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Sample records for inhibiting steady-state translation

  1. Ectopic expression of eIF4E-transporter triggers the movement of eIF4E into P-bodies, inhibiting steady-state translation but not the pioneer round of translation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyung Chul; Cho, Hana; Kim, Yoon Ki

    2008-05-16

    Nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) is the best-characterized mRNA surveillance mechanism; this process removes faulty mRNAs harboring premature termination codons (PTCs). NMD targets newly synthesized mRNAs bound by nuclear cap-binding proteins 80/20 (CBP80/20) and exon junction complex (EJC), the former of which is thought to recruit the ribosome to initiate the pioneer round of translation. After completion of the pioneer round of translation, CBP80/20 is replaced by the cytoplasmic cap-binding protein eIF4E, which mediates steady-state translation in the cytoplasm. Here, we show that overexpression of eIF4E-T preferentially inhibits cap-dependent steady-state translation, but not the pioneer round of translation. We also demonstrate that overexpression of eIF4E-T or Dcp1a triggers the movement of eIF4E into the processing bodies. These results suggest that the pioneer round of translation differs from steady-state translation in terms of ribosome recruitment.

  2. Characterization of nicotinamidases: steady state kinetic parameters, classwide inhibition by nicotinaldehydes, and catalytic mechanism.

    PubMed

    French, Jarrod B; Cen, Yana; Vrablik, Tracy L; Xu, Ping; Allen, Eleanor; Hanna-Rose, Wendy; Sauve, Anthony A

    2010-12-14

    Nicotinamidases are metabolic enzymes that hydrolyze nicotinamide to nicotinic acid. These enzymes are widely distributed across biology, with examples found encoded in the genomes of Mycobacteria, Archaea, Eubacteria, Protozoa, yeast, and invertebrates, but there are none found in mammals. Although recent structural work has improved our understanding of these enzymes, their catalytic mechanism is still not well understood. Recent data show that nicotinamidases are required for the growth and virulence of several pathogenic microbes. The enzymes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster, and Caenorhabditis elegans regulate life span in their respective organisms, consistent with proposed roles in the regulation of NAD(+) metabolism and organismal aging. In this work, the steady state kinetic parameters of nicotinamidase enzymes from C. elegans, Sa. cerevisiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae (a pathogen responsible for human pneumonia), Borrelia burgdorferi (the pathogen that causes Lyme disease), and Plasmodium falciparum (responsible for most human malaria) are reported. Nicotinamidases are generally efficient catalysts with steady state k(cat) values typically exceeding 1 s(-1). The K(m) values for nicotinamide are low and in the range of 2 -110 μM. Nicotinaldehyde was determined to be a potent competitive inhibitor of these enzymes, binding in the low micromolar to low nanomolar range for all nicotinamidases tested. A variety of nicotinaldehyde derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors in kinetic assays. Inhibitions are consistent with reaction of the universally conserved catalytic Cys on each enzyme with the aldehyde carbonyl carbon to form a thiohemiacetal complex that is stabilized by a conserved oxyanion hole. The S. pneumoniae nicotinamidase can catalyze exchange of (18)O into the carboxy oxygens of nicotinic acid with H(2)(18)O. The collected data, along with kinetic analysis of several mutants, allowed us to propose a catalytic

  3. Nitrogen Can Alleviate the Inhibition of Photosynthesis Caused by High Temperature Stress under Both Steady-State and Flecked Irradiance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guanjun; Zhang, Qiangqiang; Wei, Xinghai; Peng, Shaobing; Li, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen is one of the most important elements for plants and is closely related to photosynthesis. High temperature stress significantly inhibits photosynthesis under both steady-state and flecked irradiance. However, it is not known whether nitrogen can affect the decrease in photosynthesis caused by high temperature, especially under flecked irradiance. In the present study, a pot experiment was conducted under two nitrogen (N) supplies with rice plants, and the steady-state and dynamic photosynthesis rates were measured under 28 and 40°C. High temperature significantly increased leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) under high N supply (HN) but not under low N supply (LN). The increased Kleaf maintained a constant leaf water potential (Ψleaf) and steady-state stomatal conductance (gs,sat) under HN, while the Ψleaf and gs,sat significantly decreased under high temperature in LN conditions. This resulted in a more severe decrease in steady-state photosynthesis (Asat) under high temperature in the LN conditions. After shifting from low to high light, high temperature significantly delayed the recovery of photosynthesis, which resulted in more carbon loss under flecked irradiance. These effects were obtained under HN to a lesser extent than under LN supply. Therefore, it is concluded that nitrogen can alleviate the inhibition of photosynthesis caused by high temperature stress under both steady-state and flecked irradiance.

  4. Nitrogen Can Alleviate the Inhibition of Photosynthesis Caused by High Temperature Stress under Both Steady-State and Flecked Irradiance

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guanjun; Zhang, Qiangqiang; Wei, Xinghai; Peng, Shaobing; Li, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen is one of the most important elements for plants and is closely related to photosynthesis. High temperature stress significantly inhibits photosynthesis under both steady-state and flecked irradiance. However, it is not known whether nitrogen can affect the decrease in photosynthesis caused by high temperature, especially under flecked irradiance. In the present study, a pot experiment was conducted under two nitrogen (N) supplies with rice plants, and the steady-state and dynamic photosynthesis rates were measured under 28 and 40°C. High temperature significantly increased leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) under high N supply (HN) but not under low N supply (LN). The increased Kleaf maintained a constant leaf water potential (Ψleaf) and steady-state stomatal conductance (gs,sat) under HN, while the Ψleaf and gs,sat significantly decreased under high temperature in LN conditions. This resulted in a more severe decrease in steady-state photosynthesis (Asat) under high temperature in the LN conditions. After shifting from low to high light, high temperature significantly delayed the recovery of photosynthesis, which resulted in more carbon loss under flecked irradiance. These effects were obtained under HN to a lesser extent than under LN supply. Therefore, it is concluded that nitrogen can alleviate the inhibition of photosynthesis caused by high temperature stress under both steady-state and flecked irradiance. PMID:28634485

  5. Analytical effectiveness calculations concerning the degradation of an inhibitive substrate by a steady-state biofilm.

    PubMed

    van Ede, C J; Bollen, A M; Beenackers, A A

    1993-07-01

    A reaction engineering model for the degradation of an inhibitory substrate by a steady-state biofilm is presented. The model describes both the metabolic rate controlling behavior of this substrate in the biofilm and the effect of diffusion limitation caused by an arbitrary substrate on the active biofilm thickness. An analytical expression for the biocatalyst effectiveness factor is presented on the basis of Pirt kinetics for cell maintenance, first order substrate inhibition kinetics, and zero order substrate consumption kinetics. The proposed expression for the biocatalyst effectiveness factor is much more convenient to incorporate into a macroreactor model than the numerical alternatives. Simple criteria are presented to check the applicability of the model in case of true Monod kinetics. The analytical solution is expected to be particularly applicable to processes where a low soluble organic substrate controls the biomass growth, a situation which is often met in wastewater purification processes of industrial importance. The degradation of phenol by Pseudomonas sp. is treated as an example. (c) 1993 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Antioxidant inhibition of steady-state reactive oxygen species and cell growth in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yueming; Paul, Pritha; Lee, Sora; Craig, Brian T; Rellinger, Eric J; Qiao, Jingbo; Gius, David R; Chung, Dai H

    2015-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to adult tumorigenesis; however, their roles in pediatric solid tumors are unknown. Here, we sought to define the steady-state ROS levels in neuroblastoma and to examine whether aggressive cellular behavior, which may predict treatment failure, is regulated by ROS. Neuroblastoma sections were assessed for 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), a marker of intracellular lipid peroxidation and a byproduct of increased levels of ROS. Human neuroblastoma cell lines, MYCN-amplified BE(2)-C and MYCN-nonamplified SK-N-SH, were examined in our study. Superoxide and hydroperoxide oxidation products were detected by staining for dihydroethidium (DHE) and 5, 6-carboxy-2', 7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (CDCFH2), using the oxidation-insensitive analog CDCF as a negative control. Cells were treated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC; 10 mmol/L) daily for 5 days and analyzed. Greater expression of 4-HNE was observed in undifferentiated tumor sections as compared with the more differentiated tumors. Interestingly, increased levels of ROS were detected in MYCN-amplified BE(2)-C cells. Moreover, gastrin-releasing peptide receptor-induced ROS production stimulated upregulation of the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway and an increase in cell growth. Antioxidant NAC decreased HIF-1α/VEGF expression and inhibited BE(2)-C cell growth. We report a novel observation that shifting the redox balance toward greater ROS levels results in a more aggressive neuroblastoma phenotype. Our data suggest that ROS play a critical role in refractory neuroblastoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of Nicotinamidases: Steady-State Kinetic Parameters, Class-wide Inhibition by Nicotinaldehydes and Catalytic Mechanism†

    PubMed Central

    French, Jarrod B.; Cen, Yana; Vrablik, Tracy L.; Xu, Ping; Allen, Eleanor; Hanna-Rose, Wendy; Sauve, Anthony A.

    2010-01-01

    Nicotinamidases are metabolic enzymes that hydrolyze nicotinamide to nicotinic acid. These enzymes are widely distributed across biology, with examples found encoded in the genomes of Mycobacteria, Archaea, Eubacteria, Protozoa, yeast and invertebrates but there are none found in mammals. Although recent structural work has improved understanding of these enzymes, their catalytic mechanism is still not well understood. Recent data shows that nicotinamidases are required for growth and virulence of several pathogenic microbes. The enzymes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans regulate lifespan in their respective organisms, consistent with proposed roles in the regulation of NAD+ metabolism and organismal aging. In this manuscript, the steady state kinetic parameters of nicotinamidase enzymes from C. elegans, S. cerevisiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae (a pathogen responsible for human pneumonia), Borrelia burgdorferi (the pathogen that causes Lyme Disease) and Plasmodium falciparum (responsible for most human malaria) are reported. Nicotinamidases are generally efficient catalysts with steady state kcat values typically exceeding 1 s−1. The Km values for nicotinamide are low and are in the range from 2 – 110 µM. Nicotinaldehyde was determined to be a potent competitive inhibitor of these enzymes, binding in the low µM to low nM range for all nicotinamidases tested. A variety of nicotinaldehyde derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors in kinetic assays. Inhibitions are consistent with reaction of the universally conserved catalytic Cys on each enzyme with the aldehyde carbonyl carbon to form a thiohemiacetal complex which is stabilized by a conserved oxyanion hole. The S. pneumoniae nicotinamidase can catalyse exchange of 18O into the carboxy oxygens of nicotinic acid with 18O-water. The collected data, along with kinetic analysis of several mutants, allowed us to propose a catalytic mechanism that explains

  8. Steady-state inhibition model for the biodegradation of sulfonated amines in a packed bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Juárez-Ramírez, Cleotilde; Galíndez-Mayer, Juvencio; Ruiz-Ordaz, Nora; Ramos-Monroy, Oswaldo; Santoyo-Tepole, Fortunata; Poggi-Varaldo, Héctor

    2015-05-25

    Aromatic amines are important industrial products having in their molecular structure one or more aromatic rings. These are used as precursors for the synthesis of dyes, adhesives, pesticides, rubber, fertilizers and surfactants. The aromatic amines are common constituents of industrial effluents, generated mostly by the degradation of azo dyes. Several of them are a threat to human health because they can by toxic, allergenic, mutagenic or carcinogenic. The most common are benzenesulfonic amines, such as 4-ABS (4-aminobenzene sulfonic acid) and naphthalene sulfonic amines, such as 4-ANS (4-amino naphthalene sulfonic acid). Sometimes, the mixtures of toxic compounds are more toxic or inhibitory than the individual compounds, even for microorganisms capable of degrading them. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the degradation of the mixture 4-ANS plus 4-ABS by a bacterial community immobilized in fragments of volcanic stone, using a packed bed continuous reactor. In this reactor, the amines loading rates were varied from 5.5 up to 69 mg L(-1) h(-1). The removal of the amines was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and chemical oxygen demand. With this information, we have studied the substrate inhibition of the removal rate of the aromatic amines during the degradation of the mixture of sulfonated aromatic amines by the immobilized microorganisms. Experimental results were fitted to parabolic, hyperbolic and linear inhibition models. The model that best characterizes the inhibition of the specific degradation rate in the biofilm reactor was a parabolic model with values of RXM=58.15±7.95 mg (10(9) cells h)(-1), Ks=0.73±0.31 mg L(-1), Sm=89.14±5.43 mg L(-1) and the exponent m=5. From the microbial community obtained, six cultivable bacterial strains were isolated and identified by sequencing their 16S rDNA genes. The strains belong to the genera Variovorax, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Arthrobacter, Nocardioides and Microbacterium. This

  9. Steady-state pharmacokinetics of oral testosterone undecanoate with concomitant inhibition of 5α-reductase by finasteride

    PubMed Central

    Roth, M. Y.; Dudley, R. E.; Hull, L.; Leung, A.; Christenson, P.; Wang, C.; Swerdloff, R.; Amory, J. K.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Oral testosterone undecanoate (TU) is used to treat testosterone deficiency; however, oral TU treatment elevates dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which may be associated with an increased risk of acne, male pattern baldness and prostate hyperplasia. Co-administration of 5α-reductase inhibitors with other formulations of oral testosterone suppresses DHT production and increases serum testosterone. We hypothesized that finasteride would increase serum testosterone and lower DHT during treatment with oral TU. Therefore, we studied the steady-state pharmacokinetics of oral TU, 200 mg equivalents of testosterone twice daily for 7 days, alone and with finasteride 0.5 and 1.0 mg po twice daily in an open-label, three-way crossover study in 11 young men with experimentally induced hypogonadism. On the seventh day of each dosing period, serum testosterone, DHT and oestradiol were measured at baseline and 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 13, 14, 16, 20 and 24 h after the morning dose. Serum testosterone and DHT were significantly increased into and above their normal ranges similarly by all three treatments. Co-administration of finasteride at 0.5 and 1.0 mg po twice daily had no significant effect on either serum testosterone or DHT. Oral TU differs from other formulations of oral testosterone in its response to concomitant inhibition of 5α-reductase, perhaps because of its unique lymphatic route of absorption. PMID:20969601

  10. Multiple inhibition of glutathione S-transferase A from rat liver by glutathione derivatives: kinetic analysis supporting a steady-state random sequential mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Jakobson, I; Warholm, M; Mannervik, B

    1979-01-01

    Glutathione derivatives inhibit glutathione S-transferase A [cf. Biochem. J. (1975) 147, 513--522]. The steady-state kinetics of this inhibition have been investigated in detail by using S-octyglutathione, glutathione disulphide and S-(2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl)glutathione: the last compound is a product of the enzyme-catalused reaction. Interpreted in terms of generalized denotations of inhibition patterns, the compounds were found to be competitive with the substrate glutathione. Double-inhibition experiments involving simultaneous use of two inhibitors indicated exclusive binding of the inhibitors to the enzyme. The discrimination between alternative rate equations has been based on the results of weighted non-linear regression analysis. The experimental error was determined by replicate measurements and was found to increase with velocity. The established error structure was used as a basis for weighting in the regression and to construct confidence levels for the judgement of goodness-of-fit of rate equations fitted to experimental data. The results obtained support a steady-state random model for the mechanism of action of glutathione S-transferase A and exclude a number of simple kinetic models. PMID:444209

  11. Steady-state kinetics with nitric oxide reductase (NOR): new considerations on substrate inhibition profile and catalytic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Américo G; Cordas, Cristina M; Moura, José J G; Moura, Isabel

    2014-03-01

    Nitric oxide reductase (NOR) from denitrifying bacteria is an integral membrane protein that catalyses the two electron reduction of NO to N2O, as part of the denitrification process, being responsible for an exclusive reaction, the NN bond formation, the key step of this metabolic pathway. Additionally, this class of enzymes also presents residual oxidoreductase activity, reducing O2 to H2O in a four electron/proton reaction. In this work we report, for the first time, steady-state kinetics with the Pseudomonas nautica NOR, either in the presence of its physiological electron donor (cyt. c552) or immobilised on a graphite electrode surface, in the presence of its known substrates, namely NO or O2. The obtained results show that the enzyme has high affinity for its natural substrate, NO, and different kinetic profiles according to the electron donor used. The kinetic data, as shown by the pH dependence, is modelled by ionisable amino acid residues nearby the di-nuclear catalytic site. The catalytic mechanism is revised and a mononitrosyl-non-heme Fe complex (FeB(II)-NO) species is favoured as the first catalytic intermediate involved on the NO reduction.

  12. Steady state thermal radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loose, J. D. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A radiometer is described operating in a vacuum under steady state conditions. The front element is an aluminum sheet painted on the outer side with black or other absorptive material of selected characteristics. A thermocouple is bonded to the inner side of the aluminum sheet. That is backed by highly insulative layers of glass fiber and crinkled, aluminized Mylar polyester. Those layers are backed with a sturdy, polyester sheet, and the entire lamination is laced together by nylon cords. The device is highly reliable in that it does not drift out of calibration, and is significantly inexpensive.

  13. Thermodynamics of Stability of Nonequilibrium Steady States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rastogi, R. P.; Shabd, Ram

    1983-01-01

    Presented is a concise and critical account of developments in nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The criterion for stability of nonequilibrium steady states is critically examined for consecutive and monomolecular triangular reactions, autocatalytic reactions, auto-inhibited reactions, and the Lotka-Volterra model. (JN)

  14. Translating adult electrophysiology findings to younger patient populations: difficulty measuring 40 Hz auditory steady-state responses in typically developing children and children with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Edgar, J. Christopher; Fisk, Charles L.; Liu, Song; Pandey, Juhi; Herrington, John D.; Schultz, Robert T.; Roberts, Timothy P.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Gamma (~30 to 80 Hz) brain rhythms are thought to be abnormal in neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia (SZ) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In adult populations, auditory 40 Hz click trains or 40 Hz amplitude-modulated tones are used to assess the integrity of superior temporal gyrus (STG) 40 Hz gamma-band circuits. As STG 40 Hz auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs) are not fully developed in children, tasks using these stimuli may not be optimal in younger patient populations. The present study examined this issue in typically developing (TD) children as well as in children with ASD, using source localization to directly assess activity in the principal generators of the 40 Hz ASSR - left and right primary/secondary auditory cortex. Methods 40 Hz amplitude-modulated tones of 1sec duration were binaurally presented while magnetoencephalography (MEG) data were obtained from forty-eight TD children (45 males; 7- to 14-years-old) and forty-two children with ASD (38 males; 8- to 14-years-old). T1-weighted structural MRI was obtained. Using single dipoles anatomically constrained to each participant's left and right Heschl's Gyrus, left and right 40 Hz ASSR total power (TP) and inter-trial coherence (ITC) measures were obtained. Associations between 40 Hz ASSR TP, ITC and age as well as superior temporal gyrus (STG) gray matter cortical thickness were measured. Group STG function and structure differences were also examined. Results TD and ASD groups did not differ on 40 Hz ASSR TP or ITC. In TD and ASD, age was associated with left and right 40 Hz ASSR ITC (p < 0.01). The interaction term was not significant, indicating in both groups a ~0.01/year increase in ITC. 40 Hz ASSR TP and ITC were greater in the right than left STG. Groups did not differ in STG cortical thickness, and no associations were observed between 40 Hz ASSR activity and STG cortical thickness. Finally, right STG transient gamma (50 to 100 ms and 30 to 50 Hz) was greater

  15. Einstein's steady-state cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac

    2014-09-01

    Last year, a team of Irish scientists discovered an unpublished manuscript by Einstein in which he attempted to construct a "steady-state" model of the universe. Cormac O'Raifeartaigh describes the excitement of finding this previously unknown work.

  16. Staffing in a Steady State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owens, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Options for faculty utilization in a steady state are examined, with consideration for their economy or ability to increase turnover or flexibility: early retirement, part retirement, retraining, exchange with other institutions or industry, and fixed-term appointments or lecturer positions. (MSE)

  17. Inconsistencies in steady state thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickman, Ronald; Motai, Ricardo

    2014-03-01

    We address the issue of extending thermodynamics to nonequilibrium steady states. Using driven stochastic lattice gases, we ask whether consistent definitions of an effective chemical potential μ, and an effective temperature Te, are possible. These quantities are determined via zero-flux conditions of particles and energy between the driven system and a reservoir. For the models considered here, the fluxes are given in terms of certain stationary average densities, eliminating the need to perturb the system by actually exchanging particles; μ and Te are thereby obtained via open-circuit measurements, using a virtual reservoir. In the lattice gas with nearest-neighbor exclusion, temperature is not relevant, and we find that the effective chemical potential, a function of density and drive strength, satisfies the zeroth law, and correctly predicts the densities of coexisting systems. In the Katz-Lebowitz-Spohn driven lattice gas, both μ and Te need to be defined. We show analytically that the zeroth law is violated, and determine the size of the violations numerically. Our results highlight a fundamental inconsistency in the extension of thermodynamics to nonequilibrium steady states. Research supported by CNPq, Brazil.

  18. Multimode optical fibers: steady state mode exciter.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, M; Sugimura, A; Ikegami, T

    1976-09-01

    The steady state mode power distribution of the multimode graded index fiber was measured. A simple and effective steady state mode exciter was fabricated by an etching technique. Its insertion loss was 0.5 dB for an injection laser. Deviation in transmission characteristics of multimode graded index fibers can be avoided by using the steady state mode exciter.

  19. Irreversible processes at nonequilibrium steady states

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Ronald Forrest

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that a Liapunov criterion exists for the stability of nonequilibrium steady states. This criterion is based upon the fluctuation-dissipation relation, as was first pointed out by Keizer. At steady states, the Liapunov function is constructed from the covariance matrix for the thermodynamic variables. Unlike the situation around equilibrium, at steady states the covariance matrix and the “excess entropy” matrix are not equivalent. The excess entropy, which serves as the Liapunov function around equilibrium, does not work in this capacity at steady states. Keizer's Liapunov function must be viewed as the first correct candidate for a proper Liapunov function for steady states. PMID:16592649

  20. Venusian hydrology: Steady state reconsidered

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grinspoon, David H.

    1992-01-01

    In 1987, Grinspoon proposed that the data on hydrogen abundance, isotopic composition, and escape rate were consistent with the hypothesis that water on Venus might be in steady state rather than monotonic decline since the dawn of time. This conclusion was partially based on a derived water lifetime against nonthermal escape of approximately 10(exp 8) yr. De Bergh et al., preferring the earlier Pioneer Venus value of 200 ppm water to the significantly lower value detected by Bezard et al., found H2O lifetimes of greater than 10(exp 9) yr. Donahue and Hodges derived H2O lifetimes of 0.4-5 x 10 (exp 9) yr. Both these analyses used estimates of H escape flux between 0.4 x 10(exp 7) and 1 x 10(exp 7) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1) from Rodriguez et al. Yet in more recent Monte Carlo modeling, Hodges and Tinsley found an escape flux due to charge exchange with hot H(+) of 2.8 x 10(exp 7) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1). McElroy et al. estimated an escape flux of 8 x 10(exp 6) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1) from collisions with hot O produced by dissociative recombination of O2(+). Brace et al. estimated an escape flux of 5 x 10(exp 6) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1) from ion escape from the ionotail of Venus. The combined estimated escape flux from all these processes is approximately 4 x 10(exp 7) cm(exp -2)s(exp -1). The most sophisticated analysis to date of near-IR radiation from Venus' nightside reveals a water mixing ratio of approximately 30 ppm, suggesting a lifetime against escape for water of less than 10(exp 8) yr. Large uncertainties remain in these quantities, yet the data point toward a steady state. Further evaluation of these uncertainties, and new evolutionary modeling incorporating estimates of the outgassing rate from post-Magellan estimates of the volcanic resurfacing rate are presented.

  1. Non-Markovianity-assisted steady state entanglement.

    PubMed

    Huelga, Susana F; Rivas, Ángel; Plenio, Martin B

    2012-04-20

    We analyze the steady state entanglement generated in a coherently coupled dimer system subject to dephasing noise as a function of the degree of Markovianity of the evolution. By keeping fixed the effective noise strength while varying the memory time of the environment, we demonstrate that non-Markovianity is an essential, quantifiable resource that may support the formation of steady state entanglement whereas purely Markovian dynamics governed by Lindblad master equations lead to separable steady states. This result illustrates possible mechanisms leading to long-lived entanglement in purely decohering, possibly local, environments. We present a feasible experimental demonstration of this noise assisted phenomenon using a system of trapped ions.

  2. Flexibility in a Steady State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Richard

    1977-01-01

    Problems posed by abrupt transition to a steady state following rapid expansion in Australian universities are reviewed. Focus is on demography of departments, new developments in academic disciplines, tenure, and early retirement. (LBH)

  3. Steady-state permanent magnet MPD thruster

    SciTech Connect

    Arakawa, Y.; Sasoh, A.

    1987-01-01

    A steady-state MPD arc thruster with permanent magnets has been made. The effect of the permanent magnets on thruster performance and the plasma acceleration mechanism was examined through measurements of thrust, chamber pressure, current densities, and plasma properties in the exhaust plume. Experimental results show that the use of the permanent magnets is desirable in steady-state MPD thrusters of the greater than 10 kW power range. 7 references.

  4. Identification of enzyme inhibitory mechanisms from steady-state kinetics.

    PubMed

    Fange, David; Lovmar, Martin; Pavlov, Michael Y; Ehrenberg, Måns

    2011-09-01

    Enzyme inhibitors are used in many areas of the life sciences, ranging from basic research to the combat of disease in the clinic. Inhibitors are traditionally characterized by how they affect the steady-state kinetics of enzymes, commonly analyzed on the assumption that enzyme-bound and free substrate molecules are in equilibrium. This assumption, implying that an enzyme-bound substrate molecule has near zero probability to form a product rather than dissociate, is valid only for very inefficient enzymes. When it is relaxed, more complex but also more information-rich steady-state kinetics emerges. Although solutions to the general steady-state kinetics problem exist, they are opaque and have been of limited help to experimentalists. Here we reformulate the steady-state kinetics of enzyme inhibition in terms of new parameters. These allow for assessment of ambiguities of interpretation due to kinetic scheme degeneracy and provide an intuitively simple way to analyze experimental data. We illustrate the method by concrete examples of how to assess scheme degeneracy and obtain experimental estimates of all available rate and equilibrium constants. We suggest simple, complementary experiments that can remove ambiguities and greatly enhance the accuracy of parameter estimation.

  5. Optimal Control of Transitions between Nonequilibrium Steady States

    PubMed Central

    Zulkowski, Patrick R.; Sivak, David A.; DeWeese, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Biological systems fundamentally exist out of equilibrium in order to preserve organized structures and processes. Many changing cellular conditions can be represented as transitions between nonequilibrium steady states, and organisms have an interest in optimizing such transitions. Using the Hatano-Sasa Y-value, we extend a recently developed geometrical framework for determining optimal protocols so that it can be applied to systems driven from nonequilibrium steady states. We calculate and numerically verify optimal protocols for a colloidal particle dragged through solution by a translating optical trap with two controllable parameters. We offer experimental predictions, specifically that optimal protocols are significantly less costly than naive ones. Optimal protocols similar to these may ultimately point to design principles for biological energy transduction systems and guide the design of artificial molecular machines. PMID:24386112

  6. Network inference in the nonequilibrium steady state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dettmer, Simon L.; Nguyen, H. Chau; Berg, Johannes

    2016-11-01

    Nonequilibrium systems lack an explicit characterization of their steady state like the Boltzmann distribution for equilibrium systems. This has drastic consequences for the inference of the parameters of a model when its dynamics lacks detailed balance. Such nonequilibrium systems occur naturally in applications like neural networks and gene regulatory networks. Here, we focus on the paradigmatic asymmetric Ising model and show that we can learn its parameters from independent samples of the nonequilibrium steady state. We present both an exact inference algorithm and a computationally more efficient, approximate algorithm for weak interactions based on a systematic expansion around mean-field theory. Obtaining expressions for magnetizations and two- and three-point spin correlations, we establish that these observables are sufficient to infer the model parameters. Further, we discuss the symmetries characterizing the different orders of the expansion around the mean field and show how different types of dynamics can be distinguished on the basis of samples from the nonequilibrium steady state.

  7. Practical steady-state enzyme kinetics.

    PubMed

    Lorsch, Jon R

    2014-01-01

    Enzymes are key components of most biological processes. Characterization of enzymes is therefore frequently required during the study of biological systems. Steady-state kinetics provides a simple and rapid means of assessing the substrate specificity of an enzyme. When combined with site-directed mutagenesis (see Site-Directed Mutagenesis), it can be used to probe the roles of particular amino acids in the enzyme in substrate recognition and catalysis. Effects of interaction partners and posttranslational modifications can also be assessed using steady-state kinetics. This overview explains the general principles of steady-state enzyme kinetics experiments in a practical, rather than theoretical, way. Any biochemistry textbook will have a section on the theory of Michaelis-Menten kinetics, including derivations of the relevant equations. No specific enzymatic assay is described here, although a method for monitoring product formation or substrate consumption over time (an assay) is required to perform the experiments described. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Steady state response of unsymmetrically laminated plates

    SciTech Connect

    Hosokawa, Kenji; Kawashima, Katsuya; Sakata, Toshiyuki

    1995-11-01

    A numerical approach for analyzing the forced vibration problem of a symmetrically laminated FRP (fiber reinforced plastic) composite plate was proposed by the authors. In the present paper, this approach is modified for application to an unsymmetrically laminated FRP composite plate. Numerical calculations are carried out for the clamped antisymmetrically laminated rectangular and elliptical plates which are a kind of unsymmetrically laminated plate. Then,, the effects of the lamina material and the fiber orientation angle on the steady state response are discussed. Furthermore, it is investigated that what structural damping factor is most influenced on the steady state response of an antisymmetrically laminated plate.

  9. Steady-state and pre-steady-state kinetic analysis of Mycobacterium smegmatis cysteine ligase (MshC).

    PubMed

    Fan, Fan; Luxenburger, Andreas; Painter, Gavin F; Blanchard, John S

    2007-10-09

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis and many other members of the Actinomycetes family produce mycothiol, i.e., 1-d-myo-inosityl-2-(N-acetyl-l-cysteinyl)amido-2-deoxy-alpha-d-glucopyranoside (MSH or AcCys-GlcN-Ins), to act against oxidative and antibiotic stress. The biosynthesis of MSH is essential for cell growth and has been proposed to proceed via a biosynthetic pathway involving four key enzymes, MshA-MshD. The MSH biosynthetic enzymes present potential targets for inhibitor design. With this as a long-term goal, we have carried out a kinetic and mechanistic characterization, using steady-state and pre-steady-state approaches, of the recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis MshC. MshC catalyzes the ATP-dependent condensation of GlcN-Ins and cysteine to form Cys-GlcN-Ins. Initial velocity and inhibition studies show that the steady-state kinetic mechanism of MshC is a Bi Uni Uni Bi Ping Pong mechanism, with ATP binding followed by cysteine binding, release of PPi, binding of GlcN-Ins, followed by the release of Cys-GlcN-Ins and AMP. The steady-state kinetic parameters were determined to be kcat equal to 3.15 s-1, and Km values of 1.8, 0.1, and 0.16 mM for ATP, cysteine, and GlcN-Ins, respectively. A stable bisubstrate analogue, 5'-O-[N-(l-cysteinyl)sulfamonyl]adenosine, exhibits competitive inhibition versus ATP and noncompetitive inhibition versus cysteine, with an inhibition constant of approximately 306 nM versus ATP. Single-turnover reactions of the first and second half reactions were determined using rapid-quench techniques, giving rates of approximately 9.4 and approximately 5.2 s-1, respectively, consistent with the cysteinyl adenylate being a kinetically competent intermediate in the reaction by MshC.

  10. Steady-State and Pre-Steady-State Kinetic Analysis of Mycobacterium smegmatis Cysteine Ligase (MshC)

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Fan; Luxenburger, Andreas; Painter, Gavin F.; Blanchard, John S

    2008-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis and many other members of the Actinomycetes family produce mycothiol, i.e., 1-D-myo-inosityl-2-(N-acetyl-L-cysteinyl)amido-2-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranoside (MSH or AcCys-GlcN-Ins), to act against oxidative and antibiotic stress. The biosynthesis of MSH is essential for cell growth, and has been proposed to proceed via a biosynthetic pathway involving four key enzymes, MshA-D. The MSH biosynthetic enzymes present potential targets for inhibitor design. With this as a long-term goal, we have carried out a kinetic and mechanistic characterization, using steady state and pre-steady state approaches, of the recombinant Mycobacterium smegmatis MshC. MshC catalyzes the ATP-dependent condensation of GlcN-Ins and cysteine to form Cys-GlcN-Ins. Initial velocity and inhibition studies show that the steady state kinetic mechanism of MshC is a Bi Uni Uni Bi Ping Pong mechanism, with ATP binding followed by cysteine binding, release of PPi, binding of GlcN-Ins, followed by the release of Cys-GlcN-Ins and AMP. The steady state kinetic parameters were determined to be: kcat equal to 3.15 s−1, and Km values of 1.8, 0.1, and 0.16 mM for ATP, cysteine, and GlcN-Ins, respectively. A stable bisubstrate analog, 5′-O-[N-(L-cysteinyl)sulfamonyl]adenosine, exhibits competitive inhibition versus ATP and non-competitive inhibition versus cysteine, with an inhibition constant of ~306 nM versus ATP. Single-turnover reactions of the first and second half reactions were determined using rapid quench techniques, giving rates of ~9.4 s−1 and ~5.2 s−1, respectively, consistent with the cysteinyl adenylate being a kinetically competent intermediate in the reaction by MshC. PMID:17848100

  11. Non-equilibrium steady states in supramolecular polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorrenti, Alessandro; Leira-Iglesias, Jorge; Sato, Akihiro; Hermans, Thomas M.

    2017-06-01

    Living systems use fuel-driven supramolecular polymers such as actin to control important cell functions. Fuel molecules like ATP are used to control when and where such polymers should assemble and disassemble. The cell supplies fresh ATP to the cytosol and removes waste products to sustain steady states. Artificial fuel-driven polymers have been developed recently, but keeping them in sustained non-equilibrium steady states (NESS) has proven challenging. Here we show a supramolecular polymer that can be kept in NESS, inside a membrane reactor where ATP is added and waste removed continuously. Assembly and disassembly of our polymer is regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, respectively. Waste products lead to inhibition, causing the reaction cycle to stop. Inside the membrane reactor, however, waste can be removed leading to long-lived NESS conditions. We anticipate that our approach to obtain NESS can be applied to other stimuli-responsive materials to achieve more life-like behaviour.

  12. Investigation of the steady state measurement process

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, J. L.; Leisztner, L.; Hangos, K. M.

    1988-01-01

    Based on the role of steady state concept in the model of analytical chemical measurement and deduction, the definition of ‘practically sleady slate’ (PSS) has been inlroduced. The defnition does not require the process to be in steady state in a strictly mathematical sense. In order to fulfil the requiremenls of ‘practically steady state’ the random error and the syslematic error must vary within a suitable limit, and the expected fgure for the measured value must be within a specified range. The goal of the present investigation was to detect the steady state of the measurement process with respect to the analytical information (peak area ratio) based on the measured values. The method proposed proved to be useful for the determination of the simultaneously present systematic error and random error. Control based on the measured values of the internal standard is useful, but additional information is necessary. There are several advantages to the method described: the results for the internal standard indicate possible sources of disturbances and allow the end of the steady state measurement process to be predicted. PMID:18925195

  13. Steady-state inductive spheromak operation

    DOEpatents

    Janos, Alan C.; Jardin, Stephen C.; Yamada, Masaaki

    1987-01-01

    The inductively formed spheromak plasma can be maintained in a highly stable and controlled fashion. Steady-state operation is obtained by forming the plasma in the linked mode, then oscillating the poloidal and toroidal fields such that they have different phases. Preferably, the poloidal and magnetic fields are 90.degree. out of phase.

  14. Steady-state inductive spheromak operation

    DOEpatents

    Janos, A.C.; Jardin, S.C.; Yamada, M.

    1985-02-20

    The inductively formed spheromak configuration (S-1) can be maintained in a highly stable and controlled fashion. The method described eliminates the restriction to pulsed spheromak plasmas or the use of electrodes for steady-state operation, and, therefore, is a reactor-relevant formation and sustainment method.

  15. Steady-State Staffing: A Second Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furniss, W. Todd

    This is a folow-up report on developments in long-range faculty personnel planning since the publication of "Steady-State Staffing in Tenure-Granting Institutions and Related Papers," covering the period from March through December 1973. Following references to newly available data, the paper deals first with work done at SUNY-Buffalo, Stanford,…

  16. The Politics of the Steady State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Charles

    1978-01-01

    A steady state society has limits pertaining to population size, non-renewable resources, and production which emits heat or substances into soil, water, or the atmosphere. Respecting these limits means renouncing exponential quantitative growth and accepting a universally available consumption standard. (SW)

  17. Steady-state spheromak reactor studies. Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Krakowski, R.A.; Hagenson, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    After summarizing the essential elements of a gun-sustained spheromak, the potential for a steady-state is explored by means of a comprehensive physics/engineering/costing model. A range of cost-optimized reactor design point is presented, and the sensitivity of cost to key physics, engineering, and operational variables is reported.

  18. Resveratrol Inhibits Protein Translation in Hepatic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Villa-Cuesta, Eugenia; Boylan, Joan M.; Tatar, Marc; Gruppuso, Philip A.

    2011-01-01

    Resveratrol is a plant-derived polyphenol that extends lifespan and healthspan in model organism. Despite extensive investigation, the biological processes mediating resveratrol's effects have yet to be elucidated. Because repression of translation shares many of resveratrol's beneficial effects, we hypothesized that resveratrol was a modulator of protein synthesis. We studied the effect of the drug on the H4-II-E rat hepatoma cell line. Initial studies showed that resveratrol inhibited global protein synthesis. Given the role of the mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) in regulating protein synthesis, we examined the effect of resveratrol on mTOR signaling. Resveratrol inhibited mTOR self-phosphorylation and the phosphorylation of mTOR targets S6K1 and eIF4E-BP1. It attenuated the formation of the translation initiation complex eIF4F and increased the phosphorylation of eIF2α. The latter event, also a mechanism for translation inhibition, was not recapitulated by mTOR inhibitors. The effects on mTOR signaling were independent of effects on AMP-activated kinase or AKT. We conclude that resveratrol is an inhibitor of global protein synthesis, and that this effect is mediated through modulation of mTOR-dependent and independent signaling. PMID:22242130

  19. Steady state compact toroidal plasma production

    DOEpatents

    Turner, William C.

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus and method for maintaining steady state compact toroidal plasmas. A compact toroidal plasma is formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun and held in close proximity to the gun electrodes by applied magnetic fields or magnetic fields produced by image currents in conducting walls. Voltage supply means maintains a constant potential across the electrodes producing an increasing magnetic helicity which drives the plasma away from a minimum energy state. The plasma globally relaxes to a new minimum energy state, conserving helicity according to Taylor's relaxation hypothesis, and injecting net helicity into the core of the compact toroidal plasma. Controlling the voltage so as to inject net helicity at a predetermined rate based on dissipative processes maintains or increases the compact toroidal plasma in a time averaged steady state mode.

  20. On Steady-State Tropical Cyclones

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    temperature, Te, in analogy to the model for the Hadley circulation of Schneider (1977) and Held and Hou (1980). The model is nearly inviscid in the flow...tangential wind speed is approximately constant. However, in many of our own calculations the upper and outer circulations are by no means steady at... circulation (Ooyama, 1969; Shapiro and Willoughby, 1982). Above the frictional boundary layer, this steady-state circulation must be along absolute angular

  1. Variational methods in steady state diffusion problems

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.E.; Fan, W.C.P.; Bratton, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Classical variational techniques are used to obtain accurate solutions to the multigroup multiregion one dimensional steady state neutron diffusion equation. Analytic solutions are constructed for benchmark verification. Functionals with cubic trial functions and conservational lagrangian constraints are exhibited and compared with nonconservational functionals with respect to neutron balance and to relative flux and current at interfaces. Excellent agreement of the conservational functionals using cubic trial functions is obtained in comparison with analytic solutions.

  2. Theory of Steady-State Superradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Minghui

    In this thesis, I describe the theoretical development of the superradiant laser, or laser in the extreme bad-cavity regime. In this regime, the cavity decay rate is much greater than the atomic dynamics. The atoms emit photons into the cavity mode superradiantly in steady state. We develop group-theoretic methods that enable us to exactly solve mesoscopic systems with hundreds of atoms. We demonstrate the synchronization of atomic dipoles in steady-state superradiance. With this synchronized system, we propose conditional Ramsey spectroscopy which allows us to observe Ramsey fringes indefinitely, even in the presence of atomic decoherence. Furthermore, we explore manifestations of synchronization in the quantum realm with two superradiant atomic ensembles. We show that two such ensembles exhibit a dynamical phase transition from two disparate oscillators to quantum phase-locked dynamics. Finally, we study the mechanical eect of the light-atom interaction in the steady-state superradiance. We find efficient many-body cooling of atoms. The work described in this thesis lays the theoretical foundation for the superradiant laser and for a potential future of active optical frequency standards.

  3. On Typicality in Nonequilibrium Steady States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Denis J.; Williams, Stephen R.; Searles, Debra J.; Rondoni, Lamberto

    2016-08-01

    From the statistical mechanical viewpoint, relaxation of macroscopic systems and response theory rest on a notion of typicality, according to which the behavior of single macroscopic objects is given by appropriate ensembles: ensemble averages of observable quantities represent the measurements performed on single objects, because " almost all" objects share the same fate. In the case of non-dissipative dynamics and relaxation toward equilibrium states, " almost all" is referred to invariant probability distributions that are absolutely continuous with respect to the Lebesgue measure. In other words, the collection of initial micro-states (single systems) that do not follow the ensemble is supposed to constitute a set of vanishing, phase space volume. This approach is problematic in the case of dissipative dynamics and relaxation to nonequilibrium steady states, because the relevant invariant distributions attribute probability 1 to sets of zero volume, while evolution commonly begins in equilibrium states, i.e., in sets of full phase space volume. We consider the relaxation of classical, thermostatted particle systems to nonequilibrium steady states. We show that the dynamical condition known as Ω T-mixing is necessary and sufficient for relaxation of ensemble averages to steady state values. Moreover, we find that the condition known as weak T-mixing applied to smooth observables is sufficient for ensemble relaxation to be independent of the initial ensemble. Lastly, we show that weak T-mixing provides a notion of typicality for dissipative dynamics that is based on the (non-invariant) Lebesgue measure, and that we call physical ergodicity.

  4. A Computational Approach to Steady State Correspondence of Regular and Generalized Mass Action Systems.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Matthew D

    2015-06-01

    It has been recently observed that the dynamical properties of mass action systems arising from many models of biochemical reaction networks can be characterized by considering the corresponding properties of a related generalized mass action system. The correspondence process known as network translation in particular has been shown to be useful in characterizing a system's steady states. In this paper, we further develop the theory of network translation with particular focus on a subclass of translations known as improper translations. For these translations, we derive conditions on the network topology of the translated network which are sufficient to guarantee the original and translated systems share the same steady states. We then present a mixed-integer linear programming algorithm capable of determining whether a mass action system can be corresponded to a generalized system through the process of network translation.

  5. Steady States and Universal Conductance in a Quenched Luttinger Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langmann, Edwin; Lebowitz, Joel L.; Mastropietro, Vieri; Moosavi, Per

    2017-01-01

    We obtain exact analytical results for the evolution of a 1+1-dimensional Luttinger model prepared in a domain wall initial state, i.e., a state with different densities on its left and right sides. Such an initial state is modeled as the ground state of a translation invariant Luttinger Hamiltonian {H_{λ}} with short range non-local interaction and different chemical potentials to the left and right of the origin. The system evolves for time t > 0 via a Hamiltonian {H_{λ'}} which differs from {H_{λ}} by the strength of the interaction. Asymptotically in time, as {t to ∞}, after taking the thermodynamic limit, the system approaches a translation invariant steady state. This final steady state carries a current I and has an effective chemical potential difference {μ+ - μ-} between right- (+) and left- (-) moving fermions obtained from the two-point correlation function. Both I and {μ+ - μ-} depend on {λ} and {λ'}. Only for the case {λ = λ' = 0} does {μ+ - μ-} equal the difference in the initial left and right chemical potentials. Nevertheless, the Landauer conductance for the final state, {G = I/(μ+ - μ-)}, has a universal value equal to the conductance quantum {e^2/h} for the spinless case.

  6. Energy repartition in the nonequilibrium steady state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Peng; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.; Zhang, Huaiwu

    2017-01-01

    The concept of temperature in nonequilibrium thermodynamics is an outstanding theoretical issue. We propose an energy repartition principle that leads to a spectral (mode-dependent) temperature in steady-state nonequilibrium systems. The general concepts are illustrated by analytic solutions of the classical Heisenberg spin chain connected to Langevin heat reservoirs with arbitrary temperature profiles. Gradients of external magnetic fields are shown to localize spin waves in a Wannier-Zeemann fashion, while magnon interactions renormalize the spectral temperature. Our generic results are applicable to other thermodynamic systems such as Newtonian liquids, elastic solids, and Josephson junctions.

  7. Enceladus is not in Steady State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheunchitra, T.; Stevenson, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    Libration data tell us there is a global ocean. Topography and gravity tell us that there is substantial compensation at degree 2, meaning that the underside of the ice shell must have topography. This topography will decay, typically on a timescale of order a million years (fortuitously similar to thermal diffusion times through the ice shell), by viscous lateral flow of the ice. This could in principle be compensated in steady state by net melting beneath the poles and a compensating net freezing at the equator. In that model, the ice shell beneath the poles is partially melted with water being continuously produced and percolating to the base (or expelled if there are cracks, as at the South Pole). We have modeled this without an a priori assumption about the strength of tidal heating. We find that even if the tidal heating is zero on average around the equator, then the latent heat release from the required freezing can only be accommodated in steady state if the ice shell is 18km. The ice thickness must be even less at the poles in order to satisfy gravity and topography. Moreover, there must then be substantial tidal heating at the poles and it is physically unreasonable to have the volumetric tidal heating at the equator be enormously less than at the North Pole. For example, if the volumetric tidal heating at the equator is on average one quarter of that at the North Pole then marginal consistency with gravity and topography may be possible for a mean ice thickness at the equator of 12km. The global heat flow may exceed 40GW, much higher than the detectable IR excess (the observed south polar tiger stripe heat flow). Recent work (Fuller et al.) admits orbital evolutions with large heat flow at least for a recent part of the orbital history. However, this thin shell steady state model has difficulty reconciling observed gravity and topography as well as the libration data. We conclude that it is unlikely that Enceladus has no net melting or freezing. The ice

  8. Steady state stresses in ribbon parachute canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrard, W. L.; Wu, K. Y.; Muramoto, K. K.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental study of the steady state stresses in model ribbon parachute canopies is presented. The distribution of circumferential stress was measured in the horizontal ribbons of two parachutes using Omega sensors. Canopy pressure distributions and overall drag were also measured. Testing was conducted in the University of Minnesota Low-Speed Wind Tunnel at dynamic pressures ranging from 1.0 to 1.5 inches of water. The stresses in the parachute canopies were calculated using the parachute structural analysis code, CANO. It was found that the general shape of the measured and calculated stress distributions was fairly similar; however, the measured stresses were somewhat less than the calculated stresses.

  9. Gravitational steady states of solar coronal loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Linda E.; Asgari-Targhi, M.

    2017-02-01

    Coronal loops on the surface of the sun appear to consist of curved, plasma-confining magnetic flux tubes or "ropes," anchored at both ends in the photosphere. Toroidal loops carrying current are inherently unstable to expansion in the major radius due to toroidal-curvature-induced imbalances in the magnetic and plasma pressures. An ideal MHD analysis of a simple isolated loop with density and pressure higher than the surrounding corona, based on the theory of magnetically confined toroidal plasmas, shows that the radial force balance depends on the loop internal structure and varies over parameter space. It provides a unified picture of simple loop steady states in terms of the plasma beta βo, the inverse aspect ratio ɛ =a /Ro , and the MHD gravitational parameter G ̂≡g a /vA2 , all at the top of the loop, where g is the acceleration due to gravity, a the average minor radius, and vA the shear Alfvén velocity. In the high and low beta tokamak orderings, βo=2 noT /(Bo2/2 μo)˜ɛ1 and ɛ2 , that fit many loops, the solar gravity can sustain nonaxisymmetric steady states at G ̂˜ɛ βo that represent the maximum stable height. At smaller G ̂≤ɛ2βo , the loop is axisymmetric to leading order and stabilized primarily by the two fixed loop ends. Very low beta, nearly force-free, steady states with βo˜ɛ3 may also exist, with or without gravity, depending on higher order effects. The thin coronal loops commonly observed in solar active regions have ɛ ≃0.02 and fit the high beta steady states. G ̂ increases with loop height. Fatter loops in active regions that form along magnetic neutral lines and may lead to solar flares and Coronal Mass Ejections have ɛ ≃0.1 -0.2 and may fit the low beta ordering. Larger loops tend to have G ̂>ɛ βo and be unstable to radial expansion because the exponential hydrostatic reduction in the density at the loop-top reduces the gravitational force -ρG ̂ R ̂ below the level that balances expansion, in agreement with

  10. Intense steady state electron beam generator

    DOEpatents

    Hershcovitch, Ady; Kovarik, Vincent J.; Prelec, Krsto

    1990-01-01

    An intense, steady state, low emittance electron beam generator is formed by operating a hollow cathode discharge plasma source at critical levels in combination with an extraction electrode and a target electrode that are operable to extract a beam of fast primary electrons from the plasma source through a negatively biased grid that is critically operated to repel bulk electrons toward the plasma source while allowing the fast primary electrons to move toward the target in the desired beam that can be successfully transported for relatively large distances, such as one or more meters away from the plasma source.

  11. Intensity fluctuations in steady-state superradiance

    SciTech Connect

    Meiser, D.; Holland, M. J.

    2010-06-15

    Alkaline-earth-metal-like atoms with ultranarrow optical transitions enable superradiance in steady state. The emitted light promises to have an unprecedented stability with a linewidth as narrow as a few millihertz. In order to evaluate the potential usefulness of this light source as an ultrastable oscillator in clock and precision metrology applications, it is crucial to understand the noise properties of this device. In this paper, we present a detailed analysis of the intensity fluctuations by means of Monte Carlo simulations and semiclassical approximations. We find that the light exhibits bunching below threshold, is to a good approximation coherent in the superradiant regime, and is chaotic above the second threshold.

  12. An Intuitive Approach to Steady-State Kinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raines, Ronald T.; Hansen, David E.

    1988-01-01

    Attempts to provide an intuitive understanding of steady state kinetics. Discusses the meaning of steady state and uses free energy profiles to illustrate and follow complex kinetic and thermodynamic relationships. Provides examples with explanations. (MVL)

  13. An Intuitive Approach to Steady-State Kinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raines, Ronald T.; Hansen, David E.

    1988-01-01

    Attempts to provide an intuitive understanding of steady state kinetics. Discusses the meaning of steady state and uses free energy profiles to illustrate and follow complex kinetic and thermodynamic relationships. Provides examples with explanations. (MVL)

  14. Statistical steady state in turbulent droplet condensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siewert, Christoph; Bec, Jérémie; Krstulovic, Giorgio

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by systems in which droplets grow and shrink in a turbulence-driven supersaturation field, we investigate the problem of turbulent condensation in a general manner. Using direct numerical simulations we show that the turbulent fluctuations of the supersaturation field offer different conditions for the growth of droplets which evolve in time due to turbulent transport and mixing. Based on that, we propose a Lagrangian stochastic model for condensation and evaporation of small droplets in turbulent flows. It consists of a set of stochastic integro-differential equations for the joint evolution of the squared radius and the supersaturation along the droplet trajectories. The model has two parameters fixed by the total amount of water and the thermodynamic properties, as well as the Lagrangian integral timescale of the turbulent supersaturation. The model reproduces very well the droplet size distributions obtained from direct numerical simulations and their time evolution. A noticeable result is that, after a stage where the squared radius simply diffuses, the system converges exponentially fast to a statistical steady state independent of the initial conditions. The main mechanism involved in this convergence is a loss of memory induced by a significant number of droplets undergoing a complete evaporation before growing again. The statistical steady state is characterised by an exponential tail in the droplet mass distribution. These results reconcile those of earlier numerical studies, once these various regimes are considered.

  15. Steady-state mushy layers: Experiments and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peppin, S.; Aussillous, P.; Huppert, Herbert E.; Grae Worster, M.

    2006-11-01

    A new facility has been developed to investigate mushy layers formed during the steady directional solidification of transparent aqueous solutions in a quasi-two-dimensional system. Experiments have been conducted on NaCl--H20 solutions by translating a Hele-Shaw cell at prescribed rates between fixed heat exchangers providing a temperature gradient of approximately 1,^0C/mm. Ice formed the primary solid phase and the dense residual fluid ponded within the mushy layer at the base of the system. Mathematical predictions of the steady-state temperature profile and mushy layer thickness as functions of freezing rate are in excellent agreement with experimental results. Experiments have also been performed on aqueous NH4Cl solutions, with the salt forming the primary solid phase, yielding buoyancy-driven convection in the mushy layer and the development of chimneys. The lifetime of the chimneys increased with decreasing freezing rate; however, no steady-state chimneys have been observed. Rather, a convecting chimney appears to deplete the surrounding solution and is eventually extinguished. At freezing rates larger than about 5.5,μm/s a uniform mushy layer develops with no chimneys. However, at rates larger than about 5,μm/s a second mode of behaviour is observed in which the mushy layer is thin and there is significant supercooling and nucleation above it. There is hysteresis between the two modes.

  16. Steady state multiplicity of two-step biological conversion systems with general kinetics.

    PubMed

    Volcke, E I P; Sbarciog, M; Noldus, E J L; De Baets, B; Loccufier, M

    2010-12-01

    This study analyses the steady state behaviour of biological conversion systems with general kinetics, in which two consecutive reactions are carried out by two groups of micro-organisms. The model considered is a realistic description of wastewater treatment processes. A step-wise procedure is followed to reveal the mechanisms affecting the occurrence of steady states in terms of the process input variables. It is clearly demonstrated how taking into account inhibition effects by simply including additional inhibition terms to the kinetic expressions, a common practice, influences the model's long term behaviour. The overall steady state behaviour of the model has been summarized in easy-to-interpret operating diagrams, depicting the occurrence of steady states in terms of the reactor dilution rate and the influent substrate concentration, with well-defined boundaries between distinct operating regions. This knowledge is crucial for modelers as steady state multiplicity--in the sense that more than one steady state can be reached depending on the initial conditions--may remain undetected during simulation. The obtained results may also serve for experimental design and for model validation based on experimental findings.

  17. Steady-state models of photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    von Caemmerer, Susanne

    2013-09-01

    In the challenge to increase photosynthetic rate per leaf area mathematical models of photosynthesis can be used to help interpret gas exchange measurements made under different environmental conditions and predict underlying photosynthetic biochemistry. To do this successfully it is important to improve the modelling of temperature dependencies of CO₂ assimilation and gain better understanding of internal CO₂ diffusion limitations. Despite these shortcomings steady-state models of photosynthesis provide simple easy to use tools for thought experiments to explore photosynthetic pathway changes such as redirecting photorespiratory CO₂, inserting bicarbonate pumps into C₃ chloroplasts or inserting C₄ photosynthesis into rice. Here a number of models derived from the C₃ model by Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry are discussed and compared.

  18. Steady-State Chemotaxis in Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafri, Yariv; da Silveira, Rava Azeredo

    2008-06-01

    The bacterium E. coli maneuvers itself to regions with high chemoattractant concentrations by performing two stereotypical moves: “runs,” in which it moves in near-straight lines, and “tumbles,” in which it does not advance but changes direction randomly. The duration of each move is stochastic and depends upon the chemoattractant concentration experienced in the recent past. We relate this stochastic behavior to the steady-state density of a bacterium population, and we derive the latter as a function of chemoattractant concentration. In contrast to earlier treatments, here we account for the effects of temporal correlations and variable tumbling durations. A range of behaviors is obtained that depends subtly upon several aspects of the system—memory, correlation, and tumbling stochasticity, in particular.

  19. High power steady state MPD thrusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auweter-Kurtz, Monika; Habiger, Harald; Kurtz, Helmut; Schrade, Herbert; Sleziona, Cristian

    1993-04-01

    At the Institut fuer Raumfahrtsysteme (IRS) rotation symmetric magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters with self induced magnetic fields are investigated at high current levels in a steady state operation mode. MPD thrusters with different geometrics were compared, and the influence of mass flow rate and power input on the operating conditions of the thrusters explored. By optical and probe measurements, a systematic investigation of the plasma plume has been started. The investigation of the various instabilities of the arc and the plasma flow appearing at high power levels was continued. The computer code development for the geometry optimization of continuous self-field MPD thrusters, running with argon, was modified by considering higher degrees of ionization, which showed better agreement with the experiment.

  20. Steady-state mushy layers: experiments and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peppin, S. S. L.; Aussillous, P.; Huppert, Herbert E.; Grae Worster, M.

    A new facility has been developed to investigate the directional solidification of transparent aqueous solutions forming mushy layers in a quasi-two-dimensional system. Experiments have been conducted on NaCl H_{2}O solutions by translating a Hele-Shaw cell at prescribed rates between fixed heat exchangers providing a temperature gradient of approximately 1 (°) C mm(-1) . The mush liquid interface remained planar at all freezing velocities larger than 8 umum s(-1) , while steepling occurred at lower velocities. No significant undercooling of the mush liquid interface was detected at freezing velocities up to 12 umum s(-1) . Mathematical predictions of the steady-state temperature profile and mushy-layer thickness as functions of freezing rate are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements.

  1. Customized Steady-State Constraints for Parameter Estimation in Non-Linear Ordinary Differential Equation Models

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblatt, Marcus; Timmer, Jens; Kaschek, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Ordinary differential equation models have become a wide-spread approach to analyze dynamical systems and understand underlying mechanisms. Model parameters are often unknown and have to be estimated from experimental data, e.g., by maximum-likelihood estimation. In particular, models of biological systems contain a large number of parameters. To reduce the dimensionality of the parameter space, steady-state information is incorporated in the parameter estimation process. For non-linear models, analytical steady-state calculation typically leads to higher-order polynomial equations for which no closed-form solutions can be obtained. This can be circumvented by solving the steady-state equations for kinetic parameters, which results in a linear equation system with comparatively simple solutions. At the same time multiplicity of steady-state solutions is avoided, which otherwise is problematic for optimization. When solved for kinetic parameters, however, steady-state constraints tend to become negative for particular model specifications, thus, generating new types of optimization problems. Here, we present an algorithm based on graph theory that derives non-negative, analytical steady-state expressions by stepwise removal of cyclic dependencies between dynamical variables. The algorithm avoids multiple steady-state solutions by construction. We show that our method is applicable to most common classes of biochemical reaction networks containing inhibition terms, mass-action and Hill-type kinetic equations. Comparing the performance of parameter estimation for different analytical and numerical methods of incorporating steady-state information, we show that our approach is especially well-tailored to guarantee a high success rate of optimization. PMID:27243005

  2. Customized Steady-State Constraints for Parameter Estimation in Non-Linear Ordinary Differential Equation Models.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, Marcus; Timmer, Jens; Kaschek, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Ordinary differential equation models have become a wide-spread approach to analyze dynamical systems and understand underlying mechanisms. Model parameters are often unknown and have to be estimated from experimental data, e.g., by maximum-likelihood estimation. In particular, models of biological systems contain a large number of parameters. To reduce the dimensionality of the parameter space, steady-state information is incorporated in the parameter estimation process. For non-linear models, analytical steady-state calculation typically leads to higher-order polynomial equations for which no closed-form solutions can be obtained. This can be circumvented by solving the steady-state equations for kinetic parameters, which results in a linear equation system with comparatively simple solutions. At the same time multiplicity of steady-state solutions is avoided, which otherwise is problematic for optimization. When solved for kinetic parameters, however, steady-state constraints tend to become negative for particular model specifications, thus, generating new types of optimization problems. Here, we present an algorithm based on graph theory that derives non-negative, analytical steady-state expressions by stepwise removal of cyclic dependencies between dynamical variables. The algorithm avoids multiple steady-state solutions by construction. We show that our method is applicable to most common classes of biochemical reaction networks containing inhibition terms, mass-action and Hill-type kinetic equations. Comparing the performance of parameter estimation for different analytical and numerical methods of incorporating steady-state information, we show that our approach is especially well-tailored to guarantee a high success rate of optimization.

  3. Steady-state and non-steady state operation of counter-current chromatography devices.

    PubMed

    Kostanyan, Artak E; Ignatova, Svetlana N; Sutherland, Ian A; Hewitson, Peter; Zakhodjaeva, Yulya A; Erastov, Andrey A

    2013-11-01

    Different variants of separation processes based on steady-state (continuous sample loading) and non-steady state (batch) operating modes of CCC columns have been analyzed and compared. The analysis is carried out on the basis of the modified equilibrium cell model, which takes into account both mechanisms of band broadening - interphase mass transfer and axial mixing. A full theoretical treatment of the intermittent counter-current chromatography with short sample loading time is performed. Analytical expressions are presented allowing the simulation of the intermittent counter-current chromatography separations for various experimental conditions. Chromatographic and extraction separations have been compared and advantages and disadvantages of the two methods have been evaluated. Further technical development of the CCC machines to implement counter-current extraction separations is considered.

  4. Maximal lactate steady state in Judo

    PubMed Central

    de Azevedo, Paulo Henrique Silva Marques; Pithon-Curi, Tania; Zagatto, Alessandro Moura; Oliveira, João; Perez, Sérgio

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background: the purpose of this study was to verify the validity of respiratory compensation threshold (RCT) measured during a new single judo specific incremental test (JSIT) for aerobic demand evaluation. Methods: to test the validity of the new test, the JSIT was compared with Maximal Lactate Steady State (MLSS), which is the gold standard procedure for aerobic demand measuring. Eight well-trained male competitive judo players (24.3 ± 7.9 years; height of 169.3 ± 6.7cm; fat mass of 12.7 ± 3.9%) performed a maximal incremental specific test for judo to assess the RCT and performed on 30-minute MLSS test, where both tests were performed mimicking the UchiKomi drills. Results: the intensity at RCT measured on JSIT was not significantly different compared to MLSS (p=0.40). In addition, it was observed high and significant correlation between MLSS and RCT (r=0.90, p=0.002), as well as a high agreement. Conclusions: RCT measured during JSIT is a valid procedure to measure the aerobic demand, respecting the ecological validity of Judo. PMID:25332923

  5. Inconsistencies in steady-state thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickman, Ronald; Motai, Ricardo

    2014-03-01

    We address the issue of extending thermodynamics to nonequilibrium steady states. Using driven stochastic lattice gases, we ask whether consistent definitions of an effective chemical potential μ, and an effective temperature Te, are possible. μ and Te are determined via coexistence, i.e., zero flux of particles and energy between the driven system and a reservoir. In the lattice gas with nearest-neighbor exclusion, temperature is not relevant, and we find that the effective chemical potential, a function of density and drive strength, satisfies the zeroth law, and correctly predicts the densities of coexisting systems. In the Katz-Lebowitz-Spohn driven lattice gas both μ and Te need to be defined. We show analytically that in this case the zeroth law is violated for Metropolis exchange rates, and determine the size of the violations numerically. The zeroth law appears to be violated for generic exchange rates. Remarkably, the system-reservoir coupling proposed by Sasa and Tasaki [J. Stat. Phys. 125, 125 (2006), 10.1007/s10955-005-9021-7] is free of inconsistencies, and the zeroth law holds. This is because the rate depends only on the state of the donor system, and is independent of that of the acceptor.

