Elnashaie, S S; Elrifaie, M A; Ibrahim, G; Badra, G
1983-12-01
In this paper we concentrate our attention on the stability and transient behavior of the isothermal system (CSTR) with a substrate-inhibited enzyme reaction producing hydrogen ions. Our investigation covers the region of multiple steady states uncovered previously (1) (ordinary hysteresis and isola). We investigate the local stability characteristics of the different steady states, the effect of the initial condition on the transient behavior and the response of the system to feed disturbances of various magnitudes and durations.
French, Jarrod B; Cen, Yana; Vrablik, Tracy L; Xu, Ping; Allen, Eleanor; Hanna-Rose, Wendy; Sauve, Anthony A
2010-12-14
Nicotinamidases are metabolic enzymes that hydrolyze nicotinamide to nicotinic acid. These enzymes are widely distributed across biology, with examples found encoded in the genomes of Mycobacteria, Archaea, Eubacteria, Protozoa, yeast, and invertebrates, but there are none found in mammals. Although recent structural work has improved our understanding of these enzymes, their catalytic mechanism is still not well understood. Recent data show that nicotinamidases are required for the growth and virulence of several pathogenic microbes. The enzymes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster, and Caenorhabditis elegans regulate life span in their respective organisms, consistent with proposed roles in the regulation of NAD(+) metabolism and organismal aging. In this work, the steady state kinetic parameters of nicotinamidase enzymes from C. elegans, Sa. cerevisiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae (a pathogen responsible for human pneumonia), Borrelia burgdorferi (the pathogen that causes Lyme disease), and Plasmodium falciparum (responsible for most human malaria) are reported. Nicotinamidases are generally efficient catalysts with steady state k(cat) values typically exceeding 1 s(-1). The K(m) values for nicotinamide are low and in the range of 2 -110 μM. Nicotinaldehyde was determined to be a potent competitive inhibitor of these enzymes, binding in the low micromolar to low nanomolar range for all nicotinamidases tested. A variety of nicotinaldehyde derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors in kinetic assays. Inhibitions are consistent with reaction of the universally conserved catalytic Cys on each enzyme with the aldehyde carbonyl carbon to form a thiohemiacetal complex that is stabilized by a conserved oxyanion hole. The S. pneumoniae nicotinamidase can catalyze exchange of (18)O into the carboxy oxygens of nicotinic acid with H(2)(18)O. The collected data, along with kinetic analysis of several mutants, allowed us to propose a catalytic
SALT (System Analysis Language Translater): A steady state and dynamic systems code
Berry, G.; Geyer, H.
1983-01-01
SALT (System Analysis Language Translater) is a lumped parameter approach to system analysis which is totally modular. The modules are all precompiled and only the main program, which is generated by SALT, needs to be compiled for each unique system configuration. This is a departure from other lumped parameter codes where all models are written by MACROS and then compiled for each unique configuration, usually after all of the models are lumped together and sorted to eliminate undetermined variables. The SALT code contains a robust and sophisticated steady-sate finder (non-linear equation solver), optimization capability and enhanced GEAR integration scheme which makes use of sparsity and algebraic constraints. The SALT systems code has been used for various technologies. The code was originally developed for open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) systems. It was easily extended to liquid metal MHD systems by simply adding the appropriate models and property libraries. Similarly, the model and property libraries were expanded to handle fuel cell systems, flue gas desulfurization systems, combined cycle gasification systems, fluidized bed combustion systems, ocean thermal energy conversion systems, geothermal systems, nuclear systems, and conventional coal-fired power plants. Obviously, the SALT systems code is extremely flexible to be able to handle all of these diverse systems. At present, the dynamic option has only been used for LMFBR nuclear power plants and geothermal power plants. However, it can easily be extended to other systems and can be used for analyzing control problems. 12 refs.
Steady-state kinetics and inhibition of anaerobically purified human homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase.
Veldhuizen, Edwin J A; Vaillancourt, Frédéric H; Whiting, Cheryl J; Hsiao, Marvin M-Y; Gingras, Geneviève; Xiao, Yufang; Tanguay, Robert M; Boukouvalas, John; Eltis, Lindsay D
2005-03-01
HGO (homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase; EC 1.13.11.5) catalyses the O2-dependent cleavage of HGA (homogentisate) to maleylacetoacetate in the catabolism of tyrosine. Anaerobic purification of heterologously expressed Fe(II)-containing human HGO yielded an enzyme preparation with a specific activity of 28.3+/- 0.6 micromol x min(-1) x mg(-1) (20 mM Mes, 80 mM NaCl, pH 6.2, 25 degrees C), which is almost twice that of the most active preparation described to date. Moreover, the addition of reducing agents or other additives did not increase the specific activity, in contrast with previous reports. The apparent specificity of HGO for HGA was highest at pH 6.2 and the steady-state cleavage of HGA fit a compulsory-order ternary-complex mechanism (K(m) value of 28.6+/-6.2 microM for HGA, K(m) value of 1240+/-160 microM for O2). Free HGO was subject to inactivation in the presence of O2 and during the steady-state cleavage of HGA. Both cases involved the oxidation of the active site Fe(II). 3-Cl HGA, a potential inhibitor of HGO, and its isosteric analogue, 3-Me HGO, were synthesized. At saturating substrate concentrations, HGO cleaved 3-Me and 3-Cl HGA 10 and 100 times slower than HGA respectively. The apparent specificity of HGO for HGA was approx. two orders of magnitude higher than for either 3-Me or 3-Cl HGA. Interestingly, 3-Cl HGA inactivated HGO only twice as rapidly as HGA. This contrasts with what has been observed in mechanistically related dioxygenases, which are rapidly inactivated by chlorinated substrate analogues, such as 3-hydroxyanthranilate dioxygenase by 4-Cl 3-hydroxyanthranilate.
Steady-state kinetics and inhibition of anaerobically purified human homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase
2004-01-01
HGO (homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase; EC 1.13.11.5) catalyses the O2-dependent cleavage of HGA (homogentisate) to maleylacetoacetate in the catabolism of tyrosine. Anaerobic purification of heterologously expressed Fe(II)-containing human HGO yielded an enzyme preparation with a specific activity of 28.3± 0.6 μmol·min−1·mg−1 (20 mM Mes, 80 mM NaCl, pH 6.2, 25 °C), which is almost twice that of the most active preparation described to date. Moreover, the addition of reducing agents or other additives did not increase the specific activity, in contrast with previous reports. The apparent specificity of HGO for HGA was highest at pH 6.2 and the steady-state cleavage of HGA fit a compulsory-order ternary-complex mechanism (Km value of 28.6±6.2 μM for HGA, Km value of 1240±160 μM for O2). Free HGO was subject to inactivation in the presence of O2 and during the steady-state cleavage of HGA. Both cases involved the oxidation of the active site Fe(II). 3-Cl HGA, a potential inhibitor of HGO, and its isosteric analogue, 3-Me HGO, were synthesized. At saturating substrate concentrations, HGO cleaved 3-Me and 3-Cl HGA 10 and 100 times slower than HGA respectively. The apparent specificity of HGO for HGA was approx. two orders of magnitude higher than for either 3-Me or 3-Cl HGA. Interestingly, 3-Cl HGA inactivated HGO only twice as rapidly as HGA. This contrasts with what has been observed in mechanistically related dioxygenases, which are rapidly inactivated by chlorinated substrate analogues, such as 3-hydroxyanthranilate dioxygenase by 4-Cl 3-hydroxyanthranilate. PMID:15479158
Steady-state inhibition model for the biodegradation of sulfonated amines in a packed bed reactor.
Juárez-Ramírez, Cleotilde; Galíndez-Mayer, Juvencio; Ruiz-Ordaz, Nora; Ramos-Monroy, Oswaldo; Santoyo-Tepole, Fortunata; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor
2015-05-25
Aromatic amines are important industrial products having in their molecular structure one or more aromatic rings. These are used as precursors for the synthesis of dyes, adhesives, pesticides, rubber, fertilizers and surfactants. The aromatic amines are common constituents of industrial effluents, generated mostly by the degradation of azo dyes. Several of them are a threat to human health because they can by toxic, allergenic, mutagenic or carcinogenic. The most common are benzenesulfonic amines, such as 4-ABS (4-aminobenzene sulfonic acid) and naphthalene sulfonic amines, such as 4-ANS (4-amino naphthalene sulfonic acid). Sometimes, the mixtures of toxic compounds are more toxic or inhibitory than the individual compounds, even for microorganisms capable of degrading them. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the degradation of the mixture 4-ANS plus 4-ABS by a bacterial community immobilized in fragments of volcanic stone, using a packed bed continuous reactor. In this reactor, the amines loading rates were varied from 5.5 up to 69 mg L(-1) h(-1). The removal of the amines was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and chemical oxygen demand. With this information, we have studied the substrate inhibition of the removal rate of the aromatic amines during the degradation of the mixture of sulfonated aromatic amines by the immobilized microorganisms. Experimental results were fitted to parabolic, hyperbolic and linear inhibition models. The model that best characterizes the inhibition of the specific degradation rate in the biofilm reactor was a parabolic model with values of RXM=58.15±7.95 mg (10(9) cells h)(-1), Ks=0.73±0.31 mg L(-1), Sm=89.14±5.43 mg L(-1) and the exponent m=5. From the microbial community obtained, six cultivable bacterial strains were isolated and identified by sequencing their 16S rDNA genes. The strains belong to the genera Variovorax, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Arthrobacter, Nocardioides and Microbacterium. This
Steady-state inhibition model for the biodegradation of sulfonated amines in a packed bed reactor.
Juárez-Ramírez, Cleotilde; Galíndez-Mayer, Juvencio; Ruiz-Ordaz, Nora; Ramos-Monroy, Oswaldo; Santoyo-Tepole, Fortunata; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor
2015-05-25
Aromatic amines are important industrial products having in their molecular structure one or more aromatic rings. These are used as precursors for the synthesis of dyes, adhesives, pesticides, rubber, fertilizers and surfactants. The aromatic amines are common constituents of industrial effluents, generated mostly by the degradation of azo dyes. Several of them are a threat to human health because they can by toxic, allergenic, mutagenic or carcinogenic. The most common are benzenesulfonic amines, such as 4-ABS (4-aminobenzene sulfonic acid) and naphthalene sulfonic amines, such as 4-ANS (4-amino naphthalene sulfonic acid). Sometimes, the mixtures of toxic compounds are more toxic or inhibitory than the individual compounds, even for microorganisms capable of degrading them. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the degradation of the mixture 4-ANS plus 4-ABS by a bacterial community immobilized in fragments of volcanic stone, using a packed bed continuous reactor. In this reactor, the amines loading rates were varied from 5.5 up to 69 mg L(-1) h(-1). The removal of the amines was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and chemical oxygen demand. With this information, we have studied the substrate inhibition of the removal rate of the aromatic amines during the degradation of the mixture of sulfonated aromatic amines by the immobilized microorganisms. Experimental results were fitted to parabolic, hyperbolic and linear inhibition models. The model that best characterizes the inhibition of the specific degradation rate in the biofilm reactor was a parabolic model with values of RXM=58.15±7.95 mg (10(9) cells h)(-1), Ks=0.73±0.31 mg L(-1), Sm=89.14±5.43 mg L(-1) and the exponent m=5. From the microbial community obtained, six cultivable bacterial strains were isolated and identified by sequencing their 16S rDNA genes. The strains belong to the genera Variovorax, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Arthrobacter, Nocardioides and Microbacterium. This
Roth, M Y; Dudley, R E; Hull, L; Leung, A; Christenson, P; Wang, C; Swerdloff, R; Amory, J K
2011-12-01
Oral testosterone undecanoate (TU) is used to treat testosterone deficiency; however, oral TU treatment elevates dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which may be associated with an increased risk of acne, male pattern baldness and prostate hyperplasia. Co-administration of 5α-reductase inhibitors with other formulations of oral testosterone suppresses DHT production and increases serum testosterone. We hypothesized that finasteride would increase serum testosterone and lower DHT during treatment with oral TU. Therefore, we studied the steady-state pharmacokinetics of oral TU, 200 mg equivalents of testosterone twice daily for 7 days, alone and with finasteride 0.5 and 1.0 mg po twice daily in an open-label, three-way crossover study in 11 young men with experimentally induced hypogonadism. On the seventh day of each dosing period, serum testosterone, DHT and oestradiol were measured at baseline and 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 13, 14, 16, 20 and 24 h after the morning dose. Serum testosterone and DHT were significantly increased into and above their normal ranges similarly by all three treatments. Co-administration of finasteride at 0.5 and 1.0 mg po twice daily had no significant effect on either serum testosterone or DHT. Oral TU differs from other formulations of oral testosterone in its response to concomitant inhibition of 5α-reductase, perhaps because of its unique lymphatic route of absorption. PMID:20969601
Kopp, E B; Miglietta, J J; Shrutkowski, A G; Shih, C K; Grob, P M; Skoog, M T
1991-01-01
Steady state kinetics and inhibition by a dipyridodiazepinone of the reverse transcriptase from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) were studied using a heteropolymeric RNA template with a sequence from the authentic initiation site on the HIV genome. For addition of the first deoxynucleotide to primer, kcat/KM is 0.05 (nM-min)-1 and KM is 10 nM. When all 4 deoxynucleotide triphosphates are present and processive synthesis occurs, catalysis is less efficient; kcat/KM = .0077 (nM-min)-1 and KM = 100 nM for dATP. These results are consistent with a rate determining conformation change involved in translocation of the enzyme along the template. Inhibition by the dipyridodiazepinone BI-RG-587 is noncompetitive with respect to both nucleotide and template-primer; this compound decreases Vmax but does not affect KM. Thus, this inhibitor binds to a site distinct from the substrate binding sites with Ki of 220 nM. Inhibition by BI-RG-587 results in a uniform decrease in amount of products of all lengths rather than a shift from longer to shorter products, suggesting the inhibitor does not affect processivity of reverse transcriptase. Images PMID:1711678
Thermodynamics of Stability of Nonequilibrium Steady States.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rastogi, R. P.; Shabd, Ram
1983-01-01
Presented is a concise and critical account of developments in nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The criterion for stability of nonequilibrium steady states is critically examined for consecutive and monomolecular triangular reactions, autocatalytic reactions, auto-inhibited reactions, and the Lotka-Volterra model. (JN)
Steady State Dense Gas Dispersion
1995-03-01
SLAB-LLNL is a steady-state one-dimensional program which calculates the atmospheric dispersion of a heavier than air gas that is continuously released at ground level. The model is based on the steady-state crosswind-averaged conservation equations of species, mass, energy, and momentum. It uses the air entrainment concept to account for the turbulent mixing of the gas cloud with the surrounding atmosphere and similarity profiles to determine the crosswind dependence.
Opposite responses of rabbit and human globin mRNAs to translational inhibition by cap analogues
Shakin, S.H.; Liebhaber, S.A.
1987-11-03
The translational efficiency of an mRNA may be determined at the step of translational initiation by the efficiency of its interaction with the cap binding protein complex. To further investigate the role of these interactions in translational control, the authors compare in vitro the relative sensitivities of rabbit and human ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-globin mRNAs to translational inhibition by cap analogues. They find that rabbit ..beta..-globin mRNA is more resistant to translational inhibition by cap analogues than rabbit ..cap alpha..-globin mRNA, while in contrast, human ..beta..-globin mRNA is more sensitive to cap analogue inhibition than human ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-globin mRNAs is unexpected as direct in vivo and in vitro comparisons of polysome profiles reveal parallel translational handling of the ..cap alpha..- and ..beta..-globin mRNAs from these two species. This discordance between the relative translational sensitivities of these mRNAs to cap analogues and their relative ribosome loading activities suggests that cap-dependent events may not be rate limiting in steady-state globin translation.
Venusian hydrology: Steady state reconsidered
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grinspoon, David H.
1992-01-01
In 1987, Grinspoon proposed that the data on hydrogen abundance, isotopic composition, and escape rate were consistent with the hypothesis that water on Venus might be in steady state rather than monotonic decline since the dawn of time. This conclusion was partially based on a derived water lifetime against nonthermal escape of approximately 10(exp 8) yr. De Bergh et al., preferring the earlier Pioneer Venus value of 200 ppm water to the significantly lower value detected by Bezard et al., found H2O lifetimes of greater than 10(exp 9) yr. Donahue and Hodges derived H2O lifetimes of 0.4-5 x 10 (exp 9) yr. Both these analyses used estimates of H escape flux between 0.4 x 10(exp 7) and 1 x 10(exp 7) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1) from Rodriguez et al. Yet in more recent Monte Carlo modeling, Hodges and Tinsley found an escape flux due to charge exchange with hot H(+) of 2.8 x 10(exp 7) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1). McElroy et al. estimated an escape flux of 8 x 10(exp 6) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1) from collisions with hot O produced by dissociative recombination of O2(+). Brace et al. estimated an escape flux of 5 x 10(exp 6) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1) from ion escape from the ionotail of Venus. The combined estimated escape flux from all these processes is approximately 4 x 10(exp 7) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1). The most sophisticated analysis to date of near-IR radiation from Venus' nightside reveals a water mixing ratio of approximately 30 ppm, suggesting a lifetime against escape for water of less than 10(exp 8) yr. Large uncertainties remain in these quantities, yet the data point toward a steady state. Further evaluation of these uncertainties, and new evolutionary modeling incorporating estimates of the outgassing rate from post-Magellan estimates of the volcanic resurfacing rate are presented.
Steady-State Thermodynamics of Langevin Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hatano, Takahiro; Sasa, Shin-Ichi
2001-04-01
We study Langevin dynamics describing nonequilibirum steady states. Employing the phenomenological framework of steady-state thermodynamics constructed by Oono and Paniconi [Prog. Theor. Phys. Suppl. 130, 29 (1998)], we find that the extended form of the second law which they proposed holds for transitions between steady states and that the Shannon entropy difference is related to the excess heat produced in an infinitely slow operation. A generalized version of the Jarzynski work relation plays an important role in our theory.
Steady State Tokamak Equilibria without Current Drive
Shaing, K.C.; Aydemir, A.Y.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; Miller, R.L.
1997-11-01
Steady state tokamak equilibria without current drive are found. This is made possible by including the potato bootstrap current close to the magnetic axis. Tokamaks with this class of equilibria do not need seed current or current drive, and are intrinsically steady state. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Multiple steady states in heterogeneous azeotropic distillation
Bekiaris, N.; Meski, G.A.; Morari, M.
1996-01-01
In this article, the authors study multiple steady states in ternary heterogeneous azeotropic distillation. They show that in the case of infinite reflux and an infinite number of trays, one can construct bifurcation diagrams on physical grounds with the distillate flow as the bifurcation parameter. Multiple steady states exist when the distillate flow varies nonmonotonically along the continuation path of the bifurcation diagram. The authors show how the distillate and bottom product paths can be located for tray or packed columns, with or without decanter and with different types of condenser and reboiler. They derive a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of these multiple steady states based on the geometry of the product paths. They also locate in the composition triangle the feed compositions that lead to these multiple steady states. They show that the prediction of the existence of multiple steady states in the case of infinite reflux and an infinite number of trays has relevant implications for columns operating at finite reflux and with a finite number of trays.
Quantum computing with steady state spin currents
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sutton, Brian M.
Many approaches to quantum computing use spatially confined qubits in the presence of dynamic fields to perform computation. These approaches are contrasted with proposals using mobile qubits in the presence of static fields. In this thesis, steady state quantum computing using mobile electrons is explored using numerical modeling. Firstly, a foundational introduction to the case of spatially confined qubits embodied via quantum dots is provided. A collection of universal gates implemented with dynamic fields is described using simulations. These gates are combined to implement a five-qubit Grover search to provide further insight on the time-dependent field approach. Secondly, the quantum dot description is contrasted with quantum computing using steady state spin currents. Leveraging the Non-Equilibrium Greens Function formalism to perform numerical simulations, the quantum aspects of steady state spin currents are explored by revisiting the Stern-Gerlach experiment using spin-polarized contacts on a one-dimensional channel. After demonstrating the quantum nature of mobile electrons at steady state, arbitrary single qubit operations using static fields are explored. The model is further extended to incorporate two-qubit interactions to realize the square root of SWAP gate. The two-qubit CNOT gate is used to prepare a Bell state, which is read via quantum state tomography. Finally, Grover's search is revisited to explore the performance benefits of steady state quantum computing. The described multi-particle model is applicable to mobile qubit quantum computing proposals leveraging synchronized electron transport in static fields to perform quantum computing.
Practical steady-state enzyme kinetics.
Lorsch, Jon R
2014-01-01
Enzymes are key components of most biological processes. Characterization of enzymes is therefore frequently required during the study of biological systems. Steady-state kinetics provides a simple and rapid means of assessing the substrate specificity of an enzyme. When combined with site-directed mutagenesis (see Site-Directed Mutagenesis), it can be used to probe the roles of particular amino acids in the enzyme in substrate recognition and catalysis. Effects of interaction partners and posttranslational modifications can also be assessed using steady-state kinetics. This overview explains the general principles of steady-state enzyme kinetics experiments in a practical, rather than theoretical, way. Any biochemistry textbook will have a section on the theory of Michaelis-Menten kinetics, including derivations of the relevant equations. No specific enzymatic assay is described here, although a method for monitoring product formation or substrate consumption over time (an assay) is required to perform the experiments described.
Steady state response of unsymmetrically laminated plates
Hosokawa, Kenji; Kawashima, Katsuya; Sakata, Toshiyuki
1995-11-01
A numerical approach for analyzing the forced vibration problem of a symmetrically laminated FRP (fiber reinforced plastic) composite plate was proposed by the authors. In the present paper, this approach is modified for application to an unsymmetrically laminated FRP composite plate. Numerical calculations are carried out for the clamped antisymmetrically laminated rectangular and elliptical plates which are a kind of unsymmetrically laminated plate. Then,, the effects of the lamina material and the fiber orientation angle on the steady state response are discussed. Furthermore, it is investigated that what structural damping factor is most influenced on the steady state response of an antisymmetrically laminated plate.
Steady-state inductive spheromak operation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janos, A. C.; Jardin, S. C.; Yamada, M.
1985-02-01
The inductively formed spheromak configuration (S-1) can be maintained in a highly stable and controlled fashion. The method described eliminates the restriction to pulsed spheromak plasmas or the use of electrodes for steady-state operation, and, therefore, is a reactor-relevant formation and sustainment method.
Steady-state inductive spheromak operation
Janos, Alan C.; Jardin, Stephen C.; Yamada, Masaaki
1987-01-01
The inductively formed spheromak plasma can be maintained in a highly stable and controlled fashion. Steady-state operation is obtained by forming the plasma in the linked mode, then oscillating the poloidal and toroidal fields such that they have different phases. Preferably, the poloidal and magnetic fields are 90.degree. out of phase.
The Politics of the Steady State
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Taylor, Charles
1978-01-01
A steady state society has limits pertaining to population size, non-renewable resources, and production which emits heat or substances into soil, water, or the atmosphere. Respecting these limits means renouncing exponential quantitative growth and accepting a universally available consumption standard. (SW)
Steady-state inductive spheromak operation
Janos, A.C.; Jardin, S.C.; Yamada, M.
1985-02-20
The inductively formed spheromak configuration (S-1) can be maintained in a highly stable and controlled fashion. The method described eliminates the restriction to pulsed spheromak plasmas or the use of electrodes for steady-state operation, and, therefore, is a reactor-relevant formation and sustainment method.
Johnston, Matthew D
2015-06-01
It has been recently observed that the dynamical properties of mass action systems arising from many models of biochemical reaction networks can be characterized by considering the corresponding properties of a related generalized mass action system. The correspondence process known as network translation in particular has been shown to be useful in characterizing a system's steady states. In this paper, we further develop the theory of network translation with particular focus on a subclass of translations known as improper translations. For these translations, we derive conditions on the network topology of the translated network which are sufficient to guarantee the original and translated systems share the same steady states. We then present a mixed-integer linear programming algorithm capable of determining whether a mass action system can be corresponded to a generalized system through the process of network translation.
Steady state compact toroidal plasma production
Turner, William C.
1986-01-01
Apparatus and method for maintaining steady state compact toroidal plasmas. A compact toroidal plasma is formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun and held in close proximity to the gun electrodes by applied magnetic fields or magnetic fields produced by image currents in conducting walls. Voltage supply means maintains a constant potential across the electrodes producing an increasing magnetic helicity which drives the plasma away from a minimum energy state. The plasma globally relaxes to a new minimum energy state, conserving helicity according to Taylor's relaxation hypothesis, and injecting net helicity into the core of the compact toroidal plasma. Controlling the voltage so as to inject net helicity at a predetermined rate based on dissipative processes maintains or increases the compact toroidal plasma in a time averaged steady state mode.
Variational methods in steady state diffusion problems
Lee, C.E.; Fan, W.C.P.; Bratton, R.L.
1983-01-01
Classical variational techniques are used to obtain accurate solutions to the multigroup multiregion one dimensional steady state neutron diffusion equation. Analytic solutions are constructed for benchmark verification. Functionals with cubic trial functions and conservational lagrangian constraints are exhibited and compared with nonconservational functionals with respect to neutron balance and to relative flux and current at interfaces. Excellent agreement of the conservational functionals using cubic trial functions is obtained in comparison with analytic solutions.
On Typicality in Nonequilibrium Steady States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evans, Denis J.; Williams, Stephen R.; Searles, Debra J.; Rondoni, Lamberto
2016-08-01
From the statistical mechanical viewpoint, relaxation of macroscopic systems and response theory rest on a notion of typicality, according to which the behavior of single macroscopic objects is given by appropriate ensembles: ensemble averages of observable quantities represent the measurements performed on single objects, because " almost all" objects share the same fate. In the case of non-dissipative dynamics and relaxation toward equilibrium states, " almost all" is referred to invariant probability distributions that are absolutely continuous with respect to the Lebesgue measure. In other words, the collection of initial micro-states (single systems) that do not follow the ensemble is supposed to constitute a set of vanishing, phase space volume. This approach is problematic in the case of dissipative dynamics and relaxation to nonequilibrium steady states, because the relevant invariant distributions attribute probability 1 to sets of zero volume, while evolution commonly begins in equilibrium states, i.e., in sets of full phase space volume. We consider the relaxation of classical, thermostatted particle systems to nonequilibrium steady states. We show that the dynamical condition known as Ω T-mixing is necessary and sufficient for relaxation of ensemble averages to steady state values. Moreover, we find that the condition known as weak T-mixing applied to smooth observables is sufficient for ensemble relaxation to be independent of the initial ensemble. Lastly, we show that weak T-mixing provides a notion of typicality for dissipative dynamics that is based on the (non-invariant) Lebesgue measure, and that we call physical ergodicity.
Steady States and Universal Conductance in a Quenched Luttinger Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Langmann, Edwin; Lebowitz, Joel L.; Mastropietro, Vieri; Moosavi, Per
2016-05-01
We obtain exact analytical results for the evolution of a 1+1-dimensional Luttinger model prepared in a domain wall initial state, i.e., a state with different densities on its left and right sides. Such an initial state is modeled as the ground state of a translation invariant Luttinger Hamiltonian {H_{λ}} with short range non-local interaction and different chemical potentials to the left and right of the origin. The system evolves for time t > 0 via a Hamiltonian {H_{λ'}} which differs from {H_{λ}} by the strength of the interaction. Asymptotically in time, as {t to &infty}; , after taking the thermodynamic limit, the system approaches a translation invariant steady state. This final steady state carries a current I and has an effective chemical potential difference {μ+ - μ-} between right- (+) and left- (-) moving fermions obtained from the two-point correlation function. Both I and {μ+ - μ-} depend on {λ} and {λ'} . Only for the case {λ = λ' = 0} does {μ+ - μ-} equal the difference in the initial left and right chemical potentials. Nevertheless, the Landauer conductance for the final state, {G = I/(μ+ - μ-)} , has a universal value equal to the conductance quantum {e^2/h} for the spinless case.
An FGFR1-SPRY2 Signaling Axis Limits Basal Cell Proliferation in the Steady-State Airway Epithelium
Balasooriya, Gayan I.; Johnson, Jo-Anne; Basson, M. Albert; Rawlins, Emma L.
2016-01-01
Summary The steady-state airway epithelium has a low rate of stem cell turnover but can nevertheless mount a rapid proliferative response following injury. This suggests a mechanism to restrain proliferation at steady state. One such mechanism has been identified in skeletal muscle in which pro-proliferative FGFR1 signaling is antagonized by SPRY1 to maintain satellite cell quiescence. Surprisingly, we found that deletion of Fgfr1 or Spry2 in basal cells of the adult mouse trachea caused an increase in steady-state proliferation. We show that in airway basal cells, SPRY2 is post-translationally modified in response to FGFR1 signaling. This allows SPRY2 to inhibit intracellular signaling downstream of other receptor tyrosine kinases and restrain basal cell proliferation. An FGFR1-SPRY2 signaling axis has previously been characterized in cell lines in vitro. We now demonstrate an in vivo biological function of this interaction and thus identify an active signaling mechanism that maintains quiescence in the airway epithelium. PMID:27046834
Intense steady state electron beam generator
Hershcovitch, A.; Kovarik, V.J.; Prelec, K.
1990-07-17
An intense, steady state, low emittance electron beam generator is formed by operating a hollow cathode discharge plasma source at critical levels in combination with an extraction electrode and a target electrode that are operable to extract a beam of fast primary electrons from the plasma source through a negatively biased grid that is critically operated to repel bulk electrons toward the plasma source while allowing the fast primary electrons to move toward the target in the desired beam that can be successfully transported for relatively large distances, such as one or more meters away from the plasma source. 2 figs.
Intense steady state electron beam generator
Hershcovitch, Ady; Kovarik, Vincent J.; Prelec, Krsto
1990-01-01
An intense, steady state, low emittance electron beam generator is formed by operating a hollow cathode discharge plasma source at critical levels in combination with an extraction electrode and a target electrode that are operable to extract a beam of fast primary electrons from the plasma source through a negatively biased grid that is critically operated to repel bulk electrons toward the plasma source while allowing the fast primary electrons to move toward the target in the desired beam that can be successfully transported for relatively large distances, such as one or more meters away from the plasma source.
Intensity fluctuations in steady-state superradiance
Meiser, D.; Holland, M. J.
2010-06-15
Alkaline-earth-metal-like atoms with ultranarrow optical transitions enable superradiance in steady state. The emitted light promises to have an unprecedented stability with a linewidth as narrow as a few millihertz. In order to evaluate the potential usefulness of this light source as an ultrastable oscillator in clock and precision metrology applications, it is crucial to understand the noise properties of this device. In this paper, we present a detailed analysis of the intensity fluctuations by means of Monte Carlo simulations and semiclassical approximations. We find that the light exhibits bunching below threshold, is to a good approximation coherent in the superradiant regime, and is chaotic above the second threshold.
Steady state stresses in ribbon parachute canopies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garrard, W. L.; Wu, K. Y.; Muramoto, K. K.
1984-01-01
An experimental study of the steady state stresses in model ribbon parachute canopies is presented. The distribution of circumferential stress was measured in the horizontal ribbons of two parachutes using Omega sensors. Canopy pressure distributions and overall drag were also measured. Testing was conducted in the University of Minnesota Low-Speed Wind Tunnel at dynamic pressures ranging from 1.0 to 1.5 inches of water. The stresses in the parachute canopies were calculated using the parachute structural analysis code, CANO. It was found that the general shape of the measured and calculated stress distributions was fairly similar; however, the measured stresses were somewhat less than the calculated stresses.
Steady-state FRC Maintenance using RMF
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Houyang; Hoffman, Alan; Brooks, Bob; Pietrzyk, Adam
2001-10-01
For the first time, steady state, flux confined FRCs have been produced at TCS using non-inductive RMF current drive. Up to 60 kA toroidal current has been generated with an RMF vacuum field strength of about 60 G. These experiments differ from steady-state rotamaks in that the FRCs are similar to those formed in theta-pinch devices, that is elongated and confined inside a flux conserver. Experimental results from initial high RMF frequency ( ω = 10^6 rad/s) experiments have relatively low ratio of equilibrium line current, I'_rev = 2 B_e/μ0 to possible synchronous current, I'_sync = 0.5 n_eeωr_s^2, and the current is primarily edge driven, resulting in relatively low current drive efficiency and unsteady behavior. When the RMF frequency was lowered to ω = 0.5x10^6 rad/s, the parameter ζ = I'_rev /I'_sync increased, allowing higher density (up to 3x10^19 m-3) FRCs to be produced. The plasma temperature cannot be increased much above 50 eV in these purely RMF formed FRCs, and the cross-field resistivity is high. Future experiments will start with hot, relatively low resistivity, theta pinch formed FRCs to explore RMF current drive in a more interesting regime.
An Intuitive Approach to Steady-State Kinetics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Raines, Ronald T.; Hansen, David E.
1988-01-01
Attempts to provide an intuitive understanding of steady state kinetics. Discusses the meaning of steady state and uses free energy profiles to illustrate and follow complex kinetic and thermodynamic relationships. Provides examples with explanations. (MVL)
Rosenblatt, Marcus; Timmer, Jens; Kaschek, Daniel
2016-01-01
Ordinary differential equation models have become a wide-spread approach to analyze dynamical systems and understand underlying mechanisms. Model parameters are often unknown and have to be estimated from experimental data, e.g., by maximum-likelihood estimation. In particular, models of biological systems contain a large number of parameters. To reduce the dimensionality of the parameter space, steady-state information is incorporated in the parameter estimation process. For non-linear models, analytical steady-state calculation typically leads to higher-order polynomial equations for which no closed-form solutions can be obtained. This can be circumvented by solving the steady-state equations for kinetic parameters, which results in a linear equation system with comparatively simple solutions. At the same time multiplicity of steady-state solutions is avoided, which otherwise is problematic for optimization. When solved for kinetic parameters, however, steady-state constraints tend to become negative for particular model specifications, thus, generating new types of optimization problems. Here, we present an algorithm based on graph theory that derives non-negative, analytical steady-state expressions by stepwise removal of cyclic dependencies between dynamical variables. The algorithm avoids multiple steady-state solutions by construction. We show that our method is applicable to most common classes of biochemical reaction networks containing inhibition terms, mass-action and Hill-type kinetic equations. Comparing the performance of parameter estimation for different analytical and numerical methods of incorporating steady-state information, we show that our approach is especially well-tailored to guarantee a high success rate of optimization. PMID:27243005
Rosenblatt, Marcus; Timmer, Jens; Kaschek, Daniel
2016-01-01
Ordinary differential equation models have become a wide-spread approach to analyze dynamical systems and understand underlying mechanisms. Model parameters are often unknown and have to be estimated from experimental data, e.g., by maximum-likelihood estimation. In particular, models of biological systems contain a large number of parameters. To reduce the dimensionality of the parameter space, steady-state information is incorporated in the parameter estimation process. For non-linear models, analytical steady-state calculation typically leads to higher-order polynomial equations for which no closed-form solutions can be obtained. This can be circumvented by solving the steady-state equations for kinetic parameters, which results in a linear equation system with comparatively simple solutions. At the same time multiplicity of steady-state solutions is avoided, which otherwise is problematic for optimization. When solved for kinetic parameters, however, steady-state constraints tend to become negative for particular model specifications, thus, generating new types of optimization problems. Here, we present an algorithm based on graph theory that derives non-negative, analytical steady-state expressions by stepwise removal of cyclic dependencies between dynamical variables. The algorithm avoids multiple steady-state solutions by construction. We show that our method is applicable to most common classes of biochemical reaction networks containing inhibition terms, mass-action and Hill-type kinetic equations. Comparing the performance of parameter estimation for different analytical and numerical methods of incorporating steady-state information, we show that our approach is especially well-tailored to guarantee a high success rate of optimization. PMID:27243005
Rosenblatt, Marcus; Timmer, Jens; Kaschek, Daniel
2016-01-01
Ordinary differential equation models have become a wide-spread approach to analyze dynamical systems and understand underlying mechanisms. Model parameters are often unknown and have to be estimated from experimental data, e.g., by maximum-likelihood estimation. In particular, models of biological systems contain a large number of parameters. To reduce the dimensionality of the parameter space, steady-state information is incorporated in the parameter estimation process. For non-linear models, analytical steady-state calculation typically leads to higher-order polynomial equations for which no closed-form solutions can be obtained. This can be circumvented by solving the steady-state equations for kinetic parameters, which results in a linear equation system with comparatively simple solutions. At the same time multiplicity of steady-state solutions is avoided, which otherwise is problematic for optimization. When solved for kinetic parameters, however, steady-state constraints tend to become negative for particular model specifications, thus, generating new types of optimization problems. Here, we present an algorithm based on graph theory that derives non-negative, analytical steady-state expressions by stepwise removal of cyclic dependencies between dynamical variables. The algorithm avoids multiple steady-state solutions by construction. We show that our method is applicable to most common classes of biochemical reaction networks containing inhibition terms, mass-action and Hill-type kinetic equations. Comparing the performance of parameter estimation for different analytical and numerical methods of incorporating steady-state information, we show that our approach is especially well-tailored to guarantee a high success rate of optimization.
Inhibiting cytosolic translation and autophagy improves health in mitochondrial disease
Peng, Min; Ostrovsky, Julian; Kwon, Young Joon; Polyak, Erzsebet; Licata, Joseph; Tsukikawa, Mai; Marty, Eric; Thomas, Jeffrey; Felix, Carolyn A.; Xiao, Rui; Zhang, Zhe; Gasser, David L.; Argon, Yair; Falk, Marni J.
2015-01-01
Mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) disease therapies directed at intra-mitochondrial pathology are largely ineffective. Recognizing that RC dysfunction invokes pronounced extra-mitochondrial transcriptional adaptations, particularly involving dysregulated translation, we hypothesized that translational dysregulation is itself contributing to the pathophysiology of RC disease. Here, we investigated the activities, and effects from direct inhibition, of a central translational regulator (mTORC1) and its downstream biological processes in diverse genetic and pharmacological models of RC disease. Our data identify novel mechanisms underlying the cellular pathogenesis of RC dysfunction, including the combined induction of proteotoxic stress, the ER stress response and autophagy. mTORC1 inhibition with rapamycin partially ameliorated renal disease in B6.Pdss2kd/kd mice with complexes I–III/II–III deficiencies, improved viability and mitochondrial physiology in gas-1(fc21) nematodes with complex I deficiency, and rescued viability across a variety of RC-inhibited human cells. Even more effective was probucol, a PPAR-activating anti-lipid drug that we show also inhibits mTORC1. However, directly inhibiting mTORC1-regulated downstream activities yielded the most pronounced and sustained benefit. Partial inhibition of translation by cycloheximide, or of autophagy by lithium chloride, rescued viability, preserved cellular respiratory capacity and induced mitochondrial translation and biogenesis. Cycloheximide also ameliorated proteotoxic stress via a uniquely selective reduction of cytosolic protein translation. RNAseq-based transcriptome profiling of treatment effects in gas-1(fc21) mutants provide further evidence that these therapies effectively restored altered translation and autophagy pathways toward that of wild-type animals. Overall, partially inhibiting cytosolic translation and autophagy offer novel treatment strategies to improve health across the diverse
Maximal lactate steady state in Judo
de Azevedo, Paulo Henrique Silva Marques; Pithon-Curi, Tania; Zagatto, Alessandro Moura; Oliveira, João; Perez, Sérgio
2014-01-01
Summary Background: the purpose of this study was to verify the validity of respiratory compensation threshold (RCT) measured during a new single judo specific incremental test (JSIT) for aerobic demand evaluation. Methods: to test the validity of the new test, the JSIT was compared with Maximal Lactate Steady State (MLSS), which is the gold standard procedure for aerobic demand measuring. Eight well-trained male competitive judo players (24.3 ± 7.9 years; height of 169.3 ± 6.7cm; fat mass of 12.7 ± 3.9%) performed a maximal incremental specific test for judo to assess the RCT and performed on 30-minute MLSS test, where both tests were performed mimicking the UchiKomi drills. Results: the intensity at RCT measured on JSIT was not significantly different compared to MLSS (p=0.40). In addition, it was observed high and significant correlation between MLSS and RCT (r=0.90, p=0.002), as well as a high agreement. Conclusions: RCT measured during JSIT is a valid procedure to measure the aerobic demand, respecting the ecological validity of Judo. PMID:25332923
Steady State Vapor Bubble in Pool Boiling.
Zou, An; Chanana, Ashish; Agrawal, Amit; Wayner, Peter C; Maroo, Shalabh C
2016-02-03
Boiling, a dynamic and multiscale process, has been studied for several decades; however, a comprehensive understanding of the process is still lacking. The bubble ebullition cycle, which occurs over millisecond time-span, makes it extremely challenging to study near-surface interfacial characteristics of a single bubble. Here, we create a steady-state vapor bubble that can remain stable for hours in a pool of sub-cooled water using a femtosecond laser source. The stability of the bubble allows us to measure the contact-angle and perform in-situ imaging of the contact-line region and the microlayer, on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces and in both degassed and regular (with dissolved air) water. The early growth stage of vapor bubble in degassed water shows a completely wetted bubble base with the microlayer, and the bubble does not depart from the surface due to reduced liquid pressure in the microlayer. Using experimental data and numerical simulations, we obtain permissible range of maximum heat transfer coefficient possible in nucleate boiling and the width of the evaporating layer in the contact-line region. This technique of creating and measuring fundamental characteristics of a stable vapor bubble will facilitate rational design of nanostructures for boiling enhancement and advance thermal management in electronics.
Steady State Vapor Bubble in Pool Boiling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zou, An; Chanana, Ashish; Agrawal, Amit; Wayner, Peter C.; Maroo, Shalabh C.
2016-02-01
Boiling, a dynamic and multiscale process, has been studied for several decades; however, a comprehensive understanding of the process is still lacking. The bubble ebullition cycle, which occurs over millisecond time-span, makes it extremely challenging to study near-surface interfacial characteristics of a single bubble. Here, we create a steady-state vapor bubble that can remain stable for hours in a pool of sub-cooled water using a femtosecond laser source. The stability of the bubble allows us to measure the contact-angle and perform in-situ imaging of the contact-line region and the microlayer, on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces and in both degassed and regular (with dissolved air) water. The early growth stage of vapor bubble in degassed water shows a completely wetted bubble base with the microlayer, and the bubble does not depart from the surface due to reduced liquid pressure in the microlayer. Using experimental data and numerical simulations, we obtain permissible range of maximum heat transfer coefficient possible in nucleate boiling and the width of the evaporating layer in the contact-line region. This technique of creating and measuring fundamental characteristics of a stable vapor bubble will facilitate rational design of nanostructures for boiling enhancement and advance thermal management in electronics.
Steady State Vapor Bubble in Pool Boiling
Zou, An; Chanana, Ashish; Agrawal, Amit; Wayner, Peter C.; Maroo, Shalabh C.
2016-01-01
Boiling, a dynamic and multiscale process, has been studied for several decades; however, a comprehensive understanding of the process is still lacking. The bubble ebullition cycle, which occurs over millisecond time-span, makes it extremely challenging to study near-surface interfacial characteristics of a single bubble. Here, we create a steady-state vapor bubble that can remain stable for hours in a pool of sub-cooled water using a femtosecond laser source. The stability of the bubble allows us to measure the contact-angle and perform in-situ imaging of the contact-line region and the microlayer, on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces and in both degassed and regular (with dissolved air) water. The early growth stage of vapor bubble in degassed water shows a completely wetted bubble base with the microlayer, and the bubble does not depart from the surface due to reduced liquid pressure in the microlayer. Using experimental data and numerical simulations, we obtain permissible range of maximum heat transfer coefficient possible in nucleate boiling and the width of the evaporating layer in the contact-line region. This technique of creating and measuring fundamental characteristics of a stable vapor bubble will facilitate rational design of nanostructures for boiling enhancement and advance thermal management in electronics. PMID:26837464
Steady state volcanism - Evidence from eruption histories of polygenetic volcanoes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wadge, G.
1982-01-01
Cumulative volcano volume curves are presented as evidence for steady-state behavior at certain volcanoes and to develop a model of steady-state volcanism. A minimum criteria of five eruptions over a year was chosen to characterize a steady-state volcano. The subsequent model features a constant head of magmatic pressure from a reservoir supplied from depth, a sawtooth curve produced by the magma arrivals or discharge from the subvolcanic reservoir, large volume eruptions with long repose periods, and conditions of nonsupply of magma. The behavior of Mts. Etna, Nyamuragira, and Kilauea are described and show continuous levels of plasma output resulting in cumulative volume increases. Further discussion is made of steady-state andesitic and dacitic volcanism, long term patterns of the steady state, and magma storage, and the lack of a sufficient number of steady-state volcanoes in the world is taken as evidence that further data is required for a comprehensive model.
CA_OPPUSST - Cantera OPUS Steady State
2005-03-01
The Cantera Opus Steady State (ca-opusst) applications solves steady reacting flow problems in opposed-flow geometries. It is a 1-0 application that represents axisymmetnc 3-0 physical systems that can be reduced via a similarity transformation to a 1-0 mathematical representation. The code contain solutions of the general dynamic equations for the particle distribution functions using a sectional model to describe the particle distribution function. Operators for particle nucleation, coagulation, condensation (i.e., growth/etching via reactions with themore » gas ambient), internal particle reactions. particle transport due to convection and due to molecular transport, are included in the particle general dynamics equation. Heat transport due to radiation exchange of the environment with particles in local thermal equilibrium to the surrounding gas will be included in the enthalpy conservation equation that is solved for the coupled gas! particle system in an upcoming version of the code due in June 2005. The codes use Cantera , a C++ Cal Tech code, for determination of gas phase species transport, reaction, and thermodynamics physical properties and source terms. The Codes use the Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator (CADS) package, a general library for aerosol modeling, to calculate properties and source terms for the aerosol general dynamics equation, including particle formation from gas phase reactions, particle surface chemistry (growth and oxidation), bulk particle chemistry, particle transport by Brownian diffusion, thermophoresis, and diffusiophoresis, and thermal radiative transport involving particles. Also included are post-processing programs, cajost and cajrof, to extract ascii data from binary output files to produce plots.« less
Structural analysis of kasugamycin inhibition of translation
Schuwirth, Barbara S; Day, J Michael; Hau, Cathy W; Janssen, Gary R; Dahlberg, Albert E; Cate, Jamie H Doudna; Vila-Sanjurjo, Antón
2008-01-01
The prokaryotic ribosome is an important target of antibiotic action. We determined the X-ray structure of the aminoglycoside kasugamycin (Ksg) in complex with the Escherichia coli 70S ribosome at 3.5-Å resolution. The structure reveals that the drug binds within the messenger RNA channel of the 30S subunit between the universally conserved G926 and A794 nucleotides in 16S ribosomal RNA, which are sites of Ksg resistance. To our surprise, Ksg resistance mutations do not inhibit binding of the drug to the ribosome. The present structural and biochemical results indicate that inhibition by Ksg and Ksg resistance are closely linked to the structure of the mRNA at the junction of the peptidyl-tRNA and exit-tRNA sites (P and E sites). PMID:16998486
The steady-state assumption in oscillating and growing systems.
Reimers, Alexandra-M; Reimers, Arne C
2016-10-01
The steady-state assumption, which states that the production and consumption of metabolites inside the cell are balanced, is one of the key aspects that makes an efficient analysis of genome-scale metabolic networks possible. It can be motivated from two different perspectives. In the time-scales perspective, we use the fact that metabolism is much faster than other cellular processes such as gene expression. Hence, the steady-state assumption is derived as a quasi-steady-state approximation of the metabolism that adapts to the changing cellular conditions. In this article we focus on the second perspective, stating that on the long run no metabolite can accumulate or deplete. In contrast to the first perspective it is not immediately clear how this perspective can be captured mathematically and what assumptions are required to obtain the steady-state condition. By presenting a mathematical framework based on the second perspective we demonstrate that the assumption of steady-state also applies to oscillating and growing systems without requiring quasi-steady-state at any time point. However, we also show that the average concentrations may not be compatible with the average fluxes. In summary, we establish a mathematical foundation for the steady-state assumption for long time periods that justifies its successful use in many applications. Furthermore, this mathematical foundation also pinpoints unintuitive effects in the integration of metabolite concentrations using nonlinear constraints into steady-state models for long time periods.
The steady-state assumption in oscillating and growing systems.
Reimers, Alexandra-M; Reimers, Arne C
2016-10-01
The steady-state assumption, which states that the production and consumption of metabolites inside the cell are balanced, is one of the key aspects that makes an efficient analysis of genome-scale metabolic networks possible. It can be motivated from two different perspectives. In the time-scales perspective, we use the fact that metabolism is much faster than other cellular processes such as gene expression. Hence, the steady-state assumption is derived as a quasi-steady-state approximation of the metabolism that adapts to the changing cellular conditions. In this article we focus on the second perspective, stating that on the long run no metabolite can accumulate or deplete. In contrast to the first perspective it is not immediately clear how this perspective can be captured mathematically and what assumptions are required to obtain the steady-state condition. By presenting a mathematical framework based on the second perspective we demonstrate that the assumption of steady-state also applies to oscillating and growing systems without requiring quasi-steady-state at any time point. However, we also show that the average concentrations may not be compatible with the average fluxes. In summary, we establish a mathematical foundation for the steady-state assumption for long time periods that justifies its successful use in many applications. Furthermore, this mathematical foundation also pinpoints unintuitive effects in the integration of metabolite concentrations using nonlinear constraints into steady-state models for long time periods. PMID:27363728
Steady states and stability in metabolic networks without regulation.
Ivanov, Oleksandr; van der Schaft, Arjan; Weissing, Franz J
2016-07-21
Metabolic networks are often extremely complex. Despite intensive efforts many details of these networks, e.g., exact kinetic rates and parameters of metabolic reactions, are not known, making it difficult to derive their properties. Considerable effort has been made to develop theory about properties of steady states in metabolic networks that are valid for any values of parameters. General results on uniqueness of steady states and their stability have been derived with specific assumptions on reaction kinetics, stoichiometry and network topology. For example, deep results have been obtained under the assumptions of mass-action reaction kinetics, continuous flow stirred tank reactors (CFSTR), concordant reaction networks and others. Nevertheless, a general theory about properties of steady states in metabolic networks is still missing. Here we make a step further in the quest for such a theory. Specifically, we study properties of steady states in metabolic networks with monotonic kinetics in relation to their stoichiometry (simple and general) and the number of metabolites participating in every reaction (single or many). Our approach is based on the investigation of properties of the Jacobian matrix. We show that stoichiometry, network topology, and the number of metabolites that participate in every reaction have a large influence on the number of steady states and their stability in metabolic networks. Specifically, metabolic networks with single-substrate-single-product reactions have disconnected steady states, whereas in metabolic networks with multiple-substrates-multiple-product reactions manifolds of steady states arise. Metabolic networks with simple stoichiometry have either a unique globally asymptotically stable steady state or asymptotically stable manifolds of steady states. In metabolic networks with general stoichiometry the steady states are not always stable and we provide conditions for their stability. In order to demonstrate the biological
Steady states and stability in metabolic networks without regulation.
Ivanov, Oleksandr; van der Schaft, Arjan; Weissing, Franz J
2016-07-21
Metabolic networks are often extremely complex. Despite intensive efforts many details of these networks, e.g., exact kinetic rates and parameters of metabolic reactions, are not known, making it difficult to derive their properties. Considerable effort has been made to develop theory about properties of steady states in metabolic networks that are valid for any values of parameters. General results on uniqueness of steady states and their stability have been derived with specific assumptions on reaction kinetics, stoichiometry and network topology. For example, deep results have been obtained under the assumptions of mass-action reaction kinetics, continuous flow stirred tank reactors (CFSTR), concordant reaction networks and others. Nevertheless, a general theory about properties of steady states in metabolic networks is still missing. Here we make a step further in the quest for such a theory. Specifically, we study properties of steady states in metabolic networks with monotonic kinetics in relation to their stoichiometry (simple and general) and the number of metabolites participating in every reaction (single or many). Our approach is based on the investigation of properties of the Jacobian matrix. We show that stoichiometry, network topology, and the number of metabolites that participate in every reaction have a large influence on the number of steady states and their stability in metabolic networks. Specifically, metabolic networks with single-substrate-single-product reactions have disconnected steady states, whereas in metabolic networks with multiple-substrates-multiple-product reactions manifolds of steady states arise. Metabolic networks with simple stoichiometry have either a unique globally asymptotically stable steady state or asymptotically stable manifolds of steady states. In metabolic networks with general stoichiometry the steady states are not always stable and we provide conditions for their stability. In order to demonstrate the biological
Enhanced control of saddle steady states of dynamical systems.
Tamaševičius, Arūnas; Tamaševičiūtė, Elena; Mykolaitis, Gytis; Bumelienė, Skaidra
2013-09-01
An adaptive feedback technique for stabilizing a priori unknown saddle steady states of dynamical systems is described. The method is based on an unstable low-pass filter combined with a stable low-pass filter. The cutoff frequencies of both filters can be set relatively high. This allows considerable increase in the rate of convergence to the steady state. We demonstrate numerically and experimentally that the technique is robust to the influence of unknown external forces, which change the position of the steady state in the phase space. Experiments have been performed using electrical circuits imitating the damped Duffing-Holmes and chaotic Lindberg systems. PMID:24125322
Steady-state rate analysis: application to biological transport.
Wagg, J; Chapman, J B
1995-05-01
A novel method for defining the steady-state unidirectional rates of complex reactions has previously been developed (Wagg, 1988 Ph.D. Thesis, Monash University, Australia). This methodology is based upon the method of Wagg (1987, J. theor. Biol. 128, 375-385) for defining the steady-state unidirectional fluxes of chemical species through branched chemical, osmotic and chemiosmotic reactions. It offers a number of distinct advantages over existing approaches to steady-state rate analysis: it is relatively simple to apply to complex reactions and is readily amenable to computer-based application. The method is demonstrated by direct application to a number of hypothetical models for biological transport phenomena.
A Note on Equations for Steady-State Optimal Landscapes
Liu, H.H.
2010-06-15
Based on the optimality principle (that the global energy expenditure rate is at its minimum for a given landscape under steady state conditions) and calculus of variations, we have derived a group of partial differential equations for describing steady-state optimal landscapes without explicitly distinguishing between hillslopes and channel networks. Other than building on the well-established Mining's equation, this work does not rely on any empirical relationships (such as those relating hydraulic parameters to local slopes). Using additional constraints, we also theoretically demonstrate that steady-state water depth is a power function of local slope, which is consistent with field data.
Steady-state decoupling and design of linear multivariable systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thaler, G. J.
1974-01-01
A constructive criterion for decoupling the steady states of a linear time-invariant multivariable system is presented. This criterion consists of a set of inequalities which, when satisfied, will cause the steady states of a system to be decoupled. Stability analysis and a new design technique for such systems are given. A new and simple connection between single-loop and multivariable cases is found. These results are then applied to the compensation design for NASA STOL C-8A aircraft. Both steady-state decoupling and stability are justified through computer simulations.
Inhibition of insulin synthesis by cyproheptadine: effects on translation.
Hawkins, Belinda S; Fischer, Lawrence J
2004-06-01
The antihistaminic, antiserotonergic drug cyproheptadine (CPH) is known to inhibit insulin synthesis in vivo and in vitro. This inhibition of insulin synthesis occurs without a commensurate decrease in preproinsulin mRNA (PPImRNA) levels, suggesting a post-transcriptional mechanism of action. The goal of the present study was to investigate the direct effects of CPH on translation of PPImRNA in RINm5F cells. Results produced using a subcellular fractionation technique followed by real-time RT-PCR indicated that a 2-h 10 microM CPH treatment resulted in a decrease in the percentage of cellular PPImRNA associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) bound polysomes and increases in the percentages of translationally uninitiated and monoribosome-associated PPImRNA. These alterations in PPImRNA distribution were found to be concentration-dependent, chemical structure-specific, and reversible with a time course consistent with a previously reported CPH-induced inhibition of insulin synthesis. Further investigations to examine the possible effect of CPH on translation initiation were then undertaken by examining the phosphorylation state of the translation initiation factors eIF2alpha, eIF4E, and 4E-BP1 after CPH treatment. CPH (10 microM) treatment resulted in increased phosphorylation of eIF2alpha, and decreased phosphorylation of both eIF4E and 4E-BP1. These changes are all consistent with decreased initiation of translation. Taken together, these results suggest that the inhibition of insulin synthesis known to be elicited by CPH treatment of RINm5F cells and intact animals involves alterations of initiation factor phosphorylation leading to a decrease in insulin synthesis and of stored insulin in insulin-producing cells.
Einstein's steady-state theory: an abandoned model of the cosmos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac; McCann, Brendan; Nahm, Werner; Mitton, Simon
2014-09-01
We present a translation and analysis of an unpublished manuscript by Albert Einstein in which he attempted to construct a `steady-state' model of the universe. The manuscript, which appears to have been written in early 1931, demonstrates that Einstein once explored a cosmic model in which the mean density of matter in an expanding universe is maintained constant by the continuous formation of matter from empty space. This model is very different to previously known Einsteinian models of the cosmos (both static and dynamic) but anticipates the later steady-state cosmology of Hoyle, Bondi and Gold in some ways. We find that Einstein's steady-state model contains a fundamental flaw and suggest that it was abandoned for this reason. We also suggest that he declined to explore a more sophisticated version because he found such theories rather contrived. The manuscript is of historical interest because it reveals that Einstein debated between steady-state and evolving models of the cosmos decades before a similar debate took place in the cosmological community.
Steady-state simulations using weighted ensemble path sampling.
Bhatt, Divesh; Zhang, Bin W; Zuckerman, Daniel M
2010-07-01
We extend the weighted ensemble (WE) path sampling method to perform rigorous statistical sampling for systems at steady state. A straightforward steady-state implementation of WE is directly practical for simple landscapes, but not when significant metastable intermediates states are present. We therefore develop an enhanced WE scheme, building on existing ideas, which accelerates attainment of steady state in complex systems. We apply both WE approaches to several model systems, confirming their correctness and efficiency by comparison with brute-force results. The enhanced version is significantly faster than the brute force and straightforward WE for systems with WE bins that accurately reflect the reaction coordinate(s). The new WE methods can also be applied to equilibrium sampling, since equilibrium is a steady state.
Steady-state differential calorimeter measures gamma heating in reactor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herbst, D.; Talboy, J. H.
1968-01-01
Steady-state differential calorimeter, which displays good accuracy and reproducibility of results, is used to measure gamma heating in a reactor environment. The calorimeter has a long life expectancy since it is virtually unharmed by the reactor environment.
An Operational Definition of the Steady State in Enzyme Kinetics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Barnsley, E. A.
1990-01-01
The Briggs-Haldane assumption is used as the basis for the development of a kinetic model for enzyme catalysis. An alternative definition of the steady state and examples of realistic mechanisms are provided. (KR)
Mantle Sulfur Cycle: A Case for Non-Steady State ?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cartigny, Pierre; Labidi, Jabrane
2016-04-01
Data published over the last 5 years show that the early inference that mantle is isotopically homogeneous is no more valid. Instead, new generation data on lavas range over a significant 34S/32S variability of up to 5‰ with δ 34S values often correlated to Sr- and Nd-isotope compositions. This new set of data also reveals the Earth's mantle to have a sub-chondritic 34S/32S ratio, by about ˜ 1‰. We will present at the conference our published and unpublished data on samples characterizing the different mantle components (i.e. EM1, EM2, HIMU and LOMU). All illustrate 34S-enrichments compared to MORB with Δ 33S and Δ 36S values indistinguishable from CDT or chondrites at the 0.03‰ level. These data are consistent with the recycling of subducted components carrying sulfur with Δ 33S and Δ 36S-values close to zero. Archean rocks commonly display Δ 33S and Δ 36S values deviating from zero by 1 to 10 ‰. The lack of variations for Δ 33S and Δ 36S values in present day lava argue against the sampling of any subducted protolith of Archean age in their mantle source. Instead, our data are consistent with the occurrence of Proterozoic subducted sulfur in the source of the EM1, EM2, LOMU and HIMU endmember at the St-Helena island. This is in agreement with the age of those components early derived through the use of the Pb isotope systematic. Currently, the negative δ 34S-values of the depleted mantle seem to be associated with mostly positive values of enriched components. This would be inconsistent with the concept a steady state of sulfur. Assuming that the overall observations of recycled sulfur are not biased, the origin of such a non-steady state remains unclear. It could be related to the relatively compatible behavior of sulfur during partial melting, as the residue of present-day melting can be shown to always contain significant amounts of sulfide (50{%} of what is observed in a fertile source). This typical behavior likely prevents an efficient
Measuring the steady state of pedestrian flow in bottleneck experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liao, Weichen; Tordeux, Antoine; Seyfried, Armin; Chraibi, Mohcine; Drzycimski, Kevin; Zheng, Xiaoping; Zhao, Ying
2016-11-01
Experiments with pedestrians could depend strongly on initial conditions. Comparisons of the results of such experiments require to distinguish carefully between transient state and steady state. Thus a modified version of the Cumulative Sum Control Chart algorithm is proposed to robustly detect steady states from density and speed time series of bottleneck experiments. The threshold of the detection parameter in the algorithm is calibrated using an autoregressive model. Comparing the detected steady states with manually selected ones, the modified algorithm gives robust and reproducible results. For the applications, three groups of bottleneck experiments are analysed and the steady states are detected. The results reconfirm that the specific flow is constant as bottleneck width changes. Moreover, we proposed a criterion to judge the difference between the flows in all states and in steady states, which is the ratio of pedestrian number to bottleneck width. The critical value of the ratio is found to be approximately 115 persons/m. This conclusion applies not only for the analysis of existing bottleneck experiments but also for the design of new bottleneck experiments and the validation of evacuation models. Furthermore, the range of steady state in time series of pedestrian characteristics could be effectively controlled by adjusting the value of the ratio.
On the time to steady state: insights from numerical modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goren, L.; Willett, S.; McCoy, S. W.; Perron, J.
2013-12-01
How fast do fluvial landscapes approach steady state after an application of tectonic or climatic perturbation? While theory and some numerical models predict that the celerity of the advective wave (knickpoint) controls the response time for perturbations, experiments and other landscape evolution models demonstrate that the time to steady state is much longer than the theoretically predicted response time. We posit that the longevity of transient features and the time to steady state are controlled by the stability of the topology and geometry of channel networks. Evolution of a channel network occurs by a combination of discrete capture events and continuous migration of water divides, processes, which are difficult to represent accurately in landscape evolution models. We therefore address the question of the time to steady state using the DAC landscape evolution model that solves accurately for the location of water divides, using a combination of analytical solution for hillslopes and low-order channels together with a numerical solution for higher order channels. DAC also includes an explicit capture criterion. We have tested fundamental predictions from DAC and show that modeled networks reproduce natural network characteristics such as the Hack's exponent and coefficient and the fractal dimension. We define two steady-state criteria: a topographic steady state, defined by global, pointwise steady elevation, and a topological steady state defined as the state in which no further reorganization of the drainage network takes place. Analyzing block uplift simulations, we find that the time to achieve either topographic or topological steady state exceeds by an order of magnitude the theoretical response time of the fluvial network. The longevity of the transient state is the result of the area feedback, by which, migration of a divide changes the local contributing area. This change propagates downstream as a slope adjustment, forcing further divide migrations
Multiple steady states in coupled flow tank reactors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hunt, Katharine L. C.; Kottalam, J.; Hatlee, Michael D.; Ross, John
1992-05-01
Coupling between continuous-flow, stirred tank reactors (CSTR's), each having multiple steady states, can produce new steady states with different concentrations of the chemical species in each of the coupled tanks. In this work, we identify a kinetic potential ψ that governs the deterministic time evolution of coupled tank reactors, when the reaction mechanism permits a single-variable description of the states of the individual tanks; examples include the iodate-arsenous acid reaction, a cubic model suggested by Noyes, and two quintic models. Stable steady states correspond to minima of ψ, and unstable steady states to maxima or saddle points; marginally stable states typically correspond to saddle-node points. We illustrate the variation in ψ due to changes in the rate constant for external material intake (k0) and for exchange between tanks (kx). For fixed k0 values, we analyze the changes in numbers and types of steady states as kx increases from zero. We show that steady states disappear by pairwise coalescence; we also show that new steady states may appear with increasing kx, when the reaction mechanism is sufficiently complex. For fixed initial conditions, the steady state ultimately reached in a mixing experiment may depend on the exchange rate constant as a function of time, kx(t) : Adiabatic mixing is obtained in the limit of slow changes in kx(t) and instantaneous mixing in the limit as kx(t)→∞ while t remains small. Analyses based on the potential ψ predict the outcome of mixing experiments for arbitrary kx(t). We show by explicit counterexamples that a prior theory developed by Noyes does not correctly predict the instability points or the transitions between steady states of coupled tanks, to be expected in mixing experiments. We further show that the outcome of such experiments is not connected to the relative stability of steady states in individual tank reactors. We find that coupling may effectively stabilize the tanks. We provide
Phencyclidine Disrupts the Auditory Steady State Response in Rats
Leishman, Emma; O’Donnell, Brian F.; Millward, James B.; Vohs, Jenifer L.; Rass, Olga; Krishnan, Giri P.; Bolbecker, Amanda R.; Morzorati, Sandra L.
