, which are emissions of previously deposited mercury originating from anthropogenic and natural sources, and primary emissions from natural reservoirs. Anthropogenic sources, which include a large number of industrial point sources, are estimated to account for 2320 Mg of mercury emitted annually. The major contributions are from fossil-fuel fired power plants (810 Mg yr-1), artisanal small scale gold mining (400 Mg yr-1), non-ferrous metals manufacturing (310 Mg yr-1), cement production (236 Mg yr-1), waste disposal (187 Mg yr-1) and caustic soda production (163 Mg yr-1). Therefore, our current estimate of global mercury emissions suggests that the overall contribution from natural sources (primary emissions + re-emissions) and anthropogenic sources is nearly 7527 Mg per year, the uncertainty associated with these estimates are related to the typology of emission sources and source regions.

  19. Global mercury emissions to the atmosphere from anthropogenic and natural sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirrone, N.; Cinnirella, S.; Feng, X.; Finkelman, R. B.; Friedli, H. R.; Leaner, J.; Mason, R.; Mukherjee, A. B.; Stracher, G. B.; Streets, D. G.; Telmer, K.

    2010-02-01

    This paper provides an up-to-date assessment of global mercury emissions from anthropogenic and natural sources. On an annual basis, natural sources account for 5207 Mg of mercury released to the global atmosphere, including the contribution from re-emission processes, which are emissions of previously deposited mercury originating from anthropogenic and natural sources, and primary emissions from natural reservoirs. Anthropogenic sources, which include a large number of industrial point sources, are estimated to account for 2320 Mg of mercury emitted annually. The major contributions are from fossil-fuel fired power plants (810 Mg yr-1), artisanal small scale gold mining (400 Mg yr-1), non-ferrous metals manufacturing (310 Mg yr-1), cement production (236 Mg yr-1), waste disposal (187 Mg yr-1) and caustic soda production (163 Mg yr-1). Therefore, our current estimate of global mercury emissions suggests that the overall contribution from natural sources (primary emissions+re-emissions) and anthropogenic sources is nearly 7527 Mg per year, the uncertainty associated with these estimates are related to the typology of emission sources and source regions.

  20. Global Source-Receptor Relationships for Mercury Deposition Under Present-Day and 2050 Emissions Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Corbitt, Elizabeth S.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Holmes, Christopher D.; Streets, David G.; Sunderland, Elsie M.

    2011-01-01

    Global policies regulating anthropogenic mercury require an understanding of the relationship between emitted and deposited mercury on intercontinental scales. Here we examine source-receptor relationships for present-day conditions and for four 2050 IPCC scenarios encompassing a range of economic development and environmental regulation projections. We use the GEOS-Chem global model to track mercury from its point of emission through rapid cycling in surface ocean and land reservoirs to its accumulation in longer-lived ocean and soil pools. Deposited mercury has a local component (emitted HgII, lifetime of 3.7 days against deposition) and a global component (emitted Hg0, lifetime of 6 months against deposition). Fast recycling of deposited mercury through photoreduction of HgII and re-emission of Hg0 from surface reservoirs (ice, land, surface ocean) increases the effective lifetime of anthropogenic mercury to 9 months against loss to legacy reservoirs (soil pools and the subsurface ocean). This lifetime is still sufficiently short that source-receptor relationships have a strong hemispheric signature. Asian emissions are the largest source of anthropogenic deposition to all ocean basins, though there is also regional source influence from upwind continents. Current anthropogenic emissions account for only about one-third of mercury deposition to the global ocean with the remainder from natural and legacy sources. However, controls on anthropogenic emissions would have the added benefit of reducing the legacy mercury re-emitted to the atmosphere. Better understanding is needed of the timescales for transfer of mercury from active pools to stable geochemical reservoirs. PMID:22050654

  1. Volcanoes as emission sources of atmospheric mercury in the Mediterranean basin

    PubMed

    Ferrara; Mazzolai; Lanzillotta; Nucaro; Pirrone

    2000-10-02

    Emissions from volcanoes, fumaroles and solfataras as well as contributions from widespread geological anomalies could represent an important source of mercury released to the atmosphere in the Mediterranean basin. Volcanoes located in this area (Etna, Stromboli and Vulcano) are the most active in Europe; therefore, it is extremely important to know their mercury contributions to the regional atmospheric budget. Two main methods are used for the evaluation of volcanic mercury flux: a direct determination of the flux (by measuring in the plume) and an indirect one derived from the determination of the Hg/SO2 (or Hg/S) ratio value, as SO2 emissions are constantly monitored by volcanologists. An attempt to estimate mercury flux from the Vulcano volcano and to establish the Hg/S ratio value has been made along three field campaigns carried out in October 1998, in February and May 1999 sampling several fumaroles. Traditional sampling methods were used to collect both total Hg and S. The average Hg/S ratio value resulted to be 1.2 x 10(-7). From the Hg/S value we derived the Hg/SO2 value, and by assuming that all the volcanoes located in this area have the same Hg/SO2 ratio, mercury emissions from Vulcano and Stromboli were estimated to be in the range 1.3-5.5 kg/year and 7.3-76.6 kg/year respectively, while for Etna mercury flux ranged from 61.8 to 536.5 kg/year. Data reported in literature appear to be overestimated (Fitzgerald WF. Mercury emission from volcanos. In: 4th International conference on mercury as a global pollutant, August 4-8 1996, Hamburg, Germany), volcanic mercury emission does not constitute the main natural source of the metal.

  2. Emission control of mercury and sulfur by mild thermal upgrading of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng Zhang; Gang Chen; Rajender Gupta; Zhenghe Xu

    2009-01-15

    Mercury and sulfur emissions from power plants is becoming increasingly an environmental concern. In this study, two Chinese coals from the Guizhou province and one Canadian coal from Alberta were selected to study the potential of thermal upgrading as mercury and sulfur emission control strategy prior to coal use. A low-temperature asher (LTA) and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) were used to characterize the occurrence of mercury and sulfur in coal. An experiment of mild thermal upgrading at different atmospheres was performed to explore the removal efficiencies of mercury before combustion. Our study shows that mercury is associated with different minerals in these coal samples. The correlation between mercury and sulfur is also investigated. Mercury was found to be removed effectively by mild thermal upgrading at 400{sup o}C under a 4% O{sub 2}-N{sub 2} atmosphere. An oxidizing atmosphere increased the removal of pyritic sulfur significantly at low temperatures. The mercury release rate was found to be higher under an oxidizing atmosphere than under a nitrogen atmosphere between 300 and 400{sup o}C during mild thermal upgrading. 30 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Mercury Emission and Removal of a 135MW CFB Utility Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Y. F.; Zhuo, Y. Q.; Wang, Y. J.; Zhang, L.; Yang, L. G.; Zhao, C. S.

    To evaluate characteristic of the mercury emission and removal from a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler, a representative 135 MW CFB utility boiler was selected to take the onsite measurement of mercury concentrations in feeding coal, bottom ash, fly ash and flue gas using the US EPA recommended Ontario Hydro Method (OHM). The results show that particulate mercury is of majority in flue gas of the CFB boiler. Mercury removal rate of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) reaches 98%. Mercury emission concentration in stack is only 0.062μg/Nm3, and the mass proportion of mercury in bottom ash is less than 1%. It was found that the fly ashes were highly adsorptive to flue gas mercury because of its higher unburned carbon content. Adsorption effect is related to carbon pore structural properties of fly ash and temperature of flue gas. However mercury adsorption capacity by fly ash can not be improved any more when unburned carbon content in fly ash increases further.

  4. EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Withum; S.C. Tseng; J.E. Locke

    2005-11-01

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dryer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the seventh in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on a 1,300 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing three percent sulfur. The unit was equipped with an ESP and a limestone-based wet FGD to control particulate and SO2 emissions, respectively. At the time of sampling an SCR was not installed on this unit. Four sampling tests were performed in September 2003. Flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the ESP outlet (FGD inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process stream samples for a mercury balance were collected to coincide with the flue gas measurements. The results show that the FGD inlet flue gas oxidized:elemental mercury ratio was roughly 2:1, with 66% oxidized mercury and 34% elemental mercury. Mercury removal, on a coal

  5. Characterization of Mercury Emissions from ASGM Goldshop Activities in Peru

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury (Hg), used in artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) practices, is recognized as a significant source of Hg release to the environment and is a major area of focus of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Global Mercury Partnership. Hg is used to bind (form a...

  6. OPTIMIZING TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE MERCURY AND ACID GAS EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2005-10-01

    Maps showing potential mercury, sulfur, chlorine, and moisture emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin were made from publicly available data (plates 1, 2, 3, and 4). Published equations that predict mercury capture by emission control technologies used at U.S. coal-fired utilities were applied to average coal quality values for 169 U.S. counties. The results were used to create five maps that show the influence of coal origin on mercury emissions from utility units with: (1) hot-side electrostatic precipitator (hESP), (2) cold-side electrostatic precipitator (cESP), (3) hot-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (hESP/FGD), (4) cold-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (cESP/FGD), and (5) spray-dry adsorption with fabric filter (SDA/FF) emission controls (plates 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9). Net (lower) coal heating values were calculated from measured coal Btu values, and estimated coal moisture and hydrogen values; the net heating values were used to derive mercury emission rates on an electric output basis (plate 10). Results indicate that selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hESP, cESP, or hESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions. Comparison of in-ground coal quality with the quality of commercially mined coal indicates that existing coal mining and coal washing practice results in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Further pre-combustion mercury reductions may be possible, especially for coal from Texas, Ohio, parts of Pennsylvania and much of the western U.S.

  7. Identifying and characterizing major emission point sources as a basis for geospatial distribution of mercury emissions inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steenhuisen, Frits; Wilson, Simon J.

    2015-07-01

    Mercury is a global pollutant that poses threats to ecosystem and human health. Due to its global transport, mercury contamination is found in regions of the Earth that are remote from major emissions areas, including the Polar regions. Global anthropogenic emission inventories identify important sectors and industries responsible for emissions at a national level; however, to be useful for air transport modelling, more precise information on the locations of emission is required. This paper describes the methodology applied, and the results of work that was conducted to assign anthropogenic mercury emissions to point sources as part of geospatial mapping of the 2010 global anthropogenic mercury emissions inventory prepared by AMAP/UNEP. Major point-source emission sectors addressed in this work account for about 850 tonnes of the emissions included in the 2010 inventory. This work allocated more than 90% of these emissions to some 4600 identified point source locations, including significantly more point source locations in Africa, Asia, Australia and South America than had been identified during previous work to geospatially-distribute the 2005 global inventory. The results demonstrate the utility and the limitations of using existing, mainly public domain resources to accomplish this work. Assumptions necessary to make use of selected online resources are discussed, as are artefacts that can arise when these assumptions are applied to assign (national-sector) emissions estimates to point sources in various countries and regions. Notwithstanding the limitations of the available information, the value of this procedure over alternative methods commonly used to geo-spatially distribute emissions, such as use of 'proxy' datasets to represent emissions patterns, is illustrated. Improvements in information that would facilitate greater use of these methods in future work to assign emissions to point-sources are discussed. These include improvements to both national

  8. Mercury Emission From Plants Depends on Reduction by Ascorbate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halbach, S.; Ernst, D.; Fleischmann, F.; Battke, F.

    2007-12-01

    The importance of vegetation for the ecological Hg cycle has been recognized recently. One step in this cycle is the poorly understood phytogenic reduction of dissolved Hg(II) to volatile Hg(0) which had initially been reported for common reed growing on Hg-contaminated sediments. The hitherto unknown mechanism of this reduction was the objective of our investigations. Young barley and European-beech plants were cultivated for 24 h and 2 days, respectively, on a sterile hydroponic medium containing 20-40 µM HgCl2. Within 10 min after seclusion in a closed exposure system, the Hg(0) emission from the encapsulated aerial part of the plants reached 10 times the control value in a plant-free system and was proportional to the Hg(II) concentration in the medium. At 20 µM Hg(II) in the medium, a flux of 12.8 µg Hg(0)/m2/h was estimated for beech leaves. The phytogenic Hg(II) reduction was further examined by addition of powderized homogenates from deep-frozen leaves (barley, beech, Arabidopsis thaliana) or from needles (Norway spruce) to solutions of 1-5 µM Hg(II). These samples consistently produced a strong transient Hg(0) release at neutral pH that was even reinforced in alkaline medium and vanished at acidic pH. The very same pH dependence was observed after addition of pure L(+)-ascorbate (AA) instead of plant material to the HgCl2 solutions, whereas the reductants NADPH and GSH produced only little or no Hg(0), respectively. At neutral and alkaline pH, the Hg(II)-reducing capacity of spruce needle homogenates was 2 - 4 times that of beech leaves, which paralleled a 6-fold difference in AA concentrations. Homogenates from whole wildtype-plants of Arabidopsis reduced 8-times more Hg(II) than those from the AA-deficient mutant vtc1-1 (AA concentration 30% of wild type). A comparison of literature data on AA concentrations revealed for wetland plants a range from 0.3 µmol/g DW (Phragmites communis) over 15.0 (Typha latifolia) to < 34.1 (Spartina altiflora), and

  9. Mercury speciation and emission from municipal solid waste incinerators in the Pearl River Delta, South China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Laiguo; Liu, Ming; Fan, Ruifang; Ma, Shexia; Xu, Zhencheng; Ren, Mingzhong; He, Qiusheng

    2013-03-01

    The potential for Hg release during municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is attracting increased attention due to high volume of municipal waste being treated by incineration in China. Emission amounts have been estimated using emission factors developed for other countries. To fine tune our emission estimate total mercury (THg) and mercury speciation were measured using isokinetic sampling in eight plants, of which six used grate furnace combustor (GFC) and two circulation fluidized bed combustors (CFBCs). Results showed that average THg concentration (19.5 ± 13.6 μg/Nm) in flue gas at the facilities that used CFBC was significantly lower than that at those using GFC (51.4 ± 28.3 μg/Nm, p=0.002). Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, Hg), and particulate mercury (Hg) represented 95.5 ± 3.8%, 4.1 ± 3.9% and 0.4 ± 0.3% in GFC, and 63.8 ± 8.6%, 33.6 ± 10.5% and 2.6 ± 1.9% in CFBC, respectively. The measured average THg emission factor for the 8 MSWI plants was 208 ± 130 mg/t in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, with 217 ± 158 mg/t and 188 ± 17.7 mg/t were from GFC and CFBC, respectively. Using the average emission factor the estimated total mercury emissions from MSWI were 4.67 ± 2.91 t in China, and 770 ± 65.5 kg in the PRD region in 2010. Of these, 4240 ± 210 kg, 408 ± 231 kg and 14.8 ± 14.1 kg, and 688 ± 37 kg, 78.9 ± 40.6 kg and 3.2 ± 3.0 kg were GOM, Hg, and Hg, respectively. Mercury emissions will continue to increase as the amounts of MSW being incinerated increases.

  10. Emissions, Monitoring and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Bland; Kumar Sellakumar; Craig Cormylo

    2007-08-01

    The Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) identified a need to re-test stack gas emissions from power plants that burn subbituminous coal relative to compliance with the EPA mercury control regulations for coal-fired plants. In addition, the SEC has also identified the specialized monitoring needs associated with mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEM). The overall objectives of the program were to develop and demonstrate solutions for the unique emission characteristics found when burning subbituminous coals. The program was executed in two phases; Phase I of the project covered mercury emission testing programs at ten subbituminous coal-fired plants. Phase II compared the performance of continuous emission monitors for mercury at subbituminous coal-fired power plants and is reported separately. Western Research Institute and a number of SEC members have partnered with Eta Energy and Air Pollution Testing to assess the Phase I objective. Results of the mercury (Hg) source sampling at ten power plants burning subbituminous coal concluded Hg emissions measurements from Powder River Basin (PBR) coal-fired units showed large variations during both ICR and SEC testing. Mercury captures across the Air Pollution Control Devices (APCDs) present much more reliable numbers (i.e., the mercury captures across the APCDs are positive numbers as one would expect compared to negative removal across the APCDs for the ICR data). Three of the seven units tested in the SEC study had previously shown negative removals in the ICR testing. The average emission rate is 6.08 lb/TBtu for seven ICR units compared to 5.18 lb/TBtu for ten units in the SEC testing. Out of the ten (10) SEC units, Nelson Dewey Unit 1, burned a subbituminous coal and petcoke blend thus lowering the total emission rate by generating less elemental mercury. The major difference between the ICR and SEC data is in the APCD performance and the mercury closure around the APCD. The average mercury removal values

  11. Assessing and managing methylmercury risks associated with power plant mercury emissions in the United States.

    PubMed

    Charnley, Gail

    2006-03-09

    Until the Clean Air Mercury Rule was signed in March 2005, coal-fired electric utilities were the only remaining, unregulated major source of industrial mercury emissions in the United States. Proponents of coal-burning power plants assert that methylmercury is not a hazard at the current environmental levels, that current technologies for limiting emissions are unreliable, and that reducing mercury emissions from power plants in the United States will have little impact on environmental levels. Opponents of coal-burning plants assert that current methylmercury exposures from fish are damaging to the developing nervous system of infants, children, and the fetus; that current technology can significantly limit emissions; and that reducing emissions will reduce exposure and risk. One concern is that local mercury emissions from power plants may contribute to higher local exposure levels, or "hot spots." The impact of the Mercury Rule on potential hot spots is uncertain due to the highly site-specific nature of the relationship between plant emissions and local fish methylmercury levels. The impact on the primary source of exposure in the United States, ocean fish, is likely to be negligible due to the contribution of natural sources and industrial sources outside the United States. Another debate centers on the toxic potency of methylmercury, with the scientific basis of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) recommended exposure limit questioned by some and defended by others. It is likely that the EPA's exposure limit may be appropriate for combined exposure to methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but may be lower than the available data suggest is necessary to protect children from methylmercury alone. Mercury emissions from power plants are a global problem. Without a global approach to developing and implementing clean coal technologies, limiting US power plant emissions alone will have little impact.

  12. A CAVITY RING-DOWN SPECTROSCOPY MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher C. Carter

    2002-12-31

    SRD tested a number of different length cavities during this past quarter. Continuous transmission was observed with cavity lengths from 65 to 12 cm. The 65 cm cavity was replaced with a 39 cm cavity for work performed during this quarter. Flue gas components were tested for background absorptions and any interference with the determination of accurate mercury concentrations. Sulfur dioxide was found to absorb fairly strongly in the region of the mercury transition, but the Cavity Ring-Down (CRD) instrument was still able to detect mercury at subparts-per-billion by volume (ppb) levels. Additional flue gases tested included H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}. None of these flue gas constituents showed any observable absorption in the ultraviolet region near the atomic mercury transition. Work was also initiated in speciation studies. In particular mercury chloride (HgCl{sub 2}) was tested. A mercury signal was detected from a gas stream containing HgCl{sub 2}. SRD was not able to determine definitively if there exists a spectral shift great enough to separate HgCl{sub 2} from elemental mercury in these initial tests.

  13. Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors. An assessment of the current situation in the United States and forecast of future emissions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-05-01

    This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

  14. Development of novel activated carbon-based adsorbents for the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Radisav D. Vidic

    1999-03-01

    In addition to naturally occurring mercury sources, anthropogenic activities increase the mercury loading to the environment. Although not all produced mercury is dissipated directly into the environment, only minor portions of the total production are stocked or recycled, and the rest of the mercury and its compounds is finally released in some way into atmosphere, surface waters and soil, or ends in landfills dumps, and refuse. Since mercury and its compounds are highly toxic, their presence in the environment constitutes potential impact on all living organisms, including man. The first serious consequence of industrial mercury discharges causing neurological disorder even death occurred in Minimata, Japan in 1953. Systematic studies showed that mercury poisoning is mainly found in fish-eating populations. However, various levels of mercury are also found in food other than fish. During the past several decades, research has been conducted on the evaluation of risks due to exposure to mercury and the development of control technologies for mercury emissions. In 1990, the Clean Air Act Amendments listed mercury, along with 10 other metallic species, as a hazardous air pollutant (HAP). This has further stimulated research for mercury control during the past several years. The impact of mercury on humans, sources of mercury in the environment, current mercury control strategies and the objective of this research are discussed in this section.

  15. Economic analysis of atmospheric mercury emission control for coal-fired power plants in China.

    PubMed

    Ancora, Maria Pia; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Schreifels, Jeremy; Hao, Jiming

    2015-07-01

    Coal combustion and mercury pollution are closely linked, and this relationship is particularly relevant in China, the world's largest coal consumer. This paper begins with a summary of recent China-specific studies on mercury removal by air pollution control technologies and then provides an economic analysis of mercury abatement from these emission control technologies at coal-fired power plants in China. This includes a cost-effectiveness analysis at the enterprise and sector level in China using 2010 as a baseline and projecting out to 2020 and 2030. Of the control technologies evaluated, the most cost-effective is a fabric filter installed upstream of the wet flue gas desulfurization system (FF+WFGD). Halogen injection (HI) is also a cost-effective mercury-specific control strategy, although it has not yet reached commercial maturity. The sector-level analysis shows that 193 tons of mercury was removed in 2010 in China's coal-fired power sector, with annualized mercury emission control costs of 2.7 billion Chinese Yuan. Under a projected 2030 Emission Control (EC) scenario with stringent mercury limits compared to Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, the increase of selective catalytic reduction systems (SCR) and the use of HI could contribute to 39 tons of mercury removal at a cost of 3.8 billion CNY. The economic analysis presented in this paper offers insights on air pollution control technologies and practices for enhancing atmospheric mercury control that can aid decision-making in policy design and private-sector investments.

  16. Optimizing Technology to Reduce Mercury and Acid Gas Emissions from Electric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2004-07-31

    County-average hydrogen values are calculated for the part 2, 1999 Information Collection Request (ICR) coal-quality data, published by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. These data are used together with estimated, county-average moisture values to calculate average net heating values for coal produced in U.S. counties. Finally, 10 draft maps of the contiguous U.S. showing the potential uncontrolled sulfur, chlorine and mercury emissions of coal by U.S. county-of-origin, as well as expected mercury emissions calculated for existing emission control technologies, are presented and discussed.

  17. Mercury emissions and coal-fired power plants: Understanding the problems and identifying solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.E.

    1997-12-31

    Electric utility emissions contribute to an array of air quality concerns, most notably ground-level ozone, acid deposition, global warming, and fine particulate pollution. More recently, electric utility emissions of air toxics such as mercury have been linked to serious ecological health effects, especially in fish-eating birds. Another issue that is gaining attention is that of eutrophication in marine waters from nitrogen oxide emissions. Coal-fired power plants warrant special consideration, particularly in regards to mercury. Coal-fired power plants currently represent over 30% of controllable anthropogenic emissions in the US and are expected to emit nearly half of all anthropogenic emissions in the US by 2010. However, because the human health threshold for mercury is not known with certainty and mercury control technologies such as activated carbon injection are extremely expensive, mercury emissions from electric utilities have not been addressed in the US through either regulation or voluntary initiatives. The Center is beginning to evaluate the viability of no- or low-regrets measures that may be more consistent with the current state of the science on human and ecological health effects. The Center is also looking at options to reduce eutophication. Specifically, the Center has: hosted a workshop to assess the viability of low-cost mercury control options for electric utilities, developed a proposal to undertake a mercury banking initiative, worked to reduce compliance costs associated with multiple and conflicting regulations, and investigated the potential benefits and workability of NOx trading between air and water sources These activities are described in greater detail in the Center`s paper.

  18. Impacts of the Minamata Convention for Mercury Emissions from Coal-fired Power Generation in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giang, A.; Stokes, L. C.; Streets, D. G.; Corbitt, E. S.; Selin, N. E.

    2014-12-01

    We explore the potential implications of the recently signed United Nations Minamata Convention on Mercury for emissions from coal-fired power generation in Asia, and the impacts of these emissions changes on deposition of mercury worldwide by 2050. We use qualitative interviews, document analysis, and engineering analysis to create plausible technology scenarios consistent with the Convention, taking into account both technological and political factors. We translate these scenarios into possible emissions inventories for 2050, based on IPCC development scenarios, and then use the GEOS-Chem global transport model to evaluate the effect of these different technology choices on mercury deposition over geographic regions and oceans. We find that China is most likely to address mercury control through co-benefits from technologies for SO2, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) capture that will be required to attain its existing air quality goals. In contrast, India is likely to focus on improvements to plant efficiency such as upgrading boilers, and coal washing. Compared to current technologies, we project that these changes will result in emissions decreases of approximately 140 and 190 Mg/yr for China and India respectively in 2050, under an A1B development scenario. With these emissions reductions, simulated average gross deposition over India and China are reduced by approximately 10 and 3 μg/m2/yr respectively, and the global average concentration of total gaseous mercury (TGM) is reduced by approximately 10% in the Northern hemisphere. Stricter, but technologically feasible, requirements for mercury control in both countries could lead to an additional 200 Mg/yr of emissions reductions. Modeled differences in concentration and deposition patterns between technology suites are due to differences in both the mercury removal efficiency of technologies and their resulting stack speciation.

  19. CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: INTERIM REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides additional information on mercury (Hg) emissions control following the release of "Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units--Final Report to Congress" in February 1998. Chapters 1-3 describe EPA's December 2000 de...

  20. PILOT PLANT TESTING OF ELEMENTAL MERCURY RE-EMISSION FROM WET SCRUBBERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot-scale wet lime/limestone flue gas desulfurization scrubber system was designed to conduct mercury emission control research. The first tests focused on investigating the phenomenon of Hgo re-emission from wet scrubbers with a specific objective of developing a Hgo re-emis...

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE FUGITIVE MERCURY EMISSIONS AT A CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT. OVERALL STUDY DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a detailed emissions measurement campaign that was conducted over a 9-day period within a mercury (Hg) cell chlor-alkali plant in the southeastern United States (U.S.). The principal focus of this study was to measure fugitive (non-ducted) airborne Hg emission...

  2. Control of mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Ravi K. Srivastava; Nick Hutson; Blair Martin; Frank Princiotta; James Staudt

    2006-03-01

    New US EPA regulations place caps on the levels of mercury that can be emitted from coal-burning power plants, with targets to hit in 2010 and 2018. To meet these targets, technologies already available to reduce other pollutants, such as SO{sub 2} and NOx, will probably be modified to reduce mercury as a cobenefit. The authors review the effectiveness of these technologies at holding the line on mercury and explore how they can be improved for deeper emission cuts. 19 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Radio-interferometric imaging of the subsurface emissions from the planet Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, J. O.; Zeilik, M.; Gisler, G. R.; Borovsky, J. E.; Baker, D. N.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of total and polarized intensities from Mercury's subsurface layers have been mapped using VLA observations. The first detection of a hot pole along the Hermean equator is reported and modeled as black-body reradiation from preferential diurnal heating. These observations appear to rule out any internal sources of heat within Mercury. Polarized emission from the limb of the planet is also found, and is understood in terms of the dielectric properties of the Hermean surface.

  4. DIVALENT INORGANIC REACTIVE GASEOUS MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM A MERCURY CELL CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT AND ITS IMPACT ON NEAR FIELD ATMOSPHERIC DRY DEPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emission of inorganic divalent reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) from a mercury cell chlor-alkali plant (MCCAP) cell building and the impact on near field (100 km) dry deposition was investigated as part of a larger collaborative study between EPA, University of Michigan, Oak ...

  5. Mercury emissions and stable isotopic compositions at Vulcano Island (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zambardi, T.; Sonke, J. E.; Toutain, J. P.; Sortino, F.; Shinohara, H.

    2009-01-01

    Sampling and analyses methods for determining the stable isotopic compositions of Hg in an active volcanic system were tested and optimized at the volcanic complex of Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy). Condensed gaseous fumarole Hg (fum)T, plume gaseous elemental Hg (g)0 and plume particulate Hg (p)II were obtained at fumaroles F0, F5, F11, and FA. The average total Hg emissions, based on Hg T/SO 2 in condensed fumarolic gases and plumes, range from 2.5 to 10.1 kg y - 1 , in agreement with published values [Ferrara, R., Mazzolai, B., Lanzillotta, E., Nucaro, E., Pirrone, N., 2000. Volcanoes as emission sources of atmospheric mercury in the Mediterranean Basin. Sci. Total Environ. 259(1-3), 115-121; Aiuppa, A., Bagnato, E., Witt, M.L.I., Mather, T.A., Parello, F., Pyle, D.M., Martin, R.S., 2007. Real-time simultaneous detection of volcanic Hg and SO 2 at La Fossa Crater, Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Sicily). Geophys. Res. Lett. 34(L21307).]. Plume Hg (p)II increases with distance from the fumarole vent, at the expense of Hg (g)0 and indicates significant in-plume oxidation and condensation of fumarole Hg (fum)T. Relative to the NIST SRM 3133 Hg standard, the stable isotopic compositions of Hg are δ 202Hg (fum)T = - 0.74‰ ± 0.18 (2SD, n = 4) for condensed gaseous fumarole Hg (fum)T, δ 202Hg (g)0 = - 1.74‰ ± 0.36 (2SD, n = 1) for plume gaseous elemental Hg (g)0 at the F0 fumarole, and δ 202Hg (p)II = - 0.11‰ ± 0.18 (2SD, n = 4) for plume particulate Hg (p)II. The enrichment of Hg (p)II in the heavy isotopes and Hg (g)0 in the light isotopes relative to the total condensed fumarolic Hg (fum)T gas complements the speciation data and demonstrates a gas-particle fractionation occurring after the gas expulsion in ambient T° atmosphere. A first order Rayleigh equilibrium condensation isotope fractionation model yields a fractionation factor α cond-gas of 1.00135 ± 0.00058.

  6. The influence of ozone on atmospheric emissions of gaseous elemental mercury and reactive gaseous mercury from substrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engle, M.A.; Sexauer, Gustin M.; Lindberg, S.E.; Gertler, A.W.; Ariya, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Experiments were performed to investigate the effect of ozone (O 3) on mercury (Hg) emission from a variety of Hg-bearing substrates. Substrates with Hg(II) as the dominant Hg phase exhibited a 1.7 to 51-fold increase in elemental Hg (Hgo) flux and a 1.3 to 8.6-fold increase in reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) flux in the presence of O3-enriched clean (50 ppb O3; 8 substrates) and ambient air (up to ???70 ppb O3; 6 substrates), relative to clean air (oxidant and Hg free air). In contrast, Hgo fluxes from two artificially Hgo-amended substrates decreased by more than 75% during exposure to O3-enriched clean air relative to clean air. Reactive gaseous mercury emissions from Hg o-amended substrates increased immediately after exposure to O 3 but then decreased rapidly. These experimental results demonstrate that O3 is very important in controlling Hg emissions from substrates. The chemical mechanisms that produced these trends are not known but potentially involve heterogenous reactions between O3, the substrate, and Hg. Our experiments suggest they are not homogenous gas-phase reactions. Comparison of the influence of O3 versus light on increasing Hgo emissions from dry Hg(II)-bearing substrates demonstrated that they have a similar amount of influence although O3 appeared to be slightly more dominant. Experiments using water-saturated substrates showed that the presence of high-substrate moisture content minimizes reactions between atmospheric O3 and substrate-bound Hg. Using conservative calculations developed in this paper, we conclude that because O3 concentrations have roughly doubled in the last 100 years, this could have increased Hgo emissions from terrestrial substrates by 65-72%. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization, mapping, and mitigation of mercury vapour emissions from artisanal mining gold shops.

    PubMed

    Cordy, Paul; Veiga, Marcello; Crawford, Ben; Garcia, Oseas; Gonzalez, Victor; Moraga, Daniel; Roeser, Monika; Wip, Dennis

    2013-08-01

    Artisanal miners sell their gold to shops that are usually located in the urban core, where the mercury-gold amalgam is burned to evaporate the mercury that was added during ore processing. People living and working near these gold shops are exposed to intermittent and extreme concentrations of mercury vapour. In the urban centres of Segovia, Colombia, and Andacollo, Chile, the average concentrations measured by mobile mercury vapour analyzer transects taken repeatedly over several weeks were 1.26 and 0.338μgm(-3), respectively. By World Health Organization standards, these towns are exposed to significant health hazard, and globally, the millions of miners, as well as non-miners who live near gold shops, are at serious risk of neurological and renal deficits. Measurements taken in Suriname, Ecuador and Peru reveal this to be a widespread phenomenon with unique regional variations and myriad attempts at remediation. Maps of average mercury concentrations show the spatial distribution of the hazard in relation to residential buildings and schools. Measurements from towers show the temporal variability of mercury concentrations, and suggest that large quantities of mercury are available for long-range atmospheric transport. Mercury mapping in Segovia in 2011 suggest a 10% reduction in airborne mercury concentrations over 2010, despite a 30% increase in gold production. This is attributable to the adoption of retorts by miners and regulations banning new processing centres to the rural periphery. This is the first full description of artisanal mining gold shop practices and of the character, quantity, and remediation of mercury emissions within urban mining centres.

  8. Inversion Approach to Validate Mercury Emissions Based on Background Air Monitoring at the High Altitude Research Station Jungfraujoch (3580 m).

    PubMed

    Denzler, Basil; Bogdal, Christian; Henne, Stephan; Obrist, Daniel; Steinbacher, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2017-03-07

    The reduction of emissions of mercury is a declared aim of the Minamata Convention, a UN treaty designed to protect human health and the environment from adverse effects of mercury. To assess the effectiveness of the convention in the future, better constraints about the current mercury emissions is a premise. In our study, we applied a top-down approach to quantify mercury emissions on the basis of atmospheric mercury measurements conducted at the remote high altitude monitoring station Jungfraujoch, Switzerland. We established the source-receptor relationships and by the means of atmospheric inversion we were able to quantify spatially resolved European emissions of 89 ± 14 t/a for elemental mercury. Our European emission estimate is 17% higher than the bottom-up emission inventory, which is within stated uncertainties. However, some regions with unexpectedly high emissions were identified. Stationary combustion, in particular in coal-fired power plants, is found to be the main responsible sector for increased emission estimates. Our top-down approach, based on measurements, provides an independent constraint on mercury emissions, helps to improve and refine reported emission inventories, and can serve for continued assessment of future changes in emissions independent from bottom-up inventories.

  9. Global source-receptor relationships for mercury under present and year 2050 anthropogenic emissions scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbitt, E. S.; Holmes, C.; Jacob, D. J.; Streets, D. G.; Selin, N. E.; Sorensen, A.; Sunderland, E. M.

    2009-12-01

    We use the GEOS-Chem global 3-D model for mercury, including dynamic coupling of the atmosphere with ocean and land reservoirs, to quantify continental and regional source-receptor relationships for mercury under present and future (2050) conditions. The model includes several recent developments such as oxidation of Hg(0) by Br atoms and improved representation of land-atmosphere exchange. Different SRES scenarios are considered for 2050 anthropogenic emissions, thus providing a range of future projections. We use a tagged tracer simulation to track atmospheric emissions of mercury from specific source regions including their cycling with the surface ocean and short-lived land reservoirs. We identify net source and receptor regions, distinguishing regions for which domestic emissions reductions would be most effective from others which receive deposition predominantly from the global atmospheric pool of mercury. The projected future increase in the contribution of Hg(II) to global mercury emissions results in a shift toward more regional source-receptor relationships.

  10. Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities with SCR and FGD Systems

    SciTech Connect

    J. A. Withum; S. C. Tseng; J. E. Locke

    2006-01-31

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that these data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of SCR catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the ninth in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on Unit 1 at Plant 7, a 566 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing 3.6% sulfur. The unit is equipped with a SCR, ESP, and wet FGD to control NO{sub x}, particulate, and SO{sub 2} emissions

  11. Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities with SCR and FGD Systems

    SciTech Connect

    J. A. Withum; J. E. Locke

    2006-02-01

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that this data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of SCR catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the tenth in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on two 468 MW units burning bituminous coal containing 1.3-1.7% sulfur. Unit 2 is equipped with an SCR, ESP, and wet FGD to control NO{sub x}, particulate, and SO{sub 2} emissions, respectively. Unit 1

  12. Atmospheric mercury emissions from China's primary nonferrous metal (Zn, Pb and Cu) smelting during 1949-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xuejie; Hu, Dan; Wang, Huanhuan; Chen, Long; Xie, Han; Zhang, Wei; Deng, Chunyan; Wang, Xuejun

    2015-02-01

    Primary nonferrous metal smelting is one of the most significant anthropogenic mercury emission sources. A spatially resolved mercury emission inventory over a long time span is essential for assessment of mercury source attribution and mercury transport modeling. In this study, based on updated technology-based emission factors, the atmospheric mercury emissions originating from primary zinc, lead and copper smelting in China were calculated. The inventory indicated that the total mercury emission from nonferrous metal smelting in China was 14.65 Mg in 2010, lower than the estimations in previous studies. The contributions of point and non-point sources were 23.3% and 76.7%, respectively. In 2010, the mercury emission from primary zinc, lead and copper smelting was 7.49, 6.05 and 1.10 Mg, respectively, and the Hg2+, Hg0 and HgP emissions were 8.10, 6.16 and 0.75 Mg, respectively. Spatially, the province with the largest emission was Sichuan, followed by Henan, Gansu, Shaanxi, Hunan and Yunnan provinces. The historical emissions were estimated based on dynamic emission factors that take the temporal technology changes into consideration. During 1949-2010, the cumulative mercury emission from China's nonferrous metal smelting was 323.0 Mg, of which the emission from lead smelting accounted for 44.6%, followed by zinc smelting (32.8%) and copper smelting (22.6%). From 1949 to 2010, the contribution of mercury emission from zinc smelting increased from 1.4% to 53.7%, while that from lead smelting showed a decreasing trend. For copper smelting, its contribution reached the maximum (40.1%) in 1987.

  13. Assessment of mercury emissions from the Afton copper smelter, British Columbia, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, J.D.; Price, C.J.

    1986-07-01

    The afton Copper Smelter adjacent to Kamloops, British Columbia, Canada commenced operation in 1978 and employed a mercury scrubbing system. Two years of preproduction studies, which included monitoring for mercury in ambient air, water, soil, and vegetation were performed. The results from similar studies conducted during four full years (1978-81) and two partial years (1982-83) of production are presented in the data analysis. These programs illustrated that the most frequent ground impingement occurred within a 1.6-3.2-km radius of the source, and that the levels decreased with increasing distance from the source to a maximum radius of 8 km. The results of a comprehensive source monitoring program illustrated that the average mercury emission levels ranged from 3.2 to 6.8 kg/calendar day during 1979-81, and that the majority of the emissions were in a vapor form. The ambient monitoring data acquired when smelter operations were significantly reduced indicate a quick recovery to preproduction levels in virtually all monitored parameters and at most monitored sites. The integrated results from all mercury monitoring programs illustrate the environmental impact from mercury emissions which were two to four times the permit standard of 1.8 kg/day.

  14. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM THE MONTICELLO COAL FIRED POWER PLANT.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; ADAMS, J.; MILIAN, L.; SUBRAMANIAN, S.; FEAGIN, L.; WILLIAMS, J.; BOYD, A.

    2006-10-31

    The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as currently proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) when fully implemented will lead to reduction in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by 70 percent to fifteen tons per year by 2018. The EPA estimates that mercury deposition would be reduced 8 percent on average in the Eastern United States. The CAMR permits cap-and-trade approach that requires the nationwide emissions to meet the prescribed level, but do not require controls on each individual power plant. This has led to concerns that there may be hot-spots of mercury contamination near power plants. Partially because of this concern, many states including Pennsylvania have implemented, or are considering, state regulations that are stricter on mercury emissions than those in the CAMR. This study examined the possibility that coal-fired power plants act as local sources leading to mercury ''hot spots'', using two types of evidence. First, the world-wide literature was searched for reports of deposition around mercury sources, including coal-fired power plants. Second, soil samples from around two mid-sized U.S. coal-fired power plants were collected and analyzed for evidence of ''hot spots'' and for correlation with model predictions of deposition. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (A) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (B) sediment increments of 18-30%, (C) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (D) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg(0) in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg deposition and fish content

  15. A CAVITY RING-DOWN SPECTROSCOPY MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher C. Carter

    2003-09-30

    The work performed during this quarter by SRD scientists and engineers focused on a number of tasks. The initial acquisition of some hardware needed and the actual construction of the sampling system have begun. This sampling system will contain the pyrolysis oven to atomize the sample gas stream needed for total gaseous mercury measurements, the CRD cavity to acquire the ring-down signal needed to obtain the mercury concentration, various tubing, and temperature and pressure measurement equipment. The amount of tubing and valves have been cut to a minimum to try and reduce the resident time the sample flue gas stream is in the sampling system and minimize the possibility that the gases in the sample gas stream will react with the elements of the sampling system and change the component mixture contained in the flue gas. In an effort to minimize the equipment that needs to be close to the actual sampling port, SRD scientists decided to fiber optically couple the laser to the CRD cavity. However, the ultra-violet (UV) light needed for the mercury transition presents a problem as fiber optics can be solarized by the UV radiation thereby changing the transmission characteristics. SRD has obtained a solarization-resistant fiber. SRD scientists were then able to couple the UV laser light into the fiber and inject the output of the fiber into the CRD cavity and obtain a ring-down signal. Long-term effects of the UV radiation on the fiber optic are being monitored to detect any change in the transmission of the laser light to the cavity. Additional requirements of the mercury CRD monitor will be to not only monitor the mercury concentration continuously but also perform the measurements over extended periods of time. SRD has extended some previously performed shorter-term studies to longer time intervals. The results of these initial long-term studies are very promising.

  16. Quantifying Atmospheric Mercury Emissions Sources in coastal California from Shipboard Measurements During CalNex 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss-Penzias, P. S.; Lerner, B. M.; Williams, E. J.; Bates, T. S.; Gaston, C. J.; Prather, K. A.

    2011-12-01

    Mercury is a neurotoxin that can bioaccumulate in aquatic ecosystems to levels that are unsafe for humans and biota. It has both natural and anthropogenic sources to the atmosphere, where it can be transported and undergo transformations that lead to its deposition in both wet and dry forms. Due to recent surveys of mercury in fish in California that show widespread contamination, there is great interest in knowing the source of this mercury, whether it be from local, regional, or global emissions. In this study we made simultaneous measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), CO2, CO, NOx, SO2, O3, and meteorology during the spring of 2010 (May 14-June 8) on board the research vessel Atlantis during the CalNex campaign. The goal of this study was to observe and quantify emissions of GEM from known and potential sources along the California coast, including an incinerator, oil refineries, cargo ships, and natural ocean emissions. Additionally, an understanding of the behavior of GEM in the marine boundary layer under land-sea breeze conditions was sought. Our results indicate that on at least one occasion when the ship was located in the San Pedro harbor, emissions from an incinerator were observed, as indicated by high concentrations of GEM and unique single particle chemical composition. Using the ratio of the enhancements in GEM and CO and the CO emissions inventory for this facility, it was estimated that the annual GEM emissions were 11 +/- 5 kg. This is a factor of 5 lower than the reported total mercury emissions inventory for this facility in 2008. The discrepancy may be explained if a significant fraction of the emissions were gaseous oxidized and particulate mercury, since only GEM was measured. Additionally, a plume from a cargo ship was intercepted and the GEM/CO2 enhancement ratio indicated that approximately 13 tonnes of GEM are emitted from shipping worldwide, assuming values for global fuel usage and a CO2/fuel burned mass ratio. In spite of

  17. Local Impacts of Mercury Emissions from the Three Pennsylvania Coal Fired Power Plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan,T.; Adams,J.; Bender, M.; Bu, C.; Piccolo, N.; Campbell, C.

