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Sample records for inhibitor everolimus rad001

  1. Novel and evolving therapies in the treatment of malignant phaeochromocytoma: experience with the mTOR inhibitor everolimus (RAD001).

    PubMed

    Druce, M R; Kaltsas, G A; Fraenkel, M; Gross, D J; Grossman, A B

    2009-09-01

    Phaeochromocytoma and paraganglioma are rare neuroendocrine tumours (NETS). They may be benign or malignant but the pathological distinction is mainly made when metastases are present. Available treatments in the form of surgery, chemotherapy, and radionuclide therapy may improve symptoms and biochemical markers, but the results for the control of tumour bulk are less favourable. Furthermore, responses to treatment are frequently short-lived. This short review outlines the main molecular and histological features of malignant phaeochromocytoma and the difficulties in differentiating between benign and malignant disease. We list current therapies used for malignant pheochromocytoma; however, these generally achieve relatively low success rates. Hence, there is a need for new and more effective therapies. In vitro studies have implicated the PI3/Akt/mTOR pathway in the pathogenesis of malignant NETS, including phaeochromocytoma. Everolimus (RAD001, Novartis UK) is a compound that inhibits mTOR (mammalian Target Of Rapamycin) signalling. We have used RAD001 in four patients with progressive malignant paraganglioma/phaeochromocytoma in addition to other therapies (with institutional approval for compassionate use), and evaluated the effects of this treatment. We outline these four cases and review the theoretical background for this therapy, although the outcomes were relatively disappointing.

  2. RAD001 (everolimus) induces dose-dependent changes to cell cycle regulation and modifies the cell cycle response to vincristine.

    PubMed

    Saunders, P O; Weiss, J; Welschinger, R; Baraz, R; Bradstock, K F; Bendall, L J

    2013-10-01

    More than 50% of adults and ~20% of children with pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) relapse following treatment. Dismal outcomes for patients with relapsed or refractory disease mandate novel approaches to therapy. We have previously shown that the combination of the mTOR inhibitor RAD001 (everolimus) and the chemotherapeutic agent vincristine increases the survival of non-obese diabetic/severe combined immuno-deficient (NOD/SCID) mice bearing human ALL xenografts. We have also shown that 16 μM RAD001 synergized with agents that cause DNA damage or microtubule disruption in pre-B ALL cells in vitro. Here, we demonstrate that RAD001 has dose-dependent effects on the cell cycle in ALL cells, with 1.5 μM RAD001 inhibiting pRb, Ki67 and PCNA expression and increasing G0/1 cell cycle arrest, whereas 16 μM RAD001 increases pRb, cyclin D1, Ki67 and PCNA, with no evidence of an accumulation of cells in G0/1. Transition from G2 into mitosis was promoted by 16 μM RAD001 with reduced phosphorylation of cdc2 in cells with 4 N DNA content. However, 16 μM RAD001 preferentially induced cell death in cells undergoing mitosis. When combined with vincristine, 16 μM RAD001 reduced the vincristine-induced accumulation of cells in mitosis, probably as a result of increased death in this population. Although 16 μM RAD001 weakly activated Chk1 and Chk2, it suppressed strong vincristine-induced activation of these cell cycle checkpoint regulators. We conclude that RAD001 enhances chemosensitivity at least in part through suppression of cell cycle checkpoint regulation in response to vincristine and increased progression from G2 into mitosis.

  3. PTEN Loss Does Not Predict for Response to RAD001 (Everolimus) in a Glioblastoma Orthotopic Xenograft Test Panel

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lin; Clarke, Michelle J.; Carlson, Brett L.; Mladek, Ann C.; Schroeder, Mark A.; Decker, Paul; Wu, Wenting; Kitange, Gaspar J.; Grogan, Patrick T.; Goble, Jennie M.; Uhm, Joon; Galanis, Evanthia; Giannini, Caterina; Lane, Heidi A.; James, C. David; Sarkaria, Jann N.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Hyperactivation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling through disruption of PTEN function is common in glioblastoma multiforme, and these genetic changes are predicted to enhance sensitivity to mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors such as RAD001 (everolimus). Experimental Design To test whether PTEN loss could be used as a predictive marker for mTOR inhibitor sensitivity, the response of 17 serially transplantable glioblastoma multiforme xenografts was evaluated in an orthotopic therapy evaluation model. Of these 17 xenograft lines, 7 have either genomic deletion or mutation of PTEN. Results Consistent with activation of Akt signaling, there was a good correlation between loss of PTEN function and elevated levels of Akt phosphorylation. However, of the 7 lines with disrupted PTEN function, only 1 tumor line (GBM10) was significantly sensitive to RAD001 therapy (25% prolongation in median survival), whereas1 of 10 xenograft lines with wild-type PTEN was significantly sensitive to RAD001 (GS22; 34% prolongation in survival). Relative to placebo, 5 days of RAD001 treatment was associated with a marked 66% reduction in the MIB1 proliferation index in the sensitive GBM10 line (deleted PTEN) compared with a 25% and 7% reduction in MIB1 labeling index in the insensitive GBM14 (mutant PTEN) and GBM15 (wild-type PTEN) lines, respectively. Consistent with a cytostatic antitumor effect, bioluminescent imaging of luciferase-transduced intracranial GBM10 xenografts showed slowed tumor growth without significant tumor regression during RAD001 therapy. Conclusion These data suggest that loss of PTEN function is insufficient to adequately predict responsiveness to mTOR inhibitors in glioblastoma multiforme. PMID:18559622

  4. Phase II Study of Temozolomide (TMZ) and Everolimus (RAD001) Therapy for Metastatic Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Dronca, Roxana S.; Allred, Jacob B.; Perez, Domingo G.; Nevala, Wendy K.; Lieser, Elizabeth A.T.; Thompson, Michael; Maples, William J.; Creagan, Edward T.; Pockaj, Barbara A.; Kaur, Judith S.; Moore, Timothy D.; Marchello, Benjamin T.; Markovic, Svetomir N.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is activated in malignant melanoma and in situ lesions as opposed to benign nevi. Inhibition of PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling is implicated in sensitization of melanoma cells to alkylating agents [temozolomide (TMZ)] and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. Methods We conducted a single-arm phase II multi-institution cooperative group study to assess the antitumor activity and safety profile of the combination of TMZ and the rapamycin derivative everolimus in patients with metastatic unresectable malignant melanoma. Patients received 10 mg/d of RAD001 for 5 of 7 days (ie, 50 mg/ wk) and 200 mg/m2/d of TMZ for 5 days each cycle. Results Of the first 39 eligible patients, 17 were PFS-9 successes, for a predetermined threshold of 18/39 patients for a positive trial. Overall, 21 of 48 patients were progression free at 9 weeks, for an event-free survival rate of 44% (95% confidence interval, 29%–59%). The median progression-free survival was 2.4 months and the median overall survival was 8.6 months. Four patients achieved a partial response; the median duration of response was 15.1 months. No complete remissions were observed. Treatment was in general well tolerated with only 1 patient discontinuing therapy due to toxicity (hyperlipidemia). Conclusions The combination of TMZ and RAD001 was well tolerated but failed to meet/exceed our study threshold for promising clinical activity in patients with metastatic melanoma. PMID:23357973

  5. RTOG 0913: A Phase 1 Study of Daily Everolimus (RAD001) in Combination With Radiation Therapy and Temozolomide in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Chinnaiyan, Prakash; Won, Minhee; Wen, Patrick Y.; Wendland, Merideth; Dipetrillo, Thomas A.; Corn, Benjamin W.; Mehta, Minesh P.

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To determine the safety of the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus (RAD001) administered daily with concurrent radiation and temozolomide in newly diagnosed glioblastoma patients. Methods and Materials: Everolimus was administered daily with concurrent radiation (60 Gy in 30 fractions) and temozolomide (75 mg/m{sup 2} per day). Everolimus was escalated from 2.5 mg/d (dose level 1) to 5 mg/d (dose level 2) to 10 mg/d (dose level 3). Adjuvant temozolomide was delivered at 150 to 200 mg/m{sup 2} on days 1 to 5, every 28 days, for up to 12 cycles, with concurrent everolimus at the previously established daily dose of 10 mg/d. Dose escalation continued if a dose level produced dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) in fewer than 3 of the first 6 evaluable patients. Results: Between October 28, 2010, and July 2, 2012, the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0913 protocol initially registered a total of 35 patients, with 25 patients successfully meeting enrollment criteria receiving the drug and evaluable for toxicity. Everolimus was successfully escalated to the predetermined maximum tolerated dose of 10 mg/d. Two of the first 6 eligible patients had a DLT at each dose level. DLTs included gait disturbance, febrile neutropenia, rash, fatigue, thrombocytopenia, hypoxia, ear pain, headache, and mucositis. Other common toxicities were grade 1 or 2 hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia. At the time of analysis, there was 1 death reported, which was attributed to tumor progression. Conclusions: Daily oral everolimus (10 mg) combined with both concurrent radiation and temozolomide followed by adjuvant temozolomide is well tolerated, with an acceptable toxicity profile. A randomized phase 2 clinical trial with mandatory correlative biomarker analysis is currently under way, designed to both determine the efficacy of this regimen and identify molecular determinants of response.

  6. Effects of a combined treatment with mTOR inhibitor RAD001 and tamoxifen in vitro on growth and apoptosis of human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Treeck, Oliver; Wackwitz, Birgit; Haus, Ulrike; Ortmann, Olaf

    2006-08-01

    Interactions between estrogen receptor signaling and the PI3K/Akt pathway are present in estrogen-dependent cancer cells. Therapeutical inhibition of each of these pathways has been proven to exert antitumoral effects. Inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a downstream target of Akt, is able to restore tamoxifen response in tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cells. Given that Akt and mTOR phosphorylation also is frequently detected in ovarian and endometrial cancer, we intended to find out to what extent mTOR inhibitor RAD001 (everolimus) and tamoxifen add to each other's effects on growth and apoptosis of cancer cell lines derived from these tissues when given concomitantly. OVCAR-3 and SK-OV-3 ovarian cancer cells, HEC-1A endometrial adenocarcinoma cells and MCF-7 breast cancer cells were treated with different concentrations of mTOR inhibitor RAD001 alone or in combination with 4-OH tamoxifen. Relative numbers of viable cells were assessed by means of the resazurin-based Cell Titer Blue assay, cellular apoptosis was examined by measurement of activated caspases 3 and 7 by means of the luminometric Caspase-Glo assay. Treatment with RAD001 resulted in growth inhibition of all employed cancer cell lines in a dose-dependent manner, and SK-OV-3 ovarian cancer cells proved to be most sensitive to this drug. Moreover, we report the observation of additive, but not synergistical growth inhibitory effects of a combination treatment with RAD001 and 4-OH TAM on SK-OV-3 and OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells and MCF-7 breast cancer cells in vitro, whereas no such effect was observed in HEC-1A endometrial adenocarcinoma cells. Combination treatment with both drugs was demonstrated to be superior to single treatment with lower concentrations (0.1 and 1 nM) of RAD001 or standard concentrations of 4-OH TAM. Furthermore, RAD001 increased the apoptotic effect triggered by high 4-OH TAM concentrations in SK-OV-3 ovarian cancer cells. Combination treatment with RAD001 and 4

  7. A Phase I Study of Weekly Everolimus (RAD001) in Combination with Docetaxel in Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Moulder, Stacy; Gladish, Gregory; Ensor, Joe; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana Maria; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Murray, James L.; Booser, Daniel; Giordano, Sharon H.; Brewster, Abeena; Moore, Julia; Rivera, Edgardo; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Tran, Hai T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Inhibition of mTOR with everolimus may result improve efficacy of taxanes. Everolimus and docetaxel are both metabolized by CYP3A4, which could result in a pharmacokinetic (PK) interaction. Patients and Methods 15 patients with metastatic breast cancer were treated with docetaxel (doses of 40-75 mg/m2 IV on day 1 of a 21 day cycle) in combination with everolimus (doses ranging from 20-50 mg po on days 1 and 8 of a 21 day cycle) in a phase I trial using the continuous reassessment method (CRM) to determine maximum tolerated dose (MTD). The first two patients developed DLT (neutropenic infection), prompting a mandatory dose reduction and PK evaluation of both everolimus and docetaxel for patients enrolled in subsequent dosing cohorts. Results 15 patients were treated. Dose limiting toxicity included grade 3 mucositis (n=1), prolonged grade 4 neutropenia (n=1), and grade 3 infection/febrile neutropenia (n=3). Day 8 of everolimus was commonly held for neutropenia despite a dose reduction in docetaxel to 40mg/m2. Eleven patients underwent complete PK evaluation for everolimus and 9 patients underwent complete PK evaluation for both everolimus and docetaxel. Widely variable changes in clearance were seen for both drugs and the study was terminated due to lack of efficacy and concerns regarding toxicity seen with the combination. Conclusion Weekly everolimus in combination with Q 3-week docetaxel was associated with excessive neutropenia and variable clearance of both drugs making combination therapy unpredictable, even at low doses of both drugs. PMID:22006179

  8. Phase II study of temozolomide (TMZ) and everolimus (RAD001) therapy for metastatic melanoma: a North Central Cancer Treatment Group study, N0675.

    PubMed

    Dronca, Roxana S; Allred, Jacob B; Perez, Domingo G; Nevala, Wendy K; Lieser, Elizabeth A T; Thompson, Michael; Maples, William J; Creagan, Edward T; Pockaj, Barbara A; Kaur, Judith S; Moore, Timothy D; Marchello, Benjamin T; Markovic, Svetomir N

    2014-08-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is activated in malignant melanoma and in situ lesions as opposed to benign nevi. Inhibition of PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling is implicated in sensitization of melanoma cells to alkylating agents (temozolomide [TMZ]) and inhibition of tumor angiogenesis. We conducted a single-arm phase II multi-institution cooperative group study to assess the antitumor activity and safety profile of the combination of TMZ and the rapamycin derivative everolimus in patients with metastatic unresectable malignant melanoma. Patients received 10 mg/d of RAD001 for 5 of 7 days (ie, 50 mg/wk) and 200 mg/m/d of TMZ for 5 days each cycle. Of the first 39 eligible patients, 17 were PFS-9 successes, for a predetermined threshold of 18/39 patients for a positive trial. Overall, 21 of 48 patients were progression free at 9 weeks, for an event-free survival rate of 44% (95% confidence interval, 29%-59%). The median progression-free survival was 2.4 months and the median overall survival was 8.6 months. Four patients achieved a partial response; the median duration of response was 15.1 months. No complete remissions were observed. Treatment was in general well tolerated with only 1 patient discontinuing therapy due to toxicity (hyperlipidemia). The combination of TMZ and RAD001 was well tolerated but failed to meet/exceed our study threshold for promising clinical activity in patients with metastatic melanoma.

  9. North Central Cancer Treatment Group Phase I Trial N057K of Everolimus (RAD001) and Temozolomide in Combination With Radiation Therapy in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Multiforme

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkaria, Jann N.; Galanis, Evanthia; Wu Wenting; Peller, Patrick J.; Giannini, Caterina; Brown, Paul D.; Uhm, Joon H.; McGraw, Steven; Jaeckle, Kurt A.; Buckner, Jan C.

    2011-10-01

    Background: The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) functions within the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway as a critical modulator of cell survival. On the basis of promising preclinical data, the safety and tolerability of therapy with the mTOR inhibitor RAD001 in combination with radiation (RT) and temozolomide (TMZ) was evaluated in this Phase I study. Methods and Materials: All patients received weekly oral RAD001 in combination with standard chemoradiotherapy, followed by RAD001 in combination with standard adjuvant temozolomide. RAD001 was dose escalated in cohorts of 6 patients. Dose-limiting toxicities were defined during RAD001 combination therapy with TMZ/RT. Results: Eighteen patients were enrolled, with a median follow-up of 8.4 months. Combined therapy was well tolerated at all dose levels, with 1 patient on each dose level experiencing a dose-limiting toxicity: Grade 3 fatigue, Grade 4 hematologic toxicity, and Grade 4 liver dysfunction. Throughout therapy, there were no Grade 5 events, 3 patients experienced Grade 4 toxicities, and 6 patients had Grade 3 toxicities attributable to treatment. On the basis of these results, the recommended Phase II dosage currently being tested is RAD001 70 mg/week in combination with standard chemoradiotherapy. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography scans also were obtained at baseline and after the second RAD001 dose before the initiation of TMZ/RT; the change in FDG uptake between scans was calculated for each patient. Fourteen patients had stable metabolic disease, and 4 patients had a partial metabolic response. Conclusions: RAD001 in combination with RT/TMZ and adjuvant TMZ was reasonably well tolerated. Changes in tumor metabolism can be detected by FDG positron emission tomography in a subset of patients within days of initiating RAD001 therapy.

  10. Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor RAD001 sensitizes endometrial cancer cells to paclitaxel-induced apoptosis via the induction of autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huan; Li, Dandan; Li, Xiaomao; Ou, Xueling; Liu, Suiling; Zhang, Yu; Ding, Jie; Xie, Bo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, RAD001, on the growth of human endometrial cancer cells. The effects of RAD001 on human endometrial cancer Ishikawa and HEC-1A cell proliferation were determined by MTT assay. Green fluorescent protein microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3α (GFP-LC3) protein aggregates were observed under a confocal microscope, and Ishikawa and HEC-1A cell apoptosis was detected using flow cytometry. The expression levels of LC3-I, LC3-II and mTOR proteins were detected by western blot analysis. The results showed that RAD001 effectively inhibited human endometrial cancer Ishikawa and HEC-1A cell proliferation via downregulation of AKT/mTOR phosphorylation. Moreover, RAD001 induced autophagic cell death and a higher sensitivity to paclitaxel-induced apoptosis. These results indicate that RAD001 could have therapeutic potential in human endometrial cancer with hyperactivated AKT/mTOR signaling. PMID:28105210

  11. The mTOR inhibitor RAD001 augments radiation-induced growth inhibition in a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line by increasing autophagy.

    PubMed

    Altmeyer, Anaïs; Josset, Elodie; Denis, Jean-Marc; Gueulette, John; Slabbert, Jakobus; Mutter, Didier; Noël, Georges; Bischoff, Pierre

    2012-10-01

    Treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major concern for physicians as its response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy remains generally poor, due, in part, to intrinsic resistance to either form of treatment. We previously reported that an irradiation with fast neutrons, which are high-linear energy transfer (LET) particles, massively induced autophagic cell death in the human HCC SK-Hep1 cell line. In the present study, we tested the capacity of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor RAD001 to augment the cytotoxicity of low and high-LET radiation in these cells. As mTOR is a key component in a series of pathways involved in tumor growth and development, it represents a potential molecular target for cancer treatment. Results indicate that RAD001, at clinically relevant nanomolar concentrations, enhances the efficacy of both high- and low-LET radiation in SK-Hep1 cells, and that the induction of autophagy may account for this effect. However, fast neutrons were found to be more efficient at reducing tumor cell growth than low-LET radiation.

  12. The Combination of RAD001 and MK-2206 Exerts Synergistic Cytotoxic Effects against PTEN Mutant Gastric Cancer Cells: Involvement of MAPK-Dependent Autophagic, but Not Apoptotic Cell Death Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lei; Chang, Jinjia; Wang, Shanshan; Zheng, Biqiang; Zheng, Rongliang; Sun, Zuojun; Wang, Chenchen; Zhang, Zhiqing; Liu, Rujiao; Zhang, Xiaowei; Liu, Xin; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Jin

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, we showed that the combination of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor RAD001 (everolimus) and Akt inhibitor MK-2206 exerted synergistic cytotoxic effects against low-phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) gastric cancer cells (HGC-27 and SNU-601 lines). In HGC-27 cells, RAD001 and MK-2206 synergistically induced G1/S cell cycle arrest, growth inhibition, cell death but not apoptosis. RAD001 and MK-2206 synergistically induced light chain 3B (LC3B) and beclin-1 expression, two important autophagy indicators. Meanwhile, the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and chloroquine inhibited the cytotoxic effects by RAD001 and MK-2206, suggesting that autophagic, but not apoptotic cell death was important for the cytotoxic effects by the co-administration. We observed that the combination of RAD001 and MK-2206 exerted enhanced effects on Akt/mTOR inhibition, cyclin D1 down-regulation and ERK/MAPK(extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinases) activation. Intriguingly, MEK/ERK inhibitors PD98059 and U0126 suppressed RAD001 plus MK-2206-induced beclin-1 expression, autophagy induction and cytotoxicity in HGC-27 cells. In conclusion, these results suggested that the synergistic anti-gastric cancer cells ability by RAD001 and MK-2206 involves ERK-dependent autophagic cell death pathway. PMID:24416349

  13. Molecular analysis of a male breast cancer patient with prolonged stable disease under mTOR/PI3K inhibitors BEZ235/everolimus

    PubMed Central

    Brannon, A. Rose; Frizziero, Melissa; Chen, David; Hummel, Jennifer; Gallo, Jorge; Riester, Markus; Patel, Parul; Cheung, Wing; Morrissey, Michael; Carbone, Carmine; Cottini, Silvia; Tortora, Giampaolo; Melisi, Davide

    2016-01-01

    The mTORC1 inhibitor everolimus (Afinitor/RAD001) has been approved for multiple cancer indications, including ER+/HER2− metastatic breast cancer. However, the combination of everolimus with the dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor BEZ235 was shown to be more efficacious than either everolimus or BEZ235 alone in preclinical models. Herein, we describe a male breast cancer (MBC) patient who was diagnosed with hormone receptor-positive (HR+)/HER2− stage IIIA invasive ductal carcinoma and sequentially treated with chemoradiotherapy and hormonal therapy. Upon the development of metastases, the patient began a 200 mg twice-daily BEZ235 and 2.5 mg weekly everolimus combination regimen. The patient sustained a prolonged stable disease of 18 mo while undergoing the therapy, before his tumor progressed again. Therefore, we sought to both better understand MBC and investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of the patient's sensitivity and subsequent resistance to the BEZ235/everolimus combination therapy. Genomic and immunohistochemical analyses were performed on samples collected from the initial invasive ductal carcinoma pretreatment and a metastasis postprogression on the BEZ235/everolimus combination treatment. Both tumors were relatively quiet genomically with no overlap to recurrent MBC alterations in the literature. Markers of PI3K/mTOR pathway hyperactivation were not identified in the pretreatment sample, which complements previous reports of HR+ female breast cancers being responsive to mTOR inhibition without this activation. The postprogression sample, however, demonstrated greater than fivefold increased estrogen receptor and pathogenesis-related protein expression, which could have constrained the PI3K/mTOR pathway inhibition by BEZ235/everolimus. Overall, these analyses have augmented the limited episteme on MBC genetics and treatment. PMID:27148582

  14. Everolimus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Zortress) is used with other medications to prevent transplant rejection (attack of the transplanted organ by the ... organ) in certain adults who have received kidney transplants. Everolimus is in a class of medications called ...

  15. The Role of Everolimus in Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Valdivieso, Roger; Dell’Oglio, Paolo; Trudeau, Vincent; Larcher, Alessandro; Karakiewicz, Pierre I.

    2015-01-01

    Everolimus (RAD001) is an orally administered agent that inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin serine-threonine kinase. A phase III pivotal trial on everolimus, published in 2008, provided the first evidence for the efficacy of sequential therapy for patients with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In this study, everolimus was used after failure of one or several previous lines of therapy, and it demonstrated a 3-month survival benefit relative to placebo. Currently, based on the level 1 evidence, everolimus represents the molecule of choice for third-line therapy after failure of previous two tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, second-line use after failure of one TKI is challenged by two new molecules (nivolumab and cabozantinib), which proved to have better efficacy with similar toxicity profile. In non-clear cell metastatic RCC, the current evidence recommends everolimus as a second-line therapy after failure of previous first-line sunitinib.

  16. Combined therapy with RAD001 e BEZ235 overcomes resistance of PET immortalized cell lines to mTOR inhibition.

    PubMed

    Passacantilli, Ilaria; Capurso, Gabriele; Archibugi, Livia; Calabretta, Sara; Caldarola, Sara; Loreni, Fabrizio; Delle Fave, Gianfranco; Sette, Claudio

    2014-07-30

    Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) are characterised by an indolent behaviour in terms of tumor growth. However, most patients display metastasis at diagnosis and no cure is currently available. Since the PI3K/AKT/mTOR axis is deregulated in PETs, the mTOR inhibitor RAD001 represents the first line treatment. Nevertheless, some patients do not respond to treatments and most acquire resistance. Inhibition of mTOR leads to feedback re-activation of PI3K activity, which may promote resistance to RAD001. Thus, PI3K represents a novel potential target for PETs. We tested the impact of three novel PI3K inhibitors (BEZ235, BKM120 and BYL719) on proliferation of PET cells that are responsive (BON-1) or unresponsive (QGP-1) to RAD001. BEZ235 was the most efficient in inhibiting proliferation in PET cells. Furthermore, combined treatment with BEZ235 and RAD001 exhibited synergic effects and was also effective in BON-1 that acquired resistance to RAD001 (BON-1 RR). Analysis of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway showed that RAD001 and BEZ235 only partially inhibited mTOR-dependent phosphorylation of 4EBP1. By contrast, combined therapy with the two inhibitors strongly inhibited phosphorylation of 4EBP1, assembly of the translational initiation complex and protein synthesis. Thus, combined treatment with BEZ235 may represent suitable therapy to counteract primary and acquired resistance to RAD001 in PETs.

  17. Combined therapy with RAD001 e BEZ235 overcomes resistance of PET immortalized cell lines to mTOR inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Passacantilli, Ilaria; Capurso, Gabriele; Archibugi, Livia; Calabretta, Sara; Caldarola, Sara; Loreni, Fabrizio; Fave, Gianfranco Delle; Sette, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic endocrine tumors (PETs) are characterised by an indolent behaviour in terms of tumor growth. However, most patients display metastasis at diagnosis and no cure is currently available. Since the PI3K/AKT/mTOR axis is deregulated in PETs, the mTOR inhibitor RAD001 represents the first line treatment. Nevertheless, some patients do not respond to treatments and most acquire resistance. Inhibition of mTOR leads to feedback re-activation of PI3K activity, which may promote resistance to RAD001. Thus, PI3K represents a novel potential target for PETs. We tested the impact of three novel PI3K inhibitors (BEZ235, BKM120 and BYL719) on proliferation of PET cells that are responsive (BON-1) or unresponsive (QGP-1) to RAD001. BEZ235 was the most efficient in inhibiting proliferation in PET cells. Furthermore, combined treatment with BEZ235 and RAD001 exhibited synergic effects and was also effective in BON-1 that acquired resistance to RAD001 (BON-1 RR). Analysis of PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway showed that RAD001 and BEZ235 only partially inhibited mTOR-dependent phosphorylation of 4EBP1. By contrast, combined therapy with the two inhibitors strongly inhibited phosphorylation of 4EBP1, assembly of the translational initiation complex and protein synthesis. Thus, combined treatment with BEZ235 may represent suitable therapy to counteract primary and acquired resistance to RAD001 in PETs. PMID:25026292

  18. An international expanded-access programme of everolimus: addressing safety and efficacy in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma who progress after initial vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy.

    PubMed

    Grünwald, Viktor; Karakiewicz, Pierre I; Bavbek, Sevil E; Miller, Kurt; Machiels, Jean-Pascal; Lee, Se-Hoon; Larkin, James; Bono, Petri; Rha, Sun Young; Castellano, Daniel; Blank, Christian U; Knox, Jennifer J; Hawkins, Robert; Anak, Oezlem; Rosamilia, Marianne; Booth, Jocelyn; Pirotta, Nicoletta; Bodrogi, István

    2012-02-01

    The RECORD-1 trial established the clinical benefit of everolimus in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) after failure of initial vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (VEGFr-TKI) therapy. The REACT (RAD001 Expanded Access Clinical Trial in RCC) study was initiated to address an unmet medical need by providing everolimus prior to commercial availability, and also to further assess the safety and efficacy of everolimus in patients with VEGFr-TKI-refractory mRCC. REACT (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00655252) was a global, open-label, expanded-access programme in patients with mRCC who were intolerant of, or who had progressed on or after stopping treatment with, any available VEGFr-TKI therapy. Patients received everolimus 10mg once daily, with dose and schedule modifications allowed for toxicity. Patients were closely monitored for the development of serious and grades 3/4 adverse events (AEs). Response was assessed by RECIST every 3months for the first year and every 6months thereafter. A total of 1367 patients were enroled. Safety findings and tumour responses were consistent with those observed in RECORD-1, with no new safety issues identified. The most commonly reported serious AEs were dyspnoea (5.0%), pneumonia (4.7%) and anaemia (4.1%), and the most commonly reported grades 3/4 AEs were anaemia (13.4%), fatigue (6.7%) and dyspnoea (6.5%). Best overall response was stable disease in 51.6% and partial response in 1.7% of patients. Median everolimus treatment duration was 14weeks. Everolimus is well tolerated in patients with mRCC and demonstrates a favourable risk-benefit ratio. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Everolimus in combination with cyclosporin a as pre- and posttransplantation immunosuppressive therapy in nonmyeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Junghanss, Christian; Rathsack, Susanne; Wacke, Rainer; Weirich, Volker; Vogel, Heike; Drewelow, Bernd; Mueller, Sabrina; Altmann, Simone; Freund, Mathias; Lange, Sandra

    2012-07-01

    Everolimus (RAD001) is an mTOR inhibitor that has been successfully used as an immunosuppressant in solid-organ transplantation. Data in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is limited. This study aimed to investigate pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of RAD001 in a canine allogeneic HSCT model. First, pharmacokinetics of RAD001 were performed in healthy dogs in order to determine the appropriate dosing. Doses of 0.25 mg RAD001 twice daily in combination with 15 mg/kg cyclosporin A (CsA) twice daily were identified as appropriate starting doses to achieve the targeted range of RAD001 (3-8 μg/L) when orally administered. Subsequently, 10 dogs were transplanted using 2 Gy total body irradiation (TBI) for conditioning and 0.25 mg RAD001 twice daily plus 15 mg/kg CsA twice daily for pre- and posttransplantation immunosuppression. Seven of the 10 transplanted dogs were maintained at the starting RAD001 dose throughout the study. For the remaining 3 dogs, dose adjustments were necessary. RAD001 accumulation over time did not occur. All dogs initially engrafted. Five dogs eventually rejected the graft (weeks 10, 10, 13, 27, and 56). Two dogs died of pneumonia (weeks 8 and 72) but were chimeric until then. Total cholesterol rose from median 4.1 mmol/L (3.5-5.7 mmol/L) before HSCT to 6.0 mmol/l (5.0-8.5 mmol/l) at day 21 after HSCT, but remained always within normal range. Changes in creatinine and triglyceride values were not observed. Long-term engraftment rates were inferior to sirolimus/CsA and mycophenolate mofetil (MMF)/CsA regimen, respectively. RAD001/CsA caused a more pronounced reduction of platelet counts to median 2 × 10(9)/L (range: 0-21 × 10(9)/L) and longer time to platelet recovery of 21 days (range: 14-24 days) compared with MMF/CsA. CsA c(2h) levels were significantly enhanced in the RAD001/CsA regimen, but c(0h) and area under the curve from 0 to 12 hours (AUC(0-12h)) values did not differ compared with an MMF

  20. Phase II trial of RAD001 and bicalutamide for castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Nakabayashi, Mari; Werner, Lilian; Courtney, Kevin D; Buckle, Geoffrey; Oh, William K; Bubley, Glen J; Hayes, Julia H; Weckstein, Douglas; Elfiky, Aymen; Sims, Danny M; Kantoff, Philip W; Taplin, Mary-Ellen

    2012-12-01

    Study Type--Therapy (cohort) Level of Evidence 2a. What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Despite expanding treatment options for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), therapies with long response duration remain intangible due to prostate cancer cells' natural ability to develop iterative resistance. Androgen receptor (AR) signaling has been shown to play a critical role in CRPC and its expression is regulated by the PI3K-Akt pathway. Thus inhibition of AR signalling and PI3K-Akt-mTOR (a downstream mediator of the PI3K-Akt pathway) pathway is a logical combination in CRPC and we report a phase II trial of RAD001 and bicalutamide. Our study is the first clinical trial report of an AR inhibitor of PI3K-Akt-mTOR. The AR pathway and the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway are two of the most relevant growth pathway for CRPC. Despite low efficacy results from our trial there will be significant interest in the field for these data (dose, schedule, response, toxicity, trial design) as newer generations of both AR inhibitors and PI3K-Akt-mTOR inhibitors are in development and likely will be tested in combination in CRPC. • To determine best overall response and duration of response of RAD001, a selective inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin, in combination with bicalutamide in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). • To characterize the toxicity profile of RAD001 in combination with bicalutamide in patients with CRPC. • A phase II study was conducted to explore the efficacy and tolerability of RAD001 (10 mg daily) in combination with bicalutamide (50 mg daily) in men with progressive CRPC. • The primary endpoint was a composite of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and measurable disease response by standard criteria. • This single-stage trial with a sample size of 38 eligible patients provided 90% power to differentiate a response rate of ≥ 40% from a response rate of ≤ 20%, as expected for bicalutamide alone (α= 0.10, power = 0

  1. Differentiating the mTOR inhibitors everolimus and sirolimus in the treatment of tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    MacKeigan, Jeffrey P; Krueger, Darcy A

    2015-12-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic autosomal dominant disorder characterized by benign tumor-like lesions, called hamartomas, in multiple organ systems, including the brain, skin, heart, kidneys, and lung. These hamartomas cause a diverse set of clinical problems based on their location and often result in epilepsy, learning difficulties, and behavioral problems. TSC is caused by mutations within the TSC1 or TSC2 genes that inactivate the genes' tumor-suppressive function and drive hamartomatous cell growth. In normal cells, TSC1 and TSC2 integrate growth signals and nutrient inputs to downregulate signaling to mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), an evolutionarily conserved serine-threonine kinase that controls cell growth and cell survival. The molecular connection between TSC and mTOR led to the clinical use of allosteric mTOR inhibitors (sirolimus and everolimus) for the treatment of TSC. Everolimus is approved for subependymal giant cell astrocytomas and renal angiomyolipomas in patients with TSC. Sirolimus, though not approved for TSC, has undergone considerable investigation to treat various aspects of the disease. Everolimus and sirolimus selectively inhibit mTOR signaling with similar molecular mechanisms, but with distinct clinical profiles. This review differentiates mTOR inhibitors in TSC while describing the molecular mechanisms, pathogenic mutations, and clinical trial outcomes for managing TSC.

  2. Differentiating the mTOR inhibitors everolimus and sirolimus in the treatment of tuberous sclerosis complex

    PubMed Central

    MacKeigan, Jeffrey P.; Krueger, Darcy A.

    2015-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic autosomal dominant disorder characterized by benign tumor-like lesions, called hamartomas, in multiple organ systems, including the brain, skin, heart, kidneys, and lung. These hamartomas cause a diverse set of clinical problems based on their location and often result in epilepsy, learning difficulties, and behavioral problems. TSC is caused by mutations within the TSC1 or TSC2 genes that inactivate the genes' tumor-suppressive function and drive hamartomatous cell growth. In normal cells, TSC1 and TSC2 integrate growth signals and nutrient inputs to downregulate signaling to mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), an evolutionarily conserved serine-threonine kinase that controls cell growth and cell survival. The molecular connection between TSC and mTOR led to the clinical use of allosteric mTOR inhibitors (sirolimus and everolimus) for the treatment of TSC. Everolimus is approved for subependymal giant cell astrocytomas and renal angiomyolipomas in patients with TSC. Sirolimus, though not approved for TSC, has undergone considerable investigation to treat various aspects of the disease. Everolimus and sirolimus selectively inhibit mTOR signaling with similar molecular mechanisms, but with distinct clinical profiles. This review differentiates mTOR inhibitors in TSC while describing the molecular mechanisms, pathogenic mutations, and clinical trial outcomes for managing TSC. PMID:26289591

  3. Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Enhance the Anti-tumour Effects of the mTOR Inhibitor Everolimus against Melanoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Jie; Wu, Shan; Kong, Yan; Chi, Zhihong; Si, Lu; Sheng, Xinan; Cui, Chuanliang; Fang, Jing; Zhang, Jue; Guo, Jun

    2017-01-01

    The PI3K/mTOR/AKT pathway is activated in most melanomas, but mTOR inhibitors used singly have limited activity against advanced melanomas. The application of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) is a promising cancer therapy approach. In this study, we evaluated the synergistic anti-tumour efficacy of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus in conjunction with nsPEFs against melanoma. The combined treatment of nsPEFs and everolimus gradually decreased cell growth concurrent with nsPEF intensity. nsPEFs alone or combined with everolimus could promote melanoma cell apoptosis, accompanied with a loss in cellular mitochondrial membrane potential and an increase in Ca2+ levels. In vivo experiments showed that a combination of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus and nsPEFs improved the inhibitory effect, and all skin lesions caused by nsPEFs healed in 1 week without any observed adverse effect. Combination treatment induced caspase-dependent apoptosis through the upregulation of the pro-apoptotic factor Bax and downregulation of the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2. Everolimus and nsPEFs synergistically inhibited angiogenesis by decreasing the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor (VEGFR), and CD34. Our findings indicate that nsPEFs in combination with an mTOR inhibitor can be used as a potential treatment approach for advanced melanoma.

  4. Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Enhance the Anti-tumour Effects of the mTOR Inhibitor Everolimus against Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Jie; Wu, Shan; Kong, Yan; Chi, Zhihong; Si, Lu; Sheng, Xinan; Cui, Chuanliang; Fang, Jing; Zhang, Jue; Guo, Jun

    2017-01-01

    The PI3K/mTOR/AKT pathway is activated in most melanomas, but mTOR inhibitors used singly have limited activity against advanced melanomas. The application of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) is a promising cancer therapy approach. In this study, we evaluated the synergistic anti-tumour efficacy of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus in conjunction with nsPEFs against melanoma. The combined treatment of nsPEFs and everolimus gradually decreased cell growth concurrent with nsPEF intensity. nsPEFs alone or combined with everolimus could promote melanoma cell apoptosis, accompanied with a loss in cellular mitochondrial membrane potential and an increase in Ca2+ levels. In vivo experiments showed that a combination of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus and nsPEFs improved the inhibitory effect, and all skin lesions caused by nsPEFs healed in 1 week without any observed adverse effect. Combination treatment induced caspase-dependent apoptosis through the upregulation of the pro-apoptotic factor Bax and downregulation of the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2. Everolimus and nsPEFs synergistically inhibited angiogenesis by decreasing the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor (VEGFR), and CD34. Our findings indicate that nsPEFs in combination with an mTOR inhibitor can be used as a potential treatment approach for advanced melanoma. PMID:28054548

  5. P-glycoprotein, CYP3A, and plasma carboxylesterase determine brain and blood disposition of the mTOR Inhibitor everolimus (Afinitor) in mice.

    PubMed

    Tang, Seng Chuan; Sparidans, Rolf W; Cheung, Ka Lei; Fukami, Tatsuki; Durmus, Selvi; Wagenaar, Els; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi; van Vlijmen, Bart J M; Beijnen, Jos H; Schinkel, Alfred H

    2014-06-15

    To clarify the role of ABCB1, ABCG2, and CYP3A in blood and brain exposure of everolimus using knockout mouse models. We used wild-type, Abcb1a/1b(-/-), Abcg2(-/-), Abcb1a/1b;Abcg2(-/-), and Cyp3a(-/-) mice to study everolimus oral bioavailability and brain accumulation. Following everolimus administration, brain concentrations and brain-to-liver ratios were substantially increased in Abcb1a/1b(-/-)and Abcb1a/1b;Abcg2(-/-), but not Abcg2(-/-)mice. The fraction of everolimus located in the plasma compartment was highly increased in all knockout strains. In vitro, everolimus was rapidly degraded in wild-type but not knockout plasma. Carboxylesterase 1c (Ces1c), a plasma carboxylesterase gene, was highly upregulated (∼80-fold) in the liver of knockout mice relative to wild-type mice, and plasma Ces1c likely protected everolimus from degradation by binding and stabilizing it. This binding was prevented by preincubation with the carboxylesterase inhibitor BNPP. In vivo knockdown experiments confirmed the involvement of Ces1c in everolimus stabilization. Everolimus also markedly inhibited the hydrolysis of irinotecan and p-nitrophenyl acetate by mouse plasma carboxylesterase and recombinant human CES2, respectively. After correcting for carboxylesterase binding, Cyp3a(-/-), but not Abcb1a/1b(-/-), Abcg2(-/-), or Abcb1a/1b;Abcg2(-/-)mice, displayed highly (>5-fold) increased oral availability of everolimus. Brain accumulation of everolimus was restricted by Abcb1, but not Abcg2, suggesting the use of coadministered ABCB1 inhibitors to improve brain tumor treatment. Cyp3a, but not Abcb1a/1b, restricted everolimus oral availability, underscoring drug-drug interaction risks via CYP3A. Upregulated Ces1c likely mediated the tight binding and stabilization of everolimus, causing higher plasma retention in knockout strains. This Ces upregulation might confound other pharmacologic studies. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Long-term acquired everolimus resistance in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours can be overcome with novel PI3K-AKT-mTOR inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Vandamme, Timon; Beyens, Matthias; de Beeck, Ken Op; Dogan, Fadime; van Koetsveld, Peter M; Pauwels, Patrick; Mortier, Geert; Vangestel, Christel; de Herder, Wouter; Van Camp, Guy; Peeters, Marc; Hofland, Leo J

    2016-01-01

    Background: The mTOR-inhibitor everolimus improves progression-free survival in advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (PNETs). However, adaptive resistance to mTOR inhibition is described. Methods: QGP-1 and BON-1, two human PNET cell lines, were cultured with increasing concentrations of everolimus up to 22 weeks to reach a dose of 1 μM everolimus, respectively, 1000-fold and 250-fold initial IC50. Using total DNA content as a measure of cell number, growth inhibitory dose–response curves of everolimus were determined at the end of resistance induction and over time after everolimus withdrawal. Response to ATP-competitive mTOR inhibitors OSI-027 and AZD2014, and PI3K-mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 was studied. Gene expression of 10 PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway-related genes was evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR (RT–qPCR). Results: Long-term everolimus-treated BON-1/R and QGP-1/R showed a significant reduction in everolimus sensitivity. During a drug holiday, gradual return of everolimus sensitivity in BON-1/R and QGP-1/R led to complete reversal of resistance after 10–12 weeks. Treatment with AZD2014, OSI-027 and NVP-BEZ235 had an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation in both sensitive and resistant cell lines. Gene expression in BON-1/R revealed downregulation of MTOR, RICTOR, RAPTOR, AKT and HIF1A, whereas 4EBP1 was upregulated. In QGP-1/R, a downregulation of HIF1A and an upregulation of ERK2 were observed. Conclusions: Long-term everolimus resistance was induced in two human PNET cell lines. Novel PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway-targeting drugs can overcome everolimus resistance. Differential gene expression profiles suggest different mechanisms of everolimus resistance in BON-1 and QGP-1. PMID:26978006

  7. mTOR inhibitor-associated stomatitis (mIAS) in three patients with cancer treated with everolimus.

    PubMed

    Kalogirou, Eleni-Marina; Tosios, Konstantinos I; Piperi, Evangelia P; Sklavounou, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian targets of rapamycin inhibitors (mTOR inhibitors, mTORI) are indicated for the management of several cancer types, including hormone receptor--positive or HER2-negative breast cancer, advanced renal cell carcinoma, advanced neuroendocrine tumors of pancreatic origin, and tuberous sclerosis complex-related tumors. Among the most common adverse events of mTORI medication are discrete, large, solitary or multiple, superficial ulcers, almost exclusively situated on nonkeratinized oral mucosa, described as mTORI-associated stomatitis (mIAS). We describe the clinical presentation, course, and management of mIAS in three patients receiving the mTORI everolimus (Afinitor, Novartis, East Hanover, NJ). In two patients, mIAS manifested 9 and 30 days after first using everolimus, respectively, whereas in the third patient, it recurred 3 months after re-introduction of everolimus. Oral rinses with a "magic mouthwash" solution (dexamethasone oral drops solution 2 mg/mL × 10 mL, lidocaine gel 2% × 30 g, doxycycline suspension 50 mg/5 mL × 60 mL, and sucralfate oral suspension 1000 mg/5 mL × 150 mL, dissolved in sodium chloride 0.9% × 2000 mL) four times daily proved helpful in alleviating the symptoms, and the ulcers healed in 4 to 15 days. No side effects were recorded, and dose reduction or discontinuation of everolimus was not necessitated in two cases.

  8. Attributable Risk of Infection to mTOR Inhibitors Everolimus and Temsirolimus in the Treatment of Cancer.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Christine A; Wu, Shenhong

    2016-11-25

    The risk of infection attributable to mTOR inhibitors has not been determined. Databases from PubMed and abstracts presented at the American Society of Clinical Oncology meetings were searched. Eligible studies included randomized controlled trials, in which everolimus or temsirolimus was compared with placebo. A total of 12 trials were included. The attributable incidences of all-grade and high-grade infections to mTOR inhibitors were 9.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.8-14.6%) and 2.3% (95% CI: 1.2-4.4%) respectively. The risk varied widely with tumor types (p <.001). There was substantial risk of infection attributable to mTOR inhibitors everolimus and temsirolimus.

  9. Effects of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus and the PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 in murine acute lung injury models.

    PubMed

    Üstün, Sevdican; Lassnig, Caroline; Preitschopf, Andrea; Mikula, Mario; Müller, Mathias; Hengstschläger, Markus; Weichhart, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a key signaling kinase associated with a variety of cellular functions including the regulation of immunological and inflammatory responses. Classic mTOR inhibitors such as rapamycin or everolimus are commonly used in transplant as well as cancer patients to prevent transplant rejection or cancer progression, respectively. Noninfectious drug-induced pneumonitis is a frequent side effect in mTOR-inhibitor-treated patients. Therefore, we tested the effects of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus and the novel dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 in a murine lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury model. C57BL/6 mice were treated with either everolimus or NVP-BEZ235 on two consecutive days prior to intratracheal administration of LPS. LPS administration induced a significant increase in total cell, neutrophil and erythrocyte numbers in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Histological examination revealed a serious lung injury as shown by interstitial edema, vascular congestion and mononuclear cell infiltration in these mice after 24h. Everolimus as well as NVP-BEZ235 did not noticeably affect overall histopathology of the lungs in the lung injury model. However, NVP-BEZ235 enhanced IL-6 and TNF-α expression after 24h. In contrast, everolimus did not affect IL-6 and TNF-α levels. Interestingly, both inhibitors reduced inflammatory cytokines in an LPS/oleic acid-induced lung injury model. In conclusion, the mTOR inhibitors did not worsen the overall histopathological severity, but they exerted distinct effects on proinflammatory cytokine expression in the lung depending on the lung injury model applied.

  10. Everolimus as a new potential antiproliferative agent in aggressive human bronchial carcinoids.

    PubMed

    Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Minoia, Mariella; Martini, Chiara; Tagliati, Federico; Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; Schiavon, Marco; Buratto, Mattia; Calabrese, Fiorella; Gentilin, Erica; Cavallesco, Giorgio; Berdondini, Lisa; Rea, Federico; degli Uberti, Ettore C

    2010-09-01

    Bronchial carcinoids (BCs) are rare tumors originating from endocrine cells dispersed in the respiratory epithelium. It has been previously demonstrated that everolimus, or RAD001, an mTOR inhibitor, has potent antiproliferative effects in human endocrine tumors. Our aim was to evaluate the possible antiproliferative effects of everolimus in human BCs in primary culture. We collected 24 BCs that were dispersed in primary cultures, treated without or with 1 nM-1 muM everolimus, 10 nM SOM230 (pasireotide, a somatostatin receptor multiligand), and/or 50 nM IGF1. Cell viability was evaluated after 48 h, and chromogranin A (CgA) as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion was assessed after 8 h incubation. Somatostatin receptors, mTOR, and AKT expression were investigated by quantitative PCR. We found that in 15 cultures (67.5%), everolimus significantly reduced cell viability (by approximately 30%; P<0.05 versus control), inhibited p70S6K activity (-30%), and blocked IGF1 proliferative effects. Everolimus also significantly reduced CgA (by approximately 20%) and VEGF (by approximately 15%) secretion. Cotreatment with SOM230 did not exert additive effects on cell viability and secretory activity. AKT expression was similar in responder and nonresponder tissues, while mTOR expression was significantly higher in the responder group, which was characterized by higher CgA plasma levels and bigger tumors with higher mitotic index and angiogenesis. Our data demonstrate that everolimus reduces VEGF secretion and cell viability in BCs with a mechanism likely involving IGF1 signaling, suggesting that it might represent a possible medical treatment for BCs.

  11. Use of mTOR inhibitor everolimus in three neonates for treatment of tumors associated with tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    Goyer, Isabelle; Dahdah, Nagib; Major, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is characterized by the growth of benign tumors in multiple organs, caused by the disinhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) protein. mTOR inhibitors, such as everolimus, are used in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex, mainly to reduce the size of renal angiomyolipomas and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas. There are minimal data available regarding its use during the neonatal period. We report clinical and pharmacological data of three neonates treated with the mTOR inhibitor everolimus (two hemodynamically significant cardiac rhabdomyomas and one voluminous subependymal giant cell astrocytoma). Beneficial clinical responses were observed in all three patients and the medication was generally well-tolerated. Optimal dose was 0.1 mg orally once daily and was confirmed with therapeutic drug monitoring. Everolimus is a promising pharmacological approach to treat clinically significant inoperable cardiac rhabdomyomas or subependymal giant cell astrocytoma associated with tuberous sclerosis complex during the neonatal period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Everolimus as an mTOR Inhibitor Suppresses Endometriotic Implants: an Experimental Rat Study

    PubMed Central

    Kacan, T.; Yildiz, C.; Baloglu Kacan, S.; Seker, M.; Ozer, H.; Cetin, A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Mammalian target of rapamycin is a pathway to block apoptosis. Recent studies showed that the activity of mammalian target of rapamycin pathway increases in endometriotic lesions. Aim of the present study was to study the effect of everolimus agent, a rapamycin analog, in an experimental endometriosis model. Materials and Methods Endometriosis established by the autotransplantation of uterine tissue in the peritoneal cavity was confirmed in 24 rats. The animals were then randomly divided into three groups to receive either everolimus (1.5 mg/kg/day, p. o.), anastrozole (0.004 mg/day, p. o.), or normal saline (0.1 mL, i. p.) for 14 days. Endometriotic foci were excised, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and endometriosis was scored semiquantitatively. In addition, immunohistochemical examination were performed using primary antibodies of vascular endothelial growth factor, CD117, and Bax. Results Both anastrozole and everolimus lowered endometriosis scores. Significant decreases in ovarian follicles were observed following anastrozole treatment but not everolimus treatment. Conclusion Through its apoptosis-promoting effect, everolimus suppressed endometriotic foci without negatively affecting ovarian reserve. These findings support the hypothesis that everolimus merits further study on the way to developing a new endometriosis drug. PMID:28190891

  13. Everolimus in the treatment of patients with advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: latest findings and interpretations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Eric; Marincola, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with various clinical presentations. More than half of patients present with so-called nonfunctioning tumors with no hormone-related symptoms, whereas other tumors produce symptoms like gastric problems, ulcers, hypoglycemia, skin rash and diarrhea related to hormone production. The traditional treatment for pNETs over the last three decades has been cytotoxic agents, mainly streptozotocin plus 5-fluorouracil or doxorubicin. Most recently two new compounds have been registered worldwide for the treatment of pNETs, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor everolimus and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor sunitinib. This paper concentrates on the use of mTOR inhibitors and the mechanisms of action. The mTOR pathway is altered in a number of pNETs. Everolimus (RAD001) is an orally active rapamycin analog and mTOR inhibitor. It blocks activity of the mTOR pathway by binding with high affinity to the cytoplasmic protein FKBP-12. The efficacy of everolimus in pNETs has been demonstrated in two multicenter studies (RADIANT 1 and 3). The RADIANT 3 study was a randomized controlled study in pNETs of everolimus 10 mg/day versus placebo, showing an increased progression-free survival (11.7 months versus 4.6 months) and hazard ratio of 0.35 (p < 0.001). Current studies indicate that there is strong evidence to support the antitumor effect of rapalogs in pNETs. However, significant tumor reduction is very rarely obtained, usually in less than 10% of treated patients. Therefore, these drugs may be more effective in combination with other anticancer agents, including chemotherapy, targeted therapies as well as peptide receptor radiotherapy. PMID:24003341

  14. The mTORC1 inhibitor everolimus prevents and treats Eμ-Myc lymphoma by restoring oncogene-induced senescence

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Meaghan; Poortinga, Gretchen; Stanley, Kym L; Lindemann, Ralph K; Bots, Michael; Chan, Christopher J; Bywater, Megan J; Kinross, Kathryn M; Astle, Megan V; Waldeck, Kelly; Hannan, Katherine M; Shortt, Jake; Smyth, Mark J; Lowe, Scott W; Hannan, Ross D; Pearson, Richard B; Johnstone, Ricky W; McArthur, Grant A

    2012-01-01

    MYC deregulation is common in human cancer. IG-MYC translocations that are modeled in Eμ-Myc mice occur in almost all cases of Burkitt lymphoma as well as in other B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Deregulated expression of MYC results in increased mTORC1 signaling. As tumors with mTORC1 activation are sensitive to mTORC1 inhibition, we used everolimus, a potent and specific mTORC1 inhibitor, to test the requirement for mTORC1 in the initiation and maintenance of Eμ-Myc lymphoma. Everolimus selectively cleared premalignant B-cells from the bone marrow and spleen, restored a normal pattern of B-cell differentiation and strongly protected against lymphoma development. Established Eμ-Myc lymphoma also regressed after everolimus therapy. Therapeutic response correlated with a cellular senescence phenotype and induction of p53 activity. Therefore mTORC1-dependent evasion of senescence is critical for cellular transformation and tumor maintenance by MYC in B-lymphocytes. PMID:23242809

  15. Outcomes in Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Who Develop Everolimus-Related Hyperglycemia and Hypercholesterolemia: Combined Subgroup Analyses of the RECORD-1 and REACT Trials.