2015-01-01
The Auditory Steady-State Response (ASSR) in the electroencephalogram (EEG) is usually reduced in schizophrenia (SZ), particularly to 40 Hz stimulation. The gamma frequency ASSR deficit has been attributed to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction. We tested whether the NMDAR antagonist, phencyclidine (PCP), produced similar ASSR deficits in rats. EEG was recorded from awake rats via intracranial electrodes overlaying the auditory cortex and at the vertex of the skull. ASSRs to click trains were recorded at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 55 Hz and measured by ASSR Mean Power (MP) and Phase Locking Factor (PLF). In Experiment 1, the effect of different subcutaneous doses of PCP (1.0, 2.5 and 4.0 mg/kg) on the ASSR in 12 rats was assessed. In Experiment 2, ASSRs were compared in PCP treated rats and control rats at baseline, after acute injection (5 mg/kg), following two weeks of subchronic, continuous administration (5 mg/kg/day), and one week after drug cessation. Acute administration of PCP increased PLF and MP at frequencies of stimulation below 50 Hz, and decreased responses at higher frequencies at the auditory cortex site. Acute administration had a less pronounced effect at the vertex site, with a reduction of either PLF or MP observed at frequencies above 20 Hz. Acute effects increased in magnitude with higher doses of PCP. Consistent effects were not observed after subchronic PCP administration. These data indicate that acute administration of PCP, a NMDAR antagonist, produces an increase in ASSR synchrony and power at low frequencies of stimulation and a reduction of high frequency (> 40 Hz) ASSR activity in rats. Subchronic, continuous administration of PCP, on the other hand, has little impact on ASSRs. Thus, while ASSRs are highly sensitive to NMDAR antagonists, their translational utility as a cross-species biomarker for NMDAR hypofunction in SZ and other disorders may be dependent on dose and schedule. PMID:26258486
Addition of Multimodal Therapy to Standard Management of Steady State Sickle Cell Disease
Ikefuna, Anthony; Duru, Augustine; Chukwu, Barth; Madu, Anazoeze; Nwagha, Theresa; Ocheni, Sunday; Ibegbulam, Obike; Emodi, Ifeoma; Anike, Uche; Nonyelu, Charles; Anigbo, Chukwudi; Agu, Kingsley; Ajuba, Ifeoma; Chukwura, Awele; Ugwu, Ogechukwu; Ololo, Uche
2013-01-01
Most people on folic acid to boost erythropoiesis and prophylactic antimicrobials, the standard management of steady state sickle cell disease (SCD), have unacceptable numbers of crises. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding multimodal therapy with potassium thiocyanate and omega-3 fatty acids to the standard management of steady state SCD. Pre- and post-treatment numbers of crises and other disease indices were compared in 16 HbSS individuals on folic acid and paludrine after 12 months of adding eicosapentaenoic acid 15 mg/kg/day, docosahexaenoic acid 10 mg/kg/day, and potassium thiocyanate 1-2 mL/day, each milliliter of which contained 250 mg of thiocyanate and 100 micrograms of iodine to prevent hypothyroidism: a possible side-effect due to competitive inhibition of the transport of iodide into the thyroid gland by thiocyanate. Median number of crises reduced from 3/yr to 1/yr (P < 0.0001). There was no evidence of impaired thyroid function. Plasma level of tri-iodothyronine improved (P < 0.0001). Steady state full blood count and bilirubin level did not change significantly. The findings suggest that addition of potassium thiocyanate and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids to standard management of steady state SCD reduces the number of crises. This observation needs to be evaluated in larger studies. PMID:24386573
Addition of multimodal therapy to standard management of steady state sickle cell disease.
Okpala, Iheanyi; Ezenwosu, Osita; Ikefuna, Anthony; Duru, Augustine; Chukwu, Barth; Madu, Anazoeze; Nwagha, Theresa; Ocheni, Sunday; Ibegbulam, Obike; Emodi, Ifeoma; Anike, Uche; Nonyelu, Charles; Anigbo, Chukwudi; Agu, Kingsley; Ajuba, Ifeoma; Chukwura, Awele; Ugwu, Ogechukwu; Ololo, Uche
2013-01-01
Most people on folic acid to boost erythropoiesis and prophylactic antimicrobials, the standard management of steady state sickle cell disease (SCD), have unacceptable numbers of crises. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding multimodal therapy with potassium thiocyanate and omega-3 fatty acids to the standard management of steady state SCD. Pre- and post-treatment numbers of crises and other disease indices were compared in 16 HbSS individuals on folic acid and paludrine after 12 months of adding eicosapentaenoic acid 15 mg/kg/day, docosahexaenoic acid 10 mg/kg/day, and potassium thiocyanate 1-2 mL/day, each milliliter of which contained 250 mg of thiocyanate and 100 micrograms of iodine to prevent hypothyroidism: a possible side-effect due to competitive inhibition of the transport of iodide into the thyroid gland by thiocyanate. Median number of crises reduced from 3/yr to 1/yr (P < 0.0001). There was no evidence of impaired thyroid function. Plasma level of tri-iodothyronine improved (P < 0.0001). Steady state full blood count and bilirubin level did not change significantly. The findings suggest that addition of potassium thiocyanate and eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids to standard management of steady state SCD reduces the number of crises. This observation needs to be evaluated in larger studies.
Soil residence time: A window into landscape morphologic steady state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Almond, P. C.; Roering, J. J.
2005-12-01
For a landscape in true morphologic steady state the erosion rate and the average residence time of the debris mantle regolith (including the soils) are everywhere equal. Where other factors influencing soil properties such as climate, organisms and parent material are relatively invariant the degree of weathering and extent of pedological development in the debris mantle regolith should be spatially invariant. The corollary to this argument, commonly exploited in soil-geomorphic analysis, is that variation in debris mantle regolith development in a landscape reflects inheritance of older geomorphic surfaces and hence departure from steady state, at least over some time and space scale. The Oregon Coast Range (OCR) experiences a constant rate of rock uplift and has escaped the effects of Pleistocene glacial and periglacial processes. Furthermore, rock uplift and denudation rates have been shown to be approximately in balance, and consequently the OCR is promoted as being a good candidate for a (flux) steady state landscape. This is, however, not a sufficient condition for morphologic steady state, which is often assumed in numerical landscape simulations. The rock underlying the OCR is relatively homogeneous turbidites of the Tyee formation, and climatic and vegetation factors are relatively uniform over large areas. The degree of weathering and pedological development of the regolith on hillslopes should therefore dominantly reflect variation in regolith residence time, such that significant variation implies non-morphologic-steady state conditions. Indeed, spatial variation in soil/regolith age indicates the extent of departure from morphologic steady state. We have observed ubiquitous but localised deep, highly weathered regoliths and soils on ridge tops in the OCR. The extent, depth, geometry and elevational distribution of these deep regolith patches combined with relative measures of their age derived from total element and meteoric 10Be inventory will enable
Steady state in a gas of inelastic rough spheres heated by a uniform stochastic force
Vega Reyes, Francisco Santos, Andrés
2015-11-15
We study here the steady state attained in a granular gas of inelastic rough spheres that is subject to a spatially uniform random volume force. The stochastic force has the form of the so-called white noise and acts by adding impulse to the particle translational velocities. We work out an analytical solution of the corresponding velocity distribution function from a Sonine polynomial expansion that displays energy non-equipartition between the translational and rotational modes, translational and rotational kurtoses, and translational-rotational velocity correlations. By comparison with a numerical solution of the Boltzmann kinetic equation (by means of the direct simulation Monte Carlo method), we show that our analytical solution provides a good description that is quantitatively very accurate in certain ranges of inelasticity and roughness. We also find three important features that make the forced granular gas steady state very different from the homogeneous cooling state (attained by an unforced granular gas). First, the marginal velocity distributions are always close to a Maxwellian. Second, there is a continuous transition to the purely smooth limit (where the effects of particle rotations are ignored). And third, the angular translational-rotational velocity correlations show a preference for a quasiperpendicular mutual orientation (which is called “lifted-tennis-ball” behavior)
Steady state in a gas of inelastic rough spheres heated by a uniform stochastic force
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vega Reyes, Francisco; Santos, Andrés
2015-11-01
We study here the steady state attained in a granular gas of inelastic rough spheres that is subject to a spatially uniform random volume force. The stochastic force has the form of the so-called white noise and acts by adding impulse to the particle translational velocities. We work out an analytical solution of the corresponding velocity distribution function from a Sonine polynomial expansion that displays energy non-equipartition between the translational and rotational modes, translational and rotational kurtoses, and translational-rotational velocity correlations. By comparison with a numerical solution of the Boltzmann kinetic equation (by means of the direct simulation Monte Carlo method), we show that our analytical solution provides a good description that is quantitatively very accurate in certain ranges of inelasticity and roughness. We also find three important features that make the forced granular gas steady state very different from the homogeneous cooling state (attained by an unforced granular gas). First, the marginal velocity distributions are always close to a Maxwellian. Second, there is a continuous transition to the purely smooth limit (where the effects of particle rotations are ignored). And third, the angular translational-rotational velocity correlations show a preference for a quasiperpendicular mutual orientation (which is called "lifted-tennis-ball" behavior).
Alcohols inhibit translation to regulate morphogenesis in C. albicans.
Egbe, Nkechi E; Paget, Caroline M; Wang, Hui; Ashe, Mark P
2015-04-01
Many molecules are secreted into the growth media by microorganisms to modulate the metabolic and physiological processes of the organism. For instance, alcohols like butanol, ethanol and isoamyl alcohol are produced by the human pathogenic fungus, Candida albicans and induce morphological differentiation. Here we show that these same alcohols cause a rapid inhibition of protein synthesis. More specifically, the alcohols target translation initiation, a complex stage of the gene expression process. Using molecular techniques, we have identified the likely translational target of these alcohols in C. albicans as the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (eIF2B). eIF2B is the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for eIF2, which supports the exchange reaction where eIF2.GDP is converted to eIF2.GTP. Even minimal regulation at this step will lead to alterations in the levels of specific proteins that may allow the exigencies of the fungus to be realised. Indeed, similar to the effects of alcohols, a minimal inhibition of protein synthesis with cycloheximide also causes an induction of filamentous growth. These results suggest a molecular basis for the effect of various alcohols on morphological differentiation in C. albicans.
Quantum quasi-steady states in current transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Agosta, Roberto; Zwolak, Michael; di Ventra, Massimiliano
2007-03-01
We investigate quasi-steady state solutions to transport in quantum systems by finding states which at some time minimize the change in density throughout all space and have a given current density flowing from one part of the system to another [1]. Contrary to classical dynamics, in a quantum mechanical system there are many states with a given energy and particle number which satisfy this minimization criterion. Taking as an example spinless fermions on a one-dimensional lattice, we explicitly show the phase space of a class of quasi-steady states. We also discuss the possibility of coherent and incoherent mixing of these steady state solutions leading to a new type of noise in quantum transport. [1] M. Di Ventra and T.N. Todorov J. Phys. Cond. Matt. 16, 8025 (2004).
Realizing steady-state tokamak operation for fusion energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luce, T. C.
2011-03-01
Continuous operation of a tokamak for fusion energy has clear engineering advantages but requires conditions beyond those sufficient for a burning plasma. The fusion reactions and external sources must support both the pressure and the current equilibrium without inductive current drive, leading to demands on stability, confinement, current drive, and plasma-wall interactions that exceed those for pulsed tokamaks. These conditions have been met individually, and significant progress has been made in the past decade to realize scenarios where the required conditions are obtained simultaneously. Tokamaks are operated routinely without disruptions near pressure limits, as needed for steady-state operation. Fully noninductive sustainment with more than half of the current from intrinsic currents has been obtained for a resistive time with normalized pressure and confinement approaching those needed for steady-state conditions. One remaining challenge is handling the heat and particle fluxes expected in a steady-state tokamak without compromising the core plasma performance.
Evaluation of a steady state MPD thruster test facility
Reed, C.B.; Carlson, L.W.; Herman, H.; Doss, E.D.; Kilgore, O.
1985-01-01
The successful development of multimegawatt MPD thrusters depends, to a great extent, on testing them under steady state high altitude space conditions. Steady state testing is required to provide thermal characteristics, life cycle, erosion, and other essential data. the major technical obstacle for ground testing of MPD thrusters in a space simulation facility is the inability of state-of-the-art vacuum systems to handle the tremendous pumping speeds required for multimegawatt MPD thrusters. This is true for other types of electric propulsion devices as well. This paper discusses the results of the first phase of an evaluation of steady state MPD thruster test facilities. The first phase addresses the conceptual design of vacuum systems required to support multimegawatt MPD thruster testing. Three advanced pumping system concepts were evaluated and are presented here.
Long pulse and steady state operation activities at KSTAR
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bae, Young-Soon; KSTAR Team; KAERI Collaboration; JAEA Collaboration; PPPL Collaboration; SNU Collaboration
2014-10-01
The mission of Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) is to develop a steady state capable advanced tokamak (AT) operation. The original AT operation mode at KSTAR is a reversed shear scenario with the plasma current of 2 MA, the toroidal magnetic field of 3.5 T, βN of 5, safety factor q95 of 3.7. Recently, the stationary long pulse H-mode discharge is sustained for maximum pulse duration of 20 s using heating of 2.5-MW NBI and 0.7-MW, X3 170 GHz ECH with low density level
40 Hz Auditory Steady-State Response Is a Pharmacodynamic Biomarker for Cortical NMDA Receptors.
Sivarao, Digavalli V; Chen, Ping; Senapati, Arun; Yang, Yili; Fernandes, Alda; Benitex, Yulia; Whiterock, Valerie; Li, Yu-Wen; Ahlijanian, Michael K
2016-08-01
Schizophrenia patients exhibit dysfunctional gamma oscillations in response to simple auditory stimuli or more complex cognitive tasks, a phenomenon explained by reduced NMDA transmission within inhibitory/excitatory cortical networks. Indeed, a simple steady-state auditory click stimulation paradigm at gamma frequency (~40 Hz) has been reproducibly shown to reduce entrainment as measured by electroencephalography (EEG) in patients. However, some investigators have reported increased phase locking factor (PLF) and power in response to 40 Hz auditory stimulus in patients. Interestingly, preclinical literature also reflects this contradiction. We investigated whether a graded deficiency in NMDA transmission can account for such disparate findings by administering subanesthetic ketamine (1-30 mg/kg, i.v.) or vehicle to conscious rats (n=12) and testing their EEG entrainment to 40 Hz click stimuli at various time points (~7-62 min after treatment). In separate cohorts, we examined in vivo NMDA channel occupancy and tissue exposure to contextualize ketamine effects. We report a robust inverse relationship between PLF and NMDA occupancy 7 min after dosing. Moreover, ketamine could produce inhibition or disinhibition of the 40 Hz response in a temporally dynamic manner. These results provide for the first time empirical data to understand how cortical NMDA transmission deficit may lead to opposite modulation of the auditory steady-state response (ASSR). Importantly, our findings posit that 40 Hz ASSR is a pharmacodynamic biomarker for cortical NMDA function that is also robustly translatable. Besides schizophrenia, such a functional biomarker may be of value to neuropsychiatric disorders like bipolar and autism spectrum where 40 Hz ASSR deficits have been documented. PMID:26837462
Brenneisen, P; Briviba, K; Wlaschek, M; Wenk, J; Scharffetter-Kochanek, K
1997-01-01
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to be important messenger molecules in the induction of several genes. In human dermal fibroblasts the herbicide paraquat (PQ2+) was used to induce intracellular oxidative stress that was modulated by the inhibition of copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu,ZnSOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx), catalase, and blocking of the Fenton reaction. Interstitial collagenase (MMP-1) mRNA increased time dependently for up to 72 h following paraquat treatment. A correlation with the translation of MMP-1 could, however, only be detected up to 24 h, indicating an uncoupling of transcription and translation. Interleukin-1 alpha and beta mRNA showed two peaks at 6 h and 72 h. The inhibition of catalase by aminotriazol (ATZ), inhibition of GSHPx by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), and blocking the Fenton reaction by the iron chelator desferrioxamine (DFO) in concert led to an increase in steady-state MMP-1 mRNA levels, possibly dependent on intracellular H2O2 increase. This combined treatment potentiated MMP-1 mRNA induction up to 6.5-fold compared to paraquat treated controls. Furthermore, exogenously added H2O2 caused an increase in MMP-1 mRNA levels. In contrast, inhibition of Cu,ZnSOD by diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC), leading to diminished H2O2 production from O2.-, decreased MMP-1 mRNA induction. Collectively, our data provide evidence that H2O2 is an important intermediate in the downstream signalling pathway finally leading to the induction of increased steady state MMP-1 mRNA levels. The synthesis of MMPs may contribute to connective tissue damage in vivo related to photoaging, inflammatory diseases, and tumor invasion. PMID:8981044
Karim, Shahriar; Buzzard, Gregery T; Umulis, David M
2012-01-01
The Steady State (SS) probability distribution is an important quantity needed to characterize the steady state behavior of many stochastic biochemical networks. In this paper, we propose an efficient and accurate approach to calculating an approximate SS probability distribution from solution of the Chemical Master Equation (CME) under the assumption of the existence of a unique deterministic SS of the system. To find the approximate solution to the CME, a truncated state-space representation is used to reduce the state-space of the system and translate it to a finite dimension. The subsequent ill-posed eigenvalue problem of a linear system for the finite state-space can be converted to a well-posed system of linear equations and solved. The proposed strategy yields efficient and accurate estimation of noise in stochastic biochemical systems. To demonstrate the approach, we applied the method to characterize the noise behavior of a set of biochemical networks of ligand-receptor interactions for Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling. We found that recruitment of type II receptors during the receptor oligomerization by itself doesn't not tend to lower noise in receptor signaling, but regulation by a secreted co-factor may provide a substantial improvement in signaling relative to noise. The steady state probability approximation method shortened the time necessary to calculate the probability distributions compared to earlier approaches, such as Gillespie's Stochastic Simulation Algorithm (SSA) while maintaining high accuracy.
Experimental study of multiple steady states in homogeneous azeotropic distillation
Guettinger, T.E.; Dorn, C.; Morari, M.
1997-03-01
Bekiaris et al. (1993) explained the existence of multiple steady states in homogeneous ternary azeotropic distillation, on the basis of the analysis of the case of infinite reflux and infinite column length (infinite number of trays). They showed that the predictions of multiple steady states for such infinite columns have relevant implications for columns of finite length operated at finite reflux. In this article, experiments are described for the ternary homogeneous system methanol-methyl butyrate-toluene which demonstrate the existence of multiple steady states (output multiplicities) caused by the vapor-liquid-equilibrium. The experiments on an industrial pilot column show two stable steady states for the same feed flow rate and composition and the same set of operating parameters. The measurements are in excellent agreement with the predictions obtained for infinite columns using the {infinity}/{infinity} analysis tool as well as with stage-by-stage simulation results. These experiments represent the first published study reporting evidence for the predictions and simulations by various researchers showing that type of output multiplicities in distillation.
Convergence to steady state of solutions of Burgers' equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kreiss, G.; Kreiss, H. O.
1985-01-01
Consider the initial boundary value problem for Burgers' equation. It is shown that its solutions converge, in time, to a unique steady state. The speed of the convergence depends on the boundary conditions and can be exponentially slow. Methods to speed up the rate of convergence are also discussed.
Is There More than One Steady State for Nox?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bakas, G.
1985-01-01
The study of alternative steady states for nitrogen oxides is discussed: The production of these oxides and the reactions they undergo in the atmosphere are described. The computerized modelling of the atmosphere using a one dimensional time dependent photochemical model is attempted.
Steady-State Pharmacokinetics of Bupropion SR in Juvenile Patients
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Daviss, W. Burleson; Perel, James M.; Rudolph, George R.; Axelson, David A.; Gilchrist, Richard; Nuss, Sharon; Birmaher, Boris; Brent, David A.
2005-01-01
Objective: To examine the steady-state pharmacokinetic properties of bupropion sustained release (SR) and their potential developmental differences in youths. Method: Eleven boys and eight girls aged 11 to 17 years old were prescribed bupropion SR monotherapy for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (n = 16) and/or depressive disorders (n =…
HSC Contribution in Making Steady-State Blood.
Ito, Keisuke; Frenette, Paul S
2016-09-20
In homeostasis, whether blood cells are derived from committed progenitor or mutipotent stem cell activity remains controversial. In this issue of Immunity, Sawai et al. (2016) describe murine HSCs as the major contributor to the maintenance of multilineage hematopoiesis, both in the steady state and during cytokine response. PMID:27653597
Acceleration to a steady state for the Euler equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turkel, E.
1984-01-01
A multi-stage Runge-Kutta method is analyzed for solving the Euler equations exterior to an airfoil. Highly subsonic, transonic and supersonic flows are evaluated. Various techniques for accelerating the convergence to a steady state are introduced and analyzed.
Equilibrium Binding and Steady-State Enzyme Kinetics.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dunford, H. Brian
1984-01-01
Points out that equilibrium binding and steady-state enzyme kinetics have a great deal in common and that related equations and error analysis can be cast in identical forms. Emphasizes that if one type of problem solution is taught, the other is also taught. Various methods of data analysis are evaluated. (JM)
Steady-State Multiplicity Features of Chemically Reacting Systems.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Luss, Dan
1986-01-01
Analyzes steady-state multiplicity in chemical reactors, focusing on the use of two mathematical tools, namely, the catastrophe theory and the singularity theory with a distinguished parameter. These tools can be used to determine the maximum number of possible solutions and the different types of bifurcation diagrams. (JN)
Density Functional Theory for Steady-State Nonequilibrium Molecular Junctions
Liu, Shuanglong; Nurbawono, Argo; Zhang, Chun
2015-01-01
We present a density functional theory (DFT) for steady-state nonequilibrium quantum systems such as molecular junctions under a finite bias. Based on the steady-state nonequilibrium statistics that maps nonequilibrium to an effective equilibrium, we show that ground-state DFT (GS-DFT) is not applicable in this case and two densities, the total electron density and the density of current-carrying electrons, are needed to uniquely determine the properties of the corresponding nonequilibrium system. A self-consistent mean-field approach based on two densities is then derived. The theory is implemented into SIESTA computational package and applied to study nonequilibrium electronic/transport properties of a realistic carbon-nanotube (CNT)/Benzene junction. Results obtained from our steady-state DFT (SS-DFT) are compared with those of conventional GS-DFT based transport calculations. We show that SS-DFT yields energetically more stable nonequilibrium steady state, predicts significantly lower electric current, and is able to produce correct electronic structures in local equilibrium under a limiting case. PMID:26472080
HSC Contribution in Making Steady-State Blood
Ito, Keisuke; Frenette, Paul S.
2016-01-01
In homeostasis, whether blood cells are derived from committed progenitor or mutipotent stem cell activity remains controversial. In this issue of Immunity, Sawai et al. (2016) describe murine HSCs as the major contributor to the maintenance of multilineage hematopoiesis, both in the steady state and during cytokine response. PMID:27653597
Combined Steady-State and Dynamic Heat Exchanger Experiment
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Luyben, William L.; Tuzla, Kemal; Bader, Paul N.
2009-01-01
This paper describes a heat-transfer experiment that combines steady-state analysis and dynamic control. A process-water stream is circulated through two tube-in-shell heat exchangers in series. In the first, the process water is heated by steam. In the second, it is cooled by cooling water. The equipment is pilot-plant size: heat-transfer areas…
CONTROL OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS BY STEADY-STATE CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT
Pilot-scale experiments have been performed to assess the ability of conventional treatment to control Cryptosporidium oocysts under steady-state conditions. The work was performed with a pilot plant that was designed to minimize flow rates and, as a result, the number of oocyst...
Kinematic Cosmology & a new ``Steady State'' Model of Continued Creation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wegener, Mogens
2006-03-01
Only a new "steady state" model justifies the observations of fully mature galaxies at ever increasing distances. The basic idea behind the world model presented here, which is a synthesis of the cosmologies of Parmenides and Herakleitos, is that the invariant structure of the infinite contents of a universe in flux may be depicted as a finite hyperbolic pseudo-sphere.
Steady State Load Characterization Fact Sheet: 2012 Chevy Volt
Don Scoffield
2015-01-01
This fact sheet characterizes the steady state charging behavior of a 2012 Chevy Volt. Both level 1 charging (120 volt) and level 2 charging (208 volts) is investigated. This fact sheet contains plots of efficiency, power factor, and current harmonics as vehicle charging is curtailed. Prominent current harmonics are also displayed in a histogram for various charge rates.
Steady States of the Parametric Rotator and Pendulum
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bouzas, Antonio O.
2010-01-01
We discuss several steady-state rotation and oscillation modes of the planar parametric rotator and pendulum with damping. We consider a general elliptic trajectory of the suspension point for both rotator and pendulum, for the latter at an arbitrary angle with gravity, with linear and circular trajectories as particular cases. We treat the…
Gas and liquid transport in steady-state aqueous foam.
Feitosa, K; Durian, D J
2008-07-01
Experiments are performed on the transport of gas and liquid in a column of aqueous foam maintained in steady state by a constant gas flux at the bottom. We measure vertical profiles of the bubble velocities, the bubble radii, and the liquid fraction, for four different gas fluxes. In steady state the bubbles move upwards with constant speed equal to the measured gas flux, which accounts for all transport of gas. The bubbles also coarsen by gas diffusion at a rate that depends on liquid fraction. Away from the bottom, the Plateau border radii are constant. Therefore capillary effects are negligible and the steady-state liquid-fraction profile is set chiefly by the balance of viscous forces and gravity. The flow within the Plateau borders may be modeled with a no-slip boundary condition for our system. These findings provide a simple description of steady-state foams via the coarsening and drainage equations, which can be combined and solved analytically for bubble radius and liquid-fraction profiles.
On a quantum phase transition in a steady state out of equilibrium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aschbacher, Walter H.
2016-10-01
Within the rigorous axiomatic framework for the description of quantum mechanical systems with a large number of degrees of freedom, we show that the nonequilibrium steady state, constructed in the quasifree fermionic system corresponding to the isotropic XY chain in which a finite sample, coupled to two thermal reservoirs at different temperatures, is exposed to a local external magnetic field, is breaking translation invariance and exhibits a strictly positive entropy production rate. Moreover, we prove that there exists a second-order nonequilibrium quantum phase transition with respect to the strength of the magnetic field as soon as the system is truly out of equilibrium.
Steady state volcanism: Evidence from eruption histories of polygenetic volcanoes
Wadge, G.
1982-05-10
Some volcanoes erupt magma at average rates which are constant over periods of many years, even through this magma may appear in a complex series of eruptions. This constancy of output is tested by construction of a curve of cumulative volume of erupted magma, which is linear for steady state volcanism, and whose gradient defines the steady state rate Q/sub s/s. The assumption is made that Q/sub s/s is the rate at which magma is supplied to these polygenetic volcanoes. Five general types of eruptive behavior can be distinguished from the cumulative volume studied. These types are interpreted in terms of a simple model of batches of magma rising buoyantly through the crust and interacting with a small-capacity subvolcanic magma reservoir. Recognition of previous steady state behavior at a volcano may enable the cumulative volume curve to be used empirically as a constraint on the timing and volume of the next eruption. The steady state model thus has a limited predictive capability. With the exception of Kilauea (O/sub s/s = 4m/sup 3/ s/sup -1/) all the identified steady state volcanoes have values of Q/sub s/s of a few tenths of one cubic meter per second. These rates are consistent with the minimum flux rates required by theoretical cooling models of batches of magma traversing the crust. The similarity of these Q/sub s/s values of volcanoes (producing basalt, andesite, and dacite magmas) in very different tectonic settings suggests that the common factors of crustal buoyancy forces and the geotherm-controlled cooling rates control the dynamics of magma supply through the crust. Long-term dormancy at active volcanoes may be a manifestation of the steady accumulation of magma in large crustal reservoirs, a process that complements the intermittent periods of steady state output at the surface. This possibility has several implications, the most important of which is that it provides a constraint on the supply rate of new magma to the bases of plutons.
Master equation based steady-state cluster perturbation theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nuss, Martin; Dorn, Gerhard; Dorda, Antonius; von der Linden, Wolfgang; Arrigoni, Enrico
2015-09-01
A simple and efficient approximation scheme to study electronic transport characteristics of strongly correlated nanodevices, molecular junctions, or heterostructures out of equilibrium is provided by steady-state cluster perturbation theory. In this work, we improve the starting point of this perturbative, nonequilibrium Green's function based method. Specifically, we employ an improved unperturbed (so-called reference) state ρ̂S, constructed as the steady state of a quantum master equation within the Born-Markov approximation. This resulting hybrid method inherits beneficial aspects of both the quantum master equation as well as the nonequilibrium Green's function technique. We benchmark this scheme on two experimentally relevant systems in the single-electron transistor regime: an electron-electron interaction based quantum diode and a triple quantum dot ring junction, which both feature negative differential conductance. The results of this method improve significantly with respect to the plain quantum master equation treatment at modest additional computational cost.
Theory of minimum dissipation of energy for the steady state
Chu, T.K.
1992-02-01
The magnetic configuration of an inductively driven steady-state plasma bounded by a surface (or two adjacent surfaces) on which B{center dot}n = 0 is force-free: {del}{times}B = 2{alpha}B, where {alpha} is a constant, in time and in space. {alpha} is the ratio of the Poynting flux to the magnetic helicity flux at the boundary. It is also the ratio of the dissipative rates of the magnetic energy to the magnetic helicity in the plasma. The spatial extent of the configuration is noninfinitesimal. This global constraint is a result of the requirement that, for a steady-state plasma, the rate of change of the vector potential, {partial derivative}A/{partial derivative}t, is constant in time and uniform in space.
Theory of minimum dissipation of energy for the steady state
Chu, T.K.
1992-02-01
The magnetic configuration of an inductively driven steady-state plasma bounded by a surface (or two adjacent surfaces) on which B{center_dot}n = 0 is force-free: {del}{times}B = 2{alpha}B, where {alpha} is a constant, in time and in space. {alpha} is the ratio of the Poynting flux to the magnetic helicity flux at the boundary. It is also the ratio of the dissipative rates of the magnetic energy to the magnetic helicity in the plasma. The spatial extent of the configuration is noninfinitesimal. This global constraint is a result of the requirement that, for a steady-state plasma, the rate of change of the vector potential, {partial_derivative}A/{partial_derivative}t, is constant in time and uniform in space.
Analysis of slow transitions between nonequilibrium steady states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandal, Dibyendu; Jarzynski, Christopher
2016-06-01
Transitions between nonequilibrium steady states obey a generalized Clausius inequality, which becomes an equality in the quasistatic limit. For slow but finite transitions, we show that the behavior of the system is described by a response matrix whose elements are given by a far-from-equilibrium Green–Kubo formula, involving the decay of correlations evaluated in the nonequilibrium steady state. This result leads to a fluctuation-dissipation relation between the mean and variance of the nonadiabatic entropy production, Δ {{s}\\text{na}} . Furthermore, our results extend—to nonequilibrium steady states—the thermodynamic metric structure introduced by Sivak and Crooks for analyzing minimal-dissipation protocols for transitions between equilibrium states.
A non-inductively driven steady state tokamak reactor
Fenstermacher, M.E.; Devoto, R.S.; Bulmer, R.H.; Lee, J.D.; Miller, J.R.; Schultz, J.
1988-09-20
The physics and engineering guidelines for the ITER device are shown to lead to viable and attractive operating points for a steady state tokamak power reactor. Non-inductive current drive is provided in steady state by high energy neutral beam injection in the plasma core, lower hybrid slow waves in the outer regions of the plasma and bootstrap current. Plasma gain Q (/equivalent to/fusion power/input power) in excess of 20 and average neutron wall loading,
Analysis of slow transitions between nonequilibrium steady states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandal, Dibyendu; Jarzynski, Christopher
2016-06-01
Transitions between nonequilibrium steady states obey a generalized Clausius inequality, which becomes an equality in the quasistatic limit. For slow but finite transitions, we show that the behavior of the system is described by a response matrix whose elements are given by a far-from-equilibrium Green-Kubo formula, involving the decay of correlations evaluated in the nonequilibrium steady state. This result leads to a fluctuation-dissipation relation between the mean and variance of the nonadiabatic entropy production, Δ {{s}\\text{na}} . Furthermore, our results extend—to nonequilibrium steady states—the thermodynamic metric structure introduced by Sivak and Crooks for analyzing minimal-dissipation protocols for transitions between equilibrium states.
Extending Molecular Theory to Steady-State Diffusing Systems
FRINK,LAURA J. D.; SALINGER,ANDREW G.; THOMPSON,AIDAN P.
1999-10-22
Predicting the properties of nonequilibrium systems from molecular simulations is a growing area of interest. One important class of problems involves steady state diffusion. To study these cases, a grand canonical molecular dynamics approach has been developed by Heffelfinger and van Swol [J. Chem. Phys., 101, 5274 (1994)]. With this method, the flux of particles, the chemical potential gradients, and density gradients can all be measured in the simulation. In this paper, we present a complementary approach that couples a nonlocal density functional theory (DFT) with a transport equation describing steady-state flux of the particles. We compare transport-DFT predictions to GCMD results for a variety of ideal (color diffusion), and nonideal (uphill diffusion and convective transport) systems. In all cases excellent agreement between transport-DFT and GCMD calculations is obtained with diffusion coefficients that are invariant with respect to density and external fields.
Hydrodynamics of stratified epithelium: Steady state and linearized dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yeh, Wei-Ting; Chen, Hsuan-Yi
2016-05-01
A theoretical model for stratified epithelium is presented. The viscoelastic properties of the tissue are assumed to be dependent on the spatial distribution of proliferative and differentiated cells. Based on this assumption, a hydrodynamic description of tissue dynamics at the long-wavelength, long-time limit is developed, and the analysis reveals important insights into the dynamics of an epithelium close to its steady state. When the proliferative cells occupy a thin region close to the basal membrane, the relaxation rate towards the steady state is enhanced by cell division and cell apoptosis. On the other hand, when the region where proliferative cells reside becomes sufficiently thick, a flow induced by cell apoptosis close to the apical surface enhances small perturbations. This destabilizing mechanism is general for continuous self-renewal multilayered tissues; it could be related to the origin of certain tissue morphology, tumor growth, and the development pattern.
Turnover of messenger RNA: Polysome statistics beyond the steady state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valleriani, A.; Ignatova, Z.; Nagar, A.; Lipowsky, R.
2010-03-01
The interplay between turnover or degradation and ribosome loading of messenger RNA (mRNA) is studied theoretically using a stochastic model that is motivated by recent experimental results. Random mRNA degradation affects the statistics of polysomes, i.e., the statistics of the number of ribosomes per mRNA as extracted from cells. Since ribosome loading of newly created mRNA chains requires some time to reach steady state, a fraction of the extracted mRNA/ribosome complexes does not represent steady state conditions. As a consequence, the mean ribosome density obtained from the extracted complexes is found to be inversely proportional to the mRNA length. On the other hand, the ribosome density profile shows an exponential decrease along the mRNA for prokaryotes and becomes uniform in eukaryotic cells.
Task-specific stability of multifinger steady-state action.
Reschechtko, Sasha; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M; Latash, Mark L
2015-01-01
The authors explored task-specific stability during accurate multifinger force production tasks with different numbers of instructed fingers. Subjects performed steady-state isometric force production tasks and were instructed not to interfere voluntarily with transient lifting-and-lowering perturbations applied to the index finger. The main results were (a) intertrial variance in the space of finger modes at steady states was larger within the subspace that had no effect on the total force (the uncontrolled manifold [UCM]); (b) perturbations caused large deviations of finger modes within the UCM (motor equivalence); and (c) deviations caused by the perturbation showed larger variance within the UCM. No significant effects of the number of task fingers were noted in any of the 3 indicators. The results are discussed within the frameworks of the UCM and referent configuration hypotheses. The authors conclude, in particular, that all the tasks were effectively 4-finger tasks with different involvement of task and nontask fingers. PMID:25565327
Multiplying steady-state culture in multi-reactor system.
Erm, Sten; Adamberg, Kaarel; Vilu, Raivo
2014-11-01
Cultivation of microorganisms in batch experiments is fast and economical but the conditions therein change constantly, rendering quantitative data interpretation difficult. By using chemostat with controlled environmental conditions the physiological state of microorganisms is fixed; however, the unavoidable stabilization phase makes continuous methods resource consuming. Material can be spared by using micro scale devices, which however have limited analysis and process control capabilities. Described herein are a method and a system combining the high throughput of batch with the controlled environment of continuous cultivations. Microorganisms were prepared in one bioreactor followed by culture distribution into a network of bioreactors and continuation of independent steady state experiments therein. Accelerostat cultivation with statistical analysis of growth parameters demonstrated non-compromised physiological state following distribution, thus the method effectively multiplied steady state culture of microorganisms. The theoretical efficiency of the system was evaluated in inhibitory compound analysis using repeated chemostat to chemostat transfers.
Oscillations and multiple steady states in active membrane transport models.
Vieira, F M; Bisch, P M
1994-01-01
The dynamic behavior of some non-linear extensions of the six-state alternating access model for active membrane transport is investigated. We use stoichio-metric network analysis to study the stability of steady states. The bifurcation analysis has been done through standard numerical methods. For the usual six-state model we have proved that there is only one steady state, which is globally asymptotically stable. When we added an autocatalytic step we found self-oscillations. For the competition between a monomer cycle and a dimer cycle, with steps of dimer formation, we have also found self-oscillations. We have also studied models involving the formation of a complex with other molecules. The addition of two steps for formation of a complex of the monomer with another molecule does not alter either the number or the stability of steady states of the basic six-state model. The model which combines the formation of a complex with an autocatalytic step shows both self-oscillations and multiple steady states. The results lead us to conclude that oscillations could be produced by active membrane transport systems if the transport cycle contains a sufficiently large number of steps (six in the present case) and is coupled to at least one autocatalytic reaction,. Oscillations are also predicted when the monomer cycle is coupled to a dimer cycle. In fact, the autocatalytic reaction can be seen as a simplification of the model involving competition between monomer and dimer cycles, which seems to be a more realistic description of biological systems. A self-regulation mechanism of the pumps, related to the multiple stationary states, is expected only for a combined effect of autocatalysis and formation of complexes with other molecules. Within the six-state model this model also leads to oscillation.
Transitional steady states of exchange dynamics between finite quantum systems.
Jeon, Euijin; Yi, Juyeon; Kim, Yong Woon
2016-08-01
We examine energy and particle exchange between finite-sized quantum systems and find a new form of nonequilibrium state. The exchange rate undergoes stepwise evolution in time, and its magnitude and sign dramatically change according to system size differences. The origin lies in interference effects contributed by multiply scattered waves at system boundaries. Although such characteristics are utterly different from those of true steady state for infinite systems, Onsager's reciprocal relation remains universally valid. PMID:27627275
MUTATION RATES OF BACTERIA IN STEADY STATE POPULATIONS
Fox, Maurice S.
1955-01-01
The breeder and the chemostat have been used to measure mutation rates for two mutations under a variety of steady state growth conditions. These rates have been found to be higher in complex medium than in minimal (F) medium. The effects of changes in nutritional conditions on these high rates have been described. In addition, the mutation rates at short generation times, in complex medium, have been shown to decrease with increasing generation time. PMID:13271726
Analysis of steady-state characteristics of bistable laser diodes
Zhong Lichen; Guo Yili
1987-05-01
In this paper we analyze the steady-state characteristics of bistable semiconductor laser diode (BILD). A simple model for optical output of BILD is obtained using nonlinear rate equations for electron and photon densities. This model emphasizes the physical mechanisms and parameters responsible for the bistability, gives the state equation and explains the main features of BILD. Bistability with a very large hysteresis in P/sub 0/-P/sub 4/ characteristics is a distinctive feature of BILD.
Transitional steady states of exchange dynamics between finite quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeon, Euijin; Yi, Juyeon; Kim, Yong Woon
2016-08-01
We examine energy and particle exchange between finite-sized quantum systems and find a new form of nonequilibrium state. The exchange rate undergoes stepwise evolution in time, and its magnitude and sign dramatically change according to system size differences. The origin lies in interference effects contributed by multiply scattered waves at system boundaries. Although such characteristics are utterly different from those of true steady state for infinite systems, Onsager's reciprocal relation remains universally valid.
Steady-state superradiance with alkaline-earth-metal atoms
Meiser, D.; Holland, M. J.
2010-03-15
Alkaline-earth-metal-like atoms with ultranarrow transitions open the door to a new regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics. That regime is characterized by a critical photon number that is many orders of magnitude smaller than what can be achieved in conventional systems. We show that it is possible to achieve superradiance in steady state with such systems. We discuss the basic underlying mechanisms as well as the key experimental requirements.
STEADY-STATE MODEL OF SOLAR WIND ELECTRONS REVISITED
Yoon, Peter H.; Kim, Sunjung; Choe, G. S.
2015-10-20
In a recent paper, Kim et al. put forth a steady-state model for the solar wind electrons. The model assumed local equilibrium between the halo electrons, characterized by an intermediate energy range, and the whistler-range fluctuations. The basic wave–particle interaction is assumed to be the cyclotron resonance. Similarly, it was assumed that a dynamical steady state is established between the highly energetic superhalo electrons and high-frequency Langmuir fluctuations. Comparisons with the measured solar wind electron velocity distribution function (VDF) during quiet times were also made, and reasonable agreements were obtained. In such a model, however, only the steady-state solution for the Fokker–Planck type of electron particle kinetic equation was considered. The present paper complements the previous analysis by considering both the steady-state particle and wave kinetic equations. It is shown that the model halo and superhalo electron VDFs, as well as the assumed wave intensity spectra for the whistler and Langmuir fluctuations, approximately satisfy the quasi-linear wave kinetic equations in an approximate sense, thus further validating the local equilibrium model constructed in the paper by Kim et al.
Nonequilibrium Steady State Thermodynamics and Fluctuations for Stochastic Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taniguchi, Tooru; Cohen, E. G. D.
2008-02-01
We use the work done on and the heat removed from a system to maintain it in a nonequilibrium steady state for a thermodynamic-like description of such a system as well as of its fluctuations. Based on an extended Onsager-Machlup theory for nonequilibrium steady states we indicate two ambiguities, not present in an equilibrium state, in defining such work and heat: one due to a non-uniqueness of time-reversal procedures and another due to multiple possibilities to separate heat into work and an energy difference in nonequilibrium steady states. As a consequence, for such systems, the work and heat satisfy multiple versions of the first and second laws of thermodynamics as well as of their fluctuation theorems. Unique laws and relations appear only to be obtainable for concretely defined systems, using physical arguments to choose the relevant physical quantities. This is illustrated on a number of systems, including a Brownian particle in an electric field, a driven torsion pendulum, electric circuits and an energy transfer driven by a temperature difference.
Numerical computation of steady-state acoustic disturbances in flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watson, W. R.; Myers, M. K.
1992-01-01
Two time domain methods for computing two dimensional steady-state acoustic disturbances propagating through internal subsonic viscous flow fields in the presence of variable area are investigated. The first method solves the Navier-Stokes equations for the combined steady and acoustic field together and subtracts the steady flow to obtain the acoustic field. The second method solves a system of perturbation equations to obtain the acoustic disturbances, making use of a separate steady flow computation as input to the system. In each case the periodic steady-state acoustic fluctuations are obtained numerically on a supercomputer using a second order unsplit explicit MacCormack predictor-corrector method. Results show that the first method is not very effective for computing acoustic disturbances of even moderate amplitude. It appears that more accurate steady flow algorithms are required for this method to succeed. On the other hand, linear and nonlinear acoustic disturbances extracted from the perturbation approach are shown to exhibit expected behavior for the problems considered. It is also found that inflow boundary conditions for an equivalent uniform duct can be successfully applied to a nonuniform duct to obtain steady-state acoustic disturbances.
Transient and steady-state currents in epoxy resin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guillermin, Christophe; Rain, Pascal; Rowe, Stephen W.
2006-02-01
Charging and discharging currents have been measured in a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxy resin with and without silica fillers, below and above its glass transition temperature Tg = 65 °C. Both transient and steady-state current densities have been analysed. The average applied fields ranged from 3 to 35 kV mm-1 with a sample thickness of 0.5 mm. Above Tg, transient currents suggested a phenomenon of charge injection forming trapped space charges even at low fields. Steady-state currents confirmed that the behaviour was not Ohmic and suggested Schottky-type injection. Below Tg, the current is not controlled by the metal-dielectric interface but by the conduction in the volume: the current is Ohmic at low fields and both transient and steady-state currents suggest a phenomenon of space-charge limited currents at high fields. The field threshold is similar in the filler-free and the filled resin. Values in the range 12-17 kV mm-1 have been measured.
Ideal MHD Stability of ITER Steady State Scenarios with ITBs
F.M. Poli, C.E. Kessel, S. Jardin, J. Manickam, M. Chance, J. Chen
2011-07-27
One of ITER goals is to demonstrate feasibility of continuous operations using non-inductive current drive. Two main candidates have been identified for advanced operations: the long duration, high neutron fluency hybrid scenario and the steady state scenario, both operating at a plasma current lower than the reference ELMy scenario [1][2] to minimize the required current drive. The steady state scenario targets plasmas with current 7-10 MA in the flat-top, 50% of which will be provided by the self-generated, pressure-driven bootstrap current. It has been estimated that, in order to obtain a fusion gain Q > 5 at a current of 9 MA, it should be ΒN > 2.5 and H > 1.5 [3]. This implies the presence of an Internal Transport Barrier (ITB). This work discusses how the stability of steady state scenarios with ITBs is affected by the external heating sources and by perturbations of the equilibrium profiles.
Mitoenergetic Dysfunction Triggers a Rapid Compensatory Increase in Steady-State Glucose Flux.
Liemburg-Apers, Dania C; Schirris, Tom J J; Russel, Frans G M; Willems, Peter H G M; Koopman, Werner J H
2015-10-01
ATP can be produced in the cytosol by glycolytic conversion of glucose (GLC) into pyruvate. The latter can be metabolized into lactate, which is released by the cell, or taken up by mitochondria to fuel ATP production by the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. Altering the balance between glycolytic and mitochondrial ATP generation is crucial for cell survival during mitoenergetic dysfunction, which is observed in a large variety of human disorders including cancer. To gain insight into the kinetic properties of this adaptive mechanism we determined here how acute (30 min) inhibition of OXPHOS affected cytosolic GLC homeostasis. GLC dynamics were analyzed in single living C2C12 myoblasts expressing the fluorescent biosensor FLII(12)Pglu-700μδ6 (FLII). Following in situ FLII calibration, the kinetic properties of GLC uptake (V1) and GLC consumption (V2) were determined independently and used to construct a minimal mathematical model of cytosolic GLC dynamics. After validating the model, it was applied to quantitatively predict V1 and V2 at steady-state (i.e., when V1 = V2 = Vsteady-state) in the absence and presence of OXPHOS inhibitors. Integrating model predictions with experimental data on lactate production, cell volume, and O2 consumption revealed that glycolysis and mitochondria equally contribute to cellular ATP production in control myoblasts. Inhibition of OXPHOS induced a twofold increase in Vsteady-state and glycolytic ATP production flux. Both in the absence and presence of OXPHOS inhibitors, GLC was consumed at near maximal rates, meaning that GLC consumption is rate-limiting under steady-state conditions. Taken together, we demonstrate here that OXPHOS inhibition increases steady-state GLC uptake and consumption in C2C12 myoblasts. This activation fully compensates for the reduction in mitochondrial ATP production, thereby maintaining the balance between cellular ATP supply and demand. PMID:26445438
Mitoenergetic Dysfunction Triggers a Rapid Compensatory Increase in Steady-State Glucose Flux.
Liemburg-Apers, Dania C; Schirris, Tom J J; Russel, Frans G M; Willems, Peter H G M; Koopman, Werner J H
2015-10-01
ATP can be produced in the cytosol by glycolytic conversion of glucose (GLC) into pyruvate. The latter can be metabolized into lactate, which is released by the cell, or taken up by mitochondria to fuel ATP production by the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. Altering the balance between glycolytic and mitochondrial ATP generation is crucial for cell survival during mitoenergetic dysfunction, which is observed in a large variety of human disorders including cancer. To gain insight into the kinetic properties of this adaptive mechanism we determined here how acute (30 min) inhibition of OXPHOS affected cytosolic GLC homeostasis. GLC dynamics were analyzed in single living C2C12 myoblasts expressing the fluorescent biosensor FLII(12)Pglu-700μδ6 (FLII). Following in situ FLII calibration, the kinetic properties of GLC uptake (V1) and GLC consumption (V2) were determined independently and used to construct a minimal mathematical model of cytosolic GLC dynamics. After validating the model, it was applied to quantitatively predict V1 and V2 at steady-state (i.e., when V1 = V2 = Vsteady-state) in the absence and presence of OXPHOS inhibitors. Integrating model predictions with experimental data on lactate production, cell volume, and O2 consumption revealed that glycolysis and mitochondria equally contribute to cellular ATP production in control myoblasts. Inhibition of OXPHOS induced a twofold increase in Vsteady-state and glycolytic ATP production flux. Both in the absence and presence of OXPHOS inhibitors, GLC was consumed at near maximal rates, meaning that GLC consumption is rate-limiting under steady-state conditions. Taken together, we demonstrate here that OXPHOS inhibition increases steady-state GLC uptake and consumption in C2C12 myoblasts. This activation fully compensates for the reduction in mitochondrial ATP production, thereby maintaining the balance between cellular ATP supply and demand.
Mitoenergetic Dysfunction Triggers a Rapid Compensatory Increase in Steady-State Glucose Flux
Liemburg-Apers, Dania C.; Schirris, Tom J.J.; Russel, Frans G.M.; Willems, Peter H.G.M.; Koopman, Werner J.H.
2015-01-01
ATP can be produced in the cytosol by glycolytic conversion of glucose (GLC) into pyruvate. The latter can be metabolized into lactate, which is released by the cell, or taken up by mitochondria to fuel ATP production by the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. Altering the balance between glycolytic and mitochondrial ATP generation is crucial for cell survival during mitoenergetic dysfunction, which is observed in a large variety of human disorders including cancer. To gain insight into the kinetic properties of this adaptive mechanism we determined here how acute (30 min) inhibition of OXPHOS affected cytosolic GLC homeostasis. GLC dynamics were analyzed in single living C2C12 myoblasts expressing the fluorescent biosensor FLII12Pglu-700μδ6 (FLII). Following in situ FLII calibration, the kinetic properties of GLC uptake (V1) and GLC consumption (V2) were determined independently and used to construct a minimal mathematical model of cytosolic GLC dynamics. After validating the model, it was applied to quantitatively predict V1 and V2 at steady-state (i.e., when V1 = V2 = Vsteady-state) in the absence and presence of OXPHOS inhibitors. Integrating model predictions with experimental data on lactate production, cell volume, and O2 consumption revealed that glycolysis and mitochondria equally contribute to cellular ATP production in control myoblasts. Inhibition of OXPHOS induced a twofold increase in Vsteady-state and glycolytic ATP production flux. Both in the absence and presence of OXPHOS inhibitors, GLC was consumed at near maximal rates, meaning that GLC consumption is rate-limiting under steady-state conditions. Taken together, we demonstrate here that OXPHOS inhibition increases steady-state GLC uptake and consumption in C2C12 myoblasts. This activation fully compensates for the reduction in mitochondrial ATP production, thereby maintaining the balance between cellular ATP supply and demand. PMID:26445438
mRNA stability changes precede changes in steady-state mRNA amounts during hyperosmotic stress.
Molin, Claes; Jauhiainen, Alexandra; Warringer, Jonas; Nerman, Olle; Sunnerhagen, Per
2009-04-01
Under stress, cells need to optimize the activity of a wide range of gene products during the response phases: shock, adaptation, and recovery. This requires coordination of several levels of regulation, including turnover and translation efficiencies of mRNAs. Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways are implicated in many aspects of the environmental stress response, including initiation of transcription, translation efficiency, and mRNA turnover. In this study, we analyze mRNA turnover rates and mRNA steady-state levels at different time points following mild hyperosmotic shock in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. The regulation of mRNA stability is transient and affects most genes for which there is a change in transcript level. These changes precede and prepare for the changes in steady-state levels, both regarding the initial increase and the later decline of stress-induced mRNAs. The inverse is true for stress-repressed genes, which become stabilized during hyperosmotic stress in preparation of an increase as the cells recover. The MAP kinase Hog1 affects both steady-state levels and stability of stress-responsive transcripts, whereas the Hog1-activated kinase Rck2 influences steady-state levels without a major effect on stability. Regulation of mRNA stability is a wide-spread, but not universal, effect on stress-responsive transcripts during transient hyperosmotic stress. By destabilizing stress-induced mRNAs when their steady-state levels have reached a maximum, the cell prepares for the subsequent recovery phase when these transcripts are to return to normal levels. Conversely, stabilization of stress-repressed mRNAs permits their rapid accumulation in the recovery phase. Our results show that mRNA turnover is coordinated with transcriptional induction.
Mimicking Nonequilibrium Steady States with Time-Periodic Driving
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raz, O.; Subaşı, Y.; Jarzynski, C.
2016-04-01
Under static conditions, a system satisfying detailed balance generically relaxes to an equilibrium state in which there are no currents. To generate persistent currents, either detailed balance must be broken or the system must be driven in a time-dependent manner. A stationary system that violates detailed balance evolves to a nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) characterized by fixed currents. Conversely, a system that satisfies instantaneous detailed balance but is driven by the time-periodic variation of external parameters—also known as a stochastic pump (SP)—reaches a periodic state with nonvanishing currents. In both cases, these currents are maintained at the cost of entropy production. Are these two paradigmatic scenarios effectively equivalent? For discrete-state systems, we establish a mapping between nonequilibrium stationary states and stochastic pumps. Given a NESS characterized by a particular set of stationary probabilities, currents, and entropy production rates, we show how to construct a SP with exactly the same (time-averaged) values. The mapping works in the opposite direction as well. These results establish a proof of principle: They show that stochastic pumps are able to mimic the behavior of nonequilibrium steady states, and vice versa, within the theoretical framework of discrete-state stochastic thermodynamics. Nonequilibrium steady states and stochastic pumps are often used to model, respectively, biomolecular motors driven by chemical reactions and artificial molecular machines steered by the variation of external, macroscopic parameters. Our results loosely suggest that anything a biomolecular machine can do, an artificial molecular machine can do equally well. We illustrate this principle by showing that kinetic proofreading, a NESS mechanism that explains the low error rates in biochemical reactions, can be effectively mimicked by a constrained periodic driving.
Fitting Boolean Networks from Steady State Perturbation Data
Almudevar, Anthony; McCall, Matthew N; McMurray, Helene; Land, Hartmut
2011-01-01
Gene perturbation experiments are commonly used for the reconstruction of gene regulatory networks. Typical experimental methodology imposes persistent changes on the network. The resulting data must therefore be interpreted as a steady state from an altered gene regulatory network, rather than a direct observation of the original network. In this article an implicit modeling methodology is proposed in which the unperturbed network of interest is scored by first modeling the persistent perturbation, then predicting the steady state, which may then be compared to the observed data. This results in a many-to-one inverse problem, so a computational Bayesian approach is used to assess model uncertainty. The methodology is first demonstrated on a number of synthetic networks. It is shown that the Bayesian approach correctly assigns high posterior probability to the network structure and steady state behavior. Further, it is demonstrated that where uncertainty of model features is indicated, the uncertainty may be accurately resolved with further perturbation experiments. The methodology is then applied to the modeling of a gene regulatory network using perturbation data from nine genes which have been shown to respond synergistically to known oncogenic mutations. A hypothetical model emerges which conforms to reported regulatory properties of these genes. Furthermore, the Bayesian methodology is shown to be consistent in the sense that multiple randomized applications of the fitting algorithm converge to an approximately common posterior density on the space of models. Such consistency is generally not feasible for algorithms which report only single models. We conclude that fully Bayesian methods, coupled with models which accurately account for experimental constraints, are a suitable tool for the inference of gene regulatory networks, in terms of accuracy, estimation of model uncertainty, and experimental design. PMID:23089817
Steady-state responses of a belt-drive dynamical system under dual excitations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Hu
2016-02-01
The stable steady-state periodic responses of a belt-drive system with a one-way clutch are studied. For the first time, the dynamical system is investigated under dual excitations. The system is simultaneously excited by the firing pulsations of the engine and the harmonic motion of the foundation. Nonlinear discrete-continuous equations are derived for coupling the transverse vibration of the belt spans and the rotations of the driving and driven pulleys and the accessory pulley. The nonlinear dynamics is studied under equal and multiple relations between the frequency of the firing pulsations and the frequency of the foundation motion. Furthermore, translating belt spans are modeled as axially moving strings. A set of nonlinear piecewise ordinary differential equations is achieved by using the Galerkin truncation. Under various relations between the excitation frequencies, the time histories of the dynamical system are numerically simulated based on the time discretization method. Furthermore, the stable steady-state periodic response curves are calculated based on the frequency sweep. Moreover, the convergence of the Galerkin truncation is examined. Numerical results demonstrate that the one-way clutch reduces the resonance amplitude of the rotations of the driven pulley and the accessory pulley. On the other hand, numerical examples prove that the resonance areas of the belt spans are decreased by eliminating the torque-transmitting in the opposite direction. With the increasing amplitude of the foundation excitation, the damping effect of the one-way clutch will be reduced. Furthermore, as the amplitude of the firing pulsations of the engine increases, the jumping phenomena in steady-state response curves of the belt-drive system with or without a one-way clutch both occur.
Typical pure nonequilibrium steady states and irreversibility for quantum transport.
Monnai, Takaaki; Yuasa, Kazuya
2016-07-01
It is known that each single typical pure state in an energy shell of a large isolated quantum system well represents a thermal equilibrium state of the system. We show that such typicality holds also for nonequilibrium steady states (NESS's). We consider a small quantum system coupled to multiple infinite reservoirs. In the long run, the total system reaches a unique NESS. We identify a large Hilbert space from which pure states of the system are to be sampled randomly and show that the typical pure states well describe the NESS. We also point out that the irreversible relaxation to the unique NESS is important to the typicality of the pure NESS's.
Typical pure nonequilibrium steady states and irreversibility for quantum transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monnai, Takaaki; Yuasa, Kazuya
2016-07-01
It is known that each single typical pure state in an energy shell of a large isolated quantum system well represents a thermal equilibrium state of the system. We show that such typicality holds also for nonequilibrium steady states (NESS's). We consider a small quantum system coupled to multiple infinite reservoirs. In the long run, the total system reaches a unique NESS. We identify a large Hilbert space from which pure states of the system are to be sampled randomly and show that the typical pure states well describe the NESS. We also point out that the irreversible relaxation to the unique NESS is important to the typicality of the pure NESS's.
An automatic method for deriving steady-state rate equations.
Cornish-Bowden, A
1977-01-01
A method is described for systematically deriving steady-state rate equations. It is based on the schematic method of King & Altman [J. Phys. Chem. (1956) 60, 1375-1378], but is expressed in purely algebraic terms. It is suitable for implementation as a computer program, and a program has been written in FORTRAN IV and deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50078 (12 pages) at the British Library (Lending Division), Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1977) 161, 1-2. PMID:889575
New solution method for steady-state canopy structural loads
Sundberg, W.D.
1986-08-01
A new computer code has been written to perform structural analysis canopies. Although an existing code, CANO, has been available, the new code has better convergence reliability, is more understandably written, and is easier to use. The equations have been reformulated for the new solution method. The new code assumes a symmetric canopy, a steady-state condition, and no strength in the vertical direction. It computes the inflated shape, loads in the horizontal members, radial members, vent lines, and suspension lines, and total drag. Constructed geometry, material properties, dynamic pressure, and pressure distribution are required as input.
Long Pulse Operation on Tore-Supra: Towards Steady State
Moreau, P.; Bucalossi, J.; Brosset, C.; Dufour, E.; Loarer, T.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Pegourie, B.; Tsitrone, E.; Basiuk, V.; Bremond, S.; Chantant, M.; Colas, L.; Commaux, N.; Geraud, A.; Guirlet, R.; Gunn, J.; Hertout, P.; Hoang, G. T.; Kazarian, F.; Mazon, D.
2006-01-15
The experimental programme of Tore Supra is devoted to the study of technology and physics issues associated to long-duration high performance discharges. This new domain of operation requires simultaneously and in steady state: heat removal capability, particle exhaust, fully non-inductive current drive, advanced technology integration and real time plasma control. The long discharge allows for addressing new time scale physic such as the wall particle retention and erosion. Moreover, the physics of fully non-inductive discharges is full of novelty, namely: the MHD stability, the slow spontaneous oscillation of the central electron temperature or the outstanding inward particle pinch.
Thermodynamic formalism and linear response theory for nonequilibrium steady states.
Speck, Thomas
2016-08-01
We study the linear response in systems driven away from thermal equilibrium into a nonequilibrium steady state with nonvanishing entropy production rate. A simple derivation of a general response formula is presented under the condition that the generating function describes a transformation that (to lowest order) preserves normalization and thus describes a physical stochastic process. For Markov processes we explicitly construct the conjugate quantities and discuss their relation with known response formulas. Emphasis is put on the formal analogy with thermodynamic potentials and some consequences are discussed. PMID:27627270
Paleoenvironmental evolution in a steady state foredeep, Taiwan
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagel, S.; Castelltort, S.; Willett, S. D.; Mouthereau, F.; Lin, A. T.; Granjeon, D.; Kaus, B.
2012-04-01
The evolution of mountain ranges to steady state is an important concept in the study of the interrelationships between climate, mountain building and topography. The young and active Taiwan orogeny situated in the western pacific typhoon belt has often been regarded as the type locality of a steady state orogeny, and an ideal case study for tectonic and climatic geomorphology. One prediction of the steady-state theory applied to mountains is the attainment of a constant sediment flux. Our aim in the present study is to estimate the material flux out of the Taiwan orogeny through its evolution. To do so, we have studied the basin wide sedimentary facies distribution at five key stratigraphic horizons to construct detailed paleogeographic maps that include paleobathymetric information and sediment feeding systems. The maps highlight the complicated basin-wide dynamics of sediment dispersal within an evolving foreland basin. The basin physiography changed very little from the middle Miocene (around 12.5 Ma) to the late Pliocene (around 3 Ma); the paleoenvironments were essentially maintained from the passive margin to the foreland basin stage. At 3 Ma, during deposition of the mud-dominated Chinshui Shale, the main depositional basin started to widen and deepen. This clearly marks the increased subsidence associated with the approach of the growing orogen to the east. The basin started to become filled in the late early Pleistocene when a shallow marine wedge in front of the growing orogen initiated to propagate towards the south. We use Dionisos, a forward stratigraphic model, to simulate the evolution of the Taiwan foreland basin in terms of sediment flux (in and out of the basin) towards steady state. We constrain the model with our paleogeographic and sedimentary reconstructions. As an initial input data we utilize the paleoenvironmental maps and a primary sediment supply from the hinterland (topography). The model enables us to look at the long-term basin
Linear modeling of steady-state behavioral dynamics.
Palya, William L; Walter, Donald; Kessel, Robert; Lucke, Robert
2002-01-01
The observed steady-state behavioral dynamics supported by unsignaled periods of reinforcement within repeating 2,000-s trials were modeled with a linear transfer function. These experiments employed improved schedule forms and analytical methods to improve the precision of the measured transfer function, compared to previous work. The refinements include both the use of multiple reinforcement periods that improve spectral coverage and averaging of independently determined transfer functions. A linear analysis was then used to predict behavior observed for three different test schedules. The fidelity of these predictions was determined. PMID:11831782
Steady State Vacuum Ultraviolet Exposure Facility With Automated Calibration Capability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stueber, Thomas J.; Sechkar, Edward A.; Dever, Joyce A.; Banks, Bruce A.
2000-01-01
NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field designed and developed a steady state vacuum ultraviolet automated (SSVUVa) facility with in situ VUV intensity calibration capability. The automated feature enables a constant accelerated VUV radiation exposure over long periods of testing without breaking vacuum. This test facility is designed to simultaneously accommodate four isolated radiation exposure tests within the SSVUVa vacuum chamber. Computer-control of the facility for long, term continuous operation also provides control and recording of thermocouple temperatures, periodic recording of VUV lamp intensity, and monitoring of vacuum facility status. This paper discusses the design and capabilities of the SSVUVa facility.