  6. Fluctuations When Driving Between Nonequilibrium Steady States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechers, Paul M.; Crutchfield, James P.

    2017-06-01

    Maintained by environmental fluxes, biological systems are thermodynamic processes that operate far from equilibrium without detailed-balanced dynamics. Yet, they often exhibit well defined nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). More importantly, critical thermodynamic functionality arises directly from transitions among their NESSs, driven by environmental switching. Here, we identify the constraints on excess heat and dissipated work necessary to control a system that is kept far from equilibrium by background, uncontrolled "housekeeping" forces. We do this by extending the Crooks fluctuation theorem to transitions among NESSs, without invoking an unphysical dual dynamics. This and corresponding integral fluctuation theorems determine how much work must be expended when controlling systems maintained far from equilibrium. This generalizes thermodynamic feedback control theory, showing that Maxwellian Demons can leverage mesoscopic-state information to take advantage of the excess energetics in NESS transitions. We also generalize an approach recently used to determine the work dissipated when driving between functionally relevant configurations of an active energy-consuming complex system. Altogether, these results highlight universal thermodynamic laws that apply to the accessible degrees of freedom within the effective dynamic at any emergent level of hierarchical organization. By way of illustration, we analyze a voltage-gated sodium ion channel whose molecular conformational dynamics play a critical functional role in propagating action potentials in mammalian neuronal membranes.

  7. Steady State Vapor Bubble in Pool Boiling

    PubMed Central

    Zou, An; Chanana, Ashish; Agrawal, Amit; Wayner, Peter C.; Maroo, Shalabh C.

    2016-01-01

    Boiling, a dynamic and multiscale process, has been studied for several decades; however, a comprehensive understanding of the process is still lacking. The bubble ebullition cycle, which occurs over millisecond time-span, makes it extremely challenging to study near-surface interfacial characteristics of a single bubble. Here, we create a steady-state vapor bubble that can remain stable for hours in a pool of sub-cooled water using a femtosecond laser source. The stability of the bubble allows us to measure the contact-angle and perform in-situ imaging of the contact-line region and the microlayer, on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces and in both degassed and regular (with dissolved air) water. The early growth stage of vapor bubble in degassed water shows a completely wetted bubble base with the microlayer, and the bubble does not depart from the surface due to reduced liquid pressure in the microlayer. Using experimental data and numerical simulations, we obtain permissible range of maximum heat transfer coefficient possible in nucleate boiling and the width of the evaporating layer in the contact-line region. This technique of creating and measuring fundamental characteristics of a stable vapor bubble will facilitate rational design of nanostructures for boiling enhancement and advance thermal management in electronics. PMID:26837464

  8. Fluctuations When Driving Between Nonequilibrium Steady States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechers, Paul M.; Crutchfield, James P.

    2017-08-01

    Maintained by environmental fluxes, biological systems are thermodynamic processes that operate far from equilibrium without detailed-balanced dynamics. Yet, they often exhibit well defined nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). More importantly, critical thermodynamic functionality arises directly from transitions among their NESSs, driven by environmental switching. Here, we identify the constraints on excess heat and dissipated work necessary to control a system that is kept far from equilibrium by background, uncontrolled "housekeeping" forces. We do this by extending the Crooks fluctuation theorem to transitions among NESSs, without invoking an unphysical dual dynamics. This and corresponding integral fluctuation theorems determine how much work must be expended when controlling systems maintained far from equilibrium. This generalizes thermodynamic feedback control theory, showing that Maxwellian Demons can leverage mesoscopic-state information to take advantage of the excess energetics in NESS transitions. We also generalize an approach recently used to determine the work dissipated when driving between functionally relevant configurations of an active energy-consuming complex system. Altogether, these results highlight universal thermodynamic laws that apply to the accessible degrees of freedom within the effective dynamic at any emergent level of hierarchical organization. By way of illustration, we analyze a voltage-gated sodium ion channel whose molecular conformational dynamics play a critical functional role in propagating action potentials in mammalian neuronal membranes.

  9. Steady State Vapor Bubble in Pool Boiling.

    PubMed

    Zou, An; Chanana, Ashish; Agrawal, Amit; Wayner, Peter C; Maroo, Shalabh C

    2016-02-03

    Boiling, a dynamic and multiscale process, has been studied for several decades; however, a comprehensive understanding of the process is still lacking. The bubble ebullition cycle, which occurs over millisecond time-span, makes it extremely challenging to study near-surface interfacial characteristics of a single bubble. Here, we create a steady-state vapor bubble that can remain stable for hours in a pool of sub-cooled water using a femtosecond laser source. The stability of the bubble allows us to measure the contact-angle and perform in-situ imaging of the contact-line region and the microlayer, on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces and in both degassed and regular (with dissolved air) water. The early growth stage of vapor bubble in degassed water shows a completely wetted bubble base with the microlayer, and the bubble does not depart from the surface due to reduced liquid pressure in the microlayer. Using experimental data and numerical simulations, we obtain permissible range of maximum heat transfer coefficient possible in nucleate boiling and the width of the evaporating layer in the contact-line region. This technique of creating and measuring fundamental characteristics of a stable vapor bubble will facilitate rational design of nanostructures for boiling enhancement and advance thermal management in electronics.

  10. Comparison between a steady-state and a transient flow model and related radionuclide concentration predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gedeon, M.; Mallants, D.

    2012-04-01

    Radionuclide concentration predictions in aquifers play an important role in estimating impact of planned surface disposal of radioactive waste in Belgium, developed by the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials (ONDRAF), who also coordinates and leads the corresponding research. Long-term concentration predictions are based on a steady-state flow solution obtained by a cascade of multi-scale models from the catchment to the detailed (site) scale performed in MODFLOW. To test the concept and accuracy of the groundwater flow solution and conservativeness of the concentration predictions obtained therewith, a transient model, considered more realistic, was set up in a sub-domain of the intermediate scale steady-state model. Besides the modelling domain reduction, the transient model was and exact copy of the steady-state model, having the infiltration as the only time-varying parameter. The transient model was run for a twenty-year period, whereas the results were compared to the steady-state results based on infiltration value and observations averaged over the same period. The comparison of the steady-state and transient flow solutions includes the analyses of the goodness of fit, the parameter sensitivities, relative importance of the individual observations and one-percent sensitivity maps. The steady-state and transient flow solutions were subsequently translated into a site-scale transport model, used to predict the radionuclide concentrations in a hypothetical well in the aquifers. The translation of the flow solutions between the models of distinct scales was performed using the Local grid refinement method available in MODFLOW. In the site-scale models, MT3DMS transport simulations were performed to obtain respective concentration predictions in a hypothetical well, situated at 70 meters from the disposal tumuli. The equilibrium concentrations based on a constant source flux achieved using a steady-state solution were then

  11. Steady state volcanism - Evidence from eruption histories of polygenetic volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadge, G.

    1982-01-01

    Cumulative volcano volume curves are presented as evidence for steady-state behavior at certain volcanoes and to develop a model of steady-state volcanism. A minimum criteria of five eruptions over a year was chosen to characterize a steady-state volcano. The subsequent model features a constant head of magmatic pressure from a reservoir supplied from depth, a sawtooth curve produced by the magma arrivals or discharge from the subvolcanic reservoir, large volume eruptions with long repose periods, and conditions of nonsupply of magma. The behavior of Mts. Etna, Nyamuragira, and Kilauea are described and show continuous levels of plasma output resulting in cumulative volume increases. Further discussion is made of steady-state andesitic and dacitic volcanism, long term patterns of the steady state, and magma storage, and the lack of a sufficient number of steady-state volcanoes in the world is taken as evidence that further data is required for a comprehensive model.

  12. Multiplicity of steady states in a bioreactor during the production of 1,3-propanediol by Clostridium butyricum.

    PubMed

    Silva, J P; Almeida, Y B; Pinheiro, I O; Knoelchelmann, A; Silva, J M F

    2015-02-01

    In recent decades, the production of compounds from microorganisms has increased significantly. Glycerol as a source of substrate appears to have great potential, due to its large supply because of the increase in biodiesel production. This paper will discuss the multiplicity of steady states for the production of 1,3-propanediol from glycerol by Clostridium butyricum, employing a model that takes into account inhibition by fermentation products. The theoretical study of bifurcation enabled us to make a qualitative adjustment to the various experimental steady states, using the theoretical steady states obtained from the AUTO2007 program. The theoretical model parameters were varied to fit qualitatively the values of the experimental steady states. In addition, this work is a qualitative study, using experimental steady states that can be used as an initial study for more advanced work on optimizing the production of 1,3-propanediol.

  13. CA_OPPUSST - Cantera OPUS Steady State

    SciTech Connect

    Moffat, Harry K.

    2005-03-01

    The Cantera Opus Steady State (ca-opusst) applications solves steady reacting flow problems in opposed-flow geometries. It is a 1-0 application that represents axisymmetnc 3-0 physical systems that can be reduced via a similarity transformation to a 1-0 mathematical representation. The code contain solutions of the general dynamic equations for the particle distribution functions using a sectional model to describe the particle distribution function. Operators for particle nucleation, coagulation, condensation (i.e., growth/etching via reactions with the gas ambient), internal particle reactions. particle transport due to convection and due to molecular transport, are included in the particle general dynamics equation. Heat transport due to radiation exchange of the environment with particles in local thermal equilibrium to the surrounding gas will be included in the enthalpy conservation equation that is solved for the coupled gas! particle system in an upcoming version of the code due in June 2005. The codes use Cantera , a C++ Cal Tech code, for determination of gas phase species transport, reaction, and thermodynamics physical properties and source terms. The Codes use the Cantera Aerosol Dynamics Simulator (CADS) package, a general library for aerosol modeling, to calculate properties and source terms for the aerosol general dynamics equation, including particle formation from gas phase reactions, particle surface chemistry (growth and oxidation), bulk particle chemistry, particle transport by Brownian diffusion, thermophoresis, and diffusiophoresis, and thermal radiative transport involving particles. Also included are post-processing programs, cajost and cajrof, to extract ascii data from binary output files to produce plots.

  14. Variables Controlling Entry into and Exit from the Steady-State, One of Two Modes of Feeding in Aplysia

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Nimrod; Marcovich, Silvia; Susswein, Abraham J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Aplysia feeding is a model system for examining the neural mechanisms by which changes in motivational state control behavior. When food is intermittently present, Aplysia eat large meals controlled by a balance between food stimuli exciting feeding and gut stimuli inhibiting feeding. However, when food is continuously present animals are in a state in which feeding is relatively inhibited and animals eat little. We examined which stimuli provided by food and feeding initiate steady-state inhibition of feeding, and which stimuli maintain the inhibition. Results Multiple stimuli were found to control entry into the steady-state inhibition, and its maintenance. The major variable governing entry into the steady-state is fill of the gut with bulk provided by food, but this stimulus cannot alone cause entry into the steady-state. Food odor and nutritional stimuli such as increased hemolymph glucose and L-arginine concentrations also contribute to inhibition of feeding leading to entry into the steady-state. Although food odor can alone cause some inhibition of feeding, it does not amplify the effect of gut fill. By contrast, neither increased hemolymph glucose nor L-arginine alone inhibits feeding in hungry animals, but both amplify the inhibitory effects of food odor, and increased glucose also amplifies the effect of gut fill. The major variable maintaining the steady-state is the continued presence of food odor, which can alone maintain the steady-state for 48–72 hrs. Neither increased glucose nor L-arginine can alone preserve the steady-state, although they partially preserve it. Glucose and arginine partially extend the effect of food odor after 72 hrs. Conclusions These findings show that control of Aplysia feeding is more complex than was previously thought, in that multiple inhibitory factors interact in its control. PMID:23028872

  15. Variables controlling entry into and exit from the steady-state, one of two modes of feeding in Aplysia.

    PubMed

    Miller, Nimrod; Marcovich, Silvia; Susswein, Abraham J

    2012-01-01

    Aplysia feeding is a model system for examining the neural mechanisms by which changes in motivational state control behavior. When food is intermittently present, Aplysia eat large meals controlled by a balance between food stimuli exciting feeding and gut stimuli inhibiting feeding. However, when food is continuously present animals are in a state in which feeding is relatively inhibited and animals eat little. We examined which stimuli provided by food and feeding initiate steady-state inhibition of feeding, and which stimuli maintain the inhibition. Multiple stimuli were found to control entry into the steady-state inhibition, and its maintenance. The major variable governing entry into the steady-state is fill of the gut with bulk provided by food, but this stimulus cannot alone cause entry into the steady-state. Food odor and nutritional stimuli such as increased hemolymph glucose and L-arginine concentrations also contribute to inhibition of feeding leading to entry into the steady-state. Although food odor can alone cause some inhibition of feeding, it does not amplify the effect of gut fill. By contrast, neither increased hemolymph glucose nor L-arginine alone inhibits feeding in hungry animals, but both amplify the inhibitory effects of food odor, and increased glucose also amplifies the effect of gut fill. The major variable maintaining the steady-state is the continued presence of food odor, which can alone maintain the steady-state for 48-72 hrs. Neither increased glucose nor L-arginine can alone preserve the steady-state, although they partially preserve it. Glucose and arginine partially extend the effect of food odor after 72 hrs. These findings show that control of Aplysia feeding is more complex than was previously thought, in that multiple inhibitory factors interact in its control.

  16. Defining Features of Steady-State Timbres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Michael D.

    1995-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to define steady -state features of timbre for a group of well-trained musicians. Experiment 1 evaluated whether or not pairs of three critical dimensions of timbre--spectral slope (6 or 12 dB/octave), formant structure (/a/ or /i/ vowel), and inharmonicity of partials (harmonic or inharmonic)--were processed in a separable or integral fashion. Accuracy and speed for classification of values along one dimension were examined under different conditions of variability along a second dimension (fixed, correlated, or orthogonal). Spectral slope and formant structure were integral, with classification speed for the target dimension depending upon variability along the orthogonal dimension. In contrast, evidence of asymmetric separability was obtained for inharmonicity. Classification speed for slope and formant structure did not depend on inharmonicity, whereas RT for the target dimension of inharmonicity was strongly influenced by variability along either slope or formant structure. Since the results of Experiment 1 provided a basis for manipulating spectral slope and formant structure as a single feature, these dimensions were correlated in Experiment 2. Subjects searched for targets containing potential features of timbre within arrays of 1-4 inharmonic distractor pitches. Distractors were homogeneous with respect to the dimensions of timbre. When targets had /a/ formants with shallow spectral slopes, search time increased nonlinearly with array size in a manner consistent with the parallel processing of items, and thus feature search. Feature search was not obtained for targets with /i/ formants and steep slopes. Thus, the feature was coded as the presence or absence of /a/ formants with shallow spectral slopes. A search task using heterogeneous distractor values along slope/formant structure was used in Experiment 3 to evaluate whether or not the feature of timbre and pitch were automatically conjoined (integral). Search times for

  17. The steady-state assumption in oscillating and growing systems.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Alexandra-M; Reimers, Arne C

    2016-10-07

    The steady-state assumption, which states that the production and consumption of metabolites inside the cell are balanced, is one of the key aspects that makes an efficient analysis of genome-scale metabolic networks possible. It can be motivated from two different perspectives. In the time-scales perspective, we use the fact that metabolism is much faster than other cellular processes such as gene expression. Hence, the steady-state assumption is derived as a quasi-steady-state approximation of the metabolism that adapts to the changing cellular conditions. In this article we focus on the second perspective, stating that on the long run no metabolite can accumulate or deplete. In contrast to the first perspective it is not immediately clear how this perspective can be captured mathematically and what assumptions are required to obtain the steady-state condition. By presenting a mathematical framework based on the second perspective we demonstrate that the assumption of steady-state also applies to oscillating and growing systems without requiring quasi-steady-state at any time point. However, we also show that the average concentrations may not be compatible with the average fluxes. In summary, we establish a mathematical foundation for the steady-state assumption for long time periods that justifies its successful use in many applications. Furthermore, this mathematical foundation also pinpoints unintuitive effects in the integration of metabolite concentrations using nonlinear constraints into steady-state models for long time periods.

  18. Steady-state analysis of activated sludge processes with a settler model including sludge compression.

    PubMed

    Diehl, S; Zambrano, J; Carlsson, B

    2016-01-01

    A reduced model of a completely stirred-tank bioreactor coupled to a settling tank with recycle is analyzed in its steady states. In the reactor, the concentrations of one dominant particulate biomass and one soluble substrate component are modelled. While the biomass decay rate is assumed to be constant, growth kinetics can depend on both substrate and biomass concentrations, and optionally model substrate inhibition. Compressive and hindered settling phenomena are included using the Bürger-Diehl settler model, which consists of a partial differential equation. Steady-state solutions of this partial differential equation are obtained from an ordinary differential equation, making steady-state analysis of the entire plant difficult. A key result showing that the ordinary differential equation can be replaced with an approximate algebraic equation simplifies model analysis. This algebraic equation takes the location of the sludge-blanket during normal operation into account, allowing for the limiting flux capacity caused by compressive settling to easily be included in the steady-state mass balance equations for the entire plant system. This novel approach grants the possibility of more realistic solutions than other previously published reduced models, comprised of yet simpler settler assumptions. The steady-state concentrations, solids residence time, and the wastage flow ratio are functions of the recycle ratio. Solutions are shown for various growth kinetics; with different values of biomass decay rate, influent volumetric flow, and substrate concentration.

  19. Steady states and stability in metabolic networks without regulation.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Oleksandr; van der Schaft, Arjan; Weissing, Franz J

    2016-07-21

    Metabolic networks are often extremely complex. Despite intensive efforts many details of these networks, e.g., exact kinetic rates and parameters of metabolic reactions, are not known, making it difficult to derive their properties. Considerable effort has been made to develop theory about properties of steady states in metabolic networks that are valid for any values of parameters. General results on uniqueness of steady states and their stability have been derived with specific assumptions on reaction kinetics, stoichiometry and network topology. For example, deep results have been obtained under the assumptions of mass-action reaction kinetics, continuous flow stirred tank reactors (CFSTR), concordant reaction networks and others. Nevertheless, a general theory about properties of steady states in metabolic networks is still missing. Here we make a step further in the quest for such a theory. Specifically, we study properties of steady states in metabolic networks with monotonic kinetics in relation to their stoichiometry (simple and general) and the number of metabolites participating in every reaction (single or many). Our approach is based on the investigation of properties of the Jacobian matrix. We show that stoichiometry, network topology, and the number of metabolites that participate in every reaction have a large influence on the number of steady states and their stability in metabolic networks. Specifically, metabolic networks with single-substrate-single-product reactions have disconnected steady states, whereas in metabolic networks with multiple-substrates-multiple-product reactions manifolds of steady states arise. Metabolic networks with simple stoichiometry have either a unique globally asymptotically stable steady state or asymptotically stable manifolds of steady states. In metabolic networks with general stoichiometry the steady states are not always stable and we provide conditions for their stability. In order to demonstrate the biological

  20. Steady State Growth of Continental Crust?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowring, S. A.; Bauer, A.; Dudas, F. O.; Schoene, B.; McLean, N. M.

    2012-12-01

    any age. If one accepts that the probability of preserving old crust decreases with increasing age, the few exposures of rocks older than 3.5 Ga should not be surprising. The thickness and compositional differences between Archean and younger lithospheric mantle are not fully understood nor is the role of thicker buoyant mantle in preserving continental crust; these lead to the question of whether the preserved rock record is representative of what formed. It is notable that the oldest known rocks, the ca. 4.0 Ga Acasta Gneisses, are tonalities-granodiorites-granites with evidence for the involvement of even older crust and that the oldest detrital zircons from Australia (ca. 4.0-4.4 Ga) are thought to have been derived from granitoid sources. The global Hf and Nd isotope databases are compatible with both depleted and enriched sources being present from at least 4.0 Ga to the present and that the lack of evolution of the MORB source or depleted mantle is due to recycling of continental crust throughout earth history. Using examples from the Slave Province and southern Africa, we argue that Armstrong's concept of steady state crustal growth and recycling via plate tectonics still best explains the modern geological and geochemical data.

  1. Inhibiting cytosolic translation and autophagy improves health in mitochondrial disease

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Min; Ostrovsky, Julian; Kwon, Young Joon; Polyak, Erzsebet; Licata, Joseph; Tsukikawa, Mai; Marty, Eric; Thomas, Jeffrey; Felix, Carolyn A.; Xiao, Rui; Zhang, Zhe; Gasser, David L.; Argon, Yair; Falk, Marni J.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial respiratory chain (RC) disease therapies directed at intra-mitochondrial pathology are largely ineffective. Recognizing that RC dysfunction invokes pronounced extra-mitochondrial transcriptional adaptations, particularly involving dysregulated translation, we hypothesized that translational dysregulation is itself contributing to the pathophysiology of RC disease. Here, we investigated the activities, and effects from direct inhibition, of a central translational regulator (mTORC1) and its downstream biological processes in diverse genetic and pharmacological models of RC disease. Our data identify novel mechanisms underlying the cellular pathogenesis of RC dysfunction, including the combined induction of proteotoxic stress, the ER stress response and autophagy. mTORC1 inhibition with rapamycin partially ameliorated renal disease in B6.Pdss2kd/kd mice with complexes I–III/II–III deficiencies, improved viability and mitochondrial physiology in gas-1(fc21) nematodes with complex I deficiency, and rescued viability across a variety of RC-inhibited human cells. Even more effective was probucol, a PPAR-activating anti-lipid drug that we show also inhibits mTORC1. However, directly inhibiting mTORC1-regulated downstream activities yielded the most pronounced and sustained benefit. Partial inhibition of translation by cycloheximide, or of autophagy by lithium chloride, rescued viability, preserved cellular respiratory capacity and induced mitochondrial translation and biogenesis. Cycloheximide also ameliorated proteotoxic stress via a uniquely selective reduction of cytosolic protein translation. RNAseq-based transcriptome profiling of treatment effects in gas-1(fc21) mutants provide further evidence that these therapies effectively restored altered translation and autophagy pathways toward that of wild-type animals. Overall, partially inhibiting cytosolic translation and autophagy offer novel treatment strategies to improve health across the diverse

  2. Steady-state decoupling and design of linear multivariable systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaler, G. J.

    1974-01-01

    A constructive criterion for decoupling the steady states of a linear time-invariant multivariable system is presented. This criterion consists of a set of inequalities which, when satisfied, will cause the steady states of a system to be decoupled. Stability analysis and a new design technique for such systems are given. A new and simple connection between single-loop and multivariable cases is found. These results are then applied to the compensation design for NASA STOL C-8A aircraft. Both steady-state decoupling and stability are justified through computer simulations.

  3. A Note on Equations for Steady-State Optimal Landscapes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, H.H.

    2010-06-15

    Based on the optimality principle (that the global energy expenditure rate is at its minimum for a given landscape under steady state conditions) and calculus of variations, we have derived a group of partial differential equations for describing steady-state optimal landscapes without explicitly distinguishing between hillslopes and channel networks. Other than building on the well-established Mining's equation, this work does not rely on any empirical relationships (such as those relating hydraulic parameters to local slopes). Using additional constraints, we also theoretically demonstrate that steady-state water depth is a power function of local slope, which is consistent with field data.

  4. Einstein's steady-state theory: an abandoned model of the cosmos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac; McCann, Brendan; Nahm, Werner; Mitton, Simon

    2014-09-01

    We present a translation and analysis of an unpublished manuscript by Albert Einstein in which he attempted to construct a `steady-state' model of the universe. The manuscript, which appears to have been written in early 1931, demonstrates that Einstein once explored a cosmic model in which the mean density of matter in an expanding universe is maintained constant by the continuous formation of matter from empty space. This model is very different to previously known Einsteinian models of the cosmos (both static and dynamic) but anticipates the later steady-state cosmology of Hoyle, Bondi and Gold in some ways. We find that Einstein's steady-state model contains a fundamental flaw and suggest that it was abandoned for this reason. We also suggest that he declined to explore a more sophisticated version because he found such theories rather contrived. The manuscript is of historical interest because it reveals that Einstein debated between steady-state and evolving models of the cosmos decades before a similar debate took place in the cosmological community.

  5. Steady-state properties of a totally asymmetric exclusion process with particles of arbitrary size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakatos, Greg; Chou, Tom

    2003-03-01

    The steady-state currents and densities of a one-dimensional totally asymmetric exclusion process (TASEP) with particles that occlude an integer number (d) of lattice sites are computed using various mean field approximations and Monte Carlo simulations. TASEP's featuring particles of arbitrary size are relevant for modeling systems such as mRNA translation, vesicle locomotion along microtubules, and protein sliding along DNA. We conjecture that the nonequilibrium steady-state properties separate into low density, high density, an maximal current phases similar to those of the standard (d=1) TASEP. A simple mean field approximation for steady-state particle currents and densities is found to be inaccurate. However, we find local equilibrium particle distributions derived from a discrete Tonks gas partition function yield apparently exact currents within the maximal current phase. For the boundary-limited phases, the equilibrium Tonks gas distribution cannot be used to predict currents, phase boundaries, or the order of the phase transitions. However, we employ a refined mean field approach to find apparently exact expressions for the steady state currents, boundary densities, and phase diagrams of the d>= 1 TASEP. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations are performed to support our analytic, mean field results.

  6. An Operational Definition of the Steady State in Enzyme Kinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnsley, E. A.

    1990-01-01

    The Briggs-Haldane assumption is used as the basis for the development of a kinetic model for enzyme catalysis. An alternative definition of the steady state and examples of realistic mechanisms are provided. (KR)

  7. An Operational Definition of the Steady State in Enzyme Kinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnsley, E. A.

    1990-01-01

    The Briggs-Haldane assumption is used as the basis for the development of a kinetic model for enzyme catalysis. An alternative definition of the steady state and examples of realistic mechanisms are provided. (KR)

  8. The Enlisted Steady State-Simulation (ESS-SIM) Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    The Enlisted Steady State-Simulation ( ESS -SIM) Tool David M. Rodney • Peggy A. Golfin • Molly F. McIntosh DIM-2014-U-007587-Final July 2014 This...situation. We built and made use of a simulation model, ESS -Sim (Enlisted Steady- State Simulation), to obtain insights into attainable levels of...fleet manning and estimate the impact of policy changes on fleet man- ning. This information memorandum describes this model. Model overview We built ESS

  9. Attentional Modulation of Auditory Steady-State Responses

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Yatin; Davis, Chris; Kim, Jeesun

    2014-01-01

    Auditory selective attention enables task-relevant auditory events to be enhanced and irrelevant ones suppressed. In the present study we used a frequency tagging paradigm to investigate the effects of attention on auditory steady state responses (ASSR). The ASSR was elicited by simultaneously presenting two different streams of white noise, amplitude modulated at either 16 and 23.5 Hz or 32.5 and 40 Hz. The two different frequencies were presented to each ear and participants were instructed to selectively attend to one ear or the other (confirmed by behavioral evidence). The results revealed that modulation of ASSR by selective attention depended on the modulation frequencies used and whether the activation was contralateral or ipsilateral. Attention enhanced the ASSR for contralateral activation from either ear for 16 Hz and suppressed the ASSR for ipsilateral activation for 16 Hz and 23.5 Hz. For modulation frequencies of 32.5 or 40 Hz attention did not affect the ASSR. We propose that the pattern of enhancement and inhibition may be due to binaural suppressive effects on ipsilateral stimulation and the dominance of contralateral hemisphere during dichotic listening. In addition to the influence of cortical processing asymmetries, these results may also reflect a bias towards inhibitory ipsilateral and excitatory contralateral activation present at the level of inferior colliculus. That the effect of attention was clearest for the lower modulation frequencies suggests that such effects are likely mediated by cortical brain structures or by those in close proximity to cortex. PMID:25334021

  10. Measuring the steady state of pedestrian flow in bottleneck experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Weichen; Tordeux, Antoine; Seyfried, Armin; Chraibi, Mohcine; Drzycimski, Kevin; Zheng, Xiaoping; Zhao, Ying

    2016-11-01

    Experiments with pedestrians could depend strongly on initial conditions. Comparisons of the results of such experiments require to distinguish carefully between transient state and steady state. Thus a modified version of the Cumulative Sum Control Chart algorithm is proposed to robustly detect steady states from density and speed time series of bottleneck experiments. The threshold of the detection parameter in the algorithm is calibrated using an autoregressive model. Comparing the detected steady states with manually selected ones, the modified algorithm gives robust and reproducible results. For the applications, three groups of bottleneck experiments are analysed and the steady states are detected. The results reconfirm that the specific flow is constant as bottleneck width changes. Moreover, we proposed a criterion to judge the difference between the flows in all states and in steady states, which is the ratio of pedestrian number to bottleneck width. The critical value of the ratio is found to be approximately 115 persons/m. This conclusion applies not only for the analysis of existing bottleneck experiments but also for the design of new bottleneck experiments and the validation of evacuation models. Furthermore, the range of steady state in time series of pedestrian characteristics could be effectively controlled by adjusting the value of the ratio.

  11. Steady state and a general scale law of deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yan

    2017-07-01

    Steady state deformation has been characterized based on the experimental results for dilute single-phase aluminium alloys. It was found that although characteristic properties such as flow stress and grain size remained constant with time, a continuous loss of grain boundaries occurred as an essential feature at steady state. A physical model, which takes into account the activity of grain boundary dislocations, was developed to describe the kinetics of steady state deformation. According to this model, the steady state as a function of strain rate and temperature defines the limit of the conventional grain size and strength relationship, i.e., the Hall-Petch relation holds when the grain size is larger than that at the steady state, and an inverse Hall-Petch relation takes over if grain size is smaller than the steady state value. The transition between the two relationships relating grain size and strength is a phenomenon that depends on deformation conditions, rather than an intrinsic property as generally perceived. A general scale law of deformation is established accordingly.

  12. Comparing Steady State to Time Interval and Non-Steady State Measurements of Resting Metabolic Rate.

    PubMed

    Irving, Chelsea Jayne; Eggett, Dennis L; Fullmer, Susan

    2017-02-01

    The 2 most common methods to determine resting metabolic rate (RMR) with indirect calorimetry are steady state (SS) and time intervals. Studies have suggested SS more accurately reflects RMR, but further research is needed. Our objective was to compare the bias, precision, and accuracy of SS to time intervals and non-SS measurements in a healthy adult population. Seventy-seven participants were measured for 45 minutes using a Quark RMR. Inclusion criteria included healthy participants aged 18-65 years. Pregnant and lactating women were excluded. Paired t tests compared differences between measures. Bland-Altman plots were used to determine precision. Bias occurred if there was a significant difference between the means. Accuracy was determined by counting the number of absolute differences between SS compared with non-SS and time intervals that were <75 calories. Of 77 participants, 84% achieved SS, and 95% achieved SS by minute 30. Most differences between SS and time intervals were statistically but not practically significant. Bland-Altman plots showed SS measurements were generally lower than any time interval, suggesting SS is more indicative of RMR. Non-SS was significantly more biased ( P = .0005), less precise (spread of limits of agreement was 269 calories), and less accurate (65%) than SS. We conclude that non-SS is not equivalent to SS. We also conclude that using 5-minute SS is more indicative of RMR than any time interval that was tested in healthy populations. If SS cannot be achieved, we recommend repeating the measurement.

  13. Multiple steady states in coupled flow tank reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Katharine L. C.; Kottalam, J.; Hatlee, Michael D.; Ross, John

    1992-05-01

    Coupling between continuous-flow, stirred tank reactors (CSTR's), each having multiple steady states, can produce new steady states with different concentrations of the chemical species in each of the coupled tanks. In this work, we identify a kinetic potential ψ that governs the deterministic time evolution of coupled tank reactors, when the reaction mechanism permits a single-variable description of the states of the individual tanks; examples include the iodate-arsenous acid reaction, a cubic model suggested by Noyes, and two quintic models. Stable steady states correspond to minima of ψ, and unstable steady states to maxima or saddle points; marginally stable states typically correspond to saddle-node points. We illustrate the variation in ψ due to changes in the rate constant for external material intake (k0) and for exchange between tanks (kx). For fixed k0 values, we analyze the changes in numbers and types of steady states as kx increases from zero. We show that steady states disappear by pairwise coalescence; we also show that new steady states may appear with increasing kx, when the reaction mechanism is sufficiently complex. For fixed initial conditions, the steady state ultimately reached in a mixing experiment may depend on the exchange rate constant as a function of time, kx(t) : Adiabatic mixing is obtained in the limit of slow changes in kx(t) and instantaneous mixing in the limit as kx(t)→∞ while t remains small. Analyses based on the potential ψ predict the outcome of mixing experiments for arbitrary kx(t). We show by explicit counterexamples that a prior theory developed by Noyes does not correctly predict the instability points or the transitions between steady states of coupled tanks, to be expected in mixing experiments. We further show that the outcome of such experiments is not connected to the relative stability of steady states in individual tank reactors. We find that coupling may effectively stabilize the tanks. We provide

  14. On the time to steady state: insights from numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goren, L.; Willett, S.; McCoy, S. W.; Perron, J.

    2013-12-01

    How fast do fluvial landscapes approach steady state after an application of tectonic or climatic perturbation? While theory and some numerical models predict that the celerity of the advective wave (knickpoint) controls the response time for perturbations, experiments and other landscape evolution models demonstrate that the time to steady state is much longer than the theoretically predicted response time. We posit that the longevity of transient features and the time to steady state are controlled by the stability of the topology and geometry of channel networks. Evolution of a channel network occurs by a combination of discrete capture events and continuous migration of water divides, processes, which are difficult to represent accurately in landscape evolution models. We therefore address the question of the time to steady state using the DAC landscape evolution model that solves accurately for the location of water divides, using a combination of analytical solution for hillslopes and low-order channels together with a numerical solution for higher order channels. DAC also includes an explicit capture criterion. We have tested fundamental predictions from DAC and show that modeled networks reproduce natural network characteristics such as the Hack's exponent and coefficient and the fractal dimension. We define two steady-state criteria: a topographic steady state, defined by global, pointwise steady elevation, and a topological steady state defined as the state in which no further reorganization of the drainage network takes place. Analyzing block uplift simulations, we find that the time to achieve either topographic or topological steady state exceeds by an order of magnitude the theoretical response time of the fluvial network. The longevity of the transient state is the result of the area feedback, by which, migration of a divide changes the local contributing area. This change propagates downstream as a slope adjustment, forcing further divide migrations

  15. [On the terminology of auditory steady-state responses. What differentiates steady-state and transient potentials?].

    PubMed

    Mühler, R

    2012-05-01

    Recording human auditory steady-state responses (ASSR) at different frequencies allows objective assessment of auditory thresholds. Common practice has been to record ASSR to pure tones that are sinusoidally modulated in amplitude and frequency. Recently, optimized chirp stimuli have been proposed to evoke transient as well as steady-state responses. Because of the resulting uncertainty about the different methods, this paper aims to reconsider the terminology of transient and steady-state responses. Two experiments demonstrate the smooth transition between transient and steady-state responses. In experiment 1, click-evoked auditory brainstem responses (ABR) were recorded over a wide range of stimulus repetition rates (24/s to 72/s). In experiment 2, auditory steady-state responses were recorded for the same stimulus repetition rates, using three different stimulus types: an amplitude modulated 1-kHz tone (AM), a 1-kHz tone-burst (TB) and a flat-spectrum chirp. Experiment 1 demonstrates the merging of the typical ABR wave complexes at higher repetition rates, forming a steady-state response. This effect can only be observed if the time window is extended far beyond the window traditionally used for clinical ABR recordings. Experiment 2 reveals similar ASSR amplitude spectra regardless of the stimulus type and repetition rate used. Steady-state responses can be evoked for a large variety of stimulus types and repetition rates. Thus, from a clinician's point of view, steady-state responses cannot be considered a new type of evoked responses. They differ from transient responses primarily in the frequency response method and the longer timeframe required.

  16. Phencyclidine Disrupts the Auditory Steady State Response in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Leishman, Emma; O’Donnell, Brian F.; Millward, James B.; Vohs, Jenifer L.; Rass, Olga; Krishnan, Giri P.; Bolbecker, Amanda R.; Morzorati, Sandra L.

    2015-01-01

    The Auditory Steady-State Response (ASSR) in the electroencephalogram (EEG) is usually reduced in schizophrenia (SZ), particularly to 40 Hz stimulation. The gamma frequency ASSR deficit has been attributed to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction. We tested whether the NMDAR antagonist, phencyclidine (PCP), produced similar ASSR deficits in rats. EEG was recorded from awake rats via intracranial electrodes overlaying the auditory cortex and at the vertex of the skull. ASSRs to click trains were recorded at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 55 Hz and measured by ASSR Mean Power (MP) and Phase Locking Factor (PLF). In Experiment 1, the effect of different subcutaneous doses of PCP (1.0, 2.5 and 4.0 mg/kg) on the ASSR in 12 rats was assessed. In Experiment 2, ASSRs were compared in PCP treated rats and control rats at baseline, after acute injection (5 mg/kg), following two weeks of subchronic, continuous administration (5 mg/kg/day), and one week after drug cessation. Acute administration of PCP increased PLF and MP at frequencies of stimulation below 50 Hz, and decreased responses at higher frequencies at the auditory cortex site. Acute administration had a less pronounced effect at the vertex site, with a reduction of either PLF or MP observed at frequencies above 20 Hz. Acute effects increased in magnitude with higher doses of PCP. Consistent effects were not observed after subchronic PCP administration. These data indicate that acute administration of PCP, a NMDAR antagonist, produces an increase in ASSR synchrony and power at low frequencies of stimulation and a reduction of high frequency (> 40 Hz) ASSR activity in rats. Subchronic, continuous administration of PCP, on the other hand, has little impact on ASSRs. Thus, while ASSRs are highly sensitive to NMDAR antagonists, their translational utility as a cross-species biomarker for NMDAR hypofunction in SZ and other disorders may be dependent on dose and schedule. PMID:26258486

  17. Geomorphic and Thermal Steady State Regimes: Reality or Wishful Thinking?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lock, J.; Furlong, K.

    2003-04-01

    In many tectonic geomorphic studies, it is assumed that rates of uplift within an orogen are matched by rates of exhumation producing a steady-state orogen. However, the tools used to determine exhumation are thermally driven (e.g. Fission Track, U-Th/He) and exhumation can substantially perturb the crustal thermal regime. Since knowing the thermal regime is key to determining exhumation from thermochronology, problems arise. In order to interpret a rate of exhumation we make the assumption that an area is in thermal 'steady state', which in young active orogens unlikely exists. Taiwan, the Southern Alps, Fiordland, and Nanga Parbat are relatively young mountain belts that have begun to uplift or have experienced increased rates of uplift during the past 5-10 Ma. As there is a time lag between the onset of uplift and achieving geomorphic steady state and again between reaching geomorphic steady state and thermal steady state, these orogens may be too young to have achieved this final stage. Additionally, young orogens may not have experienced a constant rate of uplift and denudation in the time over which the thermochronometers average. Certainly, in the case of the Southern Alps, present uplift rates can not have existed since uplift begun. Therefore, an apparent age is recording a transient thermal state. Even in a case where geomorphic steady state exists i.e. exhumation balances uplift, it is unlikely that a thermal steady state has been reached. This precludes the simple interpretation of exhumation rates often made. When multiple thermochronometers are used, inconsistencies can arise. For example, an increase in the rate of uplift is often observed when comparing the rates of exhumation using different thermochronometers. Our modeling shows that in some cases this phenomena is actually eliminated by considering the transient nature of the thermal regime following the onset of uplift and exhumation of an active orogen. To accurately determine exhumation rate

  18. Inhibition of host translation by virus infection in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Toribio, René; Ventoso, Iván

    2010-01-01

    Infection of cultured cells with lytic animal viruses often results in the selective inhibition of host protein synthesis, whereas viral mRNA is efficiently translated under these circumstances. This phenomenon, known as “shut off,” has been well described at the molecular level for some viruses, but there is not yet any direct or indirect evidence supporting the idea that it also should operate in animals infected with viruses. To address this issue, we constructed recombinant Sindbis virus (SV)-expressing reporter mRNA, the translation of which is sensitive or resistant to virus-induced shut off. As found in cultured cells, replication of SV in mouse brain was associated with a strong phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF2) that prevented translation of reporter mRNA (luciferase and EGFP). Translation of these reporters was restored in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo when a viral RNA structure, termed downstream hairpin loop, present in viral 26S mRNA, was placed at the 5′ end of reporter mRNAs. By comparing the expression of shut off-sensitive and -resistant reporters, we unequivocally concluded that replication of SV in animal tissues is associated with a profound inhibition of nonviral mRNA translation. A strategy as simple as that followed here might be applicable to other viruses to evaluate their interference on host translation in infected animals. PMID:20457920

  19. Steady state in a gas of inelastic rough spheres heated by a uniform stochastic force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega Reyes, Francisco; Santos, Andrés

    2015-11-01

    We study here the steady state attained in a granular gas of inelastic rough spheres that is subject to a spatially uniform random volume force. The stochastic force has the form of the so-called white noise and acts by adding impulse to the particle translational velocities. We work out an analytical solution of the corresponding velocity distribution function from a Sonine polynomial expansion that displays energy non-equipartition between the translational and rotational modes, translational and rotational kurtoses, and translational-rotational velocity correlations. By comparison with a numerical solution of the Boltzmann kinetic equation (by means of the direct simulation Monte Carlo method), we show that our analytical solution provides a good description that is quantitatively very accurate in certain ranges of inelasticity and roughness. We also find three important features that make the forced granular gas steady state very different from the homogeneous cooling state (attained by an unforced granular gas). First, the marginal velocity distributions are always close to a Maxwellian. Second, there is a continuous transition to the purely smooth limit (where the effects of particle rotations are ignored). And third, the angular translational-rotational velocity correlations show a preference for a quasiperpendicular mutual orientation (which is called "lifted-tennis-ball" behavior).

  20. Steady state in a gas of inelastic rough spheres heated by a uniform stochastic force

    SciTech Connect

    Vega Reyes, Francisco Santos, Andrés

    2015-11-15

    We study here the steady state attained in a granular gas of inelastic rough spheres that is subject to a spatially uniform random volume force. The stochastic force has the form of the so-called white noise and acts by adding impulse to the particle translational velocities. We work out an analytical solution of the corresponding velocity distribution function from a Sonine polynomial expansion that displays energy non-equipartition between the translational and rotational modes, translational and rotational kurtoses, and translational-rotational velocity correlations. By comparison with a numerical solution of the Boltzmann kinetic equation (by means of the direct simulation Monte Carlo method), we show that our analytical solution provides a good description that is quantitatively very accurate in certain ranges of inelasticity and roughness. We also find three important features that make the forced granular gas steady state very different from the homogeneous cooling state (attained by an unforced granular gas). First, the marginal velocity distributions are always close to a Maxwellian. Second, there is a continuous transition to the purely smooth limit (where the effects of particle rotations are ignored). And third, the angular translational-rotational velocity correlations show a preference for a quasiperpendicular mutual orientation (which is called “lifted-tennis-ball” behavior)

  1. Translating Ribosomes Inhibit Poliovirus Negative-Strand RNA Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Barton, David J.; Morasco, B. Joan; Flanegan, James B.

    1999-01-01

    Poliovirus has a single-stranded RNA genome of positive polarity that serves two essential functions at the start of the viral replication cycle in infected cells. First, it is translated to synthesize viral proteins and, second, it is copied by the viral polymerase to synthesize negative-strand RNA. We investigated these two reactions by using HeLa S10 in vitro translation-RNA replication reactions. Preinitiation RNA replication complexes were isolated from these reactions and then used to measure the sequential synthesis of negative- and positive-strand RNAs in the presence of different protein synthesis inhibitors. Puromycin was found to stimulate RNA replication overall. In contrast, RNA replication was inhibited by diphtheria toxin, cycloheximide, anisomycin, and ricin A chain. Dose-response experiments showed that precisely the same concentration of a specific drug was required to inhibit protein synthesis and to either stimulate or inhibit RNA replication. This suggested that the ability of these drugs to affect RNA replication was linked to their ability to alter the normal clearance of translating ribosomes from the input viral RNA. Consistent with this idea was the finding that the protein synthesis inhibitors had no measurable effect on positive-strand synthesis in normal RNA replication complexes. In marked contrast, negative-strand synthesis was stimulated by puromycin and was inhibited by cycloheximide. Puromycin causes polypeptide chain termination and induces the dissociation of polyribosomes from mRNA. Cycloheximide and other inhibitors of polypeptide chain elongation “freeze” ribosomes on mRNA and prevent the normal clearance of ribosomes from viral RNA templates. Therefore, it appears that the poliovirus polymerase was not able to dislodge translating ribosomes from viral RNA templates and mediate the switch from translation to negative-strand synthesis. Instead, the initiation of negative-strand synthesis appears to be coordinately regulated

  2. Evaluation of a steady state MPD thruster test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, C.B.; Carlson, L.W.; Herman, H.; Doss, E.D.; Kilgore, O.

    1985-01-01

    The successful development of multimegawatt MPD thrusters depends, to a great extent, on testing them under steady state high altitude space conditions. Steady state testing is required to provide thermal characteristics, life cycle, erosion, and other essential data. the major technical obstacle for ground testing of MPD thrusters in a space simulation facility is the inability of state-of-the-art vacuum systems to handle the tremendous pumping speeds required for multimegawatt MPD thrusters. This is true for other types of electric propulsion devices as well. This paper discusses the results of the first phase of an evaluation of steady state MPD thruster test facilities. The first phase addresses the conceptual design of vacuum systems required to support multimegawatt MPD thruster testing. Three advanced pumping system concepts were evaluated and are presented here.

  3. Poissonian steady states: from stationary densities to stationary intensities.

    PubMed

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2012-10-01

    Markov dynamics are the most elemental and omnipresent form of stochastic dynamics in the sciences, with applications ranging from physics to chemistry, from biology to evolution, and from economics to finance. Markov dynamics can be either stationary or nonstationary. Stationary Markov dynamics represent statistical steady states and are quantified by stationary densities. In this paper, we generalize the notion of steady state to the case of general Markov dynamics. Considering an ensemble of independent motions governed by common Markov dynamics, we establish that the entire ensemble attains Poissonian steady states which are quantified by stationary Poissonian intensities and which hold valid also in the case of nonstationary Markov dynamics. The methodology is applied to a host of Markov dynamics, including Brownian motion, birth-death processes, random walks, geometric random walks, renewal processes, growth-collapse dynamics, decay-surge dynamics, Ito diffusions, and Langevin dynamics.

  4. Efficient steady-state solver for hierarchical quantum master equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hou-Dao; Qiao, Qin; Xu, Rui-Xue; Zheng, Xiao; Yan, YiJing

    2017-07-01

    Steady states play pivotal roles in many equilibrium and non-equilibrium open system studies. Their accurate evaluations call for exact theories with rigorous treatment of system-bath interactions. Therein, the hierarchical equations-of-motion (HEOM) formalism is a nonperturbative and non-Markovian quantum dissipation theory, which can faithfully describe the dissipative dynamics and nonlinear response of open systems. Nevertheless, solving the steady states of open quantum systems via HEOM is often a challenging task, due to the vast number of dynamical quantities involved. In this work, we propose a self-consistent iteration approach that quickly solves the HEOM steady states. We demonstrate its high efficiency with accurate and fast evaluations of low-temperature thermal equilibrium of a model Fenna-Matthews-Olson pigment-protein complex. Numerically exact evaluation of thermal equilibrium Rényi entropies and stationary emission line shapes is presented with detailed discussion.

  5. Quantum quasi-steady states in current transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Agosta, Roberto; Zwolak, Michael; di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2007-03-01

    We investigate quasi-steady state solutions to transport in quantum systems by finding states which at some time minimize the change in density throughout all space and have a given current density flowing from one part of the system to another [1]. Contrary to classical dynamics, in a quantum mechanical system there are many states with a given energy and particle number which satisfy this minimization criterion. Taking as an example spinless fermions on a one-dimensional lattice, we explicitly show the phase space of a class of quasi-steady states. We also discuss the possibility of coherent and incoherent mixing of these steady state solutions leading to a new type of noise in quantum transport. [1] M. Di Ventra and T.N. Todorov J. Phys. Cond. Matt. 16, 8025 (2004).

  6. Fractality in nonequilibrium steady states of quasiperiodic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varma, Vipin Kerala; de Mulatier, Clélia; Žnidarič, Marko

    2017-09-01

    We investigate the nonequilibrium response of quasiperiodic systems to boundary driving. In particular, we focus on the Aubry-André-Harper model at its metal-insulator transition and the diagonal Fibonacci model. We find that opening the system at the boundaries provides a viable experimental technique to probe its underlying fractality, which is reflected in the fractal spatial dependence of simple observables (such as magnetization) in the nonequilibrium steady state. We also find that the dynamics in the nonequilibrium steady state depends on the length of the chain chosen: generic length chains harbour qualitatively slower transport (different scaling exponent) than Fibonacci length chains, which is in turn slower than in the closed system. We conjecture that such fractal nonequilibrium steady states should arise in generic driven critical systems that have fractal properties.

  7. Structural simplification of chemical reaction networks in partial steady states.

    PubMed

    Madelaine, Guillaume; Lhoussaine, Cédric; Niehren, Joachim; Tonello, Elisa

    2016-11-01

    We study the structural simplification of chemical reaction networks with partial steady state semantics assuming that the concentrations of some but not all species are constant. We present a simplification rule that can eliminate intermediate species that are in partial steady state, while preserving the dynamics of all other species. Our simplification rule can be applied to general reaction networks with some but few restrictions on the possible kinetic laws. We can also simplify reaction networks subject to conservation laws. We prove that our simplification rule is correct when applied to a module of a reaction network, as long as the partial steady state is assumed with respect to the complete network. Michaelis-Menten's simplification rule for enzymatic reactions falls out as a special case. We have implemented an algorithm that applies our simplification rules repeatedly and applied it to reaction networks from systems biology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A simplified approach to estimating the maximal lactate steady state.

    PubMed

    Snyder, A C; Woulfe, T; Welsh, R; Foster, C

    1994-01-01

    The exercise intensity associated with an elevated but stable blood lactate (HLa) concentration during constant load work (the maximal steady state, MSS) has received attention as a candidate for the "optimal" exercise intensity for endurance training. Identification of MSS ordinarily demands direct measurement of HLa or respiratory metabolism. The purpose of this study was to test the ability of heart rate (HR) to identify MSS during steady state exercise, similar to that used in conventional exercise prescription. Trained runners (n = 9) and cyclists (n = 12) performed incremental and steady state exercise. MSS was defined as the highest intensity in which blood lactate concentration increased < 1.0 mM from minutes 10 to 30. The next higher intensity workbout completed was defined as > MSS. HR models related to the presence or absence of steady state conditions were developed from the upper 95% confidence interval of MSS and the lower 95% confidence interval of > MSS. Cross validation of the model to predict MSS was performed using 21 running and 45 cycling exercise bouts in a separate group. Using the MSS upper 95% confidence interval model 84% and 76% of workbouts were correctly predicted in cyclists and runners, respectively. Using the > MSS lower 95% confidence interval model, 76% and 81% of workbouts were correctly predicted in cyclists and runners, respectively. Prediction errors tended to incorrectly predict non-steady state conditions when steady state had occurred (16/26) (62%). We conclude that use of these simple HR models may predict MSS with sufficient accuracy to be useful when direct HLa measurement is not available.

  9. Steady-state error of a system with fuzzy controller.

    PubMed

    Butkiewicz, B S

    1998-01-01

    We consider the problem of control error of a fuzzy system with feedback. The system consists of a plant, linear or nonlinear, fuzzy controller, and feedback loop. As controller we use both PD and PI fuzzy type controllers. We apply different t-norm and co-norm: logic, algebraic, Yager, Hamacher, bounded, drastic, etc. in the process of fuzzy reasoning. Triangular shape of membership functions is supposed, but we generalize the results obtained. Steady-state error of a system is calculated. We have obtained very interesting results. The steady-state error is identical for pairs of triangular t- and co-norms.

  10. Steady-state coherent transfer by adiabatic passage.

    PubMed

    Huneke, Jan; Platero, Gloria; Kohler, Sigmund

    2013-01-18

    We propose steady-state electron transport based on coherent transfer by adiabatic passage (CTAP) in a linearly arranged triple quantum dot with leads attached to the outer dots. Its main feature is repeated steering of single electrons from the first dot to the last dot without relevant occupation of the middle dot. The coupling to leads enables a steady-state current, whose shot noise is significantly suppressed provided that the CTAP protocol performs properly. This represents an indication for the direct transfer between spatially separated dots and, thus, may resolve the problem of finding experimental evidence for the nonoccupation of the middle dot.

  11. Steady state decoupling and design of linear multivariable systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, J. Y.; Thaler, G. J.

    1974-01-01

    A constructive criterion for decoupling the steady states of linear multivariable systems is developed. The criterion consists of n(n-1) inequalities with the type numbers of the compensator transfer functions as the unknowns. These unknowns can be chosen to satisfy the inequalities and hence achieve a steady state decoupling scheme. It turns out that pure integrators in the loops play an important role. An extended root locus design method is then developed to take care of the stability and transient response. The overall procedure is applied to the compensation design for STOL C-8A aircraft in the approach mode.

  12. Descriptive Linear modeling of steady-state visual evoked response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levison, W. H.; Junker, A. M.; Kenner, K.

    1986-01-01

    A study is being conducted to explore use of the steady state visual-evoke electrocortical response as an indicator of cognitive task loading. Application of linear descriptive modeling to steady state Visual Evoked Response (VER) data is summarized. Two aspects of linear modeling are reviewed: (1) unwrapping the phase-shift portion of the frequency response, and (2) parsimonious characterization of task-loading effects in terms of changes in model parameters. Model-based phase unwrapping appears to be most reliable in applications, such as manual control, where theoretical models are available. Linear descriptive modeling of the VER has not yet been shown to provide consistent and readily interpretable results.

  13. Adaptive steady-state stabilization for nonlinear dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, David J.

    2008-07-01

    By means of LaSalle’s invariance principle, we propose an adaptive controller with the aim of stabilizing an unstable steady state for a wide class of nonlinear dynamical systems. The control technique does not require analytical knowledge of the system dynamics and operates without any explicit knowledge of the desired steady-state position. The control input is achieved using only system states with no computer analysis of the dynamics. The proposed strategy is tested on Lorentz, van der Pol, and pendulum equations.

  14. Mapping current fluctuations of stochastic pumps to nonequilibrium steady states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotskoff, Grant M.

    2017-03-01

    We show that current fluctuations in a stochastic pump can be robustly mapped to fluctuations in a corresponding time-independent nonequilibrium steady state. We thus refine a recently proposed mapping so that it ensures equivalence of not only the averages, but also optimal representation of fluctuations in currents and density. Our mapping leads to a natural decomposition of the entropy production in stochastic pumps similar to the "housekeeping" heat. As a consequence of the decomposition of entropy production, the current fluctuations in weakly perturbed stochastic pumps are shown to satisfy a universal bound determined by the steady state entropy production.

  15. Mean field treatment of heterogeneous steady state kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geva, Nadav; Vaissier, Valerie; Shepherd, James; Van Voorhis, Troy

    2017-10-01

    We propose a method to quickly compute steady state populations of species undergoing a set of chemical reactions whose rate constants are heterogeneous. Using an average environment in place of an explicit nearest neighbor configuration, we obtain a set of equations describing a single fluctuating active site in the presence of an averaged bath. We apply this Mean Field Steady State (MFSS) method to a model of H2 production on a disordered surface for which the activation energy for the reaction varies from site to site. The MFSS populations quantitatively reproduce the KMC results across the range of rate parameters considered.

  16. Pyrazinamide inhibits trans-translation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wanliang; Zhang, Xuelian; Jiang, Xin; Yuan, Haiming; Lee, Jong Seok; Barry, Clifton E; Wang, Honghai; Zhang, Wenhong; Zhang, Ying

    2011-09-16

    Pyrazinamide (PZA) is a first-line tuberculosis drug that plays a unique role in shortening the duration of tuberculosis chemotherapy. PZA is hydrolyzed intracellularly to pyrazinoic acid (POA) by pyrazinamidase (PZase, encoded by pncA), an enzyme frequently lost in PZA-resistant strains, but the target of POA in Mycobacterium tuberculosis has remained elusive. Here, we identify a previously unknown target of POA as the ribosomal protein S1 (RpsA), a vital protein involved in protein translation and the ribosome-sparing process of trans-translation. Three PZA-resistant clinical isolates without pncA mutation harbored RpsA mutations. RpsA overexpression conferred increased PZA resistance, and we confirmed that POA bound to RpsA (but not a clinically identified ΔAla mutant) and subsequently inhibited trans-translation rather than canonical translation. Trans-translation is essential for freeing scarce ribosomes in nonreplicating organisms, and its inhibition may explain the ability of PZA to eradicate persisting organisms.

  17. Inhibition of insulin synthesis by cyproheptadine: effects on translation.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Belinda S; Fischer, Lawrence J

    2004-06-01

    The antihistaminic, antiserotonergic drug cyproheptadine (CPH) is known to inhibit insulin synthesis in vivo and in vitro. This inhibition of insulin synthesis occurs without a commensurate decrease in preproinsulin mRNA (PPImRNA) levels, suggesting a post-transcriptional mechanism of action. The goal of the present study was to investigate the direct effects of CPH on translation of PPImRNA in RINm5F cells. Results produced using a subcellular fractionation technique followed by real-time RT-PCR indicated that a 2-h 10 microM CPH treatment resulted in a decrease in the percentage of cellular PPImRNA associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) bound polysomes and increases in the percentages of translationally uninitiated and monoribosome-associated PPImRNA. These alterations in PPImRNA distribution were found to be concentration-dependent, chemical structure-specific, and reversible with a time course consistent with a previously reported CPH-induced inhibition of insulin synthesis. Further investigations to examine the possible effect of CPH on translation initiation were then undertaken by examining the phosphorylation state of the translation initiation factors eIF2alpha, eIF4E, and 4E-BP1 after CPH treatment. CPH (10 microM) treatment resulted in increased phosphorylation of eIF2alpha, and decreased phosphorylation of both eIF4E and 4E-BP1. These changes are all consistent with decreased initiation of translation. Taken together, these results suggest that the inhibition of insulin synthesis known to be elicited by CPH treatment of RINm5F cells and intact animals involves alterations of initiation factor phosphorylation leading to a decrease in insulin synthesis and of stored insulin in insulin-producing cells.

  18. Efficient calculation of steady state probability distribution for stochastic biochemical reaction network

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The Steady State (SS) probability distribution is an important quantity needed to characterize the steady state behavior of many stochastic biochemical networks. In this paper, we propose an efficient and accurate approach to calculating an approximate SS probability distribution from solution of the Chemical Master Equation (CME) under the assumption of the existence of a unique deterministic SS of the system. To find the approximate solution to the CME, a truncated state-space representation is used to reduce the state-space of the system and translate it to a finite dimension. The subsequent ill-posed eigenvalue problem of a linear system for the finite state-space can be converted to a well-posed system of linear equations and solved. The proposed strategy yields efficient and accurate estimation of noise in stochastic biochemical systems. To demonstrate the approach, we applied the method to characterize the noise behavior of a set of biochemical networks of ligand-receptor interactions for Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling. We found that recruitment of type II receptors during the receptor oligomerization by itself doesn't not tend to lower noise in receptor signaling, but regulation by a secreted co-factor may provide a substantial improvement in signaling relative to noise. The steady state probability approximation method shortened the time necessary to calculate the probability distributions compared to earlier approaches, such as Gillespie's Stochastic Simulation Algorithm (SSA) while maintaining high accuracy. PMID:23134718

  19. Steady State Load Characterization Fact Sheet: 2012 Chevy Volt

    SciTech Connect

    Scoffield, Don

    2015-03-01

    This fact sheet characterizes the steady state charging behavior of a 2012 Chevy Volt. Both level 1 charging (120 volt) and level 2 charging (208 volts) is investigated. This fact sheet contains plots of efficiency, power factor, and current harmonics as vehicle charging is curtailed. Prominent current harmonics are also displayed in a histogram for various charge rates.

  20. Steady States of the Parametric Rotator and Pendulum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouzas, Antonio O.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss several steady-state rotation and oscillation modes of the planar parametric rotator and pendulum with damping. We consider a general elliptic trajectory of the suspension point for both rotator and pendulum, for the latter at an arbitrary angle with gravity, with linear and circular trajectories as particular cases. We treat the…

  1. Density Functional Theory for Steady-State Nonequilibrium Molecular Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuanglong; Nurbawono, Argo; Zhang, Chun

    2015-01-01

    We present a density functional theory (DFT) for steady-state nonequilibrium quantum systems such as molecular junctions under a finite bias. Based on the steady-state nonequilibrium statistics that maps nonequilibrium to an effective equilibrium, we show that ground-state DFT (GS-DFT) is not applicable in this case and two densities, the total electron density and the density of current-carrying electrons, are needed to uniquely determine the properties of the corresponding nonequilibrium system. A self-consistent mean-field approach based on two densities is then derived. The theory is implemented into SIESTA computational package and applied to study nonequilibrium electronic/transport properties of a realistic carbon-nanotube (CNT)/Benzene junction. Results obtained from our steady-state DFT (SS-DFT) are compared with those of conventional GS-DFT based transport calculations. We show that SS-DFT yields energetically more stable nonequilibrium steady state, predicts significantly lower electric current, and is able to produce correct electronic structures in local equilibrium under a limiting case. PMID:26472080

  2. Equilibrium Binding and Steady-State Enzyme Kinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunford, H. Brian

    1984-01-01

    Points out that equilibrium binding and steady-state enzyme kinetics have a great deal in common and that related equations and error analysis can be cast in identical forms. Emphasizes that if one type of problem solution is taught, the other is also taught. Various methods of data analysis are evaluated. (JM)

  3. Comment on ``Dynamically maintained steady-state pressure gradients''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, Todd L.

    2000-04-01

    Sheehan [Phys. Rev. E 57, 6660 (1998)] recently discussed the possibility of establishing a dynamically maintained, steady-state pressure gradient in a gas filling a cavity. In this Comment it is pointed out that the pressure gradients in such a system, if attainable in the laboratory, could be used to violate the second law of thermodynamics.

  4. Aperiodically Driven Integrable Systems and Their Emergent Steady States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandy, Sourav; Sen, Arnab; Sen, Diptiman

    2017-07-01

    Does a closed quantum many-body system that is continually driven with a time-dependent Hamiltonian finally reach a steady state? This question has only recently been answered for driving protocols that are periodic in time, where the long-time behavior of the local properties synchronizes with the drive and can be described by an appropriate periodic ensemble. Here, we explore the consequences of breaking the time-periodic structure of the drive with additional aperiodic noise in a class of integrable systems. We show that the resulting unitary dynamics leads to new emergent steady states in at least two cases. While any typical realization of random noise causes eventual heating to an infinite-temperature ensemble for all local properties in spite of the system being integrable, noise that is self-similar in time leads to an entirely different steady state (which we dub the "geometric generalized Gibbs ensemble") that emerges only after an astronomically large time scale. To understand the approach to the steady state, we study the temporal behavior of certain coarse-grained quantities in momentum space that fully determine the reduced density matrix for a subsystem with size much smaller than the total system. Such quantities provide a concise description for any drive protocol in integrable systems that are reducible to a free-fermion representation.