    PubMed

    Bono, Petri; Oudard, Stephane; Bodrogi, Istvan; Hutson, Thomas E; Escudier, Bernard; Machiels, Jean-Pascal; Thompson, John A; Figlin, Robert A; Ravaud, Alain; Basaran, Mert; Porta, Camillo; Bracarda, Sergio; Brechenmacher, Thomas; Lin, Chinjune; Voi, Maurizio; Grunwald, Viktor; Motzer, Robert J

    2016-10-01

    Hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia are class effects of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors. The purpose of this study was to characterize safety and efficacy of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) treated with everolimus in RECORD-1 (REnal Cell cancer treatment with Oral RAD001 given Daily) and REACT (RAD001 Expanded Access Clinical Trial in RCC) who developed these events. Adults with vascular endothelial growth factor-refractory mRCC received everolimus 10 mg/d in the randomized RECORD-1 (n = 277) and open-label REACT (n = 1367) studies. Outcomes included safety, treatment duration, overall response, and progression-free survival for patients who developed hypercholesterolemia or hyperglycemia. In RECORD-1, 12% (33 of 277) and 20% (55 of 277) of patients developed any grade hyperglycemia or hypercholesterolemia, respectively, with only 6% (78 of 1367) and 1% (14 of 1367) of the same events, respectively, in REACT. Median everolimus treatment duration was similar for patients with hyperglycemia or hypercholesterolemia (RECORD-1, 6.2 and 6.2 months, respectively; REACT, 4.4 and 4.5 months, respectively), but longer than the overall populations (RECORD-1, 4.6 months; REACT, 3.2 months). In RECORD-1/REACT, 82%/68% of patients with hyperglycemia and 75%/71% of patients with hypercholesterolemia achieved partial response or stable disease. The incidence of clinically notable Grade 3 or 4 adverse events, other than anemia and lymphopenia, appeared to be similar across trials and subgroups. Although there was a trend for improved progression-free survival with development of hyperglycemia or hypercholesterolemia, the association was not statistically significant. Hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia were observed in low numbers of patients, and although these events might be associated with improved response to everolimus, the differences were not significant. These findings should be validated with prospective biomarker studies. Copyright

  16. The Effect of Everolimus Initiation and Calcineurin Inhibitor Elimination on Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy in De Novo Recipients: One-Year Results of a Scandinavian Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Arora, S; Andreassen, A K; Andersson, B; Gustafsson, F; Eiskjaer, H; Bøtker, H E; Rådegran, G; Gude, E; Ioanes, D; Solbu, D; Sigurdardottir, V; Dellgren, G; Erikstad, I; Solberg, O G; Ueland, T; Aukrust, P; Gullestad, L

    2015-07-01

    Early initiation of everolimus with calcineurin inhibitor therapy has been shown to reduce the progression of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) in de novo heart transplant recipients. The effect of de novo everolimus therapy and early total elimination of calcineurin inhibitor therapy has, however, not been investigated and is relevant given the morbidity and lack of efficacy of current protocols in preventing CAV. This 12-month multicenter Scandinavian trial randomized 115 de novo heart transplant recipients to everolimus with complete calcineurin inhibitor elimination 7-11 weeks after HTx or standard cyclosporine immunosuppression. Ninety-five (83%) patients had matched intravascular ultrasound examinations at baseline and 12 months. Mean (± SD) recipient age was 49.9 ± 13.1 years. The everolimus group (n = 47) demonstrated significantly reduced CAV progression as compared to the calcineurin inhibitor group (n = 48) (ΔMaximal Intimal Thickness 0.03 ± 0.06 and 0.08 ± 0.12 mm, ΔPercent Atheroma Volume 1.3 ± 2.3 and 4.2 ± 5.0%, ΔTotal Atheroma Volume 1.1 ± 19.2 mm(3) and 13.8 ± 28.0 mm(3) [all p-values ≤ 0.01]). Everolimus patients also had a significantly greater decline in levels of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 as compared to the calcineurin inhibitor group (p = 0.02). These preliminary results suggest that an everolimus-based CNI-free can potentially be considered in suitable de novo HTx recipients.

  17. Immunosuppression using the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor everolimus: pilot study shows significant cognitive and affective improvement.

    PubMed

    Lang, U E; Heger, J; Willbring, M; Domula, M; Matschke, K; Tugtekin, S M

    2009-12-01

    Immunosuppression using calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) is accompanied by neuropsychiatric side effects, which counteract longevity and quality of life benefits in 10% to 28% of patients. Following the availability of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, it became possible to replace CNI without increasing the risk of acute graft rejection. mTOR, a member of the phosphatidyl inositol 3' kinase family, is a downstream target of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which has been implicated in the pathophysiology and treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Preclinical evidence has implicated the mTOR pathway in synaptic plasticity and fear memory consolidation and reconsolidation. In the present study we prospectively evaluated the psychiatric outcomes of CNI-free immunosuppression in adult maintenance heart transplant recipients (n = 9; age: 66.1 +/- 6.1) using the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Trail Making Tests A and B, Digit Span (DS), and Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD). Four weeks after switching to CNI-free immunosuppression using everolimus, BDI (Z = -1.14; P = .048), Trail Making tests A and B (Z = -2.52; P = .012), WMS-R (Z = 2.37; P = .018), and SCL-90-R (Z = -2.37; P = .018) were all significantly improved while DS (Z = -1.18; P = .236) and HAMD (Z = -0.595; P = .552) remained unchanged. This report describes favorable psychiatric outcome variables using everolimus in maintenance heart transplant recipients. CNI-free immunosuppression with everolimus might provide significant improvement in memory, concentration, and overall psychiatric symptoms among heart transplant recipients.

  18. Everolimus Initiation With Early Calcineurin Inhibitor Withdrawal in De Novo Heart Transplant Recipients: Three-Year Results From the Randomized SCHEDULE Study.

    PubMed

    Andreassen, A K; Andersson, B; Gustafsson, F; Eiskjaer, H; Rådegran, G; Gude, E; Jansson, K; Solbu, D; Karason, K; Arora, S; Dellgren, G; Gullestad, L

    2016-04-01

    In a randomized, open-label trial, de novo heart transplant recipients were randomized to everolimus (3-6 ng/mL) with reduced-exposure calcineurin inhibitor (CNI; cyclosporine) to weeks 7-11 after transplant, followed by increased everolimus exposure (target 6-10 ng/mL) with cyclosporine withdrawal or standard-exposure cyclosporine. All patients received mycophenolate mofetil and corticosteroids. A total of 110 of 115 patients completed the 12-month study, and 102 attended a follow-up visit at month 36. Mean measured GFR (mGFR) at month 36 was 77.4 mL/min (standard deviation [SD] 20.2 mL/min) versus 59.2 mL/min (SD 17.4 mL/min) in the everolimus and CNI groups, respectively, a difference of 18.3 mL/min (95% CI 11.1-25.6 mL/min; p < 0.001) in the intention to treat population. Multivariate analysis showed treatment to be an independent determinant of mGFR at month 36. Coronary intravascular ultrasound at 36 months revealed significantly reduced progression of allograft vasculopathy in the everolimus group compared with the CNI group. Biopsy-proven acute rejection grade ≥2R occurred in 10.2% and 5.9% of everolimus- and CNI-treated patients, respectively, during months 12-36. Serious adverse events occurred in 37.3% and 19.6% of everolimus- and CNI-treated patients, respectively (p = 0.078). These results suggest that early CNI withdrawal after heart transplantation supported by everolimus, mycophenolic acid and steroids with lymphocyte-depleting induction is safe at intermediate follow-up. This regimen, used selectively, may offer adequate immunosuppressive potency with a sustained renal advantage.

  19. High-dose calcineurin inhibitor-free everolimus as a maintenance regimen for heart transplantation may be a risk factor for Pneumocystis pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yu-Ning; Lee, Nan-Yao; Roan, Jun-Neng; Hsu, Chi-Hsin; Luo, Chwan-Yau

    2017-08-01

    Everolimus reduces the incidence of cardiac-allograft vasculopathy (CAV) and is less renally toxic than are calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs). We evaluated the safety of CNI-free everolimus for post-heart transplant (HTx) patients. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 36 consecutive patients who had undergone an HTx between January 2006 and December 2013 in National Cheng Kung University Hospital. All patients initially had been treated with the standard tacrolimus regimen. The Study group-12 patients with CAV, renal impairment, or a history of malignancy-were switched from tacrolimus to everolimus. The Control group consisted of 19 patients who remained on the standard regimen. The target everolimus trough concentration was 8-14 ng/mL. The primary outcome was survival, and the secondary outcomes were bacterial, viral, fungal, and other infections; Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP); and rejection (≥2R). During a 53.3±25.6-month follow-up, the survival rate, rejection rate, and number of infections, except for PJP, were not significantly different between the two groups. In the Study group, 6 patients were diagnosed with PJP 33±18.2 months after switching. None of the Control group patients were diagnosed with PJP during follow-up. A high-dose CNI-free everolimus maintenance regimen might yield a higher incidence of post-transplantation PJP. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Cardiovascular Parameters to 2 years After Kidney Transplantation Following Early Switch to Everolimus Without Calcineurin Inhibitor Therapy: An Analysis of the Randomized ELEVATE Study.

    PubMed

    Holdaas, Hallvard; de Fijter, Johan W; Cruzado, Josep M; Massari, Pablo; Nashan, Björn; Kanellis, John; Witzke, Oliver; Gutierrez-Dalmau, Alex; Turkmen, Aydin; Wang, Zailong; Lopez, Patricia; Bernhardt, Peter; Kochuparampil, Jossy; van der Giet, Markus; Murbraech, Klaus

    2017-03-22

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors may confer cardioprotective advantages but clinical data are limited. In the open-label ELEVATE trial, kidney transplant patients were randomized at 10-14 weeks posttransplant to convert from calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) to everolimus or remain on standard CNI therapy. Prespecified endpoints included left ventricular mass index (LVMi) and, in a subpopulation of patients, arterial stiffness as measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV). The mean change in LVMi from randomization was similar with everolimus versus CNI (month 24: -4.37 g/m versus -5.26 g/m; mean difference 0.89 [p=0.392]). At month 24, LVH was present in 41.7% versus 37.7% of everolimus and CNI patients, respectively. Mean PWV remained stable with both everolimus (mean change from randomization to month 12: -0.24 m/s; month 24: -0.03 m/s) or CNI (month 12: 0.11 m/s; month 24: 0.16 m/s). The change in mean ambulatory night time blood pressure from randomization showed a benefit for diastolic pressure at month 12 (p=0.039) but not month 24. Major adverse cardiac events occurred in 1.1% and 4.2% of everolimus-treated and CNI-treated patients, respectively by month 12 (p=0.018) and 2.3% (8/353) and 4.5% by month 24 (p=0.145). Overall, these data do not suggest a clinically relevant effect on cardiac endpoints following early conversion from CNI to a CNI-free everolimus-based regimen.

  1. Conversion of long-term kidney transplant recipients from calcineurin inhibitor therapy to everolimus: a randomized, multicenter, 24-month study.

    PubMed

    Holdaas, Hallvard; Rostaing, Lionel; Serón, Daniel; Cole, Edward; Chapman, Jeremy; Fellstrøm, Bengt; Strom, Erik H; Jardine, Alan; Midtvedt, Karsten; Machein, Uwe; Ulbricht, Bettina; Karpov, Alexander; O'Connell, Philip J

    2011-08-27

    Benefits of conversion from calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) to mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor-based immunosuppression in long-term kidney transplant patients remain uncertain. ASCERTAIN was a 24-month, open-label, multicenter study. Kidney transplant patients more than 6 months posttransplant receiving CNI (baseline glomerular filtration rate [GFR] 30-70 mL/min/1.73 m) were randomized to everolimus with CNI elimination (n=127) or CNI minimization (n=144), or continued CNI unchanged (controls, n=123) to assess the effect on measured GFR at month 24 after randomization. Renal function was stable in all groups to month 24. Mean measured GFR at month 24, the primary endpoint, was 48.0±22.0 mL/min/1.73 m, 46.6±21.1 mL/min/1.73 m, and 46.0±20.4 mL/min/1.73 m in the CNI elimination, CNI minimization, and control groups, respectively. Differences between CNI elimination (1.12 mL/min/1.73 m, 95% confidence interval [CI] -3.51 to 5.76, P=0.63) and CNI minimization (0.59 mL/min/1.73 m, 95% CI -3.88 to 5.07, P=0.79) versus controls at month 24 were nonsignificant that is, the primary endpoint was not met. No efficacy endpoint differed significantly between groups. Post hoc analyses showed that patients with baseline creatinine clearance (CrCl) more than 50 mL/min had a significantly greater increase in measured GFR after CNI elimination versus controls (difference 11.4 mL/min/1.73 m, 95% CI 2.1 to 20.8 mL/min/1.73 m, P=0.017). Adverse events resulted in discontinuation in 36 (28.3%) CNI elimination patients, 24 (16.7%) CNI minimization patients, and 5 (4.1%) controls (P<0.001 vs. CNI elimination; P=0.020 vs. CNI minimization). Conversion to everolimus with CNI elimination or minimization a mean of 5.6 years after kidney transplantation had no overall renal benefit and was associated with more frequent adverse events and discontinuations. Patients with CrCl more than 50 mL/min may benefit from a change in therapy more than 6 months after renal transplantation.

  2. Interstitial Lung Disease Associated with mTOR Inhibitors in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients: Results from a Large Phase III Clinical Trial Program of Everolimus and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) has been reported with the use of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTORi). The clinical and safety databases of three Phase III trials of everolimus in de novo kidney (A2309), heart (A2310), and liver (H2304) transplant recipients (TxR) were searched using a standardized MedDRA query (SMQ) search for ILD followed by a case-by-case medical evaluation. A literature search was conducted in MEDLINE and EMBASE. Out of the 1,473 de novo TxR receiving everolimus in Phase III trials, everolimus-related ILD was confirmed in six cases (one kidney, four heart, and one liver TxR) representing an incidence of 0.4%. Everolimus was discontinued in three of the four heart TxR, resulting in ILD improvement or resolution. Outcome was fatal in the kidney TxR (in whom everolimus therapy was continued) and in the liver TxR despite everolimus discontinuation. The literature review identified 57 publications on ILD in solid organ TxR receiving everolimus or sirolimus. ILD presented months or years after mTORi initiation and symptoms were nonspecific and insidious. The event was more frequent in patients with a late switch to mTORi. In most cases, ILD was reversed after prompt mTORi discontinuation. ILD induced by mTORi is an uncommon and potentially fatal event warranting early recognition and drug discontinuation. PMID:25580277

  3. Clinical review: Current scientific rationale for the use of somatostatin analogs and mTOR inhibitors in neuroendocrine tumor therapy.

    PubMed

    Bousquet, Corinne; Lasfargues, Charline; Chalabi, Mounira; Billah, Siham Moatassim; Susini, Christiane; Vezzosi, Delphine; Caron, Philippe; Pyronnet, Stéphane

    2012-03-01

    Among the innovative molecules used to manage neuroendocrine tumors, there is growing interest in combining the somatostatin analogs octreotide or pasireotide (SOM230) and everolimus (RAD001), an inhibitor that targets the protein kinase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). The aims of this review were to describe the signaling pathways targeted independently by somatostatin analogs and everolimus and to summarize the scientific rationale for the potential additive or synergistic antitumor effects of combined therapy. The somatostatin analogs (octreotide and lanreotide) have potent inhibitory effects on hypersecretion, thereby alleviating the symptoms associated with neuroendocrine tumors. Furthermore, the antitumor potential of octreotide is now well documented. Pasireotide, a somatostatin analog, has the advantage of targeting a wider range of somatostatin receptors (subtypes 1, 2, 3, and 5) than the analogs previously used in clinical practice (which preferentially target subtype 2) and thus has a broader spectrum of activity. Everolimus is a rapamycin analog that inhibits mTOR, but it is more soluble than rapamycin and can be administered orally. mTOR is a protein kinase involved in many signaling pathways, primarily those initiated by tyrosine kinase receptors. Sustained mTOR activity leads to the induction of cell growth, proliferation, and cell survival. Everolimus therefore has obvious potential in cancer therapy. The combination of somatostatin analogs and everolimus in therapeutic trials offers a promising treatment option for neuroendocrine tumors.

  4. Impact on Autophagy and Ultraviolet B Induced Responses of Treatment with the MTOR Inhibitors Rapamycin, Everolimus, Torin 1, and pp242 in Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Song; Li, Li; Li, Min; Zhang, Mengli

    2017-01-01

    The mechanistic target of Rapamycin (MTOR) protein is a crucial signaling regulator in mammalian cells that is extensively involved in cellular biology. The function of MTOR signaling in keratinocytes remains unclear. In this study, we detected the MTOR signaling and autophagy response in the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT and human epidermal keratinocytes treated with MTOR inhibitors. Moreover, we detected the impact of MTOR inhibitors on keratinocytes exposed to the common carcinogenic stressors ultraviolet B (UVB) and UVA radiation. As a result, keratinocytes were sensitive to the MTOR inhibitors Rapamycin, everolimus, Torin 1, and pp242, but the regulation of MTOR downstream signaling was distinct. Next, autophagy induction only was observed in HaCaT cells treated with Rapamycin. Furthermore, we found that MTOR signaling was insensitive to UVB but sensitive to UVA radiation. UVB treatment also had no impact on the inhibition of MTOR signaling by MTOR inhibitors. Finally, MTOR inhibition by Rapamycin, everolimus, or pp242 did not affect the series of biological events in keratinocytes exposed to UVB, including the downregulation of BiP and PERK, activation of Histone H2A and JNK, and cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP. Our study demonstrated that MTOR inhibition in keratinocytes cannot always induce autophagy, and the MTOR pathway does not play a central role in the UVB triggered cellular response. PMID:28400912

  5. The mTOR kinase inhibitor everolimus synergistically enhances the anti-tumor effect of the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor PLS-123 on Mantle cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiao; Wang, Xiaogan; Xie, Yan; Ying, Zhitao; Liu, Weiping; Ping, Lingyan; Zhang, Chen; Pan, Zhengying; Ding, Ning; Song, Yuqin; Zhu, Jun

    2017-09-14

    Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is an aggressive and incurable malignant disease. Despite of general chemotherapy, relapse and mortality are common, highlighting the need for the development of novel targeted drugs or combination of therapeutic regimens. Recently, several drugs that target the B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling pathway, especially the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor ibrutinib, have demonstrated notable therapeutic effects in relapsed/refractory patients, which indicate that pharmacological inhibition of BCR pathway holds promise in MCL treatment. Here, we have developed a novel irreversible BTK inhibitor, PLS-123, that has more potent and selective anti-tumor activity than ibrutinib in vitro and in vivo. Using in vitro screening, we discovered that the combination of PLS-123 and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, everolimus exert synergistic activity in attenuating proliferation and motility of MCL cell lines. Simultaneous inhibition of BTK and mTOR resulted in marked induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase, which were accompanied by upregulation of pro-apoptotic proteins (cleaved Caspase-3, cleaved PARP and Bax), repression of anti-apoptotic proteins (Mcl-1, Bcl-xl and XIAP), and downregulation of regulators of the G1/S phase transition (CDK2, CDK4, CDK6 and Cyclin D1). Gene expression profile analysis revealed simultaneous treatment with these agents led to inhibition of the JAK2/STAT3, AKT/mTOR signaling pathways and SGK1 expression. Finally, the anti-tumor and pro-apoptotic activities of combination strategy have also been demonstrated using xenograft mice models. Taken together, simultaneous suppression of BTK and mTOR may be indicated as a potential therapeutic modality for the treatment of MCL. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 UICC.

  6. Everolimus induces Met inactivation by disrupting the FKBP12/Met complex

    PubMed Central

    Raimondo, Lucia; D'Amato, Valentina; Servetto, Alberto; Rosa, Roberta; Marciano, Roberta; Formisano, Luigi; Mauro, Concetta Di; Orsini, Roberta Clara; Cascetta, Priscilla; Ciciola, Paola; De Maio, Ana Paula; Di Renzo, Maria Flavia; Cosconati, Sandro; Bruno, Agostino; Randazzo, Antonio; Napolitano, Filomena; Montuori, Nunzia; Veneziani, Bianca Maria; Placido, Sabino De; Bianco, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a promising treatment strategy for several cancer types. Rapamycin derivatives such as everolimus are allosteric mTOR inhibitors acting through interaction with the intracellular immunophilin FKBP12, a prolyl isomerase with different cellular functions. Although mTOR inhibitors have significantly improved survival of different cancer patients, resistance and lack of predictive factors of response remain unsolved issues. To elucidate the mechanisms of resistance to everolimus, we evaluated Met activation in everolimus-sensitive/resistant human cancer cells, in vitro and in vivo. Biochemical and computational analyses were performed. Everolimus-resistant cells were xenografted into mice (10/group) and studied for their response to everolimus and Met inhibitors. The statistical significance of the in vitro results was evaluated by Student's t test. Everolimus reduced Met phosphorylation in everolimus-sensitive cells. This event was mediated by the formation of a Met-FKBP12 complex, which in turn is disrupted by everolimus. Aberrant Met activation in everolimus-resistant cells and overexpression of wild-type/mutant Met caused everolimus resistance. Pharmacological inhibition and RNA silencing of Met are effective in condition of everolimus resistance (P<0.01). In mice xenografted with everolimus-resistant cells, the combination of everolimus with the Met inhibitor PHA665752 reduced tumor growth and induced a statistically significant survival advantage (combination vs control P=0.0005). FKBP12 binding is required for full Met activation and everolimus can inhibit Met. Persistent Met activation might sustain everolimus resistance. These results identify a novel everolimus mechanism of action and suggest the development of clinical strategies based on Met inhibitors in everolimus-resistant cancers. PMID:27223077

  7. To Excavate Biomarkers Predictive of the Response for Capecitabine plus RAD001 through Nanostring-Based Multigene Assay in Advanced Gastric Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hansang; Lee, Jeeyun; Sohn, Insuk; Park, Se Hoon; Park, Joon Oh; Park, Young Suk; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Kang, Won Ki; Kim, Seung Tae

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive characterization of individual patients' tumour is important to realize personalized medicine. Here, we investigate to identify subsets that benefit from capecitabine plus RAD001 in advanced gastric cancer (GC) patients by comprehensive high-throughput genomic analysis (nCounter assay). Archival tumour tissue blocks, if possible, were collected at phase II trial of capecitabine plus RAD001 in 47 refractory GC patients (at clinicaltrials.gov NCT#01099527). A total of 42 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumour samples were available for nanostring based-multigene Assay. An nCounter assay of 519 kinase panels has been used. We performed correlation analyses between expression levels of kinase genes and response for capecitabine plus RAD001. Among 42 patients with An nCounter assay of 519 kinase panels, 4 patients achieved confirmed partial response and 15 patients revealed stable disease, resulting in an overall response rate (ORR) of 9.5%. No difference in ORR was observed in terms of gender, performance status, primary tumour site, gastric resection, histologic subtype, Lauren classification, No. of metastatic site and No. of chemotherapy. In subgroups with response for capecitabine plus RAD001, there is significant overexpression of 6 genes among 519 kinase gene such as EPHA2 (P = 0.0025), PIM1 (P = 0.0031), KSR1 (P = 0.0033), and EIF2AK4 (P = 0.0046) that are related to the activation of mTOR signalling. This study is first report that investigated to identify biomarkers predictive of the response for RAD001 containing treatment in refractory GC patients, by comprehensive high-throughput genomic analysis (nCounter assay).

  8. To Excavate Biomarkers Predictive of the Response for Capecitabine plus RAD001 through Nanostring-Based Multigene Assay in Advanced Gastric Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hansang; Lee, Jeeyun; Sohn, Insuk; Park, Se Hoon; Park, Joon Oh; Park, Young Suk; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Kang, Won Ki; Kim, Seung Tae

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive characterization of individual patients' tumour is important to realize personalized medicine. Here, we investigate to identify subsets that benefit from capecitabine plus RAD001 in advanced gastric cancer (GC) patients by comprehensive high-throughput genomic analysis (nCounter assay). Archival tumour tissue blocks, if possible, were collected at phase II trial of capecitabine plus RAD001 in 47 refractory GC patients (at clinicaltrials.gov NCT#01099527). A total of 42 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumour samples were available for nanostring based-multigene Assay. An nCounter assay of 519 kinase panels has been used. We performed correlation analyses between expression levels of kinase genes and response for capecitabine plus RAD001. Among 42 patients with An nCounter assay of 519 kinase panels, 4 patients achieved confirmed partial response and 15 patients revealed stable disease, resulting in an overall response rate (ORR) of 9.5%. No difference in ORR was observed in terms of gender, performance status, primary tumour site, gastric resection, histologic subtype, Lauren classification, No. of metastatic site and No. of chemotherapy. In subgroups with response for capecitabine plus RAD001, there is significant overexpression of 6 genes among 519 kinase gene such as EPHA2 (P = 0.0025), PIM1 (P = 0.0031), KSR1 (P = 0.0033), and EIF2AK4 (P = 0.0046) that are related to the activation of mTOR signalling. This study is first report that investigated to identify biomarkers predictive of the response for RAD001 containing treatment in refractory GC patients, by comprehensive high-throughput genomic analysis (nCounter assay). PMID:27994652

  9. Systemic and CNS activity of the RET inhibitor vandetanib combined with the mTOR inhibitor everolimus in KIF5B-RET re-arranged non-small cell lung cancer with brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Subbiah, Vivek; Berry, Jenny; Roxas, Michael; Guha-Thakurta, Nandita; Subbiah, Ishwaria Mohan; Ali, Siraj M; McMahon, Caitlin; Miller, Vincent; Cascone, Tina; Pai, Shobha; Tang, Zhenya; Heymach, John V

    2015-07-01

    In-frame fusion KIF5B (the-kinesin-family-5B-gene)-RET transcripts have been characterized in 1-2% of non-small cell lung cancers and are known oncogenic drivers. The RET tyrosine kinase inhibitor, vandetanib, suppresses fusion-induced, anchorage-independent growth activity. In vitro studies have shown that vandetanib is a high-affinity substrate of breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1/Abcg2) but is not transported by P-glycoprotein (P-gp), limiting its blood-brain barrier penetration. A co-administration strategy to enhance the brain accumulation of vandetanib by modulating P-gp/Abcb1- and Bcrp1/Abcg2-mediated efflux with mTOR inhibitors, specifically everolimus, was shown to increase the blood-brain barrier penetration. We report the first bench-to-bedside evidence that RET inhibitor combined with an mTOR inhibitor is active against brain-metastatic RET-rearranged lung cancer and the first evidence of blood-brain barrier penetration. A 74-year-old female with progressive adenocarcinoma of the lung (wild-type EGFR and no ALK rearrangement) presented for therapy options. A deletion of 5'RET was revealed by FISH assay, indicating RET-gene rearrangement. Because of progressive disease in the brain, she was enrolled in a clinical trial with vandetanib and everolimus (NCT01582191). Comprehensive genomic profiling revealed fusion of KIF5B (the-kinesin-family-5B-gene) and RET, in addition to AKT2 gene amplification. After two cycles of therapy a repeat MRI brain showed a decrease in the intracranial disease burden and PET/CT showed systemic response as well. Interestingly, AKT2 amplification seen is a critical component of the PI3K/mTOR pathway, alterations of which has been associated with both de novo and acquired resistance to targeted therapy. The addition of everolimus may have both overcome the AKT2 amplification to produce a response in addition to its direct effects on the RET gene. Our case report forms the first evidence of blood-brain barrier penetration by

  10. A pilot study of JI-101, an inhibitor of VEGFR-2, PDGFR-β, and EphB4 receptors, in combination with everolimus and as a single agent in an ovarian cancer expansion cohort.

    PubMed

    Werner, Theresa L; Wade, Mark L; Agarwal, Neeraj; Boucher, Kenneth; Patel, Jesal; Luebke, Aaron; Sharma, Sunil

    2015-12-01

    JI-101 is an oral multi-kinase inhibitor that targets vascular endothelial growth factor receptor type 2 (VEGFR-2), platelet derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFR-β), and ephrin type-B receptor 4 (EphB4). None of the currently approved angiogenesis inhibitors have been reported to inhibit EphB4, and therefore, JI-101 has a novel mechanism of action. We conducted a pilot trial to assess the pharmacokinetics (PK), tolerability, and efficacy of JI-101 in combination with everolimus in advanced cancers, and pharmacodynamics (PD), tolerability, and efficacy of JI-101 in ovarian cancer. This was the first clinical study assessing anti-tumor activity of JI-101 in a combinatorial regimen. In the PK cohort, four patients received single agent 10 mg everolimus on day 1, 10 mg everolimus and 200 mg JI-101 combination on day 8, and single agent 200 mg JI-101 on day 15. In the PD cohort, eleven patients received single agent JI-101 at 200 mg twice daily for 28 day treatment cycles. JI-101 was well tolerated as a single agent and in combination with everolimus. No serious adverse events were observed. Common adverse events were hypertension, nausea, and abdominal pain. JI-101 increased exposure of everolimus by approximately 22%, suggestive of drug-drug interaction. The majority of patients had stable disease at their first set of restaging scans (two months), although no patients demonstrated a response to the drug per RECIST criteria. The novel mechanism of action of JI-101 is promising in ovarian cancer treatment and further prospective studies of this agent may be pursued in a less refractory patient population or in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy.

  11. Conversion from a calcineurin inhibitor-based immunosuppressive regimen to everolimus in renal transplant recipients: effect on renal function and proteinuria.

    PubMed

    Morales, J; Fierro, A; Benavente, D; Zehnder, C; Ferrario, M; Contreras, L; Herzog, C; Buckel, E

    2007-04-01

    New immunosuppressive agents are being actively researched to avoid complications of chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN), calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) nephrotoxicity, and posttransplantation cancer. The family of mTOR inhibitors offers a unique immunosuppressive opportunity to avoid CNI toxicity and reduce the incidence of malignancy. Nevertheless, increasing data have demonstrated that sirolimus (SRL), the first mTOR introduced in the treatment of solid organ transplant recipients, induces proteinuria, an adverse event that could produce deterioration of long-term renal function. In this short-term study of patients followed for 1 to 16 months, we examined changes in renal function and proteinuria among renal transplant recipients converted from a CNI-based regimen to an everolimus (EVL)-based one, a recently introduced mTOR inhibitor. Our data showed that renal function can be optimized after conversion to EVL by up to 42% in recipients showing CAN grade 1 or 2, or CNI nephrotoxicity. Importantly, patients who improved their creatinine clearance did not show increased proteinuria measured in a voided specimen as the ratio of urinary protein and creatinine concentration (P/C). These results, if confirmed with long-term follow-up and a larger number of patients, would allow us to consider EVL as a promising agent for maintenance immunosuppressive regimens in kidney transplantation.

  12. Phosphorylation of mTOR and S6RP predicts the efficacy of everolimus in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The incidence of renal cell cancer (RCC) has been increasing for the past decade, and the 5-year survival for patients with metastatic RCC (mRCC) is rather low. Everolimus (RAD001), a new inhibitor for mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), is generally well tolerated, and demonstrates clinical benefit to patients with anti-VEGF-refractory mRCC. However, factors for selection of patients who may benefit from everolimus remain largely unknown. Here we aimed to explore potential molecular indicators for mRCC patients who may benefit from everolimus treatment. Methods Paraffin-embedded tumor tissue specimens derived from 18 mRCC patients before everolimus treatment, who participated the phase 1b trial of everolimus in VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-refractory Chinese patients with mRCC (clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01152801), were examined for the expression levels of phosphorylated AKT, mTOR, eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) binding protein-1 (4EBP1) and 40S ribosomal protein S6 (S6RP) by immunohistochemistry. Clinical benefit rate (complete response [CR], partial response [PR], plus stable disease [SD] ≥ 6 months) and progression-free survival time (PFS) were correlated with expression levels of these mTOR-associated molecules. Results In these 18 patients, there were 1 PR, 15 SDs (including 9 SDs ≥ 6 months), and 2 progressive diseases (PD). The clinical benefit rate (CBR) was 55.6% (10/18), and the median PFS time was 8.4 months. Patients with positive expression of phospho-mTOR showed a better CBR (71.4% versus 0%, P = 0.023) and PFS time (11.3 versus 3.7 months, P = 0.001) than those patients with negative expression. The median PFS of patients with positive phospho-S6RP expression was longer (11.3 versus 3.7 months, P = 0.002) than that of patients negative for phospho-S6RP expression. However, expression levels of phospho-4EBP1 and phospho-AKT were unassociated to efficacy of everolimus treatment

  13. Decreased expression of B7-H3 reduces the glycolytic capacity and sensitizes breast cancer cells to AKT/mTOR inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Nunes-Xavier, Caroline E.; Karlsen, Karine Flem; Tekle, Christina; Pedersen, Cathrine; Øyjord, Tove; Hongisto, Vesa; Nesland, Jahn M.; Tan, Ming; Sahlberg, Kristine Kleivi; Fodstad, Øystein

    2016-01-01

    B7 family proteins are important immune response regulators, and can mediate oncogenic signaling and cancer development. We have used human triple-negative breast cancer cell lines with different expression levels of B7-H3 to evaluate its effects on the sensitivity to 22 different anticancer compounds in a drug screen. API-2 (triciribidine) and everolimus (RAD-001), two inhibitors that target the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, showed enhanced inhibition of cell viability and proliferation in B7-H3 knockdown tumor cells compared to their B7-H3 expressing counterparts. Similar inhibition was seen in control cells treated with an anti-B7-H3 monoclonal antibody. In B7-H3 overexpressing cells, the effects of the two drugs were reduced, supported also by in vivo experiments in which B7-H3 overexpressing xenografts were less sensitive to everolimus than control tumors. In API-2 and everolimus-treated B7-H3 overexpressing cells, phospho-mTOR levels were decreased. However, phosphorylation of p70S6K was differentially regulated in B7-H3 cells treated with API-2 or everolimus, suggesting a different B7-H3-mediated mechanism downstream of mTOR. Both API-2 and everolimus decreased the glycolysis of the cells, whereas knockdown of B7-H3 decreased and B7-H3 overexpression increased the glycolytic capacity. In conclusion, we have unveiled a previously unknown relationship between B7-H3 expression and glycolytic capacity in tumor cells, and found that B7-H3 confers resistance to API-2 and everolimus. The results provide novel insights into the function of B7-H3 in cancer, and suggest that targeting of B7-H3 may be a novel alternative to improve current anticancer therapies. PMID:26771843

  14. Combined treatment by octreotide and everolimus: Octreotide enhances inhibitory effect of everolimus in aggressive meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Graillon, Thomas; Defilles, Céline; Mohamed, Amira; Lisbonis, Christophe; Germanetti, Anne-Laure; Chinot, Olivier; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Roche, Pierre-Hugues; Adetchessi, Tarek; Fuentes, Stéphane; Metellus, Philippe; Dufour, Henry; Enjalbert, Alain; Barlier, Anne

    2015-08-01

    Treatment for recurrent and aggressive meningiomas remains an unmet medical need in neuro-oncology, and chemotherapy exhibits limited clinical activity, if any. Merlin expression, encoded by the NF2 gene, is lost in a majority of meningiomas, and merlin is a negative regulator of mTORC1. The sst2 somatostatin receptor, targeted by octreotide, is highly expressed in meningiomas. To investigate new therapeutic strategies, we evaluated the activity of everolimus (mTOR inhibitor), BKM-120 and BEZ-235 (new Pi3K/Akt/mTOR inhibitors), octreotide and a combined treatment (octreotide plus everolimus), on cell proliferation, signaling pathways, and cell cycle proteins, respectively. The in vitro study was conducted on human meningioma primary cells extracted from fresh tumors, allowing the assessment of somatostatin analogs at the concentration levels used in patients. The results were correlated to WHO grades. Further, everolimus decreased cell viability of human meningiomas, but concomitantly, induced Akt activation, reducing the antiproliferative effect of the drug. The new Pi3K inhibitors were not more active than everolimus alone, limiting their clinical relevance. In contrast, a clear cooperative inhibitory effect of octreotide and everolimus was observed on cell proliferation in all tested meningiomas, including WHO grades II-III. Octreotide not only reversed everolimus-induced Akt phosphorylation but also displayed additive and complementary effects with everolimus on downstream proteins involved in translation (4EB-P1), and controlling cell cycle (p27Kip1 and cyclin D1). We have demonstrated a co-operative action between everolimus and octreotide on cell proliferation in human meningiomas, including aggressive ones, establishing the basis for a clinical trial.

  15. Emerging use of everolimus in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gajate, Pablo; Martínez-Sáez, Olga; Alonso-Gordoa, Teresa; Grande, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) consist of a diverse family of malignancies, which are derived from neuroendocrine cells, most commonly originating from the gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) tract or the bronchopulmonary system. In general, NETs are more indolent than epithelial tumors, with median survival rates of longer than 30 months. The upregulation of mTOR pathway has been shown to play a pivotal role in NET pathogenesis. Inhibition of mTOR protein with everolimus represents a progress in the treatment of advanced NETs. Everolimus has shown a significant improvement in progression-free survival (PFS) among patients with pancreatic NETs (pNETs) and nonfunctional GEP and lung NETs in the Phase III RAD001 in Advanced Neuroendocrine Tumors (RADIANT)-3 and RADIANT-4 studies, respectively. In addition, the combination of everolimus with octreotide showed a clinically significant improvement versus octreotide alone in functional NETs in the RADIANT-2 trial. These studies led to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medical Agency (EMA) approval of everolimus. Safety profile of everolimus is generally acceptable. The most common adverse events are stomatitis, diarrhea, rash and fatigue. There is a growing range of novel treatment options in the setting of NETs, but there are no data comparing the activity of different treatment strategies. Thus, treatment decisions are based on different aspects, such as clinical course, patient symptomatology, primary tumor site, tumor functionality, rate of progression and burden of disease. Further research is required to clarify the treatment sequencing to achieve the maximum prolongation in survival and maintenance of quality of life. Future research should concentrate on identification of predictive biomarkers for benefit from different therapies, and studies should also include quality of life as an important measurement in this disease. PMID:28684922

  16. The combination of IκB kinase β inhibitor and everolimus modulates expression of interleukin‐10 in human T‐cell lymphotropic virus type‐1‐infected T cells

    PubMed Central

    Nishioka, Chie; Ikezoe, Takayuki; Yang, Jing; Udaka, Keiko; Yokoyama, Akihito

    2013-01-01

    Summary Adult T‐cell leukaemia‐lymphoma (ATLL) is an aggressive malignancy of CD4+ CD25+ T lymphocytes, characterized by a severely compromised immunosystem, in which the human T‐cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV‐1) has been recognized as the aetiological agent. This study found that an IκB kinase β (IKKβ) inhibitor Bay11‐7082 inactivated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and transcription factor nuclear factor‐κB in HTLV‐1‐infected T cells; this was significantly enhanced in the presence of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus. In addition, Bay11‐7082 decreased production of the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin‐10 (IL‐10), which was further down‐regulated when Bay11‐7082 was combined with evelolimus in HTLV‐1‐infected T and ATLL cells isolated from patients. Interleukin‐10 is known to inhibit maturation and the antigen‐presenting function of dendritic cells (DCs). The culture media of HTLV‐1‐infected MT‐1 cells, which contained a large amout of IL‐10, hampered tumour necrosis factor‐α‐induced maturation of DCs isolated from healthy volunteers. Culture supernatant of MT‐1 cells treated with a combination of Bay11‐7082 and everolimus augmented maturation of DCs in association with a decrease in production of IL‐10 and enhanced the allostimulatory function of DCs. Similarly, when DCs isolated from patients with ATLL were treated with the combination of Bay11‐7082 and everolimus, they were fully matured and their capability to stimulate proliferation of lymphocytes was augmented. Taken together, the combination of Bay11‐7082 and everolimus might exhibit immunostimulatory properties in HTLV‐1‐infected T and ATLL cells isolated from patients, and this combination may be potentially therapeutic to regain the compromised immunosystem in ATLL patients. PMID:23278479

  17. Symptomatic Control of Neuroendocrine Tumours with Everolimus.

    PubMed

    Bainbridge, Hannah E; Larbi, Emmanuel; Middleton, Gary

    2015-12-01

    Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, increases progression-free survival in patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumours. Patients with neuroendocrine tumours and symptomatic carcinoid have inferior health-related quality of life than those without symptoms. We aimed to evaluate the effect of everolimus on symptomatic control of neuroendocrine tumours. Fifteen patients with metastatic neuroendocrine disease pre-treated with depot octreotide received combination everolimus and octreotide (midgut = 8, pancreatic = 3, other = 4). Reasons for initiation of everolimus were progressive disease (PD) by response evaluation criteria in solid tumours (n = 5), worsening syndromic symptomology (n = 5), or both (n = 5). Symptomatic and objective response and toxicity were evaluated using standard criteria. 7/10 patients who were syndromic had improvements in symptomology, with a mean duration of symptom control 13.9 months (range 1-39). All 10 symptomatic patients had non pancreatic neuroendocrine (pNET) primaries, and with everolimus, 6/10 had reduced stool frequency, 3/7 had a reduction of asthenia, and 5/7 had reduced frequency and severity of flushing. Sixty percent of patients experienced any grade toxicities, including the following: 40% grade 1/2 stomatitis, 7% grade 3/4 stomatitis, 20% grade 1/2 rash, 13% diarrhoea, and one case of pneumonitis. In this cohort of 15 patients, we demonstrated that 70% of non pNET individuals with common carcinoid syndrome symptoms resistant to depot octreotide had improvement in these symptoms on institution of everolimus, with meaningful durations of symptom control. Although this data is observational, to our knowledge, this represents the largest analysis of carcinoid syndrome control with combined everolimus and octreotide.

  18. The CECARI Study: Everolimus (Certican®) Initiation and Calcineurin Inhibitor Withdrawal in Maintenance Heart Transplant Recipients with Renal Insufficiency: A Multicenter, Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Derthoo, David; Van Caenegem, Olivier; De Pauw, Michel; Nellessen, Eric; Duerinckx, Nathalie; Droogne, Walter; Vörös, Gábor; Meyns, Bart; Belmans, Ann; Janssens, Stefan; Vanhaecke, Johan

    2017-01-01

    In this 3-year, open-label, multicenter study, 57 maintenance heart transplant recipients (>1 year after transplant) with renal insufficiency (eGFR 30–60 mL/min/1.73 m2) were randomized to start everolimus with CNI withdrawal (N = 29) or continue their current CNI-based immunosuppression (N = 28). The primary endpoint, change in measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) from baseline to year 3, did not differ significantly between both groups (+7.0 mL/min in the everolimus group versus +1.9 mL/min in the CNI group, p = 0.18). In the on-treatment analysis, the difference did reach statistical significance (+9.4 mL/min in the everolimus group versus +1.9 mL/min in the CNI group, p = 0.047). The composite safety endpoint of all-cause mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events, or treated acute rejection was not different between groups. Nonfatal adverse events occurred in 96.6% of patients in the everolimus group and 57.1% in the CNI group (p < 0.001). Ten patients (34.5%) in the everolimus group discontinued the study drug during follow-up due to adverse events. The poor adherence to the everolimus therapy might have masked a potential benefit of CNI withdrawal on renal function. PMID:28316834

  19. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) with [177Lu-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate in combination with RAD001 treatment: further investigations on tumor metastasis and response in the rat pancreatic CA20948 tumor model

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Previously, we reported on the unexpected development of distant metastases in the subcutaneous rat pancreas CA20948 tumor model after 4.5 weeks of treatment with RAD001-only or in combination with [177Lu-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate (177Lu-DOTATATE) (Cancer Res. 73:12-8, 2013). Moreover, the combination therapy was less effective compared to 177Lu-DOTATATE-only. In the current study, we address the following questions: (1) Why was the combination therapy less effective? Is 177Lu-DOTATATE tumor uptake affected by pretreatment with RAD001? (2) Could sudden cessation of RAD001 therapy cause the development of distant metastases? (3) Is 177Lu-DOTATATE an effective treatment option for these metastases? Methods Lewis rats (HanHsd or SsNHsd substrain with a slight difference in immune response) bearing subcutaneous CA20948 tumors were treated with either 125 or 275 MBq 177Lu-DOTATATE, RAD001, or their combination. RAD001 was given twice a week for 4.5 or 12 weeks, whereas 177Lu-DOTATATE was given as a single injection. When combined, RAD001 was started either 3 days prior to or 3 days post administration of 177Lu-DOTATATE. SPECT/CT was performed to quantify 177Lu-DOTATATE tumor uptake. Where indicated, primary tumors were surgically removed when tumor size is >6,000 mm3 to enable monitoring for possible metastasis. If metastases were suspected, an 111In-DTPA-octreotide SPECT/CT scan was performed. Seven rats with metastases were treated with 400 MBq 177Lu-DOTATATE. Results Lu-DOTATATE tumor uptake was not significantly affected by RAD001 pretreatment. The occurrence of metastases after RAD001 treatment was not dose dependent in the dose range tested, nor was it related to the duration of RAD001 treatment. In the experiment in which the LEW/SsNsd substrain was used, only 12.5% of RAD001-treated rats showed complete response (CR), compared to 50% tumor regression in the control group. Re-treatment with a high dose of 177Lu-DOTATATE resulted in CR in only two

  20. Use of Everolimus After Multivisceral Transplantation: A Report of Two Cases.

    PubMed

    Rao, B; Segovia, M C; Kazimi, M; Parekh, R; Raoufi, M; Jafri, S-M

    2016-03-01

    Inhibitors of mechanistic target of rapamycin are used in solid organ transplant procedures to avoid calcineurin inhibitor complications, including nephrotoxicity and malignancy. We present 2 cases of multivisceral transplantation for neuroendocrine tumor (NET) for which everolimus was implemented for its potential to prevent NET recurrence as well as preserve renal function. The first case was complicated by NET recurrence in the liver before initiation of everolimus. After initiation of everolimus, the patient developed a ventral hernia and elevated aminotransferase levels with nonspecific biopsy findings. The second case was complicated by cytomegalovirus infection with elevated everolimus trough levels as well as acute cellular rejection. Everolimus was reinitiated in both cases in addition to decreasing the dosage of tacrolimus, and there were no further complications. Everolimus was beneficial in stabilizing renal function in both patients and has the theoretical potential to prevent recurrence of NET.

  1. Pelvic lymphangioleiomyomatosis treated successfully with everolimus

    PubMed Central

    Wahid, Sharjil; Chiang, Ping Chia; Luo, Hao Lun; Huang, Shun-Chen; Tsai, Eing-Mei; Chiang, Po Hui

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare disease affecting young women caused by abnormal proliferation of smooth muscle-like cells (LAM cells) in the lungs and extrapulmonary sites (extrapulmonary LAM). The objective of this case series is to demonstrate marked regression in 2 cases of retroperitoneal LAM after treatment with everolimus, an mTOR inhibitor. Methods: We enrolled 2 cases with large volume, extrapulmonary pelvic LAM, and evaluated them with contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomographic (CT) scans at presentation and serially during treatment with everolimus. Results were objectively quantified using the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, RECIST, Version 1.1. Results: After 12 to 18 months of treatment with everolimus, both patients showed substantial reduction in the volume of their tumors. The first had about 50% regression of the pelvic LAM and renal angiomyolipoma (AML). The second patient had extensive abdomino-pelvic LAM which after treatment showed complete remission. Both patients have not demonstrated disease progression after nearly 4 and 2 years of follow-up, respectively. Conclusions: This case series demonstrates the enormous value of mTOR inhibitors (specifically everolimus) in the management of extrapulmonary pelvic LAM, of which there is no effective treatment currently available. PMID:28272193

  2. Everolimus and Malignancy after Solid Organ Transplantation: A Clinical Update.

    PubMed

    Holdaas, Hallvard; De Simone, Paolo; Zuckermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Malignancy after solid organ transplantation remains a major cause of posttransplant mortality. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor class of immunosuppressants exerts various antioncogenic effects, and the mTOR inhibitor everolimus is licensed for the treatment of several solid cancers. In kidney transplantation, evidence from registry studies indicates a lower rate of de novo malignancy under mTOR inhibition, with some potentially supportive data from randomized trials of everolimus. Case reports and small single-center series have suggested that switch to everolimus may be beneficial following diagnosis of posttransplant malignancy, particularly for Kaposi's sarcoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer, but prospective studies are lacking. A systematic review has shown mTOR inhibition to be associated with a significantly lower rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence versus standard calcineurin inhibitor therapy. One meta-analysis has concluded that patients with nontransplant HCC experience a low but significant survival benefit under everolimus monotherapy, so far unconfirmed in a transplant population. Data are limited in heart transplantation, although observational data and case reports have indicated that introduction of everolimus is helpful in reducing the recurrence of skin cancers. Overall, it can be concluded that, in certain settings, everolimus appears a promising option to lessen the toll of posttransplant malignancy.

  3. Everolimus and Malignancy after Solid Organ Transplantation: A Clinical Update

    PubMed Central

    De Simone, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Malignancy after solid organ transplantation remains a major cause of posttransplant mortality. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor class of immunosuppressants exerts various antioncogenic effects, and the mTOR inhibitor everolimus is licensed for the treatment of several solid cancers. In kidney transplantation, evidence from registry studies indicates a lower rate of de novo malignancy under mTOR inhibition, with some potentially supportive data from randomized trials of everolimus. Case reports and small single-center series have suggested that switch to everolimus may be beneficial following diagnosis of posttransplant malignancy, particularly for Kaposi's sarcoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer, but prospective studies are lacking. A systematic review has shown mTOR inhibition to be associated with a significantly lower rate of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence versus standard calcineurin inhibitor therapy. One meta-analysis has concluded that patients with nontransplant HCC experience a low but significant survival benefit under everolimus monotherapy, so far unconfirmed in a transplant population. Data are limited in heart transplantation, although observational data and case reports have indicated that introduction of everolimus is helpful in reducing the recurrence of skin cancers. Overall, it can be concluded that, in certain settings, everolimus appears a promising option to lessen the toll of posttransplant malignancy. PMID:27807479

  4. Everolimus immunosuppression in kidney transplantation: What is the optimal strategy?

    PubMed

    Witzke, Oliver; Sommerer, Claudia; Arns, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Two main everolimus-based strategies have been pursued to facilitate calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) reduction after kidney transplantation: (i) everolimus with reduced CNI exposure from time of transplant and (ii) pre-emptive introduction of everolimus with CNI reduction or withdrawal at some point post-transplant. Randomized trials have shown no loss of immunosuppressive efficacy for everolimus (targeting 3-8 ng/mL) with reduced-exposure CNI versus standard-exposure CNI and mycophenolic acid (MPA) in low-to-moderate risk patients. Renal function has tended to be numerically, but not significantly, higher with everolimus and reduced-CNI versus MPA and standard-CNI. One study which used very low CsA exposure in everolimus-treated patients reported a substantial improvement in estimated GFR compared to controls, but this requires confirmation. Pre-emptive conversion to everolimus at three to six months after kidney transplantation significantly improves long-term renal function, but with an increased rate of mild acute rejection. Earlier conversion (up to two months post-transplant) can lead to an increase in rejection risk, while later conversion (more than six months post-transplant) is unproductive unless baseline renal function is good. This article considers the risks and benefits associated with either strategy, and reviews specific clinical situations that influence the optimal approach in individual patients. The balance of evidence suggests two options. De novo everolimus with reduced CNI, steroids and induction therapy ensures immunosuppressive efficacy in low- or standard-risk populations, and investigations into this strategy are ongoing. Conversion to everolimus with CNI withdrawal between three and six months post-transplant offers a long-term renoprotective effect if baseline graft function is good.

  5. Everolimus-associated stomatitis in a patient who had renal transplant.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yisi D; Aboalela, Ali; Villa, Alessandro

    2016-10-19

    Everolimus is used as an immunosuppressant in renal allograft transplant rejection and in metastatic breast cancer treatment. One side effect of everolimus is stomatitis, referred to as mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor-associated stomatitis. This side effect can affect treatment course and contribute to discontinuation of therapy or dose reduction, previously reported in the treatment of metastatic breast cancer. Here, we present a case of everolimus-associated stomatitis with a novel management method with intralesional triamcinolone that allows for continuous course of everolimus.