Quantum-classical correspondence in steady states of nonadiabatic systems
Fujii, Mikiya; Yamashita, Koichi
2015-12-31
We first present nonadiabatic path integral which is exact formulation of quantum dynamics in nonadiabatic systems. Then, by applying the stationary phase approximations to the nonadiabatic path integral, a semiclassical quantization condition, i.e., quantum-classical correspondence, for steady states of nonadiabatic systems is presented as a nonadiabatic trace formula. The present quantum-classical correspondence indicates that a set of primitive hopping periodic orbits, which are invariant under time evolution in the phase space of the slow degree of freedom, should be quantized. The semiclassical quantization is then applied to a simple nonadiabatic model and accurately reproduces exact quantum energy levels.
Steady state self-induced current in tokamak
Gott, Yu. V.; Yurchenko, E. I.
2009-11-15
A model, which may make it possible to self-consistently calculate the self-driven current in tokamaks taking into account asymmetry and bootstrap currents, is presented. It is shown that the described self-driven current can provide steady-state tokamak operation without the seed current produced with the help of additional methods. The total self-consistent, self-driven current does not depend on magnetic field magnitude and is proportional to the square root from plasma pressure. The experimental data obtained in the National Spherical Torus Experiment are satisfactorily described by this model.
Skewness of steady-state current fluctuations in nonequilibrium systems.
Belousov, Roman; Cohen, E G D; Wong, Chun-Shang; Goree, John A; Feng, Yan
2016-04-01
A skewness of the probability for instantaneous current fluctuations, in a nonequilibrium steady state, is observed experimentally in a dusty plasma. This skewness is attributed to the spatial asymmetry, which is imminent to the nonequilibrium systems due to the external hydrodynamic gradient. Using the modern framework of the large deviation theory, we extend the Onsager-Machlup ansatz for equilibrium fluctuations to systems with a preferred spatial direction, and provide a modulated Gaussian probability distribution, which is tested by simulations. This probability distribution is also of potential interest for other statistical disciplines. Connections with the principles of statistical mechanics, due to Boltzmann and Gibbs, are discussed as well. PMID:27176272
Thermodynamic formalism and linear response theory for nonequilibrium steady states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Speck, Thomas
2016-08-01
We study the linear response in systems driven away from thermal equilibrium into a nonequilibrium steady state with nonvanishing entropy production rate. A simple derivation of a general response formula is presented under the condition that the generating function describes a transformation that (to lowest order) preserves normalization and thus describes a physical stochastic process. For Markov processes we explicitly construct the conjugate quantities and discuss their relation with known response formulas. Emphasis is put on the formal analogy with thermodynamic potentials and some consequences are discussed.
Analysis of discrete bioregulatory networks using symbolic steady states.
Siebert, Heike
2011-04-01
A discrete model of a biological regulatory network can be represented by a discrete function that contains all available information on interactions between network components and the rules governing the evolution of the network in a finite state space. Since the state space size grows exponentially with the number of network components, analysis of large networks is a complex problem. In this paper, we introduce the notion of symbolic steady state that allows us to identify subnetworks that govern the dynamics of the original network in some region of state space. We state rules to explicitly construct attractors of the system from subnetwork attractors. Using the results, we formulate sufficient conditions for the existence of multiple attractors resp. a cyclic attractor based on the existence of positive resp. negative feedback circuits in the graph representing the structure of the system. In addition, we discuss approaches to finding symbolic steady states. We focus both on dynamics derived via synchronous as well as asynchronous update rules. Lastly, we illustrate the results by analyzing a model of T helper cell differentiation.
Steady-state flow properties of amorphous materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jadhao, Vikram; O'Connor, Thomas; Robbins, Mark
2015-03-01
Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to investigate the steady-state shear flow curves of a standard glass model: the bidisperse Lennard-Jones system. For a wide range of temperatures in the neighborhood of the glass transition temperature Tg predicted by the mode coupling theory, we compute the steady-state shear stress and viscosity as a function of the shear rate γ ˙. At temperatures near and above Tg, the stress crosses over from linear Newtonian behavior at low rates to power law shear-thinning at high rates. As T decreases below Tg, the stress shows a plateau, becoming nearly rate-independent at low γ ˙. There is a weak increase in stress that is consistent with Eyring theory for activated flow of a solid. We find that when the strain rate is reduced to extremely low values, Newtonian behavior appears once more. Insights gained from these simulations are applied to the computation of flow curves of a well-established boundary lubricant: squalane. In the elastohydrodynamic regime, squalane responds like a glassy solid with an Eyring-like response, but at low rates it has a relatively small Newtonian viscosity. Supported by the Army Research Laboratory under Grant W911NF-12-2-0022.
Zeroth law and nonequilibrium thermodynamics for steady states in contact
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatterjee, Sayani; Pradhan, Punyabrata; Mohanty, P. K.
2015-06-01
We ask what happens when two nonequilibrium systems in steady state are kept in contact and allowed to exchange a quantity, say mass, which is conserved in the combined system. Will the systems eventually evolve to a new stationary state where a certain intensive thermodynamic variable, like equilibrium chemical potential, equalizes following the zeroth law of thermodynamics and, if so, under what conditions is it possible? We argue that an equilibriumlike thermodynamic structure can be extended to nonequilibrium steady states having short-ranged spatial correlations, provided that the systems interact weakly to exchange mass with rates satisfying a balance condition—reminiscent of a detailed balance condition in equilibrium. The short-ranged correlations would lead to subsystem factorization on a coarse-grained level and the balance condition ensures both equalization of an intensive thermodynamic variable as well as ensemble equivalence, which are crucial for construction of a well-defined nonequilibrium thermodynamics. This proposition is proved and demonstrated in various conserved-mass transport processes having nonzero spatial correlations.
Drug Sanctuaries, Low Steady State Viral Loads and Viral Blips.
Perelson, Alan S.,; Callaway, D.; Pomerantz, R. J.; Chen, H. Y.; Markowitz, M.; Ho, David D.; Di Mascio, M.
2002-01-01
Patients on HAART for long periods of time obtain viral loads (VLs) below 50 copies/ml. Ultrasensitive VL assays show that some of these patients obtain a low steady state VL, while others continue to exhibit VL declines to below 5 copies/ml. Low steady states can be explained by two-compartment models that incorporate a drug sanctuary. Interestingly, when patients exhibit continued declines below 50 copies/ml the rate of decline has a half-life of {approx} 6 months, consistent with some estimates of the rate of latent cell decline. Some patients, despite having sustained undetectable VLs show periods of transient viremia (blips). I will present some statistical characterization of the blips observed in a set of 123 patients, suggesting that blips are generated largely by random processes, that blips tend to correspond to periods of a few weeks in which VLs are elevated, and that VL decay from the peak of a blip may have two-phases. Using new results suggesting that the viral burst size, N {approx} 5 x 10{sup 4}, we estimate the number of cells needed to produce a blip.
Transient and steady-state selection in the striatal microcircuit.
Tomkins, Adam; Vasilaki, Eleni; Beste, Christian; Gurney, Kevin; Humphries, Mark D
2013-01-01
Although the basal ganglia have been widely studied and implicated in signal processing and action selection, little information is known about the active role the striatal microcircuit plays in action selection in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. To address this knowledge gap we use a large scale three dimensional spiking model of the striatum, combined with a rate coded model of the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop, to asses the computational role the striatum plays in action selection. We identify a robust transient phenomena generated by the striatal microcircuit, which temporarily enhances the difference between two competing cortical inputs. We show that this transient is sufficient to modulate decision making in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit. We also find that the transient selection originates from a novel adaptation effect in single striatal projection neurons, which is amenable to experimental testing. Finally, we compared transient selection with models implementing classical steady-state selection. We challenged both forms of model to account for recent reports of paradoxically enhanced response selection in Huntington's disease patients. We found that steady-state selection was uniformly impaired under all simulated Huntington's conditions, but transient selection was enhanced given a sufficient Huntington's-like increase in NMDA receptor sensitivity. Thus our models provide an intriguing hypothesis for the mechanisms underlying the paradoxical cognitive improvements in manifest Huntington's patients. PMID:24478684
Estimating instantaneous energetic cost during non-steady-state gait.
Selinger, Jessica C; Donelan, J Maxwell
2014-12-01
Respiratory measures of oxygen and carbon dioxide are routinely used to estimate the body's steady-state metabolic energy use. However, slow mitochondrial dynamics, long transit times, complex respiratory control mechanisms, and high breath-by-breath variability obscure the relationship between the body's instantaneous energy demands (instantaneous energetic cost) and that measured from respiratory gases (measured energetic cost). The purpose of this study was to expand on traditional methods of assessing metabolic cost by estimating instantaneous energetic cost during non-steady-state conditions. To accomplish this goal, we first imposed known changes in energy use (input), while measuring the breath-by-breath response (output). We used these input/output relationships to model the body as a dynamic system that maps instantaneous to measured energetic cost. We found that a first-order linear differential equation well approximates transient energetic cost responses during gait. Across all subjects, model fits were parameterized by an average time constant (τ) of 42 ± 12 s with an average R(2) of 0.94 ± 0.05 (mean ± SD). Armed with this input/output model, we next tested whether we could use it to reliably estimate instantaneous energetic cost from breath-by-breath measures under conditions that simulated dynamically changing gait. A comparison of the imposed energetic cost profiles and our estimated instantaneous cost demonstrated a close correspondence, supporting the use of our methodology to study the role of energetics during locomotor adaptation and learning.
Steady-state wear and friction in boundary lubrication studies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Loomis, W. R.; Jones, W. R., Jr.
1980-01-01
A friction and wear study was made at 20 C to obtain improved reproducibility and reliability in boundary lubrication testing. Ester-base and C-ether-base fluids were used to lubricate a pure iron rider in sliding contact with a rotating M-50 steel disk in a friction and wear apparatus. Conditions included loads of 1/2 and 1 kg and sliding velocities of 3.6 to 18.2 m/min in a dry air atmosphere and stepwise time intervals from 1 to 250 min for wear measurements. The wear rate results were compared with those from previous studies where a single 25 min test period was used. Satisfactory test conditions for studying friction and wear in boundary lubrication for this apparatus were found to be 1 kg load; sliding velocities of 7.1 to 9.1 m/min (50 rpm disk speed); and use of a time stepwise test procedure. Highly reproducible steady-state wear rates and steady-state friction coefficients were determined under boundary conditions. Wear rates and coefficients of friction were constant following initially high values during run-in periods.
Transient and steady-state selection in the striatal microcircuit.
Tomkins, Adam; Vasilaki, Eleni; Beste, Christian; Gurney, Kevin; Humphries, Mark D
2013-01-01
Although the basal ganglia have been widely studied and implicated in signal processing and action selection, little information is known about the active role the striatal microcircuit plays in action selection in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. To address this knowledge gap we use a large scale three dimensional spiking model of the striatum, combined with a rate coded model of the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop, to asses the computational role the striatum plays in action selection. We identify a robust transient phenomena generated by the striatal microcircuit, which temporarily enhances the difference between two competing cortical inputs. We show that this transient is sufficient to modulate decision making in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit. We also find that the transient selection originates from a novel adaptation effect in single striatal projection neurons, which is amenable to experimental testing. Finally, we compared transient selection with models implementing classical steady-state selection. We challenged both forms of model to account for recent reports of paradoxically enhanced response selection in Huntington's disease patients. We found that steady-state selection was uniformly impaired under all simulated Huntington's conditions, but transient selection was enhanced given a sufficient Huntington's-like increase in NMDA receptor sensitivity. Thus our models provide an intriguing hypothesis for the mechanisms underlying the paradoxical cognitive improvements in manifest Huntington's patients.
Resolution enhanced T1-insensitive steady-state imaging.
Derakhshan, Jamal J; Nour, Sherif G; Sunshine, Jeffrey L; Griswold, Mark A; Duerk, Jeffrey L
2012-08-01
Resolution enhanced T(1)-insensitive steady-state imaging (RE-TOSSI) is a new MRI pulse sequence for the generation of rapid T(2) contrast with high spatial resolution. TOSSI provides T(2) contrast by using nonequally spaced inversion pulses throughout a balanced steady-state free precession (SSFP) acquisition. In RE-TOSSI, these energy and time intensive adiabatic inversion pulses and associated magnetization preparation are removed from TOSSI after acquisition of the data around the center of k-space. Magnetization evolution simulations demonstrate T(2) contrast in TOSSI as well as reduction in the widening of the point spread function width (by up to a factor of 4) to a near ideal case for RE-TOSSI. Phantom experimentation is used to characterize and compare the contrast and spatial resolution properties of TOSSI, RE-TOSSI, balanced SSFP, Half-Fourier Acquisition Single-Shot Turbo Spin Echo (HASTE), and turbo spin echo and to optimize the fraction of k-space acquired using TOSSI. Comparison images in the abdomen and brain demonstrate similar contrast and improved spatial resolution in RE-TOSSI compared with TOSSI; comparison balanced SSFP, HASTE, and turbo spin echo images are provided. RE-TOSSI is capable of providing high spatial resolution T(2)-weighted images in 1 s or less per image.
Steady State Erosion of Granular Particles by Shear Flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allen, Benjamin; Kudrolli, Arshad
2015-11-01
Despite decades of scientific observation of rivers, streams and laboratory experiments the process of erosion still is not understood. Empirical fits are used to determine when erosion starts with more than an order of magnitude scatter or a shifting power law determining how much material erodes away. In order to study the many body problem of multiple particles we first need to understand the basics of a single particle eroding from a potential well in laminar flow. Using different particle densities and different barrier heights we looked at the onset of erosion and the balance of forces and torques to create a predictive model of when a single particle will erode over a barrier of a given height as a function of shear rate and viscosity. We then create a steady state system in which to image erosion as it happens and simultaneously measure flow velocity and particle movement. Measuring particle movement allows us to determine when steady state erosion occurs and calculate the fluxes and slip velocities at the beginning of the erosion process as we transition from rolling particles to particles suspended in the fluid flow. NSF Grant Number CBET 1335928.
Steady-State ALPS for Real-Valued Problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hornby, Gregory S.
2009-01-01
The two objectives of this paper are to describe a steady-state version of the Age-Layered Population Structure (ALPS) Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) and to compare it against other GAs on real-valued problems. Motivation for this work comes from our previous success in demonstrating that a generational version of ALPS greatly improves search performance on a Genetic Programming problem. In making steady-state ALPS some modifications were made to the method for calculating age and the method for moving individuals up layers. To demonstrate that ALPS works well on real-valued problems we compare it against CMA-ES and Differential Evolution (DE) on five challenging, real-valued functions and on one real-world problem. While CMA-ES and DE outperform ALPS on the two unimodal test functions, ALPS is much better on the three multimodal test problems and on the real-world problem. Further examination shows that, unlike the other GAs, ALPS maintains a genotypically diverse population throughout the entire search process. These findings strongly suggest that the ALPS paradigm is better able to avoid premature convergence then the other GAs.
Integrated stoichiometric, thermodynamic and kinetic modelling of steady state metabolism.
Fleming, R M T; Thiele, I; Provan, G; Nasheuer, H P
2010-06-01
The quantitative analysis of biochemical reactions and metabolites is at frontier of biological sciences. The recent availability of high-throughput technology data sets in biology has paved the way for new modelling approaches at various levels of complexity including the metabolome of a cell or an organism. Understanding the metabolism of a single cell and multi-cell organism will provide the knowledge for the rational design of growth conditions to produce commercially valuable reagents in biotechnology. Here, we demonstrate how equations representing steady state mass conservation, energy conservation, the second law of thermodynamics, and reversible enzyme kinetics can be formulated as a single system of linear equalities and inequalities, in addition to linear equalities on exponential variables. Even though the feasible set is non-convex, the reformulation is exact and amenable to large-scale numerical analysis, a prerequisite for computationally feasible genome scale modelling. Integrating flux, concentration and kinetic variables in a unified constraint-based formulation is aimed at increasing the quantitative predictive capacity of flux balance analysis. Incorporation of experimental and theoretical bounds on thermodynamic and kinetic variables ensures that the predicted steady state fluxes are both thermodynamically and biochemically feasible. The resulting in silico predictions are tested against fluxomic data for central metabolism in Escherichia coli and compare favourably with in silico prediction by flux balance analysis.
Building steady-state simulators via hierarchical feedback decomposition
Rouquette, N.
1996-12-31
In recent years, compositional modeling and self-explanatory simulation techniques have simplified the process of building dynamic simulators of physical systems. Building steady-state simulators is, conceptually, a simpler task consisting in solving a set algebraic equations. This simplicity hides delicate technical issues of convergence and search-space size due to the potentially large number of unknown parameters. We present an automated technique for reducing the dimensionality of the problem by (1) automatically identifying feedback loops (a generally NP-complete problem), (2) hierarchically decomposing the set of equations in terms of feedback loops, and (3) structuring a simulator where equations are solved either serially without search or in isolation within a feedback loop. This paper describes the key algorithms and the results of their implementation on building simulators for a two-phase evaporator loop system across multiple combinations of causal and non-causal approximations.
Thermodynamics and phase coexistence in nonequilibrium steady states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dickman, Ronald
2016-09-01
I review recent work focussing on whether thermodynamics can be extended to nonequilibrium steady states (NESS), in particular, the possibility of consistent definitions of temperature T and chemical potential μ for NESS. The testing-grounds are simple lattice models with stochastic dynamics. Each model includes a drive that maintains the system far from equilibrium, provoking particle and/or energy flows; for zero drive the system relaxes to equilibrium. Analysis and numerical simulation show that for spatially uniform NESS, consistent definitions of T and μ are possible via coexistence with an appropriate reservoir, if (and in general only if) a particular kind of rate (that proposed by Sasa and Tasaki) is used for exchanges of particles and energy between systems. The program fails, however, for nonuniform systems. The functions T and μ describing isolated phases cannot be used to predict the properties of coexisting phases in a single, phase-separated system.
Steady-State Density Functional Theory for Finite Bias Conductances.
Stefanucci, G; Kurth, S
2015-12-01
In the framework of density functional theory, a formalism to describe electronic transport in the steady state is proposed which uses the density on the junction and the steady current as basic variables. We prove that, in a finite window around zero bias, there is a one-to-one map between the basic variables and both local potential on as well as bias across the junction. The resulting Kohn-Sham system features two exchange-correlation (xc) potentials, a local xc potential, and an xc contribution to the bias. For weakly coupled junctions the xc potentials exhibit steps in the density-current plane which are shown to be crucial to describe the Coulomb blockade diamonds. At small currents these steps emerge as the equilibrium xc discontinuity bifurcates. The formalism is applied to a model benzene junction, finding perfect agreement with the orthodox theory of Coulomb blockade. PMID:26571349
Steady-state plasma transition in the Venus ionosheath
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perez-de-Tejada, H.; Intriligator, D. S.; Strangeway, R. J.
1991-02-01
The results of an extended analysis of the plasma and electric field data of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) are presented. The persistent presence of a plasma transition embedded in the flanks of the Venus ionosheath between the bow shock and the ionopause is reported. This transition is identified by the repeated presence of characteristic bursts in the 30 kHz channel of the electric field detector of the PVO. The observed electric field signals coincide with the onset of different plasma conditions in the inner ionosheath where more rarified plasma fluxes are measured. The repeated identification of this intermediate ionosheath transition in the PVO data indicates that it is present as a steady state feature of the Venus plasma environment. The distribution of PVO orbits in which the transition is observed suggests that it is more favorably detected in the vicinity of and downstream from the terminator.
Steady-State Density Functional Theory for Finite Bias Conductances.
Stefanucci, G; Kurth, S
2015-12-01
In the framework of density functional theory, a formalism to describe electronic transport in the steady state is proposed which uses the density on the junction and the steady current as basic variables. We prove that, in a finite window around zero bias, there is a one-to-one map between the basic variables and both local potential on as well as bias across the junction. The resulting Kohn-Sham system features two exchange-correlation (xc) potentials, a local xc potential, and an xc contribution to the bias. For weakly coupled junctions the xc potentials exhibit steps in the density-current plane which are shown to be crucial to describe the Coulomb blockade diamonds. At small currents these steps emerge as the equilibrium xc discontinuity bifurcates. The formalism is applied to a model benzene junction, finding perfect agreement with the orthodox theory of Coulomb blockade.
Taylor dispersion in equilibrium gradient focusing at steady state.
Ivory, Cornelius F
2015-03-01
An analytic expression is presented for the effective dispersion coefficient in the case where a solute is focused in a parabolic flow against a linear gradient in a restoring force. This expression was derived by employing a minor variation on the method of moments used by Aris in his development of the dispersion coefficients for a time-dependent, isocratic system. In the present case, dispersion is controlled by two dimensionless groups, a Peclet number which is proportional to the parabolic component of the flow, and a gradient number which is proportional to the slope of the restoring force. These results confirm that the Aris-Taylor expression for the dispersion coefficient should not be applied in cases where a solute is focused to a stationary steady state.
Typical pure nonequilibrium steady states and irreversibility for quantum transport.
Monnai, Takaaki; Yuasa, Kazuya
2016-07-01
It is known that each single typical pure state in an energy shell of a large isolated quantum system well represents a thermal equilibrium state of the system. We show that such typicality holds also for nonequilibrium steady states (NESS's). We consider a small quantum system coupled to multiple infinite reservoirs. In the long run, the total system reaches a unique NESS. We identify a large Hilbert space from which pure states of the system are to be sampled randomly and show that the typical pure states well describe the NESS. We also point out that the irreversible relaxation to the unique NESS is important to the typicality of the pure NESS's. PMID:27575115
NASA Lewis Steady-State Heat Pipe Code Architecture
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mi, Ye; Tower, Leonard K.
2013-01-01
NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed the LERCHP code. The PC-based LERCHP code can be used to predict the steady-state performance of heat pipes, including the determination of operating temperature and operating limits which might be encountered under specified conditions. The code contains a vapor flow algorithm which incorporates vapor compressibility and axially varying heat input. For the liquid flow in the wick, Darcy s formula is employed. Thermal boundary conditions and geometric structures can be defined through an interactive input interface. A variety of fluid and material options as well as user defined options can be chosen for the working fluid, wick, and pipe materials. This report documents the current effort at GRC to update the LERCHP code for operating in a Microsoft Windows (Microsoft Corporation) environment. A detailed analysis of the model is presented. The programming architecture for the numerical calculations is explained and flowcharts of the key subroutines are given
Entropy Production and Non-Equilibrium Steady States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Masuo
2013-01-01
The long-term issue of entropy production in transport phenomena is solved by separating the symmetry of the non-equilibrium density matrix ρ(t) in the von Neumann equation, as ρ(t) = ρs(t) + ρa(t) with the symmetric part ρs(t) and antisymmetric part ρa(t). The irreversible entropy production (dS/dt)irr is given in M. Suzuki, Physica A 390(2011)1904 by (dS/dt)irr = Tr( {H}(dρ s{(t)/dt))}/T for the Hamiltonian {H} of the relevant system. The general formulation of the extended von Neumann equation with energy supply and heat extraction is reviewed from the author's paper (M. S.,Physica A391(2012)1074). irreversibility; entropy production; transport phenomena; electric conduction; thermal conduction; linear response; Kubo formula; steady state; non-equilibrium density matrix; energy supply; symmetry-separated von Neumann equation; unboundedness.
[Auditory steady-state responses--the state of art].
Szymańska, Anna; Gryczyński, Maciej; Pajor, Anna
2010-01-01
The auditory steady-state responses (ASSR) is quite a new method of electrophysiological threshold estimation with no clinical standards. It was the aim of this study to review practical and theoretical thesis of ASSR and mention recent recommendations and achievements of this technique. The most common application of ASSR is diagnosis of hearing loss in children together with ABR test. In this paper we mentioned information about influence of physiological factors (age, sex, state of arousal, handedness) and type of recording technique (electrodes placement, air and bone stimulation, occlusion effect, amplitude and frequency stimulation, multiple or single frequency stimulation, dichotic and monotic recording technique and type of hearing loss) on ASSR. We conclude that putting ASSR in clinical use as an standardized method it is necessary to do research with numerous groups of patients using the same equipment and parameters of tests. PMID:21166136
Modelling of pulsed and steady-state DEMO scenarios
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giruzzi, G.; Artaud, J. F.; Baruzzo, M.; Bolzonella, T.; Fable, E.; Garzotti, L.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Kemp, R.; King, D. B.; Schneider, M.; Stankiewicz, R.; Stępniewski, W.; Vincenzi, P.; Ward, D.; Zagórski, R.
2015-07-01
Scenario modelling for the demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO) has been carried out using a variety of simulation codes. Two DEMO concepts have been analysed: a pulsed tokamak, characterized by rather conventional physics and technology assumptions (DEMO1) and a steady-state tokamak, with moderately advanced physics and technology assumptions (DEMO2). Sensitivity to impurity concentrations, radiation, and heat transport models has been investigated. For DEMO2, the impact of current driven non-inductively by neutral beams has been studied by full Monte Carlo simulations of the fast ion distribution. The results obtained are a part of a more extensive research and development (R&D) effort carried out in the EU in order to develop a viable option for a DEMO reactor, to be adopted after ITER for fusion energy research.
Dust remobilization in fusion plasmas under steady state conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tolias, P.; Ratynskaia, S.; De Angeli, M.; De Temmerman, G.; Ripamonti, D.; Riva, G.; Bykov, I.; Shalpegin, A.; Vignitchouk, L.; Brochard, F.; Bystrov, K.; Bardin, S.; Litnovsky, A.
2016-02-01
The first combined experimental and theoretical studies of dust remobilization by plasma forces are reported. The main theoretical aspects of remobilization in fusion devices under steady state conditions are analyzed. In particular, the dominant role of adhesive forces is highlighted and generic remobilization conditions—direct lift-up, sliding, rolling—are formulated. A novel experimental technique is proposed, based on controlled adhesion of dust grains on tungsten samples combined with detailed mapping of the dust deposition profile prior and post plasma exposure. Proof-of-principle experiments in the TEXTOR tokamak and the EXTRAP-T2R reversed-field pinch are presented. The versatile environment of the linear device Pilot-PSI allowed for experiments with different magnetic field topologies and varying plasma conditions that were complemented with camera observations.
Locating CVBEM collocation points for steady state heat transfer problems
Hromadka, T.V.
1985-01-01
The Complex Variable Boundary Element Method or CVBEM provides a highly accurate means of developing numerical solutions to steady state two-dimensional heat transfer problems. The numerical approach exactly solves the Laplace equation and satisfies the boundary conditions at specified points on the boundary by means of collocation. The accuracy of the approximation depends upon the nodal point distribution specified by the numerical analyst. In order to develop subsequent, refined approximation functions, four techniques for selecting additional collocation points are presented. The techniques are compared as to the governing theory, representation of the error of approximation on the problem boundary, the computational costs, and the ease of use by the numerical analyst. ?? 1985.
Waveguides formed by quasi-steady-state photorefractive spatial solitons.
Morin, M; Duree, G; Salamo, G; Segev, M
1995-10-15
We show that a quasi-steady-state photorefractive spatial soliton forms a waveguide structure in the bulk of a photorefractive material. Although the optically induced waveguide is formed by a very low-power (microwatts) soliton beam, it can guide a powerful (watt) beam of a longer wavelength at which the medium is nonphotosensitive. Furthermore, the waveguide survives, either in the dark or when guiding the longerwavelength beam, for a long time after the soliton beam is turned off. We take advantage of the solitons' property of evolution from a relatively broad input beam into a narrow channel and show that the soliton induces a tapered waveguide (an optical funnel) that improves the coupling efficiency of light into the waveguiding structure.
Steady-state cracks in viscoelastic lattice models
Kessler, D.A.; Levine, H.
1999-05-01
We study the steady-state motion of mode III cracks propagating on a lattice exhibiting viscoelastic dynamics. The introduction of a Kelvin viscosity {eta} allows for a direct comparison between lattice results and continuum treatments. Utilizing both numerical and analytical (Wiener-Hopf) techniques, we explore this comparison as a function of the driving displacement {Delta} and the number of transverse rows {ital N}. At any {ital N}, the continuum theory misses the lattice-trapping phenomenon; this is well known, but the introduction of {eta} introduces some new twists. More importantly, for large {ital N} even at large {Delta}, the standard two-dimensional elastodynamics approach completely misses the {eta}-dependent velocity selection, as this selection disappears completely in the leading order naive continuum limit of the lattice problem. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}
Computational complexity of nonequilibrium steady states of quantum spin chains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marzolino, Ugo; Prosen, Tomaž
2016-03-01
We study nonequilibrium steady states (NESS) of spin chains with boundary Markovian dissipation from the computational complexity point of view. We focus on X X chains whose NESS are matrix product operators, i.e., with coefficients of a tensor operator basis described by transition amplitudes in an auxiliary space. Encoding quantum algorithms in the auxiliary space, we show that estimating expectations of operators, being local in the sense that each acts on disjoint sets of few spins covering all the system, provides the answers of problems at least as hard as, and believed by many computer scientists to be much harder than, those solved by quantum computers. We draw conclusions on the hardness of the above estimations.
Steady state plasma operation in RF dominated regimes on EAST
Zhang, X. J.; Zhao, Y. P.; Gong, X. Z.; Hu, C. D.; Liu, F. K.; Hu, L. Q.; Wan, B. N. Li, J. G.
2015-12-10
Significant progress has recently been made on EAST in the 2014 campaign, including the enhanced CW H&CD system over 20MW heating power (LHCD, ICRH and NBI), more than 70 diagnostics, ITER-like W-monoblock on upper divertor, two inner cryo-pumps and RMP coils, enabling EAST to investigate long pulse H mode operation with dominant electron heating and low torque to address the critical issues for ITER. H-mode plasmas were achieved by new H&CD system or 4.6GHz LHCD alone for the first time. Long pulse high performance H mode has been obtained by LHCD alone up to 28s at H{sub 98}∼1.2 or by combing of ICRH and LHCD, no or small ELM was found in RF plasmas, which is essential for steady state operation in the future Tokamak. Plasma operation in low collision regimes were implemented by new 4.6GHz LHCD with core Te∼4.5keV. The non-inductive scenarios with high performance at high bootstrap current fraction have been demonstrated in RF dominated regimes for long pulse operation. Near full non-inductive CD discharges have been achieved. In addition, effective heating and decoupling method under multi-transmitter for ICRF system were developed in this campaign, etc. EAST could be in operation with over 30MW CW heating and current drive power (LHCD ICRH NBI and ECRH), enhanced diagnostic capabilities and full actively-cooled metal wall from 2015. It will therefore allow to access new confinement regimes and to extend these regimes towards to steady state operation.
Interpolation of steady-state concentration data by inverse modeling.
Schwede, Ronnie L; Cirpka, Olaf A
2010-01-01
In most groundwater applications, measurements of concentration are limited in number and sparsely distributed within the domain of interest. Therefore, interpolation techniques are needed to obtain most likely values of concentration at locations where no measurements are available. For further processing, for example, in environmental risk analysis, interpolated values should be given with uncertainty bounds, so that a geostatistical framework is preferable. Linear interpolation of steady-state concentration measurements is problematic because the dependence of concentration on the primary uncertain material property, the hydraulic conductivity field, is highly nonlinear, suggesting that the statistical interrelationship between concentration values at different points is also nonlinear. We suggest interpolating steady-state concentration measurements by conditioning an ensemble of the underlying log-conductivity field on the available hydrological data in a conditional Monte Carlo approach. Flow and transport simulations for each conditional conductivity field must meet the measurements within their given uncertainty. The ensemble of transport simulations based on the conditional log-conductivity fields yields conditional statistical distributions of concentration at points between observation points. This method implicitly meets physical bounds of concentration values and non-Gaussianity of their statistical distributions and obeys the nonlinearity of the underlying processes. We validate our method by artificial test cases and compare the results to kriging estimates assuming different conditional statistical distributions of concentration. Assuming a beta distribution in kriging leads to estimates of concentration with zero probability of concentrations below zero or above the maximal possible value; however, the concentrations are not forced to meet the advection-dispersion equation.
A mathematical model of pan evaporation under steady state conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lim, Wee Ho; Roderick, Michael L.; Farquhar, Graham D.
2016-09-01
In the context of changing climate, global pan evaporation records have shown a spatially-averaged trend of ∼ -2 to ∼ -3 mm a-2 over the past 30-50 years. This global phenomenon has motivated the development of the "PenPan" model (Rotstayn et al., 2006). However, the original PenPan model has yet to receive an independent experimental evaluation. Hence, we constructed an instrumented US Class A pan at Canberra Airport (Australia) and monitored it over a three-year period (2007-2010) to uncover the physics of pan evaporation under non-steady state conditions. The experimental investigations of pan evaporation enabled theoretical formulation and parameterisation of the aerodynamic function considering the wind, properties of air and (with or without) the bird guard effect. The energy balance investigation allowed for detailed formulation of the short- and long-wave radiation associated with the albedos and the emissivities of the pan water surface and the pan wall. Here, we synthesise and generalise those earlier works to develop a new model called the "PenPan-V2" model for application under steady state conditions (i.e., uses a monthly time step). Two versions (PenPan-V2C and PenPan-V2S) are tested using pan evaporation data available across the Australian continent. Both versions outperformed the original PenPan model with better representation of both the evaporation rate and the underlying physics of a US Class A pan. The results show the improved solar geometry related calculations (e.g., albedo, area) for the pan system led to a clear improvement in representing the seasonal cycle of pan evaporation. For general applications, the PenPan-V2S is simpler and suited for applications including an evaluation of long-term trends in pan evaporation.
Electrically Evoked Auditory Steady State Responses in Cochlear Implant Users
Wouters, Jan
2009-01-01
Auditory steady state responses are neural potentials in response to repeated auditory stimuli. This study shows that electrically evoked auditory steady state responses (EASSRs) to low-rate pulse trains can be reliably recorded by electrodes placed on the scalp of a cochlear implant (CI) user and separated from the artifacts generated by the electrical stimulation. Response properties are described, and the predictive value of EASSRs for behaviorally hearing thresholds is analyzed. For six users of a Cochlear Nucleus CI, EASSRs to symmetric biphasic pulse trains with rates between 35 and 47 Hz were recorded with seven scalp electrodes. The influence of various stimulus parameters was assessed: pulse rate, stimulus intensity, monopolar or bipolar stimulation mode, and presentation of either one pulse train on one electrode or interleaved pulse trains with different pulse rates on multiple electrodes. To compensate for the electrical artifacts caused by the stimulus pulses and radio frequency transmission, different methods of artifact reduction were employed. The validity of the recorded responses was confirmed by recording on–off responses, determination of response latency across the measured pulse rates, and comparison of amplitude growth of stimulus artifact and response amplitude. For stimulation in the 40 Hz range, response latencies of 35.6 ms (SD = 5.3 ms) were obtained. Responses to multiple simultaneous stimuli on different electrodes can be evoked, and the electrophysiological thresholds determined from EASSR amplitude growth in the 40 Hz range correlate well with behaviorally determined threshold levels for pulse rates of 41 Hz. PMID:20033246
Equatorial ground ice on Mars: Steady-state stability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mellon, Michael T.; Jakosky, Bruce M.; Postawko, Susan E.
1993-01-01
Current Martian equatorial surface temperatures are too warm for water ice to exist at the surface for any appreciable length of time before subliming into the atmosphere. Subsurface temperatures are generally warmer still and, despite the presence of a diffusive barrier of porous regolith material, it has been shown by Smoluchowski, Clifford and Hillel, and Fanale et al. that buried ground ice will also sublime and be lost to the atmosphere in a relatively short time. We investigate the behavior of this subliming subsurface ice and show that it is possible for ice to maintain at a steady-state depth, where sublimation and diffusive loss to the atmosphere is balanced by resupply from beneath by diffusion and recondensation of either a deeper buried ice deposits or ground water. We examine the behavior of equatorial ground ice with a numercial time-marching molecular diffusion model. In our model we allow for diffusion of water vapor through a porous regolith, variations in diffusivity and porosity with ice content, and recondensation of sublimed water vapor. A regolith containing considerable amounts of ice can still be very porous, allowing water vapor to diffuse up from deeper within the ice layer where temperatures are warmer due to the geothermal gradient. This vapor can then recondense nearer to the surface where ice had previously sublimed and been lost to the atmosphere. As a result we find that ice deposits migrate to find a steady-state depth, which represents a balance between diffusive loss to the atmosphere through the overlying porous regolith and diffusive resupply through a porous icy regolith below. This depth depends primarily on the long-term mean surface temperature and the nature of the geothermal gradient, and is independent of the ice-free porosity and the regolith diffusivity. Only the rate of loss of ground ice depends on diffusive properties.
Chemostat-cultivated Escherichia coli at high dilution rate: multiple steady states and drift.
Majewski, R A; Domach, M M
1990-06-20
The representation of metabolic network reaction kinetics in a scaled, polynomial form can allow for the prediction of multiple steady states. The polynomial formalism is used to study chemostat-cultured Escherichia coli which has been observed to exhibit two multiple steady states under ammonium ion-limited growth conditions: a high cell density-low ammonium ion concentration steady state and a low cell density-high ammonium ion concentration steady state. Additionally, the low-cell-density steady state has been observed to drift to the high-cell-density steady state. Inspection of the steady-state rate expressions for the ammonium ion transport/assimilation network (in polynomial form) suggests that at low ammonium ion concentrations, two steady states are possible. One corresponds to heavy use of the glutamine synthetase-glutamate synthase (GLNS-GS) branch and the second to heavy use of the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) branch. Realization of the predicted intracellular steady states is also found to be dependent on the parameters of the transport process. Moreover, the two steady states differ in where their energy intensity lies. To explain the drift, GLNS, which is inducible under low ammonium ion concentrations, is suggested to be a "memory element." A chemostat-based model is developed to illustrate that perturbations in dilution rate can lead to drift between the two steady states provided that the disturbance in dilution rate is sufficiently large and/or long in duration.
Critical Concavity of a Drainage Basin for Steady-State
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Byun, Jongmin; Paik, Kyungrock
2015-04-01
Longitudinal profiles of natural streams are known to show concave forms. Saying A as drainage area, channel gradient S can be expressed as the power-law, S≈A-θ (Flint, 1974), which is one of the scale-invariant features of drainage basin. According to literature, θ of most natural streams falls into a narrow range (0.4 < θ < 0.7) (Tucker and Whipple, 2002). It leads to fundamental questions: 'Why does θ falls into such narrow range?' and 'How is this related with other power-law scaling relationships reported in natural drainage basins?' To answer above questions, we analytically derive θ for a steady-state drainage basin following Lane's equilibrium (Lane, 1955) throughout the corridor and named this specific case as the 'critical concavity'. In the derivation, sediment transport capacity is estimated by unit stream power model (Yang, 1976), yielding a power function of upstream area. Stability of channel at a local point occurs when incoming flux equals outgoing flux at the point. Therefore, given the drainage at steady-state where all channel beds are stable, the exponent of the power function should be zero. From this, we can determine the critical concavity. Considering ranges of variables associated in this derivation, critical concavity cannot be resolved as a single definite value, rather a range of critical concavity is suggested. This range well agrees with the widely reported range of θ (0.4 < θ < 0.7) in natural streams. In this theoretical study, inter-relationships between power-laws such as hydraulic geometry (Leopold and Maddock, 1953), dominant discharge-drainage area (Knighton et al., 1999), and concavity, are coupled into the power-law framework of stream power sediment transport model. This allows us to explore close relationships between their power-law exponents: their relative roles and sensitivity. Detailed analysis and implications will be presented. References Flint, J. J., 1974, Stream gradient as a function of order, magnitude
PSGL-1 function in immunity and steady state homeostasis.
Carlow, Douglas A; Gossens, Klaus; Naus, Silvia; Veerman, Krystle M; Seo, Wooseok; Ziltener, Hermann J
2009-07-01
The substantial importance of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1) in leukocyte trafficking has continued to emerge beyond its initial identification as a selectin ligand. PSGL-1 seemed to be a relatively simple molecule with an extracellular mucin domain extended as a flexible rod, teleologically consistent with its primary role in tethering leukocytes to endothelial selectins. The rolling interaction between leukocyte and endothelium mediated by this selectin-PSGL-1 interaction requires branched O-glycan extensions on specific PSGL-1 amino acid residues. In some cells, such as neutrophils, the glycosyltransferases involved in formation of the O-glycans are constitutively expressed, while in other cells, such as T cells, they are expressed only after appropriate activation. Thus, PSGL-1 supports leukocyte recruitment in both innate and adaptive arms of the immune response. A complex array of amino acids within the selectins engage multiple sugar residues of the branched O-glycans on PSGL-1 and provide the molecular interactions responsible for the velcro-like catch bonds that support leukocyte rolling. Such binding of PSGL-1 can also induce signaling events that influence cell phenotype and function. Scrutiny of PSGL-1 has revealed a better understanding of how it performs as a selectin ligand and yielded unexpected insights that extend its scope from supporting leukocyte rolling in inflammatory settings to homeostasis including stem cell homing to the thymus and mature T-cell homing to secondary lymphoid organs. PSGL-1 has been found to bind homeostatic chemokines CCL19 and CCL21 and to support the chemotactic response to these chemokines. Surprisingly, the O-glycan modifications of PSGL-1 that support rolling mediated by selectins in inflammatory conditions interfere with PSGL-1 binding to homeostatic chemokines and thereby limit responsiveness to the chemotactic cues used in steady state T-cell traffic. The multi-level influence of PSGL-1 on cell traffic
Yongky, Andrew; Lee, Jongchan; Le, Tung; Mulukutla, Bhanu Chandra; Daoutidis, Prodromos; Hu, Wei-Shou
2015-07-01
Continuous culture for the production of biopharmaceutical proteins offers the possibility of steady state operations and thus more consistent product quality and increased productivity. Under some conditions, multiplicity of steady states has been observed in continuous cultures of mammalian cells, wherein with the same dilution rate and feed nutrient composition, steady states with very different cell and product concentrations may be reached. At those different steady states, cells may exhibit a high glycolysis flux with high lactate production and low cell concentration, or a low glycolysis flux with low lactate and high cell concentration. These different steady states, with different cell concentration, also have different productivity. Developing a mechanistic understanding of the occurrence of steady state multiplicity and devising a strategy to steer the culture toward the desired steady state is critical. We establish a multi-scale kinetic model that integrates a mechanistic intracellular metabolic model and cell growth model in a continuous bioreactor. We show that steady state multiplicity exists in a range of dilution rate in continuous culture as a result of the bistable behavior in glycolysis. The insights from the model were used to devise strategies to guide the culture to the desired steady state in the multiple steady state region. The model provides a guideline principle in the design of continuous culture processes of mammalian cells.
Steady State Response Analysis of a Tubular Piezoelectric Print Head.
Chang, Jiaqing; Liu, Yaxin; Huang, Bo
2016-01-12
In recent years, inkjet technology has played an important role in industrial materials printing and various sensors fabrication, but the mechanisms of the inkjet print head should be researched more elaborately. The steady state deformation analysis of a tubular piezoelectric print head, which can be classified as a plane strain problem because the radii of the tubes are considerably smaller than the lengths, is discussed in this paper. The geometric structure and the boundary conditions are all axisymmetric, so a one-dimensional mathematical model is constructed. By solving the model, the deformation field and stress field, as well as the electric potential distribution of the piezoelectric tube and glass tube, are obtained. The results show that the deformations are on the nanometer scale, the hoop stress is larger than the radial stress on the whole, and the potential is not linearly distributed along the radial direction. An experiment is designed to validate these computations. A discussion of the effect of the tubes' thicknesses on the system deformation status is provided.
Hyperbolic method for magnetic reconnection process in steady state magnetohydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baty, Hubert; Nishikawa, Hiroaki
2016-06-01
A recent numerical approach for solving the advection-diffusion and Navier-Stokes equations is extended for the first time to a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model, aiming in particular consistent improvements over classical methods for investigating the magnetic reconnection process. In this study, we mainly focus on a two-dimensional incompressible set of resistive MHD equations written in flux-vorticity scalar variables. The originality of the method is based on hyperbolic reformulation of the dissipative terms, leading to the construction of an equivalent hyperbolic first-order (spatial derivatives) system. This enables the use of approximate Riemann solvers for handling dissipative and advective flux in the same way. A simple second-order finite-volume discretization on rectangular grids using an upwind flux is employed. The advantages of this method are illustrated by a comparison to two particular analytical steady state solutions of the inviscid magnetic reconnection mechanism, namely the magnetic annihilation and the reconnective diffusion problems. In particular, the numerical solution is obtained with the same order of accuracy for the solution and gradient for a wide range of magnetic Reynolds numbers, without any deterioration characteristic of more conventional schemes. The amelioration of the hyperbolic method and its extension to time-dependent MHD problems related to solar flares mechanisms is also discussed.
Flavour fields in steady state: stress tensor and free energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Avik; Kundu, Arnab; Kundu, Sandipan
2016-02-01
The dynamics of a probe brane in a given gravitational background is governed by the Dirac-Born-Infeld action. The corresponding open string metric arises naturally in studying the fluctuations on the probe. In Gauge-String duality, it is known that in the presence of a constant electric field on the worldvolume of the probe, the open string metric acquires an event horizon and therefore the fluctuation modes on the probe experience an effective temperature. In this article, we bring together various properties of such a system to a formal definition and a subsequent narration of the effective thermodynamics and the stress tensor of the corresponding flavour fields, also including a non-vanishing chemical potential. In doing so, we point out a potentially infinitely-degenerate scheme-dependence of regularizing the free energy, which nevertheless yields a universal contribution in certain cases. This universal piece appears as the coefficient of a log-divergence in free energy when a space-filling probe brane is embedded in AdS d+1-background, for d = 2, 4, and is related to conformal anomaly. For the special case of d = 2, the universal factor has a striking resemblance to the well-known heat current formula in (1 + 1)-dimensional conformal field theory in steady-state, which endows a plausible physical interpretation to it. Interestingly, we observe a vanishing conformal anomaly in d = 6.
NASA Lewis steady-state heat pipe code users manual
Tower, L.K.; Baker, K.W.; Marks, T.S.
1992-06-01
The NASA Lewis heat pipe code has been developed to predict the performance of heat pipes in the steady state. The code can be used as a design tool on a personal computer or, with a suitable calling routine, as a subroutine for a mainframe radiator code. A variety of wick structures, including a user input option, can be used. Heat pipes with multiple evaporators, condensers, and adiabatic sections in series and with wick structures that differ among sections can be modeled. Several working fluids can be chosen, including potassium, sodium, and lithium, for which the monomer-dimer equilibrium is considered. The code incorporates a vapor flow algorithm that treats compressibility and axially varying heat input. This code facilitates the determination of heat pipe operating temperatures and heat pipe limits that may be encountered at the specified heat input and environment temperature. Data are input to the computer through a user-interactive input subroutine. Output, such as liquid and vapor pressures and temperatures, is printed at equally spaced axial positions along the pipe as determined by the user.
Steady State Analysis of Small Molten Salt Reactor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Takahisa; Mitachi, Koshi; Suzuki, Takashi
The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a thermal neutron reactor with graphite moderation and operates on the thorium-uranium fuel cycle. The feature of the MSR is that fuel salt flows inside the reactor during the nuclear fission reaction. In the previous study, the authors developed numerical model with which to simulate the effects of fuel salt flow on the reactor characteristics. In this study, we apply the model to the steady-state analysis of a small MSR system and estimate the effects of fuel flow. The model consists of two-group neutron diffusion equations for fast and thermal neutron fluxes, transport equations for six-group delayed neutron precursors and energy conservation equations for fuel salt and the graphite moderator. The following results are obtained: (1) in the rated operation condition, the peaks of the neutron fluxes slightly move toward the bottom from the center of the reactor and the delayed neutron precursors are significantly carried by the fuel salt flow, and (2) the extension of residence time in the external-loop system and the rise of the fuel inflow temperature show weak negative reactivity effects, which decrease the neutron multiplication factor of the small MSR system.
Acquisition versus steady state in the time-left experiment.
Machado, Armando; Vasconcelos, Marco
2006-02-28
To test some predictions of scalar expectancy theory (SET) for the time-left procedure, we performed one experiment with two conditions. In Condition A, pigeons were exposed to two fixed-interval schedules, a fixed-interval (FI) 30s and an FI 60s, each associated with a distinct key and presented on a separate trial. Subsequently, during test trials, the FI 60-s key was illuminated and then after T = 15, 30 or 45 s the FI 30-s key also was illuminated. The main issue was how choice between the two keys varied with T. Condition B replicated Condition A with different FI parameters and T values. The results showed that (a) contrary to SET's predictions, preference changed reliably with testing, which suggests that learning took place during the test trials; (b) within each test trial, pigeons revealed an almost exclusive preference for one of the keys, and (c) at steady state pigeons behaved in the same way as rats. Because SET could not account for these findings we advanced a new descriptive model of performance for the time-left task. The model fit the data well.
Steady-state growth of the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana
Olson, R.J.; SooHoo, J.B.; Kiefer, D.A.
1980-09-01
Seasonal studies of the vertical distribution of nitrate, nitrite, and phytoplankton in the oceans and studies using /sup 15/N as a tracer of nitrate metabolism indicate that the reduction of nitrate by phytoplankton is a source of nitrite in the upper waters of the ocean. To better understand this process, the relationship between nitrate uptake and nitrite production has been examined with continuous cultures of the small marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. In a turbidostat culture, the rates of nitrite production by T. Pseudonana increase with light intensity. This process is only loosely coupled to rates of nitrate assimilation since the ratio of net nitrite production to total nitrate assimilation increases with increased rates of growth. In continuous cultures where steady-state concentrations of nitrate and nitrite were varied, T. pseudonana produced nitrite at rates which increased with increasing concentrations of nitrate. Again, the rates of nitrite production were uncoupled from rates of nitrate assimilation. The study was used to derive a mathematical description of nitrate and nitrite metabolism by T. pseudonana. The validity of this model was supported by the results of a study in which /sup 15/N-labeled nitrite was introduced into the continuous culture, and the model was used to examine patterns in distribution of nitrite in the Antarctic Ocean and the Sargasso Sea.
Steady state solutions to dynamically loaded periodic structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kalinowski, A. J.
1980-01-01
The general problem of solving for the steady state (time domain) dynamic response (i.e., NASTRAN rigid format-8) of a general elastic periodic structure subject to a phase difference loading of the type encountered in traveling wave propagation problems was studied. Two types of structural configurations were considered; in the first type, the structure has a repeating pattern over a span that is long enough to be considered, for all practical purposes, as infinite; in the second type, the structure has structural rotational symmetry in the circumferential direction. The theory and a corresponding set of DMAP instructions which permits the NASTRAN user to automatically alter the rigid format-8 sequence to solve the intended class of problems are presented. Final results are recovered as with any ordinary rigid format-8 solution, except that the results are only printed for the typical periodic segment of the structure. A simple demonstration problem having a known exact solution is used to illustrate the implementation of the procedure.
Steady State Response Analysis of a Tubular Piezoelectric Print Head.
Chang, Jiaqing; Liu, Yaxin; Huang, Bo
2016-01-01
In recent years, inkjet technology has played an important role in industrial materials printing and various sensors fabrication, but the mechanisms of the inkjet print head should be researched more elaborately. The steady state deformation analysis of a tubular piezoelectric print head, which can be classified as a plane strain problem because the radii of the tubes are considerably smaller than the lengths, is discussed in this paper. The geometric structure and the boundary conditions are all axisymmetric, so a one-dimensional mathematical model is constructed. By solving the model, the deformation field and stress field, as well as the electric potential distribution of the piezoelectric tube and glass tube, are obtained. The results show that the deformations are on the nanometer scale, the hoop stress is larger than the radial stress on the whole, and the potential is not linearly distributed along the radial direction. An experiment is designed to validate these computations. A discussion of the effect of the tubes' thicknesses on the system deformation status is provided. PMID:26771612
NASA Lewis steady-state heat pipe code users manual
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tower, Leonard K.; Baker, Karl W.; Marks, Timothy S.
1992-01-01
The NASA Lewis heat pipe code was developed to predict the performance of heat pipes in the steady state. The code can be used as a design tool on a personal computer or with a suitable calling routine, as a subroutine for a mainframe radiator code. A variety of wick structures, including a user input option, can be used. Heat pipes with multiple evaporators, condensers, and adiabatic sections in series and with wick structures that differ among sections can be modeled. Several working fluids can be chosen, including potassium, sodium, and lithium, for which monomer-dimer equilibrium is considered. The code incorporates a vapor flow algorithm that treats compressibility and axially varying heat input. This code facilitates the determination of heat pipe operating temperatures and heat pipe limits that may be encountered at the specified heat input and environment temperature. Data are input to the computer through a user-interactive input subroutine. Output, such as liquid and vapor pressures and temperatures, is printed at equally spaced axial positions along the pipe as determined by the user.
Steady-state and transient results on insulation materials
Graves, R.S.; Yarbrough, D.W.; McElroy, D.L.; Fine, H.A.
1991-01-01
The Unguarded Thin-Heater Apparatus (UTHA, ASTM C 1114) was used to determine the thermal conductivity (k), specific heat (C), and thermal diffusivity ({alpha}) of selected building materials from 24 to 50{degree}C. Steady-state and transient measurements yielded data on four types of material: gypsum wall board containing 0, 15, and 30 wt % wax; calcium silicate insulations with densities ({rho}) of 307, 444, and 605 kg/m{sup 3}; three wood products: southern yellow pine flooring (575 kg/m{sup 3}), Douglas fir plywood (501 kg/m{sup 3}), and white spruce flooring (452 kg/m{sup 3}); and two cellular plastic foams: extruded polystyrene (30 kg/m{sup 3}) blown with HCFC-142b and polyisocyanurate rigid board (30.2 kg/m{sup 3}) blown with CFC-11. The extruded polystyrene was measured several times after production (25 days, 45 days, 74 days, 131 days, and 227 days). The UTHA is an absolute technique that yields k with an uncertainty of less than {plus minus}2% as determined by modeling, by determinate error analyses, and by use of Standard Reference Materials SRM-1450b and SRM-1451. 37 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs.
Nonequilibrium steady states of ideal bosonic and fermionic quantum gases.
Vorberg, Daniel; Wustmann, Waltraut; Schomerus, Henning; Ketzmerick, Roland; Eckardt, André
2015-12-01
We investigate nonequilibrium steady states of driven-dissipative ideal quantum gases of both bosons and fermions. We focus on systems of sharp particle number that are driven out of equilibrium either by the coupling to several heat baths of different temperature or by time-periodic driving in combination with the coupling to a heat bath. Within the framework of (Floquet-)Born-Markov theory, several analytical and numerical methods are described in detail. This includes a mean-field theory in terms of occupation numbers, an augmented mean-field theory taking into account also nontrivial two-particle correlations, and quantum-jump-type Monte Carlo simulations. For the case of the ideal Fermi gas, these methods are applied to simple lattice models and the possibility of achieving exotic states via bath engineering is pointed out. The largest part of this work is devoted to bosonic quantum gases and the phenomenon of Bose selection, a nonequilibrium generalization of Bose condensation, where multiple single-particle states are selected to acquire a large occupation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240405 (2013)]. In this context, among others, we provide a theory for transitions where the set of selected states changes, describe an efficient algorithm for finding the set of selected states, investigate beyond-mean-field effects, and identify the dominant mechanisms for heat transport in the Bose-selected state.
Nonequilibrium steady states of ideal bosonic and fermionic quantum gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vorberg, Daniel; Wustmann, Waltraut; Schomerus, Henning; Ketzmerick, Roland; Eckardt, André
2015-12-01
We investigate nonequilibrium steady states of driven-dissipative ideal quantum gases of both bosons and fermions. We focus on systems of sharp particle number that are driven out of equilibrium either by the coupling to several heat baths of different temperature or by time-periodic driving in combination with the coupling to a heat bath. Within the framework of (Floquet-)Born-Markov theory, several analytical and numerical methods are described in detail. This includes a mean-field theory in terms of occupation numbers, an augmented mean-field theory taking into account also nontrivial two-particle correlations, and quantum-jump-type Monte Carlo simulations. For the case of the ideal Fermi gas, these methods are applied to simple lattice models and the possibility of achieving exotic states via bath engineering is pointed out. The largest part of this work is devoted to bosonic quantum gases and the phenomenon of Bose selection, a nonequilibrium generalization of Bose condensation, where multiple single-particle states are selected to acquire a large occupation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240405 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.240405]. In this context, among others, we provide a theory for transitions where the set of selected states changes, describe an efficient algorithm for finding the set of selected states, investigate beyond-mean-field effects, and identify the dominant mechanisms for heat transport in the Bose-selected state.
Modeling biofiltration of VOC mixtures under steady-state conditions
Baltzis, B.C.; Wojdyla, S.M.; Zarook, S.M.
1997-06-01
Treatment of air streams contaminated with binary volatile organic compound (VOC) mixtures in classical biofilters under steady-state conditions of operation was described with a general mathematical model. The model accounts for potential kinetic interactions among the pollutants, effects of oxygen availability on biodegradation, and biomass diversification in the filter bed. While the effects of oxygen were always taken into account, two distinct cases were considered for the experimental model validation. The first involves kinetic interactions, but no biomass differentiation, used for describing data from biofiltration of benzene/toluene mixtures. The second case assumes that each pollutant is treated by a different type of biomass. Each biomass type is assumed to form separate patches of biofilm on the solid packing material, thus kinetic interference does not occur. This model was used for describing biofiltration of ethanol/butanol mixtures. Experiments were performed with classical biofilters packed with mixtures of peat moss and perlite (2:3, volume:volume). The model equations were solved through the use of computer codes based on the fourth-order Runge-Kutta technique for the gas-phase mass balances and the method of orthogonal collocation for the concentration profiles in the biofilms. Good agreement between model predictions and experimental data was found in almost all cases. Oxygen was found to be extremely important in the case of polar VOCs (ethanol/butanol).
Steady State Responses: Electrophysiological Assessment of Sensory Function in Schizophrenia
Brenner, Colleen A.; Krishnan, Giri P.; Vohs, Jenifer L.; Ahn, Woo-Young; Hetrick, William P.; Morzorati, Sandra L.; O'Donnell, Brian F.
2009-01-01
Persons with schizophrenia experience subjective sensory anomalies and objective deficits on assessment of sensory function. Such deficits could be produced by abnormal signaling in the sensory pathways and sensory cortex or later stage disturbances in cognitive processing of such inputs. Steady state responses (SSRs) provide a noninvasive method to test the integrity of sensory pathways and oscillatory responses in schizophrenia with minimal task demands. SSRs are electrophysiological responses entrained to the frequency and phase of a periodic stimulus. Patients with schizophrenia exhibit pronounced auditory SSR deficits within the gamma frequency range (35–50 Hz) in response to click trains and amplitude-modulated tones. Visual SSR deficits are also observed, most prominently in the alpha and beta frequency ranges (7–30 Hz) in response to high-contrast, high-luminance stimuli. Visual SSR studies that have used the psychophysical properties of a stimulus to target specific visual pathways predominantly report magnocellular-based deficits in those with schizophrenia. Disruption of both auditory and visual SSRs in schizophrenia are consistent with neuropathological and magnetic resonance imaging evidence of anatomic abnormalities affecting the auditory and visual cortices. Computational models suggest that auditory SSR abnormalities at gamma frequencies could be secondary to γ-aminobutyric acid–mediated or N-methyl-D-aspartic acid dysregulation. The pathophysiological process in schizophrenia encompasses sensory processing that probably contributes to alterations in subsequent encoding and cognitive processing. The developmental evolution of these abnormalities remains to be characterized. PMID:19726534
Quasi-steady state aerodynamics of the cheetah tail.
Patel, Amir; Boje, Edward; Fisher, Callen; Louis, Leeann; Lane, Emily
2016-01-01
During high-speed pursuit of prey, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has been observed to swing its tail while manoeuvring (e.g. turning or braking) but the effect of these complex motions is not well understood. This study demonstrates the potential of the cheetah's long, furry tail to impart torques and forces on the body as a result of aerodynamic effects, in addition to the well-known inertial effects. The first-order aerodynamic forces on the tail are quantified through wind tunnel testing and it is observed that the fur nearly doubles the effective frontal area of the tail without much mass penalty. Simple dynamic models provide insight into manoeuvrability via simulation of pitch, roll and yaw tail motion primitives. The inertial and quasi-steady state aerodynamic effects of tail actuation are quantified and compared by calculating the angular impulse imparted onto the cheetah's body and its shown aerodynamic effects contribute to the tail's angular impulse, especially at the highest forward velocities. PMID:27412267
Steady State Response Analysis of a Tubular Piezoelectric Print Head
Chang, Jiaqing; Liu, Yaxin; Huang, Bo
2016-01-01
In recent years, inkjet technology has played an important role in industrial materials printing and various sensors fabrication, but the mechanisms of the inkjet print head should be researched more elaborately. The steady state deformation analysis of a tubular piezoelectric print head, which can be classified as a plane strain problem because the radii of the tubes are considerably smaller than the lengths, is discussed in this paper. The geometric structure and the boundary conditions are all axisymmetric, so a one-dimensional mathematical model is constructed. By solving the model, the deformation field and stress field, as well as the electric potential distribution of the piezoelectric tube and glass tube, are obtained. The results show that the deformations are on the nanometer scale, the hoop stress is larger than the radial stress on the whole, and the potential is not linearly distributed along the radial direction. An experiment is designed to validate these computations. A discussion of the effect of the tubes’ thicknesses on the system deformation status is provided. PMID:26771612
Auditory steady-state responses in the rabbit.
Ottaviani, F; Paludetti, G; Grassi, S; Draicchio, F; Santarelli, R M; Serafini, G; Pettorossi, V E
1990-01-01
The authors have studied auditory brainstem (ABRs), middle latency (MLRs) and steady-state potentials (SSRs) in 15 adult male rabbits weighing between 2.5 and 3 kg in order to verify if SSRs are due to a mere superimposition of ABRs and MLRs or to a resonance phenomenon. Ten of them were awake while 5 were studied under urethane anesthesia. Acoustic stimuli consisted in 0.1-ms square-wave pulses delivered at presentation rates ranging between 1 and 80/s at a stimulus intensity of 80 dB p.e. SPL. Our data show that reliable auditory SSRs can be obtained in the rabbit at a presentation rate of 30 stimuli/s, probably due to the superimposition of ABRs and MLR Pb waves which show an interwave interval of about 35 ms. The nonlinear aspects which can be detected are probably due to the effect of decreasing interstimulus intervals on the duration and amplitude of the Pb wave. It can then be concluded that SSRs in the rabbit are due more to a superimposition of ABR and MLR waves than to a resonance phenomenon.
Steady State Turbulent Transport in Magnetic Fusion Plasmas
Lee, W. W.; Ethier, S.; Kolesnikov, R.; Wang, W. X.; Tang, W. M.
2007-12-20
For more than a decade, the study of microturbulence, driven by ion temperature gradient (ITG) drift instabilities in tokamak devices, has been an active area of research in magnetic fusion science for both experimentalists and theorists alike. One of the important impetus for this avenue of research was the discovery of the radial streamers associated the ITG modes in the early nineties using a Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code. Since then, ITG simulations based on the codes with increasing realism have become possible with the dramatic increase in computing power. The notable examples were the demonstration of the importance of nonlinearly generated zonal flows in regulating ion thermal transport and the transition from Bohm to GyroBoham scaling with increased device size. In this paper, we will describe another interesting nonlinear physical process associated with the parallel acceleration of the ions, that is found to play an important role for the steady state turbulent transport. Its discovery is again through the use of the modern massively parallel supercomputers.
Manifest and Subtle Cyclic Behavior in Nonequilibrium Steady States
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zia, R. K. P.; Weiss, Jeffrey B.; Mandal, Dibyendu; Fox-Kemper, Baylor
2016-09-01
Many interesting phenomena in nature are described by stochastic processes with irreversible dynamics. To model these phenomena, we focus on a master equation or a Fokker-Planck equation with rates which violate detailed balance. When the system settles in a stationary state, it will be a nonequilibrium steady state (NESS), with time independent probability distribution as well as persistent probability current loops. The observable consequences of the latter are explored. In particular, cyclic behavior of some form must be present: some are prominent and manifest, while others are more obscure and subtle. We present a theoretical framework to analyze such properties, introducing the notion of “probability angular momentum” and its distribution. Using several examples, we illustrate the manifest and subtle categories and how best to distinguish between them. These techniques can be applied to reveal the NESS nature of a wide range of systems in a large variety of areas. We illustrate with one application: variability of ocean heat content in our climate system.