    2008-02-01

    The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) when fully implemented will lead to reduction in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by 70 percent to fifteen tons per year by 2018. The EPA estimates that mercury deposition would be reduced 8 percent on average in the Eastern United States. The CAMR permits cap-and-trade approach that requires the nationwide emissions to meet the prescribed level, but do not require controls on each individual power plant. This has led to concerns that there may be hot-spots of mercury contamination near power plants. Partially because of this concern, many states including Pennsylvania have implemented, or are considering, state regulations that are stricter on mercury emissions than those in the CAMR. This study examined the possibility that coal-fired power plants act as local sources leading to mercury 'hot spots'. Soil and oak leaf samples from around three large U.S. coal-fired power plants in Western Pennsylvania were collected and analyzed for evidence of 'hot spots'. These three plants (Conemaugh, Homer City, and Keystone) are separated by a total distance of approximately 30 miles. Each emits over 500 pounds of mercury per year which is well above average for mercury emissions from coal plants in the U.S. Soil and oak leaf sampling programs were performed around each power plant. Sampling rings one-mile apart were used with eight or nine locations on each ring. The prevailing winds in the region are from the west. For this reason, sampling was conducted out to 10 miles from the Conemaugh plant which is southeast of the others. The other plants were sampled to a distance of five miles. The objectives were to determine if local mercury hot spots exist, to determine if they could be attributed to deposition of coal-fired power plant emissions, and to determine if they correlated with wind patterns. The study found the following

  18. Mapping the spatial distribution of global anthropogenic mercury atmospheric emission inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Simon J.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Pacyna, Jozef M.; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.

    This paper describes the procedures employed to spatially distribute global inventories of anthropogenic emissions of mercury to the atmosphere, prepared by Pacyna, E.G., Pacyna, J.M., Steenhuisen, F., Wilson, S. [2006. Global anthropogenic mercury emission inventory for 2000. Atmospheric Environment, this issue, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.03.041], and briefly discusses the results of this work. A new spatially distributed global emission inventory for the (nominal) year 2000, and a revised version of the 1995 inventory are presented. Emissions estimates for total mercury and major species groups are distributed within latitude/longitude-based grids with a resolution of 1×1 and 0.5×0.5°. A key component in the spatial distribution procedure is the use of population distribution as a surrogate parameter to distribute emissions from sources that cannot be accurately geographically located. In this connection, new gridded population datasets were prepared, based on the CEISIN GPW3 datasets (CIESIN, 2004. Gridded Population of the World (GPW), Version 3. Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), Columbia University and Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT). GPW3 data are available at http://beta.sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/gpw/index.jsp). The spatially distributed emissions inventories and population datasets prepared in the course of this work are available on the Internet at www.amap.no/Resources/HgEmissions/

  19. Mercury emission to atmosphere from Lanmuchang Hg-Tl mining area, Southwestern Guizhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shaofeng; Feng, Xinbin; Qiu, Guangle; Wei, Zhongqing; Xiao, Tangfu

    In situ mercury emission fluxes from soil in Lanmuchang Hg-Tl mining area, southwestern Guizhou, China, were measured using dynamic flux chamber (DFC) method in December 2002 and May 2003, respectively. Huge mercury emission fluxes from soil were obtained in the mining area, ranging from -623 to 10 544 ng m -2 h -1(n=92) with the maximal mean Hg flux of 2283±2434 ng m -2 h -1. Meanwhile, highly elevated total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations in the ambient air observed during the sampling periods varied from 35.2±26.1 ng m -3 (7.9-353.8 ng m -3, n=532) in cold season to 111.2±91.8ngm ( 12.7-468.0ngm, n=903) in the warm season, respectively. The correlations between mercury emission fluxes and environmental parameters, such as solar radiation, temperature, TGM concentration in air, relative humidity and soil Hg concentration are studied. The strong Hg emission fluxes resulted in the elevated TGM concentrations in the ambient air in the study area. We acquired a significant Log-Log correlation between the ratio of average Hg flux and average solar radiation and the soil Hg concentrations at all sampling sites in warm and cold seasons. Within the Langmuchang Hg-Tl mining area with a total area of ˜2.9 km 2, the annual Hg emission rate is calculated to be ˜3.54 kg Hg, which is a strong mercury emission source to the local ambient air.

  20. PERFORMANCE AND COST OF MERCURY AND MULTIPOLLUTANT EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS ON ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents estimates of the performance and cost of both powdered activated carbon (PAC) and multipollutant control technologies that may be useful in controlling mercury emissions. Based on currently available data, cost estimates for PAC injection range are 0.03-3.096 ...

  1. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF SCR ON MERCURY SPECIATION AND EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents the results of an investigation on the impact that selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has on both the total emissions and the speciation of mercury (Hg). SCR systems can be used as multipollutant technologies if they enhance Hg conversion/capture. Previous pil...

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS AT A CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT: STUDY ORGANIZATION AND IMPLEMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the organization and implementation of a detailed emissions measurement campaign conducted over a 2-week period at the Olin Corporation's mercury chlor-alkali plant in Augusta, GA. (NOTE: Since data analysis is continuing, study results will be provided later...

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS AT A CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT, VOLUME II. APPENDICES F-J

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a characterization of mercury (Hg) emissions at a chlor-alkali plant. Up to 160 short tons (146 Mg) of Hg is consumed by the chlor-alkali industry each year. Very little quantitative information is currently available however, on the actual Hg losses f...

  4. EMISSION TEST REPORT, OMSS FIELD TEST ON CARBON INJECTION FOR MERCURY CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses results of a parametric evaluation of powdered activated carbon for control of mercury (Hg) emission from a municipal waste cornbustor (MWC) equipped with a lime spray dryer absorber/fabric filter (SD/FF). The primary test objectives were to evaluate the effe...

  5. Particulate-phase mercury emissions from biomass burning and impact on resulting deposition: a modelling assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury (Hg) emissions from biomass burning (BB) are an important source of atmospheric Hg and a major factor driving the interannual variation of Hg concentrations in the troposphere. The greatest fraction of Hg from BB is released in the form of elemental Hg (Hg0(g)). However, ...

  6. INVESTIGATION OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION IMPACT ON MERCURY SPECIATION UNDER SIMULATED NOX EMISSION CONTROL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology is being increasingly applied for controlling emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from coal-fired boilers. Some recent field and pilot studies suggest that the operation of SCR could affect the chemical form of mercury in the coal com...

  7. CONTROL OF DIOXIN, FURAN, AND MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a significant public and scientific concern over the potential risks of air pollution emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs). The primary pollutants of concern are polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), and mercury (Hg). Depending on...

  8. Were mercury emission factors for Chinese non-ferrous metal smelters overestimated? Evidence from onsite measurements in six smelters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Wu, Qingru; Meng, Yang; Yang, Hai; Wang, Fengyang; Hao, Jiming

    2012-12-01

    Non-ferrous metal smelting takes up a large proportion of the anthropogenic mercury emission inventory in China. Zinc, lead and copper smelting are three leading sources. Onsite measurements of mercury emissions were conducted for six smelters. The mercury emission factors were 0.09-2.98 g Hg/t metal produced. Acid plants with the double-conversion double-absorption process had mercury removal efficiency of over 99%. In the flue gas after acid plants, 45-88% was oxidized mercury which can be easily scavenged in the flue gas scrubber. 70-97% of the mercury was removed from the flue gas to the waste water and 1-17% to the sulfuric acid product. Totally 0.3-13.5% of the mercury in the metal concentrate was emitted to the atmosphere. Therefore, acid plants in non-ferrous metal smelters have significant co-benefit on mercury removal, and the mercury emission factors from Chinese non-ferrous metal smelters were probably overestimated in previous studies.

  9. Assessing and Managing Methylmercury Risks Associated With Power Plant Mercury Emissions in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Charnley, Gail

    2006-01-01

    Abstract and Introduction Abstract Until the Clean Air Mercury Rule was signed in March 2005, coal-fired electric utilities were the only remaining, unregulated major source of industrial mercury emissions in the United States. Proponents of coal-burning power plants assert that methylmercury is not a hazard at the current environmental levels, that current technologies for limiting emissions are unreliable, and that reducing mercury emissions from power plants in the United States will have little impact on environmental levels. Opponents of coal-burning plants assert that current methylmercury exposures from fish are damaging to the developing nervous system of infants, children, and the fetus; that current technology can significantly limit emissions; and that reducing emissions will reduce exposure and risk. One concern is that local mercury emissions from power plants may contribute to higher local exposure levels, or “hot spots.” The impact of the Mercury Rule on potential hot spots is uncertain due to the highly site-specific nature of the relationship between plant emissions and local fish methylmercury levels. The impact on the primary source of exposure in the United States, ocean fish, is likely to be negligible due to the contribution of natural sources and industrial sources outside the United States. Another debate centers on the toxic potency of methylmercury, with the scientific basis of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) recommended exposure limit questioned by some and defended by others. It is likely that the EPA's exposure limit may be appropriate for combined exposure to methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but may be lower than the available data suggest is necessary to protect children from methylmercury alone. Mercury emissions from power plants are a global problem. Without a global approach to developing and implementing clean coal technologies, limiting US power plant emissions alone will have little

  10. Divalent inorganic reactive gaseous mercury emissions from a mercury cell chlor-alkali plant and its impact on near-field atmospheric dry deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landis, Matthew S.; Keeler, Gerald J.; Al-Wali, Khalid I.; Stevens, Robert K.

    The emission of inorganic divalent reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) from a mercury cell chlor-alkali plant (MCCAP) cell building and the impact on near field (100 km) dry deposition was investigated as part of a larger collaborative study between EPA, University of Michigan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Chlorine Institute, and Olin Corporation in February 2000. Measurements in the cell building roof vent showed that RGM constituted 2.1±0.7% (median±variance) of the concurrently measured elemental gaseous mercury (Hg 0). This relationship was used to calculate an estimated RGM emission rate from the cell building roof vent of 10.4 g day -1. The percentage of RGM/Hg 0 at ambient monitoring sites 350 m (1.5%) and 800 m (1.3%) away while being impacted by cell building emissions suggests the rapid deposition of RGM species. The observed 2% relative emission of RGM/Hg 0 was substantially lower than the 30% estimate utilized by EPA to model the impact of MCCAPs for the 1997 Mercury Report to Congress. However, the MCCAP was still found to present a significant impact on near field mercury atmospheric dry deposition. A Lagrangian transport and deposition modeling framework using only emissions from the MCCAP found the mean annualized dry deposition of mercury within a 10 km radius of the facility contributed the annual equivalent of 4.6 μg m -2. For comparison, the total annual wet mercury deposition measured at the Savannah River National Mercury Deposition Network sampling site ˜30 km away was 9.8 μg m -2.

  11. Estimates of increased black carbon emissions from electrostatic precipitators during powdered activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control.

    PubMed

    Clack, Herek L

    2012-07-03

    The behavior of mercury sorbents within electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is not well-understood, despite a decade or more of full-scale testing. Recent laboratory results suggest that powdered activated carbon exhibits somewhat different collection behavior than fly ash in an ESP and particulate filters located at the outlet of ESPs have shown evidence of powdered activated carbon penetration during full-scale tests of sorbent injection for mercury emissions control. The present analysis considers a range of assumed differential ESP collection efficiencies for powdered activated carbon as compared to fly ash. Estimated emission rates of submicrometer powdered activated carbon are compared to estimated emission rates of particulate carbon on submicrometer fly ash, each corresponding to its respective collection efficiency. To the extent that any emitted powdered activated carbon exhibits size and optical characteristics similar to black carbon, such emissions could effectively constitute an increase in black carbon emissions from coal-based stationary power generation. The results reveal that even for the low injection rates associated with chemically impregnated carbons, submicrometer particulate carbon emissions can easily double if the submicrometer fraction of the native fly ash has a low carbon content. Increasing sorbent injection rates, larger collection efficiency differentials as compared to fly ash, and decreasing sorbent particle size all lead to increases in the estimated submicrometer particulate carbon emissions.

  12. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ddddd of... - Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Mercury Emission Limits and Boilers and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Process Heaters With Mercury Emission Limits and Boilers and Process Heaters That Choose To Comply With... Heaters With Mercury Emission Limits and Boilers and Process Heaters That Choose To Comply With the... operating limits: If you demonstrate compliance with applicable mercury and/or total selected...

  13. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ddddd of... - Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Mercury Emission Limits and Boilers and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Process Heaters With Mercury Emission Limits and Boilers and Process Heaters That Choose To Comply With... Heaters With Mercury Emission Limits and Boilers and Process Heaters That Choose To Comply With the... operating limits: If you demonstrate compliance with applicable mercury and/or total selected...

  14. MODELING ASSESSMENT OF TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION PATTERNS OF MERCURY AIR EMISSIONS FROM THE U.S. AND CANADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In December 1997, the U.S. EPA submitted the Mercury Study Report to Congress which included a regional-scale modeling assessment of the transport and deposition of U.S. air emissions of mercury. This modeling was performed with a modified version of the Regional Lagrangian Mode...

  15. Updated emission inventories for speciated atmospheric mercury from anthropogenic sources in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Wang, Long; Wu, Ye; Duan, Lei; Wu, Qingru; Wang, Fengyang; Yang, Mei; Yang, Hai; Hao, Jiming; Liu, Xiang

    2015-03-03

    China is the largest contributor to global atmospheric mercury (Hg), and accurate emission inventories in China are needed to reduce large gaps existing in global Hg mass balance estimates and assess Hg effects on various ecosystems. The China Atmospheric Mercury Emission (CAME) model was developed in this study using probabilistic emission factors generated from abundant on-site measurements and literature data. Using this model, total anthropogenic Hg emissions were estimated to be continuously increasing from 356 t in 2000 to 538 t in 2010 with an average annual increase rate of 4.2%. Industrial coal combustion, coal-fired power plants, nonferrous metal smelting, and cement production were identified to be the dominant Hg emission sources in China. The ten largest contributing provinces accounted for nearly 60% of the total Hg emissions in 2010. Speciated Hg emission inventory was developed over China with a grid-resolution of 36 × 36 km, providing needed emission fields for Hg transport models. In this new inventory, the sectoral Hg speciation profiles were significantly improved based on the latest data from field measurements and more detailed technology categorization. The overall uncertainties of the newly developed inventory were estimated to be in the range of -20% to +23%.

  16. Anthropogenic mercury emissions in South Africa: Coal combustion in power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowski, James M.; Ashton, Peter J.; Murray, Kevin; Leaner, Joy J.; Mason, Robert P.

    South Africa is regarded as a country with the 2nd highest mercury (Hg) emissions in the world. This assumption is based on estimates of total Hg emissions derived primarily from gold mining and coal combustion. The potential sources of Hg to the South African environment were assessed by focussing particularly on coal combustion at the country's coal-fired power plants. Mercury emission estimates were based on the total amount of coal burned in all power plants per year (112.3 Mt y -1), the Hg content of South African coals (0.2 ppm) and the emission control devices used in each power plant. Results indicate that Hg emissions arising from South Africa's coal-fired power plants (ranging between 2.6 and 17.6 tonnes y -1, with an estimated average emission of 9.8 tonnes y -1) are significantly lower than suggested in the literature (approximately 50 tonnes y -1). The calculated emission factor (ranging between 0.02 and 0.16 g Hg tonne -1 coal burned) and per capita estimates (0.24 g Hg person -1 y -1 R-1, where R is the fraction of total electricity generated from coal) fall within the range of values reported for Hg inventories derived in other countries and indicate that Hg emission estimates for coal-fired power plants presented in this paper are more reliable than those published previously.

  17. EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    J. A. Withum; S.C. Tseng; J. E. Locke

    2004-10-31

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) - wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on Hg speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for Hg capture. This document, the second in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on a 330 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing 1.0% sulfur. The unit is equipped with a SCR system for NOx control and a spray dryer absorber for SO{sub 2} control followed by a baghouse unit for particulate emissions control. Four sampling tests were performed in March 2003. Flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the SCR inlet, air heater outlet (ESP inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process stream samples for a mercury balance were collected to coincide with the flue gas measurements. Due to mechanical problems with the boiler feed water pumps, the actual gross output was between 195 and 221 MW during the tests. The results showed that the SCR/air heater combination oxidized nearly 95% of the elemental mercury. Mercury removal, on a

  18. Mercury emissions to the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources in the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirrone, N.; Costa, P.; Pacyna, J. M.; Ferrara, R.

    This report discusses past, current and projected mercury emissions to the atmosphere from major industrial sources, and presents a first assessment of the contribution to the regional mercury budget from selected natural sources. Emissions (1995 estimates) from fossil fuels combustion (29.8 t yr -1) , cement production (28.8 t yr -1) and incineration of solid wastes (27.6 t yr -1) , all together account for about 82% of the regional anthropogenic total (105.7 t yr -1) . Other industrial sources in the region are smelters (4.8 t yr -1) , iron-steel plants (4.8 t yr -1) and other minor sources (chlor-alkali plants, crematoria, chemicals production) that have been considered together in the miscellaneous category (9.6 t yr -1) . Regional emissions from anthropogenic sources increased at a rate of 3% yr-1 from 1983 to 1995 and are projected to increase at a rate of 1.9% yr-1 in the next 25 years, if no improvement in emission control policy occurs. On a country-by-country basis, France is the leading emitter country with 22.6 t yr -1 followed by Turkey (16.1 t yr -1) , Italy (11.4 t yr -1) , Spain (9.1 t yr -1) , the former Yugoslavia 7.9 ( t yr -1) , Morocco (6.9 t yr -1) , Bulgaria (6.8 t yr -1) , Egypt (6.1 t yr -1) , Syria (3.6 t yr -1) , Libya (2.9 t yr -1) , Tunisia (2.8 t yr -1) and Greece (2.7 t yr -1) , whereas the remaining countries account for less than 7% of the regional total. The annual emission from natural sources is 110 t yr -1, although this figure only includes the volatilisation of elemental mercury from surface waters and emissions from volcanoes, whereas the contribution due to the degassing of mercury from top soil and vegetation has not been included in this first assessment. Therefore, natural and anthropogenic sources in the Mediterranean region release annually about 215 t of mercury, which represents a significant contribution to the total mercury budget released in Europe and to the global atmosphere.

  19. Mercury emission trend influenced by stringent air pollutants regulation for coal-fired power plants in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudasainee, Deepak; Kim, Jeong-Hun; Seo, Yong-Chil

    2009-12-01

    Regulatory control of mercury emission from anthropogenic sources has become a global concern in the recent past. Coal-fired power plants are one of the largest sources of anthropogenic mercury emission into the atmosphere. This paper summarizes the current reducing trend of mercury emission as co-beneficial effect by more stringent regulation changes to control primary air pollutants with introducing test results from the commercial coal-fired facilities and suggesting a guideline for future regulatory development in Korea. On average, mercury emission concentrations ranged 16.3-2.7 μg Sm -3, 2.4-1.1 μg Sm -3, 3.1-0.7 μg Sm -3 from anthracite coal-fired power plants equipped with electrostatic precipitator (ESP), bituminous coal-fired power plants with ESP + flue gas desulphurization (FGD) and bituminous coal-fired power plants with selective catalytic reactor (SCR) + cold side (CS) - ESP + wet FGD, respectively. Among the existing air pollution control devices, the best configuration for mercury removal in coal-fired power plants was SCR + CS - ESP + wet FGD, which were installed due to the stringent regulation changes to control primary air pollutants emission such as SO 2, NOx and dust. It was estimated that uncontrolled and controlled mercury emission from coal-fired power plants as 10.3 ton yr -1 and 3.2 ton yr -1 respectively. After the installation of ESP, FGD and SCR system, following the enforcement of the stringent regulation, 7.1 ton yr -1 of mercury emission has been reduced (nearly 69%) from coal-fired power plants as a co-benefit control. Based on the overall study, a sample guideline including emission limits were suggested which will be applied to develop a countermeasure for controlling mercury emission from coal-fired power plants.

  20. Monte-Carlo human health risk assessment of mercury emissions from a MSW gasification plant.

    PubMed

    Lonati, Giovanni; Zanoni, Francesca

    2013-02-01

    The potential impact of the atmospheric emission of mercury from a new waste gasification plant is assessed by means of a probabilistic approach based on probability density functions for the description of the input data (namely, emission rate of mercury gaseous and particulate species) and the model parameters involved in the individual risk exposure assessment through the pathways of inhalation, soil ingestion, dermal contact, and diet. The use of probability functions allowed the uncertainty in the input data and model parameters to be accounted for; the uncertainty was propagated throughout the evaluation by Monte Carlo technique, resulting in the probability distributions for the ambient air and soil concentrations nearby the plant and for the subsequent individual risk, estimated in terms of hazard index for both an adult and a child receptor. The estimated median concentration levels in air and soil are respectively in the 1.6 × 10(-3)-2.2 × 10(-2) ng m(-3) range and in the 3.5 × 10(-4)-1.7 × 10(-2) mg kg(-1) range, that is at least two orders of magnitude lower than the current background concentration in the ambient air and one order of magnitude lower than the concentration locally measured in the soil. The diet pathway is responsible for the most part (>80%) of the daily mercury intake, which, however, is at least four (median estimated values) and three orders (estimates for a reasonable maximum exposure) lower than the reference dose in the most part of the modeling domain. According to the locally measured background mercury levels in air and soil the additional contribution of the plant emissions to the environmental mercury levels appears of small significance, with an almost negligible impact on the hazard index for the population living in the neighborhood of the plant.

  1. Site-specific diel mercury emission fluxes in landfill: Combined effects of vegetation and meteorological factors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Wu, Boran; Hao, Yongxia; Zhu, Wei; Li, Zhonggen; Chai, Xiaoli

    2017-01-01

    Mercury emission fluxes (MEFs) under different surface coverage conditions in a landfill were investigated in this study. The results show similar diel patterns of Hg emission flux under different coverage conditions, with peak fluxes occurring at midday and decreasing during night. We examined the effects of environmental factors on MEFs, such as the physiological characteristics of vegetation and meteorological conditions. The results suggest that growth of vegetation in the daytime facilitates the release of Hg in the anaerobic unit, while in the semi-aerobic unit, where vegetation had been removed, the higher mercury content of the cover soil prompted the photo-reduction pathway to become the main path of mercury release and increased MEFs. MEFs are positively correlated with solar radiation and air temperature, but negatively correlated with relative humidity. The correlation coefficients for MEFs with different environmental parameters indicate that in the anaerobic unit, solar radiation was the main influence on MEFs in September, while air temperature became the main determining factor in December. These observations suggest that the effects of meteorological conditions on the mercury release mechanism varies depending on the vegetation and soil pathways.

  2. Report: Additional Analyses of Mercury Emissions Needed Before EPA Finalizes Rules for Coal-Fired Electric Utilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2005-P-00003, February 3, 2005. Evidence indicates that EPA senior management instructed EPA staff to develop a Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standard for mercury that would result in national emissions of 34 tons annually.

  3. Mercury Emissions Capture Efficiency with Activated Carbon Injection at a Russian Coal-Fired Thermal Power Plant

    EPA Science Inventory

    This EPA-led project, conducted in collaboration with UNEP, the Swedish Environmental Institute and various Russian Institutes, that demonstrates that the mercury emission control efficiencies of activated carbon injection technologies applied at a Russian power plant burning Rus...

  4. Impact of Oxy-Fuel Conditions on Elemental Mercury Re-Emission in Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Miranda, Nuria; Lopez-Anton, M Antonia; Torre-Santos, Teresa; Díaz-Somoano, Mercedes; Martínez-Tarazona, M Rosa

    2016-07-05

    This study evaluates some of the variables that may influence mercury retention in wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) plants, focusing on oxy-coal combustion processes and differences when compared with atmospheres enriched in N2. The main drawback of using WFGD for mercury capture is the possibility of unwanted reduction of dissolved Hg(2+), leading to the re-emission of insoluble elemental mercury (Hg(0)), which decreases efficiency. To acquire a better understanding of the mercury re-emission reactions in WFGD systems, this work analyses different variables that influence the behavior of mercury in slurries obtained from two limestones, under an oxy-combustion atmosphere. The O2 supplied to the reactor, the influence of the pH, the concentration of mercury in the gas phase, and the enhancement of mercury in the slurry were the variables considered. The study was performed at laboratory scale, where possible reactions between the components in the scrubber can be individually evaluated. It was found that in an oxy-combustion atmosphere (mostly CO2), the re-emission of Hg(0) is lower than under a N2-enriched atmosphere, and the mercury is mainly retained as Hg(2+) in the liquid phase.

  5. Improvement of sensitivity of electrolyte cathode discharge atomic emission spectrometry (ELCAD-AES) for mercury using acetic acid medium.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, R

    2012-05-15

    A method has been developed to improve the sensitivity of the electrolyte cathode discharge atomic emission spectrometry (ELCAD-AES) for mercury determination. Effects of various low molecular weight organic solvents at different volume percentages as well as at different acid molarities on the mercury signal were investigated using ELCAD-AES. The addition of few percent of organic solvent, acetic acid produced significant enhancement in mercury signal. Acetic acid of 5% (v/v) with the 0.2M acidity has been found to give 500% enhancement for mercury signal in flow injection mode. Under the optimized parameters the repeatability, expressed as the percentage relative standard deviation of spectral peak area for mercury with 5% acetic acid was found to be 10% for acid blank solution and 5% for 20 ng/mL mercury standard based on multiple measurements with a multiple sample loading in flow injection mode. Limit of detection of this method was determined to be 2 ng/mL for inorganic mercury. The proposed method has been validated by determining mercury in certified reference materials, Tuna fish (IAEA-350) and Aquatic plant (BCR-060). Accuracy of the method for the mercury determination in the reference materials has been found to be between 3.5% and 5.9%. This study enhances the utility of ELCAD-AES for various types of biological and environmental materials to quantify total mercury at very low levels.

  6. Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gault, D. E.; Burns, J. A.; Cassen, P.; Strom, R. G.

    1977-01-01

    Prior to the flight of the Mariner 10 spacecraft, Mercury was the least investigated and most poorly known terrestrial planet (Kuiper 1970, Devine 1972). Observational difficulties caused by its proximity to the Sun as viewed from Earth caused the planet to remain a small, vague disk exhibiting little surface contrast or details, an object for which only three major facts were known: 1. its bulk density is similar to that of Venus and Earth, much greater than that of Mars and the Moon; 2. its surface reflects electromagnetic radiation at all wavelengths in the same manner as the Moon (taking into account differences in their solar distances); and 3. its rotation period is in 2/3 resonance with its orbital period. Images obtained during the flyby by Mariner 10 on 29 March 1974 (and the two subsequent flybys on 21 September 1974 and 16 March 1975) revealed Mercury's surface in detail equivalent to that available for the Moon during the early 1960's from Earth-based telescopic views. Additionally, however, information was obtained on the planet's mass and size, atmospheric composition and density, charged-particle environment, and infrared thermal radiation from the surface, and most significantly of all, the existence of a planetary magnetic field that is probably intrinsic to Mercury was established. In the following, this new information is summarized together with results from theoretical studies and ground-based observations. In the quantum jumps of knowledge that have been characteristic of "space-age" exploration, the previously obscure body of Mercury has suddenly come into sharp focus. It is very likely a differentiated body, probably contains a large Earth-like iron-rich core, and displays a surface remarkably similar to that of the Moon, which suggests a similar evolutionary history.

  7. Highly elevated emission of mercury vapor due to the spontaneous combustion of refuse in a landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wei; Sommar, Jonas; Li, Zhonggen; Feng, Xinbin; Lin, Che-Jen; Li, Guanghui

    2013-11-01

    Refuse disposal (e.g., landfilling and incineration) have been recognized as a significant anthropogenic source of mercury (Hg) emission globally. However, in-situ measurements of Hg emission from landfill or refuse dumping sites where fugitive spontaneous combustion occurs have not been reported. Gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) concentration and emission flux were observed near spontaneous combustions of refuse at a landfill site in southwestern China. Ambient Hg0 concentrations above the refuse surface ranged from 42.7 ± 20.0 to 396.4 ± 114.2 ng m-3, up to 10 times enhancement due to the spontaneous burning. Using a box model with Hg0 data obtained from 2004 to 2013, we estimated that the Hg0 emission from refuse was amplified by 8-40 times due to spontaneous combustion. A micrometeorological flux measurement system based on relaxed eddy accumulation was configured downwind of the combustion sites to quantify the Hg0 emission. Extremely large turbulent deposition fluxes (up to -128.6 μg m-2 h-1, 20 min average) were detected during periods of high Hg0 concentration events over the measurement footprint. The effect of temperature, moisture and light on the air-surface exchange of Hg0 exchange was found to be masked by the overwhelming deposition of Hg0 from the enriched air from the refuse combustion plumes. This research reveals that mercury emission from the landfill refuse can be boosted by fugitive spontaneous combustion of refuse. The emission represents an anthropogenic source that has been overlooked in Hg inventory estimates.

  8. A summary of measured mercury emissions from two municipal landfills in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, S.E.; Price, J.L.

    1998-12-31

    Large quantities of mercury have been placed in municipal landfills from a wide array of sources including fluorescent lights, batteries, electrical switches, thermometers, and general waste. Despite its known volatility, longevity, and toxicity in the environment, the fate of this mercury has not been widely studied. Using automated flux chambers and atmospheric sampling, the authors quantified the primary sources of Hg vapor releases to the atmosphere at two municipal landfill operations in south Florida for 8 days in April, 1997. These pathways included landfill gas (LFG) releases from passive and active vent systems, passive emissions from landfill surface covers of different ages (including CH{sub 4} hot spots), and emissions from daily activities on a working face. Mercury vapor was released to the atmosphere at readily detectable rates from all sources measured. Emission rates ranged from {approximately} 1--20 ng m-2 h-1 over aged surface covers, from {approximately} 6--2400 ng/h from LFG vents and flares, and from {approximately} 5--60 mg/h at the working face. In general the fluxes increased from older to newer landfills, from fresh to aged cover, and from passive to active vented systems. They estimate that atmospheric Hg releases from municipal landfill operations in the state of Florida are on the order of 10 kg/y, or <1% of the estimated total anthropogenic Hg releases to air in this region.

  9. Atlantic mercury emission determined from continuous analysis of the elemental mercury sea-air concentration difference within transects between 50°N and 50°S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuss, J.; Zülicke, C.; Pohl, C.; Schneider, B.

    2011-09-01

    Mercury in the environment deserves serious concern because of the mobility of volatile elemental mercury (Hg0) in the atmosphere, in combination with the harmful effect of Hg compounds on human health and the ecosystem. A major source of global atmospheric mercury is presumed to be oceanic Hg0 emission. However, available Hg0 surface water data to reliably estimate the ocean's mercury emissions are sparse. In this study, high-resolution surface water and air measurements of Hg0 were carried out between Europe and South Africa in November 2008 and between South America and Europe in April-May 2009. On each cruise a strong enrichment of Hg0 in tropical surface water was determined that apparently followed the seasonal shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). A combination of a high Hg0 production rate constant and the actual low wind speeds, which prevented emission, probably caused the accumulation of Hg0 in surface waters of the ITCZ. Hg0 emissions in the tropics were significant only if wind speed variability on a monthly scale was considered, in which case the observed significant decline of total Hg in tropical surface waters during the northern winter could be explained. In the midlatitudes, increased autumn Hg0 emissions were calculated for November in the Northern Hemisphere and for May in the Southern Hemisphere; conversely, emissions were low during both the northern and the southern spring. Mercury removal from surface waters by Hg0 emission and sinking particles was comparable to its supply through wet and dry deposition.

  10. Mercury in coal and the impact of coal quality on mercury emissions from combustion systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolker, A.; Senior, C.L.; Quick, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The proportion of Hg in coal feedstock that is emitted by stack gases of utility power stations is a complex function of coal chemistry and properties, combustion conditions, and the positioning and type of air pollution control devices employed. Mercury in bituminous coal is found primarily within Fe-sulfides, whereas lower rank coal tends to have a greater proportion of organic-bound Hg. Preparation of bituminous coal to reduce S generally reduces input Hg relative to in-ground concentrations, but the amount of this reduction varies according to the fraction of Hg in sulfides and the efficiency of sulfide removal. The mode of occurrence of Hg in coal does not directly affect the speciation of Hg in the combustion flue gas. However, other constituents in the coal, notably Cl and S, and the combustion characteristics of the coal, influence the species of Hg that are formed in the flue gas and enter air pollution control devices. The formation of gaseous oxidized Hg or particulate-bound Hg occurs post-combustion; these forms of Hg can be in part captured in the air pollution control devices that exist on coal-fired boilers, without modification. For a given coal type, the capture efficiency of Hg by pollution control systems varies according to type of device and the conditions of its deployment. For bituminous coal, on average, more than 60% of Hg in flue gas is captured by fabric filter (FF) and flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Key variables affecting performance for Hg control include Cl and S content of the coal, the positioning (hot side vs. cold side) of the system, and the amount of unburned C in coal ash. Knowledge of coal quality parameters and their effect on the performance of air pollution control devices allows optimization of Hg capture co-benefit. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Emissions of mercury and other trace elements from coal-fired power plants in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shigeo; Yokoyama, Takahisa; Asakura, Kazuo

    2006-09-01

    To evaluate trace element emissions from modern coal-fired power plants into the atmospheric environment in Japan, trace elements in the coal used in electric utility boilers, stack concentrations, emission rates and emission ratios of coal-fired power plants, and proportions of trace elements in coal-fired power plants were studied. The elements were As, B, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, F, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se and V, which are designated in the Law of Pollutant Release and Transfer Register. The particulate trace elements were collected in an electrostatic precipitator and a wet desulfurization scrubber. Emissions into the atmosphere were lower than 1% of the quantity in coal, but the volatile trace elements showed somewhat higher emission ratios. For mercury, the mean concentration in coal was 0.045 ppm, the mean emission rate was 4.4 microg/kW h, and the mean emission ratio was 27%, the highest ratio among all elements in this study. The total annual emission of mercury from coal-fired power plants of the electric power industry in Japan was estimated to be 0.63 t/y. On the basis of these data, the atmospheric environment loads from a coal-fired power station were investigated. The calculation of stack gas dispersion showed that maximum annual mean ground level concentrations were in the order of 10(-2) to 10(-5) of the background concentrations, and that the adverse effect of the emissions from the coal-fired power station was small.

  12. Quantifying the effects of China's pollution control on atmospheric mercury emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, H.

    2014-12-01

    China has conducted series of air pollution control policies to reduce the pollutant emissions. Although not specifically for mercury (Hg), those policies are believed to have co-benefits on atmospheric Hg emission control. On the basis of field-tests data and updated information of energy conservation and emission control, we have developed multiple-year inventories of anthropogenic mercury emissions in China from 2005 to 2012. Three scenarios (scenario 0(S0), scenario 1(S1), scenario 2(S2)) with different emission controls and energy path are designed for prediction of the future Hg emissions for the country. In particular, comprehensive assessments has been conducted to evaluate the evolution of emission factors, recent emission trends, effects of control measures as well as the reliability of our results. The national total emissions of anthropogenic Hg are estimated to increase from 679.0 metric tons (t) in 2005 to 749.8 t in 2012, with the peak at 770.6 t in 2011. The annual growth rate of emissions can then be calculated at 2.1% during 2005-2011, much lower than that of energy consumption or economy of the country. Coal combustion, gold metallurgy and nonferrous metal smelting are the most significant Hg sources of anthropogenic origin, accounting together for 85% of national total emissions. Tightened air pollution controls in China should be important reasons for the smooth emission trends. Compared with 2005, 299 t Hg were reduced in 2010 from power plants, iron and steel smelting, nonferrous-smelting and cement production, benefiting from the improvement of control measures for those sectors. The speciation of Hg emissions is relatively stable for recent years, with the mass fractions of around 55%, 9% and 6% for Hg0, Hg2+ and Hgp respectively. Integrating the policy commitments on energy saving, different from the most conservative case S0, S2 shares the same energy path with S1, but includes more stringent emission control. Under those scenarios, we

  13. MercNet: a national monitoring network to assess responses to changing mercury emissions in the United States.

    PubMed

    Schmeltz, David; Evers, David C; Driscoll, Charles T; Artz, Richard; Cohen, Mark; Gay, David; Haeuber, Richard; Krabbenhoft, David P; Mason, Robert; Morris, Kristi; Wiener, James G

    2011-10-01

    A partnership of federal and state agencies, tribes, industry, and scientists from academic research and environmental organizations is establishing a national, policy-relevant mercury monitoring network, called MercNet, to address key questions concerning changes in anthropogenic mercury emissions and deposition, associated linkages to ecosystem effects, and recovery from mercury contamination. This network would quantify mercury in the atmosphere, land, water, and biota in terrestrial, freshwater, and coastal ecosystems to provide a national scientific capability for evaluating the benefits and effectiveness of emission controls. Program development began with two workshops, convened to establish network goals, to select key indicators for monitoring, to propose a geographic network of monitoring sites, and to design a monitoring plan. MercNet relies strongly on multi-institutional partnerships to secure the capabilities and comprehensive data that are needed to develop, calibrate, and refine predictive mercury models and to guide effective management. Ongoing collaborative efforts include the: (1) development of regional multi-media databases on mercury in the Laurentian Great Lakes, northeastern United States, and eastern Canada; (2) syntheses and reporting of these data for the scientific and policy communities; and (3) evaluation of potential monitoring sites. The MercNet approach could be applied to the development of other monitoring programs, such as emerging efforts to monitor and assess global mercury emission controls.

  14. MercNet: A national monitoring network to assess responses to changing mercury emissions in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmeltz, D.; Evers, D.C.; Driscoll, C.T.; Artz, R.; Cohen, M.; Gay, D.; Haeuber, R.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Mason, R.; Morris, K.; Wiener, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    A partnership of federal and state agencies, tribes, industry, and scientists from academic research and environmental organizations is establishing a national, policy-relevant mercury monitoring network, called MercNet, to address key questions concerning changes in anthropogenic mercury emissions and deposition, associated linkages to ecosystem effects, and recovery from mercury contamination. This network would quantify mercury in the atmosphere, land, water, and biota in terrestrial, freshwater, and coastal ecosystems to provide a national scientific capability for evaluating the benefits and effectiveness of emission controls. Program development began with two workshops, convened to establish network goals, to select key indicators for monitoring, to propose a geographic network of monitoring sites, and to design a monitoring plan. MercNet relies strongly on multi-institutional partnerships to secure the capabilities and comprehensive data that are needed to develop, calibrate, and refine predictive mercury models and to guide effective management. Ongoing collaborative efforts include the: (1) development of regional multi-media databases on mercury in the Laurentian Great Lakes, northeastern United States, and eastern Canada; (2) syntheses and reporting of these data for the scientific and policy communities; and (3) evaluation of potential monitoring sites. The MercNet approach could be applied to the development of other monitoring programs, such as emerging efforts to monitor and assess global mercury emission controls. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA).

  15. Identifying Anthropogenic Emissions of Atmospheric Mercury and Methane in Urban Houston Using Measurements from A Mobile Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, X.; Laine, P. L.; Talbot, R. W.; Lefer, B. L.; Flynn, J. H.; Sive, B. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Houston area is heavily polluted with more than 400 refineries and other industrial facilities in the surrounding regions. From our 2-year continuous measurements at this area, we observed frequent occurrences of large peaks in both atmospheric mercury and methane. The highest elemental mercury level we observed was 27,327 ppqv, and the highest CH4 level reached 25 ppmv. We found that some mercury spikes occurred simultaneously with peaks in CH4, CO, CO2, and NO. Many high mercury episodes showed different features of CO, CO2, CH4, NOx and SO2, indicating contributions from different sources. To identify and quantify the sources of mercury and methane in this area, a mobile van equipped with mercury instruments together with CH4, CO2, δ13CH4, δ13CO2 (Picarro G2201-i), and CO, O3, and NOx will be used to sample the emissions from surrounding oil refineries facilities, natural gas processing plants, coal-fired power plants, sewage treatment plants, landfills, petrochemical manufacturing facilities, etc. A Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer is also equipped in the mobile van to measure some VOCs species, such as benzene, toluene, isoprene, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, methanol, acetone, MVK, MEK+MACR, C8 aromatics. The CH4 isotopic and VOCs signatures, and the ratios of mercury versus important species (i.e., CO and CO2) will help us to identify the mercury and methane sources, to investigate the methane leakage problem from natural gas operations, and improve the mercury and methane emission inventories in Houston area. We believe this study will also provide important information on industrial emissions that are missing from the EPA National Emission Inventory.

  16. Trends of anthropogenic mercury emissions from 1970-2008 using the global EDGARv4 database: the role of increasing emission mitigation by the energy sector and the chlor-alkali industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muntean, M.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Olivier, J. G.; Guizzardi, D.; Dentener, F. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) describes time-series of emissions of man-made greenhouse gases and short-lived atmospheric pollutants from 1970-2008. EDGARv4 is continuously updated to respond to needs of both the scientific community and environmental policy makers. Mercury, a toxic pollutant with bioaccumulation properties, is included in the forthcoming EDGARv4.3 release, thereby enriching the spectrum of multi-pollutant sources. Three different forms of mercury have been distinguished: gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0), divalent mercury compounds (Hg2+) and particulate associated mercury (Hg-P). A complete inventory of mercury emission sources has been developed at country level using the EDGAR technology-based methodology together with international activity statistics, technology-specific abatement measures, and emission factors from EMEP/EEA (2009), USEPA AP 42 and the scientific literature. A comparison of the EDGAR mercury emission data to the widely used UNEP inventory shows consistent emissions across most sectors compared for the year 2005. The different shares of mercury emissions by region and by sector will be presented with special emphasis on the region-specific mercury emission mitigation potential. We provide a comprehensive ex-post analysis of the mitigation of mercury emissions by respectively end-of-pipe abatement measures in the power generation sector and technology changes in the chlor-alkali industry between 1970 and 2008. Given the local scale impacts of mercury, we have paid special attention to the spatial distribution of emissions. The default EDGAR Population proxy data was only used to distribute emissions from the residential and solid waste incineration sectors. Other sectors use point source data of power plants, industrial plants, gold and mercury mines. The 2008 mercury emission distribution will be presented, which shows emissions hot-spots on a 0.1°x0.1°resolution gridmap.