  5. Steady-State Squeezing in the Micromaser Cavity Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nayak, N.

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that the radiation field in the presently operated micromaser cavity may be squeezed when pumped with polarized atoms. The squeezing is in the steady state field corresponding to the action similar to that of the conventional micromaser, with the effect of cavity dissipation during entire t(sub c) = tau + t(sub cav).

  6. Effects of curvature on asymmetric steady states in catalyst particles

    SciTech Connect

    Lucier, B J

    1981-02-01

    The effects of curvature on steady states of chemical catalytic reactions are investigated by studying the cases of the catalytic particle being a spherical or cylindrical shell. Existence and stability of solutions are studied. It is shown that the solutions converge to the solutions for the catalytic slab when the curvature goes to 0 in each case.

  7. Equilibrium Binding and Steady-State Enzyme Kinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunford, H. Brian

    1984-01-01

    Points out that equilibrium binding and steady-state enzyme kinetics have a great deal in common and that related equations and error analysis can be cast in identical forms. Emphasizes that if one type of problem solution is taught, the other is also taught. Various methods of data analysis are evaluated. (JM)

  8. Identifiability of steady-state chemical kinetic models

    SciTech Connect

    Shvetsova-Shilovskaya, T.N.; Gorskii, V.G.

    1995-01-01

    The methodology for the local and global identifiability analysis of steady-state kinetic models of catalytic reactions is discussed. This methodology is based on the prior transformation of the model into the linear form so that the coefficients of the linear form are uniquely identifiable combinations of constants (observed parameters). Identifiability analysis is applied to several particular models.

  9. Steady-State Pharmacokinetics of Bupropion SR in Juvenile Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daviss, W. Burleson; Perel, James M.; Rudolph, George R.; Axelson, David A.; Gilchrist, Richard; Nuss, Sharon; Birmaher, Boris; Brent, David A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the steady-state pharmacokinetic properties of bupropion sustained release (SR) and their potential developmental differences in youths. Method: Eleven boys and eight girls aged 11 to 17 years old were prescribed bupropion SR monotherapy for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (n = 16) and/or depressive disorders (n =…

  10. Pre-Steady-State Decoding of the Bicoid Morphogen Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Sven; Sandler, Oded; Sberro, Hila; Shnider, Sara; Schejter, Eyal; Shilo, Ben-Zion; Barkai, Naama

    2007-01-01

    Morphogen gradients are established by the localized production and subsequent diffusion of signaling molecules. It is generally assumed that cell fates are induced only after morphogen profiles have reached their steady state. Yet, patterning processes during early development occur rapidly, and tissue patterning may precede the convergence of the gradient to its steady state. Here we consider the implications of pre-steady-state decoding of the Bicoid morphogen gradient for patterning of the anterior–posterior axis of the Drosophila embryo. Quantitative analysis of the shift in the expression domains of several Bicoid targets (gap genes) upon alteration of bcd dosage, as well as a temporal analysis of a reporter for Bicoid activity, suggest that a transient decoding mechanism is employed in this setting. We show that decoding the pre-steady-state morphogen profile can reduce patterning errors caused by fluctuations in the rate of morphogen production. This can explain the surprisingly small shifts in gap and pair-rule gene expression domains observed in response to alterations in bcd dosage. PMID:17298180

  11. Pressure updating methods for the steady-state fluid equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiterman, A.; Turkel, E.; Vatsa, V.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the steady state equations for a compressible fluid. Since we wish to solve for a range of speeds we must consider the equations in conservation form. For transonic speeds these equations are of mixed type. Hence, the usual approach is to add time derivatives to the steady state equations and then march these equations in time. One then adds a time derivative of the density to the continuity equation, a derivative of the momentum to the momentum equation and a derivative of the total energy to the energy equation. This choice is dictated by the time consistent equations. However, since we are only interested in the steady state this is not necessary. Thus we shall consider the possibility of adding a time derivative of the pressure to the continuity equation and similar modifications for the energy equation. This can then be generalized to adding combinations of time derivatives to each equation since these vanish in the steady state. When using acceleration techniques such as residual smoothing, multigrid, etc. these are applied to the pressure rather than the density. Hence, the code duplicates the behavior of the incompressible equations for low speeds.

  12. Steady-State Pharmacokinetics of Bupropion SR in Juvenile Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daviss, W. Burleson; Perel, James M.; Rudolph, George R.; Axelson, David A.; Gilchrist, Richard; Nuss, Sharon; Birmaher, Boris; Brent, David A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine the steady-state pharmacokinetic properties of bupropion sustained release (SR) and their potential developmental differences in youths. Method: Eleven boys and eight girls aged 11 to 17 years old were prescribed bupropion SR monotherapy for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (n = 16) and/or depressive disorders (n =…

  13. CONTROL OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS BY STEADY-STATE CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pilot-scale experiments have been performed to assess the ability of conventional treatment to control Cryptosporidium oocysts under steady-state conditions. The work was performed with a pilot plant that was designed to minimize flow rates and, as a result, the number of oocyst...

  14. Steady-State Multiplicity Features of Chemically Reacting Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luss, Dan

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes steady-state multiplicity in chemical reactors, focusing on the use of two mathematical tools, namely, the catastrophe theory and the singularity theory with a distinguished parameter. These tools can be used to determine the maximum number of possible solutions and the different types of bifurcation diagrams. (JN)

  15. Combined Steady-State and Dynamic Heat Exchanger Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyben, William L.; Tuzla, Kemal; Bader, Paul N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a heat-transfer experiment that combines steady-state analysis and dynamic control. A process-water stream is circulated through two tube-in-shell heat exchangers in series. In the first, the process water is heated by steam. In the second, it is cooled by cooling water. The equipment is pilot-plant size: heat-transfer areas…

  16. Acceleration to a steady state for the Euler equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkel, E.

    1984-01-01

    A multi-stage Runge-Kutta method is analyzed for solving the Euler equations exterior to an airfoil. Highly subsonic, transonic and supersonic flows are evaluated. Various techniques for accelerating the convergence to a steady state are introduced and analyzed.

  17. CONTROL OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM OOCYSTS BY STEADY-STATE CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pilot-scale experiments have been performed to assess the ability of conventional treatment to control Cryptosporidium oocysts under steady-state conditions. The work was performed with a pilot plant that was designed to minimize flow rates and, as a result, the number of oocyst...

  18. Steady-State Multiplicity Features of Chemically Reacting Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luss, Dan

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes steady-state multiplicity in chemical reactors, focusing on the use of two mathematical tools, namely, the catastrophe theory and the singularity theory with a distinguished parameter. These tools can be used to determine the maximum number of possible solutions and the different types of bifurcation diagrams. (JN)

  19. The concave river long profile: a morphodynamic steady state?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blom, A.

    2011-12-01

    By definition, a morphodynamic steady state is governed by a spatially constant sediment transport rate. As the sediment transport rate is a function of shear stress associated with skin friction, the morphodynamic steady state has been considered to be governed by a spatially constant bed slope. For this reason, the typical concave river long profile has been considered to be a quasi-steady state. The river's steady state has been considered to be one with a spatially constant bed slope, with tributaries inducing a stepwise decrease in bed slope in streamwise direction. Yet, for the sediment transport rate to be spatially constant, it rather is the product of water surface slope and water depth associated with skin friction that needs to be constant. This implies that physical mechanisms that induce streamwise variation in the sediment transport rate can be compensated by a streamwise variation in bed slope so as to guarantee a spatially constant sediment transport rate. Following the river course, such physical mechanisms can be bedrock exposure, partial transport, and a spatially lagging bedform growth. At locations where tributaries increase the water discharge, the above mechanisms cause the river bed profile to be upward concave over a significant reach. At bifucations or at locations where river widening prevails, the river bed profile is upward convex.

  20. Steady States of the Parametric Rotator and Pendulum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouzas, Antonio O.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss several steady-state rotation and oscillation modes of the planar parametric rotator and pendulum with damping. We consider a general elliptic trajectory of the suspension point for both rotator and pendulum, for the latter at an arbitrary angle with gravity, with linear and circular trajectories as particular cases. We treat the…

  1. Nonlinear elements in the EMTP: Steady-state initialization

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, B.K.; Marti, J.R.; Dommel, H.W.

    1995-05-01

    A methodology is presented for the formulation and solution of networks containing a class of nonlinear elements within the framework of electromagnetic transient programs. The method facilitates steady-state initialization formulated in the time-domain as a two-point boundary value problem. The techniques developed are applied to a simple network exhibiting harmonics due to transformer saturation.

  2. Kinematic Cosmology & a new ``Steady State'' Model of Continued Creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegener, Mogens

    2006-03-01

    Only a new "steady state" model justifies the observations of fully mature galaxies at ever increasing distances. The basic idea behind the world model presented here, which is a synthesis of the cosmologies of Parmenides and Herakleitos, is that the invariant structure of the infinite contents of a universe in flux may be depicted as a finite hyperbolic pseudo-sphere.

  3. Combined Steady-State and Dynamic Heat Exchanger Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luyben, William L.; Tuzla, Kemal; Bader, Paul N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a heat-transfer experiment that combines steady-state analysis and dynamic control. A process-water stream is circulated through two tube-in-shell heat exchangers in series. In the first, the process water is heated by steam. In the second, it is cooled by cooling water. The equipment is pilot-plant size: heat-transfer areas…

  4. Cotranslational Coat Protein-Mediated Inhibition of Potyviral RNA Translation

    PubMed Central

    Besong-Ndika, Jane; Ivanov, Konstantin I.; Hafrèn, Anders; Michon, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Potato virus A (PVA) is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus and a member of the family Potyviridae. The PVA coat protein (CP) has an intrinsic capacity to self-assemble into filamentous virus-like particles, but the mechanism responsible for the initiation of viral RNA encapsidation in vivo remains unclear. Apart from virion assembly, PVA CP is also involved in the inhibition of viral RNA translation. In this study, we show that CP inhibits PVA RNA translation in a dose-dependent manner, through a mechanism involving the CP-encoding region. Analysis of this region, however, failed to identify any RNA secondary structure(s) preferentially recognized by CP, suggesting that the inhibition depends on CP-CP rather than CP-RNA interactions. In agreement with this possibility, insertion of an in-frame stop codon upstream of the CP sequence led to a marked decrease in the inhibition of viral RNA translation. Based on these results, we propose a model in which the cotranslational interactions between excess CP accumulating in trans and CP translated from viral RNA in cis are required to initiate the translational repression. This model suggests a mechanism for how viral RNA can be sequestered from translation and specifically selected for encapsidation at the late stages of viral infection. IMPORTANCE The main functions of the CP during potyvirus infection are to protect viral RNA from degradation and to transport it locally, systemically, and from host to host. Although virion assembly is a key step in the potyviral infectious cycle, little is known about how it is initiated and how viral RNA is selected for encapsidation. The results presented here suggest that CP-CP rather than CP-RNA interactions are predominantly involved in the sequestration of viral RNA away from translation. We propose that the cotranslational nature of these interactions may represent a mechanism for the selection of viral RNA for encapsidation. A better understanding of the

  5. The general mode of translation inhibition by macrolide antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Kannan, Krishna; Kanabar, Pinal; Schryer, David; Florin, Tanja; Oh, Eugene; Bahroos, Neil; Tenson, Tanel; Weissman, Jonathan S; Mankin, Alexander S

    2014-11-11

    Macrolides are clinically important antibiotics thought to inhibit bacterial growth by impeding the passage of newly synthesized polypeptides through the nascent peptide exit tunnel of the bacterial ribosome. Recent data challenged this view by showing that macrolide antibiotics can differentially affect synthesis of individual proteins. To understand the general mechanism of macrolide action, we used genome-wide ribosome profiling and analyzed the redistribution of ribosomes translating highly expressed genes in bacterial cells treated with high concentrations of macrolide antibiotics. The metagene analysis indicated that inhibition of early rounds of translation, which would be characteristic of the conventional view of macrolide action, occurs only at a limited number of genes. Translation of most genes proceeds past the 5'-proximal codons and can be arrested at more distal codons when the ribosome encounters specific short sequence motifs. The problematic sequence motifs are confined to the nascent peptide residues in the peptidyl transferase center but not to the peptide segment that contacts the antibiotic molecule in the exit tunnel. Therefore, it appears that the general mode of macrolide action involves selective inhibition of peptide bond formation between specific combinations of donor and acceptor substrates. Additional factors operating in the living cell but not functioning during in vitro protein synthesis may modulate site-specific action of macrolide antibiotics.

  6. Steady state volcanism: Evidence from eruption histories of polygenetic volcanoes

    SciTech Connect

    Wadge, G.

    1982-05-10

    Some volcanoes erupt magma at average rates which are constant over periods of many years, even through this magma may appear in a complex series of eruptions. This constancy of output is tested by construction of a curve of cumulative volume of erupted magma, which is linear for steady state volcanism, and whose gradient defines the steady state rate Q/sub s/s. The assumption is made that Q/sub s/s is the rate at which magma is supplied to these polygenetic volcanoes. Five general types of eruptive behavior can be distinguished from the cumulative volume studied. These types are interpreted in terms of a simple model of batches of magma rising buoyantly through the crust and interacting with a small-capacity subvolcanic magma reservoir. Recognition of previous steady state behavior at a volcano may enable the cumulative volume curve to be used empirically as a constraint on the timing and volume of the next eruption. The steady state model thus has a limited predictive capability. With the exception of Kilauea (O/sub s/s = 4m/sup 3/ s/sup -1/) all the identified steady state volcanoes have values of Q/sub s/s of a few tenths of one cubic meter per second. These rates are consistent with the minimum flux rates required by theoretical cooling models of batches of magma traversing the crust. The similarity of these Q/sub s/s values of volcanoes (producing basalt, andesite, and dacite magmas) in very different tectonic settings suggests that the common factors of crustal buoyancy forces and the geotherm-controlled cooling rates control the dynamics of magma supply through the crust. Long-term dormancy at active volcanoes may be a manifestation of the steady accumulation of magma in large crustal reservoirs, a process that complements the intermittent periods of steady state output at the surface. This possibility has several implications, the most important of which is that it provides a constraint on the supply rate of new magma to the bases of plutons.

  7. Simulations of KSTAR high performance steady state operation scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Yong-Su; Kessel, C. E.; Park, J. M.; Yi, Sumin; Becoulet, A.; Sips, A. C. C.; Kim, J. Y.

    2009-11-01

    We report the results of predictive modelling of high performance steady state operation scenarios in KSTAR. Firstly, the capabilities of steady state operation are investigated with time-dependent simulations using a free-boundary plasma equilibrium evolution code coupled with transport calculations. Secondly, the reproducibility of high performance steady state operation scenarios developed in the DIII-D tokamak, of similar size to that of KSTAR, is investigated using the experimental data taken from DIII-D. Finally, the capability of ITER-relevant steady state operation is investigated in KSTAR. It is found that KSTAR is able to establish high performance steady state operation scenarios; βN above 3, H98(y, 2) up to 2.0, fBS up to 0.76 and fNI equals 1.0. In this work, a realistic density profile is newly introduced for predictive simulations by employing the scaling law of a density peaking factor. The influence of the current ramp-up scenario and the transport model is discussed with respect to the fusion performance and non-inductive current drive fraction in the transport simulations. As observed in the experiments, both the heating and the plasma current waveforms in the current ramp-up phase produce a strong effect on the q-profile, the fusion performance and also on the non-inductive current drive fraction in the current flattop phase. A criterion in terms of qmin is found to establish ITER-relevant steady state operation scenarios. This will provide a guideline for designing the current ramp-up phase in KSTAR. It is observed that the transport model also affects the predictive values of fusion performance as well as the non-inductive current drive fraction. The Weiland transport model predicts the highest fusion performance as well as non-inductive current drive fraction in KSTAR. In contrast, the GLF23 model exhibits the lowest ones. ITER-relevant advanced scenarios cannot be obtained with the GLF23 model in the conditions given in this work. Finally

  8. Simulations of KSTAR high performance steady state operation scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Na, Y S; Kessel, C. E.; Park, Jin Myung; Yi, Sumin; Becoulet, A.; Sips, A C C; Kim, J Y

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of predictive modelling of high performance steady state operation scenarios in KSTAR. Firstly, the capabilities of steady state operation are investigated with time-dependent simulations using a free-boundary plasma equilibrium evolution code coupled with transport calculations. Secondly, the reproducibility of high performance steady state operation scenarios developed in the DIII-D tokamak, of similar size to that of KSTAR, is investigated using the experimental data taken from DIII-D. Finally, the capability of ITER-relevant steady state operation is investigated in KSTAR. It is found that KSTAR is able to establish high performance steady state operation scenarios; beta(N) above 3, H-98(y, 2) up to 2.0, f(BS) up to 0.76 and f(NI) equals 1.0. In this work, a realistic density profile is newly introduced for predictive simulations by employing the scaling law of a density peaking factor. The influence of the current ramp-up scenario and the transport model is discussed with respect to the fusion performance and non-inductive current drive fraction in the transport simulations. As observed in the experiments, both the heating and the plasma current waveforms in the current ramp-up phase produce a strong effect on the q-profile, the fusion performance and also on the non-inductive current drive fraction in the current flattop phase. A criterion in terms of q(min) is found to establish ITER-relevant steady state operation scenarios. This will provide a guideline for designing the current ramp-up phase in KSTAR. It is observed that the transport model also affects the predictive values of fusion performance as well as the non-inductive current drive fraction. The Weiland transport model predicts the highest fusion performance as well as non-inductive current drive fraction in KSTAR. In contrast, the GLF23 model exhibits the lowest ones. ITER-relevant advanced scenarios cannot be obtained with the GLF23 model in the conditions given in this work

  9. Viscoelastic shear wave at thermal steady state in gelatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Sheng-Yi; Ho, Chien-Wa; Hsieh, Tong-Sheng; Yu, Li-Ping; Chou, Chien

    2013-02-01

    Viscoelastic shear waves (VESW) propagation in soft matters such as gelatin under thermal steady state was studied. VESW in a slab of gelatin causes the transverse displacement of the surface in a harmonic wave. The harmonic oscillation frequency of the transverse displacement of gelatin surface was then measured in real time in order to measure the modulus of rigidity of gelatin in terms of the measured oscillation frequency. A polarized heterodyne interferometer (PHI) was setup in this experiment which enables to precisely measure the transverse displacement of surface in real time at 0.3 nm resolution. This results in the proposed VESW method able to characterize gelatin soft material in real time. From the experimental demonstration, the properties of VESW propagation in soft material at thermal steady state potentially can become a novel nano-scale non-intrusion strain-stress sensor able to characterize the modulus rigidity of soft material.

  10. Task-specific stability of multifinger steady-state action.

    PubMed

    Reschechtko, Sasha; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M; Latash, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    The authors explored task-specific stability during accurate multifinger force production tasks with different numbers of instructed fingers. Subjects performed steady-state isometric force production tasks and were instructed not to interfere voluntarily with transient lifting-and-lowering perturbations applied to the index finger. The main results were (a) intertrial variance in the space of finger modes at steady states was larger within the subspace that had no effect on the total force (the uncontrolled manifold [UCM]); (b) perturbations caused large deviations of finger modes within the UCM (motor equivalence); and (c) deviations caused by the perturbation showed larger variance within the UCM. No significant effects of the number of task fingers were noted in any of the 3 indicators. The results are discussed within the frameworks of the UCM and referent configuration hypotheses. The authors conclude, in particular, that all the tasks were effectively 4-finger tasks with different involvement of task and nontask fingers.

  11. Multiplying steady-state culture in multi-reactor system.

    PubMed

    Erm, Sten; Adamberg, Kaarel; Vilu, Raivo

    2014-11-01

    Cultivation of microorganisms in batch experiments is fast and economical but the conditions therein change constantly, rendering quantitative data interpretation difficult. By using chemostat with controlled environmental conditions the physiological state of microorganisms is fixed; however, the unavoidable stabilization phase makes continuous methods resource consuming. Material can be spared by using micro scale devices, which however have limited analysis and process control capabilities. Described herein are a method and a system combining the high throughput of batch with the controlled environment of continuous cultivations. Microorganisms were prepared in one bioreactor followed by culture distribution into a network of bioreactors and continuation of independent steady state experiments therein. Accelerostat cultivation with statistical analysis of growth parameters demonstrated non-compromised physiological state following distribution, thus the method effectively multiplied steady state culture of microorganisms. The theoretical efficiency of the system was evaluated in inhibitory compound analysis using repeated chemostat to chemostat transfers.

  12. Extending Molecular Theory to Steady-State Diffusing Systems

    SciTech Connect

    FRINK,LAURA J. D.; SALINGER,ANDREW G.; THOMPSON,AIDAN P.

    1999-10-22

    Predicting the properties of nonequilibrium systems from molecular simulations is a growing area of interest. One important class of problems involves steady state diffusion. To study these cases, a grand canonical molecular dynamics approach has been developed by Heffelfinger and van Swol [J. Chem. Phys., 101, 5274 (1994)]. With this method, the flux of particles, the chemical potential gradients, and density gradients can all be measured in the simulation. In this paper, we present a complementary approach that couples a nonlocal density functional theory (DFT) with a transport equation describing steady-state flux of the particles. We compare transport-DFT predictions to GCMD results for a variety of ideal (color diffusion), and nonideal (uphill diffusion and convective transport) systems. In all cases excellent agreement between transport-DFT and GCMD calculations is obtained with diffusion coefficients that are invariant with respect to density and external fields.

  13. Hydrodynamics of stratified epithelium: Steady state and linearized dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Wei-Ting; Chen, Hsuan-Yi

    2016-05-01

    A theoretical model for stratified epithelium is presented. The viscoelastic properties of the tissue are assumed to be dependent on the spatial distribution of proliferative and differentiated cells. Based on this assumption, a hydrodynamic description of tissue dynamics at the long-wavelength, long-time limit is developed, and the analysis reveals important insights into the dynamics of an epithelium close to its steady state. When the proliferative cells occupy a thin region close to the basal membrane, the relaxation rate towards the steady state is enhanced by cell division and cell apoptosis. On the other hand, when the region where proliferative cells reside becomes sufficiently thick, a flow induced by cell apoptosis close to the apical surface enhances small perturbations. This destabilizing mechanism is general for continuous self-renewal multilayered tissues; it could be related to the origin of certain tissue morphology, tumor growth, and the development pattern.

  14. A non-inductively driven steady state tokamak reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Fenstermacher, M.E.; Devoto, R.S.; Bulmer, R.H.; Lee, J.D.; Miller, J.R.; Schultz, J.

    1988-09-20

    The physics and engineering guidelines for the ITER device are shown to lead to viable and attractive operating points for a steady state tokamak power reactor. Non-inductive current drive is provided in steady state by high energy neutral beam injection in the plasma core, lower hybrid slow waves in the outer regions of the plasma and bootstrap current. Plasma gain Q (/equivalent to/fusion power/input power) in excess of 20 and average neutron wall loading, approx. 2.0 MW/m/sup 2/ are predicted in a device with major radius, R/sub 0/ = 7.5 m and minor radius, a = 2.8 m. 15 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Turnover of messenger RNA: Polysome statistics beyond the steady state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valleriani, A.; Ignatova, Z.; Nagar, A.; Lipowsky, R.

    2010-03-01

    The interplay between turnover or degradation and ribosome loading of messenger RNA (mRNA) is studied theoretically using a stochastic model that is motivated by recent experimental results. Random mRNA degradation affects the statistics of polysomes, i.e., the statistics of the number of ribosomes per mRNA as extracted from cells. Since ribosome loading of newly created mRNA chains requires some time to reach steady state, a fraction of the extracted mRNA/ribosome complexes does not represent steady state conditions. As a consequence, the mean ribosome density obtained from the extracted complexes is found to be inversely proportional to the mRNA length. On the other hand, the ribosome density profile shows an exponential decrease along the mRNA for prokaryotes and becomes uniform in eukaryotic cells.

  16. Alcohols inhibit translation to regulate morphogenesis in C. albicans

    PubMed Central

    Egbe, Nkechi E.; Paget, Caroline M.; Wang, Hui; Ashe, Mark P.

    2015-01-01

    Many molecules are secreted into the growth media by microorganisms to modulate the metabolic and physiological processes of the organism. For instance, alcohols like butanol, ethanol and isoamyl alcohol are produced by the human pathogenic fungus, Candida albicans and induce morphological differentiation. Here we show that these same alcohols cause a rapid inhibition of protein synthesis. More specifically, the alcohols target translation initiation, a complex stage of the gene expression process. Using molecular techniques, we have identified the likely translational target of these alcohols in C. albicans as the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (eIF2B). eIF2B is the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for eIF2, which supports the exchange reaction where eIF2.GDP is converted to eIF2.GTP. Even minimal regulation at this step will lead to alterations in the levels of specific proteins that may allow the exigencies of the fungus to be realised. Indeed, similar to the effects of alcohols, a minimal inhibition of protein synthesis with cycloheximide also causes an induction of filamentous growth. These results suggest a molecular basis for the effect of various alcohols on morphological differentiation in C. albicans. PMID:25843913

  17. Alcohols inhibit translation to regulate morphogenesis in C. albicans.

    PubMed

    Egbe, Nkechi E; Paget, Caroline M; Wang, Hui; Ashe, Mark P

    2015-04-01

    Many molecules are secreted into the growth media by microorganisms to modulate the metabolic and physiological processes of the organism. For instance, alcohols like butanol, ethanol and isoamyl alcohol are produced by the human pathogenic fungus, Candida albicans and induce morphological differentiation. Here we show that these same alcohols cause a rapid inhibition of protein synthesis. More specifically, the alcohols target translation initiation, a complex stage of the gene expression process. Using molecular techniques, we have identified the likely translational target of these alcohols in C. albicans as the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2B (eIF2B). eIF2B is the guanine nucleotide exchange factor for eIF2, which supports the exchange reaction where eIF2.GDP is converted to eIF2.GTP. Even minimal regulation at this step will lead to alterations in the levels of specific proteins that may allow the exigencies of the fungus to be realised. Indeed, similar to the effects of alcohols, a minimal inhibition of protein synthesis with cycloheximide also causes an induction of filamentous growth. These results suggest a molecular basis for the effect of various alcohols on morphological differentiation in C. albicans.

  18. Steady-state superradiance with alkaline-earth-metal atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Meiser, D.; Holland, M. J.

    2010-03-15

    Alkaline-earth-metal-like atoms with ultranarrow transitions open the door to a new regime of cavity quantum electrodynamics. That regime is characterized by a critical photon number that is many orders of magnitude smaller than what can be achieved in conventional systems. We show that it is possible to achieve superradiance in steady state with such systems. We discuss the basic underlying mechanisms as well as the key experimental requirements.

  19. Multiple steady states for characteristic initial value problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salas, M. D.; Abarbanel, S.; Gottlieb, D.

    1984-01-01

    The time dependent, isentropic, quasi-one-dimensional equations of gas dynamics and other model equations are considered under the constraint of characteristic boundary conditions. Analysis of the time evolution shows how different initial data may lead to different steady states and how seemingly anamolous behavior of the solution may be resolved. Numerical experimentation using time consistent explicit algorithms verifies the conclusions of the analysis. The use of implicit schemes with very large time steps leads to erroneous results.

  20. Steady state equivalence among autocatalytic peroxidase-oxidase reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez-González, José; Femat, Ricardo

    2016-12-01

    Peroxidase-oxidase is an enzymatic reaction that can exhibit dynamical scenarios such as bistability, sustained oscillations, and Shilnikov chaos. In this work, we apply the chemical reaction network theory approach to find kinetic constants such that the associated mass action kinetics ordinary differential equations induced by three four dimensional structurally different enzymatic reaction systems can support the same steady states for several chemical species despite differences in their chemical nature.

  1. A correspondence principle for steady-state wave problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmerr, L. W.

    1976-01-01

    A correspondence principle was developed for treating the steady state propagation of waves from sources moving along a plane surface or interface. This new principle allows one to obtain, in a unified manner, explicit solutions for any source velocity. To illustrate the correspondence principle in a particular case, the problem of a load moving at an arbitrary constant velocity along the surface of an elastic half-space is considered.

  2. Analytic Steady-State Accuracy of a Spacecraft Attitude Estimator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markley, F. Landis

    2000-01-01

    This paper extends Farrenkopf's analysis of a single-axis spacecraft attitude estimator using gyro and angle sensor data to include the angle output white noise of a rate-integrating gyro. Analytic expressions are derived for the steady-state pre-update and post-update angle and drift bias variances and for the state update equations. It is shown that only part of the state update resulting from the angle sensor measurement is propagated to future times.

  3. The approach to steady state using homogeneous and Cartesian coordinates.

    PubMed

    Gochberg, D F; Ding, Z

    2013-01-01

    Repeating an arbitrary sequence of RF pulses and magnetic field gradients will eventually lead to a steady-state condition in any magnetic resonance system. While numerical methods can quantify this trajectory, analytic analysis provides significantly more insight and a means for faster calculation. Recently, an analytic analysis using homogeneous coordinates was published. The current work further develops this line of thought and compares the relative merits of using a homogeneous or a Cartesian coordinate system.

  4. Intense steady state neutron source. The CNR reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Difilippo, F.C.; Moon, R.M.; Gambill, W.R.; Moon, R.M.; Primm, R.T. III; West, C.D.

    1986-01-01

    The Center for Neutron Research (CNR) has been proposed in response to the needs - neutron flux, spectrum, and experimental facilities - that have been identified through workshops, studies, and discussions by the neutron-scattering, isotope, and materials irradiation research communities. The CNR is a major new experimental facility consisting of a reactor-based steady state neutron source of unprecedented flux, together with extensive facilities and instruments for neutron scattering, isotope production, materials irradiation, and other areas of research.

  5. Steady state equivalence among autocatalytic peroxidase-oxidase reactions.

    PubMed

    Méndez-González, José; Femat, Ricardo

    2016-12-14

    Peroxidase-oxidase is an enzymatic reaction that can exhibit dynamical scenarios such as bistability, sustained oscillations, and Shilnikov chaos. In this work, we apply the chemical reaction network theory approach to find kinetic constants such that the associated mass action kinetics ordinary differential equations induced by three four dimensional structurally different enzymatic reaction systems can support the same steady states for several chemical species despite differences in their chemical nature.

  6. Steady state magnetic field configurations for the earth's magnetotail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hau, L.-N.; Wolf, R. A.; Voigt, G.-H.; Wu, C. C.

    1989-01-01

    A two-dimensional, force-balance magnetic field model is presented. The theoretical existence of a steady state magnetic field configuration that is force-balanced and consistent with slow, lossless, adiabatic, earthward convection within the limit of the ideal MHD is demonstrated. A numerical solution is obtained for a two-dimensional magnetosphere with a rectangular magnetopause and nonflaring tail. The results are consistent with the convection time sequences reported by Erickson (1985).

  7. MUTATION RATES OF BACTERIA IN STEADY STATE POPULATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Maurice S.

    1955-01-01

    The breeder and the chemostat have been used to measure mutation rates for two mutations under a variety of steady state growth conditions. These rates have been found to be higher in complex medium than in minimal (F) medium. The effects of changes in nutritional conditions on these high rates have been described. In addition, the mutation rates at short generation times, in complex medium, have been shown to decrease with increasing generation time. PMID:13271726

  8. Harmonic coupling of steady-state visual evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Krusienski, Dean J; Allison, Brendan Z

    2008-01-01

    Steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) are oscillating components of the electroencephalogram (EEG) that are detected over the occipital areas, having frequencies corresponding to visual stimulus frequencies. SSVEPs have been demonstrated to be reliable control signals for operating a brain-computer interface (BCI). This study uses offline analyses to investigate the characteristics of SSVEP harmonic amplitude and phase coupling and the impact of using this information to construct a matched filter for continuously tracking the signal.

  9. Multiple Color Stimulus Induced Steady State Visual Evoked Potentials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    MULTIPLE COLOR STIMULUS INDUCED STEADY STATE VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIALS M. Cheng, X. Gao, S. Gao, D. Xu Institute of Biomedical Engineering...characteristics of high SNR and effectiveness in short-term identification of evoked responses. In most of the SSVEP experiments, single high...frequency stimuli are used. To characterize the complex rhythms in SSVEP, a new multiple color stimulus pattern is proposed in this paper. FFT and

  10. Addressable nanoelectrode membrane arrays: fabrication and steady-state behavior.

    PubMed

    Zoski, Cynthia G; Yang, Nianjun; He, Peixin; Berdondini, Luca; Koudelka-Hep, Milena

    2007-02-15

    An addressable nanoelectrode membrane array (ANEMA) based on a Au-filled track-etched polycarbonate membrane was fabricated. The Au-filled membrane was secured to a lithographically fabricated addressable ultramicroelectrode (UME) array patterned with 25 regularly spaced (100 microm center to center spacing), 10 microm diameter recessed Pt UMEs to create 25 microregions of 10 microm diameter nanoelectrode ensembles (NEEs) on the membrane. The steady-state voltammetric behavior of 1.0 mM Ru(NH(3))(6)Cl(3) and 1.0 mM ferrocene methanol in 0.1 M KCl on each of the micro NEEs resulted in sigmoidal-shaped voltammograms which were reproducible across the ANEMA. This reproducibility of the steady-state current was attributed to the overlapping hemispherical diffusion layers at the Au-filled nanopores of each 10 microm diameter NEE of a ANEMA. The track-etched polycarbonate membranes were filled using a gold electroless deposition procedure into the 30 nm diameter pores in the membrane. Electrical connection between the Au-filled template array and the lithographic UME platform array was achieved by potentiostatic electrodeposition of Cu from an acidic copper solution into each of the 25 recessed Pt UMEs on the UME array platform. A multiplexer unit capable of addressing 64 individual micro NEEs on an ANEMA is described. ANEMAs have advantages of high reproducibility, facile fabrication, multitime reuse of lithographically fabricated UME arrays, and purely steady-state behavior.

  11. A steady-state theory for processive cellulases.

    PubMed

    Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj; Elmerdahl, Jens; Praestgaard, Eigil; Borch, Kim; Westh, Peter

    2013-08-01

    Processive enzymes perform sequential steps of catalysis without dissociating from their polymeric substrate. This mechanism is considered essential for efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of insoluble cellulose (particularly crystalline cellulose), but a theoretical framework for processive kinetics remains to be fully developed. In this paper, we suggest a deterministic kinetic model that relies on a processive set of enzyme reactions and a quasi steady-state assumption. It is shown that this approach is practicable in the sense that it leads to mathematically simple expressions for the steady-state rate, and only requires data from standard assay techniques as experimental input. Specifically, it is shown that the processive reaction rate at steady state may be expressed by a hyperbolic function related to the conventional Michaelis-Menten equation. The main difference is a 'kinetic processivity coefficient', which represents the probability of the enzyme dissociating from the substrate strand before completing n sequential catalytic steps, where n is the mean processivity number measured experimentally. Typical processive cellulases have high substrate affinity, and therefore this probability is low. This has significant kinetic implications, for example the maximal specific rate (V(max)/E₀) for processive cellulases is much lower than the catalytic rate constant (k(cat)). We discuss how relationships based on this theory may be used in both comparative and mechanistic analyses of cellulases. © 2013 FEBS.

  12. Nonequilibrium Steady State Thermodynamics and Fluctuations for Stochastic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taniguchi, Tooru; Cohen, E. G. D.

    2008-02-01

    We use the work done on and the heat removed from a system to maintain it in a nonequilibrium steady state for a thermodynamic-like description of such a system as well as of its fluctuations. Based on an extended Onsager-Machlup theory for nonequilibrium steady states we indicate two ambiguities, not present in an equilibrium state, in defining such work and heat: one due to a non-uniqueness of time-reversal procedures and another due to multiple possibilities to separate heat into work and an energy difference in nonequilibrium steady states. As a consequence, for such systems, the work and heat satisfy multiple versions of the first and second laws of thermodynamics as well as of their fluctuation theorems. Unique laws and relations appear only to be obtainable for concretely defined systems, using physical arguments to choose the relevant physical quantities. This is illustrated on a number of systems, including a Brownian particle in an electric field, a driven torsion pendulum, electric circuits and an energy transfer driven by a temperature difference.

  13. Numerical computation of steady-state acoustic disturbances in flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, W. R.; Myers, M. K.

    1992-01-01

    Two time domain methods for computing two dimensional steady-state acoustic disturbances propagating through internal subsonic viscous flow fields in the presence of variable area are investigated. The first method solves the Navier-Stokes equations for the combined steady and acoustic field together and subtracts the steady flow to obtain the acoustic field. The second method solves a system of perturbation equations to obtain the acoustic disturbances, making use of a separate steady flow computation as input to the system. In each case the periodic steady-state acoustic fluctuations are obtained numerically on a supercomputer using a second order unsplit explicit MacCormack predictor-corrector method. Results show that the first method is not very effective for computing acoustic disturbances of even moderate amplitude. It appears that more accurate steady flow algorithms are required for this method to succeed. On the other hand, linear and nonlinear acoustic disturbances extracted from the perturbation approach are shown to exhibit expected behavior for the problems considered. It is also found that inflow boundary conditions for an equivalent uniform duct can be successfully applied to a nonuniform duct to obtain steady-state acoustic disturbances.

  14. Steady states of continuous-time open quantum walks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chaobin; Balu, Radhakrishnan

    2017-07-01

    Continuous-time open quantum walks (CTOQW) are introduced as the formulation of quantum dynamical semigroups of trace-preserving and completely positive linear maps (or quantum Markov semigroups) on graphs. We show that a CTOQW always converges to a steady state regardless of the initial state when a graph is connected. When the graph is both connected and regular, it is shown that the steady state is the maximally mixed state. As shown by the examples in this article, the steady states of CTOQW can be very unusual and complicated even though the underlying graphs are simple. The examples demonstrate that the structure of a graph can affect quantum coherence in CTOQW through a long-time run. Precisely, the quantum coherence persists throughout the evolution of the CTOQW when the underlying topology is certain irregular graphs (such as a path or a star as shown in the examples). In contrast, the quantum coherence will eventually vanish from the open quantum system when the underlying topology is a regular graph (such as a cycle).

  15. STEADY-STATE MODEL OF SOLAR WIND ELECTRONS REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Peter H.; Kim, Sunjung; Choe, G. S.

    2015-10-20

    In a recent paper, Kim et al. put forth a steady-state model for the solar wind electrons. The model assumed local equilibrium between the halo electrons, characterized by an intermediate energy range, and the whistler-range fluctuations. The basic wave–particle interaction is assumed to be the cyclotron resonance. Similarly, it was assumed that a dynamical steady state is established between the highly energetic superhalo electrons and high-frequency Langmuir fluctuations. Comparisons with the measured solar wind electron velocity distribution function (VDF) during quiet times were also made, and reasonable agreements were obtained. In such a model, however, only the steady-state solution for the Fokker–Planck type of electron particle kinetic equation was considered. The present paper complements the previous analysis by considering both the steady-state particle and wave kinetic equations. It is shown that the model halo and superhalo electron VDFs, as well as the assumed wave intensity spectra for the whistler and Langmuir fluctuations, approximately satisfy the quasi-linear wave kinetic equations in an approximate sense, thus further validating the local equilibrium model constructed in the paper by Kim et al.

  16. Cavitation modeling for steady-state CFD simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanimann, L.; Mangani, L.; Casartelli, E.; Widmer, M.

    2016-11-01

    Cavitation in hydraulic turbomachines is an important phenomenon to be considered for performance predictions. Correct analysis of the cavitation onset and its effect on the flow field while diminishing the pressure level need therefore to be investigated. Even if cavitation often appears as an unsteady phenomenon, the capability to compute it in a steady state formulation for the design and assessment phase in the product development process is very useful for the engineer. In the present paper the development and corresponding application of a steady state CFD solver is presented, based on the open source toolbox OpenFOAM®. In the first part a review of different cavitation models is presented. Adopting the mixture-type cavitation approach, various models are investigated and developed in a steady state CFD RANS solver. Particular attention is given to the coupling between cavitation and turbulence models as well as on the underlying numerical procedure, especially the integration in the pressure- correction step of pressure-based solvers, which plays an important role in the stability of the procedure. The performance of the proposed model is initially assessed on simple cases available in the open literature. In a second step results for different applications are presented, ranging from airfoils to pumps.

  17. Steady state statistical correlations predict bistability in reaction motifs.

    PubMed

    Chakravarty, Suchana; Barik, Debashis

    2017-03-01

    Various cellular decision making processes are regulated by bistable switches that take graded input signals and convert them to binary all-or-none responses. Traditionally, a bistable switch generated by a positive feedback loop is characterized either by a hysteretic signal response curve with two distinct signaling thresholds or by characterizing the bimodality of the response distribution in the bistable region. To identify the intrinsic bistability of a feedback regulated network, here we propose that bistability can be determined by correlating higher order moments and cumulants (≥2) of the joint steady state distributions of two components connected in a positive feedback loop. We performed stochastic simulations of four feedback regulated models with intrinsic bistability and we show that for a bistable switch with variation of the signal dose, the steady state variance vs. covariance adopts a signatory cusp-shaped curve. Further, we find that the (n + 1)th order cross-cumulant vs. nth order cross-cumulant adopts a closed loop structure for at least n = 3. We also propose that our method is capable of identifying systems without intrinsic bistability even though the system may show bimodality in the marginal response distribution. The proposed method can be used to analyze single cell protein data measured at steady state from experiments such as flow cytometry.

  18. Basin stability measure of different steady states in coupled oscillators

    PubMed Central

    Rakshit, Sarbendu; Bera, Bidesh K.; Majhi, Soumen; Hens, Chittaranjan; Ghosh, Dibakar

    2017-01-01

    In this report, we investigate the stabilization of saddle fixed points in coupled oscillators where individual oscillators exhibit the saddle fixed points. The coupled oscillators may have two structurally different types of suppressed states, namely amplitude death and oscillation death. The stabilization of saddle equilibrium point refers to the amplitude death state where oscillations are ceased and all the oscillators converge to the single stable steady state via inverse pitchfork bifurcation. Due to multistability features of oscillation death states, linear stability theory fails to analyze the stability of such states analytically, so we quantify all the states by basin stability measurement which is an universal nonlocal nonlinear concept and it interplays with the volume of basins of attractions. We also observe multi-clustered oscillation death states in a random network and measure them using basin stability framework. To explore such phenomena we choose a network of coupled Duffing-Holmes and Lorenz oscillators which are interacting through mean-field coupling. We investigate how basin stability for different steady states depends on mean-field density and coupling strength. We also analytically derive stability conditions for different steady states and confirm by rigorous bifurcation analysis. PMID:28378760

  19. Basin stability measure of different steady states in coupled oscillators.

    PubMed

    Rakshit, Sarbendu; Bera, Bidesh K; Majhi, Soumen; Hens, Chittaranjan; Ghosh, Dibakar

    2017-04-05

    In this report, we investigate the stabilization of saddle fixed points in coupled oscillators where individual oscillators exhibit the saddle fixed points. The coupled oscillators may have two structurally different types of suppressed states, namely amplitude death and oscillation death. The stabilization of saddle equilibrium point refers to the amplitude death state where oscillations are ceased and all the oscillators converge to the single stable steady state via inverse pitchfork bifurcation. Due to multistability features of oscillation death states, linear stability theory fails to analyze the stability of such states analytically, so we quantify all the states by basin stability measurement which is an universal nonlocal nonlinear concept and it interplays with the volume of basins of attractions. We also observe multi-clustered oscillation death states in a random network and measure them using basin stability framework. To explore such phenomena we choose a network of coupled Duffing-Holmes and Lorenz oscillators which are interacting through mean-field coupling. We investigate how basin stability for different steady states depends on mean-field density and coupling strength. We also analytically derive stability conditions for different steady states and confirm by rigorous bifurcation analysis.

  20. Basin stability measure of different steady states in coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakshit, Sarbendu; Bera, Bidesh K.; Majhi, Soumen; Hens, Chittaranjan; Ghosh, Dibakar

    2017-04-01

    In this report, we investigate the stabilization of saddle fixed points in coupled oscillators where individual oscillators exhibit the saddle fixed points. The coupled oscillators may have two structurally different types of suppressed states, namely amplitude death and oscillation death. The stabilization of saddle equilibrium point refers to the amplitude death state where oscillations are ceased and all the oscillators converge to the single stable steady state via inverse pitchfork bifurcation. Due to multistability features of oscillation death states, linear stability theory fails to analyze the stability of such states analytically, so we quantify all the states by basin stability measurement which is an universal nonlocal nonlinear concept and it interplays with the volume of basins of attractions. We also observe multi-clustered oscillation death states in a random network and measure them using basin stability framework. To explore such phenomena we choose a network of coupled Duffing-Holmes and Lorenz oscillators which are interacting through mean-field coupling. We investigate how basin stability for different steady states depends on mean-field density and coupling strength. We also analytically derive stability conditions for different steady states and confirm by rigorous bifurcation analysis.

  1. Adaptive control of unknown unstable steady states of dynamical systems.

    PubMed

    Pyragas, K; Pyragas, V; Kiss, I Z; Hudson, J L

    2004-08-01

    A simple adaptive controller based on a low-pass filter to stabilize unstable steady states of dynamical systems is considered. The controller is reference-free; it does not require knowledge of the location of the fixed point in the phase space. A topological limitation similar to that of the delayed feedback controller is discussed. We show that the saddle-type steady states cannot be stabilized by using the conventional low-pass filter. The limitation can be overcome by using an unstable low-pass filter. The use of the controller is demonstrated for several physical models, including the pendulum driven by a constant torque, the Lorenz system, and an electrochemical oscillator. Linear and nonlinear analyses of the models are performed and the problem of the basins of attraction of the stabilized steady states is discussed. The robustness of the controller is demonstrated in experiments and numerical simulations with an electrochemical oscillator, the dissolution of nickel in sulfuric acid; a comparison of the effect of using direct and indirect variables in the control is made. With the use of the controller, all unstable phase-space objects are successfully reconstructed experimentally.

  2. Numerical computation of steady-state acoustic disturbances in flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, W. R.; Myers, M. K.

    1992-01-01

    Two time domain methods for computing two dimensional steady-state acoustic disturbances propagating through internal subsonic viscous flow fields in the presence of variable area are investigated. The first method solves the Navier-Stokes equations for the combined steady and acoustic field together and subtracts the steady flow to obtain the acoustic field. The second method solves a system of perturbation equations to obtain the acoustic disturbances, making use of a separate steady flow computation as input to the system. In each case the periodic steady-state acoustic fluctuations are obtained numerically on a supercomputer using a second order unsplit explicit MacCormack predictor-corrector method. Results show that the first method is not very effective for computing acoustic disturbances of even moderate amplitude. It appears that more accurate steady flow algorithms are required for this method to succeed. On the other hand, linear and nonlinear acoustic disturbances extracted from the perturbation approach are shown to exhibit expected behavior for the problems considered. It is also found that inflow boundary conditions for an equivalent uniform duct can be successfully applied to a nonuniform duct to obtain steady-state acoustic disturbances.

  3. Steady state kinetic studies of purified yeast plasma membrane proton-translocating ATPase.

    PubMed

    Koland, J G; Hammes, G G

    1986-05-05

    The plasma membrane H+-ATPase from bakers' yeast was purified and reconstituted with phosphatidylserine. The steady state kinetics of ATP hydrolysis catalyzed by the H+-ATPase were studied over a wide range of Mg2+ and ATP concentrations. Whereas MgATP was the substrate hydrolyzed, excess concentrations of either Mg2+ or ATP were inhibitory. The dependence of the steady state initial velocity of ATP hydrolysis on the concentration of MgATP at a fixed concentration of Mg2+ was sigmoidal rather than hyperbolic. This precluded mechanisms involving only activation and inhibition by Mg2+ and competitive inhibition by ATP. Two alternative interpretations of these results are: 1) the enzyme possesses multiple catalytic sites which interact cooperatively; or 2) the enzyme can exist in multiple conformational states which catalyze MgATP hydrolysis by parallel pathways. The rate laws for both mechanisms are identical so that the two mechanisms cannot be distinguished on the basis of the kinetic data. The data are well fit by the rate law for these mechanisms with the inclusion of competitive inhibition by Mg2+ and ATP and an independent inhibition site for Mg2+.

  4. Mitoenergetic Dysfunction Triggers a Rapid Compensatory Increase in Steady-State Glucose Flux

    PubMed Central

    Liemburg-Apers, Dania C.; Schirris, Tom J.J.; Russel, Frans G.M.; Willems, Peter H.G.M.; Koopman, Werner J.H.

    2015-01-01

    ATP can be produced in the cytosol by glycolytic conversion of glucose (GLC) into pyruvate. The latter can be metabolized into lactate, which is released by the cell, or taken up by mitochondria to fuel ATP production by the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system. Altering the balance between glycolytic and mitochondrial ATP generation is crucial for cell survival during mitoenergetic dysfunction, which is observed in a large variety of human disorders including cancer. To gain insight into the kinetic properties of this adaptive mechanism we determined here how acute (30 min) inhibition of OXPHOS affected cytosolic GLC homeostasis. GLC dynamics were analyzed in single living C2C12 myoblasts expressing the fluorescent biosensor FLII12Pglu-700μδ6 (FLII). Following in situ FLII calibration, the kinetic properties of GLC uptake (V1) and GLC consumption (V2) were determined independently and used to construct a minimal mathematical model of cytosolic GLC dynamics. After validating the model, it was applied to quantitatively predict V1 and V2 at steady-state (i.e., when V1 = V2 = Vsteady-state) in the absence and presence of OXPHOS inhibitors. Integrating model predictions with experimental data on lactate production, cell volume, and O2 consumption revealed that glycolysis and mitochondria equally contribute to cellular ATP production in control myoblasts. Inhibition of OXPHOS induced a twofold increase in Vsteady-state and glycolytic ATP production flux. Both in the absence and presence of OXPHOS inhibitors, GLC was consumed at near maximal rates, meaning that GLC consumption is rate-limiting under steady-state conditions. Taken together, we demonstrate here that OXPHOS inhibition increases steady-state GLC uptake and consumption in C2C12 myoblasts. This activation fully compensates for the reduction in mitochondrial ATP production, thereby maintaining the balance between cellular ATP supply and demand. PMID:26445438

  5. mRNA stability changes precede changes in steady-state mRNA amounts during hyperosmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Molin, Claes; Jauhiainen, Alexandra; Warringer, Jonas; Nerman, Olle; Sunnerhagen, Per

    2009-04-01

    Under stress, cells need to optimize the activity of a wide range of gene products during the response phases: shock, adaptation, and recovery. This requires coordination of several levels of regulation, including turnover and translation efficiencies of mRNAs. Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways are implicated in many aspects of the environmental stress response, including initiation of transcription, translation efficiency, and mRNA turnover. In this study, we analyze mRNA turnover rates and mRNA steady-state levels at different time points following mild hyperosmotic shock in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. The regulation of mRNA stability is transient and affects most genes for which there is a change in transcript level. These changes precede and prepare for the changes in steady-state levels, both regarding the initial increase and the later decline of stress-induced mRNAs. The inverse is true for stress-repressed genes, which become stabilized during hyperosmotic stress in preparation of an increase as the cells recover. The MAP kinase Hog1 affects both steady-state levels and stability of stress-responsive transcripts, whereas the Hog1-activated kinase Rck2 influences steady-state levels without a major effect on stability. Regulation of mRNA stability is a wide-spread, but not universal, effect on stress-responsive transcripts during transient hyperosmotic stress. By destabilizing stress-induced mRNAs when their steady-state levels have reached a maximum, the cell prepares for the subsequent recovery phase when these transcripts are to return to normal levels. Conversely, stabilization of stress-repressed mRNAs permits their rapid accumulation in the recovery phase. Our results show that mRNA turnover is coordinated with transcriptional induction.

  6. PKCα TUMOR SUPPRESSION IN THE INTESTINE IS ASSOCIATED WITH TRANSCRIPTIONAL AND TRANSLATIONAL INHIBITION OF CYCLIN D1

    PubMed Central

    Pysz, Marybeth A.; Leontieva, Olga V.; Bateman, Nicholas W.; Uronis, Joshua M.; Curry, Kathryn J.; Threadgill, David W.; Janssen, Klaus-Peter; Robine, Sylvie; Velcich, Anna; Augenlicht, Leonard; Black, Adrian R.; Black, Jennifer D.

    2009-01-01

    Alterations in PKC isozyme expression and aberrant induction of cyclin D1 are early events in intestinal tumorigenesis. Previous studies have identified cyclin D1 as a major target in the antiproliferative effects of PKCα in non-transformed intestinal cells; however, a link between PKC signaling and cyclin D1 in colon cancer remained to be established. The current study further characterized PKC isozyme expression in intestinal neoplasms and explored the consequences of restoring PKCα or PKCδ in a panel of colon carcinoma cell lines. Consistent with patterns of PKC expression in primary tumors, PKCα and δ levels were generally reduced in colon carcinoma cell lines, PKCβII was elevated and PKCε showed variable expression, thus establishing the suitability of these models for analysis of PKC signaling. While colon cancer cells were insensitive to the effects of PKC agonists on cyclin D1 levels, restoration of PKCα downregulated cyclin D1 by two independent mechanisms. PKCα expression consistently (a) reduced steady-state levels of cyclin D1 by a novel transcriptional mechanism not previously seen in non-transformed cells, and (b) re-established the ability of PKC agonists to activate the translational repressor 4E-BP1 and inhibit cyclin D1 translation. In contrast, PKCδ had modest and variable effects on cyclin D1 steady state levels and failed to restore responsiveness to PKC agonists. Notably, PKCα expression blocked anchorage-independent growth in colon cancer cells via a mechanism partially dependent on cyclin D1 deficiency, while PKCδ had only minor effects. Loss of PKCα and effects of its re-expression were independent of the status of the APC/β-catenin signaling pathway or known genetic alterations, indicating that they are a general characteristic of colon tumors. Thus, PKCα is a potent negative regulator of cyclin D1 expression and anchorage-independent cell growth in colon tumor cells, findings that offer important perspectives on the

  7. Posaconazole Plasma Concentrations on Days Three to Five Predict Steady-State Levels

    PubMed Central

    Prattes, Jürgen; Duettmann, Wiebke

    2016-01-01

    Low posaconazole plasma concentrations (PPCs) have been associated with breakthrough invasive fungal infections. We assessed the correlation between pre-steady-state PPCs (obtained between days 3 and 5) and PPCs obtained during steady state in 48 patients with underlying hematological malignancies receiving posaconazole oral-solution prophylaxis. Pre-steady-state PPCs correlated significantly with PPCs obtained at steady state (Spearman r = 0.754; P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of pre-steady-state PPCs revealed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.884 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.790 to 0.977) for predicting satisfactory PPCs at steady state. PMID:27324763

  8. Mimicking Nonequilibrium Steady States with Time-Periodic Driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raz, O.; Subaşı, Y.; Jarzynski, C.

    2016-04-01

    Under static conditions, a system satisfying detailed balance generically relaxes to an equilibrium state in which there are no currents. To generate persistent currents, either detailed balance must be broken or the system must be driven in a time-dependent manner. A stationary system that violates detailed balance evolves to a nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) characterized by fixed currents. Conversely, a system that satisfies instantaneous detailed balance but is driven by the time-periodic variation of external parameters—also known as a stochastic pump (SP)—reaches a periodic state with nonvanishing currents. In both cases, these currents are maintained at the cost of entropy production. Are these two paradigmatic scenarios effectively equivalent? For discrete-state systems, we establish a mapping between nonequilibrium stationary states and stochastic pumps. Given a NESS characterized by a particular set of stationary probabilities, currents, and entropy production rates, we show how to construct a SP with exactly the same (time-averaged) values. The mapping works in the opposite direction as well. These results establish a proof of principle: They show that stochastic pumps are able to mimic the behavior of nonequilibrium steady states, and vice versa, within the theoretical framework of discrete-state stochastic thermodynamics. Nonequilibrium steady states and stochastic pumps are often used to model, respectively, biomolecular motors driven by chemical reactions and artificial molecular machines steered by the variation of external, macroscopic parameters. Our results loosely suggest that anything a biomolecular machine can do, an artificial molecular machine can do equally well. We illustrate this principle by showing that kinetic proofreading, a NESS mechanism that explains the low error rates in biochemical reactions, can be effectively mimicked by a constrained periodic driving.

  9. Fitting Boolean Networks from Steady State Perturbation Data

    PubMed Central

    Almudevar, Anthony; McCall, Matthew N; McMurray, Helene; Land, Hartmut

    2011-01-01

    Gene perturbation experiments are commonly used for the reconstruction of gene regulatory networks. Typical experimental methodology imposes persistent changes on the network. The resulting data must therefore be interpreted as a steady state from an altered gene regulatory network, rather than a direct observation of the original network. In this article an implicit modeling methodology is proposed in which the unperturbed network of interest is scored by first modeling the persistent perturbation, then predicting the steady state, which may then be compared to the observed data. This results in a many-to-one inverse problem, so a computational Bayesian approach is used to assess model uncertainty. The methodology is first demonstrated on a number of synthetic networks. It is shown that the Bayesian approach correctly assigns high posterior probability to the network structure and steady state behavior. Further, it is demonstrated that where uncertainty of model features is indicated, the uncertainty may be accurately resolved with further perturbation experiments. The methodology is then applied to the modeling of a gene regulatory network using perturbation data from nine genes which have been shown to respond synergistically to known oncogenic mutations. A hypothetical model emerges which conforms to reported regulatory properties of these genes. Furthermore, the Bayesian methodology is shown to be consistent in the sense that multiple randomized applications of the fitting algorithm converge to an approximately common posterior density on the space of models. Such consistency is generally not feasible for algorithms which report only single models. We conclude that fully Bayesian methods, coupled with models which accurately account for experimental constraints, are a suitable tool for the inference of gene regulatory networks, in terms of accuracy, estimation of model uncertainty, and experimental design. PMID:23089817

  10. Relaxation versus adiabatic quantum steady-state preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venuti, Lorenzo Campos; Albash, Tameem; Marvian, Milad; Lidar, Daniel; Zanardi, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Adiabatic preparation of the ground states of many-body Hamiltonians in the closed-system limit is at the heart of adiabatic quantum computation, but in reality systems are always open. This motivates a natural comparison between, on the one hand, adiabatic preparation of steady states of Lindbladian generators and, on the other hand, relaxation towards the same steady states subject to the final Lindbladian of the adiabatic process. In this work we thus adopt the perspective that the goal is the most efficient possible preparation of such steady states, rather than ground states. Using known rigorous bounds for the open-system adiabatic theorem and for mixing times, we are then led to a disturbing conclusion that at first appears to doom efforts to build physical quantum annealers: relaxation seems to always converge faster than adiabatic preparation. However, by carefully estimating the adiabatic preparation time for Lindbladians describing thermalization in the low-temperature limit, we show that there is, after all, room for an adiabatic speedup over relaxation. To test the analytically derived bounds for the adiabatic preparation time and the relaxation time, we numerically study three models: a dissipative quasifree fermionic chain, a single qubit coupled to a thermal bath, and the "spike" problem of n qubits coupled to a thermal bath. Via these models we find that the answer to the "which wins" question depends for each model on the temperature and the system-bath coupling strength. In the case of the "spike" problem we find that relaxation during the adiabatic evolution plays an important role in ensuring a speedup over the final-time relaxation procedure. Thus, relaxation-assisted adiabatic preparation can be more efficient than both pure adiabatic evolution and pure relaxation.

  11. Steady-state responses of a belt-drive dynamical system under dual excitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hu

    2016-02-01

    The stable steady-state periodic responses of a belt-drive system with a one-way clutch are studied. For the first time, the dynamical system is investigated under dual excitations. The system is simultaneously excited by the firing pulsations of the engine and the harmonic motion of the foundation. Nonlinear discrete-continuous equations are derived for coupling the transverse vibration of the belt spans and the rotations of the driving and driven pulleys and the accessory pulley. The nonlinear dynamics is studied under equal and multiple relations between the frequency of the firing pulsations and the frequency of the foundation motion. Furthermore, translating belt spans are modeled as axially moving strings. A set of nonlinear piecewise ordinary differential equations is achieved by using the Galerkin truncation. Under various relations between the excitation frequencies, the time histories of the dynamical system are numerically simulated based on the time discretization method. Furthermore, the stable steady-state periodic response curves are calculated based on the frequency sweep. Moreover, the convergence of the Galerkin truncation is examined. Numerical results demonstrate that the one-way clutch reduces the resonance amplitude of the rotations of the driven pulley and the accessory pulley. On the other hand, numerical examples prove that the resonance areas of the belt spans are decreased by eliminating the torque-transmitting in the opposite direction. With the increasing amplitude of the foundation excitation, the damping effect of the one-way clutch will be reduced. Furthermore, as the amplitude of the firing pulsations of the engine increases, the jumping phenomena in steady-state response curves of the belt-drive system with or without a one-way clutch both occur.

  12. Steady-State Solution of a Flexible Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karkehabadi, Reza; Chandra, Suresh; Krishnamurthy, Ramesh

    1997-01-01

    A fluid-structure interaction code, ENSAERO, has been used to compute the aerodynamic loads on a swept-tapered wing. The code has the capability of using Euler or Navier-Stokes equations. Both options have been used and compared in the present paper. In the calculation of the steady-state solution, we are interested in knowing how the flexibility of the wing influences the lift coefficients. If the results of a flexible wing are not affected by the flexibility of the wing significantly, one could consider the wing to be rigid and reduce the problem from fluid-structure interaction to a fluid problem.

  13. A Spreadsheet Program for Steady-State Temperature Distributions

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchens, G.J.

    2000-11-01

    A desktop program is developed in Microsoft EXCEL using Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) to solve a two-dimensional steady state heat conduction problem with a radiation boundary condition. The resulting partial differential equation and boundary conditions are solved using finite difference techniques and the results are compared with a finite element solution using the commercially available software package MSC/THERMAL. The results from the two methods are found to be within 1 percent. The VBA solution demonstrates how spreadsheet programs, like EXCEL, can be used to solve practical engineering problems with good accuracy.

  14. Quantum-classical correspondence in steady states of nonadiabatic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, Mikiya; Yamashita, Koichi

    2015-12-31

    We first present nonadiabatic path integral which is exact formulation of quantum dynamics in nonadiabatic systems. Then, by applying the stationary phase approximations to the nonadiabatic path integral, a semiclassical quantization condition, i.e., quantum-classical correspondence, for steady states of nonadiabatic systems is presented as a nonadiabatic trace formula. The present quantum-classical correspondence indicates that a set of primitive hopping periodic orbits, which are invariant under time evolution in the phase space of the slow degree of freedom, should be quantized. The semiclassical quantization is then applied to a simple nonadiabatic model and accurately reproduces exact quantum energy levels.

  15. System studies for quasi-steady-state advanced physics tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.L.; Peng, Y.K.M.

    1983-11-01

    Parametric studies were conducted using the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) Tokamak Systems Code to investigate the impact of veriation in physics parameters and technology limits on the performance and cost of a low q/sub psi/, high beta, quasi-steady-state tokamak for the purpose of fusion engineering experimentation. The features and characteristics chosen from each study were embodied into a single Advanced Physics Tokamak design for which a self-consistent set of parameters was generated and a value of capital cost was estimated.

  16. Steady state self-induced current in tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Gott, Yu. V.; Yurchenko, E. I.

    2009-11-15

    A model, which may make it possible to self-consistently calculate the self-driven current in tokamaks taking into account asymmetry and bootstrap currents, is presented. It is shown that the described self-driven current can provide steady-state tokamak operation without the seed current produced with the help of additional methods. The total self-consistent, self-driven current does not depend on magnetic field magnitude and is proportional to the square root from plasma pressure. The experimental data obtained in the National Spherical Torus Experiment are satisfactorily described by this model.