  6. Everolimus in the management of metastatic neuroendocrine tumours

    PubMed Central

    Chan, David L.; Segelov, Eva; Singh, Simron

    2016-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours are increasing in incidence and cause a variety of symptoms. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway plays a key role in neuroendocrine tumour (NET) pathogenesis, leading to increased lipid synthesis, protein synthesis and cellular growth. Upregulation of this pathway is noted in both hereditary and sporadic NETs. This understanding has led to investigations of mTOR inhibitors as therapy for metastatic NETs. After promising preclinical findings, everolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, was trialled in the RADIANT-1−4 studies on patients with advanced, well differentiated NETs. RADIANT-3 and RADIANT-4 established the efficacy of everolimus in improving progression-free survival (PFS) for metastatic NET of pancreatic, lung and gastrointestinal origin, leading to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for its use in tumour control in those settings. Everolimus treatment is generally well tolerated; common adverse events include stomatitis, diarrhoea, rash and hyperglycaemia. Although discontinuation rates are low, many patients may require dose modification to successfully continue therapy. The combination of everolimus with somatostatin analogues (SSAs) (such as octreotide or pasireotide) or other targeted agents such as bevacizumab has not produced additional incremental benefit, and dual biologic therapy is not used widely. Ongoing trials are investigating everolimus compared with chemotherapy, optimal sequencing of therapy and combination of everolimus with radiotherapy. Future research should concentrate on identification of predictive biomarkers for benefit from mTOR therapy and include quality of life as a measure. PMID:28286565

  7. Osteonecrosis of the jaw associated with everolimus: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Daigo; Tsubota, Yu; Utsunomiya, Toshiki; Sueoka, Noriko; Ueda, Aiko; Endo, Kayoko; Yoshikawa, Katsuhiro; Kon, Masanori

    2017-01-01

    Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, has recently been approved for the treatment of metastatic estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, at a daily dose of 10 mg in combination with exemestane. Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a rare but severe condition, characterized by exposed necrotic bone, and is associated with various drugs that are often used to treat advanced malignancies. We herein report the case of a patient with breast cancer who developed ONJ during treatment with everolimus, which improved after discontinuation of the drug. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of everolimus-associated ONJ in a patient receiving everolimus for metastatic breast cancer. In 2014, an 80-year-old woman was started on treatment with everolimus and exemestane for stage IIB estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Within 2 months, the left side of her face became edematous, with localized heat and tenderness of the left mandibular region and a 3-mm round area of exposed bone. There was purulent discharge and the surrounding gingiva was edematous and erythematous. The left mandible exhibited a low signal intensity area on T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. Treatment was discontinued and ONJ showed improvement after 2 months. Therefore, when prescribing everolimus for metastatic breast cancer, oncologists should be aware of the possibility of ONJ as a complication. PMID:28357105

  8. Impact of dual mTORC1/2 mTOR kinase inhibitor AZD8055 on acquired endocrine resistance in breast cancer in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Upregulation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling in endocrine-resistant breast cancer (BC) has identified mTOR as an attractive target alongside anti-hormones to control resistance. RAD001 (everolimus/Afinitor®), an allosteric mTOR inhibitor, is proving valuable in this setting; however, some patients are inherently refractory or relapse during treatment requiring alternative strategies. Here we evaluate the potential for novel dual mTORC1/2 mTOR kinase inhibitors, exemplified by AZD8055, by comparison with RAD001 in ER + endocrine resistant BC cells. Methods In vitro models of tamoxifen (TamR) or oestrogen deprivation resistance (MCF7-X) were treated with RAD001 or AZD8055 alone or combined with anti-hormone fulvestrant. Endpoints included growth, cell proliferation (Ki67), viability and migration, with PI3K/AKT/mTOR signalling impact monitored by Western blotting. Potential ER cross-talk was investigated by immunocytochemistry and RT-PCR. Results RAD001 was a poor growth inhibitor of MCF7-derived TamR and MCF7-X cells (IC50 ≥1 μM), rapidly inhibiting mTORC1 but not mTORC2/AKT signalling. In contrast AZD8055, which rapidly inhibited both mTORC1 and mTORC2/AKT activity, was a highly effective (P <0.001) growth inhibitor of TamR (IC50 18 nM) and MCF7-X (IC50 24 nM), and of a further T47D-derived tamoxifen resistant model T47D-tamR (IC50 19 nM). AZD8055 significantly (P <0.05) inhibited resistant cell proliferation, increased cell death and reduced migration. Furthermore, dual treatment of TamR or MCF7-X cells with AZD8055 plus fulvestrant provided superior control of resistant growth versus either agent alone (P <0.05). Co-treating with AZD8055 alongside tamoxifen (P <0.01) or oestrogen deprivation (P <0.05) also effectively inhibited endocrine responsive MCF-7 cells. Although AZD8055 inhibited oestrogen receptor (ER) ser167 phosphorylation in TamR and MCF7-X, it had no effect on ER ser118 activity or expression of several ER-regulated genes

  9. Effects of preset sequential administrations of sunitinib and everolimus on tumour differentiation in Caki-1 renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, C; Tijeras-Raballand, A; Serova, M; Sebbagh, S; Slimane, K; Faivre, S; de Gramont, A; Raymond, E

    2015-01-06

    Sunitinib (VEGFR/PDGFR inhibitor) and everolimus (mTOR inhibitor) are both approved for advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) as first-line and second-line therapy, respectively. In the clinics, sunitinib treatment is limited by the emergence of acquired resistance, leading to a switch to second-line treatment at progression, often based on everolimus. No data have been yet generated on programmed alternating sequential strategies combining alternative use of sunitinib and everolimus before progression. Such strategy is expected to delay the emergence of acquired resistance and improve tumour control. The aim of our study was to assess the changes in tumours induced by three different sequences administration of sunitinib and everolimus. In human Caki-1 RCC xenograft model, sunitinib was alternated with everolimus every week, every 2 weeks, or every 3 weeks. Effects on necrosis, hypoxia, angiogenesis, and EMT status were assessed by immunohisochemistry and immunofluorescence. Sunitinib and everolimus programmed sequential regimens before progression yielded longer median time to tumour progression than sunitinib and everolimus monotherapies. In each group of treatment, tumour growth control was associated with inhibition of mTOR pathway and changes from a mesenchymal towards an epithelial phenotype, with a decrease in vimentin and an increase in E-cadherin expression. The sequential combinations of these two agents in a RCC mouse clinical trial induced antiangiogenic effects, leading to tumour necrosis. In summary, our study showed that alternate sequence of sunitinib and everolimus mitigated the development of mesenchymal phenotype compared with sunitinib as single agent.

  10. Everolimus exhibits anti-tumorigenic activity in obesity-induced ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hui; Zhong, Yan; Jackson, Amanda L.; Clark, Leslie H.; Kilgore, Josh; Zhang, Lu; Han, Jianjun; Sheng, Xiugui; Gilliam, Timothy P.; Gehrig, Paola A.; Zhou, Chunxiao; Bae, Victoria L.

    2016-01-01

    Everolimus inhibits mTOR kinase activity and its downstream targets by acting on mTORC1 and has anti-tumorigenic activity in ovarian cancer. Clinical and epidemiologic data find that obesity is associated with worse outcomes in ovarian cancer. In addition, obesity leads to hyperactivation of the mTOR pathway in epithelial tissues, suggesting that mTOR inhibitors may be a logical choice for treatment in obesity-driven cancers. However, it remains unclear if obesity impacts the effect of everolimus on tumor growth in ovarian cancer. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of everolimus on cytotoxicity, cell metabolism, apoptosis, cell cycle, cell stress and invasion in human ovarian cancer cells. A genetically engineered mouse model of serous ovarian cancer fed a high fat diet or low fat diet allowed further investigation into the inter-relationship between everolimus and obesity in vivo. Everolimus significantly inhibited cellular proliferation, induced cell cycle G1 arrest and apoptosis, reduced invasion and caused cellular stress via inhibition of mTOR pathways in vitro. Hypoglycemic conditions enhanced the sensitivity of cells to everolimus through the disruption of glycolysis. Moreover, everolimus was found to inhibit ovarian tumor growth in both obese and lean mice. This reduction coincided with a decrease in expression of Ki-67 and phosphorylated-S6, as well as an increase in cleaved caspase 3 and phosphorylated-AKT. Metabolite profiling revealed that everolimus was able to alter tumor metabolism through different metabolic pathways in the obese and lean mice. Our findings support that everolimus may be a promising therapeutic agent for obesity-driven ovarian cancers. PMID:26959121

  11. More potent lipid lowering effect by rosuvastatin compared to fluvastatin in everolimus treated renal transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Robertsen, Ida; Åsberg, Anders; Granseth, Tone; Vethe, Nils Tore; Akhlaghi, Fatemeh; Ghareeb, Mwlod; Molden, Espen; Reier-Nilsen, Morten; Holdaas, Hallvard; Midtvedt, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Background Dyslipidemia is a risk factor for premature cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in renal transplant recipients (RTR). Pharmacotherapy with mTOR inhibitors aggravates dyslipidemia thus necessitating lipid-lowering therapy with fluvastatin, pravastatin or atorvastatin. These agents may not sufficiently lower lipid levels and therefore a more potent agent like rosuvastatin maybe needed. Methods We have aimed to assess the lipid-lowering effect of rosuvastatin as compared to fluvastatin in RTR receiving everolimus. Safety was assessed as the pharmacokinetic (PK) interaction potential of a rosuvastatin/everolimus combination in RTR. A 12-hour everolimus PK-investigation was performed in twelve stable RTR receiving everolimus and fluvastatin (80 mg/day). Patients were then switched to rosuvastatin (20 mg/day) and a follow-up 12/24-hour PK-investigation of everolimus/rosuvastatin was performed after one month. All other drugs were kept unchanged. Results In RTR already receiving fluvastatin, switching to rosuvastatin further decreased LDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol by 30.2±12.2% (p<0.01) and 18.2±9.6% (p<0.01), respectively. Everolimus AUC0-12 was not affected by concomitant rosuvastatin treatment, 80.3±21.3 μg*h/mL before and 78.5±21.9 μg*h/mL after, respectively (p=0.61). Mean rosuvastatin AUC0-24 was 157±61.7 ng*h/mL, about 3-fold higher than reported in the literature for non-transplants. There were no adverse events and none of the patients had or developed proteinuria. Conclusions Rosuvastatin showed a superior lipid-lowering effect compared to fluvastatin in stable RTR receiving everolimus. The combination of everolimus/rosuvastatin appears to be as safe as the everolimus/fluvastatin combination. PMID:24521776

  12. Conversion From Sirolimus to Everolimus in Long-Term Liver Graft Recipients.

    PubMed

    Weiler, Nina; Bilge, Nigar; Troetschler, Sven; Vermehren, Johannes; Schnitzbauer, Andreas Anton; Herrmann, Eva; Sarrazin, Christoph; Zeuzem, Stefan; Welker, Martin-Walter

    2017-07-01

    Immunosuppression by inhibition of the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a promising approach after liver transplantation. The mTOR inhibitor sirolimus was used in selected liver graft recipients despite safety concerns and lack of approval. Everolimus is another mTOR inhibitor approved after liver transplantation. It is currently unknown, whether conversion of sirolimus to everolimus is safe in long-term liver graft recipients. Long-term liver graft recipients treated with sirolimus were converted to everolimus. A systematical analysis of biochemical and clinical data before and after conversion was performed. Sixteen patients were included (female/male, 8/8). Median (range) age at conversion was 66 years (49-78 years), and patients were converted at a median (range) of 10.1 years (4.0-22.3 years) after liver transplantation. In the majority of patients, no dose adjustment was needed after conversion. No rejection and no cytomegalovirus replication episodes were observed. Furthermore, no differences were found with respect to kidney function, diabetes mellitus, or blood pressure before and after conversion. Bilirubin serum concentration was lower, whereas aspartate aminotransaminase, alanine aminotransferase, and triglycerides serum concentrations were higher after conversion to everolimus. Neither clinical- nor graft-associated significant complications were observed after conversion from sirolimus to everolimus in long-term liver graft recipients. Everolimus-based immunosuppression may be offered to patients after liver transplantation formerly treated with sirolimus. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  13. Effect of everolimus on pre-existing atherosclerosis in LDL-receptor deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Beutner, Frank; Brendel, Désiré; Teupser, Daniel; Sass, Kristina; Baber, Ronny; Mueller, Marc; Ceglarek, Uta; Thiery, Joachim

    2012-06-01

    Proliferation signal inhibitors/mTOR-inhibitors have been shown to reduce de novo development of hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis in animal models. However, their effect on pre-existing atherosclerosis has not yet been studied. Feeding LDL-R-KO mice a high cholesterol diet for 12 weeks resulted in formation of moderate fibroatheroma (induction phase). Sixty mice received either everolimus (1 or 5 mg/kg) or no everolimus for further 12 weeks (treatment phase). Everolimus significantly enhanced hypercholesterolemia (plasma cholesterol +45%, p<0.001). Atherosclerosis progressed obstructively in treated and non-treated mice. Everolimus (5 mg/kg) tended to reduced progression in aortic root lesions (0.28±0.02 vs. 0.33±0.03 mm(2), p=ns) and brachiocephalic lesions (0.044±0.006 vs. 0.066±0.012 mm(2), p=ns) but without significance. Everolimus (5mg/kg) resulted in an arrest of CD68 positive plaque area (p=0.03) and nearly halved CD68 fraction (p=0.05) in aortic root lesions but not in brachiocephalic lesions. Taken together, despite a trend to reduced progression and inflammatory cell content there was less conclusive net effect of everolimus treatment than expected. A higher potential of everolimus in the treatment of atherosclerosis might be obscured by its concomitant hypercholesterolemia. Considering stronger effects in previous studies we suggest that everolimus might exert more potent anti-atherogenic properties in earlier stages of atherogenesis than in advanced atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Targeting the mTOR Complex by Everolimus in NRAS Mutant Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Kiessling, Michael K.; Curioni-Fontecedro, Alessandra; Samaras, Panagiotis; Lang, Silvia; Scharl, Michael; Aguzzi, Adriano; Oldrige, Derek A.; Maris, John M.; Rogler, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    High-risk neuroblastoma remains lethal in about 50% of patients despite multimodal treatment. Recent attempts to identify molecular targets for specific therapies have shown that Neuroblastoma RAS (NRAS) is significantly mutated in a small number of patients. However, few inhibitors for the potential treatment for NRAS mutant neuroblastoma have been investigated so far. In this in-vitro study, we show that MEK inhibitors AZD6244, MEK162 and PD0325901 block cell growth in NRAS mutant neuroblastoma cell lines but not in NRAS wild-type cell lines. Several studies show that mutant NRAS leads to PI3K pathway activation and combined inhibitors of PI3K/mTOR effectively block cell growth. However, we observed the combination of MEK inhibitors with PI3K or AKT inhibitors did not show synergestic effects on cell growth. Thus, we tested single mTOR inhibitors Everolimus and AZD8055. Interestingly, Everolimus and AZD8055 alone were sufficient to block cell growth in NRAS mutant cell lines but not in wild-type cell lines. We found that Everolimus alone induced apoptosis in NRAS mutant neuroblastoma. Furthermore, the combination of mTOR and MEK inhibitors resulted in synergistic growth inhibition. Taken together, our results show that NRAS mutant neuroblastoma can be targeted by clinically available Everolimus alone or in combination with MEK inhibitors which could impact future clinical studies. PMID:26821351

  15. Targeting the mTOR Complex by Everolimus in NRAS Mutant Neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Kiessling, Michael K; Curioni-Fontecedro, Alessandra; Samaras, Panagiotis; Lang, Silvia; Scharl, Michael; Aguzzi, Adriano; Oldrige, Derek A; Maris, John M; Rogler, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    High-risk neuroblastoma remains lethal in about 50% of patients despite multimodal treatment. Recent attempts to identify molecular targets for specific therapies have shown that Neuroblastoma RAS (NRAS) is significantly mutated in a small number of patients. However, few inhibitors for the potential treatment for NRAS mutant neuroblastoma have been investigated so far. In this in-vitro study, we show that MEK inhibitors AZD6244, MEK162 and PD0325901 block cell growth in NRAS mutant neuroblastoma cell lines but not in NRAS wild-type cell lines. Several studies show that mutant NRAS leads to PI3K pathway activation and combined inhibitors of PI3K/mTOR effectively block cell growth. However, we observed the combination of MEK inhibitors with PI3K or AKT inhibitors did not show synergestic effects on cell growth. Thus, we tested single mTOR inhibitors Everolimus and AZD8055. Interestingly, Everolimus and AZD8055 alone were sufficient to block cell growth in NRAS mutant cell lines but not in wild-type cell lines. We found that Everolimus alone induced apoptosis in NRAS mutant neuroblastoma. Furthermore, the combination of mTOR and MEK inhibitors resulted in synergistic growth inhibition. Taken together, our results show that NRAS mutant neuroblastoma can be targeted by clinically available Everolimus alone or in combination with MEK inhibitors which could impact future clinical studies.

  16. Everolimus: in patients with subependymal giant cell astrocytoma associated with tuberous sclerosis complex.

    PubMed

    Curran, Monique P

    2012-02-01

    Everolimus is an orally administered inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Everolimus (starting dosage 3.0 mg/m(2)) was associated with a significant reduction in the volume of the largest subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) in 28 patients aged ≥3 years with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) in a phase II trial (C2485). At 6 months, 32% of patients treated with everolimus had a ≥50% reduction in the volume of their largest SEGA lesion (assessed via an independent central radiology review); 75% had a ≥30% reduction. No patients developed new lesions. During the extension phase of this trial (median duration 34 months), the reduction in SEGA volume was maintained, with no everolimus recipient requiring surgery or other therapy for SEGA or hydrocephalus. In a phase III trial (EXIST-1) in 117 patients with SEGA associated with TSC, 35% of everolimus recipients (starting dosage 4.5 mg/m(2)) versus none of the placebo recipients (p < 0.0001) had an overall response (a reduction in the sum of all target SEGA volumes of ≥50% relative to baseline, nonworsening of non-target SEGA lesions, no new SEGA lesions, and no new/worsening hydrocephalus). Everolimus was generally well tolerated in patients with SEGA associated with TSC; most drug-related adverse reactions were mild to moderate in severity.

  17. Everolimus in metastatic renal cell carcinoma: preliminary experience from Chang Gung Memorial Hospital.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Kuan; Liaw, Chuang-Chi; Pang, See-Tong; Chuang, Cheng-Keng; Chiang, Yang-Jen; Wu, Chun-Te; Chang, Ying-Hsu; Wang, Hung-Ming; Lin, Yung-Chang; Hsieh, Jia-Juan; Ou, Li-Ying; Tsai, Shih-I; Yang, Chih-Hsun; Yang, Cheng-Ta; Chang, John Wen-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Everolimus has been approved for second-line treatment of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) after failure of sorafenib or sunitinib. The purpose of this retrospective study was to assess the efficacy and safety of everolimus in Taiwanese patients with mRCC. Between March 2009 and August 2011, 24 mRCC patients treated with everolimus were analyzed. Prior to everolimus, each patient had received therapy with at least one vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated according to the Kaplan-Meier method. Fifteen patients (62.5%) achieved stable disease. The median PFS was 7.1 months (95% confidence interval, 3.6-10.5 months). The median OS was 20.7 months (95% confidence interval, 5.0-36.4 months). The most frequent non-hematologic adverse events with everolimus were mucositis, rash, epistaxis and pneumonitis. Everolimus is an effective second-line treatment for Taiwanese patients with mRCC. The toxicity is tolerable and manageable.

  18. [The drug of the month: everolimus (Afinitor) for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Jerusalem, G; Rorive, A; Collignon, J

    2014-09-01

    Sequential endocrine treatments are recommended for estrogen receptor (ER) positive human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER 2) negative metastatic breast cancers except in the case of symptomatic visceral disease. However, patients who suffer from disease progression while receiving a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor (NSAI) have a very poor prognosis with standard endocrine therapy alone. Recently, based onthe results of the BOLERO 2 trial, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor everolimus, combined with exemestane, a steroidal aromatase inhibitor, has been approved in Europe and the US for patients suffering from ER positive HER2 negative advanced breast cancer previously treated by a NSAI. The median progression-free survival (PFS) increased from 3.2 to 7.8 months in patients receiving everolimus and exemestane compared to placebo and exemestane. The magnitude of benefit was consistent in all pre-specified subgroups. Side effects were manageable and the quality of life was at least maintained. Everolimus has also beenrecently studied in HER2 positive locally advanced or metastatic disease in heavily pretreated patients (BOLERO 3 trial). This trial met its primary endpoint. The median PFS was increased in patients receiving trastuzumab, vinorelbine and everolimus compared to patients receiving trastuzumab, vinorelbine and placebo. We review pharmacological data and side effects of the drug. We also review the most important clinical trials leading to reimbursement of everolimus in metastatic breast cancer.

  19. Recommendations of everolimus use in liver transplant.

    PubMed

    Rubín Suárez, Angel; Bilbao Aguirre, Itxarone; Fernández-Castroagudin, Javier; Pons Miñano, José Antonio; Salcedo Plaza, Magdalena; Varo Pérez, Evaristo; Prieto Castillo, Martín

    2017-07-22

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, everolimus (EVL) and sirolimus are immunosuppressive agents with a minor nephrotoxic effect, limited to the development of proteinuria in some cases. The combination of EVL and low-dose tacrolimus has proven to be as safe and effective as standard therapy with tacrolimus for the prevention of acute cellular rejection. Early initiation of EVL-based immunosuppressive regimens with reduced exposure to calcineurin inhibitors has been shown to significantly improve renal function of LT recipients during induction and maintenance phases, with comparable efficacy and safety profiles. In patients with established kidney failure, initiating EVL may enable clinicians to reduce calcineurin inhibitors exposure, thereby contributing to the improved renal function of these patients. Although there is not sufficient evidence to recommend their use to prevent the recurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma and the progression of de novo tumours, they are used in this context in routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U., AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  20. Dosing and Safety Implications for Oncologists When Administering Everolimus to Patients With Hormone Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Rugo, Hope S

    2016-02-01

    Aberrations in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway are common abnormalities in breast cancer and are associated with the development of resistance to endocrine- and human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER)2-targeted therapies. Because of the significant improvement in progression-free survival for everolimus plus exemestane compared with exemestane plus placebo, everolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, was approved in the United States for the treatment of patients with hormone receptor-positive (HR+), HER-negative, advanced breast cancer whose disease had progressed while receiving letrozole or anastrozole. To provide optimal prevention and management strategies, it is crucial that clinicians are aware of the adverse events (AEs) associated with mTOR inhibition. Understanding the appropriate dose modifications will help reduce toxicity and improve drug tolerance, thus achieving the optimal benefit from everolimus. Analyses of data from the Breast Cancer Trials of Oral Everolimus 2 trial have shown that, despite a greater frequency of AEs in the everolimus plus exemestane treatment arm, the AEs were effectively managed with temporary dose reductions or interruptions. In some cases, the full dose of everolimus could be resumed. Despite a lower mean dose and duration of exposure in patients aged ≥ 70 versus < 70 years, everolimus plus exemestane was similarly efficacious, suggesting that appropriate dose reductions for toxicity will not adversely impact efficacy. Appropriate modification of the everolimus dose and dose delay according to the severity of AEs, with resumption of the optimal dose of everolimus when toxicity has improved, will positively affect patient outcomes in HR+ advanced breast cancer.

  1. Everolimus therapy is associated with reduced lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-Pla2) activity and oxidative stress in heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Rosing, Katharina; Fobker, Manfred; Kannenberg, Frank; Gunia, Stefan; Dell'Aquila, Angelo Maria; Kwiecien, Robert; Stypmann, Jörg; Nofer, Jerzy-Roch

    2013-09-01

    Several studies demonstrated decreased severity and incidence of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) in heart transplant recipients receiving immunosuppressive therapy with everolimus. However, data regarding the influence of everolimus on risk factors predisposing to CAV are hitherto limited. We here systematically evaluated cardiovascular risk factors in heart transplanted patients, who underwent conversion to everolimus or were maintained on conventional therapy with calcineurin inhibitors (CNI). 50 Patients receiving everolimus and 91 patients receiving CNI in addition to mycophenolate mofetil and low-dosed steroids were included in the study. CAV risk factors were determined in plasma or urine using standard enzymatic or immunochemical methods. No significant differences were observed between both groups with regard to lipid (total, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol), metabolic (glucose, insulin), inflammatory (C-reactive protein, IL-6, myeloperoxidase) and cardiac (troponin I, NT-proBNP) risk factors. However, significantly lower activity of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) and a negative correlation between the Lp-PLA2 activity and the everolimus concentration were observed in plasmas from everolimus-treated patients. Conversion to everolimus significantly lowered Lp-PLA2 activity in heart transplant recipients. Studies in vitro revealed reduced Lp-PLA2 expression in hepatocytes and macrophages pre-exposed to everolimus. In addition, reduced plasma markers of oxidative stress including oxidized LDL, 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α and protein carbonyls were noted in heart transplant recipients receiving everolimus therapy. Our results suggest that everolimus specifically lowers plasma activity and cellular production of Lp-PLA2 and thereby dampens oxidative stress. These effects may additionally contribute to the reduced CAV incidence observed in heart transplant recipients receiving everolimus therapy. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Everolimus in the management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma: an evidence-based review of its place in therapy

    PubMed Central

    Buti, Sebastiano; Leonetti, Alessandro; Dallatomasina, Alice; Bersanelli, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common type of kidney cancer in adults, and its pathogenesis is strictly related to altered cellular response to hypoxia, in which mTOR signaling pathway is implicated. Everolimus, an mTOR serine/threonine kinase inhibitor, represents a therapeutic option for the treatment of advanced RCC. Aim The objective of this article is to review the evidence for the treatment of metastatic RCC with everolimus. Evidence review Everolimus was approved for second- and third-line therapy in patients with advanced RCC according to the results of a Phase III pivotal trial that demonstrated a benefit in median progression-free survival of ~2 months compared to placebo after failure of previous lines of therapy, of which at least one was an anti-VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). The role of this drug in first-line setting has been investigated in Phase II trials, with no significant clinical benefit, even in combination with bevacizumab. Everolimus activity in non-clear cell RCC is supported by two randomized Phase II trials that confirmed the benefit in second-line setting but not in first line. Recently, two randomized Phase III trials (METEOR and CheckMate 025) demonstrated the inferiority of everolimus in second-line setting compared to the TKI cabozantinib and to the immune checkpoint inhibitor nivolumab, respectively. Moreover, a recent Phase II study demonstrated a significant benefit for the second-line combination treatment with everolimus plus lenvatinib (a novel TKI) in terms of progression-free survival and overall survival compared to the single-agent everolimus. Basing on preclinical data, the main downstream effectors of mTOR cascade, S6RP and its phosphorylated form, could be good predictive biomarkers of response to everolimus. The safety profile of the drug is favorable, with a good cost-effectiveness compared to second-line sorafenib or axitinib, and no significant impact on the quality of life of treated

  3. Profile of everolimus in the treatment of tuberous sclerosis complex: an evidence-based review of its place in therapy.

    PubMed

    Capal, Jamie K; Franz, David Neal

    2016-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a relatively rare genetic disorder, affecting one in 6,000 births. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, such as everolimus, which have been previously used to prevent solid organ transplant rejection, augment anticancer treatment regimens, and prevent neovascularization of artificial cardiac stents, are now approved for treating TSC-related manifestations, such as subependymal giant cell astrocytomas and renal angiomyolipomas. The use of everolimus in treating subependymal giant cell astrocytomas is supported by long-term Phase II and III clinical trials. Seizures are a common feature in TSC, occurring in up to 96% of patients. While mTOR inhibitors currently do not have regulatory approval in treating this manifestation, small clinical studies have demonstrated beneficial outcomes with everolimus. Further evidence from a forthcoming Phase III clinical study may provide additional support for the use of everolimus for this indication. Also, there are no approved treatments for TSC-associated neuropsychiatric disorders, which include intellectual disability, behavioral difficulties, and autism spectrum disorder, but preclinical data and small studies have suggested that some neuropsychiatric symptoms may be improved through mTOR inhibition therapy. More evidence is needed, particularly regarding safety in young infants. This review focuses on the current evidence supporting the use of everolimus in neurologic and neuropsychiatric manifestations of TSC, and the place of everolimus in therapy.

  4. Profile of everolimus in the treatment of tuberous sclerosis complex: an evidence-based review of its place in therapy

    PubMed Central

    Capal, Jamie K; Franz, David Neal

    2016-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a relatively rare genetic disorder, affecting one in 6,000 births. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, such as everolimus, which have been previously used to prevent solid organ transplant rejection, augment anticancer treatment regimens, and prevent neovascularization of artificial cardiac stents, are now approved for treating TSC-related manifestations, such as subependymal giant cell astrocytomas and renal angiomyolipomas. The use of everolimus in treating subependymal giant cell astrocytomas is supported by long-term Phase II and III clinical trials. Seizures are a common feature in TSC, occurring in up to 96% of patients. While mTOR inhibitors currently do not have regulatory approval in treating this manifestation, small clinical studies have demonstrated beneficial outcomes with everolimus. Further evidence from a forthcoming Phase III clinical study may provide additional support for the use of everolimus for this indication. Also, there are no approved treatments for TSC-associated neuropsychiatric disorders, which include intellectual disability, behavioral difficulties, and autism spectrum disorder, but preclinical data and small studies have suggested that some neuropsychiatric symptoms may be improved through mTOR inhibition therapy. More evidence is needed, particularly regarding safety in young infants. This review focuses on the current evidence supporting the use of everolimus in neurologic and neuropsychiatric manifestations of TSC, and the place of everolimus in therapy. PMID:27601910

  5. The MANDELA study: A multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel group trial to refine the use of everolimus after heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Deuse, Tobias; Bara, Christoph; Barten, Markus J; Hirt, Stephan W; Doesch, Andreas O; Knosalla, Christoph; Grinninger, Carola; Stypmann, Jörg; Garbade, Jens; Wimmer, Peter; May, Christoph; Porstner, Martina; Schulz, Uwe

    2015-11-01

    In recent years a series of trials has sought to define the optimal protocol for everolimus-based immunosuppression in heart transplantation, with the goal of minimizing exposure to calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) and harnessing the non-immunosuppressive benefits of everolimus. Randomized studies have demonstrated that immunosuppressive potency can be maintained in heart transplant patients receiving everolimus despite marked CNI reduction, although very early CNI withdrawal may be inadvisable. A potential renal advantage has been shown for everolimus, but the optimal time for conversion and the adequate reduction in CNI exposure remain to be defined. Other reasons for use of everolimus include a substantial reduction in the risk of cytomegalovirus infection, and evidence for inhibition of cardiac allograft vasculopathy, a major cause of graft loss. The ongoing MANDELA study is a 12-month multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group study in which efficacy, renal function and safety are compared in approximately 200 heart transplant patients. Patients receive CNI therapy, steroids and everolimus or mycophenolic acid during months 3 to 6 post-transplant, and are then randomized at month 6 post-transplant (i) to convert to CNI-free immunosuppression with everolimus and mycophenolic acid or (ii) to continue reduced-exposure CNI, with concomitant everolimus. Patients are then followed to month 18 post-transplant The rationale and expectations for the trial and its methodology are described herein.

  6. New drugs, new challenges for dermatologists: mucocutaneous ulcers secondary to everolimus.

    PubMed

    Pasin, Victor Pavan; Pereira, Amanda Regio; Carvalho, Kalline Andrade de; Paiva, João Marcos Góes de; Enokihara, Milvia Maria Simões e Silva; Porro, Adriana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor, is an emerging drug, which is being increasingly applied in oncology and solid organ transplantation. Oral ulcers are a frequent side effect associated with this immunosupressor. We report the case of a renal transplant recipient who developed disfiguring oral and perianal ulcers secondary to everolimus's toxicity. This is probably the first report of perianal involvement. Dermatologists need to be aware of the potential mucocutaneous adverse effects related to these new drugs that are becoming evermore common in our clinical practice.

  7. Effects of preset sequential administrations of sunitinib and everolimus on tumour differentiation in Caki-1 renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Santos, C D; Tijeras-Raballand, A; Serova, M; Sebbagh, S; Slimane, K; Faivre, S; de Gramont, A; Raymond, E

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sunitinib (VEGFR/PDGFR inhibitor) and everolimus (mTOR inhibitor) are both approved for advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) as first-line and second-line therapy, respectively. In the clinics, sunitinib treatment is limited by the emergence of acquired resistance, leading to a switch to second-line treatment at progression, often based on everolimus. No data have been yet generated on programmed alternating sequential strategies combining alternative use of sunitinib and everolimus before progression. Such strategy is expected to delay the emergence of acquired resistance and improve tumour control. The aim of our study was to assess the changes in tumours induced by three different sequences administration of sunitinib and everolimus. Methods: In human Caki-1 RCC xenograft model, sunitinib was alternated with everolimus every week, every 2 weeks, or every 3 weeks. Effects on necrosis, hypoxia, angiogenesis, and EMT status were assessed by immunohisochemistry and immunofluorescence. Results: Sunitinib and everolimus programmed sequential regimens before progression yielded longer median time to tumour progression than sunitinib and everolimus monotherapies. In each group of treatment, tumour growth control was associated with inhibition of mTOR pathway and changes from a mesenchymal towards an epithelial phenotype, with a decrease in vimentin and an increase in E-cadherin expression. The sequential combinations of these two agents in a RCC mouse clinical trial induced antiangiogenic effects, leading to tumour necrosis. Conclusions: In summary, our study showed that alternate sequence of sunitinib and everolimus mitigated the development of mesenchymal phenotype compared with sunitinib as single agent. PMID:25422908

  8. Preclinical Testing of Combination Therapy for Malignant Tumors Arising from Neurofibromas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    inhibitory concentration (IC50) for Rapamycin and RAD001 ( Everolimus ), two mTOR inhibitors FDA approved drugs, in human MPNST cells (Figure 4, Table 3...16 20 24 Control Bortezomib 50% MTD Bortezomib 75% MTD Bortezomib 100% MTDΟ Ο Ο Ο Ο Ο Ο Ο Ο Ο Ο Everolimus (75% MTD) Bortezomib Ο Ο Ο Ο Ο Days B od y

  9. The Role of eIF4E Activity in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    may provide a potentially powerful therapy predictive marker for therapies directed against the eIF4E pathway, such as sirolimus9, everolimus 10and 4E...C, Zoellner U, Tang P & Piccart M (2008) The oral mTOR inhibitor RAD001 ( everolimus ) in combination with letrozole in patients with advanced breast

  10. Everolimus for previously treated advanced gastric cancer: results of the randomized, double-blind, phase III GRANITE-1 study.

    PubMed

    Ohtsu, Atsushi; Ajani, Jaffer A; Bai, Yu-Xian; Bang, Yung-Jue; Chung, Hyun-Cheol; Pan, Hong-Ming; Sahmoud, Tarek; Shen, Lin; Yeh, Kun-Huei; Chin, Keisho; Muro, Kei; Kim, Yeul Hong; Ferry, David; Tebbutt, Niall C; Al-Batran, Salah-Eddin; Smith, Heind; Costantini, Chiara; Rizvi, Syed; Lebwohl, David; Van Cutsem, Eric

    2013-11-01

    The oral mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus demonstrated promising efficacy in a phase II study of pretreated advanced gastric cancer. This international, double-blind, phase III study compared everolimus efficacy and safety with that of best supportive care (BSC) in previously treated advanced gastric cancer. Patients with advanced gastric cancer that progressed after one or two lines of systemic chemotherapy were randomly assigned to everolimus 10 mg/d (assignment schedule: 2:1) or matching placebo, both given with BSC. Randomization was stratified by previous chemotherapy lines (one v two) and region (Asia v rest of the world [ROW]). Treatment continued until disease progression or intolerable toxicity. Primary end point was overall survival (OS). Secondary end points included progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate, and safety. Six hundred fifty-six patients (median age, 62.0 years; 73.6% male) were enrolled. Median OS was 5.4 months with everolimus and 4.3 months with placebo (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.08; P = .124). Median PFS was 1.7 months and 1.4 months in the everolimus and placebo arms, respectively (hazard ratio, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.78). Common grade 3/4 adverse events included anemia, decreased appetite, and fatigue. The safety profile was similar in patients enrolled in Asia versus ROW. Compared with BSC, everolimus did not significantly improve overall survival for advanced gastric cancer that progressed after one or two lines of previous systemic chemotherapy. The safety profile observed for everolimus was consistent with that observed for everolimus in other cancers.

  11. Combining cytochrome P-450 3A4 modulators and cyclosporine or everolimus in transplantation is successful

    PubMed Central

    González, Fernando; Valjalo, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To describe the long term follow-up of kidney allograft recipients receiving ketoconazole with calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) alone or combined with everolimus. METHODS: This is an open-label, prospective observational clinical trial in low immunologic risk patients who, after signing an Institutional Review Board approved consent form, were included in one of two groups. The first one (n = 59) received everolimus (target blood level, 3-8 ng/mL) and the other (n = 114) azathioprine 2 mg/kg per day or mycophenolate mofetyl (MMF) 2 g/d. Both groups also received tapering steroids, the cytochrome P-450 3A4 (CYP3A4) modulator, ketoconazole 50-100 mg/d, and cyclosporine with C0 targets in the everolimus group of 200-250 ng/mL in 1 mo, 100-125 ng/mL in 2 mo, and 50-65 ng/mL thereafter, and in the azathioprine or MMF group of 250-300 ng/mL in 1 mo, 200-250 ng/mL in 2 mo, 180-200 ng/mL until 3-6 mo, and 100-125 ng/mL thereafter. Clinical visits were performed monthly the first year and quarterly thereafter by treating physicians and all data was extracted by the investigators. RESULTS: The clinical characteristics of these two cohorts were similar. During the follow up (66 + 31 mo), both groups showed comparable clinical courses, but the biopsy proven acute rejection rate during the full follow-up period seemed to be lower in the everolimus group (20% vs 36%; P = 0.04). The everolimus group did not show a higher surgical complication rate than the other group. By the end of the follow-up period, the everolimus group tended to show a higher glomerular filtration rate. Nevertheless, we found no evidence of a consistent negative slope of the temporal allograft function estimated by the modification of the diet in renal disease formula in any of both groups. At 6 years of follow-up, the uncensored and death-censored graft survivals were 91% and 93%, and 91% and 83% in the everolimus plus cyclosporine, and cyclosporine alone groups, respectively. The addition of ketoconazole

  12. Adjuvant Everolimus for Resected Kidney Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    In this clinical trial, patients with renal cell cancer who have undergone partial or complete nephrectomy will be randomly assigned to take everolimus tablets or matching placebo tablets daily for 54 weeks.

  13. Everolimus restrains the paracrine pro-osteoclast activity of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Simone, Valeria; Ciavarella, Sabino; Brunetti, Oronzo; Savonarola, Annalisa; Cives, Mauro; Tucci, Marco; Opinto, Giuseppina; Maiorano, Eugenio; Silvestris, Franco

    2015-10-14

    Breast cancer (BC) cells secrete soluble factors that accelerate osteoclast (OC) differentiation, leading to the formation of osteolytic bone metastases. In the BOLERO-2 trial, BC patients with bone involvement who received Everolimus had a delayed tumor progression in the skeleton as a result of direct OC suppression through the inhibition of mTOR, in addition to the general suppressor effect on the cancer cells. Here, we explored the effect of Everolimus, as mTOR inhibitor, on the pro-OC paracrine activity of BC cells. Both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 BC cell lines were incubated with sub-lethal amounts of Everolimus, and their conditioned supernatants were assessed for their capacity to differentiate OCs from PBMC from healthy donors, as well as to interfere with their bone resorbing activity shown on calcium phosphate slices. We also measured the mRNA levels of major pro-OC factors in Everolimus-treated BC cells and their secreted levels by ELISA, and evaluated by immunoblotting the phosphorylation of transcription factors enrolled by pathways cooperating with the mTOR inhibition. Finally, the in vivo pro-OC activity of these cells was assessed in SCID mice after intra-tibial injections. We found that Everolimus significantly inhibited the differentiation of OCs and their in vitro bone-resorbing activity, and also found decreases of both mRNA and secreted pro-OC factors such as M-CSF, IL-6, and IL-1β, whose lower ELISA levels paralleled the defective phosphorylation of NFkB pathway effectors. Moreover, when intra-tibially injected in SCID mice, Everolimus-treated BC cells produced smaller bone metastases than the untreated cells. mTOR inhibition in BC cells leads to a suppression of their paracrine pro-OC activity by interfering with the NFkB pathway; this effect may also account for the delayed progression of bone metastatic disease observed in the BOLERO-2 trial.

  14. Use of Everolimus-based Immunosuppression to Decrease Cytomegalovirus Infection After Kidney Transplant.

    PubMed

    Malvezzi, Paolo; Jouve, Thomas; Rostaing, Lionel

    2016-08-01

    Cytomegalovirus infection and disease remain an issue in solid-organ transplant. Universal prophylaxis is more cost-effective than a preemptive strategy and is associated with significantly less Cytomegalovirus resistance after kidney transplant, especially in Cytomegalovirus-seropositive donors and Cytomegalovirus-seronegative recipients. Registry data and meta-analyses have shown that mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (sirolimus- and everolimus-based immunosuppression) are associated with significantly less Cytomegalovirus events in de novo kidney transplant patients than in patients who are treated with calcineurin inhibitors plus mycophenolate-based immunosuppression. Recent pooled analyses of 3 randomized controlled trials in de novo kidney transplant patients, where immunosuppression was based on cyclosporine with either mycophenolate or everolimus, showed that patients who received everolimus had significantly less Cytomegalovirus events (Cytomegalovirus viremia, Cytomegalovirus infection/disease) than those who received mycophenolate, with or without cytomegalovirus as prophylaxis. An even more recent prospective randomized controlled study on de novo kidney transplant patients with no anticytomegalovirus prophylaxis demonstrated that everolimus-based immunosuppression plus low-dose tacrolimus was associated with significantly less Cytomegalovirus infection than standard-dose tacrolimus plus mycophenolate. The potential benefits are not fully known of such a therapeutic strategy to limit the long-term indirect effects mediated by Cytomegalovirus infections.

  15. Everolimus and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs): Activity, resistance and how to overcome it.

    PubMed

    Capozzi, Monica; Caterina, Ieranò; De Divitiis, Chiara; von Arx, Claudia; Maiolino, Piera; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Cavalcanti, Ernesta; Di Girolamo, Elena; Iaffaioli, Rosario Vincenzo; Scala, Stefania; Tafuto, Salvatore

    2015-09-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are rare malignancies, with the most common site of origin being from the gastrointestinal tract, particularly the pancreas, small bowel and appendix. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) can be functional, hormone secreting tumors, and can have distinctive symptoms leading to the diagnosis. In contrast nonfunctional tumors, the majority of PNETs, usually present later either incidentally or due to tumor bulk symptoms. Currently Everolimus, an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), is the most promising drug for patients with unresectable, metastatic disease, in progressive well-differentiated PNETs and many studies are ongoing to demonstrate its effects on the other neuroendocrine histotipes. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) registered Everolimus in advanced/metastatic breast cancer, in advanced/metastatic renal cell carcinoma and in well/moderately differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Nevertheless only a subset of patients respond to the therapy due to the development of drug resistance. Thus the powerful Everolimus antitumor activity have prompted extensive efforts to overcome drug resistance and to maximize clinical benefit. In this review we aim to summarize current knowledge on mechanisms of Everolimus and other mTOR inhibitors molecules resistance with the intent to overcome it.

  16. Conversion from cyclosporine to everolimus at 4.5 months posttransplant: 3-year results from the randomized ZEUS study.

    PubMed

    Budde, K; Lehner, F; Sommerer, C; Arns, W; Reinke, P; Eisenberger, U; Wüthrich, R P; Scheidl, S; May, C; Paulus, E-M; Mühlfeld, A; Wolters, H H; Pressmar, K; Stahl, R; Witzke, O

    2012-06-01

    The long-term effect of conversion from calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) therapy to an mTOR inhibitor requires clarification. Following completion of the 12-month, open-label, multicenter ZEUS study, in which 300 kidney transplant recipients were randomized to continue cyclosporine (CsA) or convert to everolimus at 4.5 months posttransplant, outcomes were assessed at month 36 (n = 284; 94.7%). CNI therapy was reintroduced in 28.4% of everolimus patients by month 36. The primary efficacy endpoint, estimated glomerular filtration rate (Nankivell, ANCOVA) was significantly higher with everolimus versus the CsA group at month 24 (7.6 mL/min/1.73 m(2) , 95%CI 4.3, 11.0 mL/min/1.73 m(2) ; p < 0.001) and month 36 (7.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) , 95%CI 3.6, 11.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2) ; p < 0.001). The incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection from randomization to month 36 was 13.0% in the everolimus arm and 4.8% in the CsA arm (p = 0.015). Patient and graft survival, as well as incidences of malignancy, severe infections and hospitalization, were similar between groups. Kidney transplant patients who are converted from CsA to everolimus at month 4.5 and who remain on everolimus thereafter may achieve a significant improvement in renal function that is maintained to 3 years. There was a significantly higher rate of rejection in the everolimus arm but this did not exert a deleterious effect by 3 years posttransplant.

  17. Long-Term Everolimus Treatment in Individuals With Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: A Review of the Current Literature.

    PubMed

    Tran, Lily H; Zupanc, Mary L

    2015-07-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is a genetic disease usually caused by mutations to either TSC1 or TSC2, where its gene products are involved in the inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. Under normal cellular conditions, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) regulates cell growth and proliferation in response to signals from nutrients or growth factors, but loss of TSC1 or TSC2 leads to overactivation of mTOR and uncontrolled cellular proliferation. Everolimus is an mTOR inhibitor approved for use in a number of indications where mTOR overactivation is implicated, including tuberous sclerosis complex. We conducted a literature search of PubMed to identify published articles about the long-term efficacy and safety of everolimus in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex. The short-term efficacy and safety of everolimus in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex has been demonstrated in placebo-controlled trials, and open-label extension studies are ongoing to monitor long-term effects, including safety. Examples of regrowth following discontinuation of mTOR inhibitors suggest that everolimus needs to be given indefinitely to maintain suppression of subependymal giant cell astrocytoma and other tuberous sclerosis complex-associated disease manifestations. No additional safety concerns have been reported to date with long-term administration of everolimus, but published long-term data (>1 year treatment) are currently limited to a small open-label trial and case reports for this relatively rare condition. From the limited data available, long-term administration of everolimus appears feasible with few safety concerns beyond those associated with short-term use. Further investigation is needed to determine the long-term efficacy and safety of everolimus in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. mTOR Inhibition by Everolimus Does Not Impair Closure of Punch Biopsy Wounds in Renal Transplant Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dutt, Shelley B.; Gonzales, Josephine; Boyett, Megan; Costanzo, Anne; Han, Peggy P.; Steinberg, Steven; McKay, Dianne B.; Jameson, Julie M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors are approved to prevent allograft rejection and control malignancy. Unfortunately, they are associated with adverse effects, such as wound healing complications that detract from more extensive use. There is a lack of prospective wound healing studies to monitor patients treated with mTOR inhibitors, such as everolimus or sirolimus, especially in nondiabetics. Methods Patients receiving everolimus with standard immunosuppressant therapy or standard immunosuppressant therapy without everolimus were administered 3-mm skin biopsy punch wounds in the left scapular region. Homeostatic gene expression was examined in the skin obtained from the biopsy and wound surface area was examined on day 7. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were examined for cytokine production. Results There are no significant changes in autophagy related 13, epidermal growth factor, insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3, IL-2, kruppel-like factor 4, and TGFB1 gene expression in the skin suggesting that there is little impact of everolimus on these genes within nonwounded skin. Peripheral blood T cells are more sensitive to cell death in everolimus-treated patients, but they retain the ability to produce proinflammatory cytokines required for efficient wound repair. Importantly, there is no delay in the closure of biopsy wounds in patients receiving everolimus as compared to those not receiving mTOR inhibition. Conclusions Everolimus treatment is not associated with impaired closure of skin biopsy wounds in kidney transplant recipients. These data highlight the importance of exploring whether larger surgical wounds would show a similar result and how other factors, such as diabetes, impact wound healing complications associated with mTOR suppression. PMID:28405603

  19. Toll-like receptor 9 agonist IMO cooperates with everolimus in renal cell carcinoma by interfering with tumour growth and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Damiano, V; Rosa, R; Formisano, L; Nappi, L; Gelardi, T; Marciano, R; Cozzolino, I; Troncone, G; Agrawal, S; Veneziani, B M; De Placido, S; Bianco, R; Tortora, G

    2013-04-30

    Targeting the mammalian target of rapamycin by everolimus is a successful approach for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) therapy. The Toll-like receptor 9 agonist immune modulatory oligonucleotide (IMO) exhibits direct antitumour and antiangiogenic activity and cooperates with both epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitors. We tested the combination of IMO and everolimus on models of human RCC with different Von-Hippel Lindau (VHL) gene status, both in vitro and in nude mice. We studied their direct antiangiogenic effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Both IMO and everolimus inhibited in vitro growth and survival of RCC cell lines, and their combination produced a synergistic inhibitory effect. Moreover, everolimus plus IMO interfered with EGFR-dependent signaling and reduced VEGF secretion in both VHL wild-type and mutant cells. In RCC tumour xenografts, IMO plus everolimus caused a potent and long-lasting cooperative antitumour activity, with reduction of tumour growth, prolongation of mice survival and inhibition of signal transduction. Furthermore, IMO and everolimus impaired the main endothelial cell functions. A combined treatment with everolimus and IMO is effective in VHL wild-type and mutant models of RCC by interfering with tumour growth and angiogenesis, thus representing a potentially effective, rationale-based combination to be translated in the clinical setting.

  20. Combination of everolimus and tacrolimus: a potentially effective regimen for recalcitrant psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Kai-Che; Lai, Ping-Chin

    2015-01-01

    Severe forms of psoriasis that are refractory to conventional therapies are often difficult to manage. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors potentially have versatile effects toward putative psoriatic pathologic pathways. Therefore, mTOR inhibitors may offer a range of new therapeutic options for patients with psoriasis. We describe a 55-year-old male renal transplant patient with refractory psoriasis. We adjusted his antirejection regimen and put him on everolimus (Certican(®); Novartis, Basel, Switzerland; a semisynthetic macrolide, belonging to the mTOR inhibitors family) with low-dose tacrolimus. This combination regimen maintained his graft function and successfully controlled his psoriasis. His skin lesions never recurred in the next 18 months. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that the combination of everolimus and tacrolimus could be used to treat recalcitrant psoriasis. The relative benefit-risk profiles of such therapies worth further investigation.

  1. Antagonistic effects of chloroquine on autophagy occurrence potentiate the anticancer effects of everolimus on renal cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Grimaldi, A; Santini, D; Zappavigna, S; Lombardi, A; Misso, G; Boccellino, M; Desiderio, V; Vitiello, P P; Di Lorenzo, G; Zoccoli, A; Pantano, F; Caraglia, M

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is an aggressive disease often asymptomatic and weakly chemo-radiosensitive. Currently, new biologic drugs are used among which everolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, that has been approved for second-line therapy. Since mTOR is involved in the control of autophagy, its antitumor capacity is often limited. In this view, chloroquine, a 4-alkylamino substituted quinoline family member, is an autophagy inhibitor that blocks the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of everolimus alone or in combination with chloroquine on renal cancer cell viability and verified possible synergism. Our results demonstrate that renal cancer cells are differently sensitive to everolimus and chloroquine and the pharmacological combination everolimus/chloroquine was strongly synergistic inducing cell viability inhibition. In details, the pharmacological synergism occurs when chloroquine is administered before everolimus. In addition, we found a flow autophagic block and shift of death mechanisms to apoptosis. This event was associated with decrease of Beclin-1/Bcl-2 complex and parallel reduction of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 in combined treatment. At last, we found that the enhancement of apoptosis induced by drug combination occurs through the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway activation, while the extrinsic pathway is involved only partly following its activation by chloroquine. These results provide the basis for new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma after appropriate clinical trial. PMID:25866016

  2. A randomized, controlled trial of everolimus-based dual immunosuppression versus standard of care in de novo kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Chadban, Steven J; Eris, Josette Marie; Kanellis, John; Pilmore, Helen; Lee, Po Chang; Lim, Soo Kun; Woodcock, Chad; Kurstjens, Nicol; Russ, Graeme

    2014-03-01

    Kidney transplant recipients receiving calcineurin inhibitor-based immunosuppression incur increased long-term risks of cancer and kidney fibrosis. Switch to mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors may reduce these risks. Steroid or Cyclosporin Removal After Transplant using Everolimus (SOCRATES), a 36-month, prospective, multinational, open-label, randomized controlled trial for de novo kidney transplant recipients, assessed whether everolimus switch could enable elimination of mycophenolate plus either steroids or CNI without compromising efficacy. Patients received cyclosporin, mycophenolate and steroids for the first 14 days then everolimus with mycophenolate and CNIwithdrawal (CNI-WD); everolimus with mycophenolate and steroid withdrawal (steroid-WD); or cyclosporin, mycophenolate and steroids (control). 126 patients were randomized. The steroid WD arm was terminated prematurely because of excess discontinuations. Mean eGFR at month 12 for CNI-WD versus control was 65.1 ml/min/1.73 m2 vs. 67.1 ml/min/1.73 m2 by ITT, which met predefined noninferiority criteria (P=0.026). The CNI-WD group experienced a higher rate of BPAR(31% vs. control 13%, P=0.048) and showed a trend towards higher composite treatment failure (BPAR, graft loss, death, loss to follow-up). The 12 month results from SOCRATES show noninferiority in eGFR, but a significant excess of acute rejection when everolimus was commenced at week 2 to enable a progressive withdrawal of mycophenolate and cyclosporin in kidney transplant recipients.