  17. Technology demonstration for reducing mercury emissions from small-scale gold refining facilities.

    SciTech Connect

    Habegger, L. J.; Fernandez, L. E.; Engle, M.; Bailey, J. L.; Peterson, D. P.; MacDonell, M. M.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    2008-06-30

    Gold that is brought from artisanal and small-scale gold mining areas to gold shops for processing and sale typically contains 5-40% mercury. The uncontrolled removal of the residual mercury in gold shops by using high-temperature evaporation can be a significant source of mercury emissions in urban areas where the shops are located. Emissions from gold shop hoods during a burn can exceed 1,000 mg/m{sup 3}. Because the saturation concentration of mercury vapor at operating temperatures at the hood exhaust is less than 100 mg/m{sup 3}, the dominant component of the exhaust is in the form of aerosol or liquid particles. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), with technical support from Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), has completed a project to design and test a technology to remove the dominant aerosol component in the emissions from gold shops. The objective was to demonstrate a technology that could be manufactured at low cost and by using locally available materials and manufacturing capabilities. Six prototypes designed by Argonne were locally manufactured, installed, and tested in gold shops in Itaituba and Creporizao, Brazil. The initial prototype design incorporated a pebble bed as the media for collecting the mercury aerosols, and a mercury collection efficiency of over 90% was demonstrated. Though achieving high efficiencies, the initial prototype was determined to have practical disadvantages such as excessive weight, a somewhat complex construction, and high costs (>US$1,000). To further simplify the construction, operation, and associated costs, a second prototype design was developed in which the pebble bed was replaced with slotted steel baffle plates. The system was designed to have flexibility for installation in various hood configurations. The second prototype with the baffle plate design was installed and tested in several different hood/exhaust systems to determine the optimal installation configuration. The significance of

  18. Experiences in long-term evaluation of mercury emission monitoring systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chin-Min Cheng; Hung-Ta Lin; Qiang Wang; Chien-Wei Chen; Chia-Wei Wang; Ming-Chung Liu; Chi-Kuan Chen; Wei-Ping Pan

    2008-09-15

    Six mercury continuous emission monitoring (CEM) systems provided by two leading mercury (Hg) CEM system manufacturers were tested at five coal combustion utilities. The linearity, response time, day-to-day stability, efficiency of the Hg speciation modules, and ease of use were evaluated by following procedures specified in the Code of Federal Regulation Title 40 Part 75 (40 CFR Part 75). Mercury monitoring results from Hg CEM systems were compared to an EPA-recognized reference method. A sorbent trap sampling system was also evaluated in this study to compare the relative accuracy to the reference method as well as to Hg CEM systems. A conceptual protocol proposed by U.S. EPA (Method 30A) for using an Hg CEM system as the reference method for the Hg relative accuracy (RA) test was also followed to evaluate the workability of the protocol. This paper discusses the operational experience obtained from these field studies and the remaining challenges to overcome while using Hg CEM systems and the sorbent trap method for continuous Hg emission monitoring. 3 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs.

  19. Procedure 5 - Quality Assurance Requirements For Vapor Phase Mercury Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems And Sorbent Trap Monitoring Systems Used For Compliance Determination At Stationary Sources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Promulgated quality assurance procedure 5 Quality Assurance Requirements For Vapor Phase Mercury Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems And Sorbent Trap Monitoring Systems Used For Compliance Determination At Stationary Sources

  20. Procedure 5 Quality Assurance Requirements For Vapor Phase Mercury Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems And Sorbent Trap Monitoring Systems Used For Compliance Determination At Stationary Sources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Promulgated quality assurance Procedure 5 Quality Assurance Requirements For Vapor Phase Mercury Continuous Emissions Monitoring Systems And Sorbent Trap Monitoring Systems Used For Compliance Determination At Stationary Sources

  1. An assessment of mercury emissions and health risks from a coal-fired power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Lipfert, F.; Moskowitz, P.

    1994-12-01

    Title 3 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) mandated that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) evaluate the need to regulate mercury emissions from electric utilities. In support of this forthcoming regulatory analysis the U.S. DOE, sponsored a risk assessment project at Brookhaven (BNL) to evaluate methylmercury (MeHg) hazards independently. In the US MeHg is the predominant way of exposure to mercury originated in the atmosphere. In the BNL study, health risks to adults resulting from Hg emissions from a hypothetical 1,000 MW coal-fired power plant were estimated using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. This study showed that the effects of emissions of a single power plant may double the background exposures to MeHg resulting from consuming fish obtained from a localized area near the power plant. Even at these more elevated exposure levels, the attributable incidence in mild neurological symptoms was estimated to be quite small, especially when compared with the estimated background incidence in the population. The current paper summarizes the basic conclusions of this assessment and highlights issues dealing with emissions control and environmental transport.

  2. Mercury Deposition and Emission under the Forest Canopy in the Adirondacks of New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, H.; Holsen, T. M.

    2009-05-01

    This study investigated mercury input, output, cycling, and interactions between deposition and emission at the Huntington Wildlife Forest of Newcomb, New York during 2005 and 2006. Total Hg wet deposition and deciduous throughfall were collected using modified MIC-B precipitation collectors. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) total Hg concentration in throughfall (6.6 ng L-1) was higher than in precipitation (4.9 ng L-1), while the total cumulative Hg flux in throughfall (12.0 ug m-2) was very similar to precipitation (11.6 ug m-2) due to relatively lower precipitation depths in throughfall. The total deposited cumulative flux in precipitation and deciduous throughfall were very similar (11.6 ug m-2 and 12.0 ug m-2, respectively) because the higher concentrations in throughfall were offset by smaller throughfall depths. The emission flux of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) from the forest floor was measured using a polycarbonate dynamic flux chamber (DFC). The Hg emission flux ranged between -2.5 ng m-2 hr-1 and 27.2 ng m-2 hr-1. The measured Hg emission flux was highest in spring, and summer, and lowest in winter. During leaf-off periods, the Hg emission flux was highly dependent on solar radiation and less dependent on temperature. During leaf-on periods, the Hg emission flux was fairly constant because the forest canopy was shading the forest floor. The empirical models estimated the cumulative emission flux was 7.0 ug Hg0 m-2 year-1.

  3. Analysis of Strategies for Multiple Emissions from Electric Power SO2, NOX, CO2, Mercury and RPS

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    At the request of the Subcommittee, the Energy Information Administration prepared an initial report that focused on the impacts of reducing power sector NOx, SO2, and CO2 emissions. The current report extends the earlier analysis to add the impacts of reducing power sector mercury emissions and introducing renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requirements.

  4. Scaling of atmospheric mercury emissions from three naturally enriched areas: Flowery Peak, Nevada; Peavine Peak, Nevada; and Long Valley Caldera, California.

    PubMed

    Engle, Mark A; Gustin, Mae Sexauer

    2002-05-06

    With the development of analytical capabilities that allow for almost real time measurement of mercury concentrations in air, the fluxes of mercury between environment compartments is being more carefully scrutinized. Recent advances have demonstrated that the mercury cycle is much more complicated than previously realized. This study quantified the mercury emissions from three areas with low levels of mercury enrichment associated with precious and base metal mineralization and recent volcanic/geothermal activity. Area emissions were calculated using Geographic Information System technology, and in situ derived mercury fluxes and those parameters found to statistically be dominant in controlling emissions. The most important controls on emission strengths were found to be geologic while environmental parameters such as light and temperature were found to drive the diel pattern typically observed for mercury emissions. Calculated area averaged emissions were 18.5, 10.0, and 13.6 ng/m2 h for the Flowery Peak, NV, Peavine Peak, NV, and Long Valley Caldera, CA areas, respectively. These emissions are an order of magnitude higher than values applied in global models for natural sources. This study, along with other recent work, demonstrates that natural sources may contribute more mercury than previously recognized to the atmospheric mercury pool.

  5. Emission-dominated gas exchange of elemental mercury vapor over natural surfaces in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xun; Lin, Che-Jen; Yuan, Wei; Sommar, Jonas; Zhu, Wei; Feng, Xinbin

    2016-09-01

    Mercury (Hg) emission from natural surfaces plays an important role in global Hg cycling. The present estimate of global natural emission has large uncertainty and remains unverified against field data, particularly for terrestrial surfaces. In this study, a mechanistic model is developed for estimating the emission of elemental mercury vapor (Hg0) from natural surfaces in China. The development implements recent advancements in the understanding of air-soil and air-foliage exchange of Hg0 and redox chemistry in soil and on surfaces, incorporates the effects of soil characteristics and land use changes by agricultural activities, and is examined through a systematic set of sensitivity simulations. Using the model, the net exchange of Hg0 between the atmosphere and natural surfaces of mainland China is estimated to be 465.1 Mg yr-1, including 565.5 Mg yr-1 from soil surfaces, 9.0 Mg yr-1 from water bodies, and -100.4 Mg yr-1 from vegetation. The air-surface exchange is strongly dependent on the land use and meteorology, with 9 % of net emission from forest ecosystems; 50 % from shrubland, savanna, and grassland; 33 % from cropland; and 8 % from other land uses. Given the large agricultural land area in China, farming activities play an important role on the air-surface exchange over farmland. Particularly, rice field shift from a net sink (3.3 Mg uptake) during April-October (rice planting) to a net source when the farmland is not flooded (November-March). Summing up the emission from each land use, more than half of the total emission occurs in summer (51 %), followed by spring (28 %), autumn (13 %), and winter (8 %). Model verification is accomplished using observational data of air-soil/air-water fluxes and Hg deposition through litterfall for forest ecosystems in China and Monte Carlo simulations. In contrast to the earlier estimate by Shetty et al. (2008) that reported large emission from vegetative surfaces using an evapotranspiration approach, the estimate in

  6. Subsurface emissions from Mercury - VLA radio observations at 2 and 6 centimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledlow, Michael J.; Zeilik, Michael; Burns, Jack O.; Gisler, Galen R.; Zhao, Jun-Hui; Baker, Daniel N.

    1992-01-01

    Radio observations of Mercury made with the VLA; once in 1986, and on two dates in February of 1988 are presented. These observations are the first to spatially map both hot regions associated with the theoretical hot poles. These 'hot poles' are separated by 180 deg and are a result of the unusual diurnal heating from Mercury's 3/2 spin-orbit resonance and eccentric orbit. The highest resolution data maps areas of the planet as small as 330 km. Maps of total intensity, brightness temperature, polarized intensity, fractional polarization, depolarization, and spectral index are included. It is found that the subsurface thermal emissions from Mercury are characteristic of blackbody reradiation from the solar insolation over a diurnal cycle. These observations to produce full-disk thermophysical models are used. The one-dimensional, time-dependent heat-diffusion equation for all observed disk elements at each epoch in order to constrain thermophsyical parameters and properties of the subsurface material are solved. Using typical lunar values for several of the parameters, it is possible to reproduce the temperature morphology and most of the observed temperature values. It is found that the best-fit models require a substantial contribution of the heat transport in the subsurface to be radiative in nature. The primary difficulty in the models is in predicting the observed temperature differences as a function of frequency.

  7. Observed decrease in atmospheric mercury explained by global decline in anthropogenic emissions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanxu; Jacob, Daniel J; Horowitz, Hannah M; Chen, Long; Amos, Helen M; Krabbenhoft, David P; Slemr, Franz; St Louis, Vincent L; Sunderland, Elsie M

    2016-01-19

    Observations of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) at sites in North America and Europe show large decreases (∼ 1-2% y(-1)) from 1990 to present. Observations in background northern hemisphere air, including Mauna Loa Observatory (Hawaii) and CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) aircraft flights, show weaker decreases (<1% y(-1)). These decreases are inconsistent with current global emission inventories indicating flat or increasing emissions over that period. However, the inventories have three major flaws: (i) they do not account for the decline in atmospheric release of Hg from commercial products; (ii) they are biased in their estimate of artisanal and small-scale gold mining emissions; and (iii) they do not properly account for the change in Hg(0)/Hg(II) speciation of emissions from coal-fired utilities after implementation of emission controls targeted at SO2 and NOx. We construct an improved global emission inventory for the period 1990 to 2010 accounting for the above factors and find a 20% decrease in total Hg emissions and a 30% decrease in anthropogenic Hg(0) emissions, with much larger decreases in North America and Europe offsetting the effect of increasing emissions in Asia. Implementation of our inventory in a global 3D atmospheric Hg simulation [GEOS-Chem (Goddard Earth Observing System-Chemistry)] coupled to land and ocean reservoirs reproduces the observed large-scale trends in atmospheric Hg(0) concentrations and in Hg(II) wet deposition. The large trends observed in North America and Europe reflect the phase-out of Hg from commercial products as well as the cobenefit from SO2 and NOx emission controls on coal-fired utilities.

  8. Observed decrease in atmospheric mercury explained by global decline in anthropogenic emissions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanxu; Jacob, Daniel J.; Horowitz, Hannah M.; Chen, Long; Amos, Helen M.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Slemr, Franz; St. Louis, Vincent L.; Sunderland, Elsie M.

    2016-01-01

    Observations of elemental mercury (Hg0) at sites in North America and Europe show large decreases (∼1–2% y−1) from 1990 to present. Observations in background northern hemisphere air, including Mauna Loa Observatory (Hawaii) and CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) aircraft flights, show weaker decreases (<1% y−1). These decreases are inconsistent with current global emission inventories indicating flat or increasing emissions over that period. However, the inventories have three major flaws: (i) they do not account for the decline in atmospheric release of Hg from commercial products; (ii) they are biased in their estimate of artisanal and small-scale gold mining emissions; and (iii) they do not properly account for the change in Hg0/HgII speciation of emissions from coal-fired utilities after implementation of emission controls targeted at SO2 and NOx. We construct an improved global emission inventory for the period 1990 to 2010 accounting for the above factors and find a 20% decrease in total Hg emissions and a 30% decrease in anthropogenic Hg0 emissions, with much larger decreases in North America and Europe offsetting the effect of increasing emissions in Asia. Implementation of our inventory in a global 3D atmospheric Hg simulation [GEOS-Chem (Goddard Earth Observing System-Chemistry)] coupled to land and ocean reservoirs reproduces the observed large-scale trends in atmospheric Hg0 concentrations and in HgII wet deposition. The large trends observed in North America and Europe reflect the phase-out of Hg from commercial products as well as the cobenefit from SO2 and NOx emission controls on coal-fired utilities. PMID:26729866

  9. Study on the reduction of atmospheric mercury emissions from mine waste enriched soils through native grass cover in the Mt. Amiata region of Italy.

    PubMed

    Fantozzi, L; Ferrara, R; Dini, F; Tamburello, L; Pirrone, N; Sprovieri, F

    2013-08-01

    Atmospheric mercury emissions from mine-waste enriched soils were measured in order to compare the mercury fluxes of bare soils with those from other soils covered by native grasses. Our research was conducted near Mt. Amiata in central Italy, an area that was one of the largest and most productive mining centers in Europe up into the 1980s. To determine in situ mercury emissions, we used a Plexiglas flux chamber connected to a portable mercury analyzer (Lumex RA-915+). This allowed us to detect, in real time, the mercury vapor in the air, and to correlate this with the meteorological parameters that we examined (solar radiation, soil temperature, and humidity). The highest mercury flux values (8000ngm(-2)h(-1)) were observed on bare soils during the hours of maximum insulation, while lower values (250ngm(-2)h(-1)) were observed on soils covered by native grasses. Our results indicate that two main environmental variables affect mercury emission: solar radiation intensity and soil temperature. The presence of native vegetation, which can shield soil surfaces from incident light, reduced mercury emissions, a result that we attribute to a drop in the efficiency of mercury photoreduction processes rather than to decreases in soil temperature. This finding is consistent with decreases in mercury flux values down to 3500ngm(-2)h(-1), which occurred under cloudy conditions despite high soil temperatures. Moreover, when the soil temperature was 28°C and the vegetation was removed from the experimental site, mercury emissions increased almost four-fold. This increase occurred almost immediately after the grasses were cut, and was approximately eight-fold after 20h. Thus, this study demonstrates that enhancing wild vegetation cover could be an inexpensive and effective approach in fostering a natural, self-renewing reduction of mercury emissions from mercury-contaminated soils.

  10. Mercury deposition and re-emission pathways in boreal forest soils investigated with Hg isotope signatures.

    PubMed

    Jiskra, Martin; Wiederhold, Jan G; Skyllberg, Ulf; Kronberg, Rose-Marie; Hajdas, Irka; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2015-06-16

    Soils comprise the largest terrestrial mercury (Hg) pool in exchange with the atmosphere. To predict how anthropogenic emissions affect global Hg cycling and eventually human Hg exposure, it is crucial to understand Hg deposition and re-emission of legacy Hg from soils. However, assessing Hg deposition and re-emission pathways remains difficult because of an insufficient understanding of the governing processes. We measured Hg stable isotope signatures of radiocarbon-dated boreal forest soils and modeled atmospheric Hg deposition and re-emission pathways and fluxes using a combined source and process tracing approach. Our results suggest that Hg in the soils was dominantly derived from deposition of litter (∼90% on average). The remaining fraction was attributed to precipitation-derived Hg, which showed increasing contributions in older, deeper soil horizons (up to 27%) indicative of an accumulation over decades. We provide evidence for significant Hg re-emission from organic soil horizons most likely caused by nonphotochemical abiotic reduction by natural organic matter, a process previously not observed unambiguously in nature. Our data suggest that Histosols (peat soils), which exhibit at least seasonally water-saturated conditions, have re-emitted up to one-third of previously deposited Hg back to the atmosphere. Re-emission of legacy Hg following reduction by natural organic matter may therefore be an important pathway to be considered in global models, further supporting the need for a process-based assessment of land/atmosphere Hg exchange.

  11. Estimation of mercury emissions from forest fires, lakes, regional and local sources using measurements in Milwaukee and an inverse method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Foy, B.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Schauer, J. J.

    2012-10-01

    Gaseous elemental mercury is a global pollutant that can lead to serious health concerns via deposition to the biosphere and bio-accumulation in the food chain. Hourly measurements between June 2004 and May 2005 in an urban site (Milwaukee, WI) show elevated levels of mercury in the atmosphere with numerous short-lived peaks as well as longer-lived episodes. The measurements are analyzed with an inverse model to obtain information about mercury emissions. The model is based on high resolution meteorological simulations (WRF), hourly back-trajectories (WRF-FLEXPART) and a chemical transport model (CAMx). The hybrid formulation combining back-trajectories and Eulerian simulations is used to identify potential source regions as well as the impacts of forest fires and lake surface emissions. Uncertainty bounds are estimated using a bootstrap method on the inversions. Comparison with the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Emission Inventory (NEI) and Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) shows that emissions from coal-fired power plants are properly characterized, but emissions from local urban sources, waste incineration and metal processing could be significantly under-estimated. Emissions from the lake surface and from forest fires were found to have significant impacts on mercury levels in Milwaukee, and to be underestimated by a factor of two or more.

  12. Identification of mercury emissions from forest fires, lakes, regional and local sources using measurements in Milwaukee and an inverse method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Foy, B.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Schauer, J. J.

    2012-05-01

    Gaseous elemental mercury is a global pollutant that can lead to serious health concerns via deposition to the biosphere and bio-accumulation in the food chain. Hourly measurements between June 2004 and May 2005 in an urban site (Milwaukee, WI) show elevated levels of mercury in the atmosphere with numerous short-lived peaks as well as longer-lived episodes. The measurements are analyzed with an inverse model to obtain information about mercury emissions. The model is based on high resolution meteorological simulations (WRF), hourly back-trajectories (WRF-FLEXPART) and forward grid simulations (CAMx). The hybrid formulation combining back-trajectories and grid simulations is used to identify potential source regions as well as the impacts of forest fires and lake surface emissions. Uncertainty bounds are estimated using a bootstrap method on the inversions. Comparison with the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Emission Inventory (NEI) and Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) shows that emissions from coal-fired power plants are properly characterized, but emissions from local urban sources, waste incineration and metal processing could be significantly under-estimated. Emissions from the lake surface and from forest fires were found to have significant impacts on mercury levels in Milwaukee, and to be underestimated by a factor of two or more.

  13. [Field measurement of soil mercury emission in a Masson pine forest in Tieshanping, Chongqing in Southwestern China].

    PubMed

    Du, Bao-Yu; Wang, Qiong; Luo, Yao; Duan, Lei

    2014-10-01

    To investigate soil mercury emission characteristics in areas with high atmospheric mercury concentration, the soil-air exchanging flux of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) was measured for four seasons from September 2012 to July 2013 in a Masson pine forest of Tieshanping, Chongqing in Southwestern China using a dynamic flux chamber and a LUMEX RA-915+ mercury analyzer. The effects of ambient air mercury concentration and environmental factors, such as radiation intensity, air temperature, air humidity, soil temperature, and soil water content, on exchanging flux were also studied. Results showed that there was obvious seasonal variation of the Hg0 exchanging flux, with the highest value of 35.3 ng · (m2 · d)(-1) in the summer and very low values in other seasons, even negative in spring and winter. In addition to radiation intensity and air/soil temperature, ambient air mercury concentration was an important impacting factor, which was negatively correlated with the Hg0 exchanging flux, with the equilibrium concentration at 5.61 ng · m(-3). The total soil emission of Hg0 was estimated to be 2.65 μg · (m2 · a)(-1), which was much lower than that in similar forests in cleaner areas. High ambient air Hg0 concentration in Tieshanping was the main reason for the difference.

  14. Mercury emissions during cofiring of sub-bituminous coal and biomass (chicken waste, wood, coffee residue, and tobacco stalk) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Cao; Hongcang Zhou; Junjie Fan; Houyin Zhao; Tuo Zhou; Pauline Hack; Chia-Chun Chan; Jian-Chang Liou; Wei-ping Pan

    2008-12-15

    Four types of biomass (chicken waste, wood pellets, coffee residue, and tobacco stalks) were cofired at 30 wt % with a U.S. sub-bituminous coal (Powder River Basin Coal) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor. A cyclone, followed by a quartz filter, was used for fly ash removal during tests. The temperatures of the cyclone and filter were controlled at 250 and 150{sup o}C, respectively. Mercury speciation and emissions during cofiring were investigated using a semicontinuous mercury monitor, which was certified using ASTM standard Ontario Hydra Method. Test results indicated mercury emissions were strongly correlative to the gaseous chlorine concentrations, but not necessarily correlative to the chlorine contents in cofiring fuels. Mercury emissions could be reduced by 35% during firing of sub-bituminous coal using only a quartz filter. Cofiring high-chlorine fuel, such as chicken waste (Cl = 22340 wppm), could largely reduce mercury emissions by over 80%. When low-chlorine biomass, such as wood pellets (Cl = 132 wppm) and coffee residue (Cl = 134 wppm), is cofired, mercury emissions could only be reduced by about 50%. Cofiring tobacco stalks with higher chlorine content (Cl = 4237 wppm) did not significantly reduce mercury emissions. Gaseous speciated mercury in flue gas after a quartz filter indicated the occurrence of about 50% of total gaseous mercury to be the elemental mercury for cofiring chicken waste, but occurrence of above 90% of the elemental mercury for all other cases. Both the higher content of alkali metal oxides or alkali earth metal oxides in tested biomass and the occurrence of temperatures lower than 650{sup o}C in the upper part of the fluidized bed combustor seemed to be responsible for the reduction of gaseous chlorine and, consequently, limited mercury emissions reduction during cofiring. 36 refs., 3 figs. 1 tab.

  15. A laboratory based experimental study of mercury emission from contaminated soils in the River Idrijca catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocman, D.; Horvat, M.

    2010-02-01

    Results obtained by a laboratory flux measurement system (LFMS) focused on investigating the kinetics of the mercury emission flux (MEF) from contaminated soils of the Idrija Hg-mine region, Slovenia are presented. Representative soil samples with respect to total Hg concentrations (4-417 μg g-1) and land cover (forest, meadow and alluvial soil) alongside the River Idrijca were analysed to determine the variation in MEF versus distance from the source, regulating three major environmental parameters comprising soil temperature, soil moisture and solar radiation. MEFs ranged from less than 2 to 530 ng m-2 h-1, with the highest emissions from contaminated alluvial soils and soils near the mining district in the town of Idrija. A significant decrease of MEF was then observed with increasing distance from these sites. The results revealed a strong positive effect of all three parameters investigated on momentum MEF. The light-induced flux was shown to be independent of the soil temperature, while the soil aqueous phase seems to be responsible for recharging the pool of mercury in the soil available for both the light- and thermally-induced flux. The overall flux response to simulated environmental conditions depends greatly on the form of Hg in the soil. Higher activation energies are required for the overall process to occur in soils where insoluble cinnabar prevails compared to soils where more mobile Hg forms and forms available for transformation processes are dominant.

  16. Study on the reduction of atmospheric mercury emissions from mine waste enriched soils through native grass cover in the Mt. Amiata region of Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Fantozzi, L.; Dini, F.; Tamburello, L.; Pirrone, N.; Sprovieri, F.

    2013-08-15

    Atmospheric mercury emissions from mine-waste enriched soils were measured in order to compare the mercury fluxes of bare soils with those from other soils covered by native grasses. Our research was conducted near Mt. Amiata in central Italy, an area that was one of the largest and most productive mining centers in Europe up into the 1980s. To determine in situ mercury emissions, we used a Plexiglas flux chamber connected to a portable mercury analyzer (Lumex RA-915+). This allowed us to detect, in real time, the mercury vapor in the air, and to correlate this with the meteorological parameters that we examined (solar radiation, soil temperature, and humidity). The highest mercury flux values (8000 ng m{sup −2} h{sup −1}) were observed on bare soils during the hours of maximum insulation, while lower values (250 ng m{sup −2} h{sup −1}) were observed on soils covered by native grasses. Our results indicate that two main environmental variables affect mercury emission: solar radiation intensity and soil temperature. The presence of native vegetation, which can shield soil surfaces from incident light, reduced mercury emissions, a result that we attribute to a drop in the efficiency of mercury photoreduction processes rather than to decreases in soil temperature. This finding is consistent with decreases in mercury flux values down to 3500 ng m{sup −2} h{sup −1}, which occurred under cloudy conditions despite high soil temperatures. Moreover, when the soil temperature was 28 °C and the vegetation was removed from the experimental site, mercury emissions increased almost four-fold. This increase occurred almost immediately after the grasses were cut, and was approximately eight-fold after 20 h. Thus, this study demonstrates that enhancing wild vegetation cover could be an inexpensive and effective approach in fostering a natural, self-renewing reduction of mercury emissions from mercury-contaminated soils. -- Highlights: ► Mercury air/surface exchange

  17. MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS LOCAL IMPACTS ON HUMAN HEALTH RISK.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, F.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; PENA, R.; BLAKE, R.

    2005-12-01

    A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. However, there are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg{sub 0} in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg

  18. Local to regional emission sources affecting mercury fluxes to New York lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bookman, Revital; Driscoll, Charles T.; Engstrom, Daniel R.; Effler, Steven W.

    Lake-sediment records across the Northern Hemisphere show increases in atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic mercury (Hg) over the last 150 years. Most of the previous studies have examined remote lakes affected by the global atmospheric Hg reservoir. In this study, we present Hg flux records from lakes in an urban/suburban setting of central New York affected also by local and regional emissions. Sediment cores were collected from the Otisco and Skaneateles lakes from the Finger Lakes region, Cross Lake, a hypereutrophic lake on the Seneca River, and Glacial Lake, a small seepage lake with a watershed that corresponds with the lake area. Sediment accumulation rates and dates were established by 210Pb. The pre-anthropogenic regional atmospheric Hg flux was estimated to be 3.0 μg m -2 yr -1 from Glacial Lake, which receives exclusively direct atmospheric deposition. Mercury fluxes peaked during 1971-2001, and were 3 to more than 30 times greater than pre-industrial deposition. Land use change and urbanization in the Otisco and Cross watersheds during the last century likely enhanced sediment loads and Hg fluxes to the lakes. Skaneateles and Glacial lakes have low sediment accumulation rates, and thus are excellent indicators for atmospheric Hg deposition. In these lakes, we found strong correlations with emission records for the Great Lakes region that markedly increased in the early 1900s, and peaked during WWII and in the early 1970s. Declines in modern Hg fluxes are generally evident in the core records. However, the decrease in sediment Hg flux at Glacial Lake was interrupted and has increased since the early 1990s probably due to the operation of new local emission sources. Assuming the global Hg reservoir tripled since the pre-industrial period, the contribution of local and regional emission sources to central New York lakes was estimated to about 80% of the total atmospheric Hg deposition.

  19. Preliminary estimates of performance and cost of mercury emission control technology applications on electric utility boilers: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, R.K.; Staudt, J.E.; Jozewicz, W.

    2005-07-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has recently proposed a reduction in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. There are two broad approaches under development to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utility boilers. (1) powdered activated carbon (PAC) injection; and (2) multipollutant control, in which Hg capture is enhanced in existing and new sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) control devices. To help inform the recent EPA rulemaking proposal, estimates of performance levels and related costs associated with the above mercury control approaches were developed. This work presents these estimates. Estimates of cost for PAC injection range from 0.003 to 3.096 mills/kWb. In general, the higher costs are associated with the plants using spray dryers and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) or plants using hot-side ESPs, which represent a minority of power plants. Excluding these plants, cost estimates range between 0.003 and 1.903 mills/kWh. At the low end of the cost ranges, 0.003 mills/kWb, it is assumed that no additional control technologies are needed, but mercury monitoring will be necessary. In these cases, high mercury removal may be the result of the type of NOx and SO{sub 2} control measures currently used, such as combinations of selective catalytic reduction and wet flue gas desulfurization or spray drier absorbers with fabric filters on bituminous coal-fired boilers. Because mercury control approaches are under development at present, cost and performance estimates are preliminary and are expected to be refined as mercury control technologies are matured to commercial status. Factors that may affect the performance of these technologies include speciation of mercury in flue gas, the characteristics of the sorbent, and the type(s) of PM, NOx, and SO, controls used.

  20. Radiative forcing associated with particulate carbon emissions resulting from the use of mercury control technology.

    PubMed

    Lin, Guangxing; Penner, Joyce E; Clack, Herek L

    2014-09-02

    Injection of powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorbents into the flue gas of coal fired power plants with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is the most mature technology to control mercury emissions for coal combustion. However, the PAC itself can penetrate ESPs to emit into the atmosphere. These emitted PACs have similar size and optical properties to submicron black carbon (BC) and thus could increase BC radiative forcing unintentionally. The present paper estimates, for the first time, the potential emission of PAC together with their climate forcing. The global average maximum potential emissions of PAC is 98.4 Gg/yr for the year 2030, arising from the assumed adoption of the maximum potential PAC injection technology, the minimum collection efficiency, and the maximum PAC injection rate. These emissions cause a global warming of 2.10 mW m(-2) at the top of atmosphere and a cooling of -2.96 mW m(-2) at the surface. This warming represents about 2% of the warming that is caused by BC from direct fossil fuel burning and 0.86% of the warming associated with CO2 emissions from coal burning in power plants. Its warming is 8 times more efficient than the emitted CO2 as measured by the 20-year-integrated radiative forcing per unit of carbon input (the 20-year Global Warming Potential).

  1. Mercury stable isotope signatures of world coal deposits and historical coal combustion emissions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ruoyu; Sonke, Jeroen E; Heimbürger, Lars-Eric; Belkin, Harvey E; Liu, Guijian; Shome, Debasish; Cukrowska, Ewa; Liousse, Catherine; Pokrovsky, Oleg S; Streets, David G

    2014-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) emissions from coal combustion contribute approximately half of anthropogenic Hg emissions to the atmosphere. With the implementation of the first legally binding UNEP treaty aimed at reducing anthropogenic Hg emissions, the identification and traceability of Hg emissions from different countries/regions are critically important. Here, we present a comprehensive world coal Hg stable isotope database including 108 new coal samples from major coal-producing deposits in South Africa, China, Europe, India, Indonesia, Mongolia, former USSR, and the U.S. A 4.7‰ range in δ(202)Hg (-3.9 to 0.8‰) and a 1‰ range in Δ(199)Hg (-0.6 to 0.4‰) are observed. Fourteen (p < 0.05) to 17 (p < 0.1) of the 28 pairwise comparisons between eight global regions are statistically distinguishable on the basis of δ(202)Hg, Δ(199)Hg or both, highlighting the potential application of Hg isotope signatures to coal Hg emissions tracing. A revised coal combustion Hg isotope fractionation model is presented, and suggests that gaseous elemental coal Hg emissions are enriched in the heavier Hg isotopes relative to oxidized forms of emitted Hg. The model explains to first order the published δ(202)Hg observations on near-field Hg deposition from a power plant and global scale atmospheric gaseous Hg. Yet, model uncertainties appear too large at present to permit straightforward Hg isotope source identification of atmospheric forms of Hg. Finally, global historical (1850-2008) coal Hg isotope emission curves were modeled and indicate modern-day mean δ(202)Hg and Δ(199)Hg values for bulk coal emissions of -1.2 ± 0.5‰ (1SD) and 0.05 ± 0.06‰ (1SD).

  2. Concentrations of mercury, cadmium, lead and copper in fruiting bodies of edible mushrooms in an emission area of a copper smelter and a mercury smelter.

    PubMed

    Svoboda, L; Zimmermannová, K; Kalac, P

    2000-01-31

    Four metals were determined by AAS techniques in 56 samples of 23 wild mushroom species collected in a heavily polluted area in eastern Slovakia in 1997 and 1998. The area has been contaminated from historical polymetallic ores mining and smelting and by emissions from a mercury smelter between 1969 and 1993 and from a copper smelter since 1951. No significant differences in metal concentrations (P < 0.05) were found in four species when comparing the periods 1992-1993 and 1997-1998. Considerable contamination of most species was observed mainly for mercury and cadmium. The highest levels of mercury, up to 50 mg kg-1 dry matter, were found in Boletus reticulatus, Lycoperdon perlatum and Marasmius oreades, and of cadmium up to 20 mg kg-1 dry matter in Xerocomus chrysenteron and Lycoperdon perlatum. The latter species also had extremely high lead and copper concentrations in hundreds of milligrams per kilogram dry matter. Concentrations of mercury and copper in caps of four Boletaceae species were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those in stipes.

  3. Mercury Emission Ratios from Coal-Fired Power Plants in the Southeastern United States during NOMADSS.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Jesse L; Gratz, Lynne E; Jaffe, Daniel A; Campos, Teresa; Flocke, Frank M; Knapp, David J; Stechman, Daniel M; Stell, Meghan; Weinheimer, Andrew J; Cantrell, Christopher A; Mauldin, Roy L

    2015-09-01

    We use measurements made onboard the National Science Foundation's C-130 research aircraft during the 2013 Nitrogen, Oxidants, Mercury, and Aerosol Distributions, Sources, and Sinks (NOMADSS) experiment to examine total Hg (THg) emission ratios (EmRs) for six coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) in the southeastern U.S. We compare observed enhancement ratios (ERs) with EmRs calculated using Hg emissions data from two inventories: the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) and the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI). For four CFPPs, our measured ERs are strongly correlated with EmRs based on the 2011 NEI (r(2) = 0.97), although the inventory data exhibit a -39% low bias. Our measurements agree best (to within ±32%) with the NEI Hg data when the latter were derived from on-site emissions measurements. Conversely, the NEI underestimates by approximately 1 order of magnitude the ERs we measured for one previously untested CFPP. Measured ERs are uncorrelated with values based on the 2013 TRI, which also tends to be biased low. Our results suggest that the Hg inventories can be improved by targeting CFPPs for which the NEI- and TRI-based EmRs have significant disagreements. We recommend that future versions of the Hg inventories should provide greater traceability and uncertainty estimates.

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF FUGITIVE MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM THE CELL BUILDING AT A U.S. CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses an extensive measurement campaign that was conducted of the fugitive (non-ducted) airborne elemental mercury [Hg(0)] emissions from the cell building of a chlor-alkali plant (CAP) located in the southeastern United States. The objectives of this study were to ...

  5. PRELIMINARY ESTIMATES OF PERFORMANCE AND COST OF MERCURY EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS ON ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: AN UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents estimates of performance levels and related costs associated with controlling mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants using either powdered activated carbon (PAC) injection or multipollutant control in which Hg capture is enhanced in existing and ne...

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS AT A CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT, VOLUME I. REPORT AND APPENDICES A-E

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a characterization of mercury (Hg) emissions at a chlor-alkali plant. Up to 160 short tons (146 Mg) of Hg is consumed by the chlor-alkali industry each year. Very little quantitative information is currently available however, on the actual Hg losses f...

  7. MEASUREMENT OF TOTAL SITE MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM A CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT USING OPEN-PATH UV-DOAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In December 2003, the EPA promulgated the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants for mercury cell chlor-alkali plants. In February 2004, the Natural Resources Defense Council filed petitions on the final rule in U.S. district court citing, among other issues, th...

  8. Mercury emissions from coal combustion: modeling and comparison of Hg capture in a fabric filter versus an electrostatic precipitator.

    PubMed

    Scala, Fabrizio; Clack, Herek L

    2008-04-01

    Mercury emissions from coal combustion must be reduced, in response to new air quality regulations in the U.S. Although the most mature control technology is adsorption across a dust cake of powdered sorbent in a fabric filter (FF), most particulate control in the U.S. associated with coal combustion takes the form of electrostatic precipitation (ESP). Using recently developed models of mercury adsorption within an ESP and within a growing sorbent bed in a FF, parallel analyses of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) uptake have been conducted. The results show little difference between an ESP and a FF in absolute mercury removal for a low-capacity sorbent, with a high-capacity sorbent achieving better performance in the FF. Comparisons of fractional mercury uptake per-unit-pressure-drop provide a means for incorporating and comparing the impact of the much greater pressure drop of a FF as compared to an ESP. On a per-unit-pressure-drop basis, mercury uptake within an ESP exhibited better performance, particularly for the low-capacity sorbent and high mass loadings of both sorbents.

  9. Effects of mercury emission control technologies using halogens on coal combustion product chemical properties.

    PubMed

    Heebink, Loreal V; Pflughoeft-Hassett, Debra F; Hassett, David J

    2010-03-01

    Fly ash and spray dryer absorber (SDA) material samples collected during mercury emission control technology tests that incorporated the use of halogens were evaluated for select chemical composition and leachability. Corresponding samples were also collected under standard operating conditions and examined using the same protocols. Included in these evaluations were pH and total and leachable concentrations of the mercury control technology (MCT) halogen of interest (Br, Cl, or I) and Hg, As, Cr, and Se. The use of a MCT using halogens decreased the pH values of coal combustion products (CCPs) collected in fabric filters compared with that of the corresponding standard CCPs. In many cases, the total As, Cr, and Se concentrations were similar between the standard and MCT test CCPs. However, at least a slight increase in total Se was noted in each sample set from the standard to the MCT test CCPs. Short-term leaching was performed on all samples, and long-term leaching was performed on most highly alkaline samples. On the basis of percentage of maximum leachability, the MCT additive halogens were more mobile than the other elements evaluated. The Hg in fly ash and SDA material samples was stable. Generally, more As and Se leached from the MCT test CCPs than the standard CCPs. Cr leachate results were more variable. The data indicate a need to further examine the effects of MCT using halogens applications on CCPs.

  10. Optimizing Techology to Reduce Mercury and Acid Gas Emissions from Electric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2004-01-31

    More than 56,000 coal quality data records from five public data sets have been selected for use in this project. These data will be used to create maps showing where coals with low mercury and acid-gas emissions might be found for power plants classified by air-pollution controls. Average coal quality values, calculated for 51,156 commercial coals by U.S. county-of-origin, are listed in the appendix. Coal moisture values are calculated for commercially shipped coal from 163 U.S. counties, where the raw assay data (including mercury and chlorine values) are reported on a dry basis. The calculated moisture values are verified by comparison with observed moisture values in commercial coal. Moisture in commercial U.S. coal shows provincial variation. For example, high volatile C bituminous rank coal from the Interior province has 3% to 4% more moisture than equivalent Rocky Mountain province coal. Mott-Spooner difference values are calculated for 4,957 data records for coals collected from coal mines and exploration drill holes. About 90% of the records have Mott-Spooner difference values within {+-}250 Btu/lb.

  11. Impacts of the Minamata convention on mercury emissions and global deposition from coal-fired power generation in Asia.

    PubMed

    Giang, Amanda; Stokes, Leah C; Streets, David G; Corbitt, Elizabeth S; Selin, Noelle E

    2015-05-05

    We explore implications of the United Nations Minamata Convention on Mercury for emissions from Asian coal-fired power generation, and resulting changes to deposition worldwide by 2050. We use engineering analysis, document analysis, and interviews to construct plausible technology scenarios consistent with the Convention. We translate these scenarios into emissions projections for 2050, and use the GEOS-Chem model to calculate global mercury deposition. Where technology requirements in the Convention are flexibly defined, under a global energy and development scenario that relies heavily on coal, we project ∼90 and 150 Mg·y(-1) of avoided power sector emissions for China and India, respectively, in 2050, compared to a scenario in which only current technologies are used. Benefits of this avoided emissions growth are primarily captured regionally, with projected changes in annual average gross deposition over China and India ∼2 and 13 μg·m(-2) lower, respectively, than the current technology case. Stricter, but technologically feasible, mercury control requirements in both countries could lead to a combined additional 170 Mg·y(-1) avoided emissions. Assuming only current technologies but a global transition away from coal avoids 6% and 36% more emissions than this strict technology scenario under heavy coal use for China and India, respectively.

  12. Impacts of the Minamata Conventionon on Mercury Emissions and Global Deposition from Coal-Fired Power Generation in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Giang, Amanda; Stokes, Leah C.; Streets, David G.; Corbitt, Elizabeth S.; Selin, Noelle E.

    2015-05-05

    We explore implications of the United Nations Minamata Convention on Mercury for emissions from Asian coal-fired power generation, and resulting changes to deposition worldwide by 2050. We use engineering analysis, document analysis, and interviews to construct plausible technology scenarios consistent with the Convention. We translate these scenarios into emissions projections for 2050, and use the GEOS-Chem model to calculate global mercury deposition. Where technology requirements in the Convention are flexibly defined, under a global energy and development scenario that relies heavily on coal, we project similar to 90 and 150 Mg.y(-1) of avoided power sector emissions for China and India, respectively, in 2050, compared to a scenario in which only current technologies are used. Benefits of this avoided emissions growth are primarily captured regionally, with projected changes in annual average gross deposition over China and India similar to 2 and 13 mu g.m(-2) lower, respectively, than the current technology case. Stricter, but technologically feasible, mercury control requirements in both countries could lead to a combined additional 170 Mg.y(-1) avoided emissions. Assuming only current technologies but a global transition away from coal avoids 6% and 36% more emissions than this strict technology scenario under heavy coal use for China and India, respectively.