  17. Energy decay and steady states in externally driven magnetohydrodynamic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Núñez, Manuel

    Some relaxed magnetohydrodynamic states of a plasma, such as the Taylor or the Alfvén state are often presented as the logical end of the plasma evolution by an argument of energy minimization under some constraint. However, these arguments are unsatisfactory and the very existence of nontrivial steady states as limits of magnetohydrodynamic evolution is far from obvious. For steady solutions to exist, the forcing term must be time-independent, it is shown that in this case, either the plasma undergoes constant change at a positive minimum rate or it comes arbitrarily close, in the quadratic mean norm, to the set of steady solutions of the magnetohydrodynamic equations.

  18. Thermodynamic formalism and linear response theory for nonequilibrium steady states.

    PubMed

    Speck, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    We study the linear response in systems driven away from thermal equilibrium into a nonequilibrium steady state with nonvanishing entropy production rate. A simple derivation of a general response formula is presented under the condition that the generating function describes a transformation that (to lowest order) preserves normalization and thus describes a physical stochastic process. For Markov processes we explicitly construct the conjugate quantities and discuss their relation with known response formulas. Emphasis is put on the formal analogy with thermodynamic potentials and some consequences are discussed.

  19. Non-steady-state aerosol filtration in nanostructured fibrous media.

    PubMed

    Przekop, Rafal; Gradoń, Leon

    2011-06-28

    The filtration of aerosol particles using composites of nano- and microsized fibrous structures is a promising method for the effective separation of nanoparticles from gases. A multi-scale physical system describing the flow pattern and particle deposition at a non-steady-state condition requires an advanced method of modelling. The combination of lattice Boltzmann and Brownian dynamics was used for analysis of the particle deposition pattern in a fibrous system. The dendritic structures of deposits for neutral and charged fibres and particles are present. The efficiency of deposition, deposit morphology, porosity and fractal dimension were calculated for a selected operational condition of the process.

  20. Steady-state properties of a nonequilibrium Fermi gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Pedro

    2017-08-01

    The current-carrying steady state that arises in the middle of a metallic wire connected to macroscopic leads is characterized regarding its response functions, correlations, and entanglement entropy. The spectral function and the dynamical structure factor show clear nonequilibrium signatures accessible by state-of-the-art techniques. In contrast with the equilibrium case, the entanglement entropy is extensive with logarithmic corrections at zero temperature that depend on the lead-wire coupling and, in a nonanalytic way, on voltage. This shows that some robust universal quantities found in gapless equilibrium phases do not persist away from equilibrium.

  1. Typical pure nonequilibrium steady states and irreversibility for quantum transport.

    PubMed

    Monnai, Takaaki; Yuasa, Kazuya

    2016-07-01

    It is known that each single typical pure state in an energy shell of a large isolated quantum system well represents a thermal equilibrium state of the system. We show that such typicality holds also for nonequilibrium steady states (NESS's). We consider a small quantum system coupled to multiple infinite reservoirs. In the long run, the total system reaches a unique NESS. We identify a large Hilbert space from which pure states of the system are to be sampled randomly and show that the typical pure states well describe the NESS. We also point out that the irreversible relaxation to the unique NESS is important to the typicality of the pure NESS's.

  2. Steady-State-Preserving Simulation of Genetic Regulatory Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Xilin

    2017-01-01

    A novel family of exponential Runge-Kutta (expRK) methods are designed incorporating the stable steady-state structure of genetic regulatory systems. A natural and convenient approach to constructing new expRK methods on the base of traditional RK methods is provided. In the numerical integration of the one-gene, two-gene, and p53-mdm2 regulatory systems, the new expRK methods are shown to be more accurate than their prototype RK methods. Moreover, for nonstiff genetic regulatory systems, the expRK methods are more efficient than some traditional exponential RK integrators in the scientific literature. PMID:28203268

  3. Steady-State-Preserving Simulation of Genetic Regulatory Systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ruqiang; Ehigie, Julius Osato; Hou, Xilin; You, Xiong; Yuan, Chunlu

    2017-01-01

    A novel family of exponential Runge-Kutta (expRK) methods are designed incorporating the stable steady-state structure of genetic regulatory systems. A natural and convenient approach to constructing new expRK methods on the base of traditional RK methods is provided. In the numerical integration of the one-gene, two-gene, and p53-mdm2 regulatory systems, the new expRK methods are shown to be more accurate than their prototype RK methods. Moreover, for nonstiff genetic regulatory systems, the expRK methods are more efficient than some traditional exponential RK integrators in the scientific literature.

  4. Steady-state capabilities for hydroturbines with OpenFOAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, M.; Beaudoin, M.; Giroux, A. M.

    2010-08-01

    The availability of a high quality Open Source CFD simulation platform like OpenFOAM offers new R&D opportunities by providing direct access to models and solver implementation details. Efforts have been made by Hydro-Québec to adapt OpenFOAM to hydroturbines for the development of steady-state capabilities. The paper describes the developments that have been made to implement new turbomachinery related capabilities: Multiple Frame of Reference solver, domain coupling interfaces (GGI, cyclicGGI and mixing plane) and specialized boundary conditions. Practical use of the new turbomachinery capabilities are demonstrated for the analysis of a 195-MW Francis hydroturbine.

  5. Steady State Vacuum Ultraviolet Exposure Facility With Automated Calibration Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stueber, Thomas J.; Sechkar, Edward A.; Dever, Joyce A.; Banks, Bruce A.

    2000-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field designed and developed a steady state vacuum ultraviolet automated (SSVUVa) facility with in situ VUV intensity calibration capability. The automated feature enables a constant accelerated VUV radiation exposure over long periods of testing without breaking vacuum. This test facility is designed to simultaneously accommodate four isolated radiation exposure tests within the SSVUVa vacuum chamber. Computer-control of the facility for long, term continuous operation also provides control and recording of thermocouple temperatures, periodic recording of VUV lamp intensity, and monitoring of vacuum facility status. This paper discusses the design and capabilities of the SSVUVa facility.

  6. Steady State Creep of Zirconium at High and Intermediate Temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, R.S.; Hayes, T.A.

    2000-04-08

    Creep of zirconium and zirconium alloys has been labeled ''anomalous.'' Researchers often report that zirconium and its alloys never reach true steady state creep and have stress exponents that continuously change with stress and temperature. Many varied interpretations have been offered explaining the creep behavior of zirconium. Some have suggested that creep is diffusion controlled, while others maintain that creep is dislocation glide controlled. Cumulative zirconium creep data will be presented based on an extensive literature review. An interpretation of results will be presented and compared to previous interpretations.

  7. Stabilizing unstable steady states using multiple delay feedback control.

    PubMed

    Ahlborn, Alexander; Parlitz, Ulrich

    2004-12-31

    Feedback control with different and independent delay times is introduced and shown to be an efficient method for stabilizing fixed points (equilibria) of dynamical systems. In comparison to other delay based chaos control methods multiple delay feedback control is superior for controlling steady states and works also for relatively large delay times (sometimes unavoidable in experiments due to system dead times). To demonstrate this approach for stabilizing unstable fixed points we present numerical simulations of Chua's circuit and a successful experimental application for stabilizing a chaotic frequency doubled Nd-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser.

  8. Nonequilibrium steady-state circulation and heat dissipation functional.

    PubMed

    Qian, H

    2001-08-01

    A nonequilibrium steady-state (NESS), different from an equilibrium, is sustained by circular balance rather than detailed balance. The circular fluxes are driven by energy input and heat dissipation, accompanied by a positive entropy production. Based on a Master equation formalism for NESS, we show the circulation is intimately related to the recently studied Gallavotti-Cohen symmetry of heat dissipation functional, which in turn suggests a Boltzmann's formulalike relation between rate constants and energy in NESS. Expanding this unifying view on NESS to diffusion is discussed.

  9. An automatic method for deriving steady-state rate equations.

    PubMed Central

    Cornish-Bowden, A

    1977-01-01

    A method is described for systematically deriving steady-state rate equations. It is based on the schematic method of King & Altman [J. Phys. Chem. (1956) 60, 1375-1378], but is expressed in purely algebraic terms. It is suitable for implementation as a computer program, and a program has been written in FORTRAN IV and deposited as Supplementary Publication SUP 50078 (12 pages) at the British Library (Lending Division), Boston Spa, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS23 7BQ, U.K., from whom copies can be obtained on the terms indicated in Biochem. J. (1977) 161, 1-2. PMID:889575

  10. Long Pulse Operation on Tore-Supra: Towards Steady State

    SciTech Connect

    Moreau, P.; Bucalossi, J.; Brosset, C.; Dufour, E.; Loarer, T.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Pegourie, B.; Tsitrone, E.; Basiuk, V.; Bremond, S.; Chantant, M.; Colas, L.; Commaux, N.; Geraud, A.; Guirlet, R.; Gunn, J.; Hertout, P.; Hoang, G. T.; Kazarian, F.; Mazon, D.

    2006-01-15

    The experimental programme of Tore Supra is devoted to the study of technology and physics issues associated to long-duration high performance discharges. This new domain of operation requires simultaneously and in steady state: heat removal capability, particle exhaust, fully non-inductive current drive, advanced technology integration and real time plasma control. The long discharge allows for addressing new time scale physic such as the wall particle retention and erosion. Moreover, the physics of fully non-inductive discharges is full of novelty, namely: the MHD stability, the slow spontaneous oscillation of the central electron temperature or the outstanding inward particle pinch.

  11. Steady-state grain growth in UO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Galinari, C.M.; Lameiras, F.S.

    1998-06-05

    The authors have observed steady-state grain growth in sintered UO{sub 2} pellets of nuclear purity at 2,003 K under H{sub 2}. The behavior of the grain size distribution at different instants is consistent with the grain growth model proposed by one of the authors. The total number of grains was estimated using the Saltykov`s method, and the evolution is in accordance with the model proposed by Rhines and Craig. The parabolic growth law was observed for the mean intercept length with n = 0.4.

  12. Linear modeling of steady-state behavioral dynamics.

    PubMed Central

    Palya, William L; Walter, Donald; Kessel, Robert; Lucke, Robert

    2002-01-01

    The observed steady-state behavioral dynamics supported by unsignaled periods of reinforcement within repeating 2,000-s trials were modeled with a linear transfer function. These experiments employed improved schedule forms and analytical methods to improve the precision of the measured transfer function, compared to previous work. The refinements include both the use of multiple reinforcement periods that improve spectral coverage and averaging of independently determined transfer functions. A linear analysis was then used to predict behavior observed for three different test schedules. The fidelity of these predictions was determined. PMID:11831782

  13. Pharmacokinetics of phase I nevirapine metabolites following a single dose and at steady state.

    PubMed

    Fan-Havard, Patty; Liu, Zhongfa; Chou, Monidarin; Ling, Yonghua; Barrail-Tran, Aurélie; Haas, David W; Taburet, Anne-Marie

    2013-05-01

    Nevirapine is one of the most extensively prescribed antiretrovirals worldwide. The present analyses used data and specimens from two prior studies to characterize and compare plasma nevirapine phase I metabolite profiles following a single 200-mg oral dose of nevirapine in 10 HIV-negative African Americans and a steady-state 200-mg twice-daily dose in 10 HIV-infected Cambodians. Nevirapine was assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The 2-, 3-, 8- and 12-hydroxy and 4-carboxy metabolites of nevirapine were assayed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental analysis. The metabolic index for each metabolite was defined as the ratio of the metabolite area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) to the nevirapine AUC. Every metabolite concentration was much less than the corresponding nevirapine concentration. The predominant metabolite after single dose and at steady state was 12-hydroxynevirapine. From single dose to steady state, the metabolic index increased for 3-hydroxynevirapine (P < 0.01) but decreased for 2-hydroxynevirapine (P < 0.001). The 3-hydroxynevirapine metabolic index was correlated with nevirapine apparent clearance (P < 0.001). These findings are consistent with induction of CYP2B6 (3-hydroxy metabolite) and a possible inhibition of CYP3A (2-hydroxy metabolite), although these are preliminary data. There were no such changes in metabolic indexes for 12-hydroxynevirapine or 4-carboxynevirapine. Two subjects with the CYP2B6 *6*6 genetic polymorphism had metabolic indexes in the same range as other subjects. These results suggest that nevirapine metabolite profiles change over time under the influence of enzyme induction, enzyme inhibition, and host genetics. Further work is warranted to elucidate nevirapine biotransformation pathways and implications for drug efficacy and toxicity.

  14. Mechanisms of steady-state nucleate pool boiling in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho Sung

    2002-10-01

    Research on nucleate pool boiling in microgravity using R-113 as a working fluid was conducted using a five-second drop tower and five space flights at a/g approximately 10(-4). A 19 x 38-mm flat gold film heater was used that allowed cine camera viewing both from the side and the bottom of the heater. It was concluded that for both subcooled and saturated liquids long-term steady-state pool boiling can take place in reduced gravity, but the effectiveness of the boiling heat transfer appears to depend on the heater geometry and on the size and the properties of fluids. Heat transfer is enhanced at lower heat flux levels and the CHF increases as the subcooling increases. It was found that several mechanisms are responsible for the steady-state nucleate pool boiling in the absence of buoyancy. The mechanisms considered here are defined and summarized as bubble removal, bubble coalescence, thermocapillary flow, bubble migration, and latent heat transport.

  15. Steady-state operation of spheromaks by inductive techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Janos, A.

    1984-04-01

    A method to maintain a steady-state spheromak configuration inductively using the S-1 Spheromak device is described. The S-1 Spheromak formation apparatus can be utilized to inject magnetic helicity continuously (C.W., not pulsed or D.C.) into the spheromak configuration after equilibrium is achieved in the linked mode of operation. Oscillation of both poloidal- and toroidal-field currents in the flux core (psi-phi Pumping), with proper phasing, injects a net time-averaged helicity into the plasma. Steady-state maintenance relies on flux conversion, which has been earlier identified. Relevant experimental data from the operation of S-1 are described. Helicity flow has been measured and the proposed injection scheme simulated. In a reasonable time practical voltages and frequencies can inject an amount of helicity comparable to that in the initial plasma. Plasma currents can be maintained or increased. This pumping technique is similar to F-THETA Pumping of a Reversed-Field-Pinch but is applied to this inverse-pinch formation.

  16. Integrated stoichiometric, thermodynamic and kinetic modelling of steady state metabolism.

    PubMed

    Fleming, R M T; Thiele, I; Provan, G; Nasheuer, H P

    2010-06-07

    The quantitative analysis of biochemical reactions and metabolites is at frontier of biological sciences. The recent availability of high-throughput technology data sets in biology has paved the way for new modelling approaches at various levels of complexity including the metabolome of a cell or an organism. Understanding the metabolism of a single cell and multi-cell organism will provide the knowledge for the rational design of growth conditions to produce commercially valuable reagents in biotechnology. Here, we demonstrate how equations representing steady state mass conservation, energy conservation, the second law of thermodynamics, and reversible enzyme kinetics can be formulated as a single system of linear equalities and inequalities, in addition to linear equalities on exponential variables. Even though the feasible set is non-convex, the reformulation is exact and amenable to large-scale numerical analysis, a prerequisite for computationally feasible genome scale modelling. Integrating flux, concentration and kinetic variables in a unified constraint-based formulation is aimed at increasing the quantitative predictive capacity of flux balance analysis. Incorporation of experimental and theoretical bounds on thermodynamic and kinetic variables ensures that the predicted steady state fluxes are both thermodynamically and biochemically feasible. The resulting in silico predictions are tested against fluxomic data for central metabolism in Escherichia coli and compare favourably with in silico prediction by flux balance analysis.

  17. Integrated stoichiometric, thermodynamic and kinetic modelling of steady state metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, R.M.T.; Thiele, I.; Provan, G.; Nasheuer, H.P.

    2010-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of biochemical reactions and metabolites is at frontier of biological sciences. The recent availability of high-throughput technology data sets in biology has paved the way for new modelling approaches at various levels of complexity including the metabolome of a cell or an organism. Understanding the metabolism of a single cell and multi-cell organism will provide the knowledge for the rational design of growth conditions to produce commercially valuable reagents in biotechnology. Here, we demonstrate how equations representing steady state mass conservation, energy conservation, the second law of thermodynamics, and reversible enzyme kinetics can be formulated as a single system of linear equalities and inequalities, in addition to linear equalities on exponential variables. Even though the feasible set is non-convex, the reformulation is exact and amenable to large-scale numerical analysis, a prerequisite for computationally feasible genome scale modelling. Integrating flux, concentration and kinetic variables in a unified constraint-based formulation is aimed at increasing the quantitative predictive capacity of flux balance analysis. Incorporation of experimental and theoretical bounds on thermodynamic and kinetic variables ensures that the predicted steady state fluxes are both thermodynamically and biochemically feasible. The resulting in silico predictions are tested against fluxomic data for central metabolism in E. coli and compare favourably with in silico prediction by flux balance analysis. PMID:20230840

  18. Classical Orbital Paramagnetism in Non-equilibrium Steady State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Avinash A.; Kumar, N.

    2017-09-01

    We report the results of our numerical simulation of classical-dissipative dynamics of a charged particle subjected to a non-Markovian stochastic forcing. We find that the system develops a steady-state orbital magnetic moment in the presence of a static magnetic field. Very significantly, the sign of the orbital magnetic moment turns out to be paramagnetic for our choice of parameters, varied over a wide range. This is shown specifically for the case of classical dynamics driven by a Kubo-Anderson type non-Markovian noise. Natural spatial boundary condition was imposed through (1) a soft (harmonic) confining potential, and (2) a hard potential, approximating a reflecting wall. There was no noticeable qualitative difference. What appears to be crucial to the orbital magnetic effect noticed here is the non-Markovian property of the driving noise chosen. Experimental realization of this effect on the laboratory scale, and its possible implications are briefly discussed. We would like to emphasize that the above steady-state classical orbital paramagnetic moment complements, rather than contradicts the Bohr-van Leeuwen (BvL) theorem on the absence of classical orbital diamagnetism in thermodynamic equilibrium.

  19. Steady-State ALPS for Real-Valued Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hornby, Gregory S.

    2009-01-01

    The two objectives of this paper are to describe a steady-state version of the Age-Layered Population Structure (ALPS) Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) and to compare it against other GAs on real-valued problems. Motivation for this work comes from our previous success in demonstrating that a generational version of ALPS greatly improves search performance on a Genetic Programming problem. In making steady-state ALPS some modifications were made to the method for calculating age and the method for moving individuals up layers. To demonstrate that ALPS works well on real-valued problems we compare it against CMA-ES and Differential Evolution (DE) on five challenging, real-valued functions and on one real-world problem. While CMA-ES and DE outperform ALPS on the two unimodal test functions, ALPS is much better on the three multimodal test problems and on the real-world problem. Further examination shows that, unlike the other GAs, ALPS maintains a genotypically diverse population throughout the entire search process. These findings strongly suggest that the ALPS paradigm is better able to avoid premature convergence then the other GAs.

  20. Calculations of two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic axisymmetric steady-states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferraro, N. M.; Jardin, S. C.

    2009-11-01

    M3D- C1 is an implicit, high-order finite element code for the solution of the time-dependent nonlinear two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic equations [S.C. Jardin, J. Breslau, N. Ferraro, A high-order implicit finite element method for integrating the two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic equations in two dimensions, J. Comp. Phys. 226 (2) (2007) 2146-2174]. This code has now been extended to allow computations in toroidal geometry. Improvements to the spatial integration and time-stepping algorithms are discussed. Steady-states of a resistive two-fluid model, self-consistently including flows, anisotropic viscosity (including gyroviscosity) and heat flux, are calculated for diverted plasmas in geometries typical of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Exploration of spherical torus physics in the NSTX device, Nucl. Fusion 40 (3Y) (2000) 557-561]. These states are found by time-integrating the dynamical equations until the steady-state is reached, and are therefore stationary or statistically steady on both magnetohydrodynamic and transport time-scales. Resistively driven cross-surface flows are found to be in close agreement with Pfirsch-Schlüter theory. Poloidally varying toroidal flows are in agreement with comparable calculations [A.Y. Aydemir, Shear flows at the tokamak edge and their interaction with edge-localized modes, Phys. Plasmas 14]. New effects on core toroidal rotation due to gyroviscosity and a local particle source are observed.

  1. Ecological Implications of Steady State and Nonsteady State Bioaccumulation Models.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Anne M; Paterson, Gordon; Drouillard, Ken G; Haffner, G Douglas

    2016-10-18

    Accurate predictions on the bioaccumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are critical for hazard and ecosystem health assessments. Aquatic systems are influenced by multiple stressors including climate change and species invasions and it is important to be able to predict variability in POP concentrations in changing environments. Current steady state bioaccumulation models simplify POP bioaccumulation dynamics, assuming that pollutant uptake and elimination processes become balanced over an organism's lifespan. These models do not consider the complexity of dynamic variables such as temperature and growth rates which are known to have the potential to regulate bioaccumulation in aquatic organisms. We contrast a steady state (SS) bioaccumulation model with a dynamic nonsteady state (NSS) model and a no elimination (NE) model. We demonstrate that both the NSS and the NE models are superior at predicting both average concentrations as well as variation in POPs among individuals. This comparison demonstrates that temporal drivers, such as environmental fluctuations in temperature, growth dynamics, and modified food-web structure strongly determine contaminant concentrations and variability in a changing environment. These results support the recommendation of the future development of more dynamic, nonsteady state bioaccumulation models to predict hazard and risk assessments in the Anthropocene.

  2. New models for fast steady state magnetic reconnection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Priest, E. R.; Forbes, T. G.

    1986-01-01

    A new unified family of models for incompressible, steady-state magnetic reconnection in a finite region is presented. The models are obtained by expanding in powers of the Alfven Mach number and may be used to elucidate some of the puzzling properties of numerical experiments on reconnection which are not present in the classical models. The conditions imposed on the inflow boundary of the finite region determine which member of the family occurs. Petscheklien and Sonnerup like solutions are particular members. The Sonneruplike regime is a special case of a weak slow mode expansion in the inflow region, and it separates two classes of members with reversed currents. The Petscheklike regime is a singular case of a weak fast mode expansion, and it separates the hybrid regime from a regime of slow mode compressions. Care should be taken in deciding which type of reconnection is operating in a numerical experiment. Indeed, no experiment to date has used boundary conditions appropriate for demonstrating steady state Petschek reconnection.

  3. Nonequilibrium many-body steady states via Keldysh formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghrebi, Mohammad F.; Gorshkov, Alexey V.

    2016-01-01

    Many-body systems with both coherent dynamics and dissipation constitute a rich class of models which are nevertheless much less explored than their dissipationless counterparts. The advent of numerous experimental platforms that simulate such dynamics poses an immediate challenge to systematically understand and classify these models. In particular, nontrivial many-body states emerge as steady states under nonequilibrium dynamics. While these states and their phase transitions have been studied extensively with mean-field theory, the validity of the mean-field approximation has not been systematically investigated. In this paper, we employ a field-theoretic approach based on the Keldysh formalism to study nonequilibrium phases and phase transitions in a variety of models. In all cases, a complete description via the Keldysh formalism indicates a partial or complete failure of the mean-field analysis. Furthermore, we find that an effective temperature emerges as a result of dissipation, and the universal behavior including the dynamics near the steady state is generically described by a thermodynamic universality class.

  4. Modeling steady-state methanogenic degradation of phenols in groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bekins, Barbara A.; Godsy, E. Michael; Goerlitz, Donald F.

    1993-01-01

    Field and microcosm observations of methanogenic phenolic compound degradation indicate that Monod kinetics governs the substrate disappearance but overestimates the observed biomass. In this paper we present modeling results from an ongoing multidisciplinary study of methanogenic biodegradation of phenolic compounds in a sand and gravel aquifer contaminated by chemicals and wastes used in wood treatment. Field disappearance rates of four phenols match those determined in batch microcosm studies previously performed by E.M. Godsy and coworkers. The degradation process appears to be at steady-state because even after a sustained influx over several decades, the contaminants still are disappearing in transport downgradient. The existence of a steady-state degradation profile of each substrate together with a low biomass density in the aquifer indicate that the bacteria population is exhibiting no net growth. This may be due to the oligotrophic nature of the biomass population in which utilization and growth are approximately independent of concentration for most of the concentration range. Thus a constant growth rate should exist over much of the contaminated area which may in turn be balanced by an unusually high decay or maintenance rate due to hostile conditions or predation.

  5. Steady-state wear and friction in boundary lubrication studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, W. R.; Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A friction and wear study was made at 20 C to obtain improved reproducibility and reliability in boundary lubrication testing. Ester-base and C-ether-base fluids were used to lubricate a pure iron rider in sliding contact with a rotating M-50 steel disk in a friction and wear apparatus. Conditions included loads of 1/2 and 1 kg and sliding velocities of 3.6 to 18.2 m/min in a dry air atmosphere and stepwise time intervals from 1 to 250 min for wear measurements. The wear rate results were compared with those from previous studies where a single 25 min test period was used. Satisfactory test conditions for studying friction and wear in boundary lubrication for this apparatus were found to be 1 kg load; sliding velocities of 7.1 to 9.1 m/min (50 rpm disk speed); and use of a time stepwise test procedure. Highly reproducible steady-state wear rates and steady-state friction coefficients were determined under boundary conditions. Wear rates and coefficients of friction were constant following initially high values during run-in periods.

  6. Zonal Flow Growth Rates: Modulational Instability vs Statistical Steady States.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krommes, J. A.; Kolesnikov, R. A.

    2002-11-01

    The nonlinear growth rate of zonal flows has been the subject of various investigations. The calculations can be grouped into two major classes: those based on modulational instability of a fixed pump wave;(L. Chen et al., Phys. Plasmas 7), 3129 (2000); P. N. Guzdar et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 015001 (2001); C. N. Lashmore-Davies et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 5121 (2001). and those employing statistical formalism to describe a self-consistent, energy-conserving steady state.(J. A. Krommes and C.--B. Kim, Phys. Rev. E 62), 8508 (2000), and references therein. The results from these two approaches do not necessarily agree either in their dependence on parameters like the plasma pressure β, on the threshold for instability, or even, in some cases, on the sign. The reasons for such disagreements are isolated, and it is shown to what extent the steady-state statistical approach can be reconciled with a generic modulational instability calculation. Generalizations of the statistical formalism to the multifield systems appropriate for finite β are described. Specific calculations based on model systems are used to illustrate the general arguments.

  7. 40 CFR 86.1362-2010 - Steady-state testing with a ramped-modal cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Torque(percent) 2 3 1a Steady-state 170 Warm Idle 0 1b Transition 20 Linear Transition Linear Transition. 2a Steady-state 173 A 100 2b Transition 20 Linear Transition Linear Transition. 3a Steady-state 219 B 50 3b Transition 20 B Linear Transition. 4a Steady-state 217 B 75 4b Transition 20 Linear...

  8. Tracking Control for an Overactuated Hypersonic Air-Breathing Vehicle with Steady State Constraints (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    choice of a steady state control is completely independent from the choice of a stabilizing control law. This separation is key for the methods we will...develop for steady state optimization in later sections. Combining the steady state with the stabilizing control , we can express the control law as u...for stabilizing control and optimization methods for steady state control, both unconstrained and constrained, we were able to produce promising results

  9. Pre-steady-state and steady-state kinetic analysis of the low molecular weight phosphotyrosyl protein phosphatase from bovine heart.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z Y; VanEtten, R L

    1991-01-25

    The complete time course of the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate catalyzed by the low molecular weight (acid) phosphotyrosyl protein phosphatase from bovine heart was elucidated and analyzed in detail. Burst titration kinetics were demonstrated for the first time with this class of enzyme. At pH 7.0, 4.5 degrees C, a transient pre-steady-state "burst" of p-nitrophenol was formed with a rate constant of 48 s-1. The burst was effectively stoichiometric and corresponded to a single enzyme active site/molecule. The burst was followed by a slow steady-state turnover of the phosphoenzyme intermediate with a rate constant of 1.2 s-1. Product inhibition studies indicated an ordered uni-bi kinetic scheme for the hydrolysis. Partition experiments conducted for several substrates revealed a constant product ratio. Vmax was constant for these substrates, and the overall rate of hydrolysis was increased greatly in the presence of alcohol acceptors. An enzyme-catalyzed 18O exchange between inorganic phosphate and water was detected and occurred with kcat = 4.47 x 10(-3) s-1 at pH 5.0, 37 degrees C. These results were all consistent with the existence of a phosphoenzyme intermediate in the catalytic pathway and with the breakdown of the intermediate being the rate-limiting step. The true Michaelis binding constant Ks = 6.0 mM, the apparent Km = 0.38 mM, and the rate constants for phosphorylation (k2 = 540 s-1) and dephosphorylation (k3 = 36.5 s-1) were determined under steady-state conditions with p-nitrophenyl phosphate at pH 5.0 and 37 degrees C in the presence of phosphate acceptors. The energies of activation for the enzyme-catalyzed hydrolysis at pH 5.0 and 7.0 were 13.6 and 14.1 kcal/mol, respectively. The activation energy for the enzyme-catalyzed medium 18O exchange between phosphate and water was 20.2 kcal/mol. Using the available equilibrium and rate constants, an energetic diagram was constructed for the enzyme-catalyzed reaction.

  10. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1042 - Steady-State Duty Cycles

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...%. 1bTransition 20 Linear transition Linear transition in torque. 2aSteady-state 166 63% 25%. 2bTransition 20 Linear transition Linear transition in torque. 3aSteady-state 570 91% 75%. 3bTransition 20 Linear transition Linear transition in torque. 4aSteady-state 175 80% 50%. 1 Speed terms are defined...

  11. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1042 - Steady-State Duty Cycles

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...%. 1bTransition 20 Linear transition Linear transition in torque. 2aSteady-state 166 63% 25%. 2bTransition 20 Linear transition Linear transition in torque. 3aSteady-state 570 91% 75%. 3bTransition 20 Linear transition Linear transition in torque. 4aSteady-state 175 80% 50%. 1 Speed terms are defined...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1042 - Steady-State Duty Cycles

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...%. 1bTransition 20 Linear transition Linear transition in torque. 2aSteady-state 166 63% 25%. 2bTransition 20 Linear transition Linear transition in torque. 3aSteady-state 570 91% 75%. 3bTransition 20 Linear transition Linear transition in torque. 4aSteady-state 175 80% 50%. 1 Speed terms are defined...

  13. Dust remobilization in fusion plasmas under steady state conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolias, P.; Ratynskaia, S.; De Angeli, M.; De Temmerman, G.; Ripamonti, D.; Riva, G.; Bykov, I.; Shalpegin, A.; Vignitchouk, L.; Brochard, F.; Bystrov, K.; Bardin, S.; Litnovsky, A.

    2016-02-01

    The first combined experimental and theoretical studies of dust remobilization by plasma forces are reported. The main theoretical aspects of remobilization in fusion devices under steady state conditions are analyzed. In particular, the dominant role of adhesive forces is highlighted and generic remobilization conditions—direct lift-up, sliding, rolling—are formulated. A novel experimental technique is proposed, based on controlled adhesion of dust grains on tungsten samples combined with detailed mapping of the dust deposition profile prior and post plasma exposure. Proof-of-principle experiments in the TEXTOR tokamak and the EXTRAP-T2R reversed-field pinch are presented. The versatile environment of the linear device Pilot-PSI allowed for experiments with different magnetic field topologies and varying plasma conditions that were complemented with camera observations.

  14. Locating CVBEM collocation points for steady state heat transfer problems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hromadka, T.V.

    1985-01-01

    The Complex Variable Boundary Element Method or CVBEM provides a highly accurate means of developing numerical solutions to steady state two-dimensional heat transfer problems. The numerical approach exactly solves the Laplace equation and satisfies the boundary conditions at specified points on the boundary by means of collocation. The accuracy of the approximation depends upon the nodal point distribution specified by the numerical analyst. In order to develop subsequent, refined approximation functions, four techniques for selecting additional collocation points are presented. The techniques are compared as to the governing theory, representation of the error of approximation on the problem boundary, the computational costs, and the ease of use by the numerical analyst. ?? 1985.

  15. Modelling of pulsed and steady-state DEMO scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giruzzi, G.; Artaud, J. F.; Baruzzo, M.; Bolzonella, T.; Fable, E.; Garzotti, L.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Kemp, R.; King, D. B.; Schneider, M.; Stankiewicz, R.; Stępniewski, W.; Vincenzi, P.; Ward, D.; Zagórski, R.

    2015-07-01

    Scenario modelling for the demonstration fusion reactor (DEMO) has been carried out using a variety of simulation codes. Two DEMO concepts have been analysed: a pulsed tokamak, characterized by rather conventional physics and technology assumptions (DEMO1) and a steady-state tokamak, with moderately advanced physics and technology assumptions (DEMO2). Sensitivity to impurity concentrations, radiation, and heat transport models has been investigated. For DEMO2, the impact of current driven non-inductively by neutral beams has been studied by full Monte Carlo simulations of the fast ion distribution. The results obtained are a part of a more extensive research and development (R&D) effort carried out in the EU in order to develop a viable option for a DEMO reactor, to be adopted after ITER for fusion energy research.

  16. A Steady-state Trio for Bretherton Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Zhao; Liu, Zeng; Cui, Jifeng

    2016-12-01

    To investigate if steady-state resonant solution exist for any system of weakly interacting waves in a dispersive medium, a trio is considered in the Bretherton equation based on the homotopy analysis method (HAM). Time-independent spectrum was found when all components were travelling in the same direction. Within the trio, the amplitude of longer component is larger than that of shorter one. As the difference of wave number between components in trio increases or the nonlinearity of whole system increases, the amplitudes of all components tends to increase simultaneously. These findings are helpful to enrich and deepen our understanding about resonant solutions in any dispersive medium, especially for a two-dimensional scenario.

  17. Relativistic hydrodynamics and non-equilibrium steady states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spillane, Michael; Herzog, Christopher P.

    2016-10-01

    We review recent interest in the relativistic Riemann problem as a method for generating a non-equilibrium steady state. In the version of the problem under consideration, the initial conditions consist of a planar interface between two halves of a system held at different temperatures in a hydrodynamic regime. The new double shock solutions are in contrast with older solutions that involve one shock and one rarefaction wave. We use numerical simulations to show that the older solutions are preferred. Briefly we discuss the effects of a conserved charge. Finally, we discuss deforming the relativistic equations with a nonlinear term and how that deformation affects the temperature and velocity in the region connecting the asymptotic fluids.

  18. Steady State Thermal Analyses of SCEPTOR X-57 Wingtip Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnulo, Sydney L.; Chin, Jeffrey C.; Smith, Andrew D.; Dubois, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Electric aircraft concepts enable advanced propulsion airframe integration approaches that promise increased efficiency as well as reduced emissions and noise. NASA's fully electric Maxwell X-57, developed under the SCEPTOR program, features distributed propulsion across a high aspect ratio wing. There are 14 propulsors in all: 12 high lift motor that are only active during take off and climb, and 2 larger motors positioned on the wingtips that operate over the entire mission. The power electronics involved in the wingtip propulsion are temperature sensitive and therefore require thermal management. This work focuses on the high and low fidelity heat transfer analysis methods performed to ensure that the wingtip motor inverters do not reach their temperature limits. It also explores different geometry configurations involved in the X-57 development and any thermal concerns. All analyses presented are performed at steady state under stressful operating conditions, therefore predicting temperatures which are considered the worst-case scenario to remain conservative.

  19. Steady-State Density Functional Theory for Finite Bias Conductances.

    PubMed

    Stefanucci, G; Kurth, S

    2015-12-09

    In the framework of density functional theory, a formalism to describe electronic transport in the steady state is proposed which uses the density on the junction and the steady current as basic variables. We prove that, in a finite window around zero bias, there is a one-to-one map between the basic variables and both local potential on as well as bias across the junction. The resulting Kohn-Sham system features two exchange-correlation (xc) potentials, a local xc potential, and an xc contribution to the bias. For weakly coupled junctions the xc potentials exhibit steps in the density-current plane which are shown to be crucial to describe the Coulomb blockade diamonds. At small currents these steps emerge as the equilibrium xc discontinuity bifurcates. The formalism is applied to a model benzene junction, finding perfect agreement with the orthodox theory of Coulomb blockade.

  20. Steady-state plasma transition in the Venus ionosheath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-De-tejada, H.; Intriligator, D. S.; Strangeway, R. J.

    1991-01-01

    The results of an extended analysis of the plasma and electric field data of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) are presented. The persistent presence of a plasma transition embedded in the flanks of the Venus ionosheath between the bow shock and the ionopause is reported. This transition is identified by the repeated presence of characteristic bursts in the 30 kHz channel of the electric field detector of the PVO. The observed electric field signals coincide with the onset of different plasma conditions in the inner ionosheath where more rarified plasma fluxes are measured. The repeated identification of this intermediate ionosheath transition in the PVO data indicates that it is present as a steady state feature of the Venus plasma environment. The distribution of PVO orbits in which the transition is observed suggests that it is more favorably detected in the vicinity of and downstream from the terminator.

  1. Progress Toward Steady-State Operation on Tore Supra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    J, Jacquinot; G, T. Hoang

    2004-02-01

    Important technological and physics issues related to steady-state operation required for next step are being examined on Tore Supra, after a major upgrade of internal components in order to increase the heat extraction capability to 25 MW for 1000 s. Here, we show first experimental results, where all the plasma facing components were actively cooled during pulses exceeding four minutes, with reactor-relevant heat load. New physics was observed in non-inductively driven plasmas, including a stationary peaked radial profile of the plasma density generated by an anomalous inward pinch; and a regime characterized by sinusoidal oscillations of central electron temperature, governed by non-linear coupling between heat transport and plasma current analogous to a predator-prey mechanism.

  2. Transient and steady state modelling of a coupled WECS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nathan, G. K.; Tan, J. K.

    The paper presents a method for simulation of a wind turbine using a dc motor. The armature and field voltages of the dc motor are independently regulated to obtain torque-speed characteristics which correspond to those of a wind turbine at different wind speeds. The mass moment of inertia of the wind turbine is represented by adding a rotating mass to a parallel shaft which is positively coupled to the motor shaft. To verify the method of simulation, an American multiblade wind turbine is chosen, loaded by coupling to a centrifugal pump. Using the principle of conservation of energy and characteristics of both constituent units, two mathematical models are proposed: one for steady state operation and another for the transient state. The close comparison between the theoretical and the experimental results validates the proposed models and the method of simulation. The experimental method is described and the results of the experimental and theoretical investigation are presented.

  3. Entropy Production and Non-Equilibrium Steady States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Masuo

    2013-01-01

    The long-term issue of entropy production in transport phenomena is solved by separating the symmetry of the non-equilibrium density matrix ρ(t) in the von Neumann equation, as ρ(t) = ρs(t) + ρa(t) with the symmetric part ρs(t) and antisymmetric part ρa(t). The irreversible entropy production (dS/dt)irr is given in M. Suzuki, Physica A 390(2011)1904 by (dS/dt)irr = Tr( {H}(dρ s{(t)/dt))}/T for the Hamiltonian {H} of the relevant system. The general formulation of the extended von Neumann equation with energy supply and heat extraction is reviewed from the author's paper (M. S.,Physica A391(2012)1074). irreversibility; entropy production; transport phenomena; electric conduction; thermal conduction; linear response; Kubo formula; steady state; non-equilibrium density matrix; energy supply; symmetry-separated von Neumann equation; unboundedness.

  4. Steady-state magma discharge at Etna 1971-81

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadge, G.; Guest, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    Throughout the past decade Mount Etna has been in almost continuous activity and even during periods of repose incandescent lava has often been visible in at least one of the summit vents. Using observations by Italian, British and French volcanological teams, the volumes of lava produced by each eruption from 1971 to July 1981 have been estimated. The computed output of magma for this period approximates to a rate of 0.7 cu m/s. This is compared with the output rate estimates for Etna's historic past. The steady-state nature of the output during the past decade has implications for the interpretation of the volcano's internal plumbing and the petrology of its lavas, and the assumption that this state will be maintained allows a discussion of the timing and magnitude of future eruptions.

  5. Steady state asymmetric planetary electrical induction. [by solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horning, B. L.; Schubert, G.

    1974-01-01

    An analytic solution is presented for the steady state electric and magnetic fields induced by the motional electric field of the solar wind in the atmosphere or interior of a planet that is asymmetrically surrounded by solar wind plasma. The electrically conducting ionosphere or interior must be in direct electrical contact with the solar wind over the day side of the planet. The conducting region of the planet is modeled by a sphere or a spherical shell of arbitrarily stratified electrical conductivity. A monoconducting cylindrical cavity is assumed to extend downstream on the night side of the planet. The solar wind is assumed to be highly conducting so that the induced fields are confined to the planet and cavity. Induced currents close as sheet currents at the solar wind-cavity and solar wind-planet interfaces. Numerical evaluations of the analytic formulas are carried out for a uniformly conducting spherical model.

  6. Extending the definition of entropy to nonequilibrium steady states

    PubMed Central

    Ruelle, David P.

    2003-01-01

    We study the nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of a finite classical system subjected to nongradient forces ξ and maintained at fixed kinetic energy (Hoover–Evans isokinetic thermostat). We assume that the microscopic dynamics is sufficiently chaotic (Gallavotti–Cohen chaotic hypothesis) and that there is a natural nonequilibrium steady-state ρξ. When ξ is replaced by ξ + δξ, one can compute the change δρ of ρξ (linear response) and define an entropy change δS based on energy considerations. When ξ is varied around a loop, the total change of S need not vanish: Outside of equilibrium the entropy has curvature. However, at equilibrium (i.e., if ξ is a gradient) we show that the curvature is zero, and that the entropy S(ξ + δξ) near equilibrium is well defined to second order in δξ. PMID:12629215

  7. Extending the definition of entropy to nonequilibrium steady states.

    PubMed

    Ruelle, David P

    2003-03-18

    We study the nonequilibrium statistical mechanics of a finite classical system subjected to nongradient forces xi and maintained at fixed kinetic energy (Hoover-Evans isokinetic thermostat). We assume that the microscopic dynamics is sufficiently chaotic (Gallavotti-Cohen chaotic hypothesis) and that there is a natural nonequilibrium steady-state rho(xi). When xi is replaced by xi + deltaxi, one can compute the change deltarho of rho(xi) (linear response) and define an entropy change deltaS based on energy considerations. When xi is varied around a loop, the total change of S need not vanish: Outside of equilibrium the entropy has curvature. However, at equilibrium (i.e., if xi is a gradient) we show that the curvature is zero, and that the entropy S(xi + deltaxi) near equilibrium is well defined to second order in deltaxi.

  8. Characterization of a class of stellarator steady states

    SciTech Connect

    Weitzner, Harold

    2011-01-15

    A stellarator steady state is obtained for a specific class of magnetic fields by a formal expansion in the small Larmor radius parameters of the coupled ion-electron Fokker-Planck equations. A system of relatively simple ordinary differential equations is given to determine the plasma profile functions, the number density, the temperature, and the electrostatic potential. A particular low collisionality ordering is used. The magnetic field is assumed to have stellarator symmetry of N periods in the toroidal direction and is approximated by a closed magnetic line configuration with rotational transform N/R. The magnetic field is nearly quasisymmetric. The chosen magnetic field also includes a small additional component leading to a configuration without closed lines or closed flux surfaces. The theoretical logic behind this choice of magnetic fields is also presented.

  9. [Auditory steady-state responses--the state of art].

    PubMed

    Szymańska, Anna; Gryczyński, Maciej; Pajor, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The auditory steady-state responses (ASSR) is quite a new method of electrophysiological threshold estimation with no clinical standards. It was the aim of this study to review practical and theoretical thesis of ASSR and mention recent recommendations and achievements of this technique. The most common application of ASSR is diagnosis of hearing loss in children together with ABR test. In this paper we mentioned information about influence of physiological factors (age, sex, state of arousal, handedness) and type of recording technique (electrodes placement, air and bone stimulation, occlusion effect, amplitude and frequency stimulation, multiple or single frequency stimulation, dichotic and monotic recording technique and type of hearing loss) on ASSR. We conclude that putting ASSR in clinical use as an standardized method it is necessary to do research with numerous groups of patients using the same equipment and parameters of tests.

  10. NASA Lewis Steady-State Heat Pipe Code Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mi, Ye; Tower, Leonard K.

    2013-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed the LERCHP code. The PC-based LERCHP code can be used to predict the steady-state performance of heat pipes, including the determination of operating temperature and operating limits which might be encountered under specified conditions. The code contains a vapor flow algorithm which incorporates vapor compressibility and axially varying heat input. For the liquid flow in the wick, Darcy s formula is employed. Thermal boundary conditions and geometric structures can be defined through an interactive input interface. A variety of fluid and material options as well as user defined options can be chosen for the working fluid, wick, and pipe materials. This report documents the current effort at GRC to update the LERCHP code for operating in a Microsoft Windows (Microsoft Corporation) environment. A detailed analysis of the model is presented. The programming architecture for the numerical calculations is explained and flowcharts of the key subroutines are given

  11. Steady-state thermodynamics for population growth in fluctuating environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sughiyama, Yuki; Kobayashi, Tetsuya J.

    2017-01-01

    We report that population dynamics in fluctuating environments is characterized by a mathematically equivalent structure to steady-state thermodynamics. By employing the structure, population growth in fluctuating environments is decomposed into housekeeping and excess parts. The housekeeping part represents the integral of the stationary growth rate for each condition during a history of the environmental change. The excess part accounts for the excess growth induced by environmental fluctuations. Focusing on the excess growth, we obtain a Clausius inequality, which gives the upper bound of the excess growth. The equality is shown to be achieved in quasistatic environmental changes. We also clarify that this bound can be evaluated by the "lineage fitness", which is an experimentally observable quantity.

  12. Petri nets for steady state analysis of metabolic systems.

    PubMed

    Voss, Klaus; Heiner, Monika; Koch, Ina

    2011-01-01

    Computer assisted analysis and simulation of biochemical pathways can improve the understanding of the structure and the dynamics of cell processes considerably. The construction and quantitative analysis of kinetic models is often impeded by the lack of reliable data. However, as the topological structure of biochemical systems can be regarded to remain constant in time, a qualitative analysis of a pathway model was shown to be quite promising as it can render a lot of useful knowledge, e. g., about its structural invariants. The topic of this paper are pathways whose substances have reached a dynamic concentration equilibrium (steady state). It is argued that appreciated tools from biochemistry and also low-level Petri nets can yield only part of the desired results, whereas executable high-level net models lead to a number of valuable additional insights by combining symbolic analysis and simulation.

  13. Steady state analysis of metabolic pathways using Petri nets.

    PubMed

    Voss, Klaus; Heiner, Monika; Koch, Ina

    2003-01-01

    Computer assisted analysis and simulation of biochemical pathways can improve the understanding of the structure and the dynamics of cell processes considerably. The construction and quantitative analysis of kinetic models is often impeded by the lack of reliable data. However, as the topological structure of biochemical systems can be regarded to remain constant in time, a qualitative analysis of a pathway model was shown to be quite promising as it can render a lot of useful knowledge, e. g., about its structural invariants. The topic of this paper are pathways whose substances have reached a dynamic concentration equilibrium (steady state). It is argued that appreciated tools from biochemistry and also low-level Petri nets can yield only part of the desired results, whereas executable high-level net models lead to a number of valuable additional insights by combining symbolic analysis and simulation.

  14. Steady-state spectroscopy of new biological probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abou-Zied, Osama K.

    2007-02-01

    The steady state absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy of 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole (HBO) and (2,2'-bipyridine)-3,3'-diol (BP(OH) II) were studied here free in solution and in human serum albumin (HSA) in order to test their applicability as new biological probes. HBO and BP(OH) II are known to undergo intramolecular proton transfers in the excited state. Their absorption and fluorescence spectra are sensitive to environmental change from hydrophilic to hydrophobic, thus allowing the opportunity to use them as environment-sensitive probes. The effect of water on the steady state spectra of the two molecules also shows unique features which may position them as water sensors in biological systems. For HBO in buffer, fluorescence is only due to the syn-keto tautomer, whereas in HSA the fluorescence is due to four species in equilibrium in the excited state (the syn-keto tautomer, the anti-enol tautomer, the solvated syn-enol tautomer, and the anion species of HBO). Analysis of the fluorescence spectra of HBO in HSA indicates that HBO is exposed to less water in the HBO:HSA complex. For the BP(OH) II molecule, unique absorption due to water was observed in the spectral region of 400-450 nm. This absorption decreases in the presence of HSA due to less accessibility to water as a result of binding to HSA. Fluorescence of BP(OH) II is due solely to the di-keto tautomer after double proton transfer in the excited state. The fluorescence peak of BP(OH) II shows a red-shift upon HSA recognition which is attributed to the hydrophobic environment inside the binding site of HSA. We discuss also the effect of probe-inclusion inside well-defined hydrophobic cavities of cyclodextrins.

  15. Steady state plasma operation in RF dominated regimes on EAST

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X. J.; Zhao, Y. P.; Gong, X. Z.; Hu, C. D.; Liu, F. K.; Hu, L. Q.; Wan, B. N. Li, J. G.

    2015-12-10

    Significant progress has recently been made on EAST in the 2014 campaign, including the enhanced CW H&CD system over 20MW heating power (LHCD, ICRH and NBI), more than 70 diagnostics, ITER-like W-monoblock on upper divertor, two inner cryo-pumps and RMP coils, enabling EAST to investigate long pulse H mode operation with dominant electron heating and low torque to address the critical issues for ITER. H-mode plasmas were achieved by new H&CD system or 4.6GHz LHCD alone for the first time. Long pulse high performance H mode has been obtained by LHCD alone up to 28s at H{sub 98}∼1.2 or by combing of ICRH and LHCD, no or small ELM was found in RF plasmas, which is essential for steady state operation in the future Tokamak. Plasma operation in low collision regimes were implemented by new 4.6GHz LHCD with core Te∼4.5keV. The non-inductive scenarios with high performance at high bootstrap current fraction have been demonstrated in RF dominated regimes for long pulse operation. Near full non-inductive CD discharges have been achieved. In addition, effective heating and decoupling method under multi-transmitter for ICRF system were developed in this campaign, etc. EAST could be in operation with over 30MW CW heating and current drive power (LHCD ICRH NBI and ECRH), enhanced diagnostic capabilities and full actively-cooled metal wall from 2015. It will therefore allow to access new confinement regimes and to extend these regimes towards to steady state operation.

  16. Steady state plasma operation in RF dominated regimes on EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. J.; Zhao, Y. P.; Gong, X. Z.; Hu, C. D.; Liu, F. K.; Hu, L. Q.; Wan, B. N.; Li, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    Significant progress has recently been made on EAST in the 2014 campaign, including the enhanced CW H&CD system over 20MW heating power (LHCD, ICRH and NBI), more than 70 diagnostics, ITER-like W-monoblock on upper divertor, two inner cryo-pumps and RMP coils, enabling EAST to investigate long pulse H mode operation with dominant electron heating and low torque to address the critical issues for ITER. H-mode plasmas were achieved by new H&CD system or 4.6GHz LHCD alone for the first time. Long pulse high performance H mode has been obtained by LHCD alone up to 28s at H98˜1.2 or by combing of ICRH and LHCD, no or small ELM was found in RF plasmas, which is essential for steady state operation in the future Tokamak. Plasma operation in low collision regimes were implemented by new 4.6GHz LHCD with core Te˜4.5keV. The non-inductive scenarios with high performance at high bootstrap current fraction have been demonstrated in RF dominated regimes for long pulse operation. Near full non-inductive CD discharges have been achieved. In addition, effective heating and decoupling method under multi-transmitter for ICRF system were developed in this campaign, etc. EAST could be in operation with over 30MW CW heating and current drive power (LHCD ICRH NBI and ECRH), enhanced diagnostic capabilities and full actively-cooled metal wall from 2015. It will therefore allow to access new confinement regimes and to extend these regimes towards to steady state operation.

  17. A mathematical model of pan evaporation under steady state conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Wee Ho; Roderick, Michael L.; Farquhar, Graham D.

    2016-09-01

    In the context of changing climate, global pan evaporation records have shown a spatially-averaged trend of ∼ -2 to ∼ -3 mm a-2 over the past 30-50 years. This global phenomenon has motivated the development of the "PenPan" model (Rotstayn et al., 2006). However, the original PenPan model has yet to receive an independent experimental evaluation. Hence, we constructed an instrumented US Class A pan at Canberra Airport (Australia) and monitored it over a three-year period (2007-2010) to uncover the physics of pan evaporation under non-steady state conditions. The experimental investigations of pan evaporation enabled theoretical formulation and parameterisation of the aerodynamic function considering the wind, properties of air and (with or without) the bird guard effect. The energy balance investigation allowed for detailed formulation of the short- and long-wave radiation associated with the albedos and the emissivities of the pan water surface and the pan wall. Here, we synthesise and generalise those earlier works to develop a new model called the "PenPan-V2" model for application under steady state conditions (i.e., uses a monthly time step). Two versions (PenPan-V2C and PenPan-V2S) are tested using pan evaporation data available across the Australian continent. Both versions outperformed the original PenPan model with better representation of both the evaporation rate and the underlying physics of a US Class A pan. The results show the improved solar geometry related calculations (e.g., albedo, area) for the pan system led to a clear improvement in representing the seasonal cycle of pan evaporation. For general applications, the PenPan-V2S is simpler and suited for applications including an evaluation of long-term trends in pan evaporation.

  18. Optimizing organic fertilizer applications under steady-state conditions.

    PubMed

    Crohn, David M

    2006-01-01

    Because organic N fertilizers must be mineralized before they become plant-available, application designs should consider time and temperature effects on N release as well as crop N requirements. This study presents deterministic (DOpt) and stochastic (SOpt) linear optimization models to determine sustainable land application schedules. The easily solved models minimize the amount of N that is applied while assuring than crop N demands are met as they develop. Temperature effects on N mineralization were included by using the Arrhenius equation to create a temperature-adjusted time series. Uncertainties associated with mineralization rates and the temperature-adjustment (Q10) factor are considered by SOpt. Examples are presented for a summer maize (Zea mays L.) and winter triticale (Triticum aestivum L. x Secale cereale L.) rotation operated by a hypothetical dairy operation in Stanislaus County, California. Monte Carlo simulations were used to test the models. A closed-form solution for estimating the time until steady state is presented and steady-state conditions were reached within 7 yr after applications were initiated. Because of temperature effects, DOpt solutions were 12% greater during the winter and 29% lower during the summer than a reference approach that applied liquid manure at 130% of the crop N demand. Stochastic linear optimization values were 1.7% greater than DOpt values in the summer and 6.2% greater in the winter. Surplus N estimates from Monte Carlo simulations averaged 104 kg ha(-1) for DOpt and 126 ka ha(-1) for SOpt, but SOpt was much less likely to result in crop N deficits. Linear optimization is a viable tool for scheduling organic N applications.

  19. Equatorial ground ice on Mars: Steady-state stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellon, Michael T.; Jakosky, Bruce M.; Postawko, Susan E.

    1993-01-01

    Current Martian equatorial surface temperatures are too warm for water ice to exist at the surface for any appreciable length of time before subliming into the atmosphere. Subsurface temperatures are generally warmer still and, despite the presence of a diffusive barrier of porous regolith material, it has been shown by Smoluchowski, Clifford and Hillel, and Fanale et al. that buried ground ice will also sublime and be lost to the atmosphere in a relatively short time. We investigate the behavior of this subliming subsurface ice and show that it is possible for ice to maintain at a steady-state depth, where sublimation and diffusive loss to the atmosphere is balanced by resupply from beneath by diffusion and recondensation of either a deeper buried ice deposits or ground water. We examine the behavior of equatorial ground ice with a numercial time-marching molecular diffusion model. In our model we allow for diffusion of water vapor through a porous regolith, variations in diffusivity and porosity with ice content, and recondensation of sublimed water vapor. A regolith containing considerable amounts of ice can still be very porous, allowing water vapor to diffuse up from deeper within the ice layer where temperatures are warmer due to the geothermal gradient. This vapor can then recondense nearer to the surface where ice had previously sublimed and been lost to the atmosphere. As a result we find that ice deposits migrate to find a steady-state depth, which represents a balance between diffusive loss to the atmosphere through the overlying porous regolith and diffusive resupply through a porous icy regolith below. This depth depends primarily on the long-term mean surface temperature and the nature of the geothermal gradient, and is independent of the ice-free porosity and the regolith diffusivity. Only the rate of loss of ground ice depends on diffusive properties.

  20. Torque-balanced Steady States of Single-component Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielson, James R.

    2005-10-01

    Penning-Malmberg traps provide an excellent method to confine single-component plasmas. Specially tailored, high-density plasmas can be created in these devices by the application of azimuthally phased rf fields [i.e., the so-called ``rotating wall'' (RW) technique]. Recently, we reported a new regime of RW compression of electron (or positron) plasmas ootnotetextJ. R. Danielson and C. M. Surko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 035001 (2005).. In this ``strong-drive'' regime, plasmas are compressed until the E x B rotation frequency, φE (with φE plasma density) approaches the applied frequency, φRW. Good compression is achieved over a broad range of RW frequencies, without the need to tune to a mode in the plasma. The resulting steady-state density is found to be only weakly dependent on the applied RW amplitude. A simple nonlinear dynamical model explains these observations as convergence to an attracting fixed point - the torque-balanced steady state. The applied RW torque, τRW, can be understood as a generic, linear coupling between the plasma and the Debye- shielded RW electric field. The thermodynamic equations ootnotetextT. M. O'Neil and D. H. E. Dubin, Phys. Plasmas 5, 2163 (1998). governing the evolution will be discussed and compared to the experiments. This new regime facilitates improved compression and colder plasmas (since less transport means less plasma heating). Factors limiting the utility of the technique and applications will be discussed, including the development of a multicell trap to confine large numbers (i.e., N >=10^ 12) of positrons ootnotetextC. M. Surko and R. G. Greaves, Phys. Plasmas 11, 2333 (2004)..

  1. Steady state, continuity, and the curious behavior of steep channels in layered rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covington, M. D.; Perne, M.; Thaler, E.; Myre, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Considerations of landscape steady state have substantially informed our understanding of the relationships between landscapes, tectonics, climate, and lithology. Topographic steady state, where topography is fixed in time, is a particularly important tool in the interpretation of landscape features, such as bedrock channel profiles, within a context of uplift patterns and rock strength. However, topographic steady state cannot strictly be attained in a landscape with layered rocks with non-vertical contacts. We show that an assumption of channel continuity, where channel retreat rates in the direction parallel to a contact are equal above and below the contact, provides a more general description of steady state landscapes in layered rocks, and that topographic steady state is a special case of the steady state derived from continuity. We demonstrate that modeled landscapes approach continuity steady state using 1D simulations and full landscape evolution models. Contrary to common conceptions, continuity predicts that channels will be steeper in weaker rocks in the case of subhorizontal rock layers when the stream power erosion exponent n<1. For subhorizontal layered rocks with different erodibilities, continuity also predicts larger slope contrasts than would be predicted by topographic steady state. Continuity steady state is a type of flux steady state, where uplift is balanced on average by erosion. The differences between topographic steady state and continuity steady state are most pronuced for steep channels in subhorizontal layered rocks. Consequently, cratonic and plateau settings are most likely to produce the effects predicted by continuity steady state. These settings remain relatively underexplored within the bedrock channel literature. Though examples illustrated here utilze the stream power erosion law, continuity steady state provides a general mathematical tool that can be used to explore the development of landscapes in layered rocks using any

  2. A new role for PGA1 in inhibiting hepatitis C virus-IRES-mediated translation by targeting viral translation factors.

    PubMed

    Tsukimoto, Atsuko; Sugiyama, Ryuichi; Abe, Makoto; Nishitsuji, Hironori; Shimizu, Yuko; Shimotohno, Kunitada; Kawai, Gota; Takaku, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that cyclopentenone prostaglandins (cyPGs) inhibit the replication of a wide variety of DNA and RNA viruses in different mammalian cell types. We investigated a new role for prostaglandin A1 (PGA1) in the inhibition of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-IRES-mediated translation. PGA1 exhibited dose-dependent inhibitory effects on HCV translation in HCV replicon cells. Furthermore, repetitive PGA1 treatment demonstrated the potential to safely induce the suppression of HCV translation. We also validated a new role for PGA1 in the inhibition of HCV-IRES-mediated translation by targeting cellular translation factors, including the small ribosomal subunit (40S) and eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs). In pull-down assays, biotinylated PGA1 co-precipitated with the entire HCV IRES RNA/eIF3-40S subunit complex. Moreover, the interactions between PGA1 and the elongation factors and ribosomal subunit were dependent upon HCV IRES RNA binding, and the PGA1/HCV IRES RNA/eIF3-40S subunit complex inhibited HCV-IRES-mediated translation. The novel mechanism revealed in this study may aid in the search for more effective anti-HCV drugs.

  3. The Budyko functions under non-steady-state conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, Roger; Lhomme, Jean-Paul

    2016-12-01

    The Budyko functions relate the evaporation ratio E / P (E is evaporation and P precipitation) to the aridity index Φ = Ep / P (Ep is potential evaporation) and are valid on long timescales under steady-state conditions. A new physically based formulation (noted as Moussa-Lhomme, ML) is proposed to extend the Budyko framework under non-steady-state conditions taking into account the change in terrestrial water storage ΔS. The variation in storage amount ΔS is taken as negative when withdrawn from the area at stake and used for evaporation and positive otherwise, when removed from the precipitation and stored in the area. The ML formulation introduces a dimensionless parameter HE = -ΔS / Ep and can be applied with any Budyko function. It represents a generic framework, easy to use at various time steps (year, season or month), with the only data required being Ep, P and ΔS. For the particular case where the Fu-Zhang equation is used, the ML formulation with ΔS ≤ 0 is similar to the analytical solution of Greve et al. (2016) in the standard Budyko space (Ep / P, E / P), a simple relationship existing between their respective parameters. The ML formulation is extended to the space [Ep / (P - ΔS), E / (P - ΔS)] and compared to the formulations of Chen et al. (2013) and Du et al. (2016). The ML (or Greve et al., 2016) feasible domain has a similar upper limit to that of Chen et al. (2013) and Du et al. (2016), but its lower boundary is different. Moreover, the domain of variation of Ep / (P - ΔS) differs: for ΔS ≤ 0, it is bounded by an upper limit 1 / HE in the ML formulation, while it is only bounded by a lower limit in Chen et al.'s (2013) and Du et al.'s (2016) formulations. The ML formulation can also be conducted using the dimensionless parameter HP = -ΔS / P instead of HE, which yields another form of the equations.