  3. Antagonistic effects of chloroquine on autophagy occurrence potentiate the anticancer effects of everolimus on renal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, A; Santini, D; Zappavigna, S; Lombardi, A; Misso, G; Boccellino, M; Desiderio, V; Vitiello, P P; Di Lorenzo, G; Zoccoli, A; Pantano, F; Caraglia, M

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is an aggressive disease often asymptomatic and weakly chemo-radiosensitive. Currently, new biologic drugs are used among which everolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, that has been approved for second-line therapy. Since mTOR is involved in the control of autophagy, its antitumor capacity is often limited. In this view, chloroquine, a 4-alkylamino substituted quinoline family member, is an autophagy inhibitor that blocks the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of everolimus alone or in combination with chloroquine on renal cancer cell viability and verified possible synergism. Our results demonstrate that renal cancer cells are differently sensitive to everolimus and chloroquine and the pharmacological combination everolimus/chloroquine was strongly synergistic inducing cell viability inhibition. In details, the pharmacological synergism occurs when chloroquine is administered before everolimus. In addition, we found a flow autophagic block and shift of death mechanisms to apoptosis. This event was associated with decrease of Beclin-1/Bcl(-)2 complex and parallel reduction of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl(-)2 in combined treatment. At last, we found that the enhancement of apoptosis induced by drug combination occurs through the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway activation, while the extrinsic pathway is involved only partly following its activation by chloroquine. These results provide the basis for new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma after appropriate clinical trial.

  4. [A Case of Renal Cell Carcinoma with High Everolimus Blood Concentrations and Hyperglycemia Due to Everolimus-Induced Hepatic Dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Takasaki, Shinya; Kikuchi, Masafumi; Kawasaki, Yoshihide; Ito, Akihiro; Arai, Yoichi; Yamaguchi, Hiroaki; Mano, Nariyasu

    2017-01-01

    We report the case of a patient who had renal cell carcinoma with high everolimus blood concentrations and hyperglycemia due to everolimus-induced hepatic dysfunction. A 74-year-old man who underwent right nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma was administered everolimus for multiple lung metastases. Everolimus caused grade 3 hepatic dysfunction and hyperglycemia; hence, high blood levels of everolimus were observed. Although the patient was re-administrated everolimus after recovering from hepatic dysfunction, hepatic function test values worsened again. Everolimus was discontinued before its blood concentration increased, and the patient was switched to axitinib treatment. Therefore, the measurement of everolimus blood level is considered useful for the management of adverse events in renal cell carcinoma.

  5. mTOR treatment in lymphangioleiomyomatosis: the role of everolimus.

    PubMed

    Yates, Deborah H

    2016-01-01

    The orphan lung disease lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) has until recently been untreatable other than by lung transplantation. However, improved understanding of underlying disease mechanisms has revealed the central role of constitutive up-regulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway in this disease. Although other pathways exist and are under investigation for treatment, several mTOR inhibitors are currently available and emerging information suggests that these may have some efficacy in preventing loss of lung function in LAM. This paper summarizes current understanding of treatment with mTOR inhibitors in LAM, and everolimus in particular. It outlines pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics relevant to the clinician, recent clinical studies, and issues with potential side effects. mTOR treatment is not yet available in most countries for LAM, but current data for treatment efficacy are impressive, and it is hoped that mTOR inhibition will soon be recognised as an important treatment of this disease.

  6. Antitumor effect of everolimus in preclinical models of high-grade gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Bollard, Julien; Couderc, Christophe; Blanc, Martine; Poncet, Gilles; Lepinasse, Florian; Hervieu, Valérie; Gouysse, Géraldine; Ferraro-Peyret, Carole; Benslama, Noura; Walter, Thomas; Scoazec, Jean-Yves; Roche, Colette

    2013-01-01

    While the range of therapeutic options for well-differentiated gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors has recently increased with the emergence of targeted therapies, such as mTOR inhibitors, there is no recent progress in the treatment of poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (PDNECs). Since PDNECs have been shown to strongly express mTOR pathway components, the aim of the present study was to assess the antitumor effect of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus in preclinical models of PDNECs. The expression of mTOR pathway components and their response to everolimus were assessed in two neuroendocrine cell lines: STC-1 and GluTag. A xenograft model of intrahepatic dissemination in the nude mouse, based on the intrasplenic injection of either STC-1 and GluTag tumor cells, was used. Animals were started on everolimus treatment 3 days after injection. The effects of treatment on tumor growth, proliferative capacities, apoptosis and in situ expression of mTOR pathway components were assessed. The expression of mTOR pathway components was comparable in STC-1 and GluTag cells and in human PDNECs and could be inhibited in vitro by everolimus. In vivo, the tumor volume of STC-1 and GluTag xenografts was significantly reduced in treated animals (6.05 ± 1.84% as compared to 21.76 ± 3.88% in controls). Everolimus treatment also induced a significant decrease in Ki67 index and in the phosphorylation levels of the two major effectors of mTOR, p70S6K and 4E-BP1. Our experimental data suggest that mTOR inhibition could be considered a therapeutic option for high-grade gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Deregulation of the PI3K and KRAS signaling pathways in human cancer cells determines their response to everolimus

    PubMed Central

    Di Nicolantonio, Federica; Arena, Sabrina; Tabernero, Josep; Grosso, Stefano; Molinari, Francesca; Macarulla, Teresa; Russo, Mariangela; Cancelliere, Carlotta; Zecchin, Davide; Mazzucchelli, Luca; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Shirasawa, Senji; Geuna, Massimo; Frattini, Milo; Baselga, José; Gallicchio, Margherita; Biffo, Stefano; Bardelli, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Personalized cancer medicine is based on the concept that targeted therapies are effective on subsets of patients whose tumors carry specific molecular alterations. Several mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors are in preclinical or clinical trials for cancers, but the molecular basis of sensitivity or resistance to these inhibitors among patients is largely unknown. Here we have identified oncogenic variants of phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, α polypeptide (PIK3CA) and KRAS as determinants of response to the mTOR inhibitor everolimus. Human cancer cells carrying alterations in the PI3K pathway were responsive to everolimus, both in vitro and in vivo, except when KRAS mutations occurred concomitantly or were exogenously introduced. In human cancer cells with mutations in both PIK3CA and KRAS, genetic ablation of mutant KRAS reinstated response to the drug. Consistent with these data, PIK3CA mutant cells, but not KRAS mutant cells, displayed everolimus-sensitive translation. Importantly, in a cohort of metastatic cancer patients, the presence of oncogenic KRAS mutations was associated with lack of benefit after everolimus therapy. Thus, our results demonstrate that alterations in the KRAS and PIK3CA genes may represent biomarkers to optimize treatment of patients with mTOR inhibitors. PMID:20664172

  8. Comparative effectiveness of everolimus and axitinib as second targeted therapies for metastatic renal cell carcinoma in the US: a retrospective chart review.

    PubMed

    Vogelzang, Nicholas J; Pal, Sumanta K; Signorovitch, James E; Reichmann, William M; Li, Nanxin; Yang, Chelsey; Liu, Zhimei; Perez, Jose Ricardo; Jonasch, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Background Second targeted therapies for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) include mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTORis) and tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). This observational study compares overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) of patients treated with everolimus (an mTORi) and axitinib (a TKI) following first TKI, and assesses the impact of type and duration of first TKI on the relative effectiveness of these second targeted therapies. Methods Retrospective reviews of medical records were conducted by medical oncologists or hematologists/oncologists recruited from a nationwide panel. Included patients with mRCC were required to have discontinued a first TKI (sunitinib, sorafenib, or pazopanib) for medical reasons, and to have initiated everolimus or axitinib as second targeted therapy between February 2012 and January 2013. OS and PFS were compared between patients treated with everolimus vs. axitinib using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models. Comparative results were also stratified by type and duration of first TKI. Results Included patients (n = 325 for everolimus and n = 127 for axitinib) had a mean age of 61 years and 31% were female. Sunitinib was the most commonly used first TKI (73%). After adjusting for patient characteristics, no statistically significant differences were observed in OS or PFS between everolimus and axitinib. When stratifying by type and duration of first TKI, there was no statistically significant difference in OS between everolimus and axitinib in all subgroups except for patients with <6 months on sunitinib or sorafenib as first TKI. No significant difference in PFS was observed in any subgroup. Limitations Important limitations include potential missing or inaccurate data in medical charts, and confounding due to unobserved factors. Conclusions In this retrospective chart review, no significant differences were detected in OS or PFS between axitinib and

  9. Everolimus for the second-line treatment of advanced and/or metastatic renal cell cancer: a critique of the submission from Novartis.

    PubMed

    Pitt, M; Crathorne, L; Moxham, T; Bond, M; Hyde, C

    2010-10-01

    This paper represents a summary of the evidence review group (ERG) report into the clinical efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of everolimus plus best supportive care (BSC) for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) which has progressed following or on vascular endothelial growth factor-targeted therapy (sunitinib, sorafenib, bevacizumab), compared to BSC alone. The submitting manufacturer's case for clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness was mainly based on a well-conducted randomised controlled trial (RCT), Renal Cell Cancer Treatment with Oral RAD001 Given Daily-1 (RECORD-1), comparing BSC plus everolimus with BSC plus placebo and a de novo economic model. The RCT indicated a marked statistically significant effect on progression-free survival. The base-case incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) estimate was 52,000 pounds per quality-adjusted life-year (this included a reduction in drug cost associated with an approved patient access scheme). The ERG undertook a critical appraisal of the submission. The ERG was generally in agreement with the submitting manufacturer concerning its estimates of effectiveness; however, there was greater concern surrounding the estimates of cost-effectiveness. The ERG judged that if potential errors in the model were corrected, the ICERs offered by the submitting manufacturer would overstate the cost-effectiveness of everolimus for the second-line treatment of metastatic RCC (that this ICER would be a higher value). Concerning the estimates of cost-effectiveness in RCC, the observations in the ERG report provide strong further support for research collecting rigorous estimates of utilities associated with the main health states likely to be experienced by patients with renal cell cancer. At the time of writing, NICE was yet to issue the Appraisal Consultation Document for this appraisal.

  10. Prevention of Hepatitis B Virus Reactivation With Lamivudine in a Patient With Advanced Renal Cell Carcinoma Treated With Everolimus.

    PubMed

    D'Aniello, Carmine; Maruzzo, Marco; Basso, Umberto

    2016-01-01

    Anticancer agents may trigger reactivation of hepatitis B virus infection ensuing in asymptomatic to severe liver damage. Preemptive administration of antiviral agents such as lamivudine to patients receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy has been shown to inhibit viral replication and prevent such events. No data are available so far concerning the coadministration of antiviral agents and everolimus, an oral mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor recently approved for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma. We present in this study the first case to our knowledge of a hepatitis B surface antigen-positive patient with metastatic renal cell carcinoma who has been successfully treated with prophylactic lamivudine and everolimus. Long-term depletion of viral replication was obtained along with stabilization of lung and bone metastases. Hepatitis B surface antigen positivity may be found in up to 10% of cancer patients but should not be considered a contraindication to treatment with everolimus.

  11. Targeting of Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis Underlies the Enhanced Antitumor Activity of Lenvatinib in Combination with Everolimus.

    PubMed

    Matsuki, Masahiro; Adachi, Yusuke; Ozawa, Yoichi; Kimura, Takayuki; Hoshi, Taisuke; Okamoto, Kiyoshi; Tohyama, Osamu; Mitsuhashi, Kaoru; Yamaguchi, Atsumi; Matsui, Junji; Funahashi, Yasuhiro

    2017-01-20

    The combination of lenvatinib-a multiple receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor-plus everolimus-a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor-significantly improved clinical outcomes versus everolimus monotherapy in a phase 2 clinical study of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Here, we investigated potential mechanisms underlying the antitumor activity of the combination treatment in preclinical RCC models. Lenvatinib plus everolimus showed greater antitumor activity than either monotherapy in 3 human RCC xenograft mouse models (A-498, Caki-1, and Caki-2). In particular, the combination led to tumor regression in the A-498 and Caki-1 models. In the A-498 model, everolimus demonstrated antiproliferative activity, whereas lenvatinib showed antiangiogenic effects. The antiangiogenic activity was potentiated by the lenvatinib plus everolimus combination in Caki-1 xenografts, where FGF-driven angiogenesis may contribute to tumor growth. The combination showed mostly additive activity in VEGF-activated, and synergistic activity against FGF-activated endothelial cells in cell proliferation and tube formation assays, as well as strongly suppressed mTOR-S6K-S6 signaling. Enhanced antitumor activities of the combination versus each monotherapy were also observed in mice bearing human pancreatic KP-1 xenografts overexpressing VEGF or FGF. Our results indicated that simultaneous targeting tumor cell growth and angiogenesis by lenvatinib plus everolimus resulted in enhanced antitumor activity. The enhanced inhibition of both VEGF- and FGF-signaling pathways by the combination underlies its superior antiangiogenic activity in human RCC xenograft models. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. [Management of Stomatitis Associated with Treatment with Everolimus].

    PubMed

    Ota, Yoshihide; Kurita, Hiroshi; Umeda, Masahiro

    2016-02-01

    Stomatitis is a characteristic adverse event of everolimus and other mTOR inhibitors, and occurs at a high incidence and impairs QOL owing to pain. Most cases of stomatitis are mild to moderate. However, when stomatitis becomes serious, it can interfere with the continuation of medication. Therefore, it is important to place more emphasis on the prevention as well as early detection and treatment. In addition, patient education is also important. The possible occurrence of stomatitis, its signs and symptoms, as well as the importance of oral care need to be thoroughly explained prior to starting treatment. In order to smoothly carry out these measures, it will also be essential that cancer-treating physicians coordinate and collaborate with dentists, nurses, and pharmacists. It is desirable to establish appropriate prevention and management methods on the basis of the results of the Phase III prospective study, Oral Care-BC, currently ongoing in Japan.

  13. Intermittent everolimus administration for malignant insulinoma

    PubMed Central

    Brizzi, Maria Pia; Tampellini, Marco; Scagliotti, Giorgio Vittorio; Priola, Adriano; Terzolo, Massimo; Pia, Anna; Berruti, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Summary Insulinoma is a rare form of insulin-secreting pancreatic islet cell neuroendocrine (NE) tumor. The medical treatment of the malignant NE disease of the pancreas deeply changed in the last years, thanks to the introduction of new target molecules, as everolimus. Even if the exact mechanism is not actually known, one of the side effects of everolimus, hyperglycemia, has been demonstrated to be useful to contrast the typical hypoglycemia of the insulinoma. We report the case of a patient with a metastatic malignant insulinoma treated with intermittent everolimus, obtaining an important improvement in the quality of life; this suggests the necessity of preclinical studies to analyze the cellular pathways involved in insulin-independent gluconeogenesis. Learning points Effect of somatostatin analogs is long-lasting in the control of functioning NE tumors.Persistent everolimus control of hypoglycemia despite serum insulin levels and disease progression.Open issue: are disease progression and the increase in serum markers the only valid criteria to reject a treatment? PMID:25298880

  14. Long-Term Use of Everolimus in Patients with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: Final Results from the EXIST-1 Study

    PubMed Central

    Franz, David N.; Belousova, Elena; Sparagana, Steven; Bebin, E. Martina; Frost, Michael D.; Kuperman, Rachel; Witt, Olaf; Kohrman, Michael H.; Flamini, J. Robert; Wu, Joyce Y.; Curatolo, Paolo; de Vries, Petrus J.; Berkowitz, Noah; Niolat, Julie; Jóźwiak, Sergiusz

    2016-01-01

    Background Everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, has demonstrated efficacy in treating subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) and other manifestations of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). However, long-term use of mTOR inhibitors might be necessary. This analysis explored long-term efficacy and safety of everolimus from the conclusion of the EXIST-1 study (NCT00789828). Methods and Findings EXIST-1 was an international, prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial examining everolimus in patients with new or growing TSC-related SEGA. After a double-blind core phase, all remaining patients could receive everolimus in a long-term, open-label extension. Everolimus was initiated at a dose (4.5 mg/m2/day) titrated to a target blood trough of 5–15 ng/mL. SEGA response rate (primary end point) was defined as the proportion of patients achieving confirmed ≥50% reduction in the sum volume of target SEGA lesions from baseline in the absence of worsening nontarget SEGA lesions, new target SEGA lesions, and new or worsening hydrocephalus. Of 111 patients (median age, 9.5 years) who received ≥1 dose of everolimus (median duration, 47.1 months), 57.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 47.9–67.0) achieved SEGA response. Of 41 patients with target renal angiomyolipomas at baseline, 30 (73.2%) achieved renal angiomyolipoma response. In 105 patients with ≥1 skin lesion at baseline, skin lesion response rate was 58.1%. Incidence of adverse events (AEs) was comparable with that of previous reports, and occurrence of emergent AEs generally decreased over time. The most common AEs (≥30% incidence) suspected to be treatment-related were stomatitis (43.2%) and mouth ulceration (32.4%). Conclusions Everolimus use led to sustained reduction in tumor volume, and new responses were observed for SEGA and renal angiomyolipoma from the blinded core phase of the study. These findings support the hypothesis that everolimus can safely reverse

  15. Safety, Efficacy, and Patient Acceptability of Everolimus in the Treatment of Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lousberg, Laurence; Jerusalem, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Everolimus combined with exemestane is an important treatment option for patients suffering from estrogen receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative, advanced breast cancer (ABC) who have been previously treated with a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor (NSAI). After presentation of phase III registration trial BOLERO-2, several phase IIIb trials have been started to evaluate this regimen in a more real-world setting. Here, we review the efficacy and safety data published or presented at selected international meetings. These studies confirmed the outcome observed in the BOLERO-2 trial. Patient acceptance rate is also discussed by focusing on the permanent everolimus discontinuation rate in these trials. Factors influencing the safety profile are also reported, including the impact of age. The optimal sequence of combined therapy approaches associating targeted and endocrine therapy (ET) has yet to be determined as new treatment options such as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors become available. However, everolimus-exemestane remains an important treatment option with a major impact on progression-free survival (PFS) and an acceptable safety profile.

  16. Everolimus in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumors of the respiratory and gastroenteropancreatic systems.

    PubMed

    Flaum, Nicola; Valle, Juan W; Mansoor, Wasat; McNamara, Mairéad G

    2016-11-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a rare diverse group of malignancies occurring most commonly in the gastroenteropancreatic system and the lungs. The incidence of NETs is increasing worldwide; median survival for patients with metastatic NETs is 5-65 months. A growing body of evidence shows survival benefit in patients with advanced NETs (gastroenteropancreatic and lung) treated with mTOR inhibitor everolimus, with improvement in survival being demonstrated in the clinical trial and real-world setting. Everolimus has been shown to have a manageable safety profile, with the most common adverse events being stomatitis, rash, diarrhea, fatigue and infections. Due to the rarity of the condition, there are challenges in conducting clinical trials in these patients. Further research is required to clarify the role of adjuvant therapy, treatment sequencing and the use of multimodality treatments.

  17. Treatment-related fatigue with everolimus and temsirolimus in patients with cancer-a meta-analysis of clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ling; Zhou, Yun; Ye, Xianghua; Zhao, Qiong

    2015-02-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, everolimus and temsirolimus, are approved for the treatment of a variety of malignancies. Fatigue has been described with these agents as a common side effect, although the overall incidence and risk remain unclear. We performed a meta-analysis to calculate the overall incidence of fatigue in cancer patients treated with everolimus and temsirolimus and to compare the differences in incidence with placebo. The electronic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases were searched for studies to include in the meta-analysis. Eligible studies were phase II and III prospective clinical trials of cancer patients treated with single drug everolimus or temsirolimus with toxicity data on fatigue. Overall incidence rates, relative risk (RR), and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated employing fixed or random effects models depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies. A total of 9,760 patients with a variety of malignancies from 56 prospective clinical trials were included for the meta-analysis. The overall incidences of all-grade and high-grade fatigue in cancer patients treated with mTOR inhibitor (everolimus or temsirolimus) were 45.4% (95% CI 36.9-55.8%) and 8.7% (95% CI 7.2-10.4%), respectively. The relative risks of fatigue of mTOR inhibitor compared to placebo were increased for all-grade (RR = 1.22, 95% CI 1.08-1.38, P = 0.002) and high-grade (RR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.24-2.69, P = 0.002) fatigue. The incidence of all-grade fatigue of patients treated with everolimus was higher than those with temsirolimus (RR = 1.85, 95% CI 1.71-2.01, P < 0.001). No significant difference was detected with between everolimus and temsirolimus in terms of high-grade fatigue (RR = 1.15, 95% CI 0.94-1.41, P = 0.18). Treatment with mTOR inhibitor, everolimus and temsirolimus, is associated with an increased incidence of fatigue in patients with cancer. Early detection and

  18. Efficacy and Safety of Everolimus for Maintenance Immunosuppression of Kidney Transplantation: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinyu; Liu, Dong; Li, Juan; Zhu, Lan; Zhang, Chengliang; Lei, Kai; Xu, Qiling; You, Ruxu

    2017-01-01

    Background Conversion to everolimus is often used in kidney transplantation to overcome calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) nephrotoxicity but there is conflicting evidence for this approach. Objectives To investigate the benefits and harm from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) involving the conversion from CNI to everolimus after kidney transplantation. Methods Databases were searched up to March 2016. Two reviewers independently assessed trials for eligibility and quality, and extracted data. Results are expressed as risk ratio (RR) or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Eleven RCTs, with a total of 1,633 patients, met the final inclusion criteria. Patients converted to everolimus had improved renal function at 1 year posttransplant with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 5.36 mL/min per 1.73 m2 greater than patients remaining on CNI (p = 0.0005) and the longer-term results (> 1 year) of renal function was identical to that of 1 year. There was not a substantial difference in graft loss, mortality, and the occurrence of adverse events (AEs) or serious AEs. However, the risks of acute rejection and trial termination due to AEs with everolimus are respectively 1.82 and 2.63 times greater than patients staying on CNI at 1 year posttransplant (p = 0.02, p = 0.03, respectively). Further, those patients who converted to everolimus had a substantially greater risk of anemia, hyperlipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypokalemia, proteinuria, stomatitis, mouth ulceration, and acne. Conclusions Conversion from CNI to everolimus after kidney transplantation is associated with improved renal function in the first 5 years posttransplant but increases the risk of acute rejection at 1 year posttransplant and may not be well endured. PMID:28107397

  19. Targeting the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway with everolimus: implications for the management of metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ng, Vin Cci; Johnson, Jeremy J; Cuellar, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    The inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) have documented antitumor activity via disruption of various signaling pathways leading to impaired cellular growth, proliferation, and survival. In preclinical studies, mTOR inhibitors use in combination with hormonal therapy has shown promising results in overcoming endocrine resistance in breast cancer cells. The role of everolimus in breast cancer was established in the Breast Cancer Trial of Oral Everolimus-2 (BOLERO-2) trial in combination with exemestane for patients with advanced metastatic hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer, who relapsed after initial hormonal manipulation. The study met its primary endpoint of significant improvement in progression free survival (PFS) with a median time to progression of 6.9 months in the combination group versus 2.8 months in exemestane group. Favorable improvements in PFS were reported across all patient subgroups regardless of age, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, number of prior therapies, and presence of visceral metastases. Adverse events were mostly mild to moderate in severity and consistent with the known safety profile of everolimus. Major toxicities reported include stomatitis, non-infectious pneumonitis, and hyperglycemia. The purpose of this review is to discuss the role of everolimus as a valuable component in advanced metastatic breast cancer and delineate current strategies to prevent and manage the most common toxicities associated with this combination regimen.

  20. L744,832 and Everolimus Induce Cytotoxic and Cytostatic Effects in Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Mendes, José; Gonçalves, Ana Cristina; Alves, Raquel; Jorge, Joana; Pires, Ana; Ribeiro, Ana; Sarmento-Ribeiro, Ana Bela

    2016-04-01

    Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) constitutes a very heterogeneous group of diseases with different aggressiveness. Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) are two clinically aggressive lymphomas from the germinal center, very heterogeneous and with different genetic signatures. Several intracellular pathways are involved in lymphomagenesis, being BCR/PI3K/AKT/mTOR and RAS/RAF pathways the most frequently ones. In this context the therapeutic potential of a mTOR inhibitor--everolimus--and a RAS/RAF pathway inhibitor--L744,832--was evaluated in two NHL cell lines. Farage and Raji cells were cultured in the absence and presence of several concentrations of everolimus and L744,832 in monotherapy and in combination with each other, as well as in association with the conventional chemotherapy drug vincristine. Our results show that everolimus and L744,832 induce antiproliferative and cytotoxic effect in a time-, dose-, and cell line-dependent manner, inducing cell death mainly by apoptosis. A potentiation effect was observed when the drugs were used in combination. In conclusion, the results suggest that everolimus and L744,832, alone or in combination, could provide therapeutic benefits in these subtypes of NHL.

  1. Efficacy and safety of conversion from cyclosporine to everolimus in living-donor kidney transplant recipients: an analysis from the ZEUS study.

    PubMed

    Lehner, Frank; Budde, Klemens; Zeier, Martin; Wüthrich, Rudolf P; Reinke, Petra; Eisenberger, Ute; Mühlfeld, Anja; Arns, Wolfgang; Stahl, Rolf; Heller, Katharina; Witzke, Oliver; Wolters, Heiner H; Suwelack, Barbara; Klehr, Hans Ulrich; Stangl, Manfred; Hauser, Ingeborg A; Nadalin, Silvio; Porstner, Martina; May, Christoph; Paulus, Eva-Maria; Sommerer, Claudia

    2014-11-01

    Conversion of living-donor kidney transplant patients from calcineurin inhibitor therapy to an mTOR inhibitor is poorly documented. In the prospective, multicentre ZEUS study, 300 kidney transplant recipients without prior rejection (Banff grade >1) and serum creatinine ≤265 μmol/l were randomized to continue cyclosporine or convert to everolimus at 4.5 months post-transplant. In a post hoc analysis of 80 living-donor recipients, adjusted estimated GFR (Nankivell) at month 12 (the primary endpoint) was 74.3 (95% CI [70.7, 77.9]) ml/min/1.73 m(2) with everolimus versus 63.8 (95% CI [60.0, 67.7]) ml/min/1.73 m(2) ) with cyclosporine, a difference of 10.5 ml/min/1.73 m(2) in favour of everolimus (P < 0.001). From randomization to month 12, adjusted estimated GFR increased by a mean of 9.8 (95% CI [6.2, 13.4]) ml/min/1.73 m(2) with everolimus versus -0.7 (95% CI [-4.6, 3.1]) ml/min/1.73 m(2) ) (P < 0.001) with cyclosporine. There were six biopsy-proven acute rejection episodes in everolimus-treated patients (five Banff grade I) and one episode in cyclosporine-treated patients (Banff grade 1). Overall safety profile was similar between groups. Discontinuation due to adverse events occurred in three everolimus patients (7.1%) and five cyclosporine patients (13.2%) between randomization and month 12. Initiation of everolimus with early elimination of calcineurin therapy is associated with a significant renal benefit at 12 months post-transplant that is observed in both living and deceased-donor recipients. (clinicaltrials.gov NCT00154310).

  2. Significant cytostatic effect of everolimus on a gefitinib-resistant anaplastic thyroid cancer cell line harboring PI3KCA gene mutation

    PubMed Central

    ONODA, NAOYOSHI; NAKAMURA, MASANORI; AOMATSU, NAOKI; NODA, SATORU; KASHIWAGI, SHINICHIRO; KURATA, KENTO; UCHINO, SHINYA; HIRAKAWA, KOSEI

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the efficacy of gefitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), on an anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) cell line. We also observed that gefitinib was not effective in regulating cell growth in a different ATC cell line that exhibited an altered EGFR-initiated signal transduction pathway. In the present study, we attempted to regulate the downstream effector of EGFR-Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway by an mTOR inhibitor, everolimus. A total of 8 ATC cell lines were employed, 7 of which were established in our institute. OCUT-2 was known to carry a mutation in the phosphoinositide-3-kinase, catalytic, α polypeptide gene (PI3KCA) and to be gefitinib-resistant, whereas ACT-1 exhibited a remarkable growth arrest by gefitinib. All the cell lines were tested for the cytotoxic effect of everolimus. The mechanisms of cellular toxicity were investigated by EGFR stimulation, cell cycle and concurrent exposure to paclitaxel. In OCUT-2, but not in any of the other cell lines, everolimus achieved a significant growth inhibition (inhibition of 30 and 50% was achieved by concentrations of 0.8 and 5 nM, respectively). The growth in OCUT-2 was inhibited by everolimus, even with concordant EGFR stimulation. This effect was demonstrated by a G2M cell cycle arrest. An additive effect of everolimus onto the cytotoxic effect of paclitaxel was demonstrated at a dose of 1–2 nM. A significant growth inhibitory effect of everolimus on the gefitinib-resistant ATC cell line was demonstrated, suggesting a possible correlation between the efficacy of everolimus and PI3KCA gene mutation and the significance of molecular-targeted therapy in the management of ATC. PMID:26137260

  3. Cabozantinib versus everolimus in advanced renal cell carcinoma (METEOR): final results from a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    Choueiri, Toni K; Escudier, Bernard; Powles, Thomas; Tannir, Nizar M; Mainwaring, Paul N; Rini, Brian I; Hammers, Hans J; Donskov, Frede; Roth, Bruce J; Peltola, Katriina; Lee, Jae Lyun; Heng, Daniel Y C; Schmidinger, Manuela; Agarwal, Neeraj; Sternberg, Cora N; McDermott, David F; Aftab, Dana T; Hessel, Colin; Scheffold, Christian; Schwab, Gisela; Hutson, Thomas E; Pal, Sumanta; Motzer, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    Cabozantinib is an oral inhibitor of tyrosine kinases including MET, VEGFR, and AXL. The randomised phase 3 METEOR trial compared the efficacy and safety of cabozantinib versus the mTOR inhibitor everolimus in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma who progressed after previous VEGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitor treatment. Here, we report the final overall survival results from this study based on an unplanned second interim analysis. In this open-label, randomised phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned (1:1) patients aged 18 years and older with advanced or metastatic clear-cell renal cell carcinoma, measurable disease, and previous treatment with one or more VEGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitors to receive 60 mg cabozantinib once a day or 10 mg everolimus once a day. Randomisation was done with an interactive voice and web response system. Stratification factors were Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center risk group and the number of previous treatments with VEGFR tyrosine-kinase inhibitors. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival as assessed by an independent radiology review committee in the first 375 randomly assigned patients and has been previously reported. Secondary endpoints were overall survival and objective response in all randomly assigned patients assessed by intention-to-treat. Safety was assessed per protocol in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. The study is closed for enrolment but treatment and follow-up of patients is ongoing for long-term safety evaluation. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01865747. Between Aug 8, 2013, and Nov 24, 2014, 658 patients were randomly assigned to receive cabozantinib (n=330) or everolimus (n=328). The median duration of follow-up for overall survival and safety was 18·7 months (IQR 16·1-21·1) in the cabozantinib group and 18·8 months (16·0-21·2) in the everolimus group. Median overall survival was 21·4 months (95% CI 18·7-not estimable) with

  4. A randomized, controlled trial of everolimus-based dual immunosuppression versus standard of care in de novo kidney transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Chadban, Steven J; Eris, Josette Marie; Kanellis, John; Pilmore, Helen; Lee, Po Chang; Lim, Soo Kun; Woodcock, Chad; Kurstjens, Nicol; Russ, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Kidney transplant recipients receiving calcineurin inhibitor-based immunosuppression incur increased long-term risks of cancer and kidney fibrosis. Switch to mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors may reduce these risks. Steroid or Cyclosporin Removal After Transplant using Everolimus (SOCRATES), a 36-month, prospective, multinational, open-label, randomized controlled trial for de novo kidney transplant recipients, assessed whether everolimus switch could enable elimination of mycophenolate plus either steroids or CNI without compromising efficacy. Patients received cyclosporin, mycophenolate and steroids for the first 14 days then everolimus with mycophenolate and CNIwithdrawal (CNI-WD); everolimus with mycophenolate and steroid withdrawal (steroid-WD); or cyclosporin, mycophenolate and steroids (control). 126 patients were randomized. The steroid WD arm was terminated prematurely because of excess discontinuations. Mean eGFR at month 12 for CNI-WD versus control was 65.1 ml/min/1.73 m2 vs. 67.1 ml/min/1.73 m2 by ITT, which met predefined noninferiority criteria (P = 0.026). The CNI-WD group experienced a higher rate of BPAR(31% vs. control 13%, P = 0.048) and showed a trend towards higher composite treatment failure (BPAR, graft loss, death, loss to follow-up). The 12 month results from SOCRATES show noninferiority in eGFR, but a significant excess of acute rejection when everolimus was commenced at week 2 to enable a progressive withdrawal of mycophenolate and cyclosporin in kidney transplant recipients. PMID:24279685

  5. Anti-proliferative and anti-secretory effects of everolimus on human pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors primary cultures: is there any benefit from combination with somatostatin analogs?

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Amira; Romano, David; Saveanu, Alexandru; Roche, Catherine; Albertelli, Manuela; Barbieri, Federica; Brue, Thierry; Niccoli, Patricia; Delpero, Jean-Robert; Garcia, Stephane; Ferone, Diego; Florio, Tullio; Moutardier, Vincent; Poizat, Flora; Barlier, Anne; Gerard, Corinne

    2017-06-20

    Therapeutic management of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) is challenging. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor everolimus recently obtained approval from the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients with advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs). Despite its promising antitumor efficacy observed in cell lines, clinical benefit for patients is unsatisfactory. The limited therapeutic potential of everolimus in cancer cells has been attributed to Akt activation due to feedback loops relief following mTOR inhibition. Combined inhibition of Akt might then improve everolimus antitumoral effect. In this regard, the somatostatin analog (SSA) octreotide has been shown to repress the PI3K/Akt pathway in some tumor cell lines. Moreover, SSAs are well tolerated and routinely used to reduce symptoms caused by peptide release in patients carrying functional GEP-NETs. We have recently established and characterized primary cultures of human pNETs and demonstrated the anti-proliferative effects of both octreotide and pasireotide. In this study, we aim at determining the antitumor efficacy of everolimus alone or in combination with the SSAs octreotide and pasireotide in primary cultures of pNETs. Everolimus reduced both Chromogranin A secretion and cell viability and upregulated Akt activity in single treatment. Its anti-proliferative and anti-secretory efficacy was not improved combined with the SSAs. Both SSAs did not overcome everolimus-induced Akt upregulation. Furthermore, caspase-dependent apoptosis induced by SSAs was lost in combined treatments. These molecular events provide the first evidence supporting the lack of marked benefit in patients co-treated with everolimus and SSA.

  6. Delayed mTOR Inhibition with Low Dose of Everolimus Reduces TGFβ Expression, Attenuates Proteinuria and Renal Damage in the Renal Mass Reduction Model

    PubMed Central

    Kurdián, Melania; Herrero-Fresneda, Inmaculada; Lloberas, Nuria; Gimenez-Bonafe, Pepita; Coria, Virginia; Grande, María T.; Boggia, José; Malacrida, Leonel; Torras, Joan; Arévalo, Miguel A.; González-Martínez, Francisco; López-Novoa, José M.; Grinyó, Josep; Noboa, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    Background The immunosuppressive mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors are widely used in solid organ transplantation, but their effect on kidney disease progression is controversial. mTOR has emerged as one of the main pathways regulating cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of delayed inhibition of mTOR pathway with low dose of everolimus on progression of renal disease and TGFβ expression in the 5/6 nephrectomy model in Wistar rats. Methods This study evaluated the effects of everolimus (0.3 mg/k/day) introduced 15 days after surgical procedure on renal function, proteinuria, renal histology and mechanisms of fibrosis and proliferation. Results Everolimus treated group (EveG) showed significantly less proteinuria and albuminuria, less glomerular and tubulointerstitial damage and fibrosis, fibroblast activation cell proliferation, when compared with control group (CG), even though the EveG remained with high blood pressure. Treatment with everolimus also diminished glomerular hypertrophy. Everolimus effectively inhibited the increase of mTOR developed in 5/6 nephrectomy animals, without changes in AKT mRNA or protein abundance, but with an increase in the pAKT/AKT ratio. Associated with this inhibition, everolimus blunted the increased expression of TGFβ observed in the remnant kidney model. Conclusion Delayed mTOR inhibition with low dose of everolimus significantly prevented progressive renal damage and protected the remnant kidney. mTOR and TGFβ mRNA reduction can partially explain this anti fibrotic effect. mTOR can be a new target to attenuate the progression of chronic kidney disease even in those nephropathies of non-immunologic origin. PMID:22427849

  7. Efficacy of everolimus with reduced-exposure cyclosporine in de novo kidney transplant patients at increased risk for efficacy events: analysis of a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Carmellini, Mario; Garcia, Valter; Wang, Zailong; Vergara, Marcela; Russ, Graeme

    2015-10-01

    The efficacy of de novo everolimus with reduced-exposure calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) was examined in kidney transplant subpopulations from the A2309 study that were identified to be at increased risk for efficacy events. A2309 was a 24-month, multicenter, open-label trial in which 833 de novo kidney transplant recipients were randomized to everolimus targeting 3-8 or 6-12 ng/ml with reduced-exposure cyclosporine (CsA), or mycophenolic acid (MPA) with standard-exposure CsA, all with basiliximab induction. The composite efficacy endpoint was treated biopsy-proven acute rejection (BPAR), graft loss, death, or loss to follow-up. Cox proportional hazard modeling showed male gender, younger recipient age, black race, delayed graft function, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatch ≥3 and increasing donor age to be significantly predictive for the composite efficacy endpoint at months 12 or 24 post-transplant. CsA exposure was 53-75 % lower, and 46-75 % lower, in patients receiving everolimus 3-8 ng/ml or receiving everolimus 6-12 ng/ml, respectively, versus MPA-treated patients. The incidence of the composite endpoint was similar in all three treatment groups within each subpopulation analyzed. The incidence of treated BPAR was similar with everolimus 3-8 ng/ml or MPA in all subpopulations, but less frequent with everolimus 6-12 ng/ml versus MPA in patients with HLA mismatch ≥3 (p = 0.049). This post hoc analysis of a large, randomized trial suggests that a de novo regimen of everolimus with reduced-exposure CsA maintains immunosuppressive efficacy even in kidney transplant patients at increased risk for efficacy events despite substantial reductions in CsA exposure.

  8. 5-year follow-up of a randomized clinical study comparing everolimus plus reduced-dose cyclosporine with mycophenolate mofetil plus standard-dose cyclosporine in de novo kidney transplantation: Retrospective single center assessment.

    PubMed

    Hiramitsu, Takahisa; Okada, Manabu; Futamura, Kenta; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Tsujita, Makoto; Goto, Norihiko; Narumi, Shunji; Watarai, Yoshihiko; Takeda, Asami; Iwasaki, Kenta; Uchida, Kazuharu; Kobayashi, Takaaki

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of everolimus plus reduced-dose cyclosporine compared with mycophenolate mofetil plus standard-dose cyclosporine 5years after living donor kidney transplantation. Between March 2008 and August 2009, 24 living donor kidney transplantations were enrolled in a 2-year, multicenter, randomized phase 3 study (RAD001A1202 study). 24 recipients were randomly classified into two groups and closely observed for 5years. 13 recipients were administered steroid, reduced-dose cyclosporine, everolimus and basiliximab (EVR group). 11 recipients were administered steroid, standard-dose cyclosporine, mycophenolate mofetil and basiliximab (STD group). Two groups were compared not only in graft function including estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and proteinuria, but also in adverse events such as de novo donor-specific antibody (DSA) production, rejection, new-onset diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. No graft loss was identified in 5years. The incidences of acute T cell rejection, de novo DSA production, hyperlipidemia, and new-onset diabetes were similar. eGFR levels throughout the observation periods were similar. Three cases of proteinuria were identified in STD group. One case of proteinuria observed in EVR group was well controlled with angiotensin receptor blocker. Incidence of CMV infection in CMV antibody-positive recipients was significantly lower in EVR group. The safety and efficacy of reduced-dose cyclosporine and everolimus protocol were similar to those of standard-dose cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil other than for superior prevention of CMV infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Everolimus limits aortic aneurysm in the apolipoprotein E-deficient mouse by downregulating C-C chemokine receptor 2 positive monocytes.

    PubMed

    Moran, Corey S; Jose, Roby J; Moxon, Joseph V; Roomberg, Alicia; Norman, Paul E; Rush, Catherine; Körner, Heinrich; Golledge, Jonathan

    2013-04-01

    We aimed to determine the effect of mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus on abdominal aortic aneurysm within the angiotensin II (A2)-infused apolipoprotein E-deficient mouse model. Abdominal aortic aneurysm was induced via subcutaneous infusion of A2. Flow cytometry demonstrated increased circulating and aortic C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) monocytes during A2 infusion. The number of CCR2 monocytes present within the aorta was positively correlated with suprarenal aortic diameter. Simultaneous infusion of everolimus via a second subcutaneous osmotic micropump inhibited A2-induced aortic dilatation. Using flow cytometry and Western blot analysis, decreased aortic dilatation was associated with reduced development of CCR2 bone marrow monocytes, fewer numbers of circulating CCR2 monocytes, and lower aortic CCR2 concentration. In vitro, everolimus inhibited A2-stimulated production of interferon (IFN)-γ and IFNγ-induced CCR2 expression in apolipoprotein E-deficient mouse bone marrow monocytes. Further, everolimus diminished IFNγ/lipopolysaccharide-stimulated M1 polarization in apolipoprotein E-deficient mouse bone marrow monocyte-differentiated macrophages. Systemic administration of everolimus limits aortic aneurysm in the A2-infused apolipoprotein E-deficient mouse model via suppressed development of bone marrow CCR2 monocytes and reduced egress of these cells into the circulation.

  10. Common occurrence of everolimus-associated aphthous stomatitis in Japanese heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Sasaoka, T; Kato, T S; Oda, N; Wada, K; Komamura, K; Asakura, M; Hashimura, K; Ishibashi-Ueda, H; Nakatani, T; Isobe, M; Kitakaze, M

    2010-11-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors display antiproliferative effects with less nephrotoxicity than calcineurin inhibitors. However, clinical use of mTOR inhibitors can be associated with a series of adverse events. We experienced cases of aphthous stomatitis associated with everolimus (EVL) in four Japanese heart transplant recipients treated at the target trough EVL blood level after a switch from mycophenolate mofetil between April and December 2007. All four patients developed aphthous stomatitis; three required reduction of the exposure and one, EVL discontinuation due to stomatitis as well as other side effects. All patients recovered from stomatitis after reduction or withdrawal of EVL. Thus, we considered that EVL-related stomatitis might occur commonly among the Japanese population. The proper dosage, effects, and frequency of the side effects of mTOR inhibitors may vary by ethnic population.

  11. Phase II study of everolimus in children and adults with neurofibromatosis type 2 and progressive vestibular schwannomas

    PubMed Central

    Karajannis, Matthias A.; Legault, Geneviève; Hagiwara, Mari; Giancotti, Filippo G.; Filatov, Alexander; Derman, Anna; Hochman, Tsivia; Goldberg, Judith D.; Vega, Emilio; Wisoff, Jeffrey H.; Golfinos, John G.; Merkelson, Amanda; Roland, J. Thomas; Allen, Jeffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is thought to be a key driver of tumor growth in Merlin (NF2)-deficient tumors. Everolimus is an oral inhibitor of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) with antitumor activity in a variety of cancers. Methods We conducted a single-institution, prospective, 2-stage, open-label phase II study to estimate the response rate to everolimus in neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients with progressive vestibular schwannoma (VS). Ten eligible patients were enrolled, including 2 pediatric patients. Everolimus was administered at a daily dose of 10 mg (adults) or 5 mg/m2/day (children <18 y) orally in continuous 28-day courses, for up to 12 courses. Response was assessed every 3 months with MRI, using 3-dimensional volumetric tumor analysis, and audiograms. Nine patients were evaluable for the primary response, defined as ≥15% decrease in VS volume. Hearing response was evaluable as a secondary endpoint in 8 patients. Results None of the 9 patients with evaluable disease experienced a clinical or MRI response. No objective imaging or hearing responses were observed in stage 1 of the trial, and the study was closed according to predefined stopping rules. Conclusion Everolimus is ineffective for the treatment of progressive VS in NF2 patients. We are currently conducting a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (“phase 0”) study of everolimus in presurgical VS patients to elucidate the biological basis for apparent treatment resistance to mTORC1 inhibition in these tumors. PMID:24311643

  12. Everolimus-eluting stents in interventional cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Townsend, Jacob C; Rideout, Phillip; Steinberg, Daniel H

    2012-01-01

    Bare metal stents have a proven safety record, but limited long-term efficacy due to in-stent restenosis. First-generation drug-eluting stents successfully countered the restenosis rate, but were hampered by concerns about their long-term safety. Second generation drug-eluting stents have combined the low restenosis rate of the first generation with improved long-term safety. We review the evolution of drug-eluting stents with a focus on the safety, efficacy, and unique characteristics of everolimus-eluting stents. PMID:22910420

  13. Additive Anti-Tumor Effects of Lovastatin and Everolimus In Vitro through Simultaneous Inhibition of Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Nölting, Svenja; Maurer, Julian; Spöttl, Gerald; Aristizabal Prada, Elke Tatjana; Reuther, Clemens; Young, Karen; Korbonits, Márta; Göke, Burkhard; Grossman, Ashley; Auernhammer, Christoph J

    2015-01-01

    The mTORC1-inhibitor everolimus shows limited efficacy in treating patients with gastro-entero-pancreatic or pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), and poor outcome in patients with malignant pheochromocytoma or hepatic carcinoma. We speculated that any effect may be enhanced by antogonising other signaling pathways. Therefore, we tested the effect of lovastatin--known to inhibit both ERK and AKT signaling--and everolimus, separately and in combination, on cell viability and signaling pathways in human midgut (GOT), pancreatic (BON1), and pulmonary (H727) NET, hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2, Huh7), and mouse pheochromocytoma (MPC, MTT) cell lines. Lovastatin and everolimus separately significantly reduced cell viability in H727, HepG2, Huh7, MPC and MTT cells at clinically relevant doses (P ≤ 0.05). However, high doses of lovastatin were necessary to affect GOT or BON1 cell viability. Clinically relevant doses of both drugs showed additive anti-tumor effects in H727, HepG2, Huh7, MPC and MTT cells (P ≤ 0.05), but not in BON1 or GOT cells. In all cell lines investigated, lovastatin inhibited EGFR and AKT signaling. Subsequently, combination treatment more strongly inhibited EGFR and AKT signaling than everolimus alone, or at least attenuated everolimus-induced EGFR or AKT activation. Vice versa, everolimus constantly decreased pp70S6K and combination treatment more strongly decreased pp70S6K than lovastatin alone, or attenuated lovastatin-induced p70S6K activation: in BON1 cells lovastatin-induced EGFR inhibition was least pronounced, possibly explaining the low efficacy and consequent absent additive effect. In summary, clinically relevant doses of lovastatin and everolimus were effective separately and showed additive effects in 5 out of 7 cell lines. Our findings emphasize the importance of targeting several interacting signaling pathways simultaneously when attempting to attenuate tumor growth. However, the variable reactions of the different cell lines

  14. Additive Anti-Tumor Effects of Lovastatin and Everolimus In Vitro through Simultaneous Inhibition of Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Nölting, Svenja; Maurer, Julian; Spöttl, Gerald; Aristizabal Prada, Elke Tatjana; Reuther, Clemens; Young, Karen; Korbonits, Márta; Göke, Burkhard; Grossman, Ashley; Auernhammer, Christoph J.

    2015-01-01

    Background The mTORC1-inhibitor everolimus shows limited efficacy in treating patients with gastro-entero-pancreatic or pulmonary neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), and poor outcome in patients with malignant pheochromocytoma or hepatic carcinoma. We speculated that any effect may be enhanced by antogonising other signaling pathways. Methods Therefore, we tested the effect of lovastatin—known to inhibit both ERK and AKT signaling—and everolimus, separately and in combination, on cell viability and signaling pathways in human midgut (GOT), pancreatic (BON1), and pulmonary (H727) NET, hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2, Huh7), and mouse pheochromocytoma (MPC, MTT) cell lines. Results Lovastatin and everolimus separately significantly reduced cell viability in H727, HepG2, Huh7, MPC and MTT cells at clinically relevant doses (P ≤ 0.05). However, high doses of lovastatin were necessary to affect GOT or BON1 cell viability. Clinically relevant doses of both drugs showed additive anti-tumor effects in H727, HepG2, Huh7, MPC and MTT cells (P ≤ 0.05), but not in BON1 or GOT cells. In all cell lines investigated, lovastatin inhibited EGFR and AKT signaling. Subsequently, combination treatment more strongly inhibited EGFR and AKT signaling than everolimus alone, or at least attenuated everolimus-induced EGFR or AKT activation. Vice versa, everolimus constantly decreased pp70S6K and combination treatment more strongly decreased pp70S6K than lovastatin alone, or attenuated lovastatin-induced p70S6K activation: in BON1 cells lovastatin-induced EGFR inhibition was least pronounced, possibly explaining the low efficacy and consequent absent additive effect. Conclusion In summary, clinically relevant doses of lovastatin and everolimus were effective separately and showed additive effects in 5 out of 7 cell lines. Our findings emphasize the importance of targeting several interacting signaling pathways simultaneously when attempting to attenuate tumor growth. However, the variable

  15. Everolimus-associated Acute Kidney Injury in Patients with Metastatic Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chandra, A; Rao, N S; Malhotra, K P; Rastogi, M; Khurana, R

    2017-01-01

    Recently, everolimus (Evl) has been introduced in the management of hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer, in combination with aromatase inhibitors. Evl-induced acute kidney injury has hitherto been described in other malignancies, especially renal cell cancer, but only once before in a patient with breast cancer. We describe two cases of Evl-associated nephrotoxicity in patients with breast cancer, one of whom underwent a renal biopsy showing acute tubular necrosis. Both our patients improved after withdrawal of the offending agent and have normal renal functions on follow-up.

  16. Early conversion from cyclosporine to everolimus following living-donor kidney transplantation: outcomes at 5 years posttransplant in the randomized ZEUS trial.

    PubMed

    Sommerer, Claudia; Budde, Klemens; Zeier, Martin; Wüthrich, Rudolf P; Reinke, Petra; Eisenberger, Ute; Mühlfeld, Anja; Arns, Wolfgang; Stahl, Rolf; Heller, Katharina; Wolters, Heiner H; Suwelack, Barbara; Klehr, Hans Ulrich; Hauser, Ingeborg A; Stangl, Manfred; Nadalin, Silvio; Dürr, Michael; Porstner, Martina; May, Christoph; Wimmer, Peter; Witzke, Oliver; Lehner, Frank

    2016-04-01

    To assess 5-year efficacy, renal, and safety outcomes following early conversion from cyclosporine to everolimus vs. a standard cyclosporine-based regimen in living-donor kidney transplant (LDKT) recipients. The ZEUS study was a randomized, open-label, 1-year, multicenter study in which 300 de novo kidney transplant recipients continued to receive cyclosporine or converted to everolimus at 4.5 months post-transplant, with annual follow-up visits to 5 years post-transplant. Of the 80 LDKT patients who were randomized, 75 completed the 1-year core study and 60 attended the 5-year follow-up visit. At year 5, 15/31 (48.4%) everolimus patients and 20/29 (69.0%) cyclosporine patients remained on the study drug. Mean adjusted estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at year 5 in LDKT recipients was 67.2 vs. 60.8 mL/min/1.73m2 for everolimus vs. cyclosporine (mean difference 6.4 mL/min/1.73m2; p = 0.031). For patients who remained on study drug, the mean difference was 13.2 mL/min/1.73m2 (p = 0.003), but no significant difference was seen in patients who switched from study drug (mean -2.6 mL/min/1.73m2, p = 0.701). Patient and graft survival rates were similar with everolimus and cyclosporine. Biopsy-proven acute rejection occurred in 22.0% vs. 7.5% of LDKT patients randomized to everolimus vs. cyclosporine (p = 0.116). Only 1 LDKT patient discontinued everolimus due to adverse events during years 1 - 5. Early initiation of everolimus with calcineurin-inhibitor (CNI) withdrawal after LDKT improved graft function to 5 years post-transplant compared to standard CNI-based therapy. The renal benefit was concentrated in patients who remained on everolimus. An increase in mild acute rejection was not associated with long-term graft loss.

  17. [Experience with everolimus therapy for patients with metastatic renal cancer in Hungary].

    PubMed

    Maráz, Anikó; Bodoky, György; Dank, Magdolna; Géczi, Lajos; Kahán, Zsuzsanna; Mangel, László; Révész, János; Szűcs, Miklós

    2014-03-01

    Everolimus is indicated for the therapy of adults with advanced renal cell carcinoma after failure of treatment with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). The aim of the study was a multicenter evaluation of efficiency and toxicity of everolimus in patients with metastatic renal carcinoma who received one line of VEGFR-TKI therapy. Data of one hundred and one patients were analyzed retrospectively. Patients received everolimus therapy between January 2010 and July 2013. Data were collected in 7 different oncology institutes in Hungary. Starting daily dose of everolimus was 10 mg in 28-day cycles. Physical and laboratory examinations were done monthly. Imaging tests were performed every 3 months. Tumor response and toxicity were evaluated according to RECIST 1.0 and NCI CTCAE 3.0, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed with SPPS version 20.0 for Windows. Currently 26 (27%) patients are being treated, 52 (54.1%) patients are alive. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 5.7 months (95% CI 4.07-7.33). Partial remission, stable disease and progression occurred in 6 (6%), 71 (74%) and 19 (20%) patients, respectively. Median overall survival (OS) was 14.3 months (95% CI 6.99-19.81). PFS and OS results were more favorable in patients with ECOG 0-1. Survival was poorer in case of anemia, while better if PFS was longer than 12 months. In anemic patients with ECOG 0-1 and ECOG 2-3 OS was 30.9 and 7.7 months, respectively (p=0.031). Dose reduction and treatment delay happened in 8 (7.9%) and 12 (11.9%) cases, respectively. The most common side effects were the following: exanthema, edema, stomatitis, pneumonitis, anemia and abnormal kidney-, liver functions, blood sugar and cholesterol levels. According to the Hungarian experience, everolimus can safely be administered. PFS and OS results representing the centers' everyday practice, are similar to the results of the respective subgroups in the registration study.