Quasi-steady state aerodynamics of the cheetah tail
Boje, Edward; Fisher, Callen; Louis, Leeann; Lane, Emily
2016-01-01
ABSTRACT During high-speed pursuit of prey, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has been observed to swing its tail while manoeuvring (e.g. turning or braking) but the effect of these complex motions is not well understood. This study demonstrates the potential of the cheetah's long, furry tail to impart torques and forces on the body as a result of aerodynamic effects, in addition to the well-known inertial effects. The first-order aerodynamic forces on the tail are quantified through wind tunnel testing and it is observed that the fur nearly doubles the effective frontal area of the tail without much mass penalty. Simple dynamic models provide insight into manoeuvrability via simulation of pitch, roll and yaw tail motion primitives. The inertial and quasi-steady state aerodynamic effects of tail actuation are quantified and compared by calculating the angular impulse imparted onto the cheetah's body and its shown aerodynamic effects contribute to the tail's angular impulse, especially at the highest forward velocities. PMID:27412267
Quasi-steady state aerodynamics of the cheetah tail.
Patel, Amir; Boje, Edward; Fisher, Callen; Louis, Leeann; Lane, Emily
2016-08-15
During high-speed pursuit of prey, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has been observed to swing its tail while manoeuvring (e.g. turning or braking) but the effect of these complex motions is not well understood. This study demonstrates the potential of the cheetah's long, furry tail to impart torques and forces on the body as a result of aerodynamic effects, in addition to the well-known inertial effects. The first-order aerodynamic forces on the tail are quantified through wind tunnel testing and it is observed that the fur nearly doubles the effective frontal area of the tail without much mass penalty. Simple dynamic models provide insight into manoeuvrability via simulation of pitch, roll and yaw tail motion primitives. The inertial and quasi-steady state aerodynamic effects of tail actuation are quantified and compared by calculating the angular impulse imparted onto the cheetah's body and its shown aerodynamic effects contribute to the tail's angular impulse, especially at the highest forward velocities.
Nonequilibrium steady states of ideal bosonic and fermionic quantum gases.
Vorberg, Daniel; Wustmann, Waltraut; Schomerus, Henning; Ketzmerick, Roland; Eckardt, André
2015-12-01
We investigate nonequilibrium steady states of driven-dissipative ideal quantum gases of both bosons and fermions. We focus on systems of sharp particle number that are driven out of equilibrium either by the coupling to several heat baths of different temperature or by time-periodic driving in combination with the coupling to a heat bath. Within the framework of (Floquet-)Born-Markov theory, several analytical and numerical methods are described in detail. This includes a mean-field theory in terms of occupation numbers, an augmented mean-field theory taking into account also nontrivial two-particle correlations, and quantum-jump-type Monte Carlo simulations. For the case of the ideal Fermi gas, these methods are applied to simple lattice models and the possibility of achieving exotic states via bath engineering is pointed out. The largest part of this work is devoted to bosonic quantum gases and the phenomenon of Bose selection, a nonequilibrium generalization of Bose condensation, where multiple single-particle states are selected to acquire a large occupation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240405 (2013)]. In this context, among others, we provide a theory for transitions where the set of selected states changes, describe an efficient algorithm for finding the set of selected states, investigate beyond-mean-field effects, and identify the dominant mechanisms for heat transport in the Bose-selected state. PMID:26764644
Steady state gas efficiency of ion sources for neutral beams
Vella, M.C.; Berkner, K.H.; Massoletti, D.J.; Owren, H.M.; Willis, J.E.
1981-09-01
Gas present in the acceleration grids of a neutral beam line is one cause of divergent beam power. A measure of this problem is the gas efficiency (nuclear) of the ion source, epsilon/sub g/ = I/sub b//I/sub g/, where I/sub b/ denotes the extracted current of beam nuclei, and I/sub g/ the total current of nuclei to the source as gas. For a short pulse beam, less than or equal to 0.1 sec, gas transients make epsilon/sub g/ difficult to observe. Using the fraction size Berkeley LPA (nominally 120 keV, 10A), the gas efficiency of a positive ion, hydrogen neutral beam has been studied with pulses from 0.5 to 28 sec at 80 keV, 5.7 A, and 0.5 sec at 120 keV, 10A. The observed gas efficiency, 20% to 40%, is shown to agree with a simple steady state model. The model indicates that gas efficiency is determined by the degree of arc ionization.
The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis XX. The Steady State
DOE R&D Accomplishments Database
Calvin, M.; Massini, Peter
1952-09-01
The separation of the phenomenon of photosynthesis in green plants into a photochemical reaction and into the light-dependent reduction of carbon dioxide is discussed, The reduction of carbon dioxide and the fate of the assimilated carbon were investigated with the help of the tracer technique (exposure of the planks to the radioactive C{sup 14}O{sub 2}) and of paper chromatography. A reaction cycle is proposed in which phosphoglyceric acid is the first isolable assimilations product. Analyses of the algal extracts which had assimilated radioactive carbon dioxide in a stationary condition ('steady-state' photosynthesis) for a long time provided further information concerning the proposed cycle and permitted the approximate estimation, for a number of compounds of what fraction of each compound was taking part in the cycle. The earlier supposition that light influences the respiration cycle was confirmed. The possibility of the assistance of {alpha}-lipoic acid, or of a related substance, in this influence and in the photosynthesis cycle, is discussed.
There are no steady state processes in compaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dysthe, D. K.
2003-04-01
Compaction of sediments is normally thought to start with grain sliding and cataclastic grain crushing. Then the ductile dissolution-precipitation creep processes take over. Modeling of this process normally neglects all collective rearrangement processes and regard simple packings of grains that slowly deform by steady state pressure solution creep. From simple geometrical reasoning we know, however that imperfect packings of plastic grains must undergo rearrangement during compaction. Such rearrangement will drastically alter the microscopic, or "primitive processes" of compaction. Recent research has questioned the fundamental mechanisms ("primitive processes") of dissolution-precipitation creep. Do grain contacts heal or dissolve? Why is there asymmetric dissolution? Does pressure solution creep in single contacts ever reach steady state? Can transient free face dissolution feed back on pressure solution creep in the contacts? The emerging radical change in our understanding of dissolution-precipitation creep as a dynamic, transient process is driven by new experiments and reevaluation of the fundamental theory. The same change in viewpoint is necessary on all time and length scales. I will present experiments [1-8] and simulations [9-11] of complex compaction behaviour [1], transient primitive processes of pressure solution creep in the contacts [2-4], free face dissolution [5] and crack healing [6]. I will also show that macroscopic observation of compaction shows smooth, universal behaviour [7]. Microscopic observation of compaction shows transient collective behaviour at all scales. Evidence points in the direction that compaction is dominated by transient processes with interacting instabilities. The interaction causes intermittency or switching between processes. A new, more complex theory of compaction is necessary to explain how the cooperative microscopic phenomena contribute to the simple, universal, macroscopic behaviour. 1. Uri, L., et. al., in
Steady state growth of E. Coli in low ammonium environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Minsu; Deris, Barret; Zhang, Zhongge; Hwa, Terry
2011-03-01
Ammonium is the preferred nitrogen source for many microorganisms. In medium with low ammonium concentrations, enteric bacteria turn on the nitrogen responsive (ntr) genes to assimilate ammonium. Two proteins in E. coli, Glutamine synthetase (GS) and the Ammonium/methylammonium transporter AmtB play crucial roles in this regard. GS is the major ammonium assimilation enzyme below 1mM of NH4 + . AmtB is an inner membrane protein that transports NH4 + across the cell membrane against a concentration gradient. In order to study ammonium uptake at low NH4 + concentration at neutral pH, we developed a microfluidic flow chamber that maintains a homogenous nutrient environment during the course of exponential cell growth, even at very low concentration of nutrients. Cell growth can be accurately monitored using time-lapse microscopy. We followed steady state growth down to micro-molar range of NH4 + for the wild type and Δ amtB strains. The wild type strain is able to maintain the growth rate from 10mM down to a few uM of NH4 + , while the mutant exhibited reduced growth below ~ 20 ~uM of NH4 + . Simultaneous characterization of the expression levels of GS and AmtB using fluorescence reporters reveals that AmtB is turned on already at 1mM, but contributes to function only below ~ 30 ~uM in the wild-type. Down to ~ 20 ~uM of NH4 + , E.~coli can compensate the loss of AmtB by GS alone.
Steady-state Burgers turbulence with large-scale forcing
Gotoh, T.; Kraichnan, R.H.
1998-11-01
Steady-state Burgers turbulence supported by white-in-time random forcing at low wave numbers is studied analytically and by computer simulation. The peak of the probability distribution function (pdf) Q({xi}) of velocity gradient {xi} is at {xi}=O({xi}{sub f}), where {xi}{sub f} is a forcing parameter. It is concluded that Q({xi}) displays four asymptotic regimes at Reynolds number R{gt}1: (A) Q({xi}){approximately}{xi}{sub f}{sup {minus}2}{xi}exp({minus}{xi}{sup 3}/3{xi}{sub f}{sup 3}) for {xi}{gt}{xi}{sub f} (reduction of large positive {xi} by stretching); (B) Q({xi}){approximately}{xi}{sub f}{sup 2}{vert_bar}{xi}{vert_bar}{sup {minus}3} for {xi}{sub f}{lt}{minus}{xi}{lt}R{sup 1/2}{xi}{sub f} (transient inviscid steepening of negative {xi}); (C) Q({xi}){approximately}{vert_bar}R{xi}{vert_bar}{sup {minus}1} for R{sup 1/2}{xi}{sub f}{lt}{minus}{xi}{lt}R{xi}{sub f} (shoulders of mature shocks); (D) very rapid decay of Q for {minus}{xi}{ge}O(R{xi}{sub f}) (interior of mature shocks). The typical shock width is O(1/Rk{sub f}). If R{sup {minus}1/2}{gt}rk{sub f}{gt}R{sup {minus}1}, the pdf of velocity difference across an interval r is found to be P({Delta}u,r){proportional_to}r{sup {minus}1}Q({Delta}u/r) throughout regimes A and B and into the middle of C. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}
Impact of aquifer desaturation on steady-state river seepage
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morel-Seytoux, Hubert J.; Miracapillo, Cinzia; Mehl, Steffen
2016-02-01
Flow exchange between surface and ground water is of great importance be it for beneficial allocation and use of the water resources or for the proper exercise of water rights. That exchange can take place under a saturated or unsaturated flow regime. Which regimes occur depend on conditions in the vicinity of the interactive area. Withdrawals partially sustained by seepage may not bring about desaturation but greater amounts eventually will. The problem considered in this paper deals only with the steady-state case. It is meant as a first step toward a simple, yet accurate and physically based treatment of the transient situation. The primary purpose of the article is to provide simple criteria for determination of the initiation of desaturation in an aquifer originally in saturated hydraulic connection with a river or a recharge area. The extent of the unsaturated zone in the aquifer will increase with increasing withdrawals while at the same time the seepage rate from the river increases. However the seepage increase will stop once infiltration takes place strictly by gravity in the aquifer and is no longer opposed by the capillary rise from the water table below the riverbed. Following desaturation simple criteria are derived and simple analytical formulae provided to estimate the river seepage based on the position of the water table mound below the clogging layer and at some distance away from the river bank. They fully account for the unsaturated flow phenomena, including the existence of a drainage entry pressure. Two secondary objectives were to verify that (1) the assumption of uniform vertical flow through a clogging layer and that (2) the approximation of the water table mound below the seepage area as a flat surface were both reasonably legitimate. This approach will be especially advantageous for the implementation of the methodology in large-scale applications of integrated hydrologic models used for management.
Steady state model for polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells
Smith, D.L.
1997-03-01
A model is presented for the steady state operation of polymer light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs). An LEC consists of a luminescent and ionically conducting polymer, with an ionic salt added to provide ions necessary for p-type and n-type doping, sandwiched between two electrodes. Upon applying a sufficiently large voltage bias, the ions are spatially separated forming an electrical junction. Electrons injected from the n-type side of the junction recombine with holes injected from the p-type side of the junction emitting light. We first describe the LEC at zero bias in which electric fields may occur in charge double layers near the contacts but in which there is a charge neutral, field free region in the device center which has an equal density of anions and cations and essentially no electrons or holes. A threshold voltage for junction formation is found, which depends on the polymer energy gap, the dissociation free energy of the salt, and the added salt density. It is generally somewhat smaller than the polymer energy gap. Below threshold, an applied bias changes the electric fields in the double charge layers near the contacts but the device center remains field free and essentially no current flows. Above threshold, the ions become spatially separated, a junction forms, and current begins to flow. Part of the applied voltage, above threshold, falls in the contact region and is necessary to establish the junction by electrochemical doping and part of the applied voltage falls across the junction. We describe the structure of the junction, which is quite different from that of a conventional p-n junction, including the spatial profiles of the electrons, holes, and ions, and the electrostatic potential. We discuss the current-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics of the LECs and show how they depend on the material parameters. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
Nonequilibrium steady states in a model for prebiotic evolution.
Wynveen, A; Fedorov, I; Halley, J W
2014-02-01
Some statistical features of steady states of a Kauffman-like model for prebiotic evolution are reported from computational studies. We postulate that the interesting "lifelike" states will be characterized by a nonequilibrium distribution of species and a time variable species self-correlation function. Selecting only such states from the population of final states produced by the model yields the probability of the appearance of such states as a function of a parameter p of the model. p is defined as the probability that a possible reaction in the the artificial chemistry actually appears in the network of chemical reactions. Small p corresponds to sparse networks utilizing a small fraction of the available reactions. We find that the probability of the appearance of such lifelike states exhibits a maximum as a function of p: at large p, most final states are in chemical equilibrium and hence are excluded by our criterion. At very small p, the sparseness of the network makes the probability of formation of any nontrivial dynamic final state low, yielding a low probability of production of lifelike states in this limit as well. We also report results on the diversity of the lifelike states (as defined here) that are produced. Repeated starts of the model evolution with different random number seeds in a given reaction network lead to final lifelike states which have a greater than random likelihood of resembling one another. Thus a form of "convergence" is observed. On the other hand, in different reaction networks with the same p, lifelike final states are statistically uncorrelated. In summary, the main results are (1) there is an optimal p or "sparseness" for production of lifelike states in our model-neither very dense nor very sparse networks are optimal--and (2) for a given p or sparseness, the resulting lifelike states can be extremely different. We discuss some possible implications for studies of the origin of life. PMID:25353526
A steady-state model of the lunar ejecta cloud
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christou, Apostolos
2014-05-01
Every airless body in the solar system is surrounded by a cloud of ejecta produced by the impact of interplanetary meteoroids on its surface [1]. Such ``dust exospheres'' have been observed around the Galilean satellites of Jupiter [2,3]. The prospect of long-term robotic and human operations on the Moon by the US and other countries has rekindled interest on the subject [4]. This interest has culminated with the - currently ongoing - investigation of the Moon's dust exosphere by the LADEE spacecraft [5]. Here a model is presented of a ballistic, collisionless, steady state population of ejecta launched vertically at randomly distributed times and velocities and moving under constant gravity. Assuming a uniform distribution of launch times I derive closed form solutions for the probability density functions (pdfs) of the height distribution of particles and the distribution of their speeds in a rest frame both at the surface and at altitude. The treatment is then extended to particle motion with respect to a moving platform such as an orbiting spacecraft. These expressions are compared with numerical simulations under lunar surface gravity where the underlying ejection speed distribution is (a) uniform (b) a power law. I discuss the predictions of the model, its limitations, and how it can be validated against near-surface and orbital measurements.[1] Gault, D. Shoemaker, E.M., Moore, H.J., 1963, NASA TN-D 1767. [2] Kruger, H., Krivov, A.V., Hamilton, D. P., Grun, E., 1999, Nature, 399, 558. [3] Kruger, H., Krivov, A.V., Sremcevic, M., Grun, E., 2003, Icarus, 164, 170. [4] Grun, E., Horanyi, M., Sternovsky, Z., 2011, Planetary and Space Science, 59, 1672. [5] Elphic, R.C., Hine, B., Delory, G.T., Salute, J.S., Noble, S., Colaprete, A., Horanyi, M., Mahaffy, P., and the LADEE Science Team, 2014, LPSC XLV, LPI Contr. 1777, 2677.
PET imaging of the 40 Hz auditory steady state response.
Reyes, Samuel A; Salvi, Richard J; Burkard, Robert F; Coad, Mary Lou; Wack, David S; Galantowicz, Paul J; Lockwood, Alan H
2004-08-01
The auditory steady state response (aSSR) is an oscillatory electrical potential recorded from the scalp induced by amplitude-modulated (AM) or click/tone burst stimuli. Its clinical utility has been limited by uncertainty regarding the specific areas of the brain involved in its generation. To identify the generators of the aSSR, 15O-water PET imaging was used to locate the regions of the brain activated by a steady 1 kHz pure tone, the same tone amplitude modulated (AM) at 40 Hz and the specific regions of the brain responsive to the AM component of the stimulus relative to the continuous tone. The continuous tone produced four clusters of activation. The boundaries of these activated clusters extended to include regions in left primary auditory cortex, right non-primary auditory cortex, left thalamus, and left cingulate. The AM tone produced three clusters of activation. The boundaries of these activated clusters extended to include primary auditory cortex bilaterally, left medial geniculate and right middle frontal gyrus. Two regions were specifically responsive to the AM component of the stimulus. These activated clusters extended to include the right anterior cingulate near frontal cortex and right auditory cortex. We conclude that cortical sites, including areas outside primary auditory cortex, are involved in generating the aSSR. There was an unexpected difference between morning and afternoon session scans that may reflect a pre- versus post-prandial state. These results support the hypothesis that a distributed resonating circuit mediates the generation of the aSSR.
On the number of steady states in a multiple futile cycle.
Wang, Liming; Sontag, Eduardo D
2008-07-01
The multisite phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle is a motif repeatedly used in cell signaling. This motif itself can generate a variety of dynamic behaviors like bistability and ultrasensitivity without direct positive feedbacks. In this paper, we study the number of positive steady states of a general multisite phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle, and how the number of positive steady states varies by changing the biological parameters. We show analytically that (1) for some parameter ranges, there are at least n + 1 (if n is even) or n (if n is odd) steady states; (2) there never are more than 2n - 1 steady states (in particular, this implies that for n = 2, including single levels of MAPK cascades, there are at most three steady states); (3) for parameters near the standard Michaelis-Menten quasi-steady state conditions, there are at most n + 1 steady states; and (4) for parameters far from the standard Michaelis-Menten quasi-steady state conditions, there is at most one steady state.
Ho, Pang-Yen; Chuang, Guo-Syong; Chao, An-Chong; Li, Hsing-Ya
2005-05-01
The capacity of complex biochemical reaction networks (consisting of 11 coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations) to show multiple steady states, was investigated. The system involved esterification of ethanol and oleic acid by lipase in an isothermal continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The Deficiency One Algorithm and the Subnetwork Analysis were applied to determine the steady state multiplicity. A set of rate constants and two corresponding steady states are computed. The phenomena of bistability, hysteresis and bifurcation are discussed. Moreover, the capacity of steady state multiplicity is extended to the family of the studied reaction networks.
In vitro reconstitution and steady-state analysis of the fatty acid synthase from Escherichia coli.
Yu, Xingye; Liu, Tiangang; Zhu, Fayin; Khosla, Chaitan
2011-11-15
Microbial fatty acid derivatives are emerging as promising alternatives to fossil fuel derived transportation fuels. Among bacterial fatty acid synthases (FAS), the Escherichia coli FAS is perhaps the most well studied, but little is known about its steady-state kinetic behavior. Here we describe the reconstitution of E. coli FAS using purified protein components and report detailed kinetic analysis of this reconstituted system. When all ketosynthases are present at 1 μM, the maximum rate of free fatty acid synthesis of the FAS exceeded 100 μM/ min. The steady-state turnover frequency was not significantly inhibited at high concentrations of any substrate or cofactor. FAS activity was saturated with respect to most individual protein components when their concentrations exceeded 1 μM. The exceptions were FabI and FabZ, which increased FAS activity up to concentrations of 10 μM; FabH and FabF, which decreased FAS activity at concentrations higher than 1 μM; and holo-ACP and TesA, which gave maximum FAS activity at 30 μM concentrations. Analysis of the S36T mutant of the ACP revealed that the unusual dependence of FAS activity on holo-ACP concentration was due, at least in part, to the acyl-phosphopantetheine moiety. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis of the reaction mixture further revealed medium and long chain fatty acyl-ACP intermediates as predominant ACP species. We speculate that one or more of such intermediates are key allosteric regulators of FAS turnover. Our findings provide a new basis for assessing the scope and limitations of using E. coli as a biocatalyst for the production of diesel-like fuels.
In vitro reconstitution and steady-state analysis of the fatty acid synthase from Escherichia coli
Yu, Xingye; Liu, Tiangang; Zhu, Fayin; Khosla, Chaitan
2011-01-01
Microbial fatty acid derivatives are emerging as promising alternatives to fossil fuel derived transportation fuels. Among bacterial fatty acid synthases (FAS), the Escherichia coli FAS is perhaps the most well studied, but little is known about its steady-state kinetic behavior. Here we describe the reconstitution of E. coli FAS using purified protein components and report detailed kinetic analysis of this reconstituted system. When all ketosynthases are present at 1 μM, the maximum rate of free fatty acid synthesis of the FAS exceeded 100 μM/ min. The steady-state turnover frequency was not significantly inhibited at high concentrations of any substrate or cofactor. FAS activity was saturated with respect to most individual protein components when their concentrations exceeded 1 μM. The exceptions were FabI and FabZ, which increased FAS activity up to concentrations of 10 μM; FabH and FabF, which decreased FAS activity at concentrations higher than 1 μM; and holo-ACP and TesA, which gave maximum FAS activity at 30 μM concentrations. Analysis of the S36T mutant of the ACP revealed that the unusual dependence of FAS activity on holo-ACP concentration was due, at least in part, to the acyl-phosphopantetheine moiety. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis of the reaction mixture further revealed medium and long chain fatty acyl-ACP intermediates as predominant ACP species. We speculate that one or more of such intermediates are key allosteric regulators of FAS turnover. Our findings provide a new basis for assessing the scope and limitations of using E. coli as a biocatalyst for the production of diesel-like fuels. PMID:22042840
The mechanism of volcanic eruptions (a steady state approach)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Slezin, Yu. B.
2003-03-01
sharp regime changes. Catastrophic rise of eruption intensity is possible if H< H cr. The critical chamber depth H cr depends approximately linearly on c0 and is about 15 km at c0=0.05. Some scenarios of eruption evolution are described in a steady state approximation, and the mechanism of catastrophic explosive eruptions is proposed. The theory is applied to well documented eruptions (Tolbachik, 1975-1976, and Mount St. Helens, 1980). The theory can also describe changes in a volcanic system, such as destruction of the conduit or chamber walls, destruction of the edifice, changes in magma composition, and caldera subsidence due to magma evacuation.
Specific determination of maximal lactate steady state in soccer players.
Loures, João P; Chamari, Karim; Ferreira, Eliel C; Campos, Eduardo Z; Zagatto, Alessandro M; Milioni, Fabio; da Silva, Adelino S R; Papoti, Marcelo
2015-01-01
The aim of this study was to establish the validity of the anaerobic threshold (AT) determined on the soccer-specific Hoff circuit (ATHoff) to predict the maximal lactate steady-state exercise intensity (MLSSHoff) with the ball. Sixteen soccer players (age: 16.0 ± 0.5 years; body mass: 63.7 ± 9.0 kg; and height: 169.4 ± 5.3 cm) were submitted to 5 progressive efforts (7.0-11.0 km·h) with ball dribbling. Thereafter, 11 players were submitted to 3 efforts of 30 minutes at 100, 105, and 110% of ATHoff. The ATHoff corresponded to the speed relative to 3.5 mmol·L lactate concentration. The speed relative to 4.0 mmol·L was assumed to be ATHoff4.0, and the ATHoffBI was determined through bisegmented adjustment. For comparisons, Student's t-test, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and Bland and Altman analyses were used. For reproducibility, ICC, typical error, and coefficient of variation were used. No significant difference was found between AT test and retest determined using different methods. A positive correlation was observed between ATHoff and ATHoff4.0. The MLSSHoff (10.6 ± 1.3 km·h) was significantly different compared with ATHoff (10.2 ± 1.2 km·h) and ATHoffBI (9.5 ± 0.4 km·h) but did not show any difference from LAnHoff4.0 (10.7 ± 1.4 km·h). The MLSSHoff presented high ICCs with ATHoff and ATHoff4.0 (ICC = 0.94; and ICC = 0.89; p ≤ 0.05, respectively), without significant correlation with ATHoffBI. The results suggest that AT determined on the Hoff circuit is reproducible and capable of predicting MLSS. The ATHoff4.0 was the method that presented a better approximation to MLSS. Therefore, it is possible to assess submaximal physiological variables through a specific circuit performed with the ball in young soccer players.
Progress towards high-performance, steady-state spherical torus
Ono, M.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.; Blanchard, W.; Boedo, J.; Bourdelle, C.; Bush, C.; Choe, W.; Chrzanowski, J.; Darrow, D. S.; Diem, S. J.; Doerner, R.; Efthimion, P. C.; Ferron, J. R.; Fonck, R. J.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Garstka, G. D.; Gates, D A; Gray, T.; Grisham, L. R.; Heidbrink, W.; Hill, K. W.; Hoffman, D.; Jarboe, T. R.; Johnson, D. W.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S. M.; Kessel, C.; Kim, J. H.; Kissick, M. W.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H. W.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lee, K.; Lee, S. G.; Lewicki, B. T.; Luckhardt, S.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Manickam, J.; Maqueda, R.; Mau, T. K.; Mazzucato, E.; Medley, S. S.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Nelson, B. A.; Neumeyer, C.; Nishino, N.; Ostrander, C. N.; Pacella, D.; Paoletti, F.; Park, H. K.; Park, W.; Paul, S. F.; Peng, Y-K M.; Phillips, C. K.; Pinsker, R.; Probert, P. H.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Raman, R.; Redi, M.; Roquemore, A. L.; Rosenberg, A.; Ryan, P. M.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Schaffer, M.; Schooff, R. J.; Seraydarian, R.; Skinner, C. H.; Sontag, A. C.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Spaleta, J.; Stevenson, T.; Stutman, D.; Swain, D. W.; Synakowski, E.; Takase, Y.; Tang, X.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Tritz, K. L.; Unterberg, E. A.; Halle, A. Von.; Wilgen, J.; Williams, M.; Wilson, J. R.; Xu, X.; Zweben, S. J.; Akers, R.; Barry, R. E.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bialek, J. M.; Blagojevic, B.; Bonoli, P. T.; Carter, M. D.; Davis, W.; Deng, B.; Dudek, L.; Egedal, J.; Ellis, R.; Finkenthal, M.; Foley, J.; Fredd, E.; Glasser, A.; Gibney, T.; Gilmore, M.; Goldston, R. J.; Hatcher, R. E.; Hawryluk, R. J.; Houlberg, W.; Harvey, R.; Jardin, S. C.; Hosea, J. C.; Ji, H.; Kalish, M.; Lowrance, J.; Lao, L. L.; Levinton, F. M.; Luhmann, N. C.; Marsala, R.; Mastravito, D.; Menon, M. M.; Mitarai, O.; Nagata, M.; Oliaro, G.; Parsells, R.; Peebles, T.; Peneflor, B.; Piglowski, D.; Porter, G. D.; Ram, A. K.; Rensink, M.; Rewoldt, G.; Robinson, J.; Roney, P.; Shaing, K.; Shiraiwa, S.; Sichta, P.; Stotler, D.; Stratton, B. C.; Vero, R.; Wampler, W. R.; Wurden, G. A.
2003-12-01
Research on the spherical torus (or spherical tokamak) (ST) is being pursued to explore the scientific benefits of modifying the field line structure from that in more moderate aspect ratio devices, such as the conventional tokamak. The ST experiments are being conducted in various US research facilities including the MA-class National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at Princeton, and three medium sized ST research facilities: PEGASUS at University of Wisconsin, HIT-II at University of Washington, and CDX-U at Princeton. In the context of the fusion energy development path being formulated in the US, an ST-based Component Test Facility (CTF) and, ultimately a Demo device, are being discussed. For these, it is essential to develop high performance, steady-state operational scenarios. The relevant scientific issues are energy confinement, MHD stability at high beta (β), non-inductive sustainment, Ohmic-solenoid-free start-up, and power and particle handling. In the confinement area, the NSTX experiments have shown that the confinement can be up to 50% better than the ITER-98-pby2 H-mode scaling, consistent with the requirements for an ST-based CTF and Demo. In NSTX, CTF-relevant average toroidal beta values β_{T} of up to 35% with a near unity central β_{T} have been obtained. NSTX will be exploring advanced regimes where β_{T} up to 40% can be sustained through active stabilization of resistive wall modes. To date, the most successful technique for non-inductive sustainment in NSTX is the high beta poloidal regime, where discharges with a high non-inductive fraction (~ 60% bootstrap current+NBI current drive) were sustained over the resistive skin time. Research on radio-frequency (RF) based heating and current drive utilizing high harmonic fast wave and electron Bernstein wave is also pursued on NSTX, PEGASUS, and CDX-U. For non-inductive start-up, the coaxial helicity injection, developed in HIT/HIT-II, has been adopted on NSTX to
Progress towards high-performance, steady-state spherical torus.
Lee, S.G; Kugel, W.; Efthimion, P. C.; Kissick, M. W.; Bourdelle, C.; Kim, J.H; Gray, T.; Garstka, G. D.; Fonck, R. J.; Doerner, R.; Diem, S.J.; Pacella, D.; Nishino, N.; Ferron, J. R.; Skinner, C. H.; Stutman, D.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Choe, W.; Chrzanowski, J.; Mau, T.K.; Bell, Michael G.; Raman, R.; Peng, Y-K. M.; Ono, M.; Park, W.; Hoffman, D.; Maqueda, R.; Kaye, S. M.; Kaita, R.; Jarboe, T.R.; Hill, K.W.; Heidbrink, W.; Spaleta, J.; Sontag, A.C; Seraydarian, R.; Schooff, R.J.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Menard, J.; Mazzucato, E.; Lee, K.; LeBlanc, B.; Probert, P. H.; Blanchard, W.; Wampler, William R.; Swain, D. W.; Ryan, P.M.; Rosenberg, A.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Phillips, C.K.; Park, H.K.; Roquemore, A. L.; Paoletti, F.; Medley, S. S.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Kessel, C. E.; Stevenson, T.; Darrow, D. S.; Majeski, R.; Bitter, M.; Neumeyer, C.; Nelson, B.A.; Paul, S. F.; Manickam, J.; Ostrander, C. N.; Mueller, D.; Lewicki, B.T; Luckhardt, S.; Johnson, D.W.; Grisham, L.R.; Kubota, Shigeru; Gates, D.A.; Bush, C.; Synakowski, E.J.; Schaffer, M.; Boedo, J.; Maingi, R.; Redi, M.; Pinsker, R.; Bigelow, T.; Bell, R. E.
2004-06-01
Research on the spherical torus (or spherical tokamak) (ST) is being pursued to explore the scientific benefits of modifying the field line structure from that in more moderate aspect ratio devices, such as the conventional tokamak. The ST experiments are being conducted in various US research facilities including the MA-class National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at Princeton, and three medium sized ST research facilities: PEGASUS at University of Wisconsin, HIT-II at University of Washington, and CDX-U at Princeton. In the context of the fusion energy development path being formulated in the US, an ST-based Component Test Facility (CTF) and, ultimately a Demo device, are being discussed. For these, it is essential to develop high performance, steady-state operational scenarios. The relevant scientific issues are energy confinement, MHD stability at high beta ({beta}), non-inductive sustainment, Ohmic-solenoid-free start-up, and power and particle handling. In the confinement area, the NSTX experiments have shown that the confinement can be up to 50% better than the ITER-98-pby2 H-mode scaling, consistent with the requirements for an ST-based CTF and Demo. In NSTX, CTF-relevant average toroidal beta values {beta}{sub T} of up to 35% with a near unity central {beta}{sub T} have been obtained. NSTX will be exploring advanced regimes where {beta}{sub T} up to 40% can be sustained through active stabilization of resistive wall modes. To date, the most successful technique for non-inductive sustainment in NSTX is the high beta poloidal regime, where discharges with a high non-inductive fraction ({approx}60% bootstrap current+NBI current drive) were sustained over the resistive skin time. Research on radio-frequency (RF) based heating and current drive utilizing high harmonic fast wave and electron Bernstein wave is also pursued on NSTX, PEGASUS, and CDX-U. For non-inductive start-up, the coaxial helicity injection, developed in HIT/HIT-II, has been adopted on NSTX
Progress Towards High Performance, Steady-state Spherical Torus
M. Ono; M.G. Bell; R.E. Bell; T. Bigelow; M. Bitter; W. Blanchard; J. Boedo; C. Bourdelle; C. Bush; W. Choe; J. Chrzanowski; D.S. Darrow; S.J. Diem; R. Doerner; P.C. Efthimion; J.R. Ferron; R.J. Fonck; E.D. Fredrickson; G.D. Garstka; D.A. Gates; T. Gray; L.R. Grisham; W. Heidbrink; K.W. Hill; D. Hoffman; T.R. Jarboe; D.W. Johnson; R. Kaita; S.M. Kaye; C. Kessel; J.H. Kim; M.W. Kissick; S. Kubota; H.W. Kugel; B.P. LeBlanc; K. Lee; S.G. Lee; B.T. Lewicki; S. Luckhardt; R. Maingi; R. Majeski; J. Manickam; R. Maqueda; T.K. Mau; E. Mazzucato; S.S. Medley; J. Menard; D. Mueller; B.A. Nelson; C. Neumeyer; N. Nishino; C.N. Ostrander; D. Pacella; F. Paoletti; H.K. Park; W. Park; S.F. Paul; Y.-K. M. Peng; C.K. Phillips; R. Pinsker; P.H. Probert; S. Ramakrishnan; R. Raman; M. Redi; A.L. Roquemore; A. Rosenberg; P.M. Ryan; S.A. Sabbagh; M. Schaffer; R.J. Schooff; R. Seraydarian; C.H. Skinner; A.C. Sontag; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Spaleta; T. Stevenson; D. Stutman; D.W. Swain; E. Synakowski; Y. Takase; X. Tang; G. Taylor; J. Timberlake; K.L. Tritz; E.A. Unterberg; A. Von Halle; J. Wilgen; M. Williams; J.R. Wilson; X. Xu; S.J. Zweben; R. Akers; R.E. Barry; P. Beiersdorfer; J.M. Bialek; B. Blagojevic; P.T. Bonoli; M.D. Carter; W. Davis; B. Deng; L. Dudek; J. Egedal; R. Ellis; M. Finkenthal; J. Foley; E. Fredd; A. Glasser; T. Gibney; M. Gilmore; R.J. Goldston; R.E. Hatcher; R.J. Hawryluk; W. Houlberg; R. Harvey; S.C. Jardin; J.C. Hosea; H. Ji; M. Kalish; J. Lowrance; L.L. Lao; F.M. Levinton; N.C. Luhmann; R. Marsala; D. Mastravito; M.M. Menon; O. Mitarai; M. Nagata; G. Oliaro; R. Parsells; T. Peebles; B. Peneflor; D. Piglowski; G.D. Porter; A.K. Ram; M. Rensink; G. Rewoldt; P. Roney; K. Shaing; S. Shiraiwa; P. Sichta; D. Stotler; B.C. Stratton; R. Vero; W.R. Wampler; G.A. Wurden
2003-10-02
Research on the Spherical Torus (or Spherical Tokamak) is being pursued to explore the scientific benefits of modifying the field line structure from that in more moderate aspect-ratio devices, such as the conventional tokamak. The Spherical Tours (ST) experiments are being conducted in various U.S. research facilities including the MA-class National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at Princeton, and three medium-size ST research facilities: Pegasus at University of Wisconsin, HIT-II at University of Washington, and CDX-U at Princeton. In the context of the fusion energy development path being formulated in the U.S., an ST-based Component Test Facility (CTF) and, ultimately a Demo device, are being discussed. For these, it is essential to develop high-performance, steady-state operational scenarios. The relevant scientific issues are energy confinement, MHD stability at high beta (B), noninductive sustainment, ohmic-solenoid-free start-up, and power and particle handling. In the confinement area, the NSTX experiments have shown that the confinement can be up to 50% better than the ITER-98-pby2 H-mode scaling, consistent with the requirements for an ST-based CTF and Demo. In NSTX, CTF-relevant average toroidal beta values bT of up to 35% with the near unity central betaT have been obtained. NSTX will be exploring advanced regimes where bT up to 40% can be sustained through active stabilization of resistive wall modes. To date, the most successful technique for noninductive sustainment in NSTX is the high beta-poloidal regime, where discharges with a high noninductive fraction ({approx}60% bootstrap current + neutral-beam-injected current drive) were sustained over the resistive skin time. Research on radio-frequency-based heating and current drive utilizing HHFW (High Harmonic Fast Wave) and EBW (Electron Bernstein Wave) is also pursued on NSTX, Pegasus, and CDX-U. For noninductive start-up, the Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI), developed in HIT/HIT-II, has been
40 CFR 92.130 - Determination of steady-state concentrations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... values shall be used instead of a steady-state or integrated concentration: (1) The highest value of the... same units as the steady-state concentration; this value is h. (iii) Bisect the peak height by drawing... the line described in paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section intersects the baseline; this value is...
40 CFR 92.130 - Determination of steady-state concentrations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... values shall be used instead of a steady-state or integrated concentration: (1) The highest value of the... same units as the steady-state concentration; this value is h. (iii) Bisect the peak height by drawing... the line described in paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section intersects the baseline; this value is...
40 CFR 92.130 - Determination of steady-state concentrations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... values shall be used instead of a steady-state or integrated concentration: (1) The highest value of the... same units as the steady-state concentration; this value is h. (iii) Bisect the peak height by drawing... the line described in paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section intersects the baseline; this value is...
40 CFR 92.130 - Determination of steady-state concentrations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... values shall be used instead of a steady-state or integrated concentration: (1) The highest value of the... same units as the steady-state concentration; this value is h. (iii) Bisect the peak height by drawing... the line described in paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section intersects the baseline; this value is...
40 CFR 92.130 - Determination of steady-state concentrations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... values shall be used instead of a steady-state or integrated concentration: (1) The highest value of the... same units as the steady-state concentration; this value is h. (iii) Bisect the peak height by drawing... the line described in paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this section intersects the baseline; this value is...
Steady-State Axial Temperature and Flow Velocity in Triga Channel.
2007-02-28
Version 00 TRISTAN-IJS is a computer program for calculating steady-state axial temperature distribution and flow velocity through a vertical coolant channel in low power TRIGA reactor core, cooled by natural circulation. It is designed for steady-state thermohydraulic analysis of TRIGA research reactors operating at a low power level of 1-2 MW.
The steady-state phase distribution of the motor switch complex model of Halobacterium salinarum.
del Rosario, Ricardo C H; Diener, Francine; Diener, Marc; Oesterhelt, Dieter
2009-12-01
Steady-state analysis is performed on the kinetic model for the switch complex of the flagellar motor of Halobacterium salinarum (Nutsch et al.). The existence and uniqueness of a positive steady-state of the system is established and it is demonstrated why the steady-state is centered around the competent phase, a state of the motor in which it is able to respond to light stimuli. It is also demonstrated why the steady-state shifts to the refractory phase when the steady-state value of the response regulator CheYP increases. This work is one aspect of modeling in systems biology wherein the mathematical properties of a model are established. PMID:19857501
Steady- and non-steady-state carbonate-silicate controls on atmospheric CO2
Sundquist, E.T.
1991-01-01
Two contrasting hypotheses have recently been proposed for the past long-term relation between atmospheric CO2 and the carbonate-silicate geochemical cycle. One approach (Berner, 1990) suggests that CO2 levels have varied in a manner that has maintained chemical weathering and carbonate sedimentation at a steady state with respect to tectonically controlled decarbonation reactions. A second approach (Raymo et al., 1988), applied specificlly to the late Cenozoic, suggests a decrease in CO2 caused by an uplift-induced increase in chemical weathering, without regard to the rate of decarbonation. According to the steady-state (first) hypothesis, increased weathering and carbonate sedimentation are generally associated with increasing atmospheric CO2, whereas the uplift (second) hypothesis implies decreasing CO2 under the same conditions. An ocean-atmosphere-sediment model has been used to assess the response of atmospheric CO2 and carbonate sedimentation to global perturbations in chemical weathering and decarbonation reactions. Although this assessment is theoretical and cannot yet be related to the geologic record, the model simulations compare steady-state and non-steady-state carbonate-silicate cycle response. The e-fold response time of the 'CO2-weathering' feedback mechanism is between 300 and 400 ka. The response of carbonate sedimentation is much more rapid. These response times provide a measure of the strength of steady-state assumptions, and imply that certain systematic relations are sustained throughout steady-state and non-steady-state scenarios for the carbonate-silicate cycle. The simulations suggest that feedbacks can maintain the system near a steady state, but that non-steady-state effects may contribute to long-term trends. The steady-state and uplift hypotheses are not necessarily incompatible over time scales of a few million years. ?? 1991.
The 40-Hz auditory steady-state response: a selective biomarker for cortical NMDA function.
Sivarao, Digavalli V
2015-05-01
When subjected to a phasic input, sensory cortical neurons display a remarkable ability to entrain faithfully to the driving stimuli. The entrainment to rhythmic sound stimuli is often referred to as the auditory steady-state response (ASSR) and can be captured using noninvasive techniques, such as scalp-recorded electroencephalography (EEG). An ASSR to a driving frequency of approximately 40 Hz is particularly interesting in that it shows, in relative terms, maximal power, synchrony, and synaptic activity. Moreover, the 40-Hz ASSR has been consistently found to be abnormal in schizophrenia patients across multiple studies. The nature of the reported abnormality has been less consistent; while most studies report a deficit in entrainment, several studies have reported increased signal power, particularly when there are concurrent positive symptoms, such as auditory hallucinations. However, the neuropharmacological basis for the 40-Hz ASSR, as well as its dysfunction in schizophrenia, has been unclear until recently. On the basis of several recent reports, it is argued that the 40-Hz ASSR represents a specific marker for cortical NMDA transmission. If confirmed, the 40-Hz ASSR may be a simple and easy-to-access pharmacodynamic biomarker for testing the integrity of cortical NMDA neurotransmission that is robustly translational across species. PMID:25809615
Neutrophil-derived alpha defensins control inflammation by inhibiting macrophage mRNA translation.
Brook, Matthew; Tomlinson, Gareth H; Miles, Katherine; Smith, Richard W P; Rossi, Adriano G; Hiemstra, Pieter S; van 't Wout, Emily F A; Dean, Jonathan L E; Gray, Nicola K; Lu, Wuyuan; Gray, Mohini
2016-04-19
Neutrophils are the first and most numerous cells to arrive at the site of an inflammatory insult and are among the first to die. We previously reported that alpha defensins, released from apoptotic human neutrophils, augmented the antimicrobial capacity of macrophages while also inhibiting the biosynthesis of proinflammatory cytokines. In vivo, alpha defensin administration protected mice from inflammation, induced by thioglychollate-induced peritonitis or following infection withSalmonella entericaserovar Typhimurium. We have now dissected the antiinflammatory mechanism of action of the most abundant neutrophil alpha defensin, Human Neutrophil Peptide 1 (HNP1). Herein we show that HNP1 enters macrophages and inhibits protein translation without inducing the unfolded-protein response or affecting mRNA stability. In a cell-free in vitro translation system, HNP1 powerfully inhibited both cap-dependent and cap-independent mRNA translation while maintaining mRNA polysomal association. This is, to our knowledge, the first demonstration of a peptide released from one cell type (neutrophils) directly regulating mRNA translation in another (macrophages). By preventing protein translation, HNP1 functions as a "molecular brake" on macrophage-driven inflammation, ensuring both pathogen clearance and the resolution of inflammation with minimal bystander tissue damage. PMID:27044108
ppGpp inhibits peptide elongation cycle of chloroplast translation system in vitro.
Nomura, Yuhta; Takabayashi, Taito; Kuroda, Hiroshi; Yukawa, Yasushi; Sattasuk, Kwanchanok; Akita, Mitsuru; Nozawa, Akira; Tozawa, Yuzuru
2012-01-01
Chloroplasts possess common biosynthetic pathways for generating guanosine 3',5'-(bis)pyrophosphate (ppGpp) from GDP and ATP by RelA-SpoT homolog enzymes. To date, several hypothetical targets of ppGpp in chloroplasts have been suggested, but they remain largely unverified. In this study, we have investigated effects of ppGpp on translation apparatus in chloroplasts by developing in vitro protein synthesis system based on an extract of chloroplasts isolated from pea (Pisum sativum). The chloroplast extracts showed stable protein synthesis activity in vitro, and the activity was sensitive to various types of antibiotics. We have demonstrated that ppGpp inhibits the activity of chloroplast translation in dose-effective manner, as does the toxic nonhydrolyzable GTP analog guanosine 5'-(β,γ-imido)triphosphate (GDPNP). We further examined polyuridylic acid-directed polyphenylalanine synthesis as a measure of peptide elongation activity in the pea chloroplast extract. Both ppGpp and GDPNP as well as antibiotics, fusidic acid and thiostrepton, inhibited the peptide elongation cycle of the translation system, but GDP in the similar range of the tested ppGpp concentration did not affect the activity. Our results thus show that ppGpp directly affect the translation system of chloroplasts, as they do that of bacteria. We suggest that the role of the ppGpp signaling system in translation in bacteria is conserved in the translation system of chloroplasts.
Saito, Kazuki; Horikawa, Wataru; Ito, Koichi
2015-01-01
Incidental ribosome stalling during translation elongation is an aberrant phenomenon during protein synthesis and is subjected to quality control by surveillance systems, in which mRNA and a nascent protein are rapidly degraded. Their detailed molecular mechanisms as well as responsible factors for these processes are beginning to be understood. However, the initial processes for detecting stalled translation that result in degradation remain to be determined. Among the factors identified to date, two E3 ubiquitin ligases have been reported to function in distinct manners. Because ubiquitination is one of the most versatile of cellular signals, these distinct functions of E3 ligases suggested diverse ubiquitination pathways during surveillance for stalled translation. In this study, we report experimental evidences for a unique role of non-proteasomal K63 polyubiquitination during quality control for stalled translation. Inhibiting K63 polyubiquitination by expressing a K63R ubiquitin mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells markedly abolished the quality control responses for stalled translation. More detailed analyses indicated that the effects of K63R mutants were independent of the proteasome and that K63 polyubiquitination is dependent on Hel2, one of the E3 ligases. Moreover, a K63R ubiquitin mutant barely inhibited the quality control pathway for nonstop translation, indicating distinct mechanisms for these highly related quality control pathways. Our results suggest that non-proteasomal K63 polyubiquitination is included in the initial surveillance process of stalled translation and presumably triggers protein degradation steps upon translational stall. These findings provide crucial information regarding the detailed molecular mechanisms for the initial steps involved in quality control systems and their classification. PMID:25909477
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bansal, Pikesh; Chattopadhyay, Ajit Kumar; Agrawal, Vishnu Prakash
2016-04-01
The aim of the present study is to theoretically determine the steady state characteristics of hydrodynamic oil journal bearings considering the effect of deformation of liner and with micropolar lubrication. Modified Reynolds equation based on micropolar lubrication theory is solved using finite difference method to obtain steady state film pressures. Minimum film thickness is calculated taking into consideration the deformation of the liner. Parametric study has been conducted and steady state characteristics for journal bearing with elasticity of bearing liner are plotted for various values of eccentricity ratio, deformation factor, characteristic length and coupling number.
Optimal harvesting in forestry: steady-state analysis and climate change impact.
Hritonenko, Natali; Yatsenko, Yuri; Goetz, Renan-Ulrich; Xabadia, Angels
2013-01-01
We perform the steady-state analysis of a nonlinear partial differential equation model that describes the dynamics of a managed size-structured forest. The harvesting policy is to maximize the net benefits from timber production over an infinite planning horizon. The existence and uniqueness of the steady-state trajectories are analysed. Closed-form steady states are obtained in meaningful special cases and are used to estimate how climate change affects the optimal harvesting regime, diameter of cut trees, number of logged trees, and net benefits in the long run.
Yao, Chung-Tay; Lai, Ching-Long; Hsieh, Hsiu-Shan; Chi, Chin-Wen; Yin, Shih-Jiun
2010-09-01
Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) catalyzes oxidation of ingested ethanol to acetaldehyde, the first step in hepatic metabolism. The purpose of this study was to establish an ex vivo rat liver perfusion system under defined and verified steady states with respect to the metabolites and the metabolic rates, and to quantitatively correlate the observed rates with simulations based on the kinetic mechanism-based rate equations of rat liver ADH. Class I ADH1 was isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats and characterized by steady-state kinetics in the Krebs-Ringer perfusion buffer with supplements. Nonrecirculating liver perfusion with constant input of ethanol at near physiological hepatic blood flow rate was performed in situ. Ethanol and the related metabolites acetaldehyde, acetate, lactate, and pyruvate in perfusates were determined. Results of the initial velocity, product, and dead-end inhibition studies showed that rat ADH1 conformed to the Theorell-Chance Ordered Bi Bi mechanism. Steady-state metabolism of ethanol in the perfused liver maintained up to 3h as evidenced by the steady-state levels of ethanol and metabolites in the effluent, and the steady-state ethanol disappearance rates and acetate production rates. The changes of the metabolic rates were qualitatively and in general quantitatively correlated to the results from simulations with the kinetic rate equations of ADH1 under a wide range of ethanol, in the presence of competitive inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole and of uncompetitive inhibitor isobutyramide. Preliminary flux control analysis estimated that apparent C(ADH)(J) in the perfused liver may approximate 0.7 at constant infusion with 1-2 mM ethanol, suggesting that ADH plays a major but not the exclusive role in governing hepatic ethanol metabolism. The reported steady-state rat liver perfusion system may potentially be applicable to other drug or drug-ethanol interaction studies.
Determination of the Nonequilibrium Steady State Emerging from a Defect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertini, Bruno; Fagotti, Maurizio
2016-09-01
We consider the nonequilibrium time evolution of a translationally invariant state under a Hamiltonian with a localized defect. We discern the situations where a light cone spreads out from the defect and separates the system into regions with macroscopically different properties. We identify the light cone and propose a procedure to obtain a (quasi)stationary state describing the late time dynamics of local observables. As an explicit example, we study the time evolution generated by the Hamiltonian of the transverse-field Ising chain with a local defect that cuts the interaction between two sites (a quench of the boundary conditions alongside a global quench). We solve the dynamics exactly and show that the late time properties can be obtained with the general method proposed.
Nakahigashi, Kenji; Takai, Yuki; Kimura, Michiko; Abe, Nozomi; Nakayashiki, Toru; Shiwa, Yuh; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Wanner, Barry L; Ishihama, Yasushi; Mori, Hirotada
2016-06-01
Tetracycline-inhibited ribosome profiling (TetRP) provides a powerful new experimental tool for comprehensive genome-wide identification of translation initiation sites in bacteria. We validated TetRP by confirming the translation start sites of protein-coding genes in accordance with the 2006 version of Escherichia coli K-12 annotation record (GenBank U000962) and found ∼150 new start sites within 60 nucleotides of the annotated site. This analysis revealed 72 per cent of the genes whose initiation site annotations were changed from the 2006 GenBank record to the newer 2014 annotation record (GenBank U000963), indicating a high sensitivity. Also, results from reporter fusion and proteomics of N-terminally enriched peptides showed high specificity of the TetRP results. In addition, we discovered over 300 translation start sites within non-coding, intergenic regions of the genome, using a threshold that retains ∼2,000 known coding genes. While some appear to correspond to pseudogenes, others may encode small peptides or have previously unforeseen roles. In summary, we showed that ribosome profiling upon translation inhibition by tetracycline offers a simple, reliable and comprehensive experimental tool for precise annotation of translation start sites of expressed genes in bacteria. PMID:27013550
Starck, Shelley R; Roberts, Richard W
2002-01-01
Peptidyl transferase inhibitors have generally been studied using simple systems and remain largely unexamined In in vitro translation extracts. Here, we investigate the potency, product distribution, and mechanism of various puromycin-oligonucleotide conjugates (1 to 44 nt with 3'-puromycin) In a reticulocyte lysate cell-free translation system. Surprisingly, the potency decreases as the chain length of the oligonucleotide is increased in this series, and only very short puromycin conjugates function efficiently (IC50 < 50 microM). This observation stands in contrast with work on isolated large ribosomal subunits, which Indicates that many of the puromycin-oligonucleotide conjugates we studied should have higher affinity for the peptidyl transferase center than puromycin itself. Two tRNA(Al)-derived minihelices containing puromycin provide an exception to the size trend, and are the only constructs longer than 4 nt with any appreciable potency (IC50 = 40-56 microM). However, the puromycin minihelices inhibit translation by sequestering one or more soluble translation factors, and do not appear to participate in detectable peptide bond formation with the nascent chain. In contrast, puromycin and other short derivatives act in a factor-independent fashion at the peptidyl transferase center and readily become conjugated to the nascent protein chain. However, even for the short derivatives, much of the translation inhibition occurs without peptide bond formation between puromycin and the nascent chain, a revision of the classical model for puromycin function. This peptide bond-independent mode is likely a combination of multiple effects including inhibition of initiation and failure to properly recycle translation complexes that have reacted with puromycin. PMID:12166644
A closed-loop control scheme for steering steady states of glycolysis and glycogenolysis pathway.
Panja, Surajit; Patra, Sourav; Mukherjee, Anirban; Basu, Madhumita; Sengupta, Sanghamitra; Dutta, Pranab K
2013-01-01
Biochemical networks normally operate in the neighborhood of one of its multiple steady states. It may reach from one steady state to other within a finite time span. In this paper, a closed-loop control scheme is proposed to steer states of the glycolysis and glycogenolysis (GG) pathway from one of its steady states to other. The GG pathway is modeled in the synergism and saturation system formalism, known as S-system. This S-system model is linearized into the controllable Brunovsky canonical form using a feedback linearization technique. For closed-loop control, the linear-quadratic regulator (LQR) and the linear-quadratic gaussian (LQG) regulator are invoked to design a controller for tracking prespecified steady states. In the feedback linearization technique, a global diffeomorphism function is proposed that facilitates in achieving the regulation requirement. The robustness of the regulated GG pathway is studied considering input perturbation and with measurement noise.
Kim, Jin Il; Song, Hyun-Seob; Sunkara, Sunil R; Lali, Arvind; Ramkrishna, Doraiswami
2012-01-01
We demonstrate strong experimental support for the cybernetic model based on maximizing carbon uptake rate in describing the microorganism's regulatory behavior by verifying exacting predictions of steady state multiplicity in a chemostat. Experiments with a feed mixture of glucose and pyruvate show multiple steady state behavior as predicted by the cybernetic model. When multiplicity occurs at a dilution (growth) rate, it results in hysteretic behavior following switches in dilution rate from above and below. This phenomenon is caused by transient paths leading to different steady states through dynamic maximization of the carbon uptake rate. Thus steady state multiplicity is a manifestation of the nonlinearity arising from cybernetic mechanisms rather than of the nonlinear kinetics. The predicted metabolic multiplicity would extend to intracellular states such as enzyme levels and fluxes to be verified in future experiments.
Technical challenges in the construction of the steady-state stellarator Wendelstein 7-X
Bosch, H.-S.; Wolf, R. C.; Andreeva, T.; Cardella, A; Erckmann, V.; Gantenbein, G; Hathiramani, D; Kasparek, W; Klinger, T.; Koenig, R; Kornejew, P; Laqua, H P; Lechte, C; Michel, G; Peacock, A.; Sunn Pedersen, T; Thumm, M; Turkin, Yu.; Wegener, Lutz; Werner, A.; Zhang, D; Beidler, C.; Bozhenkov, S.; Brown, T.; Geiger, J.; Harris, Jeffrey H; Heitzenroeder, P.; Lumsdaine, Arnold; Maassberg, H.; Marushchenko, N B; Neilson, G. H.; Otte, M; Rummel, Thomas; Spong, Donald A; Tretter, Jorg
2013-01-01
The next step in the Wendelstein stellarator line is the large superconducting device Wendelstein 7-X, currently under construction in Greifswald, Germany. Steady-state operation is an intrinsic feature of stellarators, and one key element of the Wendelstein 7-X mission is to demonstrate steady-state operation under plasma conditions relevant for a fusion power plant. Steady-state operation of a fusion device, on the one hand, requires the implementation of special technologies, giving rise to technical challenges during the design, fabrication and assembly of such a device. On the other hand, also the physics development of steady-state operation at high plasma performance poses a challenge and careful preparation. The electron cyclotron resonance heating system, diagnostics, experiment control and data acquisition are prepared for plasma operation lasting 30 min. This requires many new technological approaches for plasma heating and diagnostics as well as new concepts for experiment control and data acquisition.
Prediction of elemental creep. [steady state and cyclic data from regression analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, J. W.; Rummler, D. R.
1975-01-01
Cyclic and steady-state creep tests were performed to provide data which were used to develop predictive equations. These equations, describing creep as a function of stress, temperature, and time, were developed through the use of a least squares regression analyses computer program for both the steady-state and cyclic data sets. Comparison of the data from the two types of tests, revealed that there was no significant difference between the cyclic and steady-state creep strains for the L-605 sheet under the experimental conditions investigated (for the same total time at load). Attempts to develop a single linear equation describing the combined steady-state and cyclic creep data resulted in standard errors of estimates higher than obtained for the individual data sets. A proposed approach to predict elemental creep in metals uses the cyclic creep equation and a computer program which applies strain and time hardening theories of creep accumulation.
Technical challenges in the construction of the steady-state stellarator Wendelstein 7-X
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bosch, H.-S.; Wolf, R. C.; Andreeva, T.; Baldzuhn, J.; Birus, D.; Bluhm, T.; Bräuer, T.; Braune, H.; Bykov, V.; Cardella, A.; Durodié, F.; Endler, M.; Erckmann, V.; Gantenbein, G.; Hartmann, D.; Hathiramani, D.; Heimann, P.; Heinemann, B.; Hennig, C.; Hirsch, M.; Holtum, D.; Jagielski, J.; Jelonnek, J.; Kasparek, W.; Klinger, T.; König, R.; Kornejew, P.; Kroiss, H.; Krom, J. G.; Kühner, G.; Laqua, H.; Laqua, H. P.; Lechte, C.; Lewerentz, M.; Maier, J.; McNeely, P.; Messiaen, A.; Michel, G.; Ongena, J.; Peacock, A.; Pedersen, T. S.; Riedl, R.; Riemann, H.; Rong, P.; Rust, N.; Schacht, J.; Schauer, F.; Schroeder, R.; Schweer, B.; Spring, A.; Stäbler, A.; Thumm, M.; Turkin, Y.; Wegener, L.; Werner, A.; Zhang, D.; Zilker, M.; Akijama, T.; Alzbutas, R.; Ascasibar, E.; Balden, M.; Banduch, M.; Baylard, Ch.; Behr, W.; Beidler, C.; Benndorf, A.; Bergmann, T.; Biedermann, C.; Bieg, B.; Biel, W.; Borchardt, M.; Borowitz, G.; Borsuk, V.; Bozhenkov, S.; Brakel, R.; Brand, H.; Brown, T.; Brucker, B.; Burhenn, R.; Buscher, K.-P.; Caldwell-Nichols, C.; Cappa, A.; Cardella, A.; Carls, A.; Carvalho, P.; Ciupiński, Ł.; Cole, M.; Collienne, J.; Czarnecka, A.; Czymek, G.; Dammertz, G.; Dhard, C. P.; Davydenko, V. I.; Dinklage, A.; Drevlak, M.; Drotziger, S.; Dudek, A.; Dumortier, P.; Dundulis, G.; Eeten, P. v.; Egorov, K.; Estrada, T.; Faugel, H.; Fellinger, J.; Feng, Y.; Fernandes, H.; Fietz, W. H.; Figacz, W.; Fischer, F.; Fontdecaba, J.; Freund, A.; Funaba, T.; Fünfgelder, H.; Galkowski, A.; Gates, D.; Giannone, L.; García Regaña, J. M.; Geiger, J.; Geißler, S.; Greuner, H.; Grahl, M.; Groß, S.; Grosman, A.; Grote, H.; Grulke, O.; Haas, M.; Haiduk, L.; Hartfuß, H.-J.; Harris, J. H.; Haus, D.; Hein, B.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Helander, P.; Heller, R.; Hidalgo, C.; Hildebrandt, D.; Höhnle, H.; Holtz, A.; Holzhauer, E.; Holzthüm, R.; Huber, A.; Hunger, H.; Hurd, F.; Ihrke, M.; Illy, S.; Ivanov, A.; Jablonski, S.; Jaksic, N.; Jakubowski, M.; Jaspers, R.; Jensen, H.; Jenzsch, H.; Kacmarczyk, J.; Kaliatk, T.; Kallmeyer, J.; Kamionka, U.; Karaleviciu, R.; Kern, S.; Keunecke, M.; Kleiber, R.; Knauer, J.; Koch, R.; Kocsis, G.; Könies, A.; Köppen, M.; Koslowski, R.; Koshurinov, J.; Krämer-Flecken, A.; Krampitz, R.; Kravtsov, Y.; Krychowiak, M.; Krzesinski, G.; Ksiazek, I.; Kubkowska, M.; Kus, A.; Langish, S.; Laube, R.; Laux, M.; Lazerson, S.; Lennartz, M.; Li, C.; Lietzow, R.; Lohs, A.; Lorenz, A.; Louche, F.; Lubyako, L.; Lumsdaine, A.; Lyssoivan, A.; Maaßberg, H.; Marek, P.; Martens, C.; Marushchenko, N.; Mayer, M.; Mendelevitch, B.; Mertens, Ph.; Mikkelsen, D.; Mishchenko, A.; Missal, B.; Mizuuchi, T.; Modrow, H.; Mönnich, T.; Morizaki, T.; Murakami, S.; Musielok, F.; Nagel, M.; Naujoks, D.; Neilson, H.; Neubauer, O.; Neuner, U.; Nocentini, R.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Nührenberg, C.; Obermayer, S.; Offermanns, G.; Oosterbeek, H.; Otte, M.; Panin, A.; Pap, M.; Paquay, S.; Pasch, E.; Peng, X.; Petrov, S.; Pilopp, D.; Pirsch, H.; Plaum, B.; Pompon, F.; Povilaitis, M.; Preinhaelter, J.; Prinz, O.; Purps, F.; Rajna, T.; Récsei, S.; Reiman, A.; Reiter, D.; Remmel, J.; Renard, S.; Rhode, V.; Riemann, J.; Rimkevicius, S.; Riße, K.; Rodatos, A.; Rodin, I.; Romé, M.; Roscher, H.-J.; Rummel, K.; Rummel, Th.; Runov, A.; Ryc, L.; Sachtleben, J.; Samartsev, A.; Sanchez, M.; Sano, F.; Scarabosio, A.; Schmid, M.; Schmitz, H.; Schmitz, O.; Schneider, M.; Schneider, W.; Scheibl, L.; Scholz, M.; Schröder, G.; Schröder, M.; Schruff, J.; Schumacher, H.; Shikhovtsev, I. V.; Shoji, M.; Siegl, G.; Skodzik, J.; Smirnow, M.; Speth, E.; Spong, D. A.; Stadler, R.; Sulek, Z.; Szabó, V.; Szabolics, T.; Szetefi, T.; Szökefalvi-Nagy, Z.; Tereshchenko, A.; Thomsen, H.; Thumm, M.; Timmermann, D.; Tittes, H.; Toi, K.; Tournianski, M.; Toussaint, U. v.; Tretter, J.; Tulipán, S.; Turba, P.; Uhlemann, R.; Urban, J.; Urbonavicius, E.; Urlings, P.; Valet, S.; Van Eester, D.; Van Schoor, M.; Vervier, M.; Viebke, H.; Vilbrandt, R.; Vrancken, M.; Wauters, T.; Weissgerber, M.; Weiß, E.; Weller, A.; Wendorf, J.; Wenzel, U.; Windisch, T.; Winkler, E.; Winkler, M.; Wolowski, J.; Wolters, J.; Wrochna, G.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Yamada, H.; Yokoyama, M.; Zacharias, D.; Zajac, J.; Zangl, G.; Zarnstorff, M.; Zeplien, H.; Zoletnik, S.; Zuin, M.