  4. Critical Concavity of a Drainage Basin for Steady-State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Jongmin; Paik, Kyungrock

    2015-04-01

    Longitudinal profiles of natural streams are known to show concave forms. Saying A as drainage area, channel gradient S can be expressed as the power-law, S≈A-θ (Flint, 1974), which is one of the scale-invariant features of drainage basin. According to literature, θ of most natural streams falls into a narrow range (0.4 < θ < 0.7) (Tucker and Whipple, 2002). It leads to fundamental questions: 'Why does θ falls into such narrow range?' and 'How is this related with other power-law scaling relationships reported in natural drainage basins?' To answer above questions, we analytically derive θ for a steady-state drainage basin following Lane's equilibrium (Lane, 1955) throughout the corridor and named this specific case as the 'critical concavity'. In the derivation, sediment transport capacity is estimated by unit stream power model (Yang, 1976), yielding a power function of upstream area. Stability of channel at a local point occurs when incoming flux equals outgoing flux at the point. Therefore, given the drainage at steady-state where all channel beds are stable, the exponent of the power function should be zero. From this, we can determine the critical concavity. Considering ranges of variables associated in this derivation, critical concavity cannot be resolved as a single definite value, rather a range of critical concavity is suggested. This range well agrees with the widely reported range of θ (0.4 < θ < 0.7) in natural streams. In this theoretical study, inter-relationships between power-laws such as hydraulic geometry (Leopold and Maddock, 1953), dominant discharge-drainage area (Knighton et al., 1999), and concavity, are coupled into the power-law framework of stream power sediment transport model. This allows us to explore close relationships between their power-law exponents: their relative roles and sensitivity. Detailed analysis and implications will be presented. References Flint, J. J., 1974, Stream gradient as a function of order, magnitude

  5. Stability of Auditory Steady State Responses Over Time.

    PubMed

    Van Eeckhoutte, Maaike; Luke, Robert; Wouters, Jan; Francart, Tom

    2017-08-26

    Auditory steady state responses (ASSRs) are used in clinical practice for objective hearing assessments. The response is called steady state because it is assumed to be stable over time, and because it is evoked by a stimulus with a certain periodicity, which will lead to discrete frequency components that are stable in amplitude and phase over time. However, the stimuli commonly used to evoke ASSRs are also known to be able to induce loudness adaptation behaviorally. Researchers and clinicians using ASSRs assume that the response remains stable over time. This study investigates (1) the stability of ASSR amplitudes over time, within one recording, and (2) whether loudness adaptation can be reflected in ASSRs. ASSRs were measured from 14 normal-hearing participants. The ASSRs were evoked by the stimuli that caused the most loudness adaptation in a previous behavioral study, that is, mixed-modulated sinusoids with carrier frequencies of either 500 or 2000 Hz, a modulation frequency of 40 Hz, and a low sensation level of 30 dB SL. For each carrier frequency and participant, 40 repetitions of 92 sec recordings were made. Two types of analyses were used to investigate the ASSR amplitudes over time: with the more traditionally used Fast Fourier Transform and with a novel Kalman filtering approach. Robust correlations between the ASSR amplitudes and behavioral loudness adaptation ratings were also calculated. Overall, ASSR amplitudes were stable. Over all individual recordings, the median change of the amplitudes over time was -0.0001 μV/s. Based on group analysis, a significant but very weak decrease in amplitude over time was found, with the decrease in amplitude over time around -0.0002 μV/s. Correlation coefficients between ASSR amplitudes and behavioral loudness adaptation ratings were significant but low to moderate, with r = 0.27 and r = 0.39 for the 500 and 2000 Hz carrier frequency, respectively. The decrease in amplitude of ASSRs over time (92 sec) is small

  6. Mechanism for multiplicity of steady states with distinct cell concentration in continuous culture of mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Yongky, Andrew; Lee, Jongchan; Le, Tung; Mulukutla, Bhanu Chandra; Daoutidis, Prodromos; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2015-07-01

    Continuous culture for the production of biopharmaceutical proteins offers the possibility of steady state operations and thus more consistent product quality and increased productivity. Under some conditions, multiplicity of steady states has been observed in continuous cultures of mammalian cells, wherein with the same dilution rate and feed nutrient composition, steady states with very different cell and product concentrations may be reached. At those different steady states, cells may exhibit a high glycolysis flux with high lactate production and low cell concentration, or a low glycolysis flux with low lactate and high cell concentration. These different steady states, with different cell concentration, also have different productivity. Developing a mechanistic understanding of the occurrence of steady state multiplicity and devising a strategy to steer the culture toward the desired steady state is critical. We establish a multi-scale kinetic model that integrates a mechanistic intracellular metabolic model and cell growth model in a continuous bioreactor. We show that steady state multiplicity exists in a range of dilution rate in continuous culture as a result of the bistable behavior in glycolysis. The insights from the model were used to devise strategies to guide the culture to the desired steady state in the multiple steady state region. The model provides a guideline principle in the design of continuous culture processes of mammalian cells. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. NASA Lewis steady-state heat pipe code users manual

    SciTech Connect

    Tower, L.K.; Baker, K.W.; Marks, T.S.

    1992-06-01

    The NASA Lewis heat pipe code has been developed to predict the performance of heat pipes in the steady state. The code can be used as a design tool on a personal computer or, with a suitable calling routine, as a subroutine for a mainframe radiator code. A variety of wick structures, including a user input option, can be used. Heat pipes with multiple evaporators, condensers, and adiabatic sections in series and with wick structures that differ among sections can be modeled. Several working fluids can be chosen, including potassium, sodium, and lithium, for which the monomer-dimer equilibrium is considered. The code incorporates a vapor flow algorithm that treats compressibility and axially varying heat input. This code facilitates the determination of heat pipe operating temperatures and heat pipe limits that may be encountered at the specified heat input and environment temperature. Data are input to the computer through a user-interactive input subroutine. Output, such as liquid and vapor pressures and temperatures, is printed at equally spaced axial positions along the pipe as determined by the user.

  8. The inductive, steady-state sustainment of stable spheromaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossack, A. C.; Jarboe, T. R.; Morgan, K. D.; Sutherland, D. A.; Hansen, C. J.; Everson, C. J.; Penna, J. M.; Nelson, B. A.

    2016-10-01

    Inductive helicity injection current drive with imposed perturbations has led to the breakthrough of spheromak sustainment while maintaining stability. Sustained spheromaks show coherent, imposed plasma motion and low plasma-generated mode activity, indicating stability. Additionally, record current gain of 3.9 has been achieved with evidence of pressure confinement. The Helicity Injected Torus - Steady Inductive (HIT-SI) experiment studies efficient, steady-state current drive for magnetic confinement plasmas using a novel experimental method which is ideal for low aspect ratio, toroidal geometries and is compatible with closed flux surfaces. Analysis of surface magnetic probes indicates large n = 0 and 1 toroidal Fourier mode amplitudes and little energy in higher modes. Biorthogonal decomposition shows that almost all of the n = 1 energy is imposed by the injectors, rather than plasma-generated. Ion Doppler spectroscopy (IDS) measurements show coherent, imposed plasma motion of +/-2.5 cm in the region inside r 10 cm (a = 23 cm) and the size of the separate spheromak is consistent with that predicted by Imposed-dynamo Current Drive (IDCD). Coherent motion indicates that the spheromak is stable and a lack of plasma-generated n = 1 energy indicates that the maximum q is maintained below 1 for stability during sustainment.

  9. Steady-state growth of the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.J.; SooHoo, J.B.; Kiefer, D.A.

    1980-09-01

    Seasonal studies of the vertical distribution of nitrate, nitrite, and phytoplankton in the oceans and studies using /sup 15/N as a tracer of nitrate metabolism indicate that the reduction of nitrate by phytoplankton is a source of nitrite in the upper waters of the ocean. To better understand this process, the relationship between nitrate uptake and nitrite production has been examined with continuous cultures of the small marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. In a turbidostat culture, the rates of nitrite production by T. Pseudonana increase with light intensity. This process is only loosely coupled to rates of nitrate assimilation since the ratio of net nitrite production to total nitrate assimilation increases with increased rates of growth. In continuous cultures where steady-state concentrations of nitrate and nitrite were varied, T. pseudonana produced nitrite at rates which increased with increasing concentrations of nitrate. Again, the rates of nitrite production were uncoupled from rates of nitrate assimilation. The study was used to derive a mathematical description of nitrate and nitrite metabolism by T. pseudonana. The validity of this model was supported by the results of a study in which /sup 15/N-labeled nitrite was introduced into the continuous culture, and the model was used to examine patterns in distribution of nitrite in the Antarctic Ocean and the Sargasso Sea.

  10. Steady State Analysis of Small Molten Salt Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Takahisa; Mitachi, Koshi; Suzuki, Takashi

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a thermal neutron reactor with graphite moderation and operates on the thorium-uranium fuel cycle. The feature of the MSR is that fuel salt flows inside the reactor during the nuclear fission reaction. In the previous study, the authors developed numerical model with which to simulate the effects of fuel salt flow on the reactor characteristics. In this study, we apply the model to the steady-state analysis of a small MSR system and estimate the effects of fuel flow. The model consists of two-group neutron diffusion equations for fast and thermal neutron fluxes, transport equations for six-group delayed neutron precursors and energy conservation equations for fuel salt and the graphite moderator. The following results are obtained: (1) in the rated operation condition, the peaks of the neutron fluxes slightly move toward the bottom from the center of the reactor and the delayed neutron precursors are significantly carried by the fuel salt flow, and (2) the extension of residence time in the external-loop system and the rise of the fuel inflow temperature show weak negative reactivity effects, which decrease the neutron multiplication factor of the small MSR system.

  11. Fault Wear by Damage Evolution During Steady-State Slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyakhovsky, Vladimir; Sagy, Amir; Boneh, Yuval; Reches, Ze'ev

    2014-11-01

    Slip along faults generates wear products such as gouge layers and cataclasite zones that range in thickness from sub-millimeter to tens of meters. The properties of these zones apparently control fault strength and slip stability. Here we present a new model of wear in a three-body configuration that utilizes the damage rheology approach and considers the process as a microfracturing or damage front propagating from the gouge zone into the solid rock. The derivations for steady-state conditions lead to a scaling relation for the damage front velocity considered as the wear-rate. The model predicts that the wear-rate is a function of the shear-stress and may vanish when the shear-stress drops below the microfracturing strength of the fault host rock. The simulated results successfully fit the measured friction and wear during shear experiments along faults made of carbonate and tonalite. The model is also valid for relatively large confining pressures, small damage-induced change of the bulk modulus and significant degradation of the shear modulus, which are assumed for seismogenic zones of earthquake faults. The presented formulation indicates that wear dynamics in brittle materials in general and in natural faults in particular can be understood by the concept of a "propagating damage front" and the evolution of a third-body layer.

  12. Quasi-steady state aerodynamics of the cheetah tail

    PubMed Central

    Boje, Edward; Fisher, Callen; Louis, Leeann; Lane, Emily

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT During high-speed pursuit of prey, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has been observed to swing its tail while manoeuvring (e.g. turning or braking) but the effect of these complex motions is not well understood. This study demonstrates the potential of the cheetah's long, furry tail to impart torques and forces on the body as a result of aerodynamic effects, in addition to the well-known inertial effects. The first-order aerodynamic forces on the tail are quantified through wind tunnel testing and it is observed that the fur nearly doubles the effective frontal area of the tail without much mass penalty. Simple dynamic models provide insight into manoeuvrability via simulation of pitch, roll and yaw tail motion primitives. The inertial and quasi-steady state aerodynamic effects of tail actuation are quantified and compared by calculating the angular impulse imparted onto the cheetah's body and its shown aerodynamic effects contribute to the tail's angular impulse, especially at the highest forward velocities. PMID:27412267

  13. Steady-state and transient results on insulation materials

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, R.S.; Yarbrough, D.W.; McElroy, D.L.; Fine, H.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Unguarded Thin-Heater Apparatus (UTHA, ASTM C 1114) was used to determine the thermal conductivity (k), specific heat (C), and thermal diffusivity ({alpha}) of selected building materials from 24 to 50{degree}C. Steady-state and transient measurements yielded data on four types of material: gypsum wall board containing 0, 15, and 30 wt % wax; calcium silicate insulations with densities ({rho}) of 307, 444, and 605 kg/m{sup 3}; three wood products: southern yellow pine flooring (575 kg/m{sup 3}), Douglas fir plywood (501 kg/m{sup 3}), and white spruce flooring (452 kg/m{sup 3}); and two cellular plastic foams: extruded polystyrene (30 kg/m{sup 3}) blown with HCFC-142b and polyisocyanurate rigid board (30.2 kg/m{sup 3}) blown with CFC-11. The extruded polystyrene was measured several times after production (25 days, 45 days, 74 days, 131 days, and 227 days). The UTHA is an absolute technique that yields k with an uncertainty of less than {plus minus}2% as determined by modeling, by determinate error analyses, and by use of Standard Reference Materials SRM-1450b and SRM-1451. 37 refs., 5 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. Ising game: Nonequilibrium steady states of resource-allocation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, C.; Yang, G.; Huang, J. P.

    2017-04-01

    Resource-allocation systems are ubiquitous in the human society. But how external fields affect the state of such systems remains poorly explored due to the lack of a suitable model. Because the behavior of spins pursuing energy minimization required by physical laws is similar to that of humans chasing payoff maximization studied in game theory, here we combine the Ising model with the market-directed resource-allocation game, yielding an Ising game. Based on the Ising game, we show theoretical, simulative and experimental evidences for a formula, which offers a clear expression of nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). Interestingly, the formula also reveals a convertible relationship between the external field (exogenous factor) and resource ratio (endogenous factor), and a class of saturation as the external field exceeds certain limits. This work suggests that the Ising game could be a suitable model for studying external-field effects on resource-allocation systems, and it could provide guidance both for seeking more relations between NESSs and equilibrium states and for regulating human systems by choosing NESSs appropriately.

  15. NASA Lewis steady-state heat pipe code users manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tower, Leonard K.; Baker, Karl W.; Marks, Timothy S.

    1992-01-01

    The NASA Lewis heat pipe code was developed to predict the performance of heat pipes in the steady state. The code can be used as a design tool on a personal computer or with a suitable calling routine, as a subroutine for a mainframe radiator code. A variety of wick structures, including a user input option, can be used. Heat pipes with multiple evaporators, condensers, and adiabatic sections in series and with wick structures that differ among sections can be modeled. Several working fluids can be chosen, including potassium, sodium, and lithium, for which monomer-dimer equilibrium is considered. The code incorporates a vapor flow algorithm that treats compressibility and axially varying heat input. This code facilitates the determination of heat pipe operating temperatures and heat pipe limits that may be encountered at the specified heat input and environment temperature. Data are input to the computer through a user-interactive input subroutine. Output, such as liquid and vapor pressures and temperatures, is printed at equally spaced axial positions along the pipe as determined by the user.

  16. Steady-state deformation of some lithium ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Poeppel, R.B.; Routbort, J.L.; Billone, M.C.; Applegate, D.S.; Buchmann, E.; Londschien, B.

    1987-05-01

    The stress-strain behavior of Li/sub 2/O, LiAlO/sub 2/ and Li/sub 2/ZrO/sub 3/ polycrystals, with densities varying from 0.70 to 0.95 of the theoretical, has been measured in constant-crosshead-speed compression tests at temperatures of 700 to 1000/sup 0/C with strain rates ranging from about 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -4/ s/sup -1/. A steady-state stress, sigma/sub s/, for which the work-hardening rate becomes zero, was achieved. These results, therefore, yield information equivalent to that obtained from creep experiments. Limited data on LiAlO/sub 2/ and Li/sub 2/ZrO/sub 3/ were obtained. Nevertheless, under comparable conditions the lithium aluminate and zirconate were considerably stronger than the Li/sub 2/O. This finding may be related to differences in crystal structure. It is, however, likely that in operation as a function breeder blanket material, the oxide will swell whereas the aluminate and the zirconate will crack. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Flavour fields in steady state: stress tensor and free energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Avik; Kundu, Arnab; Kundu, Sandipan

    2016-02-01

    The dynamics of a probe brane in a given gravitational background is governed by the Dirac-Born-Infeld action. The corresponding open string metric arises naturally in studying the fluctuations on the probe. In Gauge-String duality, it is known that in the presence of a constant electric field on the worldvolume of the probe, the open string metric acquires an event horizon and therefore the fluctuation modes on the probe experience an effective temperature. In this article, we bring together various properties of such a system to a formal definition and a subsequent narration of the effective thermodynamics and the stress tensor of the corresponding flavour fields, also including a non-vanishing chemical potential. In doing so, we point out a potentially infinitely-degenerate scheme-dependence of regularizing the free energy, which nevertheless yields a universal contribution in certain cases. This universal piece appears as the coefficient of a log-divergence in free energy when a space-filling probe brane is embedded in AdS d+1-background, for d = 2, 4, and is related to conformal anomaly. For the special case of d = 2, the universal factor has a striking resemblance to the well-known heat current formula in (1 + 1)-dimensional conformal field theory in steady-state, which endows a plausible physical interpretation to it. Interestingly, we observe a vanishing conformal anomaly in d = 6.

  18. Nonequilibrium steady states of ideal bosonic and fermionic quantum gases.

    PubMed

    Vorberg, Daniel; Wustmann, Waltraut; Schomerus, Henning; Ketzmerick, Roland; Eckardt, André

    2015-12-01

    We investigate nonequilibrium steady states of driven-dissipative ideal quantum gases of both bosons and fermions. We focus on systems of sharp particle number that are driven out of equilibrium either by the coupling to several heat baths of different temperature or by time-periodic driving in combination with the coupling to a heat bath. Within the framework of (Floquet-)Born-Markov theory, several analytical and numerical methods are described in detail. This includes a mean-field theory in terms of occupation numbers, an augmented mean-field theory taking into account also nontrivial two-particle correlations, and quantum-jump-type Monte Carlo simulations. For the case of the ideal Fermi gas, these methods are applied to simple lattice models and the possibility of achieving exotic states via bath engineering is pointed out. The largest part of this work is devoted to bosonic quantum gases and the phenomenon of Bose selection, a nonequilibrium generalization of Bose condensation, where multiple single-particle states are selected to acquire a large occupation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240405 (2013)]. In this context, among others, we provide a theory for transitions where the set of selected states changes, describe an efficient algorithm for finding the set of selected states, investigate beyond-mean-field effects, and identify the dominant mechanisms for heat transport in the Bose-selected state.

  19. Steady state solutions to dynamically loaded periodic structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalinowski, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    The general problem of solving for the steady state (time domain) dynamic response (i.e., NASTRAN rigid format-8) of a general elastic periodic structure subject to a phase difference loading of the type encountered in traveling wave propagation problems was studied. Two types of structural configurations were considered; in the first type, the structure has a repeating pattern over a span that is long enough to be considered, for all practical purposes, as infinite; in the second type, the structure has structural rotational symmetry in the circumferential direction. The theory and a corresponding set of DMAP instructions which permits the NASTRAN user to automatically alter the rigid format-8 sequence to solve the intended class of problems are presented. Final results are recovered as with any ordinary rigid format-8 solution, except that the results are only printed for the typical periodic segment of the structure. A simple demonstration problem having a known exact solution is used to illustrate the implementation of the procedure.

  20. Optomechanically induced transparency associated with steady-state entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically investigate a two-cavity optomechanical system in which a cavity (cavity a ) couples to a mechanical resonator via radiation pressure and to another cavity (cavity c ) via a common waveguide. In the excitation of a strong pump filed to cavity a , the steady-state entanglement between cavity a and c , as a quantum channel, can be generated, which provides an indirect optical pathway to excite cavity c by means of the pump filed. Quantum interference between the direct and indirect optical pathways gives rise to an optomechanically induced transparency appearing in the probe transmission of cavity c . Unlike in a typical optomechanically induced transparency effect, the electromagnetical control of the transmission is implemented by resorting to the quantum channel. Furthermore, the coupling strength of the two cavities is an important factor of the quantum channel, which can influence the width of the transparency window and the bistable behavior of the mean photon number in cavity a . We also illustrate that the electromagnetical control via quantum channel can be exploited to implement the optical switch and the slow light.

  1. Steady-state and dynamic network modes for perceptual expectation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Uk-Su; Sung, Yul-Wan; Ogawa, Seiji

    2017-01-12

    Perceptual expectation can attenuate repetition suppression, the stimulus-induced neuronal response generated by repeated stimulation, suggesting that repetition suppression is a top-down modulatory phenomenon. However, it is still unclear which high-level brain areas are involved and how they interact with low-level brain areas. Further, the temporal range over which perceptual expectation can effectively attenuate repetition suppression effects remains unclear. To elucidate the details of this top-down modulatory process, we used two short and long inter-stimulus intervals for a perceptual expectation paradigm of paired stimulation. We found that top-down modulation enhanced the response to the unexpected stimulus when repetition suppression was weak and that the effect disappeared at 1,000 ms prior to stimulus exposure. The high-level areas involved in this process included the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG_L) and left parietal lobule (IPL_L). We also found two systems providing modulatory input to the right fusiform face area (FFA_R): one from IFG_L and the other from IPL_L. Most importantly, we identified two states of networks through which perceptual expectation modulates sensory responses: one is a dynamic state and the other is a steady state. Our results provide the first functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) evidence of temporally nested networks in brain processing.

  2. Visual steady state in relation to age and cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Anna; Dyhr Thomsen, Mia; Wiegand, Iris; Horwitz, Henrik; Klemp, Marc; Nikolic, Miki; Rask, Lene; Lauritzen, Martin; Benedek, Krisztina

    2017-01-01

    Neocortical gamma activity is crucial for sensory perception and cognition. This study examines the value of using non-task stimulation-induced EEG oscillations to predict cognitive status in a birth cohort of healthy Danish males (Metropolit) with varying cognitive ability. In particular, we examine the steady-state VEP power response (SSVEP-PR) in the alpha (8Hz) and gamma (36Hz) bands in 54 males (avg. age: 62.0 years) and compare these with 10 young healthy participants (avg. age 27.6 years). Furthermore, we correlate the individual alpha-to-gamma difference in relative visual-area power (ΔRV) with cognitive scores for the older adults. We find that ΔRV decrease with age by just over one standard deviation when comparing young with old participants (p<0.01). Furthermore, intelligence is significantly negatively correlated with ΔRV in the older adult cohort, even when processing speed, global cognition, executive function, memory, and education (p<0.05). In our preferred specification, an increase in ΔRV of one standard deviation is associated with a reduction in intelligence of 48% of a standard deviation (p<0.01). Finally, we conclude that the difference in cerebral rhythmic activity between the alpha and gamma bands is associated with age and cognitive status, and that ΔRV therefore provide a non-subjective clinical tool with which to examine cognitive status in old age.

  3. Models of steady state cooling flows in elliptical galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vedder, Peter W.; Trester, Jeffrey J.; Canizares, Claude R.

    1988-01-01

    A comprehensive set of steady state models for spherically symmetric cooling flows in early-type galaxies is presented. It is found that a reduction of the supernova (SN) rate in ellipticals produces a decrease in the X-ray luminosity of galactic cooling flows and a steepening of the surface brightness profile. The mean X-ray temperature of the cooling flow is not affected noticeably by a change in the SN rate. The external pressure around a galaxy does not markedly change the luminosity of the gas within the galaxy but does change the mean temperature of the gas. The presence of a dark matter halo in a galaxy only changes the mean X-ray temperature slightly. The addition of a distribution of mass sinks which remove material from the general accretion flow reduces L(X) very slightly, flattens the surface brightness profile, and reduces the central surface brightness level to values close to those actually observed. A reduction in the stellar mass-loss rate only slightly reduces the X-ray luminosity of the cooling flow and flattens the surface brightness by a small amount.

  4. Dynamic causal models of steady-state responses

    PubMed Central

    Moran, R.J.; Stephan, K.E.; Seidenbecher, T.; Pape, H.-C.; Dolan, R.J.; Friston, K.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a dynamic causal model (DCM) of steady-state responses in electrophysiological data that are summarised in terms of their cross-spectral density. These spectral data-features are generated by a biologically plausible, neural-mass model of coupled electromagnetic sources; where each source comprises three sub-populations. Under linearity and stationarity assumptions, the model's biophysical parameters (e.g., post-synaptic receptor density and time constants) prescribe the cross-spectral density of responses measured directly (e.g., local field potentials) or indirectly through some lead-field (e.g., electroencephalographic and magnetoencephalographic data). Inversion of the ensuing DCM provides conditional probabilities on the synaptic parameters of intrinsic and extrinsic connections in the underlying neuronal network. This means we can make inferences about synaptic physiology, as well as changes induced by pharmacological or behavioural manipulations, using the cross-spectral density of invasive or non-invasive electrophysiological recordings. In this paper, we focus on the form of the model, its inversion and validation using synthetic and real data. We conclude with an illustrative application to multi-channel local field potential data acquired during a learning experiment in mice. PMID:19000769

  5. Quasi-steady state aerodynamics of the cheetah tail.

    PubMed

    Patel, Amir; Boje, Edward; Fisher, Callen; Louis, Leeann; Lane, Emily

    2016-08-15

    During high-speed pursuit of prey, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has been observed to swing its tail while manoeuvring (e.g. turning or braking) but the effect of these complex motions is not well understood. This study demonstrates the potential of the cheetah's long, furry tail to impart torques and forces on the body as a result of aerodynamic effects, in addition to the well-known inertial effects. The first-order aerodynamic forces on the tail are quantified through wind tunnel testing and it is observed that the fur nearly doubles the effective frontal area of the tail without much mass penalty. Simple dynamic models provide insight into manoeuvrability via simulation of pitch, roll and yaw tail motion primitives. The inertial and quasi-steady state aerodynamic effects of tail actuation are quantified and compared by calculating the angular impulse imparted onto the cheetah's body and its shown aerodynamic effects contribute to the tail's angular impulse, especially at the highest forward velocities.

  6. Steady state He II heat transfer through random packed spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderlaan, M. H.; Van Sciver, S. W.

    2013-10-01

    Heat flow through superfluid helium (He II) contained in porous media is examined. In particular, heat transfer experiments were performed on He II contained in a bed of polyethylene spheres of uniform size arranged in random packs. Measured results include the steady state temperature drops across the three random packs of spheres (35, 49, and 98 μm diameter) and the associated steady heat inputs. Bath temperatures range from 1.7 to 2.1 K to help grasp the superfluid effects. Two pure flow regimes (laminar and turbulent) are decipherable from the heat flux dependence of the temperature gradient. Turbulent results are fitted to an empirically derived turbulent He II heat equation for large channels with an added tortuosity (extra length traveled) term that accounts for the porous media. An average tortuosity of 1.33 was obtained, which is comparable with values of 1.36-1.41 concluded from published work on classical fluid pressure drop across random packed spheres. Laminar permeability and shape factor results are compared to past studies of He II in porous media and in channel flows. The onset of turbulence is determined through a critical heat flux from which a critical Reynolds number is formulated but, does not describe He II turbulence in the normal fluid component. The addition of the laminar and turbulent heat flow equations into a unifying prediction fits the transition regime data within 25%.

  7. The Path of Carbon in Photosynthesis XX. The Steady State

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Calvin, M.; Massini, Peter

    1952-09-01

    The separation of the phenomenon of photosynthesis in green plants into a photochemical reaction and into the light-dependent reduction of carbon dioxide is discussed, The reduction of carbon dioxide and the fate of the assimilated carbon were investigated with the help of the tracer technique (exposure of the planks to the radioactive C{sup 14}O{sub 2}) and of paper chromatography. A reaction cycle is proposed in which phosphoglyceric acid is the first isolable assimilations product. Analyses of the algal extracts which had assimilated radioactive carbon dioxide in a stationary condition ('steady-state' photosynthesis) for a long time provided further information concerning the proposed cycle and permitted the approximate estimation, for a number of compounds of what fraction of each compound was taking part in the cycle. The earlier supposition that light influences the respiration cycle was confirmed. The possibility of the assistance of {alpha}-lipoic acid, or of a related substance, in this influence and in the photosynthesis cycle, is discussed.

  8. Steady-state and dynamic network modes for perceptual expectation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Uk-Su; Sung, Yul-Wan; Ogawa, Seiji

    2017-01-01

    Perceptual expectation can attenuate repetition suppression, the stimulus-induced neuronal response generated by repeated stimulation, suggesting that repetition suppression is a top-down modulatory phenomenon. However, it is still unclear which high-level brain areas are involved and how they interact with low-level brain areas. Further, the temporal range over which perceptual expectation can effectively attenuate repetition suppression effects remains unclear. To elucidate the details of this top-down modulatory process, we used two short and long inter-stimulus intervals for a perceptual expectation paradigm of paired stimulation. We found that top-down modulation enhanced the response to the unexpected stimulus when repetition suppression was weak and that the effect disappeared at 1,000 ms prior to stimulus exposure. The high-level areas involved in this process included the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG_L) and left parietal lobule (IPL_L). We also found two systems providing modulatory input to the right fusiform face area (FFA_R): one from IFG_L and the other from IPL_L. Most importantly, we identified two states of networks through which perceptual expectation modulates sensory responses: one is a dynamic state and the other is a steady state. Our results provide the first functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) evidence of temporally nested networks in brain processing. PMID:28079163

  9. Steady-state Growth of the Marine Diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Robert J.; Soohoo, Janice Beeler; Kiefer, Dale A.

    1980-01-01

    Seasonal studies of the vertical distribution of nitrate, nitrite, and phytoplankton in the oceans and studies using 15N as a tracer of nitrate metabolism indicate that the reduction of nitrate by phytoplankton is a source of nitrite in the upper waters of the ocean. To better understand this process, the relationship between nitrate uptake and nitrite production has been examined with continuous cultures of the small marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. In a turbidostat culture, the rates of nitrite production by T. pseudonana increase with light intensity. This process is only loosely coupled to rates of nitrate assimilation since the ratio of net nitrite production to total nitrate assimilation increases with increased rates of growth. In continuous cultures where steady-state concentrations of nitrate and nitrite were varied, T. pseudonana produced nitrite at rates which increased with increasing concentrations of nitrate. Again, the rates of nitrite production were uncoupled from rates of nitrate assimilation. The study was used to derive a mathematical description of nitrate and nitrite metabolism by T. pseudonana. The validity of this model was supported by the results of a study in which 15N-labeled nitrite was introduced into the continuous culture, and the model was used to examine patterns in distribution of nitrite in the Antarctic Ocean and the Sargasso Sea. PMID:16661441

  10. Gravitational Steady States of Coronal Loops as Magnetic Flux Ropes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, L.; Asgari-Targhi, M.

    2016-12-01

    Many coronal loops observed on the surface of the sun appear to bemagnetic flux ropes containing plasma, with ends tied in the photosphere. Different types of loops contribute to important solar processes, but relatively little is known about their configuration.Like all toroidal confined, curved plasmas carrying current,they are intrinsically unstable to expansion in major radius.Consistent 3D MHD steady states are derived for the coronal partof the loop, including non-negligible effects due to the plasma pressure and solar gravity. Most loops have relativelyslender inverse aspect ratios ɛ =a/R≤ 1.For predominantly simple, non-helical loops, three gravitationally stabilized asymptotic solutions can be foundthat can be related to toroidal magnetically confined plasams.Comparison to observations shows thattwo solutions bracket the observed heights R<108m of the common thin coronal loops (ɛ ˜ 0.02) in solar active regions.The third solution better describes the fatter loops (ɛ ˜ 0.1)that sometimes appear along the magnetic neutral line in an active regionand grow to produce solar flares or coronal mass ejections.Since radial expansion is higher order than the basic flux ropeconfinement, the states also approximately describe radially unstable loops over similar heights.The solutions can also be generalized to other stabilizing mechanismsand may provide a useful basis for studies of loop dynamics.

  11. Classical quasi-steady state reduction-A mathematical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goeke, Alexandra; Walcher, Sebastian; Zerz, Eva

    2017-04-01

    We discuss parameter dependent polynomial ordinary differential equations that model chemical reaction networks. By classical quasi-steady state (QSS) reduction we understand the following familiar (heuristically motivated) mathematical procedure: Set the rate of change for certain (a priori chosen) variables equal to zero and use the resulting algebraic equations to obtain a system of smaller dimension for the remaining variables. This procedure will generally be valid only for certain parameter ranges. We start by showing that the reduction is accurate if and only if the corresponding parameter is what we call a QSS parameter value, and that the reduction is approximately accurate if and only if the corresponding parameter is close to a QSS parameter value. The QSS parameter values can be characterized by polynomial equations and inequations, hence parameter ranges for which QSS reduction is valid are accessible in an algorithmic manner. A defining characteristic of a QSS parameter value is that the algebraic variety defined by the QSS relations is invariant for the differential equation. A closer investigation of the associated systems shows the existence of further invariant sets; here singular perturbations enter the picture in a natural manner. We compare QSS reduction and singular perturbation reduction, and show that, while they do not agree in general, they do, up to lowest order in a small parameter, for a quite large and relevant class of examples. This observation, in turn, allows the computation of QSS reductions even in cases where an explicit resolution of the polynomial equations is not possible.

  12. Maximally reliable spatial filtering of steady state visual evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Dmochowski, Jacek P; Greaves, Alex S; Norcia, Anthony M

    2015-04-01

    Due to their high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and robustness to artifacts, steady state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) are a popular technique for studying neural processing in the human visual system. SSVEPs are conventionally analyzed at individual electrodes or linear combinations of electrodes which maximize some variant of the SNR. Here we exploit the fundamental assumption of evoked responses--reproducibility across trials--to develop a technique that extracts a small number of high SNR, maximally reliable SSVEP components. This novel spatial filtering method operates on an array of Fourier coefficients and projects the data into a low-dimensional space in which the trial-to-trial spectral covariance is maximized. When applied to two sample data sets, the resulting technique recovers physiologically plausible components (i.e., the recovered topographies match the lead fields of the underlying sources) while drastically reducing the dimensionality of the data (i.e., more than 90% of the trial-to-trial reliability is captured in the first four components). Moreover, the proposed technique achieves a higher SNR than that of the single-best electrode or the Principal Components. We provide a freely-available MATLAB implementation of the proposed technique, herein termed "Reliable Components Analysis".

  13. Nonequilibrium steady states of ideal bosonic and fermionic quantum gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorberg, Daniel; Wustmann, Waltraut; Schomerus, Henning; Ketzmerick, Roland; Eckardt, André

    2015-12-01

    We investigate nonequilibrium steady states of driven-dissipative ideal quantum gases of both bosons and fermions. We focus on systems of sharp particle number that are driven out of equilibrium either by the coupling to several heat baths of different temperature or by time-periodic driving in combination with the coupling to a heat bath. Within the framework of (Floquet-)Born-Markov theory, several analytical and numerical methods are described in detail. This includes a mean-field theory in terms of occupation numbers, an augmented mean-field theory taking into account also nontrivial two-particle correlations, and quantum-jump-type Monte Carlo simulations. For the case of the ideal Fermi gas, these methods are applied to simple lattice models and the possibility of achieving exotic states via bath engineering is pointed out. The largest part of this work is devoted to bosonic quantum gases and the phenomenon of Bose selection, a nonequilibrium generalization of Bose condensation, where multiple single-particle states are selected to acquire a large occupation [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240405 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.240405]. In this context, among others, we provide a theory for transitions where the set of selected states changes, describe an efficient algorithm for finding the set of selected states, investigate beyond-mean-field effects, and identify the dominant mechanisms for heat transport in the Bose-selected state.

  14. Regulation of steady-state neutrophil homeostasis by macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Gordy, Claire; Pua, Heather; Sempowski, Gregory D.

    2011-01-01

    The timely clearance of apoptotic neutrophils from inflammation sites is an important function of macrophages; however, the role of macrophages in maintaining neutrophil homeostasis under steady-state conditions is less well understood. By conditionally deleting the antiapoptotic gene cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (C-FLIP) in myeloid cells, we have generated a novel mouse model deficient in marginal zone and bone marrow stromal macrophages. These mice develop severe neutrophilia, splenomegaly, extramedullary hematopoiesis, decreased body weight, and increased production of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and IL-1β, but not IL-17. c-FLIPf/f LysM-Cre mice exhibit delayed clearance of circulating neutrophils, suggesting that failure of macrophages to efficiently clear apoptotic neutrophils causes production of cytokines that drive excess granulopoiesis. Further, blocking G-CSF but not IL-1R signaling in vivo rescues this neutrophilia, suggesting that a G-CSF–dependent, IL-1β–independent pathway plays a role in promoting neutrophil production in mice with defective clearance of apoptotic cells. PMID:20980680

  15. On replacement strategies in steady state evolutionary algorithms.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jim

    2007-01-01

    Steady State models of Evolutionary Algorithms are widely used, yet surprisingly little attention has been paid to the effects arising from different replacement strategies. This paper explores the use of mathematical models to characterise the selection pressures arising in a selection-only environment. The first part brings together models for the behaviour of seven different replacement mechanisms and provides expressions for various proposed indicators of Evolutionary Algorithm behaviour. Some of these have been derived elsewhere, and are included for completeness, but the majority are new to this paper. These theoretical indicators are used to compare the behaviour of the different strategies. The second part of this paper examines the practical relevance of these indicators as predictors for algorithms' relative performance in terms of optimisation time and reliability. It is not the intention of this paper to come up with a "one size fits all" recommendation for choice of replacement strategy. Although some strategies may have little to recommend them, the relative ranking of others is shown to depend on the intended use of the algorithm to be implemented, as reflected in the choice of performance metrics.

  16. Grand canonical steady-state simulation of nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsch, Martin; Vrabec, Jadran

    2009-11-01

    Grand canonical molecular dynamics (GCMD) is applied to the nucleation process in a metastable phase near the spinodal, where nucleation occurs almost instantaneously and is limited to a very short time interval. With a variant of Maxwell's demon, proposed by McDonald [Am. J. Phys. 31, 31 (1963)], all nuclei exceeding a specified size are removed. In such a steady-state simulation, the nucleation process is sampled over an arbitrary time span and all properties of the metastable state, including the nucleation rate, can be obtained with an increased precision. As an example, a series of GCMD simulations with McDonald's demon is carried out for homogeneous vapor to liquid nucleation of the truncated-shifted Lennard-Jones (tsLJ) fluid, covering the entire relevant temperature range. The results are in agreement with direct nonequilibrium MD simulation in the canonical ensemble. It is confirmed for supersaturated vapors of the tsLJ fluid that the classical nucleation theory underpredicts the nucleation rate by two orders of magnitude.

  17. Steady State Turbulent Transport in Magnetic Fusion Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W. W.; Ethier, S.; Kolesnikov, R.; Wang, W. X.; Tang, W. M.

    2007-12-20

    For more than a decade, the study of microturbulence, driven by ion temperature gradient (ITG) drift instabilities in tokamak devices, has been an active area of research in magnetic fusion science for both experimentalists and theorists alike. One of the important impetus for this avenue of research was the discovery of the radial streamers associated the ITG modes in the early nineties using a Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code. Since then, ITG simulations based on the codes with increasing realism have become possible with the dramatic increase in computing power. The notable examples were the demonstration of the importance of nonlinearly generated zonal flows in regulating ion thermal transport and the transition from Bohm to GyroBoham scaling with increased device size. In this paper, we will describe another interesting nonlinear physical process associated with the parallel acceleration of the ions, that is found to play an important role for the steady state turbulent transport. Its discovery is again through the use of the modern massively parallel supercomputers.

  18. Magnetocentrifugal Winds in 3D: Nonaxisymmetric Steady State

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Jeffrey M.; Li, Zhi-Yun; Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Blandford, Roger D.; /SLAC

    2006-11-28

    Outflows can be loaded and accelerated to high speeds along rapidly rotating, open magnetic field lines by centrifugal forces. Whether such magnetocentrifugally driven winds are stable is a longstanding theoretical problem. As a step towards addressing this problem, we perform the first large-scale 3D MHD simulations that extend to a distance {approx} 10{sup 2} times beyond the launching region, starting from steady 2D (axisymmetric) solutions. In an attempt to drive the wind unstable, we increase the mass loading on one half of the launching surface by a factor of {radical}10, and reduce it by the same factor on the other half. The evolution of the perturbed wind is followed numerically. We find no evidence for any rapidly growing instability that could disrupt the wind during the launching and initial phase of propagation, even when the magnetic field of the magnetocentrifugal wind is toroidally dominated all the way to the launching surface. The strongly perturbed wind settles into a new steady state, with a highly asymmetric mass distribution. The distribution of magnetic field strength is, in contrast, much more symmetric. We discuss possible reasons for the apparent stability, including stabilization by an axial poloidal magnetic field, which is required to bend field lines away from the vertical direction and produce a magnetocentrifugal wind in the first place.

  19. Dynamic steady state of periodically driven quantum systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yudin, V. I.; Taichenachev, A. V.; Basalaev, M. Yu.

    2016-01-01

    Using the density matrix formalism, we prove the existence of the periodic steady state for an arbitrary periodically driven system described by linear dynamic equations. This state has the same period as the modulated external influence, and it is realized as an asymptotic solution (t →+∞ ) due to relaxation processes. The presented derivation simultaneously contains a simple and effective computational algorithm (without using either the Floquet or Fourier formalisms), which automatically guarantees a full account of all frequency components. As a particular example, for three-level Λ system we calculate the line shape and field-induced shift of the dark resonance formed by the field with a periodically modulated phase. Also we have analytically solved a basic theoretical problem of the direct frequency comb spectroscopy, when the two-level system is driven by the periodic sequence of rectangular pulses. In this case, the radical dependence of the spectroscopy line shape on pulse area is found. Moreover, the existence of quasiforbidden spectroscopic zones, in which the Ramsey fringes are significantly reduced, is predicted. Our results have a wide area of applications in laser physics, spectroscopy, atomic clocks, and magnetometry. Also they can be useful for any area of quantum physics where periodically driven systems are considered.

  20. Diagnostics and steady-state high power operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laviron, Clément

    2003-03-01

    TORE SUPRA has now been upgraded to handle high power plasmas for very long duration. It came back into operation in 2001, and the goals are to extend the performances, in power and in duration, to be expressed in terms of energy. The design is such that a plasma discharge of 25 MW during 1000 s could be sustained, with actively cooled components in a steady-state condition. This corresponds to 25 GJ, orders of magnitude above other existing tokamaks and relevant to ITER conditions. The importance of diagnostics for missions other than physics understanding increases, such as machine operation or safety control. All TORE SUPRA diagnostics have been revisited to take into account these new constraints. Only a few of them did not need to be modified, most had to be adapted, upgraded, or even completely rebuilt. The main constraint deals with the thermal load on diagnostic components, the need to optimize the geometry and develop specific protections often with active cooling. The specific developments now implemented and operational on TORE SUPRA will be presented. Another requirement concerns the need for more control loops in order to maintain optimized modes of plasma operation for very long periods. Diagnostics are operated in real time, with the ability to transmit any kind of pertinent information on a fast time scale. This requires strict procedures, higher reliability, and stability of calibration of the relevant diagnostics. In addition, data can be accessed in real time, without waiting for the end of the pulse.

  1. Mimicking Nonequilibrium Steady States with Time-Periodic Driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raz, Oren; Subasi, Yigit; Jarzynski, Christopher

    Under static conditions, a system satisfying detailed balance generically relaxes to an equilibrium state in which there are no currents: to generate persistent currents, either detailed balance must be broken or the system must be driven in a time-dependent manner. A stationary system that violates detailed balance evolves to a nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) characterized by fixed currents. Conversely, a system that satisfies instantaneous detailed balance but is driven by the time-periodic variation of external parameters - also known as a stochastic pump (SP) - reaches a periodic state with non-vanishing currents. In both cases, these currents are maintained at the cost of entropy production. Are these two paradigmatic scenarios effectively equivalent? For discrete-state systems we establish a mapping between NESS and SP. Given a NESS characterized by a particular set of stationary probabilities, currents and entropy production rates, we show how to construct a SP with exactly the same (time-averaged) values. The mapping works in the opposite direction as well. These results establish a proof of principle: they show that SP are able to mimic the behavior of NESS, and vice-versa, within the theoretical framework of discrete-state stochastic thermodynamics.

  2. Visual steady state in relation to age and cognitive function

    PubMed Central

    Dyhr Thomsen, Mia; Wiegand, Iris; Horwitz, Henrik; Klemp, Marc; Nikolic, Miki; Rask, Lene; Lauritzen, Martin; Benedek, Krisztina

    2017-01-01

    Neocortical gamma activity is crucial for sensory perception and cognition. This study examines the value of using non-task stimulation-induced EEG oscillations to predict cognitive status in a birth cohort of healthy Danish males (Metropolit) with varying cognitive ability. In particular, we examine the steady-state VEP power response (SSVEP-PR) in the alpha (8Hz) and gamma (36Hz) bands in 54 males (avg. age: 62.0 years) and compare these with 10 young healthy participants (avg. age 27.6 years). Furthermore, we correlate the individual alpha-to-gamma difference in relative visual-area power (ΔRV) with cognitive scores for the older adults. We find that ΔRV decrease with age by just over one standard deviation when comparing young with old participants (p<0.01). Furthermore, intelligence is significantly negatively correlated with ΔRV in the older adult cohort, even when processing speed, global cognition, executive function, memory, and education (p<0.05). In our preferred specification, an increase in ΔRV of one standard deviation is associated with a reduction in intelligence of 48% of a standard deviation (p<0.01). Finally, we conclude that the difference in cerebral rhythmic activity between the alpha and gamma bands is associated with age and cognitive status, and that ΔRV therefore provide a non-subjective clinical tool with which to examine cognitive status in old age. PMID:28245274

  3. Steady-state compartmentalization of lipid membranes by active proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Sabra, M C; Mouritsen, O G

    1998-01-01

    Using a simple microscopic model of lipid-protein interactions, based on the hydrophobic matching principle, we study some generic aspects of lipid-membrane compartmentalization controlled by a dispersion of active integral membrane proteins. The activity of the proteins is simulated by conformational excitations governed by an external drive, and the deexcitation is controlled by interaction of the protein with its lipid surroundings. In response to the flux of energy into the proteins from the environment and the subsequent dissipation of energy into the lipid bilayer, the lipid-protein assembly reorganizes into a steady-state structure with a typical length scale determined by the strength of the external drive. In the specific case of a mixed dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine-distearoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer in the gel-fluid coexistence region, it is shown explicitly by computer simulation that the activity of an integral membrane protein can lead to a compartmentalization of the lipid-bilayer membrane. The compartmentalization is related to the dynamical process of phase separation and lipid domain formation. PMID:9533687

  4. Steady state quantum discord for circularly accelerated atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jiawei; Yu, Hongwei

    2015-12-15

    We study, in the framework of open quantum systems, the dynamics of quantum entanglement and quantum discord of two mutually independent circularly accelerated two-level atoms in interaction with a bath of fluctuating massless scalar fields in the Minkowski vacuum. We assume that the two atoms rotate synchronically with their separation perpendicular to the rotating plane. The time evolution of the quantum entanglement and quantum discord of the two-atom system is investigated. For a maximally entangled initial state, the entanglement measured by concurrence diminishes to zero within a finite time, while the quantum discord can either decrease monotonically to an asymptotic value or diminish to zero at first and then followed by a revival depending on whether the initial state is antisymmetric or symmetric. When both of the two atoms are initially excited, the generation of quantum entanglement shows a delayed feature, while quantum discord is created immediately. Remarkably, the quantum discord for such a circularly accelerated two-atom system takes a nonvanishing value in the steady state, and this is distinct from what happens in both the linear acceleration case and the case of static atoms immersed in a thermal bath.

  5. Modeling on the Steady State of Thwaites Glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, H.; Rignot, E. J.; Morlighem, M.; Seroussi, H.

    2013-12-01

    Thwaites Glacier (TWG) is the second largest ice stream in West Antarctica in terms of ice discharge, and the broadest ice stream in Antarctica (120 km wide). Observations and theory suggest that its configuration is inherently unstable in a warming climate. Satellite observations have revealed grounding line retreat, ice thinning, ice stream broadening and in more recent years ice flow acceleration. The most important part of the glacier evolution involves its grounding line dynamics and the impact of ice-ocean interactions. In a region between the grounding line and the limit of the flexure zone, some 10 km downstream, however, the glacier is not in hydrostatic equilibrium. Proper treatment of the grounding line dynamics requires full Stokes solution. Here, we model the grounding line of TWG in 2D, full Stokes, with the goal to examine whether the glacier is in a steady state configuration or not. The model treats ice sheet and ice shelf as two fluids coupled through the ice mass flux (Nowicki, 2008). Water stress is used as a constraint on the ice shelf instead of hydrostatic equilibrium. We use radar interferometry (InSAR) measurements of ice velocity and grounding line position through time, Bedmap2 and IceBridge thickness, and surface mass balance from RACMO to constrain the model. The results are used to conclude on the state of dynamic balance of the glacier. This work is funded by NASA Cryospheric Science Program.

  6. Comparative pharmacodynamic effects of two clopidogrel formulations under steady-state conditions in healthy Thai volunteers
.

    PubMed

    Nakkam, Nontaya; Tiamkao, Somsak; Kanjanawart, Sirimas; Phunikhom, Kutcharin; Tiamkao, Siriporn; Vannaprasaht, Suda; Tassaneeyakul, Wongwiwat; Tassaneeyakul, Wichittra

    2017-02-01

    Clopidogrel is a commonly used antiplatelet aggregation agent. Compared with the reference clopidogrel product, most commercially available generic clopidogrel products contain different crystalline forms of clopidogrel. This study was aimed to compare the pharmacodynamics of a commonly used generic clopidogrel product in Thailand with the reference clopidogrel product under steady state conditions. A multiple-dose, randomized 2-way crossover study was conducted in 32 healthy male Thai volunteers. The subjects were assigned to receive 75 mg once daily of the test or the reference product for 7 days with a 2-week wash out period. Blood samples were collected on days 1, 5, 6, and 7 prior to drug administration and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after the last dose administered. The antiplatelet aggregation effects of clopidogrel were determined by using two different ex-vivo platelet aggregation tests including the whole blood impedance assay (WBA) and the VerifyNow® P2Y12 assay. Both pharmacodynamic parameters, the maximal antiplatelet effect (Emax) and the areas under the antiplatelet effect-time curve (AUEC0-24h), were calculated. Neither the mean values of Emax (90.70 ± 15.15 vs. 89.50 ± 10.71% inhibition) nor of AUEC0-24h (1,892.84 ± 657.22 vs. 1,853.58 ± 673.95% inhibition × h) under steady-state conditions obtained using the WBA method of these two clopidogrel products were significantly different. The results obtained using the VerifyNow® P2Y12 assay were consistent with those of the WBA assay. This study clearly demonstrated that ex-vivo antiplatelet aggregation effect under steady-state conditions of the test product was not significantly different from the reference product.
.

  7. A homotopy method based on WENO schemes for solving steady state problems of hyperbolic conservation laws

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-03

    use of so-called probability-one methods [22]. The significant advantage of homotopy method to compute steady state solutions is free of Courant ...A homotopy method based on WENO schemes for solving steady state problems of hyperbolic conservation laws Wenrui Hao∗ Jonathan D. Hauenstein† Chi...robustness of the new method . Keywords homotopy continuation, hyperbolic conservation laws, WENO scheme, steady state problems. ∗Department of Applied and

  8. There are no steady state processes in compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dysthe, D. K.

    2003-04-01

    Compaction of sediments is normally thought to start with grain sliding and cataclastic grain crushing. Then the ductile dissolution-precipitation creep processes take over. Modeling of this process normally neglects all collective rearrangement processes and regard simple packings of grains that slowly deform by steady state pressure solution creep. From simple geometrical reasoning we know, however that imperfect packings of plastic grains must undergo rearrangement during compaction. Such rearrangement will drastically alter the microscopic, or "primitive processes" of compaction. Recent research has questioned the fundamental mechanisms ("primitive processes") of dissolution-precipitation creep. Do grain contacts heal or dissolve? Why is there asymmetric dissolution? Does pressure solution creep in single contacts ever reach steady state? Can transient free face dissolution feed back on pressure solution creep in the contacts? The emerging radical change in our understanding of dissolution-precipitation creep as a dynamic, transient process is driven by new experiments and reevaluation of the fundamental theory. The same change in viewpoint is necessary on all time and length scales. I will present experiments [1-8] and simulations [9-11] of complex compaction behaviour [1], transient primitive processes of pressure solution creep in the contacts [2-4], free face dissolution [5] and crack healing [6]. I will also show that macroscopic observation of compaction shows smooth, universal behaviour [7]. Microscopic observation of compaction shows transient collective behaviour at all scales. Evidence points in the direction that compaction is dominated by transient processes with interacting instabilities. The interaction causes intermittency or switching between processes. A new, more complex theory of compaction is necessary to explain how the cooperative microscopic phenomena contribute to the simple, universal, macroscopic behaviour. 1. Uri, L., et. al., in

  9. Hopf and steady state bifurcation analysis in a ratio-dependent predator-prey model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lai; Liu, Jia; Banerjee, Malay

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we perform spatiotemporal bifurcation analysis in a ratio-dependent predator-prey model and derive explicit conditions for the existence of non-constant steady states that emerge through steady state bifurcation from related constant steady states. These explicit conditions are numerically verified in details and further compared to those conditions ensuring Turing instability. We find that (1) Turing domain is identical to the parametric domain where there exists only steady state bifurcation, which implies that Turing patterns are stable non-constant steady states, but the opposite is not necessarily true; (2) In non-Turing domain, steady state bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation act in concert to determine the emergent spatial patterns, that is, non-constant steady state emerges through steady state bifurcation but it may be unstable if the destabilising effect of Hopf bifurcation counteracts the stabilising effect of diffusion, leading to non-stationary spatial patterns; (3) Coupling diffusion into an ODE model can significantly enrich population dynamics by inducing alternative non-constant steady states (four different states are observed, two stable and two unstable), in particular when diffusion interacts with different types of bifurcation; (4) Diffusion can promote species coexistence by saving species which otherwise goes to extinction in the absence of diffusion.

  10. Computational multiple steady states for enzymatic esterification of ethanol and oleic acid in an isothermal CSTR.

    PubMed

    Ho, Pang-Yen; Chuang, Guo-Syong; Chao, An-Chong; Li, Hsing-Ya

    2005-05-01

    The capacity of complex biochemical reaction networks (consisting of 11 coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations) to show multiple steady states, was investigated. The system involved esterification of ethanol and oleic acid by lipase in an isothermal continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). The Deficiency One Algorithm and the Subnetwork Analysis were applied to determine the steady state multiplicity. A set of rate constants and two corresponding steady states are computed. The phenomena of bistability, hysteresis and bifurcation are discussed. Moreover, the capacity of steady state multiplicity is extended to the family of the studied reaction networks.

  11. An analytical description of balanced steady-state free precession with finite radio-frequency excitation.

    PubMed

    Bieri, Oliver

    2011-02-01

    Conceptually, the only flaw in the standard steady-state free precession theory is the assumption of quasi-instantaneous radio-frequency pulses, and 10-20% signal deviations from theory are observed for common balanced steady-state free precession protocols. This discrepancy in the steady-state signal can be resolved by a simple T(2) substitution taking into account reduced transverse relaxation effects during finite radio-frequency excitation. However, finite radio-frequency effects may also affect the transient phase of balanced steady-state free precession, its contrast or its spin-echo nature and thereby have an adverse effect on common steady-state free precession magnetization preparation methods. As a result, an in-depth understanding of finite radio-frequency effects is not only of fundamental theoretical interest but also has direct practical implications. In this article, an analytical solution for balanced steady-state free precession with finite radio-frequency pulses is derived for the transient phase (under ideal conditions) and in the steady state demonstrating that balanced steady-state free precession key features are preserved but revealing an unexpected dependency of finite radio-frequency effects on relaxation times for the transient decay. Finally, the mathematical framework reveals that finite radio-frequency theory can be understood as a generalization of alternating repetition time and fluctuating equilibrium steady-state free precession sequence schemes. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Nonequilibrium steady states in a model for prebiotic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynveen, A.; Fedorov, I.; Halley, J. W.

    2014-02-01

    Some statistical features of steady states of a Kauffman-like model for prebiotic evolution are reported from computational studies. We postulate that the interesting "lifelike" states will be characterized by a nonequilibrium distribution of species and a time variable species self-correlation function. Selecting only such states from the population of final states produced by the model yields the probability of the appearance of such states as a function of a parameter p of the model. p is defined as the probability that a possible reaction in the the artificial chemistry actually appears in the network of chemical reactions. Small p corresponds to sparse networks utilizing a small fraction of the available reactions. We find that the probability of the appearance of such lifelike states exhibits a maximum as a function of p: at large p, most final states are in chemical equilibrium and hence are excluded by our criterion. At very small p, the sparseness of the network makes the probability of formation of any nontrivial dynamic final state low, yielding a low probability of production of lifelike states in this limit as well. We also report results on the diversity of the lifelike states (as defined here) that are produced. Repeated starts of the model evolution with different random number seeds in a given reaction network lead to final lifelike states which have a greater than random likelihood of resembling one another. Thus a form of "convergence" is observed. On the other hand, in different reaction networks with the same p, lifelike final states are statistically uncorrelated. In summary, the main results are (1) there is an optimal p or "sparseness" for production of lifelike states in our model—neither very dense nor very sparse networks are optimal—and (2) for a given p or sparseness, the resulting lifelike states can be extremely different. We discuss some possible implications for studies of the origin of life.

  13. The stability of steady state accommodation in human infants

    PubMed Central

    Candy, T. Rowan; Bharadwaj, Shrikant R.

    2009-01-01

    Retinal image quality in infants is largely determined by the accuracy and the stability of their accommodative responses. Although the accuracy of infants’ accommodation has been investigated previously, little is known about the stability of their responses. We performed two experiments that characterized the stability of infants’ steady state accommodation. Analyses were performed in the time domain (root mean square [RMS] deviation) and in the frequency domain (spectral analysis). In Experiment 1, accommodation responses were recorded for a period of 3 s from the left eye of four groups of infants (8–10, 11–13, 14–19, and 20–30 weeks of age) and eight prepresbyopic adults while they focused on a small toy placed at a dioptric viewing distance of 1.0 D (at 1 m). In Experiment 2, accommodation responses were recorded for a period of 14 s from the left eye of a group of 8- to 12-week-old infants and six prepresbyopic adults while they focused on a cartoon image placed at three different dioptric viewing distances (1.25, 2.0, and 3.0 D). The data, collected using a photorefractor sampling at 25 Hz, showed two important characteristics. First, the RMS deviations and the power were quantitatively similar across different infant age groups, and they were significantly larger in infants than in adults. Second, the overall and relative power also increased with the dioptric viewing distance both in infants and adults. At all three dioptric viewing distances, the measures of power were larger in infants than in adults. These data demonstrate that infants’ accommodative responses contain instabilities that are qualitatively very similar to those observed in adults. However, the larger RMS deviations suggest that infants are likely to experience larger fluctuations in retinal image quality than adults. PMID:17997659

  14. Experimental Realization of Nearly Steady-State Toroidal Electron Plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoneking, M. R.

    2008-11-01

    Non-neutral plasmas are routinely confined in the uniform magnetic field of a Penning-Malmberg trap for arbitrarily long times and approach thermal equilibrium. Theory predicts that dynamically stable and therefore long-lived equilibria exist for non-neutral plasmas confined in the curved, non-uniform field of a toroidal trap, but that ultimately thermal equilibrium states do not exist. On long timescales, the poloidal ExB rotation through the non-uniform toroidal magnetic field leads to magnetic pumping transport. A new experiment has, for the first time, demonstrated the existence of a stable, long-lived (i.e. nearly steady-state) toroidal equilibrium for pure electron plasmas and is poised to observe the magnetic pumping transport mechanism. Electron plasmas with densities of order 10^6 cm-3 are trapped in the Lawrence Non-neutral Torus II for several seconds. LNT II is a high aspect ratio (Ro/a 10), partially toroidal trap (a 270^o arc with Bo=670 G). The m=1 diocotron mode is launched and detected using isolated segments of a fully-sectored conducting boundary and its frequency is used to determine the total trapped charge as a function of time. The observed confinement time ( 3 s) approaches the theoretical limit ( 6 s) set by the magnetic pumping transport mechanism of Crooks and O'Neil. We also present equilibrium modeling and numerical simulation of the toroidal m=1 mode constrained by experimental data. Future work includes the identification of the dominant transport mechanisms via confinement scaling experiments and measurement of the m=2 mode frequency, and development of a strategy for making a transition to fully toroidal confinement. J.P. Marler and M.R. Stoneking, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 155001 (2008). S.M. Crooks and T.M. O'Neil, Phys Plamas 3, 2533 (1996).

  15. Human auditory steady state responses to binaural and monaural beats.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, D W F; Taylor, P

    2005-03-01

    Binaural beat sensations depend upon a central combination of two different temporally encoded tones, separately presented to the two ears. We tested the feasibility to record an auditory steady state evoked response (ASSR) at the binaural beat frequency in order to find a measure for temporal coding of sound in the human EEG. We stimulated each ear with a distinct tone, both differing in frequency by 40Hz, to record a binaural beat ASSR. As control, we evoked a beat ASSR in response to both tones in the same ear. We band-pass filtered the EEG at 40Hz, averaged with respect to stimulus onset and compared ASSR amplitudes and phases, extracted from a sinusoidal non-linear regression fit to a 40Hz period average. A 40Hz binaural beat ASSR was evoked at a low mean stimulus frequency (400Hz) but became undetectable beyond 3kHz. Its amplitude was smaller than that of the acoustic beat ASSR, which was evoked at low and high frequencies. Both ASSR types had maxima at fronto-central leads and displayed a fronto-occipital phase delay of several ms. The dependence of the 40Hz binaural beat ASSR on stimuli at low, temporally coded tone frequencies suggests that it may objectively assess temporal sound coding ability. The phase shift across the electrode array is evidence for more than one origin of the 40Hz oscillations. The binaural beat ASSR is an evoked response, with novel diagnostic potential, to a signal that is not present in the stimulus, but generated within the brain.

  16. Steady-state Burgers turbulence with large-scale forcing

    SciTech Connect

    Gotoh, T.; Kraichnan, R.H.

    1998-11-01

    Steady-state Burgers turbulence supported by white-in-time random forcing at low wave numbers is studied analytically and by computer simulation. The peak of the probability distribution function (pdf) Q({xi}) of velocity gradient {xi} is at {xi}=O({xi}{sub f}), where {xi}{sub f} is a forcing parameter. It is concluded that Q({xi}) displays four asymptotic regimes at Reynolds number R{gt}1: (A) Q({xi}){approximately}{xi}{sub f}{sup {minus}2}{xi}exp({minus}{xi}{sup 3}/3{xi}{sub f}{sup 3}) for {xi}{gt}{xi}{sub f} (reduction of large positive {xi} by stretching); (B) Q({xi}){approximately}{xi}{sub f}{sup 2}{vert_bar}{xi}{vert_bar}{sup {minus}3} for {xi}{sub f}{lt}{minus}{xi}{lt}R{sup 1/2}{xi}{sub f} (transient inviscid steepening of negative {xi}); (C) Q({xi}){approximately}{vert_bar}R{xi}{vert_bar}{sup {minus}1} for R{sup 1/2}{xi}{sub f}{lt}{minus}{xi}{lt}R{xi}{sub f} (shoulders of mature shocks); (D) very rapid decay of Q for {minus}{xi}{ge}O(R{xi}{sub f}) (interior of mature shocks). The typical shock width is O(1/Rk{sub f}). If R{sup {minus}1/2}{gt}rk{sub f}{gt}R{sup {minus}1}, the pdf of velocity difference across an interval r is found to be P({Delta}u,r){proportional_to}r{sup {minus}1}Q({Delta}u/r) throughout regimes A and B and into the middle of C. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Steady-state and transient electronic dynamics in granular metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei

    In this thesis two very different approaches, steady state and transient, are taken to help understand the electronic dynamics in the nanogranular Cux(SiO2)1-x composite thin films. The electrical conductivity and thermopower are measured from 2 K to room temperature with the Cu volume fraction x varying from 1 down to 0.43. At low temperatures, a T dependence of the electrical conductivity is observed well above the percolation threshold due to the disorder-enhanced electron-electron interaction and as the metal-insulator transition is approached, the electrical conductivity assumes a T1/3 dependence. The thermopower is found to be small and rather insensitive to the degree of disorder in the system. It varies linearly with temperatures at both low and high temperatures. Annealing has considerable influence to the behavior of the electrical conductivity while introducing little changes to the thermopower. Femtosecond pump-probe experiments were performed on a series of Cu x(SiO2)1-x composite films with volume fraction x varying from 0.7 to 1.0 to study the reflectivity change DeltaR/R as a function of composition and temperature. It is discovered that DeltaR/R undergoes drastic changes as the metal content is lowered. Very small amount of SiO 2 inclusions can start to result in qualitatively different Delta R/R behavior from pure Cu. Changes in the dielectric constant of Cu are investigated and possible explanations for the DeltaR/R behaviors in the composite films are discussed.