  13. Rhodamine functionalized magnetic core-shell nanocomposite: An emission 'Off-On' sensing system for mercury ion detection and extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Lei; Wu, Yan; Ma, Wuze

    2015-03-01

    This paper reported a core-shell structured composite with superparamagnetic ferroferric oxide as the inner core and silica molecular sieve as the outer shell. A rhodamine based sensing dye was covalently grafted into the highly ordered tunnels of silica molecular sieve, so that mercury ion sensing and extraction could be achieved from this composite. This probe loaded core-shell structure was characterized by electron microscopy images, X-ray diffraction patterns, infrared spectra, thermogravimetry and N2 adsorption/desorption measurement. This composite showed increased emission with increasing mercury ion concentration, along with high sensitivity and good selectivity. Linear response and good regenerating performance were also observed from this composite.

  14. Estimation of total annual mercury emissions from cement manufacturing facilities in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Jong Hyun; Lee, Tai Gyu

    2012-12-01

    This study examined mercury (Hg) emissions from cement manufacturing facilities in Korea. Hg concentrations in stack gases from a kiln at the largest cement manufacturing facility (CMF) in Korea were measured using three different methods: a wet-chemical method and on-line measurements with two different types of conversion systems (SnCl2 and thermal) attached in front of each analyzer. The Hg concentrations of the feedstocks and fuels were then analyzed to determine the total amount of Hg input into CMFs and how much each material contributed to the Hg input. The total annual Hg input into all CMFs in Korea was estimated to be 1.71 tons, while the total annual Hg emissions estimated from the stack-gas measurement was 1.17-1.53 tons, indicating that 68-89% of total Hg input is released into the atmosphere. Therefore, more stringent regulation and effective control technologies should be applied to the CMFs to reduce Hg emissions.

  15. Emissions of carbon species, organic polar compounds, potassium, and mercury from prescribed burning activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Obrist, D.; Zielinska, B.; Gerler, A.

    2012-04-01

    Biomass burning is an important emission source of pollutants to the atmosphere, but few studies have focused on the chemical composition of emissions from prescribed burning activities. Here we present results from a sampling campaign to quantify particulate-phase emissions from various types of prescribed fires including carbon species (Elemental Carbon: EC; Organic Carbon: OC; and Total Carbon: TC); polar organic compounds (12 different compounds and four functional classes); water-soluble potassium (K+); and mercury (Hg). We measured emissions from the following types of prescribed biomass burning in the Lake Tahoe basin located on the California/Nevada border: (i) log piles stacked and dried in the field; (ii) log piles along with green understory vegetation; and (iii) understory green vegetation and surface litter; further emissions were collected from burns conducted in a wood stove: (iv) dried wooden logs; (v) green foliage of understory vegetation collected from the field; and (vi) surface organic litter collected from the field; finally, samples were also taken from (vii) ambient air in residential areas during peak domestic wood combustion season. Results show that OC/EC ratios of prescribed burns in the field ranged from 4 to 10, but lower values (around 1) were observed in controlled stove fires. These results are consistent with an excess of OC emissions over EC found in wildfires. OC/EC ratios, however, showed clear separations between controlled wood stove combustion (higher EC) and prescribed burns in the field (lower EC). We attribute this difference to a higher combustion temperatures and dominance of flaming combustion in wood stove fires. OC positively and linearly correlated to the sum of polar organic compounds across all burn types (r2 of 0.82). The most prevalent group of polar compounds emitted during prescribed fires was resin acids (dehydroabietic, pimaric, and abietic acids), followed by levoglucosan plus mannositol. Negligible

  16. Mercury emissions from a coal-fired power plant in Japan

    PubMed

    Yokoyama; Asakura; Matsuda; Ito; Noda

    2000-10-02

    The emissions study for mercury was conducted at a 700 MW coal-fired plant for the combustion of three types of coal with mercury concentrations of 0.0063, 0.0367 and 0.065 mg/kg. The power plant is equipped with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator and wet type flue gas desulfurization system. During full load operation of the boilers, samples of the input and output streams such as coal, coal ash, ESP ash and post-ESP particulates and flue gas were collected. The Hg concentrations in solid were measured by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after appropriate preparation and acid digestion. Gaseous Hg was collected using a mixed solution of potassium permanganate and sulfuric acid and the Hg concentrations in the samples were measured using cold-vapor AAS. The results were used to examine: (1) overall mass balances; (2) relative distribution in the power plant; (3) equilibrium of Hg species using MALT-2 calculation program; and (4) Hg concentrations in stack emissions. The mass balances estimated in this study were 100, 138 and 89%, respectively, for the coals. Total Hg concentrations in stack gas were 1.113, 0.422 and 0.712 microg(m3N), respectively, for the coals. More than 99.5% of the Hg in the stack emissions were in gaseous form and the proportion in particulate form was extremely low. The relative distribution of Hg in ESP, FGD and Stack ranged from 8.3 to 55.2%, 13.3 to 69.2% and 12.2% to 44.4%, respectively. The results indicated that factors other than the Hg concentration of coals and efficiency of pollution control devices might affect Hg emissions from coal-fired plant. The calculated equilibrium of the distribution of Hg species using the MALT2 program suggest that it is necessary to consider condensation mechanism to interpret the affect of Hg species on the variations of the removal efficiencies of Hg in the ESP.

  17. Measurement of Total Site Mercury Emissions from Chlor-Alkali Plant Using Ultraviolet Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy and Cell Room Roof-Vent Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technical note describes a United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) measurement project to determine elemental mercury (Hg0) emissions from a mercury cell chlor-alkali (MCCA) facility in the southeastern U.S. during a 53-day monitoring campaign in the fall of...

  18. DEPOSITION AND EMISSION OF GASEOUS MERCURY TO AND FROM LAKE MICHIGAN DURING THE LAKE MICHIGAN MASS BALANCE STUDY (JULY, 1994 - OCTOBER, 1995)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents measurements of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) concentrations in Lake Michigan and the application of a mechanistic approach to estimate deposition and emission fluxes of gaseous mercury (Hg2+ and Hg0) to and from Lake Michigan. Measurements of DGM concentr...

  19. THE IMPORTANCE OF EMISSIONS SPECIATION TO THE ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The atmospheric pathway of the global mercury cycle is believed to be the main source of mercury contamination to aquatic eco-systems throughout the United States and in most other nations where direct disposal of mercury to water has been largely eliminated. Although the spatia...

  20. MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM GASOLINE AND DIESEL POWERED ON-ROAD VEHICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements of elemental gaseous mercury (Hg0), divalent reactive gaseous mercury (RGM), and particulate phase mercury (Hg(p)) were made from 14 gasoline and 2 diesel powered in-use light-duty vehicles on a chassis dynamometer. All vehicles were tested under both cold and hot st...

  1. 500 years of mercury production: global annual inventory by region until 2000 and associated emissions.

    PubMed

    Hylander, Lars D; Meili, Markus

    2003-03-20

    Since pre-industrial times, anthropogenic emissions of Hg have at least doubled global atmospheric Hg deposition rates. In order to minimize environmental and human health effects, efforts have been made to reduce Hg emissions from industries and power plants, while less attention has been paid to Hg mining. This paper is a compilation of available data on primary Hg production and associated emissions with regional and annual resolution since colonial times. Globally, approximately one million tons of metallic Hg has been extracted from cinnabar and other ores during the past five centuries, half already before 1925. Roughly half has been used for mining of gold and silver, but the annual Hg production peaked during a short period of recent industrial uses. Comparison with total historic Hg deposition from global anthropogenic emissions (0.1-0.2 Mtons) suggests that only a few percent of all mined Hg have escaped to the atmosphere thus far. While production of primary Hg has changed dramatically over time and among mines, the global production has always been dominant in the region of the mercuriferous belt between the western Mediterranean and central Asia, but appears to be shifting to the east. Roughly half of the registered Hg has been extracted in Europe, where Spanish mines alone have contributed one third of the world's mined Hg. Approximately one fourth has been mined in the Americas, and most of the remaining registered Hg in Asia. However, the Asian figures may be largely underestimated. Presently, the dominant Hg mines are in Almadén in Spain (236 t of Hg produced in 2000), Khaydarkan in Kyrgyzstan (550 t), Algeria (estimated 240 t) and China (ca. 200 t). Mercury by-production from mining of other metals (e.g. copper, zinc, gold, silver) in 2000 includes 48 t from Peru, 45 t from Finland and at least 15 t from the USA. Since 1970, the recorded production of primary Hg has been reduced by almost an order of magnitude to approximately 2000 t in the year

  2. Control strategies of atmospheric mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hezhong; Wang, Yan; Cheng, Ke; Qu, Yiping; Hao, Jiming; Xue, Zhigang; Chai, Fahe

    2012-05-01

    Atmospheric mercury (Hg) emission from coal is one of the primary sources of anthropogenic discharge and pollution. China is one of the few countries in the world whose coal consumption constitutes about 70% of total primary energy, and over half of coals are burned directly for electricity generation. Atmospheric emissions of Hg and its speciation from coal-fired power plants are of great concern owing to their negative impacts on regional human health and ecosystem risks, as well as long-distance transport. In this paper, recent trends of atmospheric Hg emissions and its species split from coal-fired power plants in China during the period of 2000-2007 are evaluated, by integrating each plant's coal consumption and emission factors, which are classified by different subcategories of boilers, particulate matter (PM) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) control devices. Our results show that the total Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants have begun to decrease from the peak value of 139.19 t in 2005 to 134.55 t in 2007, though coal consumption growing steadily from 1213.8 to 1532.4 Mt, which can be mainly attributed to the co-benefit Hg reduction by electrostatic precipitators/fabric filters (ESPs/FFs) and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD), especially the sharp growth in installation of WFGD both in the new and existing power plants since 2005. In the coming 12th five-year-plan, more and more plants will be mandated to install De-NO(x) (nitrogen oxides) systems (mainly selective catalytic reduction [SCR] and selective noncatalytic reduction [SNCR]) for minimizing NO(x) emission, thus the specific Hg emission rate per ton of coal will decline further owing to the much higher co-benefit removal efficiency by the combination of SCR + ESPs/FFs + WFGD systems. Consequently, SCR + ESPs/FFs + WFGD configuration will be the main path to abate Hg discharge from coal-fired power plants in China in the near future. However advanced specific Hg removal technologies are necessary

  3. Development of dry control technology for emissions of mercury in flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Hann S.; Wu, Jiann M.; Livengood, C.D.

    1995-06-01

    In flue gases from coal-combustion systems, mercury in either the elemental state or its chloride form (HgCl{sub 2}) can be predominant among all the possible mercury species present; this predominance largely depends on the chlorine-to-mercury ratio in the coal feeds. Conventional flue-gas cleanup technologies are moderately effective in controlling HgCl{sub 2} but are very poor at controlling elemental mercury. Experiments were conducted on the removal of elemental mercury vapor by means of a number of different types of sorbents, using a fixed-bed adsorption system. Of the four commercial activated carbons evaluated, the sulfur-treated carbon sample gives the best removal performance, with good mercury-sorption capacities. Promising removal results also have been obtained with low-cost minerals after chemical treatments. These inorganic sorbents could potentially be developed into a cost-effective alternative to activated carbons for mercury removal.

  4. Radiative transfer of emission lines with non-Maxwellian velocity distribution function: Application to Mercury D2 sodium lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaufray, J.-Y.; Leblanc, F.

    2013-04-01

    We describe the theory and the numerical model used to simulate Doppler-broadened resonant emission lines for any type of velocity function distribution. The field of application of this theoretical model of radiative transfer is particularly well suited for the study of weakly dense atmospheres which are far from local thermodynamic equilibrium (as is the case for most planetary upper atmospheres/exospheres). This model is applied to study the potential effects of radiative transfer and non-Maxwellian distributions on the spectral shape of the D2 sodium emission line in Mercury's exosphere. The small (but not negligible) optical thickness of the D2 sodium emission of an exosphere like Mercury's (with a peak optical thickness of ˜2) can result in an increase of the observed spectral width by up to a few tens of percent. Combined with the non-Maxwellian nature of the exospheric velocity distribution, it may lead to an increase in the spectral width by a factor of up to 2 with respect to the width of an optically thin emission and a Maxwellian distribution. This model has been used to analyze new THEMIS observations of Mercury's exosphere obtained at very high spectral resolution in a companion paper (Leblanc, F., Chaufray, J.-Y., Doressoundiram, A., Berthelier, J.-J., Mangano, V., Lopez-Ariste, A., Borin, P. [2013]).

  5. Evaluating the effects of China's pollution controls on inter-annual trends and uncertainties of atmospheric mercury emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhong, H.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2015-04-01

    China's anthropogenic emissions of atmospheric mercury (Hg) are effectively constrained by national air pollution control and energy efficiency policies. In this study, improved methods, based on available data from domestic field measurements, are developed to quantify the benefits of Hg abatement by various emission control measures. Those measures include increased use of (1) flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems in power generation; (2) precalciner kilns with fabric filters (FF) in cement production; (3) mechanized coking ovens with electrostatic precipitators (ESP) in iron and steel production; and (4) advanced production technologies in nonferrous metal smelting. Investigation reveals declining trends in emission factors for each of these sources, which together drive a much slower growth of total Hg emissions than the growth of China's energy consumption and economy, from 679 metric tons (t) in 2005 to 750 t in 2012. In particular, estimated emissions from the above-mentioned four source types declined 3% from 2005 to 2012, which can be attributed to expanded deployment of technologies with higher energy efficiencies and air pollutant removal rates. Emissions from other anthropogenic sources are estimated to increase by 22% during the period. The species shares of total Hg emissions have been stable in recent years, with mass fractions of around 55, 39, and 6% for gaseous elemental Hg (Hg0), reactive gaseous mercury (Hg2+), and particle-bound mercury (Hgp), respectively. The higher estimate of total Hg emissions than previous inventories is supported by limited simulation of atmospheric chemistry and transport. With improved implementation of emission controls and energy saving, a 23% reduction in annual Hg emissions from 2012 to 2030, to below 600 t, is expected at the most. While growth in Hg emissions has been gradually constrained, uncertainties quantified by Monte Carlo simulation for recent years have increased

  6. Airborne Observations of Mercury Emissions from the Chicago/Gary Urban/Industrial Area during the 2013 NOMADSS Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratz, L.; Ambrose, J. L., II; Jaffe, D. A.; Knote, C. J.; Jaegle, L.; Selin, N. E.; Campos, T. L.; Flocke, F. M.; Reeves, J. M.; Stechman, D. M.; Stell, M. H.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Knapp, D. J.; Montzka, D.; Tyndall, G. S.; Mauldin, L.; Cantrell, C. A.; Apel, E. C.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Blake, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric emissions from the Chicago/Gary urban/industrial area significantly enhance ambient mercury (Hg) concentrations and lead to increased levels of atmospheric mercury deposition within the Lake Michigan Basin (Gratz et al., 2013a; Gratz et al., 2013b; Landis and Keeler, 2002; Landis et al., 2002; Vette et al., 2002). In this study we use airborne observations of total atmospheric Hg (THg) collected over Lake Michigan during summer 2013 as part of the Nitrogen, Oxidants, Mercury, and Aerosol Distributions, Sources, and Sinks (NOMADSS) field campaign to quantify the outflow of total atmospheric Hg from the Chicago/Gary urban/industrial area. We use concurrent airborne measurements of THg, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) to calculate measured enhancement ratios (ER) and thus characterize Chicago/Gary emissions. We determine the observed THg/CO ER in outflow from Chicago/Gary to be 2.11x10-7 mol mol-1, which is comparable to values reported in the literature for other major U.S. urban/industrial areas (Radke et al., 2007; Talbot et al., 2008; Weiss-Penzias et al., 2013). We also employ the FLEXPART Lagrangian transport and dispersion model to simulate air mass transport during plume encounters. We convolve the emissions of each species from the 2011 U.S. EPA National Emissions Inventory (NEI) with the FLEXPART-modeled air mass transport to compare our observations to inventoried emission ratios (EmR). We find that the inventoried THg/CO EmRs are biased low by -63% to -67% compared to the observed ERs for the Chicago/Gary area. This suggests that there are many small emission sources that are not fully accounted for within the inventory, and/or that the re-emission of legacy Hg is a significant source of THg to the atmosphere in this region.

  7. Patterns of mercury dispersion from local and regional emission sources, rural Central Wisconsin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolker, A.; Olson, M.L.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Tate, M.T.; Engle, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Simultaneous real-time changes in mercury (Hg) speciation ?????" reactive gaseous Hg (RGM), elemental Hg (Hg??), and fine particulate Hg (Hg-PM2.5), were determined from June to November 2007, in ambient air at three locations in rural Central Wisconsin. Known Hg emission sources within the airshed of the monitoring sites include: 1) a 1114 megawatt (MW) coal-fired electric utility generating station; 2) a Hg-bed chlor-alkali plant; and 3) a smaller (465 MW) coal-burning electric utility. Monitoring sites, showing sporadic elevation of RGM, Hg?? and Hg-PM 2.5, were positioned at distances of 25, 50 and 100 km northward of the larger electric utility. A series of RGM events were recorded at each site. The largest, on 23 September, occurred under prevailing southerly winds, with a maximum RGM value (56.8 pg m-3) measured at the 100 km site, and corresponding elevated SO2 (10.41 ppbv; measured at 50 km site). The finding that RGM, Hg??, and Hg-PM2.5 are not always highest at the 25 km site, closest to the large generating station, contradicts the idea that RGM decreases with distance from a large point source. This may be explained if: 1) the 100 km site was influenced by emissions from the chlor-alkali facility or by RGM from regional urban sources; 2) the emission stack height of the larger power plant promoted plume transport at an elevation where the Hg is carried over the closest site; or 3) RGM was being generated in the plume through oxidation of Hg??. Operational changes at each emitter since 2007 should reduce their Hg output, potentially allowing quantification of the environmental benefit in future studies.

  8. Particulate-phase mercury emissions from biomass burning and impact on resulting deposition: a modelling assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Simone, Francesco; Artaxo, Paulo; Bencardino, Mariantonia; Cinnirella, Sergio; Carbone, Francesco; D'Amore, Francesco; Dommergue, Aurélien; Feng, Xin Bin; Gencarelli, Christian N.; Hedgecock, Ian M.; Landis, Matthew S.; Sprovieri, Francesca; Suzuki, Noriuki; Wängberg, Ingvar; Pirrone, Nicola

    2017-02-01

    Mercury (Hg) emissions from biomass burning (BB) are an important source of atmospheric Hg and a major factor driving the interannual variation of Hg concentrations in the troposphere. The greatest fraction of Hg from BB is released in the form of elemental Hg (Hg0(g)). However, little is known about the fraction of Hg bound to particulate matter (HgP) released from BB, and the factors controlling this fraction are also uncertain. In light of the aims of the Minamata Convention to reduce intentional Hg use and emissions from anthropogenic activities, the relative importance of Hg emissions from BB will have an increasing impact on Hg deposition fluxes. Hg speciation is one of the most important factors determining the redistribution of Hg in the atmosphere and the geographical distribution of Hg deposition. Using the latest version of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFEDv4.1s) and the global Hg chemistry transport model, ECHMERIT, the impact of Hg speciation in BB emissions, and the factors which influence speciation, on Hg deposition have been investigated for the year 2013. The role of other uncertainties related to physical and chemical atmospheric processes involving Hg and the influence of model parametrisations were also investigated, since their interactions with Hg speciation are complex. The comparison with atmospheric HgP concentrations observed at two remote sites, Amsterdam Island (AMD) and Manaus (MAN), in the Amazon showed a significant improvement when considering a fraction of HgP from BB. The set of sensitivity runs also showed how the quantity and geographical distribution of HgP emitted from BB has a limited impact on a global scale, although the inclusion of increasing fractions HgP does limit Hg0(g) availability to the global atmospheric pool. This reduces the fraction of Hg from BB which deposits to the world's oceans from 71 to 62 %. The impact locally is, however, significant on northern boreal and tropical forests, where fires are

  9. Basic Information about Mercury

    MedlinePlus

    ... globe -- before it is deposited in soil or water. Mercury that remains in the air for prolonged periods of time and travels across continents is said to be in the "global cycle." One major source of mercury emissions outside of ...

  10. POTENTIAL HEALTH RISK REDUCTION ARISING FROM REDUCED MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T. M.; Lipfert, F. W.; Morris, S. C.; Moskowitz, P. D.

    2001-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced plans to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants. EPA has not prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. To address this issue, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with support from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in human health risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. The primary pathway for Hg exposure is through consumption of fish. The most susceptible population to Hg exposure is the fetus. Therefore the risk assessment focused on consumption of fish by women of child-bearing age. Dose response factors were generated from studies on loss of cognitive abilities (language skills, motor skills, etc.) by young children whose mothers consumed large amounts of fish with high Hg levels. Population risks were estimated for the general population in three regions of the country, (the Midwest, Northeast, and Southeast) that were identified by EPA as being heavily impacted by coal emissions. Three scenarios for reducing Hg emissions from coal plants were considered: (1) A base case using current conditions; (2) A 50% reduction; and, (3) A 90% reduction. These reductions in emissions were assumed to translate linearly into a reduction in fish Hg levels of 8.6% and 15.5%, respectively. Population risk estimates were also calculated for two subsistence fisher populations. These groups of people consume substantially more fish than the general public and, depending on location, the fish may contain higher Hg levels than average. Risk estimates for these groups were calculated for the three Hg levels used for the general population analyses. Analysis shows that the general population risks for exposure of the fetus to Hg are small. Estimated risks under current conditions (i.e., no

  11. Gold nanospikes based microsensor as a highly accurate mercury emission monitoring system

    PubMed Central

    Sabri, Ylias M.; Ippolito, Samuel J.; Tardio, James; Bansal, Vipul; O'Mullane, Anthony P.; Bhargava, Suresh K.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic elemental mercury (Hg0) emission is a serious worldwide environmental problem due to the extreme toxicity of the heavy metal to humans, plants and wildlife. Development of an accurate and cheap microsensor based online monitoring system which can be integrated as part of Hg0 removal and control processes in industry is still a major challenge. Here, we demonstrate that forming Au nanospike structures directly onto the electrodes of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) using a novel electrochemical route results in a self-regenerating, highly robust, stable, sensitive and selective Hg0 vapor sensor. The data from a 127 day continuous test performed in the presence of volatile organic compounds and high humidity levels, showed that the sensor with an electrodeposted sensitive layer had 260% higher response magnitude, 3.4 times lower detection limit (~22 μg/m3 or ~2.46 ppbv) and higher accuracy (98% Vs 35%) over a Au control based QCM (unmodified) when exposed to a Hg0 vapor concentration of 10.55 mg/m3 at 101°C. Statistical analysis of the long term data showed that the nano-engineered Hg0 sorption sites on the developed Au nanospikes sensitive layer play a critical role in the enhanced sensitivity and selectivity of the developed sensor towards Hg0 vapor. PMID:25338965

  12. Assessing the emission sources of atmospheric mercury in wet deposition across Illinois.

    PubMed

    Gratz, Lynne E; Keeler, Gerald J; Morishita, Masako; Barres, James A; Dvonch, J Timothy

    2013-03-15

    From August 4, 2007 to August 31, 2009, we collected event-based precipitation samples for mercury (Hg) and trace element analyses at four sites in Illinois (IL), USA. The objectives of these measurements were to quantify Hg wet deposition across the state, and to assess the contributions to Hg in precipitation from major local and regional emission sources. Monitoring sites were located, from north to south, in Chicago, Peoria, Nilwood, and Carbondale, IL. Measurements from these four sites demonstrated that a clear spatial gradient in Hg wet deposition was not evident across the state. Each site received>10μgm(-2) of Hg wet deposition annually, and these observed values were comparable to annual Hg wet deposition measurements from other event-based precipitation monitoring sites in source-impacted areas of the Midwestern U.S. We applied the multivariate statistical receptor model, Positive Matrix Factorization (EPA PMF v3.0), to the measured Hg and trace element wet deposition amounts at the four sites. Results suggested that 50% to 74% of total Hg wet deposition at each site could be attributed to coal combustion emissions. The other source signatures identified in the precipitation compositions included cement manufacturing, mixed metal smelting/waste incineration, iron-steel production, and a phosphorus source. We also applied a hybrid receptor model, Quantitative Transport Bias Analysis (QTBA), to the Hg wet deposition datasets to identify the major source regions associated with the measured values. The calculated QTBA probability fields suggested that transport from urban/industrial areas, such as Chicago/Gary, St. Louis, and the Ohio River Valley, resulted in some of the highest estimated event-based Hg wet deposition amounts at the four sites (potential mass transfer of up to 0.32μgm(-2)). The combined application of PMF and QTBA supported the hypothesis that local and regional coal combustion was the largest source of Hg wet deposition in Illinois.

  13. Mercury emission from terrestrial background surfaces in the eastern USA. Part I: Air/surface exchange of mercury within a southeastern deciduous forest (Tennessee) over one year

    SciTech Connect

    Kuiken, Todd; Zhang, Hong; Gustin, Mae S.; Lindberg, Steven Eric

    2008-03-01

    This study focused on the development of a seasonal data set of the Hg air/surface exchange over soils associated with low Hg containing surfaces in a deciduous forest in the southern USA. Data were collected every month for 11 months in 2004 within Standing Stone State Forest in Tennessee using the dynamic flux chamber method. Mercury air/surface exchange associated with the litter covered forest floor was very low with the annual mean daytime flux being 0.4 0.5 ng m-2 h-1 (n = 301). The daytime Hg air/surface exchange over the year oscillated between emission (81% of samples with positive flux) and deposition (19% of samples with negative flux). A seasonal trend of lower emission in the spring and summer (closed canopy) relative to the fall and winter (open canopy) was observed. Correlations were found between the air/surface exchange and certain environmental factors on specific days sampled but not collectively over the entire year. The very low magnitude of Hg air/surface exchange as observed in this study suggests that an improved methodology for determining and reporting emission fluxes is needed when the values of fluxes and chamber blanks are both very low and comparable. This study raises questions and points to a need for more research regarding how to scale the Hg air/surface exchange for surfaces with very low emissions.

  14. PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF MODIFIED LIME AND SILICA-LIME SORBENTS FOR MERCURY VAPOR EMISSIONS CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses current efforts to improve the uptake of mercury species by increasing active sites and adding oxidative species to the sorbent. (NOTE: Previous work showed that mercury chloride vapor is readily absorbed by calcium-based sorbents as an acid gas in environmen...

  15. Mercury Study Report to Congress

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Report to Congress on Mercury provides an assessment of the magnitude of U.S. mercury emissions by source, the health and environmental implications of those emissions, and the availability and cost of control technologies.

  16. Nitrogen oxides, sulfur trioxide, and mercury emissions during oxy-fuel fluidized bed combustion of Victorian brown coal.

    PubMed

    Roy, Bithi; Chen, Luguang; Bhattacharya, Sankar

    2014-12-16

    This study investigates, for the first time, the NOx, N2O, SO3, and Hg emissions from combustion of a Victorian brown coal in a 10 kWth fluidized bed unit under oxy-fuel combustion conditions. Compared to air combustion, lower NOx emissions and higher N2O formation were observed in the oxy-fuel atmosphere. These NOx reduction and N2O formations were further enhanced with steam in the combustion environment. The NOx concentration level in the flue gas was within the permissible limit in coal-fired power plants in Victoria. Therefore, an additional NOx removal system will not be required using this coal. In contrast, both SO3 and gaseous mercury concentrations were considerably higher under oxy-fuel combustion compared to that in the air combustion. Around 83% of total gaseous mercury released was Hg(0), with the rest emitted as Hg(2+). Therefore, to control harmful Hg(0), a mercury removal system may need to be considered to avoid corrosion in the boiler and CO2 separation units during the oxy-fuel fluidized-bed combustion using this coal.

  17. Airborne observations of mercury emissions from the Chicago/Gary urban/industrial area during the 2013 NOMADSS campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratz, L. E.; Ambrose, J. L.; Jaffe, D. A.; Knote, C.; Jaeglé, L.; Selin, N. E.; Campos, T.; Flocke, F. M.; Reeves, M.; Stechman, D.; Stell, M.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Knapp, D. J.; Montzka, D. D.; Tyndall, G. S.; Mauldin, R. L.; Cantrell, C. A.; Apel, E. C.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Blake, N. J.

    2016-11-01

    Atmospheric emissions from the Chicago/Gary urban/industrial area significantly enhance ambient mercury (Hg) concentrations and lead to increased levels of atmospheric Hg deposition within the Lake Michigan Basin. We use airborne observations collected over Lake Michigan during the 2013 Nitrogen, Oxidants, Mercury, and Aerosol Distributions, Sources, and Sinks (NOMADSS) campaign to quantify the outflow of total Hg (THg) emissions from the Chicago/Gary urban/industrial area. We use concurrent airborne measurements of THg, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) to calculate measured enhancement ratios and to characterize Chicago/Gary emissions with respect to the 2011 U.S. EPA National Emissions Inventory. We determine the observed THg/CO enhancement ratio in outflow from Chicago/Gary to be 0.21 ± 0.09 × 10-6 mol mol-1 (ppqv/ppbv), which is comparable to observations reported for other major U.S. urban/industrial areas. We also employ the FLEXPART Lagrangian transport and dispersion model to simulate air mass transport during plume encounters and to compare our observations to inventoried emission ratios. We find that our observed THg/CO enhancement ratios are 63-67% greater than the transport-corrected emission ratios for the Chicago/Gary area. Our results suggest that there are many small emission sources that are not fully accounted for within the inventory, and/or that the re-emission of legacy Hg is a significant source of THg to the atmosphere in this region.

  18. EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Withum

    2006-03-07

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), evaluated the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)-wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber-fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL determined mercury speciation and removal at 10 bituminous coal-fired facilities; at four of these facilities, additional tests were performed on units without SCR, or with the existing SCR bypassed. This project final report summarizes the results and discusses the findings of the body of work as a whole. Eleven Topical Reports were issued (prior to this report) that describe in great detail the sampling results at each of the ten power plants individually. The results showed that the SCR-FGD combination removed a substantial fraction of mercury from flue gas. The coal-to-stack mercury removals ranged from 65% to 97% for the units with SCR and from 53% to 87% for the units without SCR. There was no indication that any type of FGD system was more effective at mercury removal than others. The coal-to-stack mercury removal and the removal in the wet scrubber were both negatively correlated with the elemental mercury content of the flue gas and positively correlated with the scrubber liquid chloride concentration. The coal chlorine content was not a statistically significant factor in either case. Mercury removal in the ESP was positively correlated with the fly ash carbon content and negatively correlated with the flue gas temperature. At most of the units, a substantial fraction (>35%) of the flue gas mercury was in the elemental form at the boiler economizer outlet. After passing through the SCR-air heater combination very little of the total mercury (<10%) remained in the elemental form in

  19. THE LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS ON HUMAN HEALTH RISK. PROGRESS REPORT FOR THE PERIOD OF MARCH 2003 - MARCH 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN,T.M.LIPFERT,F.D.MORRIS,S.M.

    2003-05-01

    This report presents a follow-up to previous assessments of the health risks of mercury that BNL performed for the Department of Energy. Methylmercury is an organic form of mercury that has been implicated as the form of mercury that impacts human health. A comprehensive risk assessment report was prepared (Lipfert et al., 1994) that led to several journal articles and conference presentations (Lipfert et al. 1994, 1995, 1996). In 2001, a risk assessment of mercury exposure from fish consumption was performed for 3 regions of the U.S (Northeast, Southeast, and Midwest) identified by the EPA as regions of higher impact from coal emissions (Sullivan, 2001). The risk assessment addressed the effects of in utero exposure to children through consumption of fish by their mothers. Two population groups (general population and subsistence fishers) were considered. Three mercury levels were considered in the analysis, current conditions based on measured data, and hypothetical reductions in Hg levels due to a 50% and 90% reduction in mercury emissions from coal fired power plants. The findings of the analysis suggested that a 90% reduction in coal-fired emissions would lead to a small reduction in risk to the general population (population risk reduction on the order of 10{sup -5}) and that the population risk is born by less than 1% of the population (i.e. high end fish consumers). The study conducted in 2001 focused on the health impacts arising from regional deposition patterns as determined by measured data and modeling. Health impacts were assessed on a regional scale accounting for potential percent reductions in mercury emissions from coal. However, quantitative assessment of local deposition near actual power plants has not been attempted. Generic assessments have been performed, but these are not representative of any single power plant. In this study, general background information on the mercury cycle, mercury emissions from coal plants, and risk assessment are

  20. Emissions, Monitoring, and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Bland; Jesse Newcomer; Allen Kephart; Volker Schmidt; Gerald Butcher

    2008-10-31

    Western Research Institute (WRI), in conjunction with Western Farmers Electric Cooperative (WFEC), has teamed with Clean Air Engineering of Pittsburgh PA to conduct a mercury monitoring program at the WEFC Hugo plant in Oklahoma. Sponsored by US Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-26-98FT40323, the program included the following members of the Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) as co-sponsors: Missouri Basin Power Project; DTE Energy; Entergy; Grand River Dam Authority; and Nebraska Public Power District. This research effort had five objectives: (1) determine the mass balance of mercury for subbituminous coal-fired power plant; (2) assess the distribution of mercury species in the flue gas (3) perform a comparison of three different Hg test methods; (4) investigate the long-term (six months) mercury variability at a subbituminous coal-fired power plant; and (5) assess operation and maintenance of the Method 324 and Horiba CEMS utilizing plant personnel.

  1. A study of the influence of Hg(6(3)P2) population in a low-pressure discharge on mercury ion emission at 194.2 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maleki, L.; Blasenheim, B. J.; Janik, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    A low-pressure mercury-argon discharge, similar to the type existing in the mercury lamp for the trapped-ion standard, is probed with a new technique of laser spectroscopy to determine the influence of the Hg(6 3P(sub 2)) population on discharge emission. The discharge is excited with inductively coupled rf power. Variations in the intensity of emission lines in the discharge were examined as lambda = 546.1 nm light from a continuous wave (CW) laser excited the Hg(6 3P(sub 2)) to (7 3S (sub 1)) transition. The spectrum of the discharge viewed in the region of laser irradiation showed increased emission in lambda = 546.1, 435.8, 404.7, 253.7, and 194.2 nm lines. Other lines in Hg I exhibited a decrease in emission. When the discharge was viewed outside the region of laser irradiation, all lines exhibited an increased emission. Based on these results, it is concluded that the dominant mechanism for the excitation of higher lying levels of mercury is the the electron-impact excitation via the 3P(sub 2) level. The depopulation of this metastable is also responsible for the observed increase in the electron temperature when the laser irradiates the discharge. It is also concluded that the 3P(sub 2) metastable level of mercury does not play a significant role in the excitation of the 3P(sub 1/2) level of mercury ion.

  2. Estimate of sulfur, arsenic, mercury, fluorine emissions due to spontaneous combustion of coal gangue: An important part of Chinese emission inventories.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaobin; Luo, Kunli; Wang, Xing; Sun, Yuzhuang

    2016-02-01

    A rough estimate of the annual amount of sulfur, arsenic, mercury and fluoride emission from spontaneous combustion of coal gangue in China was determined. The weighted mean concentrations of S, As, Hg, and F in coal gangue are 1.01%, 7.98, 0.18, and 365.54 mg/kg, respectively. Amounts of S, As, Hg, and F emissions from coal gangue spontaneous combustion show approximately 1.13 Mt, and 246, 45, and 63,298 tons in 2013, respectively. The atmospheric release amount of sulfur from coal gangue is more than one tenth of this from coal combustion, and the amounts of As, Hg, and F are close to or even exceed those from coal combustion. China's coal gangue production growth from 1992 to 2013 show an obvious growth since 2002. It may indicate that Chinese coal gangue has become a potential source of air pollution, which should be included in emission inventories.

  3. EPA/ORD WORKSHOP ON SOURCE EMISSION AND AMBIENT AIR MONITORING OF MERCURY. OPENING & CLOSING REMARKS AND OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mercury Monitoring Workshop was developed because mercury contamination, both nationally and internationally, has long been recognized as a growing problem for both humans and ecosystems. Mercury is released to the environment from a variety of human (anthropogenic) sources i...

  4. Testing and modeling the influence of reclamation and control methods for reducing nonpoint mercury emissions associated with industrial open pit gold mines.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthieu B; Gustin, Mae S

    2013-06-01

    Industrial gold mining is a significant source of mercury (Hg) emission to the atmosphere. To investigate ways to reduce these emissions, reclamation and dust and mercury control methods used at open pit gold mining operations in Nevada were studied in a laboratory setting. Using this information along with field data, and building off previous work, total annual Hg emissions were estimated for two active gold mines in northern Nevada. Results showed that capping mining waste materials with a low-Hg substrate can reduce Hg emissions from 50 to nearly 100%. The spraying of typical dust control solutions often results in higher Hg emissions, especially as materials dry after application. The concentrated application of a dithiocarbamate Hg control reagent appears to reduce Hg emissions, but further testing mimicking the actual distribution of this chemical within an active leach solution is needed to make a more definitive assessment.

  5. DIETARY METHYL MERCURY EXPOSURE IN AMERICAN KESTRELS; PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthropogenic mercury emissions have increased atmospheric mercury levels about threefold since the advent of industrial activity. Atmospheric deposition is the primary source of mercury in the environment hence mercury contamination has increased in similar fashion. Methyl mercu...

  6. Emission characteristics and air-surface exchange of gaseous mercury at the largest active landfill in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wei; Li, Zhonggen; Chai, Xiaoli; Hao, Yongxia; Lin, Che-Jen; Sommar, Jonas; Feng, Xinbin

    2013-11-01

    The emission characteristics and air-surface exchange of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) at Laogang landfill in Shanghai, China, the largest active landfill in Asia, has been investigated during two intensive field campaigns in 2011 and 2012. The mercury (Hg) content in municipal solid waste (MSW) varied widely from 0.19 to 1.68 mg kg-1. Over the closed cell in the landfill, the mean ambient air GEM concentration was virtually indistinguishable from the hemispherical background level (1.5-2.0 ng m-3) while the concentration downwind of ongoing landfill operation (e.g. dumping, burying and compacting of MSW) was clearly elevated. GEM emission through landfill gas (LFG) was identified as a significant source. GEM concentrations in LFGs collected from venting pipes installed in different landfill cells varied widely from 3.0 to 1127.8 ng m-3. The GEM concentrations were found negatively correlated to the age of LFG cells, suggesting GEM released through LFG declined readily with time. The GEM emission from this source alone was estimated to be 1.23-1.73 mg h-1. GEM emission from cover soil surfaces was considerably lower and at a scale comparable to that of background soil surfaces. This is in contrast to earlier reports showing enhanced GEM emissions from landfill surfaces in Southern China, probably due to the difference in soil Hg content and gas permeability characteristics of soils at different sites. Vertical concentration profiles of GEM in the interstitial gas of buried MSW were sampled, perhaps for the first time, which exhibited a wide spatial variability (4.9-713.1 ng m-3) in the 3-year-old landfill cell investigated. GEM emission from landfill operation was estimated to be 290-525 mg h-1 using a box model. This suggests that GEM degassing from Laogang landfill is quantitatively largely dominated by emissions from daily landfilling operations with a much smaller contribution from LFG venting and insignificant (bi-directional fluxes near zero) contribution

  7. Evaluating the effects of China's pollution control on inter-annual trends and uncertainties of atmospheric mercury emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhong, H.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2014-10-01

    China's atmospheric mercury (Hg) emissions of anthropogenic origin have been effectively restrained through the national policy of air pollution control. Improved methods based on available field measurements are developed to quantify the benefits of Hg abatement through various emission control measures. Those measures include increased use of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems for power sector, precalciners with fabric filter (FF) for cement production, machinery coking with electrostatic precipitator (ESP) for iron and steel production, and advanced manufacturing technologies for nonferrous metal smelting. Declining trends in emissions factors for those sources are revealed, leading to a much slower growth of national total Hg emissions than that of energy and economy, from 679 in 2005 to 750 metric tons (t) in 2012. In particular, nearly half of emissions from the above-mentioned four types of sources are expected to be reduced in 2012, attributed to expansion of technologies with high energy efficiencies and air pollutant removal rates after 2005. The speciation of Hg emissions keeps stable for recent years, with the mass fractions of around 55, 39 and 6% for Hg0, Hg2+ and Hgp, respectively. The lower estimate of Hg emissions than previous inventories is supported by limited chemistry simulation work, but middle-to-long term observation on ambient Hg levels is further needed to justify the inter-annual trends of estimated Hg emissions. With improved implementation of emission controls and energy saving, 23% reduction in annual Hg emissions for the most optimistic case in 2030 is expected compared to 2012, with total emissions below 600 t. While Hg emissions are evaluated to be gradually constrained, increased uncertainties are quantified with Monte-Carlo simulation for recent years, particularly for power and certain industrial sources. The uncertainty of Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants, as an example

  8. Wildfires threaten mercury stocks in northern soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turetsky, M.R.; Harden, J.W.; Friedli, H.R.; Flannigan, M.; Payne, N.; Crock, J.; Radke, L.

    2006-01-01

    With climate change rapidly affecting northern forests and wetlands, mercury reserves once protected in cold, wet soils are being exposed to burning, likely triggering large releases of mercury to the atmosphere. We quantify organic soil mercury stocks and burn areas across western, boreal Canada for use in fire emission models that explore controls of burn area, consumption severity, and fuel loading on atmospheric mercury emissions. Though renowned as hotspots for the accumulation of mercury and its transformation to the toxic methylmercury, boreal wetlands might soon transition to hotspots for atmospheric mercury emissions. Estimates of circumboreal mercury emissions from this study are 15-fold greater than estimates that do not account for mercury stored in peat soils. Ongoing and projected increases in boreal wildfire activity due to climate change will increase atmospheric mercury emissions, contributing to the anthropogenic alteration of the global mercury cycle and exacerbating mercury toxicities for northern food chains. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. THE US MERCURY EMISSION INVENTORY FOR THE ARCTIC COUNCIL ACTION PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Arctic Council, having agreed to act to reduce exposures to a number of priority pollutants in the Arctic region, has initiated a mercury project via the Arctic Council Plan (ACAP). The project is being led by the Danish EPA with a Steering Group from all eight Arctic coun...