2013-12-01
The next step in the Wendelstein stellarator line is the large superconducting device Wendelstein 7-X, currently under construction in Greifswald, Germany. Steady-state operation is an intrinsic feature of stellarators, and one key element of the Wendelstein 7-X mission is to demonstrate steady-state operation under plasma conditions relevant for a fusion power plant. Steady-state operation of a fusion device, on the one hand, requires the implementation of special technologies, giving rise to technical challenges during the design, fabrication and assembly of such a device. On the other hand, also the physics development of steady-state operation at high plasma performance poses a challenge and careful preparation. The electron cyclotron resonance heating system, diagnostics, experiment control and data acquisition are prepared for plasma operation lasting 30 min. This requires many new technological approaches for plasma heating and diagnostics as well as new concepts for experiment control and data acquisition.
Aspects of steady-state operation of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator
Geiger, J.; Wolf, R. C.; Beidler, C.; Cardella, A.; Chlechowitz, E.; Erckmann, V.; Gantenbein, G.; Hathiramani, D.; Hirsch, M.; Kasparek, W.; Kißlinger, J.; König, R.; Kornejew, P.; Laqua, H. P.; Lechte, C.; Lore, J.; Lumsdaine, A.; Maaßberg, H.; Marushchenko, N. B.; Michel, G.; Otte, M.; Peacock, A.; Sunn Pedersen, T.; Thumm, M.; Turkin, Y.; Werner, A.; Zhang, D.
2012-12-17
The objective of Wendelstein 7-X is to demonstrate steady-state operation at -values of up to 5%, at ion temperatures of several keV and plasma densities of up to 2 1020 m 3. The second operational phase foresees a fully steady-state high heat flux (HHF) divertor. Preparations are underway to cope with residual bootstrap currents, either by electron cyclotron current drive or by HHF protection elements. The main steady-state heating system is an electron cyclotron resonance heating facility. Various technical improvements of the gyrotrons have been implemented recently. They enable a reliable operation at the 1MW power level. Some of the technical issues preparing plasma diagnostics for steady-state operation are exemplified. This includes the protection against non-absorbed microwave radiation.
Quasi steady-state aerodynamic model development for race vehicle simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohrfeld-Halterman, J. A.; Uddin, M.
2016-01-01
Presented in this paper is a procedure to develop a high fidelity quasi steady-state aerodynamic model for use in race car vehicle dynamic simulations. Developed to fit quasi steady-state wind tunnel data, the aerodynamic model is regressed against three independent variables: front ground clearance, rear ride height, and yaw angle. An initial dual range model is presented and then further refined to reduce the model complexity while maintaining a high level of predictive accuracy. The model complexity reduction decreases the required amount of wind tunnel data thereby reducing wind tunnel testing time and cost. The quasi steady-state aerodynamic model for the pitch moment degree of freedom is systematically developed in this paper. This same procedure can be extended to the other five aerodynamic degrees of freedom to develop a complete six degree of freedom quasi steady-state aerodynamic model for any vehicle.
Steady State Performance Characteristics of a Single Pad Externally Adjustable Fluid Film Bearing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shenoy, Satish B.; Pai, Raghuvir
The steady state performance characteristics of centrally loaded 60 degree single pad externally adjustable partial arc bearing is studied theoretically. Principal feature of the bearing is the facility to control its radial clearance and circumferential film thickness gradient, during operation. The bearing has aspect ratios of 1.0, 0.5 and 0.25 and operates over a wide range of eccentricity ratios and adjustments. Steady state performance characteristics of the bearing are presented in terms of attitude angle, load carrying capacity, oil flow and friction variable. The steady state form of Reynolds equation in two dimensions is solved numerically using the finite difference method. The effect of tilt and the radial adjustments on the steady state performance characteristics are presented in the form of plots. A comparative study predicts that negative radial and negative tilt adjustment results in better load carrying capacity with reduced oil flow and friction.
Decoding of the sound frequency from the steady-state neural activities in rat auditory cortex.
Shiramatsu, Tomoyo I; Noda, Takahiro; Kanzaki, Ryohei; Takahashi, Hirokazu
2013-01-01
In the auditory cortex, onset activities have been extensively investigated as a cortical representation of sound information such as sound frequency. Yet, less attention has been paid to date to steady-state activities following the onset activities. In this study, we used machine learning to investigate whether steady-state activities in the presence of continuous sounds represent the sound frequency. Sparse Logistic Regression (SLR) decoded the sound frequency from band specific power or phase locking value (PLV) of local field potentials (LFP) from the fourth layer of the auditory cortex of anesthetized rats. Consequently, we found that SLR was able to decode the sound frequency from steady-state neural activities as well as onset activities. This result demonstrates that the steady-state activities contain information about the sound such as sound frequency.
Detection meeting control: Unstable steady states in high-dimensional nonlinear dynamical systems.
Ma, Huanfei; Ho, Daniel W C; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Lin, Wei
2015-10-01
We articulate an adaptive and reference-free framework based on the principle of random switching to detect and control unstable steady states in high-dimensional nonlinear dynamical systems, without requiring any a priori information about the system or about the target steady state. Starting from an arbitrary initial condition, a proper control signal finds the nearest unstable steady state adaptively and drives the system to it in finite time, regardless of the type of the steady state. We develop a mathematical analysis based on fast-slow manifold separation and Markov chain theory to validate the framework. Numerical demonstration of the control and detection principle using both classic chaotic systems and models of biological and physical significance is provided. PMID:26565299
The Effects of High Steady State Auxin Levels on Root Cell Elongation in Brachypodium.
Pacheco-Villalobos, David; Díaz-Moreno, Sara M; van der Schuren, Alja; Tamaki, Takayuki; Kang, Yeon Hee; Gujas, Bojan; Novak, Ondrej; Jaspert, Nina; Li, Zhenni; Wolf, Sebastian; Oecking, Claudia; Ljung, Karin; Bulone, Vincent; Hardtke, Christian S
2016-05-01
The long-standing Acid Growth Theory of plant cell elongation posits that auxin promotes cell elongation by stimulating cell wall acidification and thus expansin action. To date, the paucity of pertinent genetic materials has precluded thorough analysis of the importance of this concept in roots. The recent isolation of mutants of the model grass species Brachypodium distachyon with dramatically enhanced root cell elongation due to increased cellular auxin levels has allowed us to address this question. We found that the primary transcriptomic effect associated with elevated steady state auxin concentration in elongating root cells is upregulation of cell wall remodeling factors, notably expansins, while plant hormone signaling pathways maintain remarkable homeostasis. These changes are specifically accompanied by reduced cell wall arabinogalactan complexity but not by increased proton excretion. On the contrary, we observed a tendency for decreased rather than increased proton extrusion from root elongation zones with higher cellular auxin levels. Moreover, similar to Brachypodium, root cell elongation is, in general, robustly buffered against external pH fluctuation in Arabidopsis thaliana However, forced acidification through artificial proton pump activation inhibits root cell elongation. Thus, the interplay between auxin, proton pump activation, and expansin action may be more flexible in roots than in shoots. PMID:27169463
Strain-dependent cross-bridge cycle for muscle. II. Steady-state behavior.
Smith, D A; Geeves, M A
1995-01-01
Quantitative predictions of steady-state muscle properties from the strain-dependent cross-bridge for muscle are presented. With a stiffness of 5.4 x 10(-4) N/m per head, a throw distance of 11 nm, and three allowed actin sites/head, isometric properties and their dependence on phosphate and nucleotide levels are well described if the tension-generating step occurs before phosphate release. At very low ATP levels, rigorlike states with negative strain are predicted. The rate-limiting step for cycling and ATP consumption is strain-blocked ADP release for isometric and slowly shortening muscle. Under rapid shortening, ATP hydrolysis on detached heads is the rate-limiting step, and the ratio of bound ATP to bound ADP.Pi increases by a factor of 7. At large positive strains, bound heads must be forcibly detached from actin to account for tension in rapid extension, but forced detachment in shortening has no effect without destroying isometric attached states. Strain-blocked phosphate release as proposed produces modest inhibition of the ATPase rate under rapid shortening, sufficient to give a maximum for one actin site per helix turn. Alternative cross-bridge models are discussed in the light of these predictions. PMID:8527668
The Effects of High Steady State Auxin Levels on Root Cell Elongation in Brachypodium[OPEN
Pacheco-Villalobos, David; Tamaki, Takayuki; Gujas, Bojan; Jaspert, Nina; Oecking, Claudia; Bulone, Vincent; Hardtke, Christian S.
2016-01-01
The long-standing Acid Growth Theory of plant cell elongation posits that auxin promotes cell elongation by stimulating cell wall acidification and thus expansin action. To date, the paucity of pertinent genetic materials has precluded thorough analysis of the importance of this concept in roots. The recent isolation of mutants of the model grass species Brachypodium distachyon with dramatically enhanced root cell elongation due to increased cellular auxin levels has allowed us to address this question. We found that the primary transcriptomic effect associated with elevated steady state auxin concentration in elongating root cells is upregulation of cell wall remodeling factors, notably expansins, while plant hormone signaling pathways maintain remarkable homeostasis. These changes are specifically accompanied by reduced cell wall arabinogalactan complexity but not by increased proton excretion. On the contrary, we observed a tendency for decreased rather than increased proton extrusion from root elongation zones with higher cellular auxin levels. Moreover, similar to Brachypodium, root cell elongation is, in general, robustly buffered against external pH fluctuation in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, forced acidification through artificial proton pump activation inhibits root cell elongation. Thus, the interplay between auxin, proton pump activation, and expansin action may be more flexible in roots than in shoots. PMID:27169463
Nonequilibrium steady states in the quantum XXZ spin chain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sabetta, Thiago; Misguich, Grégoire
2013-12-01
We investigate the real-time dynamics of a critical spin-1/2 chain (XXZ model) prepared in an inhomogeneous initial state with different magnetizations on the left and right halves. Using the time-evolving block decimation method, we follow the front propagation by measuring the magnetization and entanglement entropy profiles. At long times, as in the free fermion case [Antal , Phys. Rev. E1063-651X10.1103/PhysRevE.59.4912 59, 4912 (1999)], a large central region develops where correlations become time independent and translation invariant. The shape and speed of the fronts is studied numerically and we evaluate the stationary current as a function of initial magnetic field and as a function of the anisotropy Δ. We compare the results with the conductance of a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid, and with the exact free-fermion solution at Δ=0. We also investigate the two-point correlations in the stationary region and find a good agreement with the “twisted” form obtained by Lancaster and Mitra [Phys. Rev. EPLEEE81539-375510.1103/PhysRevE.81.061134 81, 061134 (2010)] using bosonization. Some deviations are nevertheless observed for strong currents.
Inhibition of tumor cell growth by Sigma1 ligand mediated translational repression
Kim, Felix J.; Schrock, Joel M.; Spino, Christina M.; Marino, Jacqueline C.; Pasternak, Gavril W.
2012-09-21
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sigma1 ligand treatment mediates decrease in tumor cell mass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of a Sigma1 ligand with reversible translational repressor actions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demonstration of a role for Sigma1 in cellular protein synthesis. -- Abstract: Treatment with sigma1 receptor (Sigma1) ligands can inhibit cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. However, the cellular pathways engaged in response to Sigma1 ligand treatment that contribute to these outcomes remain largely undefined. Here, we show that treatment with putative antagonists of Sigma1 decreases cell mass. This effect corresponds with repressed cap-dependent translation initiation in multiple breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Sigma1 antagonist treatment suppresses phosphorylation of translational regulator proteins p70S6K, S6, and 4E-BP1. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Sigma1 also results in translational repression, consistent with the effects of antagonist treatment. Sigma1 antagonist mediated translational repression and decreased cell size are both reversible. Together, these data reveal a role for Sigma1 in tumor cell protein synthesis, and demonstrate that small molecule Sigma1 ligands can be used as modulators of protein translation.
Steady-state 2. pi. pulses under conditions of passive locking of laser modes
Komarov, K.P.; Ugozhaev, V.D.
1984-06-01
A theoretical study is made of laser mode locking in the regime of self-induced transparency of a passive filter. It is shown that there is a solution in the form of ultrashort steady-state 2..pi.. pulses. The range of stability of this regime and its characteristics are determined. By way of example, estimates are obtained of parameters of a steady-state pulse emitted by an alexandrite laser with a potassium absorption cell.
Multiple steady states with distinct cellular metabolism in continuous culture of mammalian cells.
Europa, A F; Gambhir, A; Fu, P C; Hu, W S
2000-01-01
Mammalian cells have the ability to proliferate under different nutrient environments by utilizing different combinations of the nutrients, especially glucose and the amino acids. Under the conditions often used in in vitro cultivation, the cells consume glucose and amino acids in great excess of what is needed for making up biomass and products. They also produce large amounts of metabolites with lactate, ammonia, and some non-essential amino acids such as alanine as the most dominant ones. By controlling glucose and glutamine at low levels, cellular metabolism can be altered and can result in reduced glucose and glutamine consumption as well as in reduced metabolite formation. Using a fed-batch reactor to manipulate glucose at a low level (as compared to a typical batch culture), cell metabolism was altered to a state with substantially reduced lactate production. The culture was then switched to a continuous mode and allowed to reach a steady-state. At this steady-state, the concentrations of cells and antibody were substantially higher than a control culture that was initiated from a batch culture without first altering cellular metabolism. The lactate and other metabolite concentrations were also substantially reduced as compared to the control culture. This newly observed steady-state was achieved at the same dilution rate and feed medium as the control culture. The paths leading to the two steady-states, however, were different. These results demonstrate steady-state multiplicity. At this new steady-state, not only was glucose metabolism altered, but the metabolism of amino acids was altered as well. The amino acid metabolism in the new steady-state was more balanced, and the excretion of non-essential amino acids and ammonia was substantially lower. This approach of reaching a more desirable steady-state with higher concentrations of cells and product opens a new avenue for high-density- and high-productivity-cell culture.
Steady-state entanglement of a Bose-Einstein condensate and a nanomechanical resonator
Asjad, Muhammad; Saif, Farhan
2011-09-15
We analyze the steady-state entanglement between Bose-Einstein condensate trapped inside an optical cavity with a moving end mirror (nanomechanical resonator) driven by a single mode laser. The quantized laser field mediates the interaction between the Bose-Einstein condensate and nanomechanical resonator. In particular, we study the influence of temperature on the entanglement of the coupled system, and note that the steady-state entanglement is fragile with respect to temperature.
Theory of second-harmonic generation of molecular systems: The steady-state case
Lin, S.H.; Alden, R.G. ); Villaeys, A.A.; Pflumio, V. )
1993-10-01
In this paper, a general formalism for treating both steady-state and time-resolved second-harmonic generation for molecular systems is presented. Here, only the steady-state case will be reported. The adiabatic approximation is introduced. Four important cases, resonance-resonance, resonance--off-resonance, off-resonance--resonance, and off-resonance--off-resonance transitions, have been considered. Finally, numerical calculations of rhodamine 6G are performed to demonstrate the applications of theoretical results.
The effect of oxygen on denitrification during steady-state growth of Paracoccus halodenitrificans
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hochstein, L. I.; Betlach, M.; Kritikos, G.
1984-01-01
Steady-state cultures of Paracoccus halodenitrificans were grown anaerobically prior to establishing steady states at different concentrations of oxygen. In the absence of oxygen, nitrate-limited cultures produced dinitrogen, and as the oxygen supply increased, these cultures produced nitrous oxide, then nitrite. These changes reflected two phenomena: the inactivation of nitrous oxide reductase by oxygen and the diversion of electrons from nitrite to oxygen.
Gain in the non-steady-state free-electron laser
Wu, D.; Min, Y.
1995-09-01
The non-steady-state self-consistent equation in the linear regime of the free-electron laser (FEL) and the low gain formulas in the non-steady-state FEL are derived in this paper. It is found that due to slippage the nonuniformity effect in the longitudinal distribution of the electron beam density is dominant in the influence of the electron pulse length on the gain of the FEL. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mccafferty, Richard J; Donlon, Richard H
1955-01-01
Acceleration and steady-state performance of a tubular combustor was evaluated at two simulated altitudes with four different fuel nozzles. Temperature response lag was observed with all the nozzles. Except for rich-limit blowout, the only combustion failures observed during acceleration were with a fuel nozzle that gave an interrupted flow delivery during the acceleration. This same nozzle, because of superior fuel atomization, gave the highest steady-state combustion efficiencies.
Non-equilibrium Steady States in Kac's Model Coupled to a Thermostat
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Evans, Josephine
2016-09-01
This paper studies the existence, uniqueness and convergence to non-equilibrium steady states in Kac's model with an external coupling. We work in both Fourier distances and Wasserstein distances. Our methods work in the case where the external coupling is not a Maxwellian equilibrium. This provides an example of a non-equilibrium steady state. We also study the behaviour as the number of particles goes to infinity and show quantitative estimates on the convergence rate of the first marginal.
Steady-state ab initio laser theory for N-level lasers.
Cerjan, Alexander; Chong, Yidong; Ge, Li; Stone, A Douglas
2012-01-01
We show that Steady-state Ab initio Laser Theory (SALT) can be applied to find the stationary multimode lasing properties of an N-level laser. This is achieved by mapping the N-level rate equations to an effective two-level model of the type solved by the SALT algorithm. This mapping yields excellent agreement with more computationally demanding N-level time domain solutions for the steady state.
Zheng, Zhenzhen; Chou, Ching-Shan; Yi, Tau-Mu; Nie, Qing
2011-10-01
Cell polarization, in which substances previously uniformly distributed become asymmetric due to external or/and internal stimulation, is a fundamental process underlying cell mobility, cell division, and other polarized functions. The yeast cell S. cerevisiae has been a model system to study cell polarization. During mating, yeast cells sense shallow external spatial gradients and respond by creating steeper internal gradients of protein aligned with the external cue. The complex spatial dynamics during yeast mating polarization consists of positive feedback, degradation, global negative feedback control, and cooperative effects in protein synthesis. Understanding such complex regulations and interactions is critical to studying many important characteristics in cell polarization including signal amplification, tracking dynamic signals, and potential trade-off between achieving both objectives in a robust fashion. In this paper, we study some of these questions by analyzing several models with different spatial complexity: two compartments, three compartments, and continuum in space. The step-wise approach allows detailed characterization of properties of the steady state of the system, providing more insights for biological regulations during cell polarization. For cases without membrane diffusion, our study reveals that increasing the number of spatial compartments results in an increase in the number of steady-state solutions, in particular, the number of stable steady-state solutions, with the continuum models possessing infinitely many steady-state solutions. Through both analysis and simulations, we find that stronger positive feedback, reduced diffusion, and a shallower ligand gradient all result in more steady-state solutions, although most of these are not optimally aligned with the gradient. We explore in the different settings the relationship between the number of steady-state solutions and the extent and accuracy of the polarization. Taken together
On multiple alternating steady states induced by periodic spin phase perturbation waveforms.
Buračas, Giedrius T; Jung, Youngkyoo; Lee, Jongho; Buxton, Richard B; Wong, Eric C; Liu, Thomas T
2012-05-01
Direct measurement of neural currents by means of MRI can potentially open a high temporal resolution (10-100 ms) window applicable for monitoring dynamics of neuronal activity without loss of the high spatial resolution afforded by MRI. Previously, we have shown that the alternating balanced steady state imaging affords high sensitivity to weak periodic currents owing to its amplification of periodic spin phase perturbations. This technique, however, requires precise synchronization of such perturbations to the radiofrequency pulses. Herein, we extend alternating balanced steady state imaging to multiple balanced alternating steady states for estimation of neural current waveforms. Simulations and phantom experiments show that the off-resonance profile of the multiple alternating steady state signal carries information about the frequency content of driving waveforms. In addition, the method is less sensitive than alternating balanced steady state to precise waveform timing relative to radiofrequency pulses. Thus, multiple alternating steady state technique is potentially applicable to MR imaging of the waveforms of periodic neuronal activity.
Lei, Frede; Olsson, Lisbeth; Jørgensen, Sten Bay
2003-06-30
The steady-state behavior of a glucose-limited, aerobic, continuous cultivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK113-7D was investigated around the critical dilution rate. Oxido-reductive steady states were obtained at dilution rates up to 0.09 h(-1) lower than the critical dilution rate by operating the bioreactor as a productostat, where the dilution rate was controlled on the basis of an ethanol measurement. Thus, the experimental investigations revealed that multiple steady states exist in a region of dilution rates below the critical dilution rate. The existence of multiple steady states was attributed to two distinct physiological effects occurring when growth changed from oxidative to oxido-reductive: (i) a decrease in the efficiency of ATP production and utilization (at ethanol concentrations below 3 g/L) and (ii) repression of the oxidative metabolism (at higher ethanol concentrations). The first effect was best observed at low ethanol concentrations, where multiple steady states were observed even when no repression of the oxidative metabolism was evident, i.e., the oxidative capacity was constant. However, at higher ethanol concentrations repression of the oxidative metabolism was observed (the oxidative capacity decreased), and this resulted in a broader range of dilution rates where multiple steady states could be found.
Steady state effects in a two-pulse diffusion-weighted sequence
Zubkov, Mikhail; Stait-Gardner, Timothy; Price, William S.; Stilbs, Peter
2015-04-21
In conventional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) diffusion measurements a significant amount of experimental time is used up by magnetization recovery, serving to prevent the formation of the steady state, as in the latter case the manifestation of diffusion is modulated by multiple applications of the pulse sequence and conventional diffusion coefficient inference procedures are generally not applicable. Here, an analytical expression for diffusion-related effects in a two-pulse NMR experiment (e.g., pulsed-gradient spin echo) in the steady state mode (with repetition times less than the longitudinal relaxation time of the sample) is derived by employing a Fourier series expansion within the solution of the Bloch-Torrey equations. Considerations are given for the transition conditions between the full relaxation and the steady state experiment description. The diffusion coefficient of a polymer solution (polyethylene glycol) is measured by a two-pulse sequence in the full relaxation mode and for a range of repetition times, approaching the rapid steady state experiment. The precision of the fitting employing the presented steady state solution by far exceeds that of the conventional fitting. Additionally, numerical simulations are performed yielding results strongly supporting the proposed description of the NMR diffusion measurements in the steady state.
Farley, J R; Cryns, D F; Yang, Y H; Segel, I H
1976-07-25
The kinetic mechanism of ATP sulfurylase was established from initial velocity, product inhibition, and dead-end inhibition studies. In the forward direction, the reaction is steady state ordered, with MgATP=A, sulfate=B, MgPP1=P, and APS=Q.KmA=0.38 mM, Kia=0.71 mM, KmB=0.50 mM. Nitrate and chlorate are competive with sulfate and uncompetitive with MgATP. KiNO3-=0.25 mM; KiC1O3-= 0.15 mM. AMP and various MgATP analogs are competitive with MgATP and mixed-type inhibitors with respect to SO42-. The Ki for AMP is 0.55 mM. The reaction is rapid equilibrium ordered in the reverse direction with Kiq=0.3 to 1.0 muM and Kmp=0.65 muM. Adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) exhibits competitive substrate inhibition (KIQ=0.3 mM). The ratio Vmaxf/Vmaxr is 0.018. In the forward direction the ratio VmaxMoO42-/VmaxSO42- is 20. The Keq at pH 8.0 and 30 degrees calculated from the Haldane equation is 6 X 10(-9) to 3.3 X 10(-8) (depending on the Kiq value chosen). The experimental Keq is about 2.5 X 10(-9). The fact that Vmax/Vmaxr is about 1 million times greater than Keq is consistent with the assumed physiological role of the enzyme (APS synthesis). The mechanistic basis of the ordered binding sequence was probed by multiple inhibition analysis. Dead-end inhibitors competitive with MgATP (such as free ATP, Mg alpha,beta-methylene ATP, CrATP, and CaATP) do not induce substrate inhibition by sulfate or alter the inhibition patterns displayed by nitrate. This result suggests (but does not prove) that catalytic action on MgATP must precede the formation of the sulfate binding site. PMID:819440
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kosman, Daniel J.
2009-01-01
The steady-state is a fundamental aspect of biochemical pathways in cells; indeed, the concept of steady-state is a definition of life itself. In a simple enzyme kinetic scheme, the steady-state condition is easy to define analytically but experimentally often difficult to capture because of its evanescent quality; the initial, constant velocity…
Inhibition of rot translation by RNAIII, a key feature of agr function.
Geisinger, Edward; Adhikari, Rajan P; Jin, Ruzhong; Ross, Hope F; Novick, Richard P
2006-08-01
RNAIII is a 514 nt regulatory RNA that is the effector molecule of the staphylococcal agr quorum-sensing system, regulating a large set of virulence and other accessory genes at the level of transcription. RNAIII was discovered nearly 20 years ago and we long ago hypothesized that it would function by regulating the synthesis or activity of one or more intermediary transcription factors. We have finally confirmed this hypothesis, showing that Staphylococcus aureus RNAIII regulates the synthesis of a major pleiotropic transcription factor, Rot, by blocking its translation. RNAIII has a complex secondary structure with several stable hairpins that have highly C-rich end loops, unusual in an AT-rich organism. We noted that these loops are complementary to two G-rich stem loops of the rot mRNA translation initiation region (TIR). Pairing of the complementary RNAs would be predicted to occlude the rot Shine-Dalgarno (SD) site and to block rot translation. Through a combination of transcriptional and translational fusions and Northern and Western blot hybridization analyses, we show that RNAIII does, indeed, block rot translation. Through alterations in the C-rich loops of RNAIII and the G-rich loops of rot, we show that the sequences of these loops are critical for inhibition of rot translation and suggest that this inhibition is affected by pairing between the complementary stem loops, followed by the cleavage of rot mRNA. We propose that the RNAIII-rot mRNA interaction plays a key role in agr regulation of staphylococcal virulence.
Translated chemical reaction networks.
Johnston, Matthew D
2014-05-01
Many biochemical and industrial applications involve complicated networks of simultaneously occurring chemical reactions. Under the assumption of mass action kinetics, the dynamics of these chemical reaction networks are governed by systems of polynomial ordinary differential equations. The steady states of these mass action systems have been analyzed via a variety of techniques, including stoichiometric network analysis, deficiency theory, and algebraic techniques (e.g., Gröbner bases). In this paper, we present a novel method for characterizing the steady states of mass action systems. Our method explicitly links a network's capacity to permit a particular class of steady states, called toric steady states, to topological properties of a generalized network called a translated chemical reaction network. These networks share their reaction vectors with their source network but are permitted to have different complex stoichiometries and different network topologies. We apply the results to examples drawn from the biochemical literature.
Lili, Wan; Cheng, Guo; Zhiyong, Zhou; Qi, Yu; Yan, Li; Dan, Li; Xueli, Zheng; Yuan, Zhong
2013-09-01
The aim of the present study was to elucidate the differences in the plasma concentration of two enantiomers of donepezil in Chinese patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and investigate in vitro stereoselective metabolism and transport. Donepezil enantiomers were separated and determined by LC-MS/MS using D5-donepezil as an internal standard on a Sepax Chiralomix SB-5 column. In vitro stereoselective metabolism and transport of donepezil were investigated in human liver microsomes and MDCKII-MDR1 cell monolayer. Pre-dose (Css-min) plasma concentrations were determined in 52 patients. The mean plasma level of (R)-donepezil was 14.94 ng/ml and that of (S)-donepezil was 23.37 ng/ml. One patient's plasma concentration of (R)-donepezil was higher than (S)-donepezil and the ratio is 1.51. The mean plasma levels of (S)-donepezil were found to be higher than those of (R)-donepezil in 51 patients and the ratio of plasma (R)- to (S)-donepezil varies from 0.34 to 0.85. In the in vitro microsomal system, (R)-donepezil degraded faster than (S)-donepezil. V(max) of (R)-donepezil was significantly higher than (S)-donepezil. The P-gp inhibition experiment shown that the P(app) of the two enantiomers was higher than 200 and the efflux ratios were 1.11 and 0.99. The results of the P-gp inhibition identification experiment showed IC50 values of 35.5 and 20.4 μM, respectively, for the two enantiomers. The results indicate that donepezil exhibits stereoselective hepatic metabolism that may explain the differences in the steady-state plasma concentrations observed. Neither (R)- nor (S)-donepezil was a P-gp substance and the two enantiomers are highly permeable through the blood-brain barrier.
Translation control during prolonged mTORC1 inhibition mediated by 4E-BP3
Tsukumo, Yoshinori; Alain, Tommy; Fonseca, Bruno D.; Nadon, Robert; Sonenberg, Nahum
2016-01-01
Targeting mTORC1 is a highly promising strategy in cancer therapy. Suppression of mTORC1 activity leads to rapid dephosphorylation of eIF4E-binding proteins (4E-BP1–3) and subsequent inhibition of mRNA translation. However, how the different 4E-BPs affect translation during prolonged use of mTOR inhibitors is not known. Here we show that the expression of 4E-BP3, but not that of 4E-BP1 or 4E-BP2, is transcriptionally induced during prolonged mTORC1 inhibition in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, our data reveal that 4E-BP3 expression is controlled by the transcription factor TFE3 through a cis-regulatory element in the EIF4EBP3 gene promoter. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated EIF4EBP3 gene disruption in human cancer cells mitigated the inhibition of translation and proliferation caused by prolonged treatment with mTOR inhibitors. Our findings show that 4E-BP3 is an important effector of mTORC1 and a robust predictive biomarker of therapeutic response to prolonged treatment with mTOR-targeting drugs in cancer. PMID:27319316
HIV-1 Vif binds to APOBEC3G mRNA and inhibits its translation.
Mercenne, Gaëlle; Bernacchi, Serena; Richer, Delphine; Bec, Guillaume; Henriet, Simon; Paillart, Jean-Christophe; Marquet, Roland
2010-01-01
The HIV-1 viral infectivity factor (Vif) allows productive infection of non-permissive cells (including most natural HIV-1 targets) by counteracting the cellular cytosine deaminases APOBEC-3G (hA3G) and hA3F. The Vif-induced degradation of these restriction factors by the proteasome has been extensively studied, but little is known about the translational repression of hA3G and hA3F by Vif, which has also been proposed to participate in Vif function. Here, we studied Vif binding to hA3G mRNA and its role in translational repression. Filter binding assays and fluorescence titration curves revealed that Vif tightly binds to hA3G mRNA. Vif overall binding affinity was higher for the 3'UTR than for the 5'UTR, even though this region contained at least one high affinity Vif binding site (apparent K(d) = 27 +/- 6 nM). Several Vif binding sites were identified in 5' and 3'UTRs using RNase footprinting. In vitro translation evidenced that Vif inhibited hA3G translation by two mechanisms: a main time-independent process requiring the 5'UTR and an additional time-dependent, UTR-independent process. Results using a Vif protein mutated in the multimerization domain suggested that the molecular mechanism of translational control is more complicated than a simple physical blockage of scanning ribosomes.
Hong, Changki; Hwang, Jeewon; Cho, Kwang-Hyun; Shin, Insik
2015-01-01
Boolean networks have been widely used to model biological processes lacking detailed kinetic information. Despite their simplicity, Boolean network dynamics can still capture some important features of biological systems such as stable cell phenotypes represented by steady states. For small models, steady states can be determined through exhaustive enumeration of all state transitions. As the number of nodes increases, however, the state space grows exponentially thus making it difficult to find steady states. Over the last several decades, many studies have addressed how to handle such a state space explosion. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to a satisfiability solving algorithm due to its potential scalability to handle large networks. Meanwhile, there still lies a problem in the case of large models with high maximum node connectivity where the satisfiability solving algorithm is known to be computationally intractable. To address the problem, this paper presents a new partitioning-based method that breaks down a given network into smaller subnetworks. Steady states of each subnetworks are identified by independently applying the satisfiability solving algorithm. Then, they are combined to construct the steady states of the overall network. To efficiently apply the satisfiability solving algorithm to each subnetwork, it is crucial to find the best partition of the network. In this paper, we propose a method that divides each subnetwork to be smallest in size and lowest in maximum node connectivity. This minimizes the total cost of finding all steady states in entire subnetworks. The proposed algorithm is compared with others for steady states identification through a number of simulations on both published small models and randomly generated large models with differing maximum node connectivities. The simulation results show that our method can scale up to several hundreds of nodes even for Boolean networks with high maximum node connectivity. The
2014-01-01
Background A key problem in the analysis of mathematical models of molecular networks is the determination of their steady states. The present paper addresses this problem for Boolean network models, an increasingly popular modeling paradigm for networks lacking detailed kinetic information. For small models, the problem can be solved by exhaustive enumeration of all state transitions. But for larger models this is not feasible, since the size of the phase space grows exponentially with the dimension of the network. The dimension of published models is growing to over 100, so that efficient methods for steady state determination are essential. Several methods have been proposed for large networks, some of them heuristic. While these methods represent a substantial improvement in scalability over exhaustive enumeration, the problem for large networks is still unsolved in general. Results This paper presents an algorithm that consists of two main parts. The first is a graph theoretic reduction of the wiring diagram of the network, while preserving all information about steady states. The second part formulates the determination of all steady states of a Boolean network as a problem of finding all solutions to a system of polynomial equations over the finite number system with two elements. This problem can be solved with existing computer algebra software. This algorithm compares favorably with several existing algorithms for steady state determination. One advantage is that it is not heuristic or reliant on sampling, but rather determines algorithmically and exactly all steady states of a Boolean network. The code for the algorithm, as well as the test suite of benchmark networks, is available upon request from the corresponding author. Conclusions The algorithm presented in this paper reliably determines all steady states of sparse Boolean networks with up to 1000 nodes. The algorithm is effective at analyzing virtually all published models even those of moderate
Hong, Changki; Hwang, Jeewon; Cho, Kwang-Hyun; Shin, Insik
2015-01-01
Boolean networks have been widely used to model biological processes lacking detailed kinetic information. Despite their simplicity, Boolean network dynamics can still capture some important features of biological systems such as stable cell phenotypes represented by steady states. For small models, steady states can be determined through exhaustive enumeration of all state transitions. As the number of nodes increases, however, the state space grows exponentially thus making it difficult to find steady states. Over the last several decades, many studies have addressed how to handle such a state space explosion. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to a satisfiability solving algorithm due to its potential scalability to handle large networks. Meanwhile, there still lies a problem in the case of large models with high maximum node connectivity where the satisfiability solving algorithm is known to be computationally intractable. To address the problem, this paper presents a new partitioning-based method that breaks down a given network into smaller subnetworks. Steady states of each subnetworks are identified by independently applying the satisfiability solving algorithm. Then, they are combined to construct the steady states of the overall network. To efficiently apply the satisfiability solving algorithm to each subnetwork, it is crucial to find the best partition of the network. In this paper, we propose a method that divides each subnetwork to be smallest in size and lowest in maximum node connectivity. This minimizes the total cost of finding all steady states in entire subnetworks. The proposed algorithm is compared with others for steady states identification through a number of simulations on both published small models and randomly generated large models with differing maximum node connectivities. The simulation results show that our method can scale up to several hundreds of nodes even for Boolean networks with high maximum node connectivity. The
Type I and Type II Interferons Inhibit the Translation of Murine Norovirus Proteins▿
Changotra, Harish; Jia, Yali; Moore, Tara N.; Liu, Guangliang; Kahan, Shannon M.; Sosnovtsev, Stanislav V.; Karst, Stephanie M.
2009-01-01
Human noroviruses are responsible for more than 95% of nonbacterial epidemic gastroenteritis worldwide. Both onset and resolution of disease symptoms are rapid, suggesting that components of the innate immune response are critical in norovirus control. While the study of the human noroviruses has been hampered by the lack of small animal and tissue culture systems, our recent discovery of a murine norovirus (MNV) and its in vitro propagation have allowed us to begin addressing norovirus replication strategies and immune responses to norovirus infection. We have previously demonstrated that interferon responses are critical to control MNV-1 infection in vivo and to directly inhibit viral replication in vitro. We now extend these studies to define the molecular basis for interferon-mediated inhibition. Viral replication intermediates were not detected in permissive cells pretreated with type I interferon after either infection or transfection of virion-associated RNA, demonstrating a very early block to virion production that is after virus entry and uncoating. A similar absence of viral replication intermediates was observed in infected primary macrophages and dendritic cells pretreated with type I IFN. This was not due to degradation of incoming genomes in interferon-pretreated cells since similar levels of genomes were present in untreated and pretreated cells through 6 h of infection, and these genomes retained their integrity. Surprisingly, this block to the translation of viral proteins was not dependent on the well-characterized interferon-induced antiviral molecule PKR. Similar results were observed in cells pretreated with type II interferon, except that the inhibition of viral translation was dependent on PKR. Thus, both type I and type II interferon signaling inhibit norovirus translation in permissive myeloid cells, but they display distinct dependence on PKR for this inhibition. PMID:19297466
McLaren, David G; Previs, Stephen F; Phair, Robert D; Stout, Steven J; Xie, Dan; Chen, Ying; Salituro, Gino M; Xu, Suoyu S; Castro-Perez, Jose M; Opiteck, Gregory J; Akinsanya, Karen O; Cleary, Michele A; Dansky, Hayes M; Johns, Douglas G; Roddy, Thomas P
2016-03-01
Studies in lipoprotein kinetics almost exclusively rely on steady-state approaches to modeling. Herein, we have used a non-steady-state experimental design to examine the role of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) in mediating HDL-TG flux in vivo in rhesus macaques, and therefore, we developed an alternative strategy to model the data. Two isotopomers ([(2)H11] and [(13)C18]) of oleic acid were administered (orally and intravenously, respectively) to serve as precursors for labeling TGs in apoB-containing lipoproteins. The flux of a specific TG (52:2) from these donor lipoproteins to HDL was used as the measure of CETP activity; calculations are also presented to estimate total HDL-TG flux. Based on our data, we estimate that the peak total postprandial TG flux to HDL via CETP is ∼ 13 mg · h(-1) · kg(-1) and show that this transfer was inhibited by 97% following anacetrapib treatment. Collectively, these data demonstrate that HDL TG flux can be used as a measure of CETP activity in vivo. The fact that the donor lipoproteins can be labeled in situ using well-established stable isotope tracer techniques suggests ways to measure this activity for native lipoproteins in free-living subjects under any physiological conditions.
Dynamic evolution of initial instability during non-steady-state growth.
Dong, Zhibo; Zheng, Wenjian; Wei, Yanhong; Song, Kuijing
2014-06-01
Dynamic evolution of initial instability is investigated by an analytic model obtained by modifying the theory of Warren and Langer [Phys. Rev. E 47, 2702 (1993)] and the quantitative phase-field model in directional solidification under transient conditions for realistic parameters of a dilute alloy. The evolutions of tip velocity and concentration in the liquid side of the interface predicted by the analytic model agree very well with that from the phase-field simulation in the linear growth stage of the non-steady-state growth, indicating that the model could be used as a convenient method to study the initial instability during non-steady-state growth. The influences of non-steady-state conditions which include the increasing rate of pulling speed and temperature gradient at the onset of initial instability are investigated, and we find that, the initial instability seems to depend strongly on the non-steady-state conditions and the non-steady-state history, and thus, it should be primarily considered in the study of the transient growth.
Dynamic evolution of initial instability during non-steady-state growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Zhibo; Zheng, Wenjian; Wei, Yanhong; Song, Kuijing
2014-06-01
Dynamic evolution of initial instability is investigated by an analytic model obtained by modifying the theory of Warren and Langer [Phys. Rev. E 47, 2702 (1993), 10.1103/PhysRevE.47.2702] and the quantitative phase-field model in directional solidification under transient conditions for realistic parameters of a dilute alloy. The evolutions of tip velocity and concentration in the liquid side of the interface predicted by the analytic model agree very well with that from the phase-field simulation in the linear growth stage of the non-steady-state growth, indicating that the model could be used as a convenient method to study the initial instability during non-steady-state growth. The influences of non-steady-state conditions which include the increasing rate of pulling speed and temperature gradient at the onset of initial instability are investigated, and we find that, the initial instability seems to depend strongly on the non-steady-state conditions and the non-steady-state history, and thus, it should be primarily considered in the study of the transient growth.
Perception of steady-state vowels and vowelless syllables by adults and children
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nittrouer, Susan
2005-04-01
Vowels can be produced as long, isolated, and steady-state, but that is not how they are found in natural speech. Instead natural speech consists of almost continuously changing (i.e., dynamic) acoustic forms from which mature listeners recover underlying phonetic form. Some theories suggest that children need steady-state information to recognize vowels (and so learn vowel systems), even though that information is sparse in natural speech. The current study examined whether young children can recover vowel targets from dynamic forms, or whether they need steady-state information. Vowel recognition was measured for adults and children (3, 5, and 7 years) for natural productions of /dæd/, /dUd/ /æ/, /U/ edited to make six stimulus sets: three dynamic (whole syllables; syllables with middle 50-percent replaced by cough; syllables with all but the first and last three pitch periods replaced by cough), and three steady-state (natural, isolated vowels; reiterated pitch periods from those vowels; reiterated pitch periods from the syllables). Adults scored nearly perfectly on all but first/last three pitch period stimuli. Children performed nearly perfectly only when the entire syllable was heard, and performed similarly (near 80%) for all other stimuli. Consequently, children need dynamic forms to perceive vowels; steady-state forms are not preferred.
Halász, Adám M; Lai, Hong-Jian; McCabe Pryor, Meghan; Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Edwards, Jeremy S
2013-01-01
True steady states are a rare occurrence in living organisms, yet their knowledge is essential for quasi-steady-state approximations, multistability analysis, and other important tools in the investigation of chemical reaction networks (CRN) used to describe molecular processes on the cellular level. Here, we present an approach that can provide closed form steady-state solutions to complex systems, resulting from CRN with binary reactions and mass-action rate laws. We map the nonlinear algebraic problem of finding steady states onto a linear problem in a higher-dimensional space. We show that the linearized version of the steady-state equations obeys the linear conservation laws of the original CRN. We identify two classes of problems for which complete, minimally parameterized solutions may be obtained using only the machinery of linear systems and a judicious choice of the variables used as free parameters. We exemplify our method, providing explicit formulae, on CRN describing signal initiation of two important types of RTK receptor-ligand systems, VEGF and EGF-ErbB1.
Steady-State Model of Solar Wind Electrons and Implications for Kappa Distribution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, S.; Yoon, P. H.; Choe, G. S.
2015-12-01
The solar wind electrons are made of three or four distinct components, which are core Maxwellian background, isotropic halo, and super-halo (and sometimes, highly field-aligned strahl component which can be considered as a fourth element). A recent paper [Kim et al., ApJ, 806, 32 (2015)] puts forth a steady-state model for the solar wind electrons. The halo electrons are assumed to be in dynamical steady state with the whistler fluctuations, while the super-halo electrons maintain dynamical steady-state equilibrium with the Langmuir fluctuations, known as the quasi-thermal noise. However, the model was based upon the consideration of steady-state electron particle kinetic equation. The present paper completes the analysis by considering both the steady-state particle and wave kinetic equations. It is shown that the coupled equations enjoy two exact solutions, the Maxwellian and inverse power-law velocity distribution functions (VDFs). Kim et al. (2015) had modeled both halo and super-halo electrons by kappa VDFs. Since the kappa VDF matches the Maxwellian model for low energy and an inverse power-law for high-energy tail, the fact that exact solutions represent both aspects provides the plasma physical justification for the kappa VDF.
Synchronous machine steady-state stability analysis using an artificial neural network
Chen, C.R.; Hsu, Y.Y. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)
1991-03-01
A new type of artificial neural network is proposed for the steady-state stability analysis of a synchronous generator. In the developed artificial neutral network, those system variables which play an important role in steady-state stability such as generator outputs and power system stabilizer parameters are employed as the inputs. The output of the neural net provides the information on steady-state stability. Once the connection weights of the neural network have been learned using a set of training data derived off-line, the neural net can be applied to analyze the steady-state stability of the system time. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed neural net, steady-state stability analysis is performed on a synchronous generator connected to a large power system. It is found that the proposed neural net requires much less training time than the multilayer feedforward network with backpropagation-momentum learning algorithm. It is also concluded from the test results that correct stability assessment can be achieved by the neural network.
Analytical Solution of Steady State Equations for Chemical Reaction Networks with Bilinear Rate Laws
Halász, Ádám M.; Lai, Hong-Jian; McCabe, Meghan M.; Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Edwards, Jeremy S.
2014-01-01
True steady states are a rare occurrence in living organisms, yet their knowledge is essential for quasi-steady state approximations, multistability analysis, and other important tools in the investigation of chemical reaction networks (CRN) used to describe molecular processes on the cellular level. Here we present an approach that can provide closed form steady-state solutions to complex systems, resulting from CRN with binary reactions and mass-action rate laws. We map the nonlinear algebraic problem of finding steady states onto a linear problem in a higher dimensional space. We show that the linearized version of the steady state equations obeys the linear conservation laws of the original CRN. We identify two classes of problems for which complete, minimally parameterized solutions may be obtained using only the machinery of linear systems and a judicious choice of the variables used as free parameters. We exemplify our method, providing explicit formulae, on CRN describing signal initiation of two important types of RTK receptor-ligand systems, VEGF and EGF-ErbB1. PMID:24334389
Steady state bifurcation of a periodically excited system under delayed feedback controls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leung, A. Y. T.; Guo, Zhongjin; Myers, Alan
2012-12-01
This paper investigates the steady state bifurcation of a periodically excited system subject to time-delayed feedback controls by the combined method of residue harmonic balance and polynomial homotopy continuation. Three kinds of delayed feedback controls are considered to examine the effects of different delayed feedback controls and delay time on the steady state response. By means of polynomial homotopy continuation, all the possible steady state solutions corresponding the third-order superharmonic and second-subharmonic responses are derived analytically, i.e. without numerical integration. It is found that the delayed feedback changes the bifurcating curves qualitatively and possibly eliminates the saddle-node bifurcation during resonant. The delayed position-velocity coupling and the delayed velocity feedback controls can destabilize the steady state responses. Coexisting periodic solutions, period-doubling bifurcation and even chaos are found in these control systems. The neighborhood of the periodic solutions is verified numerically in the phase portraits. The various effects of time delay on the steady state response are investigated. Many new phenomena are observed.
Structural basis for full-spectrum inhibition of translational functions on a tRNA synthetase
Fang, Pengfei; Yu, Xue; Jeong, Seung Jae; Mirando, Adam; Chen, Kaige; Chen, Xin; Kim, Sunghoon; Francklyn, Christopher S.; Guo, Min
2015-01-01
The polyketide natural product borrelidin displays antibacterial, antifungal, antimalarial, anticancer, insecticidal and herbicidal activities through the selective inhibition of threonyl-tRNA synthetase (ThrRS). How borrelidin simultaneously attenuates bacterial growth and suppresses a variety of infections in plants and animals is not known. Here we show, using X-ray crystal structures and functional analyses, that a single molecule of borrelidin simultaneously occupies four distinct subsites within the catalytic domain of bacterial and human ThrRSs. These include the three substrate-binding sites for amino acid, ATP and tRNA associated with aminoacylation, and a fourth ‘orthogonal’ subsite created as a consequence of binding. Thus, borrelidin competes with all three aminoacylation substrates, providing a potent and redundant mechanism to inhibit ThrRS during protein synthesis. These results highlight a surprising natural design to achieve the quadrivalent inhibition of translation through a highly conserved family of enzymes. PMID:25824639
Joseph, David; Schobelock, Michael J; Riesenberg, Robert R; Vince, Bradley D; Webster, Lynn R; Adeniji, Abidemi; Elgadi, Mabrouk; Huang, Fenglei
2015-01-01
The effects of steady-state faldaprevir on the safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of steady-state methadone and buprenorphine-naloxone were assessed in 34 healthy male and female subjects receiving stable addiction management therapy. Subjects continued receiving a stable oral dose of either methadone (up to a maximum dose of 180 mg per day) or buprenorphine-naloxone (up to a maximum dose of 24 mg-6 mg per day) and also received oral faldaprevir (240 mg) once daily (QD) for 8 days following a 480-mg loading dose. Serial blood samples were taken for pharmacokinetic analysis. The pharmacodynamics of the opioid maintenance regimens were evaluated by the objective and subjective opioid withdrawal scales. Coadministration of faldaprevir with methadone or buprenorphine-naloxone resulted in geometric mean ratios for the steady-state area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC(0-24,ss)), the steady-state maximum concentration of the drug in plasma (C(max,ss)), and the steady-state concentration of the drug in plasma at 24 h (C(24,ss)) of 0.92 to 1.18 for (R)-methadone, (S)-methadone, buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, and naloxone, with 90% confidence intervals including, or very close to including, 1.00 (no effect), suggesting a limited overall effect of faldaprevir. Although individual data showed moderate variability in the exposures between subjects and treatments, there was no evidence of symptoms of opiate overdose or withdrawal either during the coadministration of faldaprevir with methadone or buprenorphine-naloxone or after faldaprevir dosing was stopped. Similar faldaprevir exposures were observed in the methadone- and buprenorphine-naloxone-treated subjects. In conclusion, faldaprevir at 240 mg QD can be coadministered with methadone or buprenorphine-naloxone without dose adjustment, although given the relatively narrow therapeutic windows of these agents, monitoring for opiate overdose and withdrawal may still be appropriate. (This
Joseph, David; Schobelock, Michael J.; Riesenberg, Robert R.; Vince, Bradley D.; Webster, Lynn R.; Adeniji, Abidemi; Elgadi, Mabrouk
2014-01-01
The effects of steady-state faldaprevir on the safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of steady-state methadone and buprenorphine-naloxone were assessed in 34 healthy male and female subjects receiving stable addiction management therapy. Subjects continued receiving a stable oral dose of either methadone (up to a maximum dose of 180 mg per day) or buprenorphine-naloxone (up to a maximum dose of 24 mg-6 mg per day) and also received oral faldaprevir (240 mg) once daily (QD) for 8 days following a 480-mg loading dose. Serial blood samples were taken for pharmacokinetic analysis. The pharmacodynamics of the opioid maintenance regimens were evaluated by the objective and subjective opioid withdrawal scales. Coadministration of faldaprevir with methadone or buprenorphine-naloxone resulted in geometric mean ratios for the steady-state area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0–24,ss), the steady-state maximum concentration of the drug in plasma (Cmax,ss), and the steady-state concentration of the drug in plasma at 24 h (C24,ss) of 0.92 to 1.18 for (R)-methadone, (S)-methadone, buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, and naloxone, with 90% confidence intervals including, or very close to including, 1.00 (no effect), suggesting a limited overall effect of faldaprevir. Although individual data showed moderate variability in the exposures between subjects and treatments, there was no evidence of symptoms of opiate overdose or withdrawal either during the coadministration of faldaprevir with methadone or buprenorphine-naloxone or after faldaprevir dosing was stopped. Similar faldaprevir exposures were observed in the methadone- and buprenorphine-naloxone-treated subjects. In conclusion, faldaprevir at 240 mg QD can be coadministered with methadone or buprenorphine-naloxone without dose adjustment, although given the relatively narrow therapeutic windows of these agents, monitoring for opiate overdose and withdrawal may still be appropriate. (This study
Kozak, M
1989-01-01
This paper describes in vitro experiments with two types of intramolecular duplex structures that inhibit translation in cis by preventing the formation of an initiation complex or by causing the complex to be abortive. One stem-loop structure (delta G = -30 kcal/mol) prevented mRNA from engaging 40S subunits when the hairpin occurred 12 nucleotides (nt) from the cap but had no deleterious effect when it was repositioned 52 nt from the cap. This result confirms prior in vivo evidence that the 40S subunit-factor complex, once bound to mRNA, has considerable ability to penetrate secondary structure. Consequently, translation is most sensitive to secondary structure at the entry site for ribosomes, i.e., the 5' end of the mRNA. The second stem-loop structure (hp7; delta G = -61 kcal/mol, located 72 nt from the cap) was too stable to be unwound by 40S ribosomes, hp7 did not prevent a 40S ribosomal subunit from binding but caused the 40S subunit to stall on the 5' side of the hairpin, exactly as the scanning model predicts. Control experiments revealed that 80S elongating ribosomes could disrupt duplex structures, such as hp7, that were too stable to be penetrated by the scanning 40S ribosome-factor complex. A third type of base-paired structure shown to inhibit translation in vivo involves a long-range interaction between the 5' and 3' noncoding sequences. Images PMID:2601712
Stochastic theory of nonequilibrium steady states. Part II: Applications in chemical biophysics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, Hao; Qian, Min; Qian, Hong
2012-01-01
The mathematical theory of nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) has a natural application in open biochemical systems which have sustained source(s) and sink(s) in terms of a difference in their chemical potentials. After a brief introduction in Section 1, in Part II of this review, we present the widely studied biochemical enzyme kinetics, the workhorse of biochemical dynamic modeling, in terms of the theory of NESS (Section 2.1). We then show that several phenomena in enzyme kinetics, including a newly discovered activation-inhibition switching (Section 2.2) and the well-known non-Michaelis-Menten-cooperativity (Section 2.3) and kinetic proofreading (Section 2.4), are all consequences of the NESS of driven biochemical systems with associated cycle fluxes. Section 3 is focused on nonlinear and nonequilibrium systems of biochemical reactions. We use the phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle (PdPC), one of the most important biochemical signaling networks, as an example (Section 3.1). It starts with a brief introduction of the Delbrück-Gillespie process approach to mesoscopic biochemical kinetics (Sections 3.2 and 3.3). We shall discuss the zeroth-order ultrasensitivity of PdPC in terms of a new concept - the temporal cooperativity (Sections 3.4 and 3.5), as well as PdPC with feedback which leads to biochemical nonlinear bistability (Section 3.6). Also, both are nonequilibrium phenomena. PdPC with a nonlinear feedback is kinetically isomorphic to a self-regulating gene expression network, hence the theory of NESS discussed here could have wide applications to many other biochemical systems.
Current Control in ITER Steady State Plasmas With Neutral Beam Steering
R.V. Budny
2009-09-10
Predictions of quasi steady state DT plasmas in ITER are generated using the PTRANSP code. The plasma temperatures, densities, boundary shape, and total current (9 - 10 MA) anticipated for ITER steady state plasmas are specified. Current drive by negative ion neutral beam injection, lower-hybrid, and electron cyclotron resonance are calculated. Four modes of operation with different combinations of current drive are studied. For each mode, scans with the NNBI aimed at differing heights in the plasma are performed to study effects of current control on the q profile. The timeevolution of the currents and q are calculated to evaluate long duration transients. Quasi steady state, strongly reversed q profiles are predicted for some beam injection angles if the current drive and bootstrap currents are sufficiently large.
Pre-Steady-State Kinetic Analysis of Single-Nucleotide Incorporation by DNA Polymerases.
Su, Yan; Peter Guengerich, F
2016-06-01
Pre-steady-state kinetic analysis is a powerful and widely used method to obtain multiple kinetic parameters. This protocol provides a step-by-step procedure for pre-steady-state kinetic analysis of single-nucleotide incorporation by a DNA polymerase. It describes the experimental details of DNA substrate annealing, reaction mixture preparation, handling of the RQF-3 rapid quench-flow instrument, denaturing polyacrylamide DNA gel preparation, electrophoresis, quantitation, and data analysis. The core and unique part of this protocol is the rationale for preparation of the reaction mixture (the ratio of the polymerase to the DNA substrate) and methods for conducting pre-steady-state assays on an RQF-3 rapid quench-flow instrument, as well as data interpretation after analysis. In addition, the methods for the DNA substrate annealing and DNA polyacrylamide gel preparation, electrophoresis, quantitation and analysis are suitable for use in other studies. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Steady-state two-atom entanglement in a pumped cavity
Nihira, Hideomi; Stroud, C. R. Jr.
2009-10-15
In this paper we explore the possibility of a steady-state entanglement of two two-level atoms inside a pumped cavity by taking into account cavity leakage and the spontaneous emission of photons by the atoms. We describe the system in the dressed state picture in which the coherence is built into the dressed states while transitions between the dressed states are incoherent. Our model assumes the vacuum Rabi splitting of the dressed states to be much larger than any of the decay parameters of the system which allows atom-field coherence to build up before any decay process takes over. We show that, under our model, a pumping field cannot entangle two closed two-level atoms inside the cavity in the steady-state, but a steady-state entanglement can be achieved with two open two-level atoms.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Or, D.; Aminzadeh, M.; Roderick, M. L.
2015-12-01
The definition of potential evaporation remains widely debated despite its centrality for hydrologic and climatic models. We employed an analytical pore-scale representation of evaporation from porous surfaces to define potential evaporation using a hypothetical steady-state reference temperature for air and evaporating surface. The feedback between drying land surfaces and overlaying air properties is implicitly incorporated in the hypothetical steady-state where the sensible heat flux vanishes and available energy is consumed by evaporation. Potential evaporation based on steady-state surface temperature was in surprisingly good agreement with class A pan evaporation measurements suggesting that pan evaporation occurs with negligible sensible heat flux. The model facilitates a new analytical generalization of the asymmetric complementary relationship across a wide range of meteorological conditions with good agreement between measured and predicted actual evaporation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mu, Baojie; Li, Yaoyu; Seem, John E.
2016-08-01
A major class of extremum seeking control (ESC) is based on the use of periodic dither perturbation of plant input for extracting the gradient information. Presence of the dither input into the steady state operation is undesirable in practice due to the possible excessive wear of actuators. It is thus beneficial to stop the dithering action after the ESC reaches its steady state. In this paper, we propose a method for automatically discriminating between the steady state and the transient state modes of extremum seeking control process using the sinusoidal detection techniques. Some design guidelines are proposed for the parameter selection of the relevant sinusoidal detection scheme. The proposed scheme is validated with simulation study on dynamic virtual plant of two building HVAC systems.
Equilibrium and Steady State of Dense Z-Pinches Superposing a Small Amount of Axial Flux
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashimoto, Mitsuhiro; Miyamoto, Tetsu
2016-07-01
The pressure equilibrium and steady state of z-pinches trapping a small amount of axial magnetic flux are studied. The Bennett relation and the Pease-Braginskii-current are modified, taking into account the superposed axial field. The line energy density decreases in the modified Bennett relation, but the decrease is only of the order ɛ2, where ɛ = (the axial field strength at the axis)/(the azimuthal field strength at the plasma periphery) ≪ 1. On the other hand, the current in the steady state can increase without being limited by the Pease-Braginskii-current. Hence, the radiation collapse is prevented. The decrease of line energy density in the modified Bennett relation is almost canceled in the steady state.
Analytical and experimental study of steady-state convection in a double-loop thermosyphon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sen, Mihir; Pruzan, D. A.; Torrance, K. E.
1988-04-01
Steady-state natural convection in a toroidal loop with a heated diametrical branch and cooled side branches is studied. The loop is rotated to vary the tilt angle of the diametral branch. A one-dimensional analysis provides the fluid velocities and temperature distributions in the loop. The effects of axial conduction are examined. With increasing tilt from the vertical, the fluid in the lower side branch slows down and reverses. The flow through the central branch increases and the main return path is through the upper side branch. For small tilt angles around the horizontal, multiple steady states exist. Comparison experiments on a water-filled glass loop are in qualitative agreement with the analysis and multiple steady states are observed.
Doyon, Benjamin
2007-08-17
We develop a new perturbative method for studying any steady states of quantum impurities, in or out of equilibrium. We show that steady-state averages are completely fixed by basic properties of the steady-state (Hershfield's) density matrix along with dynamical "impurity conditions." This gives the full perturbative expansion without Feynman diagrams (matrix products instead are used), and "resums" into an equilibrium average that may lend itself to numerical procedures. We calculate the universal current in the interacting resonant level model (IRLM) at finite bias V to first order in Coulomb repulsion U for all V and temperatures. We find that the bias, like the temperature, cuts off low-energy processes. In the IRLM, this implies a power-law decay of the current at large V (also recently observed by Boulat and Saleur at some finite value of U).
Casimir effect in the nonequilibrium steady state of a quantum spin chain
Gonzalez-Cabrera, D. L.; Racz, Z.
2010-05-15
We present a fully microscopics-based calculation of the Casimir effect in a nonequilibrium system, namely, an energy-flux-driven quantum XX chain. The force between the walls (transverse-field impurities) is calculated in a nonequilibrium steady state which is prepared by letting the system evolve from an initial state with the two halves of the chain prepared at equilibrium at different temperatures. The steady state emerging in the large-time limit is homogeneous but carries an energy flux. The Casimir force in this nonequilibrium state is calculated analytically in the limit when the transverse fields are small. We find that the the Casimir force range is reduced compared to the equilibrium case, and suggest that the reason for this is the reduction of fluctuations in the flux-carrying steady state.
The steady-state visual evoked potential in vision research: A review
Norcia, Anthony M.; Appelbaum, L. Gregory; Ales, Justin M.; Cottereau, Benoit R.; Rossion, Bruno
2015-01-01
Periodic visual stimulation and analysis of the resulting steady-state visual evoked potentials were first introduced over 80 years ago as a means to study visual sensation and perception. From the first single-channel recording of responses to modulated light to the present use of sophisticated digital displays composed of complex visual stimuli and high-density recording arrays, steady-state methods have been applied in a broad range of scientific and applied settings.The purpose of this article is to describe the fundamental stimulation paradigms for steady-state visual evoked potentials and to illustrate these principles through research findings across a range of applications in vision science. PMID:26024451
Steady-State Density Functional Theory for Non-equilibrium Quantum Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shuanglong, Liu
Recently, electron transport properties of molecular junctions under finite bias voltages have attracted a lot of attention because of the potential application of molecular electronic devices. When a molecular junction is under zero bias voltage at zero temperature, it is in equilibrium ground state and all its properties can be solved by ground-state density functional theory (GS-DFT) where ground-state electron density determines everything. Under finite bias voltage, the molecular junction is in non-equilibrium steady state. According to Hershfield's non-equilibrium statistics, a system in non-equilibrium steady state corresponds to an effective equilibrium system. This correspondence provides the basis for the steady-state density functional theory (SS-DFT) which will be developed in this thesis. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).
Mechanism of Non-Steady State Dissolution of Goethite in the Presence of Siderophores
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reichard, P. U.; Kretzschmar, R.; Kraemer, S. M.
2003-12-01
Iron is an essential micronutrient for almost all known organisms. Bacteria, fungi, and graminaceous plants are capable of exuding siderophores as part of an iron acquisition strategy. The production of these strong iron chelating ligands is induced by iron limited conditions. Grasses under iron stress, for example, exude phytosiderophores into the rhizosphere in a special diurnal rhythm (Roemheld and Marschner 1986). A few hours after sunrise the exudation starts, culminates around noon and is shut down again until about 4 hours after noon. The phytosiderophores diffuse into the rhizosphere (Marschner et al. 1986) and are passively back transported to the plants by advective flow induced by high transpiration around noon. Despite a fairly short residence time of the phytosiderophores in the rhizosphere, it is a very effective strategy for iron acquisition. To investigate the effect of such pulse inputs of siderophores on iron acquisition, we studied the dissolution mechanism of goethite (alpha-FeOOH), a mineral phase common in soils, under non-steady state conditions. In consideration of the chemical complexity of the rhizosphere, we also investigated the effect of other organic ligands commonly found in the rhizosphere (e. g. oxalate) on the dissolution kinetics. The dissolution experiments were conducted in batch reactors with a constant goethite solids concentration of 2.5 g/l, an ionic strength of 0.01 M, a pH of 6 and 100 microM oxalate. To induce non-steady state conditions, 3 mM phytosiderophores were added to a batch after the goethite-oxalate suspension reacted for a certain time period. Before the siderophore was added to the goethite-oxalate suspension, no dissolution of iron was observed. But, with the addition of the siderophore, a high rate was observed for the iron mobilization under these non-steady state conditions that subsequently was followed by a slow steady state dissolution rate. The results of these non-steady state experiments are very
Steady-state solutions of a diffusive energy-balance climate model and their stability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghil, M.
1975-01-01
A diffusive energy-balance climate model, governed by a nonlinear parabolic partial differential equation, was studied. Three positive steady-state solutions of this equation are found; they correspond to three possible climates of our planet: an interglacial (nearly identical to the present climate), a glacial, and a completely ice-covered earth. Models similar to the main one are considered, and the number of their steady states was determined. All the models have albedo continuously varying with latitude and temperature, and entirely diffusive horizontal heat transfer. The stability under small perturbations of the main model's climates was investigated. A stability criterion is derived, and its application shows that the present climate and the deep freeze are stable, whereas the model's glacial is unstable. The dependence was examined of the number of steady states and of their stability on the average solar radiation.
Wang, Qian; Li, Bincheng
2015-09-28
Spatially resolved steady-state photocarrier radiometric (PCR) imaging technique is developed to characterize the electronic transport properties of silicon wafers. Based on a nonlinear PCR theory, simulations are performed to investigate the effects of electronic transport parameters (the carrier lifetime, the carrier diffusion coefficient, and the front surface recombination velocity) on the steady-state PCR intensity profiles. The electronic transport parameters of an n-type silicon wafer are simultaneously determined by fitting the measured steady-state PCR intensity profiles to the three-dimensional nonlinear PCR model. The determined transport parameters are in good agreement with the results obtained by the conventional modulated PCR technique with multiple pump beam radii.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, C.; Tang, Y.; Liang, S.; Ren, L.; Wang, Z.; Xu, Y.