  18. The combination of sorafenib and everolimus shows antitumor activity in preclinical models of malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Pignochino, Ymera; Dell'Aglio, Carmine; Inghilleri, Simona; Zorzetto, Michele; Basiricò, Marco; Capozzi, Federica; Canta, Marta; Piloni, Davide; Cemmi, Francesca; Sangiolo, Dario; Gammaitoni, Loretta; Soster, Marco; Marchiò, Serena; Pozzi, Ernesto; Morbini, Patrizia; Luisetti, Maurizio; Aglietta, Massimo; Grignani, Giovanni; Stella, Giulia M

    2015-05-08

    Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive tumor arising from mesothelial cells lining the pleural cavities characterized by resistance to standard therapies. Most of the molecular steps responsible for pleural transformation remain unclear; however, several growth factor signaling cascades are known to be altered during MPM onset and progression. Transducers of these pathways, such as PIK3CA-mTOR-AKT, MAPK, and ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) could therefore be exploited as possible targets for pharmacological intervention. This study aimed to identify 'druggable' pathways in MPM and to formulate a targeted approach based on the use of commercially available molecules, such as the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib and the mTOR inhibitor everolimus. We planned a triple approach based on: i) analysis of immunophenotypes and mutational profiles in a cohort of thoracoscopic MPM samples, ii) in vitro pharmacological assays, ii) in vivo therapeutic approaches on MPM xenografts. No mutations were found in 'hot spot' regions of the mTOR upstream genes (e.g. EGFR, KRAS and PIK3CA). Phosphorylated mTOR and ERM were specifically overexpressed in the analyzed MPM samples. Sorafenib and everolimus combination was effective in mTOR and ERM blockade; exerted synergistic effects on the inhibition of MPM cell proliferation; triggered ROS production and consequent AMPK-p38 mediated-apoptosis. The antitumor activity was displayed when orally administered to MPM-bearing NOD/SCID mice. ERM and mTOR pathways are activated in MPM and 'druggable' by a combination of sorafenib and everolimus. Combination therapy is a promising therapeutic strategy against MPM.

  19. Granuloma-forming interstitial pneumonia occurring one year after the start of everolimus therapy.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yoshinobu; Kunugi, Shinobu; Suzuki, Yasutomo; Narita, Kousuke; Miura, Yukiko; Minegishi, Yuji; Kimura, Go; Kondo, Yukihiro; Azuma, Arata; Fukuda, Yuh; Gemma, Akihiko

    2013-01-01

    We experienced a case of interstitial lung disease (ILD) that occurred one year after the start of everolimus therapy for renal cell carcinoma. The pathological features included interstitial pneumonia with granuloma formation. Everolimus is known to cause ILD; however, its pathology is unclear. Granuloma-forming interstitial pneumonia associated with everolimus is uncommon, although it may be one of the pathological patterns associated with everolimus-induced ILD. This is a slow-onset case of everolimus-induced ILD in a patient with renal cell carcinoma. Physicians should thus be aware of the potential for the development of ILD at any time during the administration of everolimus therapy.

  20. [Level of evidence for therapeutic drug monitoring of everolimus].

    PubMed

    Goirand, Françoise; Royer, Bernard; Hulin, Anne; Saint-Marcoux, Franck

    2011-01-01

    Everolimus has proven efficacy for prevention of rejection in adult de novo renal and cardiac transplant recipient in combination with ciclosporine and corticosteroids. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) with target trough concentration (C0) value from 3 to 8 µg/L has been proposed. Through a systematic review of the literature, this work explored a level of recommendation for this TDM. Everolimus exhibits both wide interindividual pharmacokinetic variability and poor relationship between dose and exposure. A good relationship has been reported between C0 values and global exposure to the drug (i.e. AUC). Although C0 > 3 µg/L has been associated with a decreased incidence of rejection, the upper limit of 8 µg/L has never been formally validated. No clinical trial testing other exposure indices or comparing efficacy and/or toxicity of everolimus therapy with and without TDM has been published so far. Consequently the level of recommendation for everolimus monitoring is "recommended".

  1. Everolimus and Advagraf Ab Initio in Combined Liver and Kidney Transplant With Donor-Specific Antibodies: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Tariciotti, L; Manzia, T M; Sforza, D; Anselmo, A; Tisone, G

    2016-11-01

    Although donor-specific antibodies are regarded as a contraindication for kidney transplantation, the data available for combined liver and kidney transplantation (cLKTx) are scarce, and there is no established therapeutic approach for this category of transplant recipients. De novo use of everolimus and a reduced dose of calcineurin inhibitor reportedly provides excellent kidney function compared with a standard regimen containing a calcineurin inhibitor. This strategy, however, has been applied in only some recipient categories. Here we report a case of A highly sensitized male patient who underwent a cLKTx and received everolimus with low-dose tacrolimus (once-daily prolonged-release formulation) as ab initio immunosuppressive treatment. The pretransplant panel-reactive antibody estimate was 97%, and multiple anti-HLA antibodies were detected at the time of transplantation. Thus far, patient and allograft survival have reached 2 years, with the recipient remaining on a regimen of immunosuppression with everolimus and low-dose tacrolimus, with no episodes of rejection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Everolimus-Based Therapy versus Chemotherapy among Patients with HR+/HER2- Metastatic Breast Cancer: Comparative Effectiveness from a Chart Review Study.

    PubMed

    Li, Nanxin; Hao, Yanni; Xie, Jipan; Lin, Peggy L; Koo, Valerie; Ohashi, Erika; Wu, Eric Q

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To compare the real-world effectiveness of everolimus-based therapy and chemotherapy in postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive/human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-2-negative (HR+/HER2-) metastatic breast cancer (mBC). Methods. This retrospective chart review examined a nationwide sample of postmenopausal HR+/HER2- mBC women in community-based oncology practices. Patients received everolimus-based therapy or chemotherapy for mBC between 07/01/2012 and 04/15/2013, after failure of a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor. Overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and time on treatment (TOT) were compared using Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for line of therapy and baseline characteristics. Results. 234 and 137 patients received everolimus-based therapy and chemotherapy. Patients treated with everolimus-based therapy tended to have less aggressive mBC than patients treated with chemotherapy. Multivariate-adjusted Cox models showed that everolimus-based therapy was associated with significantly longer OS [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.37, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.22-0.63], PFS (HR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.50-0.97), and TOT (HR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.25-0.45) than chemotherapy. Adjusted comparative effectiveness results were generally consistent across lines of therapy. Conclusion. In this retrospective chart review of postmenopausal HR+/HER2- mBC patients, treatment with everolimus-based therapy was associated with longer OS, PFS, and TOT than chemotherapy.

  3. Use of Everolimus in Liver Transplantation: Recommendations From a Working Group

    PubMed Central

    De Simone, Paolo; Fagiuoli, Stefano; Cescon, Matteo; De Carlis, Luciano; Tisone, Giuseppe; Volpes, Riccardo; Cillo, Umberto

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Immunosuppression after liver transplantation (LT) is presently based on use of calcineurin inhibitors (CNI), although they are associated with an increased incidence of renal dysfunction, cardiovascular complications, and de novo and recurrent malignancies. Over the past decade, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors have received considerable attention as immunosuppressants because they are associated with a more favorable renal profile versus CNI, as well as antiproliferative activity in clinical studies. Comprehensive guidelines on use of everolimus (EVR) in LT are still lacking. In Italy, a project, named Everolimus: the road to long-term functioning, was initiated to collect the experience on EVR after LT with the aim of providing guidance for transplant clinicians. Herein, recommendations by this national consensus group, based on Delphi methodology, are presented. Consensus was reached on 20 of the 23 statements proposed, and their level of evidence, grade of recommendation, and percent of agreement are reported. Statements are grouped into 4 areas: (A) renal function; (B) time of EVR introduction, CNI reduction and elimination, and risk for graft rejection; (C) antiproliferative effects of EVR; and (D) management of EVR-related adverse events. The high level of consensus shows that there is good agreement on the routine use of EVR in predefined clinical scenarios, especially in light of posttransplant nephrotoxicity and other adverse events associated with long-term administration of CNIs. PMID:27495768

  4. Safety, Efficacy, and Patient Acceptability of Everolimus in the Treatment of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lousberg, Laurence; Jerusalem, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Everolimus combined with exemestane is an important treatment option for patients suffering from estrogen receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative, advanced breast cancer (ABC) who have been previously treated with a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor (NSAI). After presentation of phase III registration trial BOLERO-2, several phase IIIb trials have been started to evaluate this regimen in a more real-world setting. Here, we review the efficacy and safety data published or presented at selected international meetings. These studies confirmed the outcome observed in the BOLERO-2 trial. Patient acceptance rate is also discussed by focusing on the permanent everolimus discontinuation rate in these trials. Factors influencing the safety profile are also reported, including the impact of age. The optimal sequence of combined therapy approaches associating targeted and endocrine therapy (ET) has yet to be determined as new treatment options such as cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors become available. However, everolimus–exemestane remains an important treatment option with a major impact on progression-free survival (PFS) and an acceptable safety profile. PMID:28096680

  5. Recommendations for the use of everolimus in de novo kidney transplantation: False beliefs, myths and realities.

    PubMed

    Pascual, Julio; Diekmann, Fritz; Fernández-Rivera, Constantino; Gómez-Marqués, Gonzalo; Gutiérrez-Dalmau, Alex; Pérez-Sáez, María José; Sancho-Calabuig, Asunción; Oppenheimer, Federico

    The immunosuppressive combination most commonly used in de novo kidney transplantation comprises a calcineurin inhibitor (CI), tacrolimus, a mycophenolic acid derivative and steroids. The evidence which underlies this practice is based in the Symphony trial with controlled follow-up of one year, in which no comparator group included the combination CI-mTOR inhibitor. Different high-quality clinical trials support the use of everolimus as a standard immunosuppressive drug associated with reduced exposure of a CI in kidney transplantation. This combination could improve health related outcomes in kidney transplantation recipients. The present recommendations constitute an attempt to summarise the scientific evidence supporting this practice, discuss false beliefs, myths and facts, and offer specific guidelines for safe use, avoiding complications. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Everolimus in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma previously treated with bevacizumab: a prospective multicenter study CRAD001LRU02T.

    PubMed

    Tsimafeyeu, Ilya; Snegovoy, Anton; Varlamov, Sergei; Safina, Sufia; Varlamov, Ilya; Gurina, Ludmila; Manzuk, Ludmila

    2015-09-01

    Everolimus is an orally administered inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) recommended for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) who progressed on previous vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. Efficacy of everolimus in patients who progressed on anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody bevacizumab is unknown. We did a multicenter prospective trial of everolimus in patients with mRCC whose disease had progressed on bevacizumab ± interferon alpha (IFN). Patients with clear-cell mRCC which had progressed on bevacizumab ± IFN received everolimus 10 mg once daily. The primary end point was the proportion of patients remaining progression-free for 56 days, and a two-stage Simon design was used, with 80% power and an alpha risk of 5%. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02056587. From December 2011 to October 2013, a total of 37 patients (28 M, 9 F) were enrolled. Median age was 60.5 years (range 41-66), 1% had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS) >2, and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) favorable/intermediate risk was 38/62%. Five (14%) patients had a confirmed partial response and 26 (70%) patients had a stable disease. Median progression-free survival was 11.5 months (95% CI, 8.8-14.2). Median overall survival was not reached. No grade 3 or 4 treatment-related toxicities were observed. The most common grade 2 adverse events were fatigue (19%) and pneumonitis (8%). Everolimus demonstrated a favorable toxicity profile and promising anti-tumor activity as a second-line therapy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients previously treated with bevacizumab ± IFN.

  7. Everolimus and intensive behavioral therapy in an adolescent with tuberous sclerosis complex and severe behavior☆☆☆★

    PubMed Central

    Gipson, Tanjala T.; Jennett, Heather; Wachtel, Lee; Gregory, Mary; Poretti, Andrea; Johnston, Michael V.

    2013-01-01

    Background Self-injury and aggression have been reported in individuals with TSC (tuberous sclerosis complex), yet few data exist about treatment. Everolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, has been FDA-approved for subependymal giant cell astrocytomas (SEGAs) and renal angiomyolipomas in TSC. However, clinical use of everolimus with direct, real-time observations of self-injury and aggression in an individual with TSC has not been reported. Methods During an inpatient admission to a neurobehavioral unit, real-time measurements of behaviors and seizures were recorded. An interdisciplinary team used these data to make treatment decisions and applied behavioral and pharmacological treatments, one at a time, in order to evaluate their effects. Results Aggression and self-injury improved with applied behavioral analysis (ABA), lithium, and asenapine. Improvements in SEGA size, facial angiofibromas, seizures, and the most stable low rates of self-injury were observed during the interval of treatment with everolimus. Conclusion Mechanism-based treatments in the setting of an evidence-based behavioral and psychopharmacological intervention program may be a model with utility for characterization and treatment of individuals with severe behavior and TSC. PMID:25667844

  8. The effects of everolimus on tuberous sclerosis-associated lesions can be dramatic but may be impermanent.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joseph M; Wachsman, Ashley; Haker, Katherine; Majlessipour, Fataneh; Danielpour, Moise; Puliyanda, Dechu

    2015-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) predisposes to the development of benign lesions within multiple organ systems, including the brain, kidneys, heart, lungs, and skin. Disease mortality is due to space-occupying subependymal giant cell astrocytomas and hemorrhage-prone renal angiomyolipomas. The recent use of mTORC1 inhibitors, such as everolimus, has allowed for direct targeting of TSC-associated mass lesions without apparent effect on surrounding tissues. Because of the mechanism of these drugs, there is reason to believe that these effects are not durable and that there may be need for continued long-term maintenance therapy. We present a case of TSC-associated mass lesions that were ill-suited for definitive surgical therapy. The patient was started on everolimus, however due to a complex social situation treatment was discontinued and ultimately resumed many months later. Radiologic studies acquired before and after each period of therapeutic onset/cessation reveal the dramatic but impermanent effects of mTORC1 inhibition. While everolimus provides a non-invasive way to treat TSC-associated lesions, patients may require lifelong therapy. When termination of therapy is considered, the patient should be made aware of the expectation of potentially dramatic increases in lesion size. If consideration is to be given to definitive surgical therapy, it should be pursued while the patient is still on the medication, or at least soon after treatment is halted.

  9. Phase I Study of Everolimus in Combination with Gemcitabine and Split-Dose Cisplatin in Advanced Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Abida, Wassim; Milowsky, Matthew I.; Ostrovnaya, Irina; Gerst, Scott R.; Rosenberg, Jonathan E.; Voss, Martin H.; Apolo, Andrea B.; Regazzi, Ashley M.; McCoy, Asia S.; Boyd, Mariel E.; Bajorin, Dean F.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy is standard first-line treatment for patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma (UC). Molecular profiling studies reveal that the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway is altered in a significant percentage of UCs. Objective: We conducted a phase I trial to evaluate the feasibility of combining the mTOR inhibitor everolimus with gemcitabine and split-dose cisplatin (GC) in advanced UC in the first-line setting. Methods: Patients received gemcitabine 800 mg/m2 and cisplatin 35 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8 of 21-day cycles for a total of 6 cycles in combination with everolimus at increasing dose levels (DL1:5 mg QOD, DL2:5 mg daily, DL3:10 mg daily) following a standard 3+3 design. Responses were assessed every 2 cycles. Patients with at least stable disease (SD) continued everolimus until progression. Goals were to establish dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) for the combination. Results: 12 patients were enrolled, 3 at DL1, 3 at DL2, and an additional 6 at DL1 *(DL1 following de-escalation). 3/3 patients at DL2 had DLTs during cycle 1. 2/8 evaluable patients at DL1/DL1 * had DLTs during cycle 1. DLTs were primarily hematologic. Further toxicities, also primarily hematologic, were observed during later treatment cycles, leading to 8 chemotherapy dose reductions overall. Partial responses were observed in 4/10 evaluable patients, and SD in 5/10. Median overall survival was 10.8 months (95% CI 6.9, not reached). Conclusions: The maximum tolerated dose was reached at the lowest dose level, 5 mg QOD, for everolimus in combination with gemcitabine and split-dose cisplatin in advanced UC. The regimen was limited by hematologic toxicity. PMID:27376132

  10. Targeting mTOR and AREG with everolimus, sunitinib and sorafenib in HPV-positive and -negative SCC.

    PubMed

    Aderhold, Christoph; Faber, Anne; Umbreit, Claudia; Birk, Richard; Weiss, Christel; Sommer, Jörg Ulrich; Hörmann, Karl; Schultz, Johannes David

    2015-04-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is an aggressive epithelial malignancy. It is the most common neoplasm appearing in the upper aerodigestive tract and the sixth most common cancer worldwide. The five-year survival rate remains poor despite advances in surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. Furthermore, the incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oropharyngeal cancer is rising. Thus, innovative therapy approaches are imperative in order to improve the situation. Everolimus, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and sorafenib and sunitinib, multityrosine kinase inhibitors, have been notably effective in the therapy of different tumor entities. The modest side-effects and oral application of the drugs might improve patient compliance. Expression levels of mTOR and Amphiregulin (AREG) in p16-positive and -negative SCC (squamous cell carcinoma) and the effect of everolimus, sorafenib or sunitinib on the expression levels of these target proteins were assessed. As far as we are aware of, this is one of the first in vitro studies to evaluate the effect of these small-molecule drugs with regard to the p16 status of SCC cells. p16-negative HNSCC 11A and 14C cells and p16-positive CERV196 cells were exposed to different concentrations of everolimus, sorafenib and sunitinib for 2-8 days. Expression levels of mTOR and AREG were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and compared against a chemonaïve control. AREG and mTOR were expressed in all tested cell lines. CERV196 displayed a remarkable increase of mTOR expression compared to p16-negative HNSCC. On the contrary, AREG levels were reduced by 50% in CERV196. Everolimus, sorafenib and sunitinib significantly reduced mTOR expression. Everolimus significantly decreased AREG expression independently of the HPV status. Sunitinib and sorafenib increased AREG expression in HNSCC 11A and 14C but not in CERV196. The applied drugs showed remarkable suppression of m

  11. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Everolimus: A Consensus Report.

    PubMed

    Shipkova, Maria; Hesselink, Dennis A; Holt, David W; Billaud, Eliane M; van Gelder, Teun; Kunicki, Paweł K; Brunet, Mercè; Budde, Klemens; Barten, Markus J; De Simone, Paolo; Wieland, Eberhard; López, Olga Millán; Masuda, Satohiro; Seger, Christoph; Picard, Nicolas; Oellerich, Michael; Langman, Loralie J; Wallemacq, Pierre; Morris, Raymond G; Thompson, Carol; Marquet, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    In 2014, the Immunosuppressive Drugs Scientific Committee of the International Association of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring and Clinical Toxicology called a meeting of international experts to provide recommendations to guide therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of everolimus (EVR) and its optimal use in clinical practice. EVR is a potent inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin, approved for the prevention of organ transplant rejection and for the treatment of various types of cancer and tuberous sclerosis complex. EVR fulfills the prerequisites for TDM, having a narrow therapeutic range, high interindividual pharmacokinetic variability, and established drug exposure-response relationships. EVR trough concentrations (C0) demonstrate a good relationship with overall exposure, providing a simple and reliable index for TDM. Whole-blood samples should be used for measurement of EVR C0, and sampling times should be standardized to occur within 1 hour before the next dose, which should be taken at the same time everyday and preferably without food. In transplantation settings, EVR should be generally targeted to a C0 of 3-8 ng/mL when used in combination with other immunosuppressive drugs (calcineurin inhibitors and glucocorticoids); in calcineurin inhibitor-free regimens, the EVR target C0 range should be 6-10 ng/mL. Further studies are required to determine the clinical utility of TDM in nontransplantation settings. The choice of analytical method and differences between methods should be carefully considered when determining EVR concentrations, and when comparing and interpreting clinical trial outcomes. At present, a fully validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assay is the preferred method for determination of EVR C0, with a lower limit of quantification close to 1 ng/mL. Use of certified commercially available whole-blood calibrators to avoid calibration bias and participation in external proficiency-testing programs to allow continuous cross

  12. Fatal case of cryptogenic organizing pneumonia associated with everolimus.

    PubMed

    Nazer, Lama; Alnajjar, Taghreed; Salah, Samer; Khzouz, Jakub; Alfaqeer, Nour; Qandeel, Monther

    2014-01-01

    Noninfectious pneumonitis (NIP) has been reported with everolimus; however, the majority of the reported cases were mild to moderate. We report a fatal case of cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP) in a 61-year-old man. About 4 weeks after starting everolimus, the patient was admitted to the hospital with complaints of a 1-week history of progressive dyspnea with exertion and cough. The chest radiograph showed bilateral multifocal dense opacities, and he was started on antibiotics. However, his respiratory status deteriorated, and he was subsequently intubated and transferred to the intensive care unit. Chest computed tomography showed bronchocentric consolidation associated with widespread bilateral fine reticular opacification. Video-assisted thoracoscopic lung biopsy showed noncaseating granulomatous inflammation and features of COP. All cultures were negative for bacterial, viral, and fungal infections. Despite discontinuing everolimus and initiating corticosteroids, the patient died of progressive respiratory failure secondary to COP.

  13. BRAFV600E-dependent Mcl-1 stabilization leads to everolimus resistance in colon cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    He, Kan; Chen, Dongshi; Ruan, Hang; Li, Xiangyun; Tong, Jingshan; Xu, Xiang; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    mTOR activation is commonly caused by oncogenic mutations in RAS/RAF/MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways, and promotes cancer progression and therapeutic resistance. However, mTOR inhibitors show limited single agent efficacy in patients. mTOR inhibitors suppress tumor cell growth and angiogenesis, and have recently been shown to induce death receptor/FADD-dependent apoptosis in colon cancers. Using a panel of BRAF V600E and WT colorectal cancer cell lines and in vitro selected resistant culture, and xenograft models, we demonstrate here that BRAFV600E confers resistance to mTOR inhibitors. Everolimus treatment disrupts the S6K1-IRS-2/PI3K negative feedback loop, leading to BRAF V600E-dependent activation of ERK and Mcl-1 stabilization in colon cancer cells, which in turn blocks the crosstalk from the death receptor to mitochondria. Co-treatment with inhibitors to Mcl-1, PI3K, RAF or MEK restores mTOR inhibitor-induced apoptosis by antagonizing Mcl-1 or abrogating ERK activation in BRAFV600E cells. Our findings provide a rationale for genotype-guided patient stratification and potential drug combinations to prevent or mitigate undesired activation of survival pathways induced by mTOR inhibitors. PMID:27351224

  14. The PI3K/mTOR dual inhibitor BEZ235 suppresses proliferation and migration and reverses multidrug resistance in acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Lan; Jiang, Ling; Lin, Xiang-hua; Tseng, Kuo-Fu; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Xing; Dong, Rui-hong; Lu, Zhi-gang; Wang, Xiu-ju

    2017-01-01

    Aberrant activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway contributes to the proliferation of malignant cells, and may confer resistance to chemotherapy in various malignancies, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Chemoresistance is the major reason for relapse in AML. RAD001 (everolimus) has been used at d1 and d7 of an induction chemotherapy regimen for AML, which has acceptable toxicity and may improve conventional chemotherapeutic treatment. Dual inhibitors of PI3K and mTOR overcome some of the intrinsic disadvantages of rapamycin and its derivatives. In this study, we evaluated the effects of BEZ235, a PI3K/mTOR dual inhibitor, on the multidrug-resistant AML cell lines HL-60/VCR and K562/ADR in vitro. BEZ235 dose-dependently inhibited the viability of HL-60/VCR and K562/ADR cells with the IC50 values of 66.69 and 71.44 nmol/L, respectively. BEZ235 (25–100 nmol/L) dose-dependently inhibited the migration of the two AML cell lines, and it also significantly sensitized the two AML cell lines to VCR and ADR. After treatment with BEZ235, the miR-1-3p levels were markedly increased in HL-60/VCR cells. Using TargetScan analysis and luciferase assays, we showed that miR-1-3p targeted BAG4, EDN1 and ABCB1, the key regulators of cell apoptosis, migration and multidrug resistance, and significantly decreased their levels in the two AML cell lines. Transfection of HL-60/VCR and K562/ADR cells with miR-1-3p-AMO to inhibit miR-1-3p could reverse the anti-proliferation effects of BEZ235. In conclusion, the PI3K/mTOR dual inhibitor BEZ235 effectively chemosensitizes AML cells via increasing miR-1-3p and subsequently down-regulating BAG4, EDN1 and ABCB1. PMID:28042875

  15. The Synergistic Effect of Everolimus and Chloroquine on Endothelial Cell Number Reduction Is Paralleled by Increased Apoptosis and Reduced Autophagy Occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Grimaldi, Anna; Balestrieri, Maria Luisa; D'Onofrio, Nunzia; Di Domenico, Gilda; Nocera, Cosimo; Lamberti, Monica; Tonini, Giuseppe; Zoccoli, Alice; Santini, Daniele; Caraglia, Michele; Pantano, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial Progenitor Cells (EPCs), a minor subpopulation of the mononuclear cell fraction in peripheral blood, play a critical role in cancer development as they contribute to angiogenesis-mediated pathological neovascularization. In response to tumor cytokines, including VEGF, EPCs mobilize from the bone marrow into the peripheral circulation and move to the tumor bed where they incorporate into sprouting neovessels. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of everolimus (Afinitor, Novartis), a rapamycin analogue, alone or in combination with chloroquine, a 4-alkylamino substituted quinoline family member, one of the autophagy inhibitors, on EPCs biological functions. We found that either everolimus or chloroquine induce growth inhibition on EPCs in a dose-dependent manner after 72 h from the beginning of incubation. The combined administration of the two drugs to EPC was synergistic in inducing growth inhibition; in details, the maximal pharmacological synergism between everolimus and chloroquine in inducing growth inhibition on EPCs cells was recorded when chloroquine was administered 24 h before everolimus. Moreover, we have studied the mechanisms of cell death induced by the two agents alone or in combination on EPCs and we have found that the synergistic effect of combination on EPC growth inhibition was paralleled by increased apoptosis induction and reduced autophagy. These effects occurred together with biochemical features that are typical of reduced autophagic death such as increased co-immunoprecipitation between Beclin 1 and Bcl-2. Chloroquine antagonized the inhibition of the activity of Akt→4EBP1 axis mediated by everolimus and at the same time it blocked the feed-back activation of Erk-1/2 induced by RAD in EPCs. These data suggest a new strategy in order to block angiogenesis in tumours in which this process plays a key role in both the sustainment and spreading of cancer cells. PMID:24244540

  16. Paclitaxel, bevacizumab, and everolimus/placebo as first-line treatment for patients with metastatic HER2-negative breast cancer: a randomized placebo-controlled phase II trial of the Sarah Cannon Research Institute.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Denise A; Bosserman, Linda D; O'Shaughnessy, Joyce A; Harwin, William N; Morgan, Susan K; Priego, Victor M; Peacock, Nancy W; Bass, J David; Burris, Howard A; Hainsworth, John D

    2015-11-01

    Amplified PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling is common in metastatic breast cancer (MBC). The mTOR inhibitor everolimus improves progression-free survival (PFS) when added to steroidal aromatase inhibitor therapy. This randomized phase II trial compares the efficacy of paclitaxel/bevacizumab/everolimus and paclitaxel/bevacizumab/placebo as first-line treatment for MBC. Patients with untreated HER2-negative MBC were randomized (1:1) to receive 28-day cycles of paclitaxel 90 mg/m(2) IV (days 1, 8, and 15) and bevacizumab 10 mg/kg IV (days 1, 15) with either everolimus 10 mg (Arm 1) or placebo (Arm 2) daily. Treatment continued (evaluation every 8 weeks) until progression or unacceptable toxicity. Treatment of 110 patients allowed detection of an improvement in median PFS from 11 to 16 months (70 % power, α = 0.10). Between August 2009 and June 2011, 113 patients (median age 58 years; 88 % ER or PR positive) were randomized (Arm 1, 56; Arm 2, 57). Patients in both arms received a median of six treatment cycles. Median PFS (95 % CI) was 9.1 months (6.8-18.8) for Arm 1, and 7.1 months (5.6-10.8) for Arm 2 (p = 0.89). Comparisons of other efficacy endpoints were also similar in the two treatment arms. Patients receiving everolimus had more anemia, stomatitis, diarrhea, rash, and arthralgia/myalgia, although the overall incidence of severe (grade 3/4) toxicity was similar. The addition of everolimus did not improve the efficacy of weekly paclitaxel/bevacizumab as first-line treatment for patients with HER2-negative MBC. These results contrast with the demonstrated efficacy of adding everolimus to either hormonal or HER2-targeted therapy in previously treated patients.

  17. Cost-effectiveness analysis of everolimus plus exemestane versus exemestane alone for treatment of hormone receptor positive metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Diaby, Vakaramoko; Adunlin, Georges; Zeichner, Simon B; Avancha, Kiran; Lopes, Gilberto; Gluck, Stefan; Montero, Alberto J

    2014-09-01

    Everolimus in combination with exemestane significantly improved progression-free survival compared to exemestane alone in patients previously treated with non-steroidal aromatase inhibitors in the BOLERO-2 trial. As a result, this combination has been approved by the food and drug administration to treat postmenopausal women with hormone receptor positive and HER2 negative metastatic breast cancer. A cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted to determine whether everolimus represents good value for money, utilizing data from BOLERO-2. A decision-analytic model was used to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio between treatment arms of the BOLERO-2 trial. Costs were obtained from the Center for Medicare Services drug payment table and physician fee schedule. Benefits were expressed as quality-adjusted progression-free survival weeks (QAPFW) and quality-adjusted progression-free years (QAPFY), with utilities/disutilities derived from the literature. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. A willingness to pay threshold of 1-3 times the per capita gross domestic product was adopted, as per the definition of the World Health Organization. The U.S. per capita gross domestic product in 2013 was $49,965; thus, a threshold varying between $49,965 and $149,895 was considered. Everolimus/exemestane had an incremental benefit of 11.88 QAPFW (0.22 QAPFY) compared to exemestane and an incremental cost of $60,574. This translated into an ICER of $265,498.5/QAPFY. Univariate sensitivity analyses showed important variations of the ICER, ranging between $189,836.4 and $530,947/QAPFY. A tornado analysis suggested that the key drivers of our model, by order of importance, included health utility value for stable disease, everolimus acquisition costs, and transition probabilities from the stable to the progression states. The Monte-Carlo simulation showed results that were similar to the base-case analysis. This cost-effectiveness analysis

  18. Control of the MYC-eIF4E axis plus mTOR inhibitor treatment in small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Masaru; Seike, Masahiro; Noro, Rintaro; Soeno, Chie; Sugano, Teppei; Takeuchi, Susumu; Miyanaga, Akihiko; Kitamura, Kazuhiro; Kubota, Kaoru; Gemma, Akihiko

    2015-04-09

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors have anti-tumor effects against renal cell carcinoma, pancreatic neuroendocrine cancer and breast cancer. In this study, we analyzed the antitumor effects of mTOR inhibitors in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells and sought to clarify the mechanism of resistance to mTOR inhibitors. We analyzed the antitumor effects of three mTOR inhibitors including everolimus in 7 SCLC cell lines by MTS assay. Gene-chip analysis, receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) array and Western blotting analysis were performed to identify molecules associated with resistance to everolimus. Only SBC5 cells showed sensitivity to everolimus by MTS assay. We established two everolimus resistant-SBC5 cell lines (SBC5 R1 and SBC5 R10) by continuous exposure to increasing concentrations of everolimus stepwise. SPP1 and MYC were overexpressed in both SBC5 R1 and SBC5 R10 by gene-chip analysis. High expression levels of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) were observed in 5 everolimus-resistant SCLC cells and SBC5 R10 cells by Western blotting. MYC siRNA reduced eIF4E phosphorylation in SBC5 cells, suggesting that MYC directly activates eIF4E by an mTOR-independent bypass pathway. Importantly, after reduction of MYC or eIF4E by siRNAs, the SBC5 parent and two SBC5-resistant cells displayed increased sensitivity to everolimus relative to the siRNA controls. These findings suggest that eIF4E has been shown to be an important factor in the resistance to everolimus in SCLC cells. Furthermore, a link between MYC and mTOR-independent eIF4E contribute to the resistance to everolimus in SCLC cells. Control of the MYC-eIF4E axis may be a novel therapeutic strategy for everolimus action in SCLC.

  19. Everolimus, cyclosporine, and thrombotic microangiopathy: clinical role and preventive tools in renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Nava, F; Cappelli, G; Mori, G; Granito, M; Magnoni, G; Botta, C; Solazzo, A; Fontana, F; Baisi, A; Bonucchi, D

    2014-09-01

    Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is characterized by endothelial cell injury and formation of fibrin thrombi within capillary and arterioles. In renal allograft recipients, TMA mainly presents as hemolytic uremic syndrome. Its occurrence is rare, and diagnosis requires a high degree of suspicion. Drug toxicity, in particular from calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) and mTOR inhibitors (mTORi), is the most common cause posttransplant and has recently been emphasized in the setting of lung transplantation. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of mTORi as an added risk factor in the development of TMA to propose strategies for modulation of immunosuppressive (IS) therapy. From a database of 496 renal graft recipients, we analyzed 350 renal graft biopsy specimens gathered at our center from 1998 to 2012. In patients undergoing combined therapy with mTORi and CNI, we compared drugs levels in TMA-affected and TMA-free groups, using mTORi and CNI TLC and the summation of [everolimus TLC+(cyclosporine C2/100)] (Σ) as a surrogate marker of combined exposition to 2 drugs. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis of association of EVL TLC+(C2/100) was performed for patients exposed to mTORi. Histologic features of TMA were found in 36 patients (prevalence of 7.3%). The caseload was divided into 2 groups: not drug-related TMA (n=19) and drug-related TMA (n=17). Despite the prevalence of TMA in patients exposed to mTORi being greater (8 of 153; prevalence, 5.3%) compared with therapies without mTORi (9 of 324; prevalence, 2.8%), statistical difference was not reached. Patients treated with mTORi who developed de novo drug-related TMA had higher blood levels of IS drugs compared with those who did not develop TMA. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis found a significant threshold of 12.5 ng/mL (area under the curve, 0.803; P=.006). Results confirm the pivotal role of IS drugs in the onset of de novo TMA. On the basis of literature, we could speculate a sequence

  20. Everolimus Combined With Gefitinib in Patients with Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Phase I/II Results and Signaling Pathway Implications

    PubMed Central

    Rathkopf, Dana E.; Larson, Steven M.; Anand, Aseem; Morris, Michael J.; Slovin, Susan F.; Shaffer, David R.; Heller, Glenn; Carver, Brett; Rosen, Neal; Scher, Howard I.

    2015-01-01

    Background The effects of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition are limited by feedback reactivation of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling in PTEN-null tumors, thus we tested the combination of mTOR inhibition (everolimus) and EGFR inhibition (gefitinib) in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Methods In phase I, 12 patients (10 CRPC, 2 glioblastoma) received daily gefitinib (250 mg) with weekly everolimus (30, 50, or 70 mg). In phase II, 27 CRPC patients received gefitinib with everolimus 70 mg. Results Phase I revealed no pharmacokinetic interactions and no dose-limiting toxicities. In phase II, 18 of 27 (67%) patients discontinued treatment before the 12-week evaluation due to progression as evidenced by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels (n=6) or imaging (n=5), or grade ≥2 toxicity (n=7). Thirteen of the total 37 (35%) CRPC patients exhibited a rapidly rising PSA after starting treatment which declined upon discontinuation. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography at 24 to 72 hours after starting treatment showed a decrease in standardized uptake value consistent with mTOR inhibition in 27 of 33 (82%) evaluable patients; there was a corresponding rise in PSA in 20 of these 27 patients (74%). Conclusions The combination of gefitinib and everolimus did not result in significant antitumor activity. The induction of PSA in tumors treated with mTOR inhibitors was consistent with preclinical data that PI3K pathway signaling feedback inhibits the androgen receptor (AR). This clinical evidence of relief of feedback inhibition promoting enhanced AR activity supports future studies combining PI3K pathway inhibitors and second-generation AR inhibitors in CRPC. PMID:26178426

  1. UCP2 inhibition induces ROS/Akt/mTOR axis: role of GAPDH nuclear translocation in genipin/everolimus anticancer synergism.

    PubMed

    Dando, Ilaria; Pacchiana, Raffaella; Pozza, Elisa Dalla; Cataldo, Ivana; Bruno, Stefano; Conti, Paola; Cordani, Marco; Grimaldi, Anna; Butera, Giovanna; Caraglia, Michele; Scarpa, Aldo; Palmieri, Marta; Donadelli, Massimo

    2017-09-26

    Several studies indicate that mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) plays a pivotal role in cancer development by decreasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by mitochondrial metabolism and by sustaining chemoresistance to a plethora of anticancer drugs. Here, we demonstrate that inhibition of UCP2 triggers Akt/mTOR pathway in a ROS-dependent mechanism in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. This event reduces the antiproliferative outcome of UCP2 inhibition by genipin, creating the conditions for the synergistic counteraction of cancer cell growth with the mTOR inhibitor everolimus. Inhibition of pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell growth and induction of apoptosis by genipin and everolimus treatment are functionally related to nuclear translocation of the cytosolic glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). The synthetic compound (S)-benzyl-2-amino-2-(S)-3-bromo-4,5-dihydroisoxazol-5-yl-acetate (AXP3009), which binds GAPDH at its redox-sensitive Cys152, restores cell viability affected by the combined treatment with genipin and everolimus, suggesting a role for ROS production in the nuclear translocation of GAPDH. Caspase-mediated apoptosis by genipin and everolimus is further potentiated by the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine revealing a protective role for Beclin1-mediated autophagy induced by the treatment. Mice xenograft of pancreatic adenocarcinoma further confirmed the antiproliferative outcome of drug combination without toxic effects for animals. Tumor masses from mice injected with UCP2 and mTOR inhibitors revealed a strong reduction in tumor volume and number of mitosis associated with a marked GAPDH nuclear positivity. Altogether, these results reveal novel mechanisms through which UCP2 promotes cancer cell proliferation and support the combined inhibition of UCP2 and of Akt/mTOR pathway as a novel therapeutic strategy in the treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Combination of exemestane and everolimus may produce toxic side effects: a new treatment option for metastatic hormone-sensitive breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Vincent, Jeroen; de Boer, Maaike; Lobbezoo, Dorien J A; Smeets, Ruud E H; Tjan-Heijnen, Vivianne C G

    2014-01-01

    The combination of exemestane and everolimus is a new treatment option for metastatic hormone-sensitive breast cancer. This treatment is used after progression on non-steroidal aromatase inhibitors. The treatment is generally well tolerated, but sometimes leads to minor or even serious side effects. It is important to be aware of these side effects and to treat them. We describe two patients who had to cope with various forms of toxicity: a 73-year-old woman with aphthous mouth lesions and a 49-year-old woman with pneumonitis. We then discuss the efficacy of the combination exemestane and everolimus and its positioning in the treatment of metastatic hormone-sensitive breast cancer. Finally, some common and some potentially serious side effects will be discussed, along with recommendations for their management and indications for distinguishing side effects from disease progression.

  3. Real-World Analysis of Medical Costs and Healthcare Resource Utilization in Elderly Women with HR+/HER2- Metastatic Breast Cancer Receiving Everolimus-Based Therapy or Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yanni; Li, Nanxin; Fang, Anna P; Koo, Valerie; Peeples, Miranda; Kageleiry, Andrew; Wu, Eric Q; Guérin, Annie

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze medical costs and healthcare resource utilization (HRU) associated with everolimus-based therapy or chemotherapy among elderly women with hormone-receptor-positive, human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-2-negative (HR+/HER2-) metastatic breast cancer (mBC). Elderly women (≥65 years) with HR+/HER2- mBC who failed a non-steroidal-aromatase-inhibitor and subsequently began a new line of treatment with everolimus-based therapy or chemotherapy for mBC (index therapy) during July 20, 2012 to March 31, 2014 were identified from two large commercial claims databases. All-cause, BC-, and adverse event (AE)-related medical costs (2014 USD), and all-cause and AE-related HRU per patient per month (PPPM) were compared between patients treated with everolimus-based therapy and chemotherapy across their first four lines of therapy for mBC. Adjusted costs and HRU differences were estimated by pooling all lines and using multivariable models adjusted for differences in patient characteristics. In total, 925 elderly patients (mean age approximately 73 years) with HR+/HER2- mBC met the inclusion criteria; 230 received everolimus-based therapy (240 lines) and 737 received chemotherapy (939 lines). Compared with chemotherapy, everolimus-based therapy was associated with significantly lower total all-cause PPPM medical services costs (adjusted mean difference: $4007), driven by lower inpatient ($1994) and outpatient ($1402) costs; lower BC-related medical services costs ($3129), driven by both BC-related inpatient ($1883) and outpatient costs ($913); and lower AE-related medical services costs ($1873; all P < 0.01). Additionally, compared to patients treated with chemotherapy, patients treated with everolimus-based therapy had fewer all-cause outpatient visits (adjusted incidence rate ratio = 0.69), BC-related outpatient visits (0.66), other-medical-service visits (0.65), and AE-related HRU (0.59), which was driven by significantly

  4. Everolimus-eluting stents: update on current clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Allocco, Dominic J; Joshi, Anita A; Dawkins, Keith D

    2011-01-01

    Everolimus-eluting stents (EES) have become the most commonly implanted coronary stents worldwide. This review describes and analyzes the clinical data supporting the use of EES, focusing primarily on published, randomized, controlled trials. Everolimus-eluting stents have been shown to have less restenosis, stent thrombosis, and periprocedural myocardial infarction compared with earlier generation paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES). Lower rates of adverse events for EES compared with PES were generally seen in all subgroups, with the notable exception of patients with diabetes mellitus. There have been fewer, randomized, clinical trials comparing EES with either sirolimus-eluting stents or zotarolimus-eluting stents, although very good results with EES have been observed in the trials that have been performed. Recent clinical trial data suggest that this excellent safety and efficacy profile is maintained in a next-generation EES designed to have improved mechanical properties and radiopacity.

  5. 18F-FLT PET as a surrogate marker of drug efficacy during mTOR inhibition by everolimus in a preclinical cisplatin-resistant ovarian tumor model.

    PubMed

    Aide, Nicolas; Kinross, Kathryn; Cullinane, Carleen; Roselt, Peter; Waldeck, Kelly; Neels, Oliver; Dorow, Donna; McArthur, Grant; Hicks, Rodney J

    2010-10-01

    Targeting the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is a potential means of overcoming cisplatin resistance in ovarian cancer patients. Because mTOR inhibition affects cell proliferation, we aimed to study whether 3'-deoxy-3'-(18)F-fluorothymidine ((18)F-FLT) PET could be useful for monitoring early response to treatment with mTOR inhibitors in an animal model of cisplatin-resistant ovarian tumor. BALB/c nude mice bearing subcutaneous human SKOV3 ovarian cancer xenografts were treated with either the mTOR inhibitor everolimus (5 mg/kg) or vehicle, and (18)F-FLT PET was performed at baseline, day 2, and day 7 of treatment. (18)F-FLT uptake was evaluated by calculation of mean standardized uptake value (SUVmean) corrected for partial-volume effect. Ex vivo immunohistochemistry studies were performed on separate cohorts of mice treated as above and sacrificed at the same time points as for the PET studies. The ex vivo analysis included bromodeoxyuridine incorporation as a marker of cell proliferation, and phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 as a downstream marker of mTOR activation. During the treatment period, no significant change in tumor (18)F-FLT uptake was observed in the vehicle group, whereas in everolimus-treated mice, (18)F-FLT SUVmean decreased by 33% (P = 0.003) at day 2 and 66% (P < 0.001) at day 7, compared with baseline. Notably, the reduction of (18)F-FLT uptake observed at day 2 in the everolimus group preceded changes in tumor volume, and a significant difference in (18)F-FLT uptake was observed between vehicle and drug-treated tumors at both day 2 (P = 0.0008) and day 7 (P = 0.01). In ex vivo studies, everolimus treatment resulted in a 98% reduction in phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 immunostaining at day 2 (P = 0.02) and 91% reduction at day 7 (P = 0.003), compared with the vehicle group. Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation was reduced by 65% at day 2 (not significant) and by 41% at day 7 (P = 0.02) in drug versus vehicle groups

  6. Protective function of pirfenidone and everolimus on the development of chronic allograft rejection after experimental lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    von Suesskind-Schwendi, M; Heigel, E; Pfaehler, S; Haneya, A; Schmid, C; Hirt, S W; Lehle, K

    2016-07-01

    Long-term survival of lung allografts is limited by chronic rejection (CR). Oxidative stress (OxS) plays a central role in the development of CR. We investigated the influence of pirfenidone (alone or in combination with everolimus) on OxS and CR. A rat model of left lung allo-transplantation (F344-to-WKY) was used to evaluate the effects of pirfenidone alone [0,85% in chow from postoperative day (POD) -3 to 20/60] and in combination with everolimus [2,5 mg/kg bw daily from POD 7 to 20/60]. Allografts of non-treated animals, everolimus treated animals and right, non-transplanted lungs were used as references. Immunohistology of myeloperoxidase (MPO), haemoxygenase-1 (HO-1), iron and platelet-derived-growth-factor-receptor-alpha (PDGFR-a) were performed. On POD 20, all groups showed severe acute rejection (ISHLT A3-4/B1R-B2R). Groups treated with pirfenidone showed a lower interstitial inflammatory infiltration and a lower participation of highly fibrotic degenerated vessels (ISHLT-D2R). In the long term follow up (POD 60), pirfenidone alone significantly reduced chronic airway rejection (ISHLT-C; p≤0.05), interstitial fibrosis (IF; p≤0.05), content of collagen (p≤0.05), expression of PDGFR-a (p≤0.05) and the deposition of iron (p≤0.05). All groups treated with pirfenidone showed a high expression of the cytoprotective enzyme HO-1 (p≤0.05). The additional application of everolimus resulted in a significant decrease of chronic airway rejection (ISHLT-C; p≤0.05), vasculopathy (ISHLT; p≤0.05) and IF (p≤0.05). In conclusion, early application of pirfenidone inhibited the progression of CR by its anti-fibrotic and anti-oxidative properties. The additional application of an m-TOR-inhibitor increased the anti-fibrotic effects of pirfenidone which resulted in a reduction of CR after experimental LTx.

  7. Bioavailability of everolimus administered as a single 5 mg tablet versus five 1 mg tablets: a randomized, open-label, two-way crossover study of healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Thudium, Karen; Gallo, Jorge; Bouillaud, Emmanuel; Sachs, Carolin; Eddy, Simantini; Cheung, Wing

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor everolimus has a well-established pharmacokinetics profile. We conducted a randomized, single-center, open-label, two-sequence, two-period crossover study of healthy volunteers to assess the relative bioavailability of everolimus administered as one 5 mg tablet or five 1 mg tablets. Subjects were randomized 1:1 to receive everolimus dosed as one 5 mg tablet or as five 1 mg tablets on day 1, followed by a washout period on days 8-14 and then the opposite formulation on day 15. Blood sampling for pharmacokinetic evaluation was performed at prespecified time points, with 17 samples taken for each treatment period. Primary variables for evaluation of relative bioavailability were area under the concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUCinf) and maximum blood concentration (Cmax). Safety was assessed by reporting the incidence of adverse events (AEs). Twenty-two participants received everolimus as one 5 mg tablet followed by five 1 mg tablets (n=11) or the opposite sequence (n=11). The Cmax of five 1 mg tablets was 48% higher than that of one 5 mg tablet (geometric mean ratio, 1.48; 90% confidence interval [CI], 1.35-1.62). AUCinf was similar (geometric mean ratio, 1.08; 90% CI, 1.02-1.16), as were the extent of absorption and the distribution and elimination kinetics. AEs, all grade 1 or 2, were observed in 54.5% of subjects. Although the extent of absorption was similar, the Cmax of five 1 mg tablets was higher than that of one 5 mg tablet, suggesting these formulations lead to different peak blood concentrations and are not interchangeable at the dose tested.

  8. Everolimus-treated renal transplant recipients have a more robust CMV-specific CD8+ T-cell response compared with cyclosporine- or mycophenolate-treated patients.

    PubMed

    Havenith, Simone H C; Yong, Si La; van Donselaar-van der Pant, Karlijn A M I; van Lier, René A W; ten Berge, Ineke J M; Bemelman, Fréderike J

    2013-01-15

    In renal transplant recipients, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors have been reported to protect against cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease. Here, we questioned whether mTOR inhibitors specifically influence human CMV-induced T-cell responses. We studied renal transplant recipients treated with prednisolone, cyclosporine A (CsA), and mycophenolate sodium (MPS) for the first 6 months after transplantation followed by double therapy consisting of prednisolone/everolimus, which is an mTOR inhibitor (P/EVL; n=10), prednisolone/CsA (P/CsA; n=7), or prednisolone/MPS (P/MPS; n=9). All patients were CMV-IgG positive before transplantation. CMV reactivation was detectable in the first 6 months after transplantation and not thereafter. None of the patients included in this study suffered from CMV disease. Both CD27CD8 and CD27CD28CD4 effector-type T-cell counts, known to be associated with CMV infection, were measured before transplantation and at 6 and 24 months after transplantation. Additionally, we determined both number and function of CMV-specific CD8 T cells at these time points. The number of total CD8 T cells, CD27CD8 T cells, and CD28CD4 T cells increased significantly after switch to therapy with P/EVL but not after switch to P/CsA or P/MPS. Specifically, CMV-specific CD8 T-cell counts significantly increased after switch to therapy with P/EVL. Furthermore, the mTOR inhibitor sirolimus strongly inhibited alloresponses in vitro, whereas it did not affect CMV-specific responses. We observed a significant increase in (CMV-specific) effector-type CD8 and CD4 T-cell counts in everolimus-treated patients. These findings may at least in part explain the reported low incidence of CMV-related pathology in everolimus-treated patients.

  9. Amenorrhea as a rare drug-related adverse event associated with everolimus for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Yoshiaki; Maruno, Atsuko; Kawashima, Yohei; Ito, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Masami; Mine, Tetsuya

    2014-11-14

    The patient was an asymptomatic 43-year-old woman. Abdominal ultrasonography and enhanced computed tomography showed a tumor lesion accompanied by multiple cystic changes in the liver and the pancreatic tail. Endoscopic ultrasound-fine needle aspiration was performed on the pancreatic tumor lesion and revealed pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (PNET). As it was unresectable due to multiple liver metastases, the decision was made to initiate treatment with everolimus and transcatheter arterial chemoembolization. The patient ceased menstruating after the start of everolimus administration. When the administration was discontinued due to interstitial lung disease, menstruation resumed, but then again stopped with everolimus resumption. An association between everolimus and amenorrhea was highly suspected. Amenorrhea occurred as a rare adverse event of everolimus. As the younger women might be included in PNETs patients, we should put this adverse event into consideration.