  10. MERCURY IN PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS: ESTIMATION OF EMISSIONS FROM PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, AND COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an examination of mercury (Hg) in liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons that are produced and/or processed in the U.S. The Hg associated with petroleum and natural gas production and processing enters the environment primarily via solid waste streams (drilli...

  11. PERFORMANCE AND COST OF MERCURY EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS ON ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents estimates of the performance and cost of powdered activated carbon (PAC) injection-based mercury control technologies and projections of costs for future applications. (NOTE: Under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the U.S. EPA has to determine whether mer...

  12. THE US MERCURY EMISSION INVENTORY FOR THE ARCTIC COUNCIL ACTION PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Arctic Council, having agreed to act to reduce exposures to a number of priority pollutants in the Arctic region, has initiated a mercury project via the Arctic Council Action Plan (ACAP). The project is led by the Danish EPA with a Steering Group from all eight Arctic count...

  13. NOVEL ECONOMICAL HG(0) OXIDATION REAGENT FOR MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors have developed a novel economical additive for elemental mercury (Hg0) removal from coal-fired boilers. The oxidation reagent was rigorously tested in a lab-scale fixed-bed column with the Norit America's FGD activated carbon (DOE's benchmark sorbent) in a typical PRB...

  14. STUDY OF SPECIATION OF MERCURY UNDER SIMULATED SCR NOX EMISSION CONTROL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper focuses on the impact of SCR on elemental mercury (Hg0) oxidation. It describes the results of bench-scale experiments conducted to investigate Hg0 oxidation in the presence of simulated coal combustion flue gases and under SCR reaction conditions. Flue gas mixtures wit...

  15. GNAQPMS-Hg v1.0, a global nested atmospheric mercury transport model: model description, evaluation and application to trans-boundary transport of Chinese anthropogenic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. S.; Wang, Z. F.; Li, J.; Tang, X.; Ge, B. Z.; Wu, X. L.; Wild, O.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2015-09-01

    Atmospheric mercury (Hg) is a toxic pollutant and can be transported over the whole globe due to its long lifetime in the atmosphere. For the purpose of assessing Hg hemispheric transport and better characterizing regional Hg pollution, a global nested atmospheric Hg transport model (GNAQPMS-Hg - Global Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System for Hg) has been developed. In GNAQPMS-Hg, the gas- and aqueous-phase Hg chemistry representing the transformation among three forms of Hg: elemental mercury (Hg(0)), divalent mercury (Hg(II)), and primary particulate mercury (Hg(P)) are calculated. A detailed description of the model, including mercury emissions, gas- and aqueous-phase chemistry, and dry and wet deposition is given in this study. Worldwide observations including extensive data in China have been collected for model evaluation. Comparison results show that the model reasonably simulates the global mercury budget and the spatiotemporal variation of surface mercury concentrations and deposition. Overall, model predictions of annual total gaseous mercury (TGM) and wet deposition agree with observations within a factor of 2, and within a factor of 5 for oxidized mercury and dry deposition. The model performs significantly better in North America and Europe than in East Asia. This can probably be attributed to the large uncertainties in emission inventories, coarse model resolution and to the inconsistency between the simulation and observation periods in East Asia. Compared to the global simulation, the nested simulation shows improved skill at capturing the high spatial variability of surface Hg concentrations and deposition over East Asia. In particular, the root mean square error (RMSE) of simulated Hg wet deposition over East Asia is reduced by 24 % in the nested simulation. Model sensitivity studies indicate that Chinese primary anthropogenic emissions account for 30 and 62 % of surface mercury concentrations and deposition over China, respectively

  16. Soil-Air Mercury Flux near a Large Industrial Emission Source before and after Closure (Flin Flon, Manitoba, Canada).

    PubMed

    Eckley, Chris S; Blanchard, Pierrette; McLennan, Daniel; Mintz, Rachel; Sekela, Mark

    2015-08-18

    Prior to its closure, the base-metal smelter in Flin Flon, Manitoba, Canada was one of the North America's largest mercury (Hg) emission sources. Our project objective was to understand the exchange of Hg between the soil and the air before and after the smelter closure. Field and laboratory Hg flux measurements were conducted to identify the controlling variables and used for spatial and temporal scaling. Study results showed that deposition from the smelter resulted in the surrounding soil being enriched in Hg (up to 99 μg g(-1)) as well as other metals. During the period of smelter operation, air concentrations were elevated (30 ± 19 ng m(-3)), and the soil was a net Hg sink (daily flux: -3.8 ng m(-2) h(-1)). Following the smelter closure, air Hg(0) concentrations were reduced, and the soils had large emissions (daily flux: 108 ng m(-2) h(-1)). The annual scaling of soil Hg emissions following the smelter closure indicated that the landscape impacted by smelter deposition emitted or re-emitted almost 100 kg per year. Elevated soil Hg concentrations and emissions are predicted to continue for hundreds of years before background concentrations are re-established. Overall, the results indicate that legacy Hg deposition will continue to cycle in the environment long after point-source reductions.

  17. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ddddd of... - Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Mercury Emission Limits and Boilers and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Mercury Emission Limits and Boilers and Process Heaters That Choose To Comply With... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters Pt....

  18. Survey of Manual Methods of Measurements of Asbestos, Beryllium, Lead, Cadmium, Selenium, and Mercury in Stationary Source Emissions. Environmental Monitoring Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulson, Dale M.; And Others

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate existing manual methods for analyzing asbestos, beryllium, lead, cadmium, selenium, and mercury, and from this evaluation to provide the best and most practical set of analytical methods for measuring emissions of these elements from stationary sources. The work in this study was divided into two phases.…

  19. THE DETERMINATION OF MERCURY SPECIES AND MULTIPLE METALS IN COAL COMBUSTION EMISSIONS USING IODINE-BASED IMPINGERS AND DIRECT INJECTION NEBULIZATION - INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury (Hg) emissions from coal utilities are difficult to control. Hg eludes capture by most air pollution control devices (APCDs). To determine the gaseous Hg species in stack gases, U.S. EPA Method 5 type sampling is used. In this type of sampling a hole is drilled into th...

  20. Determination of Vanadium, Tin and Mercury in Atmospheric Particulate Matter and Cement Dust Samples by Direct Current Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindy, Kamal T.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    An atmospheric pollution study applies direct current plasma atomic emission spectrometry (DCP-AES) to samples of total suspended particulate matter collected in two industrial areas and one residential area, and cement dust collected near major cement factories. These samples were analyzed for vanadium, tin, and mercury. The results indicate the…

  1. New Jersey mercury regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, D.F.; Corbin, W.E.

    1996-12-31

    Mercury, or quicksilver, and its major ore cinnabar (HgS) have been known for thousands of years. Health effects from mercury such as dementia were known as early as the late 19th century ({open_quotes}mad as a hatter{close_quotes}). In the 1960`s and 1970`s, reported levels of mercury in tuna reawakened public awareness of mercury pollution. In the 1970`s, major epidemics of acute mercury poisoning were reported in Japan and Iraq. These incidents highlighted the extreme health risks, such as kidney damage, birth defects, and death, associated with severe mercury poisoning. Fetuses and young children are particularly vulnerable since mercury poisoning can damage growing neural tissues. Recently, the perception of mercury as a dangerous pollutant has been on the rise. Advisories warning the public to avoid or reduce the consumption of freshwater fish caught in specific waterbodies due to mercury contamination have been issued in numerous states. The discovery of mercury in {open_quotes}pristine{close_quotes} lakes in the United States, Canada, and Scandinavia, remote from industry and any known mercury sources, has focused attention on atmospheric emissions of mercury as potential significant sources of mercury.

  2. QUANTIFICATION OF MERCURY IN FLUE GAS EMISSION USING BORON-DOPED DIAMOND ELECTROCHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    A. Manivannan; M.S. Seehra

    2003-08-19

    In this project, we have attempted to develop a new technique utilizing Boron-doped diamond (BDD) films to electrochemically detect mercury dissolved in solution via the initial deposition of metallic mercury, followed by anodic linear sweep voltammetry in the range from 10-10{sup -10} M to 10{sup -5} M. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) techniques were employed. The extremely low background current for BDD electrodes compared to glassy carbon (GC) provides a strong advantage in trace metal detection. CV peak currents showed good linearity in the micromolar range. A detection level of 6.8 x 10{sup -10} M was achieved with DPV in 0.1 M KNO{sub 3} (pH = 1) for a deposition time of 20 minutes. Reproducible stripping peaks were obtained, even for the low concentration range. A comparison with GC shows that BDD is superior. Linear behavior was also obtained in the mercury concentration range from 10{sup -10} M to 10{sup -9} M.

  3. A new method to assess mercury emissions: a study of three coal-fired electric-generating power station configurations.

    PubMed

    Boylan, Helen M; Cain, Randy D; Kingston, H M

    2003-11-01

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 7473 for the analysis of mercury (Hg) by thermal decomposition, amalgamation, and atomic absorption spectroscopy has proved successful for use in Hg assessment at coal-fired power stations. In an analysis time of approximately 5 min per sample, this instrumental methodology can directly analyze total Hg--with no discrete sample preparation--in the solid matrices associated with a coal-fired power plant, including coal, fly ash, bottom ash, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material. This analysis technique was used to investigate Hg capture by coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) in three different coal-fired power plant configurations. Hg capture and associated emissions were estimated by partial mass balance. The station equipped with an FGD system demonstrated 68% capture on FGD material and an emissions estimate of 18% (11 kg/yr) of total Hg input. The power plant equipped with low oxides of nitrogen burners and an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) retained 43% on the fly ash and emitted 57% (51 kg/yr). The station equipped with conventional burners and an ESP retained less than 1% on the fly ash, emitting an estimated 99% (88 kg/yr) of Hg. Estimated Hg emissions demonstrate good agreement with EPA data for the power stations investigated.

  4. Elemental mercury emission in the indoor environment due to broken compact fluorescent light (CFL) bulbs--paper

    EPA Science Inventory

    Compact fluorescent light (CFL) bulbs contain a few milligrams (mg) of elemental mercury. When a CFL breaks, some of the mercury is immediately released as elemental mercury vapor and the remainder is deposited on indoor surfaces with the bulb debris. In a controlled study design...

  5. Controlling mercury and selenium emissions from coal-fired combustors using a novel regenerable natural product

    SciTech Connect

    Schlager, R.J.; Marmaro, R.W.; Roberts, D.L.

    1995-11-01

    This program successfully demonstrated the key components that are needed for a practical, regenerable sorption process for removing and recovering mercury from flue gas streams: (1) a proprietary natural product removed mercuric chloride from synthetic flue gas, (2) several new noble metal sorbents were shown to capture elemental gas-phase mercury from synthetic coal combustion flue gas, and (3) both the natural product and the noble metal sorbents could be regenerated in the laboratory (chemical method for the natural product, thermal method for noble metal sorbents). Several sorbents were tested for their ability to collect selenium oxide during the program. These tests, however, were not definitive due to inconclusive analytical results. If follow-on testing is funded, the ability of the proposed sorbents to collect selenium and other metals will be evaluated during the field testing phase of the program. A preliminary economic analysis indicates that the cost of the process appears to be substantially less than the cost of the state-of-the-art method, namely injection of activated carbon, and it also appears to cost less than using noble metal sorbents alone.

  6. Sulfur, arsenic, fluorine and mercury emissions resulting from coal-washing byproducts: A critical component of China's emission inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chao; Luo, Kunli

    2017-03-01

    The coal-washing rate in China increased from 1991 to 2014 and shows a particular increase from ∼22% to ∼60% since 2002. However, few studies pay attention to the use and disposal of the coal-washing byproducts (CWBs). A preliminary estimate of the likely S, As, F and Hg contents and emissions from the combustion of CWBs in China was determined in this work. About 632 million tons of CWBs, including middling coal, flotation tailing coal and coal slime, were produced in China in 2014. About 4.03%, 20.80%, 1.48%, and 73.25% CWBs were used for thermal power, industry, domestic and discard. The mean S, As, F and Hg contents of CWBs are 1.52%, 14.04 mg/kg, 216.31 mg/kg and 0.27 mg/kg, respectively. SO2 emissions in 2014 from the combustion of CWBs were ∼5.76 million tons, similar to that released into the atmosphere by China's coal-fired power plants, accounting for ∼29% of the country's total SO2 emissions. Arsenic, F and Hg emissions from CWBs were 1 599.54, 61 575.07 and 77.16 tons, respectively. These emissions have become a critical component of air pollution in China.

  7. The adsorption behavior of mercury on the hematite (1-102) surface from coal-fired power plant emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, J. E.; Jew, A. D.; Rupp, E.; Aboud, S.; Brown, G. E.; Wilcox, J.

    2014-12-01

    One of the biggest environmental concerns caused by coal-fired power plants is the emission of mercury (Hg). Worldwide, 475 tons of Hg are released from coal-burning processes annually, comprising 24% of total anthropogenic Hg emissions. Because of the high toxicity of Hg species, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed a standard on Hg and air toxic pollutants (Mercury and Air Toxics Standards, MATS) for new and existing coal-fired power plants in order to eliminate Hg in flue gas prior to release through the stack. To control the emission of Hg from coal-derived flue gas, it is important to understand the behavior, speciation of Hg as well as the interaction between Hg and solid materials, such as fly ash or metal oxides, in the flue gas stream. In this study, theoretical investigations using density functional theory (DFT) were carried out in conjunction with experiments to investigate the adsorption behavior of oxidized Hg on hematite (α-Fe2O3), an important mineral component of fly ash which readily sorbes Hg from flue gas. For DFT calculation, the two α-Fe2O3 (1-102) surfaces modeled consisted of two different surface terminations: (1) M2-clean, which corresponds to the oxygen-terminated surface with the first layer of cations removed and with no hydroxyl groups and (2) M2-OH2-OH, which has bihydroxylated top oxygen atoms and a second layer of hydroxylated oxygen atoms. These surface terminations were selected because both surfaces are highly stable in the temperature range of flue gases. The most probable adsorption sites of Hg, Cl and HgCl on the two α-Fe2O3 surface terminations were suggested based on calculated adsorption energies. Additionally, Bader charge and projected density of states (PDOS) analyses were conducted to characterize the oxidation state of adsorbates and their bonding interactions with the surfaces. Results indicate that oxidized Hg physically adsorbs on the M2-clean surface with a binding energy of -0.103 eV and that

  8. Mercury emissions from a modified in-situ oil shale retort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Pollard, Martin J.; Brown, Nancy J.

    Gaseous Hg emissions were measured during the processing of a large modified in-situ oil shale retort (4×10 4 m 3) in Colorado. A continuous, on-line, gas monitor based upon the principal of Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy was the primary analytical method. The on-line monitor technique was shown to be well suited for this application and compared favorably with an independent reference method which collects gaseous Hg by Au-amalgamation. Forty-two hours of on-line data were obtained over a 35-day period during the latter half of the retort burn. Hg emission rates in g day -1 were calculated from Hg concentration and offgas flow rate data. The predicted total gaseous Hg mass emission for the retort was 4 kg. Extrapolation of the data to a hypothetical modified in-situ oil shale facility with a daily production of 8× 10 61 (5 × 10 4 bbl) of oil results in a projected emission rate of ≈ 8 kg day -1. This estimated value is higher than Hg emission rates recorded for coal fired power plants. Emission rates were found to be highly variable both within and between days. Factors which may limit Hg emissions from a modified in-situ retort are discussed. Adsorption losses to unretorted shale at the bottom of a retort are suggested as a major sink for Hg. Losses of Hg to the extensive offgas plumbing system may also be substantial.

  9. Unravelling thermal emissivity spectra of the main minerals on Mercury's surface by comparison with ab initio calculated IR-HT vibrational frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stangarone, C.; Helbert, J.; Tribaudino, M.; Maturilli, A.; D'Amore, M.; Ferrari, S.; Prencipe, M.

    2015-12-01

    Spectral signatures of minerals are intimately related to the crystal structure; therefore they may represent a remote sensing model to determine surface composition of planetary bodies, by analysing their spectral reflectance and emission. However, one of the most critical point is data interpretation considering planetary surfaces, as Mercury, where the changes in spectral characteristics are induced by the high temperatures conditions (Helbert et al., 2013). The aim of this work is to interpret the experimental thermal emissivity spectra with an innovative approach: simulating IR spectra of the main mineral families that compose the surface of Mercury, focusing on pyroxenes (Sprague et al., 2002), both at room and high temperature, exploiting the accuracy of ab initio quantum mechanical calculations, by means of CRYSTAL14 code (Dovesi et al., 2014). The simulations will be compared with experimental emissivity measurements of planetary analogue samples at temperature up to 1000K, performed at Planetary Emissivity Laboratory (PEL) by Institute of Planetary Research (DLR, Berlin). Results will be useful to create a theoretical background to interpret HT-IR emissivity spectra that will be collected by the Mercury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer (MERTIS), a spectrometer developed by DLR that will be on board of the ESA BepiColombo Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) scheduled for 2017. The goal is to point out the most interesting spectral features for a geological mapping of Mercury and other rocky bodies, simulating the environmental conditions of the inner planets of Solar System. Dovesi R., Saunders V. R., Roetti C., Orlando R., Zicovich-Wilson C. M., Pascale F., Civalleri B., Doll K., Harrison N. M., Bush I. J., D'Arco P., Llunell M., Causà M. & Noël Y. 2014. CRYSTAL14 User's Manual, University of Torino. Sprague, A. L., Emery, J. P., Donaldson, K. L., Russell, R. W., Lynch, D. K., & Mazuk, A. L. (2002). Mercury: Mid-infrared (3-13.5

  10. Atmospheric transport of speciated mercury across southern Lake Michigan: Influence from emission sources in the Chicago/Gary urban area.

    PubMed

    Gratz, Lynne E; Keeler, Gerald J; Marsik, Frank J; Barres, James A; Dvonch, J Timothy

    2013-03-15

    Quantifying the local and regional impacts of speciated mercury (Hg) emissions from major urban and industrial areas is critical for understanding Hg transport and cycling in the environment. The Chicago/Gary urban area is one location where Hg emissions from industrial sources are significant and the regional transport of emissions may contribute to elevated ambient Hg concentrations at downwind locations. From July to November 2007, we collected semi-continuous measurements of gaseous elemental Hg (Hg(0)), fine particulate bound Hg (Hgp), and divalent reactive gaseous Hg (RGM) in Chicago, IL and Holland, MI to characterize the impact of Chicago/Gary source emissions on Hg concentrations in southwest Michigan and to improve our overall understanding of speciated Hg transport and deposition. The mean (and median) concentrations of Hg(0), Hgp, and RGM in Chicago were 2.5ng/m(3) (1.9ng/m(3)), 9pg/m(3) (5pg/m(3)), and 17pg/m(3) (6pg/m(3)), respectively. In Holland the mean (and median) concentrations were 1.3ng/m(3) (1.3ng/m(3)), 6pg/m(3) (6pg/m(3)), and 8pg/m(3) (2pg/m(3)), respectively. Cluster analysis of 24-hour HYSPLIT back-trajectories associated with the semi-continuous Hg measurements indicated that southwest transport from Chicago/Gary to Holland occurred during approximately 27% of the study. In Holland, under this transport regime, we observed a five-fold increase in RGM relative to the median concentration of the other transport clusters. We applied the HYSPLIT dispersion model to two case study periods to further quantify the impact of Chicago/Gary sources on southeast Michigan and investigate the role of direct transport and dispersion of speciated Hg emissions. Results suggested that more than 50% of the maximum RGM concentrations observed in Holland during the selected periods could be attributed to direct transport of primary RGM emissions from Chicago/Gary. The remaining RGM fractions are believed to be associated with Hg(0) oxidation during

  11. Atmospheric Deposition of Mercury

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the advent of the industrial era, the amount of mercury entering the global environment increased dramatically. Releases of mercury in its elemental form from gold mines and chlor-alkali plants, as sulfides such as mercaptans and agricultural chemicals, and as volatile emiss...

  12. The Influence of Experimental Approach and Design on the Quantification of Surface-to- Air Mercury Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckley, C. S.; Gustin, M.; Marsik, F.; Miller, M. B.

    2008-12-01

    Accurate measurement of the surface-to-air flux of mercury (Hg) is imperative for quantitative assessment of atmospheric Hg sources and sinks. Thus understanding how methodological approaches might influence its quantification is critical. There are two main techniques used for measuring these emissions: dynamic flux chambers (DFCs) and the micrometeorological gradient method. Applied DFC designs reported in the literature are heterogeneous with respect to size, material and chamber flow rate. An objective of this research was to systematically test how these differences influence the calculation of Hg flux. Hg flux using the DFC method is calculated as the difference between inlet and outlet air concentrations (delta C) divided by the chamber area and multiplied by the sample flow rate. The flow rate determines the chamber turnover time (TOT) and values reported in the literature range from >1 to <0.1 (min). The results of our study found that variations in the TOT from 5.40 to 0.13 min can influence the delta C value by more than 4-fold and the calculated Hg flux by 9-fold, with the higher the TOT the higher the resulting flux value. Additionally, the optimal TOT was found to depend on the magnitude of the surface emissions and therefore the Hg concentration of the material. Polycarbonate chambers resulted in lower Hg emissions and higher chamber blanks compared to Teflon chambers. In addition, we compared Hg flux measurements using the DFC method and a gradient-based micrometeorological technique at the same location under a range of conditions. Fluxes measured using the micrometeorological gradient method were more variable than with DFCs, however daily averages were of similar magnitude.

  13. ATMOSPHERIC MERCURY SIMULATION USING THE CMAQ MODEL: FORMULATION DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS OF WET DEPOSITION RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system has recently been adapted to simulate the emission, transport, transformation and deposition of atmospheric mercury in three distinct forms; elemental mercury gas, reactive gaseous mercury, and particulate mercury. Emis...

  14. Field Evaluation of MERCEM Mercury Emission Analyzer System at the Oak Ridge TSCA Incinerator East Tennessee Technology Park Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    2000-03-01

    The authors reached the following conclusions: (1) The two-month evaluation of the MERCEM total mercury monitor from Perkin Elmer provided a useful venue in determining the feasibility of using a CEM to measure total mercury in a saturated flue gas. (2) The MERCEM exhibited potential at a mixed waste incinerator to meet requirements proposed in PS12 under conditions of operation with liquid feeds only at stack mercury concentrations in the range of proposed MACT standards. (3) Performance of the MERCEM under conditions of incinerating solid and liquid wastes simultaneously was less reliable than while feeding liquid feeds only for the operating conditions and configuration of the host facility. (4) The permeation tube calibration method used in this test relied on the CEM internal volumetric and time constants to relate back to a concentration, whereas a compressed gas cylinder concentration is totally independent of the analyzer mass flowmeter and flowrates. (5) Mercury concentration in the compressed gas cylinders was fairly stable over a 5-month period. (6) The reliability of available reference materials was not fully demonstrated without further evaluation of their incorporation into routine operating procedures performed by facility personnel. (7) The degree of mercury control occurring in the TSCA Incinerator off-gas cleaning system could not be quantified from the data collected in this study. (8) It was possible to conduct the demonstration at a facility incinerating radioactively contaminated wastes and to release the equipment for later unrestricted use elsewhere. (9) Experience gained by this testing answered additional site-specific and general questions regarding the operation and maintenance of CEMs and their use in compliance monitoring of total mercury emissions from hazardous waste incinerators.

  15. Laboratory-scale evaluation of various sampling and analytical methods for determining mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Agbede, R.O.; Bochan, A.J.; Clements, J.L.

    1995-11-01

    Comparative bench-scale mercury sampling method tests were performed at the Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS) laboratories for EPA Method 101A, EPA Method 29 and the Ontario Hydro Method. Both blank and impinger spiking experiments were performed. The experimental results show that the ambient level of mercury in the ATS laboratory is at or below the detection limit (10 ng Hg) as measured by a cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer (CVAAS) which was used to analyze the mercury samples. From the mercury spike studies, the following observations and findings were made. (a) The recovery of mercury spikes using EPA Method 101A was 104%. (b) The Ontario Hydro Method retains about 90% of mercury spikes in the first absorbing solution but has a total spike retention of 106%. As a result, the test data shows possible migration of spiked mercury from the first impinger solution (KCI) to the permanganate impingers. (c) For the EPA Method 29 solutions, when only the peroxide impingers were spiked, mercury recoveries were 65.6% for the peroxide impingers, 0.1% for the knockout impinger and 32.8% for the permanganate impingers with an average total mercury recovery of 98.4%. At press time, data was still being obtained for both the peroxide and permanganate impinger solution spikes. This and other data will be available at the presentation.

  16. CURRENT METHODS AND RESEARCH STRATEGIES FOR MODELING ATMOSPHERIC MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The atmospheric pathway of the global mercury cycle is known to be the primary source of mercury contamination to most threatened aquatic ecosystems. Current efforts toward numerical modeling of atmospheric mercury are hindered by an incomplete understanding of emissions, atmosp...

  17. Lanthanide based dual-emission fluorescent probe for detection of mercury (II) in milk.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hongliang; Li, Qian; Ma, Chanjiao; Song, Yonghai; Xu, Fugang; Chen, Shouhui; Wang, Li

    2015-01-15

    It is highly desirable to develop a simple and sensitive method for Hg(2+) detection because of the dangerous nature of Hg(2+). In this work, we prepared a dual-emission fluorescent probe for Hg(2+) detection by combining two lanthanide chelates with different emission wavelengths. Green-emitting terbium (Tb(3+)) chelates as reference signals were embedded into SiO2 nanoparticles and red-emitting europium (Eu(3+)) chelates as response units were covalently linked to the surface of silica shell. Upon the addition of Hg(2+), the fluorescence of Eu(3+) chelates can be selectively quenched, while the fluorescence of Tb(3+) chelates remained unchanged. As a kind of Hg(2+) nanosensor, the dual-emission fluorescent probe exhibited excellent selectivity to Hg(2+) and high sensitivity up to 7.07 nM detection limit. The Hg(2+) levels in drinking water and milk samples were determined by using the dual-emission fluorescent probe with satisfied recovery. Additionally, our probe has a long enough fluorescence lifetime, which can avoid the interference from autofluorescence of the biological samples. We envision that the proposed probe could find great potential applications for ultrasensitive time-resolved fluorometric assays and biomedical imaging in the future.

  18. AN INTEGRATED ANALYSIS OF THE POTENTIAL EFFECTIVENESS OF MERCURY EMISSION REDUCTION STRATEGIES IN THE GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using atmospheric transport and fate models, it has been possible to link the changes in emissions to to the change in atmospheric deposition for the last thirty years for the criteria air pollutants, but it has only been in the last decade that advances have been made to allow t...

  19. Aggregation induced emission enhancement from Bathophenanthroline microstructures and its potential use as sensor of mercury ions in water.

    PubMed

    Mazumdar, Prativa; Das, Debasish; Sahoo, Gobinda Prasad; Salgado-Morán, Guillermo; Misra, Ajay

    2014-04-07

    Bathophenanthroline (BA) microstructures of various morphologies have been synthesized using a reprecipitation method. The morphologies of the particles are characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. An aqueous dispersion of BA microstructures shows aggregation induced emission enhancement (AIEE) compared to BA in a good solvent, THF. This luminescent property of aggregated BA hydrosol is used for the selective detection of trace amounts of mercury ion (Hg(2+)) in water. It is observed that Hg(2+) ions can quench the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of BA aggregates even at very low concentrations, compared to other heavy metal ions e.g. nickel (Ni(2+)), manganese (Mn(2+)), cadmium (Cd(2+)), cobalt (Co(2+)), copper (Cu(2+)), ferrous (Fe(2+)) and zinc (Zn(2+)). This strong fluorescence quenching of aggregated BA in the presence of Hg(2+) ions has been explained as a complex interplay between the ground state complexation between BA and Hg(2+) ions and external heavy atom induced perturbation by Hg(2+) ions on the excited states of the fluorophore BA.

  20. Getting rid of mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Reisch, M.S.

    2008-11-24

    Anticipating a US rule on mercury removal from coal flue gas, technology providers jockey for position. By 2013, if the federal rule imposing regulation of mercury emissions which have begun or are about to begin in 20 eastern states goes nationwide, mercury control will be big business. For the near term, utilities are adopting activated carbon to control mercury emissions. McIlvaine Co. projects the US market for activated carbon will jump from 10 million lb in 2010 to 350 million by 2013. Norit and Calgon Carbon are already increasing production of activated carbon (mainly from coal) and ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is building a new plant. Albermarle is developing a process to treat activated carbon with bromine; Corning has developed a sulfur impregnated activated carbon filtration brick. New catalysts are being developed to improve the oxidation of mercury for removal from flue gas. 2 photos.

  1. Is your plant inherently safer?

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, P.G.

    1996-07-01

    Managing process risk begins at the conceptual design stage. Using these guidelines, engineers can explore how to make existing and future plants inherently safer. Despite progress made in process design tools and development of industry standards for design, procurement and construction, the hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) struggles to improve the safety and operation of existing facilities. The paper discusses design standards and practices, plant design success stories, and achieving inherently safer plant designs.

  2. Mercury Calibration System

    SciTech Connect

    John Schabron; Eric Kalberer; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson; Ryan Boysen; William Schuster

    2009-03-11

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Performance Specification 12 in the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) states that a mercury CEM must be calibrated with National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST)-traceable standards. In early 2009, a NIST traceable standard for elemental mercury CEM calibration still does not exist. Despite the vacature of CAMR by a Federal appeals court in early 2008, a NIST traceable standard is still needed for whatever regulation is implemented in the future. Thermo Fisher is a major vendor providing complete integrated mercury continuous emissions monitoring (CEM) systems to the industry. WRI is participating with EPA, EPRI, NIST, and Thermo Fisher towards the development of the criteria that will be used in the traceability protocols to be issued by EPA. An initial draft of an elemental mercury calibration traceability protocol was distributed for comment to the participating research groups and vendors on a limited basis in early May 2007. In August 2007, EPA issued an interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury calibrators. Various working drafts of the new interim traceability protocols were distributed in late 2008 and early 2009 to participants in the Mercury Standards Working Committee project. The protocols include sections on qualification and certification. The qualification section describes in general terms tests that must be conducted by the calibrator vendors to demonstrate that their calibration equipment meets the minimum requirements to be established by EPA for use in CAMR monitoring. Variables to be examined include linearity, ambient temperature, back pressure, ambient pressure, line voltage, and effects of shipping. None of the procedures were described in detail in the draft interim documents; however they describe what EPA would like to eventually develop. WRI is providing the data and results to EPA for use in developing revised experimental procedures and realistic acceptance criteria based on

  3. Environmental Emission of Mercury During Gold Mining by Amalgamation Process and its Impact on Soils of Gympie, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhindsa, H. S.; Battle, A. R.; Prytz, S.

    - The aims of this study were to estimate the total amount of mercury released to the environment during 60 years of gold mining (1867-1926) at Gympie, Queensland, Australia and to measure the mercury levels in soil samples surrounding the mining activity. We estimated that 1902 tonnes of mercury was released to the environment and about 1236 tonnes of which was released to the air. The mean mercury in the soil samples in the vicinity of the Scottish battery varied from 1.07 to 99.26 μg g-1 as compared to 0.075 μg g-1 as background mercury concentrations. The maximum mercury concentration measured in sediments of the Langton Gully was 6.12 μg g-1. These results show that large amount of mercury was used in this area during gold mining. Since mining is active in the area and Langton Gully flows into Mary River, we therefore, recommend that mercury concentration in air and fish should be monitored.

  4. Sequential cloud point extraction for the speciation of mercury in seafood by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingjie; Hu, Bin

    2007-10-01

    A novel nonchromatographic speciation technique for the speciation of mercury by sequential cloud point extraction (CPE) combined with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was developed. The method based on Hg 2+ was complexed with I - to form HgI 42-, and the HgI 42- reacted with the methyl green (MG) cation to form hydrophobic ion-associated complex, and the ion-associated complex was then extracted into the surfactant-rich phase of the non-ionic surfactant octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114), which are subsequently separated from methylmercury (MeHg +) in the initial solution by centrifugation. The surfactant-rich phase containing Hg(II) was diluted with 0.5 mol L - 1 HNO 3 for ICP-OES determination. The supernatant is also subjected to the similar CPE procedure for the preconcentration of MeHg + by the addition of a chelating agent, ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC), in order to form water-insolvable complex with MeHg +. The MeHg + in the micelles was directly analyzed after disposal as describe above. Under the optimized conditions, the extraction efficiency was 93.5% for Hg(II) and 51.5% for MeHg + with the enrichment factor of 18.7 for Hg(II) and 10.3 for MeHg +, respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) were 56.3 ng L - 1 for Hg(II) and 94.6 ng L - 1 for MeHg + (as Hg) with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 3.6% for Hg(II) and 4.5% for MeHg + ( C = 10 μg L -1, n = 7), respectively. The developed technique was applied to the speciation of mercury in real seafood samples and the recoveries for spiked samples were found to be in the range of 93.2-108.7%. For validation, a certified reference material of DORM-2 (dogfish muscle) was analyzed and the determined values are in good agreement with the certified values.

  5. 40 CFR 61.52 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Mercury § 61.52 Emission standard. (a) Emissions to the atmosphere from mercury ore processing facilities and mercury cell chlor-alkali plants shall not exceed 2.3 kg (5.1 lb) of mercury per 24-hour period. (b) Emissions to...

  6. 40 CFR 61.52 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Mercury § 61.52 Emission standard. (a) Emissions to the atmosphere from mercury ore processing facilities and mercury cell chlor-alkali plants shall not exceed 2.3 kg (5.1 lb) of mercury per 24-hour period. (b) Emissions to...

  7. MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY--A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has promulgated the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) to permanently cap and reduce mercury emissions in the U.S. This rule makes the U.S. the first country in the world to regulate mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. The first p...

  8. Behavior of mercury emissions from a commercial coal-fired power plant: the relationship between stack speciation and near-field plume measurements.

    PubMed

    Landis, Matthew S; Ryan, Jeffrey V; ter Schure, Arnout F H; Laudal, Dennis

    2014-11-18

    The reduction of divalent gaseous mercury (Hg(II)) to elemental gaseous mercury (Hg(0)) in a commercial coal-fired power plant (CFPP) exhaust plume was investigated by simultaneous measurement in-stack and in-plume as part of a collaborative study among the U.S. EPA, EPRI, EERC, and Southern Company. In-stack continuous emission monitoring data were used to establish the CFPP's real-time mercury speciation and plume dilution tracer species (SO2, NOX) emission rates, and an airship was utilized as an airborne sampling platform to maintain static position with respect to the exhaust plume centerline for semicontinuous measurement of target species. Varying levels of Hg(II) concentration (2.39-3.90 μg m(-3)) and percent abundance (∼ 87-99%) in flue gas and in-plume reduction were observed. The existence and magnitude of Hg(II) reduction to Hg(0) (0-55%) observed varied with respect to the types and relative amounts of coals combusted, suggesting that exhaust plume reduction occurring downwind of the CFPP is influenced by coal chemical composition and characteristics.

  9. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury and Fine Particulate Matter from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Crist

    2008-12-31

    As stated in the proposal: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, evaluated the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation involved two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring included the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station contains sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO2, O3, etc.). Laboratory analyses of time-integrated samples were used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Nearreal- time measurements were used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg0 and RGM. Approximately 30 months of field data were collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data provides mercury, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis includes (1) development of updated inventories of mercury emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport

  10. EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Crist

    2004-10-02

    Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine

  11. Mercury in soil near a long-term air emission source in southeastern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, M.L.; Susong, D.D.; Olson, M.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.

    2003-01-01

    At the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in southeastern Idaho, a 500??C fluidized bed calciner was intermittently operated for 37 years, with measured Hg emission rates of 9-11 g/h. Surface soil was sampled at 57 locations around the facility to determine the spatial distribution of Hg fallout and surface Hg variability, and to predict the total residual Hg mass in the soil from historical emissions. Measured soil concentrations were slightly higher (p<0.05) within 5 km of the source but were overall very low (15-20 ng/g) compared to background Hg levels published for similar soils in the USA (50-70 ng/g). Concentrations decreased 4%/cm with depth and were found to be twice as high under shrubs and in depressions. Mass balance calculations accounted for only 2.5-20% of the estimated total Hg emitted over the 37-year calciner operating history. These results suggest that much of the Hg deposited from calciner operations may have been reduced in the soil and re-emitted as Hg(0) to the global atmospheric pool.

  12. Mercury biogeochemistry: Paradigm shifts, outstanding issues and research needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonke, Jeroen E.; Heimbürger, Lars-Eric; Dommergue, Aurélien

    2013-05-01

    Half a century of mercury research has provided scientists and policy makers with a detailed understanding of mercury toxicology, biogeochemical cycling and past and future impacts on human exposure. The complexity of the global biogeochemical mercury cycle has led to repeated and ongoing paradigm shifts in numerous mercury-related disciplines and outstanding questions remain. In this review, we highlight some of the paradigm shifts and questions on mercury toxicity, the risks and benefits of seafood consumption, the source of mercury in seafood, and the Arctic mercury cycle. We see a continued need for research on mercury toxicology and epidemiology, for marine mercury dynamics and ecology, and for a closer collaboration between observational mercury science and mercury modeling in general. As anthropogenic mercury emissions are closely tied to the energy cycle (in particular coal combustion), mercury exposure to humans and wildlife are likely to persist unless drastic emission reductions are put in place.

  13. Atmospheric mercury footprints of nations.

    PubMed

    Liang, Sai; Wang, Yafei; Cinnirella, Sergio; Pirrone, Nicola

    2015-03-17

    The Minamata Convention was established to protect humans and the natural environment from the adverse effects of mercury emissions. A cogent assessment of mercury emissions is required to help implement the Minamata Convention. Here, we use an environmentally extended multi-regional input-output model to calculate atmospheric mercury footprints of nations based on upstream production (meaning direct emissions from the production activities of a nation), downstream production (meaning both direct and indirect emissions caused by the production activities of a nation), and consumption (meaning both direct and indirect emissions caused by final consumption of goods and services in a nation). Results show that nations function differently within global supply chains. Developed nations usually have larger consumption-based emissions than up- and downstream production-based emissions. India, South Korea, and Taiwan have larger downstream production-based emissions than their upstream production- and consumption-based emissions. Developed nations (e.g., United States, Japan, and Germany) are in part responsible for mercury emissions of developing nations (e.g., China, India, and Indonesia). Our findings indicate that global mercury abatement should focus on multiple stages of global supply chains. We propose three initiatives for global mercury abatement, comprising the establishment of mercury control technologies of upstream producers, productivity improvement of downstream producers, and behavior optimization of final consumers.

  14. The impact of wet flue gas desulfurization scrubbing on mercury emissions from coal-fired power stations.

    PubMed

    Niksa, Stephen; Fujiwara, Naoki

    2005-07-01

    This article introduces a predictive capability for Hg retention in any Ca-based wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber, given mercury (Hg) speciation at the FGD inlet, the flue gas composition, and the sulphur dioxide (SO2) capture efficiency. A preliminary statistical analysis of data from 17 full-scale wet FGDs connects flue gas compositions, the extents of Hg oxidation at FGD inlets, and Hg retention efficiencies. These connections clearly signal that solution chemistry within the FGD determines Hg retention. A more thorough analysis based on thermochemical equilibrium yields highly accurate predictions for total Hg retention with no parameter adjustments. For the most reliable data, the predictions were within measurement uncertainties for both limestone and Mg/lime systems operating in both forced and natural oxidation mode. With the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Information Collection Request (ICR) database, the quantitative performance was almost as good for the most modern FGDs, which probably conform to the very high SO2 absorption efficiencies assumed in the calculations. The large discrepancies for older FGDs are tentatively attributed to the unspecified SO2 capture efficiencies and operating temperatures and to the possible elimination of HCl in prescrubbers. The equilibrium calculations suggest that Hg retention is most sensitive to inlet HCl and O2 levels and the FGD temperature; weakly dependent on SO2 capture efficiency; and insensitive to HgCl2, NO, CA:S ratio, slurry dilution level in limestone FGDs, and MgSO3 levels in Mg/lime systems. Consequently, systems with prescrubbers to eliminate HCl probably retain less Hg than fully integrated FGDs. The analysis also predicts re-emission of Hg(O) but only for inlet O2 levels that are much lower than those in full-scale FGDs.

  15. The impact of wet flue gas desulfurization scrubbing on mercury emissions from coal-fired power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Niksa; Naoki Fujiwara

    2005-07-01

    The article introduces a predictive capability for mercury (Hg) retention in any Ca-based wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber, given Hg speciation at the FGD inlet, the flue gas composition, and the sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) capture efficiency. A preliminary statistical analysis of data from 17 full-scale wet FGDs connects flue gas compositions, the extents of Hg oxidation at FGD inlets, and Hg retention efficiencies. These connections show that solution chemistry within the FGD determines Hg retention. A more thorough analysis based on thermochemical equilibrium yields highly accurate predictions for total Hg retention with no parameter adjustments. For the most reliable data, the predictions were within measurement uncertainties for both limestone and Mg/lime systems operating in both forced and natural oxidation mode. With the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Information Collection Request (ICR) database, the quantitative performance was almost as good for the most modern FGDs, which probably conform to the very high SO{sub 2} absorption efficiencies assumed in the calculations. The large discrepancies for older FGDs are tentatively attributed to the unspecified SO{sub 2} capture efficiencies and operating temperatures and to the possible elimination of HCl in prescrubbers. The equilibrium calculations suggest that Hg retention is most sensitive to inlet HCl and O{sub 2} levels and the FGD temperature; weakly dependent on SO{sub 2} capture efficiency; and insensitive to HgCl{sub 2}, NO, CA:S ratio, slurry dilution level in limestone FGDs, and MgSO{sub 3} levels in Mg/lime systems. Consequently, systems with prescrubbers to eliminate HCl probably retain less Hg than fully integrated FGDs. The analysis also predicts re-emission of Hg{sub 0} but only for inlet O{sub 2} levels that are much lower than those in full-scale FGDs. 12 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Characterizing mercury emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing a venturi wet FGD system

    SciTech Connect

    Vann Bush, P.; Dismukes, E.B.; Fowler, W.K.