This paper presents the electromagnetic analysis of a high voltage saturated-core superconducting fault current limiter (SCSFCL). The numerical analyses of a three-dimensional (3D) model is shown, and the specific parameters are given. The model focus on the steady-state impedance of the limiter when connected to the power grid. It analyzed the dependence of steady-state impedance on the AC coil current, and the relationship between oil gap and coil inductance. The results suggest that, adding oil gap between slice of silicon steel can reduce the core cross-section, restrain the ultraharmonic and decrease the steady-state impedance. As the core cross-section of AC limb decreased from 4344 cm2 to 3983 cm2, the total harmonic distortion for voltage decreased from 2.4% to 1.8%, and the impedance decreased from 1.082 Ω to 1.069 Ω(Idc=400A,Iac=1296A).
Coherent Quantum Dynamics in Steady-State Manifolds of Strongly Dissipative Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zanardi, Paolo; Campos Venuti, Lorenzo
2014-12-01
Recently, it has been realized that dissipative processes can be harnessed and exploited to the end of coherent quantum control and information processing. In this spirit, we consider strongly dissipative quantum systems admitting a nontrivial manifold of steady states. We show how one can enact adiabatic coherent unitary manipulations, e.g., quantum logical gates, inside this steady-state manifold by adding a weak, time-rescaled, Hamiltonian term into the system's Liouvillian. The effective long-time dynamics is governed by a projected Hamiltonian which results from the interplay between the weak unitary control and the fast relaxation process. The leakage outside the steady-state manifold entailed by the Hamiltonian term is suppressed by an environment-induced symmetrization of the dynamics. We present applications to quantum-computation in decoherence-free subspaces and noiseless subsystems and numerical analysis of nonadiabatic errors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, Hao; Qian, Hong
2009-10-01
We show that the thermodynamic limit of a bistable phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle has a selection rule for the “more stable” macroscopic steady state. The analysis is akin to the Maxwell construction. Based on the chemical master equation approach, it is shown that, except at a critical point, bistability disappears in the stochastic model when fluctuation is sufficiently low but unneglectable. Onsager’s Gaussian fluctuation theory applies to the unique macroscopic steady state. With an initial state in the basin of attraction of the “less stable” steady state, the deterministic dynamics obtained by the law of mass action is a metastable phenomenon. Stability and robustness in cell biology are emergent stochastic concepts.
On the accuracy of limiters and convergence to steady state solutions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Venkatakrishnan, V.
1993-01-01
This paper addresses the practical problem of obtaining convergence to steady state solutions when limiters are used in conjunction with upwind schemes on unstructured grids. The base scheme forms a gradient and limits it by imposing monotonicity conditions in the reconstruction stage. It is shown by analysis in one dimension that such an approach leads to various schemes meeting TVD requirements in one dimension. It is further shown that these formally second order accurate schemes are less than second order accurate in practice because of the action of the limiter function in smooth regions of the solution. Modifications are proposed to the limiter that restore the second order accuracy. In multiple dimensions these schemes produce steady state solutions that are monotone and devoid of oscillations. However, convergence stalls after a few orders of reduction in the residual. With the modified limiter, on the other hand, it is shown that converged steady state solutions can be obtained.
Is the effect of tinnitus on auditory steady-state response amplitude mediated by attention?
Diesch, Eugen; Andermann, Martin; Rupp, Andre
2012-01-01
Objectives: Auditory steady-state response (ASSR) amplitude enhancement effects have been reported in tinnitus patients. As ASSR amplitude is also enhanced by attention, the effect of tinnitus on ASSR amplitude could be interpreted as an effect of attention mediated by tinnitus. As N1 attention effects are significantly larger than those on the ASSR, if the effect of tinnitus on ASSR amplitude were due to attention, there should be similar amplitude enhancement effects in tinnitus for the N1 component of the auditory-evoked response. Methods: MEG recordings which were previously examined for the ASSR (Diesch et al., 2010a) were analyzed with respect to the N1m component. Like the ASSR previously, the N1m was analyzed in the source domain (source space projection). Stimuli were amplitude-modulated (AM) tones with one of three carrier frequencies matching the tinnitus frequency or a surrogate frequency 1½ octave above the audiometric edge frequency in controls, the audiometric edge frequency, and a frequency below the audiometric edge. Single AM-tones were presented in a single condition and superpositions of three AM-tones differing in carrier and modulation frequency in a composite condition. Results: In the earlier ASSR study (Diesch et al., 2010a), the ASSR amplitude in tinnitus patients, but not in controls, was significantly larger in the (surrogate) tinnitus condition than in the edge condition. Patients showed less evidence than controls of reciprocal inhibition of component ASSR responses in the composite condition. In the present study, N1m amplitudes elicited by stimuli located at the audiometric edge and at the (surrogate) tinnitus frequency were smaller than N1m amplitudes elicited by sub-edge tones both in patients and controls. The relationship of the N1m response in the composite condition to the N1m response in the single condition indicated that reciprocal inhibition among component N1m responses was reduced in patients compared against controls
Mass transport in salt repositories: Steady-state transport through interbeds
Hwang, Y.; Lee, W.W.-L.; Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)
1989-03-01
Salt has long been a candidate for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. Because salt is extremely soluble in water, the existence of rock salt in the ground atest to the long-term stability of the salt. Both bedded salt and salt domes have been considered for nuclear waste disposal in the United States and Europe. While the salt is known to be quite pure in salt domes, bedded salt is interlaced with beds of sediments. Traditionally rock salt has not been considered water-conducting, but sediments layers would be classical porous media, capable of conducting water. Therefore there is interest in determining whether interbeds in bedded salt constitute pathway for radionuclide migration. In this report we consider steady-state migration of radionuclides from a single waste cylinder into a single interbed. Two approaches are used. In 1982 Neretnieks proposed an approach for calculating the steady-state transport of oxidants to a copper container. We have adapted that approach for calculating steady-state radionuclide migration away from the waste package, as a first approximation. We have also analyzed the problem of time-dependent radionuclide diffusion from a container through a backfill layer into a fracture, and we used the steady-state solution from that problem for comparison. Section 2 gives a brief summary of the geology of interbeds in bedded salt. Section 3 presents the mass transfer resistances approach of Neretnieks, summarizing the formulation and giving numerical illustrations of the steady-state two-dimensional diffusion analysis. Section 4 gives a brief statement of the steady-state result from a related analysis. Conclusions are stated in Section 5. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.
Metabolic and ventilatory responses to steady state exercise relative to lactate thresholds.
Ribeiro, J P; Hughes, V; Fielding, R A; Holden, W; Evans, W; Knuttgen, H G
1986-01-01
The metabolic and ventilatory responses to steady state submaximal exercise on the cycle ergometer were compared at four intensities in 8 healthy subjects. The trials were performed so that, after a 10 min adaptation period, power output was adjusted to maintain steady state VO2 for 30 min at values equivalent to: (1) the aerobic threshold (AeT); (2) between the aerobic and the anaerobic threshold (AeTAnT); (3) the anaerobic threshold (AnT); and (4) between the anaerobic threshold and VO2max (AnTmax). Blood lactate concentration and ventilatory equivalents for O2 and CO2 demonstrated steady state values during the last 20 min of exercise at the AeT, AeAnT and AnT intensities, but increased progressively until fatigue in the AnTmax trial (mean time = 16 min). Serum glycerol levels were significantly higher at 40 min of exercise on the AeAnT and the AnT when compared to AeT, while the respiratory exchange ratios were not significantly different from each other. Thus, metabolic and ventilatory steady state can be maintained during prolonged exercise at intensities up to and including the AnT, and fat continues to be a major fuel source when exercise intensities are increased from the AeT to the AnT in steady state conditions. The blood lactate response to exercise suggests that, for the organism as a whole, anaerobic glycolysis plays a minor role in the energy release system at exercise intensities upt to and including the AnT during steady state conditions.
Foster, Carl; Farland, Courtney V.; Guidotti, Flavia; Harbin, Michelle; Roberts, Brianna; Schuette, Jeff; Tuuri, Andrew; Doberstein, Scott T.; Porcari, John P.
2015-01-01
High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT). Tabata (n = 21) completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15) completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min) @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. Results: There were significant (p < 0.05) increases in VO2max (+19, +18 and +18%) and PPO (+17, +24 and +14%) for each training group, as well as significant increases in peak (+8, + 9 and +5%) & mean (+4, +7 and +6%) power during Wingate testing, but no significant differences between groups. Measures of the enjoyment of the training program indicated that the Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p < 0.05) than the steady state and Meyer protocols, and that the enjoyment of all protocols declined (p < 0.05) across the duration of the study. The results suggest that although HIIT protocols are time efficient, they are not superior to conventional exercise training in sedentary young adults. Key points Steady state training equivalent to HIIT in untrained students Mild interval training presents very similar physiologic challenge compared to steady state training HIIT (particularly very high intensity variants were less enjoyable than steady state or mild interval training Enjoyment of training decreases across the course of an 8 week experimental training program PMID:26664271
Dynamic modeling and sensitivity analysis of dAFM in the transient and steady state motions.
Payam, Amir Farokh
2016-10-01
In this paper, based on the slow time varying function theory, dynamical equations for the amplitude and phase of the dynamic atomic force microscope are derived. Then, the sensitivity of the amplitude and phase to the dissipative and conservative parts of interaction force is investigated. The most advantage of this dynamical model is the ability to simulate and analysis the dynamics behavior of amplitude and phase of the AFM tip motion not only in the steady state but also in the transient regime. Using numerical analysis the transient and steady state behavior of amplitude and phase is studied and the sensitivity of amplitude and phase to the interaction force is analyzed. PMID:27448201
SUPERENERGY-2: a multiassembly, steady-state computer code for LMFBR core thermal-hydraulic analysis
Basehore, K.L.; Todreas, N.E.
1980-08-01
Core thermal-hydraulic design and performance analyses for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) require repeated detailed multiassembly calculations to determine radial temperature profiles and subchannel outlet temperatures for various core configurations and subassembly structural analyses. At steady-state, detailed core-wide temperature profiles are required for core restraint calculations and subassembly structural analysis. In addition, sodium outlet temperatures are routinely needed for each reactor operating cycle. The SUPERENERGY-2 thermal-hydraulic code was designed specifically to meet these designer needs. It is applicable only to steady-state, forced-convection flow in LMFBR core geometries.
Switching from stable to unknown unstable steady states of dynamical systems.
Tamasevicius, Arūnas; Tamaseviciūte, Elena; Mykolaitis, Gytis; Bumeliene, Skaidra
2008-08-01
We demonstrate that a dynamical system can be switched from a stable steady state to a previously unknown unstable (saddle) steady state using proportional feedback coupling to an auxiliary unstable system. The simplest one-dimensional nonlinear model is treated analytically, the more complicated two-dimensional pendulum is considered numerically, while the damped Duffing-Holmes oscillator is investigated analytically, numerically, and experimentally. Experiments have been performed using a simplified version of the electronic Young-Silva circuit imitating the dynamical behavior of the Duffing-Holmes system. The physical mechanism behind the switching effect is discussed. PMID:18850919
Phase Space Analysis of a Gravitationally-Induced, Steady-State Nonequilibrium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheehan, D. P.; Glick, J.; Duncan, T.; Langton, J. A.; Gagliardi, M.; Tobe, R.
Recently a new type of pressure gradient was introduced, a gravitationally-induced, dynamically-maintained, steady-state pressure gradient (GDSPG) [D. P. Sheehan and J. Glick, Physica Scripta 61, 635 (2000)]. In this paper, three dimensional numerical test particle simulations detail its phase space structure. These verify the underlying physical mechanism originally hypothesized for its operation and support key assumptions upon which it is based. The GDSPG appears to be a member of a more general class of steady-state nonequilibrium systems that arise under extreme thermodynamic conditions [D. P. Sheehan, Phys. Rev. E57, 6660 (1998)].
S3C: EBT Steady-State Shooting code description and user's guide
Downum, W.B.
1983-09-01
The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) one-dimensional (1-D) Steady-State Shooting code (S3C) for ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) plasmas is described. Benchmark calculations finding the steady-state density and electron and ion temperature profiles for a known neutral density profile and known external energy sources are carried out. Good agreement is obtained with results from the ORNL Radially Resolved Time Dependent 1-D Transport code for an EBT-Q type reactor. The program logic is described, along with the physics models in each code block and the variable names used. Sample input and output files are listed, along with the main code.
Transient brain activity explains the spectral content of steady-state visual evoked potentials.
Gaume, Antoine; Vialatte, François; Dreyfus, Gérard
2014-01-01
Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) are widely used in the design of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). A lot of effort has therefore been devoted to find a fast and reliable way to detect SSVEPs. We study the link between transient and steady-state VEPs and show that it is possible to predict the spectral content of a subject's SSVEPs by simulating trains of transient VEPs. This could lead to a better understanding of evoked potentials as well as to better performances of SSVEP-based BCIs, by providing a tool to improve SSVEP detection algorithms.
A quaternionic map for the steady states of the Heisenberg spin-chain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehta, Mitaxi P.; Dutta, Souvik; Tiwari, Shubhanshu
2014-01-01
We show that the steady states of the classical Heisenberg XXX spin-chain in an external magnetic field can be found by iterations of a quaternionic map. A restricted model, e.g., the xy spin-chain is known to have spatially chaotic steady states and the phase space occupied by these chaotic states is known to go through discrete changes as the field strength is varied. The same phenomenon is studied for the xxx spin-chain. It is seen that in this model the phase space volume varies smoothly with the external field.
Global stability of steady states in the classical Stefan problem for general boundary shapes
Hadžić, Mahir; Shkoller, Steve
2015-01-01
The classical one-phase Stefan problem (without surface tension) allows for a continuum of steady-state solutions, given by an arbitrary (but sufficiently smooth) domain together with zero temperature. We prove global-in-time stability of such steady states, assuming a sufficient degree of smoothness on the initial domain, but without any a priori restriction on the convexity properties of the initial shape. This is an extension of our previous result (Hadžić & Shkoller 2014 Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 68, 689–757 (doi:10.1002/cpa.21522)) in which we studied nearly spherical shapes. PMID:26261359
Hinks, Jamie; Edwards, Stephen; Sallis, Paul J; Caldwell, Gary S
2013-09-01
Methane production by anaerobic digestion (AD) of macroalgae (seaweed) is a promising algal bioenergy option. Work presented here is primarily based on the AD of Laminaria hyperborea using batch and continuously stirred tank reactors. Extrapolation of data from batch studies to long term continuous reactors was unreliable. A conservative organic loading rate (OLR) of 1 g L(-1) d(-1) was used due to difficulties experienced in achieving steady state performance at an OLR of 1.5 g L(-1) d(-1). Biogas composition and methane yields (60-70%) were near to values expected from terrestrial feedstocks. Biomass washout, as imposed by the dilution rate (i.e., hydraulic residence), had considerable bearing on the biogas generation profile, particularly at >3 hydraulic residences. Inhibition of methanogen growth was linked to nutrient deficiency and potentially antimicrobial compounds associated with the feedstock. Anaerobic digestion of L. hyperborea proved feasible over extended operational periods. PMID:23792760
Hinks, Jamie; Edwards, Stephen; Sallis, Paul J; Caldwell, Gary S
2013-09-01
Methane production by anaerobic digestion (AD) of macroalgae (seaweed) is a promising algal bioenergy option. Work presented here is primarily based on the AD of Laminaria hyperborea using batch and continuously stirred tank reactors. Extrapolation of data from batch studies to long term continuous reactors was unreliable. A conservative organic loading rate (OLR) of 1 g L(-1) d(-1) was used due to difficulties experienced in achieving steady state performance at an OLR of 1.5 g L(-1) d(-1). Biogas composition and methane yields (60-70%) were near to values expected from terrestrial feedstocks. Biomass washout, as imposed by the dilution rate (i.e., hydraulic residence), had considerable bearing on the biogas generation profile, particularly at >3 hydraulic residences. Inhibition of methanogen growth was linked to nutrient deficiency and potentially antimicrobial compounds associated with the feedstock. Anaerobic digestion of L. hyperborea proved feasible over extended operational periods.
Devauges, Viviane; Matthews, Daniel R.; Aluko, Justin; Nedbal, Jakub; Levitt, James A.; Poland, Simon P.; Coban, Oana; Weitsman, Gregory; Monypenny, James; Ng, Tony; Ameer-Beg, Simon M.
2014-01-01
We present a novel imaging system combining total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy with measurement of steady-state acceptor fluorescence anisotropy in order to perform live cell Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) imaging at the plasma membrane. We compare directly the imaging performance of fluorescence anisotropy resolved TIRF with epifluorescence illumination. The use of high numerical aperture objective for TIRF required correction for induced depolarization factors. This arrangement enabled visualisation of conformational changes of a Raichu-Cdc42 FRET biosensor by measurement of intramolecular FRET between eGFP and mRFP1. Higher activity of the probe was found at the cell plasma membrane compared to intracellularly. Imaging fluorescence anisotropy in TIRF allowed clear differentiation of the Raichu-Cdc42 biosensor from negative control mutants. Finally, inhibition of Cdc42 was imaged dynamically in live cells, where we show temporal changes of the activity of the Raichu-Cdc42 biosensor. PMID:25360776
Targeting of substance P induces cancer cell death and decreases the steady state of EGFR and Her2.
Mayordomo, Cristina; García-Recio, Susana; Ametller, Elisabet; Fernández-Nogueira, Patricia; Pastor-Arroyo, Eva María; Vinyals, Laia; Casas, Ignasi; Gascón, Pedro; Almendro, Vanessa
2012-04-01
NK1 is a tachykinin receptor highly relevant to tumorigenesis and metastasis development in breast cancer and other carcinomas. Despite the substantial efforts done to develop potent NK1 receptor antagonists, none of these antagonists had shown good antitumor activity in clinical trials. Now, we have tested the effect of inhibition of the neuropeptide Substance P (SP), a NK1 ligand, as a potential therapeutic approach in cancer. We found that the inhibition of SP with antibodies strongly inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in breast, colon, and prostate cancer cell lines. These effects were accompained by a decrease in the mitogen-activated kinase singaling pathway. Interestingly, in some cell lines SP abrogation decreased the steady state of Her2 and EGFR, suggesting that SP-mediated signaling is important for the basal activity of these ErbB receptors. In consequence, we observed a blockade of the cell cycle progression and the inhibition of several cell cycle-related proteins including mTOR. SP inhibition also induced cell death in cell lines resistant to Lapatinib and Trastuzumab that have increased levels of active Her2, suggesting that this therapeutic approach could be also effective for those cancers resistant to current anti-ErbB therapies. Thus, we propose a new therapeutic strategy for those cancers that express NK1 receptor and/or other tachykinin receptors, based in the immuno-blockade of the neuropeptide SP.
Maitra, Dhiman; Shaeib, Faten; Abdulhamid, Ibrahim; Abdulridha, Rasha M; Saed, Ghassan M; Diamond, Michael P; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Abu-Soud, Husam M
2013-10-01
Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a heme-containing enzyme that generates hypochlorous acid (HOCl) from chloride (Cl(-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂). It is implicated in the pathology of several chronic inflammatory conditions such as cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases and cancer. Recently we have shown that HOCl can destroy the heme prosthetic group of hemoproteins. Here, we investigated whether the HOCl formed during steady-state catalysis is able to destroy the MPO heme moiety and thereby function as a major source of free iron. UV-visible spectra and H₂O₂-specific electrode measurements recorded during steady-state HOCl synthesis by MPO showed that the degree of MPO heme destruction increased after multiple additions of H₂O₂ (10 µM), precluding the enzyme from functioning at maximum activity (80-90% inhibition). MPO heme destruction occurred only in the presence of Cl(-). Stopped-flow measurements revealed that the HOCl-mediated MPO heme destruction was complex and occurred through transient ferric species whose formation and decay kinetics indicated it participates in heme destruction along with subsequent free iron release. MPO heme depletion was confirmed by the buildup of free iron utilizing the ferrozine assay. Hypochlorous acid, once generated, first equilibrates in the solution as a whole before binding to the heme iron and initiating heme destruction. Eliminating HOCl from the MPO milieu by scavenging HOCl, destabilizing the MPO-Compound I-Cl complex that could be formed during catalysis, and/or inhibiting MPO catalytic activity partially or completely protects MPO from HOCl insults. Collectively, this study elucidates the bidirectional relationship between MPO and HOCl, which highlights the potential role of MPO as a source of free iron.
Peterson, Tabitha A; Stamnes, Mark
2013-03-01
Protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε) contributes to multiple signaling pathways affecting human disease. The function of PKCε requires it to undergo changes in subcellular distribution in response to signaling events. While the mechanisms underlying this translocation are incompletely understood, it involves the receptor for activated C kinase protein (RACK2/β'-COP). This receptor also functions as a vesicle coat protein in the secretory pathway where it is regulated by the small GTP-binding protein ADP-ribosylation factor, ARF1. We inhibited ARF1 activation to test the requirement for RACK2/β'-COP in PKCε localization in NIH3T3 fibroblasts. We found that steady-state localization of PKCε at the Golgi complex requires ARF1-regulated RACK2/β'-COP function. By contrast, we did not observe any defects in phorbol ester-induced translocation when ARF1 was inhibited. We also found that PKCε bound to isolated membranes through two distinct mechanisms. One mechanism was dependent upon RACK2/β'-COP while a second was RACK2/β'-COP-independent and stimulated by phorbol esters. Finally, we show that RACK2/β'-COP affects the subcellular distribution of a constitutively active form of PKCε, in a manner similar to what we observed for wild-type PKCε. Together, our data support a role for RACK2/β'-COP in the steady-state localization of PKCε at the Golgi apparatus, which may be independent of its role during PKCε translocation to the cell surface.
Marissen, Wilfred E.; Lloyd, Richard E.
1998-01-01
Although much is known about the multiple mechanisms which induce apoptosis, comparatively little is understood concerning the execution phase of apoptosis and the mechanism(s) of cell killing. Several reports have demonstrated that cellular translation is shut off during apoptosis; however, details of the mechanism of translation inhibition are lacking. Translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) is a crucial protein required for binding cellular mRNA to ribosomes and is known to be cleaved as the central part of the mechanism of host translation shutoff exerted by several animal viruses. Treatment of HeLa cells with the apoptosis inducers cisplatin and etoposide resulted in cleavage of eIF4G, and the extent of its cleavage correlated with the onset and extent of observed inhibition of cellular translation. The eIF4G-specific cleavage activity could be measured in cell lysates in vitro and was inhibited by the caspase inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO at nanomolar concentrations. A combination of in vivo and in vitro inhibitor studies suggest the involvement of one or more caspases in the activation and execution of eIF4G cleavage. Furthermore recombinant human caspase 3 was expressed in bacteria, and when incubated with HeLa cell lysates, was shown to produce the same eIF4G cleavage products as those observed in apoptotic cells. In addition, purified caspase 3 caused cleavage of purified eIF4G, demonstrating that eIF4G could serve as a substrate for caspase 3. Taken together, these data suggest that cellular translation is specifically inhibited during apoptosis by a mechanism involving cleavage of eIF4G, an event dependent on caspase activity. PMID:9819442
Yates, J L; Arfsten, A E; Nomura, M
1980-01-01
Escherichia coli ribosomal protein L1 (0.5 micro M) was found to inhibit the synthesis of both proteins of the L11 operon, L11 and L1, but not the synthesis of other proteins directed by lambda rifd 18 DNA. Similarly, S4 (1 micro M) selectively inhibited the synthesis of three proteins of the alpha operon, S13, S11, and S4, directed by lambda spcI DNA or a restriction enzyme fragment obtained from this DNA. S8 (3.6 micro M) also showed preferential inhibitory effects on the synthesis of some proteins encoded in the spc operon, L24 and L5 (and probably S14 and S8), directed by lambda spcl DNA or a restriction enzyme fragment carrying the genes for these proteins. The inhibitory effect of L1 was observed only with L1 and not with other proteins examined, including S4 and S8. Similarly, the effect of S4 was not observed with L1 or S8, and that of S8 was not seen with L1 or S4. Inhibition was shown to take place at the level of translation rather than transcription. Thus, at least some ribosomal proteins (L1 S4, and S8) have the ability to cause selective translational inhibition of the synthesis of certain ribosomal proteins whose genes are in the same operon as their own. These results support the hypothesis that certain free ribosomal proteins not assembled into ribosomes act as "autogenous" feedback inhibitors to regulate the synthesis of ribosomal proteins. Images PMID:6445562
Steady-State Fluorescence Anisotropy to Investigate Flavonoids Binding to Proteins
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ingersoll, Christine M.; Strollo, Christen M.
2007-01-01
The steady-state fluorescence anisotropy is employed to study the binding of protein of a model protein, human serum albumin, to a commonly used flavonoid, quercetin. The experiment describes the thermodynamics, as well as the biochemical interactions of such binding effectively.
HU, T.A.
2004-10-27
Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using the rate equation model. Flammability calculations based on hydrogen, ammonia, and methane were performed for 177 tanks for various scenarios.
HU, T.A.
2001-02-23
Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. Hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using rate equation model. Ammonia liquid/vapor equilibrium model is incorporated into the methodology for ammonia analysis.
User's instructions for the 41-node thermoregulatory model (steady state version)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Leonard, J. I.
1974-01-01
A user's guide for the steady-state thermoregulatory model is presented. The model was modified to provide conversational interaction on a remote terminal, greater flexibility for parameter estimation, increased efficiency of convergence, greater choice of output variable and more realistic equations for respiratory and skin diffusion water losses.
Proteome analysis of the Escherichia coli heat shock response under steady-state conditions
Lüders, Svenja; Fallet, Claas; Franco-Lara, Ezequiel
2009-01-01
In this study a proteomic approach was used to investigate the steady-state response of Escherichia coli to temperature up-shifts in a cascade of two continuously operated bioreactors. The first reactor served as cell source with optimal settings for microbial growth, while in the second chemostat the cells were exposed to elevated temperatures. By using this reactor configuration, which has not been reported to be used for the study of bacterial stress responses so far, it is possible to study temperature stress under well-defined, steady-state conditions. Specifically the effect on the cellular adaption to temperature stress using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was examined and compared at the cultivation temperatures of 37°C and 47.5°C. As expected, the steady-state study with the double bioreactor configuration delivered a different protein spectrum compared to that obtained with standard batch experiments in shaking flasks and bioreactors. Setting a high cut-out spot-to-spot size ratio of 5, proteins involved in defence against oxygen stress, functional cell envelope proteins, chaperones and proteins involved in protein biosynthesis, the energy metabolism and the amino acid biosynthesis were found to be differently expressed at high cultivation temperatures. The results demonstrate the complexity of the stress response in a steady-state culture not reported elsewhere to date. PMID:19772559
Molecular control of steady-state dendritic cell maturation and immune homeostasis.
Hammer, Gianna Elena; Ma, Averil
2013-01-01
Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized sentinels responsible for coordinating adaptive immunity. This function is dependent upon coupled sensitivity to environmental signs of inflammation and infection to cellular maturation-the programmed alteration of DC phenotype and function to enhance immune cell activation. Although DCs are thus well equipped to respond to pathogens, maturation triggers are not unique to infection. Given that immune cells are exquisitely sensitive to the biological functions of DCs, we now appreciate that multiple layers of suppression are required to restrict the environmental sensitivity, cellular maturation, and even life span of DCs to prevent aberrant immune activation during the steady state. At the same time, steady-state DCs are not quiescent but rather perform key functions that support homeostasis of numerous cell types. Here we review these functions and molecular mechanisms of suppression that control steady-state DC maturation. Corruption of these steady-state operatives has diverse immunological consequences and pinpoints DCs as potent drivers of autoimmune and inflammatory disease.
Dissipative production of a maximally entangled steady state of two quantum bits.
Lin, Y; Gaebler, J P; Reiter, F; Tan, T R; Bowler, R; Sørensen, A S; Leibfried, D; Wineland, D J
2013-12-19
Entangled states are a key resource in fundamental quantum physics, quantum cryptography and quantum computation. Introduction of controlled unitary processes--quantum gates--to a quantum system has so far been the most widely used method to create entanglement deterministically. These processes require high-fidelity state preparation and minimization of the decoherence that inevitably arises from coupling between the system and the environment, and imperfect control of the system parameters. Here we combine unitary processes with engineered dissipation to deterministically produce and stabilize an approximate Bell state of two trapped-ion quantum bits (qubits), independent of their initial states. Compared with previous studies that involved dissipative entanglement of atomic ensembles or the application of sequences of multiple time-dependent gates to trapped ions, we implement our combined process using trapped-ion qubits in a continuous time-independent fashion (analogous to optical pumping of atomic states). By continuously driving the system towards the steady state, entanglement is stabilized even in the presence of experimental noise and decoherence. Our demonstration of an entangled steady state of two qubits represents a step towards dissipative state engineering, dissipative quantum computation and dissipative phase transitions. Following this approach, engineered coupling to the environment may be applied to a broad range of experimental systems to achieve desired quantum dynamics or steady states. Indeed, concurrently with this work, an entangled steady state of two superconducting qubits was demonstrated using dissipation.
40 CFR 86.1362-2010 - Steady-state testing with a ramped-modal cycle.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... Transition Linear Transition. 14 Steady-state 168 Warm Idle 0 1 Speed terms are defined in 40 CFR part 1065... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES... described in 40 CFR 1065.650 and cycle statistics as described in 40 CFR 1065.514. (b) Measure emissions...
40 CFR 86.1362-2007 - Steady-state testing with a ramped-modal cycle.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES... in 40 CFR 1065.650 and cycle statistics as described in 40 CFR 1065.514. (b) Measure emissions by... Torque(percent) 2,3 1a Steady-state 170 Warm Idle 0 1b Transition 20 Linear Transition Linear...
HU, T.A.
2000-04-27
This work is to assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions in the tank dome space for 177 double-shell and single-shell tanks at Hanford. Hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using rate equation model developed recently.
Steady-State Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Bupropion Extended-Release In Youths
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Daviss, W. Burleson; Perel, James M.; Birmaher, Boris; Rudolph, George R.; Melhem, Imad; Axelson, David A.; Brent, David A.
2006-01-01
Objective: To examine in children and adolescents the 24-hour, steady-state clinical pharmacokinetics of an extended-release (XL) formulation of bupropion (Wellbutrin XL). Method: Subjects were six male and four female patients (ages 11.5-16.2 years) prescribed bupropion XL in morning daily doses of either 150 mg (n = 5) or 300 mg (n = 5) for at…
Analysis of steady state creep of southeastern New Mexico bedded salt
Herrmann, W.; Wawersik, W.R.; Lauson, H.S.
1980-03-01
Steady state creep rates have been obtained from a large suite of existing experimental creep data relating to bedded rock salt from the Salado formation of S.E. New Mexico. Experimental conditions covered an intermediate temperature range from 22/sup 0/C to 200/sup 0/C, and shear stresses from 1000 psi (7 MPa) to 6000 psi (31 MPa). An expression, based on a single diffusion controlled dislocation climb mechanism, has been found to fit the observed dependence of steady state creep rate on shear stress and temperature, yielding an activation energy of 12 kcal/mole (50 kJ/mole) and a stress exponent of 4.9. Multiple regression analysis revealed a dependence on stratigraphy, but no statistically significant dependence on pressure of specimen size. No consistent dilatancy or compaction associated with steady state creep was found, although some individual specimens dilated or compacted during creep. The steady state creep data were found to agree very well with creep data for both bedded and dome salt from a variety of other locations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sellers, J. F.; Daniele, C. J.
1975-01-01
The DYNGEN, a digital computer program for analyzing the steady state and transient performance of turbojet and turbofan engines, is described. The DYNGEN is based on earlier computer codes (SMOTE, GENENG, and GENENG 2) which are capable of calculating the steady state performance of turbojet and turbofan engines at design and off-design operating conditions. The DYNGEN has the combined capabilities of GENENG and GENENG 2 for calculating steady state performance; to these the further capability for calculating transient performance was added. The DYNGEN can be used to analyze one- and two-spool turbojet engines or two- and three-spool turbofan engines without modification to the basic program. A modified Euler method is used by DYNGEN to solve the differential equations which model the dynamics of the engine. This new method frees the programmer from having to minimize the number of equations which require iterative solution. As a result, some of the approximations normally used in transient engine simulations can be eliminated. This tends to produce better agreement when answers are compared with those from purely steady state simulations. The modified Euler method also permits the user to specify large time steps (about 0.10 sec) to be used in the solution of the differential equations. This saves computer execution time when long transients are run. Examples of the use of the program are included, and program results are compared with those from an existing hybrid-computer simulation of a two-spool turbofan.
HU TA
2009-10-26
Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using the rate equation model. Flammability calculations based on hydrogen, ammonia, and methane were performed for 177 tanks for various scenarios.
Dissipative production of a maximally entangled steady state of two quantum bits.
Lin, Y; Gaebler, J P; Reiter, F; Tan, T R; Bowler, R; Sørensen, A S; Leibfried, D; Wineland, D J
2013-12-19
Entangled states are a key resource in fundamental quantum physics, quantum cryptography and quantum computation. Introduction of controlled unitary processes--quantum gates--to a quantum system has so far been the most widely used method to create entanglement deterministically. These processes require high-fidelity state preparation and minimization of the decoherence that inevitably arises from coupling between the system and the environment, and imperfect control of the system parameters. Here we combine unitary processes with engineered dissipation to deterministically produce and stabilize an approximate Bell state of two trapped-ion quantum bits (qubits), independent of their initial states. Compared with previous studies that involved dissipative entanglement of atomic ensembles or the application of sequences of multiple time-dependent gates to trapped ions, we implement our combined process using trapped-ion qubits in a continuous time-independent fashion (analogous to optical pumping of atomic states). By continuously driving the system towards the steady state, entanglement is stabilized even in the presence of experimental noise and decoherence. Our demonstration of an entangled steady state of two qubits represents a step towards dissipative state engineering, dissipative quantum computation and dissipative phase transitions. Following this approach, engineered coupling to the environment may be applied to a broad range of experimental systems to achieve desired quantum dynamics or steady states. Indeed, concurrently with this work, an entangled steady state of two superconducting qubits was demonstrated using dissipation. PMID:24270806
System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor
Bers, Abraham
1981-01-01
A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave RF energy is injected into said plasma to estalish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected RF energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected RF energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range .DELTA.. The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width .DELTA. in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated inthe plasma.
System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor
Fisch, Nathaniel J.
1981-01-01
A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave RF energy is injected into said plasma to establish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected RF energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected RF energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range .DELTA.. The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width .DELTA. in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated in the plasma.
A general theory of kinetics and thermodynamics of steady-state copolymerization.
Shu, Yao-Gen; Song, Yong-Shun; Ou-Yang, Zhong-Can; Li, Ming
2015-06-17
Kinetics of steady-state copolymerization has been investigated since the 1940s. Irreversible terminal and penultimate models were successfully applied to a number of comonomer systems, but failed for systems where depropagation is significant. Although a general mathematical treatment of the terminal model with depropagation was established in the 1980s, a penultimate model and higher-order terminal models with depropagation have not been systematically studied, since depropagation leads to hierarchically-coupled and unclosed kinetic equations which are hard to solve analytically. In this work, we propose a truncation method to solve the steady-state kinetic equations of any-order terminal models with depropagation in a unified way, by reducing them into closed steady-state equations which give the exact solution of the original kinetic equations. Based on the steady-state equations, we also derive a general thermodynamic equality in which the Shannon entropy of the copolymer sequence is explicitly introduced as part of the free energy dissipation of the whole copolymerization system.
40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart S of... - Steady-State Short Test Standards
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Steady-State Short Test Standards C Appendix C to Subpart S of Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED.../Maintenance Program Requirements Pt. 51, Subpt. S, App. C Appendix C to Subpart S of Part...
40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart S of... - Steady-State Short Test Standards
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Steady-State Short Test Standards C Appendix C to Subpart S of Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED.../Maintenance Program Requirements Pt. 51, Subpt. S, App. C Appendix C to Subpart S of Part...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Giebler, K. N.
1966-01-01
Computer program evaluates heat transfer modes and calculates either the transient or steady-state temperature distributions throughout an object of complex shape when heat sources are applied to specified points on the object. It uses an electrothermal model to simulate the conductance, heat capacity, and temperature potential of the object.
Current Pressure Transducer Application of Model-based Prognostics Using Steady State Conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Teubert, Christopher; Daigle, Matthew J.
2014-01-01
Prognostics is the process of predicting a system's future states, health degradation/wear, and remaining useful life (RUL). This information plays an important role in preventing failure, reducing downtime, scheduling maintenance, and improving system utility. Prognostics relies heavily on wear estimation. In some components, the sensors used to estimate wear may not be fast enough to capture brief transient states that are indicative of wear. For this reason it is beneficial to be capable of detecting and estimating the extent of component wear using steady-state measurements. This paper details a method for estimating component wear using steady-state measurements, describes how this is used to predict future states, and presents a case study of a current/pressure (I/P) Transducer. I/P Transducer nominal and off-nominal behaviors are characterized using a physics-based model, and validated against expected and observed component behavior. This model is used to map observed steady-state responses to corresponding fault parameter values in the form of a lookup table. This method was chosen because of its fast, efficient nature, and its ability to be applied to both linear and non-linear systems. Using measurements of the steady state output, and the lookup table, wear is estimated. A regression is used to estimate the wear propagation parameter and characterize the damage progression function, which are used to predict future states and the remaining useful life of the system.
Exploration of ITER Steady-State Scenarios Using FASTRAN/IPS Integrated Transport Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murakami, M.; Park, J. M.; Batchelor, D. B.; Diem, S. J.; Elwasif, W. R.; Sontag, A. C.; DIII-D Team
2013-10-01
ITER steady-state (SS) scenarios are examined using an iterative steady-state (d / dt = 0) solution procedure using FASTRAN solver implemented in Integrated Plasma Simulator framework, self-consistently with heating and current drive (H&CD), MHD equilibrium, and transport models. The objective of the exercise is to understand the range of steady-state solutions using theory-based transport models with the ITER Day-1 H&CD and proposed upgrades (EC launcher modifications). ITER operation performances (fusion gain Q and noninductive fraction fNI and steady burn duration) are compared using different transport models (TGLF, GLF23, CDBM, MMM7.1) based on the edge profiles scaled from recent DIII-D ITER Steady State Demo discharges as well as from the existing pedestal models (EPED). Sensitivities of the operation spaces are studied using different density peaking and plasma current. Reducing Ip increases achievable fNI while peaking density increases Q but limited by MHD stability. Optimization of Day-1 H&CD mixes is discussed toward the ITER goal (Q = 5 and fNI = 1 for 3000 s). Work supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-AC05-00OR22725, and DE-FC02-04ER54698.
HU, T.A.
2005-10-27
Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using the rate equation model. Flammability calculations based on hydrogen, ammonia, and methane were performed for 177 tanks for various scenarios.
A Steady State Visually Evoked Potential Investigation of Memory and Ageing
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Macpherson, Helen; Pipingas, Andrew; Silberstein, Richard
2009-01-01
Old age is generally accompanied by a decline in memory performance. Specifically, neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies have revealed that there are age-related changes in the neural correlates of episodic and working memory. This study investigated age-associated changes in the steady state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) amplitude and…
ROLE OF NMDA, NICOTINIC, AND GABA RECEPTORS IN THE STEADY STATE VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIAL IN RATS.
This manuscript characterizes the receptor pathways involved in pattern-evoked potential generation in rats
" NMDA and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors appear to be involved in the generation of the steady-state pattern evoked response in vivo.
" The pattern evok...
Impurity shielding criteria for steady state hydrogen plasmas in the LHD, a heliotron-type device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakamura, Y.; Kobayashi, M.; Yoshimura, S.; Tamura, N.; Yoshinuma, M.; Tanaka, K.; Suzuki, C.; Peterson, B. J.; Sakamoto, R.; Morisaki, T.; the LHD Experiment Group
2014-07-01
Impurity behavior has so far been investigated in steady state hydrogen plasmas in the Large Helical Device, which is a heliotron-type device and excellent for steady state operation. There was always found to be an impurity accumulation window, as observed before (Nakamura et al 2002 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 44 2121, Nakamura et al 2003 Nucl. Fusion 43 219). To clarify the boundary conditions, the dependences of impurity transport on edge plasma parameters are investigated with a database of steady state hydrogen discharges, and the boundary conditions for the impurity accumulation window are discussed. It is found that two different types of impurity screening effects are essential for preventing intrinsic impurities from entering the core plasma. One of them is due to positive radial electric field at the plasma edge on the low collisionality side and the other is impurity retention caused by friction force in the ergodic layer on the high collisionality side. The classification of steady state discharges on n-T space shows that the impurity behavior can be predicted by the impurity shielding criteria based on each empirical scaling.
Analytical steady-state solutions for water-limited cropping systems using saline irrigation water
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Due to the diminishing availability of good quality water for irrigation, it is increasingly important that irrigation and salinity management tools be able to target submaximal crop yields and support the use of marginal quality waters. In this work, we present a steady-state irrigated systems mod...
TRANSIENT AND STEADY STATE STUDY OF PURE AND MIXED REFRIGERANTS IN A RESIDENTIAL HEAT PUMP
The report gives results of an experimental and theoretical investigation of the transient and steady state performance of a residential air-conditioning/heat pump (AC/HP) operating with different refrigerants. (NOTE: The project was motivated by environmental concerns related to...
Steady-state heat transfer to boiling liquid helium in simulated coil windings
Walstrom, P.L.
1981-01-01
The present data show that the worst case steady-state stability in the GE/LCT magnet windings is at a horizontal conductor orientation. The heat transfer improves with inclination of the conductor from horizontal. Calculations show that for these small regions normal zones will recover by cold-end conduction from the inclined conductor on either end.
A hybrid multigrid technique for computing steady-state solutions to supersonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sanders, Richard
1992-01-01
Recently, Li and Sanders have introduced a class of finite difference schemes to approximate generally discontinuous solutions to hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. These equations have the form together with relevant boundary conditions. When modelling hypersonic spacecraft reentry, the differential equations above are frequently given by the compressible Euler equations coupled with a nonequilibrium chemistry model. For these applications, steady state solutions are often sought. Many tens (to hundreds) of super computer hours can be devoted to a single three space dimensional simulation. The primary difficulty is the inability to rapidly and reliably capture the steady state. In these notes, we demonstrate that a particular variant from the schemes presented can be combined with a particular multigrid approach to capture steady state solutions to the compressible Euler equations in one space dimension. We show that the rate of convergence to steady state coming from this multigrid implementation is vastly superior to the traditional approach of artificial time relaxation. Moreover, we demonstrate virtual grid independence. That is, the rate of convergence does not depend on the degree of spatial grid refinement.
Steady-state BOLD Response to Higher-order Cognition Modulates Low-Frequency Neural Oscillations.
Wang, Yi-Feng; Dai, Gang-Shu; Liu, Feng; Long, Zhi-Liang; Yan, Jin H; Chen, Hua-Fu
2015-12-01
Steady-state responses (SSRs) reflect the synchronous neural oscillations evoked by noninvasive and consistently repeated stimuli at the fundamental or harmonic frequencies. The steady-state evoked potentials (SSEPs; the representative form of the SSRs) have been widely used in the cognitive and clinical neurosciences and brain-computer interface research. However, the steady-state evoked potentials have limitations in examining high-frequency neural oscillations and basic cognition. In addition, synchronous neural oscillations in the low frequency range (<1 Hz) and in higher-order cognition have received a little attention. Therefore, we examined the SSRs in the low frequency range using a new index, the steady-state BOLD responses (SSBRs) evoked by semantic stimuli. Our results revealed that the significant SSBRs were induced at the fundamental frequency of stimuli and the first harmonic in task-related regions, suggesting the enhanced variability of neural oscillations entrained by exogenous stimuli. The SSBRs were independent of neurovascular coupling and characterized by sensorimotor bias, an indication of regional-dependent neuroplasticity. Furthermore, the amplitude of SSBRs may predict behavioral performance and show the psychophysiological relevance. Our findings provide valuable insights into the understanding of the SSRs evoked by higher-order cognition and how the SSRs modulate low-frequency neural oscillations. PMID:26284992
Steady-state choice between four alternatives obeys the constant-ratio rule.
Bensemann, Joshua; Lobb, Brenda; Podlesnik, Christopher A; Elliffe, Douglas
2015-07-01
We investigated why violations to the constant-ratio rule, an assumption of the generalized matching law, occur in procedures that arrange frequent changes to reinforcer ratios. Our investigation produced steady-state data and compared them with data from equivalent, frequently changing procedures. Six pigeons responded in a four-alternative concurrent-schedule experiment with an arranged reinforcer-rate ratio of 27:9:3:1. The same four variable-interval schedules were used in every condition, for 50 sessions, and the physical location of each schedule was changed across conditions. The experiment was a steady-state version of a frequently changing procedure in which the locations of four VI schedules were changed every 10 reinforcers. We found that subjects' responding was consistent with the constant-ratio rule in the steady-state procedure. Additionally, local analyses showed that preference after reinforcement was towards the alternative that was likely to produce the next reinforcer, instead of being towards the just-reinforced alternative as in frequently changing procedures. This suggests that the effect of a reinforcer on preference is fundamentally different in rapidly changing and steady-state environments. Comparing this finding to the existing literature suggests that choice is more influenced by reinforcer-generated signals when the reinforcement contingencies often change. PMID:25989016
40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart S of... - Steady-State Short Test Standards
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steady-State Short Test Standards C Appendix C to Subpart S of Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED.../Maintenance Program Requirements Pt. 51, Subpt. S, App. C Appendix C to Subpart S of Part...
Walkway Length Determination for Steady State Walking in Young and Older Adults
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Macfarlane, Pamela A.; Looney, Marilyn A.
2008-01-01
The primary purpose of this study was to determine acceleration (AC) and deceleration (DC) distances that would accommodate young and older adults walking at their preferred and fast speeds. A secondary purpose was to determine the minimal walkway length needed to record six steady state (SS) steps (three full gait cycles) for younger and older…
Efficient Decoding With Steady-State Kalman Filter in Neural Interface Systems
Malik, Wasim Q.; Truccolo, Wilson; Brown, Emery N.; Hochberg, Leigh R.
2011-01-01
The Kalman filter is commonly used in neural interface systems to decode neural activity and estimate the desired movement kinematics. We analyze a low-complexity Kalman filter implementation in which the filter gain is approximated by its steady-state form, computed offline before real-time decoding commences. We evaluate its performance using human motor cortical spike train data obtained from an intracortical recording array as part of an ongoing pilot clinical trial. We demonstrate that the standard Kalman filter gain converges to within 95% of the steady-state filter gain in 1.5 ± 0.5 s (mean ± s.d.). The difference in the intended movement velocity decoded by the two filters vanishes within 5 s, with a correlation coefficient of 0.99 between the two decoded velocities over the session length. We also find that the steady-state Kalman filter reduces the computational load (algorithm execution time) for decoding the firing rates of 25 ± 3 single units by a factor of 7.0 ± 0.9. We expect that the gain in computational efficiency will be much higher in systems with larger neural ensembles. The steady-state filter can thus provide substantial runtime efficiency at little cost in terms of estimation accuracy. This far more efficient neural decoding approach will facilitate the practical implementation of future large-dimensional, multisignal neural interface systems. PMID:21078582
40 CFR 86.1362-2007 - Steady-state testing with a ramped-modal cycle.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... in 40 CFR 1065.650 and cycle statistics as described in 40 CFR 1065.514. (b) Measure emissions by... Steady-state 168 Warm Idle 0 1 Speed terms are defined in 40 CFR part 1065. 2 Advance from one mode to... maximum test torque. (d) (e) See 40 CFR part 1065 for detailed specifications of tolerances...
40 CFR 86.1362-2010 - Steady-state testing with a ramped-modal cycle.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 CFR part 1065 for detailed specifications of tolerances and calculations. (e) Perform the ramped... described in 40 CFR 1065.650 and cycle statistics as described in 40 CFR 1065.514. (b) Measure emissions by... Transition Linear Transition. 14 Steady-state 168 Warm Idle 0 1 Speed terms are defined in 40 CFR part...
40 CFR 86.1362 - Steady-state testing with a ramped-modal cycle.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... commanded engine speed. (b) Perform the ramped-modal test as described in 40 CFR part 1065. (c) For 2007... 40 CFR part 1065. 2 Advance from one mode to the next within a 20-second transition phase. During the... Transition. 14 Steady-state 168 Warm Idle 0. 1 Speed terms are defined in 40 CFR part 1065. 2 Advance...
40 CFR 86.1362-2007 - Steady-state testing with a ramped-modal cycle.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... in 40 CFR 1065.650 and cycle statistics as described in 40 CFR 1065.514. (b) Measure emissions by... Steady-state 168 Warm Idle 0 1 Speed terms are defined in 40 CFR part 1065. 2 Advance from one mode to... maximum test torque. (d) (e) See 40 CFR part 1065 for detailed specifications of tolerances...
40 CFR 86.1362-2010 - Steady-state testing with a ramped-modal cycle.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 CFR part 1065 for detailed specifications of tolerances and calculations. (e) Perform the ramped... described in 40 CFR 1065.650 and cycle statistics as described in 40 CFR 1065.514. (b) Measure emissions by... Transition Linear Transition. 14 Steady-state 168 Warm Idle 0 1 Speed terms are defined in 40 CFR part...
40 CFR 86.1362-2007 - Steady-state testing with a ramped-modal cycle.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... in 40 CFR 1065.650 and cycle statistics as described in 40 CFR 1065.514. (b) Measure emissions by... Steady-state 168 Warm Idle 0 1 Speed terms are defined in 40 CFR part 1065. 2 Advance from one mode to... maximum test torque. (d) (e) See 40 CFR part 1065 for detailed specifications of tolerances...
40 CFR 86.1362-2010 - Steady-state testing with a ramped-modal cycle.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 CFR part 1065 for detailed specifications of tolerances and calculations. (e) Perform the ramped... described in 40 CFR 1065.650 and cycle statistics as described in 40 CFR 1065.514. (b) Measure emissions by... Transition Linear Transition. 14 Steady-state 168 Warm Idle 0 1 Speed terms are defined in 40 CFR part...
Radioactivity computation of steady-state and pulsed fusion reactors operation
Attaya, H.
1994-06-01
Different mathematical methods are used to calculate the nuclear transmutation in steady-state and pulsed neutron irradiation. These methods are the Schuer decomposition, the eigenvector decomposition, and the Pade approximation of the matrix exponential function. In the case of the linear decay chain approximation, a simple algorithm is used to evaluate the transition matrices.
40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart S of... - Steady-State Short Test Standards
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Steady-State Short Test Standards C Appendix C to Subpart S of Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED.../Maintenance Program Requirements Pt. 51, Subpt. S, App. C Appendix C to Subpart S of Part...
Efficient decoding with steady-state Kalman filter in neural interface systems.
Malik, Wasim Q; Truccolo, Wilson; Brown, Emery N; Hochberg, Leigh R
2011-02-01
The Kalman filter is commonly used in neural interface systems to decode neural activity and estimate the desired movement kinematics. We analyze a low-complexity Kalman filter implementation in which the filter gain is approximated by its steady-state form, computed offline before real-time decoding commences. We evaluate its performance using human motor cortical spike train data obtained from an intracortical recording array as part of an ongoing pilot clinical trial. We demonstrate that the standard Kalman filter gain converges to within 95% of the steady-state filter gain in 1.5±0.5 s (mean ±s.d.). The difference in the intended movement velocity decoded by the two filters vanishes within 5 s, with a correlation coefficient of 0.99 between the two decoded velocities over the session length. We also find that the steady-state Kalman filter reduces the computational load (algorithm execution time) for decoding the firing rates of 25±3 single units by a factor of 7.0±0.9. We expect that the gain in computational efficiency will be much higher in systems with larger neural ensembles. The steady-state filter can thus provide substantial runtime efficiency at little cost in terms of estimation accuracy. This far more efficient neural decoding approach will facilitate the practical implementation of future large-dimensional, multisignal neural interface systems.
Integrated modelling of DEMO-FNS current ramp-up scenario and steady-state regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dnestrovskij, A. Yu.; Kuteev, B. V.; Bykov, A. S.; Ivanov, A. A.; Lukash, V. E.; Medvedev, S. Yu.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Sychugov, D. Yu.; Khayrutdinov, R. R.
2015-06-01
An approach to the integrated modelling of plasma regimes in the projected neutron source DEMO-FNS based on different codes is developed. The consistency check of the steady-state regime is carried out, namely, the possibility of the plasma current ramp-up, acceptance of growth rates of MHD modes in the steady-state regime, heat loads to the wall and divertor plates and neutron yield value. The following codes are employed for the integrated modelling. ASTRA transport code for calculation of plasma parameters in the steady-state regime, NUBEAM Monte Carlo code for NBI incorporated into the ASTRA code, DINA free boundary equilibrium and evolution code, SPIDER free boundary equilibrium and equilibrium reconstruction code, KINX ideal MHD stability code, TOKSTAB rigid shift vertical stability code, edge and divertor plasma B2SOLPS5.2 code and Semi-analytic Hybrid Model (SHM) code for self-consistent description of the core, edge and divertor plasmas based on the experimental scaling laws. The consistent steady-state regime for the DEMO-FNS plasma and the plasma current ramp-up scenario are developed using the integrated modelling approach. Passive copper coils are suggested to reduce the plasma vertical instability growth rate to below ˜30 s-1.The outer divertor operation in the ‘high-recycling’ regime is numerically demonstrated with a maximal heat flux density of 7-9 MW m-2 that is technically acceptable.
Rodriguez, Paloma; Pérez-Morgado, M Isabel; Gonzalez, Víctor M; Martín, M Elena; Nieto, Amelia
2016-01-01
The genetic diversity of the influenza virus hinders the use of broad spectrum antiviral drugs and favors the appearance of resistant strains. Single-stranded DNA aptamers represent an innovative approach with potential application as antiviral compounds. The mRNAs of influenza virus possess a 5′cap structure and a 3′poly(A) tail that makes them structurally indistinguishable from cellular mRNAs. However, selective translation of viral mRNAs occurs in infected cells through a discriminatory mechanism, whereby viral polymerase and NS1 interact with components of the translation initiation complex, such as the eIF4GI and PABP1 proteins. We have studied the potential of two specific aptamers that recognize PABP1 (ApPABP7 and ApPABP11) to act as anti-influenza drugs. Both aptamers reduce viral genome expression and the production of infective influenza virus particles. The interaction of viral polymerase with the eIF4GI translation initiation factor is hindered by transfection of infected cells with both PABP1 aptamers, and ApPABP11 also inhibits the association of NS1 with PABP1 and eIF4GI. These results indicate that aptamers targeting the host factors that interact with viral proteins may potentially have a broad therapeutic spectrum, reducing the appearance of escape mutants and resistant subtypes. PMID:27070300
Ota, Yu; Chinen, Takumi; Yoshida, Keisuke; Kudo, Shun; Nagumo, Yoko; Shiwa, Yuh; Yamada, Ryosuke; Umihara, Hirotatsu; Iwasaki, Kotaro; Masumoto, Hiroshi; Yokoshima, Satoshi; Yoshikawa, Hirofumi; Fukuyama, Tohru; Kobayashi, Junichi; Usui, Takeo
2016-09-01
Eudistomin C (EudiC), a natural product, shows potent antitumor and antiviral activities, but the target molecule and the mechanism of action remain to be revealed. Here, we show that the 40S ribosome is the target in EudiC cytotoxicity. We isolated EudiC-resistant mutants from a multidrug-sensitive yeast strain, and a genetic analysis classified these YER (yeast EudiC resistance) mutants into three complementation groups. A genome-wide study revealed that the YER1-6 mutation is in the uS11 gene (RPS14A). Biotinylated EudiC pulled down Rps14p-containing complexes from 40S and 80S ribosomes, but not from the 60S ribosome. EudiC strongly inhibited translation of the wild-type strain but not of YER1-6 in cells and in vitro. These results indicate that EudiC is a protein synthesis inhibitor targeting the uS11-containing ribosomal subunit, and shows cytotoxicity by inhibiting protein translation. PMID:27304596
Marks, James; Kannan, Krishna; Roncase, Emily J.; Klepacki, Dorota; Kefi, Amira; Orelle, Cédric; Vázquez-Laslop, Nora; Mankin, Alexander S.
2016-01-01
The first broad-spectrum antibiotic chloramphenicol and one of the newest clinically important antibacterials, linezolid, inhibit protein synthesis by targeting the peptidyl transferase center of the bacterial ribosome. Because antibiotic binding should prevent the placement of aminoacyl-tRNA in the catalytic site, it is commonly assumed that these drugs are universal inhibitors of peptidyl transfer and should readily block the formation of every peptide bond. However, our in vitro experiments showed that chloramphenicol and linezolid stall ribosomes at specific mRNA locations. Treatment of bacterial cells with high concentrations of these antibiotics leads to preferential arrest of translation at defined sites, resulting in redistribution of the ribosomes on mRNA. Antibiotic-mediated inhibition of protein synthesis is most efficient when the nascent peptide in the ribosome carries an alanine residue and, to a lesser extent, serine or threonine in its penultimate position. In contrast, the inhibitory action of the drugs is counteracted by glycine when it is either at the nascent-chain C terminus or at the incoming aminoacyl-tRNA. The context-specific action of chloramphenicol illuminates the operation of the mechanism of inducible resistance that relies on programmed drug-induced translation arrest. In addition, our findings expose the functional interplay between the nascent chain and the peptidyl transferase center. PMID:27791002
Steady-state entanglement between distant quantum dots in photonic crystal dimers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vasco, J. P.; Gerace, D.; Guimarães, P. S. S.; Santos, M. F.
2016-10-01
We show that two spatially separated semiconductor quantum dots under resonant and continuous-wave excitation can be strongly entangled in the steady state, thanks to their radiative coupling by mutual interaction through the normal modes of a photonic crystal dimer. We employ a quantum master equation formalism to quantify the steady-state entanglement by calculating the system negativity. Calculations are specified to consider realistic semiconductor nanostructure parameters for the photonic crystal dimer-quantum dots coupled system, determined by a guided-mode expansion solution of Maxwell equations. Negativity values of the order of 0.1 (20 % of the maximum value) are shown for interdot distances that are larger than the resonant wavelength of the system. It is shown that the amount of entanglement is almost independent of the interdot distance, as long as the normal mode splitting of the photonic dimer is larger than their linewidths, which becomes the only requirement to achieve a local and individual qubit addressing. Considering inhomogeneously broadened quantum dots, we find that the steady-state entanglement is preserved as long as the detuning between the two quantum dot resonances is small when compared to their decay rates. The steady-state entanglement is shown to be robust against the effects of pure dephasing of the quantum dot transitions. We finally study the entanglement dynamics for a configuration in which one of the two quantum dots is initially excited and find that the transient negativity can be enhanced by more than a factor of two with respect to the steady-state value. These results are promising for practical applications of entangled states at short time scales.
Analytical models of steady-state plumes undergoing sequential first-order degradation.
Burnell, Daniel K; Mercer, James W; Sims, Lawrence S
2012-01-01
An exact, closed-form analytical solution is derived for one-dimensional (1D), coupled, steady-state advection-dispersion equations with sequential first-order degradation of three dissolved species in groundwater. Dimensionless and mathematical analyses are used to examine the sensitivity of longitudinal dispersivity in the parent and daughter analytical solutions. The results indicate that the relative error decreases to less than 15% for the 1D advection-dominated and advection-dispersion analytical solutions of the parent and daughter when the Damköhler number of the parent decreases to less than 1 (slow degradation rate) and the Peclet number increases to greater than 6 (advection-dominated). To estimate first-order daughter product rate constants in advection-dominated zones, 1D, two-dimensional (2D), and three-dimensional (3D) steady-state analytical solutions with zero longitudinal dispersivity are also derived for three first-order sequentially degrading compounds. The closed form of these exact analytical solutions has the advantage of having (1) no numerical integration or evaluation of complex-valued error function arguments, (2) computational efficiency compared to problems with long times to reach steady state, and (3) minimal effort for incorporation into spreadsheets. These multispecies analytical solutions indicate that BIOCHLOR produces accurate results for 1D steady-state, applications with longitudinal dispersion. Although BIOCHLOR is inaccurate in multidimensional applications with longitudinal dispersion, these multidimensional multispecies analytical solutions indicate that BIOCHLOR produces accurate steady-state results when the longitudinal dispersion is zero. As an application, the 1D advection-dominated analytical solution is applied to estimate field-scale rate constants of 0.81, 0.74, and 0.69/year for trichloroethene, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, and vinyl chloride, respectively, at the Harris Palm Bay, FL, CERCLA site. PMID:21883193
Steady-state Relativistic Stellar Dynamics Around a Massive Black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bar-Or, Ben; Alexander, Tal
2016-04-01
A massive black hole (MBH) consumes stars whose orbits evolve into the small phase-space volume of unstable orbits, the “loss cone,” which take them into the MBH, or close enough to interact strongly with it. The resulting phenomena, e.g., tidal heating and disruption, binary capture and hyper-velocity star ejection, gravitational wave (GW) emission by inspiraling compact remnants, or hydrodynamical interactions with an accretion disk, can produce observable signatures and thereby reveal the MBH, affect its mass and spin evolution, test strong gravity, and probe stars and gas near the MBH. These continuous stellar loss and resupply processes shape the central stellar distribution. We investigate relativistic stellar dynamics near the loss cone of a non-spinning MBH in steady state, analytically and by Monte Carlo simulations of the diffusion of the orbital parameters. These take into account Newtonian mass precession due to enclosed stellar mass, in-plane precession due to general relativity, dissipation by GW, uncorrelated two-body relaxation, correlated resonant relaxation (RR), and adiabatic invariance due to secular precession, using a rigorously derived description of correlated post-Newtonian dynamics in the diffusion limit. We argue that general maximal entropy considerations strongly constrain the orbital diffusion in steady state, irrespective of the relaxation mechanism. We identify the exact phase-space separatrix between plunges and inspirals, and predict their steady-state rates. We derive the dependence of the rates on the mass of the MBH, show that the contribution of RR in steady state is small, and discuss special cases where unquenched RR in restricted volumes of phase-space may affect the steady state substantially.
A pre-steady state and steady state kinetic analysis of the N-ribosyl hydrolase activity of hCD157.
Preugschat, Frank; Carter, Luke H; Boros, Eric E; Porter, David J T; Stewart, Eugene L; Shewchuk, Lisa M
2014-12-15
hCD157 catalyzes the hydrolysis of nicotinamide riboside (NR) and nicotinic acid riboside (NAR). The release of nicotinamide or nicotinic acid from NR or NAR was confirmed by spectrophotometric, HPLC and NMR analyses. hCD157 is inactivated by a mechanism-based inhibitor, 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-nicotinamide arabinoside (fNR). Modification of the enzyme during the catalytic cycle by NR, NAR, or fNR increased the intrinsic protein fluorescence by approximately 50%. Pre-steady state and steady state data were used to derive a minimal kinetic scheme for the hydrolysis of NR. After initial complex formation a reversible step (360 and 30s(-1)) is followed by a slow irreversible step (0.1s(-1)) that defined the rate limiting step, or kcat. The calculated KMapp value for NR in the hydrolytic reaction is 6nM. The values of the kinetic constants suggest that one biological function of cell-surface hCD157 is to bind and slowly hydrolyze NR, possibly converting it to a ligand-activated receptor. Differences in substrate preference between hCD157 and hCD38 were rationalized through a comparison of the crystal structures of the two proteins. This comparison identified several residues in hCD157 (F108 and F173) that can potentially hinder the binding of dinucleotide substrates (NAD+). PMID:25250980
Compatible operation of the power system for steady state and pulse modes in a magnetic torus KT-5D
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Yi; Wang, Zhi-jiang; Xu, Min; Zhu, Zhen-hua; Lu, Rong-hua; Wen, Yi-zhi; Yu, Chang-xuan; Wan, Shu-de; Liu, Wan-dong; Wang, Jun; Xu, Xiao-yuan; Hu, Ling-ying
2006-12-01
Compatible operation of steady state mode and pulse mode is realized in the KT-5D device. New power supplies with the operation control systems for the steady state toroidal magnetic field as well as for the vertical field are added, and the rf wave injection systems for sustaining steady state plasmas are upgraded. After the modification, the device now can work not only as a tokomak with pulsed plasma currents as it was but also as a simple magnetized torus with steady state plasma discharges. It allows more flexible and efficient experimental researches on the magnetically confined plasmas to be carried on in the same device.