  10. A Phase II Study of BEZ235 in Patients with Everolimus-resistant, Advanced Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumours

    PubMed Central

    FAZIO, NICOLA; BUZZONI, ROBERTO; BAUDIN, ERIC; ANTONUZZO, LORENZO; HUBNER, RICHARD A.; LAHNER, HARALD; DE HERDER, WOUTER W.; RADERER, MARKUS; TEULÉ, ALEXANDRE; CAPDEVILA, JAUME; LIBUTTI, STEVEN K.; KULKE, MATTHEW H.; SHAH, MANISHA; DEY, DEBARSHI; TURRI, SABINE; AIMONE, PAOLA; MASSACESI, CRISTIAN; VERSLYPE, CHRIS

    2016-01-01

    Background This was a two-stage, phase II trial of the dual phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor BEZ235 in patients with everolimus-resistant pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (pNETs) (NCT01658436). Patients and Methods In stage 1, 11 patients received 400 mg BEZ235 orally twice daily (bid). Due to tolerability concerns, a further 20 patients received BEZ235 300 mg bid. Stage 2 would be triggered by a 16-week progression-free survival (PFS) rate of ≥60% in stage 1. Results As of 30 June, 2014, 29/31 patients had discontinued treatment. Treatment-related grade 3/4 adverse events were reported in eight (72.7%) patients at 400 mg and eight (40.0%) patients at 300 mg, including hyperglycaemia, diarrhoea, nausea, and vomiting. The estimated 16-week PFS rate was 51.6% (90% confidence interval=35.7–67.3%). Conclusion BEZ235 was poorly tolerated by patients with everolimus-resistant pNETs at 400 and 300 mg bid doses. Although evidence of disease stability was observed, the study did not proceed to stage 2. PMID:26851029

  11. Exceptional durable response to everolimus in a patient with biphenotypic breast cancer harboring an STK11 variant.

    PubMed

    Parachoniak, Christine A; Rankin, Andrew; Gaffney, Bernadette; Hartmaier, Ryan; Spritz, Dan; Erlich, Rachel L; Miller, Vincent A; Morosini, Deborah; Stephens, Phil; Ross, Jeffrey S; Keech, John; Chmielecki, Juliann

    2017-09-01

    Metastatic triple-negative breast cancer comprises 12%-17% of breast cancers and carries a poor prognosis relative to other breast cancer subtypes. Treatment options in this disease are largely limited to systemic chemotherapy. A majority of clinical studies assessing efficacy of targeted therapeutics (e.g., the mammalian target of rapamycin [mTOR] inhibitor everolimus) in advanced breast cancer patients have not utilized predictive genomic biomarker-based selection and have reported only modest improvement in the clinical outcome relative to standard of care. However, recent reports have highlighted significant clinical responses of breast malignancies harboring alterations in genes involved in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway to mTOR-inhibitor-involving regimens, underscoring the potential clinical benefit of treating subsets of breast cancer patients with molecularly matched targeted therapies. As the paradigm of cancer treatment shifts from chemotherapeutic regimens to more personalized approaches, the identification of additional reliable biomarkers is essential for identifying patients likely to derive maximum benefit from targeted therapies. Herein, we report a near-complete and ongoing 14-mo response to everolimus therapy of a heavily pretreated patient with biphenotypic, metastatic breast cancer. Genomic profiling of the metastatic triple-negative liver specimen identified a single reportable point mutation, STK11 F354L, that appears to have undergone loss of heterozygosity. No other alterations within the PI3K/mTOR pathway were observed. Published functional biochemical data on this variant are conflicting, and germline data, albeit with unclear zygosity status, are suggestive of a benign polymorphism role. Together with the preclinical data, this case suggests further investigation of this variant is warranted to better understand its role as a potential biomarker for mTOR inhibitor sensitivity in the appropriate clinical

  12. mTOR inhibitor for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Masatoshi

    2011-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays a central role in the regulation of cellular growth, proliferation, and survival via a cytoplasmic serine/threonine kinase. mTOR also works as a nutrition sensor to monitor cellular metabolism. mTOR is located downstream in the PI3K/Akt pathway, in which Akt and the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) 1/2 are involved, to form a signal transduction pathway. New anticancer agents that target mTOR in the PI3K/Akt pathway of the signal transduction pathways involved in cell proliferation control have recently been developed and are already commercially available. A phase III clinical trial of mTOR inhibitor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is now ongoing worldwide to expand indications. RAD001 is a signal-transduction inhibitor (STI) that targets mTOR (more specifically, mTORC1). mTORC1 signaling is intricately regulated by mitogens, growth factors, energy, and nutrients. mTORC1 is a regulator essential for general protein synthesis, located downstream of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, which is dysregulated in most human cancers. Inhibiting mTOR with molecules, such as RAD001, generates additive effects that accompany upstream and downstream target inhibition; alternatively, upstream receptor inhibition is compensated for by inhibiting the downstream pathway, even if some resistance develops against receptor inhibition regardless of initial or acquired resistance. In conclusion, RAD001 is a potential targeted agent for HCC and therefore final results of a phase III study are awaited.

  13. Everolimus-Eluting Bioresorbable Scaffolds for Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Stephen G; Kereiakes, Dean J; Metzger, D Christopher; Caputo, Ronald P; Rizik, David G; Teirstein, Paul S; Litt, Marc R; Kini, Annapoorna; Kabour, Ameer; Marx, Steven O; Popma, Jeffrey J; McGreevy, Robert; Zhang, Zhen; Simonton, Charles; Stone, Gregg W

    2015-11-12

    In patients with coronary artery disease who receive metallic drug-eluting coronary stents, adverse events such as late target-lesion failure may be related in part to the persistent presence of the metallic stent frame in the coronary-vessel wall. Bioresorbable vascular scaffolds have been developed to attempt to improve long-term outcomes. In this large, multicenter, randomized trial, 2008 patients with stable or unstable angina were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive an everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular (Absorb) scaffold (1322 patients) or an everolimus-eluting cobalt-chromium (Xience) stent (686 patients). The primary end point, which was tested for both noninferiority (margin, 4.5 percentage points for the risk difference) and superiority, was target-lesion failure (cardiac death, target-vessel myocardial infarction, or ischemia-driven target-lesion revascularization) at 1 year. Target-lesion failure at 1 year occurred in 7.8% of patients in the Absorb group and in 6.1% of patients in the Xience group (difference, 1.7 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, -0.5 to 3.9; P=0.007 for noninferiority and P=0.16 for superiority). There was no significant difference between the Absorb group and the Xience group in rates of cardiac death (0.6% and 0.1%, respectively; P=0.29), target-vessel myocardial infarction (6.0% and 4.6%, respectively; P=0.18), or ischemia-driven target-lesion revascularization (3.0% and 2.5%, respectively; P=0.50). Device thrombosis within 1 year occurred in 1.5% of patients in the Absorb group and in 0.7% of patients in the Xience group (P=0.13). In this large-scale, randomized trial, treatment of noncomplex obstructive coronary artery disease with an everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffold, as compared with an everolimus-eluting cobalt-chromium stent, was within the prespecified margin for noninferiority with respect to target-lesion failure at 1 year. (Funded by Abbott Vascular; ABSORB III Clinical

  14. Synergistic effects of erlotinib and everolimus on bronchial carcinoids and large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas with activated EGFR/AKT/mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Bago-Horvath, Zsuzsanna; Sieghart, Wolfgang; Grusch, Michael; Lackner, Andreas; Hayden, Hubert; Pirker, Christine; Komina, Oxana; Węsierska-Gądek, Józefa; Haitel, Andrea; Filipits, Martin; Berger, Walter; Schmid, Katharina

    2012-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) are crucial targets in cancer therapy. Combined inhibition of both targets yielded synergistic effects in vitro and in vivo in several cancer entities. However, the impact of EGFR and mTOR expression and combined inhibition in neuroendocrine lung tumors other than small-cell lung cancer remains unclear. Expression and activation of EGFR/AKT/mTOR pathway constituents were investigated in typical and atypical bronchial carcinoid (AC) tumors and large-cell neuroendocrine lung carcinomas (LCNEC) by immunohistochemistry in 110 tumor samples, and correlated with clinicopathological parameters and patient survival. Cytotoxicity of mTOR inhibitor everolimus and EGFR inhibitor erlotinib alone and in combination was assessed using growth inhibition assay in NCI-H720 AC and SHP-77 LCNEC cells. Cell cycle phase distribution was determined by FACS. Apoptosis-associated activation of caspase-3/7 was measured by Caspase-Glo® assay. Activity status of EGFR and mTOR pathway components was analyzed by immunoblotting. Activation of the EGFR/AKT/mTOR axis could be demonstrated in all entities and was significantly increased in higher grade tumors. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy correlated significantly with p-AKT expression and p-ERK loss. Erlotinib combined with everolimus exerted synergistic combination effects in AC and LCNEC cells by induction of apoptosis, while cell cycle phase distribution remained unaffected. These effects could be explained by synergistic downregulation of phospho-mTOR, phospho-p70S6 kinase and phospho-AKT expression by everolimus and erlotinib. Our study indicates that EGFR and mTOR are clinically important targets in bronchial neuroendocrine tumors, and further in vivo and clinical exploration of combined inhibition is warranted. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. The Effect of Everolimus in an In Vitro Model of Triple Negative Breast Cancer and Osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Mercatali, Laura; Spadazzi, Chiara; Miserocchi, Giacomo; Liverani, Chiara; De Vita, Alessandro; Bongiovanni, Alberto; Recine, Federica; Amadori, Dino; Ibrahim, Toni

    2016-11-01

    Metastatic bone disease has a major impact on morbidity of breast cancer (BC) patients. Alterations in mTOR signaling are involved both in cancer progression and in osteoclast differentiation. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of mTOR inhibitor Everolimus (Eve) on osteoclastogenesis induced by triple negative BC cells. To this aim, we developed an in vitro human model of osteoclastogenesis from peripheral blood monocytes co-cultured with the triple negative SCP2 and the hormonal receptor positive MCF7 cell lines. Osteoclastogenesis was evaluated by TRAP staining, evaluation of F actin rings and Calcitonin Receptor expression. Eve significantly reduced differentiation induced by cancer cells and resulted more effective when evaluated in combination with Denosumab and Zoledronic Acid (Zol). Combination with Zol showed a total abrogation of osteoclast differentiation induced by the triple negative cell line, not by MCF7. Finally, we observed that Eve was active in the inhibition of the crosstalk between cancer cells and osteoclasts reproduced by our model, highlighting a new therapeutic choice for the subsetting of triple negative BC patients. We observed a difference in the response to bone-targeted therapy with respect to BC subtypes. Our model may represent a valid platform for preclinical trials on bone-targeted drugs and for the study of the interplay of BC with bone stromal cells.

  16. The Effect of Everolimus in an In Vitro Model of Triple Negative Breast Cancer and Osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    Mercatali, Laura; Spadazzi, Chiara; Miserocchi, Giacomo; Liverani, Chiara; De Vita, Alessandro; Bongiovanni, Alberto; Recine, Federica; Amadori, Dino; Ibrahim, Toni

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic bone disease has a major impact on morbidity of breast cancer (BC) patients. Alterations in mTOR signaling are involved both in cancer progression and in osteoclast differentiation. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of mTOR inhibitor Everolimus (Eve) on osteoclastogenesis induced by triple negative BC cells. To this aim, we developed an in vitro human model of osteoclastogenesis from peripheral blood monocytes co-cultured with the triple negative SCP2 and the hormonal receptor positive MCF7 cell lines. Osteoclastogenesis was evaluated by TRAP staining, evaluation of F actin rings and Calcitonin Receptor expression. Eve significantly reduced differentiation induced by cancer cells and resulted more effective when evaluated in combination with Denosumab and Zoledronic Acid (Zol). Combination with Zol showed a total abrogation of osteoclast differentiation induced by the triple negative cell line, not by MCF7. Finally, we observed that Eve was active in the inhibition of the crosstalk between cancer cells and osteoclasts reproduced by our model, highlighting a new therapeutic choice for the subsetting of triple negative BC patients. We observed a difference in the response to bone-targeted therapy with respect to BC subtypes. Our model may represent a valid platform for preclinical trials on bone-targeted drugs and for the study of the interplay of BC with bone stromal cells. PMID:27809291

  17. Metabolic response to everolimus in patient-derived triple negative breast cancer xenografts.

    PubMed

    Euceda, Leslie R; Hill, Deborah K; Stokke, Endre; Hatem, Rana; Botty, Rania El; Bièche, Ivan; Marangoni, Elisabetta; Bathen, Tone F; Moestue, Siver A

    2017-03-14

    Patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) are unresponsive to endocrine and anti-HER2 pharmacotherapy, limiting their therapeutic options to chemotherapy. TNBC is frequently associated with abnormalities in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway; drugs targeting this pathway are currently being evaluated in these patients. However, response is variable, partly due to heterogeneity within TNBC, conferring a need to identify biomarkers predicting response and resistance to targeted therapy. In this study, we used a metabolomics approach to assess response to the mTOR inhibitor everolimus in a panel of TNBC patient-derived xenografts (PDX) (n=103 animals). Tumor metabolic profiles were acquired using high-resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis on relative metabolite concentrations discriminated treated xenografts from untreated controls with an accuracy of 67% (p=0.003). Multilevel linear mixed-effects models (LMM) indicated reduced glycolytic lactate production and glutaminolysis after treatment, consistent with PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibition. Although inherent metabolic heterogeneity between different PDX models seemed to hinder prediction of treatment response, the metabolic effects following treatment were more pronounced in responding xenografts compared to non-responders. Additionally, the metabolic information predicted p53 mutation status, which may provide complimentary insight into the interplay between PI3K signaling and other drivers of disease progression.

  18. Sirolimus and Everolimus Pathway: Reviewing Candidate Genes Influencing Their Intracellular Effects

    PubMed Central

    Granata, Simona; Dalla Gassa, Alessandra; Carraro, Amedeo; Brunelli, Matteo; Stallone, Giovanni; Lupo, Antonio; Zaza, Gianluigi

    2016-01-01

    Sirolimus (SRL) and everolimus (EVR) are mammalian targets of rapamycin inhibitors (mTOR-I) largely employed in renal transplantation and oncology as immunosuppressive/antiproliferative agents. SRL was the first mTOR-I produced by the bacterium Streptomyces hygroscopicus and approved for several medical purposes. EVR, derived from SRL, contains a 2-hydroxy-ethyl chain in the 40th position that makes the drug more hydrophilic than SRL and increases oral bioavailability. Their main mechanism of action is the inhibition of the mTOR complex 1 and the regulation of factors involved in a several crucial cellular functions including: protein synthesis, regulation of angiogenesis, lipid biosynthesis, mitochondrial biogenesis and function, cell cycle, and autophagy. Most of the proteins/enzymes belonging to the aforementioned biological processes are encoded by numerous and tightly regulated genes. However, at the moment, the polygenic influence on SRL/EVR cellular effects is still not completely defined, and its comprehension represents a key challenge for researchers. Therefore, to obtain a complete picture of the cellular network connected to SRL/EVR, we decided to review major evidences available in the literature regarding the genetic influence on mTOR-I biology/pharmacology and to build, for the first time, a useful and specific “SRL/EVR genes-focused pathway”, possibly employable as a starting point for future in-depth research projects. PMID:27187382

  19. Everolimus Treatment for an Early Infantile Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma With Tuberous Sclerosis Complex.

    PubMed

    Fukumura, Shinobu; Watanabe, Toshihide; Takayama, Rumiko; Minagawa, Kimio; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-01

    Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas are benign tumors often observed with tuberous sclerosis complex. These tumors are rarely diagnosed during fetal life or early infancy. Until recently, the only available treatment has been surgical resection. Current clinical research has demonstrated that everolimus can induce these tumors' regression. We report a 19-month-old boy with tuberous sclerosis complex. At 2 months of age, he presented with congenital subependymal giant cell astrocytoma that was complicated by refractory epilepsy and severe mental retardation. Treatment with everolimus was started when he was 10 months old. Three months after initiating everolimus, the tumor was significantly reduced in size, and the reduction was subsequently maintained. His seizures decreased and he showed cognitive and developmental improvement. No severe adverse events have been observed to date. Everolimus has promise as an effective alternative to surgery for subependymal giant cell astrocytomas during early infancy.

  20. Everolimus-induced Pneumonitis after Drug-eluting Stent Implantation: A Case Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Susumu Kikuchi, Naoshi; Ichikawa, Atsuo; Sano, Go; Satoh, Keita; Sugino, Keishi; Isobe, Kazutoshi; Takai, Yujiro; Shibuya, Kazutoshi; Homma, Sakae

    2013-08-01

    Despite the wide use of everolimus as an antineoplastic coating agent for coronary stents to reduce the rate of restenosis, little is known about the health hazards of everolimus-eluting stents (EES). We describe a case of pneumonitis that developed 2 months after EES implantation for angina. Lung pathology demonstrated an organizing pneumonia pattern that responded to corticosteroid therapy. Although the efficacy of EES for ischemic heart disease is well established, EES carries a risk of pneumonitis.

  1. Effects of mTOR and calcineurin inhibitors combined therapy in Epstein-Barr virus positive and negative Burkitt lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wowro, Sylvia J; Schmitt, Katharina R L; Tong, Giang; Berger, Felix; Schubert, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder is a severe complication in solid organ transplant recipients, which is highly associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection in pediatric patients and occasionally presents as Burkitt- or Burkitt-like lymphoma. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has been described as a possible antitumor target whose inhibition may influence lymphoma development and proliferation after pediatric transplantation. We treated Epstein-Barr virus positive (Raji and Daudi) and negative (Ramos) human Burkitt lymphoma derived cells with mTOR inhibitor everolimus alone and in combination with clinically relevant immunosuppressive calcineurin inhibitors (tacrolimus or cyclosporin A). Cell proliferation, toxicity, and mitochondrial metabolic activity were analyzed. The effect on mTOR Complex 1 downstream targets p70 S6 kinase, eukaryotic initiation factor 4G, and S6 ribosomal protein activation was also investigated. We observed that treatment with everolimus alone significantly decreased Burkitt lymphoma cell proliferation and mitochondrial metabolic activity. Everolimus in combination with cyclosporin A had a stronger suppressive effect in Epstein-Barr virus negative but not in Epstein-Barr virus positive cells. In contrast, tacrolimus completely abolished the everolimus-mediated suppressive effects. Moreover, we showed a significant decrease in activation of mTOR Complex 1 downstream targets after treatment with everolimus that was attenuated when combined with tacrolimus, but not with cyclosporin A. For the first time we showed the competitive effect between everolimus and tacrolimus when used as combination therapy on Burkitt lymphoma derived cells. Thus, according to our in vitro data, the combination of calcineurin inhibitor cyclosporin A with everolimus is preferred to the combination of tacrolimus and everolimus.

  2. NeuroEndocrine Tumor Therapy with Lutetium-177-octreotate and Everolimus (NETTLE): A Phase I Study.

    PubMed

    Claringbold, Phillip G; Turner, J Harvey

    2015-08-01

    To establish the optimal safe dose of everolimus in combination with (177)Lu-octreotate peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) of advanced progressive gastro-entero pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) and to define dose-limiting toxicity. Patients with advanced unresectable progressive well-differentiated GEP-NETS avid for (68)Ga-octreotate on positron emission tomography-computed tomography imaging underwent PRRT with four cycles of 7.8 GBq (177)Lu-octreotate at 8 week intervals. Successive cohorts of 3 patients received escalating doses of everolimus comprising 5, 7.5, and 10 mg daily for 24 weeks. Sixteen patients comprised 4 at 5 mg, 9 at 7.5 mg, and 3 at 10 mg everolimus. Patient cohorts at 5 and 7.5 mg received 83% and 80% of the total planned dose of everolimus over 24 weeks. All patients required dose reduction or complete cessation of everolimus at the 10 mg level, which induced neutropenia and thrombocytopenia, and reduced creatinine clearance. The overall response rate was 44% (7 of 16 patients), and no patient progressed over the 6 month period of treatment. Four of 5 pancreatic NET patients achieved PR 80%. No patient progressed on study. In combination, PRRT with (177)Lu-octreotate, the maximum tolerated dose of everolimus is 7.5 mg daily.

  3. Everolimus and Sirolimus in Combination with Cyclosporine Have Different Effects on Renal Metabolism in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Nina; Schmitz, Volker; Shokati, Touraj; Lawrence, Ryan; Arbelaez, Maria Fernanda; Schniedewind, Björn; Christians, Uwe; Klawitter, Jost

    2012-01-01

    Enhancement of calcineurin inhibitor nephrotoxicity by sirolimus (SRL) is limiting the clinical use of this drug combination. We compared the dose-dependent effects of the structurally related everolimus (EVL) and sirolimus (SRL) alone, and in combination with cyclosporine (CsA), on the rat kidney. Lewis rats were treated by oral gavage for 28 days using a checkerboard dosing format (0, 3.0, 6.0 and 10.0 CsA and 0, 0.5, 1.5 and 3.0 mg/kg/day SRL or EVL, n = 4/dose combination). After 28 days, oxidative stress, energy charge, kidney histologies, glomerular filtration rates, and concentrations of the immunosuppressants were measured along with 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and gas chromatography- mass spectrometry profiles of cellular metabolites in urine. The combination of CsA with SRL led to higher urinary glucose concentrations and decreased levels of urinary Krebs cycle metabolites when compared to controls, suggesting that CsA+SRL negatively impacted proximal tubule metabolism. Unsupervised principal component analysis of MRS spectra distinguished unique urine metabolite patterns of rats treated with CsA+SRL from those treated with CsA+EVL and the controls. SRL, but not EVL blood concentrations were inversely correlated with urine Krebs cycle metabolite concentrations. Interestingly, the higher the EVL concentration, the closer urine metabolite patterns resembled those of controls, while in contrast, the combination of the highest doses of CsA+SRL showed the most significant differences in metabolite patterns. Surprisingly in this rat model, EVL and SRL in combination with CsA had different effects on kidney biochemistry, suggesting that further exploration of EVL in combination with low dose calcineurin inhibitors may be of potential benefit. PMID:23118926

  4. Everolimus affects vasculogenic mimicry in renal carcinoma resistant to sunitinib

    PubMed Central

    Serova, Maria; Tijeras-Raballand, Annemilaï; Santos, Celia Dos; Martinet, Matthieu; Neuzillet, Cindy; Lopez, Alfred; Mitchell, Dianne C.; Bryan, Brad A.; Gapihan, Guillaume; Janin, Anne; Bousquet, Guilhem; Riveiro, Maria Eugenia; Bieche, Ivan; Faivre, Sandrine

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is hallmark of clear cell renal cell carcinogenesis. Anti-angiogenic therapies have been successful in improving disease outcome; however, most patients treated with anti-angiogenic agents will eventually progress. In this study we report that clear cell renal cell carcinoma was associated with vasculogenic mimicry in both mice and human with tumor cells expressing endothelial markers in the vicinity of tumor vessels. We show that vasculogenic mimicry was efficiently targeted by sunitinib but eventually associated with tumor resistance and a more aggressive phenotype both in vitro and in vivo. Re-challenging these resistant tumors in mice, we showed that second-line treatment with everolimus particularly affected vasculogenic mimicry and tumor cell differentiation compared to sorafenib and axitinib. Finally, our results highlighted the phenotypic and genotypic changes at the tumor cell and microenvironment levels during sunitinib response and progression and the subsequent improvement second-line therapies bring to the current renal cell carcinoma treatment paradigm. PMID:27509260

  5. Everolimus affects vasculogenic mimicry in renal carcinoma resistant to sunitinib.

    PubMed

    Serova, Maria; Tijeras-Raballand, Annemilaï; Dos Santos, Celia; Martinet, Matthieu; Neuzillet, Cindy; Lopez, Alfred; Mitchell, Dianne C; Bryan, Brad A; Gapihan, Guillaume; Janin, Anne; Bousquet, Guilhem; Riveiro, Maria Eugenia; Bieche, Ivan; Faivre, Sandrine; Raymond, Eric; de Gramont, Armand

    2016-06-21

    Angiogenesis is hallmark of clear cell renal cell carcinogenesis. Anti-angiogenic therapies have been successful in improving disease outcome; however, most patients treated with anti-angiogenic agents will eventually progress. In this study we report that clear cell renal cell carcinoma was associated with vasculogenic mimicry in both mice and human with tumor cells expressing endothelial markers in the vicinity of tumor vessels. We show that vasculogenic mimicry was efficiently targeted by sunitinib but eventually associated with tumor resistance and a more aggressive phenotype both in vitro and in vivo. Re-challenging these resistant tumors in mice, we showed that second-line treatment with everolimus particularly affected vasculogenic mimicry and tumor cell differentiation compared to sorafenib and axitinib. Finally, our results highlighted the phenotypic and genotypic changes at the tumor cell and microenvironment levels during sunitinib response and progression and the subsequent improvement second-line therapies bring to the current renal cell carcinoma treatment paradigm.

  6. Addition of Everolimus Post VEGFR Inhibition Treatment Failure in Advanced Sarcoma Patients Who Previously Benefited from VEGFR Inhibition: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Hays, John L.; Chen, James L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with metastatic sarcoma who progress on vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitors (VEGFRi) have limited treatment options. Upregulation of the mTOR pathway has been demonstrated to be a means of resistance to targeted VEGFRi in metastatic sarcoma. Patients and methods Retrospective cohort study to evaluate the clinical benefit at four months of combining mTOR inhibition (mTORi) via everolimus with VEGFRi in patients who have derived benefit from single-agent VEGFRi but have progressed. Patients with recurrent, metastatic soft tissue or bone sarcomas who progressed after deriving clinical benefit to VEGFRi beyond 12 weeks were continued on VEGFRi with the addition of everolimus (5 mg daily). Progression free survival was measured from start of VEGFRi to disease progression on single agent VEGFRi as well as from the addition of everolimus therapy to disease progression or drug discontinuation due to toxicity. Clinical benefit was defined as stable disease or partial response at 4 months. Results Nine patients were evaluated. Two patients did not tolerate therapy due to GI toxicity and one elected to discontinue therapy. Of the remaining six patients, the clinical benefit rate at four months was 50%. Progression free survival (PFS) for these patients was 3.1 months ranging from 0.5 to 7.2 months with one patient remaining on combination therapy. Conclusion In this heavily pre-treated, advanced sarcoma population, the addition of mTOR inhibition to VEGFRi based therapy resulted in a clinical benefit for a subset of patients. Prospective studies will be needed to verify these results. PMID:27295141

  7. Everolimus Reduces (89)Zr-Bevacizumab Tumor Uptake in Patients with Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    PubMed

    van Asselt, Sophie J; Oosting, Sjoukje F; Brouwers, Adrienne H; Bongaerts, Alfons H H; de Jong, Johan R; Lub-de Hooge, Marjolijn N; Oude Munnink, Thijs H; Fiebrich, Helle-Brit; Sluiter, Wim J; Links, Thera P; Walenkamp, Annemiek M E; de Vries, Elisabeth G E

    2014-07-01

    Everolimus increases progression-free survival in patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Currently, no biomarkers are available for early selection of patients who will benefit from everolimus. Everolimus can reduce vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) production by tumor cells. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effect of everolimus on tumor uptake of the radioactive-labeled VEGF-A antibody bevacizumab with PET in NET patients. Patients with advanced progressive well-differentiated NETs underwent (89)Zr-bevacizumab PET scans before and at 2 and 12 wk during everolimus treatment. (89)Zr-bevacizumab uptake was quantified by the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax). Tumor response and the percentage change in the sum of target lesion diameters were determined according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors 1.1 on CT (3 monthly). In 4 of the 14 patients entered, no tumor lesions were visualized with (89)Zr-bevacizumab PET. In the remaining patients, 19% of tumor lesions 1 cm or greater known by CT were visualized. Tumor SUVmax decreased during everolimus treatment, with a median of -7% at 2 wk (P = 0.09) and a median of -35% at 12 wk (P < 0.001). The difference in SUVmax at 2 and 12 wk with respect to SUVmax at baseline correlated with percentage change on CT at 6 mo (r(2) = 0.51, P < 0.05, and r(2) = 0.61, P < 0.01, respectively). This study demonstrates variable (89)Zr-bevacizumab PET tumor uptake in NET patients. (89)Zr-bevacizumab tumor uptake diminished during everolimus treatment. Serial (89)Zr-bevacizumab PET might be useful as an early predictive biomarker of anti-VEGF-directed treatment in NET patients. © 2014 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  8. Multiple indications for everolimus after liver transplantation in current clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Bilbao, Itxarone; Dopazo, Cristina; Lazaro, Jose; Castells, Lluis; Caralt, Mireia; Sapisochin, Gonzalo; Charco, Ramon

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess our experience with the use and management of everolimus-based regimens post-liver transplantation and to redefine the potential role of this drug in current clinical practice. METHODS: From October 1988 to December 2012, 1023 liver transplantations were performed in 955 patients in our Unit. Seventy-four patients (7.74%) received immunosuppression with everolimus at some time post-transplantation. Demographic characteristics, everolimus indication, time elapsed from transplantation to the introduction of everolimus, doses and levels administered, efficacy, side effects, discontinuation and post-conversion survival were analyzed. RESULTS: Mean age at the time of conversion to everolimus was 57.7 ± 10 years. Indications for conversion were: refractory rejection 31.1%, extended hepatocellular carcinoma in explanted liver 19%, post-transplant hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence 8.1%, de novo tumour 17.6%, renal insufficiency 8.1%, severe neurotoxicity 10.8%, and others 5.4%. Median time from transplantation to introduction of everolimus was 6 mo (range: 0.10-192). Mean follow-up post-conversion was 22 ± 19 mo (range: 0.50-74). The event for which the drug was indicated was resolved in 60.8% of patients, with the best results in cases of refractory rejection, renal insufficiency and neurotoxicity. Results in patients with cancer were similar to those of a historical cohort treated with other immunosuppressants. The main side effects were dyslipidemia and infections. Post-conversion acute rejection occurred in 14.9% of cases. The drug was discontinued in 28.4% of patients. CONCLUSION: Everolimus at low doses in combination with tacrolimus is a safe immunosuppressant with multiple early and late indications post-liver transplantation. PMID:25032101

  9. Rationale and protocol of the MetNET-1 trial, a prospective, single center, phase II study to evaluate the activity and safety of everolimus in combination with octreotide LAR and metformin in patients with advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Pusceddu, Sara; de Braud, Filippo; Concas, Laura; Bregant, Cristina; Leuzzi, Livia; Formisano, Barbara; Buzzoni, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway signalling and autocrine activation of the mTOR pathway, mediated through insulin-like growth factor-1, have been implicated in the proliferation of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (pNET) cells. Everolimus, an mTOR inhibitor, has shown antitumor benefit in pNETs alone and in combination with octreotide LAR in RADIANT-1 and RADIANT-3 studies. Although everolimus-based phase II/III trials have improved progression-free survival for pNET, its use has not impacted on prolonging overall survival. Metformin has recently shown some anti-cancer activity in both in vitro and in vivo studies by its indirect properties to decrease insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels and by its antitumour effect to promote AMPK activation and consequently inhibition to TSC1-2/mTOR complex. In light of even more retrospective evidence of metformin's anticancer activity, a prospective evaluation is required to either confirm or discard these preliminary findings. With the aim to evaluate the antiproliferative effect of metformin in combination with everolimus and octreotide LAR in pancreatic well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumor patients, a single arm, prospective, single center phase II study was designed (MetNET-1 trial, NCT 02294006). Forty-three patients are expected to be evaluated. The study is ongoing, and recruitment is estimated to be completed in August 2016. The results will be anticipated in 2017.

  10. Efficacy and safety of Everolimus in children with TSC - associated epilepsy - Pilot data from an open single-center prospective study.

    PubMed

    Samueli, Sharon; Abraham, Klaus; Dressler, Anastasia; Gröppel, Gudrun; Mühlebner-Fahrngruber, Angelika; Scholl, Theresa; Kasprian, Gregor; Laccone, Franco; Feucht, Martha

    2016-11-03

    Epilepsy occurs in up to 90 % of all individuals with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). In 67 % disease onset is during childhood. In ≥ 50 % seizures are refractory to currently available treatment options. The mTOR-Inhibitor Everolimus (Votubia®) was approved for the treatment of subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) and renal angiomyolipoma (AML) in Europe in 2011. It's anticonvulsive/antiepileptic properties are promising, but evidence is still limited. Study aim was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Everolimus in children and adolescents with TSC-associated epilepsies. Inclusion-criteria of this investigator-initiated, single-center, open, prospective study were: 1) the ascertained diagnosis of TSC; 2) age ≤ 18 years; 3) treatment indication for Votubia® according to the European Commission guidelines; 4) drug-resistant TSC-associated epilepsy, 5) prospective continuous follow-up for at least 6 months after treatment initiation and 6) informed consent to participate. Votubia® was orally administered once/day, starting with 4.5 mg/m(2) and titrated to achieve blood trough concentrations between 5 and 15 ng/ml. Primary endpoint was the reduction in seizure frequency of ≥ 50 % compared to baseline. Fifteen patients (nine male) with a median age of six (range; 1-18) years fulfilled the inclusion criteria. 26 % (4/15) had TSC1, 66 % (10/15) had TSC2 mutations. In one patient no mutation was found. Time of observation after treatment initiation was median 22 (range; 6-50) months. At last observation, 80 % (12/15) of the patients were responders, 58 % of them (7/12) were seizure free. The overall reduction in seizure frequency was 60 % in focal seizures, 80 % in generalized tonic clonic seizures and 87 % in drop attacks. The effect of Everolimus was seen already at low doses, early after treatment initiation. Loss of efficacy over time was not observed. Transient side effects were seen in 93 % (14/15) of the patients. In no case the

  11. Cyclosporin A, but not everolimus, inhibits DNA repair mediated by calcineurin: implications for tumorigenesis under immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Thoms, Kai-Martin; Kuschal, Christiane; Oetjen, Elke; Mori, Toshio; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko; Laspe, Petra; Boeckmann, Lars; Schön, Michael P; Emmert, Steffen

    2011-03-01

    Unlike other immunosuppressive drugs including everolimus, cyclosporin A causes a dramatic increase of UV-induced skin cancer, a feature that is reminiscent of xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), where defective nucleotide excision repair (NER) of UV-induced DNA damage results in cutaneous carcinogenesis. The molecular basis of the clinically important differential activities of cyclosporin A and everolimus is still unclear. We measured post-UV cell survival of cyclosporin A- and everolimus-treated human fibroblasts and lymphoblasts using a cell proliferation assay (MTT). The cellular NER capacity was assessed by host cell reactivation. Using an ELISA and specific antibodies, cyclobutane pyrimidine and pyrimidine-6,4-pyrimidone photoproduct removal from the cellular genome was measured. The effect of calcineurin on NER was investigated using a calcineurin A expression vector and specific RNAi. Cyclosporin A led to a dose dependent decrease in post-UV cell survival, inhibited NER and blocked photoproduct removal. In contrast, none of these effects where seen in everolimus-treated cells. Overexpression of calcineurin A resulted in increased NER and complemented the Cyclosporin A-induced reduction of NER. Downregulation of calcineurin using RNAi inhibited NER comparable to cyclosporin A-treatment. We conclude that cyclosporin A, but not everolimus, leads to an increased skin cancer risk via a calcineurin signalling-dependent impairment of NER. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  12. Impact of Everolimus and Low-Dose Cyclosporin on Cytomegalovirus Replication and Disease in Pediatric Renal Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Höcker, B; Zencke, S; Pape, L; Krupka, K; Köster, L; Fichtner, A; Dello Strologo, L; Guzzo, I; Topaloglu, R; Kranz, B; König, J; Bald, M; Webb, N J A; Noyan, A; Dursun, H; Marks, S; Ozcakar, Z B; Thiel, F; Billing, H; Pohl, M; Fehrenbach, H; Schnitzler, P; Bruckner, T; Ahlenstiel-Grunow, T; Tönshoff, B

    2016-03-01

    In order to investigate the hypothesis that the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus (EVR) shows anticytomegalovirus (CMV) activity in pediatric patients, we analyzed the impact of EVR-based immunosuppressive therapy on CMV replication and disease in a large cohort (n = 301) of pediatric kidney allograft recipients. The EVR cohort (n = 59), who also received low-dose cyclosporin, was compared with a control cohort (n = 242), who was administered standard-dose cyclosporin or tacrolimus and an antimetabolite, mostly mycophenolate mofetil (91.7%). Multivariate analysis revealed an 83% lower risk of CMV replication in the EVR cohort than in the control cohort (p = 0.005). In CMV high-risk (donor+/recipient-) patients (n = 88), the EVR-based regimen was associated with a significantly lower rate of CMV disease (0% vs. 14.3%, p = 0.046) than the standard regimen. In patients who had received chemoprophylaxis with (val-)ganciclovir (n = 63), the CMV-free survival rates at 1 year and 3 years posttransplant (100%) were significantly (p = 0.015) higher in the EVR cohort (n = 15) than in the control cohort (n = 48; 1 year, 75.0%; 3 years, 63.3%). Our data suggest that in pediatric patients at high risk of CMV, an EVR-based immunosuppressive regimen is associated with a lower risk of CMV disease than a standard-dose calcineurin inhibitor-based regimen. © Copyright 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  13. Real-World Study of Everolimus in Advanced Progressive Neuroendocrine Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Panzuto, Francesco; Rinzivillo, Maria; Fazio, Nicola; de Braud, Filippo; Luppi, Gabriele; Zatelli, Maria Chiara; Lugli, Francesca; Tomassetti, Paola; Riccardi, Ferdinando; Nuzzo, Carmen; Brizzi, Maria Pia; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Zaniboni, Alberto; Nobili, Elisabetta; Pastorelli, Davide; Cascinu, Stefano; Merlano, Marco; Chiara, Silvana; Antonuzzo, Lorenzo; Funaioli, Chiara; Spada, Francesca; Pusceddu, Sara; Fontana, Annalisa; Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; Cassano, Alessandra; Campana, Davide; Cartenì, Giacomo; Appetecchia, Marialuisa; Berruti, Alfredo; Colao, Annamaria; Falconi, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Everolimus is a valid therapeutic option for neuroendocrine tumors (NETs); however, data in a real-world setting outside regulatory trials are sparse. The aim of this study was to determine everolimus tolerability and efficacy, in relation to previous treatments, in a compassionate use program. A total of 169 patients with advanced progressive NETs treated with everolimus were enrolled, including 85 with pancreatic NETs (pNETs) and 84 with nonpancreatic NETs (non-pNETs). Previous treatments included somatostatin analogs (92.9%), peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT; 50.3%), chemotherapy (49.7%), and PRRT and chemotherapy (22.8%). Overall, 85.2% of patients experienced adverse events (AEs), which were severe (grade 3–4) in 46.1%. The most frequent severe AEs were pneumonitis (8.3%), thrombocytopenia (7.7%), anemia (5.3%), and renal failure (3.5%). In patients previously treated with PRRT and chemotherapy, a 12-fold increased risk for severe toxicity was observed, with grade 3–4 AEs reported in 86.8% (vs. 34.3% in other patients). In addition, 63.3% of patients required temporarily everolimus discontinuation due to toxicity. Overall, 27.8% of patients died during a median follow-up of 12 months. Median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were 12 months and 32 months, respectively. Similar disease control rates, PFS, and OS were reported in pNETs and non-pNETs. In the real-world setting, everolimus is safe and effective for the treatment of NETs of different origins. Higher severe toxicity occurred in patients previously treated with systemic chemotherapy and PRRT. This finding prompts caution when using this drug in pretreated patients and raises the issue of planning for everolimus before PRRT and chemotherapy in the therapeutic algorithm for advanced NETs. PMID:25117065

  14. A case of pneumocystis pneumonia associated with everolimus therapy for renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yoshinobu; Nagayama, Mikie; Miura, Yukiko; Ogushi, Satoko; Suzuki, Yasutomo; Noro, Rintaro; Minegishi, Yuji; Kimura, Go; Kondo, Yukihiro; Gemma, Akihiko

    2013-05-01

    A 76-year-old female with advanced renal cell carcinoma had been treated with everolimus for 3 months. She visited our hospital because of a cough and fever lasting a few days. Chest X-rays showed bilateral infiltrative shadows, and a chest computed tomography scan showed homogeneous ground-glass opacities with mosaic patterns, especially in the apical region. The laboratory results revealed a decreased white blood cell count with lymphocytopenia and high levels of lactate dehydrogenase, C-reactive protein and KL-6. Pneumonitis was suspected and, therefore, everolimus therapy was interrupted. At that time, the pneumonitis was thought to be drug-induced interstitial lung disease. However, it was not possible to rule out pneumocystis pneumonia, because the patient was immunocompromised and the computed tomography findings suggested the possibility of pneumocystis pneumonia. The pneumonitis progressed rapidly and the patient developed respiratory failure, so we performed bronchoalveolar lavage to make a definitive diagnosis, and simultaneously started treatment with prednisolone and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole to cover both interstitial lung disease and pneumocystis pneumonia. A polymerase chain reaction assay of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was positive for Pneumocystis carinii DNA, and the serum level of β-d-glucan was significantly elevated. Thus, the patient was diagnosed with pneumocystis pneumonia, which was cured by the treatment. Interstitial lung disease is a major adverse drug reaction associated with everolimus, and interstitial lung disease is the first condition suspected when a patient presents with pneumonitis during everolimus therapy. Pneumocystis pneumonia associated with everolimus therapy is rare, but our experience suggests that pneumocystis pneumonia should be considered as a differential diagnosis when pneumonitis is encountered in patients receiving everolimus therapy.

  15. Potential biomarkers for the therapeutic efficacy of sorafenib, sunitinib and everolimus.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Yasushi; Miyake, Makito; Morizawa, Yosuke; Hori, Shunta; Tatsumi, Yoshihiro; Anai, Satoshi; Onishi, Sayuri; Tanaka, Nobumichi; Fujimoto, Kiyohide

    2017-01-01

    We examined extracellular signal‑regulated kinase (ERK), 4E‑binding protein 1 (4EBP1) and p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70) as potential biomarkers for pretreatment prediction of the prognosis of patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) treated with sorafenib, sunitinib or everolimus. 786‑O and 769‑P cells were treated with sorafenib, sunitinib and everolimus. The expression of phosphorylated/total ERK, phosphorylated/total 4EBP1 and phosphorylated/total p70 was evaluated using western blotting. ERK, 4EBP1 and p70 were knocked down by siRNA in 786‑O and 769‑P cells. Then, the viability after treatment with each drug was assessed. Expression of phosphorylated (phospho)‑ERK, -4EBP1 and -p70 was immunohistochemically evaluated in radical nephrectomy specimens and correlated with progression‑free survival during treatment with each molecular targeting agent. Sorafenib inhibited the expression of phospho-ERK and -4EBP1 in 769‑P cells; sunitinib, phospho-ERK and -4EBP1 in 786‑O and 769‑P cells; and everolimus, phospho-p70 in 786‑O and 769‑P cells. Knockdown of ERK reduced sensitivity to sorafenib in both cell lines, knockdown of ERK and 4EBP1 reduced sensitivity to sunitinib in 769‑P cells, and knockdown of 4EBP1 and p70 reduced sensitivity to everolimus in 786‑O cells. High expression of phospho-ERK, -4EBP1 and -p70 correlated with better progression‑free survival in patients treated with sorafenib, sunitinib and everolimus, respectively. Our results indicate that phospho-ERK, -4EBP1 and/or -ERK, and phospho-p70 can be used as biomarkers for the therapeutic efficacy of sorafenib, sunitinib and everolimus, respectively.

  16. mTOR Inhibitors Alone and in Combination with JAK2 Inhibitors Effectively Inhibit Cells of Myeloproliferative Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Martinelli, Serena; Tozzi, Lorenzo; Guglielmelli, Paola; Bosi, Alberto; Vannucchi, Alessandro M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dysregulated signaling of the JAK/STAT pathway is a common feature of chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), usually associated with JAK2V617F mutation. Recent clinical trials with JAK2 inhibitors showed significant improvements in splenomegaly and constitutional symptoms in patients with myelofibrosis but meaningful molecular responses were not documented. Accordingly, there remains a need for exploring new treatment strategies of MPN. A potential additional target for treatment is represented by the PI3K/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway that has been found constitutively activated in MPN cells; proof-of-evidence of efficacy of the mTOR inhibitor RAD001 has been obtained recently in a Phase I/II trial in patients with myelofibrosis. The aim of the study was to characterize the effects in vitro of mTOR inhibitors, used alone and in combination with JAK2 inhibitors, against MPN cells. Findings Mouse and human JAK2V617F mutated cell lines and primary hematopoietic progenitors from MPN patients were challenged with an allosteric (RAD001) and an ATP-competitive (PP242) mTOR inhibitor and two JAK2 inhibitors (AZD1480 and ruxolitinib). mTOR inhibitors effectively reduced proliferation and colony formation of cell lines through a slowed cell division mediated by changes in cell cycle transition to the S-phase. mTOR inhibitors also impaired the proliferation and prevented colony formation from MPN hematopoietic progenitors at doses significantly lower than healthy controls. JAK2 inhibitors produced similar antiproliferative effects in MPN cell lines and primary cells but were more potent inducers of apoptosis, as also supported by differential effects on cyclinD1, PIM1 and BcLxL expression levels. Co-treatment of mTOR inhibitor with JAK2 inhibitor resulted in synergistic activity against the proliferation of JAK2V617F mutated cell lines and significantly reduced erythropoietin-independent colony growth in patients with polycythemia vera

  17. Comparison of everolimus- and biolimus-eluting coronary stents with everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffolds: Two-year clinical outcomes of the EVERBIO II trial.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Diego; Gendre, Gregoire; Schukraft, Sara; Kallinikou, Zacharenia; Müller, Olivier; Baeriswyl, Gérard; Stauffer, Jean-Christophe; Goy, Jean-Jacques; Togni, Mario; Cook, Stéphane; Puricel, Serban

    2017-09-15

    Data from randomized controlled trials have shown that the ABSORB BVS is non-inferior to Cobalt Chromium everolimus-eluting stents at 2years. The EVERBIO II trial (Comparison of Everolimus- and Biolimus-Eluting Coronary Stents with Everolimus-Eluting Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold) is a single-center, assessor-blind, randomized controlled trial enrolling 240 patients with an allocation ration of 1:1:1 conducted at University and Hospital Fribourg, Switzerland. The studied devices were an everolimus-eluting persistent polymer stent (EES), a biolimus-eluting stent with bioabsorbable polymer (BES) and a fully bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS). Clinical end points collected at 9months, 12months, and 2years, were academic research consortium defined composites, device thrombosis and target-vessel revascularization. Clinical follow-up at 2years was available in 96% (N=77) of patients in the EES group, in 100% (N=80) in the BES and 99% (N=77) in the BVS group. The device-oriented composite end point of cardiac death, target-vessel myocardial infarction and target-lesion revascularization occurred in 13 (16%) patients treated with EES, in 7 (9%) patients treated with BES and in 16 (21%) patients treated with BVS. There was no significant difference when the metallic stents were compared to the BVS (p=0.12). There was one late scaffold thrombosis throughout the trial in the BVS group, and no definite stent thrombosis in either EES or BES treated patients. The current analysis shows no significant differences with regard to clinical outcomes at 2years between BVS and the best-in-class metallic DES. Event rates were numerically higher in BVS-treated patients. However, when BVS were compared to BES alone, the occurrence of device related adverse events was significantly increased. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Phase I Study of Capecitabine, Oxaliplatin, Bevacizumab, and Everolimus in Advanced Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Rangwala, F.; Bendell, J.; Kozloff, M.; Arrowood, C.; Dellinger, A.; Meadows, J.; Tourt-Uhlig, S.; Murphy, J.; Meadows, K.L.; Starr, A.; Broderick, S.; Brady, J.C.; Cushman, S. M.; Morse, M.; Uronis, H.; Hsu, S.D.; Zafar, S.Y.; Wallace, J.; Starodub, A.; Strickler, J.; Pang, H.; Nixon, A.B.; Hurwitz, H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To define maximum tolerated dose (MTD), toxicities, and pharmacodynamics of capecitabine, oxaliplatin, bevacizumab, and everolimus in advanced solid tumor patients. Design This was a standard “3+3” dose-escalation trial. All subjects received bevacizumab 7.5mg/kg on day one of each cycle. Doses for capecitabine, oxaliplatin and everolimus were modified per dose limiting toxicity (DLT). Baseline and on-treatment plasma biomarkers were analyzed. Archived tumor mRNA levels were evaluated for NRP1, NRP2 and VEGF-A isoforms. Results Twenty-nine patients were evaluable for toxicity and 30 for efficacy. Two DLTs were observed in cohort 1 and one DLT each was observed in cohort -1 and -1b. Grade ≥3 toxicities included neutropenia, hypertension, perforation/fistula/hemorrhage, hypertriglyceridemia, diarrhea, and thromboembolism. Twelve subjects experienced partial response (PR); 12 had stable disease as best response. Three of seven chemorefractory metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) subjects experienced PR; eight of 15 chemonaive mCRC subjects experienced PR. Plasma TβRIII and IL-6 increased on treatment but without correlation to outcome. Increased VEGF165 levels significantly correlated with longer progression free survival. Conclusions Everolimus with full dose capecitabine, oxaliplatin, and bevacizumab had unacceptable toxicity. MTD was: everolimus 5mg daily; capecitabine 680mg/m2 BID days 1-14; oxaliplatin 100mg/m2 and bevacizumab 7.5mg/kg, day one. Activity was noted in mCRC. PMID:24711126

  19. Combination of clopidogrel and everolimus dramatically reduced the development of transplant arteriosclerosis in murine aortic allografts.

    PubMed

    Eckl, Sebastian; Heim, Christian; Abele-Ohl, Silke; Hoffmann, Julia; Ramsperger-Gleixner, Martina; Weyand, Michael; Ensminger, Stephan M

    2010-09-01

    Our group has shown that platelet inhibition with clopidogrel, an antagonist of the P2Y12 adenosine diphosphate receptor on platelets, reduced the formation of transplant arteriosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a combination of cyclosporin or everolimus with clopidogrel has a beneficial effect on the development of transplant arteriosclerosis. Fully MHC mismatched C57Bl/6 (H2(b)) donor aortas were transplanted into CBA.J (H2(k)) recipients and mice received either clopidogrel alone (1 mg/kg/day) or in combination with cyclosporin (2 mg/kg/day) or everolimus (0.05 mg/kg/day). Grafts were analysed by histology and morphometry on day 30 after transplantation. In mice treated with clopidogrel alone, transplant arteriosclerosis was significantly reduced [intima proliferation 56 +/- 11% vs. 81 +/- 7% (control)/n = 7]. Daily application of everolimus reduced the development of transplant arteriosclerosis compared with untreated controls [intima proliferation of 29 +/- 9% vs. 81 +/- 7% (control)/n = 7]. Strikingly, combination of clopidogrel and everolimus almost abolished the formation of transplant arteriosclerosis [intima proliferation: 11 +/- 8% vs. 81 +/- 7% (control)/n = 7]. By contrast, combination of cyclosporin and clopidogrel compared with clopidogrel alone showed no additive effect. These results demonstrate that combination of platelet- and mammalian target of Rapamycin-inhibition can dramatically reduce the development of transplant arteriosclerosis.

  20. Patterns of interstitial lung disease during everolimus treatment in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Ryuichi; Asano, Koichiro; Mikami, Shuji; Nagata, Hirohiko; Kaneko, Gou; Oya, Mototsugu

    2012-05-01

    To elucidate the patterns of interstitial lung disease during everolimus treatment in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, we reviewed seven cases of everolimus-induced interstitial lung disease. Seven patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma, which continued to progress despite treatment with sunitinib or sorafenib, developed interstitial lung disease after treatment with everolimus. Chest X-ray demonstrated diffuse infiltrates in lung fields, and chest computed tomography showed bilateral reticular and ground-glass opacities. Serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (7/7), C-reactive protein (6/7), pulmonary surfactant associated protein D (1/7) and Krebs von den Lungen 6 (5/7) were elevated. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained from four patients with Grade 3 interstitial lung disease showed lymphocytosis. The transbronchial lung biopsy specimens showed interstitial lymphocytic infiltration and septal thickening of alveolar walls. In two cases with mild interstitial lung disease, the everolimus therapy was successfully continued. In four cases with Grade 3 interstitial lung disease, the drug was discontinued and steroid therapy was initiated. Pulmonary symptoms and radiological abnormalities resolved within 2 months. Serum Krebs von den Lungen 6 was elevated compared with baseline in all cases with interstitial lung disease. Some patients who developed mild interstitial lung disease during everolimus treatment could continue to receive the treatment. Even when severe interstitial lung disease developed, withdrawal of the drug and short-term use of high-dose steroids resulted in rapid recovery. Prompt recognition of interstitial lung disease exacerbation as well as exclusion of progressive disease or infection is of primary importance.

  1. The SYNERGY biodegradable polymer everolimus eluting coronary stent: Porcine vascular compatibility and polymer safety study.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Gregory J; Marks, Angela; Berg, Kimberly J; Eppihimer, Michael; Sushkova, Natalia; Hawley, Steve P; Robertson, Kimberly A; Knapp, David; Pennington, Douglas E; Chen, Yen-Lane; Foss, Aaron; Huibregtse, Barbara; Dawkins, Keith D

    2015-11-15

    SYNERGY is a novel platinum chromium alloy stent that delivers abluminal everolimus from an ultrathin poly-lactide-co-glycide (PLGA) biodegradable polymer. This study evaluated the in vivo degradation of the polymer coating, everolimus release time course, and vascular compatibility of the SYNERGY stent. SYNERGY stents were implanted in arteries of domestic swine. Devices were explanted at predetermined time points (up to 120 days) and the extent of PLGA coating or everolimus remaining on the stents was quantified. Everolimus levels in the arterial tissue were also evaluated. A pathological analysis on coronary arteries of single and overlapping stents was performed at time points between 5 and 270 days. PLGA bioabsorption began immediately after implantation, and drug release was essentially complete by 90 days; PLGA absorption was substantially complete by 120 days (>90% of polymer was absorbed) leaving a bare metal SYNERGY stent. Vascular response was similar among SYNERGY and control stents (bare metal, polymer-only, and 3× polymer-only). Mild increases in para-strut fibrin were seen for SYNERGY at an early time point with no significant differences in all other morphological and morphometric parameters through 270 days or endothelial function (eNOS immunostaining) at 90 or 180 days. Inflammation was predominantly minimal to mild for all device types. In a swine model, everolimus was released by 90 days and PLGA bioabsorption was complete shortly thereafter. The SYNERGY stent and its biodegradable polymer, even at a 3× safety margin, demonstrated vascular compatibility similar to bare metal stent controls. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Renal function improvement in liver transplant recipients after early everolimus conversion: A clinical practice cohort study in Spain.

    PubMed

    Bilbao, Itxarone; Salcedo, Magdalena; Gómez, Miguel Angel; Jimenez, Carlos; Castroagudín, Javier; Fabregat, Joan; Almohalla, Carolina; Herrero, Ignacio; Cuervas-Mons, Valentín; Otero, Alejandra; Rubín, Angel; Miras, Manuel; Rodrigo, Juan; Serrano, Trinidad; Crespo, Gonzalo; De la Mata, Manuel; Bustamante, Javier; Gonzalez-Dieguez, M Luisa; Moreno, Antonia; Narvaez, Isidoro; Guilera, Magda

    2015-08-01

    A national, multicenter, retrospective study was conducted to assess the results obtained for liver transplant recipients with conversion to everolimus in daily practice. The study included 477 recipients (481 transplantations). Indications for conversion to everolimus were renal dysfunction (32.6% of cases), hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; 30.2%; prophylactic treatment for 68.9%), and de novo malignancy (29.7%). The median time from transplantation to conversion to everolimus was 68.7 months for de novo malignancy, 23.8 months for renal dysfunction, and 7.1 months for HCC and other indications. During the first year of treatment, mean everolimus trough levels were 5.4 (standard deviation [SD], 2.7) ng/mL and doses remained stable (1.5 mg/day) from the first month after conversion. An everolimus monotherapy regimen was followed by 28.5% of patients at 12 months. Patients with renal dysfunction showed a glomerular filtration rate (4-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease) increase of 10.9 mL (baseline mean, 45.8 [SD, 25.3] versus 57.6 [SD, 27.6] mL/minute/1.73 m(2) ) at 3 months after everolimus initiation (P < 0.001), and 6.8 mL at 12 months. Improvement in renal function was higher in patients with early conversion (<1 year). Adverse events were the primary reason for discontinuation in 11.2% of cases. The probability of survival at 3 years after conversion to everolimus was 83.0%, 71.1%, and 59.5% for the renal dysfunction, de novo malignancy, and HCC groups, respectively. Everolimus is a viable option for the treatment of renal dysfunction, and earlier conversion is associated with better recovery of renal function. Prospective studies are needed to confirm advantages in patients with malignancy. © 2015 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  3. Five-year outcomes in kidney transplant patients converted from cyclosporine to everolimus: the randomized ZEUS study.