  18. Kinematical Analysis along Maximal Lactate Steady State Swimming Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Figueiredo, Pedro; Nazario, Rafael; Sousa, Marisa; Pelarigo, Jailton Gregório; Vilas-Boas, João Paulo; Fernandes, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a kinematical analysis during swimming at the intensity corresponding to maximal lactate steady state (MLSS). Thirteen long distance swimmers performed, in different days, an intermittent incremental protocol of n x 200 m until exhaustion and two to four 30-min submaximal constant speed bouts to determine the MLSS. The video analysis, using APAS System (Ariel Dynamics Inc., USA), allowed determining the following relevant swimming determinants (in five moments of the 30-min test: 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100%): stroke rate, stroke length, trunk incline, intracyclic velocity variation, propelling efficiency, index of coordination and the time allotted to propulsion per distance unit. An ANOVA for repeated measures was used to compare the parameters mean values along each moment of analysis. Stoke rate tended to increase and stroke length to decrease along the test; a tendency to decrease was also found for intracyclic velocity variation and propelling efficiency whereas the index of coordination and the propulsive impulse remained stable during the MLSS test. It can be concluded that the MLSS is not only an intensity to maintain without a significant increase of blood lactate concentration, but a concomitant stability for some biomechanical parameters exists (after an initial adaptation). However, efficiency indicators seem to be more sensitive to changes occurring during swimming at this threshold intensity. Key Points In MLSS swimming intensity, stability of the stroke length and stroke frequency occurs after an initial adaptation. Efficiency indicators seem to be more sensitive to possible changes occurring through time at MLSS intensity. MLSS is a useful and practical swimming intensity to be maintained for a long period of time, but some constraints in technique can occur. PMID:25177189

  19. A steady-state model of the lunar ejecta cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christou, Apostolos

    2014-05-01

    Every airless body in the solar system is surrounded by a cloud of ejecta produced by the impact of interplanetary meteoroids on its surface [1]. Such ``dust exospheres'' have been observed around the Galilean satellites of Jupiter [2,3]. The prospect of long-term robotic and human operations on the Moon by the US and other countries has rekindled interest on the subject [4]. This interest has culminated with the - currently ongoing - investigation of the Moon's dust exosphere by the LADEE spacecraft [5]. Here a model is presented of a ballistic, collisionless, steady state population of ejecta launched vertically at randomly distributed times and velocities and moving under constant gravity. Assuming a uniform distribution of launch times I derive closed form solutions for the probability density functions (pdfs) of the height distribution of particles and the distribution of their speeds in a rest frame both at the surface and at altitude. The treatment is then extended to particle motion with respect to a moving platform such as an orbiting spacecraft. These expressions are compared with numerical simulations under lunar surface gravity where the underlying ejection speed distribution is (a) uniform (b) a power law. I discuss the predictions of the model, its limitations, and how it can be validated against near-surface and orbital measurements.[1] Gault, D. Shoemaker, E.M., Moore, H.J., 1963, NASA TN-D 1767. [2] Kruger, H., Krivov, A.V., Hamilton, D. P., Grun, E., 1999, Nature, 399, 558. [3] Kruger, H., Krivov, A.V., Sremcevic, M., Grun, E., 2003, Icarus, 164, 170. [4] Grun, E., Horanyi, M., Sternovsky, Z., 2011, Planetary and Space Science, 59, 1672. [5] Elphic, R.C., Hine, B., Delory, G.T., Salute, J.S., Noble, S., Colaprete, A., Horanyi, M., Mahaffy, P., and the LADEE Science Team, 2014, LPSC XLV, LPI Contr. 1777, 2677.

  20. A theory of nonequilibrium steady states in quantum chaotic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pei

    2017-09-01

    Nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) is a quasistationary state, in which exist currents that continuously produce entropy, but the local observables are stationary everywhere. We propose a theory of NESS under the framework of quantum chaos. In an isolated quantum system whose density matrix follows a unitary evolution, there exist initial states for which the thermodynamic limit and the long-time limit are noncommutative. The density matrix \\hat ρ of these states displays a universal structure. Suppose that \\renewcommand{\\ket}[1]{{\\vert #1 >}} \\ketα and \\renewcommand{\\ket}[1]{{\\vert #1 >}} \\ketβ are different eigenstates of the Hamiltonian with energies E_α and E_β , respectively. \\renewcommand{\\bra}[1]{< #1 \\vert}} \\renewcommand{\\ket}[1]{{\\vert #1 >} \\braα\\hat ρ \\ketβ behaves as a random number which has zero mean. In thermodynamic limit, the variance of \\renewcommand{\\bra}[1]{< #1 \\vert}} \\renewcommand{\\ket}[1]{{\\vert #1 >} \\braα\\hat ρ \\ketβ is a smooth function of ≤ft\\vert E_α-E_β\\right\\vert , scaling as 1/≤ft\\vert E_α-E_β\\right\\vert 2 in the limit ≤ft\\vert E_α-E_β\\right\\vert \\to 0 . If and only if this scaling law is obeyed, the initial state evolves into NESS in the long time limit. We present numerical evidence of our hypothesis in a few chaotic models. Furthermore, we find that our hypothesis indicates the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH) for current operators in a bipartite system.

  1. Impact of aquifer desaturation on steady-state river seepage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel-Seytoux, Hubert J.; Miracapillo, Cinzia; Mehl, Steffen

    2016-02-01

    Flow exchange between surface and ground water is of great importance be it for beneficial allocation and use of the water resources or for the proper exercise of water rights. That exchange can take place under a saturated or unsaturated flow regime. Which regimes occur depend on conditions in the vicinity of the interactive area. Withdrawals partially sustained by seepage may not bring about desaturation but greater amounts eventually will. The problem considered in this paper deals only with the steady-state case. It is meant as a first step toward a simple, yet accurate and physically based treatment of the transient situation. The primary purpose of the article is to provide simple criteria for determination of the initiation of desaturation in an aquifer originally in saturated hydraulic connection with a river or a recharge area. The extent of the unsaturated zone in the aquifer will increase with increasing withdrawals while at the same time the seepage rate from the river increases. However the seepage increase will stop once infiltration takes place strictly by gravity in the aquifer and is no longer opposed by the capillary rise from the water table below the riverbed. Following desaturation simple criteria are derived and simple analytical formulae provided to estimate the river seepage based on the position of the water table mound below the clogging layer and at some distance away from the river bank. They fully account for the unsaturated flow phenomena, including the existence of a drainage entry pressure. Two secondary objectives were to verify that (1) the assumption of uniform vertical flow through a clogging layer and that (2) the approximation of the water table mound below the seepage area as a flat surface were both reasonably legitimate. This approach will be especially advantageous for the implementation of the methodology in large-scale applications of integrated hydrologic models used for management.

  2. Steady state growth of E. Coli in low ammonium environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minsu; Deris, Barret; Zhang, Zhongge; Hwa, Terry

    2011-03-01

    Ammonium is the preferred nitrogen source for many microorganisms. In medium with low ammonium concentrations, enteric bacteria turn on the nitrogen responsive (ntr) genes to assimilate ammonium. Two proteins in E. coli, Glutamine synthetase (GS) and the Ammonium/methylammonium transporter AmtB play crucial roles in this regard. GS is the major ammonium assimilation enzyme below 1mM of NH4 + . AmtB is an inner membrane protein that transports NH4 + across the cell membrane against a concentration gradient. In order to study ammonium uptake at low NH4 + concentration at neutral pH, we developed a microfluidic flow chamber that maintains a homogenous nutrient environment during the course of exponential cell growth, even at very low concentration of nutrients. Cell growth can be accurately monitored using time-lapse microscopy. We followed steady state growth down to micro-molar range of NH4 + for the wild type and Δ amtB strains. The wild type strain is able to maintain the growth rate from 10mM down to a few uM of NH4 + , while the mutant exhibited reduced growth below ~ 20 ~uM of NH4 + . Simultaneous characterization of the expression levels of GS and AmtB using fluorescence reporters reveals that AmtB is turned on already at 1mM, but contributes to function only below ~ 30 ~uM in the wild-type. Down to ~ 20 ~uM of NH4 + , E.~coli can compensate the loss of AmtB by GS alone.

  3. Stress-induced inhibition of translation independently of eIF2α phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Knutsen, Jon Halvor Jonsrud; Rødland, Gro Elise; Bøe, Cathrine Arnason; Håland, Tine Weise; Sunnerhagen, Per; Grallert, Beáta; Boye, Erik

    2015-12-01

    Exposure of fission yeast cells to ultraviolet (UV) light leads to inhibition of translation and phosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor-2α (eIF2α). This phosphorylation is a common response to stress in all eukaryotes. It leads to inhibition of translation at the initiation stage and is thought to be the main reason why stressed cells dramatically reduce protein synthesis. Phosphorylation of eIF2α has been taken as a readout for downregulation of translation, but the role of eIF2α phosphorylation in the downregulation of general translation has not been much investigated. We show here that UV-induced global inhibition of translation in fission yeast cells is independent of eIF2α phosphorylation and the eIF2α kinase general control nonderepressible-2 protein (Gcn2). Also, in budding yeast and mammalian cells, the UV-induced translational depression is largely independent of GCN2 and eIF2α phosphorylation. Furthermore, exposure of fission yeast cells to oxidative stress generated by hydrogen peroxide induced an inhibition of translation that is also independent of Gcn2 and of eIF2α phosphorylation. Our findings show that stress-induced translational inhibition occurs through an unknown mechanism that is likely to be conserved through evolution. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. Stress-induced inhibition of translation independently of eIF2α phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Knutsen, Jon Halvor Jonsrud; Rødland, Gro Elise; Bøe, Cathrine Arnason; Håland, Tine Weise; Sunnerhagen, Per; Grallert, Beáta; Boye, Erik

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Exposure of fission yeast cells to ultraviolet (UV) light leads to inhibition of translation and phosphorylation of the eukaryotic initiation factor-2α (eIF2α). This phosphorylation is a common response to stress in all eukaryotes. It leads to inhibition of translation at the initiation stage and is thought to be the main reason why stressed cells dramatically reduce protein synthesis. Phosphorylation of eIF2α has been taken as a readout for downregulation of translation, but the role of eIF2α phosphorylation in the downregulation of general translation has not been much investigated. We show here that UV-induced global inhibition of translation in fission yeast cells is independent of eIF2α phosphorylation and the eIF2α kinase general control nonderepressible-2 protein (Gcn2). Also, in budding yeast and mammalian cells, the UV-induced translational depression is largely independent of GCN2 and eIF2α phosphorylation. Furthermore, exposure of fission yeast cells to oxidative stress generated by hydrogen peroxide induced an inhibition of translation that is also independent of Gcn2 and of eIF2α phosphorylation. Our findings show that stress-induced translational inhibition occurs through an unknown mechanism that is likely to be conserved through evolution. PMID:26493332

  5. Multiplicity of Steady States in Glycolysis and Shift of Metabolic State in Cultured Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Simon; Daoutidis, Prodromos; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2015-01-01

    Cultured mammalian cells exhibit elevated glycolysis flux and high lactate production. In the industrial bioprocesses for biotherapeutic protein production, glucose is supplemented to the culture medium to sustain continued cell growth resulting in the accumulation of lactate to high levels. In such fed-batch cultures, sometimes a metabolic shift from a state of high glycolysis flux and high lactate production to a state of low glycolysis flux and low lactate production or even lactate consumption is observed. While in other cases with very similar culture conditions, the same cell line and medium, cells continue to produce lactate. A metabolic shift to lactate consumption has been correlated to the productivity of the process. Cultures that exhibited the metabolic shift to lactate consumption had higher titers than those which didn’t. However, the cues that trigger the metabolic shift to lactate consumption state (or low lactate production state) are yet to be identified. Metabolic control of cells is tightly linked to growth control through signaling pathways such as the AKT pathway. We have previously shown that the glycolysis of proliferating cells can exhibit bistability with well-segregated high flux and low flux states. Low lactate production (or lactate consumption) is possible only at a low glycolysis flux state. In this study, we use mathematical modeling to demonstrate that lactate inhibition together with AKT regulation on glycolysis enzymes can profoundly influence the bistable behavior, resulting in a complex steady-state topology. The transition from the high flux state to the low flux state can only occur in certain regions of the steady state topology, and therefore the metabolic fate of the cells depends on their metabolic trajectory encountering the region that allows such a metabolic state switch. Insights from such switch behavior present us with new means to control the metabolism of mammalian cells in fed-batch cultures. PMID:25806512

  6. Multiplicity of steady states in glycolysis and shift of metabolic state in cultured mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Mulukutla, Bhanu Chandra; Yongky, Andrew; Grimm, Simon; Daoutidis, Prodromos; Hu, Wei-Shou

    2015-01-01

    Cultured mammalian cells exhibit elevated glycolysis flux and high lactate production. In the industrial bioprocesses for biotherapeutic protein production, glucose is supplemented to the culture medium to sustain continued cell growth resulting in the accumulation of lactate to high levels. In such fed-batch cultures, sometimes a metabolic shift from a state of high glycolysis flux and high lactate production to a state of low glycolysis flux and low lactate production or even lactate consumption is observed. While in other cases with very similar culture conditions, the same cell line and medium, cells continue to produce lactate. A metabolic shift to lactate consumption has been correlated to the productivity of the process. Cultures that exhibited the metabolic shift to lactate consumption had higher titers than those which didn't. However, the cues that trigger the metabolic shift to lactate consumption state (or low lactate production state) are yet to be identified. Metabolic control of cells is tightly linked to growth control through signaling pathways such as the AKT pathway. We have previously shown that the glycolysis of proliferating cells can exhibit bistability with well-segregated high flux and low flux states. Low lactate production (or lactate consumption) is possible only at a low glycolysis flux state. In this study, we use mathematical modeling to demonstrate that lactate inhibition together with AKT regulation on glycolysis enzymes can profoundly influence the bistable behavior, resulting in a complex steady-state topology. The transition from the high flux state to the low flux state can only occur in certain regions of the steady state topology, and therefore the metabolic fate of the cells depends on their metabolic trajectory encountering the region that allows such a metabolic state switch. Insights from such switch behavior present us with new means to control the metabolism of mammalian cells in fed-batch cultures.

  7. In vitro reconstitution and steady-state analysis of the fatty acid synthase from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xingye; Liu, Tiangang; Zhu, Fayin; Khosla, Chaitan

    2011-11-15

    Microbial fatty acid derivatives are emerging as promising alternatives to fossil fuel derived transportation fuels. Among bacterial fatty acid synthases (FAS), the Escherichia coli FAS is perhaps the most well studied, but little is known about its steady-state kinetic behavior. Here we describe the reconstitution of E. coli FAS using purified protein components and report detailed kinetic analysis of this reconstituted system. When all ketosynthases are present at 1 μM, the maximum rate of free fatty acid synthesis of the FAS exceeded 100 μM/ min. The steady-state turnover frequency was not significantly inhibited at high concentrations of any substrate or cofactor. FAS activity was saturated with respect to most individual protein components when their concentrations exceeded 1 μM. The exceptions were FabI and FabZ, which increased FAS activity up to concentrations of 10 μM; FabH and FabF, which decreased FAS activity at concentrations higher than 1 μM; and holo-ACP and TesA, which gave maximum FAS activity at 30 μM concentrations. Analysis of the S36T mutant of the ACP revealed that the unusual dependence of FAS activity on holo-ACP concentration was due, at least in part, to the acyl-phosphopantetheine moiety. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis of the reaction mixture further revealed medium and long chain fatty acyl-ACP intermediates as predominant ACP species. We speculate that one or more of such intermediates are key allosteric regulators of FAS turnover. Our findings provide a new basis for assessing the scope and limitations of using E. coli as a biocatalyst for the production of diesel-like fuels.

  8. Oxygen consumption dynamics in steady-state tumour models.

    PubMed

    Grimes, David Robert; Fletcher, Alexander G; Partridge, Mike

    2014-09-01

    Oxygen levels in cancerous tissue can have a significant effect on treatment response: hypoxic tissue is both more radioresistant and more chemoresistant than well-oxygenated tissue. While recent advances in medical imaging have facilitated real-time observation of macroscopic oxygenation, the underlying physics limits the resolution to the millimetre domain, whereas oxygen tension varies over a micrometre scale. If the distribution of oxygen in the tumour micro-environment can be accurately estimated, then the effect of potential dose escalation to these hypoxic regions could be better modelled, allowing more realistic simulation of biologically adaptive treatments. Reaction-diffusion models are commonly used for modelling oxygen dynamics, with a variety of functional forms assumed for the dependence of oxygen consumption rate (OCR) on cellular status and local oxygen availability. In this work, we examine reaction-diffusion models of oxygen consumption in spherically and cylindrically symmetric geometries. We consider two different descriptions of oxygen consumption: one in which the rate of consumption is constant and one in which it varies with oxygen tension in a hyperbolic manner. In each case, we derive analytic approximations to the steady-state oxygen distribution, which are shown to closely match the numerical solutions of the equations and accurately predict the extent to which oxygen can diffuse. The derived expressions relate the limit to which oxygen can diffuse into a tissue to the OCR of that tissue. We also demonstrate that differences between these functional forms are likely to be negligible within the range of literature estimates of the hyperbolic oxygen constant, suggesting that the constant consumption rate approximation suffices for modelling oxygen dynamics for most values of OCR. These approximations also allow the rapid identification of situations where hyperbolic consumption forms can result in significant differences from constant

  9. Progress Towards High-Performance, Steady-State Spherical Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2004-01-04

    Research on the spherical torus (or spherical tokamak) (ST) is being pursued to explore the scientific benefits of modifying the field line structure from that in more moderate aspect ratio devices, such as the conventional tokamak. The ST experiments are being conducted in various US research facilities including the MA-class National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at Princeton, and three medium sized ST research facilities: PEGASUS at University of Wisconsin, HIT-II at University of Washington, and CDX-U at Princeton. In the context of the fusion energy development path being formulated in the US, an ST-based Component Test Facility (CTF) and, ultimately a Demo device, are being discussed. For these, it is essential to develop high performance, steady-state operational scenarios. The relevant scientific issues are energy confinement, MHD stability at high beta ({beta}), non-inductive sustainment, Ohmic-solenoid-free start-up, and power and particle handling. In the confinement area, the NSTX experiments have shown that the confinement can be up to 50% better than the ITER-98-pby2 H-mode scaling, consistent with the requirements for an ST-based CTF and Demo. In NSTX, CTF-relevant average toroidal beta values {beta}{sub T} of up to 35% with a near unity central {beta}{sub T} have been obtained. NSTX will be exploring advanced regimes where {beta}{sub T} up to 40% can be sustained through active stabilization of resistive wall modes. To date, the most successful technique for non-inductive sustainment in NSTX is the high beta poloidal regime, where discharges with a high non-inductive fraction ({approx}60% bootstrap current+NBI current drive) were sustained over the resistive skin time. Research on radio-frequency (RF) based heating and current drive utilizing high harmonic fastwave and electron Bernstein wave is also pursued on NSTX, PEGASUS, and CDX-U. For non-inductive start-up, the coaxial helicity injection, developed in HIT/HIT-II, has been adopted on NSTX

  10. Rod Bundle Heat Transfer: Steady-State Steam Cooling Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Spring, J.P.; McLaughlin, D.M.

    2006-07-01

    Through the joint efforts of the Pennsylvania State University and the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission, an experimental rod bundle heat transfer (RBHT) facility was designed and built. The rod bundle consists of a 7 x 7 square pitch array with spacer grids and geometry similar to that found in a modern pressurized water reactor. From this facility, a series of steady-state steam cooling experiments were performed. The bundle inlet Reynolds number was varied from 1 400 to 30 000 over a pressure range from 1.36 to 4 bars (20 to 60 psia). The bundle inlet steam temperature was controlled to be at saturation for the specified pressure and the fluid exit temperature exceeded 550 deg. C in the highest power tests. One important quantity of interest is the local convective heat transfer coefficient defined in terms of the local bulk mean temperature of the flow, local wall temperature, and heat flux. Steam temperatures were measured at the center of selected subchannels along the length of the bundle by traversing miniaturized thermocouples. Using an analogy between momentum and energy transport, a method was developed for relating the local subchannel centerline temperature measurement to the local bulk mean temperature. Wall temperatures were measured using internal thermocouples strategically placed along the length of each rod and the local wall heat flux was obtained from an inverse conduction program. The local heat transfer coefficient was calculated from the data at each rod thermocouple location. The local heat transfer coefficients calculated for locations where the flow was fully developed were compared against several published correlations. The Weisman and El-Genk correlations were found to agree best with the RBHT steam cooling data, especially over the range of turbulent Reynolds numbers. The effect of spacer grids on the heat transfer enhancement was also determined from instrumentation placed downstream of the spacer grid locations. The local

  11. Progress Towards High Performance, Steady-state Spherical Torus

    SciTech Connect

    M. Ono; M.G. Bell; R.E. Bell; T. Bigelow; M. Bitter; W. Blanchard; J. Boedo; C. Bourdelle; C. Bush; W. Choe; J. Chrzanowski; D.S. Darrow; S.J. Diem; R. Doerner; P.C. Efthimion; J.R. Ferron; R.J. Fonck; E.D. Fredrickson; G.D. Garstka; D.A. Gates; T. Gray; L.R. Grisham; W. Heidbrink; K.W. Hill; D. Hoffman; T.R. Jarboe; D.W. Johnson; R. Kaita; S.M. Kaye; C. Kessel; J.H. Kim; M.W. Kissick; S. Kubota; H.W. Kugel; B.P. LeBlanc; K. Lee; S.G. Lee; B.T. Lewicki; S. Luckhardt; R. Maingi; R. Majeski; J. Manickam; R. Maqueda; T.K. Mau; E. Mazzucato; S.S. Medley; J. Menard; D. Mueller; B.A. Nelson; C. Neumeyer; N. Nishino; C.N. Ostrander; D. Pacella; F. Paoletti; H.K. Park; W. Park; S.F. Paul; Y.-K. M. Peng; C.K. Phillips; R. Pinsker; P.H. Probert; S. Ramakrishnan; R. Raman; M. Redi; A.L. Roquemore; A. Rosenberg; P.M. Ryan; S.A. Sabbagh; M. Schaffer; R.J. Schooff; R. Seraydarian; C.H. Skinner; A.C. Sontag; V. Soukhanovskii; J. Spaleta; T. Stevenson; D. Stutman; D.W. Swain; E. Synakowski; Y. Takase; X. Tang; G. Taylor; J. Timberlake; K.L. Tritz; E.A. Unterberg; A. Von Halle; J. Wilgen; M. Williams; J.R. Wilson; X. Xu; S.J. Zweben; R. Akers; R.E. Barry; P. Beiersdorfer; J.M. Bialek; B. Blagojevic; P.T. Bonoli; M.D. Carter; W. Davis; B. Deng; L. Dudek; J. Egedal; R. Ellis; M. Finkenthal; J. Foley; E. Fredd; A. Glasser; T. Gibney; M. Gilmore; R.J. Goldston; R.E. Hatcher; R.J. Hawryluk; W. Houlberg; R. Harvey; S.C. Jardin; J.C. Hosea; H. Ji; M. Kalish; J. Lowrance; L.L. Lao; F.M. Levinton; N.C. Luhmann; R. Marsala; D. Mastravito; M.M. Menon; O. Mitarai; M. Nagata; G. Oliaro; R. Parsells; T. Peebles; B. Peneflor; D. Piglowski; G.D. Porter; A.K. Ram; M. Rensink; G. Rewoldt; P. Roney; K. Shaing; S. Shiraiwa; P. Sichta; D. Stotler; B.C. Stratton; R. Vero; W.R. Wampler; G.A. Wurden

    2003-10-02

    Research on the Spherical Torus (or Spherical Tokamak) is being pursued to explore the scientific benefits of modifying the field line structure from that in more moderate aspect-ratio devices, such as the conventional tokamak. The Spherical Tours (ST) experiments are being conducted in various U.S. research facilities including the MA-class National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at Princeton, and three medium-size ST research facilities: Pegasus at University of Wisconsin, HIT-II at University of Washington, and CDX-U at Princeton. In the context of the fusion energy development path being formulated in the U.S., an ST-based Component Test Facility (CTF) and, ultimately a Demo device, are being discussed. For these, it is essential to develop high-performance, steady-state operational scenarios. The relevant scientific issues are energy confinement, MHD stability at high beta (B), noninductive sustainment, ohmic-solenoid-free start-up, and power and particle handling. In the confinement area, the NSTX experiments have shown that the confinement can be up to 50% better than the ITER-98-pby2 H-mode scaling, consistent with the requirements for an ST-based CTF and Demo. In NSTX, CTF-relevant average toroidal beta values bT of up to 35% with the near unity central betaT have been obtained. NSTX will be exploring advanced regimes where bT up to 40% can be sustained through active stabilization of resistive wall modes. To date, the most successful technique for noninductive sustainment in NSTX is the high beta-poloidal regime, where discharges with a high noninductive fraction ({approx}60% bootstrap current + neutral-beam-injected current drive) were sustained over the resistive skin time. Research on radio-frequency-based heating and current drive utilizing HHFW (High Harmonic Fast Wave) and EBW (Electron Bernstein Wave) is also pursued on NSTX, Pegasus, and CDX-U. For noninductive start-up, the Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI), developed in HIT/HIT-II, has been

  12. Rapid freeze- and chemical-quench studies of dopamine beta-monooxygenase: comparison of pre-steady-state and steady-state parameters.

    PubMed

    Brenner, M C; Murray, C J; Klinman, J P

    1989-05-30

    The copper-containing enzyme dopamine beta-monooxygenase has been studied with regard to pre-steady-state kinetics of tyramine hydroxylation and reduction of enzyme-bound Cu2+ by chemical- and freeze-quench EPR techniques. The bulk of the enzyme-bound copper (approximately 70%) is reduced in a single-exponential process with a limiting rate constant of 250 s-1, Km = 0.9 mM, consistent with participation of both copper ions in the redox events of catalysis. The remaining copper is reduced much more slowly (k approximately 2 s-1) or not at all, attributed to a distribution of copper into inhibitory binding sites and the presence of some inactive enzyme. Knowledge of the Cu2+ reduction rate, together with rate constants calculated from steady-state isotope effects [Miller, S. M., & Klinman, J. P. (1985) Biochemistry 24, 2114-2127], has allowed prediction of pre-steady-state product formation transients. Measurement of these transients under conditions of excess ascorbate shows close agreement with prediction, supporting the validity of individual rate constants obtained from steady-state data. Kinetic modeling shows further that the predominant steady-state enzyme form is the enzyme-product complex (E-P), which is expected to show a correspondingly large (approximately 70% of total copper) EPR signal for bound Cu2+. Surprisingly, the steady state is characterized by a low (19% of total copper) EPR signal. This lack of correlation between the anticipated and observed steady-state EPR signal suggests either antiferromagnetic coupling in binuclear copper centers or reduction of Cu2+ in this enzyme form by ascorbic acid.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Steady-State Axial Temperature and Flow Velocity in Triga Channel.

    SciTech Connect

    ZEFRAN, BOJAN

    2007-02-28

    Version 00 TRISTAN-IJS is a computer program for calculating steady-state axial temperature distribution and flow velocity through a vertical coolant channel in low power TRIGA reactor core, cooled by natural circulation. It is designed for steady-state thermohydraulic analysis of TRIGA research reactors operating at a low power level of 1-2 MW.

  14. Constructive interference in steady-state/FIESTA-C clinical applications in neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Makarand; Kulkami, Makarand

    2011-04-01

    High spatial resolution is one of the major problems in neuroimaging, particularly in cranial and spinal nerve imaging. Constructive interference in steady-state/fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition with phase cycling is a robust sequence in imaging the cranial and spinal nerve pathologies. This pictorial review is a concise article about the applications of this sequence in neuroimaging with clinical examples.

  15. 40 CFR 92.130 - Determination of steady-state concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... concentrations. 92.130 Section 92.130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR....130 Determination of steady-state concentrations. (a)(1) For HC and NOX emissions, a steady-state concentration measurement, measured after 300 seconds (or 840 seconds for notch 8) of testing shall be...

  16. 40 CFR 92.130 - Determination of steady-state concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... concentrations. 92.130 Section 92.130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR....130 Determination of steady-state concentrations. (a)(1) For HC and NOX emissions, a steady-state concentration measurement, measured after 300 seconds (or 840 seconds for notch 8) of testing shall be...

  17. 40 CFR 92.130 - Determination of steady-state concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... concentrations. 92.130 Section 92.130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR....130 Determination of steady-state concentrations. (a)(1) For HC and NOX emissions, a steady-state concentration measurement, measured after 300 seconds (or 840 seconds for notch 8) of testing shall be...

  18. 40 CFR 92.130 - Determination of steady-state concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... concentrations. 92.130 Section 92.130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR....130 Determination of steady-state concentrations. (a)(1) For HC and NOX emissions, a steady-state concentration measurement, measured after 300 seconds (or 840 seconds for notch 8) of testing shall be...

  19. 40 CFR 92.130 - Determination of steady-state concentrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... concentrations. 92.130 Section 92.130 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR....130 Determination of steady-state concentrations. (a)(1) For HC and NOX emissions, a steady-state concentration measurement, measured after 300 seconds (or 840 seconds for notch 8) of testing shall be...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart S of... - Steady-State Short Test Standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steady-State Short Test Standards C Appendix C to Subpart S of Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED.../Maintenance Program Requirements Pt. 51, Subpt. S, App. C Appendix C to Subpart S of Part 51—Steady-State...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart S of... - Steady-State Short Test Standards

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Steady-State Short Test Standards C Appendix C to Subpart S of Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED.../Maintenance Program Requirements Pt. 51, Subpt. S, App. C Appendix C to Subpart S of Part 51—Steady-State...

  2. Universal, computer facilitated, steady state oscillator, closed loop analysis theory and some applications to precision oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parzen, Benjamin

    1992-01-01

    The theory of oscillator analysis in the immittance domain should be read in conjunction with the additional theory presented here. The combined theory enables the computer simulation of the steady state oscillator. The simulation makes the calculation of the oscillator total steady state performance practical, including noise at all oscillator locations. Some specific precision oscillators are analyzed.

  3. Phased Array Ghost Elimination (PAGE) for Segmented SSFP Imaging With Interrupted Steady-State

    PubMed Central

    Kellman, Peter; Guttman, Michael A.; Herzka, Daniel A.; McVeigh, Elliot R.

    2007-01-01

    Steady-state free precession (SSFP) has recently proven to be valuable for cardiac imaging due to its high signal-to-noise ratio and blood-myocardium contrast. Data acquired using ECG-triggered, segmented sequences during the approach to steady-state, or return to steady-state after interruption, may have ghost artifacts due to periodic k-space distortion. Schemes involving several preparatory RF pulses have been proposed to restore steady-state, but these consume imaging time during early systole. Alternatively, the phased-array ghost elimination (PAGE) method may be used to remove ghost artifacts from the first several frames. PAGE was demonstrated for cardiac cine SSFP imaging with interrupted steady-state using a simple alpha/2 magnetization preparation and storage scheme and a spatial tagging preparation. PMID:12465121

  4. The steady-state phase distribution of the motor switch complex model of Halobacterium salinarum.

    PubMed

    del Rosario, Ricardo C H; Diener, Francine; Diener, Marc; Oesterhelt, Dieter

    2009-12-01

    Steady-state analysis is performed on the kinetic model for the switch complex of the flagellar motor of Halobacterium salinarum (Nutsch et al.). The existence and uniqueness of a positive steady-state of the system is established and it is demonstrated why the steady-state is centered around the competent phase, a state of the motor in which it is able to respond to light stimuli. It is also demonstrated why the steady-state shifts to the refractory phase when the steady-state value of the response regulator CheYP increases. This work is one aspect of modeling in systems biology wherein the mathematical properties of a model are established.

  5. On the use of steady-state signal equations for 2D TrueFISP imaging.

    PubMed

    Coolen, Bram F; Heijman, Edwin; Nicolay, Klaas; Strijkers, Gustav J

    2009-07-01

    To explain the signal behavior in 2D-TrueFISP imaging, a slice excitation profile should be considered that describes a variation of effective flip angles and magnetization phases after excitation. These parameters can be incorporated into steady-state equations to predict the final signal within a pixel. The use of steady-state equations assumes that excitation occurs instantaneously, although in reality this is a nonlinear process. In addition, often the flip angle variation within the slice excitation profile is solely considered when using steady-state equations, while TrueFISP is especially known for its sensitivity to phase variations. The purpose of this study was therefore to evaluate the precision of steady-state equations in calculating signal intensities in 2D TrueFISP imaging. To that end, steady-state slice profiles and corresponding signal intensities were calculated as function of flip angle, RF phase advance and pulse shape. More complex Bloch simulations were considered as a gold standard, which described every excitation within the sequence until steady state was reached. They were used to analyze two different methods based on steady-state equations. In addition, measurements on phantoms were done with corresponding imaging parameters. Although the Bloch simulations described the steady-state slice profile formation better than methods based on steady-state equations, the latter performed well in predicting the steady-state signal resulting from it. In certain cases the phase variation within the slice excitation profile did not even have to be taken into account.

  6. Steady- and non-steady-state carbonate-silicate controls on atmospheric CO2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sundquist, E.T.

    1991-01-01

    Two contrasting hypotheses have recently been proposed for the past long-term relation between atmospheric CO2 and the carbonate-silicate geochemical cycle. One approach (Berner, 1990) suggests that CO2 levels have varied in a manner that has maintained chemical weathering and carbonate sedimentation at a steady state with respect to tectonically controlled decarbonation reactions. A second approach (Raymo et al., 1988), applied specificlly to the late Cenozoic, suggests a decrease in CO2 caused by an uplift-induced increase in chemical weathering, without regard to the rate of decarbonation. According to the steady-state (first) hypothesis, increased weathering and carbonate sedimentation are generally associated with increasing atmospheric CO2, whereas the uplift (second) hypothesis implies decreasing CO2 under the same conditions. An ocean-atmosphere-sediment model has been used to assess the response of atmospheric CO2 and carbonate sedimentation to global perturbations in chemical weathering and decarbonation reactions. Although this assessment is theoretical and cannot yet be related to the geologic record, the model simulations compare steady-state and non-steady-state carbonate-silicate cycle response. The e-fold response time of the 'CO2-weathering' feedback mechanism is between 300 and 400 ka. The response of carbonate sedimentation is much more rapid. These response times provide a measure of the strength of steady-state assumptions, and imply that certain systematic relations are sustained throughout steady-state and non-steady-state scenarios for the carbonate-silicate cycle. The simulations suggest that feedbacks can maintain the system near a steady state, but that non-steady-state effects may contribute to long-term trends. The steady-state and uplift hypotheses are not necessarily incompatible over time scales of a few million years. ?? 1991.

  7. Detection efficiency of auditory steady state evoked by modulated noise.

    PubMed

    Santos, T S; Silva, J J; Lins, O G; Melges, D B; Tierra-Criollo, C J

    2016-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the efficiency of Magnitude Squared Coherence (MSC) and Spectral F test (SFT) for the detection of auditory steady state responses (ASSR) obtained by amplitude-modulated noises. Twenty individuals (12 women) without any history of neurological or audiological diseases, aged from 18 to 59 years (mean ± standard deviation = 26.45 ± 3.9 years), who provided written informed consent, participated in the study. The Audiostim system was used for stimulating and ASSR recording. The tested stimuli were amplitude-modulated Wide-band noise (WBN), Low-band noise (LBN), High-band noise (HBN), Two-band noise (TBN) between 77 and 110 Hz, applied in intensity levels of 55, 45, and 25 dB sound pressure level (SPL). MSC and SFT, two statistical-based detection techniques, were applied with a significance level of 5%. Detection times and rates were compared using the Friedman test and Tukey-Kramer as post hoc analysis. Also based on the stimulation parameters (stimuli types and intensity levels) and detection techniques (MSC or SFT), 16 different pass/fail protocols, for which the true negatives (TN) were calculated. The median detection times ranged from 68 to 157s for 55 dB SPL, 68-99s for 45 dB SPL, and 84-118s for 25 dB SPL. No statistical difference was found between MSC and STF considering the median detection times (p > 0.05). The detection rates ranged from 100% to 55.6% in 55 dB SPL, 97.2%-38.9% in 45 dB SPL and 66.7%-8.3% in 25 dB SPL. Also for detection rates, no statistical difference was observed between MSC and STF (p > 0.05). True negatives (TN) above 90% were found for Protocols that employed WBN or HBN, at 55 dB SPL or that used WBN or HBN, at 45 dB SPL. For Protocols employing TBN, at 55 dB SPL or 45 dB SPL TN below 60% were found due to the low detection rates of stimuli that included low-band frequencies. The stimuli that include high-frequency content showed higher detection rates (>90%) and lower detection

  8. A novel multiple frequency stimulation method for steady state VEP based brain computer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Srihari Mukesh, T M; Jaganathan, V; Reddy, M Ramasubba

    2006-01-01

    The objective is to increase the number of selections in brain computer interfaces (BCI) by recording and analyzing the steady state visual evoked potential response to dual stimulation. A BCI translates the VEP signals into user commands. The frequency band from which stimulation frequency can be selected is limited for SSVEP. This paper discusses a method to increase the number of commands by using a suitable combination of frequencies for stimulation. A biopotential amplifier based on the driven right leg circuit (DRL) is used to record 60 s epochs of the SSVEP (O(z)-A(1)) on 15 subjects using simultaneous overlapped stimulation (6, 7, 12, 13 and 14 Hzs and corresponding half frequencies). The power spectrum of each recording is obtained by frequency domain averaging of 400 ms SSVEPs and the spectral peaks were normalized. The spectral peaks of the combination frequencies of stimulation are predominant compared to individual stimulating frequencies. This method increases the number of selections by using a limited number of stimulating frequencies in BCI. For example, six selections are possible by generating only three frequencies.

  9. Roles of topoisomerases in maintaining steady-state DNA supercoiling in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zechiedrich, E L; Khodursky, A B; Bachellier, S; Schneider, R; Chen, D; Lilley, D M; Cozzarelli, N R

    2000-03-17

    DNA supercoiling is essential for bacterial cell survival. We demonstrated that DNA topoisomerase IV, acting in concert with topoisomerase I and gyrase, makes an important contribution to the steady-state level of supercoiling in Escherichia coli. Following inhibition of gyrase, topoisomerase IV alone relaxed plasmid DNA to a final supercoiling density (sigma) of -0.015 at an initial rate of 0.8 links min(-1). Topoisomerase I relaxed DNA at a faster rate, 5 links min(-1), but only to a sigma of -0.05. Inhibition of topoisomerase IV in wild-type cells increased supercoiling to approximately the same level as in a mutant lacking topoisomerase I activity (to sigma = -0.08). The role of topoisomerase IV was revealed by two functional assays. Removal of both topoisomerase I and topoisomerase IV caused the DNA to become hyper-negatively supercoiled (sigma = -0.09), greatly stimulating transcription from the supercoiling sensitive leu-500 promoter and increasing the number of supercoils trapped by lambda integrase site-specific recombination.

  10. Efficient Steady-State Solution Techniques for Variably Saturated Groundwater Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farthing, M. W.; Kees, C. E.; Coffey, T. S.; Kelley, C. T.; Miller, C. T.

    2002-12-01

    We consider the simulation of steady-state variably saturated groundwater flow using Richards' equation. The difficulties associated with solving Richards' equation numerically are well known. Most discretization approaches for Richards' equation lead to nonlinear systems that are large and difficult to solve. The solution of nonlinear systems for steady-state problems can be particularly challenging, since a good initial guess for the steady-state solution is often hard to obtain, and the resulting linear systems may be poorly scaled. Common approaches like modified Picard iteration or variations of Newton's method have their advantages but perform poorly with standard globalization techniques under certain conditions. Pseudo-transient continuation has been used in computational fluid dynamics for some time to obtain steady-state solutions for problems in which Newton's method with standard line-search strategies fails. It combines aspects of backward Euler time integration and Newton's method to select intermediate estimates of the steady-state solution. In this work, we examine the use of pseudo-transient continuation methods for Richards' equation. We evaluate their performance for steady-state problems in heterogeneous domains by comparing them with Newton's method using standard globalization techniques. We investigate the methods' performance with both direct and preconditioned Krylov iterative linear solvers. We then make recommendations for robust and efficient approaches to obtain steady-state solutions for Richards' equation under a variety of conditions.

  11. ADP-ribosylation of translation elongation factor 2 by diphtheria toxin in yeast inhibits translation and cell separation.

    PubMed

    Mateyak, Maria K; Kinzy, Terri Goss

    2013-08-23

    Eukaryotic translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2) facilitates the movement of the peptidyl tRNA-mRNA complex from the A site of the ribosome to the P site during protein synthesis. ADP-ribosylation (ADP(R)) of eEF2 by bacterial toxins on a unique diphthamide residue inhibits its translocation activity, but the mechanism is unclear. We have employed a hormone-inducible diphtheria toxin (DT) expression system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae which allows for the rapid induction of ADP(R)-eEF2 to examine the effects of DT in vivo. ADP(R) of eEF2 resulted in a decrease in total protein synthesis consistent with a defect in translation elongation. Association of eEF2 with polyribosomes, however, was unchanged upon expression of DT. Upon prolonged exposure to DT, cells with an abnormal morphology and increased DNA content accumulated. This observation was specific to DT expression and was not observed when translation elongation was inhibited by other methods. Examination of these cells by electron microscopy indicated a defect in cell separation following mitosis. These results suggest that expression of proteins late in the cell cycle is particularly sensitive to inhibition by ADP(R)-eEF2.

  12. Steady-state kinetics and chemical mechanism of octopus hepatopancreatic glutathione transferase.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, S S; Chang, G G

    1995-01-01

    The kinetic mechanism of glutathione S-transferase (GST) from Octopus vulgaris hepatopancreas was investigated by steady-state analysis. Initial-velocity studies showed an intersecting pattern, which suggests a sequential kinetic mechanism for the enzyme. Product-inhibition patterns by chloride and the conjugate product were all non-competitive with respect to glutathione or 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), which indicates that the octopus digestive gland GST conforms to a steady-state sequential random Bi Bi kinetic mechanism. Dead-end inhibition patterns indicate that ethacrynic acid ([2,3-dichloro-4-(2-methyl-enebutyryl) phenoxy]acetic acid) binds at the hydrophobic H-site, norophthalmic acid (gamma-glutamylalanylglycine) binds at the glutathione G-site, and glutathione-ethacrynate conjugate occupied both H- and G-sites of the enzyme. The chemical mechanism of the enzyme was examined by pH and kinetic solvent-isotope effects. At pH (and p2H) = 8.011, in which kcat. was independent of pH or p2H, the solvent isotope effects on V and V/KmGSH were near unity, in the range 1.069-1.175. An inverse isotope effect was observed for V/KmCDNB (0.597), presumably resulting from the hydrogen-bonding of enzyme-bound glutathione, which has pKa of 6.83 +/- 0.04, a value lower by 2.34 pH units than the pKa of glutathione in aqueous solution. This lowering of the pKa value for the sulphydryl group of the bound glutathione was presumably due to interaction with the active site Tyr7, which had a pKa value of 8.46 +/- 0.09 that was raised to 9.63 +/- 0.08 in the presence of glutathione thiolate. Subsequent chemical reaction involves attacking of thiolate anion at the electrophilic substrate with the formation of a negatively charged Meisenheimer complex, which is the rate-limiting step of the reaction. Images Scheme 2 PMID:7619078

  13. Steady-state kinetics and chemical mechanism of octopus hepatopancreatic glutathione transferase.

    PubMed

    Tang, S S; Chang, G G

    1995-07-01

    The kinetic mechanism of glutathione S-transferase (GST) from Octopus vulgaris hepatopancreas was investigated by steady-state analysis. Initial-velocity studies showed an intersecting pattern, which suggests a sequential kinetic mechanism for the enzyme. Product-inhibition patterns by chloride and the conjugate product were all non-competitive with respect to glutathione or 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), which indicates that the octopus digestive gland GST conforms to a steady-state sequential random Bi Bi kinetic mechanism. Dead-end inhibition patterns indicate that ethacrynic acid ([2,3-dichloro-4-(2-methyl-enebutyryl) phenoxy]acetic acid) binds at the hydrophobic H-site, norophthalmic acid (gamma-glutamylalanylglycine) binds at the glutathione G-site, and glutathione-ethacrynate conjugate occupied both H- and G-sites of the enzyme. The chemical mechanism of the enzyme was examined by pH and kinetic solvent-isotope effects. At pH (and p2H) = 8.011, in which kcat. was independent of pH or p2H, the solvent isotope effects on V and V/KmGSH were near unity, in the range 1.069-1.175. An inverse isotope effect was observed for V/KmCDNB (0.597), presumably resulting from the hydrogen-bonding of enzyme-bound glutathione, which has pKa of 6.83 +/- 0.04, a value lower by 2.34 pH units than the pKa of glutathione in aqueous solution. This lowering of the pKa value for the sulphydryl group of the bound glutathione was presumably due to interaction with the active site Tyr7, which had a pKa value of 8.46 +/- 0.09 that was raised to 9.63 +/- 0.08 in the presence of glutathione thiolate. Subsequent chemical reaction involves attacking of thiolate anion at the electrophilic substrate with the formation of a negatively charged Meisenheimer complex, which is the rate-limiting step of the reaction.

  14. The condensation of ampholytes in steady state moving boundaries - Analysis by computer simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosher, Richard A.; Thormann, Wolfgang

    1986-01-01

    A digital simulation of the behavior of amphoteric sample components in moving steady state boundaries is presented. Complete computer simulation data, including profiles of concentration, conductivity and pH as functions of time, are given for both cationic and anionic electrolyte configurations which incorporate one amphoteric sample constituent. The condensation of ampholytes in steady state moving boundaries is shown to proceed via an isotachophoretic mechanism and not by isoelectric focusing. Mobility (velocity) relationships necessary for sample components to form steady state zones are discussed.

  15. Relaxation, multiplicity of steady states, and autooscillations in kinetics of catalytic reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Kol`tsov, N.I.; Fedotov, V.Kh.; Alekseev, B.V.

    1995-01-01

    A review of the authors` recent findings of researche into steady-state and non-steady-state catalytic reactions is given. The method for the estimation of relaxation times for particular reaction classes is generalized. Basic critical phenomena, such as the multiplicity of steady states, are discussed in terms of the structures of reaction schemes. Mechanisms of simplest catalytic oscillators are systematized. The results outlined in this paper are shown to reflect close relations between relaxation characteristics and complex critical phenomena, which are peculiar to catalytic reactions. The discussion is held within the framework of the mass action law.

  16. Estimating time to steady state using the effective rate of drug accumulation.

    PubMed

    Panebianco, Deborah L; Maes, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Unless all of a drug is eliminated during each dosing interval, the plasma concentrations within a dosing interval will increase until the time course of change in plasma concentrations becomes invariant from one dosing interval to the next, resulting in steady state. A simple method for estimating drug concentration time to steady state based on multiple dose area under the plasma concentration-time curve and effective rate of drug accumulation is presented. Several point estimates and confidence intervals for time to 90% of steady state are compared, and a recommendation is made on how to summarize and present the results. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. The condensation of ampholytes in steady state moving boundaries - Analysis by computer simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mosher, Richard A.; Thormann, Wolfgang

    1986-01-01

    A digital simulation of the behavior of amphoteric sample components in moving steady state boundaries is presented. Complete computer simulation data, including profiles of concentration, conductivity and pH as functions of time, are given for both cationic and anionic electrolyte configurations which incorporate one amphoteric sample constituent. The condensation of ampholytes in steady state moving boundaries is shown to proceed via an isotachophoretic mechanism and not by isoelectric focusing. Mobility (velocity) relationships necessary for sample components to form steady state zones are discussed.

  18. Mathematical modeling of living cell metabolism using the method of steady-state stoichiometric flux balance.

    PubMed

    Drozdov-Tikhomirov, L N; Scurida, G I; Davidov, A V; Alexandrov, A A; Zvyagilskaya, R A

    2006-08-01

    This approach uses a set of algebraic linear equations for reaction rates (the method of steady-state stoichiometric flux balance) to model the purposeful metabolism of the living self-reproducing biochemical system (i.e. cell), which persists in steady-state growth. Linear programming (SIMPLEX method) is used to derive the solution for the model equations set (determining reaction rates which provide flux balance at given conditions). Here, we demonstrate the approach through the mathematical modeling of steady-state metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria.

  19. Steady State Performance Characteristics of Micropolar Lubricated Hydrodynamic Journal Bearings with Flexible Liner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, Pikesh; Chattopadhyay, Ajit Kumar; Agrawal, Vishnu Prakash

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to theoretically determine the steady state characteristics of hydrodynamic oil journal bearings considering the effect of deformation of liner and with micropolar lubrication. Modified Reynolds equation based on micropolar lubrication theory is solved using finite difference method to obtain steady state film pressures. Minimum film thickness is calculated taking into consideration the deformation of the liner. Parametric study has been conducted and steady state characteristics for journal bearing with elasticity of bearing liner are plotted for various values of eccentricity ratio, deformation factor, characteristic length and coupling number.

  20. The purification and steady-state kinetic behaviour of rabbit heart mitochondrial NAD(P)+ malic enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Davisson, V J; Schulz, A R

    1985-01-01

    The mitochondrial NAD(P)+ malic enzyme [EC 1.1.1.39, L-malate:NAD+ oxidoreductase (decarboxylating)] was purified from rabbit heart to a specific activity of 7 units (mumol/min)/mg at 23 degrees C. A study of the reductive carboxylation reaction indicates that this enzymic reaction is reversible. The rate of the reductive carboxylation reaction appears to be completely inhibited at an NADH concentration of 0.92 mM. A substrate saturation curve of this reaction with NADH as the varied substrate describes this inhibition. The apparent kinetic parameters for this reaction are Ka(NADH) = 239 microM and Vr = 1.1 mumol/min per mg at 23 degrees C. The steady-state product-inhibition patterns for pyruvate and NADH indicate a sequential binding of the substrates: NAD+ followed by L-malate. These data also indicate that NADH is the last product released. A steady-state kinetic model is proposed that incorporates NADH-enzyme dead-end complexes. PMID:3977837

  1. Establishment of steady-state metabolism of ethanol in perfused rat liver: the quantitative analysis using kinetic mechanism-based rate equations of alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Yao, Chung-Tay; Lai, Ching-Long; Hsieh, Hsiu-Shan; Chi, Chin-Wen; Yin, Shih-Jiun

    2010-09-01

    Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) catalyzes oxidation of ingested ethanol to acetaldehyde, the first step in hepatic metabolism. The purpose of this study was to establish an ex vivo rat liver perfusion system under defined and verified steady states with respect to the metabolites and the metabolic rates, and to quantitatively correlate the observed rates with simulations based on the kinetic mechanism-based rate equations of rat liver ADH. Class I ADH1 was isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats and characterized by steady-state kinetics in the Krebs-Ringer perfusion buffer with supplements. Nonrecirculating liver perfusion with constant input of ethanol at near physiological hepatic blood flow rate was performed in situ. Ethanol and the related metabolites acetaldehyde, acetate, lactate, and pyruvate in perfusates were determined. Results of the initial velocity, product, and dead-end inhibition studies showed that rat ADH1 conformed to the Theorell-Chance Ordered Bi Bi mechanism. Steady-state metabolism of ethanol in the perfused liver maintained up to 3h as evidenced by the steady-state levels of ethanol and metabolites in the effluent, and the steady-state ethanol disappearance rates and acetate production rates. The changes of the metabolic rates were qualitatively and in general quantitatively correlated to the results from simulations with the kinetic rate equations of ADH1 under a wide range of ethanol, in the presence of competitive inhibitor 4-methylpyrazole and of uncompetitive inhibitor isobutyramide. Preliminary flux control analysis estimated that apparent C(ADH)(J) in the perfused liver may approximate 0.7 at constant infusion with 1-2 mM ethanol, suggesting that ADH plays a major but not the exclusive role in governing hepatic ethanol metabolism. The reported steady-state rat liver perfusion system may potentially be applicable to other drug or drug-ethanol interaction studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of striatal enkephalin release in vivo from steady state levels and turnover rates of the tripeptide Tyr-Gly-Gly.

    PubMed

    Llorens-Cortes, C; Gros, C; Schwartz, J C

    1986-01-01

    The tripeptide Tyr-Gly-Gly (YGG), an extraneuronal metabolite of opioid peptides (OP) derived from proenkephalin A is in a highly dynamic state in mouse striatum. Inhibition of its synthesis by Thiorphan reduced its levels with a t 1/2 of 12 min. Inhibition of its degradation by bestatin elicited its rapid accumulation consistent with a t 1/2 of enkephalins in the one-hour range. Pentobarbital anesthesia markedly reduced its steady state level and turnover rates.

  3. Determination of the Nonequilibrium Steady State Emerging from a Defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertini, Bruno; Fagotti, Maurizio

    2016-09-01

    We consider the nonequilibrium time evolution of a translationally invariant state under a Hamiltonian with a localized defect. We discern the situations where a light cone spreads out from the defect and separates the system into regions with macroscopically different properties. We identify the light cone and propose a procedure to obtain a (quasi)stationary state describing the late time dynamics of local observables. As an explicit example, we study the time evolution generated by the Hamiltonian of the transverse-field Ising chain with a local defect that cuts the interaction between two sites (a quench of the boundary conditions alongside a global quench). We solve the dynamics exactly and show that the late time properties can be obtained with the general method proposed.

  4. Inhibiting translation elongation can aid genome duplication in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Myka, Kamila K; Hawkins, Michelle; Syeda, Aisha H; Gupta, Milind K; Meharg, Caroline; Dillingham, Mark S; Savery, Nigel J; Lloyd, Robert G; McGlynn, Peter

    2016-12-11

    Conflicts between replication and transcription challenge chromosome duplication. Escherichia coli replisome movement along transcribed DNA is promoted by Rep and UvrD accessory helicases with Δrep ΔuvrD cells being inviable under rapid growth conditions. We have discovered that mutations in a tRNA gene, aspT, in an aminoacyl tRNA synthetase, AspRS, and in a translation factor needed for efficient proline-proline bond formation, EF-P, suppress Δrep ΔuvrD lethality. Thus replication-transcription conflicts can be alleviated by the partial sacrifice of a mechanism that reduces replicative barriers, namely translating ribosomes that reduce RNA polymerase backtracking. Suppression depends on RelA-directed synthesis of (p)ppGpp, a signalling molecule that reduces replication-transcription conflicts, with RelA activation requiring ribosomal pausing. Levels of (p)ppGpp in these suppressors also correlate inversely with the need for Rho activity, an RNA translocase that can bind to emerging transcripts and displace transcription complexes. These data illustrate the fine balance between different mechanisms in facilitating gene expression and genome duplication and demonstrate that accessory helicases are a major determinant of this balance. This balance is also critical for other aspects of bacterial survival: the mutations identified here increase persistence indicating that similar mutations could arise in naturally occurring bacterial populations facing antibiotic challenge.

  5. Decoding of the sound frequency from the steady-state neural activities in rat auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Shiramatsu, Tomoyo I; Noda, Takahiro; Kanzaki, Ryohei; Takahashi, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    In the auditory cortex, onset activities have been extensively investigated as a cortical representation of sound information such as sound frequency. Yet, less attention has been paid to date to steady-state activities following the onset activities. In this study, we used machine learning to investigate whether steady-state activities in the presence of continuous sounds represent the sound frequency. Sparse Logistic Regression (SLR) decoded the sound frequency from band specific power or phase locking value (PLV) of local field potentials (LFP) from the fourth layer of the auditory cortex of anesthetized rats. Consequently, we found that SLR was able to decode the sound frequency from steady-state neural activities as well as onset activities. This result demonstrates that the steady-state activities contain information about the sound such as sound frequency.

  6. Technical challenges in the construction of the steady-state stellarator Wendelstein 7-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, H.-S.; Wolf, R. C.; Andreeva, T.; Baldzuhn, J.; Birus, D.; Bluhm, T.; Bräuer, T.; Braune, H.; Bykov, V.; Cardella, A.; Durodié, F.; Endler, M.; Erckmann, V.; Gantenbein, G.; Hartmann, D.; Hathiramani, D.; Heimann, P.; Heinemann, B.; Hennig, C.; Hirsch, M.; Holtum, D.; Jagielski, J.; Jelonnek, J.; Kasparek, W.; Klinger, T.; König, R.; Kornejew, P.; Kroiss, H.; Krom, J. G.; Kühner, G.; Laqua, H.; Laqua, H. P.; Lechte, C.; Lewerentz, M.; Maier, J.; McNeely, P.; Messiaen, A.; Michel, G.; Ongena, J.; Peacock, A.; Pedersen, T. S.; Riedl, R.; Riemann, H.; Rong, P.; Rust, N.; Schacht, J.; Schauer, F.; Schroeder, R.; Schweer, B.; Spring, A.; Stäbler, A.; Thumm, M.; Turkin, Y.; Wegener, L.; Werner, A.; Zhang, D.; Zilker, M.; Akijama, T.; Alzbutas, R.; Ascasibar, E.; Balden, M.; Banduch, M.; Baylard, Ch.; Behr, W.; Beidler, C.; Benndorf, A.; Bergmann, T.; Biedermann, C.; Bieg, B.; Biel, W.; Borchardt, M.; Borowitz, G.; Borsuk, V.; Bozhenkov, S.; Brakel, R.; Brand, H.; Brown, T.; Brucker, B.; Burhenn, R.; Buscher, K.-P.; Caldwell-Nichols, C.; Cappa, A.; Cardella, A.; Carls, A.; Carvalho, P.; Ciupiński, Ł.; Cole, M.; Collienne, J.; Czarnecka, A.; Czymek, G.; Dammertz, G.; Dhard, C. P.; Davydenko, V. I.; Dinklage, A.; Drevlak, M.; Drotziger, S.; Dudek, A.; Dumortier, P.; Dundulis, G.; Eeten, P. v.; Egorov, K.; Estrada, T.; Faugel, H.; Fellinger, J.; Feng, Y.; Fernandes, H.; Fietz, W. H.; Figacz, W.; Fischer, F.; Fontdecaba, J.; Freund, A.; Funaba, T.; Fünfgelder, H.; Galkowski, A.; Gates, D.; Giannone, L.; García Regaña, J. M.; Geiger, J.; Geißler, S.; Greuner, H.; Grahl, M.; Groß, S.; Grosman, A.; Grote, H.; Grulke, O.; Haas, M.; Haiduk, L.; Hartfuß, H.-J.; Harris, J. H.; Haus, D.; Hein, B.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Helander, P.; Heller, R.; Hidalgo, C.; Hildebrandt, D.; Höhnle, H.; Holtz, A.; Holzhauer, E.; Holzthüm, R.; Huber, A.; Hunger, H.; Hurd, F.; Ihrke, M.; Illy, S.; Ivanov, A.; Jablonski, S.; Jaksic, N.; Jakubowski, M.; Jaspers, R.; Jensen, H.; Jenzsch, H.; Kacmarczyk, J.; Kaliatk, T.; Kallmeyer, J.; Kamionka, U.; Karaleviciu, R.; Kern, S.; Keunecke, M.; Kleiber, R.; Knauer, J.; Koch, R.; Kocsis, G.; Könies, A.; Köppen, M.; Koslowski, R.; Koshurinov, J.; Krämer-Flecken, A.; Krampitz, R.; Kravtsov, Y.; Krychowiak, M.; Krzesinski, G.; Ksiazek, I.; Kubkowska, M.; Kus, A.; Langish, S.; Laube, R.; Laux, M.; Lazerson, S.; Lennartz, M.; Li, C.; Lietzow, R.; Lohs, A.; Lorenz, A.; Louche, F.; Lubyako, L.; Lumsdaine, A.; Lyssoivan, A.; Maaßberg, H.; Marek, P.; Martens, C.; Marushchenko, N.; Mayer, M.; Mendelevitch, B.; Mertens, Ph.; Mikkelsen, D.; Mishchenko, A.; Missal, B.; Mizuuchi, T.; Modrow, H.; Mönnich, T.; Morizaki, T.; Murakami, S.; Musielok, F.; Nagel, M.; Naujoks, D.; Neilson, H.; Neubauer, O.; Neuner, U.; Nocentini, R.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Nührenberg, C.; Obermayer, S.; Offermanns, G.; Oosterbeek, H.; Otte, M.; Panin, A.; Pap, M.; Paquay, S.; Pasch, E.; Peng, X.; Petrov, S.; Pilopp, D.; Pirsch, H.; Plaum, B.; Pompon, F.; Povilaitis, M.; Preinhaelter, J.; Prinz, O.; Purps, F.; Rajna, T.; Récsei, S.; Reiman, A.; Reiter, D.; Remmel, J.; Renard, S.; Rhode, V.; Riemann, J.; Rimkevicius, S.; Riße, K.; Rodatos, A.; Rodin, I.; Romé, M.; Roscher, H.-J.; Rummel, K.; Rummel, Th.; Runov, A.; Ryc, L.; Sachtleben, J.; Samartsev, A.; Sanchez, M.; Sano, F.; Scarabosio, A.; Schmid, M.; Schmitz, H.; Schmitz, O.; Schneider, M.; Schneider, W.; Scheibl, L.; Scholz, M.; Schröder, G.; Schröder, M.; Schruff, J.; Schumacher, H.; Shikhovtsev, I. V.; Shoji, M.; Siegl, G.; Skodzik, J.; Smirnow, M.; Speth, E.; Spong, D. A.; Stadler, R.; Sulek, Z.; Szabó, V.; Szabolics, T.; Szetefi, T.; Szökefalvi-Nagy, Z.; Tereshchenko, A.; Thomsen, H.; Thumm, M.; Timmermann, D.; Tittes, H.; Toi, K.; Tournianski, M.; Toussaint, U. v.; Tretter, J.; Tulipán, S.; Turba, P.; Uhlemann, R.; Urban, J.; Urbonavicius, E.; Urlings, P.; Valet, S.; Van Eester, D.; Van Schoor, M.; Vervier, M.; Viebke, H.; Vilbrandt, R.; Vrancken, M.; Wauters, T.; Weissgerber, M.; Weiß, E.; Weller, A.; Wendorf, J.; Wenzel, U.; Windisch, T.; Winkler, E.; Winkler, M.; Wolowski, J.; Wolters, J.; Wrochna, G.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Yamada, H.; Yokoyama, M.; Zacharias, D.; Zajac, J.; Zangl, G.; Zarnstorff, M.; Zeplien, H.; Zoletnik, S.; Zuin, M.

    2013-12-01

    The next step in the Wendelstein stellarator line is the large superconducting device Wendelstein 7-X, currently under construction in Greifswald, Germany. Steady-state operation is an intrinsic feature of stellarators, and one key element of the Wendelstein 7-X mission is to demonstrate steady-state operation under plasma conditions relevant for a fusion power plant. Steady-state operation of a fusion device, on the one hand, requires the implementation of special technologies, giving rise to technical challenges during the design, fabrication and assembly of such a device. On the other hand, also the physics development of steady-state operation at high plasma performance poses a challenge and careful preparation. The electron cyclotron resonance heating system, diagnostics, experiment control and data acquisition are prepared for plasma operation lasting 30 min. This requires many new technological approaches for plasma heating and diagnostics as well as new concepts for experiment control and data acquisition.