Compatible operation of the power system for steady state and pulse modes in a magnetic torus KT-5D
Yu Yi; Wang Zhijiang; Xu Min; Zhu Zhenhua; Lu Ronghua; Wen Yizhi; Yu Changxuan; Wan Shude; Liu Wandong; Wang Jun; Xu Xiaoyuan; Hu Lingying
2006-12-15
Compatible operation of steady state mode and pulse mode is realized in the KT-5D device. New power supplies with the operation control systems for the steady state toroidal magnetic field as well as for the vertical field are added, and the rf wave injection systems for sustaining steady state plasmas are upgraded. After the modification, the device now can work not only as a tokomak with pulsed plasma currents as it was but also as a simple magnetized torus with steady state plasma discharges. It allows more flexible and efficient experimental researches on the magnetically confined plasmas to be carried on in the same device.
Zeenko, Vladimir V.; Wang, Chuanping; Majumder, Mithu; Komar, Anton A.; Snider, Martin D.; Merrick, William C.; Kaufman, Randal J.; Hatzoglou, Maria
2008-01-01
In vitro translation systems are used to investigate translational mechanisms and to synthesize proteins for characterization. Most available mammalian cell-free systems have reduced efficiency due to decreased translation initiation caused by phosphorylation of the initiation factor eIF2α on Ser51. We describe here a novel cell-free protein synthesis system using extracts from cultured mouse embryonic fibroblasts that are homozygous for the Ser51 to- Ala mutation in eIF2α (A/A cells). The translation efficiency of a capped and polyadenylated firefly luciferase mRNA in A/A cell extracts was 30-fold higher than in wild-type extracts. Protein synthesis in extracts from A/A cells was active for at least 2 h and generated up to 20 μg/mL of luciferase protein. Additionally, the A/A cell-free system faithfully recapitulated the selectivity of in vivo translation for mRNA features; translation was stimulated by a 5′-end cap (m7GpppN) and a 3′-end poly(A) tail in a synergistic manner. The system also showed similar efficiencies of cap-dependent and IRES-mediated translation (EMCV IRES). Significantly, the A/A cell-free system supported the post-translational modification of proteins, as shown by glycosylation of the HIV type-1 gp120 and cleavage of the signal peptide from β-lactamase. We propose that cell-free systems from A/A cells can be a useful tool for investigating mechanisms of mammalian mRNA translation and for the production of recombinant proteins for molecular studies. In addition, cell-free systems from differentiated cells with the Ser51Ala mutation should provide a means for investigating cell type-specific features of protein synthesis. PMID:18230759
Hudak, K A; Wang, P; Tumer, N E
2000-01-01
Pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) is known to inactivate ribosomes by removal of a specific adenine from the sarcin/ricin (S/R) loop of the large rRNA, thereby inhibiting translation. We demonstrate here that in addition to the previously identified adenine (A4324), PAP removes another adenine (A4321) and a guanine (G4323) from the eukaryotic large rRNA. Recent results indicate that the antiviral activity of PAP may not be due to depurination of host ribosomes. Using PAP mutants that do not depurinate either tobacco or reticulocyte lysate rRNA, we show that PAP inhibits translation of brome mosaic virus (BMV) and potato virus X (PVX) RNAs without depurinating ribosomes. Furthermore, translation of only capped, but not uncapped, luciferase transcripts is inhibited by PAP, providing evidence that PAP and PAP mutants are able to distinguish between capped and uncapped transcripts. Translation inhibition of BMV RNAs is overcome by treatment with PAP in the presence of increasing concentrations of the cap analog m7GpppG, but not GpppG or GTP, indicating that PAP recognizes the cap structure. Incubation of BMV RNAs or the capped luciferase transcripts with PAP results in depurination of either RNA. In contrast, uncapped luciferase transcripts are not depurinated after incubation with identical concentrations of PAP. These results demonstrate for the first time that PAP can inhibit translation by a mechanism other than ribosome depurination, by recognizing the cap structure and specifically depurinating the capped RNAs. PMID:10744021
Steady-State Cycle Deck Launcher Developed for Numerical Propulsion System Simulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
VanDrei, Donald E.
1997-01-01
One of the objectives of NASA's High Performance Computing and Communications Program's (HPCCP) Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) is to reduce the time and cost of generating aerothermal numerical representations of engines, called customer decks. These customer decks, which are delivered to airframe companies by various U.S. engine companies, numerically characterize an engine's performance as defined by the particular U.S. airframe manufacturer. Until recently, all numerical models were provided with a Fortran-compatible interface in compliance with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) document AS681F, and data communication was performed via a standard, labeled common structure in compliance with AS681F. Recently, the SAE committee began to develop a new standard: AS681G. AS681G addresses multiple language requirements for customer decks along with alternative data communication techniques. Along with the SAE committee, the NPSS Steady-State Cycle Deck project team developed a standard Application Program Interface (API) supported by a graphical user interface. This work will result in Aerospace Recommended Practice 4868 (ARP4868). The Steady-State Cycle Deck work was validated against the Energy Efficient Engine customer deck, which is publicly available. The Energy Efficient Engine wrapper was used not only to validate ARP4868 but also to demonstrate how to wrap an existing customer deck. The graphical user interface for the Steady-State Cycle Deck facilitates the use of the new standard and makes it easier to design and analyze a customer deck. This software was developed following I. Jacobson's Object-Oriented Design methodology and is implemented in C++. The AS681G standard will establish a common generic interface for U.S. engine companies and airframe manufacturers. This will lead to more accurate cycle models, quicker model generation, and faster validation leading to specifications. The standard will facilitate cooperative work between
Sun, Tao; Zhang, Yi
2008-03-01
The selective and potent inhibition of mitochondrial translation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by pentamidine suggests a novel antimicrobial action for this drug. Electrophoresis mobility shift assay, T1 ribonuclease footprinting, hydroxyl radical footprinting and isothermal titration calorimetry collectively demonstrated that pentamidine non-specifically binds to two distinct classes of sites on tRNA. The binding was driven by favorable entropy changes indicative of a large hydrophobic interaction, suggesting that the aromatic rings of pentamidine are inserted into the stacked base pairs of tRNA helices. Pentamidine binding disrupts the tRNA secondary structure and masks the anticodon loop in the tertiary structure. Consistently, we showed that pentamidine specifically inhibits tRNA aminoacylation but not the cognate amino acid adenylation. Pentamidine inhibited protein translation in vitro with an EC(50) equivalent to that binds to tRNA and inhibits tRNA aminoacylation in vitro, but drastically higher than that inhibits translation in vivo, supporting the established notion that the antimicrobial activity of pentamidine is largely due to its selective accumulation by the pathogen rather than by the host cell. Therefore, interrupting tRNA aminoacylation by the entropy-driven non-specific binding is an important mechanism of pentamidine in inhibiting protein translation, providing new insights into the development of antimicrobial drugs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubbert, Maren; Kübert, Angelika; Cuntz, Matthias; Werner, Christiane
2015-04-01
Isotope techniques are widely applied in ecosystem studies. For example, isoflux models are used to separate soil evaporation from transpiration in ecosystems. These models often assume that plant transpiration occurs at isotopic steady state, i.e. that the transpired water shows the same isotopic signature as the source water. Yet, several studies found that transpiration did not occur at isotopic steady state, under both controlled and field conditions. Here we focused on identifying the internal and external factors which drive the isotopic signature of leaf transpiration. Using cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS), the effect of both environmental variables and leaf physiological traits on δ18OT was investigated under controlled conditions. Six plant species with distinct leaf physiological traits were exposed to step changes in relative air humidity (RH), their response in δ18OT and gas exchange parameters and their leaf physiological traits were assessed. Moreover, two functionally distinct plant types (tree, i.e. Quercus suber, and grassland) of a semi-arid Mediterranean oak-woodland where observed under natural conditions throughout an entire growth period in the field. The species differed substantially in their leaf physiological traits and their turn-over times of leaf water. They could be grouped in species with fast (<60 min.), intermediate (ca. 120 min.) and slow (>240 min.) turn-over times, mostly due to differences in stomatal conductance, leaf water content or a combination of both. Changes in RH caused an immediate response in δ18OT, which were similarly strong in all species, while leaf physiological traits affected the subsequent response in δ18OT. The turn-over time of leaf water determined the speed of return to the isotopic steady or a stable δ18OT value (Dubbert & Kübert et al., in prep.). Under natural conditions, changes in environmental conditions over the diurnal cycle had a huge impact on the diurnal development of δ18OT in both
Losert, W; Shi, B Q; Cummins, H Z
1998-01-20
The evolution of the crystal-melt interface was investigated during directional solidification of a dilute binary alloy, starting at the marginal stability time t(i) at which the planar interface first becomes unstable. The time delay between t(i) and the crossover time t(0) at which the interface modulation becomes observable was determined experimentally. The interface morphology was analyzed as the cellular pattern appeared, and it was followed through the coarsening phase to the final steady-state dendritic pattern. The relevance of the initial instability for steady-state pattern selection was verified experimentally, and some aspects of the coarsening dynamics were measured and compared with theoretical predictions of Warren and Langer [Warren, J. A. & Langer, J. S. (1990) Phys. Rev. A 42, 3518-3525; Warren, J. A. & Langer, J. S. (1993) Phys. Rev. E 47, 2702-2712].
A computer simulation using spreadsheets for learning concept of steady-state equilibrium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharda, Vandana; Sastri, O. S. K. S.; Bhardwaj, Jyoti; Jha, Arbind K.
2016-03-01
In this paper, we present a simple spreadsheet based simulation activity that can be performed by students at the undergraduate level. This simulation is implemented in free open source software (FOSS) LibreOffice Calc, which is available for both Windows and Linux platform. This activity aims at building the probability distribution for the possible macro-states of a system. This has been achieved by randomly sampling the configuration space consisting of all the possible microstates and determining the corresponding macrostate for each of the samples, which is akin to Monte-Carlo simulation. This simulation could act as a very useful tool in engaging students for learning the concepts of microstates, macrostates and steady state equilibrium, once the ideas have been introduced in the classroom. Further, the effect of the number of particles on the quality of steady state equilibrium achieved demonstrates the idea of thermodynamic limit.
Implicit total variation diminishing (TVD) schemes for steady-state calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yee, H. C.; Warming, R. F.; Harten, A.
1983-01-01
The application of a new implicit unconditionally stable high resolution total variation diminishing (TVD) scheme to steady state calculations. It is a member of a one parameter family of explicit and implicit second order accurate schemes developed by Harten for the computation of weak solutions of hyperbolic conservation laws. This scheme is guaranteed not to generate spurious oscillations for a nonlinear scalar equation and a constant coefficient system. Numerical experiments show that this scheme not only has a rapid convergence rate, but also generates a highly resolved approximation to the steady state solution. A detailed implementation of the implicit scheme for the one and two dimensional compressible inviscid equations of gas dynamics is presented. Some numerical computations of one and two dimensional fluid flows containing shocks demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of this new scheme. Previously announced in STAR as N83-23085
Steady-State Somatosensory Evoked Potential for Brain-Computer Interface—Present and Future
Ahn, Sangtae; Kim, Kiwoong; Jun, Sung Chan
2016-01-01
Brain-computer interface (BCI) performance has achieved continued improvement over recent decades, and sensorimotor rhythm-based BCIs that use motor function have been popular subjects of investigation. However, it remains problematic to introduce them to the public market because of their low reliability. As an alternative resolution to this issue, visual-based BCIs that use P300 or steady-state visually evoked potentials (SSVEPs) seem promising; however, the inherent visual fatigue that occurs with these BCIs may be unavoidable. For these reasons, steady-state somatosensory evoked potential (SSSEP) BCIs, which are based on tactile selective attention, have gained increasing attention recently. These may reduce the fatigue induced by visual attention and overcome the low reliability of motor activity. In this literature survey, recent findings on SSSEP and its methodological uses in BCI are reviewed. Further, existing limitations of SSSEP BCI and potential future directions for the technique are discussed. PMID:26834611
Diagnostics and control for the steady state and pulsed tokamak DEMO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orsitto, F. P.; Villari, R.; Moro, F.; Todd, T. N.; Lilley, S.; Jenkins, I.; Felton, R.; Biel, W.; Silva, A.; Scholz, M.; Rzadkiewicz, J.; Duran, I.; Tardocchi, M.; Gorini, G.; Morlock, C.; Federici, G.; Litnovsky, A.
2016-02-01
The present paper is devoted to a first assessment of the DEMO diagnostics systems and controls in the context of pulsed and steady state reactor design under study in Europe. In particular, the main arguments treated are: (i) The quantities to be measured in DEMO and the requirements for the measurements; (ii) the present capability of the diagnostic and control technology, determining the most urgent gaps, and (iii) the program and strategy of the research and development (R&D) needed to fill the gaps. Burn control, magnetohydrodynamic stability, and basic machine protection require improvements to the ITER technology, and moderated efforts in R&D can be dedicated to infrared diagnostics (reflectometry, electron cyclotron emission, polarimetry) and neutron diagnostics. Metallic Hall sensors appear to be a promising candidate for magnetic measurements in the high neutron fluence and long/steady state discharges of DEMO.
On the Numerical Convergence to Steady State of Hypersonic Flows Over Bodies with Concavities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gnoffo, Peter A.
2002-01-01
Two recent numerical studies of hypersonic flows over bodies with concavities revealed problems with convergence to a steady state with an oft-used application of local-time-stepping. Both simulated flows showed a time-like, periodic shedding of vortices in a subsonic domain bounded by supersonic external flow although the simulations, using local-time-stepping, were not time accurate. Simple modifications to the numerical algorithm were implemented to enable implicit, first-order accurate in time simulations. Subsequent time-accurate simulations of the two test problems converged to a steady state. The baseline algorithm and modifications for temporal accuracy are described. The requirement for sub-iterations to achieve convergence is demonstrated. Failure to achieve convergence without time accuracy is conjectured to arise from temporal errors being continuously refocused into a subsonic domain.
Dynamic relaxation of a levitated nanoparticle from a non-equilibrium steady state.
Gieseler, Jan; Quidant, Romain; Dellago, Christoph; Novotny, Lukas
2014-05-01
Fluctuation theorems are a generalization of thermodynamics on small scales and provide the tools to characterize the fluctuations of thermodynamic quantities in non-equilibrium nanoscale systems. They are particularly important for understanding irreversibility and the second law in fundamental chemical and biological processes that are actively driven, thus operating far from thermal equilibrium. Here, we apply the framework of fluctuation theorems to investigate the important case of a system relaxing from a non-equilibrium state towards equilibrium. Using a vacuum-trapped nanoparticle, we demonstrate experimentally the validity of a fluctuation theorem for the relative entropy change occurring during relaxation from a non-equilibrium steady state. The platform established here allows non-equilibrium fluctuation theorems to be studied experimentally for arbitrary steady states and can be extended to investigate quantum fluctuation theorems as well as systems that do not obey detailed balance.
On the transient and steady-state estimates of interval genetic regulatory networks.
Li, Ping; Lam, James; Shu, Zhan
2010-04-01
This paper is concerned with the transient and steady-state estimates of a class of genetic regulatory networks (GRNs). Some sufficient conditions, which do not only present the transient estimate but also provide the estimates of decay rate and decay coefficient of the GRN with interval parameter uncertainties (interval GRN), are established by means of linear matrix inequality (LMI) and Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional. Moreover, the steady-state estimate of the proposed GRN model is also investigated. Furthermore, it is well known that gene regulation is an intrinsically noisy process due to intracellular and extracellular noise perturbations and environmental fluctuations. Then, by utilizing stochastic differential equation theory, the obtained results are extended to the case with noise perturbations due to natural random fluctuations. All the conditions are expressed within the framework of LMIs, which can easily be computed by using standard numerical software. A three-gene network is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.
Liu, H. H.
2010-09-15
Optimality principles have been used for investigating physical processes in different areas. This work attempts to apply an optimal principle (that water flow resistance is minimized on global scale) to steady-state unsaturated flow processes. Based on the calculus of variations, we show that under optimal conditions, hydraulic conductivity for steady-state unsaturated flow is proportional to a power function of the magnitude of water flux. This relationship is consistent with an intuitive expectation that for an optimal water flow system, locations where relatively large water fluxes occur should correspond to relatively small resistance (or large conductance). Similar results were also obtained for hydraulic structures in river basins and tree leaves, as reported in other studies. Consistence of this theoretical result with observed fingering-flow behavior in unsaturated soils and an existing model is also demonstrated.
Numerical determination of entropy associated with excess heat in steady-state thermodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiba, Yoshiyuki; Nakagawa, Naoko
2016-08-01
We numerically determine the global entropy for heat-conducting states, which is connected to the so-called excess heat considered as a basic quantity for steady-state thermodynamics in nonequilibrium. We adopt an efficient method to estimate the global entropy from the bare heat current and find that the obtained entropy agrees with the familiar local equilibrium hypothesis well. Our method possesses a wider applicability than local equilibrium and opens a possibility to compare thermodynamic properties of complex systems in nonequilibrium with those in the local equilibrium. We further investigate the global entropy for heat-conducting states and find that it exhibits both extensive and additive properties; however, the two properties do not degenerate each other differently from those at equilibrium. The separation of the extensivity and additivity makes it difficult to apply powerful thermodynamic methods to the nonequilibrium steady states.
PEBBLE: a two-dimensional steady-state pebble bed reactor thermal hydraulics code
Vondy, D.R.
1981-09-01
This report documents the local implementation of the PEBBLE code to treat the two-dimensional steady-state pebble bed reactor thermal hydraulics problem. This code is implemented as a module of a computation system used for reactor core history calculations. Given power density data, the geometric description in (RZ), and basic heat removal conditions and thermal properties, the coolant properties, flow conditions, and temperature distributions in the pebble fuel elements are predicted. The calculation is oriented to the continuous fueling, steady state condition with consideration of the effect of the high energy neutron flux exposure and temperature history on the thermal conductivity. The coolant flow conditions are calculated for the same geometry as used in the neutronics calculation, power density and fluence data being used directly, and temperature results are made available for subsequent use.
Thermal-Conductivity Apparatus for Steady-State, Comparative Measurement of Ceramic Coatings
Slifka, A. J.
2000-01-01
An apparatus has been developed to measure the thermal conductivity of ceramic coatings. Since the method uses an infrared microscope for temperature measurement, coatings as thin as 20 μm can, in principle, be measured using this technique. This steady-state, comparative measurement method uses the known thermal conductivity of the substrate material as the reference material for heat-flow measurement. The experimental method is validated by measuring a plasma-sprayed coating that has been previously measured using an absolute, steady-state measurement method. The new measurement method has a relative standard uncertainty of about 10 %. The measurement of the plasma-sprayed coating gives 0.58 W·m−1·K−l which compares well with the 0.62 W·m−1·K−l measured using the absolute method. PMID:27551628
Kabir, M. Z.; Imam, Safayat-Al
2013-04-15
A theoretical model for describing bias-dependent transient and steady-state behaviors of dark current in amorphous selenium (a-Se) avalanche detector structures has been developed. The analytical model considers bulk thermal generation current from mid-gap sates, transient carrier depletion, and carrier injection from the electrodes incorporating avalanche multiplication. The proposed physics-based dark current model is compared with the published experimental results on three potential a-Se avalanche detector structures. The steady-state dark current is the minimum for the structures that have effective blocking layers for both holes and electrons. The transient decay time to reach a plateau decreases considerably with increasing electric field.
Steady states and global dynamics of electrical activity in the cerebral cortex
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Robinson, P. A.; Rennie, C. J.; Wright, J. J.; Bourke, P. D.
1998-09-01
Steady states and global dynamics of electrical activity in the cerebral cortex are investigated within the framework of a recent continuum model. It is shown that for a particular physiologically realistic class of models, at most three steady states can occur, two of which are stable. The global dynamics of spatially uniform activity states is studied and it is shown that in a physiologically realistic class of models, the adiabatic dynamics is governed by a second-order differential equation equivalent to that for the motion of a Newtonian particle in a potential in the presence of friction. This result is used to derive a simplified dynamical equation in the friction-dominated limit. Solutions of these equations are compared with those of the full global dynamics equations and it is found that they are adequate for time scales longer than approximately 100 ms provided dendritic integration times are less than approximately 10 ms.
Multiple steady state and instability in distillation. Implications for operation and control
Jacobsen, E.W.; Skogestad, S.
1995-12-01
The fact that distillation columns, even in the ideal binary case, may display multiple steady states and unstable operating points has only recently been recognized. This article addresses some implications of these phenomena for the operation and control of distillation columns. Under manual operation, the multiplicity and instability will result in ability to reach separations corresponding to unstable operating points and may furthermore cause abrupt changes and hysteresis in operating conditions. It is shown that an unstable operating point may be stabilized by feedback control of a single product composition or tray temperature (one-point control). The steady-state multiplicity does, in this case, not represent any severe limitation in operation, but if the control is not sufficient tight, the column may settle in sustained oscillations (stable limit cycle). Finally, the impact of open-loop instability on the achievable closed-loop performance with both product compositions under feedback control is discussed.
Robust random number generation using steady-state emission of gain-switched laser diodes
Yuan, Z. L. Lucamarini, M.; Dynes, J. F.; Fröhlich, B.; Plews, A.; Shields, A. J.
2014-06-30
We demonstrate robust, high-speed random number generation using interference of the steady-state emission of guaranteed random phases, obtained through gain-switching a semiconductor laser diode. Steady-state emission tolerates large temporal pulse misalignments and therefore significantly improves the interference quality. Using an 8-bit digitizer followed by a finite-impulse-response unbiasing algorithm, we achieve random number generation rates of 8 and 20 Gb/s, for laser repetition rates of 1 and 2.5 GHz, respectively, with a ±20% tolerance in the interferometer differential delay. We also report a generation rate of 80 Gb/s using partially phase-correlated short pulses. In relation to the field of quantum key distribution, our results confirm the gain-switched laser diode as a suitable light source, capable of providing phase-randomized coherent pulses at a clock rate of up to 2.5 GHz.
On the interpretation of recharge estimates from steady-state model calibrations.
Anderson, William P; Evans, David G
2007-01-01
Ground water recharge is often estimated through the calibration of ground water flow models. We examine the nature of calibration errors by considering some simple mathematical and numerical calculations. From these calculations, we conclude that calibrating a steady-state ground water flow model to water level extremes yields estimates of recharge that have the same value as the time-varying recharge at the time the water levels are measured. These recharge values, however, are a subdued version of the actual transient recharge signal. In addition, calibrating a steady-state ground water flow model to data collected during periods of rising water levels will produce recharge values that underestimate the actual transient recharge. Similarly, calibrating during periods of falling water levels will overestimate the actual transient recharge. We also demonstrate that average water levels can be used to estimate the actual average recharge rate provided that water level data have been collected for a sufficient amount of time.
Numerical determination of entropy associated with excess heat in steady-state thermodynamics.
Chiba, Yoshiyuki; Nakagawa, Naoko
2016-08-01
We numerically determine the global entropy for heat-conducting states, which is connected to the so-called excess heat considered as a basic quantity for steady-state thermodynamics in nonequilibrium. We adopt an efficient method to estimate the global entropy from the bare heat current and find that the obtained entropy agrees with the familiar local equilibrium hypothesis well. Our method possesses a wider applicability than local equilibrium and opens a possibility to compare thermodynamic properties of complex systems in nonequilibrium with those in the local equilibrium. We further investigate the global entropy for heat-conducting states and find that it exhibits both extensive and additive properties; however, the two properties do not degenerate each other differently from those at equilibrium. The separation of the extensivity and additivity makes it difficult to apply powerful thermodynamic methods to the nonequilibrium steady states. PMID:27627254
Comparison of steady-state and transient CVS cycle emission of an automotive Stirling engine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Farrell, R. A.; Bolton, R. J.
1983-01-01
The Automotive Stirling Engine Development Program is to demonstrate a number of goals for a Stirling-powered vehicle. These goals are related to an achievement of specified maximum emission rates, a combined cycle fuel economy 30 percent better than a comparable internal-combustion engine-powered automobile, multifuel capability, competitive cost and reliability, and a meeting of Federal standards concerning noise and safety. The present investigation is concerned with efforts related to meeting the stringent emission goals. Attention is given to the initial development of a procedure for predicting transient CVS urban cycle gaseous emissions from steady-state engine data, taking into account the employment of the test data from the first-generation automotive Stirling engine. A large amount of steady-state data from three Mod I automotive Stirling engines were used to predict urban CVS cycle emissions for the Mod I Lerma vehicle.
A steady-state solver and stability calculator for nonlinear internal wave flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viner, Kevin C.; Epifanio, Craig C.; Doyle, James D.
2013-10-01
A steady solver and stability calculator is presented for the problem of nonlinear internal gravity waves forced by topography. Steady-state solutions are obtained using Newton's method, as applied to a finite-difference discretization in terrain-following coordinates. The iteration is initialized using a boundary-inflation scheme, in which the nonlinearity of the flow is gradually increased over the first few Newton steps. The resulting method is shown to be robust over the full range of nonhydrostatic and rotating parameter space. Examples are given for both nonhydrostatic and rotating flows, as well as flows with realistic upstream shear and static stability profiles. With a modest extension, the solver also allows for a linear stability analysis of the steady-state wave fields. Unstable modes are computed using a shifted-inverse method, combined with a parameter-space search over a set of realistic target values. An example is given showing resonant instability in a nonhydrostatic mountain wave.
Transition from homogeneous to inhomogeneous steady states in oscillators under cyclic coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bera, Bidesh K.; Hens, Chittaranjan; Bhowmick, Sourav K.; Pal, Pinaki; Ghosh, Dibakar
2016-01-01
We report a transition from homogeneous steady state to inhomogeneous steady state in coupled oscillators, both limit cycle and chaotic, under cyclic coupling and diffusive coupling as well when an asymmetry is introduced in terms of a negative parameter mismatch. Such a transition appears in limit cycle systems via pitchfork bifurcation as usual. Especially, when we focus on chaotic systems, the transition follows a transcritical bifurcation for cyclic coupling while it is a pitchfork bifurcation for the conventional diffusive coupling. We use the paradigmatic Van der Pol oscillator as the limit cycle system and a Sprott system as a chaotic system. We verified our results analytically for cyclic coupling and numerically check all results including diffusive coupling for both the limit cycle and chaotic systems.
Implicit Total Variation Diminishing (TVD) schemes for steady-state calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yee, H. C.; Warming, R. F.; Harten, A.
1983-01-01
The application of a new implicit unconditionally stable high resolution total variation diminishing (TVD) scheme to steady state calculations. It is a member of a one parameter family of explicit and implicit second order accurate schemes developed by Harten for the computation of weak solutions of hyperbolic conservation laws. This scheme is guaranteed not to generate spurious oscillations for a nonlinear scalar equation and a constant coefficient system. Numerical experiments show that this scheme not only has a rapid convergence rate, but also generates a highly resolved approximation to the steady state solution. A detailed implementation of the implicit scheme for the one and two dimensional compressible inviscid equations of gas dynamics is presented. Some numerical computations of one and two dimensional fluid flows containing shocks demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of this new scheme.
A steady-state equilibrium configuration in the dynamic analysis of a curved pipe conveying fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jung, Duhan; Chung, Jintai
2006-06-01
This paper discusses a steady-state equilibrium configuration and a set of linearized equations of motion for the dynamic analysis of a semi-circular fluid-conveying pipe. Through application of the perturbation method to the equations of motion for a semi-circular pipe, new nonlinear equilibrium equations were derived and the equations of motion were linearized around the equilibrium configuration of the pipe. The equilibrium configurations obtained from the derived nonlinear equilibrium equations were compared to configurations from the linear equilibrium equations of other researchers. Additionally, the natural frequencies computed in this study were compared with the frequencies presented in a previous study. It was found that the steady-state equilibrium configuration should be determined using the proposed nonlinear equilibrium equations rather than previous linear equilibrium equations. Furthermore, it was shown that the natural frequencies computed with the proposed equilibrium equations were more accurate than the frequencies of other studies.
Shock waves, rarefaction waves, and nonequilibrium steady states in quantum critical systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lucas, Andrew; Schalm, Koenraad; Doyon, Benjamin; Bhaseen, M. J.
2016-07-01
We reexamine the emergence of a universal nonequilibrium steady state following a local quench between quantum critical heat baths in spatial dimensions greater than one. We show that energy transport proceeds by the formation of an instantaneous shock wave and a broadening rarefaction wave on either side of the interface, and not by two shock waves as previously proposed. For small temperature differences the universal steady state energy currents of the two-shock and rarefaction-shock solutions coincide. Over a broad range of parameters, the difference in the energy flow across the interface between these two solutions is at the level of 2%. The properties of the energy flow remain fully universal and independent of the microscopic theory. We briefly discuss the width of the shock wave in a viscous fluid, the effects of momentum relaxation, and the generalization to charged fluids.
Fu, H.; Haken, H.
1988-05-01
A semiclassical theory of dye lasers is presented in which the relevant energy-level diagram of a dye molecule is assumed to consist of a bandlike ground state with many sublevels and an excited single state. This theory not only describes the single-frequency operation, which has a low instability threshold, but also describes the two-frequency and multifrequency steady states of operation and the transitions between the different steady states. The general solution of a multifrequency operation is given explicitly and differs essentially from the well-known Rabi oscillation. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with recent experiments done by Hillman et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1605 (1984)), which cannot be explained by the conventional Maxwell--Bloch laser theory derived from two-level atoms.
Graf, D.C.; Warpinski, N.R.
1994-03-01
Laboratory measurements of single-phase, steady-state permeability of porous rock are important for a number of different applications. The oil and gas industry uses permeability data as a key indicator of the producability of a hydrocarbon reservoir; effective containment of large volumes of oil in underground salt caverns is directly dependent upon the permeability of the adjacent cavern walls; and safe, long term underground isolation of radioactive and hazardous waste is contingent upon the flow and transport characteristics of the surrounding geologic formations. An alternative method for measuring single-phase, steady-state permeability of porous rock is presented. The use of troublesome and expensive mass flow meters is eliminated and replaced with a bridge configuration of flow resistors. Permeability values can be determined directly from differential pressures across the bridge network, resulting in potentially significant cost savings and simplification for conducting these types of measurements. Results from the bridge permeameter are compared with results obtained using conventional methods.
An Insightful Steady-State Performance of a Squirrel Cage Induction Generator Enhanced with STATCOM
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ojo, Olorunfemi; Khayamy, Mehdy; Bule, Mehari
2014-06-01
This paper presents the regulation of the terminal voltage and reactive power of a grid-connected squirrel cage induction generator. A shunt connected voltage source inverter (VSI) with a capacitor in the DC side operating as a Static Compensator (STATCOM) and a shunt capacitor are used for regulating the generator terminal voltage and limit the reactive power demand from the grid. Simulation results for steady-state operation for a wide variation of speed in the super-synchronous region are presented as well as the dynamic stability of the system. Closed-form steady-state characteristics equations for the system are used to determine key variables and to demonstrate how the operation of the system depends on various parameters. This characteristics curve which contains all of the equations of the system provides the all in one insightful view to the inherent characteristics of the system and the effect of the parameter variation on the terminal voltage plane.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Darko, Godfred; Goethals, Annelies; Torto, Nelson; De Clerck, Karen
2016-08-01
Electrospinning is the most promising method for the large-scale production of nanofiber membranes. Multi-nozzle systems have already proven to be successful in producing polyamide nanofiber membranes suitable for water filtration. In this contribution, conditions for steady state electrospinning of polyethersulphone were investigated. Steady state electrospinning of PES was only possible for a limited number of electrospinning parameter combinations. Only a polymer concentration of 25 and 26 wt% resulted in defect-free nanofiber membranes. The solvent ratio of DMF:NMP can be varied from 95:5 (v:v%) to 85:15 (v:v%) to generate uniform nanofibers with average diameters varying from 300 to 730 nm all with relatively narrow standard deviation as low as 20 %. These results, thus, allow for a well-chosen set of electrospinning parameters for scaling up electrospinning of polyethersulphone nanofiber membranes.
Steady-State Dynamic Behavior of a Flexible Rotor With Auxiliary Support From a Clearance Bearing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Xie, Huajun; Flowers, George T.; Feng, Li; Lawrence, Charles T.
1996-01-01
This paper investigates the steady-state responses of a rotor system supported by auxiliary bearings in which there is a clearance between the rotor and the inner race of the bearing. A simulation model based upon the rotor of a production jet engine is developed and its steady-state behavior is explored over a wide range of operating conditions for various parametric configurations. Specifically, the influence of rotor imbalance, clearance, support stiffness and damping is studied. Bifurcation diagrams are used as a tool to examine the dynamic behavior of this system as a function of the afore mentioned parameters. The harmonic balance method is also employed for synchronous response cases. The observed dynamical responses is discussed and some insights into the behavior of such systems are presented.
Pryor, R.J.; Maloney, K.J.
1990-10-01
This document contains the steady-state and loss-of-pumping accident analysis of the representative design for the Savannah River heavy water new production reactor. A description of the reactor system and computer input model, the results of the steady-state analysis, and the results of four loss-of-pumping accident calculations are presented. 5 refs., 37 figs., 4 tabs.
40 CFR 85.2233 - Steady state test equipment calibrations, adjustments, and quality control-EPA 91.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... must be checked within four hours before the test and the analyzer adjusted if the reading is more than... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Steady state test equipment... SOURCES Emission Control System Performance Warranty Short Tests § 85.2233 Steady state test...
40 CFR 85.2233 - Steady state test equipment calibrations, adjustments, and quality control-EPA 91.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... must be checked within four hours before the test and the analyzer adjusted if the reading is more than... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Steady state test equipment... SOURCES Emission Control System Performance Warranty Short Tests § 85.2233 Steady state test...
An analytical solution for the steady-state aerosol size distribution achieved in a steady-state, continuous flow chamber is derived, where particle growth is occurring by gas-to-particle conversion and particle loss is occurring by deposition to the walls of the chamber. The s...
Non-equilibrium steady states in the Klein-Gordon theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doyon, Benjamin; Lucas, Andrew; Schalm, Koenraad; Bhaseen, M. J.
2015-03-01
We construct non-equilibrium steady states in the Klein-Gordon theory in arbitrary space dimension d following a local quench. We consider the approach where two independently thermalized semi-infinite systems, with temperatures {{T}L} and {{T}R}, are connected along a d-1-dimensional hypersurface. A current-carrying steady state, described by thermally distributed modes with temperatures {{T}L} and {{T}R} for left and right-moving modes, respectively, emerges at late times. The non-equilibrium density matrix is the exponential of a non-local conserved charge. We obtain exact results for the average energy current and the complete distribution of energy current fluctuations. The latter shows that the long-time energy transfer can be described by a continuum of independent Poisson processes, for which we provide the exact weights. We further describe the full time evolution of local observables following the quench. Averages of generic local observables, including the stress-energy tensor, approach the steady state with a power-law in time, where the exponent depends on the initial conditions at the connection hypersurface. We describe boundary conditions and special operators for which the steady state is reached instantaneously on the connection hypersurface. A semiclassical analysis of freely propagating modes yields the average energy current at large distances and late times. We conclude by comparing and contrasting our findings with results for interacting theories and provide an estimate for the timescale governing the crossover to hydrodynamics. As a modification of our Klein-Gordon analysis we also include exact results for free Dirac fermions.
Analytical determination of transition time between transient and steady state water infiltration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lassabatere, Laurent; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael; di Prima, Simone; Bagarello, Vincenzo; Iovino, Massimo
2016-04-01
The hydraulic characterization of soil hydraulic properties is a prerequisite to the modelling of flow in the vadose zone. Since many years, numerous methods were developed to determine soil hydraulic properties. Many of these methods rely on water infiltration experiments and their analysis using analytical or numerical models. At the beginning, most models were developed for water infiltration at steady state. These models had the advantage to be easy to develop from a theoretical point of view. Yet, many drawbacks remain including the need to wait for a long time, leading to time-consuming experiments, the risk to infiltrate water in large volumes of soil, leading to a response affected by soil variability, and the uncertainty regarding the attainment of steady state (i.e. constant infiltration rate). More recently, infiltration models and mathematical developments addressed the case of consecutive transient and steady states. Yet, one main problem remain. In the field, the operator is never sure about the state of water infiltration data. This paper present analytical formulations for the estimation of a transition time. We consider the model developed by Haverkamp et al. (1994) linking 1D infiltration flux to cumulative infiltration and related approximated expansions. An analytical method based on scaling is proposed to define transition time values in terms of both scaled cumulative infiltration and times. Dimensional times are then calculated for a large variety of soils and initial conditions. These time database can be considered as a relevant tool for the guidance for operators who conduct water infiltration experiments and wants to know when to stop and also for modelers who want to know how to select the data to fit transient or steady state models. Haverkamp, R., Ross, P. J., Smetten, K. R. J., Parlange, J. Y. (1994), Three-dimensional analysis of infiltration from the disc infiltrometer: 2 Physically based infiltration equation. Water Resour. Res
Maximum efficiency of steady-state heat engines at arbitrary power.
Ryabov, Artem; Holubec, Viktor
2016-05-01
We discuss the efficiency of a heat engine operating in a nonequilibrium steady state maintained by two heat reservoirs. Within the general framework of linear irreversible thermodynamics we derive a universal upper bound on the efficiency of the engine operating at arbitrary fixed power. Furthermore, we show that a slight decrease of the power below its maximal value can lead to a significant gain in efficiency. The presented analysis yields the exact expression for this gain and the corresponding upper bound.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bowman, L. M.
1984-01-01
An interactive steady state frequency response computer program with graphics is documented. Single or multiple forces may be applied to the structure using a modal superposition approach to calculate response. The method can be reapplied to linear, proportionally damped structures in which the damping may be viscous or structural. The theoretical approach and program organization are described. Example problems, user instructions, and a sample interactive session are given to demonstate the program's capability in solving a variety of problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zhi-Min
2016-10-01
It is shown that the non-homogeneous dissipative quasi-geostrophic equation ∂θ∂t+uṡ∇θ+κ(-Δ)αθ=sinx2, u=(-∂x2, ∂x1)(-Δ)-β/2θ with α =0 and β >1 losses stability at a critical value {κc}>0 and this instability gives rise to a circle of steady-state solutions.
Brennan, Rachel A.; Sanford, Robert A.
2002-01-01
Tenax-TA, a solid-phase sorbent, was used as an alternative to hexadecane for continuous delivery of tetrachloroethene (PCE) to Desulfuromonas strain BB1, a chloro-respiring microorganism. In both batch and bioreactor configurations, Tenax not only maintained low, steady-state concentrations of PCE in an active culture for several months but also adsorbed the product of dechlorination, cis-1,2-dichloroethene, before it approached toxic levels. PMID:11872503
Alarcón, Tomás
2014-05-14
In this paper, we propose two methods to carry out the quasi-steady state approximation in stochastic models of enzyme catalytic regulation, based on WKB asymptotics of the chemical master equation or of the corresponding partial differential equation for the generating function. The first of the methods we propose involves the development of multiscale generalisation of a WKB approximation of the solution of the master equation, where the separation of time scales is made explicit which allows us to apply the quasi-steady state approximation in a straightforward manner. To the lowest order, the multi-scale WKB method provides a quasi-steady state, Gaussian approximation of the probability distribution. The second method is based on the Hamilton-Jacobi representation of the stochastic process where, as predicted by large deviation theory, the solution of the partial differential equation for the corresponding characteristic function is given in terms of an effective action functional. The optimal transition paths between two states are then given by those paths that maximise the effective action. Such paths are the solutions of the Hamilton equations for the Hamiltonian associated to the effective action functional. The quasi-steady state approximation is applied to the Hamilton equations thus providing an approximation to the optimal transition paths and the transition time between two states. Using this approximation we predict that, unlike the mean-field quasi-steady approximation result, the rate of enzyme catalysis depends explicitly on the initial number of enzyme molecules. The accuracy and validity of our approximated results as well as that of our predictions regarding the behaviour of the stochastic enzyme catalytic models are verified by direct simulation of the stochastic model using Gillespie stochastic simulation algorithm.
Comparison of experimental data to a model for bicycle steady-state turning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cain, Stephen M.; Perkins, Noel C.
2012-08-01
The steady-state turning of a bicycle arises when the bicycle/rider system negotiates a constant radius turn with constant speed and roll angle. This paper explores steady-state turning by employing a bicycle instrumented to measure steering torque, steering angle, and bicycle speed, acceleration, and angular velocity. We report data obtained from 134 trials using two subjects executing steady turns defined by nine different radii, three speeds, and three rider lean conditions. A model for steady-state turning, based on the Whipple bicycle model, is used to interpret the experimental results. Overall, the model explains 95.6% of the variability in the estimated bicycle roll angle, 99.4% of the variability in the measured steering angle, and 6.5% of the variability in the measured steering torque. However, the model explains 56.6% of the variability in steering torque for the subset of trials without exaggerated rider lean relative to the bicycle frame. Thus, the model, which assumes a rigid and non-leaning rider, reasonably predicts bicycle roll and steering angles for all rider lean conditions and steering torque without exaggerated rider lean. The findings demonstrate that lateral shifting of the bicycle/rider centre of mass strongly influences the steering torque, suggesting that rider lean plays an important role in bicycle control during steady-state turning. By contrast, the required steering angle is largely insensitive to rider lean, suggesting that the steering angle serves as a superior cue for bicycle control relative to the steering torque.
Predicts the Steady-State Heating and Cooling Performance of Electric Heat Pump
1993-01-13
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a leader in the development of analytical tools for the design of electrically driven, air-to-air heat pumps. Foremost among these tools is the ORNL Heat Pump Design Model, which can be used to predict the steady-state heating and cooling performance of an electrically driven, air-source heat pump. This version is three to five times faster than the earlier version, easier to use and more versatile.
Steady-state multipole moments of atoms in a resonant field with elliptical polarization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taichenachev, A. V.; Basalaev, M. Yu; Lazebny, D. B.; Yudin, V. I.
2014-07-01
Steady-state multipole moments of atoms ρK q of the rank K ⩽ 2 are analytically calculated for all closed dipole transitions Jg → Je in a resonant radiation field with arbitrary intensity and arbitrary elliptical polarization. The nonlinear propagation of a monochromatic elliptically polarized wave through a medium consisting of atoms with resonant transition Jg → Je is considered as an application.
Pre-steady-state kinetic analysis of the trichodiene synthase reaction pathway.
Cane, D E; Chiu, H T; Liang, P H; Anderson, K S
1997-07-01
The pre-steady-state kinetics of the trichodiene synthase reaction were investigated by rapid chemical quench methods. The single-turnover rate was found to be 3.5-3.8 s-1, a rate 40 times faster than the steady-state catalytic rate (kcat = 0.09 s-1) for trichodiene synthase-catalyzed conversion of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) to trichodiene at 15 degrees C. In a multiturnover experiment, a burst phase (kb = 4.2 s-1) corresponding to the accumulation of trichodiene on the surface of the enzyme was followed by a slower, steady-state release of products (klin = 0.086 s-1) which corresponds to kcat. These results strongly suggest that the release of trichodiene from the enzyme active site is the rate-limiting step in the overall reaction, while the consumption of FPP is the step which limits chemical catalysis at the active site. Single-turnover experiments with trichodiene synthase mutant D101E, for which the steady-state rate constant kcat is 1/3 of that of wild type, revealed that the mutation actually depresses the rate of FPP consumption by a factor of 100. The deuterium isotope effect on the consumption of [1-2H,1,2-14C]FPP was found to be 1.11 +/- 0.06. Single turnover reactions of [1,2-14C]FPP catalyzed by trichodiene synthase were carried out at 4, 15, or 30 degrees C in an effort to provide direct observation of the proposed intermediate nerolidyl diphosphate (NPP). However, no NPP was detected, indicating that the conversion of NPP must be too fast to be observed within the detection limits of the assay. Taken together, these observations suggest that the isomerization of FPP to NPP is the step which limits the rate of chemical catalysis in the trichodiene synthase reaction pathway. PMID:9204880
Quantitative in vivo diffusion imaging of cartilage using double echo steady-state free precession.
Bieri, Oliver; Ganter, Carl; Scheffler, Klaus
2012-09-01
Single-shot echo-planar imaging techniques are commonly used for diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) but offer rather poor spatial resolution and field-of-view coverage for species with short T(2) . In contrast, steady-state free precession (SSFP) has shown promising results for DWI of the musculoskeletal system, but quantification is generally hampered by its prominent sensitivity on relaxation times. In this work, a new and truly diffusion-weighted (that is relaxation time independent) SSFP DWI technique is introduced using a double-echo steady-state approach. Within this framework (and this is in contrast to common SSFP DWI techniques using SSFP-Echo) both primary echo paths of nonbalanced SSFP are acquired, namely the FID and the Echo. Simulations and in vitro measurements reveal that the ratio of the Echo/FID signal ratios of two double-echo steady-state scans acquired with and without diffusion sensitizing dephasing moments provides a highly relaxation independent quantity for diffusion quantification. As a result, relaxation-independent high-resolution (0.4 × 0.4 - 0.6 × 0.6 mm(2) in-plane resolution) quantitative in vivo SSFP DWI is demonstrated for human articular cartilage using diffusion-weighted double-echo steady-state scans in the knee and ankle joint at 3.0 T. The derived diffusion coefficients for cartilage (D ∼ 1.0-1.5 μm(2) /ms) and synovial fluid (D ∼ 2.6 μm(2) /ms) are in agreement with previous work.
Ascon-Cabrera, M A; Thomas, D; Lebeault, J M
1995-01-01
The maintenance of a steady-state biofilm in a continuous-flow fixed-bed reactor, as a consequence of the reproduction-detachment of cells (an interfacial cell physiology phenomenon of steady-state biofilm) during the biodegradation of 2,4,6-trichlorophenol by Pseudomonas cells, was determined. After cell adhesion on an open-pore glass support, the biofilm was formed in a packed-bed recirculated reactor. After the steady-state biofilm was reached, the mechanisms of the interfacial cell detachment (at the biofilm-liquid interface) were determined. It was established that (i) the hydrophobicity of immobilized sessile cells (parent cells) increased (from 50 to 80%) as the dilution rate increased, while the hydrophobicity of detached suspended cells (daughter cells) remained constant (about 45%); and (ii) the immediately detached suspended cells showed a synchronized growth in about three generations. These results indicate that (i) the immobilized sessile and suspended detached cells grew synchronically at the end and at the beginning of the cell cycle, respectively; and (ii) the hydrophobicity difference of immobilized sessile and suspended detached cells permitted the cells detachment. Therefore, it is probable that independent of shear stress (due to recirculated flow), the synchronized growth and hydrophobicity of cells (which vary during the cell cycle) are the main factors permitting the maintenance of a steady-state xenobiotic-degrading biofilm reactor (in which the overall accumulation of biofilm is determined by the average growth rate of the biofilm cells minus the rate of detachment of cells from the biofilm). PMID:7793923
Alarcón, Tomás
2014-05-14
In this paper, we propose two methods to carry out the quasi-steady state approximation in stochastic models of enzyme catalytic regulation, based on WKB asymptotics of the chemical master equation or of the corresponding partial differential equation for the generating function. The first of the methods we propose involves the development of multiscale generalisation of a WKB approximation of the solution of the master equation, where the separation of time scales is made explicit which allows us to apply the quasi-steady state approximation in a straightforward manner. To the lowest order, the multi-scale WKB method provides a quasi-steady state, Gaussian approximation of the probability distribution. The second method is based on the Hamilton-Jacobi representation of the stochastic process where, as predicted by large deviation theory, the solution of the partial differential equation for the corresponding characteristic function is given in terms of an effective action functional. The optimal transition paths between two states are then given by those paths that maximise the effective action. Such paths are the solutions of the Hamilton equations for the Hamiltonian associated to the effective action functional. The quasi-steady state approximation is applied to the Hamilton equations thus providing an approximation to the optimal transition paths and the transition time between two states. Using this approximation we predict that, unlike the mean-field quasi-steady approximation result, the rate of enzyme catalysis depends explicitly on the initial number of enzyme molecules. The accuracy and validity of our approximated results as well as that of our predictions regarding the behaviour of the stochastic enzyme catalytic models are verified by direct simulation of the stochastic model using Gillespie stochastic simulation algorithm. PMID:24832255
Infinite product expansion of the Fokker–Planck equation with steady-state solution
Martin, R. J.; Craster, R. V.; Kearney, M. J.
2015-01-01
We present an analytical technique for solving Fokker–Planck equations that have a steady-state solution by representing the solution as an infinite product rather than, as usual, an infinite sum. This method has many advantages: automatically ensuring positivity of the resulting approximation, and by design exactly matching both the short- and long-term behaviour. The efficacy of the technique is demonstrated via comparisons with computations of typical examples. PMID:26346100
A fully implicit method for 3D quasi-steady state magnetic advection-diffusion.
Siefert, Christopher; Robinson, Allen Conrad
2009-09-01
We describe the implementation of a prototype fully implicit method for solving three-dimensional quasi-steady state magnetic advection-diffusion problems. This method allows us to solve the magnetic advection diffusion equations in an Eulerian frame with a fixed, user-prescribed velocity field. We have verified the correctness of method and implementation on two standard verification problems, the Solberg-White magnetic shear problem and the Perry-Jones-White rotating cylinder problem.
Alarcón, Tomás
2014-05-14
In this paper, we propose two methods to carry out the quasi-steady state approximation in stochastic models of enzyme catalytic regulation, based on WKB asymptotics of the chemical master equation or of the corresponding partial differential equation for the generating function. The first of the methods we propose involves the development of multiscale generalisation of a WKB approximation of the solution of the master equation, where the separation of time scales is made explicit which allows us to apply the quasi-steady state approximation in a straightforward manner. To the lowest order, the multi-scale WKB method provides a quasi-steady state, Gaussian approximation of the probability distribution. The second method is based on the Hamilton-Jacobi representation of the stochastic process where, as predicted by large deviation theory, the solution of the partial differential equation for the corresponding characteristic function is given in terms of an effective action functional. The optimal transition paths between two states are then given by those paths that maximise the effective action. Such paths are the solutions of the Hamilton equations for the Hamiltonian associated to the effective action functional. The quasi-steady state approximation is applied to the Hamilton equations thus providing an approximation to the optimal transition paths and the transition time between two states. Using this approximation we predict that, unlike the mean-field quasi-steady approximation result, the rate of enzyme catalysis depends explicitly on the initial number of enzyme molecules. The accuracy and validity of our approximated results as well as that of our predictions regarding the behaviour of the stochastic enzyme catalytic models are verified by direct simulation of the stochastic model using Gillespie stochastic simulation algorithm.
Analysis and Modelling of the Steady-State and Dynamic-State Discharge in SMES System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Xiao Yuan; Jin, Jian Xun
The steady-state and dynamic-state discharge processes have been discussed to develop a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) model in the paper. The SMES model allows the integrated analysis and optimization of the SMES devices, and their control systems, and can also serve as an independent storage module in the practical SMES application circuits, thus provide a method to link superconductivity technology to conventional power electronics in a SMES device.
Phase-field study of three-dimensional steady-state growth shapes in directional solidification.
Gurevich, Sebastian; Karma, Alain; Plapp, Mathis; Trivedi, Rohit
2010-01-01
We use a quantitative phase-field approach to study directional solidification in various three-dimensional geometries for realistic parameters of a transparent binary alloy. The geometries are designed to study the steady-state growth of spatially extended hexagonal arrays, linear arrays in thin samples, and axisymmetric shapes constrained in a tube. As a basis to address issues of dynamical pattern selection, the phase-field simulations are specifically geared to identify ranges of primary spacings for the formation of the classically observed "fingers" (deep cells) with blunt tips and "needles" with parabolic tips. Three distinct growth regimes are identified that include a low-velocity regime with only fingers forming, a second intermediate-velocity regime characterized by coexistence of fingers and needles that exist on separate branches of steady-state growth solutions for small and large spacings, respectively, and a third high-velocity regime where those two branches merge into a single one. Along the latter, the growth shape changes continuously from fingerlike to needlelike with increasing spacing. These regimes are strongly influenced by crystalline anisotropy with the third regime extending to lower velocity for larger anisotropy. Remarkably, however, steady-state shapes and tip undercoolings are only weakly dependent on the growth geometry. Those results are used to test existing theories of directional finger growth as well as to interpret the hysteretic nature of the cell-to-dendrite transition.
Revised Model of the Steady-state Solar Wind Halo Electron Velocity Distribution Function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoon, Peter H.; Kim, Sunjung; Choe, G. S.; moon, Y.-J.
2016-08-01
A recent study discussed the steady-state model for solar wind electrons during quiet time conditions. The electrons emanating from the Sun are treated in a composite three-population model—the low-energy Maxwellian core with an energy range of tens of eV, the intermediate ˜102-103 eV energy-range (“halo”) electrons, and the high ˜103-105 eV energy-range (“super-halo”) electrons. In the model, the intermediate energy halo electrons are assumed to be in resonance with transverse EM fluctuations in the whistler frequency range (˜102 Hz), while the high-energy super-halo electrons are presumed to be in steady-state wave-particle resonance with higher-frequency electrostatic fluctuations in the Langmuir frequency range (˜105 Hz). A comparison with STEREO and WIND spacecraft data was also made. However, ignoring the influence of Langmuir fluctuations on the halo population turns out to be an unjustifiable assumption. The present paper rectifies the previous approach by including both Langmuir and whistler fluctuations in the construction of the steady-state velocity distribution function for the halo population, and demonstrates that the role of whistler-range fluctuation is minimal unless the fluctuation intensity is arbitrarily raised. This implies that the Langmuir-range fluctuations, known as the quasi thermal noise, are important for both halo and super-halo electron velocity distribution.
A Series RCL Circuit Theory for Analyzing Non-Steady-State Water Uptake of Maize Plants
Zhuang, Jie; Yu, Gui-Rui; Nakayama, Keiichi
2014-01-01
Understanding water uptake and transport through the soil-plant continuum is vital for ecosystem management and agricultural water use. Plant water uptake under natural conditions is a non-steady transient flow controlled by root distribution, plant configuration, soil hydraulics, and climatic conditions. Despite significant progress in model development, a mechanistic description of transient water uptake has not been developed or remains incomplete. Here, based on advanced electrical network theory (RLC circuit theory), we developed a non-steady state biophysical model to mechanistically analyze the fluctuations of uptake rates in response to water stress. We found that the non-steady-state model captures the nature of instantaneity and hysteresis of plant water uptake due to the considerations of water storage in plant xylem and coarse roots (capacitance effect), hydraulic architecture of leaf system (inductance effect), and soil-root contact (fuse effect). The model provides insights into the important role of plant configuration and hydraulic heterogeneity in helping plants survive an adverse environment. Our tests against field data suggest that the non-steady-state model has great potential for being used to interpret the smart water strategy of plants, which is intrinsically determined by stem size, leaf size/thickness and distribution, root system architecture, and the ratio of fine-to-coarse root lengths. PMID:25335512
A series RCL circuit theory for analyzing non-steady-state water uptake of maize plants.
Zhuang, Jie; Yu, Gui-Rui; Nakayama, Keiichi
2014-01-01
Understanding water uptake and transport through the soil-plant continuum is vital for ecosystem management and agricultural water use. Plant water uptake under natural conditions is a non-steady transient flow controlled by root distribution, plant configuration, soil hydraulics, and climatic conditions. Despite significant progress in model development, a mechanistic description of transient water uptake has not been developed or remains incomplete. Here, based on advanced electrical network theory (RLC circuit theory), we developed a non-steady state biophysical model to mechanistically analyze the fluctuations of uptake rates in response to water stress. We found that the non-steady-state model captures the nature of instantaneity and hysteresis of plant water uptake due to the considerations of water storage in plant xylem and coarse roots (capacitance effect), hydraulic architecture of leaf system (inductance effect), and soil-root contact (fuse effect). The model provides insights into the important role of plant configuration and hydraulic heterogeneity in helping plants survive an adverse environment. Our tests against field data suggest that the non-steady-state model has great potential for being used to interpret the smart water strategy of plants, which is intrinsically determined by stem size, leaf size/thickness and distribution, root system architecture, and the ratio of fine-to-coarse root lengths.
Revised Model of the Steady-state Solar Wind Halo Electron Velocity Distribution Function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoon, Peter H.; Kim, Sunjung; Choe, G. S.; moon, Y.-J.
2016-08-01
A recent study discussed the steady-state model for solar wind electrons during quiet time conditions. The electrons emanating from the Sun are treated in a composite three-population model—the low-energy Maxwellian core with an energy range of tens of eV, the intermediate ˜102–103 eV energy-range (“halo”) electrons, and the high ˜103–105 eV energy-range (“super-halo”) electrons. In the model, the intermediate energy halo electrons are assumed to be in resonance with transverse EM fluctuations in the whistler frequency range (˜102 Hz), while the high-energy super-halo electrons are presumed to be in steady-state wave–particle resonance with higher-frequency electrostatic fluctuations in the Langmuir frequency range (˜105 Hz). A comparison with STEREO and WIND spacecraft data was also made. However, ignoring the influence of Langmuir fluctuations on the halo population turns out to be an unjustifiable assumption. The present paper rectifies the previous approach by including both Langmuir and whistler fluctuations in the construction of the steady-state velocity distribution function for the halo population, and demonstrates that the role of whistler-range fluctuation is minimal unless the fluctuation intensity is arbitrarily raised. This implies that the Langmuir-range fluctuations, known as the quasi thermal noise, are important for both halo and super-halo electron velocity distribution.
Tsuruhara, Aki; Inui, Koji; Kakigi, Ryusuke
2014-03-01
The face is one of the most important visual stimuli in human life, and inverted faces are known to elicit different brain responses than upright faces. This study analyzed steady-state visual-evoked magnetic fields (SSVEFs) in eleven healthy participants when they viewed upright and inverted geometrical faces presented at 6Hz. Steady-state visual-evoked responses are useful measurements and have the advantages of robustness and a high signal-to-noise ratio. Spectrum analysis revealed clear responses to both upright and inverted faces at the fundamental stimulation frequency (6 Hz) and harmonics, i.e. SSVEFs. No significant difference was observed in the SSVEF amplitude at 6 Hz between upright and inverted faces, which was different from the transient visual-evoked response, N170. On the other hand, SSVEFs were delayed with the inverted face in the right temporal area, which was similar to N170 and the results of previous steady-state visual-evoked potentials studies. These results suggest that different mechanisms underlie the larger amplitude and delayed latency observed with face inversion, though further studies are needed to fully elucidate these mechanisms. Our study revealed that SSVEFs, which have practical advantages for measurements, could provide novel findings in human face processing.
A steady-state Kalman filter for assimilating data from a single polar orbiting satellite
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Banfield, Don; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Keppenne, Christian L.
1995-01-01
A steady-state scheme for data assimilation in the context of a single, short period (relative to a day), sun-synchronous, polar-orbiting satellite is examined. If the satellite takes observations continuously, the gains, which are the weights for blending observations and predictions together, are steady in time. For a linear system forced by random noise, the optimal steady-state gains (Wiener gains) are equivalent to those of a Kalman filter. Computing the Kalman gains increases the computational cost of the model by a large factor, but computing the Wiener gains does not. The latter are computed by iteration using prior estimates of the gains to assimilate simulated observations of one run of the model, termed 'truth' into another run termed 'prediction'. At each stage, the prediction errors form the basis for the next estimate of the gains. Steady state is achieved after three or four iterations. Further simplification is achieved by making the gains depend on longitudinal distance from the observation point, not on absolute longitude. For a single-layer primitive equation model, the scheme works well even if only the mass field is observed but not the velocity field. Although the scheme was developed for Mars Observer, it should be applicable to data retrieved from Earth atmosphere satellites, for example, UARS.
Dauvergne, Duncan; Edelstein-Keshet, Leah
2015-08-21
We consider bidirectional transport of cargo by molecular motors dynein and kinesin that walk along microtubules, and/or diffuse in the cell. The motors compete to transport cargo in opposite directions with respect to microtubule polarity (towards the plus or minus end of the microtubule). In recent work, Gou et al. (2014) used a hierarchical set of models, each consisting of continuum transport equations to track the evolution of motors and their cargo (early endosomes) in the specific case of the fungus Ustilago maydis. We complement their work using a framework of quasi-steady state analysis developed by Newby and Bressloff (2010) and Bressloff and Newby (2013) to reduce the models to an approximating steady state Fokker-Plank equation. This analysis allows us to find analytic approximations to the steady state solutions in many cases where the full models are not easily solved. Consequently, we can make predictions about parameter dependence of the resulting spatial distributions. We also characterize the overall rates of bulk transport and diffusion, and how these are related to state transition parameters, motor speeds, microtubule polarity distribution, and specific assumptions made.
Steady-state ELM-suppressed H-modes from KSTAR to ITER and beyond
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
in, Yongkyoon; Kwak, J. G.; KSTAR Team
2014-10-01
Long-pulse, steady-state high-performance plasma is not only an important mission in KSTAR, but also directly relevant to ITER. While demonstrating the pulse-length of more than 20 sec H-mode flat-top in 2013, KSTAR has been exploring various means to achieve and sustain steady-state, ELM-suppressed/mitigated H-modes using versatile in-vessel control coils (IVCC), ECCD/ECH, and/or SMBI. In particular, taking advantage of the versatile 3-rows of IVCC, KSTAR accomplished both n = 1 and n = 2 RMP-driven, ELM-suppressed regimes that lasted up to 4 sec so far (limited by the discharge pulse length, not by any physics constraints, and will be extended up to 10 sec in 2014.) We also found the use of n = 2 RMP has prevented a locked-mode from being disruptive (at least within the RMP phase). To cope with run-away electrons and/or off-normal events, a soft landing algorithm has been developed and confirmed capable of ramping down the plasma current safely. The enhanced understanding and demonstration of steady-state, high-performance plasmas in KSTAR will elevate the level of confidence about the success of ITER and beyond. Supported by Ministry of Science, ICT, and Future Planning in Korea.
Steady-State and Transient Boundary Element Methods for Coupled Heat Conduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kontinos, Dean A.
1997-01-01
Boundary element algorithms for the solution of steady-state and transient heat conduction are presented. The algorithms are designed for efficient coupling with computational fluid dynamic discretizations and feature piecewise linear elements with offset nodal points. The steady-state algorithm employs the fundamental solution approach; the integration kernels are computed analytically based on linear shape functions, linear elements, and variably offset nodal points. The analytic expressions for both singular and nonsingular integrands are presented. The transient algorithm employs the transient fundamental solution; the temporal integration is performed analytically and the nonsingular spatial integration is performed numerically using Gaussian quadrature. A series solution to the integration is derived for the instance of a singular integrand. The boundary-only character of the algorithm is maintained by integrating the influence coefficients from initial time. Numerical results are compared to analytical solutions to verify the current boundary element algorithms. The steady-state and transient algorithms are numerically shown to be second-order accurate in space and time, respectively.
Amri, Amina; Pulko, Susan Helen; Wilkinson, Anthony James
2016-01-01
Breast thermography still has inherent limitations that prevent it from being fully accepted as a breast screening modality in medicine. The main challenges of breast thermography are to reduce false positive results and to increase the sensitivity of a thermogram. Further, it is still difficult to obtain information about tumour parameters such as metabolic heat, tumour depth and diameter from a thermogram. However, infrared technology and image processing have advanced significantly and recent clinical studies have shown increased sensitivity of thermography in cancer diagnosis. The aim of this paper is to study numerically the possibilities of extracting information about the tumour depth from steady state thermography and transient thermography after cold stress with no need to use any specific inversion technique. Both methods are based on the numerical solution of Pennes bioheat equation for a simple three-dimensional breast model. The effectiveness of two approaches used for depth detection from steady state thermography is assessed. The effect of breast density on the steady state thermal contrast has also been studied. The use of a cold stress test and the recording of transient contrasts during rewarming were found to be potentially suitable for tumour depth detection during the rewarming process. Sensitivity to parameters such as cold stress temperature and cooling time is investigated using the numerical model and simulation results reveal two prominent depth-related characteristic times which do not strongly depend on the temperature of the cold stress or on the cooling period.
Effective bias and potentials in steady-state quantum transport: A NEGF reverse-engineering study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karlsson, Daniel; Verdozzi, Claudio
2016-03-01
Using non-equilibrium Green's functions combined with many-body perturbation theory, we have calculated steady-state densities and currents through short interacting chains subject to a finite electric bias. By using a steady-state reverse-engineering procedure, the effective potential and bias which reproduce such densities and currents in a non-interacting system have been determined. The role of the effective bias is characterised with the aid of the so-called exchange-correlation bias, recently introduced in a steady-state density-functional- theory formulation for partitioned systems. We find that the effective bias (or, equivalently, the exchange-correlation bias) depends strongly on the interaction strength and the length of the central (chain) region. Moreover, it is rather sensitive to the level of many-body approximation used. Our study shows the importance of the effective/exchange-correlation bias out of equilibrium, thereby offering hints on how to improve the description of density- functional-theory based approaches to quantum transport.