    PubMed

    Budde, K; Lehner, F; Sommerer, C; Reinke, P; Arns, W; Eisenberger, U; Wüthrich, R P; Mühlfeld, A; Heller, K; Porstner, M; Veit, J; Paulus, E-M; Witzke, O

    2015-01-01

    ZEUS study was an open-label, 12-month, multicenter study in which 300 de novo kidney transplant recipients were randomized to continue receiving cyclosporine (CsA) or convert to everolimus at 4.5 months posttransplant. Five-year follow-up data were available for 245/269 patients (91.1%) who completed the core 12-month study (123 everolimus, 109 CsA). At 5 years, adjusted estimated GFR was 66.2 mL/min/1.73 m(2) with everolimus versus 60.9 mL/min/1.73 m(2) with CsA; the mean difference was 5.3 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in favor of everolimus (95% CI 2.4, 8.3; p < 0.001 [intent-to-treat population]). In a post hoc analysis of patients remaining on study drug at 5 years (everolimus 77, CsA 86), mean difference was 8.2 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (95% CI 4.3, 12.1; p < 0.001) in favor of everolimus. The cumulative incidence of biopsy-proven acute rejection postrandomization was 13.6% with everolimus versus 7.5% with CsA (p = 0.095), largely accounted for by grade I rejection (16/21 patients and 7/11 patients, respectively). Postrandomization, graft loss, mortality, serious adverse events and neoplasms were similar in both arms. In conclusion, conversion of kidney transplant patients to everolimus at 4.5 months posttransplant is associated with a significant improvement in renal function that is maintained to at least 5 years. The increase in early mild acute rejection did not affect long-term graft function.

  4. Effect of food on everolimus absorption: quantification in healthy subjects and a confirmatory screening in patients with renal transplants.

    PubMed

    Kovarik, John M; Hartmann, Stefan; Figueiredo, Joaquim; Rordorf, Christiane; Golor, Georg; Lison, Arno; Budde, Klemmens; Neumayer, Hans H

    2002-02-01

    To quantify the influence of a high-fat meal on the oral bioavailability of the immunosuppressant everolimus in a single-dose study in healthy subjects and to confirm the results in a small food-effect screening assessment in patients with renal transplants who were receiving multiple-dose everolimus. Randomized, open-label, crossover, single-dose study and confirmatory screening. Phase 1 unit for the single-dose study and two German hospitals for the patient screening. Twenty-four healthy male volunteers; six clinically stable patients with renal transplants who were originally part of a phase I dose-escalation study. The 24 healthy men received everolimus 2 mg orally under fasting conditions and after a high-fat meal. The six patients received everolimus 2.5 mg/day orally, in addition to cyclosporine and prednisone. On two occasions, a pharmacokinetic profile was obtained over the dosing interval after drug administration under fasting conditions and after a high-fat meal in a randomized sequence. In the single-dose study in healthy subjects, a high-fat meal delayed everolimus time to maximum concentration (Tmax) by a median 1.25 hours, reduced peak blood concentration (Cmax) by 60%, and reduced area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) by 16%. In the multiple-dose screening in patients with renal transplants, a high-fat meal delayed Tmax by a median 1.75 hours and reduced Cmax by 53% and AUC by 21%. Everolimus trough levels showed no food effect, whereas the peak-trough fluctuation was dampened by 52%. A high-fat meal modestly reduced everolimus AUC. To minimize longitudinal variability in exposure, everolimus should be administered consistently either with food or without food.

  5. Twelve-month efficacy and safety of the conversion to everolimus in maintenance heart transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Manito, Nicolás; Delgado, Juan F; Crespo-Leiro, María G; Arizón, José María; Segovia, Javier; González-Vílchez, Francisco; Mirabet, Sònia; Lage, Ernesto; Pascual-Figal, Domingo; Díaz, Beatriz; Palomo, Jesús; Rábago, Gregorio; Sanz, Marisa; Blasco, Teresa; Roig, Eulàlia

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the clinical reasons for conversion to everolimus (EVL) and long-term outcomes in heart transplant (HT) recipients. METHODS: A retrospective 12-mo study has been carried out in 14 Spanish centres to assess the efficacy and safety of conversion to EVL in maintenance HT recipients. RESULTS: Two hundred and twenty-two patients were included (mean age: 53 ± 10.5 years; mean time from HT: 8.1 ± 4.5 years). The most common reasons for conversion were nephrotoxicity (30%), chronic allograft vasculopathy (20%) and neoplasms (17%). The doses and mean levels of EVL at baseline (conversion to EVL) and after one year were 1.3 ± 0.3 and 1.2 ± 0.6 mg/d and 6.4 ± 3.4 and 5.6 ± 2.5 ng/mL, respectively. The percentage of patients receiving calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) at baseline and on the final visit was 95% and 65%, respectively. The doses and mean levels of CNIs decreased between baseline and month 12 from 142.2 ± 51.6 to 98.0 ± 39.4 mg/d (P < 0.001) and from 126.1 ± 50.9 to 89.2 ± 47.7 ng/mL (P < 0.001), respectively, for cyclosporine, and from 2.9 ± 1.8 to 2.6 ± 1.9 mg/d and from 8.3 ± 4.0 to 6.5 ± 2.7 ng/mL (P = 0.011) for tacrolimus. In the subgroup of patients converted because of nephrotoxicity, creatinine clearance increased from 34.9 ± 10.1 to 40.4 ± 14.4 mL/min (P < 0.001). There were 37 episodes of acute rejection in 24 patients (11%). The most frequent adverse events were oedemas (12%), infections (9%) and gastrointestinal problems (6%). EVL was suspended in 44 patients (20%). Since the database was closed at the end of the study, no further follow-up data is available. CONCLUSION: Conversion to EVL in maintenance HT recipients allowed minimisation or suspension of the CNIs, with improved kidney function in the patients with nephrotoxicity, after 12 mo. PMID:26722659

  6. mTOR inhibitors in urinary bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Leite, R; Arantes-Rodrigues, R; Sousa, Nuno; Oliveira, P A; Santos, L

    2016-09-01

    Despite the great scientific advances that have been made in cancer treatment, there is still much to do, particularly with regard to urinary bladder cancer. Some of the drugs used in urinary bladder cancer treatment have been in use for more than 30 years and show reduced effectiveness and high recurrence rates. There have been several attempts to find new and more effective drugs, to be used alone or in combination with the drugs already in use, in order to overcome this situation.The biologically important mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is altered in cancer and mTOR inhibitors have raised many expectations as potentially important anticancer drugs. In this article, the authors will review the mTOR pathway and present their experiences of the use of some mTOR inhibitors, sirolimus, everolimus and temsirolimus, in isolation and in conjunction with non-mTOR inhibitors cisplatin and gemcitabine, on urinary bladder tumour cell lines. The non-muscle-invasive cell line, 5637, is the only one that exhibits a small alteration in the mTOR and AKT phosphorylation after rapalogs exposure. Also, there was a small inhibition of cell proliferation. With gemcitabine plus everolimus or temsirolimus, the results were encouraging as a more effective response was noticed with both combinations, especially in the 5637 and T24 cell lines. Cisplatin associated with everolimus or temsirolimus also gave promising results, as an antiproliferative effect was observed when the drugs were associated, in particular on the 5637 and HT1376 cell lines. Everolimus or temsirolimus in conjunction with gemcitabine or cisplatin could have an important role to play in urinary bladder cancer treatment, depending on the tumour grading.

  7. Sorafenib and everolimus for patients with unresectable high-grade osteosarcoma progressing after standard treatment: a non-randomised phase 2 clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Grignani, Giovanni; Palmerini, Emanuela; Ferraresi, Virginia; D'Ambrosio, Lorenzo; Bertulli, Rossella; Asaftei, Sebastian Dorin; Tamburini, Angela; Pignochino, Ymera; Sangiolo, Dario; Marchesi, Emanuela; Capozzi, Federica; Biagini, Roberto; Gambarotti, Marco; Fagioli, Franca; Casali, Paolo Giovanni; Picci, Piero; Ferrari, Stefano; Aglietta, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Results of previous study showed promising but short-lived activity of sorafenib in the treatment of patients with unresectable advanced and metastatic osteosarcoma. This treatment failure has been attributed to the mTOR pathway and might therefore be overcome with the addition of mTOR inhibitors. We aimed to investigate the activity of sorafenib in combination with everolimus in patients with inoperable high-grade osteosarcoma progressing after standard treatment. We did this non-randomised phase 2 trial in three Italian Sarcoma Group centres. We enrolled adults (≥18 years) with relapsed or unresectable osteosarcoma progressing after standard treatment (methotrexate, cisplatin, and doxorubicin, with or without ifosfamide). Patients received 800 mg sorafenib plus 5 mg everolimus once a day until disease progression or unacceptable toxic effects. The primary endpoint was 6 month progression-free survival (PFS). All analyses were intention-to-treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01804374. We enrolled 38 patients between June 16, 2011, and June 4, 2013. 17 (45%; 95% CI 28-61) of 38 patients were progression free at 6 months. Toxic effects led to dose reductions, or short interruptions, or both in 25 (66%) of 38 patients and permanent discontinuation for two (5%) patients. The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were lymphopenia and hypophosphataemia each in six (16%) patients, hand and foot syndrome in five (13%), thrombocytopenia in four (11%), and fatigue, oral mucositis, diarrhoea, and anaemia each in two (5%). One patient (3%) had a grade 3 pneumothorax that required trans-thoracic drainage, and that recurred at the time of disease progression. This was reported as a serious adverse event related to the study drugs in both instances. No other serious adverse events were reported during the trial. There were no treatment-related deaths. Although the combination of sorafenib and everolimus showed activity as a further-line treatment

  8. Plasma NGAL and glomerular filtration rate in cardiac transplant recipients treated with standard or reduced calcineurin inhibitor levels.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, Finn; Gude, Einar; Sigurdardottir, Vilborg; Aukrust, Pål; Solbu, Dag; Goetze, Jens-Peter; Gullestad, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Predictors of renal recovery following conversion from calcineurin inhibitor- to proliferation signal inhibitor-based therapy are lacking. We hypothesized that plasma NGAL (P-NGAL) could predict improvement in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) after conversion to everolimus. P-NGAL was measured in 88 cardiac transplantation patients (median 5 years post-transplant) with renal dysfunction randomized to continuation of conventional calcineurin inhibitor-based immunosuppression or switching to an everolimus-based regimen. P-NGAL correlated with measured GFR (mGFR) at baseline (R(2) = 0.21; p < 0.001). Randomization to everolimus improved mGFR after 1 year (median [25-75 % percentiles]: ΔmGFR 5.5 [-0.5-11.5] vs -1 [-7-4] ml/min/1.73 m(2); p = 0.006). Baseline P-NGAL predicted mGFR after 1 year (R(2) = 0.18; p < 0.001), but this association disappeared after controlling for baseline mGFR. P-NGAL and GFR correlate with renal dysfunction in long-term heart transplantation recipients. P-NGAL did not predict improvement of renal function after conversion to everolimus-based immunosuppression.

  9. Paclitaxel-Eluting versus Everolimus-Eluting Coronary Stents in Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Upendra; Bangalore, Sripal; Seth, Ashok; Arambam, Priyadarshini; Abhaichand, Rajpal K; Abhaychand, Rajpal K; Patel, Tejas M; Banker, Darshan; Abhyankar, Atul; Mullasari, Ajit S; Shah, Sanjay; Jain, Rajneesh; Kumar, Premchand R; Bahuleyan, C G

    2015-10-29

    The choice of drug-eluting stent in the treatment of patients with diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease who are undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has been debated. Previous studies comparing paclitaxel-eluting stents with stents eluting rapamycin (now called sirolimus) or its analogues (everolimus or zotarolimus) have produced contradictory results, ranging from equivalence between stent types to superiority of everolimus-eluting stents. We randomly assigned 1830 patients with diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease who were undergoing PCI to receive either a paclitaxel-eluting stent or an everolimus-eluting stent. We used a noninferiority trial design with a noninferiority margin of 4 percentage points for the upper boundary of the 95% confidence interval of the risk difference. The primary end point was target-vessel failure, which was defined as a composite of cardiac death, target-vessel myocardial infarction, or ischemia-driven target-vessel revascularization at the 1-year follow-up. At 1 year, paclitaxel-eluting stents did not meet the criterion for noninferiority to everolimus-eluting stents with respect to the primary end point (rate of target-vessel failure, 5.6% vs. 2.9%; risk difference, 2.7 percentage points [95% confidence interval, 0.8 to 4.5]; relative risk, 1.89 [95% confidence interval, 1.20 to 2.99]; P=0.38 for noninferiority). There was a significantly higher 1-year rate in the paclitaxel-eluting stent group than in the everolimus-eluting stent group of target-vessel failure (P=0.005), spontaneous myocardial infarction (3.2% vs. 1.2%, P=0.004), stent thrombosis (2.1% vs. 0.4%, P=0.002), target-vessel revascularization (3.4% vs. 1.2%, P=0.002), and target-lesion revascularization (3.4% vs. 1.2%, P=0.002). In patients with diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease undergoing PCI, paclitaxel-eluting stents were not shown to be noninferior to everolimus-eluting stents, and they resulted in higher rates of target

  10. Longitudinal growth on an everolimus- versus an MMF-based steroid-free immunosuppressive regimen in paediatric renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Billing, Heiko; Burmeister, Greta; Plotnicki, Lukasz; Ahlenstiel, Thurid; Fichtner, Alexander; Sander, Anja; Höcker, Britta; Tönshoff, Burkhard; Pape, Lars

    2013-09-01

    Concerns have been raised that mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors in pediatric transplant recipients might interfere with longitudinal bone growth by inhibition of growth factor signaling and growth plate chondrocyte proliferation. We therefore undertook a prospective nested, case-control study on longitudinal growth over 2 years in steroid-free pediatric renal transplant recipients. Fourteen patients on a steroid-free maintenance immunosuppressive regimen consisting of low-dose everolimus (EVR) in conjunction with low-dose cyclosporine (CsA) were compared to a matched cohort of 14 steroid-free patients on a standard dose mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) regimen in conjunction with a standard dose calcineurin inhibitor (CNI). The mean change in height standard deviation (SD) score in the first study year was 0.31 ± 0.71 SD score in the EVR group compared to 0.31 ± 0.64 SD score in the MMF group (P = 0.20). For the entire study period of 2 years, the change in height SD score in the EVR group was 0.43 ± 0.81 SDS compared to 0.75 ± 0.85 SDS in the MMF group (P = 0.32). The percentage of prepubertal patients experiencing catch-up growth, defined as an increase in height SD score ≥0.5 in 2 years, was similar in the EVR group (5/8, 65%) and the MMF group (6/8, 75%; P = 1.00). Longitudinal growth over 2 years in steroid-free pediatric patients on low-dose EVR and CsA is not different to that of a matched steroid-free control group on an immunosuppressive regimen with standard-dose CNI and MMF. Hence, low-dose EVR does not appear to negatively impact short-term growth in pediatric renal transplant recipients.

  11. Economic Evaluations of Everolimus Versus Other Hormonal Therapies in the Treatment of HR+/HER2- Advanced Breast Cancer From a US Payer Perspective.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jipan; Hao, Yanni; Zhou, Zheng-Yi; Qi, Cynthia Z; De, Gourab; Glück, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of EVE+EXE versus endocrine monotherapies in the treatment of postmenopausal women with HR(+), HER2(-) ABC after failure of treatment with nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors from a US third-party payer perspective. A Markov model was developed to evaluate the costs and effectiveness associated with EVE+EXE, exemestane (EXE), fulvestrant (FUL), and tamoxifen (TAM) over a 10-year time horizon. The model included 3 health states: responsive/stable disease, progression, or death. Monthly transition probabilities were estimated based on the BOLERO-2 (Breast cancer trials of OraL EveROlimus-2) data and network meta-analyses. Costs included drug acquisition and administration costs, medical costs associated health states, and costs for managing adverse events (AEs). Utilities for each health state and disutilities for AEs were derived from the literature. Incremental costs per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) were estimated by comparing EVE+EXE with each endocrine monotherapy. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. In the base case, EVE+EXE was associated with 1.99 QALYs and total direct costs of $258,648 over 10 years. The incremental cost per QALY of EVE+EXE was $139,740 compared with EXE, $157,749 compared with FUL, and $115,624 compared with TAM. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of $130,000/QALY or above, EVE+EXE appeared to be the most cost-effective treatment among all drugs. Everolimus with EXE demonstrated QALY improvements compared with 3 other endocrine monotherapies. Benchmarked by the economic value of other novel cancer therapies, EVE+EXE might be considered a cost-effective option compared with endocrine therapies for HR(+)/HER2(-) ABC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. mTOR, p70S6K, AKT, and ERK1/2 levels predict sensitivity to mTOR and PI3K/mTOR inhibitors in human bronchial carcinoids.

    PubMed

    Gagliano, Teresa; Bellio, Mariaenrica; Gentilin, Erica; Molè, Daniela; Tagliati, Federico; Schiavon, Marco; Cavallesco, Narciso Giorgio; Andriolo, Luigi Gaetano; Ambrosio, Maria Rosaria; Rea, Federico; Degli Uberti, Ettore; Zatelli, Maria Chiara

    2013-08-01

    Bronchial carcinoids (BCs) are rare neuroendocrine tumors that are still orphans of medical treatment. Human BC primary cultures may display resistance to everolimus, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), in terms of cell viability reduction. Our aim was to assess whether the novel dual phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 is effective in everolimus-resistant human BC tissues and cell lines. In addition, we searched for possible markers of the efficacy of mTOR inhibitors that may help in identifying the patients who may benefit from treatment with mTOR inhibitors, sparing them from ineffective therapy. We found that NVP-BEZ235 is twice as potent as everolimus in reducing cell viability and activating apoptosis in human BC tissues that display sensitivity to mTOR inhibitors, but is not effective in everolimus-resistant BC tissues and cell lines that bypass cyclin D1 downregulation and escape G0/G1 blockade. Rebound AKT activation was not observed in response to treatment with either mTOR inhibitor in the 'resistant' BC cells. In addition to total mTOR levels, putative markers of the sensitivity of BCs to mTOR inhibitors are represented by AKT, p70S6K (RPS6KB2), and ERK1/2 (MAPK3/1) protein levels. Finally, we validated these markers in an independent BC group. These data indicate that the dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor NVP-BEZ235 is more potent than everolimus in reducing the proliferation of human BC cells. 'Resistant' cells display lower levels of mTOR, p70S6K, AKT, and ERK1/2, indicating that these proteins may be useful as predictive markers of resistance to mTOR and PI3K/mTOR inhibitors in human BCs.

  13. A role for everolimus in post-transplant encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis: first case report.

    PubMed

    Sud, Rahul; Garry, Lorraine; Spicer, Stephen Timothy; Allen, Richard D M; Eris, Josette M; Wyburn, Kate; Verran, Deborah; Cooper, Caroline Louise; Chadban, Steve

    2014-04-01

    Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is a rare complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD) that carries a high morbidity and mortality. The 'two hit theory' suggests that long term deterioration of the peritoneum combined with intraperitoneal inflammation is needed in the pathogenesis of EPS. For unclear reasons, post transplantation EPS is being increasingly reported in patients previously on PD. To date, there is no proven effective therapy with an absence of randomised controlled trials. Individual case reports and small case series have reported on the use of tamoxifen and corticosteroids for medical management of EPS. The use of everolimus has been reported in a single case, and never in the setting of renal transplantation. Here, we present the first case of post-transplant encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis treated successfully with a combination of everolimus, tamoxifen, low dose corticosteroid and surgery.

  14. Phase II Study of Everolimus and Letrozole in Patients With Recurrent Endometrial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Slomovitz, Brian M.; Jiang, Yunyun; Yates, Melinda S.; Soliman, Pamela T.; Johnston, Taren; Nowakowski, Maureen; Levenback, Charles; Zhang, Qian; Ring, Kari; Munsell, Mark F.; Gershenson, David M.; Lu, Karen H.; Coleman, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The phosphoinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) pathway is frequently dysregulated in endometrial cancer (EC). Hormonal manipulation leads to response in some patients with EC, but resistance derived from PI3K pathway activation has been documented. Targeting mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) may overcome endocrine resistance. We conducted a two-institution phase II trial of everolimus and letrozole in women with recurrent EC. Patients and Methods Patients were considered incurable, had measurable disease, and were treated with up to two prior cytotoxic regimens. Everolimus was administered orally at 10 mg daily and letrozole was administered orally at 2.5 mg daily. Each cycle consisted of 4 weeks of therapy. Patients were treated until progression, toxicity, or complete response (CR). The primary end point was the clinical benefit rate (CBR), which was defined as CR, partial response, or stable disease (≥ 16 weeks) by RECIST 1.0 criteria. Translational studies were performed to correlate biomarkers with response. Results Thirty-eight patients were enrolled (median age, 62 years; range, 24 to 82 years). Thirty-five patients were evaluable for response. The CBR was 40% (14 of 35 patients); the median number of cycles among responders was 15 (range, seven to 29 cycles). The confirmed objective response rate (RR) was 32% (11 of 35 patients; nine CRs and two partial responses; median, 15 cycles; range, eight to 29 cycles). Twenty percent of patients (seven of 35 patients) were taken off treatment after a prolonged CR and at the discretion of the treating clinician. None of the patients discontinued treatment as a result of toxicity. Serous histology was the best predictor of lack of response. Patients with endometrioid histology and CTNNB1 mutations responded well to everolimus and letrozole. Conclusion Everolimus plus letrozole results in a high CBR and RR in patients with recurrent EC. Further development of this combination in recurrent endometrioid EC is under way

  15. Metformin with everolimus and octreotide in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor patients with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pusceddu, Sara; Buzzoni, Roberto; Vernieri, Claudio; Concas, Laura; Marceglia, Sara; Giacomelli, Luca; Milione, Massimo; Leuzzi, Livia; Femia, Daniela; Formisano, Barbara; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; de Braud, Filippo

    2016-05-01

    A bidirectional relationship seems to exist between diabetes mellitus and development of pancreatic tumors. Metformin, the most widely used drug in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus, has recently emerged as a potentially active agent in cancer chemoprevention and treatment. In this article, we discuss the potential correlation between glycemic status, administration of antiglycemic treatments, such as metformin or insulin, and prognosis of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors patients treated with everolimus and octreotide, on the basis of existing evidence and our experience.

  16. Effect of everolimus on the expression of Ki-67 and caspase-3 in patients with neuroendocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H Y; Cheng, X B; Li, Y; Jin, L D; Yin, H P

    2017-03-30

    Tumors, especially neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), can cause adverse effects on human health. The expression and significance of Ki-67 and caspase-3 in NET remain to be further explored. Everolimus is an important drug used for the treatment of NETs. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether everolimus exerts anti-tumor effects by suppressing the expression of Ki-67 and caspase-3 in NET. Tumor (different developmental stages) and adjacent tissues were collected from patients with NET. The expression of Ki-67 and caspase-3 were detected in 244 paraffin sections of NET using immunohistochemistry. RT-PCR and western blot were used to detect the expression of Ki-67 and caspase-3 at mRNA and protein levels, respectively. The patients (N = 244) were randomly divided into everolimus-intervention and control groups. RT-PCR and western blot were used to measure the expression changes of Ki-67 and caspase-3 before and after everolimus treatment. The rates of Ki-67 expression in NET grades 1-6 were 14.2, 22.1, 37.5, 59.9, 69.9, and 77.8%, respectively. The difference between the groups was significant. The rates of caspase-3 expression in NET grades 1-6 were 28.6, 33.3, 31.3, 60.0, 80.0, and 88.9%, respectively, and the difference between groups was significant. Moreover, the expression of Ki-67 and caspase-3 showed a significant negative correlation. The expression of Ki-67 decreased while that of caspase-3 increased after everolimus treatment. In conclusion, the decrease in Ki-67 expression and increase in caspase-3 expression after everolimus treatment indicated that everolimus exerted its anti-cancer effect by regulating the expression of Ki-67 and caspase-3.

  17. Combination of Leflunomide and Everolimus for treatment of BK virus nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Jaw, Juli; Hill, Prue; Goodman, David

    2017-04-01

    BK nephropathy (BKN) is a common cause of graft dysfunction following kidney transplantation. Minimization of immunosuppressive therapy remains the first line of therapy, but this may lead to rejection and graft loss. In some cases, despite lowering immunosuppression, BK infection can persist, leading to chronic damage and kidney failure. Currently, there is no specific anti-BK viral therapy. Recent in vitro experiments have demonstrated a reduction in BK viral replication when infected cells are treated with the combination of Leflunomide and Everolimus. This study aims to explore the effect of this drugs combination on viral clearance and graft function in patients with persistent disease despite reduction in immunosuppression. We treated three patients with combination Leflunomide and Everolimus. Data on medical history, biochemical parameters and viral loads were collected. Significant improvement in viral loads was observed in two cases with resolution of viremia in another (Table 1). Two recipients had preserved allograft function. The remaining graft was lost because of combination of obstruction and BKN. No adverse reactions such as bone marrow toxicity were observed. Combination of Leflunomide and Everolimus is safe and should be considered as a rescue therapy in treatment of BKN, especially in those who fail to clear this infection despite reduction of immunosuppressive therapy.

  18. Perfusion CT Changes in Liver Metastases from Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors During Everolimus Treatment.

    PubMed

    D'Onofrio, Mirko; Cingarlini, Sara; Ortolani, Silvia; Crosara, Stefano; DE Robertis, Riccardo; Vallerio, Paola; Grego, Elisabetta; Ciaravino, Valentina; Ruzzenente, Andrea; Landoni, Luca; Scarpa, Aldo; Bassi, Claudio; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate modifications of perfusional parameters assessed by perfusion computed tomography (P-CT) of liver metastases (LM) from pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) during everolimus treatment. All patients with LMs from G1-2 PanNETs undergoing everolimus treatment between January 2013 and January 2015 were prospectively evaluated with P-CT at baseline, and after 2 and 4 months of therapy. Size, perfusion, blood volume (BV), peak enhancement intensity (PEI) and time to peak for each lesion were calculated. A total of 33 LMs in nine patients with G1-2 PanNETs were prospectively evaluated: 23/33 (69.7%) were responders, 10/33 (30.3%) were non-responders. Among perfusional parameters, only numerical peak enhancement intensity values significantly differed between the two groups at baseline (p=0.043). BV increase was the most significant perfusional modification identifying responding lesions, even at an early stage of treatment, with a high positive predictive value (89.47%). P-CT seems to be useful for prediction of response to everolimus of LMs from PanNETs. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  19. Safety and Efficacy of Docetaxel, Bevacizumab, and Everolimus for Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC).

    PubMed

    Gross, Mitchell E; Dorff, Tanya B; Quinn, David I; Diaz, Patricia M; Castellanos, Olga O; Agus, David B

    2017-07-14

    Previous data suggests that co-targeting mammalian target of rapamycin and angiogenic pathways may potentiate effects of cytotoxic chemotherapy. We studied combining mammalian target of rapamycin and vascular endothelial growth factor inhibition with docetaxel in castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Eligible patients had progressive, metastatic, chemotherapy-naive CRPC. Docetaxel and bevacizumab were given intravenously day 1 with everolimus orally daily on a 21-day cycle across 3 dose levels (75:15:2.5, 75:15:5, and 65:15:5; docetaxel mg/m(2), mg/kg bevacizumab, and mg everolimus, respectively). Maintenance therapy with bevacizumab/everolimus without docetaxel was allowed after ≥ 6 cycles. Forty-three subjects were treated across all dose levels. Maximal tolerated doses for the combined therapies observed in the phase 1B portion of the trial were: docetaxel 75 mg/m(2), bevacizumab 15 mg/kg, and everolimus 2.5 mg. Maximal prostate-specific antigen decline ≥ 30% and ≥ 50% was achieved in 33 (79%) and 31 (74%) of patients, respectively. Best response by modified Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors criteria in 25 subjects with measurable disease at baseline included complete or partial response in 20 (80%) patients. The median progression-free and overall survival were 8.9 months (95% confidence interval, 7.4-10.6 months) and 21.9 months (95% confidence interval, 18.4-30.3 months), respectively. Hematologic toxicities were the most common treatment-related grade ≥ 3 adverse events including: febrile neutropenia (12; 28%), lymphopenia (12; 28%), leukocytes (10; 23%), neutrophils (9; 21%), and hemoglobin (2; 5%). Nonhematologic grade ≥ 3 adverse events included: hypertension (8; 19%), fatigue (3; 7%), pneumonia (3; 7%), and mucositis (4; 5%). There was 1 treatment-related death owing to neutropenic fever and pneumonia in a patient treated at dose level 3 despite dose modifications and prophylactic growth factor support. Docetaxel

  20. Risk evaluation and mitigation strategies: a focus on the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Gabardi, Steven

    2013-03-01

    To review the history of risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) with the mammalian target of rapamycin (mToR) inhibitors, evaluate their required REMS elements, and delineate the reasons for them being released from their REMS requirements. Articles were identified through a literature search of MEDLINE and EMBASE (January 2007-July 2012) using the search terms: risk evaluation and mitigation strategies, REMS, everolimus, sirolimus and organ transplant (individual organs also were searched). Information from the Federal Register, the Food and Drug Administration, and the manufacturers of the mToR inhibitors was also evaluated. REMS are strategies implemented to manage known or potential risks associated with medications and to ensure ongoing pharmacovigilance throughout the life of a pharmaceutical product. The mToR inhibitors have been associated with several potential risks, including proteinuria, graft thrombosis, and wound-healing complications. The Food and Drug Administration approved REMS programs for both sirolimus and everolimus. The manufacturers of both medications complied with the components of their approved REMS, but after less than 2 years, both medications have been relieved of their REMS obligations. The only element of the sirolimus REMS was a medication guide, whereas the everolimus REMS consisted of a medication guide and a communication plan. The sirolimus REMS was implemented more than 10 years after its initial approval by the Food and Drug Administration, but was released from its REMS requirement within 7 months of its implementation. The everolimus REMS was instituted upon initial approval and was removed approximately 2 years later. Both medications' REMS were always intended to educate health care providers and patients about the potential risks associated with this transplant immunosuppressant. Transplant practitioners should be familiar with the mToR inhibitors' associated risks and properly educate patients regarding the

  1. Anti-PD-L1 treatment enhances antitumor effect of everolimus in a mouse model of renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Yukiyoshi; Gi, Min; Yamano, Shotaro; Tachibana, Hirokazu; Okuno, Takahiro; Tamada, Satoshi; Nakatani, Tatsuya; Wanibuchi, Hideki

    2016-12-01

    Immunotherapy based on blockade of the programmed death-1 (PD-1)/programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) axis has shown promising clinical activity for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients; however, the most effective use of these agents in combination with conventional targeted therapy remains to be resolved. Here we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of the combination of the mTOR inhibitor everolimus (EVE) and anti-PD-L1 using an immunocompetent mouse model of RCC. We first assessed the in vitro effect of EVE on PD-L1 expression in the human 786-O and mouse RENCA RCC cell lines and found that EVE upregulated PD-L1 expression in these RCC cell lines. We then treated RENCA tumor-bearing mice with EVE and found that PD-L1 expression was also increased in tumor cells after EVE treatment. To determine the antitumor effects of EVE alone, anti-PD-L1 alone, and EVE in combination with anti-PD-L1, we evaluated their antitumor effects on RENCA tumor-bearing mice. A significant decrease in the tumor burden was observed in the EVE alone but not in the anti-PD-L1 alone treatment group compared with the control group. Importantly, the combination of EVE with anti-PD-L1 significantly reduced tumor burden compared with the EVE alone treatment, increasing tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and the ratio of cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells to TILs. The results of the present study demonstrated that anti-PD-L1 treatment enhanced the antitumor effect of EVE in a mouse model, supporting a direct translation of this combination strategy to the clinic for the treatment of RCC.

  2. PI-103, a dual inhibitor of Class IA phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase and mTOR, has antileukemic activity in AML.

    PubMed

    Park, S; Chapuis, N; Bardet, V; Tamburini, J; Gallay, N; Willems, L; Knight, Z A; Shokat, K M; Azar, N; Viguié, F; Ifrah, N; Dreyfus, F; Mayeux, P; Lacombe, C; Bouscary, D

    2008-09-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathways are frequently activated in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). mTORC1 inhibition with RAD001 induces PI3K/Akt activation and both pathways are activated independently, providing a rationale for dual inhibition of both pathways. PI-103 is a new potent PI3K/Akt and mTOR inhibitor. In human leukemic cell lines and in primary blast cells from AML patients, PI-103 inhibited constitutive and growth factor-induced PI3K/Akt and mTORC1 activation. PI-103 was essentially cytostatic for cell lines and induced cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase. In blast cells, PI-103 inhibited leukemic proliferation, the clonogenicity of leukemic progenitors and induced mitochondrial apoptosis, especially in the compartment containing leukemic stem cells. In contrast, apoptosis was not induced with RAD001 and IC87114 association, which specifically inhibits mTORC1 and p110delta activity, respectively. PI-103 had additive proapoptotic effects with etoposide in blast cells and in immature leukemic cells. Interestingly, PI-103 did not induce apoptosis in normal CD34(+) cells and had moderate effects on their clonogenic and proliferative properties. Here, we demonstrate that multitargeted therapy against PI3K/Akt and mTOR with PI-103 may be of therapeutic value in AML.

  3. Platelet reactivity over time in coronary artery disease patients treated with a bioabsorbable everolimus-eluting scaffold.

    PubMed

    Tello-Montoliu, Antonio; Rivera, José; Hernández-Romero, Diana; Silvente, Ana; Jover, Eva; Quintana, Miriam; Orenes-Piñero, Esteban; Hurtado, José; Ferreiro, José Luis; Marín, Francisco; Valdés, Mariano

    2016-12-01

    Everolimus-eluting bioabsorbable scaffolds (BVSs) have exhibited similar long-term clinical outcomes compared to its everolimus-eluting metallic counterparts. However, reports from earlier studies have shown a signal for an increased rate of stent thrombosis. The aim of the current investigation is to describe the platelet reactivity profiles over time in patients treated with everolimus-eluting BVS in comparison to everolimus-eluting metallic stents. This is a pilot study in which patients on aspirin and clopidogrel with at least 1 everolimus-eluting BVS were included (n = 24). Patients with at least 1 everolimus-eluting metallic stent implanted were included as control group (n = 25). Blood samples were taken at time of discharge and at 3- and 6-month follow-up. Platelet function tests included VerifyNow (VN-P2Y12), multiplate aggregometry (MEA), and light transmission aggregometry (LTA). There was no difference in platelet reactivity at discharge, 3- and 6-month visits (unadjusted p = 0.733 and p = 0.582; p = 0.432 and p = 0.899 after adjusting for discharge value platelet reactivity0, respectively) using VN-P2Y12. Similar findings were observed with LTA. However, patients with BVS showed significantly higher platelet reactivity than patients with metallic stents at 3 and 6 months in the crude analysis (p = 0.003) and after adjusting for discharge value (p = 0.013) measured with ADP-MEA. There were no differences in platelet reactivity mediated by the T × A2 pathway between both groups. Finally, there is no statistical difference in high on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity (HPR) rate between both groups. The results of this pilot study suggest that BVS might have different platelet reactivity profiles, and warrants further investigation in dedicated clinical studies.

  4. Differential aspects between cobalt-chromium everolimus drug-eluting stent and Absorb everolimus bioresorbable vascular scaffold: from bench to clinical use.

    PubMed

    Sotomi, Yohei; Suwannasom, Pannipa; Tenekecioglu, Erhan; Tateishi, Hiroki; Abdelghani, Mohammad; Serruys, Patrick W; Onuma, Yoshinobu

    2015-10-01

    Drug-eluting stents have significantly improved the outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention by substantially reducing in-stent restenosis and stent thrombosis. However, a potential limitation of these stents is the permanent presence of a metallic foreign body within the artery, which may cause vascular inflammation, restenosis, thrombosis, neoatherosclerosis, permanent impairment of the physiological vasomotor function and interference with potential future grafting of the stented segment. Bioresorbable scaffolds have the potential to overcome these limitations as they provide temporary scaffolding and then disappear, liberating the treated vessel from its cage and restoring pulsatility, cyclical strain, physiological shear stress and mechanotransduction. This article presents a comparison between the most widespread bioresorbable vascular scaffold 'Absorb BVS' and second-generation drug-eluting stent (cobalt chromium everolimus-eluting stent) from bench to clinical use.

  5. mTOR inhibitors block Kaposi sarcoma growth by inhibiting essential autocrine growth factors and tumor angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Roy, Debasmita; Sin, Sang-Hoon; Lucas, Amy; Venkataramanan, Raman; Wang, Ling; Eason, Anthony; Chavakula, Veenadhari; Hilton, Isaac B; Tamburro, Kristen M; Damania, Blossom; Dittmer, Dirk P

    2013-04-01

    Kaposi sarcoma originates from endothelial cells and it is one of the most overt angiogenic tumors. In Sub-Saharan Africa, where HIV and the Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) are endemic, Kaposi sarcoma is the most common cancer overall, but model systems for disease study are insufficient. Here, we report the development of a novel mouse model of Kaposi sarcoma, where KSHV is retained stably and tumors are elicited rapidly. Tumor growth was sensitive to specific allosteric inhibitors (rapamycin, CCI-779, and RAD001) of the pivotal cell growth regulator mTOR. Inhibition of tumor growth was durable up to 130 days and reversible. mTOR blockade reduced VEGF secretion and formation of tumor vasculature. Together, the results show that mTOR inhibitors exert a direct anti-Kaposi sarcoma effect by inhibiting angiogenesis and paracrine effectors, suggesting their application as a new treatment modality for Kaposi sarcoma and other cancers of endothelial origin.

  6. [Response to everolimus in patients with giant cell astrocytoma associated to tuberous sclerosis complex].

    PubMed

    Mateos-González, M Elena; López-Laso, Eduardo; Vicente-Rueda, Josefina; Camino-León, Rafael; Fernández-Ramos, Joaquín A; Baena-Gómez, M Auxiliadora; Peña-Rosa, M José

    2014-12-01

    Introduccion. Los astrocitomas subependimarios de celulas gigantes (SEGA) se presentan en el 5-20% de los pacientes con complejo esclerosis tuberosa (CET) y son los tumores cerebrales mas comunes en el CET. Son tumores benignos, de estirpe glioneural, que se desarrollan fundamentalmente en las primeras dos decadas de la vida, en general cercanos al foramen de Monro, y pueden ocasionar hidrocefalia e hipertension intracraneal. Constituyen la principal causa de muerte en el CET. Recientemente, los inhibidores mTOR han demostrado ser una alternativa terapeutica a la reseccion quirurgica. Objetivo. Describir nuestra experiencia con everolimus para el tratamiento de pacientes con SEGA y CET. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio prospectivo de la respuesta de los pacientes con CET y al menos un SEGA en crecimiento. Resultados. Recibieron tratamiento tres mujeres y tres varones con una edad media de 12,3 años. Un paciente habia sido previamente intervenido quirurgicamente por SEGA con hidrocefalia. El diametro maximo medio del SEGA al inicio del tratamiento era de 15,3 mm (rango: 11,3-24,8 mm). Se inicio tratamiento con everolimus, 2,5 mg/dia por via oral en pacientes con superficie corporal < 1,2 m2 y 5 mg/dia en pacientes con superficie corporal > 1,2 m2. Dos pacientes presentaron hipertrigliceridemia; uno, anorexia; otro, un afta; y una paciente, amenorrea. La reduccion media del volumen del SEGA a los tres meses de tratamiento fue del 46%, y la reduccion se mantuvo estable en controles posteriores (6-25 meses). Conclusiones. El tratamiento con everolimus disminuye el tamaño de los SEGA asociados a CET con un perfil de seguridad adecuado, y constituye una alternativa a la cirugia en casos seleccionados.

  7. A phase 2 clinical trial of everolimus plus bicalutamide for castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Chow, Helen; Ghosh, Paramita M; deVere White, Ralph; Evans, Christopher P; Dall'Era, Marc A; Yap, Stanley A; Li, Yueju; Beckett, Laurel A; Lara, Primo N; Pan, Chong-Xian

    2016-06-15

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is up-regulated in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Nevertheless, inhibition of mTOR is ineffective in inducing apoptosis in prostate cancer cells, likely because of the compensatory up-regulation of the androgen receptor (AR) pathway. Patients who were eligible for this study had to have progressive CRPC with serum testosterone levels <50 ng/dL. No prior bicalutamide (except to prevent flare) or everolimus was allowed. Treatment included oral bicalutamide 50 mg and oral everolimus 10 mg, both once daily, with a cycle defined as 4 weeks. The primary endpoint was the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response (≥30% reduction) from baseline. A sample size of 23 patients would have power of 0.8 and an α error of .05 (1-sided) if the combination had a PSA response rate of 50% versus a historic rate of 25% with bicalutamide alone. Twenty-four patients were enrolled. The mean age was 71.1 years (range, 53.0-87.0 years), the mean PSA level at study entry was 43.4 ng/dL (range, 2.5-556.9 ng/dL), and the mean length of treatment was 8 cycles (range, 1.0-23.0 cycles). Of 24 patients, 18 had a PSA response (75%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.53-0.90), whereas 15 (62.5%; 95% CI, 0.41-0.81) had a PSA decrease ≥50%. The median overall survival was 28 months (95% CI, 14.1-42.7 months). Fourteen patients (54%; 95% CI, 0.37-0.78) developed grade 3 (13 patients) or grade 4 (1 patient with sepsis) adverse events that were attributable to treatment. The combination of bicalutamide and everolimus has encouraging efficacy in men with bicalutamide-naive CRPC, thus warranting further investigation. A substantial number of patients experienced everolimus-related toxicity. Cancer 2016;122:1897-904. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  8. Everolimus and exemestane in long survival hormone receptor positive male breast cancer: case report.

    PubMed

    Ballatore, Z; Pistelli, M; Battelli, N; Pagliacci, A; De Lisa, M; Berardi, R; Cascinu, S

    2016-11-28

    Male breast cancer is a rare event, accounting for approximately 1% of all breast carcinomas. Although men with breast cancer had poorer survival when compared with women, data on prognosis principally derive from retrospective studies and from extrapolation of female breast cancer series. We reported the case of a very long survival patient. A caucasian 42-year-old man underwent radical mastectomy with axillary dissection for breast cancer in 1993. Pathologic stage was pT4pN0M0 infiltrating ductal carcinoma of right breast without lymph nodes metastases. Biological characterization was not available. He received adjuvant treatment with chemotherapy, six cycles of cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and fluorouracil, then endocrine therapy with tamoxifen for 5 years and complementary radiotherapy. Then he began clinical-instrumental follow up. In May 1996, a computed tomography scan showed multiple lung metastases. Hereafter he received several oncologic treatment including seven chemotherapy and five endocrine therapy lines with two re-challenge of endocrine therapy. In October 2007 further lung progression was showed and a biopsy was performed to characterize the disease. Histological examination confirmed breast cancer metastases, immunohistochemistry showed positive staining for estrogen receptor, negative for progesterone receptor and human epithelial growth factor receptor 2, proliferative index was 21%. In April 2013, bone disease progression was evident and he received radiant treatment to sacral spine. In May 2014 an off-label treatment with exemestane and everolimus combination was approved by Ethics Committee of the Marche Region. The patient received treatment for 3 months with evident clinical benefit to subcutaneous lesions of the chest wall that were not visible nor palpable on physical examination after 1 month of treatment. That is the case of long survival male breast cancer patient with luminal B subtype and no BRCA mutations. He achieved higher

  9. Use of mTOR inhibitors in the treatment of breast cancer: an evaluation of factors that influence patient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Jerusalem, Guy; Rorive, Andree; Collignon, Joelle

    2014-01-01

    Many systemic treatment options are available for advanced breast cancer, including endocrine therapy, chemotherapy, anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) therapy, and other targeted agents. Recently, everolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, combined with exemestane, an aromatase inhibitor, has been approved in Europe and the USA for patients suffering from estrogen receptor-positive, HER2-negative advanced breast cancer previously treated by a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor, based on the results of BOLERO-2 (Breast cancer trials of OraL EveROlimus). This study showed a statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in median progression-free survival. Results concerning the impact on overall survival are expected in the near future. This clinically oriented review focuses on the use of mTOR inhibitors in breast cancer. Results reported with first-generation mTOR inhibitors (ridaforolimus, temsirolimus, everolimus) are discussed. The current and potential role of mTOR inhibitors is reported according to breast cancer subtype (estrogen receptor-positive HER2-negative, triple-negative, and HER2-positive ER-positive/negative disease). Everolimus is currently being evaluated in the adjuvant setting in high-risk estrogen receptor-positive, HER2-negative early breast cancer. Continuing mTOR inhibition or alternatively administering other drugs targeting the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/protein kinase B-mTOR pathway after progression on treatments including an mTOR inhibitor is under evaluation. Potential biomarkers to select patients showing a more pronounced benefit are reviewed, but we are not currently using these biomarkers in routine practice. Subgroup analysis of BOLERO 2 has shown that the benefit is consistent in all subgroups and that it is impossible to select patients not benefiting from addition of everolimus to exemestane. Side effects and impact on quality of life are other important issues discussed

  10. Everolimus is a potent inducer of erythroid differentiation and gamma-globin gene expression in human erythroid cells.

    PubMed

    Zuccato, Cristina; Bianchi, Nicoletta; Borgatti, Monica; Lampronti, Ilaria; Massei, Francesco; Favre, Claudio; Gambari, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    We studied the effects of everolimus on the erythroid differentiation of human leukaemic K562 cells and on the cultures of erythroid progenitors derived from the peripheral blood of beta-thalassaemia patients. A quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay was employed for the quantification of the accumulation of globin mRNAs. The results obtained demonstrate that everolimus is a potent inducer of the erythroid differentiation of K562 cells. Erythroid induction is associated with an increase in alpha- and gamma-globin mRNAs. In erythroid precursor cells from 4 beta-thalassaemia patients, everolimus stimulated a preferential increase (ranging from 1.8- to 7.2-fold) in gamma-globin mRNA. Only minor effects were observed on the expression of alpha-globin genes. These results, in our opinion, are of interest as this compound is already employed in clinical trials as an anti-rejection agent following kidney transplantation. These data suggest that everolimus warrants further evaluation as a potential therapeutic drug in the treatment of beta-thalassaemia. 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

  11. Risk of fatigue in patients with solid tumors treated with everolimus, temsirolimus or ridaforolimus: a comparative meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Omar; Fouad, Mona

    2015-04-01

    We performed a meta-analysis of fatigue associated with the use of everolimus, temsirolimus or ridaforolimus in patients with solid tumors. Eligible studies included randomized trials of patients with solid tumors on everolimus, temsirolimus or ridaforolimus describing events of fatigue. A total of 18 clinical trials including 8143 patients were considered eligible for the meta-analysis. On the basis of random-effects model, we found that the relative risk of all-grade and high-grade fatigue were 1.26 [95% CI: 1.09-1.46; p < 0.0001], 1.49 [95% CI: 0.99, 2.24; p = 0.05], respectively. On subgroup analysis, we cannot identify any difference between everolimus and temsirolimus in the risk of fatigue. Thus, our meta-analysis has demonstrated that regimens containing everolimus, temsirolimus or ridaforolimus for the treatment of solid tumors are associated with an increased risk of all-grade fatigue, whereas the risk of high-grade fatigue did not reach the threshold of statistical significance. Close clinical monitoring and pre-emptive treatment for fatigue are recommended.

  12. Development and Validation of Stability-indicating High Performance Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Estimation of Everolimus in Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Sharmila, D.; Rao, A. Lakshmana; Kalyani, L.

    2015-01-01

    The present study depicts the development of a validated reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of the everolimus in presence of degradation products or pharmaceutical excipients. Stress study was performed on everolimus and it was found that it degrade sufficiently in oxidizing and acidic conditions but less degradation was found in alkaline, neutral, thermal and photolytic conditions. The separation was carried out on Hypersil BDS C18 column (100×4.6 mm, 5 μ) column having particle size 5 μ using acetate buffer:acetonitrile (50:50 v/v) with pH 6.5 adjusted with orthophosphoric acid as mobile phase at flow rate of 1 ml/min. The wavelength of the detection was 280 nm. A retention time (Rt) nearly 3.110 min was observed. The calibration curve for everolimus was linear (r2=0.999) from range of 25-150 μg/ml with limit of detection and limit of quantification of 0.036 μg/ml and 0.109 μg/ml, respectively. Analytical validation parameters such as selectivity, specificity, linearity, accuracy and precision were evaluated and relative standard deviation value for all the key parameters were less than 2.0%. The recovery of the drug after standard addition was found to be 100.55%. Thus, the developed RP-HPLC method was found to be suitable for the determination of everolimus in tablets containing various excipients. PMID:26798176

  13. Ultra fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry routine method for simultaneous determination of cyclosporin A, tacrolimus, sirolimus, and everolimus in whole blood using deuterated internal standards for cyclosporin A and everolimus.

    PubMed

    Meinitzer, Andreas; Gartner, Gabriele; Pilz, Stefan; Stettin, Mariana

    2010-02-01

    Specific chromatographic methods for the measurement of cyclosporin A, tacrolimus, sirolimus, and everolimus blood levels in patients with organ transplants are time consuming when large numbers of samples must be processed. The authors developed a robust and fast (1 minute) online solid-phase extraction liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous quantification of cyclosporin A, tacrolimus, sirolimus, and everolimus. After protein precipitation of the whole blood with zinc sulphate and methanol, the supernatant was loaded on a wide pore reversed-phase column and cleansed of potential interferences with high flow for 20 seconds. After column switching, the analytes were transferred within 20 seconds in the back-flush mode to a short phenyl-hexyl column. The valve was then returned to its initial position and the chromatographic separation performed within 20 seconds. In the meantime, the loading column was prepared for the next injection. Ammoniated adducts of protonated molecules were used as precursor ions for all analytes. Multiple-reaction mode transitions for each immunosuppressant and the internal standards were used for quantification. The working range of the method was 10-1500 microg/L for cyclosporin A, 1.0-44 microg/L for tacrolimus, 1.0-48 microg/L for sirolimus, and 1.2-48 microg/L for everolimus. Within and between-run assay coefficients of variation ranged from 1.8% to 13.0%. The described liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method shows best performance using the internal standards cyclosporin A-d4 for cyclosporin A, everolimus-d4 for everolimus and ascomycin for tacrolimus and sirolimus. In conclusion, the authors present a very fast, robust, and economical analytical method for therapeutic monitoring of multiple immunosuppressants in daily clinical practice.

  14. Everolimus and basiliximab permit suppression by human CD4+CD25+ cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Game, David S; Hernandez-Fuentes, Maria P; Lechler, Robert I

    2005-03-01

    Immunosuppressive drugs are essential for the prevention of acute transplant rejection but some may not promote long-term tolerance. Tolerance is dependent on the presence and regulatory function of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells in a number of animal models. The direct effects of immunosuppressive drugs on CD4(+)CD25(+) cells, particularly those that interfere with IL-2 signaling are uncertain. We studied the effects of the rapamycin derivative everolimus and the anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody basiliximab on the regulatory capacity of human CD4(+)CD25(+) cells in vitro. Both drugs permitted the suppression of proliferation and IFN-gamma secretion by CD4(+)CD25(-) cells responding to allogeneic and other polyclonal stimuli; CTLA-4 expression was abolished on CD4(+)CD25(+) cells without compromising their suppressive ability. Everolimus reduced IFN-gamma secretion by CD4(+)CD25(-) cells before the anti-proliferative effect: this is a novel finding. Exogenous IL-2 and IL-15 could prevent the suppression of proliferation by CD4(+)CD25(+) cells and the drugs could not restore suppression. By contrast, suppression of IFN-gamma secretion was only slightly impeded with the exogenous cytokines. Finally, CD4(+)CD25(+) cells were more resistant than CD4(+)CD25(-) cells to the pro-apoptotic action of the drugs. Together these data suggest that CD4(+)CD25(+) cells may still exert their effects in transplant patients taking immunosuppression that interferes with IL-2 signaling.

  15. Analytical performance of a new liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric method for determination of everolimus concentrations in whole blood.