    1995-11-01

    Southern Research Institute (SRI) conducted a test program at a coal-fired utility plant from October 24 to October 29, 1994. The test schedule was chosen to permit us to collect samples during a period of consecutive days with a constant coal source. SRI collected the samples required to measured concentrations of anions and trace elements around two scrubber modules and in the stack. Anions of interest were CI{sup -}, F{sup -}, and SO{sub 4}{sup =}. We analyzed samples for five major elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Ti) and 16 trace elements (As, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and V). SRI made measurements across two scrubber modules, each treating nominally 20% of the total effluent from the boiler. Across one module we examined the effects of changes in the liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) on the efficiency with which the scrubber removes trace elements and anions from the flue gas. Across another module we examined the effects of slurry pH on the removal of trace elements and anions from the flue gas. Measurements in the stack quantified emissions rates of anions and trace elements.

  17. Removal of vapor-phase elemental mercury from stack emissions with sulfur-impregnated activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Sowlat, Mohammad Hossein; Abdollahi, Mohammad; Gharibi, Hamed; Yunesian, Masud; Rastkari, Noushin

    2014-01-01

    This systematic review of high-quality, relevant original research articles existing in the literature was conducted to comprehensively explore the efficiency of Hg11 capture from stack emissions by sulfur-impregnated vs. virgin ACs. Our systematic overview suggested that significantly higher amounts of Hg0 are absorbed by sulfurimpregnated ACs than by virgin ones ( 1.5-32 times higher, based on the applied operational conditions). The main reason for this is because Hg11 capture by virgin ACs follows a physisorption mechanism, whereas that by sulfur-impregnated ACs occurs from a combination of physisorption of Hg11 on carbon texture and chemical reaction between Hg0 and impregnated sulfur, with subsequent formation of HgS. Temperature increased the Hg0 adsorption capacity of virgin ACs, especially when temperatures exceeded 100 oc. For sulfur-impregnated ACs, increasing the temperature up to I 00 oc increased the Hg0 adsorption capacity by enhancing the chemisorption of Hg0 capture. A further increase in temperature enhanced the efficiency of ACs that were impregnated with Sat higher temperatures (600 °C, for instance). This mainly resulted from production of stronger bonding of sulfur to carbon at higher impregnation temperatures and also from a more even distribution of sulfur in the carbon matrix. The authors of different papers reported different results with respect to whether there is an effect of initial Hg11 concentration on AC adsorption capacity. The authors of two studies could find no such etl'ect. The predominant evidence, however, favors the view that increased Hg0 adsorption capacities exist at higher inlet Hg0 concentrations. Such behavior is attributed to faster kinetics of Hg0 capture and an enhanced higher driving force at higher initial Hg0 inlet concentrations. Results from reviewed studies also indicated that the optimum SIC ratio and sulfur content are 2/1 and I 0-20%, respectively. Surface area has a less significant impact on Hg11

  18. Mercury deposition in snow near an industrial emission source in the western U.S. and comparison to ISC3 model predictions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, M.L.; Susong, D.D.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Rood, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    Mercury (total and methyl) was evaluated in snow samples collected near a major mercury emission source on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in southeastern Idaho and 160 km downwind in Teton Range in western Wyoming. The sampling was done to assess near-field (<12 km) deposition rates around the source, compare them to those measured in a relatively remote, pristine downwind location, and to use the measurements to develop improved, site-specific model input parameters for precipitation scavenging coefficient and the fraction of Hg emissions deposited locally. Measured snow water concentrations (ng L-1) were converted to deposition (ug m-2) using the sample location snow water equivalent. The deposition was then compared to that predicted using the ISC3 air dispersion/deposition model which was run with a range of particle and vapor scavenging coefficient input values. Accepted model statistical performance measures (fractional bias and normalized mean square error) were calculated for the different modeling runs, and the best model performance was selected. Measured concentrations close to the source (average = 5.3 ng L-1) were about twice those measured in the Teton Range (average = 2.7 ng L-1) which were within the expected range of values for remote background areas. For most of the sampling locations, the ISC3 model predicted within a factor of two of the observed deposition. The best modeling performance was obtained using a scavenging coefficient value for 0.25 ??m diameter particulate and the assumption that all of the mercury is reactive Hg(II) and subject to local deposition. A 0.1 ??m particle assumption provided conservative overprediction of the data, while a vapor assumption resulted in highly variable predictions. Partitioning a fraction of the Hg emissions to elemental Hg(0) (a U.S. EPA default assumption for combustion facility risk assessments) would have underpredicted the observed fallout.

  19. What are the Connections between Mercury and CFLs?

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Small amounts of mercury vapor can be released when CFLs break or are improperly disposed of. Despite these emissions, the use of CFLs actually helps reduce total mercury emissions in the U.S. because of their significant energy savings.

  20. UNDERSTANDING MERCURY FATE AND TRANSPORT FROM SOURCES TO DEPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    ORD's atmospheric mercury research produces information to improve the understanding of mercury transport and fate from the point of emission into the atmosphere to its deposition to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Specifically, this research will produce source emission and...

  1. Global change and mercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krabbenhoft, David P.; Sunderland, Elsie M.

    2013-01-01

    More than 140 nations recently agreed to a legally binding treaty on reductions in human uses and releases of mercury that will be signed in October of this year. This follows the 2011 rule in the United States that for the first time regulates mercury emissions from electricity-generating utilities. Several decades of scientific research preceded these important regulations. However, the impacts of global change on environmental mercury concentrations and human exposures remain a major uncertainty affecting the potential effectiveness of regulatory activities.

  2. Mercury's exosphere: observations during MESSENGER's First Mercury flyby.

    PubMed

    McClintock, William E; Bradley, E Todd; Vervack, Ronald J; Killen, Rosemary M; Sprague, Ann L; Izenberg, Noam R; Solomon, Sean C

    2008-07-04

    During MESSENGER's first Mercury flyby, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer measured Mercury's exospheric emissions, including those from the antisunward sodium tail, calcium and sodium close to the planet, and hydrogen at high altitudes on the dayside. Spatial variations indicate that multiple source and loss processes generate and maintain the exosphere. Energetic processes connected to the solar wind and magnetospheric interaction with the planet likely played an important role in determining the distributions of exospheric species during the flyby.

  3. Worldwide trend of atmospheric mercury since 1995

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slemr, F.; Brunke, E.-G.; Ebinghaus, R.; Kuss, J.

    2011-05-01

    Concern about the adverse effects of mercury on human health and ecosystems has led to tightening emission controls since the mid 1980s. But the resulting mercury emissions reductions in many parts of the world are believed to be offset or even surpassed by the increasing emissions in rapidly industrializing countries. Consequently, concentrations of atmospheric mercury are expected to remain roughly constant. Here we show that the worldwide atmospheric mercury concentrations have decreased by about 20 to 38 % since 1996 as indicated by long-term monitoring at stations in the Southern and Northern Hemispheres combined with intermittent measurements of latitudinal distribution over the Atlantic Ocean. The total reduction of the atmospheric mercury burden of this magnitude within 14 years is unusually large among most atmospheric trace gases and is at odds with the current mercury emission inventories with nearly constant anthropogenic emissions over this period. This suggests a major shift in the biogeochemical cycle of mercury including oceans and soil reservoirs. Decreasing reemissions from the legacy of historical mercury emissions are the most likely explanation for this decline since the hypothesis of an accelerated oxidation rate of elemental mercury in the atmosphere is not supported by the observed trends of other trace gases. Acidification of oceans, climate change, excess nutrient input and pollution may also contribute by their impact on the biogeochemistry of ocean and soils. Consequently, models of the atmospheric mercury cycle have to include soil and ocean mercury pools and their dynamics to be able to make projections of future trends.

  4. Worldwide trend of atmospheric mercury since 1995

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slemr, F.; Brunke, E.-G.; Ebinghaus, R.; Kuss, J.

    2011-01-01

    Concern about the adverse effects of mercury on human health and ecosystems has led to tightening emission controls since the mid 1980s. But the resulting mercury emissions reductions in many parts of the world are believed to be offset or even surpassed by the increasing emissions in rapidly industrializing countries. Consequently, concentrations of atmospheric mercury are expected to remain roughly constant. Here we show that the worldwide atmospheric mercury concentration have decreased by about 20 to 38% since 1996 as indicated by long term monitoring at stations in the Southern and Northern Hemispheres combined with intermittent measurements of latitudinal distribution over the Atlantic Ocean. The total reduction of the atmospheric mercury burden of this magnitude within 14 yrs is unprecedented among most of atmospheric trace gases and is at odds with the current mercury emission inventories with nearly constant emissions over the period. It suggests a major shift in the biogeochemical cycle of mercury including oceans and soil reservoirs. Decreasing reemissions from the legacy of historical mercury emissions are the most likely explanation for this decline since the hypothesis of an accelerated oxidation rate of elemental mercury in the atmosphere is not supported by the observed trends of other trace gases. Consequently, models of the atmospheric mercury cycle have to include soil and ocean mercury pools and their dynamics to be able to make projections of future trends.

  5. Coping with uncertainties of mercury regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, K.

    2006-09-15

    The thermometer is rising as coal-fired plants cope with the uncertainties of mercury regulation. The paper deals with a diagnosis and a suggested cure. It describes the state of mercury emission rules in the different US states, many of which had laws or rules in place before the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) was promulgated.

  6. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart IIIii of... - Work Practice Standards-Required Actions for Liquid Mercury Spills and Accumulations and Hydrogen...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Actions for Liquid Mercury Spills and Accumulations and Hydrogen and Mercury Vapor Leaks 3 Table 3 to... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell... Standards—Required Actions for Liquid Mercury Spills and Accumulations and Hydrogen and Mercury Vapor...

  7. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart IIIii of... - Work Practice Standards-Required Actions for Liquid Mercury Spills and Accumulations and Hydrogen...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Actions for Liquid Mercury Spills and Accumulations and Hydrogen and Mercury Vapor Leaks 3 Table 3 to... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell... Standards—Required Actions for Liquid Mercury Spills and Accumulations and Hydrogen and Mercury Vapor...

  8. Results from Mobile Lab Measurements Obtained in the Barnett Shale with Emphasis on Methane and Gaseous Mercury Emissions (Fort Worth, TX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laine, P. L.; Lan, X.; Anderson, D.; Talbot, R. W.

    2013-12-01

    Our work is part of a comprehensive analysis conducted through a collaboration of ground based measurements and airborne measurements with several research groups in order to gain a better understanding of methane and mercury emissions in the Barnett Shale. It's a vast rock formation that sits in the 5,000 square miles surrounding the Fort Worth area. To get the gas to market requires an underground highway of pipelines and compression stations. Texas state records show that since 2000 the number of gas compressors in the Barnett Shale has tripled (from a few hundred to 1,300), and they're ever infringing on populated areas. Recent preliminary data reported by Pétron et al. and Tollefson et al. (from the natural-gas operations in Denver-Julesburg Basin) point to CH4 loss from the process of 4-8%, not including additional losses in the pipeline and distribution system. Additionally, Howarth et al. have conducted a comprehensive analysis of greenhouse gases (methane, in particular) emitted from shale gas as a result of hydraulic fracturing and they estimate up to 8% of all natural gas mined from shale formations leaks to the atmosphere. Not only is this cause for alarm due to the global warming potential of methane, but we would expect similar losses of additional (potentially harmful) gases, i.e., atmospheric Hg, from the extraction systems. These preliminary findings are higher than the current U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EPA) leakage estimate of 2.3 percent. Our strategy employs the use of our mobile laboratory, a four door Chevrolet Silverado pickup truck with a camper shell, outfitted with trace gas instrumentation including a Picarro G2132i and a Tekran 2537 mercury analyzer. The Picarro cavity ring down instrument has high precision and accuracy H2O, CO2, CH4, and 13δC in CH4 and CO2 with very little drift due to precise temperature and pressure controls. The Tekran mercury analyzer allows for accurate total gaseous mercury measurements via

  9. The Clean Air Mercury Rule

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Rossler

    2005-07-01

    Coming into force on July 15, 2005, the US Clean Air Mercury Rule will use a market-based cap-and-trade approach under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act to reduce mercury emissions from the electric power sector. This article provides a comprehensive summary of the new rule. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  10. Mercury contamination of aquatic ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krabbenhoft, David P.; Rickert, David A.

    1995-01-01

    Mercury has been well known as an environmental pollutant for several decades. As early as the 1950's it was established that emissions of mercury to the environment could have serious effects on human health. These early studies demonstrated that fish and other wildlife from various ecosystems commonly attain mercury levels of toxicological concern when directly affected by mercury-containing emissions from human-related activities. Human health concerns arise when fish and wildlife from these ecosystems are consumed by humans. During the past decade, a new trend has emerged with regard to mercury pollution. Investigations initiated in the late 1980's in the northern-tier states of the U.S., Canada, and Nordic countries found that fish, mainly from nutrient-poor lakes and often in very remote areas, commonly have high levels of mercury. More recent fish sampling surveys in other regions of the U.S. have shown widespread mercury contamination in streams, wet-lands, reservoirs, and lakes. To date, 33 states have issued fish consumption advisories because of mercury contamination. These continental to global scale occurrences of mercury contamination cannot be linked to individual emissions of mercury, but instead are due to widespread air pollution. When scientists measure mercury levels in air and surface water, however, the observed levels are extraordinarily low. In fact, scientists have to take extreme precautions to avoid direct contact with water samples or sample containers, to avert sample contamination (Fig 3). Herein lies an apparent discrepancy: Why do fish from some remote areas have elevated mercury concentrations, when contamination levels in the environment are so low?

  11. Mercury emission from terrestrial background surfaces in the eastern USA. II: Air/surface exchange of mercury within forests from South Carolina to New England

    SciTech Connect

    Kuiken, Todd; Zhang, Hong; Gustin, Mae S.; Lindberg, Steven Eric

    2008-03-01

    Mercury air/surface exchange was measured over litter-covered soils with low Hg concentrations within various types of forests along the eastern seaboard of the USA. The fieldwork was conducted at six forested sites in state parks in South Carolina, North Carolina, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York and Maine from mid-May to early June 2005. The study showed that the Hg air/surface exchange was consistently very low and similar (overall daytime mean flux = 0.2 0.9 ng m 2 h 1, n = 310, for all six sites monitored) with the various forest types. These flux values are comparable with those found in a year-long study in Tennessee (yearly daytime mean = 0.4 0.5 ng m 2 h 1), but lower than many previous flux results reported for background soils. The Hg fluxes at all sites oscillated around zero, with many episodes of deposition (negative fluxes) occurring in both daytime and nighttime. While there were particular days showing significant correlations among the Hg air/surface exchange and certain environmental parameters, perhaps because of the low fluxes encountered, few significant correlations were found for any particular day of sampling between the Hg flux and environmental parameters such as solar radiation, soil temperature, air temperature (little variability seen), relative humidity, and ambient air Hg concentrations. Factors driving the Hg exchange as previously found for enriched soils may not hold for these background litter-covered forest soils. The results suggest that spatial variations of the Hg air/surface exchange were small among these different forest types for this particular time of year.

  12. Socioeconomic consequences of mercury use and pollution.

    PubMed

    Swain, Edward B; Jakus, Paul M; Rice, Glenn; Lupi, Frank; Maxson, Peter A; Pacyna, Jozef M; Penn, Alan; Spiegel, Samuel J; Veiga, Marcello M

    2007-02-01

    In the past, human activities often resulted in mercury releases to the biosphere with little consideration of undesirable consequences for the health of humans and wildlife. This paper outlines the pathways through which humans and wildlife are exposed to mercury. Fish consumption is the major route of exposure to methylmercury. Humans can also receive toxic doses of mercury through inhalation of elevated concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury. We propose that any effective strategy for reducing mercury exposures requires an examination of the complete life cycle of mercury. This paper examines the life cycle of mercury from a global perspective and then identifies several approaches to measuring the benefits of reducing mercury exposure, policy options for reducing Hg emissions, possible exposure reduction mechanisms, and issues associated with mercury risk assessment and communication for different populations.

  13. Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury Pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2005-06-01

    Phytoremediation is defined as the use of plants to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic environmental pollutants. The long-term goal of the proposed research is to develop and test highly productive, field-adapted plant species that have been engineered for the phytoremediation of mercury. A variety of different genes, which should enable plants to clean mercury polluted sites are being tested as tools for mercury phytoremediation, first in model laboratory plants and then in potential field species. Several of these genes have already been shown to enhance mercury phytoremediation. Mercury pollution is a serious, world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wildlife populations. Environmentally, the most serious mercury threat is the production of methylmercury (CH3Hg+) by native bacteria at mercury contaminated wetland sites. Methylmercury is inherently more toxic than metallic (Hg(0)) or ionic (Hg(II)) mercury, and because methylmercury is prolifically biomagnified up the food chain, it poses the most immediate danger to animal populations. We have successfully engineered two model plants, Arabidopsis and tobacco, to use the bacterial merB gene to convert methylmercury to less toxic ionic mercury and to use the bacterial merA gene to further detoxify ionic mercury to the least toxic form of mercury, metallic mercury. Plants expressing both MerA and MerB proteins detoxify methylmercury in two steps to the metallic form. These plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of methylmercury or ionic mercury that are lethal to normal plants. Our newest efforts involve engineering plants with several additional bacterial and plant genes that allow for higher levels of mercury resistance and mercury hyperaccumulation. The potential for these plants to hyperaccumulate mercury was further advanced by developing constitutive, aboveground, and root-specific gene expression systems. Our current strategy is to engineer plants to

  14. Surface catalyzed mercury transformation reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varanasi, Patanjali

    Mercury is a known pollutant that has detrimental effect on human health and environment. The anthropogenic emissions of mercury account for 10 to 30% of worldwide mercury emissions. There is a need to control/reduce anthropogenic mercury emissions. Many mercury control technologies are available but their effectiveness is dependent on the chemical form of mercury, because different chemical forms of mercury have different physical and chemical properties. Mercury leaves the boiler in its elemental form but goes through various transformations in the post-combustion zone. There is a need to understand how fly ash and flue gas composition affect speciation, partitioning, and reactions of mercury under the full range of post-combustion zone conditions. This knowledge can then be used to predict the chemical transformation of mercury (elemental, oxidized or particulate) in the post combustion zone and thus help with the control of mercury emissions from coal-burning power plants. To accomplish this goal present study was conducted using five coal fly ashes. These ashes were characterized and their catalytic activity was compared under selected reaction conditions in a fixed bed reactor. Based on the results from these fly ash experiments, three key components (carbon, iron oxide and calcium oxide) were chosen. These three components were then used to prepare model fly ashes. Silica/alumina was used as a base for these model fly ashes. One, two or three component model fly ashes were then prepared to investigate mercury transformation reactions. The third set of experiments was performed with five different oxidation catalysts to further understand the mercury oxidation process. Based on the results of these three studies the key components were predicted for different fly ash compositions under variety of flue gas conditions. A fixed bed reactor system was used to conduct this study. In all the experiments, the inlet concentration of Hg0(g) was maintained at 35 mug

  15. Parametric testing of FGD mercury control

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.P.; Nolan, P.S.; Freeley, T.J.

    1998-07-01

    In cooperation with the US Department of Energy, the Ohio Department of Development's Ohio Coal Development Office, and Babcock and Wilcox, McDermott Technology, Inc. has characterized trace element emissions from the combustion of Ohio bituminous coals and control of these emissions using conventional particulate and SO{sub 2} emissions control equipment. In response to industry concern over potential regulation of mercury emissions from utility boilers, testing in Phase II of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program has targeted the measurement of the quantity and species distribution of mercury downstream of the boiler and emissions control equipment. The wide variation in reported commercial FGD mercury emissions control efficiency and the continuing development of mercury speciation measurement methods suggest that additional research is required to understand the observed performance variation and the mercury emissions control potential of FGD systems. Recent AECDP tests were designed to characterize wet scrubber mercury performance as a function of key operating conditions selected to cover a range of commercial wet scrubber practice. The data clearly shows that higher total mercury control efficiency can be achieved with a wet FGD scrubber than reported in the interim USEPA report on hazardous air pollutant from fossil-fired electric utility steam generating units. A minimum average baseline wet FGD system mercury removal level of 50% is suggested as representative of existing scrubbers with a realization that significantly higher mercury control efficiency has been observed.

  16. Mercury and Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Risk of Exposure to Mercury Learn About Mercury What is Mercury What is Metallic mercury? Toxicological Profile ToxFAQs Mercury Resources CDC’s National Biomonitoring Program Factsheet on Mercury ...

  17. PATHOLOIGCAL EFFECTS OF DIETARY METHYL MERCURY IN AMERICAN KESTRELS ( FALCO SPARVERIUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methyl mercury in aquatic food webs poses significant health risks to both wildlife and humans. One primary source of mercury contamination for both aquatic and terrestrial systems is atmospheric deposition of inorganic mercury from industrial emissions. Once in the environment, ...

  18. [Mercury poisoning].

    PubMed

    Bensefa-Colas, L; Andujar, P; Descatha, A

    2011-07-01

    Mercury is a widespread heavy metal with potential severe impacts on human health. Exposure conditions to mercury and profile of toxicity among humans depend on the chemical forms of the mercury: elemental or metallic mercury, inorganic or organic mercury compounds. This article aims to reviewing and synthesizing the main knowledge of the mercury toxicity and its organic compounds that clinicians should know. Acute inhalation of metallic or inorganic mercury vapours mainly induces pulmonary diseases, whereas chronic inhalation rather induces neurological or renal disorders (encephalopathy and interstitial or glomerular nephritis). Methylmercury poisonings from intoxicated food occurred among some populations resulting in neurological disorders and developmental troubles for children exposed in utero. Treatment using chelating agents is recommended in case of symptomatic acute mercury intoxication; sometimes it improves the clinical effects of chronic mercury poisoning. Although it is currently rare to encounter situations of severe intoxication, efforts remain necessary to decrease the mercury concentration in the environment and to reduce risk on human health due to low level exposure (dental amalgam, fish contamination by organic mercury compounds…). In case of occupational exposure to mercury and its compounds, some disorders could be compensated in France. Clinicians should work with toxicologists for the diagnosis and treatment of mercury intoxication.

  19. Inherently Unstable Internal Gravity Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, Reza

    2016-11-01

    Here we show that there exist internal gravity waves that are inherently unstable, that is, they cannot exist in nature for a long time. The instability mechanism is a one-way (irreversible) harmonic-generation resonance that permanently transfers the energy of an internal wave to its higher harmonics. We show that, in fact, there are countably infinite number of such unstable waves. For the harmonic-generation resonance to take place, nonlinear terms in the free surface boundary condition play a pivotal role, and the instability does not obtain for a linearly-stratified fluid if a simplified boundary condition such as rigid lid or linear form is employed. Harmonic-generation resonance discussed here also provides a mechanism for the transfer of the energy of the internal waves to the higher-frequency part of the spectrum where internal waves are more prone to breaking, hence losing energy to turbulence and heat and contributing to oceanic mixing. Yong Liang (yong.liang@berkeley.edu).

  20. Impact of the addition of chicken litter on mercury speciation and emissions from coal combustion in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Songgeng Li; Shuang Deng; Andy Wu; Wei-ping Pan

    2008-07-15

    Co-combustion of chicken litter with coal was performed in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor to investigate the effect of chicken litter addition on the partitioning behavior of mercury. Gaseous total and elemental mercury concentrations in the flue gas were measured online, and ash was analyzed for particle-bound mercury along with other elemental and surface properties. The mercury mass balance was between 85 and 105%. The experimental results show that co-combustion of chicken litter decreases the amount of elemental and total mercury in the gas phase. Mercury content in fly ash increases with an increasing chicken litter share. 22 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury Pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2004-12-01

    Phytoremediation is defined as the use of plants to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic environmental pollutants. The long-term goal of the proposed research is to develop and test highly productive, field-adapted plant species that have been engineered for the phytoremediation of mercury. A variety of different genes, which should enable plants to clean mercury polluted sites are being tested as tools for mercury phytoremediation, first in model laboratory plants and then in potential field species. Several of these genes have already been shown to enhance mercury phytoremediation. Mercury pollution is a serious, world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wildlife populations. Environmentally, the most serious mercury threat is the production of methylmercury (CH3Hg+) by native bacteria at mercury contaminated wetland sites. Methylmercury is inherently more toxic than metallic (Hg(0)) or ionic (Hg(II)) mercury, and because methylmercury is prolifically biomagnified up the food chain, it poses the most immediate danger to animal populations. We have successfully engineered two model plants, Arabidopsis and tobacco, to use the bacterial merB gene to convert methylmercury to less toxic ionic mercury and to use the bacterial merA gene to further detoxify ionic mercury to the least toxic form of mercury, metallic mercury. Plants expressing both MerA and MerB proteins detoxify methylmercury in two steps to the metallic form. These plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of methylmercury or ionic mercury that are lethal to normal plants. Our newest efforts involve engineering plants with several additional bacterial and plant genes that allow for higher levels of mercury resistance and mercury hyperaccumulation. The potential for these plants to hyperaccumulate mercury was further advanced by developing constitutive, aboveground, and root-specific gene expression systems.

  2. MERCURY CONTROL FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are many sources of natural and anthropogenic mercury emissions, but combustion of coal is known to be the major anthropogenic source of mercury (Hg) emissions in the U.S. and world wide. To address this, EPA has recently promulgated the Clean Air Mercury Rule to reduce Hg ...

  3. 40 CFR 60.45Da - Standard for mercury (Hg).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for mercury (Hg). 60.45Da... for mercury (Hg). (a) For each coal-fired electric utility steam generating unit other than an IGCC... gases that contain mercury (Hg) emissions in excess of each Hg emissions limit in paragraphs...

  4. 40 CFR 60.45Da - Standard for mercury (Hg).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for mercury (Hg). 60.45Da... for mercury (Hg). (a) For each coal-fired electric utility steam generating unit other than an IGCC... gases that contain mercury (Hg) emissions in excess of each Hg emissions limit in paragraphs...

  5. MERCURY CEMS: TECHNOLOGY UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reviews the technologies involved with continuous emission monitors (CEMs) for mercury (Hg) which are receiving incresed attention and focus. Their potential use as a compliance assurance tool is of particular interest. While Hg CEMs are currently used in Europe for com...

  6. MERCURY SPECIATION AND CAPTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In December 2000, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) announced its intent to regulate mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utility steam generating plants. Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) requirements are to be proposed by December 2003 and finali...

  7. Got Mercury?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Valerie E.; McCoy, J. Torin; Garcia, Hector D.; James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Many of the operational and payload lighting units used in various spacecraft contain elemental mercury. If these devices were damaged on-orbit, elemental mercury could be released into the cabin. Although there are plans to replace operational units with alternate light sources, such as LEDs, that do not contain mercury, mercury-containing lamps efficiently produce high quality illumination and may never be completely replaced on orbit. Therefore, exposure to elemental mercury during spaceflight will remain possible and represents a toxicological hazard. Elemental mercury is a liquid metal that vaporizes slowly at room temperature. However, it may be completely vaporized at the elevated operating temperatures of lamps. Although liquid mercury is not readily absorbed through the skin or digestive tract, mercury vapors are efficiently absorbed through the respiratory tract. Therefore, the amount of mercury in the vapor form must be estimated. For mercury releases from lamps that are not being operated, we utilized a study conducted by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Quality to calculate the amount of mercury vapor expected to form over a 2-week period. For longer missions and for mercury releases occurring when lamps are operating, we conservatively assumed complete volatilization of the available mercury. Because current spacecraft environmental control systems are unable to remove mercury vapors, both short-term and long-term exposures to mercury vapors are possible. Acute exposure to high concentrations of mercury vapors can cause irritation of the respiratory tract and behavioral symptoms, such as irritability and hyperactivity. Chronic exposure can result in damage to the nervous system (tremors, memory loss, insomnia, etc.) and kidneys (proteinurea). Therefore, the JSC Toxicology Group recommends that stringent safety controls and verifications (vibrational testing, etc.) be applied to any hardware that contains elemental mercury that could yield

  8. Mercury CEM Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani; Susan S. Sorini

    2007-03-31

    The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005, requires that calibration of mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The traceability protocol will be written by EPA. Traceability will be based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging from about 2-40 ug/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ID ICP/MS) through a chain of analyses linking the calibration unit in the power plant to the NIST ID ICP/MS. Prior to this project, NIST did not provide a recommended mercury vapor pressure equation or list mercury vapor pressure in its vapor pressure database. The NIST Physical and Chemical Properties Division in Boulder, Colorado was subcontracted under this project to study the issue in detail and to recommend a mercury vapor pressure equation that the vendors of mercury vapor pressure calibration units can use to calculate the elemental mercury vapor concentration in an equilibrium chamber at a particular temperature. As part of this study, a preliminary evaluation of calibration units from five vendors was made. The work was performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD and Joe Rovani from WRI who traveled to NIST as a Visiting Scientist.

  9. 40 CFR 63.8246 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations and work practice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Continuous Compliance... continuous compliance with the applicable mercury emission limit by reducing the mercury emissions data to 52-week averages using Equation 1 of § 63.8243 and maintaining the 52-week average mercury emissions...

  10. 40 CFR 63.8246 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations and work practice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Continuous Compliance... continuous compliance with the applicable mercury emission limit by reducing the mercury emissions data to 52-week averages using Equation 1 of § 63.8243 and maintaining the 52-week average mercury emissions...

  11. 40 CFR 63.8246 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations and work practice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Continuous Compliance... continuous compliance with the applicable mercury emission limit by reducing the mercury emissions data to 52-week averages using Equation 1 of § 63.8243 and maintaining the 52-week average mercury emissions...

  12. 40 CFR 63.8246 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations and work practice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Continuous Compliance... continuous compliance with the applicable mercury emission limit by reducing the mercury emissions data to 52-week averages using Equation 1 of § 63.8243 and maintaining the 52-week average mercury emissions...

  13. POSTER TITLE: UNDERSTANDING MERCURY FATE AND TRANSPORT FROM SOURCES TO DEPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    ORD's atmospheric mercury research produces information to improve the understanding of mercury transport and fate from the point of emission into the atmosphere to its deposition to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Specifically, this research will produce source emission and...

  14. Mercury emission and distribution: Potential environmental risks at a small-scale gold mining operation, Phichit Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pataranawat, Poranee; Parkpian, Preeda; Polprasert, Chongrak; Delaune, R D; Jugsujinda, A

    2007-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination was assessed in environment near an amalgamation gold recovery operation located at a small scale mining operation (Phanom Pha) in Phichit Province, Thailand. Total mercury (THg) concentrations was determined in water, sediment, bivalves in the aquatic environment and as dry deposition or atmospheric fallout on surface soil and leaves of Neem tree (Azadirachta indica Juss. var. siamensis Valeton) near the mining operation. THg in surface soil, Neem flowers (edible part) and rice grain in surrounding terrestrial habitat and with distance from the mining area were also evaluated for possible contamination. Potential environmental risks were evaluated using the hazard quotient equation. Hg analyses conducted in the aquatic habitat showed that THg in water, sediment and bivalves (Scabies cripata Gould) ranged from 0.4 to 4 microg L(-1), 96 to 402 microg kg(-1)dry weight (dw) and 15 to 584 microg kg(-1) wet weight (ww), respectively. High concentrations of THg in water, sediment and bivalves were observed in the receiving stream near the mining operation which was located near the Khao Chet Luk Reservoir. Whereas the THg concentration in water, sediment and bivalves from monitoring stations outside the gold mining operation (upstream and downstream), were considerably lower with the values of 0.4-0.8 microg L(-1), 96-140 microg kg(-1) dw and 88-658 microg kg(-1) dw, respectively. The elevated concentration of Hg found in the sediment near the mining operation was consistent with Hg accumulation measured in bivalves. The elevated Hg levels found in living bivalves collected from highly contaminated sites suggested that the sediment bound Hg was bioavailable. THg in surface soils, brown rice grain (Jasmine rice #105) and Neem flowers of terrestrial habitats were in the range of 16 to 180 microg kg(-1) dw, 190 to 300 microg kg(-1) dw, and 622 to 2150 microg kg(-1) dw, respectively. Elevated concentrations of mercury were found in Neem flowers

  15. Reference Atmosphere for Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, Rosemary M.

    2002-01-01

    We propose that Ar-40 measured in the lunar atmosphere and that in Mercury's atmosphere is due to current diffusion into connected pore space within the crust. Higher temperatures at Mercury, along with more rapid loss from the atmosphere will lead to a smaller column abundance of argon at Mercury than at the Moon, given the same crustal abundance of potassium. Because the noble gas abundance in the Hermean atmosphere represents current effusion, it is a direct measure of the crustal potassium abundance. Ar-40 in the atmospheres of the planets is a measure of potassium abundance in the interiors, since Ar-40 is a product of radiogenic decay of K-40 by electron capture with the subsequent emission of a 1.46 eV gamma-ray. Although the Ar-40 in the Earth's atmosphere is expected to have accumulated since the late bombardment, Ar-40 in the atmospheres of Mercury and the Moon is eroded quickly by photoionization and electron impact ionization. Thus, the argon content in the exospheres of the Moon and Mercury is representative of current effusion rather than accumulation over the lifetime of the planet.

  16. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg-1) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg-1). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark—in pyroclastic wounds—and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg-1) and bark (6.0 μg kg-1) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  17. Mercury volatilization from salt marsh sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Lora M.; Reinfelder, John R.

    2009-06-01

    In situ volatilization fluxes of gaseous elemental mercury, Hg(0), were estimated for tidally exposed salt marsh sediments in the summer at the urban/industrial Secaucus High School Marsh, New Jersey Meadowlands (Secaucus, New Jersey) and in the early autumn at a regional background site in the Great Bay estuary (Tuckerton, New Jersey). Estimated daytime sediment-air mercury volatilization fluxes at the Secaucus High School Marsh ranged from -375 to +677 ng m-2 h-1 and were positive (land to air flux) in 16 out of 20 measurement events. At the Great Bay estuary, mercury fluxes measured continuously over a 48-h period ranged from -34 to +81 ng m-2 h-1 and were positive during the day and negative at night. At both sites, mercury volatilization fluxes peaked at midday, and cumulative mercury fluxes exhibited strong positive correlations with cumulative solar radiation (r2 = 0.97, p < 0.01) consistent with a light-driven mercury volatilization efficiency of about 15 ng Hg mol PAR-1 or about 0.06 ng Hg kJ-1. No significant correlations were found between mercury fluxes and wind speed, air temperature, or tide height at either site. Thus despite a tenfold difference in sediment mercury concentration, photochemistry appears to be the dominant factor controlling mercury volatilization from these salt marsh sediments. The average mercury volatilization flux estimated for the Great Bay salt marsh in this study (17 ng m-2 h-1) compares well with other micrometeorological mercury fluxes for nonpoint source contaminated salt marsh and forest soils (8-18 ng m-2 h-1) and is more than 10 times higher than the average mercury emission flux from land (˜1 ng m-2 h-1). Annual mercury emissions from salt marsh wetlands may be comparable to individual industrial emissions sources in coastal states of the eastern United States.

  18. Mercury emission and plant uptake of trace elements during early stage of soil amendment using flue gas desulfurization materials.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A pilot-scale field study was carried out to investigate the distribution of Hg and other selected elements in the three potential mitigation pathways, i.e., emission to ambient air, uptake by surface vegetation (i.e., grass), and rainfall infiltration, after flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material ...

  19. Highly selective and responsive visible to near-IR ytterbium emissive probe for monitoring mercury(II).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Chan, Chi-Fai; Lan, Rongfeng; Wong, Wai-Kwok; Wong, Ka-Leung

    2014-01-20

    A new lanthanide probe based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) process with the combination of ytterbium porphyrinate complex and a rhodamine B derivative unit was synthesized to detect the Hg(2+) ion with responsive emission in the visible and near-IR region with a detection limit of 10 μM.

  20. Treaty to Curb Mercury Pollution Adopted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-10-01

    The international Minamata Convention on Mercury to protect human health and the environment from anthropogenic emissions and releases of mercury and mercury compounds was formally adopted at a 10 October meeting in Minamata, Japan. The legally binding treaty, currently signed by 92 countries, comes 57 years after the government of Japan officially acknowledged, in 1956, the existence of Minamata disease, which was caused by eating seafood contaminated with methylmercury compounds discharged into Minamata Bay in southern Japan.

  1. MERCURY STABILITY IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Pavlish

    1999-07-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) require the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine whether the presence of mercury and 188 other trace substances, referred to as air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), in the stack emissions from fossil fuel-fired electric utility power plants poses an unacceptable public health risk (1). The EPA's conclusions and recommendations were presented in two reports: Mercury Study Report to Congress and Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units-Final Report to Congress. The first congressional report addressed both human health and the environmental effects of anthropogenic mercury emissions, while the second report addressed the risk to public health posed by emissions of HAPs from steam electricity-generating units. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences is also required by the CAAAs to investigate mercury and determine a safe threshold level of exposure. Recently the National Academy of Sciences has also been commissioned by Congress to complete a report, based the available scientific evidence, regarding safe threshold levels of mercury exposure. Although the EPA reports did not state that mercury controls on coal-fired electric power stations should be required given the current state of the art, they did indicate that EPA views mercury as a potential threat to human health. It is likely that major sources of mercury emissions, including fossil-fired combustion systems, will be controlled at some point. In fact, municipal waste combustion units are already regulated. In anticipation of additional control measures, much research has been done (and continues) regarding the development of control technologies for mercury emitted from stationary sources to the atmosphere. Most approaches taken to date involve sorbent injection technologies or improve upon removal of mercury using existing technologies such as flue gas desulfurization

  2. Comparison of mercury and zinc profiles in peat and lake sediment archives with historical changes in emissions from the Flin Flon metal smelter, Manitoba, Canada.

    PubMed

    Outridge, P M; Rausch, N; Percival, J B; Shotyk, W; McNeely, R

    2011-01-01

    The copper-zinc smelter at Flin Flon, Manitoba, was historically the largest single Hg point-source in Canada, as well as a major source of Zn. Although emissions were reported by industry to have declined significantly since the late 1980s, these reductions have never been independently verified. Here, the histories of Hg and Zn deposition over the past century or more were determined at five lake sediment and three peat study sites in the surrounding region. At sites spanning the range from heavy to minor pollution, lake sediment Hg and Zn concentration and flux profiles increased significantly in the early 1930s after the smelter opened. Two of the three peat archives were wholly or partially compromised by either physical disturbances or biogeochemical transitions which reduced their effectiveness as atmospheric metal deposition recorders. But the remaining peat records, including a detailed recent 20 yr record at a moderately polluted site, appeared to show that substantive reductions in metal levels had occurred after the late 1980s, coincident with the reported emission reductions. However, the lake sediment results, taken at face value, contradicted the peat results in that no major declines in metal concentrations or fluxes occurred over recent decades. Mercury and Zn fluxes have in fact increased substantially since 1988 in most lakes. We suggest that this discrepancy may be explained by catchment soil saturation by historically deposited metals which are now mobilizing and leaching into lakes, as has been reported from other smelter polluted systems in Canada, whereas the upper sections of the peat cores reflected recent declines in atmospheric deposition. However, further research including instrumented wet and dry deposition measurements and catchment/lake mass balance studies is recommended to test this hypothesis, and to provide definitive data on current atmospheric metal deposition rates in the area.

  3. Mercury CEM Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    John Schabron; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson

    2008-02-29

    Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks. The power industry desires to conduct at least a full year of monitoring before the formal monitoring and reporting requirement begins on January 1, 2009. It is important for the industry to have available reliable, turnkey equipment from CEM vendors. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The generators are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 requires that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards (Federal Register 2007). Traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued an interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury generators (EPA 2007). The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of generators by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the generator models that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD. The

  4. Measurement of Total Site Mercury Emissions from a Chlor-Alkali Plant Using Ultraviolet Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy and Cell Room Roof-Vent Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury-cell chlor-alkali plants can emit significant quantities of fugitive elemental mercury vapor to the air as part of production operations and maintenance activities. In the fall of 2006, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a measurement project at a ch...

  5. Behavior of Mercury Emissions from a Commercial Coal-Fired Utility Boiler: TheRelationship Between Stack Speciation and Near-Field Plume Measurements

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reduction of divalent gaseous mercury (HgII) to elemental gaseous mercury (Hg0) in a commercial coal-fired power plant (CFPP)exhaust plume was investigated by simultaneous measurement in-stack and in-plume as part of a collaborative study among the U.S....

  6. The centralized control of elemental mercury emission from the flue gas by a magnetic rengenerable Fe-Ti-Mn spinel.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yong; Xiong, Shangchao; Dang, Hao; Xiao, Xin; Yang, Shijian; Wong, Po Keung

    2015-12-15

    A magnetic Fe-Ti-Mn spinel was developed to adsorb gaseous Hg(0) in our previous study. However, it is currently extremely restricted in the control of Hg(0) emission from the flue gas for at least three reasons: sorbent recovery, sorbent regeneration and the interference of the chemical composition in the flue gas. Therefore, the effect of SO2 and H2O on the adsorption of gaseous Hg(0) on the Fe-Ti-Mn spinel and the regeneration of spent Fe-Ti-Mn spinel were investigated in this study. Meanwhile, the procedure of the centralized control of Hg(0) emission from the flue gas by the magnetic Fe-Ti-Mn spinel has been analyzed for industrial application. The spent Fe-Ti-Mn spinel can be regenerated by water washing followed by the thermal treatment at 450 °C with no obvious decrease of its ability for Hg(0) capture. Meanwhile, gaseous Hg(0) in the flue gas can be remarkably concentrated during the regeneration, facilitating its safe disposal. Initial pilot test demonstrated that gaseous Hg(0) in the real flue gas can be concentrated at least 100 times by the Fe-Ti-Mn spinel. Therefore, Fe-Ti-Mn spinel was a novel magnetic regenerable sorbent, which can be used for the centralized control of Hg(0) emission from the flue gas.

  7. Detecting potassium on Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, R. M.; Potter, A. E.; Morgan, T. H.

    1991-01-01

    A critical comment on the work of A.L. Sprague et al. (1990) is presented. It is argued that, in attributing an enhanced emission in the potassium D lines on Oct. 14, 1987 in the equatorial region of Mercury to a diffusion source centered on Caloris Basin, Sprague et al. misinterpreted the data. Sprague et al. present a reply, taking issue with the commenters.