Time-dependent and steady-state Gutzwiller approach for nonequilibrium transport in nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lanatà, Nicola; Strand, Hugo U. R.
2012-09-01
We extend the time-dependent Gutzwiller variational approach, recently introduced by Schirò and Fabrizio [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.105.076401 105, 076401 (2010)], to impurity problems. Furthermore, we derive a consistent theory for the steady state, and show its equivalence with the previously introduced nonequilibrium steady-state extension of the Gutzwiller approach. The method is shown to be able to capture dissipation in the leads, so that a steady state is reached after a sufficiently long relaxation time. The time-dependent method is applied to the single-orbital Anderson impurity model at half filling, modeling a quantum dot coupled to two leads. In these exploratory calculations, the Gutzwiller projector is limited to act only on the impurity. The strengths and the limitations of this approximation are assessed via comparison with state-of-the-art continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo results. Finally, we discuss how the method can be systematically improved by extending the region of action of the Gutzwiller projector.
Single Ion Occupancy and Steady-state Gating of Na Channels in Squid Giant Axon
Rakowski, Robert F.; Gadsby, David C.; De Weer, Paul
2002-01-01
The properties of the small fraction of tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive Na channels that remain open in the steady state were studied in internally dialyzed voltage clamped squid giant axons. The observed Ussing flux ratio exponent (n′) of 0.97 ± 0.03 (calculated from simultaneous measurements of TTX-sensitive current and 22Na efflux) and nonindependent behavior of Na current at high internal [Na] are explained by a one-site (“1s”) permeation model characterized by a single effective binding site within the channel pore in equilibrium with internal Na ions (apparent equilibrium dissociation constant KNai(0) = 0.61 ± 0.08 M). Steady-state open probability of the TTX-sensitive channels can be modeled by the product pap∞, where pa represents voltage-dependent activation described by a Boltzmann distribution with midpoint Va = −7 mV and effective valence za = 3.2 (Vandenberg, C.A., and F. Bezanilla. 1991. Biophys. J. 60:1499–1510) coupled to voltage-independent inactivation by an equilibrium constant (Bezanilla, F., and C.M. Armstrong. 1977. J. Gen. Physiol. 70:549–566) Keq = 770. The factor p∞ represents voltage-dependent inactivation with empirical midpoint V∞= −83 ± 5 mV and effective valence z∞ = 0.55 ± 0.03. The composite pap∞1s model describes the steady-state voltage dependence of the persistent TTX-sensitive current well. PMID:11865020
Arc plasma generator of atomic driver for steady-state negative ion source
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ivanov, A. A.; Belchenko, Yu. I.; Davydenko, V. I.; Ivanov, I. A.; Kolmogorov, V. V.; Listopad, A. A.; Mishagin, V. V.; Putvinsky, S. V.; Shulzhenko, G. I.; Smirnov, A.
2014-02-01
The paper reviews the results of development of steady-state arc-discharge plasma generator with directly heated LaB6 cathode. This arc-discharge plasma generator produces a plasma jet which is to be converted into an atomic one after recombination on a metallic plate. The plate is electrically biased relative to the plasma in order to control the atom energies. Such an intensive jet of hydrogen atoms can be used in negative ion sources for effective production of negative ions on a cesiated surface of plasma grid. All elements of the plasma generator have an augmented water cooling to operate in long pulse mode or in steady state. The thermo-mechanical stresses and deformations of the most critical elements of the plasma generator were determined by simulations. Magnetic field inside the discharge chamber was optimized to reduce the local power loads. The first tests of the steady-state arc plasma generator prototype have performed in long-pulse mode.
A steady-state non-equilibrium molecular dynamics approach for the study of evaporation processes.
Zhang, Jianguo; Müller-Plathe, Florian; Yahia-Ouahmed, Méziane; Leroy, Frédéric
2013-10-01
Two non-equilibrium methods (called bubble method and splitting method, respectively) have been developed and tested to study the steady state evaporation of a droplet surrounded by its vapor, where the evaporation continuously occurs at the vapor-liquid interface while the droplet size remains constant. In the bubble method, gas molecules are continuously reinserted into a free volume (represented by a bubble) located at the centre of mass of the droplet to keep the droplet size constant. In the splitting method, a molecule close to the centre of mass of the droplet is split into two: In this way, the droplet size is also maintained during the evaporation. By additional local thermostats confined to the area of insertion, the effect of frequent insertions on properties such as density and temperature can be limited to the immediate insertion area. Perturbations are not observed in other parts of the droplet. In the end, both the bubble method and the splitting method achieve steady-state droplet evaporation. Although these methods have been developed using an isolated droplet, we anticipate that they will find a wide range of applications in the study of the evaporation of isolated films and droplets or thin films on heated substrates or under confinement. They can in principle also be used to study the steady-state of other physical processes, such as the diffusion or permeation of gas molecules or ions in a pressure gradient or a concentration gradient. PMID:24116576
On the Kaolinite Floc Size at the Steady State of Flocculation in a Turbulent Flow.
Zhu, Zhongfan; Wang, Hongrui; Yu, Jingshan; Dou, Jie
2016-01-01
The flocculation of cohesive fine-grained sediment plays an important role in the transport characteristics of pollutants and nutrients absorbed on the surface of sediment in estuarine and coastal waters through the complex processes of sediment transport, deposition, resuspension and consolidation. Many laboratory experiments have been carried out to investigate the influence of different flow shear conditions on the floc size at the steady state of flocculation in the shear flow. Most of these experiments reported that the floc size decreases with increasing shear stresses and used a power law to express this dependence. In this study, we performed a Couette-flow experiment to measure the size of the kaolinite floc through sampling observation and an image analysis system at the steady state of flocculation under six flow shear conditions. The results show that the negative correlation of the floc size on the flow shear occurs only at high shear conditions, whereas at low shear conditions, the floc size increases with increasing turbulent shear stresses regardless of electrolyte conditions. Increasing electrolyte conditions and the initial particle concentration could lead to a larger steady-state floc size.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shojania Feizabadi, Mitra; Spillman, William B.
2005-03-01
Microtubules are the target for a large number of anti-mitotic agents including colchicine. Colchicine is a well studied inhibitor that is believed to act by disrupting the microtubule requirements for chromosome movement during mitosis. The mechanism of action of colchicine in vitro and at low concentration is due to kinetic stabilization of spindle microtubule dynamics. In this study we investigate the behavior of free T-tubulin concentration in the microtubule steady state and in the presence colchicine. We assume that there is an excess of GTP (guanosine tri-phosphate) available in the solution, and that the D-tubulin in the solution will exchange its unit of GDP (guanosine di-phosphate) with a unit of GTP. By numerical analysis, the concentration of T-tubulin in the steady state as a function of regeneration rate was investigated in the presence and absence of colchicine. Our results show that low concentration of colchicine in the steady state does not significantly alter the amount of free total T-tubulin concentration or the polymer mass, in good agreement with experimental observations.
Cluster Mean-Field Approach to the Steady-State Phase Diagram of Dissipative Spin Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jin, Jiasen; Biella, Alberto; Viyuela, Oscar; Mazza, Leonardo; Keeling, Jonathan; Fazio, Rosario; Rossini, Davide
2016-07-01
We show that short-range correlations have a dramatic impact on the steady-state phase diagram of quantum driven-dissipative systems. This effect, never observed in equilibrium, follows from the fact that ordering in the steady state is of dynamical origin, and is established only at very long times, whereas in thermodynamic equilibrium it arises from the properties of the (free) energy. To this end, by combining the cluster methods extensively used in equilibrium phase transitions to quantum trajectories and tensor-network techniques, we extend them to nonequilibrium phase transitions in dissipative many-body systems. We analyze in detail a model of spin-1 /2 on a lattice interacting through an X Y Z Hamiltonian, each of them coupled to an independent environment that induces incoherent spin flips. In the steady-state phase diagram derived from our cluster approach, the location of the phase boundaries and even its topology radically change, introducing reentrance of the paramagnetic phase as compared to the single-site mean field where correlations are neglected. Furthermore, a stability analysis of the cluster mean field indicates a susceptibility towards a possible incommensurate ordering, not present if short-range correlations are ignored.
Effects of aging in catastrophe on the steady state and dynamics of a microtubule population
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jemseena, V.; Gopalakrishnan, Manoj
2015-05-01
Several independent observations have suggested that the catastrophe transition in microtubules is not a first-order process, as is usually assumed. Recent in vitro observations by Gardner et al. [M. K. Gardner et al., Cell 147, 1092 (2011), 10.1016/j.cell.2011.10.037] showed that microtubule catastrophe takes place via multiple steps and the frequency increases with the age of the filament. Here we investigate, via numerical simulations and mathematical calculations, some of the consequences of the age dependence of catastrophe on the dynamics of microtubules as a function of the aging rate, for two different models of aging: exponential growth, but saturating asymptotically, and purely linear growth. The boundary demarcating the steady-state and non-steady-state regimes in the dynamics is derived analytically in both cases. Numerical simulations, supported by analytical calculations in the linear model, show that aging leads to nonexponential length distributions in steady state. More importantly, oscillations ensue in microtubule length and velocity. The regularity of oscillations, as characterized by the negative dip in the autocorrelation function, is reduced by increasing the frequency of rescue events. Our study shows that the age dependence of catastrophe could function as an intrinsic mechanism to generate oscillatory dynamics in a microtubule population, distinct from hitherto identified ones.
Bustard, Mark A; Farley, Anne E; Bennett, Brian M; Smith, Graeme N
2003-09-01
The administration of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN; nitroglycerin) is increasing during preterm pregnancies, yet its disposition and, importantly, the extent of fetal exposure remain to be elucidated. When used as a tocolytic (pharmacological agent that stops uterine contractions), it is administered transdermally (24-48 h). Here, we quantified the maternal and fetal steady-state plasma concentrations of maternal intravenous GTN in preterm sheep and continuously monitored maternal and fetal vascular parameters to observe possible dose-dependent vascular effects. Preterm (120 days gestation) pregnant sheep (n = 6) were instrumented with maternal femoral arterial (MA) and venous (MV) and fetal femoral arterial (FA) and umbilical venous (UV) polyethylene blood-sampling catheters. During maternal GTN infusion (3.0 micro g.kg-1.min-1, 60-min duration) the steady-state GTN concentrations ([GTN]) were as follows: MA, 98.6 +/- 9.0 nM; UV, 17.4 +/- 7.6 nM; and FA, <5 nM. There were no changes in maternal and fetal mean arterial pressure and heart rate or in uterine activity. Overall, the steady-state [GTN] was established by 5 min, and the UV/MA ratio of [GTN] was 0.18. The FA [GTN] (<5 nM) indicates that the fetus cleared essentially all GTN in the UV, and the maternal and fetal heart rate and mean arterial pressure appear to be independent of maternal GTN infusion. PMID:14614525
Steady-state damage profiles due to reactive ion etching and ion-assisted etching
Davis, R.J.; Jha, P.
1995-03-01
Ion damage of materials due to reactive ion etching and ion-assisted etching is formulated as a dynamic problem involving the etch rate, damage creation due to ions, diffusion, and ion range effects. The differential equation is solved in the steady-state assuming an exponentially decreasing damage creation function. The ratio {ital D}/{ital a}{epsilon}, where {ital D} is the damage coefficient, {ital a} the inherent depth of ion damage, and {epsilon} the etch rate is shown to be an important parameter determining the steady-state damage profile. Results are examined for situations in which the parameter is much less than or much greater than unity, corresponding to range- and diffusion-dominated profiles, respectively. In both situations, steady-state damage profiles will be quite sensitive to the etch rate of the surface. We suggest some experiments which may elucidate the separate contributions of ion channeling and diffusion to observed damage depth profiles. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Vacuum} {ital Society}
Nonequilibrium Lifshitz theory as a steady state of a full dynamical quantum system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lombardo, Fernando C.; Mazzitelli, Francisco D.; López, Adrián E. Rubio; Turiaci, Gustavo J.
2016-07-01
In this work we analyze the validity of Lifshitz's theory for the case of nonequilibrium scenarios from a full quantum dynamical approach. We show that Lifshitz's framework for the study of the Casimir pressure is the result of considering the long-time regime (or steady state) of a well-defined fully quantized problem, subjected to initial conditions for the electromagnetic field interacting with real materials. For this, we implement the closed time path formalism developed in previous works to study the case of two half spaces (modeled as composite environments, consisting in quantum degrees of freedom plus thermal baths) interacting with the electromagnetic field. Starting from initial uncorrelated free subsystems, we solve the full time evolution, obtaining general expressions for the different contributions to the pressure that take part on the transient stage. Using the analytic properties of the retarded Green functions, we obtain the long-time limit of these contributions to the total Casimir pressure. We show that, in the steady state, only the baths' contribute, in agreement with the results of previous works, where this was assumed without justification. We also study in detail the physics of the initial conditions' contribution and the concept of modified vacuum modes, giving insights about in which situations one would expect a nonvanishing contribution at the steady state of a nonequilibrium scenario. This would be the case when considering finite width slabs instead of half-spaces.
Steady-state and transient analysis of a squeeze film damper bearing for rotor stability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barrett, L. E.; Gunter, E. J.
1975-01-01
A study of the steady-state and transient response of the squeeze film damper bearing is presented. Both the steady-state and transient equations for the hydrodynamic bearing forces are derived. The bearing equivalent stiffness and damping coefficients are determined by steady-state equations. These coefficients are used to find the bearing configuration which will provide the optimum support characteristics based on a stability analysis of the rotor-bearing system. The transient analysis of rotor-bearing systems is performed by coupling the bearing and journal equations and integrating forward in time. The effects of unbalance, cavitation, and retainer springs are included in the analysis. Methods of determining the stability of a rotor-bearing system under the influence of aerodynamic forces and internal shaft friction are discussed with emphasis on solving the system characteristic frequency equation and on producing stability maps. It is shown that for optimum stability and low force transmissability the squeeze bearing should operate at an eccentricity ratio epsilon 0.4.
On the Kaolinite Floc Size at the Steady State of Flocculation in a Turbulent Flow
Zhu, Zhongfan; Wang, Hongrui; Yu, Jingshan; Dou, Jie
2016-01-01
The flocculation of cohesive fine-grained sediment plays an important role in the transport characteristics of pollutants and nutrients absorbed on the surface of sediment in estuarine and coastal waters through the complex processes of sediment transport, deposition, resuspension and consolidation. Many laboratory experiments have been carried out to investigate the influence of different flow shear conditions on the floc size at the steady state of flocculation in the shear flow. Most of these experiments reported that the floc size decreases with increasing shear stresses and used a power law to express this dependence. In this study, we performed a Couette-flow experiment to measure the size of the kaolinite floc through sampling observation and an image analysis system at the steady state of flocculation under six flow shear conditions. The results show that the negative correlation of the floc size on the flow shear occurs only at high shear conditions, whereas at low shear conditions, the floc size increases with increasing turbulent shear stresses regardless of electrolyte conditions. Increasing electrolyte conditions and the initial particle concentration could lead to a larger steady-state floc size. PMID:26901652
Amri, Amina; Pulko, Susan Helen; Wilkinson, Anthony James
2016-01-01
Breast thermography still has inherent limitations that prevent it from being fully accepted as a breast screening modality in medicine. The main challenges of breast thermography are to reduce false positive results and to increase the sensitivity of a thermogram. Further, it is still difficult to obtain information about tumour parameters such as metabolic heat, tumour depth and diameter from a thermogram. However, infrared technology and image processing have advanced significantly and recent clinical studies have shown increased sensitivity of thermography in cancer diagnosis. The aim of this paper is to study numerically the possibilities of extracting information about the tumour depth from steady state thermography and transient thermography after cold stress with no need to use any specific inversion technique. Both methods are based on the numerical solution of Pennes bioheat equation for a simple three-dimensional breast model. The effectiveness of two approaches used for depth detection from steady state thermography is assessed. The effect of breast density on the steady state thermal contrast has also been studied. The use of a cold stress test and the recording of transient contrasts during rewarming were found to be potentially suitable for tumour depth detection during the rewarming process. Sensitivity to parameters such as cold stress temperature and cooling time is investigated using the numerical model and simulation results reveal two prominent depth-related characteristic times which do not strongly depend on the temperature of the cold stress or on the cooling period. PMID:26522612
Bustard, Mark A; Farley, Anne E; Bennett, Brian M; Smith, Graeme N
2003-09-01
The administration of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN; nitroglycerin) is increasing during preterm pregnancies, yet its disposition and, importantly, the extent of fetal exposure remain to be elucidated. When used as a tocolytic (pharmacological agent that stops uterine contractions), it is administered transdermally (24-48 h). Here, we quantified the maternal and fetal steady-state plasma concentrations of maternal intravenous GTN in preterm sheep and continuously monitored maternal and fetal vascular parameters to observe possible dose-dependent vascular effects. Preterm (120 days gestation) pregnant sheep (n = 6) were instrumented with maternal femoral arterial (MA) and venous (MV) and fetal femoral arterial (FA) and umbilical venous (UV) polyethylene blood-sampling catheters. During maternal GTN infusion (3.0 micro g.kg-1.min-1, 60-min duration) the steady-state GTN concentrations ([GTN]) were as follows: MA, 98.6 +/- 9.0 nM; UV, 17.4 +/- 7.6 nM; and FA, <5 nM. There were no changes in maternal and fetal mean arterial pressure and heart rate or in uterine activity. Overall, the steady-state [GTN] was established by 5 min, and the UV/MA ratio of [GTN] was 0.18. The FA [GTN] (<5 nM) indicates that the fetus cleared essentially all GTN in the UV, and the maternal and fetal heart rate and mean arterial pressure appear to be independent of maternal GTN infusion.
Steady-state and dynamic models for particle engulfment during solidification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tao, Yutao; Yeckel, Andrew; Derby, Jeffrey J.
2016-06-01
Steady-state and dynamic models are developed to study the physical mechanisms that determine the pushing or engulfment of a solid particle at a moving solid-liquid interface. The mathematical model formulation rigorously accounts for energy and momentum conservation, while faithfully representing the interfacial phenomena affecting solidification phase change and particle motion. A numerical solution approach is developed using the Galerkin finite element method and elliptic mesh generation in an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian implementation, thus allowing for a rigorous representation of forces and dynamics previously inaccessible by approaches using analytical approximations. We demonstrate that this model accurately computes the solidification interface shape while simultaneously resolving thin fluid layers around the particle that arise from premelting during particle engulfment. We reinterpret the significance of premelting via the definition an unambiguous critical velocity for engulfment from steady-state analysis and bifurcation theory. We also explore the complicated transient behaviors that underlie the steady states of this system and posit the significance of dynamical behavior on engulfment events for many systems. We critically examine the onset of engulfment by comparing our computational predictions to those obtained using the analytical model of Rempel and Worster [29]. We assert that, while the accurate calculation of van der Waals repulsive forces remains an open issue, the computational model developed here provides a clear benefit over prior models for computing particle drag forces and other phenomena needed for the faithful simulation of particle engulfment.
Simple Biochemical Pathways far from Steady State Can Provide Switchlike and Integrated Responses
Di Talia, Stefano; Wieschaus, Eric F.
2014-01-01
Covalent modification cycles (systems in which the activity of a substrate is regulated by the action of two opposing enzymes) and ligand/receptor interactions are ubiquitous in signaling systems and their steady-state properties are well understood. However, the behavior of such systems far from steady state remains unclear. Here, we analyze the properties of covalent modification cycles and ligand/receptor interactions driven by the accumulation of the activating enzyme and the ligand, respectively. We show that for a large range of parameters both systems produce sharp switchlike response and yet allow for temporal integration of the signal, two desirable signaling properties. Ultrasensitivity is observed also in a region of parameters where the steady-state response is hyperbolic. The temporal integration properties are tunable by regulating the levels of the deactivating enzyme and receptor, as well as by adjusting the rate of accumulation of the activating enzyme and ligand. We propose that this tunability is used to generate precise responses in signaling systems. PMID:25099818
Hu, J S; Sun, Z; Guo, H Y; Li, J G; Wan, B N; Wang, H Q; Ding, S Y; Xu, G S; Liang, Y F; Mansfield, D K; Maingi, R; Zou, X L; Wang, L; Ren, J; Zuo, G Z; Zhang, L; Duan, Y M; Shi, T H; Hu, L Q
2015-02-01
A critical challenge facing the basic long-pulse high-confinement operation scenario (H mode) for ITER is to control a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability, known as the edge localized mode (ELM), which leads to cyclical high peak heat and particle fluxes at the plasma facing components. A breakthrough is made in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak in achieving a new steady-state H mode without the presence of ELMs for a duration exceeding hundreds of energy confinement times, by using a novel technique of continuous real-time injection of a lithium (Li) aerosol into the edge plasma. The steady-state ELM-free H mode is accompanied by a strong edge coherent MHD mode (ECM) at a frequency of 35-40 kHz with a poloidal wavelength of 10.2 cm in the ion diamagnetic drift direction, providing continuous heat and particle exhaust, thus preventing the transient heat deposition on plasma facing components and impurity accumulation in the confined plasma. It is truly remarkable that Li injection appears to promote the growth of the ECM, owing to the increase in Li concentration and hence collisionality at the edge, as predicted by GYRO simulations. This new steady-state ELM-free H-mode regime, enabled by real-time Li injection, may open a new avenue for next-step fusion development.
Steady-state propagation speed of rupture fronts along one-dimensional frictional interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amundsen, David Skâlid; Trømborg, Jørgen Kjoshagen; Thøgersen, Kjetil; Katzav, Eytan; Malthe-Sørenssen, Anders; Scheibert, Julien
2015-09-01
The rupture of dry frictional interfaces occurs through the propagation of fronts breaking the contacts at the interface. Recent experiments have shown that the velocities of these rupture fronts range from quasistatic velocities proportional to the external loading rate to velocities larger than the shear wave speed. The way system parameters influence front speed is still poorly understood. Here we study steady-state rupture propagation in a one-dimensional (1D) spring-block model of an extended frictional interface for various friction laws. With the classical Amontons-Coulomb friction law, we derive a closed-form expression for the steady-state rupture velocity as a function of the interfacial shear stress just prior to rupture. We then consider an additional shear stiffness of the interface and show that the softer the interface, the slower the rupture fronts. We provide an approximate closed form expression for this effect. We finally show that adding a bulk viscosity on the relative motion of blocks accelerates steady-state rupture fronts and we give an approximate expression for this effect. We demonstrate that the 1D results are qualitatively valid in 2D. Our results provide insights into the qualitative role of various key parameters of a frictional interface on its rupture dynamics. They will be useful to better understand the many systems in which spring-block models have proved adequate, from friction to granular matter and earthquake dynamics.
A new hybrid inductive scenario for a nearly steady-state Reversed Field Pinch
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarff, J. S.
2007-11-01
Steady-state current sustainment is challenging for the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP). The current magnitude is large, while the pressure-driven (bootstrap) current is small, even at the RFP's high beta >20%. In the TITAN (RFP) system study [1], the current was designed steady-state using Oscillating Field Current Drive (OFCD), i.e., steady magnetic helicity injection using phased AC induction. Experiments and theory for OFCD are so far promising, but OFCD's reliance on magnetic relaxation could turn out incompatible with energy confinement requirements. Meanwhile inductive current profile control has demonstrated tokamak-like confinement in the RFP. Such control is inherently not steady-state. A hybrid scheme is proposed using OFCD to ramp the current, followed by a pulsed-burn during which inductive profile control maintains high confinement. The current is not constant but never goes to zero (sawtooth-like waveform). The current drive (and profile control) is efficient induction, simply applied at the plasma surface. The pulsed-burn phases could be separated by only a few seconds. Optimization of the hybrid cycle and other issues will be discussed. [1] http://aries.ucsd.edu/LIB/REPORT/TITAN/final.shtml
Arc plasma generator of atomic driver for steady-state negative ion source
Ivanov, A. A.; Belchenko, Yu. I.; Davydenko, V. I.; Ivanov, I. A.; Kolmogorov, V. V.; Listopad, A. A. Mishagin, V. V.; Shulzhenko, G. I.; Putvinsky, S. V.; Smirnov, A.
2014-02-15
The paper reviews the results of development of steady-state arc-discharge plasma generator with directly heated LaB{sub 6} cathode. This arc-discharge plasma generator produces a plasma jet which is to be converted into an atomic one after recombination on a metallic plate. The plate is electrically biased relative to the plasma in order to control the atom energies. Such an intensive jet of hydrogen atoms can be used in negative ion sources for effective production of negative ions on a cesiated surface of plasma grid. All elements of the plasma generator have an augmented water cooling to operate in long pulse mode or in steady state. The thermo-mechanical stresses and deformations of the most critical elements of the plasma generator were determined by simulations. Magnetic field inside the discharge chamber was optimized to reduce the local power loads. The first tests of the steady-state arc plasma generator prototype have performed in long-pulse mode.
Arc plasma generator of atomic driver for steady-state negative ion source.
Ivanov, A A; Belchenko, Yu I; Davydenko, V I; Ivanov, I A; Kolmogorov, V V; Listopad, A A; Mishagin, V V; Putvinsky, S V; Shulzhenko, G I; Smirnov, A
2014-02-01
The paper reviews the results of development of steady-state arc-discharge plasma generator with directly heated LaB6 cathode. This arc-discharge plasma generator produces a plasma jet which is to be converted into an atomic one after recombination on a metallic plate. The plate is electrically biased relative to the plasma in order to control the atom energies. Such an intensive jet of hydrogen atoms can be used in negative ion sources for effective production of negative ions on a cesiated surface of plasma grid. All elements of the plasma generator have an augmented water cooling to operate in long pulse mode or in steady state. The thermo-mechanical stresses and deformations of the most critical elements of the plasma generator were determined by simulations. Magnetic field inside the discharge chamber was optimized to reduce the local power loads. The first tests of the steady-state arc plasma generator prototype have performed in long-pulse mode.
The orbital PDF: general inference of the gravitational potential from steady-state tracers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Jiaxin; Wang, Wenting; Cole, Shaun; Frenk, Carlos S.
2016-02-01
We develop two general methods to infer the gravitational potential of a system using steady-state tracers, i.e. tracers with a time-independent phase-space distribution. Combined with the phase-space continuity equation, the time independence implies a universal orbital probability density function (oPDF) dP(λ|orbit) ∝ dt, where λ is the coordinate of the particle along the orbit. The oPDF is equivalent to Jeans theorem, and is the key physical ingredient behind most dynamical modelling of steady-state tracers. In the case of a spherical potential, we develop a likelihood estimator that fits analytical potentials to the system and a non-parametric method (`phase-mark') that reconstructs the potential profile, both assuming only the oPDF. The methods involve no extra assumptions about the tracer distribution function and can be applied to tracers with any arbitrary distribution of orbits, with possible extension to non-spherical potentials. The methods are tested on Monte Carlo samples of steady-state tracers in dark matter haloes to show that they are unbiased as well as efficient. A fully documented C/PYTHON code implementing our method is freely available at a GitHub repository linked from http://icc.dur.ac.uk/data/#oPDF.
A Robust and Efficient Method for Steady State Patterns in Reaction-Diffusion Systems
Lo, Wing-Cheong; Chen, Long; Wang, Ming; Nie, Qing
2012-01-01
An inhomogeneous steady state pattern of nonlinear reaction-diffusion equations with no-flux boundary conditions is usually computed by solving the corresponding time-dependent reaction-diffusion equations using temporal schemes. Nonlinear solvers (e.g., Newton’s method) take less CPU time in direct computation for the steady state; however, their convergence is sensitive to the initial guess, often leading to divergence or convergence to spatially homogeneous solution. Systematically numerical exploration of spatial patterns of reaction-diffusion equations under different parameter regimes requires that the numerical method be efficient and robust to initial condition or initial guess, with better likelihood of convergence to an inhomogeneous pattern. Here, a new approach that combines the advantages of temporal schemes in robustness and Newton’s method in fast convergence in solving steady states of reaction-diffusion equations is proposed. In particular, an adaptive implicit Euler with inexact solver (AIIE) method is found to be much more efficient than temporal schemes and more robust in convergence than typical nonlinear solvers (e.g., Newton’s method) in finding the inhomogeneous pattern. Application of this new approach to two reaction-diffusion equations in one, two, and three spatial dimensions, along with direct comparisons to several other existing methods, demonstrates that AIIE is a more desirable method for searching inhomogeneous spatial patterns of reaction-diffusion equations in a large parameter space. PMID:22773849
A theoretical analysis of steady-state photocurrents in simple silicon diodes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edmonds, L.
1995-01-01
A theoretical analysis solves for the steady-state photocurrents produced by a given photo-generation rate function with negligible recombination in simple silicon diodes, consisting of a uniformly doped quasi-neutral region (called 'substrate' below) adjacent to a p-n junction depletion region (DR). Special attention is given to conditions that produce 'funneling' (a term used by the single-eventeffects community) under steady-state conditions. Funneling occurs when carriers are generated so fast that the DR becomes flooded and partially or completely collapses. Some or nearly all of the applied voltage, plus built-in potential normally across the DR, is now across the substrate. This substrate voltage drop affects substrate currents. The steady-state problem can provide some qualitative insights into the more difficult transient problem. First, it was found that funneling can be induced from a distance, i.e., from carriers generated at locations outside of the DR. Secondly, it was found that the substrate can divide into two subregions, with one controlling substrate resistance and the other characterized by ambipolar diffusion. Finally, funneling was found to be more difficult to induce in the p(sup +)/n diode than in the n(sup +)/p diode. The carrier density exceeding the doping density in the substrate and at the DR boundary is not a sufficient condition to collapse a DR.
Tromberg, Bruce J.; Berger, Andrew J.; Cerussi, Albert E.; Bevilacqua, Frederic; Jakubowski, Dorota
2008-09-23
A technique for measuring broadband near-infrared absorption spectra of turbid media that uses a combination of frequency-domain and steady-state reflectance methods. Most of the wavelength coverage is provided by a white-light steady-state measurement, whereas the frequency-domain data are acquired at a few selected wavelengths. Coefficients of absorption and reduced scattering derived from the frequency-domain data are used to calibrate the intensity of the steady-state measurements and to determine the reduced scattering coefficient at all wavelengths in the spectral window of interest. The absorption coefficient spectrum is determined by comparing the steady-state reflectance values with the predictions of diffusion theory, wavelength by wavelength. Absorption spectra of a turbid phantom and of human breast tissue in vivo, derived with the combined frequency-domain and steady-state technique, agree well with expected reference values.
Berkenbosch, A; Bovill, J G; Dahan, A; DeGoede, J; Olievier, I C
1989-01-01
1. The ventilatory response to changes in end-tidal carbon dioxide tension during hyperoxia, obtained with Read's rebreathing method and a steady-state technique, were compared. 2. In ten young male subjects, forty successful rebreathing and thirteen steady-state experiments were performed on thirteen different morning sessions. 3. In all subjects the ventilatory CO2 sensitivities obtained with the rebreathing method (Sr) were appreciably larger than the steady-state CO2 sensitivities (Ss). The ratio Sr/Ss ranged from 1.40 to 2.59 with a mean value of 1.85. 4. We argue that these results can be explained by considering the effect of changes in cerebral blood flow upon increasing the arterial CO2 tension during rebreathing and the steady state. 5. We conclude that in general the CO2 sensitivity obtained with Read's rebreathing method does not represent the steady-state CO2 sensitivity. PMID:2515274
Hydrogen sulfide inhibits the translational expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α
Wu, Bo; Teng, Huajian; Yang, Guangdong; Wu, Lingyun; Wang, Rui
2012-01-01
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) is under the influence of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which regulates hypoxia responses. The regulation of HIF-1α accumulation by H2S has been shown, but the mechanisms for this effect are largely elusive and controversial. This study aimed at addressing the controversial mechanisms for and the functional importance of the interaction of H2S and HIF-1α protein. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH HIF-1α protein levels and HIF-1α transcriptional activity were detected by Western blotting and luciferase assay. The mechanisms for H2S-regulated HIF-1α protein levels were determined using short interfering RNA transfection, co-immunoprecipitation and 7-methyl-GTP sepharose 4B pull-down assay. Angiogenic activity was evaluated using tube formation assay in EA.hy926 cells. KEY RESULTS The accumulation of HIF-1α protein under hypoxia (1% O2) or hypoxia-mimetic conditions was reversed by sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS). This effect of NaHS was not altered after blocking the ubiquitin-proteasomal pathway for HIF-1α degradation; however, blockade of protein translation with cycloheximide abolished the effect of NaHS on the half-life of HIF-1α protein. Knockdown of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) suppressed the effect of NaHS on HIF-1α protein accumulation under hypoxia. NaHS inhibited the expression of VEGF under hypoxia. It also decreased in vitro capillary tube formation and cell proliferation of EA.hy926 cells under hypoxia, but stimulated the tube formation under normoxia. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS H2S suppresses HIF-1α translation by enhancing eIF2α phosphorylation under hypoxia. The interaction of H2S and HIF-1α inhibits the angiogenic activity of vascular endothelial cells under hypoxia through the down-regulation of VEGF. PMID:22831549
Three-dimensional steady state flow to a well in a randomly heterogeneous bounded aquifer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guadagnini, Alberto; Riva, Monica; Neuman, Shlomo P.
2003-03-01
We consider flow in a confined aquifer of uniform thickness due to a well of zero radius that fully penetrates the aquifer and discharges at a constant rate. If the lateral extent of the aquifer is infinite, a steady state flow regime never develops. It is, however, well known that if the aquifer is additionally uniform, a quasi-steady state region extends from the well out to a cylindrical surface whose radius expands as the square root of time. On the expanding surface, head is uniform and time invariant. Inside this surface, head at any time is described by a steady state solution. A rigorous analysis of the analogous situation in a randomly heterogeneous aquifer would require the solution of a three-dimensional transient stochastic flow problem in an aquifer of infinite lateral extent. Here we take a different approach by developing a three-dimensional steady solution for mean flow to a well in a randomly heterogeneous aquifer with a cylindrical prescribed head boundary. In analogy to the uniform case we expect our solution to approximate a quasi-steady state region whose radius is initially small in comparison to the horizontal correlation scale of log conductivity but grows with time to become eventually much larger. We treat log conductivity as a statistically homogeneous random field characterized by a Gaussian spatial covariance function that may have different horizontal and vertical correlation scales. Our solution consists of analytical expressions for the ensemble mean and variance of head in the aquifer to second order in the standard deviation of log conductivity. It is based on recursive approximations of exact nonlocal moment equations that are free of distributional assumptions and so apply to both Gaussian and non-Gaussian log conductivity fields. The analytical solution is supported by numerical Monte Carlo simulations. It clarifies the manner in which relationships between the horizontal and vertical scales of the quasi-steady state region and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cruz, L.; Teyssier, C.; Annia, F.; Take, A.
2005-12-01
The evolution of orogens is highly affected by surface processes that control mass distribution. Transportation and redistribution of mass at the Earth's surface modifies the gravitational load and alters the stress field and kinematics within orogens. We explore the role of asymmetric erosion, indenter dip angle, and flux steady/non-steady state in determining the patterns of deformation and exhumation in doubly-sided orogenic wedges. In our analogue model, shortening of the orogen is driven by rigid indenters, represented by Plexiglas wedged blocks (35 and 70 degrees) that deform a non-cohesive dry Coulomb material (walnut shells) representing crustal material. Three end-member erosional scenarios are considered. In the first case, erosion is not applied, and thus the doubly-sided orogenic wedge evolves without restraints (non-steady state). In the second case, erosion is concentrated solely on the indenters side of the orogen (retrowedge), and in the third case, erosion is focused on the flank opposite to the indenter side (prowedge). In the last two cases, steady-state conditions were present in the middle stages of shortening. Strain and exhumation were calculated using displacement fields from 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV analysis). In the three cases, the model deforms as a combination of lateral compaction and localization of strain in shear bands. In the early stages of deformation, a "pop-up" structure develops, bounded by a fore-shear on the front and a back-shear toward the indenter. As deformation continues, a new fore-shear develops, and the previous one remains inactive and is passively pushed up the wedge. In the case of no erosion, the old fore-shears rotate slightly toward the indenter, and the shear bands evolve to steeply dipping structures. In the case of retrowedge erosion, the old fore-shears back rotate toward the indenter, and the shear bands evolve to shallowly dipping structures. In the case of prowedge erosion, old fore
The technology and science of steady-state operation in magnetically confined plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bécoulet, A.; Hoang, G. T.
2008-12-01
The steady-state operation of magnetically confined fusion plasmas is considered as one of the 'grand challenges' of future decades, if not the ultimate goal of the research and development activities towards a new source of energy. Reaching such a goal requires the high-level integration of both science and technology aspects of magnetic fusion into self-consistent plasma regimes in fusion-grade devices. On the physics side, the first constraint addresses the magnetic confinement itself which must be made persistent. This means to either rely on intrinsically steady-state configurations, like the stellarator one, or turn the inductively driven tokamak configuration into a fully non-inductive one, through a mix of additional current sources. The low efficiency of the external current drive methods and the necessity to minimize the re-circulating power claim for a current mix strongly weighted by the internal 'pressure driven' bootstrap current, itself strongly sensitive to the heat and particle transport properties of the plasma. A virtuous circle may form as the heat and particle transport properties are themselves sensitive to the current profile conditions. Note that several other factors, e.g. plasma rotation profile, magneto-hydro-dynamics activity, also influence the equilibrium state. In the present tokamak devices, several examples of such 'advanced tokamak' physics research demonstrate the feasibility of steady-state regimes, though with a number of open questions still under investigation. The modelling activity also progresses quite fast in this domain and supports understanding and extrapolation. This high level of physics sophistication of the plasma scenario however needs to be combined with steady-state technological constraints. The technology constraints for steady-state operation are basically twofold: the specific technologies required to reach the steady-state plasma conditions and the generic technologies linked to the long pulse operation of a
Nagel, Hannes; Janke, Wolfhard
2016-05-01
Driven diffusive systems such as the zero-range process (ZRP) and the pair-factorized steady states (PFSS) stochastic transport process are versatile tools that lend themselves to the study of transport phenomena on a generic level. While their mathematical structure is simple enough to allow significant analytical treatment, they offer a variety of interesting phenomena. With appropriate dynamics, the ZRP and PFSS models feature a condensation transition where, for a supercritical density, the translational symmetry breaks spontaneously and excess particles form a single-site or spatially extended condensate, respectively. In this paper we numerically study the typical time scales of the two stages of this condensation process: Nucleation and coarsening. Nucleation is the first stage of condensation where the bulk system relaxes to its stationary distribution and droplet nuclei form in the system. These droplets then gradually grow or evaporate in the coarsening regime to coalesce in a single condensate when the system finally relaxes to the stationary state. We use the ZRP condensation model to discuss the choice of the estimation method for the nucleation time scale and present scaling exponents for the ZRP and PFSS condensation models with respect to the choice of the typical droplet nuclei mass. We then proceed to present scaling exponents in the coarsening regime of the ZRP for partially asymmetric dynamics and the PFSS model for symmetric and asymmetric dynamics. PMID:27300835
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nagel, Hannes; Janke, Wolfhard
2016-05-01
Driven diffusive systems such as the zero-range process (ZRP) and the pair-factorized steady states (PFSS) stochastic transport process are versatile tools that lend themselves to the study of transport phenomena on a generic level. While their mathematical structure is simple enough to allow significant analytical treatment, they offer a variety of interesting phenomena. With appropriate dynamics, the ZRP and PFSS models feature a condensation transition where, for a supercritical density, the translational symmetry breaks spontaneously and excess particles form a single-site or spatially extended condensate, respectively. In this paper we numerically study the typical time scales of the two stages of this condensation process: Nucleation and coarsening. Nucleation is the first stage of condensation where the bulk system relaxes to its stationary distribution and droplet nuclei form in the system. These droplets then gradually grow or evaporate in the coarsening regime to coalesce in a single condensate when the system finally relaxes to the stationary state. We use the ZRP condensation model to discuss the choice of the estimation method for the nucleation time scale and present scaling exponents for the ZRP and PFSS condensation models with respect to the choice of the typical droplet nuclei mass. We then proceed to present scaling exponents in the coarsening regime of the ZRP for partially asymmetric dynamics and the PFSS model for symmetric and asymmetric dynamics.
Christiansen, Torben; Nielsen, Jens
2002-08-28
The production of the extracellular alkaline protease Savinase (EC 3.4.21.62) and glucose uptake in a non-sporulating strain of Bacillus clausii were investigated by analysing steady-state and transients during continuous cultivations. The specific production rate was found to have an optimum at a dilution rate between 0.14 and 0.17 h(-1), whereas the yield of Savinase on glucose was found to increase with decreasing specific growth rate. A linear relationship between the ribosomal RNA content and the specific production rate was found, indicating that the translational capacity may be limiting for product formation. The dynamics of the production of Savinase were studied during step changes in the dilution rate. During a step down in the dilution rate the specific production rate decreased immediately until it reached a new steady value. During a step-up an initial cease in the production rate was observed, but when glucose stopped to accumulate the production rate was regained. The glucose uptake was further investigated when chemostat cultures growing at different dilution rates were exposed to glucose pulses. The maximal glucose uptake capacity was found to be dependent on the initial specific growth rate. Furthermore, the adaptation to high glucose concentrations was faster at high dilution rates than at low dilution rates. PMID:12084482
Culjkovic-Kraljacic, Biljana; Fernando, Tharu M.; Marullo, Rossella; Calvo-Vidal, Nieves; Verma, Akanksha; Yang, ShaoNing; Tabbò, Fabrizio; Gaudiano, Marcello; Zahreddine, Hiba; Goldstein, Rebecca L.; Patel, Jayeshkumar; Taldone, Tony; Chiosis, Gabriela; Ladetto, Marco; Ghione, Paola; Machiorlatti, Rodolfo; Elemento, Olivier; Inghirami, Giorgio; Melnick, Ari; Borden, Katherine L. B.
2016-01-01
Aggressive double- and triple-hit (DH/TH) diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) feature activation of Hsp90 stress pathways. Herein, we show that Hsp90 controls posttranscriptional dynamics of key messenger RNA (mRNA) species including those encoding BCL6, MYC, and BCL2. Using a proteomics approach, we found that Hsp90 binds to and maintains activity of eIF4E. eIF4E drives nuclear export and translation of BCL6, MYC, and BCL2 mRNA. eIF4E RNA-immunoprecipitation sequencing in DLBCL suggests that nuclear eIF4E controls an extended program that includes B-cell receptor signaling, cellular metabolism, and epigenetic regulation. Accordingly, eIF4E was required for survival of DLBCL including the most aggressive subtypes, DH/TH lymphomas. Indeed, eIF4E inhibition induces tumor regression in cell line and patient-derived tumorgrafts of TH-DLBCL, even in the presence of elevated Hsp90 activity. Targeting Hsp90 is typically limited by counterregulatory elevation of Hsp70B, which induces resistance to Hsp90 inhibitors. Surprisingly, we identify Hsp70 mRNA as an eIF4E target. In this way, eIF4E inhibition can overcome drug resistance to Hsp90 inhibitors. Accordingly, rational combinatorial inhibition of eIF4E and Hsp90 inhibitors resulted in cooperative antilymphoma activity in DH/TH DLBCL in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26603836
Muftuoglu, Yagmur; Sohl, Christal D; Mislak, Andrea C; Mitsuya, Hiroaki; Sarafianos, Stefan G; Anderson, Karen S
2014-06-01
The novel antiretroviral 4'-ethynyl-2-fluoro-2'-deoxyadenosine (EFdA) is a potent nucleoside HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor (NRTI). Unlike other FDA-approved NRTIs, EFdA contains a 3'-hydroxyl. Pre-steady-state kinetics showed RT preferred incorporating EFdA-TP over native dATP. Moreover, RT slowly inserted nucleotides past an EFdA-terminated primer, resulting in delayed chain termination with unaffected fidelity. This is distinct from KP1212, another 3'-hydroxyl-containing RT inhibitor considered to promote viral lethal mutagenesis. New mechanistic features of RT inhibition by EFdA are revealed.
Dubbert, Maren; Cuntz, Matthias; Piayda, Arndt; Werner, Christiane
2014-09-01
The oxygen isotope signature of water is a powerful tracer of water movement from plants to the global scale. However, little is known about the short-term variability of oxygen isotopes leaving the ecosystem via transpiration, as high-frequency measurements are lacking. A laser spectrometer was coupled to a gas-exchange chamber directly estimating branch-level fluxes in order to evaluate the short-term variability of the isotopic composition of transpiration (δE ) and to investigate the role of isotopic non-steady-state transpiration under natural conditions in cork-oak trees (Quercus suber) during distinct Mediterranean seasons. The measured δ(18) O of transpiration (δE ) deviated from isotopic steady state throughout most of the day even when leaf water at the evaporating sites was near isotopic steady state. High agreement was found between estimated and modeled δE values assuming non-steady-state enrichment of leaf water. Isoforcing, that is, the influence of the transpirational δ(18) O flux on atmospheric values, deviated from steady-state calculations but daily means were similar between steady state and non-steady state. However, strong daytime isoforcing on the atmosphere implies that short-term variations in δE are likely to have consequences for large-scale applications, for example, partitioning of ecosystem fluxes or satellite-based applications.
An S6:S18 complex inhibits translation of E. coli rpsF
Babina, Arianne M.; Soo, Mark W.; Fu, Yang; Meyer, Michelle M.
2015-01-01
More than half of the ribosomal protein operons in Escherichia coli are regulated by structures within the mRNA transcripts that interact with specific ribosomal proteins to inhibit further protein expression. This regulation is accomplished using a variety of mechanisms and the RNA structures responsible for regulation are often not conserved across bacterial phyla. A widely conserved mRNA structure preceding the ribosomal protein operon containing rpsF and rpsR (encoding S6 and S18) was recently identified through comparative genomics. Examples of this RNA from both E. coli and Bacillus subtilis were shown to interact in vitro with an S6:S18 complex. In this work, we demonstrate that in E. coli, this RNA structure regulates gene expression in response to the S6:S18 complex. β-galactosidase activity from a lacZ reporter translationally fused to the 5′ UTR and first nine codons of E. coli rpsF is reduced fourfold by overexpression of a genomic fragment encoding both S6 and S18 but not by overexpression of either protein individually. Mutations to the mRNA structure, as well as to the RNA-binding site of S18 and the S6–S18 interaction surfaces of S6 and S18, are sufficient to derepress β-galactosidase activity, indicating that the S6:S18 complex is the biologically active effector. Measurement of transcript levels shows that although reporter levels do not change upon protein overexpression, levels of the native transcript are reduced fourfold, suggesting that the mRNA regulator prevents translation and this effect is amplified on the native transcript by other mechanisms. PMID:26447183
Lin, Yuan-Pin; Wang, Yijun; Wei, Chun-Shu; Jung, Tzyy-Ping
2014-01-01
Recent advances in mobile electroencephalogram (EEG) systems, featuring non-prep dry electrodes and wireless telemetry, have enabled and promoted the applications of mobile brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) in our daily life. Since the brain may behave differently while people are actively situated in ecologically-valid environments versus highly-controlled laboratory environments, it remains unclear how well the current laboratory-oriented BCI demonstrations can be translated into operational BCIs for users with naturalistic movements. Understanding inherent links between natural human behaviors and brain activities is the key to ensuring the applicability and stability of mobile BCIs. This study aims to assess the quality of steady-state visual-evoked potentials (SSVEPs), which is one of promising channels for functioning BCI systems, recorded using a mobile EEG system under challenging recording conditions, e.g., walking. To systematically explore the effects of walking locomotion on the SSVEPs, this study instructed subjects to stand or walk on a treadmill running at speeds of 1, 2, and 3 mile (s) per hour (MPH) while concurrently perceiving visual flickers (11 and 12 Hz). Empirical results of this study showed that the SSVEP amplitude tended to deteriorate when subjects switched from standing to walking. Such SSVEP suppression could be attributed to the walking locomotion, leading to distinctly deteriorated SSVEP detectability from standing (84.87 ± 13.55%) to walking (1 MPH: 83.03 ± 13.24%, 2 MPH: 79.47 ± 13.53%, and 3 MPH: 75.26 ± 17.89%). These findings not only demonstrated the applicability and limitations of SSVEPs recorded from freely behaving humans in realistic environments, but also provide useful methods and techniques for boosting the translation of the BCI technology from laboratory demonstrations to practical applications.
Wang, Yijun; Wei, Chun-Shu; Jung, Tzyy-Ping
2014-01-01
Recent advances in mobile electroencephalogram (EEG) systems, featuring non-prep dry electrodes and wireless telemetry, have enabled and promoted the applications of mobile brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) in our daily life. Since the brain may behave differently while people are actively situated in ecologically-valid environments versus highly-controlled laboratory environments, it remains unclear how well the current laboratory-oriented BCI demonstrations can be translated into operational BCIs for users with naturalistic movements. Understanding inherent links between natural human behaviors and brain activities is the key to ensuring the applicability and stability of mobile BCIs. This study aims to assess the quality of steady-state visual-evoked potentials (SSVEPs), which is one of promising channels for functioning BCI systems, recorded using a mobile EEG system under challenging recording conditions, e.g., walking. To systematically explore the effects of walking locomotion on the SSVEPs, this study instructed subjects to stand or walk on a treadmill running at speeds of 1, 2, and 3 mile (s) per hour (MPH) while concurrently perceiving visual flickers (11 and 12 Hz). Empirical results of this study showed that the SSVEP amplitude tended to deteriorate when subjects switched from standing to walking. Such SSVEP suppression could be attributed to the walking locomotion, leading to distinctly deteriorated SSVEP detectability from standing (84.87 ± 13.55%) to walking (1 MPH: 83.03 ± 13.24%, 2 MPH: 79.47 ± 13.53%, and 3 MPH: 75.26 ± 17.89%). These findings not only demonstrated the applicability and limitations of SSVEPs recorded from freely behaving humans in realistic environments, but also provide useful methods and techniques for boosting the translation of the BCI technology from laboratory demonstrations to practical applications. PMID:24744718
Jiao, J.; Grodzinski, B.
1996-01-01
Export and photosynthesis in leaves of Salvia splendens were measured concurrently during steady-state 14CO2 labeling conditions. Under ambient CO2 and O2 conditions, photosynthesis and export rates were similar at 15 and 25[deg]C, but both declined as leaf temperature was raised from 25 to 40[deg]C. Suppressing photorespiration between 15 and 40[deg]C by manipulating CO2 and O2 levels resulted in higher rates of leaf photosynthesis, total sugar synthesis, and export. There was a linear relationship between the rate of photosynthesis and the rate of export between 15 and 35[deg]C. At these temperatures, 60 to 80% of the carbon fixed was readily exported with sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose, which together constituted over 90% of phloem mobile assimilates. Above 35[deg]C, however, export during photosynthesis was inhibited both in photorespiratory conditions, which inhibited photosynthesis, and in nonphotorespiratory conditions, which did not inhibit photosynthesis. Sucrose and raffinose but not stachyose accumulated in the leaf at 40[deg]C. When leaves were preincubated at 40[deg]C and then cooled to 35[deg]C, export recovered more slowly than photosynthesis. These data are consistent with the view that impairment of export processes, rather than photosynthetic processes associated with light trapping, carbon reduction, and sucrose synthesis, accounted for the marked reduction in export between 35 and 40[deg]C. Taken together, the data indicated that temperature changes between 15 and 40[deg]C had two effects on photosynthesis and concurrent export. At all temperatures, suppressing photorespiration increased both photosynthesis and export, but above 35[deg]C, export processes were more directly inhibited independent of changes in photorespiration and photosynthesis. PMID:12226282
Jiao, J.; Grodzinski, B.
1996-05-01
Export and photosynthesis in leaves of Salvia splendens were measured concurrently during steady-state 14CO2 labeling conditions. Under ambient CO2 and O2 conditions, photosynthesis and export rates were similar at 15 and 25[deg]C, but both declined as leaf temperature was raised from 25 to 40[deg]C. Suppressing photorespiration between 15 and 40[deg]C by manipulating CO2 and O2 levels resulted in higher rates of leaf photosynthesis, total sugar synthesis, and export. There was a linear relationship between the rate of photosynthesis and the rate of export between 15 and 35[deg]C. At these temperatures, 60 to 80% of the carbon fixed was readily exported with sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose, which together constituted over 90% of phloem mobile assimilates. Above 35[deg]C, however, export during photosynthesis was inhibited both in photorespiratory conditions, which inhibited photosynthesis, and in nonphotorespiratory conditions, which did not inhibit photosynthesis. Sucrose and raffinose but not stachyose accumulated in the leaf at 40[deg]C. When leaves were preincubated at 40[deg]C and then cooled to 35[deg]C, export recovered more slowly than photosynthesis. These data are consistent with the view that impairment of export processes, rather than photosynthetic processes associated with light trapping, carbon reduction, and sucrose synthesis, accounted for the marked reduction in export between 35 and 40[deg]C. Taken together, the data indicated that temperature changes between 15 and 40[deg]C had two effects on photosynthesis and concurrent export. At all temperatures, suppressing photorespiration increased both photosynthesis and export, but above 35[deg]C, export processes were more directly inhibited independent of changes in photorespiration and photosynthesis.
Steady state estimation of soil organic carbon using satellite-derived canopy leaf area index
Fang, Yilin; Liu, Chongxuan; Huang, Maoyi; Li, Hongyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.
2014-12-02
Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a key role in the global carbon cycle that is important for decadal-to-century climate prediction. Estimation of soil organic carbon stock using model-based methods typically requires spin-up (time marching transient simulation) of the carbon-nitrogen (CN) models by performing hundreds to thousands years long simulations until the carbon-nitrogen pools reach dynamic steady-state. This has become a bottleneck for global modeling and analysis, especially when testing new physical and/or chemical mechanisms and evaluating parameter sensitivity. Here we report a new numerical approach to estimate global soil carbon stock that can avoid the long term spin-up of the CN model. The approach uses canopy leaf area index (LAI) from satellite data and takes advantage of a reaction-based biogeochemical module NGBGC (Next Generation BioGeoChemical Module) that was recently developed and incorporated in version 4 of the Community Land Model (CLM4). Although NGBGC uses the same CN mechanisms as used in CLM4CN, it can be easily configured to run prognostic or steady state simulations. In this approach, monthly LAI from the multi-year Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data was used to calculate potential annual average gross primary production (GPP) and leaf carbon for the period of the atmospheric forcing. The calculated potential annual average GPP and leaf C are then used by NGBGC to calculate the steady-state distributions of carbon and nitrogen in different vegetation and soil pools by solving the steady-state reaction-network in NGBGC using the Newton-Raphson method. The new approach was applied at point and global scales and compared with SOC derived from long spin-up by running NGBGC in prognostic mode, and SOC from the empirical data of the Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD). The steady-state solution is comparable to the spin-up value when the MODIS LAI is close to the LAI from the spin-up solution, and largely
Steady state estimation of soil organic carbon using satellite-derived canopy leaf area index
Fang, Yilin; Liu, Chongxuan; Huang, Maoyi; Li, Hongyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.
2014-12-02
Soil organic carbon (SOC) plays a key role in the global carbon cycle that is important for decadal-to-century climate prediction. Estimation of soil organic carbon stock using model-based methods typically requires spin-up (time marching transient simulation) of the carbon-nitrogen (CN) models by performing hundreds to thousands years long simulations until the carbon-nitrogen pools reach dynamic steady-state. This has become a bottleneck for global modeling and analysis, especially when testing new physical and/or chemical mechanisms and evaluating parameter sensitivity. Here we report a new numerical approach to estimate global soil carbon stock that can avoid the long term spin-up of themore » CN model. The approach uses canopy leaf area index (LAI) from satellite data and takes advantage of a reaction-based biogeochemical module NGBGC (Next Generation BioGeoChemical Module) that was recently developed and incorporated in version 4 of the Community Land Model (CLM4). Although NGBGC uses the same CN mechanisms as used in CLM4CN, it can be easily configured to run prognostic or steady state simulations. In this approach, monthly LAI from the multi-year Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data was used to calculate potential annual average gross primary production (GPP) and leaf carbon for the period of the atmospheric forcing. The calculated potential annual average GPP and leaf C are then used by NGBGC to calculate the steady-state distributions of carbon and nitrogen in different vegetation and soil pools by solving the steady-state reaction-network in NGBGC using the Newton-Raphson method. The new approach was applied at point and global scales and compared with SOC derived from long spin-up by running NGBGC in prognostic mode, and SOC from the empirical data of the Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD). The steady-state solution is comparable to the spin-up value when the MODIS LAI is close to the LAI from the spin-up solution, and largely
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meakin, Paul
1992-05-01
The final (steady state) stage of dropwise condensation has been explored using a simple model for droplet deposition and coalescence with the rapid sliding of droplets that exceed a critical size S∗. In this steady state regime the mean droplet size and the total mass density both decrease algebraically with increasing distance from the upper edge of the inclined substrate (apart from pronounced oscillations at very shot distances). The droplet number density on the other hand, varies at most logarithmically with this distance. The steady state droplet size distribution can be represented quite well by a stretched exponential form.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pogorzelski, Ronald J.
2004-01-01
When electronic oscillators are coupled to nearest neighbors to form an array on a hexagonal lattice, the planar phase distributions desired for excitation of a phased array antenna are not steady state solutions of the governing non-linear equations describing the system. Thus the steady state phase distribution deviates from planar. It is shown to be possible to obtain an exact solution for the steady state phase distribution and thus determine the deviation from the desired planar distribution as a function of beam steering angle.
Wang, Dong-Yang; Bai, Cheng-Hua; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhu, Ai-Dong; Zhang, Shou
2016-01-01
Quantum squeezing of mechanical resonator is important for studying the macroscopic quantum effects and the precision metrology of weak forces. Here we give a theoretical study of a hybrid atom-optomechanical system in which the steady-state squeezing of the mechanical resonator can be generated via the mechanical nonlinearity and cavity cooling process. The validity of the scheme is assessed by simulating the steady-state variance of the mechanical displacement quadrature numerically. The scheme is robust against dissipation of the optical cavity, and the steady-state squeezing can be effectively generated in a highly dissipative cavity. PMID:27091072
High-power and steady-state operation of ICRF heating in the large helical device
Mutoh, T. Seki, T.; Saito, K.; Kasahara, H.; Seki, R.; Kamio, S.; Kumazawa, R.; Kubo, S.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Igami, H.; Takahashi, H.; Ii, T.; Makino, R.; Nagaoka, K.; Nomura, G.; Shinya, T.
2015-12-10
Recent progress in an ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heating system and experiment results in a Large Helical Device (LHD) are reported. Three kinds of ICRF antenna pairs were installed in the LHD, and the operation power regimes were extended up to 4.5 MW; also, the steady-state operation was extended for more than 45 min in LHD at a MW power level. We studied ICRF heating physics in heliotron configuration using a Hand Shake type (HAS) antenna, Field Aligned Impedance Transforming (FAIT) antenna, and Poloidal Array (PA) antenna, and established the optimum minority-ion heating scenario in an LHD. The FAIT antenna having a novel impedance transformer inside the vacuum chamber could reduce the VSWR and successfully injected a higher power to plasma. We tested the PA antennas completely removing the Faraday-shield pipes to avoid breakdown and to increase the plasma coupling. The heating performance was almost the same as other antennas; however, the heating efficiency was degraded when the gap between the antenna and plasma surface was large. Using these three kinds of antennas, ICRF heating could contribute to raising the plasma beta with the second- and third-harmonic cyclotron heating mode, and also to raising the ion temperature as discharge cleaning tools. In 2014, steady-state operation plasma with a line-averaged electron density of 1.2 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}, ion and electron temperature of 2 keV, and plasma sustainment time of 48 min was achieved with ICH and ECH heating power of 1.2 MW for majority helium with minority hydrogen. In 2015, the higher-power steady-state operation with a heating power of up to 3 MW was tested with higher density of 3 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −3}.
Modeling of the blood rheology in steady-state shear flows
Apostolidis, Alex J.; Beris, Antony N.
2014-05-15
We undertake here a systematic study of the rheology of blood in steady-state shear flows. As blood is a complex fluid, the first question that we try to answer is whether, even in steady-state shear flows, we can model it as a rheologically simple fluid, i.e., we can describe its behavior through a constitutive model that involves only local kinematic quantities. Having answered that question positively, we then probe as to which non-Newtonian model best fits available shear stress vs shear-rate literature data. We show that under physiological conditions blood is typically viscoplastic, i.e., it exhibits a yield stress that acts as a minimum threshold for flow. We further show that the Casson model emerges naturally as the best approximation, at least for low and moderate shear-rates. We then develop systematically a parametric dependence of the rheological parameters entering the Casson model on key physiological quantities, such as the red blood cell volume fraction (hematocrit). For the yield stress, we base our description on its critical, percolation-originated nature. Thus, we first determine onset conditions, i.e., the critical threshold value that the hematocrit has to have in order for yield stress to appear. It is shown that this is a function of the concentration of a key red blood cell binding protein, fibrinogen. Then, we establish a parametric dependence as a function of the fibrinogen and the square of the difference of the hematocrit from its critical onset value. Similarly, we provide an expression for the Casson viscosity, in terms of the hematocrit and the temperature. A successful validation of the proposed formula is performed against additional experimental literature data. The proposed expression is anticipated to be useful not only for steady-state blood flow modeling but also as providing the starting point for transient shear, or more general flow modeling.
Steady-state pattern electroretinogram and frequency doubling technology in anisometropic amblyopia
Schiavi, Costantino; Tassi, Filippo; Finzi, Alessandro; Strobbe, Ernesto; Cellini, Mauro
2016-01-01
Background Steady-state pattern electroretinogram (PERG) and frequency doubling technology (FDT) perimetry can be used to selectively investigate the activity of the M-Y ganglion cells in adult anisometropic amblyopes. Methods Fifteen normal subjects (mean 27.8±4.1 years) and 15 adults with anisometropic amblyopia (mean 28.7±5.9 years) were analyzed using steady-state PERG and FDT. Results The amplitude of steady-state PERG was significantly different not only among the control group and both the amblyopic eye (P=0.0001) and the sound eye group (P=0.0001), but also between the latter two groups (P=0.006). The difference in FDT mean deviation was statistically significant not only between the control group and amblyopic eye group (P=0.0002), but also between the control group and the sound eye group (P=0.0009). The FDT pattern standard deviation was significantly higher in the control group rather than in the amblyopic eye (P=0.0001) or the sound eye group (P=0.0001). A correlation was found between the reduction in PERG amplitude and the increase in FDT-pattern standard deviation index not only in amblyopic (P=0.0025) and sound (P=0.0023) eyes, but also in the healthy control group (P=0.0001). Conclusion These data demonstrate that in anisometropic amblyopia, there is an abnormal functionality of a subgroup of the magnocellular ganglion cells (M-Y), and the involvement of these cells, together with the parvocellular pathway, may play a key role in the clinical expression of the disease. PMID:27799733
Czarnecki, Olaf; Peter, Enrico; Grimm, Bernhard
2011-01-01
Tetrapyrroles and carotenoids are required for many indispensable functions in photosynthesis. Tetrapyrroles are essential metabolites for photosynthesis, redox reaction, and detoxification of reactive oxygen species and xenobiotics, while carotenoids function as accessory pigments, in photoprotection and in attraction to animals. Their branched metabolic pathways of synthesis and degradation are tightly controlled to provide adequate amounts of each metabolite (carotenoids/tetrapyrroles) and to prevent accumulation of photoreactive intermediates (tetrapyrroles). Many Arabidopsis mutants and transgenic plants have been reported to show variations in steady-state levels of tetrapyrrole intermediates and contents of different carotenoid species. It is a challenging task to determine the minute amounts of these metabolites to assess the metabolic flow and the activities of both pigment-synthesising and degrading pathways, to unravel limiting enzymatic steps of these biosynthetic pathways, and to characterise mutants with accumulating intermediates. In this chapter, we present a series of methods to qualify and quantify anabolic and catabolic intermediates of Arabidopsis tetrapyrrole metabolism, and describe a common method for quantification of different plant carotenoid species. Additionally, we introduce two methods for quantification of non-covalently bound haem. The approach of analysing steady-state levels of tetrapyrrole intermediates in plants, when applied in combination with analyses of transcripts, proteins, and enzyme activities, enables the biochemical and genetic elucidation of the tetrapyrrole pathway in wild-type plants, varieties, and mutants. Steady-state levels of tetrapyrrole intermediates are only up to 1/1,000 of the amounts of the accumulating end-products, chlorophyll, and haem. Although present in very low amounts, the accumulation and availability of tetrapyrrole intermediates have major consequences on the physiology and activity of