  7. Aspects of steady-state operation of the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    Geiger, J.; Wolf, R. C.; Beidler, C.; Cardella, A.; Chlechowitz, E.; Erckmann, V.; Gantenbein, G.; Hathiramani, D.; Hirsch, M.; Kasparek, W.; Kißlinger, J.; König, R.; Kornejew, P.; Laqua, H. P.; Lechte, C.; Lore, J.; Lumsdaine, A.; Maaßberg, H.; Marushchenko, N. B.; Michel, G.; Otte, M.; Peacock, A.; Sunn Pedersen, T.; Thumm, M.; Turkin, Y.; Werner, A.; Zhang, D.

    2012-12-17

    The objective of Wendelstein 7-X is to demonstrate steady-state operation at -values of up to 5%, at ion temperatures of several keV and plasma densities of up to 2 1020 m 3. The second operational phase foresees a fully steady-state high heat flux (HHF) divertor. Preparations are underway to cope with residual bootstrap currents, either by electron cyclotron current drive or by HHF protection elements. The main steady-state heating system is an electron cyclotron resonance heating facility. Various technical improvements of the gyrotrons have been implemented recently. They enable a reliable operation at the 1MW power level. Some of the technical issues preparing plasma diagnostics for steady-state operation are exemplified. This includes the protection against non-absorbed microwave radiation.

  8. Technical challenges in the construction of the steady-state stellarator Wendelstein 7-X

    SciTech Connect

    Bosch, H.-S.; Wolf, R. C.; Andreeva, T.; Cardella, A; Erckmann, V.; Gantenbein, G; Hathiramani, D; Kasparek, W; Klinger, T.; Koenig, R; Kornejew, P; Laqua, H P; Lechte, C; Michel, G; Peacock, A.; Sunn Pedersen, T; Thumm, M; Turkin, Yu.; Wegener, Lutz; Werner, A.; Zhang, D; Beidler, C.; Bozhenkov, S.; Brown, T.; Geiger, J.; Harris, Jeffrey H; Heitzenroeder, P.; Lumsdaine, Arnold; Maassberg, H.; Marushchenko, N B; Neilson, G. H.; Otte, M; Rummel, Thomas; Spong, Donald A; Tretter, Jorg

    2013-01-01

    The next step in the Wendelstein stellarator line is the large superconducting device Wendelstein 7-X, currently under construction in Greifswald, Germany. Steady-state operation is an intrinsic feature of stellarators, and one key element of the Wendelstein 7-X mission is to demonstrate steady-state operation under plasma conditions relevant for a fusion power plant. Steady-state operation of a fusion device, on the one hand, requires the implementation of special technologies, giving rise to technical challenges during the design, fabrication and assembly of such a device. On the other hand, also the physics development of steady-state operation at high plasma performance poses a challenge and careful preparation. The electron cyclotron resonance heating system, diagnostics, experiment control and data acquisition are prepared for plasma operation lasting 30 min. This requires many new technological approaches for plasma heating and diagnostics as well as new concepts for experiment control and data acquisition.

  9. Jaynes' MaxEnt, Steady State Flow Systems and the Maximum Entropy Production Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niven, Robert K.

    2009-12-01

    Jaynes' maximum entropy (MaxEnt) principle was recently used to give a conditional, local derivation of the "maximum entropy production" (MEP) principle, which states that a flow system with fixed flow(s) or gradient(s) will converge to a steady state of maximum production of thermodynamic entropy (R. K. Niven, Phys. Rev. E, 80(2) (2009) 021113). The analysis provides a steady state analog of the MaxEnt formulation of equilibrium thermodynamics, applicable to many complex flow systems at steady state. The present study examines the classification of physical systems, with emphasis on the choice of constraints in MaxEnt. The discussion clarifies the distinction between equilibrium, fluid flow, source/sink, flow/reactive and other systems, leading into an appraisal of the application of MaxEnt to steady state flow and reactive systems.

  10. Spin-locked balanced steady-state free-precession (slSSFP).

    PubMed

    Witschey, Walter R T; Borthakur, Ari; Elliott, Mark A; Magland, Jeremy; McArdle, Erin L; Wheaton, Andrew; Reddy, Ravinder

    2009-10-01

    A spin-locked balanced steady-state free-precession (slSSFP) pulse sequence is described that combines a balanced gradient-echo acquisition with an off-resonance spin-lock pulse for fast MRI. The transient and steady-state magnetization trajectory was solved numerically using the Bloch equations and was shown to be similar to balanced steady-state free-precession (bSSFP) for a range of T(2)/T(1) and flip angles, although the slSSFP steady-state could be maintained with considerably lower radio frequency (RF) power. In both simulations and brain scans performed at 7T, slSSFP was shown to exhibit similar contrast and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) efficiency to bSSFP, but with significantly lower power.

  11. Absolute Steady-State Thermal Conductivity Measurements by Use of a Transient Hot-Wire System.

    PubMed

    Roder, H M; Perkins, R A; Laesecke, A; Nieto de Castro, C A

    2000-01-01

    A transient hot-wire apparatus was used to measure the thermal conductivity of argon with both steady-state and transient methods. The effects of wire diameter, eccentricity of the wire in the cavity, axial conduction, and natural convection were accounted for in the analysis of the steady-state measurements. Based on measurements on argon, the relative uncertainty at the 95 % level of confidence of the new steady-state measurements is 2 % at low densities. Using the same hot wires, the relative uncertainty of the transient measurements is 1 % at the 95 % level of confidence. This is the first report of thermal conductivity measurements made by two different methods in the same apparatus. The steady-state method is shown to complement normal transient measurements at low densities, particularly for fluids where the thermophysical properties at low densities are not known with high accuracy.

  12. SAMPLING DURATION DEPENDENCE OF SEMI-CONTINUOUS ORGANIC CARBON MEASUREMENTS ON STEADY STATE SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Semi-continuous organic carbon concentrations were measured through several experiments of statically generated secondary organic aerosol formed by hydrocarbon + NOx irradiations. Repeated, randomized measurements of these steady state aerosols reveal decreases in the observed c...

  13. A model for electrophoretic transport of charged particles through membrane before steady state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Tatiana Miranda; Fragoso, Viviane Muniz da Silva; Cruz, Frederico Alan de Oliveira

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we are presenting a model for electrophoretic motion of a charged particle through the membrane before it reaches the steady state, based on concepts of Physics. Some results from analysis of the model are discussed.

  14. Quasi steady-state aerodynamic model development for race vehicle simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohrfeld-Halterman, J. A.; Uddin, M.

    2016-01-01

    Presented in this paper is a procedure to develop a high fidelity quasi steady-state aerodynamic model for use in race car vehicle dynamic simulations. Developed to fit quasi steady-state wind tunnel data, the aerodynamic model is regressed against three independent variables: front ground clearance, rear ride height, and yaw angle. An initial dual range model is presented and then further refined to reduce the model complexity while maintaining a high level of predictive accuracy. The model complexity reduction decreases the required amount of wind tunnel data thereby reducing wind tunnel testing time and cost. The quasi steady-state aerodynamic model for the pitch moment degree of freedom is systematically developed in this paper. This same procedure can be extended to the other five aerodynamic degrees of freedom to develop a complete six degree of freedom quasi steady-state aerodynamic model for any vehicle.

  15. On the theory of steady-state crystallization with a non-equilibrium mushy layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, D. V.; Alexandrova, I. V.; Ivanov, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    Complete analytical solutions of nonlinear equations describing the steady-state directional crystallization of binary melts with a nonequilibrium mushy layer, where the processes of nucleation and growth of crystals occur, are constructed.

  16. A closed-loop control scheme for steering steady states of glycolysis and glycogenolysis pathway.

    PubMed

    Panja, Surajit; Patra, Sourav; Mukherjee, Anirban; Basu, Madhumita; Sengupta, Sanghamitra; Dutta, Pranab K

    2013-01-01

    Biochemical networks normally operate in the neighborhood of one of its multiple steady states. It may reach from one steady state to other within a finite time span. In this paper, a closed-loop control scheme is proposed to steer states of the glycolysis and glycogenolysis (GG) pathway from one of its steady states to other. The GG pathway is modeled in the synergism and saturation system formalism, known as S-system. This S-system model is linearized into the controllable Brunovsky canonical form using a feedback linearization technique. For closed-loop control, the linear-quadratic regulator (LQR) and the linear-quadratic gaussian (LQG) regulator are invoked to design a controller for tracking prespecified steady states. In the feedback linearization technique, a global diffeomorphism function is proposed that facilitates in achieving the regulation requirement. The robustness of the regulated GG pathway is studied considering input perturbation and with measurement noise.

  17. Prediction of elemental creep. [steady state and cyclic data from regression analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. W.; Rummler, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    Cyclic and steady-state creep tests were performed to provide data which were used to develop predictive equations. These equations, describing creep as a function of stress, temperature, and time, were developed through the use of a least squares regression analyses computer program for both the steady-state and cyclic data sets. Comparison of the data from the two types of tests, revealed that there was no significant difference between the cyclic and steady-state creep strains for the L-605 sheet under the experimental conditions investigated (for the same total time at load). Attempts to develop a single linear equation describing the combined steady-state and cyclic creep data resulted in standard errors of estimates higher than obtained for the individual data sets. A proposed approach to predict elemental creep in metals uses the cyclic creep equation and a computer program which applies strain and time hardening theories of creep accumulation.

  18. Nonexistence of nonconstant steady-state solutions in a triangular cross-diffusion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Yuan; Tao, Youshan; Winkler, Michael

    2017-05-01

    In this paper we study the Shigesada-Kawasaki-Teramoto model for two competing species with triangular cross-diffusion. We determine explicit parameter ranges within which the model exclusively possesses constant steady state solutions.

  19. Steady-state existence of passive vector fields under the Kraichnan model.

    PubMed

    Arponen, Heikki

    2010-03-01

    The steady-state existence problem for Kraichnan advected passive vector models is considered for isotropic and anisotropic initial values in arbitrary dimension. The models include the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, linear pressure model, and linearized Navier-Stokes (LNS) equations. In addition to reproducing the previously known results for the MHD model, we obtain the values of the Kraichnan model roughness parameter xi for which the LNS steady state exists.

  20. The effect of oxygen on denitrification during steady-state growth of Paracoccus halodenitrificans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, L. I.; Betlach, M.; Kritikos, G.

    1984-01-01

    Steady-state cultures of Paracoccus halodenitrificans were grown anaerobically prior to establishing steady states at different concentrations of oxygen. In the absence of oxygen, nitrate-limited cultures produced dinitrogen, and as the oxygen supply increased, these cultures produced nitrous oxide, then nitrite. These changes reflected two phenomena: the inactivation of nitrous oxide reductase by oxygen and the diversion of electrons from nitrite to oxygen.

  1. Mathematical modeling of electroless nickel deposition at steady state using rotating disk electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Y.S.; Sohn, H.J.

    1996-02-01

    Mathematical modeling of electroless nickel deposition was performed to predict the phosphorus content in Ni-P alloy film at steady state using the rotating disk system. The model consists of steady-state convective diffusion equations with nonlinear boundary conditions and overpotential equations satisfying the mixed potential theory. The weight percent of phosphorus predicted in Ni-P alloy agrees well with the experimental values within the experimental conditions carried out.

  2. Steady states of a diode with counterstreaming electron and positron beams

    SciTech Connect

    Ender, A. Ya.; Kuznetsov, V. I. Gruzdev, A. A.

    2016-10-15

    Steady states of a plasma layer with counterstreaming beams of oppositely charged particles moving without collisions in a self-consistent electric field are analyzed. The study is aimed at clarifying the mechanism of generation and reconstruction of pulsar radiation. Such a layer also models the processes occurring in Knudsen plasma diodes with counterstreaming electron and ion beams. The steady-state solutions are exhaustively classified. The existence of several solutions at the same external parameters is established.

  3. Steady-state 2. pi. pulses under conditions of passive locking of laser modes

    SciTech Connect

    Komarov, K.P.; Ugozhaev, V.D.

    1984-06-01

    A theoretical study is made of laser mode locking in the regime of self-induced transparency of a passive filter. It is shown that there is a solution in the form of ultrashort steady-state 2..pi.. pulses. The range of stability of this regime and its characteristics are determined. By way of example, estimates are obtained of parameters of a steady-state pulse emitted by an alexandrite laser with a potassium absorption cell.

  4. Proof of the finite-time thermodynamic uncertainty relation for steady-state currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horowitz, Jordan M.; Gingrich, Todd R.

    2017-08-01

    The thermodynamic uncertainty relation offers a universal energetic constraint on the relative magnitude of current fluctuations in nonequilibrium steady states. However, it has only been derived for long observation times. Here, we prove a recently conjectured finite-time thermodynamic uncertainty relation for steady-state current fluctuations. Our proof is based on a quadratic bound to the large deviation rate function for currents in the limit of a large ensemble of many copies.

  5. Bifurcation analysis of steady-state flows in the lid-driven cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuriev, A. N.; Egorov, A. G.; Zaitseva, O. N.

    2016-12-01

    The paper is devoted to the study of the non-uniqueness issues of a steady-state flow in the square lid-driven cavity. A range 0\\lt {Re} \\lt 20000 of Reynolds numbers is considered in which a numerical bifurcation analysis is carried out. The analysis allows us to localize several branches of the steady-state solution and also to investigate their stability.

  6. Steady-state entanglement of a Bose-Einstein condensate and a nanomechanical resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Asjad, Muhammad; Saif, Farhan

    2011-09-15

    We analyze the steady-state entanglement between Bose-Einstein condensate trapped inside an optical cavity with a moving end mirror (nanomechanical resonator) driven by a single mode laser. The quantized laser field mediates the interaction between the Bose-Einstein condensate and nanomechanical resonator. In particular, we study the influence of temperature on the entanglement of the coupled system, and note that the steady-state entanglement is fragile with respect to temperature.

  7. Two Dimensional Steady State Eddy Current Analysis of a Spinning Conducting Cylinder

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-09

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 855 Technical Report ARMET-TR-16045 TWO-DIMENSIONAL STEADY-STATE EDDY CURRENT ANALYSIS OF A...any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN...August 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TWO-DIMENSIONAL STEADY-STATE EDDY CURRENT ANALYSIS OF A SPINNING CONDUCTING CYLINDER 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  8. Steady-state ab initio laser theory for N-level lasers.

    PubMed

    Cerjan, Alexander; Chong, Yidong; Ge, Li; Stone, A Douglas

    2012-01-02

    We show that Steady-state Ab initio Laser Theory (SALT) can be applied to find the stationary multimode lasing properties of an N-level laser. This is achieved by mapping the N-level rate equations to an effective two-level model of the type solved by the SALT algorithm. This mapping yields excellent agreement with more computationally demanding N-level time domain solutions for the steady state.

  9. The effect of oxygen on denitrification during steady-state growth of Paracoccus halodenitrificans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, L. I.; Betlach, M.; Kritikos, G.

    1984-01-01

    Steady-state cultures of Paracoccus halodenitrificans were grown anaerobically prior to establishing steady states at different concentrations of oxygen. In the absence of oxygen, nitrate-limited cultures produced dinitrogen, and as the oxygen supply increased, these cultures produced nitrous oxide, then nitrite. These changes reflected two phenomena: the inactivation of nitrous oxide reductase by oxygen and the diversion of electrons from nitrite to oxygen.

  10. Chemical and Steady-State Kinetic Analyses of a Heterologously Expressed Heme Dependent Chlorite Dismutase†

    PubMed Central

    Streit, Bennett R.; DuBois, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    Chlorite dismutase carries out the heme-catalyzed decomposition of ClO2– to Cl– and O2, an unusual transformation with biotechnological and bioremediative applications. The enzyme has been successfully overexpressed for the first time in highly functional form in Escherichia coli and its steady state kinetics studied. The purified enzyme is abundant (55 mg/L cell culture), highly active (~4.7 × 103 μmol of ClO2– min–1 mg–1 subunit) and nearly stoichiometric in heme; further, it shares spectroscopic and physicochemical features with chlorite dismutases previously isolated from three organisms. A careful study of the enzyme's steady state kinetics has been carried out. ClO2– consumption and O2 release rates were measured, yielding comparable values of kcat (4.5 × 105 min–1), Km (~215 μM), and kcat/Km (3.5 × 107 M–1 s–1) via either method (4 °C, pH 6.8; all values referenced per heme-containing subunit). ClO2–:O2 stoichiometry exhibited a 1:1 relationship under all conditions measured. Though the value of kcat/Km indicates near diffusion control of the reaction, viscosogens had no effect on kcat/Km or Vmax. The product O2 did not inhibit the reaction at saturating [O2], but Cl– is a mixed inhibitor with relatively high values of KI (225 mM for enzyme and 95.6 mM for the enzyme–substrate complex), indicating a relatively low affinity of the heme iron for halogen ions. Chlorite irreversibly inactivates the enzyme after ~1.7 × 104 turnovers (per heme) and with a half-life of 0.39 min, resulting in bleaching of the heme chromophore. The inactivation KI (Kinact) of 166 μM is similar in magnitude to Km, consistent with a common Michaelis complex on the pathway to both reaction and inactivation. The one-electron peroxidase substrate guaiacol offers incomplete protection of the enzyme from inactivation. Mechanisms in keeping with the available data and the properties of other well-described heme enzymes are proposed. PMID:18422344

  11. Steady-State Hydrogen Peroxide Induces Glycolysis in Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xin; Liang, Haihua; Ulanovskaya, Olesya A.; Ji, Quanjiang; Zhou, Tianhong; Sun, Fei; Lu, Zhike; Hutchison, Alan L.; Lan, Lefu; Wu, Min; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2014-01-01

    Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) from human pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa can be readily inhibited by reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated direct oxidation of their catalytic active cysteines. Because of the rapid degradation of H2O2 by bacterial catalase, only steady-state but not one-dose treatment with H2O2 rapidly induces glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). We conducted transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) analyses to globally profile the bacterial transcriptomes in response to a steady level of H2O2, which revealed profound transcriptional changes, including the induced expression of glycolytic genes in both bacteria. Our results revealed that the inactivation of GAPDH by H2O2 induces metabolic levels of glycolysis and the PPP; the elevated levels of fructose 1,6-biphosphate (FBP) and 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate (KDPG) lead to dissociation of their corresponding glycolytic repressors (GapR and HexR, respectively) from their cognate promoters, thus resulting in derepression of the glycolytic genes to overcome H2O2-stalled glycolysis in S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, respectively. Both GapR and HexR may directly sense oxidative stresses, such as menadione. PMID:24769698

  12. The Effects of High Steady State Auxin Levels on Root Cell Elongation in Brachypodium[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco-Villalobos, David; Tamaki, Takayuki; Gujas, Bojan; Jaspert, Nina; Oecking, Claudia; Bulone, Vincent; Hardtke, Christian S.

    2016-01-01

    The long-standing Acid Growth Theory of plant cell elongation posits that auxin promotes cell elongation by stimulating cell wall acidification and thus expansin action. To date, the paucity of pertinent genetic materials has precluded thorough analysis of the importance of this concept in roots. The recent isolation of mutants of the model grass species Brachypodium distachyon with dramatically enhanced root cell elongation due to increased cellular auxin levels has allowed us to address this question. We found that the primary transcriptomic effect associated with elevated steady state auxin concentration in elongating root cells is upregulation of cell wall remodeling factors, notably expansins, while plant hormone signaling pathways maintain remarkable homeostasis. These changes are specifically accompanied by reduced cell wall arabinogalactan complexity but not by increased proton excretion. On the contrary, we observed a tendency for decreased rather than increased proton extrusion from root elongation zones with higher cellular auxin levels. Moreover, similar to Brachypodium, root cell elongation is, in general, robustly buffered against external pH fluctuation in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, forced acidification through artificial proton pump activation inhibits root cell elongation. Thus, the interplay between auxin, proton pump activation, and expansin action may be more flexible in roots than in shoots. PMID:27169463

  13. Effects of various salts on the steady-state enzymatic activity of E. coli alkaline phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Poe, R W; Sangadala, V S; Brewer, J M

    1993-05-15

    Seventeen salts were tested at various concentrations for their effects on E. coli alkaline phosphatase steady-state activity. Three effects were distinguished: a general ionic strength effect, and weaker cation and anion effects. 1. All salts tested, including those with "noninteracting" cations and anions, stimulate alkaline phosphatase activity usually ca. 100% at moderate (0.05-0.3 M) concentrations. 2. Cations such as Na+ and Li+ produce further increases in activity at concentrations up to 1 M. The noninteracting cations tetramethylammonium and tetrapropylammonium produce lower activities at these concentrations. These do not provide the secondary stimulatory effect of cations such as Na+ or Li+. 3. Anions associated with greater "salting in" effectiveness such as thiocyanate also reduce activity at ca. 1 M concentrations. These latter effects are not dependent on protein concentration so they probably do not involve subunit dissociation. There is little effect on the fluorescence or fluorescence-polarization spectrum of the enzyme so there is no general effect of 1 M salts on the conformation of the protein. The Michaelis constant for the substrate, p-nitrophenylphosphate, and inhibition constant for inorganic phosphate are increased to some extent by salts, but the increase in activity is due to an increase in Vmax. Our working hypothesis is that increased ionic strength weakens electrostatic interactions, enabling noncovalently bound phosphate to dissociate more rapidly.

  14. Periodically driven Kondo impurity in nonequilibrium steady states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwahori, Koudai; Kawakami, Norio

    2016-12-01

    We study the nonequilibrium dynamics of a periodically driven anisotropic Kondo impurity model. The periodic time dependence is introduced for a local magnetic field which couples to the impurity spin and also for an in-plane exchange interaction. We obtain the exact results on the time evolution for arbitrary periodic time dependence at the special point in the parameter space known as the Toulouse limit. We first consider a specific case where the local magnetic field is periodically switched on and off. When the driving period is much shorter than the inverse of the Kondo temperature, an intriguing oscillating behavior (resonance phenomenon) emerges in the time average of the impurity spin polarization with increasing the local magnetic field intensity. By taking the high-frequency limit of the external driving, we elucidate that the system recovers the translational invariance in time and can be described by a mixture of the zero-temperature and infinite-temperature properties. In certain cases, the system is governed by either zero-temperature or infinite-temperature properties and, therefore, can be properly described by the corresponding equilibrium state.

  15. Steady state effects in a two-pulse diffusion-weighted sequence

    SciTech Connect

    Zubkov, Mikhail; Stait-Gardner, Timothy; Price, William S.; Stilbs, Peter

    2015-04-21

    In conventional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) diffusion measurements a significant amount of experimental time is used up by magnetization recovery, serving to prevent the formation of the steady state, as in the latter case the manifestation of diffusion is modulated by multiple applications of the pulse sequence and conventional diffusion coefficient inference procedures are generally not applicable. Here, an analytical expression for diffusion-related effects in a two-pulse NMR experiment (e.g., pulsed-gradient spin echo) in the steady state mode (with repetition times less than the longitudinal relaxation time of the sample) is derived by employing a Fourier series expansion within the solution of the Bloch-Torrey equations. Considerations are given for the transition conditions between the full relaxation and the steady state experiment description. The diffusion coefficient of a polymer solution (polyethylene glycol) is measured by a two-pulse sequence in the full relaxation mode and for a range of repetition times, approaching the rapid steady state experiment. The precision of the fitting employing the presented steady state solution by far exceeds that of the conventional fitting. Additionally, numerical simulations are performed yielding results strongly supporting the proposed description of the NMR diffusion measurements in the steady state.

  16. Steady-state MR imaging sequences: physics, classification, and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Chavhan, Govind B; Babyn, Paul S; Jankharia, Bhavin G; Cheng, Hai-Ling M; Shroff, Manohar M

    2008-01-01

    Steady-state sequences are a class of rapid magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques based on fast gradient-echo acquisitions in which both longitudinal magnetization (LM) and transverse magnetization (TM) are kept constant. Both LM and TM reach a nonzero steady state through the use of a repetition time that is shorter than the T2 relaxation time of tissue. When TM is maintained as multiple radiofrequency excitation pulses are applied, two types of signal are formed once steady state is reached: preexcitation signal (S-) from echo reformation; and postexcitation signal (S+), which consists of free induction decay. Depending on the signal sampled and used to form an image, steady-state sequences can be classified as (a) postexcitation refocused (only S+ is sampled), (b) preexcitation refocused (only S- is sampled), and (c) fully refocused (both S+ and S- are sampled) sequences. All tissues with a reasonably long T2 relaxation time will show additional signals due to various refocused echo paths. Steady-state sequences have revolutionized cardiac imaging and have become the standard for anatomic functional cardiac imaging and for the assessment of myocardial viability because of their good signal-to-noise ratio and contrast-to-noise ratio and increased speed of acquisition. They are also useful in abdominal and fetal imaging and hold promise for interventional MR imaging. Because steady-state sequences are now commonly used in MR imaging, radiologists will benefit from understanding the underlying physics, classification, and clinical applications of these sequences.

  17. Efficient steady-state solution techniques for variably saturated groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farthing, Matthew W.; Kees, Christopher E.; Coffey, Todd S.; Kelley, C. T.; Miller, Cass T.

    We consider the simulation of steady-state variably saturated groundwater flow using Richards' equation (RE). The difficulties associated with solving RE numerically are well known. Most discretization approaches for RE lead to nonlinear systems that are large and difficult to solve. The solution of nonlinear systems for steady-state problems can be particularly challenging, since a good initial guess for the steady-state solution is often hard to obtain, and the resulting linear systems may be poorly scaled. Common approaches like Picard iteration or variations of Newton's method have their advantages but perform poorly with standard globalization techniques under certain conditions. Pseudo-transient continuation has been used in computational fluid dynamics for some time to obtain steady-state solutions for problems in which Newton's method with standard line-search strategies fails. Here, we examine the use of pseudo-transient continuation as well as Newton's method combined with standard globalization techniques for steady-state problems in heterogeneous domains. We investigate the methods' performance with direct and preconditioned Krylov iterative linear solvers. We then make recommendations for robust and efficient approaches to obtain steady-state solutions for RE under a range of conditions.

  18. Illustrating the Steady-State Condition and the Single-Molecule Kinetic Method with the NMDA Receptor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosman, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    The steady-state is a fundamental aspect of biochemical pathways in cells; indeed, the concept of steady-state is a definition of life itself. In a simple enzyme kinetic scheme, the steady-state condition is easy to define analytically but experimentally often difficult to capture because of its evanescent quality; the initial, constant velocity…

  19. Illustrating the Steady-State Condition and the Single-Molecule Kinetic Method with the NMDA Receptor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosman, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    The steady-state is a fundamental aspect of biochemical pathways in cells; indeed, the concept of steady-state is a definition of life itself. In a simple enzyme kinetic scheme, the steady-state condition is easy to define analytically but experimentally often difficult to capture because of its evanescent quality; the initial, constant velocity…

  20. Steady state pharmacokinetics of trimethoprim 300 mg once daily in healthy volunteers assessed by two independent methods.

    PubMed

    Odlind, B; Hartvig, P; Fjellström, K E; Lindström, B; Bengtsson, S

    1984-01-01

    The steady state pharmacokinetics of trimethoprim was determined after 300 mg orally once daily to 6 healthy volunteers for 9 days. The microbiological assay of plasma level was unreliable at trimethoprim concentrations greater than 4 micrograms/ml, so results from an HPLC-assay are given. Steady state was present after 3 days. The plasma concentration peaked 1 to 4 h (mean 2.0 h) after the dose at a mean of 6.0 micrograms/ml (range 3.1-9.5 micrograms/ml); the minimum value was 1.5 micrograms/ml (range 0.6-2.9 micrograms/ml). The mean AUCss was 77 micrograms/ml X h and the mean plasma clearances was 67 and 74 ml/min on Days 8 and 9. Renal clearance was about 60% of the plasma clearance. The average plasma half life was 10.6 h (range 8.7-15.3 h). Thus, there was considerable interindividual variation in all pharmacokinetic parameters. 72 h after the last dose trimethoprim was detectable in plasma in only 1 of the 6 subjects. The minimum urinary concentration of trimethoprim during treatment was always well above (range 22 to 220 micrograms/ml) the MIC values for most urinary tract pathogens. Therefore, a daily dose of 300 mg trimethoprim results in a therapeutic concentration in urine at steady state that lasts throughout the dosing interval and in most subjects probably lasts also for a further 24 h. Trimethoprim administration raised mean serum creatinine from 67 to 97 mumol/l, probably due to competitive inhibition of the tubular secretion of creatinine.

  1. A cross-bridge based model of force depression: Can a single modification address both transient and steady-state behaviors?

    PubMed

    Corr, David T; Herzog, Walter

    2016-03-21

    Force depression (FD), the reduction of isometric force following active shortening, is a phenomenon of skeletal muscle that has received significant attention in biomechanical and physiological literature, yet the mechanisms underlying FD remain unknown. Recent experiments identified a slower rate of force redevelopment with increasing amounts of steady-state FD, suggesting that FD may be caused, at least in part, by a decrease in cross-bridge binding rate (Corr and Herzog, 2005; Koppes et al., 2014). Herein, we develop a cross-bridge based model of FD in which the binding rate function, f, decreases with the mechanical work performed during shortening. This modification incorporates a direct relationship between steady-state FD and muscle mechanical work (Corr and Herzog, 2005; Herzog et al., 2000; Kosterina et al., 2008), and is consistent with a proposed mechanism attributing FD to stress-induced inhibition of cross-bridge attachments (Herzog, 1998; Maréchal and Plaghki, 1979). Thus, for an increase in mechanical work, the model should predict a slower force redevelopment (decreased attachment rate) to a more depressed steady-state force (fewer attached cross-bridges), and a reduction in contractile element stiffness (Ford et al., 1981). We hypothesized that since this modification affects the cross-bridge kinetics, a corresponding model would be able to account for both transient and steady-state FD behaviors. Comparisons to prior experiments (Corr and Herzog, 2005; Herzog et al., 2000; Kosterina et al., 2008) show that both steady-state and transient aspects of FD, as well as the relationship of FD with respect to speed and amplitude of shortening, are well captured by this model. Thus, this relatively simple cross-bridge based model of FD lends support to a mechanism involving the inhibition of cross-bridge binding, and indicates that cross-bridge kinetics may play a critical role in FD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Quasi-steady state conditions in heterogeneous aquifers during pumping tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Yuanyuan; Yeh, Tian-Chyi J.; Shi, Liangsheng; Huang, Shao-Yang; Wang, Wenke; Wen, Jet-Chau

    2017-08-01

    Classical Thiem's well hydraulic theory, other aquifer test analyses, and flow modeling efforts often assume the existence of ;quasi-steady; state conditions. That is, while drawdowns due to pumping continue to grow, the hydraulic gradient in the vicinity of the pumping well does not change significantly. These conditions have built upon two-dimensional and equivalent homogeneous conceptual models, but few field data have been available to affirm the existence of these conditions. Moreover, effects of heterogeneity and three-dimensional flow on this quasi-steady state concept have not been thoroughly investigated and discussed before. In this study, we first present a quantitative definition of quasi-steady state (or steady-shape conditions) and steady state conditions based on the analytical solution of two- or three-dimensional flow induced by pumping in unbounded, homogeneous aquifers. Afterward, we use a stochastic analysis to investigate the influence of heterogeneity on the quasi-steady state concept in heterogeneous aquifers. The results of the analysis indicate that the time to reach an approximate quasi-steady state in a heterogeneous aquifer could be quite different from that estimated based on a homogeneous model. We find that heterogeneity of aquifer properties, especially hydraulic conductivity, impedes the development of the quasi-steady state condition before the flow reaching steady state. Finally, 280 drawdown-time data from the hydraulic tomographic survey conducted at a field site corroborate our finding that the quasi-steady state condition likely would not take place in heterogeneous aquifers unless pumping tests last a long period. Research significance (1) Approximate quasi-steady and steady state conditions are defined for two- or three-dimensional flow induced by pumping in unbounded, equivalent homogeneous aquifers. (2) Analysis demonstrates effects of boundary condition, well screen interval, and heterogeneity of parameters on the

  3. Tailored parameter optimization methods for ordinary differential equation models with steady-state constraints.

    PubMed

    Fiedler, Anna; Raeth, Sebastian; Theis, Fabian J; Hausser, Angelika; Hasenauer, Jan

    2016-08-22

    Ordinary differential equation (ODE) models are widely used to describe (bio-)chemical and biological processes. To enhance the predictive power of these models, their unknown parameters are estimated from experimental data. These experimental data are mostly collected in perturbation experiments, in which the processes are pushed out of steady state by applying a stimulus. The information that the initial condition is a steady state of the unperturbed process provides valuable information, as it restricts the dynamics of the process and thereby the parameters. However, implementing steady-state constraints in the optimization often results in convergence problems. In this manuscript, we propose two new methods for solving optimization problems with steady-state constraints. The first method exploits ideas from optimization algorithms on manifolds and introduces a retraction operator, essentially reducing the dimension of the optimization problem. The second method is based on the continuous analogue of the optimization problem. This continuous analogue is an ODE whose equilibrium points are the optima of the constrained optimization problem. This equivalence enables the use of adaptive numerical methods for solving optimization problems with steady-state constraints. Both methods are tailored to the problem structure and exploit the local geometry of the steady-state manifold and its stability properties. A parameterization of the steady-state manifold is not required. The efficiency and reliability of the proposed methods is evaluated using one toy example and two applications. The first application example uses published data while the second uses a novel dataset for Raf/MEK/ERK signaling. The proposed methods demonstrated better convergence properties than state-of-the-art methods employed in systems and computational biology. Furthermore, the average computation time per converged start is significantly lower. In addition to the theoretical results, the

  4. Steady state, erosional continuity, and the topography of landscapes developed in layered rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perne, Matija; Covington, Matthew D.; Thaler, Evan A.; Myre, Joseph M.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of topographic steady state has substantially informed our understanding of the relationships between landscapes, tectonics, climate, and lithology. In topographic steady state, erosion rates are equal everywhere, and steepness adjusts to enable equal erosion rates in rocks of different strengths. This conceptual model makes an implicit assumption of vertical contacts between different rock types. Here we hypothesize that landscapes in layered rocks will be driven toward a state of erosional continuity, where retreat rates on either side of a contact are equal in a direction parallel to the contact rather than in the vertical direction. For vertical contacts, erosional continuity is the same as topographic steady state, whereas for horizontal contacts it is equivalent to equal rates of horizontal retreat on either side of a rock contact. Using analytical solutions and numerical simulations, we show that erosional continuity predicts the form of flux steady-state landscapes that develop in simulations with horizontally layered rocks. For stream power erosion, the nature of continuity steady state depends on the exponent, n, in the erosion model. For n = 1, the landscape cannot maintain continuity. For cases where n ≠ 1, continuity is maintained, and steepness is a function of erodibility that is predicted by the theory. The landscape in continuity steady state can be quite different from that predicted by topographic steady state. For n < 1 continuity predicts that channels incising subhorizontal layers will be steeper in the weaker rock layers. For subhorizontal layered rocks with different erodibilities, continuity also predicts larger slope contrasts than in topographic steady state. Therefore, the relationship between steepness and erodibility within a sequence of layered rocks is a function of contact dip. For the subhorizontal limit, the history of layers exposed at base level also influences the steepness-erodibility relationship. If uplift rate

  5. Potyviral VPg enhances viral RNA Translation and inhibits reporter mRNA translation in planta.

    PubMed

    Eskelin, Katri; Hafrén, Anders; Rantalainen, Kimmo I; Mäkinen, Kristiina

    2011-09-01

    Viral protein genome-linked (VPg) plays a central role in several stages of potyvirus infection. This study sought to answer questions about the role of Potato virus A (PVA; genus Potyvirus) VPg in viral and host RNA expression. When expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves in trans, a dual role of VPg in translation is observed. It repressed the expression of monocistronic luciferase (luc) mRNA and simultaneously induced a significant upregulation in the expression of both replicating and nonreplicating PVA RNAs. This enhanced viral gene expression was due at least to the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of PVA RNA, eukaryotic initiation factors 4E and iso 4E [eIF4E/eIF(iso)4E], and the presence of a sufficient amount of VPg. Coexpression of VPg with viral RNA increased the viral RNA amount, which was not the case with the monocistronic mRNA. Both mutations at certain lysine residues in PVA VPg and eIF4E/eIF(iso)4E depletion reduced its ability to upregulate the viral RNA expression. These modifications were also involved in VPg-mediated downregulation of monocistronic luc expression. These results suggest that VPg can titrate eIF4Es from capped monocistronic RNAs. Because VPg-mediated enhancement of viral gene expression required eIF4Es, it is possible that VPg directs eIF4Es to promote viral RNA expression. From this study it is evident that VPg can serve as a specific regulator of PVA expression by boosting the viral RNA amounts as well as the accumulation of viral translation products. Such a mechanism could function to protect viral RNA from being degraded and to secure efficient production of coat protein (CP) for virion formation.

  6. Inhibition of host cell translation elongation by Legionella pneumophila blocks the host cell unfolded protein response.

    PubMed

    Hempstead, Andrew D; Isberg, Ralph R

    2015-12-08

    Cells of the innate immune system recognize bacterial pathogens by detecting common microbial patterns as well as pathogen-specific activities. One system that responds to these stimuli is the IRE1 branch of the unfolded protein response (UPR), a sensor of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Activation of IRE1, in the context of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, induces strong proinflammatory cytokine induction. We show here that Legionella pneumophila, an intravacuolar pathogen that replicates in an ER-associated compartment, blocks activation of the IRE1 pathway despite presenting pathogen products that stimulate this response. L. pneumophila TLR ligands induced the splicing of mRNA encoding XBP1s, the main target of IRE1 activity. L. pneumophila was able to inhibit both chemical and bacterial induction of XBP1 splicing via bacterial translocated proteins that interfere with host protein translation. A strain lacking five translocated translation elongation inhibitors was unable to block XBP1 splicing, but this could be rescued by expression of a single such inhibitor, consistent with limitation of the response by translation elongation inhibitors. Chemical inhibition of translation elongation blocked pattern recognition receptor-mediated XBP1 splicing, mimicking the effects of the bacterial translation inhibitors. In contrast, host cell-promoted inhibition of translation initiation in response to the pathogen was ineffective in blocking XBP1 splicing, demonstrating the need for the elongation inhibitors for protection from the UPR. The inhibition of host translation elongation may be a common strategy used by pathogens to limit the innate immune response by interfering with signaling via the UPR.

  7. Meteorites, Continents, Heat, and Non-Steady State Geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, W. M.; Morgan, J. P.

    2011-12-01

    translates into mantle heat production of 3-4 TW. Mantle heat losses are roughly 28 TW, hence the mantle Urey ratio (ratio of heat production to heat loss) is <0.3. If this mantle energy loss is supplied by secular cooling, it implies a cooling rate of >120°C/Ga after accounting for adiabatic contraction, much higher than petrological and geophysical estimates. At present, heat generated by viscous dissipation of the gravitational energy released by sinking slabs is 12 to 15 TW, and <5 TW is released by the cooling core. Of this power, only a fraction, 3.8 to 4.8 TW, can produce new gravitational power to drive convection and plate tectonics. Thus gravitational energy is being consumed at a much higher rate than it is being regenerated through radioactive heating and viscous dissipation. These observations a clear indication that the present rate of slab subduction is not sustainable and that the mantle is in a phase of faster than normal plate motion. The Cretaceous superplume event may have marked the beginning of an episode of faster than average heat loss and seafloor spreading that continues to the present.

  8. Steady-state transposon mutagenesis in inbred maize.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Donald R; Settles, Andrew Mark; Suzuki, Masaharu; Tan, Bao Cai; Latshaw, Susan; Porch, Tim; Robin, Kevin; Baier, John; Avigne, Wayne; Lai, Jinsheng; Messing, Joachim; Koch, Karen E; Hannah, L Curtis

    2005-10-01

    We implement a novel strategy for harnessing the power of high-copy transposons for functional analysis of the maize genome, and report behavioral features of the Mutator system in a uniform inbred background. The unique UniformMu population and database facilitate high-throughput molecular analysis of Mu-tagged mutants and gene knockouts. Key features of the population include: (i) high mutation frequencies (7% independent seed mutations) and moderation of copy number (approximately 57 total Mu elements; 1-2 MuDR copies per plant) were maintained by continuous back-crossing into a phenotypically uniform inbred background; (ii) a bz1-mum9 marker enabled selection of stable lines (loss of MuDR), inhibiting further transpositions in lines selected for molecular analysis; (iii) build-up of mutation load was prevented by screening Mu-active parents to exclude plants carrying pre-existing seed mutations. To create a database of genomic sequences flanking Mu insertions, selected mutant lines were analyzed by sequencing of MuTAIL PCR clone libraries. These sequences were annotated and clustered to facilitate bioinformatic subtraction of ancestral elements and identification of insertions unique to mutant lines. New insertions targeted low-copy, gene-rich sequences, and in silico mapping revealed a random distribution of insertions over the genome. Our results indicate that Mu populations differ markedly in the occurrence of Mu insertion hotspots and the frequency of suppressible mutations. We suggest that controlled MuDR copy number in UniformMu lines is a key determinant of these differences. The public database (http://uniformmu.org; http://endosperm.info) includes pedigree and phenotypic data for over 2000 independent seed mutants selected from a population of 31 548 F2 lines and integrated with analyses of 34 255 MuTAIL sequences.

  9. An Efficient Steady-State Analysis Method for Large Boolean Networks with High Maximum Node Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Changki; Hwang, Jeewon; Cho, Kwang-Hyun; Shin, Insik

    2015-01-01

    Boolean networks have been widely used to model biological processes lacking detailed kinetic information. Despite their simplicity, Boolean network dynamics can still capture some important features of biological systems such as stable cell phenotypes represented by steady states. For small models, steady states can be determined through exhaustive enumeration of all state transitions. As the number of nodes increases, however, the state space grows exponentially thus making it difficult to find steady states. Over the last several decades, many studies have addressed how to handle such a state space explosion. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to a satisfiability solving algorithm due to its potential scalability to handle large networks. Meanwhile, there still lies a problem in the case of large models with high maximum node connectivity where the satisfiability solving algorithm is known to be computationally intractable. To address the problem, this paper presents a new partitioning-based method that breaks down a given network into smaller subnetworks. Steady states of each subnetworks are identified by independently applying the satisfiability solving algorithm. Then, they are combined to construct the steady states of the overall network. To efficiently apply the satisfiability solving algorithm to each subnetwork, it is crucial to find the best partition of the network. In this paper, we propose a method that divides each subnetwork to be smallest in size and lowest in maximum node connectivity. This minimizes the total cost of finding all steady states in entire subnetworks. The proposed algorithm is compared with others for steady states identification through a number of simulations on both published small models and randomly generated large models with differing maximum node connectivities. The simulation results show that our method can scale up to several hundreds of nodes even for Boolean networks with high maximum node connectivity. The

  10. An Efficient Steady-State Analysis Method for Large Boolean Networks with High Maximum Node Connectivity.

    PubMed

    Hong, Changki; Hwang, Jeewon; Cho, Kwang-Hyun; Shin, Insik

    2015-01-01

    Boolean networks have been widely used to model biological processes lacking detailed kinetic information. Despite their simplicity, Boolean network dynamics can still capture some important features of biological systems such as stable cell phenotypes represented by steady states. For small models, steady states can be determined through exhaustive enumeration of all state transitions. As the number of nodes increases, however, the state space grows exponentially thus making it difficult to find steady states. Over the last several decades, many studies have addressed how to handle such a state space explosion. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to a satisfiability solving algorithm due to its potential scalability to handle large networks. Meanwhile, there still lies a problem in the case of large models with high maximum node connectivity where the satisfiability solving algorithm is known to be computationally intractable. To address the problem, this paper presents a new partitioning-based method that breaks down a given network into smaller subnetworks. Steady states of each subnetworks are identified by independently applying the satisfiability solving algorithm. Then, they are combined to construct the steady states of the overall network. To efficiently apply the satisfiability solving algorithm to each subnetwork, it is crucial to find the best partition of the network. In this paper, we propose a method that divides each subnetwork to be smallest in size and lowest in maximum node connectivity. This minimizes the total cost of finding all steady states in entire subnetworks. The proposed algorithm is compared with others for steady states identification through a number of simulations on both published small models and randomly generated large models with differing maximum node connectivities. The simulation results show that our method can scale up to several hundreds of nodes even for Boolean networks with high maximum node connectivity. The

  11. Steady state analysis of Boolean molecular network models via model reduction and computational algebra

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A key problem in the analysis of mathematical models of molecular networks is the determination of their steady states. The present paper addresses this problem for Boolean network models, an increasingly popular modeling paradigm for networks lacking detailed kinetic information. For small models, the problem can be solved by exhaustive enumeration of all state transitions. But for larger models this is not feasible, since the size of the phase space grows exponentially with the dimension of the network. The dimension of published models is growing to over 100, so that efficient methods for steady state determination are essential. Several methods have been proposed for large networks, some of them heuristic. While these methods represent a substantial improvement in scalability over exhaustive enumeration, the problem for large networks is still unsolved in general. Results This paper presents an algorithm that consists of two main parts. The first is a graph theoretic reduction of the wiring diagram of the network, while preserving all information about steady states. The second part formulates the determination of all steady states of a Boolean network as a problem of finding all solutions to a system of polynomial equations over the finite number system with two elements. This problem can be solved with existing computer algebra software. This algorithm compares favorably with several existing algorithms for steady state determination. One advantage is that it is not heuristic or reliant on sampling, but rather determines algorithmically and exactly all steady states of a Boolean network. The code for the algorithm, as well as the test suite of benchmark networks, is available upon request from the corresponding author. Conclusions The algorithm presented in this paper reliably determines all steady states of sparse Boolean networks with up to 1000 nodes. The algorithm is effective at analyzing virtually all published models even those of moderate

  12. Steady state analysis of Boolean molecular network models via model reduction and computational algebra.

    PubMed

    Veliz-Cuba, Alan; Aguilar, Boris; Hinkelmann, Franziska; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2014-06-26

    A key problem in the analysis of mathematical models of molecular networks is the determination of their steady states. The present paper addresses this problem for Boolean network models, an increasingly popular modeling paradigm for networks lacking detailed kinetic information. For small models, the problem can be solved by exhaustive enumeration of all state transitions. But for larger models this is not feasible, since the size of the phase space grows exponentially with the dimension of the network. The dimension of published models is growing to over 100, so that efficient methods for steady state determination are essential. Several methods have been proposed for large networks, some of them heuristic. While these methods represent a substantial improvement in scalability over exhaustive enumeration, the problem for large networks is still unsolved in general. This paper presents an algorithm that consists of two main parts. The first is a graph theoretic reduction of the wiring diagram of the network, while preserving all information about steady states. The second part formulates the determination of all steady states of a Boolean network as a problem of finding all solutions to a system of polynomial equations over the finite number system with two elements. This problem can be solved with existing computer algebra software. This algorithm compares favorably with several existing algorithms for steady state determination. One advantage is that it is not heuristic or reliant on sampling, but rather determines algorithmically and exactly all steady states of a Boolean network. The code for the algorithm, as well as the test suite of benchmark networks, is available upon request from the corresponding author. The algorithm presented in this paper reliably determines all steady states of sparse Boolean networks with up to 1000 nodes. The algorithm is effective at analyzing virtually all published models even those of moderate connectivity. The problem for

  13. Steady-state pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of CHF3381, a novel antineuropathic pain agent, in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Astruc, Béatrice; Tarral, Antoine; Dostert, Philippe; Mariotti, Fabrizia; Fabbri, Laura; Imbimbo, Bruno P

    2005-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of CHF3381, a dual NMDA and MAO-A inhibitor, after multiple oral doses in healthy subjects. Methods Forty-eight young males received CHF3381 at doses of 100 mg twice daily, 200 mg twice daily, 400 mg twice daily or placebo for 2 weeks according to a double-blind, randomized, parallel group design. Plasma and urine concentrations of the parent drug and of two major metabolites (CHF3567 and 2-aminoindane) were measured over time. MAO-A activity in plasma was estimated by measuring plasma concentrations of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol. Sustained attention, memory and sedation were assessed throughout the study with standard psychometric tests. Results Most of the adverse events were mild in intensity, with dose regimens of 100 mg twice daily and 200 mg twice daily being indistinguishable from placebo. After 400 mg twice daily, the most frequent adverse events were mild dizziness, asthenia and insomnia. At steady-state, 400 mg twice daily slightly increased supine heart rate (+ 9 ± 2 beats min−1) and diastolic blood pressure (+6 ± 2 mmHg) compared with placebo. There were no dose-dependent or consistent effects of CHF3381 on attention, motor co-ordination or memory, but 400 mg twice daily significantly decreased alertness compared with placebo. Plasma concentrations of CHF3381 peaked at around 3 h and were dose-proportional. The elimination half-life of CHF3381 was estimated to be 4–6 h. At steady-state, significant CHF3381 plasma concentrations were detected at predose with a modest accumulation (1.3–1.5 times), showing that the drug given twice daily is active over the entire 24 h period. Plasma concentrations of CHF3567 and of 2-aminoindane were also proportional to the dose of CHF3381. CHF3381 dose-dependently inhibited MAO-A activity with peak effects at steady-state of 27 ± 4%, 46 ± 2% and 65 ± 5% after 100 mg twice daily, 200 mg twice daily and 400 mg twice daily

  14. Chromophore based analyses of steady-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy: current status and perspectives for clinical adoption.

    PubMed

    Bydlon, Torre M; Nachabé, Rami; Ramanujam, Nimmi; Sterenborg, Henricus J C M; Hendriks, Benno H W

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is a rapidly growing technology in the biophotonics community where it has shown promise in its ability to classify different tissues. In the steady-state domain a wide spectrum of clinical applications is supported with this technology ranging from diagnostic to guided interventions. Diffuse reflectance spectra provide a wealth of information about tissue composition; however, extracting biologically relevant information from the spectra in terms of chromophores may be more useful to gain acceptance into the clinical community. The chromophores that absorb light in the visible and near infrared wavelengths can provide information about tissue composition. The key characteristics of these chromophores and their relevance in different organs and clinical applications is the focus of this review, along with translating their use to the clinic.

  15. Peripheral neuropathy via mutant tRNA synthetases: Inhibition of protein translation provides a possible explanation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that inhibition of protein translation may be a common pathogenic mechanism for peripheral neuropathy associated with mutant tRNA synthetases (aaRSs). aaRSs are enzymes that ligate amino acids to their cognate tRNA, thus catalyzing the first step of translation. Dominant mutations in five distinct aaRSs cause Charcot‐Marie‐Tooth (CMT) peripheral neuropathy, characterized by length‐dependent degeneration of peripheral motor and sensory axons. Surprisingly, loss of aminoacylation activity is not required for mutant aaRSs to cause CMT. Rather, at least for some mutations, a toxic‐gain‐of‐function mechanism underlies CMT‐aaRS. Interestingly, several mutations in two distinct aaRSs were recently shown to inhibit global protein translation in Drosophila models of CMT‐aaRS, by a mechanism independent of aminoacylation, suggesting inhibition of translation as a common pathogenic mechanism. Future research aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the translation defect induced by CMT‐mutant aaRSs should provide novel insight into the molecular pathogenesis of these incurable diseases. PMID:27352040

  16. Enteric virulence associated protein VapC inhibits translation by cleavage of initiator tRNA

    PubMed Central

    Winther, Kristoffer S.; Gerdes, Kenn

    2011-01-01

    Eukaryotic PIN (PilT N-terminal) domain proteins are ribonucleases involved in quality control, metabolism and maturation of mRNA and rRNA. The majority of prokaryotic PIN-domain proteins are encoded by the abundant vapBC toxin—antitoxin loci and inhibit translation by an unknown mechanism. Here we show that enteric VapCs are site-specific endonucleases that cleave tRNAfMet in the anticodon stem-loop between nucleotides +38 and +39 in vivo and in vitro. Consistently, VapC inhibited translation in vivo and in vitro. Translation-reactions could be reactivated by the addition of VapB and extra charged tRNAfMet. Similarly, ectopic production of tRNAfMet counteracted VapC in vivo. Thus, tRNAfMet is the only cellular target of VapC. Depletion of tRNAfMet by vapC induction was bacteriostatic and stimulated ectopic translation initiation at elongator codons. Moreover, addition of chloramphenicol to cells carrying vapBC induced VapC activity. Thus, by cleavage of tRNAfMet, VapC simultaneously may regulate global cellular translation and reprogram translation initiation. PMID:21502523

  17. Epoxide hydrolase-catalyzed enantioselective conversion of trans-stilbene oxide: Insights into the reaction mechanism from steady-state and pre-steady-state enzyme kinetics.

    PubMed

    Archelas, Alain; Zhao, Wei; Faure, Bruno; Iacazio, Gilles; Kotik, Michael

    2016-02-01

    A detailed kinetic study based on steady-state and pre-steady-state measurements is described for the highly enantioselective epoxide hydrolase Kau2. The enzyme, which is a member of the α/β-hydrolase fold family, preferentially reacts with the (S,S)-enantiomer of trans-stilbene oxide (TSO) with an E value of ∼200. The enzyme follows a classical two-step catalytic mechanism with formation of an alkyl-enzyme intermediate in the first step and hydrolysis of this intermediate in a rate-limiting second step. Tryptophan fluorescence quenching during TSO conversion appears to correlate with alkylation of the enzyme. The steady-state data are consistent with (S,S) and (R,R)-TSO being two competing substrates with marked differences in k(cat) and K(M) values. The high enantiopreference of the epoxide hydrolase is best explained by pronounced differences in the second-order alkylation rate constant (k2/K(S)) and the alkyl-enzyme hydrolysis rate k3 between the (S,S) and (R,R)-enantiomers of TSO. Our data suggest that during conversion of (S,S)-TSO the two active site tyrosines, Tyr(157) and Tyr(259), serve mainly as electrophilic catalysts in the alkylation half-reaction, polarizing the oxirane oxygen of the bound epoxide through hydrogen bond formation, however, without fully donating their hydrogens to the forming alkyl-enzyme intermediate.

  18. Evaluation of CETP activity in vivo under non-steady-state conditions: influence of anacetrapib on HDL-TG flux.

    PubMed

    McLaren, David G; Previs, Stephen F; Phair, Robert D; Stout, Steven J; Xie, Dan; Chen, Ying; Salituro, Gino M; Xu, Suoyu S; Castro-Perez, Jose M; Opiteck, Gregory J; Akinsanya, Karen O; Cleary, Michele A; Dansky, Hayes M; Johns, Douglas G; Roddy, Thomas P

    2016-03-01

    Studies in lipoprotein kinetics almost exclusively rely on steady-state approaches to modeling. Herein, we have used a non-steady-state experimental design to examine the role of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) in mediating HDL-TG flux in vivo in rhesus macaques, and therefore, we developed an alternative strategy to model the data. Two isotopomers ([(2)H11] and [(13)C18]) of oleic acid were administered (orally and intravenously, respectively) to serve as precursors for labeling TGs in apoB-containing lipoproteins. The flux of a specific TG (52:2) from these donor lipoproteins to HDL was used as the measure of CETP activity; calculations are also presented to estimate total HDL-TG flux. Based on our data, we estimate that the peak total postprandial TG flux to HDL via CETP is ∼ 13 mg · h(-1) · kg(-1) and show that this transfer was inhibited by 97% following anacetrapib treatment. Collectively, these data demonstrate that HDL TG flux can be used as a measure of CETP activity in vivo. The fact that the donor lipoproteins can be labeled in situ using well-established stable isotope tracer techniques suggests ways to measure this activity for native lipoproteins in free-living subjects under any physiological conditions. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Perception of steady-state vowels and vowelless syllables by adults and children

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nittrouer, Susan

    2005-04-01

    Vowels can be produced as long, isolated, and steady-state, but that is not how they are found in natural speech. Instead natural speech consists of almost continuously changing (i.e., dynamic) acoustic forms from which mature listeners recover underlying phonetic form. Some theories suggest that children need steady-state information to recognize vowels (and so learn vowel systems), even though that information is sparse in natural speech. The current study examined whether young children can recover vowel targets from dynamic forms, or whether they need steady-state information. Vowel recognition was measured for adults and children (3, 5, and 7 years) for natural productions of /dæd/, /dUd/ /æ/, /U/ edited to make six stimulus sets: three dynamic (whole syllables; syllables with middle 50-percent replaced by cough; syllables with all but the first and last three pitch periods replaced by cough), and three steady-state (natural, isolated vowels; reiterated pitch periods from those vowels; reiterated pitch periods from the syllables). Adults scored nearly perfectly on all but first/last three pitch period stimuli. Children performed nearly perfectly only when the entire syllable was heard, and performed similarly (near 80%) for all other stimuli. Consequently, children need dynamic forms to perceive vowels; steady-state forms are not preferred.

  20. Analytical Solution of Steady State Equations for Chemical Reaction Networks with Bilinear Rate Laws

    PubMed Central

    Halász, Ádám M.; Lai, Hong-Jian; McCabe, Meghan M.; Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Edwards, Jeremy S.

    2014-01-01

    True steady states are a rare occurrence in living organisms, yet their knowledge is essential for quasi-steady state approximations, multistability analysis, and other important tools in the investigation of chemical reaction networks (CRN) used to describe molecular processes on the cellular level. Here we present an approach that can provide closed form steady-state solutions to complex systems, resulting from CRN with binary reactions and mass-action rate laws. We map the nonlinear algebraic problem of finding steady states onto a linear problem in a higher dimensional space. We show that the linearized version of the steady state equations obeys the linear conservation laws of the original CRN. We identify two classes of problems for which complete, minimally parameterized solutions may be obtained using only the machinery of linear systems and a judicious choice of the variables used as free parameters. We exemplify our method, providing explicit formulae, on CRN describing signal initiation of two important types of RTK receptor-ligand systems, VEGF and EGF-ErbB1. PMID:24334389

  1. A two-step iterative method for evolving nonlinear acoustic systems to a steady-state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Willie R.; Myers, Michael K.

    1990-01-01

    A new approach for evolving two-dimensional nonlinear acoustic systems with flow to a steady state is presented. The approach is a two-step iterative method which is tested on a benchmark acoustic problem for which an exact analytical solution is available. Results are also calculated for a nonlinear acoustic problem for which an exact analytical solution is not known. Results indicate that the two-step method represents a powerful, efficient, and stable method for evolving two-dimensional acoustic systems to a steady state, and that the method is applicable to any number of spatial dimensions and to other hyperbolic systems. It is noted that for the benchmark problem only a single iteration on the method is required when the transient and steady-state field are of the same order of magnitude; however, four iterations are required when the steady-state field is several orders of magnitude smaller than the transient field. This method requires six iterations before achieving a steady state for the nonlinear test problem.

  2. A stability analysis of the power-law steady state of marine size spectra.

    PubMed

    Datta, Samik; Delius, Gustav W; Law, Richard; Plank, Michael J

    2011-10-01

    This paper investigates the stability of the power-law steady state often observed in marine ecosystems. Three dynamical systems are considered, describing the abundance of organisms as a function of body mass and time: a "jump-growth" equation, a first order approximation which is the widely used McKendrick-von Foerster equation, and a second order approximation which is the McKendrick-von Foerster equation with a diffusion term. All of these yield a power-law steady state. We derive, for the first time, the eigenvalue spectrum for the linearised evolution operator, under certain constraints on the parameters. This provides new knowledge of the stability properties of the power-law steady state. It is shown analytically that the steady state of the McKendrick-von Foerster equation without the diffusion term is always unstable. Furthermore, numerical plots show that eigenvalue spectra of the McKendrick-von Foerster equation with diffusion give a good approximation to those of the jump-growth equation. The steady state is more likely to be stable with a low preferred predator:prey mass ratio, a large diet breadth and a high feeding efficiency. The effects of demographic stochasticity are also investigated and it is concluded that these are likely to be small in real systems.

  3. Analytical solution of steady-state equations for chemical reaction networks with bilinear rate laws.

    PubMed

    Halász, Adám M; Lai, Hong-Jian; McCabe Pryor, Meghan; Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Edwards, Jeremy S

    2013-01-01

    True steady states are a rare occurrence in living organisms, yet their knowledge is essential for quasi-steady-state approximations, multistability analysis, and other important tools in the investigation of chemical reaction networks (CRN) used to describe molecular processes on the cellular level. Here, we present an approach that can provide closed form steady-state solutions to complex systems, resulting from CRN with binary reactions and mass-action rate laws. We map the nonlinear algebraic problem of finding steady states onto a linear problem in a higher-dimensional space. We show that the linearized version of the steady-state equations obeys the linear conservation laws of the original CRN. We identify two classes of problems for which complete, minimally parameterized solutions may be obtained using only the machinery of linear systems and a judicious choice of the variables used as free parameters. We exemplify our method, providing explicit formulae, on CRN describing signal initiation of two important types of RTK receptor-ligand systems, VEGF and EGF-ErbB1.

  4. Nutritional Homeostasis in Batch and Steady-State Culture of YeastD⃞

    PubMed Central

    Saldanha, Alok J.; Brauer, Matthew J.; Botstein, David

    2004-01-01

    We studied the physiological response to limitation by diverse nutrients in batch and steady-state (chemostat) cultures of S. cerevisiae. We found that the global pattern of transcription in steady-state cultures in limiting phosphate or sulfate is essentially identical to that of batch cultures growing in the same medium just before the limiting nutrient is completely exhausted. The massive stress response and complete arrest of the cell cycle that occurs when nutrients are fully exhausted in batch cultures is not observed in the chemostat, indicating that the cells in the chemostat are “poor, not starving.” Similar comparisons using leucine or uracil auxotrophs limited on leucine or uracil again showed patterns of gene expression in steady-state closely resembling those of corresponding batch cultures just before they exhaust the nutrient. Although there is also a strong stress response in the auxotrophic batch cultures, cell cycle arrest, if it occurs at all, is much less uniform. Many of the differences among the patterns of gene expression between the four nutrient limitations are interpretable in light of known involvement of the genes in stress responses or in the regulation or execution of particular metabolic pathways appropriate to the limiting nutrient. We conclude that cells adjust their growth rate to nutrient availability and maintain homeostasis in the same way in batch and steady state conditions; cells in steady-state cultures are in a physiological condition normally encountered in batch cultures. PMID:15240820

  5. Dynamic evolution of initial instability during non-steady-state growth.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhibo; Zheng, Wenjian; Wei, Yanhong; Song, Kuijing

    2014-06-01

    Dynamic evolution of initial instability is investigated by an analytic model obtained by modifying the theory of Warren and Langer [Phys. Rev. E 47, 2702 (1993)] and the quantitative phase-field model in directional solidification under transient conditions for realistic parameters of a dilute alloy. The evolutions of tip velocity and concentration in the liquid side of the interface predicted by the analytic model agree very well with that from the phase-field simulation in the linear growth stage of the non-steady-state growth, indicating that the model could be used as a convenient method to study the initial instability during non-steady-state growth. The influences of non-steady-state conditions which include the increasing rate of pulling speed and temperature gradient at the onset of initial instability are investigated, and we find that, the initial instability seems to depend strongly on the non-steady-state conditions and the non-steady-state history, and thus, it should be primarily considered in the study of the transient growth.