  8. Mercury emissions control in coal combustion systems using potassium iodide: bench-scale and pilot-scale studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ying Li; Michael Daukoru; Achariya Suriyawong; Pratim Biswas

    2009-01-15

    Bench- and pilot-scale experiments were conducted using potassium iodide (KI) for capture and removal of Hg in air and coal combustion exhaust. Two bench-scale reactor systems were used: (1) a packed-bed reactor (PBR) packed with granular or powder KI and (2) an aerosol flow reactor (AFR) with injection of KI particles. It was found that a higher temperature, a higher concentration of KI, and a longer gas residence time resulted in a higher Hg removal efficiency. A 100% Hg removal was achieved in the PBR above 300{sup o}C using 0.5 g of powder KI and in the AFR above 500{sup o}C with a KI/Hg molar ratio of 600 at a 5.8 s residence time. The low KI injection ratio relative to Hg indicated that KI is highly effective for Hg removal in air. Formation of I{sub 2} vapor by the oxidation of KI by O{sub 2} at high temperatures, which then reacts with Hg to produce HgI{sub 2}, was identified as the pathway for removal. The pilot-scale experiments were conducted in a 160 kW pulverized coal combustor. KI was introduced in two ways: as a powder mixed with coal and by spraying KI solution droplets into the flue gas. In both cases the Hg removal efficiency increased with an increase in the feed rate of KI. Mixing KI powder with coal was found to be more effective than spraying KI into the flue gas. The Hg removal by KI was less efficient in the pilot-scale tests than in the bench-scale tests probably due to certain flue gas components reacting with KI or I{sub 2}. Hg speciation measurements in both bench- and pilot-scale experiments indicated no oxidized mercury in the gas phase upon introduction of KI, indicating that the oxidation product HgI2 was captured in the particulate phase. This is very beneficial in coal-fired power plants equipped with electrostatic precipitators where particulate-bound Hg can be efficiently removed. 27 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Whole-ecosystem study shows rapid fish-mercury response to changes in mercury deposition

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Reed C.; Rudd, John W. M.; Amyot, Marc; Babiarz, Christopher L.; Beaty, Ken G.; Blanchfield, Paul J.; Bodaly, R. A.; Branfireun, Brian A.; Gilmour, Cynthia C.; Graydon, Jennifer A.; Heyes, Andrew; Hintelmann, Holger; Hurley, James P.; Kelly, Carol A.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Lindberg, Steve E.; Mason, Robert P.; Paterson, Michael J.; Podemski, Cheryl L.; Robinson, Art; Sandilands, Ken A.; Southworth, George R.; St. Louis, Vincent L.; Tate, Michael T.

    2007-01-01

    Methylmercury contamination of fisheries from centuries of industrial atmospheric emissions negatively impacts humans and wildlife worldwide. The response of fish methylmercury concentrations to changes in mercury deposition has been difficult to establish because sediments/soils contain large pools of historical contamination, and many factors in addition to deposition affect fish mercury. To test directly the response of fish contamination to changing mercury deposition, we conducted a whole-ecosystem experiment, increasing the mercury load to a lake and its watershed by the addition of enriched stable mercury isotopes. The isotopes allowed us to distinguish between experimentally applied mercury and mercury already present in the ecosystem and to examine bioaccumulation of mercury deposited to different parts of the watershed. Fish methylmercury concentrations responded rapidly to changes in mercury deposition over the first 3 years of study. Essentially all of the increase in fish methylmercury concentrations came from mercury deposited directly to the lake surface. In contrast, <1% of the mercury isotope deposited to the watershed was exported to the lake. Steady state was not reached within 3 years. Lake mercury isotope concentrations were still rising in lake biota, and watershed mercury isotope exports to the lake were increasing slowly. Therefore, we predict that mercury emissions reductions will yield rapid (years) reductions in fish methylmercury concentrations and will yield concomitant reductions in risk. However, a full response will be delayed by the gradual export of mercury stored in watersheds. The rate of response will vary among lakes depending on the relative surface areas of water and watershed. PMID:17901207

  10. Whole-ecosystem study shows rapid fish-mercury response to changes in mercury deposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, R.C.; Rudd, J.W.M.; Amyot, M.; Babiarz, C.L.; Beaty, K.G.; Blanchfield, P.J.; Bodaly, R.A.; Branfireun, B.A.; Gilmour, C.C.; Graydon, J.A.; Heyes, A.; Hintelmann, H.; Hurley, J.P.; Kelly, C.A.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Lindberg, S.E.; Mason, R.P.; Paterson, M.J.; Podemski, C.L.; Robinson, A.; Sandilands, K.A.; Southworthn, G.R.; St. Louis, V.L.; Tate, M.T.

    2007-01-01

    Methylmercury contamination of fisheries from centuries of industrial atmospheric emissions negatively impacts humans and wild-life worldwide. The response of fish methylmercury concentrations to changes in mercury deposition has been difficult to establish because sediments/soils contain large pools of historical contamination, and many factors in addition to deposition affect fish mercury. To test directly the response of fish contamination to changing mercury deposition, we conducted a whole-ecosystem experiment, increasing the mercury load to a lake and its watershed by the addition of enriched stable mercury isotopes. The isotopes allowed us to distinguish between experimentally applied mercury and mercury already present in the ecosystem and to examine bioaccumulation of mercury deposited to different parts of the watershed. Fish methylmercury concentrations responded rapidly to changes in mercury deposition over the first 3 years of study. Essentially all of the increase in fish methylmercury concentrations came from mercury deposited directly to the lake surface. In contrast, <1% of the mercury isotope deposited to the watershed was exported to the lake. Steady state was not reached within 3 years. Lake mercury isotope concentrations were still rising in lake biota, and watershed mercury isotope exports to the lake were increasing slowly. Therefore, we predict that mercury emissions reductions will yield rapid (years) reductions in fish methylmercury concentrations and will yield concomitant reductions in risk. However, a full response will be delayed by the gradual export of mercury stored in watersheds. The rate of response will vary among lakes depending on the relative surface areas of water and watershed. ?? 2007 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  11. Mercury in municipal solid wastes and New Jersey mercury prevention and reduction program

    SciTech Connect

    Erdogan, H.; Stevenson, E.

    1994-12-31

    Mercury is a very toxic heavy metal which accumulates in the brain causing neurological damages involving psychasthenic and vegetative syndrome. At high exposure levels it causes behavioral and personality changes, loss of memory and insomnia. Long-term exposure or exposure during pregnancy to mercury or mercury compounds can permanently damage the kidney and fetus. In addition to potential effects on human health, mercury poisoning can also affect other living organisms. Mercury is different than other heavy metals. It consistently biomagnifies and bioaccumulates within the aquatic food chain. Global sources of mercury release are both natural and anthropogenic. Natural sources include volatilization of gaseous-mercury iron soils ana rocks, volcanic releases, evaporation from the ocean and other water bodies. Anthropogenic sources are fuel and coal combustion, mining, smelting, manufacturing activities, disposal of sludge, pesticides, animal and food waste, and incineration of municipal solid waste. Worldwide combustion of municipal solid waste is the second largest source of atmospheric emission of mercury. In New Jersey, incineration of solid waste is the largest source of atmospheric emission of mercury. The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE) has developed a comprehensive program to control and prevent emission of mercury resulting from combustion municipal solid waste.

  12. Mercury and halogens in coal: Chapter 2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolker, Allan; Quick, Jeffrey C.; Granite, Evan J.; Pennline, Henry W.; Senior, Constance L.

    2014-01-01

    Apart from mercury itself, coal rank and halogen content are among the most important factors inherent in coal that determine the proportion of mercury captured by conventional controls during coal combustion. This chapter reviews how mercury in coal occurs, gives available concentration data for mercury in U.S. and international commercial coals, and provides an overview of the natural variation in halogens that influence mercury capture. Three databases, the U.S. Geological Survey coal quality (USGS COALQUAL) database for in-ground coals, and the 1999 and 2010 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Information Collection Request (ICR) databases for coals delivered to power stations, provide extensive results for mercury and other parameters that are compared in this chapter. In addition to the United States, detailed characterization of mercury is available on a nationwide basis for China, whose mean values in recent compilations are very similar to the United States in-ground mean of 0.17 ppm mercury. Available data for the next five largest producers (India, Australia, South Africa, the Russian Federation, and Indonesia) are more limited and with the possible exceptions of Australia and the Russian Federation, do not allow nationwide means for mercury in coal to be calculated. Chlorine in coal varies as a function of rank and correspondingly, depth of burial. As discussed elsewhere in this volume, on a proportional basis, bromine is more effective than chlorine in promoting mercury oxidation in flue gas and capture by conventional controls. The ratio of bromine to chlorine in coal is indicative of the proportion of halogens present in formation waters within a coal basin. This ratio is relatively constant except in coals that have interacted with deep-basin brines that have reached halite saturation, enriching residual fluids in bromine. Results presented here help optimize mercury capture by conventional controls and provide a starting point for

  13. Mercury control in 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Sjostrom, S.; Durham, M.; Bustard, J.; Martin, C.

    2009-07-15

    Although activated carbon injection (ACI) has been proven to be effective for many configurations and is a preferred option at many plants sufficient quantities of powdered activated coking (PAC) must be available to meet future needs. The authors estimate that upcoming federal and state regulations will result in tripling the annual US demand for activated carbon to nearly 1.5 billion lb from approximately 450 million lb. Rapid expansion of US production capacity is required. Many PAC manufacturers are discussing expansion of their existing production capabilities. One company, ADA Carbon Solutions, is in the process of constructing the largest activated carbon facility in North America to meet the future demand for PAC as a sorbent for mercury control. Emission control technology development and commercialization is driven by regulation and legislation. Although ACI will not achieve > 90% mercury control at every plant, the expected required MACT legislation level, it offers promise as a low-cost primary mercury control technology option for many configurations and an important trim technology for others. ACI has emerged as the clear mercury-specific control option of choice, representing over 98% of the commercial mercury control system orders to date. As state regulations are implemented and the potential for a federal rule becomes more imminent, suppliers are continuing to develop technologies to improve the cost effectiveness and limit the balance of plant impacts associated with ACI and are developing additional PAC production capabilities to ensure that the industry's needs are met. The commercialisation of ACI is a clear example of industry, through the dedication of many individuals and companies with support from the DOE and EPRI, meeting the challenge of developing cost-effectively reducing emissions from coal-fired power plants. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Using Wet-FGD systems for mercury removal.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Somoano, Mercedes; Unterberger, Sven; Hein, Klaus R G

    2005-09-01

    A plan to control mercury emissions to the atmosphere and to establish mercury emission limits has recently been elaborated by the European Commission, making it necessary to devise an efficient and cost effective mercury removal technology. Towards this end wet flue gas desulfurization units appear as a promising option for multi-pollutant control. However, more investigation on mercury removal and a greater mercury removal efficiency are required to achieve this objective. In the present work scrubber chemistry and the application of various solid additives to enhance mercury removal in wet scrubbers is evaluated. The results obtained show a significant correlation between mercury removal efficiency and the pH of the scrubber slurry and SO2 concentration. A weaker correlation was observed between oxygen or slurry concentration and removal efficiency. Finally several solid oxides were found to be effective additives for enhancing mercury capture in wet scrubbers.

  15. Mercury Flow Through the Mercury-Containing Lamp Sector of the Economy of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This Scientific Investigations Report examines the flow of mercury through the mercury-containing lamp sector of the U.S. economy in 2001 from lamp manufacture through disposal or recycling. Mercury-containing lamps illuminate commercial and industrial buildings, outdoor areas, and residences. Mercury is an essential component in fluorescent lamps and high-intensity discharge lamps (high-pressure sodium, mercury-vapor, and metal halide). A typical fluorescent lamp is composed of a phosphor-coated glass tube with electrodes located at either end. Only a very small amount of the mercury is in vapor form. The remainder of the mercury is in the form of either liquid mercury metal or solid mercury oxide (mercury oxidizes over the life of the lamp). When voltage is applied, the electrodes energize the mercury vapor and cause it to emit ultraviolet energy. The phosphor coating absorbs the ultraviolet energy, which causes the phosphor to fluoresce and emit visible light. Mercury-containing lamps provide more lumens per watt than incandescent lamps and, as a result, require from three to four times less energy to operate. Mercury is persistent and toxic within the environment. Mercury-containing lamps are of environmental concern because they are widely distributed throughout the environment and are easily broken in handling. The magnitude of lamp sector mercury emissions, estimated to be 2.9 metric tons per year (t/yr), is small compared with the estimated mercury losses of the U.S. coal-burning and chlor-alkali industries, which are about 70 t/yr and about 90 t/yr, respectively.

  16. Mercury Information Clearinghouse

    SciTech Connect

    Chad A. Wocken; Michael J. Holmes; Dennis L. Laudal; Debra F. Pflughoeft-Hassett; Greg F. Weber; Nicholas V. C. Ralston; Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Edwin S. Olson; Laura J. Raymond; John H. Pavlish; Everett A. Sondreal; Steven A. Benson

    2006-03-31

    The Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) identified a need and contracted the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to create and maintain an information clearinghouse on global research and development activities related to mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. With the support of CEA, the Center for Air Toxic Metals{reg_sign} (CATM{reg_sign}) Affiliates, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the EERC developed comprehensive quarterly information updates that provide a detailed assessment of developments in the various areas of mercury monitoring, control, policy, and research. A total of eight topical reports were completed and are summarized and updated in this final CEA quarterly report. The original quarterly reports can be viewed at the CEA Web site (www.ceamercuryprogram.ca). In addition to a comprehensive update of previous mercury-related topics, a review of results from the CEA Mercury Program is provided. Members of Canada's coal-fired electricity generation sector (ATCO Power, EPCOR, Manitoba Hydro, New Brunswick Power, Nova Scotia Power Inc., Ontario Power Generation, SaskPower, and TransAlta) and CEA, have compiled an extensive database of information from stack-, coal-, and ash-sampling activities. Data from this effort are also available at the CEA Web site and have provided critical information for establishing and reviewing a mercury standard for Canada that is protective of environment and public health and is cost-effective. Specific goals outlined for the CEA mercury program included the following: (1) Improve emission inventories and develop management options through an intensive 2-year coal-, ash-, and stack-sampling program; (2) Promote effective stack testing through the development of guidance material and the support of on-site training on the Ontario Hydro method for employees, government representatives, and contractors on an as-needed basis; (3) Strengthen laboratory analytical capabilities through

  17. Mercury's sodium exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, F.; Johnson, R. E.

    2003-08-01

    Mercury's neutral sodium exosphere is simulated using a comprehensive 3D Monte Carlo model following sodium atoms ejected from Mercury's surface by thermal desorption, photon stimulated desorption, micro-meteoroid vaporization and solar wind sputtering. The evolution of the sodium surface density with respect to Mercury's rotation and its motion around the Sun is taken into account by considering enrichment processes due to surface trapping of neutrals and ions and depletion of the sodium available for ejection from the surfaces of grains. The change in the sodium exosphere is calculated during one Mercury year taking into account the variations in the solar radiation pressure, the photo-ionization frequency, the solar wind density, the photon and meteoroid flux intensities, and the surface temperature. Line-of-sight column densities at different phase angles, the supply rate of new sodium, average neutral and ion losses over a Mercury year, surface density distribution and the importance of the different processes of ejection are discussed in this paper. The sodium surface density distribution is found to become significantly nonuniform from day to night sides, from low to high latitudes and from morning to afternoon because of rapid depletion of sodium atoms in the surfaces of grains mainly driven by thermal depletion. The shape of the exosphere, as it would be seen from the Earth, changes drastically with respect to Mercury's heliocentric position. High latitude column density maxima are related to maxima in the sodium surface concentration at high latitudes in Mercury's surface and are not necessarily due to solar wind sputtering. The ratio between the sodium column density on the morning side of Mercury's exosphere and the sodium column density on the afternoon side is consistent with the conclusions of Sprague et al. (1997, Icarus 129, 506-527). The model, which has no fitting parameters, shows surprisingly good agreement with recent observations of Potter et

  18. How does climate change influence Arctic mercury?

    PubMed

    Stern, Gary A; Macdonald, Robie W; Outridge, Peter M; Wilson, Simon; Chételat, John; Cole, Amanda; Hintelmann, Holger; Loseto, Lisa L; Steffen, Alexandra; Wang, Feiyue; Zdanowicz, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that climate change is already having significant impacts on many aspects of transport pathways, speciation and cycling of mercury within Arctic ecosystems. For example, the extensive loss of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean and the concurrent shift from greater proportions of perennial to annual types have been shown to promote changes in primary productivity, shift foodweb structures, alter mercury methylation and demethylation rates, and influence mercury distribution and transport across the ocean-sea-ice-atmosphere interface (bottom-up processes). In addition, changes in animal social behavior associated with changing sea-ice regimes can affect dietary exposure to mercury (top-down processes). In this review, we address these and other possible ramifications of climate variability on mercury cycling, processes and exposure by applying recent literature to the following nine questions; 1) What impact has climate change had on Arctic physical characteristics and processes? 2) How do rising temperatures affect atmospheric mercury chemistry? 3) Will a decrease in sea-ice coverage have an impact on the amount of atmospheric mercury deposited to or emitted from the Arctic Ocean, and if so, how? 4) Does climate affect air-surface mercury flux, and riverine mercury fluxes, in Arctic freshwater and terrestrial systems, and if so, how? 5) How does climate change affect mercury methylation/demethylation in different compartments in the Arctic Ocean and freshwater systems? 6) How will climate change alter the structure and dynamics of freshwater food webs, and thereby affect the bioaccumulation of mercury? 7) How will climate change alter the structure and dynamics of marine food webs, and thereby affect the bioaccumulation of marine mercury? 8) What are the likely mercury emissions from melting glaciers and thawing permafrost under climate change scenarios? and 9) What can be learned from current mass balance inventories of mercury in the Arctic? The

  19. Got Mercury?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Valerie; James, John T.; McCoy, Torin; Garcia, Hector

    2010-01-01

    Many lamps used in various spacecraft contain elemental mercury, which is efficiently absorbed through the lungs as a vapor. The liquid metal vaporizes slowly at room temperature, but may be completely vaporized when lamps are operating. Because current spacecraft environmental control systems are unable to remove mercury vapors, we considered short-term and long-term exposures. Using an existing study, we estimated mercury vapor releases from lamps that are not in operation during missions lasting less than or equal to 30 days; whereas we conservatively assumed complete vaporization from lamps that are operating or being used during missions lasing more than 30 days. Based on mercury toxicity, the Johnson Space Center's Toxicology Group recommends stringent safety controls and verifications for any hardware containing elemental mercury that could yield airborne mercury vapor concentrations greater than 0.1 mg/m3 in the total spacecraft atmosphere for exposures lasting less than or equal to 30 days, or concentrations greater than 0.01 mg/m3 for exposures lasting more than 30 days.

  20. Control of Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor); Chung, Landy (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods and apparatus utilizing chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide are useful to reduce NOx emissions, as well as SOx and mercury (or other heavy metal) emissions, from combustion flue gas streams.

  1. Microplasma source based on a dielectric barrier discharge for the determination of mercury by atomic emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhenli; Chan, George C-Y; Ray, Steven J; Zhang, Xinrong; Hieftje, Gary M

    2008-11-15

    A low-power, atmospheric-pressure microplasma source based on a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) has been developed for use in atomic emission spectrometry. The small plasma (0.6 mm x 1 mm x 10 mm) is generated within a glass cell by using electrodes that do not contact the plasma. Powered by an inexpensive ozone generator, the discharge ignites spontaneously, can be easily sustained in Ar or He at gas flow rates ranging from 5 to 200 mL min(-1), and requires less than 1 W of power. The effect of operating parameters such as plasma gas identity, plasma gas flow rate, and residual water vapor on the DBD source performance has been investigated. The plasma can be operated without removal of residual water vapor, permitting it to be directly coupled with cold vapor generation sample introduction. The spectral background of the source is quite clean in the range from 200 to 260 nm with low continuum and structured components. The DBD source has been applied to the determination of Hg by continuous-flow, cold vapor generation and offers detection limits from 14 (He-DBD) to 43 pg mL(-1) (Ar-DBD) without removal of the residual moisture. The use of flow injection with the He-DBD permits measurement of Hg with a 7.2 pg limit of detection, and with repetitive injections having an RSD of <2% for a 10 ng mL(-1) standard.

  2. Mercury determination in non- and biodegradable materials by cold vapor capacitively coupled plasma microtorch atomic emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Frentiu, Tiberiu; Mihaltan, Alin I; Ponta, Michaela; Darvasi, Eugen; Frentiu, Maria; Cordos, Emil

    2011-10-15

    A new analytical system consisting of a low power capacitively coupled plasma microtorch (20 W, 13.56 MHz, 150 ml min(-1) Ar) and a microspectrometer was investigated for the Hg determination in non- and biodegradable materials by cold-vapor generation, using SnCl(2) reductant, and atomic emission spectrometry. The investigated miniaturized system was used for Hg determination in recyclable plastics from electronic equipments and biodegradable materials (shopping bags of 98% biodegradable polyethylene and corn starch) with the advantages of easy operation and low analysis costs. Samples were mineralized in HNO(3)-H(2)SO(4) mixture in a high-pressure microwave system. The detection limits of 0.05 ng ml(-1) or 0.08 μg g(-1) in solid sample were compared with those reported for other analytical systems. The method precision was 1.5-9.4% for Hg levels of 1.37-13.9 mg kg(-1), while recovery in two polyethylene certified reference materials in the range 98.7 ± 4.5% (95% confidence level).

  3. Mercury emission factors from intensive shrimp aquaculture and their relative importance to the Jaguaribe River Estuary, NE Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lacerda, L D; Soares, T M; Costa, B G B; Godoy, M D P

    2011-12-01

    This study estimated Hg emission factors (EFs) and total Hg loading to the Jaguaribe Estuary, NE Brazil, from intensive shrimp farming, and compares this with other local anthropogenic activities. The EF reached 83.5 mg ha(-1) cycle(-1) (about 175 mg ha(-1) year(-1)), resulting in an annual Hg load to the estuary of 0.35 kg. The calculated EF is comparable to Hg EFs from urban wastewaters (200 mg ha(-1)) and solid waste disposal (400 mg ha(-1) year(-1)) from cities located in the estuary's basin. However, due to the smaller area of aquaculture (2,010 ha), total annual loads are much lower than from these other sources (75 and 150 kg year(-1), respectively). Since shrimp farming effluents are released directly into the estuary, the estimated high EF raises environmental concerns with this expanding industry, suggesting the inclusion of this element in ongoing environmental monitoring programs.

  4. Atmospheric Particulate Mercury Concentrations in the Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprovieri, F.; Pirrone, N.; Cofone, F.

    2003-04-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in human health and environmental concerns related to mercury pollution because of its toxicity and long residence times in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Natural and anthropogenic sources in the Mediterranean region release annually about 215 t of mercury, which represents a significant contribution to the total mercury budget released in Europe and to the global atmosphere, which is therefore, an important source of mercury for surface waters and terrestrial environments. Understanding the patterns involved in the transfer of mercury from the emission sources to receptors is an important step for the overall assessment of the risk for human health and ecosystems due to the mercury exposure to mercury compounds. Gaseous divalent, (reactive gaseous mercury, RGM) and particulate mercury play a key role in the mercury cycle although they represent only a very small fraction (5%) of the total Hg present in the atmosphere. In order to improve our understanding of all those mechanisms influencing the dynamics of mercury in the Mediterranean Sea Region including atmospheric pathways and deposition to surface waters, chemical and physical transformations of mercury compounds in the atmosphere with changing meteorological conditions an intensive field campaign was performed during a 6000 Km cruise path aboard the RV-Urania from July 14th to August 9th, 2000. Concentrations of different mercury forms (Total Gaseous Mercury (TGM) , Total Particulate Mercury (TPM) and PM2.5 particulate mercury and Reactive Gas Phase Mercury (RGM)) were measured during the sampling period. The role played by particulate mercury in the atmospheric mercury cycle over the Mediterranean region will be discussed.

  5. Temporal variation of Mercury's sodium density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusegawa, Ayaka; Dairoku, Hayato; Kameda, Shingo; Kagitani, Masato; Okano, Shoichi

    2013-04-01

    Mercury has a thin atmosphere. In the past, Mercury has been observed by Mariner 10 and MESSENGER, and ground-based observations have also been carried out. H, He, O, Na, Mg, K, and Ca were detected in its atmosphere. Solar-photon-stimulated desorption, sputtering by impacting solar particles, and meteoroid vaporization are considered to be the source processes of Mercury's exosphere. However, the primary process among these three processes is unknown as yet. The resonance scattering constitutes exospheric emission. The NaD emission is well suited for study by ground-based observations because of its high intensity. Past observations have shown that the temporal variation and north-south asymmetry of intensity of sodium emission. We have observed Mercury's sodium exosphere at the Haleakala Observatory in Hawaii since April 2011. The observations were performed using a 40 cm Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope, a high-dispersion spectrograph, and a CCD camera. We determined the temporal variation of the sodium density using the observational data. It is possible that the temporal variation of the sodium density is caused by variation of solar wind magnetic field if solar wind ion sputtering is the primary source process of Mercury's exosphere. To verify this assumption, we checked the temporal variation of solar wind magnetic field observed by MESSENGER, and then we compared these variations with our observational result. CMEs toward Mercury probably cause the increase of the sodium density. Potter et al. (1999) suggested that the total amount of sodium on Mercury increased monotonically during several days of observation after CMEs occurred on the same side of the Sun as Mercury. We observed Mercury's sodium exosphere on November 23, 2011 when MESSENGER observed variation of solar wind magnetic field, which indicated CMEs arrived at Mercury. However, our results have not shown large variation of the sodium density like that of Potter et al. (1999). From these results, we

  6. Students' Perception of Live Lectures' Inherent Disadvantages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrovic, Juraj; Pale, Predrag

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to provide insight into various properties of live lectures from the perspective of sophomore engineering students. In an anonymous online survey conducted at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computing, University of Zagreb, we investigated students' opinions regarding lecture attendance, inherent disadvantages of live…

  7. Harnessing Collective Knowledge Inherent in Tag Clouds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, U.; Held, C.

    2013-01-01

    Tagging systems represent the conceptual knowledge of a community. We experimentally tested whether people harness this collective knowledge when navigating through the Web. As a within-factor we manipulated people's prior knowledge (no knowledge vs. prior knowledge that was congruent/incongruent to the collective knowledge inherent in the tags).…

  8. Critical Social Theory: Core Tenets, Inherent Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Melissa; Vasconcelos, Erika Franca S.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter outlines the core tenets of critical social theory and describes inherent issues facing evaluators conducting critical theory evaluation. Using critical pedagogy as an example, the authors describe the issues facing evaluators by developing four of the subtheories that comprise a critical social theory: (a) a theory of false…

  9. Mercury emission and plant uptake of trace elements during early stage of soil amendment using flue gas desulfurization materials.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chin-Min; Chang, Yung-Nan; Sistani, Karamat R; Wang, Yen-Wen; Lu, Wen-Chieh; Lin, Chia-Wei; Dong, Jing-Hong; Hu, Chih-Chung; Pan, Wei-Ping

    2012-02-01

    A pilot-scale field study was carried out to investigate the distribution of Hg and other selected elements (i.e., As, B, and Se), i.e., emission to ambient air, uptake by surface vegetation, and/or rainfall infiltration, after flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material is applied to soil. Three FGD materials collected from two power plants were used. Our results show Hg released into the air and uptake in grass from all FGD material-treated soils were all higher (P < 0.1) than the amounts observed from untreated soil. Hg in the soil amended with the FGD material collected from a natural oxidation wet scrubber (i.e., SNO) was more readily released to air compared to the other two FGD materials collected from the synthetic gypsum dewatering vacuum belt (i.e., AFO-gypsum) and the waste water treatment plant (i.e., AFO-CPS) of a forced oxidation FGD system. No Hg was detected in the leachates collected during the only 3-hour, 1-inch rainfall event that occurred throughout the 4-week testing period. For every kilogram of FGD material applied to soil, AFO-CPS released the highest amount of Hg, B, and Se, followed by SNO, and AFO gypsum. Based on the same energy production rate, the land application of SNO FGD material from Plant S released higher amounts of Hg and B into ambient air and/or grass than the amounts released when AFO-gypsum from Plant A was used. Using FGD material with lower concentration levels of Hg and other elements of concern does not necessary post a lower environmental risk. In addition, this study demonstrates that considering only the amounts of trace elements uptake in surface vegetation may under estimate the overall release of the trace elements from FGD material-amended soils. It also shows, under the same soil amendment conditions, the mobility of trace elements varies when FGD materials produced from different processes are used.

  10. Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury Pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2005-06-01

    Phytoremediation is defined as the use of plants to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic environmental pollutants. The long-term goal of the proposed research is to develop and test highly productive, field-adapted plant species that have been engineered for the phytoremediation of mercury. A variety of different genes, which should enable plants to clean mercury polluted sites are being tested as tools for mercury phytoremediation, first in model laboratory plants and then in potential field species. Several of these genes have already been shown to enhance mercury phytoremediation. Mercury pollution is a serious, world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wildlife populations. Environmentally, the most serious mercury threat is the production of methylmercury (CH3Hg+) by native bacteria at mercury contaminated wetland sites. Methylmercury is inherently more toxic than metallic (Hg(0)) or ionic (Hg(II)) mercury, and because methylmercury is prolifically biomagnified up the food chain, it poses the most immediate danger to animal populations. We have successfully engineered two model plants, Arabidopsis and tobacco, to use the bacterial merB gene to convert methylmercury to less toxic ionic mercury and to use the bacterial merA gene to further detoxify ionic mercury to the least toxic form of mercury, metallic mercury. Plants expressing both MerA and MerB proteins detoxify methylmercury in two steps to the metallic form. These plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of methylmercury or ionic mercury that are lethal to normal plants. Our newest efforts involve engineering plants with several additional bacterial and plant genes that allow for higher levels of mercury resistance and mercury hyperaccumulation. The potential for these plants to hyperaccumulate mercury was further advanced by developing constitutive, aboveground, and root-specific gene expression systems. Our current strategy is to engineer plants to

  11. 40 CFR 61.52 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... standard. (a) Emissions to the atmosphere from mercury ore processing facilities and mercury cell chlor-alkali plants shall not exceed 2.3 kg (5.1 lb) of mercury per 24-hour period. (b) Emissions to the atmosphere from sludge incineration plants, sludge drying plants, or a combination of these that...

  12. 40 CFR 61.52 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... standard. (a) Emissions to the atmosphere from mercury ore processing facilities and mercury cell chlor-alkali plants shall not exceed 2.3 kg (5.1 lb) of mercury per 24-hour period. (b) Emissions to the atmosphere from sludge incineration plants, sludge drying plants, or a combination of these that...

  13. Inherent Safety Characteristics of Advanced Fast Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochkarev, A. S.; Korsun, A. S.; Kharitonov, V. S.; Alekseev, P. N.

    2017-01-01

    The study presents SFR transient performance for ULOF events initiated by pump trip and pump seizure with simultaneous failure of all shutdown systems in both cases. The most severe cases leading to the pin cladding rupture and possible sodium boiling are demonstrated. The impact of various features on SFR inherent safety performance for ULOF events was analysed. The decrease in hydraulic resistance of primary loop and increase in primary pump coast down time were investigated. Performing analysis resulted in a set of recommendations to varying parameters for the purpose of enhancing the inherent safety performance of SFR. In order to prevent the safety barrier rupture for ULOF events the set of thermal hydraulic criteria defining the ULOF transient processes dynamics and requirements to these criteria were recommended based on achieved results: primary sodium flow dip under the natural circulation asymptotic level and natural circulation rise time.

  14. Inherent emotional quality of human speech sounds.

    PubMed

    Myers-Schulz, Blake; Pujara, Maia; Wolf, Richard C; Koenigs, Michael

    2013-01-01

    During much of the past century, it was widely believed that phonemes-the human speech sounds that constitute words-have no inherent semantic meaning, and that the relationship between a combination of phonemes (a word) and its referent is simply arbitrary. Although recent work has challenged this picture by revealing psychological associations between certain phonemes and particular semantic contents, the precise mechanisms underlying these associations have not been fully elucidated. Here we provide novel evidence that certain phonemes have an inherent, non-arbitrary emotional quality. Moreover, we show that the perceived emotional valence of certain phoneme combinations depends on a specific acoustic feature-namely, the dynamic shift within the phonemes' first two frequency components. These data suggest a phoneme-relevant acoustic property influencing the communication of emotion in humans, and provide further evidence against previously held assumptions regarding the structure of human language. This finding has potential applications for a variety of social, educational, clinical, and marketing contexts.

  15. Reducing Mercury Pollution from Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To reduce airborne mercury emissions from these Gold Shops, EPA and the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) have partnered to design a low cost, easily constructible technology called the Gold Shop Mercury Capture System (MCS).

  16. SIMULATION AND EVALUATION OF ELEMENTAL MERCURY CONCENTRATION INCREASE IN FLUE GAS ACROSS A WET SCRUBBER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experimental data from a laboratory scale wet scrubber simulator confirmed that oxidized mercury can be reduced by aqueous speciesand results in elemental mercury emissions under typical flue gas desulfurization conditions.

  17. Anthropogenic Mercury Accumulation in Watersheds of the Northern Appalachian Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, E. W.; Drohan, P. J.; Lawler, D.; Grimm, J.; Grant, C.; Eklof, K. J.; Bennett, J.; Naber, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition of mercury (Hg) is a critical environmental stress that affects ecosystems and human health. Mercury emissions to the atmosphere from coal-fired power plants and other sources such as waste incineration can be deposited over large geographic areas to downwind landscapes in precipitation and in dry fallout. The northern Appalachian Mountains are downwind of major atmospheric mercury emissions sources. Some mercury reaches watersheds and streams, where it can accumulate in sediments and biota. Human exposure to mercury occurs primarily through fish consumption, and currently mercury fish eating advisories are in place for many of the streams and lakes in the region. Here, we explored mercury accumulation in forested landscapes - in air, soils, water, and biota. To quantify atmospheric mercury deposition, we measured both wet and dry mercury deposition at 10 forested locations, from which we present variation in mercury deposition and initial assessments of factors affecting the patterns. To quantify mercury accumulation in terrestrial environments, we measured soil mercury concentrations within and surrounding 12 vernal pools spanning various physiographic settings in the region. Given that vernal pools have large inputs of water via precipitation yet do not have any stream discharge outflow, they are likely spots within the forested landscape to accumulate pollutants that enter via wet atmospheric deposition. To quantify mercury accumulation in aquatic environments, we sampled mercury concentrations in streams draining 35 forested watersheds, spanning gradients of atmospheric deposition, climate and geology. Mercury concentrations were measured in stream water under base-flow conditions, in streambed sediments, aquatic mosses, and in fish tissues from brook trout. Results indicate that wet and dry atmospheric deposition is a primary source of mercury that is accumulating in watersheds of the Northern Appalachian Mountains.

  18. Mercury, elemental

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Mercury , elemental ; CASRN 7439 - 97 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  19. Mercury's Messenger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Clark R.

    2004-01-01

    Forty years after Mariner 2, planetary exploration has still only just begun, and many more missions are on drawing boards, nearing the launch pad, or even en route across interplanetary space to their targets. One of the most challenging missions that will be conducted this decade is sending the MESSENGER spacecraft to orbit the planet Mercury.…

  20. Mercury's Exosphere During MESSENGER's Second Flyby: Detection of Magnesium and Distinct Distributions of Neutral Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClintock, William E.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Bradley, E. Todd; Killen, Rosemary M.; Mouawad, Nelly; Sprague, Ann L.; Burger, Matthew H.; Solomon, Sean C.; Izenberg, Noam R.

    2009-01-01

    During MESSENGER's second Mercury flyby, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer observed emission from Mercury's neutral exosphere. These observations include the first detection of emission from magnesium. Differing spatial distributions for sodium, calcium, and magnesium were revealed by observations beginning in Mercury's tail region, approximately 8 Mercury radii anti-sunward of the planet, continuing past the nightside, and ending near the dawn terminator. Analysis of these observations, supplemented by observations during the first Mercury flyby as well as those by other MESSENGER instruments, suggests that the distinct spatial distributions arise from a combination of differences in source, transfer, and loss processes.

  1. Mercury in the national parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pritz, Colleen Flanagan; Eagles-Smith, Collin; Krabbenhoft, David

    2014-01-01

    One thing is certain: Even for trained researchers, predicting mercury’s behavior in the environment is challenging. Fundamentally it is one of 98 naturally occurring elements, with natural sources, such as volcanoes, and concentrated ore deposits, such as cinnabar. Yet there are also human-caused sources, such as emissions from both coal-burning power plants and mining operations for gold and silver. There are elemental forms, inorganic or organic forms, reactive and unreactive species. Mercury is emitted, then deposited, then re-emitted—thus earning its mercurial reputation. Most importantly, however, it is ultimately transferred into food chains through processes fueled by tiny microscopic creatures: bacteria.

  2. Methods and sorbents for utilizing a hot-side electrostatic precipitator for removal of mercury from combustion gases

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Sidney [Hudson, OH

    2011-02-15

    Methods are provided for reducing emission of mercury from a gas stream by treating the gas with carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles to reduce the mercury content of the gas; collecting the carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles on collection plates of a hot-side ESP; periodically rapping the collection plates to release a substantial portion of the collected carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles into hoppers; and periodically emptying the hoppers, wherein such rapping and emptying are done at rates such that less than 70% of mercury adsorbed onto the mercury sorbent desorbs from the collected mercury sorbent into the gas stream.

  3. Nuclear metamorphosis in mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardone, F.; Albertini, G.; Bassani, D.; Cherubini, G.; Guerriero, E.; Mignani, R.; Monti, M.; Petrucci, A.; Ridolfi, F.; Rosada, A.; Rosetto, F.; Sala, V.; Santoro, E.; Spera, G.

    2016-12-01

    The conditions of local Lorentz invariance (LLI) breakdown, obtained during neutron emission from a sonicated cylindrical bar of AISI 304 steel, were reproduced in a system made of a mole of mercury. After 3 min, a part of the liquid transformed into solid state material, in which isotopes were found with both higher and lower atomic mass with respect to the starting material. Changes in the atomic weight without production of gamma radiation and radionuclides are made possible by deformed space-time reactions.

  4. 40 CFR 61.52 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... standard. (a) Emissions to the atmosphere from mercury ore processing facilities and mercury cell chlor... atmosphere from sludge incineration plants, sludge drying plants, or a combination of these that...

  5. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart IIIii of... - Work Practice Standards-Requirements for Mercury Liquid Collection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for Mercury Liquid Collection 4 Table 4 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63—Work Practice Standards—Requirements for Mercury Liquid Collection As stated...

  6. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart IIIii of... - Work Practice Standards-Requirements for Mercury Liquid Collection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for Mercury Liquid Collection 4 Table 4 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63—Work Practice Standards—Requirements for Mercury Liquid Collection As stated...

  7. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart IIIii of... - Work Practice Standards-Requirements for Mercury Liquid Collection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for Mercury Liquid Collection 4 Table 4 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63—Work Practice Standards—Requirements for Mercury Liquid Collection As stated...

  8. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart IIIii of... - Work Practice Standards-Requirements for Mercury Liquid Collection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for Mercury Liquid Collection 4 Table 4 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63—Work Practice Standards—Requirements for Mercury Liquid Collection As stated...

  9. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart IIIii of... - Work Practice Standards-Requirements for Mercury Liquid Collection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for Mercury Liquid Collection 4 Table 4 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63—Work Practice Standards—Requirements for Mercury Liquid Collection As stated...

  10. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart IIIii of... - Examples of Techniques for Equipment Problem Identification, Leak Detection and Mercury Vapor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Problem Identification, Leak Detection and Mercury Vapor 6 Table 6 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII..., Leak Detection and Mercury Vapor As stated in Tables 1 and 2 of Subpart IIIII, examples of...

  11. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart IIIii of... - Examples of Techniques for Equipment Problem Identification, Leak Detection and Mercury Vapor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Problem Identification, Leak Detection and Mercury Vapor 6 Table 6 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII..., Leak Detection and Mercury Vapor As stated in Tables 1 and 2 of Subpart IIIII, examples of...

  12. Mercury's South Polar Region

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows 89 wide-angle camera (WAC) images of Mercury’s south polar region acquired by the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) over one complete Mercury solar day (176 Earth days). Thi...

  13. Indicators: Sediment Mercury

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Sediment mercury is mercury that has become embedded into the bottom substrates of aquatic ecosystems. Mercury is a common pollutant of aquatic ecosystems and it can have a substantial impact on both human and wildlife health.

  14. 40 CFR 61.55 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for Mercury § 61.55 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) Wastewater treatment plant sludge incineration and drying plants. All the sources for which mercury emissions exceed 1.6 kg (3.5 lb) per 24-hour....54, shall monitor mercury emissions at intervals of at least once per year by use of Method 105...

  15. 40 CFR 61.55 - Monitoring of emissions and operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for Mercury § 61.55 Monitoring of emissions and operations. (a) Wastewater treatment plant sludge incineration and drying plants. All the sources for which mercury emissions exceed 1.6 kg (3.5 lb) per 24-hour....54, shall monitor mercury emissions at intervals of at least once per year by use of Method 105...

  16. Integral fast reactor concept inherent safety features

    SciTech Connect

    Marchaterre, J.F.; Sevy, R.H.; Cahalan, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative liquid-metal-cooled reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The two major goals of the IFT development effort are improved economics and enhanced safety. The design features that together fulfill these goals are: 1) a liquid metal (sodium) coolant, 2) a pool-type reactor primary system configuration, 3) an advanced ternary alloy metallic fuel, and 4) an integral fuel cycle. This paper reviews the design features that contribute to the safety margins inherent to the IFR concept. Special emphasis is placed on the ability of the IFR design to accommodate anticipated transients without scram (ATWS).

  17. Integral Fast Reactor concept inherent safety features

    SciTech Connect

    Marchaterre, J.F.; Sevy, R.H.; Cahalan, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative liquid-metal-cooled reactor concept being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The two major goals of the IFR development effort are improved economics and enhanced safety. The design features that together fulfill these goals are: (1) a liquid metal (sodium) coolant, (2) a pool-type reactor primary system configuration, (3) an advanced ternary alloy metallic fuel, and (4) an integral fuel cycle. This paper reviews the design features that contribute to the safety margins inherent to the IFR concept. Special emphasis is placed on the ability of the IFR design to accommodate anticipated transients without scram (ATWS).

  18. The inherent instability of leveed seafloor channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorrell, Robert M.; Burns, Alan D.; McCaffrey, William D.

    2015-05-01

    New analytical models demonstrate that under aggradational flow conditions, seafloor channel-levee systems are inherently unstable; both channel area and stability necessarily decrease at long timescales. In time such systems must avulse purely through internal (autogenic) forcing. Although autogenic instabilities likely arise over long enough time for additional allogenic forcing to be expected, channel-levee sensitivity to variations in flow character depends on the prior degree of system evolution. Recalibrated modern Amazon Fan avulsion timings are consistent with this model, challenging accepted interpretations of avulsion triggering.