  6. Synchronous machine steady-state stability analysis using an artificial neural network

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.R.; Hsu, Y.Y. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1991-03-01

    A new type of artificial neural network is proposed for the steady-state stability analysis of a synchronous generator. In the developed artificial neutral network, those system variables which play an important role in steady-state stability such as generator outputs and power system stabilizer parameters are employed as the inputs. The output of the neural net provides the information on steady-state stability. Once the connection weights of the neural network have been learned using a set of training data derived off-line, the neural net can be applied to analyze the steady-state stability of the system time. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed neural net, steady-state stability analysis is performed on a synchronous generator connected to a large power system. It is found that the proposed neural net requires much less training time than the multilayer feedforward network with backpropagation-momentum learning algorithm. It is also concluded from the test results that correct stability assessment can be achieved by the neural network.

  7. Lactate and acrylate metabolism by Megasphaera elsdenii under batch and steady-state conditions.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Rupal; Altman, Elliot; Eiteman, Mark A

    2012-12-01

    The growth of Megasphaera elsdenii on lactate with acrylate and acrylate analogues was studied under batch and steady-state conditions. Under batch conditions, lactate was converted to acetate and propionate, and acrylate was converted into propionate. Acrylate analogues 2-methyl propenoate and 3-butenoate containing a terminal double bond were similarly converted into their respective saturated acids (isobutyrate and butyrate), while crotonate and lactate analogues 3-hydroxybutyrate and (R)-2-hydroxybutyrate were not metabolized. Under carbon-limited steady-state conditions, lactate was converted to acetate and butyrate with no propionate formed. As the acrylate concentration in the feed was increased, butyrate and hydrogen formation decreased and propionate was increasingly generated, while the calculated ATP yield was unchanged. M. elsdenii metabolism differs substantially under batch and steady-state conditions. The results support the conclusion that propionate is not formed during lactate-limited steady-state growth because of the absence of this substrate to drive the formation of lactyl coenzyme A (CoA) via propionyl-CoA transferase. Acrylate and acrylate analogues are reduced under both batch and steady-state growth conditions after first being converted to thioesters via propionyl-CoA transferase. Our findings demonstrate the central role that CoA transferase activity plays in the utilization of acids by M. elsdenii and allows us to propose a modified acrylate pathway for M. elsdenii.

  8. Lactate and Acrylate Metabolism by Megasphaera elsdenii under Batch and Steady-State Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, Rupal; Altman, Elliot

    2012-01-01

    The growth of Megasphaera elsdenii on lactate with acrylate and acrylate analogues was studied under batch and steady-state conditions. Under batch conditions, lactate was converted to acetate and propionate, and acrylate was converted into propionate. Acrylate analogues 2-methyl propenoate and 3-butenoate containing a terminal double bond were similarly converted into their respective saturated acids (isobutyrate and butyrate), while crotonate and lactate analogues 3-hydroxybutyrate and (R)-2-hydroxybutyrate were not metabolized. Under carbon-limited steady-state conditions, lactate was converted to acetate and butyrate with no propionate formed. As the acrylate concentration in the feed was increased, butyrate and hydrogen formation decreased and propionate was increasingly generated, while the calculated ATP yield was unchanged. M. elsdenii metabolism differs substantially under batch and steady-state conditions. The results support the conclusion that propionate is not formed during lactate-limited steady-state growth because of the absence of this substrate to drive the formation of lactyl coenzyme A (CoA) via propionyl-CoA transferase. Acrylate and acrylate analogues are reduced under both batch and steady-state growth conditions after first being converted to thioesters via propionyl-CoA transferase. Our findings demonstrate the central role that CoA transferase activity plays in the utilization of acids by M. elsdenii and allows us to propose a modified acrylate pathway for M. elsdenii. PMID:23023753

  9. Translated chemical reaction networks.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Matthew D

    2014-05-01

    Many biochemical and industrial applications involve complicated networks of simultaneously occurring chemical reactions. Under the assumption of mass action kinetics, the dynamics of these chemical reaction networks are governed by systems of polynomial ordinary differential equations. The steady states of these mass action systems have been analyzed via a variety of techniques, including stoichiometric network analysis, deficiency theory, and algebraic techniques (e.g., Gröbner bases). In this paper, we present a novel method for characterizing the steady states of mass action systems. Our method explicitly links a network's capacity to permit a particular class of steady states, called toric steady states, to topological properties of a generalized network called a translated chemical reaction network. These networks share their reaction vectors with their source network but are permitted to have different complex stoichiometries and different network topologies. We apply the results to examples drawn from the biochemical literature.

  10. Inhibiting K63 Polyubiquitination Abolishes No-Go Type Stalled Translation Surveillance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Kazuki; Horikawa, Wataru; Ito, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Incidental ribosome stalling during translation elongation is an aberrant phenomenon during protein synthesis and is subjected to quality control by surveillance systems, in which mRNA and a nascent protein are rapidly degraded. Their detailed molecular mechanisms as well as responsible factors for these processes are beginning to be understood. However, the initial processes for detecting stalled translation that result in degradation remain to be determined. Among the factors identified to date, two E3 ubiquitin ligases have been reported to function in distinct manners. Because ubiquitination is one of the most versatile of cellular signals, these distinct functions of E3 ligases suggested diverse ubiquitination pathways during surveillance for stalled translation. In this study, we report experimental evidences for a unique role of non-proteasomal K63 polyubiquitination during quality control for stalled translation. Inhibiting K63 polyubiquitination by expressing a K63R ubiquitin mutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells markedly abolished the quality control responses for stalled translation. More detailed analyses indicated that the effects of K63R mutants were independent of the proteasome and that K63 polyubiquitination is dependent on Hel2, one of the E3 ligases. Moreover, a K63R ubiquitin mutant barely inhibited the quality control pathway for nonstop translation, indicating distinct mechanisms for these highly related quality control pathways. Our results suggest that non-proteasomal K63 polyubiquitination is included in the initial surveillance process of stalled translation and presumably triggers protein degradation steps upon translational stall. These findings provide crucial information regarding the detailed molecular mechanisms for the initial steps involved in quality control systems and their classification. PMID:25909477

  11. Effect of steady-state faldaprevir on the pharmacokinetics of steady-state methadone and buprenorphine-naloxone in subjects receiving stable addiction management therapy.

    PubMed

    Joseph, David; Schobelock, Michael J; Riesenberg, Robert R; Vince, Bradley D; Webster, Lynn R; Adeniji, Abidemi; Elgadi, Mabrouk; Huang, Fenglei

    2015-01-01

    The effects of steady-state faldaprevir on the safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of steady-state methadone and buprenorphine-naloxone were assessed in 34 healthy male and female subjects receiving stable addiction management therapy. Subjects continued receiving a stable oral dose of either methadone (up to a maximum dose of 180 mg per day) or buprenorphine-naloxone (up to a maximum dose of 24 mg-6 mg per day) and also received oral faldaprevir (240 mg) once daily (QD) for 8 days following a 480-mg loading dose. Serial blood samples were taken for pharmacokinetic analysis. The pharmacodynamics of the opioid maintenance regimens were evaluated by the objective and subjective opioid withdrawal scales. Coadministration of faldaprevir with methadone or buprenorphine-naloxone resulted in geometric mean ratios for the steady-state area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC(0-24,ss)), the steady-state maximum concentration of the drug in plasma (C(max,ss)), and the steady-state concentration of the drug in plasma at 24 h (C(24,ss)) of 0.92 to 1.18 for (R)-methadone, (S)-methadone, buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, and naloxone, with 90% confidence intervals including, or very close to including, 1.00 (no effect), suggesting a limited overall effect of faldaprevir. Although individual data showed moderate variability in the exposures between subjects and treatments, there was no evidence of symptoms of opiate overdose or withdrawal either during the coadministration of faldaprevir with methadone or buprenorphine-naloxone or after faldaprevir dosing was stopped. Similar faldaprevir exposures were observed in the methadone- and buprenorphine-naloxone-treated subjects. In conclusion, faldaprevir at 240 mg QD can be coadministered with methadone or buprenorphine-naloxone without dose adjustment, although given the relatively narrow therapeutic windows of these agents, monitoring for opiate overdose and withdrawal may still be appropriate. (This

  12. Effect of Steady-State Faldaprevir on the Pharmacokinetics of Steady-State Methadone and Buprenorphine-Naloxone in Subjects Receiving Stable Addiction Management Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, David; Schobelock, Michael J.; Riesenberg, Robert R.; Vince, Bradley D.; Webster, Lynn R.; Adeniji, Abidemi; Elgadi, Mabrouk

    2014-01-01

    The effects of steady-state faldaprevir on the safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of steady-state methadone and buprenorphine-naloxone were assessed in 34 healthy male and female subjects receiving stable addiction management therapy. Subjects continued receiving a stable oral dose of either methadone (up to a maximum dose of 180 mg per day) or buprenorphine-naloxone (up to a maximum dose of 24 mg-6 mg per day) and also received oral faldaprevir (240 mg) once daily (QD) for 8 days following a 480-mg loading dose. Serial blood samples were taken for pharmacokinetic analysis. The pharmacodynamics of the opioid maintenance regimens were evaluated by the objective and subjective opioid withdrawal scales. Coadministration of faldaprevir with methadone or buprenorphine-naloxone resulted in geometric mean ratios for the steady-state area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC0–24,ss), the steady-state maximum concentration of the drug in plasma (Cmax,ss), and the steady-state concentration of the drug in plasma at 24 h (C24,ss) of 0.92 to 1.18 for (R)-methadone, (S)-methadone, buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, and naloxone, with 90% confidence intervals including, or very close to including, 1.00 (no effect), suggesting a limited overall effect of faldaprevir. Although individual data showed moderate variability in the exposures between subjects and treatments, there was no evidence of symptoms of opiate overdose or withdrawal either during the coadministration of faldaprevir with methadone or buprenorphine-naloxone or after faldaprevir dosing was stopped. Similar faldaprevir exposures were observed in the methadone- and buprenorphine-naloxone-treated subjects. In conclusion, faldaprevir at 240 mg QD can be coadministered with methadone or buprenorphine-naloxone without dose adjustment, although given the relatively narrow therapeutic windows of these agents, monitoring for opiate overdose and withdrawal may still be appropriate. (This study

  13. The steady-state visual evoked potential in vision research: A review

    PubMed Central

    Norcia, Anthony M.; Appelbaum, L. Gregory; Ales, Justin M.; Cottereau, Benoit R.; Rossion, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Periodic visual stimulation and analysis of the resulting steady-state visual evoked potentials were first introduced over 80 years ago as a means to study visual sensation and perception. From the first single-channel recording of responses to modulated light to the present use of sophisticated digital displays composed of complex visual stimuli and high-density recording arrays, steady-state methods have been applied in a broad range of scientific and applied settings.The purpose of this article is to describe the fundamental stimulation paradigms for steady-state visual evoked potentials and to illustrate these principles through research findings across a range of applications in vision science. PMID:26024451

  14. Steady-state solutions of a diffusive energy-balance climate model and their stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghil, M.

    1975-01-01

    A diffusive energy-balance climate model, governed by a nonlinear parabolic partial differential equation, was studied. Three positive steady-state solutions of this equation are found; they correspond to three possible climates of our planet: an interglacial (nearly identical to the present climate), a glacial, and a completely ice-covered earth. Models similar to the main one are considered, and the number of their steady states was determined. All the models have albedo continuously varying with latitude and temperature, and entirely diffusive horizontal heat transfer. The stability under small perturbations of the main model's climates was investigated. A stability criterion is derived, and its application shows that the present climate and the deep freeze are stable, whereas the model's glacial is unstable. The dependence was examined of the number of steady states and of their stability on the average solar radiation.

  15. Exact steady state manifold of a boundary driven spin-1 Lai-Sutherland chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilievski, Enej; Prosen, Tomaž

    2014-05-01

    We present an explicit construction of a family of steady state density matrices for an open integrable spin-1 chain with bilinear and biquadratic interactions, also known as the Lai-Sutherland model, driven far from equilibrium by means of two oppositely polarizing Markovian dissipation channels localized at the boundary. The steady state solution exhibits n+1 fold degeneracy, for a chain of length n, due to existence of (strong) Liouvillian U(1) symmetry. The latter can be exploited to introduce a chemical potential and define a grand canonical nonequilibrium steady state ensemble. The matrix product form of the solution entails an infinitely-dimensional representation of a non-trivial Lie algebra (semidirect product of sl2 and a non-nilpotent radical) and hints to a novel Yang-Baxter integrability structure.

  16. Casimir effect in the nonequilibrium steady state of a quantum spin chain

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Cabrera, D. L.; Racz, Z.

    2010-05-15

    We present a fully microscopics-based calculation of the Casimir effect in a nonequilibrium system, namely, an energy-flux-driven quantum XX chain. The force between the walls (transverse-field impurities) is calculated in a nonequilibrium steady state which is prepared by letting the system evolve from an initial state with the two halves of the chain prepared at equilibrium at different temperatures. The steady state emerging in the large-time limit is homogeneous but carries an energy flux. The Casimir force in this nonequilibrium state is calculated analytically in the limit when the transverse fields are small. We find that the the Casimir force range is reduced compared to the equilibrium case, and suggest that the reason for this is the reduction of fluctuations in the flux-carrying steady state.

  17. Constitutive laws for steady state deformation of metals, a microstructural model

    SciTech Connect

    Nes, E.

    1995-07-15

    Based on extensive investigations of the steady state conditions for creep and hot working, Sellars and McG. Tegart demonstrated that the flow stress was well represented by the following relation: {sigma}{sub s} = 1/{alpha}{prime} Arc sinh (Z/A{prime}){sup 1/n} where {alpha}{prime}, A{prime}, n are temperature independent constants and Z is the Zener-Hollomon parameter, Z = {dot {var_epsilon}} exp U/kT, where {dot {var_epsilon}} is the applied strain rate and U is an activation energy. This relationship is widely used in the modelling of metal forming processes such as hot rolling, forging and extrusion. The objective this work is to explore the possibilities for deriving an alternative, physically based, relationship which is capable of correlating the steady state flow stress both to the alloy condition and the microstructural characteristics of steady state deformation.

  18. Electronic transport characterization of silicon wafers by spatially resolved steady-state photocarrier radiometric imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Qian; Li, Bincheng

    2015-09-28

    Spatially resolved steady-state photocarrier radiometric (PCR) imaging technique is developed to characterize the electronic transport properties of silicon wafers. Based on a nonlinear PCR theory, simulations are performed to investigate the effects of electronic transport parameters (the carrier lifetime, the carrier diffusion coefficient, and the front surface recombination velocity) on the steady-state PCR intensity profiles. The electronic transport parameters of an n-type silicon wafer are simultaneously determined by fitting the measured steady-state PCR intensity profiles to the three-dimensional nonlinear PCR model. The determined transport parameters are in good agreement with the results obtained by the conventional modulated PCR technique with multiple pump beam radii.

  19. Understanding time scales of diffusive fluxes and the implication for steady state and steady shape conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jazaei, Farhad; Simpson, Matthew J.; Clement, T. Prabhakar

    2017-01-01

    The diffusion equation is one of the most commonly used models for describing environmental problems involving heat, solute, and water transport. A diffusive system can be either transient or steady state. When a system is transient, the dependent variable (e.g., temperature, concentration, or hydraulic head) varies with time; whereas at steady state, the temporal variations are negligible. Here we consider an intermediate state, called steady shape, corresponding to the situation where temporal variations in diffusive fluxes are negligible but the dependent variable may remain transient. We present a general theoretical framework for identifying steady shape conditions and propose a novel method for evaluating the time scale needed for a diffusive system to approach both steady shape and steady state conditions.

  20. Mechanism of Non-Steady State Dissolution of Goethite in the Presence of Siderophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichard, P. U.; Kretzschmar, R.; Kraemer, S. M.

    2003-12-01

    Iron is an essential micronutrient for almost all known organisms. Bacteria, fungi, and graminaceous plants are capable of exuding siderophores as part of an iron acquisition strategy. The production of these strong iron chelating ligands is induced by iron limited conditions. Grasses under iron stress, for example, exude phytosiderophores into the rhizosphere in a special diurnal rhythm (Roemheld and Marschner 1986). A few hours after sunrise the exudation starts, culminates around noon and is shut down again until about 4 hours after noon. The phytosiderophores diffuse into the rhizosphere (Marschner et al. 1986) and are passively back transported to the plants by advective flow induced by high transpiration around noon. Despite a fairly short residence time of the phytosiderophores in the rhizosphere, it is a very effective strategy for iron acquisition. To investigate the effect of such pulse inputs of siderophores on iron acquisition, we studied the dissolution mechanism of goethite (alpha-FeOOH), a mineral phase common in soils, under non-steady state conditions. In consideration of the chemical complexity of the rhizosphere, we also investigated the effect of other organic ligands commonly found in the rhizosphere (e. g. oxalate) on the dissolution kinetics. The dissolution experiments were conducted in batch reactors with a constant goethite solids concentration of 2.5 g/l, an ionic strength of 0.01 M, a pH of 6 and 100 microM oxalate. To induce non-steady state conditions, 3 mM phytosiderophores were added to a batch after the goethite-oxalate suspension reacted for a certain time period. Before the siderophore was added to the goethite-oxalate suspension, no dissolution of iron was observed. But, with the addition of the siderophore, a high rate was observed for the iron mobilization under these non-steady state conditions that subsequently was followed by a slow steady state dissolution rate. The results of these non-steady state experiments are very

  1. Sickle cell disease painful crisis and steady state differentiation by proton magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Adolfo A; Cabal, Carlos A; Lores, Manuel A; Losada, Jorge; Pérez, Enrique R

    2009-01-01

    The delay time of the Hb S polymerization process was investigated in 63 patients with sickle cell disease during steady state and 10 during painful crisis starting from spin-spin proton magnetic resonance (PMR) time behavior measured at 36 degrees C and during spontaneous deoxygenation. We found a significant decrease of delay time as a result of the crisis (36 +/- 10%) and two well-differentiated ranges of values for each state: 273-354 min for steady state and 166-229 min for crisis with an uncertainty region of 15%. It is possible to use PMR as an objective and quantitative method in order to differentiate both clinical conditions of the sickle cell patient, but a more clear differentiation can be established comparing the delay time (td) value of one patient during crisis with his own td value during steady state.

  2. Current Control in ITER Steady State Plasmas With Neutral Beam Steering

    SciTech Connect

    R.V. Budny

    2009-09-10

    Predictions of quasi steady state DT plasmas in ITER are generated using the PTRANSP code. The plasma temperatures, densities, boundary shape, and total current (9 - 10 MA) anticipated for ITER steady state plasmas are specified. Current drive by negative ion neutral beam injection, lower-hybrid, and electron cyclotron resonance are calculated. Four modes of operation with different combinations of current drive are studied. For each mode, scans with the NNBI aimed at differing heights in the plasma are performed to study effects of current control on the q profile. The timeevolution of the currents and q are calculated to evaluate long duration transients. Quasi steady state, strongly reversed q profiles are predicted for some beam injection angles if the current drive and bootstrap currents are sufficiently large.

  3. Exact Nonequilibrium Steady State of a Strongly Driven Open XXZ Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prosen, Tomaž

    2011-09-01

    An exact and explicit ladder-tensor-network ansatz is presented for the nonequilibrium steady state of an anisotropic Heisenberg XXZ spin-1/2 chain which is driven far from equilibrium with a pair of Lindblad operators acting on the edges of the chain only. We show that the steady-state density operator of a finite system of size n is—apart from a normalization constant—a polynomial of degree 2n-2 in the coupling constant. Efficient computation of physical observables is facilitated in terms of a transfer operator reminiscent of a classical Markov process. In the isotropic case we find cosine spin profiles, 1/n2 scaling of the spin current, and long-range correlations in the steady state. This is a fully nonperturbative extension of a recent result [Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 217206 (2011)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.106.217206].

  4. The Effects of High Intensity Interval Training vs Steady State Training on Aerobic and Anaerobic Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Carl; Farland, Courtney V.; Guidotti, Flavia; Harbin, Michelle; Roberts, Brianna; Schuette, Jeff; Tuuri, Andrew; Doberstein, Scott T.; Porcari, John P.

    2015-01-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has become an increasingly popular form of exercise due to its potentially large effects on exercise capacity and small time requirement. This study compared the effects of two HIIT protocols vs steady-state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity following 8-weeks of training. Fifty-five untrained college-aged subjects were randomly assigned to three training groups (3x weekly). Steady-state (n = 19) exercised (cycle ergometer) 20 minutes at 90% of ventilatory threshold (VT). Tabata (n = 21) completed eight intervals of 20s at 170% VO2max/10s rest. Meyer (n = 15) completed 13 sets of 30s (20 min) @ 100% PVO2 max/ 60s recovery, average PO = 90% VT. Each subject did 24 training sessions during 8 weeks. Results: There were significant (p < 0.05) increases in VO2max (+19, +18 and +18%) and PPO (+17, +24 and +14%) for each training group, as well as significant increases in peak (+8, + 9 and +5%) & mean (+4, +7 and +6%) power during Wingate testing, but no significant differences between groups. Measures of the enjoyment of the training program indicated that the Tabata protocol was significantly less enjoyable (p < 0.05) than the steady state and Meyer protocols, and that the enjoyment of all protocols declined (p < 0.05) across the duration of the study. The results suggest that although HIIT protocols are time efficient, they are not superior to conventional exercise training in sedentary young adults. Key points Steady state training equivalent to HIIT in untrained students Mild interval training presents very similar physiologic challenge compared to steady state training HIIT (particularly very high intensity variants were less enjoyable than steady state or mild interval training Enjoyment of training decreases across the course of an 8 week experimental training program PMID:26664271

  5. H2O2 delivery to cells: steady-state versus bolus addition.

    PubMed

    Marinho, H Susana; Cyrne, Luísa; Cadenas, Enrique; Antunes, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a ubiquitous biological molecule whose wide range of biological functions depends on its concentration. In this chapter, we compare the delivery of H2O2 to cells as (1) a single initial dose (bolus addition); (2) a continuous source using, for example, glucose oxidase; and (3) a steady state, in which H2O2 concentration is kept constant during the assay. Both the bolus addition and the use of a continuous source of H2O2 have as outcome concentration profiles of H2O2 that are dependent on experimental conditions and that are difficult to reproduce from the information that is usually revealed in the experimental section of most research articles. On the other hand, the outcome of delivering H2O2 as a steady state is a concentration profile that is independent of experimental conditions. The implementation of the steady state starts with the determination of the kinetics of H2O2 consumption in the system under study. Then, the amount of glucose oxidase needed to produce H2O2 at a rate that matches the rate of its consumption by cells at the desired H2O2 steady-state concentration is calculated. The setup of the steady state is initiated by adding this amount of glucose oxidase simultaneously with the desired concentration of H2O2. Because H2O2 consumption and delivery rates are matched, the initial H2O2 concentration added is kept constant during the assay. Detailed explanations on how to implement the steady state, including H2O2 measurements and adjustments in the amount of H2O2 or glucose oxidase during the assay, are described.

  6. Mass transport in salt repositories: Steady-state transport through interbeds

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Y.; Lee, W.W.-L.; Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1989-03-01

    Salt has long been a candidate for geologic disposal of nuclear waste. Because salt is extremely soluble in water, the existence of rock salt in the ground atest to the long-term stability of the salt. Both bedded salt and salt domes have been considered for nuclear waste disposal in the United States and Europe. While the salt is known to be quite pure in salt domes, bedded salt is interlaced with beds of sediments. Traditionally rock salt has not been considered water-conducting, but sediments layers would be classical porous media, capable of conducting water. Therefore there is interest in determining whether interbeds in bedded salt constitute pathway for radionuclide migration. In this report we consider steady-state migration of radionuclides from a single waste cylinder into a single interbed. Two approaches are used. In 1982 Neretnieks proposed an approach for calculating the steady-state transport of oxidants to a copper container. We have adapted that approach for calculating steady-state radionuclide migration away from the waste package, as a first approximation. We have also analyzed the problem of time-dependent radionuclide diffusion from a container through a backfill layer into a fracture, and we used the steady-state solution from that problem for comparison. Section 2 gives a brief summary of the geology of interbeds in bedded salt. Section 3 presents the mass transfer resistances approach of Neretnieks, summarizing the formulation and giving numerical illustrations of the steady-state two-dimensional diffusion analysis. Section 4 gives a brief statement of the steady-state result from a related analysis. Conclusions are stated in Section 5. 13 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. The McLennan-Zubarev steady state distribution and fluctuation theorems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, Mitsusada M.

    2017-05-01

    The McLennan-Zubarev steady state distribution is studied in the connection with fluctuation theorems. We derive the McLennan-Zubarev steady state distribution from the nonequilibrium detailed balance relation. Then, considering the cumulant function or cumulant functional, two fluctuation theorems for entropy and for currents are proved. Using the fluctuation theorem for currents, the current is expanded in terms of thermodynamic forces. In the lowest order of the thermodynamic force, we find that the transport coefficient satisfies the Onsager's reciprocal relation. In the next order, we derived the correction term to the Green-Kubo formula.

  8. Non-equilibrium steady states: fluctuations and large deviations of the density and of the current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derrida, Bernard

    2007-07-01

    These lecture notes give a short review of methods such as the matrix ansatz, the additivity principle or the macroscopic fluctuation theory, developed recently in the theory of non-equilibrium phenomena. They show how these methods allow us to calculate the fluctuations and large deviations of the density and the current in non-equilibrium steady states of systems like exclusion processes. The properties of these fluctuations and large deviation functions in non-equilibrium steady states (for example, non-Gaussian fluctuations of density or non-convexity of the large deviation function which generalizes the notion of free energy) are compared with those of systems at equilibrium.

  9. A quaternionic map for the steady states of the Heisenberg spin-chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, Mitaxi P.; Dutta, Souvik; Tiwari, Shubhanshu

    2014-01-01

    We show that the steady states of the classical Heisenberg XXX spin-chain in an external magnetic field can be found by iterations of a quaternionic map. A restricted model, e.g., the xy spin-chain is known to have spatially chaotic steady states and the phase space occupied by these chaotic states is known to go through discrete changes as the field strength is varied. The same phenomenon is studied for the xxx spin-chain. It is seen that in this model the phase space volume varies smoothly with the external field.

  10. S3C: EBT Steady-State Shooting code description and user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Downum, W.B.

    1983-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) one-dimensional (1-D) Steady-State Shooting code (S3C) for ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) plasmas is described. Benchmark calculations finding the steady-state density and electron and ion temperature profiles for a known neutral density profile and known external energy sources are carried out. Good agreement is obtained with results from the ORNL Radially Resolved Time Dependent 1-D Transport code for an EBT-Q type reactor. The program logic is described, along with the physics models in each code block and the variable names used. Sample input and output files are listed, along with the main code.

  11. Phase Space Analysis of a Gravitationally-Induced, Steady-State Nonequilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, D. P.; Glick, J.; Duncan, T.; Langton, J. A.; Gagliardi, M.; Tobe, R.

    Recently a new type of pressure gradient was introduced, a gravitationally-induced, dynamically-maintained, steady-state pressure gradient (GDSPG) [D. P. Sheehan and J. Glick, Physica Scripta 61, 635 (2000)]. In this paper, three dimensional numerical test particle simulations detail its phase space structure. These verify the underlying physical mechanism originally hypothesized for its operation and support key assumptions upon which it is based. The GDSPG appears to be a member of a more general class of steady-state nonequilibrium systems that arise under extreme thermodynamic conditions [D. P. Sheehan, Phys. Rev. E57, 6660 (1998)].

  12. Steady-state creep of complexly reinforced shallow metal-composite shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yankovskii, A. P.

    2010-05-01

    The problem of deformation of shallow shells of variable thickness reinforced with fibers of constant cross section, whose all phases operate under the conditions of steady-state creep, is formulated. The system of resolving equations and the corresponding boundary conditions are analyzed, and the procedure for solving this problem is developed. A way of approximate solution of such problems in the case of transient creep is indicated. The particular calculations performed show that the compliance of thin-walled structures, under the conditions of steady-state creep, greatly depends on the structure of reinforcement.

  13. Mass-Radius Spirals for Steady State Families of the Vlasov-Poisson System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramming, Tobias; Rein, Gerhard

    2017-06-01

    We consider spherically symmetric steady states of the Vlasov-Poisson system, which describe equilibrium configurations of galaxies or globular clusters. If the microscopic equation of state, i.e., the dependence of the steady state on the particle energy (and angular momentum) is fixed, a one-parameter family of such states is obtained. In the polytropic case the mass of the state along such a one-parameter family is a monotone function of its radius. We prove that for the King, Woolley-Dickens, and related models this mass-radius relation takes the form of a spiral.

  14. Arbitrary Steady-State Solutions with the K-epsilon Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rumsey, Christopher L.; Pettersson Reif, B. A.; Gatski, Thomas B.

    2006-01-01

    Widely-used forms of the K-epsilon turbulence model are shown to yield arbitrary steady-state converged solutions that are highly dependent on numerical considerations such as initial conditions and solution procedure. These solutions contain pseudo-laminar regions of varying size. By applying a nullcline analysis to the equation set, it is possible to clearly demonstrate the reasons for the anomalous behavior. In summary, the degenerate solution acts as a stable fixed point under certain conditions, causing the numerical method to converge there. The analysis also suggests a methodology for preventing the anomalous behavior in steady-state computations.

  15. Mass-Radius Spirals for Steady State Families of the Vlasov-Poisson System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramming, Tobias; Rein, Gerhard

    2017-02-01

    We consider spherically symmetric steady states of the Vlasov-Poisson system, which describe equilibrium configurations of galaxies or globular clusters. If the microscopic equation of state, i.e., the dependence of the steady state on the particle energy (and angular momentum) is fixed, a one-parameter family of such states is obtained. In the polytropic case the mass of the state along such a one-parameter family is a monotone function of its radius. We prove that for the King, Woolley-Dickens, and related models this mass-radius relation takes the form of a spiral.

  16. Three-state, steady-state Ising systems: Monte Carlo and Bragg-Williams treatments

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Terrell L.; Chen, Yi-Der

    1981-01-01

    In two earlier papers, the steady-state critical and phase-transition properties of a lattice of three-state enzyme molecules were studied by using the “closed” Bragg-Williams (BW), or mean field, approximation. The “open” BW and Monte Carlo methods are applied to the same problem in this paper by using finite lattices. The open BW treatment provides a way of locating the cut across a van der Waals type of loop encountered in a phase transition in the closed BW system. Thermodynamic-like methods cannot be used for this purpose as they can with two-state, steady-state systems. PMID:16592956

  17. Spectral characteristics of steady-state Lévy flights in confinement potential profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharcheva, A. A.; Dubkov, A. A.; Dybiec, B.; Spagnolo, B.; Valenti, D.

    2016-05-01

    The steady-state correlation characteristics of superdiffusion in the form of Lévy flights in one-dimensional confinement potential profiles are investigated both theoretically and numerically. Specifically, for Cauchy stable noise we calculate the steady-state probability density function for an infinitely deep rectangular potential well and for a symmetric steep potential well of the type U(x)\\propto {{x}2m} . For these potential profiles and arbitrary Lévy index α, we obtain the asymptotic expression of the spectral power density.

  18. Phenytoin pharmacokinetic analysis and steady-state level prediction using a programmable calculator.

    PubMed

    Ng, P K

    1980-07-01

    This paper describes the use of a programmable calculator (HP-97) to determine the individualized Michaelis-Menten parameters of phenytoin by utilising the linear regression technique in fitting data of multiple doses and corresponding steady-state concentrations to a linear-transformed Michaelis-Menten equation and solving for the Michaelis-Menten parameters. In addition, the calculator program can predict the corresponding steady-state concentration of phenytoin for any given dose used in an individual by employing the derived Michaelis-Menten parameters and the Michaelis-Menten equation.

  19. Transient and steady-state velocity of domain walls for a complete range of drive fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourne, H. C., Jr.; Bartran, D. S.

    1974-01-01

    Approximate analytic solutions for transient and steady-state 180 deg domain wall motion in bulk magnetic material are obtained from the dynamic torque equations with a Gilbert damping term. The results for the Walker region in which the transient solution approaches the familiar Walker steady-state solution are presented in a slightly new form for completeness. An analytic solution corresponding to larger drive fields predicts an oscillatory motion with an average value which decreases with drive field for reasonable values of the damping parameter. These results agree with those obtained by a computer solution of the torque equation and those obtained with the assumption of a very large anisotropy field.

  20. SUPERENERGY-2: a multiassembly, steady-state computer code for LMFBR core thermal-hydraulic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Basehore, K.L.; Todreas, N.E.

    1980-08-01

    Core thermal-hydraulic design and performance analyses for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) require repeated detailed multiassembly calculations to determine radial temperature profiles and subchannel outlet temperatures for various core configurations and subassembly structural analyses. At steady-state, detailed core-wide temperature profiles are required for core restraint calculations and subassembly structural analysis. In addition, sodium outlet temperatures are routinely needed for each reactor operating cycle. The SUPERENERGY-2 thermal-hydraulic code was designed specifically to meet these designer needs. It is applicable only to steady-state, forced-convection flow in LMFBR core geometries.

  1. Characterization of polyester films used in capacitors. 1: Transient and steady-state conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thielen, A.; Niezette, J.; Feyder, G.; Vanderschueren, J.

    1994-10-01

    Charging and discharging currents flowing through polyethylene terephthalate (PET) ultrathin films (1.5 - 12 micrometers) were measured by the use of a two-electrode configuration involving opposite lateral contacts. A study of the influence of electrification time, applied electric field, film thickness, nature of electrodes, and water content was carried out on both transient and steady-state conduction. The transient behavior can be interpreted in terms of dipolar orientation and relaxation processes while steady-state conductivity can be mainly accounted for in terms of Schottky emission. A comparison between PET and polyethylene naphthalate films is also reported.

  2. Is the effect of tinnitus on auditory steady-state response amplitude mediated by attention?

    PubMed Central

    Diesch, Eugen; Andermann, Martin; Rupp, Andre

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Auditory steady-state response (ASSR) amplitude enhancement effects have been reported in tinnitus patients. As ASSR amplitude is also enhanced by attention, the effect of tinnitus on ASSR amplitude could be interpreted as an effect of attention mediated by tinnitus. As N1 attention effects are significantly larger than those on the ASSR, if the effect of tinnitus on ASSR amplitude were due to attention, there should be similar amplitude enhancement effects in tinnitus for the N1 component of the auditory-evoked response. Methods: MEG recordings which were previously examined for the ASSR (Diesch et al., 2010a) were analyzed with respect to the N1m component. Like the ASSR previously, the N1m was analyzed in the source domain (source space projection). Stimuli were amplitude-modulated (AM) tones with one of three carrier frequencies matching the tinnitus frequency or a surrogate frequency 1½ octave above the audiometric edge frequency in controls, the audiometric edge frequency, and a frequency below the audiometric edge. Single AM-tones were presented in a single condition and superpositions of three AM-tones differing in carrier and modulation frequency in a composite condition. Results: In the earlier ASSR study (Diesch et al., 2010a), the ASSR amplitude in tinnitus patients, but not in controls, was significantly larger in the (surrogate) tinnitus condition than in the edge condition. Patients showed less evidence than controls of reciprocal inhibition of component ASSR responses in the composite condition. In the present study, N1m amplitudes elicited by stimuli located at the audiometric edge and at the (surrogate) tinnitus frequency were smaller than N1m amplitudes elicited by sub-edge tones both in patients and controls. The relationship of the N1m response in the composite condition to the N1m response in the single condition indicated that reciprocal inhibition among component N1m responses was reduced in patients compared against controls

  3. Inhibition of tumor cell growth by Sigma1 ligand mediated translational repression

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Felix J.; Schrock, Joel M.; Spino, Christina M.; Marino, Jacqueline C.; Pasternak, Gavril W.

    2012-09-21

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sigma1 ligand treatment mediates decrease in tumor cell mass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of a Sigma1 ligand with reversible translational repressor actions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demonstration of a role for Sigma1 in cellular protein synthesis. -- Abstract: Treatment with sigma1 receptor (Sigma1) ligands can inhibit cell proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. However, the cellular pathways engaged in response to Sigma1 ligand treatment that contribute to these outcomes remain largely undefined. Here, we show that treatment with putative antagonists of Sigma1 decreases cell mass. This effect corresponds with repressed cap-dependent translation initiation in multiple breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Sigma1 antagonist treatment suppresses phosphorylation of translational regulator proteins p70S6K, S6, and 4E-BP1. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Sigma1 also results in translational repression, consistent with the effects of antagonist treatment. Sigma1 antagonist mediated translational repression and decreased cell size are both reversible. Together, these data reveal a role for Sigma1 in tumor cell protein synthesis, and demonstrate that small molecule Sigma1 ligands can be used as modulators of protein translation.

  4. Inhibition of eukaryotic translation elongation by the antitumor natural product Mycalamide B

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Yongjun; Schneider-Poetsch, Tilman; Eyler, Daniel E.; Jewett, John C.; Bhat, Shridhar; Rawal, Viresh H.; Green, Rachel; Liu, Jun O.

    2011-01-01

    Mycalamide B (MycB) is a marine sponge-derived natural product with potent antitumor activity. Although it has been shown to inhibit protein synthesis, the molecular mechanism of action by MycB remains incompletely understood. We verified the inhibition of translation elongation by in vitro HCV IRES dual luciferase assays, ribosome assembly, and in vivo [35S]methinione labeling experiments. Similar to cycloheximide (CHX), MycB inhibits translation elongation through blockade of eEF2-mediated translocation without affecting the eEF1A-mediated loading of tRNA onto the ribosome, AUG recognition, or dipeptide synthesis. Using chemical footprinting, we identified the MycB binding site proximal to the C3993 28S rRNA residue on the large ribosomal subunit. However, there are also subtle, but significant differences in the detailed mechanisms of action of MycB and CHX. First, MycB arrests the ribosome on the mRNA one codon ahead of CHX. Second, MycB specifically blocked tRNA binding to the E-site of the large ribosomal subunit. Moreover, they display different polysome profiles in vivo. Together, these observations shed new light on the mechanism of inhibition of translation elongation by MycB. PMID:21693620

  5. The steady state anaerobic digestion of Laminaria hyperborea--effect of hydraulic residence on biogas production and bacterial community composition.

    PubMed

    Hinks, Jamie; Edwards, Stephen; Sallis, Paul J; Caldwell, Gary S

    2013-09-01

    Methane production by anaerobic digestion (AD) of macroalgae (seaweed) is a promising algal bioenergy option. Work presented here is primarily based on the AD of Laminaria hyperborea using batch and continuously stirred tank reactors. Extrapolation of data from batch studies to long term continuous reactors was unreliable. A conservative organic loading rate (OLR) of 1 g L(-1) d(-1) was used due to difficulties experienced in achieving steady state performance at an OLR of 1.5 g L(-1) d(-1). Biogas composition and methane yields (60-70%) were near to values expected from terrestrial feedstocks. Biomass washout, as imposed by the dilution rate (i.e., hydraulic residence), had considerable bearing on the biogas generation profile, particularly at >3 hydraulic residences. Inhibition of methanogen growth was linked to nutrient deficiency and potentially antimicrobial compounds associated with the feedstock. Anaerobic digestion of L. hyperborea proved feasible over extended operational periods. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Steady-State Acceptor Fluorescence Anisotropy Imaging under Evanescent Excitation for Visualisation of FRET at the Plasma Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Devauges, Viviane; Matthews, Daniel R.; Aluko, Justin; Nedbal, Jakub; Levitt, James A.; Poland, Simon P.; Coban, Oana; Weitsman, Gregory; Monypenny, James; Ng, Tony; Ameer-Beg, Simon M.

    2014-01-01

    We present a novel imaging system combining total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy with measurement of steady-state acceptor fluorescence anisotropy in order to perform live cell Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) imaging at the plasma membrane. We compare directly the imaging performance of fluorescence anisotropy resolved TIRF with epifluorescence illumination. The use of high numerical aperture objective for TIRF required correction for induced depolarization factors. This arrangement enabled visualisation of conformational changes of a Raichu-Cdc42 FRET biosensor by measurement of intramolecular FRET between eGFP and mRFP1. Higher activity of the probe was found at the cell plasma membrane compared to intracellularly. Imaging fluorescence anisotropy in TIRF allowed clear differentiation of the Raichu-Cdc42 biosensor from negative control mutants. Finally, inhibition of Cdc42 was imaged dynamically in live cells, where we show temporal changes of the activity of the Raichu-Cdc42 biosensor. PMID:25360776

  7. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1039 - Steady-State Duty Cycles

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... II to Part 1039 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Pt. 1039, App. II Appendix II to Part 1039—Steady-State Duty Cycles (a) The following duty cycles apply for...

  8. Radioactivity computation of steady-state and pulsed fusion reactors operation

    SciTech Connect

    Attaya, H.

    1994-06-01

    Different mathematical methods are used to calculate the nuclear transmutation in steady-state and pulsed neutron irradiation. These methods are the Schuer decomposition, the eigenvector decomposition, and the Pade approximation of the matrix exponential function. In the case of the linear decay chain approximation, a simple algorithm is used to evaluate the transition matrices.

  9. Quantifying biases in non-steady state chamber measurements of soil-atmosphere gas exchange

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Limitations of non-steady state (NSS) chamber methods for determining soil-to-atmosphere trace gas exchange rates have been recognized for several decades. Of these limitations, the so-called “chamber effect” is one of the most challenging to overcome. The chamber effect can be defined as the inhere...

  10. Transient and steady state photoelectronic analysis in TlInSe{sub 2} crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Qasrawi, A.F.; Gasanly, N.M.

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} The steady state and time dependent photoconductivity kinetics of the TlInSe{sub 2} crystals are investigated in the temperature region of 100-350 K. {yields} The photocurrent of the sample exhibited linear, sublinear, and supralinear recombination mechanisms, at, above and below 160 K, respectively. {yields} Steady state photoconductivity revealed two recombination centres located at 234 and 94 meV. {yields} The transient photoconductivity is limited by a trapping center located at 173 meV. {yields} The capture coefficient of the trap for holes was determined as 3.11 x 10{sup -22} cm{sup -2}. -- Abstract: The temperature and illumination effects on the transient and steady state photoconductivities of TlInSe{sub 2} crystals have been studied. Namely, two recombination centres located at 234 and at 94 meV and one trap center located at 173 meV were determined from the temperature-dependent steady state and transient photoconductivities, respectively. The illumination dependence of photoconductivity indicated the domination of sublinear and supralinear recombination mechanisms above and below 160 K, respectively. The change in the recombination mechanism is attributed to the exchange of roles between the linear recombination at the surface and trapping centres in the crystal, which become dominant as temperature decreases. The transient photoconductivity measurement allowed the determination of the capture coefficient of traps for holes as 3.11 x 10{sup -22} cm{sup -2}.

  11. Elimination of Thermodynamically Infeasible Loops in Steady-State Metabolic Models

    PubMed Central

    Schellenberger, Jan; Lewis, Nathan E.; Palsson, Bernhard Ø.

    2011-01-01

    The constraint-based reconstruction and analysis (COBRA) framework has been widely used to study steady-state flux solutions in genome-scale metabolic networks. One shortcoming of current COBRA methods is the possible violation of the loop law in the computed steady-state flux solutions. The loop law is analogous to Kirchhoff's second law for electric circuits, and states that at steady state there can be no net flux around a closed network cycle. Although the consequences of the loop law have been known for years, it has been computationally difficult to work with. Therefore, the resulting loop-law constraints have been overlooked. Here, we present a general mixed integer programming approach called loopless COBRA (ll-COBRA), which can be used to eliminate all steady-state flux solutions that are incompatible with the loop law. We apply this approach to improve flux predictions on three common COBRA methods: flux balance analysis, flux variability analysis, and Monte Carlo sampling of the flux space. Moreover, we demonstrate that the imposition of loop-law constraints with ll-COBRA improves the consistency of simulation results with experimental data. This method provides an additional constraint for many COBRA methods, enabling the acquisition of more realistic simulation results. PMID:21281568

  12. 40 CFR 86.1362-2010 - Steady-state testing with a ramped-modal cycle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2010, manufacturers may continue to use the cycle specified in § 86.1362-2007 as long as it does not...-modal cycle. 86.1362-2010 Section 86.1362-2010 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1362-2010 Steady-state testing with a ramped-modal cycle. This section...

  13. Walkway Length Determination for Steady State Walking in Young and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macfarlane, Pamela A.; Looney, Marilyn A.

    2008-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine acceleration (AC) and deceleration (DC) distances that would accommodate young and older adults walking at their preferred and fast speeds. A secondary purpose was to determine the minimal walkway length needed to record six steady state (SS) steps (three full gait cycles) for younger and older…

  14. Steady State Flammable Gas Release Rate Calculation and Lower Flammability Level Evaluation for Hanford Tank Waste

    SciTech Connect

    HU, T.A.

    2000-04-27

    This work is to assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions in the tank dome space for 177 double-shell and single-shell tanks at Hanford. Hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using rate equation model developed recently.

  15. Pre-steady-state kinetics for hydrolysis of insoluble cellulose by cellobiohydrolase Cel7A.

    PubMed

    Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj; Elmerdahl, Jens; Praestgaard, Eigil; Tatsumi, Hirosuke; Spodsberg, Nikolaj; Borch, Kim; Westh, Peter

    2012-05-25

    The transient kinetic behavior of enzyme reactions prior to the establishment of steady state is a major source of mechanistic information, yet this approach has not been utilized for cellulases acting on their natural substrate, insoluble cellulose. Here, we elucidate the pre-steady-state regime for the exo-acting cellulase Cel7A using amperometric biosensors and an explicit model for processive hydrolysis of cellulose. This analysis allows the identification of a pseudo-steady-state period and quantification of a processivity number as well as rate constants for the formation of a threaded enzyme complex, processive hydrolysis, and dissociation, respectively. These kinetic parameters elucidate limiting factors in the cellulolytic process. We concluded, for example, that Cel7A cleaves about four glycosidic bonds/s during processive hydrolysis. However, the results suggest that stalling the processive movement and low off-rates result in a specific activity at pseudo-steady state that is 10-25-fold lower. It follows that the dissociation of the enzyme-substrate complex (half-time of ~30 s) is rate-limiting for the investigated system. We suggest that this approach can be useful in attempts to unveil fundamental reasons for the distinctive variability in hydrolytic activity found in different cellulase-substrate systems.

  16. A hybrid multigrid technique for computing steady-state solutions to supersonic flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Richard

    1992-01-01

    Recently, Li and Sanders have introduced a class of finite difference schemes to approximate generally discontinuous solutions to hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. These equations have the form together with relevant boundary conditions. When modelling hypersonic spacecraft reentry, the differential equations above are frequently given by the compressible Euler equations coupled with a nonequilibrium chemistry model. For these applications, steady state solutions are often sought. Many tens (to hundreds) of super computer hours can be devoted to a single three space dimensional simulation. The primary difficulty is the inability to rapidly and reliably capture the steady state. In these notes, we demonstrate that a particular variant from the schemes presented can be combined with a particular multigrid approach to capture steady state solutions to the compressible Euler equations in one space dimension. We show that the rate of convergence to steady state coming from this multigrid implementation is vastly superior to the traditional approach of artificial time relaxation. Moreover, we demonstrate virtual grid independence. That is, the rate of convergence does not depend on the degree of spatial grid refinement.

  17. A Steady State Visually Evoked Potential Investigation of Memory and Ageing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macpherson, Helen; Pipingas, Andrew; Silberstein, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Old age is generally accompanied by a decline in memory performance. Specifically, neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies have revealed that there are age-related changes in the neural correlates of episodic and working memory. This study investigated age-associated changes in the steady state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) amplitude and…

  18. Reply to ``Comment on `Dynamically maintained steady-state pressure gradients' ''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, D. P.

    2000-04-01

    A reply is made to Duncan's Comment [T. L. Duncan, Phys. Rev. E 61, 4661 (2000)] on my earlier paper [D. P. Sheehan, Phys. Rev. E 57, 6660 (1998)] in which he raises an apparent second-law paradox arising from dynamically maintained, steady-state pressure gradients. Resolutions to this paradox are considered in light of current theoretical and experimental understanding.

  19. System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Bers, Abraham

    1981-01-01

    A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave RF energy is injected into said plasma to estalish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected RF energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected RF energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range .DELTA.. The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width .DELTA. in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated inthe plasma.

  20. System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor

    DOEpatents

    Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    1981-01-01

    A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave RF energy is injected into said plasma to establish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected RF energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected RF energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range .DELTA.. The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width .DELTA. in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated in the plasma.

  1. Integrated modelling of DEMO-FNS current ramp-up scenario and steady-state regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dnestrovskij, A. Yu.; Kuteev, B. V.; Bykov, A. S.; Ivanov, A. A.; Lukash, V. E.; Medvedev, S. Yu.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Sychugov, D. Yu.; Khayrutdinov, R. R.

    2015-06-01

    An approach to the integrated modelling of plasma regimes in the projected neutron source DEMO-FNS based on different codes is developed. The consistency check of the steady-state regime is carried out, namely, the possibility of the plasma current ramp-up, acceptance of growth rates of MHD modes in the steady-state regime, heat loads to the wall and divertor plates and neutron yield value. The following codes are employed for the integrated modelling. ASTRA transport code for calculation of plasma parameters in the steady-state regime, NUBEAM Monte Carlo code for NBI incorporated into the ASTRA code, DINA free boundary equilibrium and evolution code, SPIDER free boundary equilibrium and equilibrium reconstruction code, KINX ideal MHD stability code, TOKSTAB rigid shift vertical stability code, edge and divertor plasma B2SOLPS5.2 code and Semi-analytic Hybrid Model (SHM) code for self-consistent description of the core, edge and divertor plasmas based on the experimental scaling laws. The consistent steady-state regime for the DEMO-FNS plasma and the plasma current ramp-up scenario are developed using the integrated modelling approach. Passive copper coils are suggested to reduce the plasma vertical instability growth rate to below ˜30 s-1.The outer divertor operation in the ‘high-recycling’ regime is numerically demonstrated with a maximal heat flux density of 7-9 MW m-2 that is technically acceptable.

  2. Steady-State Fluorescence Anisotropy to Investigate Flavonoids Binding to Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Christine M.; Strollo, Christen M.

    2007-01-01

    The steady-state fluorescence anisotropy is employed to study the binding of protein of a model protein, human serum albumin, to a commonly used flavonoid, quercetin. The experiment describes the thermodynamics, as well as the biochemical interactions of such binding effectively.

  3. Steady-state choice between four alternatives obeys the constant-ratio rule.

    PubMed

    Bensemann, Joshua; Lobb, Brenda; Podlesnik, Christopher A; Elliffe, Douglas

    2015-07-01

    We investigated why violations to the constant-ratio rule, an assumption of the generalized matching law, occur in procedures that arrange frequent changes to reinforcer ratios. Our investigation produced steady-state data and compared them with data from equivalent, frequently changing procedures. Six pigeons responded in a four-alternative concurrent-schedule experiment with an arranged reinforcer-rate ratio of 27:9:3:1. The same four variable-interval schedules were used in every condition, for 50 sessions, and the physical location of each schedule was changed across conditions. The experiment was a steady-state version of a frequently changing procedure in which the locations of four VI schedules were changed every 10 reinforcers. We found that subjects' responding was consistent with the constant-ratio rule in the steady-state procedure. Additionally, local analyses showed that preference after reinforcement was towards the alternative that was likely to produce the next reinforcer, instead of being towards the just-reinforced alternative as in frequently changing procedures. This suggests that the effect of a reinforcer on preference is fundamentally different in rapidly changing and steady-state environments. Comparing this finding to the existing literature suggests that choice is more influenced by reinforcer-generated signals when the reinforcement contingencies often change.

  4. A comparison of steady state and transient thermography techniques using a healing tendon model.

    PubMed

    Stein, L E; Pijanowski, G J; Johnson, A L; MacCoy, D M; Chato, J C

    1988-01-01

    Steady state and transient thermal techniques were used to define the thermal signatures of surgically sectioned and sham-operated common calcanean tendons in four dogs. All limbs were imaged from the lateral side using an Inframetrics 525 system at - 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after surgery. Individual video frames were used to compute absolute surface temperatures and rewarm curves for five predetermined 1 cm2 skin areas. Angiography was performed at each observation period to correlate changes in vascular morphology and thermal data. Thermal signatures and angiograms were similar in all animals before surgery. At 2 and 4 weeks after surgery, the absolute surface temperatures of the entire lateral crus area were elevated in three of four animals. During weeks 6 and 8, the surface temperatures, rewarm curves, and angiograms returned to presurgical values for the controls. Skin areas over the repaired tendons remained warmer and were shown to correlate with vascular proliferation by transient but not steady state techniques. Steady state and transient thermal imaging techniques can be used to detect vascular changes in the area around a healing tendon. However, our data indicate that transient thermal techniques are more suitable than steady state methods for localizing vascular disturbances in tissues. Thermographic imaging techniques may become a reliable noninvasive method to monitor wound healing processes if starting temperatures, cool down techniques, and time intervals for data collection are fully evaluated in future studies using transient thermal imaging protocols.

  5. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION & LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HU, T.A.

    2005-10-27

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using the rate equation model. Flammability calculations based on hydrogen, ammonia, and methane were performed for 177 tanks for various scenarios.

  6. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    SciTech Connect

    HU TA

    2009-10-26

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using the rate equation model. Flammability calculations based on hydrogen, ammonia, and methane were performed for 177 tanks for various scenarios.

  7. Current Pressure Transducer Application of Model-based Prognostics Using Steady State Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teubert, Christopher; Daigle, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Prognostics is the process of predicting a system's future states, health degradation/wear, and remaining useful life (RUL). This information plays an important role in preventing failure, reducing downtime, scheduling maintenance, and improving system utility. Prognostics relies heavily on wear estimation. In some components, the sensors used to estimate wear may not be fast enough to capture brief transient states that are indicative of wear. For this reason it is beneficial to be capable of detecting and estimating the extent of component wear using steady-state measurements. This paper details a method for estimating component wear using steady-state measurements, describes how this is used to predict future states, and presents a case study of a current/pressure (I/P) Transducer. I/P Transducer nominal and off-nominal behaviors are characterized using a physics-based model, and validated against expected and observed component behavior. This model is used to map observed steady-state responses to corresponding fault parameter values in the form of a lookup table. This method was chosen because of its fast, efficient nature, and its ability to be applied to both linear and non-linear systems. Using measurements of the steady state output, and the lookup table, wear is estimated. A regression is used to estimate the wear propagation parameter and characterize the damage progression function, which are used to predict future states and the remaining useful life of the system.

  8. Thermal shock behaviour of blisters on W surface during combined steady-state/pulsed plasma loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Y. Z.; Liu, W.; Xu, B.; Luo, G.-N.; Li, C.; Qu, S. L.; Morgan, T. W.; De Temmerman, G.

    2015-09-01

    The thermal shock behaviour of blister-covered W surfaces during combined steady-state/pulsed plasma loading was studied by scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction. The W samples were first exposed to steady-state D plasma to induce blisters on the surface, and then the blistered surfaces were exposed to steady-state/pulsed plasma. Growth and cracking of blisters were observed after the exposure to the steady-state/pulsed plasma, while no obvious damage occurred on the surface area not covered with blisters. The results confirm that blisters induced by D plasma might represent weak spots on the W surface when exposed to transient heat load of ELMs. The cracks on blisters were different from the cracks due to the transient heat loads reported before, and they were assumed to be caused by stress and strain due to the gas expansion inside the blisters during the plasma pulses. Moreover, most of cracks were found to appear on the blisters formed on grains with surface orientation near [1 1 1].

  9. A Sequential Procedure for Determining the Length of a Steady-State Simulation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-04-01

    A common problem faced by simulators is that of constructing a confidence interval for the steady-state mean of a stochastic process. We have...procedure based on the method of batch means for constructing a confidence interval with coverage close to the desired level. Empirical results for a large

  10. Analytical steady-state solutions for water-limited cropping systems using saline irrigation water

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Due to the diminishing availability of good quality water for irrigation, it is increasingly important that irrigation and salinity management tools be able to target submaximal crop yields and support the use of marginal quality waters. In this work, we present a steady-state irrigated systems mod...

  11. Proteome analysis of the Escherichia coli heat shock response under steady-state conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lüders, Svenja; Fallet, Claas; Franco-Lara, Ezequiel

    2009-01-01

    In this study a proteomic approach was used to investigate the steady-state response of Escherichia coli to temperature up-shifts in a cascade of two continuously operated bioreactors. The first reactor served as cell source with optimal settings for microbial growth, while in the second chemostat the cells were exposed to elevated temperatures. By using this reactor configuration, which has not been reported to be used for the study of bacterial stress responses so far, it is possible to study temperature stress under well-defined, steady-state conditions. Specifically the effect on the cellular adaption to temperature stress using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was examined and compared at the cultivation temperatures of 37°C and 47.5°C. As expected, the steady-state study with the double bioreactor configuration delivered a different protein spectrum compared to that obtained with standard batch experiments in shaking flasks and bioreactors. Setting a high cut-out spot-to-spot size ratio of 5, proteins involved in defence against oxygen stress, functional cell envelope proteins, chaperones and proteins involved in protein biosynthesis, the energy metabolism and the amino acid biosynthesis were found to be differently expressed at high cultivation temperatures. The results demonstrate the complexity of the stress response in a steady-state culture not reported elsewhere to date. PMID:19772559

  12. The Cost Structure of Higher Education: Implications for Governmental Policy in Steady State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyell, Edward H.

    The historical pattern of resource allocation in American higher education as exemplified by public colleges in Colorado was examined. The reliance upon average cost information in making resource allocation decisions was critiqued for the special problems that arise from student enrollment decline or steady state. A model of resource allocation…

  13. Steady-State Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Bupropion Extended-Release In Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daviss, W. Burleson; Perel, James M.; Birmaher, Boris; Rudolph, George R.; Melhem, Imad; Axelson, David A.; Brent, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine in children and adolescents the 24-hour, steady-state clinical pharmacokinetics of an extended-release (XL) formulation of bupropion (Wellbutrin XL). Method: Subjects were six male and four female patients (ages 11.5-16.2 years) prescribed bupropion XL in morning daily doses of either 150 mg (n = 5) or 300 mg (n = 5) for at…

  14. Mechanistic assessment of hillslope transpiration controls of diel subsurface flow: a steady-state irrigation approach

    Treesearch

    H.R. Barnard; C.B. Graham; W.J. van Verseveld; J.R. Brooks; B.J. Bond; J.J. McDonnell

    2010-01-01

    Mechanistic assessment of how transpiration influences subsurface flow is necessary to advance understanding of catchment hydrology. We conducted a 24-day, steady-state irrigation experiment to quantify the relationships among soil moisture, transpiration and hillslope subsurface flow. Our objectives were to: (1) examine the time lag between maximum transpiration and...

  15. Pharmacokinetic Steady-States Highlight Interesting Target-Mediated Disposition Properties.

    PubMed

    Gabrielsson, Johan; Peletier, Lambertus A

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we derive explicit expressions for the concentrations of ligand L, target R and ligand-target complex RL at steady state for the classical model describing target-mediated drug disposition, in the presence of a constant-rate infusion of ligand. We demonstrate that graphing the steady-state values of ligand, target and ligand-target complex, we obtain striking and often singular patterns, which yield a great deal of insight and understanding about the underlying processes. Deriving explicit expressions for the dependence of L, R and RL on the infusion rate, and displaying graphs of the relations between L, R and RL, we give qualitative and quantitive information for the experimentalist about the processes involved. Understanding target turnover is pivotal for optimising these processes when target-mediated drug disposition (TMDD) prevails. By a combination of mathematical analysis and simulations, we also show that the evolution of the three concentration profiles towards their respective steady-states can be quite complex, especially for lower infusion rates. We also show how parameter estimates obtained from iv bolus studies can be used to derive steady-state concentrations of ligand, target and complex. The latter may serve as a template for future experimental designs.

  16. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1042 - Steady-State Duty Cycles

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Steady-State Duty Cycles II Appendix II to Part 1042 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Pt....

  17. Efficient Decoding With Steady-State Kalman Filter in Neural Interface Systems

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Wasim Q.; Truccolo, Wilson; Brown, Emery N.; Hochberg, Leigh R.

    2011-01-01

    The Kalman filter is commonly used in neural interface systems to decode neural activity and estimate the desired movement kinematics. We analyze a low-complexity Kalman filter implementation in which the filter gain is approximated by its steady-state form, computed offline before real-time decoding commences. We evaluate its performance using human motor cortical spike train data obtained from an intracortical recording array as part of an ongoing pilot clinical trial. We demonstrate that the standard Kalman filter gain converges to within 95% of the steady-state filter gain in 1.5 ± 0.5 s (mean ± s.d.). The difference in the intended movement velocity decoded by the two filters vanishes within 5 s, with a correlation coefficient of 0.99 between the two decoded velocities over the session length. We also find that the steady-state Kalman filter reduces the computational load (algorithm execution time) for decoding the firing rates of 25 ± 3 single units by a factor of 7.0 ± 0.9. We expect that the gain in computational efficiency will be much higher in systems with larger neural ensembles. The steady-state filter can thus provide substantial runtime efficiency at little cost in terms of estimation accuracy. This far more efficient neural decoding approach will facilitate the practical implementation of future large-dimensional, multisignal neural interface systems. PMID:21078582

  18. Dissipative production of a maximally entangled steady state of two quantum bits.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y; Gaebler, J P; Reiter, F; Tan, T R; Bowler, R; Sørensen, A S; Leibfried, D; Wineland, D J

    2013-12-19

    Entangled states are a key resource in fundamental quantum physics, quantum cryptography and quantum computation. Introduction of controlled unitary processes--quantum gates--to a quantum system has so far been the most widely used method to create entanglement deterministically. These processes require high-fidelity state preparation and minimization of the decoherence that inevitably arises from coupling between the system and the environment, and imperfect control of the system parameters. Here we combine unitary processes with engineered dissipation to deterministically produce and stabilize an approximate Bell state of two trapped-ion quantum bits (qubits), independent of their initial states. Compared with previous studies that involved dissipative entanglement of atomic ensembles or the application of sequences of multiple time-dependent gates to trapped ions, we implement our combined process using trapped-ion qubits in a continuous time-independent fashion (analogous to optical pumping of atomic states). By continuously driving the system towards the steady state, entanglement is stabilized even in the presence of experimental noise and decoherence. Our demonstration of an entangled steady state of two qubits represents a step towards dissipative state engineering, dissipative quantum computation and dissipative phase transitions. Following this approach, engineered coupling to the environment may be applied to a broad range of experimental systems to achieve desired quantum dynamics or steady states. Indeed, concurrently with this work, an entangled steady state of two superconducting qubits was demonstrated using dissipation.

  19. ROLE OF NMDA, NICOTINIC, AND GABA RECEPTORS IN THE STEADY STATE VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIAL IN RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript characterizes the receptor pathways involved in pattern-evoked potential generation in rats

    " NMDA and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors appear to be involved in the generation of the steady-state pattern evoked response in vivo.

    " The pattern evok...

  20. Steady-State Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Bupropion Extended-Release In Youths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daviss, W. Burleson; Perel, James M.; Birmaher, Boris; Rudolph, George R.; Melhem, Imad; Axelson, David A.; Brent, David A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To examine in children and adolescents the 24-hour, steady-state clinical pharmacokinetics of an extended-release (XL) formulation of bupropion (Wellbutrin XL). Method: Subjects were six male and four female patients (ages 11.5-16.2 years) prescribed bupropion XL in morning daily doses of either 150 mg (n = 5) or 300 mg (n = 5) for at…