  19. Function and structure of inherently disordered proteins.

    PubMed

    Dunker, A Keith; Silman, Israel; Uversky, Vladimir N; Sussman, Joel L

    2008-12-01

    The application of bioinformatics methodologies to proteins inherently lacking 3D structure has brought increased attention to these macromolecules. Here topics concerning these proteins are discussed, including their prediction from amino acid sequence, their enrichment in eukaryotes compared to prokaryotes, their more rapid evolution compared to structured proteins, their organization into specific groups, their structural preferences, their half-lives in cells, their contributions to signaling diversity (via high contents of multiple-partner binding sites, post-translational modifications, and alternative splicing), their distinct functional repertoire compared to that of structured proteins, and their involvement in diseases.

  20. Inherently tunable electrostatic assembly of membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hongjun; Whited, Gregg; Nguyen, Chi; Okerlund, Adam; Stucky, Galen D

    2008-01-01

    Membrane proteins are a class of nanoscopic entities that control the matter, energy, and information transport across cellular boundaries. Electrostatic interactions are shown to direct the rapid co-assembly of proteorhodopsin (PR) and lipids into long-range crystalline arrays. The roles of inherent charge variations on lipid membranes and PR variants with different compositions are examined by tuning recombinant PR variants with different extramembrane domain sizes and charged amino acid substitutions, lipid membrane compositions, and lipid-to-PR stoichiometric ratios. Rational control of this predominantly electrostatic assembly for PR crystallization is demonstrated, and the same principles should be applicable to the assembly and crystallization of other integral membrane proteins.

  1. Contribution of contaminated sites to the global mercury budget.

    PubMed

    Kocman, David; Horvat, Milena; Pirrone, Nicola; Cinnirella, Sergio

    2013-08-01

    Global mercury emission inventories include anthropogenic emissions, contributing via current use or presence of mercury in a variety of products and processes, as well as natural source emissions. These inventories neglect the contribution of areas contaminated with mercury from historical accumulation, which surround mines or production plants associated with mercury production or use. Although recent studies have shown that releases of mercury from these historical sites can be significant, a database of the global distribution of mercury contaminated sites does not exist, nor are there means of scaling up such releases to estimate fluxes on a regional and global basis. Therefore, here we estimated for the first time the contribution of mercury releases from contaminated sites to the global mercury budget. A geo-referenced database was built, comprising over 3000 mercury contaminated sites associated with mercury mining, precious metal processing, non-ferrous metal production and various polluted industrial sites. In the assessment, mercury releases from these sites to both the atmosphere as well as the hydrosphere were considered based on data available for selected case studies, their number, the reported extent of contamination and geographical location. Annual average global emissions of mercury from identified contaminated sites amount to 198 (137-260) Mgyr(-1). Of that, 82 (70-95)Mgyr(-1) contribute to atmospheric releases, while 116 (67-165) Mgyr(-1) is estimated to be transported away from these sites by hydrological processes. Although these estimates are associated with large uncertainties, our current understanding of mercury releases from contaminated sites indicates that these releases can also be of paramount importance on the global perspective. This is especially important as it is known that these sites represent a long-term source of releases if not managed properly. Therefore, the information presented here is needed by governments and NGO

  2. Mercury Continuous Emmission Monitor Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    John Schabron; Eric Kalberer; Ryan Boysen; William Schuster; Joseph Rovani

    2009-03-12

    Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMs) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks throughput the U.S. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor calibrators/generators. These devices are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 and vacated by a Federal appeals court in early 2008 required that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Despite the vacature, mercury emissions regulations in the future will require NIST traceable calibration standards, and EPA does not want to interrupt the effort towards developing NIST traceability protocols. The traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued a conceptual interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury calibrators. The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The EPA traceability protocol document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of calibrator models by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the calibrators that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma

  3. Deposition and cycling of sulfur controls mercury accumulation in Isle Royale fish

    SciTech Connect

    Paul E. Drevnick; Donald E. Canfield; Patrick R. Gorski

    2007-11-01

    Mercury contamination of fish is a global problem. Consumption of contaminated fish is the primary route of methylmercury exposure in humans and is detrimental to health. Newly mandated reductions in anthropogenic mercury emissions aim to reduce atmospheric mercury deposition and thus mercury concentrations in fish. However, factors other than mercury deposition are important for mercury bioaccumulation in fish. In the lakes of Isle Royale, U.S.A., reduced rates of sulfate deposition since the Clean Air Act of 1970 have caused mercury concentrations in fish to decline to levels that are safe for human consumption, even without a discernible decrease in mercury deposition. Therefore, reductions in anthropogenic sulfur emissions may provide a synergistic solution to the mercury problem in sulfate-limited freshwaters. 71 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery.

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Beauheim, Richard Louis; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; McKenna, Sean Andrew

    2009-05-01

    Expansion of uranium mining in the United States is a concern to some environmental groups and sovereign Native American Nations. An approach which may alleviate some problems is to develop inherently safe in situ uranium recovery ('ISR') technologies. Current ISR technology relies on chemical extraction of trace levels of uranium from aquifers that, once mined, can still contain dissolved uranium and other trace metals that are a health concern. Existing ISR operations are few in number; however, high uranium prices are driving the industry to consider expanding operations nation-wide. Environmental concerns and enforcement of the new 30 ppb uranium drinking water standard may make opening new mining operations more difficult and costly. Here we propose a technological fix: the development of inherently safe in situ recovery (ISISR) methods. The four central features of an ISISR approach are: (1) New 'green' leachants that break down predictably in the subsurface, leaving uranium, and associated trace metals, in an immobile form; (2) Post-leachant uranium/metals-immobilizing washes that provide a backup decontamination process; (3) An optimized well-field design that increases uranium recovery efficiency and minimizes excursions of contaminated water; and (4) A combined hydrologic/geochemical protocol for designing low-cost post-extraction long-term monitoring. ISISR would bring larger amounts of uranium to the surface, leave fewer toxic metals in the aquifer, and cost less to monitor safely - thus providing a 'win-win-win' solution to all stakeholders.

  5. Scaling and universality of inherent structure simulations.

    PubMed

    Witkoskie, James B; Cao, Jianshu

    2004-06-01

    In this paper we explore the inherent structures (IS) approach to the dynamics of the East constrained kinetic Ising model. The inherent structures do not capture the nature of the dynamics of many quantities, including the spin autocorrelation function. Simply monitoring the quenched energy fluctuations, i.e., IS energy, results in an oversimplified single order-parameter description of the system's dynamics, but examining other features, such as domain dynamics or normal modes, may give a more complete and useful picture of the dynamics. The universality in the behavior of the IS energy of this model does not reveal nonuniversal features of the kinetics that determine long-time relaxation of the system. As a result, popular functional forms, such as the stretched exponential relaxation or Gaussian distribution of energies, may be a numerical fit to data with little physical justification. Filtering data can be shown to erase features of the system and the resulting quantities resemble more universal functional forms that lack physical insight. These results for the East model have implications for IS simulations of realistic systems and suggest careful analysis including the examination of other potential order parameters is necessary to evaluate the validity of applications of universal and scaling arguments to IS simulations.

  6. Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

  7. Managing mercury in the great lakes: an analytical review of abatement policies.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Satya P; Nikolova, Iana; Mitchell, Anne

    2007-04-01

    Mercury, a toxic metal known to have several deleterious affects on human health, has been one of the principal contaminants of concern in the Great Lakes basin. There are numerous anthropogenic sources of mercury to the Great Lakes area. Combustion of coal, smelting of non ferrous metals, and incineration of municipal and medical waste are major sources of mercury emissions in the region. In addition to North American anthropogenic emissions, global atmospheric emissions also significantly contribute to the deposition of mercury in the Great Lakes basin. Both the USA and Canada have agreed to reduce human exposure to mercury in the Great Lakes basin and have significantly curtailed mercury load to this region through individual and joint efforts. However, many important mercury sources, such as coal-fired power plants, still exist in the vicinity of the Great Lakes. More serious actions to drastically reduce mercury sources by employing alternative energy sources, restricting mercury trade and banning various mercury containing consumer products, such as dental amalgam are as essential as cleaning up the historical deposits of mercury in the basin. A strong political will and mass momentum are crucial for efficient mercury management. International cooperation is equally important. In the present paper, we have analyzed existing policies in respective jurisdictions to reduce mercury concentration in the Great Lakes environment. A brief review of the sources, occurrence in the Great Lakes, and the health effects of mercury is also included.

  8. Mercury risk from fluorescent lamps in China: current status and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2012-09-01

    Energy-efficient lighting is one of the key measures for addressing electric power shortages and climate change mitigation, and fluorescent lamps are expected to dominate the lighting market in China over the next several years. This review presents an overview on the emissions and risk of mercury from fluorescent lamps during production and disposal, and discusses measures for reducing the mercury risk through solid waste management and source reduction. Fluorescent lamps produced in China used to contain relatively large amounts of mercury (up to 40 mg per lamp) due to the prevalence of liquid mercury dosing, which also released significant amounts of mercury to the environment. Upgrade of the mercury dosing technologies and manufacturing facilities had significantly reduced the mercury contents in fluorescent lamps, with most of them containing less than 10 or 5mg per lamp now. Occupational hygiene studies showed that mercury emissions occurred during fluorescent lamp production, particularly in the facilities using liquid mercury dosing, which polluted the environmental media at and surrounding the production sites and posed chronic health risk to the workers by causing neuropsychological and motor impairments. It is estimated that spent fluorescent lamps account for approximately 20% of mercury input in the MSW in China. Even though recycling of fluorescent lamps presents an important opportunity to capture the mercury they contain, it is difficult and not cost-effective at reducing the mercury risk under the broader context of mercury pollution control in China. In light of the significant mercury emissions associated with electricity generation in China, we propose that reduction of mercury emissions and risk associated with fluorescent lamps should be achieved primarily through lowering their mercury contents by the manufacturers while recycling programs should focus on elemental mercury-containing waste products instead of fluorescent lamps to recapture

  9. The influence of floodplains on mercury availability

    SciTech Connect

    Wallschlaeger, D.; Wilken, R.D.

    1997-09-01

    The floodplains of the German river Elbe affect the mercury distribution in the river system in two different ways: they act both as a medium-term sink and as a long-term source. The large amounts of mercury deposited onto the floodplains during annual floodings are first effectively fixed in the soils, rendering them basically unavailable. Sequential extraction experiments reveal that only a small fraction of the mercury (< 3%) is present in available forms, whereas the vast majority is associated with humic substances or present in sulfidic binding forms. After deposition, a small fraction of the total mercury is gradually remobilized into the aqueous phase bound passively to water-soluble humic acids. The availability of mercury in these complexes is still low, since environmental influences such as changes in pH or redox potential and competition with other cations do not cause any mercury liberation. In the next step, reactions in the aqueous phase lead to the formation of the highly available volatile species Hg{sup 0} and dimethylmercury (DMM). Their evaporation gives rise to a strong mercury flux from the floodplains into the atmosphere. Preliminary mass balances indicate that the majority of the deposited mercury stays bound in the floodplain soils, while small amounts are emitted back into the river`s ecosystem. Atmospheric emission is more important as a remobilization pathway than aquatic export.

  10. The Plasma Environment at Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raines, James M.; Gershman, Daniel J.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Gloeckler, George; Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Sarantos, Menalos; Sprague, Anne L.; McNutt, Ralph L., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Mercury is the least explored terrestrial planet, and the one subjected to the highest flux of solar radiation in the heliosphere. Its highly dynamic, miniature magnetosphere contains ions from the exosphere and solar wind, and at times may allow solar wind ions to directly impact the planet's surface. Together these features create a plasma environment that shares many features with, but is nonetheless very different from, that of Earth. The first in situ measurements of plasma ions in the Mercury space environment were made only recently, by the Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS) during the MESSENGER spacecraft's three flybys of the planet in 2008-2009 as the probe was en route to insertion into orbit about Mercury earlier this year. Here. we present analysis of flyby and early orbital mission data with novel techniques that address the particular challenges inherent in these measurements. First. spacecraft structures and sensor orientation limit the FIPS field of view and allow only partial sampling of velocity distribution functions. We use a software model of FIPS sampling in velocity space to explore these effects and recover bulk parameters under certain assumptions. Second, the low densities found in the Mercury magnetosphere result in a relatively low signal-to-noise ratio for many ions. To address this issue, we apply a kernel density spread function to guide removal of background counts according to a background-signature probability map. We then assign individual counts to particular ion species with a time-of-flight forward model, taking into account energy losses in the carbon foil and other physical behavior of ions within the instrument. Using these methods, we have derived bulk plasma properties and heavy ion composition and evaluated them in the context of the Mercury magnetosphere.

  11. Mercury content in soils on the territory of Mezhdurechensk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaenko, A. N.; Osipova, N. A.; Yazikov, E. G.; Matveenko, I. A.

    2016-09-01

    The geochemical features of mercury content and distribution in the zone of coal producers have been studied (Mezhdurechensk town). Mercury content in soil (30 samples) was determined by atomic absorption method using mercury analyzer PA-915+ with pyrolytic device. Mercury content in soil samples changed from 0.12 to 0.17 mg/kg, the average value being 0.057 mg/kg. Within the town territory five zones with mercury elevated concentrations in soil were distinguished. 25-year observation period showed a 2.8 time decrease in average mercury content in soil. The major contribution to soil pollution in the urban territory was made by the two factors: local and regional. The mercury content in soil is affected by the emissions from boilers operating on coal as well as coal dust from the open pits near the town.

  12. Mercury's Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    Among the major discoveries made by the Mariner 10 mission to the inner planets was the existence of an intrinsic magnetic field at Mercury with a dipole moment of approx. 300 nT R(sup 3, sub M). This magnetic field is sufficient to stand off the solar wind at an altitude of about 1 R(sub M) (i.e. approx. 2439 km). Hence, Mercury possesses a 'magnetosphere' from which the so]ar wind plasma is largely excluded and within which the motion of charged particles is controlled by the planetary magnetic field. Despite its small size relative to the magnetospheres of the other planets, a Mercury orbiter mission is a high priority for the space physics community. The primary reason for this great interest is that Mercury unlike all the other planets visited thus far, lacks a significant atmosphere; only a vestigial exosphere is present. This results in a unique situation where the magnetosphere interacts directly with the outer layer of the planetary crust (i.e. the regolith). At all of the other planets the topmost regions of their atmospheres become ionized by solar radiation to form ionospheres. These planetary ionospheres then couple to electrodynamically to their magnetospheres or, in the case of the weakly magnetized Venus and Mars, directly to the solar wind. This magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling is mediated largely through field-aligned currents (FACs) flowing along the magnetic field lines linking the magnetosphere and the high-latitude ionosphere. Mercury is unique in that it is expected that FACS will be very short lived due to the low electrical conductivity of the regolith. Furthermore, at the earth it has been shown that the outflow of neutral atmospheric species to great altitudes is an important source of magnetospheric plasma (following ionization) whose composition may influence subsequent magnetotail dynamics. However, the dominant source of plasma for most of the terrestrial magnetosphere is the 'leakage'of solar wind across the magnetopause and more

  13. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery

    DOEpatents

    Krumhansl, James L; Brady, Patrick V

    2014-04-29

    An in situ recovery of uranium operation involves circulating reactive fluids through an underground uranium deposit. These fluids contain chemicals that dissolve the uranium ore. Uranium is recovered from the fluids after they are pumped back to the surface. Chemicals used to accomplish this include complexing agents that are organic, readily degradable, and/or have a predictable lifetime in an aquifer. Efficiency is increased through development of organic agents targeted to complexing tetravalent uranium rather than hexavalent uranium. The operation provides for in situ immobilization of some oxy-anion pollutants under oxidizing conditions as well as reducing conditions. The operation also artificially reestablishes reducing conditions on the aquifer after uranium recovery is completed. With the ability to have the impacted aquifer reliably remediated, the uranium recovery operation can be considered inherently safe.

  14. Inherent error in interferometric surface plasmon microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bei; Yan, Peng; Gao, Feng; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Qiancheng; Wang, Le

    2016-11-01

    Surface plasmon microscopy (SPRM) usually employs high refractive index prism or high numerical aperture (NA) objective as coupling device to excite surface plasmon. Here we apply high NA oil-immersion objective considering k vector conditions of SPs and localization of SPs which provides better lateral resolution and less cross-talk between adjacent areas. However, performance of an objective based SPRM is often limited by the finite aperture of a physical objective which corresponds to sudden transition and limited bandwidth. Here we give a simplified model of the SPRM and numerically calculate how the sudden transition on the clear aperture edge causes inherent error. Notch filtering algorithm is designed to suppress the noisy ripples. Compared to the pupil function engineering technique, this technique makes both the sacrifice of NA and utilization of spatial light modulator unnecessary and provides a more compact system setup without decreasing the resolution and contrast.

  15. Piezo1 Channels Are Inherently Mechanosensitive.

    PubMed

    Syeda, Ruhma; Florendo, Maria N; Cox, Charles D; Kefauver, Jennifer M; Santos, Jose S; Martinac, Boris; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2016-11-08

    The conversion of mechanical force to chemical signals is critical for many biological processes, including the senses of touch, pain, and hearing. Mechanosensitive ion channels play a key role in sensing the mechanical stimuli experienced by various cell types and are present in organisms from bacteria to mammals. Bacterial mechanosensitive channels are characterized thoroughly, but less is known about their counterparts in vertebrates. Piezos have been recently established as ion channels required for mechanotransduction in disparate cell types in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of Piezos in heterologous cells gives rise to large mechanically activated currents; however, it is unclear whether Piezos are inherently mechanosensitive or rely on alternate cellular components to sense mechanical stimuli. Here, we show that mechanical perturbations of the lipid bilayer alone are sufficient to activate Piezo channels, illustrating their innate ability as molecular force transducers.

  16. Magnetic latch trigger for inherent shutdown assembly

    DOEpatents

    Sowa, Edmund S.

    1976-01-01

    An inherent shutdown assembly for a nuclear reactor is provided. A neutron absorber is held ready to be inserted into the reactor core by a magnetic latch. The latch includes a magnet whose lines of force are linked by a yoke of material whose Curie point is at the critical temperature of the reactor at which the neutron absorber is to be inserted into the reactor core. The yoke is in contact with the core coolant or fissionable material so that when the coolant or the fissionable material increase in temperature above the Curie point the yoke loses its magnetic susceptibility and the magnetic link is broken, thereby causing the absorber to be released into the reactor core.

  17. Development of an inherently digital transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    The term digital transducer normally implies the combination of conventional analog sensors with encoders or analog-to-digital converters. Because of the objectionable characteristics of most digital transducers, a program was instituted to investigate the possibility of producing a transducer that is inherently digital, instead of a transducer that is digital in the usual sense. Such a device would have improved accuracy and reliability and would have reduced power and bulk requirements because two processes, sensing and conditioning, would be combined into one processes. A Curie-point-temperature sensor is described that represents realization of the stated goal. Also, a metal-insulator semiconductor is described that does not conform precisely to the program goals but that appears to have applications as a new and interesting transduction device.

  18. Sensors and actuators inherent in biological species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taya, Minoru; Stahlberg, Rainer; Li, Fanghong; Zhao, Ying Joyce

    2007-04-01

    This paper addresses examples of sensing and active mechanisms inherent in some biological species where both plants and animals cases are discussed: mechanosensors and actuators in Venus Fly Trap and cucumber tendrils, chemosensors in insects, two cases of interactions between different kingdoms, (i) cotton plant smart defense system and (ii) bird-of-paradise flower and hamming bird interaction. All these cases lead us to recognize how energy-efficient and flexible the biological sensors and actuators are. This review reveals the importance of integration of sensing and actuation functions into an autonomous system if we make biomimetic design of a set of new autonomous systems which can sense and actuate under a number of different stimuli and threats.

  19. Inherently Ducted Propfans and Bi-Props

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takallu, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    The terms inherently ducted propfan (IDP) and inherently ducted biprop (IDBP) denote members of a proposed class of propfan engines that would be quieter and would weigh less than do other propfan engines that generate equal amounts of thrust. The designs of these engines would be based on novel combinations of previously established aerodynamic-design concepts, including those of counter-rotating propfans, swept-back and swept-forward fixed wings, and ducted propfans. Heretofore, noise-reducing propfan designs have provided for installation of shrouds around the blades. A single propeller surrounded by such a shroud is denoted an advanced ducted propeller (ADP); a pair of counter-rotating propellers surrounded by such a shroud is denoted a counter-rotating integrated shrouded propeller (CRISP). In addition to adding weight, the shrouds engender additional undesired rotor/stator interactions and cascade effects, and contribute to susceptibility to choking. An IDP or IDBP would offer some shielding against outward propagation of noise, similar to shielding by a shroud, but without the weight and other undesired effects associated with shrouds. An IDP would include a pair of counter-rotating propellers. The blades of the upstream propeller would be swept back, while those of the downstream propeller would be swept forward (see figure). The downstream blades would have a geometric twist such that their forward-swept tips could act as winglets extending over the tips of the upstream blades. In principle, the resulting periodic coverage of the upstream-blade tips by the downstreamblade tips would suppress outward propagation of noise, as though a short noise-shielding duct were present. Furthermore, it is anticipated that an IDP would be less susceptible to some of the operational limitations of a CRISP during asymmetric flow conditions or reverse thrust operation.

  20. Simultaneous preconcentration of copper and mercury in water samples by cloud point extraction and their determination by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoaee, Hamta; Roshdi, Mina; Khanlarzadeh, Nasibeh; Beiraghi, Asadollah

    2012-12-01

    A cloud-point extraction process coupled to ICP-OES by using 3-nitro benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (3-NBT) as complexing agent was developed for the simultaneous preconcentration and determination of copper and mercury in water samples. The variables affecting the complexation and extraction steps were optimized. Under the optimum conditions (i.e. 1.5 × 10-5 mol L-1 ligand, 0.3% (v/v) Triton X-114, 55 °C equilibrium temperature, incubation time of 30 min) the calibration graphs were linear in the range of 5-120 and 10-100 ng mL-1 with enhancement factor of 82.7 and 51.3 for Cu2+ and Hg2+, respectively. The preconcentration factors were 28.6 in both cases and detection limits were obtained 0.48 for Cu and 1.1 ng mL-1 for Hg. The precisions (R.S.D.%) for five replicate determinations at 50 ng mL-1 of copper and mercury were better than 1.8% and 3.2%, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed method is validated by analyzing a certified reference material of water (RTC-QCI-049) with satisfactory results. Finally, the proposed method was utilized successfully for the determination of copper and mercury in surface water (river), tap water and bottled mineral water samples.

  1. MERCURY RESEARCH STRATEGY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's ORD is pleased to announce the availability of its Mercury Research Strategy. This strategy guides ORD's mercury research program and covers the FY2001-2005 time frame. ORD will use it to prepare a multi-year mercury research implementation plan in 2001. The Mercury R...

  2. Mercury contamination extraction

    DOEpatents

    Fuhrmann, Mark; Heiser, John; Kalb, Paul

    2009-09-15

    Mercury is removed from contaminated waste by firstly applying a sulfur reagent to the waste. Mercury in the waste is then permitted to migrate to the reagent and is stabilized in a mercury sulfide compound. The stable compound may then be removed from the waste which itself remains in situ following mercury removal therefrom.

  3. Monitoring the Response to Changing Mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Robert P. Mason; Michael L. Abbott; R.A. Bodaly; O. Russell Bullock, Jr.; David Evers; Steven E. Lindberg; Michael Murray; Edward B. Swain; Charles T. Driscoll

    2005-01-01

    Because advisories have been posted for so many water bodies against consumption of fish with elevated concentrations of potentially dangerous methylmercury (MeHg), regulations limiting mercury emissions have been promulgated in many countries or are likely to be put forward in the near future (1–5). Yet, many questions about the environmental benefits of emissions reductions remain unanswered. Current computer models and other assessment tools provide widely divergent estimates for the effectiveness of emissions controls at reducing MeHg levels in fish (6–8). In addition, no broad-scale data sets are available to test model predictions. Some intensive studies and syntheses of regional databases have been conducted, but their overall applicability to different ecosystems or at the continental scale is uncertain. The problem is that the terrestrial–aquatic mercury cycle is complex, with many nonlinear processes that link atmospheric mercury emissions and MeHg bioaccumulation in fish and wildlife (7; Figure 1). As a result, how effective emissions reductions will be in decreasing biotic MeHg levels in freshwater, estuarine, and coastal ecosystems is not clear. Thus, any changes in the MeHg levels in aquatic ecosystems, particularly in fish and wildlife populations, should be documented and compared with reductions in mercury emissions and deposition. Although a significant effort has been made over the past decade to understand the causal link between mercury emissions and MeHg bioaccumulation into aquatic food chains, currently no coherent monitoring or assessment framework exists that can quantitatively document the temporal environmental changes in mercury levels across ecosystems. Clearly, it is crucial for scientists and policy makers to develop a monitoring framework that can accurately evaluate the effectiveness of current and pending regulation. This paper proposes such a framework.

  4. Elemental profiling and geographical differentiation of Ethiopian coffee samples through inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), ICP-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and direct mercury analyzer (DMA).

    PubMed

    Habte, Girum; Hwang, In Min; Kim, Jae Sung; Hong, Joon Ho; Hong, Young Sin; Choi, Ji Yeon; Nho, Eun Yeong; Jamila, Nargis; Khan, Naeem; Kim, Kyong Su

    2016-12-01

    This study was aimed to establish the elemental profiling and provenance of coffee samples collected from eleven major coffee producing regions of Ethiopia. A total of 129 samples were analyzed for forty-five elements using inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-optical emission spectroscopy (OES), ICP-mass spectrometry (MS) and direct mercury analyzer (DMA). Among the macro elements, K showed the highest levels whereas Fe was found to have the lowest concentration values. In all the samples, Ca, K, Mg, P and S contents were statistically significant (p<0.05). Micro elements showed the concentrations order of: Mn>Cu>Sr>Zn>Rb>Ni>B. Contents of the trace elements were lower than the permissible standard values. Inter-regions differentiation by cluster analysis (CA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that micro and trace elements are the best chemical descriptors of the analyzed coffee samples.

  5. Investigating the Surface Roughness of Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susorney, H. C. M.; Barnouin, O. S.; Ernst, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    The Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA) on the MErcury, Surface, Space ENviorment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft has acquired high-resolution topographic measurements of Mercury's northern hemisphere. These measurements permit the quantification of surface roughness on Mercury over baselines between 500 m and 200 km. In contrast to previous studies of Mercury's surface roughness, which have employed median differential surface slope, we calculate surface roughness as the root mean square (RMS) deviation of the difference in height. If the topography is self-affine or fractal, a power law can be fit to the RMS deviation as a function of baseline length. The exponent of this fit is called the Hurst exponent. This Hurst exponent describes whether or not a surface is self-affine, which occurs when processes produce a surface roughness that is inherently random. The surface roughness of Mercury's northern hemisphere reflects the observed bimodal nature of Mercury: the northern smooth plains have lower roughness values than the rougher heavily cratered terrain and intercrater plains. The relationship between RMS height and baseline length on Mercury shows two fractal sections, one between lengths of 500 m and 1 km, and another between lengths of 1 km and 20 km. We also find that the northern rise is indistinguishable from the surrounding smooth plains across all measured baselines, implying that the rise did not alter its surface topography at the baselines used in this study. Craters that host radar-bright deposits have similar roughness values to craters that do not host such deposits. Finally, fresh crater ejecta within the smooth plains have similar roughness values (particularly at the 1 km baseline) to the intercrater plains, supporting the interpretation that the intercrater plains may result from the modification of volcanic plains via cratering.

  6. Development of the STEM-mercury model to study the fate and transport of mercury in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Li

    In this thesis, the atmospheric mercury distributions in East Asia are studied using methods: model simulations with the backward trajectory analysis; 4D-Var data assimilation approach using adjoint inverse model simulations. The main purposes of this study are to evaluate current estimate of mercury emissions, which inventory have huge uncertainties that lead to model predict which underestimate mercury observations measured over the Yellow Sea and Japan Sea during the ACE-Asia campaign on April 2001. The chemical and physical mechanisms of mercury in the atmosphere are studied in this thesis by developing a detailed chemical box model. Finally mercury mechanisms are incorporated into STEM (Sulfur Transport and dEposition model) to generate STEM-Hg, which is applied to East Asia to estimate mercury ambient concentration distributions, to predict mercury dry and wet depositions and to calculate mercury exports from the East Asia. The results from this work identify that anthropogenic emission emitted from China are three times higher than the estimate. During the month of April, 77% of total emitted mercury is deposited in the East Asia areas due to the quick oxidation reactions of mercury in the gas phase.

  7. Mercury in Arctic Marine Ecosystems: Sources, Pathways, and Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Kirk, Jane L.; Lehnherr, Igor; Andersson, Maria; Braune, Birgit M.; Chan, Laurie; Dastoor, Ashu P.; Durnford, Dorothy; Gleason, Amber L.; Loseto, Lisa L.; Steffen, Alexandra; St. Louis, Vincent L.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury in the Arctic is an important environmental and human health issue. The reliance of Northern Peoples on traditional foods, such as marine mammals, for subsistence means that they are particularly at risk from mercury exposure. The cycling of mercury in Arctic marine systems is reviewed here, with emphasis placed on the key sources, pathways and processes which regulate mercury levels in marine food webs and ultimately the exposure of human populations to this contaminant. While many knowledge gaps exist limiting our ability to make strong conclusions, it appears that the long range transport of mercury from Asian emissions is an important source of atmospheric Hg to the Arctic and that mercury methylation resulting in monomethylmercury production (an organic form of mercury which is both toxic and bioaccumulated) in Arctic marine waters is the principal source of mercury incorporated into food webs. Mercury concentrations in biological organisms have increased since the onset of the industrial age and are controlled by a combination of abiotic factors (e.g., monomethylmercury supply), food web dynamics and structure, and animal behavior (e.g., habitat selection and feeding behavior). Finally, although some Northern Peoples have high mercury concentrations of mercury in their blood and hair, harvesting and consuming traditional foods has many nutritional, social, cultural and physical health benefits which must be considered in risk management and communication. PMID:23102902

  8. PATHOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF DIETARY METHYL MERCURY IN AMERICAN KESTRELS (FALCO SPARVERIIUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methyl mercury in the aquatic food web poses significant health risks to both wildlife and humans. One primary source of mercury contamination for both the aquatic and terrestrial systems is atmospheric deposition of inorganic mercury from industrial emissions. Once in the enviro...

  9. EVALUATION OF MERCURY SPECIATION AT POWER PLANTS USING SCR AND SNCR CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the impact that selective catalytic reduction (SCR), selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR), and flue gas-conditioning systems have on total mercury emissions and on the speciation of mercury. If SCR and/or SNCR systems enhance mercury conversion/capture, the...

  10. EVALUATION OF MERCURY SPECIATION AT POWER PLANTS USING SCR AND SNCR NOX CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the impact that selective catalytic reduction (SCR), selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR), and flue gas-conditioning systems have on total mercury emissions and on the speciation of mercury. If SCR and/or SNCR systems enhance mercury conversion/capture, the...

  11. Feasibility of mercury removal from simulated flue gas by activated chars made from poultry manures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased emphasis on reduction of mercury emissions from coal fired electric power plants has resulted in environmental regulations that may in the future require application of activated carbons as mercury sorbents for mercury removal. At the same time, the quantity of poultry manure generated eac...

  12. AN ELECTROCHEMICAL SYSTEM FOR REMOVING AND RECOVERING ELEMENTAL MERCURY FROM FLUE-STACK GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    the impending EPA regulations on the control of mercury emissions from the flue stacks of coal-burning electric utilities has resulted in heightened interest in the development of advanced mercury control technologies such as sorbent injection and in-situ mercury oxidation. Altho...

  13. 76 FR 80727 - Flexible Implementation of the Mercury and Air Toxics Standards Rule

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Memorandum of December 21, 2011 Flexible Implementation of the Mercury and Air Toxics... the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), of the final Mercury and Air Toxics Standards rule for... comments, prescribes standards under section 112 of the Clean Air Act to control emissions of mercury...

  14. PREDICTING ENVIRONMENTAL CONCENTRATIONS OF AIRBORNE POLLUTANTS IN TERRESTRIAL RECEPTORS: THE CASE OF MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The question of mercury in the environment has rapidly become one of the high-profile environmental issues in several countries and internationally. There are environmental and human health concerns associated with elevated levels of mercury linked to industrial mercury emissions...

  15. EFFECTS OF IRON CONTENT IN COAL COMBUSTION FLY ASHES ON SPECIATION OF MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the effects of iron content in coal combustion fly ashes on speciation of mercury. (NOTE: The chemical form of mercury species in combustion flue gases is an important influence on the control of mercury emissions from coal combustion). The study focused on th...

  16. Application of Ecosystem-Scale Fate and Bioaccumulation Models to Predict Fish Mercury Response Times to Changes in Atmospheric Deposition

    EPA Science Inventory

    Management strategies for controlling anthropogenic mercury emissions require understanding how ecosystems will respond to changes in atmospheric mercury deposition. Process-based mathematical models are valuable tools for informing such decisions, because measurement data often ...

  17. Why electronic mail is inherently private

    SciTech Connect

    Granger, S.

    1994-12-31

    Electronic Mail originated in Large-Area Networks and computer Bulletin Board Systems. On LAN`s in offices, it served the purpose of replacing office memos to make work more efficient. On BBS`s, it became a personal way of sending notes back and forth between acquaintances and frields. From the beginning e-mail was private. The Arpanet formed as a way for researchers to discuss their work over long-distances. The Arpanet, solely in existence as a government venture to assist in furthering of research, enjoyed a certain secrecy for a while. Once the Internt formed, the system allowed others inside as it no longer existed merely for the government. Much of the work on the Arpanet/Internet was necessarily private due to its nature. This made it even more important for e-mail to be private. Today the Internet includes not only what was the Arpanet (NSFNet), but companies and several BBS`s as well. Privacy is mor eimportant today than ever and should not even be an option on e-mail systems. It should be considered inherent in all systems.

  18. First combined flux chamber survey of mercury and CO2 emissions from soil diffuse degassing at Solfatara of Pozzuoli crater, Campi Flegrei (Italy): Mapping and quantification of gas release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagnato, E.; Barra, M.; Cardellini, C.; Chiodini, G.; Parello, F.; Sprovieri, M.

    2014-12-01

    There have been limited studies to date targeting gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) flux from soil emission in enriched volcanic substrates and its relation with CO2 release and tectonic structures. In order to evaluate and understand the processes of soil-air exchanges involved at Solfatara of Pozzuoli volcano, the most active zone of Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy), an intensive field measurement survey has been achieved in September 2013 by using high-time resolution techniques. Soil-air exchange fluxes of GEM and CO2 have been measured simultaneously at 116 points, widely distributed within the crater. Quantification of gas flux has been assessed by using field accumulation chamber method in conjunction with a Lumex®-RA 915 + portable mercury vapor analyzer and a LICOR for CO2 determination, respectively. The spatial distribution of GEM and CO2 emissions correlated quite closely with the hydrothermal and geological features of the studied area. The highest GEM fluxes (from 4.04 to 5.9 × 10- 5 g m- 2 d- 1) were encountered close to the southern part of the crater interested by an intense fumarolic activity and along the SE-SW tectonic fracture (1.26 × 10- 6-6.91 × 10- 5 g GEM m- 2 d- 1). Conversely, the lowest values have been detected all along the western rim of the crater, characterized by a weak gas flux and a lush vegetation on a very sealed clay soil, which likely inhibited mercury emission (range: 1.5 × 10- 7-7.18 × 10- 6 g GEM m- 2 d- 1). Results indicate that the GEM exchange between soil and air inside the Solfatara crater is about 2-3 orders of magnitude stronger than that in the background areas (10- 8-10- 7 g m- 2 d- 1). CO2 soil diffuse degassing exhibited an analogous spatial pattern to the GEM fluxes, with emission rates ranging from about 15 to ~ 20,000 g CO2 m- 2 d- 1, from the outermost western zones to the south-eastern sector of the crater. The observed significant correlation between GEM and CO2 suggested that in volcanic system GEM

  19. Mercury Quick Facts: Health Effects of Mercury Exposure

    MedlinePlus

    Mercury Quick Facts Health Effects of Mercury Exposure What is Elemental Mercury? Elemental (metallic) mercury is the shiny, silver-gray metal found in thermometers, barometers, and thermostats and other ...

  20. Volatilisation of metals and metalloids: an inherent feature of methanoarchaea?

    PubMed

    Meyer, Jörg; Michalke, Klaus; Kouril, Theresa; Hensel, Reinhard

    2008-06-01

    As shown by recent studies, anaerobic members of Archaea and Bacteria are involved in processes that transform ionic species of metals and metalloids (arsenic, antimony, bismuth, selenium, tellurium and mercury) into volatile and mostly toxic derivatives (mainly methyl derivatives or hydrides). Since the fact that these transformations proceed in both environmental settings and in parts of the human body, we have to consider that these processes also interfere directly with human health. The diversity of the volatile derivatives produced and their emission rates were significantly higher in methanoarchaeal than in bacterial strains, which supports the pivotal role of methanoarchaea in transforming metals and metalloids (metal(loid)s) into their volatile derivatives. Compared with methanoarchaea, 14 anaerobic bacterial strains showed a significantly restricted spectrum of volatilised derivatives and mostly lower production rates of volatile bismuth and selenium derivatives. Since methanoarchaea isolated from the human gut (Methanosphaera stadtmanae, Methanobrevibacter smithii) showed a higher potential for metal(loid) derivatisation compared to bacterial gut isolates, we assume that methanoarchaea in the human gut are mainly responsible for the production of these volatile derivatives. The observation that trimethylbismuth ((CH(3))(3)Bi), the main volatile derivative of bismuth produced in human feces, inhibited growing cultures of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a representative member of the human physiological gut flora, suggests that these volatiles exert their toxic effects on human health not only by direct interaction with host cells but also by disturbing the physiological gut microflora.

  1. Agricultural Waste as Sources for Mercury Adsorbents in Gas Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased emphasis on reduction of mercury emissions from coal fired electric power plants have resulted in environmental regulations that may in the future require application of activated carbons as mercury sorbents. The sorbents could be injected into the flue gas stream where it adsorbs the mer...

  2. Agricultural By-products as Mercury Adsorbents in Gas Applications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased emphasis on reduction of mercury emissions from coal fired electric power plans have resulted in environmental regulations that may in the future require application of activated carbons as mercury sorbents. The sorbents could be injected into the flue gas stream where is adsorbs the merc...

  3. EFFECTS OF FLUE GAS CONSTITUENTS ON MERCURY SPECIATION. (R827649)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Beginning with the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, there has been considerable interest in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. This past year, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued both the Mercury Study Report to Congress and the Study of Hazardous ...

  4. PATTERNS OF MERCURY DEPOSITION AND CONCENTRATION IN NORTHEASTERN NORTH AMERICA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from 13 NADP/MDN monitoring sites (1996 -- 2002) and the Underhill (VT) event-based monitoring site (1993 -- 2002) were evaluated for spatial and temporal trends. Recent regional reductions of mercury emissions were not reflected in the mercury concentration or deposition d...

  5. Ten years of mercury measurement at urban and industrial air quality monitoring stations in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Richard J. C.; Goddard, Sharon L.; Butterfield, David M.; Brown, Andrew S.; Robins, Chris; Mustoe, Chantal L.; McGhee, Elizabeth A.

    2015-05-01

    Concentrations and trends from a decade of measurements of total gaseous mercury and particulate phase mercury at a number of monitoring stations across the UK are presented. Both emissions and ambient concentrations of mercury in the UK have continued to fall slightly during the measurement period despite already being at historically low levels. The median UK concentration of total gaseous mercury recorded in recent years was around 2.0 ng/m3. Small urban increments of about 0.4 ng/m3 above background concentrations were noted, with larger increments above the background only observed close to industrial point sources. The total gaseous mercury to particulate phase mercury ratio was large across the UK - indicating the dominance of the gaseous mercury in the atmosphere - and was observed to be larger at background and urban locations than at industrial sites, as a result of higher relative particulate phase mercury concentrations close to primary emissions point sources.

  6. SORPTION OF MERCURY SPECIES BY ACTIVATED CARBONS AND CALCIUM-BASES SORBENTS: EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE, MERCURY CONCENTRATION AND ACID GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bench-scale studies of mercury/sorbent reactions were conducted to understand mechanistic limitations of field-scale attempts to reduce emissions of mercury from combustion processes. The effects of temperature (60 - 140 degrees C), sulfur dioxide (SO2, 1000 ppm ), hydrogen chlor...

  7. A new method for mercury removal.

    PubMed

    Essa, Ashraf M M; Macaskie, Lynne E; Brown, Nigel L

    2005-11-01

    A method is described for the removal of mercury from solution by using the off-gas produced from aerobic cultures of Klebsiella pneumoniae M426. Cells growing in Hg-supplemented medium produced a black precipitate containing mercury and sulphur. The ratio of Hg:S was determined as approximately 1:1 by analysis using proton-induced X-ray emission, suggesting precipitation of HgS within the culture. The outlet gases produced by a mercury-unsupplemented aerated culture were bubbled into an external chamber supplemented with up to 10 mg HgCl(2)/ml. A yellowish-white precipitate formed, corresponding to 99% removal of the mercury from solution within 120 min. Energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis showed that this metal precipitate consisted of mercury, carbon and sulphur. Formation of mercury carbonate was discounted since similar precipitation occurred at pH 2 and no oxygen was detected in the solid, which gave an X-ray powder pattern suggesting an amorphous material, with no evidence of HgS. Precipitation of mercury with a volatile organosulphur compound is suggested. Bio-precipitation of heavy metals by using culture off-gas is a useful approach because it can be used with concentrated or physiologically incompatible solutions. Since the metal precipitate is kept separate from the bacterial biomass, it can be managed independently.

  8. Multiline operation of mercury halide lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Kushawaha, M.; Mahmood, M.

    1988-01-01

    Emission spectrum of the (B-X) band system of HgX radicals (X=chlorine, bromine, iodine) was observed by passing electrical discharge through flowing vapors of mercury halides. The emission intensity of the most intense band of the (B-X) system of these radicals was observed to decrease in the presence of other mercury halide vapors at temperatures higher than 130C. Laser action was observed from the (B-X) transition of mercurous chloride, mercurous bromide, and mercurous iodide radicals by electrical discharge pumping of mercuric chloride, mercuric bromide and mercuric iodide vapors individually.

  9. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart IIIii of... - Required Elements of Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans 5 Table 5 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII... and Cell Room Monitoring Plans Your Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement Plan required by §...

  10. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart IIIii of... - Required Elements of Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans 5 Table 5 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII... and Cell Room Monitoring Plans Your Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement Plan required by §...

  11. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart IIIii of... - Required Elements of Floor-Level Mercury Vapor Measurement and Cell Room Monitoring Plans

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01