    PubMed

    McMillin, Gwendolyn A; Johnson-Davis, Kamisha; Dasgupta, Amitava

    2012-04-01

    The immunosuppressant everolimus was recently approved for prophylactic use in the United States, to prevent organ rejection in adult kidney transplant recipients. The currently accepted therapeutic range for everolimus is 3-8 ng/mL. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) using predose EDTA whole blood samples is required to optimize dose. We describe a simple extraction method and analysis by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to support routine TDM of everolimus. Samples were prepared by protein precipitation and filtration. The first quadrupole was set to select the ammonium adducts (Equation is included in full-text article.)of everolimus (m/z 975.62) and rapamycin-d3 (m/z 934.70), the internal standard. The second quadrupole was used as a collision chamber, and the third quadrupole was then used to select characteristic product ions of everolimus (m/z 908.50 and 890.50) and rapamycin-d3 (m/z 864.60 and 846.50). The method had an analytical measurement range of 2.0-150 ng/mL. Total imprecision, expressed as percent coefficient of variation (mean concentration), was 19.1% (3.3 ng/mL), 10.6% (5.9 ng/mL), 8.1% (19.2 ng/mL), 5.7% (25.8 ng/mL), and 9.1% (34.2 ng/mL). The new method was compared with 2 other everolimus methods also based on LC-MS/MS, with 64 residual patient specimens. Agreement, based on simple linear regression, was excellent. Method A comparison: y = 0.96x - 1.12 (r = 0.99), n = 20, 2.5-44.7 ng/mL. Method B comparison: y = 0.96x + 0.49 (r = 0.99), n = 44, 2.1-85.6 ng/mL. We conclude that this method could support TDM of everolimus for a wide range of clinical indications.

  16. A phase I/II trial of BNC105P with everolimus in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC)

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Sumanta; Azad, Arun; Bhatia, Shailender; Drabkin, Harry; Costello, Brian; Sarantopoulos, John; Kanesvaran, Ravindran; Lauer, Richard; Starodub, Alexander; Hauke, Ralph; Sweeney, Christopher J.; Hahn, Noah M.; Sonpavde, Guru; Richey, Stephen; Breen, Timothy; Kremmidiotis, Gabriel; Leske, Annabell; Doolin, Elizabeth; Bibby, David C.; Simpson, Jeremy; Iglesias, Jose; Hutson, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose BNC105P inhibits tubulin polymerization, and preclinical studies suggest possible synergy with everolimus. In this phase I/II study, efficacy and safety of the combination were explored in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Experimental Design A phase I study in patients with clear cell mRCC and any prior number of therapies was conducted using a classical 3+3 design to evaluate standard doses of everolimus with increasing doses of BNC105P. At the recommended phase II dose (RP2D), patients with clear cell mRCC and 1-2 prior therapies (including ≥1 VEGF-TKI) were randomized to BNC105P with everolimus (Arm A) or everolimus alone (Arm B). The primary endpoint of the study was 6-month progression-free survival (6MPFS). Secondary endpoints included response rate, PFS, overall survival (OS) and exploratory biomarker analyses. Results In the phase I study (n=15), a dose of BNC105P at 16 mg/m2 with everolimus at 10 mg daily was identified as the RP2D. In the phase II study, 139 patients were randomized, with 69 and 67 evaluable patients in Arms A and B, respectively. 6MPFS was similar in the treatment arms (Arm A: 33.82% v Arm B: 30.30%, P=0.66) and no difference in median PFS was observed (Arm A: 4.7 mos v Arm B: 4.1 mos; P=0.49). Changes in matrix metalloproteinase-9, stem cell factor, sex hormone binding globulin and serum amyloid A protein were associated with clinical outcome with BNC105P. Conclusions Although the primary endpoint was not met in an unselected population, correlative studies suggest several biomarkers that warrant further prospective evaluation. PMID:25788492

  17. Everolimus safety and efficacy for renal angiomyolipomas associated with tuberous sclerosis complex: a Spanish expanded access trial.

    PubMed

    Robles, Nicolás Roberto; Peces, Ramón; Gómez-Ferrer, Álvaro; Villacampa, Felipe; Álvarez-Ossorio, Jose Luis; Pérez-Segura, Pedro; Morote, Juan; Herrera-Imbroda, Bernardo; Nieto, Javier; Carballido, Joaquín; Anido, Urbano; Valero, Marian; Meseguer, Cristina; Torra, Roser

    2016-09-26

    Renal angiomyolipomas (AML) are usual manifestations of tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) that may cause aneurism-related haemorrhages and renal impairment. Everolimus has emerged as an alternative to surgery/embolization. We provide further insight into everolimus safety and efficacy for TSC-related AML. This was a Spanish expanded access trial including patients aged ≥18 years with TSC-related AML. They received 10 mg everolimus once daily until AML progression, unacceptable toxicity, death/withdrawal, commercialisation for TSC-related AML, or 1 year after first patient enrolment. The primary outcome was dose-limiting safety according to grade 3/4 adverse events, serious adverse events, or adverse events leading to treatment modification. Secondary outcomes included overall safety and efficacy. Nineteen patients were enrolled and received everolimus for a median of 6.6 (5.3-10.9) months. Eleven (57.9 %) remained on 10 mg/day throughout the study and eight (42.1 %) required treatment modifications due to adverse events; none permanently discontinued treatment. Adverse events were overall grade 1/2 and most frequently included aphthous stomatitis/mucosal inflammation, hypercholesterolaemia/hypertriglyceridaemia, urinary tract infection, hypertension, dermatitis acneiform, and insomnia. Four (21.1 %) patients experienced grade 3 adverse events, none was grade 4, and only one (5.3 %) was serious (pneumonia). AML volume was reduced ≥30 % in 11 (57.9 %) patients and ≥50 % in 9 (47.4 %); none progressed. Right and left kidney sizes decreased in 16 and 14 patients, respectively. These findings support the benefit of everolimus for renal AML due to a manageable safety profile accompanied by reduced AML and kidney volumes. EudraCT number 2012-005397-63 ; date of registration 22 Nov 2012.

  18. Everolimus plus exemestane as first-line therapy in HR⁺, HER2⁻ advanced breast cancer in BOLERO-2.

    PubMed

    Beck, J Thaddeus; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Campone, Mario; Lebrun, Fabienne; Deleu, Ines; Rugo, Hope S; Pistilli, Barbara; Masuda, Norikazu; Hart, Lowell; Melichar, Bohuslav; Dakhil, Shaker; Geberth, Matthias; Nunzi, Martina; Heng, Daniel Y C; Brechenmacher, Thomas; El-Hashimy, Mona; Douma, Shyanne; Ringeisen, Francois; Piccart, Martine

    2014-02-01

    The present exploratory analysis examined the efficacy, safety, and quality-of-life effects of everolimus (EVE) + exemestane (EXE) in the subgroup of patients in BOLERO-2 whose last treatment before study entry was in the (neo)adjuvant setting. In BOLERO-2, patients with hormone-receptor-positive (HR(+)), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2-negative (HER2(-)) advanced breast cancer recurring/progressing after a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor (NSAI) were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive EVE (10 mg/day) + EXE (25 mg/day) or placebo (PBO) + EXE. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS) by local assessment. Overall, 137 patients received first-line EVE + EXE (n = 100) or PBO + EXE (n = 37). Median PFS by local investigator assessment nearly tripled to 11.5 months with EVE + EXE from 4.1 months with PBO + EXE (hazard ratio = 0.39; 95 % CI 0.25-0.62), while maintaining quality of life. This was confirmed by central assessment (15.2 vs 4.2 months; hazard ratio = 0.32; 95 % CI 0.18-0.57). The marked PFS improvement in patients receiving EVE + EXE as first-line therapy for disease recurrence during or after (neo)adjuvant NSAI therapy supports the efficacy of this combination in the first-line setting. Furthermore, the results highlight the potential benefit of early introduction of EVE + EXE in the management of HR(+), HER2(-) advanced breast cancer in postmenopausal patients.

  19. Inhibition of mTOR is required for optimal antitumor effect of HER2 inhibitors against HER2-overexpressing cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Todd W.; Forbes, James T.; Shah, Chirayu; Wyatt, Shelby K.; Manning, H. Charles; Olivares, Maria G.; Sanchez, Violeta; Dugger, Teresa C.; Granja, Nara de Matos; Narasanna, Archana; Cook, Rebecca S.; Kennedy, J. Phillip; Lindsley, Craig W.; Arteaga, Carlos L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose A significant fraction of HER2-overexpressing breast cancers exhibit resistance to the HER2 antibody trastuzumab. Hyperactivity of the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway confers trastuzumab resistance, and mTOR is a major downstream effector of PI3K/AKT. Therefore, we examined whether mTOR inhibitors synergize with trastuzumab. Experimental Design Immunocompetent mice bearing HER2-positive mammary tumors were treated with trastuzumab, the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, or the combination. Mice were imaged for tumor cell death using an optical Annexin-V probe and with [18F]FDG-PET. The signaling and growth effects of the mTOR inhibitor RAD001 on HER2+ cells treated with trastuzumab or lapatinib were evaluated. Results Treatment of mice with trastuzumab plus rapamycin was more effective than single-agent treatments, inducing complete regression of 26/26 tumors. The combination induced tumor cell death (Annexin-V binding) and inhibited FDG uptake. Rapamycin inhibited mTOR and tumor cell proliferation as determined by phospho-S6 and Ki67 immunohistochemistry, respectively. In culture, the combination of RAD001 plus trastuzumab inhibited cell growth more effectively than either drug alone. Trastuzumab partially decreased PI3K but not mTOR activity. Knockdown of TSC2 resulted in HER2-independent activation of mTOR and dampened the response to trastuzumab and lapatinib. Treatment with the HER2 inhibitor lapatinib decreased phospho-S6 and growth in TSC2-expressing but not in TSC2-knockdown cells. Conclusions Inhibition of PI3K and mTOR are required for the growth inhibitory effect of HER2 antagonists. These findings collectively support the combined use of trastuzumab and mTOR inhibitors for the treatment of HER2+ breast cancer. PMID:19934303

  20. mTOR inhibitors in the treatment of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Vinayak, Shaveta; Carlson, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/mTOR) pathway is commonly dysregulated in breast cancer. In preclinical studies, hyperactivation of the PI3K pathway has been linked to resistance to both endocrine therapy and trastuzumab (Herceptin). Rapalogs, agents that primarily inhibit mTOR-raptor complex 1, have been studied in combination with endocrine therapy to overcome endocrine resistance.Trials of combination endocrine therapy and rapalogs in metastatic hormone receptor-positive breast cancer have demonstrated variable results. However, two independent trials have recently shown that combination everolimus (Afinitor) and tamoxifen or combination everolimus and exemestane (Aromasin) is more effective than either endocrine agent alone. These trials selected patients with cancer refractory to endocrine therapy, which may be important in sensitizing tumors to inhibition of this pathway. In human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer, the early clinical data with combinations of PI3K/mTOR inhibitors and anti-HER2 therapies are encouraging. Efforts to identify clinical biomarkers of response or resistance to mTOR inhibitors are ongoing. This review will summarize results of preclinical and clinical studies aswell as ongoing clinical trials with mTOR or dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitors.

  1. Everolimus halts hepatic cystogenesis in a rodent model of polycystic-liver-disease.

    PubMed

    Temmerman, Frederik; Chen, Feng; Libbrecht, Louis; Vander Elst, Ingrid; Windmolders, Petra; Feng, Yuanbo; Ni, Yicheng; De Smedt, Humbert; Nevens, Frederik; van Pelt, Jos

    2017-08-14

    To develop a MRI-based method for accurate determination of liver volume (LV) and to explore the effect of long-term everolimus (EVR) treatment on LV in PCK rats with hepatomegaly. Thirty-one female PCK rats (model for polycystic-liver-disease: PCLD) were randomized into 3 groups and treatment was started at 16 wk, at the moment of extensive hepatomegaly (comparable to what is done in the human disease). Animals received: controls (n = 14), lanreotide (LAN: 3 mg/kg per 2 wk) (n = 10) or everolimus (EVR: 1 mg/kg per day) (n = 7). LV was measured at week 16, 24, 28. At week 28, all rats were sacrificed and liver tissue was harvested. Fibrosis was evaluated using quantitative image analysis. In addition, gene (quantitative RT-PCR) and protein expression (by Western blot) of the PI3K/AkT/mTOR signaling pathway was investigated. LV determination by MRI correlated excellent with the ex vivo measurements (r = 0.99, P < 0.001). The relative changes in LV at the end of treatment were: (controls) +31.8%; (LAN) +5.1% and (EVR) +8.8%, indicating a significantly halt of LV progression compared with controls (respectively, P = 0.01 and P = 0.04). Furthermore, EVR significantly reduced the amount of liver fibrosis (P = 0.004) thus might also prevent the development of portal hypertension. There was no difference in phosphorylation of Akt (Threonine 308) between LAN-treated PCK rats control PCK rats, whereas S6 was significantly more phosphorylated in the LAN group. Phosphorylation of Akt was not different between controls and EVR treated rats, however, for S6 there was significantly less phosphorylation in the EVR treated rats. Thus, both drugs interact with the PI3K/AkT/mTOR signaling cascade but acting at different molecular levels. Everolimus halts cyst growth comparable to lanreotide and reduces the development of fibrosis. mTOR-inhibition should be further explored in PCLD patients especially those that need immunosuppression.

  2. Systematic Review on Role of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Inhibitors as an Alternative to Calcineurin Inhibitors in Renal Transplant: Challenges and Window to Excel.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jayant; Bridson, Julie M; Sharma, Ajay; Halawa, Ahmed

    2017-06-01

    This review focuses on the current limited evidence of graft function and graft survival in various immunosuppressive regimens involving mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors with or without calcineurin inhibitors. We evaluated the current literature for describing the role of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors as an alternative to calcineurin inhibitors by searching the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, Crossref, and Scopus databases using medical subject heading terms. Our detailed analyses of all relevant literature showed use of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor-based de novo regimens, early calcineurin inhibitor withdrawal with subsequent introduction of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor-based regimens, and late conversion from a calcineurin inhibitor-based regimen to mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor-based regimens. Notably, early calcineurin inhibitor withdrawal with subsequent introduction of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor-based regimen seemed to be a more practical and realistic approach toward immunosuppressive treatment of renal transplant recipients. However, in view of the high rejection rate observed in these studies, it is advisable not to offer these regimens to patients with moderate to high immunologic risk. The present evidences suggest that treatment with mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors allows early and substantial calcineurin inhibitor minimization. The mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors everolimus and sirolimus are preferred due to their complementary mechanisms of action and favorable nephrotoxicity profile, which have opened the way for calcineurin inhibitor reduction/withdrawal in the early posttransplant period.

  3. Second-generation everolimus-eluting and paclitaxel-eluting stents in real-life practice (COMPARE): a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Kedhi, Elvin; Joesoef, Kaiyum Sheik; McFadden, Eugene; Wassing, Jochem; van Mieghem, Carlos; Goedhart, Dick; Smits, Pieter Cornelis

    2010-01-16

    Everolimus-eluting and paclitaxel-eluting stents, compared with bare metal stents, reduced the risk of restenosis in clinical trials with strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. We compared the safety and efficacy of the second-generation everolimus-eluting and paclitaxel-eluting stents in real-life practice. We randomly assigned 1800 consecutive patients (aged 18-85 years) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention at one centre to treatment with everolimus-eluting or paclitaxel-eluting stents. The primary endpoint was a composite of safety and efficacy (all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularisation) within 12 months. Patients were not told which stent they had been allocated. Analysis was by intention to treat. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01016041. Follow-up was completed in 1797 patients. The primary endpoint occurred in 56 (6%) of 897 patients in the everolimus-eluting stent group versus 82 (9%) of 903 in the paclitaxel-eluting stent group (relative risk 0.69 [95% CI 0.50-0.95], p value for superiority=0.02). The difference was attributable to a lower rate of stent thrombosis (6 [<1%] vs 23 [3%], 0.26 [0.11-0-64], p=0.002), myocardial infarction (25 [3%] vs 48 [5%], 0.52 [0.33-0.84], p=0.007), and target vessel revascularisation (21 [2%] vs 54 [6%], 0.39 [0.24-0.64], p=0.0001). Cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or target lesion revascularisation occurred in 44 [5%] patients in the everolimus-eluting stent group versus 74 [8%] patients in the paclitaxel-eluting stent group, p value for superiority was 0.005. The everolimus-eluting stent is better than the second generation paclitaxel-eluting stent in unselected patients in terms of safety and efficacy. On the basis of our results, we suggest that paclitaxel-eluting stents should no longer be used in everyday clinical practice. Unrestricted grants from Abbott Vascular and Boston Scientific. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  4. Everolimus-eluting stent platforms in percutaneous coronary intervention: comparative effectiveness and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Panoulas, Vasileios F; Mastoris, Ioannis; Konstantinou, Klio; Tespili, Maurizio; Ielasi, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Despite the remarkable benefits obtained following the introduction of the first-generation drug-eluting stent (DES), concerns were raised over its long-term safety, particularly with regard to very late (beyond 1 year) stent thrombosis. Newer-generation DESs have been developed to overcome this limitation using novel stent platforms, new drugs, more biocompatible durable polymers, and bioabsorbable polymers or backbones. To date, new-generation DESs have virtually replaced the use of first-generation DESs worldwide. In this review article, we discuss in detail the design, pharmacology, and mechanism of action of the newer-generation permanent and bioresorbable everolimus-eluting platforms. Furthermore, we present and evaluate the current evidence on the performance and safety of these devices compared to those of other available stent platforms. PMID:26244031

  5. Novel agents and associated toxicities of inhibitors of the pi3k/Akt/mtor pathway for the treatment of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chia, S.; Gandhi, S.; Joy, A.A.; Edwards, S.; Gorr, M.; Hopkins, S.; Kondejewski, J.; Ayoub, J.P.; Califaretti, N.; Rayson, D.; Dent, S.F.

    2015-01-01

    The pi3k/Akt/mtor (phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/ Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin) signalling pathway is an established driver of oncogenic activity in human malignancies. Therapeutic targeting of this pathway holds significant promise as a treatment strategy. Everolimus, an mtor inhibitor, is the first of this class of agents approved for the treatment of hormone receptor–positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–negative advanced breast cancer. Everolimus has been associated with significant improvements in progression-free survival; however, it is also associated with increased toxicity related to its specific mechanism of action. Methods A comprehensive review of the literature conducted using a focused medline search was combined with a search of current trials at http://ClinicalTrials.gov/. Summary tables of the toxicities of the various classes of pi3k/Akt/mtor inhibitors were created. A broad group of Canadian health care professionals was assembled to review the data and to produce expert opinion and summary recommendations for possible best practices in managing the adverse events associated with these pathway inhibitors. Results Differing toxicities are associated with the various classes of pi3k/Akt/mtor pathway inhibitors. The most common unique adverse events observed in everolimus clinical trials in breast cancer include stomatitis (all grades: approximately 60%), noninfectious pneumonitis (15%), rash (40%), hyperglycemia (15%), and immunosuppression (40%). To minimize grades 3 and 4 toxicities and to attempt to attain optimal outcomes, effective management of those adverse events is critical. Management should be interdisciplinary and should use approaches that include education, early recognition, active intervention, and potentially prophylactic strategies. Discussion Everolimus likely represents the first of many complex oral targeted therapies for the treatment of breast cancer. Using this agent as a template, it is essential to

  6. Differential Antitumoral Properties and Renal-Associated Tissue Damage Induced by Tacrolimus and Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Inhibitors in Hepatocarcinoma: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Sheila; Wang, Jize; Aliseda, Sara; Rodríguez-Hernández, María A.; González, Raúl; Marín-Gómez, Luís M.; Gómez-Bravo, Miguel A.; Padillo, Francisco J.; Álamo-Martínez, José M.; Muntané, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is the recommended treatment for patients at early stages of hepatocarcinoma (HCC) with potential portal hypertension and/or bilirubinemia, but without vascular-associated diseases. The patients are receiving immunosuppressive therapy to reduce graft rejection, but differential side effects have been related to calcineurin and mTOR inhibitor administration regarding tumor recurrence and nephrotoxicity. The in vitro studies showed that Tacrolimus exerted a more potent pro-apoptotic effect than Everolimus (Huh 7>Hep 3B>HepG2), being sirolimus only active in Hep3B cell line. Tacrolimus and Everolimus exerted potent antiproliferative properties in Huh 7 and Hep3B in which cells Sirolimus was inactive. Interestingly, Tacrolimus- and Everolimus-dependent G0/G1 cell accumulation occurred as a consequence of drastic reduction in S, as well as in S and G2+M phases, respectively. The in vivo studies support data on the more effective antitumoral properties of Everolimus, eventual risk of pro-angiogenic tumoral properties and nephrotoxicity of Tacrolimus, and pro-proliferative properties of Sirolimus in tumors developed in nude mice. PMID:27518575

  7. The Role of mTOR Inhibitors in the Treatment of Patients with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: Evidence-based and Expert Opinions.

    PubMed

    Curatolo, Paolo; Bjørnvold, Marit; Dill, Patricia E; Ferreira, José Carlos; Feucht, Martha; Hertzberg, Christoph; Jansen, Anna; Jóźwiak, Sergiusz; Kingswood, J Christopher; Kotulska, Katarzyna; Macaya, Alfons; Moavero, Romina; Nabbout, Rima; Zonnenberg, Bernard A

    2016-04-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder arising from mutations in the TSC1 or TSC2 genes. The resulting over-activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway leaves patients with TSC susceptible to the growth of non-malignant tumours in multiple organs. Previously, surgery was the main therapeutic option for TSC. However, pharmacological therapy with mTOR inhibitors such as everolimus and sirolimus is now emerging as an alternate approach. Everolimus and sirolimus have already been shown to be effective in treating subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) and renal angiomyolipoma (AML), and everolimus is currently being evaluated in treating TSC-related epilepsy. In November 2013 a group of European experts convened to discuss the current options and practical considerations for treating various manifestations of TSC. This article provides evidence-based recommendations for the treatment of SEGA, TSC-related epilepsy and renal AML, with a focus on where mTOR inhibitor therapy may be considered alongside other treatment options. Safety considerations regarding mTOR inhibitor therapy are also reviewed. With evidence of beneficial effects in neurological and non-neurological TSC manifestations, mTOR inhibitors may represent a systemic treatment for TSC.

  8. Role of mTOR Inhibitors in Growth Hormone-Producing Pituitary Adenomas Harboring Different FGFR4 Genotypes.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Shahrzad; Monsalves, Eric; Tateno, Toru; Zadeh, Gelareh

    2016-09-01

    Pituitary adenomas (PAs) are common intracranial lesions. Available medical therapies are limited in PAs, and therefore, it is essential to identify treatments that control PA growth when surgery is not an option. Fibroblast growth factor 4 is implicated in PA pathogenesis; therefore, in this study, we used an isogenic mammosomatotroph cell line (GH4C1) harboring different fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR)-4 genotypes to establish and characterize intracranial xenograft mouse models that can be used for preclinical drug testing. We show that proliferating GH4C1 tumors have an average latency of 3 weeks to form. Histological analysis revealed that prototypic FGFR4 (G388) tumors express increased prolactin and less GH, whereas tumors possessing the polymorphic variant of FGFR4 (R388) express increased GH relative to prolactin. All tumors show abundant mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling as confirmed using phosphorylated (p)-S6 and p-4E-binding protein 1 as downstream regulators of this pathway. We subsequently demonstrate that the mTOR inhibitor RAD001 decreases tumor growth rate and reduces p-S6 but not p-4E-binding protein 1 activation, regardless of FGFR4 status. More importantly, GH activity was significantly reduced after mTOR inhibition in the R388 polymorphic variant tumors. This reduction was also associated with a concomitant reduction in serum IGF-1 levels in the R388 group. In summary, we demonstrate that the GH4C1 FGFR polymorphic xenograft is a useful model for examining PAs. Furthermore, we show that RAD001 can efficiently reduce tumor growth rate by a reduction in mTOR signaling and more importantly results in control of GH expression and IGF-1 secretion, providing further support for using mTOR inhibitors in PA patients, in particular GH-producing adenomas.

  9. Converting everolimus to mycophenolate mofetil ameliorated prolonged respiratory syncytial virus infection in a child after heart transplantation.

    PubMed

    Suginobe, Hidehiro; Nawa, Nobutoshi; Ishida, Hidekazu; Kogaki, Shigetoyo

    2017-08-03

    In immunocompromised patients, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections are known to be severe and prolonged, and have significant mortality and morbidity. However, little is known about the clinical courses and treatment strategy of RSV infection in heart transplant recipients. Here, we report a 6-year-old female with heart transplantation who had exhibited prolonged respiratory symptoms and shedding of RSV. She had received everolimus as an immunosuppressant. As immunosuppressants could have been responsible for the prolonged activation of RSV, we converted everolimus to mycophenolate mofetil. After the conversion, RSV promptly disappeared, and her symptoms improved. We speculate that converting the immunosuppressant may be effective for prolonged RSV infection due to the different immunosuppressive mechanisms. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Lenvatinib, everolimus, and the combination in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: a randomised, phase 2, open-label, multicentre trial.

    PubMed

    Motzer, Robert J; Hutson, Thomas E; Glen, Hilary; Michaelson, M Dror; Molina, Ana; Eisen, Timothy; Jassem, Jacek; Zolnierek, Jakub; Maroto, Jose Pablo; Mellado, Begoña; Melichar, Bohuslav; Tomasek, Jiri; Kremer, Alton; Kim, Han-Joo; Wood, Karen; Dutcus, Corina; Larkin, James

    2015-11-01

    Currently, metastatic renal cell carcinoma is treated with sequential single agents targeting VEGF or mTOR. Here, we aimed to assess lenvatinib, everolimus, or their combination as second-line treatment in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. We did a randomised, phase 2, open-label, multicentre trial at 37 centres in five countries and enrolled patients with advanced or metastatic, clear-cell, renal cell carcinoma. We included patients who had received treatment with a VEGF-targeted therapy and progressed on or within 9 months of stopping that agent. Patients were randomised via an interactive voice response system in a 1:1:1 ratio to either lenvatinib (24 mg/day), everolimus (10 mg/day), or lenvatinib plus everolimus (18 mg/day and 5 mg/day, respectively) administered orally in continuous 28-day cycles until disease progression or unacceptable toxic effects. The randomisation procedure dynamically minimised imbalances between treatment groups for the stratification factors haemoglobin and corrected serum calcium. The primary objective was progression-free survival in the intention-to-treat population. This study is closed to enrolment but patients' treatment and follow-up is ongoing. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01136733. Between March 16, 2012, and June 19, 2013, 153 patients were randomly allocated to receive either the combination of lenvatinib plus everolimus (n=51), single-agent lenvatinib (n=52), or single-agent everolimus (n=50). Lenvatinib plus everolimus significantly prolonged progression-free survival compared with everolimus alone (median 14·6 months [95% CI 5·9-20·1] vs 5·5 months [3·5-7·1]; hazard ratio [HR] 0·40, 95% CI 0·24-0·68; p=0·0005), but not compared with lenvatinib alone (7·4 months [95% CI 5·6-10·2]; HR 0·66, 95% CI 0·30-1·10; p=0·12). Single-agent lenvatinib significantly prolonged progression-free survival compared with everolimus alone (HR 0·61, 95% CI 0·38-0·98; p=0·048

  11. Efficacy and safety of a novel bioabsorbable polymer-coated, everolimus-eluting coronary stent: the EVOLVE II Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Kereiakes, Dean J; Meredith, Ian T; Windecker, Stephan; Lee Jobe, R; Mehta, Shamir R; Sarembock, Ian J; Feldman, Robert L; Stein, Bernardo; Dubois, Christophe; Grady, Timothy; Saito, Shigeru; Kimura, Takeshi; Christen, Thomas; Allocco, Dominic J; Dawkins, Keith D

    2015-04-01

    Drug eluting stents with durable polymers may be associated with hypersensitivity, delayed healing, and incomplete endothelialization, which may contribute to late/very late stent thrombosis and the need for prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy. Bioabsorbable polymers may facilitate stent healing, thus enhancing clinical safety. The SYNERGY stent is a thin-strut, platinum chromium metal alloy platform with an ultrathin bioabsorbable Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) abluminal everolimus-eluting polymer. We performed a multicenter, randomized controlled trial for regulatory approval to determine noninferiority of the SYNERGY stent to the durable polymer PROMUS Element Plus everolimus-eluting stent. Patients (n=1684) scheduled to undergo percutaneous coronary intervention for non-ST-segment-elevation acute coronary syndrome or stable coronary artery disease were randomized to receive either the SYNERGY stent or the PROMUS Element Plus stent. The primary end point of 12-month target lesion failure was observed in 6.7% of SYNERGY and 6.5% PROMUS Element Plus treated subjects by intention-to-treat (P=0.83 for difference; P=0.0005 for noninferiority), and 6.4% in both the groups by per-protocol analysis (P=0.0003 for noninferiority). Clinically indicated revascularization of the target lesion or definite/probable stent thrombosis were observed in 2.6% versus 1.7% (P=0.21) and 0.4% versus 0.6% (P=0.50) of SYNERGY versus PROMUS Element Plus-treated subjects, respectively. In this randomized trial, the SYNERGY bioabsorbable polymer everolimus-eluting stent was noninferior to the PROMUS Element Plus everolimus-eluting stent with respect to 1-year target lesion failure. These data support the relative safety and efficacy of SYNERGY in a broad range of patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01665053. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. A Phase 1 Study of Everolimus + Weekly Cisplatin + Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy in Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Fury, Matthew G.; Lee, Nancy Y.; Sherman, Eric; Ho, Alan L.; Rao, Shyam; Heguy, Adriana; Shen, Ronglai; Korte, Susan; Lisa, Donna; Ganly, Ian; Patel, Snehal; Wong, Richard J.; Shaha, Ashok; Shah, Jatin; Haque, Sofia; Katabi, Nora; Pfister, David G.

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: Elevated expression of eukaryotic protein synthesis initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) in histologically cancer-free margins of resected head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs) is mediated by mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) and has been associated with increased risk of disease recurrence. Preclinically, inhibition of mTORC1 with everolimus sensitizes cancer cells to cisplatin and radiation. Methods and Materials: This was single-institution phase 1 study to establish the maximum tolerated dose of daily everolimus given with fixed dose cisplatin (30 mg/m{sup 2} weekly × 6) and concurrent intensity modulated radiation therapy for patients with locally and/or regionally advanced head-and-neck cancer. The study had a standard 3 + 3 dose-escalation design. Results: Tumor primary sites were oral cavity (4), salivary gland (4), oropharynx (2), nasopharynx (1), scalp (1), and neck node with occult primary (1). In 4 of 4 cases in which resected HNSCC surgical pathology specimens were available for immunohistochemistry, elevated expression of eIF4E was observed in the cancer-free margins. The most common grade ≥3 treatment-related adverse event was lymphopenia (92%), and dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were mucositis (n=2) and failure to thrive (n=1). With a median follow up of 19.4 months, 2 patients have experienced recurrent disease. The maximum tolerated dose was everolimus 5 mg/day. Conclusions: Head-and-neck cancer patients tolerated everolimus at therapeutic doses (5 mg/day) given with weekly cisplatin and intensity modulated radiation therapy. The regimen merits further evaluation, especially among patients who are status post resection of HNSCCs that harbor mTORC1-mediated activation of eIF4E in histologically negative surgical margins.

  13. Efficacy and safety of concentration-controlled everolimus with reduced-dose cyclosporine in Japanese de novo renal transplant patients: 12-month results

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background No study to date has evaluated the efficacy and safety of everolimus with reduced-exposure cyclosporine in Japanese de-novo renal transplant (RTx) patients. Methods This 12-month, multicenter, open-label study randomized (1:1) 122 Japanese de-novo RTx patients to either an everolimus regimen (1.5 mg/day starting dose (target trough: 3 to 8 ng/ml) + reduced-dose cyclosporine) or a mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) regimen (2 g/day + standard dose cyclosporine). All patients received basiliximab and corticosteroids. Key endpoints at month 12 were composite efficacy failure (treated biopsy-proven acute rejection, graft loss, death, or loss to follow-up) and renal function (estimated glomerular filtration rate; Modification of Diet in Renal Disease-4). Results Clear cyclosporine exposure reduction was achieved in the everolimus group throughout the study (52% reduction at month 12). Month 12 efficacy failure rates showed everolimus 1.5 mg to be non-inferior to MMF (11.5% vs. 11.5%). The median estimated glomerular filtration rate at month 12 was 58.00 ml/minute/1.73 m2 in the everolimus group versus 55.25 ml/minute/1.73 m2 in the MMF group (P = 0.063). Overall, the incidence of adverse events was comparable between the groups with some differences in line with the known safety profile of the treatments. The everolimus group had a higher incidence of wound healing events and edema, whereas a higher rate of cytomegalovirus infections was reported in the MMF group. Conclusions This study confirmed the efficacy of everolimus 1.5 mg/day (target trough: 3 to 8 ng/ml) in Japanese RTx patients for preventing acute rejection, while allowing for substantial cyclosporine sparing. Renal function and safety findings were comparable with previous reports from other RTx populations. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT00658320 PMID:23866828

  14. Therapeutic drug monitoring of everolimus using the dried blood spot method in combination with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, J; de Beer, Y; Hoogtanders, K; Christiaans, M; de Jong, G J; Neef, C; Stolk, L

    2009-11-01

    An assay of everolimus based on finger prick sampling and consecutive application as a blood spot on sampling paper has been developed. We explored several methods [K. Hoogtanders, J. van der Heijden, M. Christiaans, P. Edelbroek, J. van Hooff, L. Stolk, J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 44 (2006) 658-664; A. Allanson, M. Cotton, J. Tettey, et al., J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 44 (2007) 963-969] and developed a new method, namely the impregnation of sampling paper with a solution of plasma-protein, formic acid and ammonium acetate, in combination with the extraction of the blood spot by filter filtration. This kind of sample preparation provides new possibilities for blood spot sampling especially if analytes are adsorbed to the paper. The dried blood spot was analysed using the HPLC-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry method, with 32-desmethoxyrapamycin as the internal standard. The working range of our study was 2-30 microg/l. Within this range, intra-and inter-assay variability for precision and accuracy was <15%. Everolimus blood spot samples proved stable for 3 days at 60 degrees C and for 32 days at 4 degrees C. Everolimus concentrations of one stable out-patient were compared after both blood spot sampling and conventional venous sampling on various occasions. Results indicate that this new method is promising for therapeutic drug monitoring in stable renal transplant patients.

  15. A randomized trial of everolimus and low-dose cyclosporine in renal transplantation: with or without steroids?

    PubMed

    Ponticelli, C; Carmellini, M; Tisone, G; Sandrini, S; Segoloni, G; Rigotti, P; Colussi, G; Stefoni, S

    2014-12-01

    This multicenter, randomized, prospective, controlled trial (EVIDENCE study) aimed to determine short-term effects of early steroid withdrawal in renal transplant patients initially treated with everolimus, low-dose cyclosporine (CsA), and steroids. Patients were randomized to standard triple therapy with CsA, everolimus twice daily and steroids (group A), steroid-free immunosuppression (group B), or triple therapy once daily (group C). However, since patient enrollment was slower than expected, group C randomization was prematurely discontinued. The primary end point was treatment failure rate (composite end point of death, graft loss, biopsy-proven acute rejection, and loss to follow-up) between randomization and month 12. Patients evaluable for the primary end point included 139 randomized patients. According to intention-to-treat analysis, 2.8% of patients in group A and 14.7% in group B experienced treatment failure (95% upper confidence limit 19.7%). As this was higher than the predefined noninferiority limit of 10%, noninferiority could not be proved. No conclusive statements can be made on noninferiority of the steroid withdrawal regimen vs the standard regimen in these patients. Additional studies with longer follow-up are required to determine the efficacy of steroid-free immunosuppression in renal transplant recipients receiving everolimus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of BP-14, a novel cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, on anaplastic thyroid cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Allegri, Lorenzo; Baldan, Federica; Mio, Catia; Puppin, Cinzia; Russo, Diego; Kryštof, Vladimir; Damante, Giuseppe

    2016-04-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is an extremely aggressive human malignancy characterized by a marked degree of invasiveness, absense of features of thyroid differentiation and resistance to current medical treatment. It is well known that ATCs are characterized by deregulation of genes related to cell cycle regulation, i.e., cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and endogenous cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs). Therefore, in the present study, the effect of a novel exogenous cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, BP-14, was investigated in three human ATC cell lines. The ATC-derived cell lines FRO, SW1736 and 8505C were treated with BP-14 alone or in combination with the mTOR inhibitor everolimus. In all ATC cell lines, treatment with BP-14 decreased cell viability and, in two of them, BP-14 modified expression of genes involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Thus, our data indicate that BP-14 is a potential new compound effective against ATC. Combined treatment with BP-14 and the mTOR inhibitor everolimus had a strong synergistic effect on cell viability in all three cell lines, suggesting that the combined used of CDK and mTOR inhibitors may be a useful strategy for ATC treatment.

  17. Nanoscale mechanical measurement determination of the glass transition temperature of poly(lactic acid)/everolimus coated stents in air and dissolution media.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ming; Kleiner, Lothar; Tang, Fuh-Wei; Hossainy, Syed; Davies, Martyn C; Roberts, Clive J

    2009-03-02

    Localized atomic force microscopy (AFM) force analysis on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(lactic acid)/everolimus coated stents has been performed under ambient conditions. Similar Young's modulus were derived from both PLA and PLA/everolimus stent surface, namely 2.25+/-0.46 and 2.04+/-0.39GPa, respectively, indicating that the drug, everolimus does not significantly effect the mechanical properties of PLA up to a 1:1 (w/w) drug loading. Temperature controlled force measurements on PLA only coated stents in air and in a 1% Triton surfactant solution allowed the glass transition temperature (T(g)) of the polymer to be determined. A significant drop of the Young's modulus in solution was observed at 36 degrees C, suggests that in vivo the T(g) of the polymer is below body temperature. The possible consequences on drug release and the mechanisms by which this may occur are considered.

  18. Three-year follow-up of patients with bifurcation lesions treated with sirolimus- or everolimus-eluting stents: SEAside and CORpal cooperative study.

    PubMed

    Pan, Manuel; Burzotta, Francesco; Trani, Carlo; Medina, Alfonso; Suárez de Lezo, Jose; Niccoli, Giampaolo; Romero, Miguel; Porto, Italo; Mazuelos, Francisco; Leone, Antonio Maria; Martín, Pedro; Coluccia, Valentina; Suárez de Lezo, Javier; Ojeda, Soledad; Crea, Filippo

    2014-10-01

    To compare the 3-year incidence of major events in patients with bifurcation lesions treated with provisional sirolimus-eluting stents vs everolimus-eluting stents. A pooled analysis of 2 prospective randomized trials with similar methodology (SEAside and CORpal) was performed. In these trials, 443 patients with bifurcation lesions were randomly assigned to treatment with either sirolimus-eluting stents or everolimus-eluting stents. The clinical follow-up was extended up to 3 years to assess major adverse cardiovascular events (death or acute myocardial infarction or target vessel revascularization). At 3 years, survival free of major adverse cardiovascular events was 93.2% vs 91.3% in the everolimus-eluting stent group vs the sirolimus-eluting stent group (P = .16). Exploratory land-mark analysis for late events (occurring after 12 months) showed significantly fewer major adverse cardiovascular events in the everolimus-eluting stent group: 1.4% vs 5.4% in the sirolimus-eluting stent group (P = .02). Provisional stenting with either sirolimus-eluting stents or everolimus-eluting stents in bifurcation lesions is associated with low rates of major adverse events at 3-years' follow-up. The results of a subanalysis of events beyond 1 year, showing a lower event rate with everolimus-eluting stents than with sirolimus-eluting stents, suggest that studies exploring the long-term clinical benefit of the latest generation of drug-eluting stents are warranted. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of paclitaxel and everolimus-eluting stents in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and influence of thrombectomy on outcomes. ESTROFA-IM study.

    PubMed

    de la Torre Hernández, José M; Alfonso, Fernando; Martin Yuste, Victoria; Sánchez Recalde, Angel; Jimenez Navarro, Manuel F; Pérez de Prado, Armando; Hernández, Felipe; Abdul-Jawad Altisent, Omar; Roura, Gerard; García Camarero, Tamara; Elizaga, Jaime; Calviño, Ramón; Moreu, Jose; Bosa, Francisco; Jimenez Mazuecos, Jesús; Ruiz-Arroyo, José R; Garcia Del Blanco, Bruno; Rumoso, José R

    2014-12-01

    We sought to compare the long-term clinical outcome of with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction treated with paclitaxel-eluting stents or everolimus-eluting stents and the influence of thrombectomy on outcomes. The ESTROFA-IM is a multicenter retrospective registry collecting consecutive patients with infarction treated with these stents in 16 centers. Propensity-score matching was performed to select comparable stent groups and comparable groups with and without thrombectomy. After matching patients, 350 treated with everolimus-eluting stents and 350 with paclitaxel-eluting stents were included in the analysis. The clinical and angiographic characteristics were comparable in both groups. The 2-year incidence of death, infarction, and target lesion revascularization was 14.9% for paclitaxel-eluting stents and 11.5% for everolimus-eluting stents (P = .04) and the incidence of definite/probable thrombosis 4.3% and 1.4%, respectively (P = .01). The use of paclitaxel-eluting was an independent predictor for events (hazard ratio = 2.44, 95% confidence interval, 1.28-4.65; P = .006). The benefit of everolimus-eluting stents over paclitaxel-eluting stents regarding stent thrombosis was more evident in the nonthrombectomy subgroup (5.4% vs 1.4%; P = .01). A significant interaction was found in the subgroups with and without thombectomy in the comparison between paclitaxel-eluting stents and everolimus-eluting stents for the end-point of stent thrombosis (P = .039). The results of this multicenter registry suggest better clinical outcomes with the everolimus-eluting stents in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. The lower risk of thrombosis with these stents could be more relevant in the absence of thrombectomy. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of in vivo acute stent recoil between the bioabsorbable everolimus-eluting coronary stent and the everolimus-eluting cobalt chromium coronary stent: insights from the ABSORB and SPIRIT trials.

    PubMed

    Tanimoto, Shuzou; Serruys, Patrick W; Thuesen, Leif; Dudek, Dariusz; de Bruyne, Bernard; Chevalier, Bernard; Ormiston, John A

    2007-10-01

    This study sought to evaluate and compare in vivo acute stent recoil of a novel bioabsorbable stent and a metallic stent. The bioabsorbable everolimus-eluting coronary stent (BVS) is composed of a poly-L-lactic acid backbone, coated with a bioabsorbable polymer containing the antiproliferative drug, everolimus, and expected to be totally metabolized and absorbed in the human body. Because the BVS is made from polymer, it may have more acute recoil than metallic stents in vivo. A total of 54 patients, who underwent elective stent implantation for single de novo native coronary artery lesions, were enrolled: 27 patients treated with the BVS and 27 patients treated with the everolimus-eluting cobalt chromium stent (EES). Acute absolute recoil, assessed by quantitative coronary angiography, was defined as the difference between mean diameter of the last inflated balloon at the highest pressure (X) and mean lumen diameter of the stent immediately after the last balloon deflation (Y). Acute percent recoil was defined as (X - Y)/X and expressed as a percentage. Acute absolute recoil of the BVS and EES was 0.20 +/- 0.21 mm and 0.13 +/- 0.21 mm, respectively (P = 0.32). Acute percent recoil was 6.9% +/- 7.0% in the BVS group and 4.3% +/- 7.1% in the EES group (P = 0.25). In vivo acute stent recoil of the BVS is slightly larger but insignificantly different from that of the EES, implying that the BVS may have good radial strength similar to the metallic stent. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Budget impact analysis of everolimus for the treatment of hormone receptor positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 negative (HER2-) advanced breast cancer in the United States.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jipan; Diener, Melissa; De, Gourab; Yang, Hongbo; Wu, Eric Q; Namjoshi, Madhav

    2013-01-01

    To estimate the budget impact of everolimus as the first and second treatment option after letrozole or anastrozole (L/A) failure for post-menopausal women with hormone receptor positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 negative (HER2-) advanced breast cancer (ABC). Pharmacy and medical budget impacts (2011 USD) were estimated over the first year of everolimus use in HR+, HER2- ABC from a US payer perspective. Epidemiology data were used to estimate target population size. Pre-everolimus entry treatment options included exemestane, fulvestrant, and tamoxifen. Pre- and post-everolimus entry market shares were estimated based on market research and assumptions. Drug costs were based on wholesale acquisition cost. Patients were assumed to be on treatment until progression or death. Annual medical costs were calculated as the average of pre- and post-progression medical costs weighted by the time in each period, adjusted for survival. One-way and two-way sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the model robustness. In a hypothetical 1,000,000 member plan, 72 and 159 patients were expected to be candidates for everolimus treatment as first and second treatment option, respectively, after L/A failure. The total budget impact for the first year post-everolimus entry was $0.044 per member per month [PMPM] (pharmacy budget: $0.058 PMPM; medical budget: -$0.014 PMPM), assuming 10% of the target population would receive everolimus. The total budget impacts for the first and second treatment options after L/A failure were $0.014 PMPM (pharmacy budget: $0.018; medical budget: -$0.004) and $0.030 PMPM (pharmacy budget: $0.040; medical budget: -$0.010), respectively. Results remained robust in sensitivity analyses. Assumptions about some model input parameters were necessary and may impact results. Increased pharmacy costs for HR+, HER2- ABC following everolimus entry are expected to be partially offset by reduced medical service costs. Pharmacy and total

  2. Everolimus With Reduced Tacrolimus Improves Renal Function in De Novo Liver Transplant Recipients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    De Simone, P; Nevens, F; De Carlis, L; Metselaar, H J; Beckebaum, S; Saliba, F; Jonas, S; Sudan, D; Fung, J; Fischer, L; Duvoux, C; Chavin, K D; Koneru, B; Huang, M A; Chapman, W C; Foltys, D; Witte, S; Jiang, H; Hexham, J M; Junge, G

    2012-01-01

    In a prospective, multicenter, open-label study, de novo liver transplant patients were randomized at day 30±5 to (i) everolimus initiation with tacrolimus elimination (TAC Elimination) (ii) everolimus initiation with reduced-exposure tacrolimus (EVR+Reduced TAC) or (iii) standard-exposure tacrolimus (TAC Control). Randomization to TAC Elimination was terminated prematurely due to a higher rate of treated biopsy-proven acute rejection (tBPAR). EVR+Reduced TAC was noninferior to TAC Control for the primary efficacy endpoint (tBPAR, graft loss or death at 12 months posttransplantation): 6.7% versus 9.7% (−3.0%; 95% CI −8.7, 2.6%; p<0.001 for noninferiority [12% margin]). tBPAR occurred in 2.9% of EVR+Reduced TAC patients versus 7.0% of TAC Controls (p = 0.035). The change in adjusted estimated GFR from randomization to month 12 was superior with EVR+Reduced TAC versus TAC Control (difference 8.50 mL/min/1.73 m2, 97.5% CI 3.74, 13.27 mL/min/1.73 m2, p<0.001 for superiority). Drug discontinuation for adverse events occurred in 25.7% of EVR+Reduced TAC and 14.1% of TAC Controls (relative risk 1.82, 95% CI 1.25, 2.66). Relative risk of serious infections between the EVR+Reduced TAC group versus TAC Controls was 1.76 (95% CI 1.03, 3.00). Everolimus facilitates early tacrolimus minimization with comparable efficacy and superior renal function, compared to a standard tacrolimus exposure regimen 12 months after liver transplantation. PMID:22882750

  3. Intravascular Ultrasound Predictors of Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events After Implantation of Everolimus-eluting Stents for Long Coronary Lesions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Yul; Shin, Dong-Ho; Kim, Jung-Sun; Kim, Byeong-Keuk; Ko, Young-Guk; Choi, Donghoon; Jang, Yangsoo; Hong, Myeong-Ki

    2017-02-01

    There are limited data on the usefulness of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) for long coronary lesions treated with second-generation drug-eluting stents. We evaluated IVUS predictors of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) 12 months after implantation of everolimus-eluting stents for long coronary lesions. A total of 804 patients who underwent both postintervention IVUS examination and long everolimus-eluting stent (≥ 28mm in length) implantation were included from 2 randomized trials. MACE was defined as a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and target-lesion revascularization. MACE occurred in 24 patients (3.0%) over 12 months. On multivariable Cox regression analysis, independent IVUS predictors of MACE included the postintervention minimum lumen area (MLA) at the target lesion (HR = 0.623; 95%CI, 0.433-0.895; P=.010) and the ratio of MLA/distal reference segment lumen area (HR = 0.744; 95%CI, 0.572-0.969; P=.028). The MLA and MLA-to-distal reference segment lumen area ratio that best predicted patients with MACE from those without these events were 5.0 mm(2) and 1.0, respectively. Patients with MLA<5.0 mm(2) or a distal reference segment lumen area had a higher risk of MACE (HR = 6.231; 95%CI, 1.859-20.891; P=.003) than those without MACE. Patients with a postintervention IVUS-measured MLA of<5.0 mm(2) or a distal reference segment lumen area were at risk for MACE after long everolimus-eluting stent implantation. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Intensified antineoplastic effect by combining an HDAC-inhibitor, an mTOR-inhibitor and low dosed interferon alpha in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Tsaur, Igor; Hudak, Lukasz; Makarević, Jasmina; Juengel, Eva; Mani, Jens; Borgmann, Hendrik; Gust, Kilian M; Schilling, David; Bartsch, Georg; Nelson, Karen; Haferkamp, Axel; Blaheta, Roman A

    2015-01-01

    A significant proportion of men diagnosed with prostate cancer (PCa) eventually develop metastatic disease, which progresses to castration resistance, despite initial response to androgen deprivation. As anticancer therapy has become increasingly effective, acquired drug resistance has emerged, limiting efficacy. Combination treatment, utilizing different drug classes, exemplifies a possible strategy to foil resistance development. The effects of the triple application of the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor valproic acid (VPA), the mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor everolimus and low dosed interferon alpha (IFNα) on PCa cell growth and dissemination capacity were investigated. For that purpose, the human PCa cell lines, PC-3, DU-145 and LNCaP were treated with the combined regimen or separate single agents. Cell growth was investigated by the MTT dye reduction assay. Flow cytometry served to analyse cell cycle progression. Adhesion to vascular endothelium or immobilized collagen, fibronectin and laminin was quantified. Migration and invasion characteristics were determined by the modified Boyden chamber assay. Integrin α and β subtypes were investigated by flow cytometry, western blotting and RT-PCR. Integrin related signalling, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFr), Akt, p70S6kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2 activation were also assessed. The triple application of VPA, everolimus and low dosed IFNα blocked tumour cell growth and dissemination significantly better than any agent alone. Antitumour effects were associated with pronounced alteration in the cell cycle machinery, intracellular signalling and integrin expression profile. Combining VPA, everolimus and low dosed IFNα might be a promising option to counteract resistance development and improve outcome in PCa patients. PMID:25808196

  5. Preclinical evaluation of the combination of mTOR and proteasome inhibitors with radiotherapy in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, A S; Baia, G S; Ho, J S Y; Velarde, E; Wong, J; Gallia, G L; Belzberg, A J; Kimura, E T; Riggins, G J

    2014-05-01

    About one half of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) have Neurofibromin 1 (NF1) mutations. NF1 is a tumor suppressor gene essential for negative regulation of RAS signaling. Survival for MPNST patients is poor and we sought to identify an effective combination therapy. Starting with the mTOR inhibitors rapamycin and everolimus, we screened for synergy in 542 FDA approved compounds using MPNST cells with a native NF1 loss in both alleles. We further analyzed the cell cycle and signal transduction. In vivo growth effects of the drug combination with local radiation therapy (RT) were assessed in MPNST xenografts. The synergistic combination of mTOR inhibitors with bortezomib yielded a reduction in MPNST cell proliferation. The combination of mTOR inhibitors and bortezomib also enhanced the anti-proliferative effect of radiation in vitro. In vivo, the combination of mTOR inhibitor (everolimus) and bortezomib with RT decreased tumor growth and proliferation, and augmented apoptosis. The combination of approved mTOR and proteasome inhibitors with radiation showed a significant reduction of tumor growth in an animal model and should be investigated and optimized further for MPNST therapy.

  6. Everolimus for subependymal giant cell astrocytoma in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex: 2-year open-label extension of the randomised EXIST-1 study.

    PubMed

    Franz, David Neal; Belousova, Elena; Sparagana, Steven; Bebin, E Martina; Frost, Michael; Kuperman, Rachel; Witt, Olaf; Kohrman, Michael H; Flamini, J Robert; Wu, Joyce Y; Curatolo, Paolo; de Vries, Petrus J; Berkowitz, Noah; Anak, Oezlem; Niolat, Julie; Jozwiak, Sergiusz

    2014-12-01

    In the EXIST-1 trial, initiated on Aug 10, 2009, more than 35% of patients with subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) associated with tuberous sclerosis complex had at least 50% reduction in SEGA volume after 9·6 months of treatment with everolimus. In this Article, we report interim data (up to Jan 11, 2013) to support longer-term tolerability and efficacy of everolimus from the continuing 4-year extension phase of EXIST-1. We assessed data from a prospective, open-label extension of a multicentre, phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex who had SEGA that was growing and needed treatment. In this extension study, we included all patients who had been assigned everolimus during the double-blind, randomised phase of the trial and those patients who crossed over from the placebo group to receive everolimus during the randomised phase or at the start of the extension phase. All patients received oral everolimus at a starting dose of 4·5 mg/m(2) per day. Everolimus dose was subsequently adjusted subject to tolerability to attain blood trough concentrations of 5-15 ng/mL. An independent central radiology review team assessed SEGA response (at least a 50% reduction from baseline in total volume of all target SEGAs; the primary endpoint) by MRI at 12, 24, and 48 weeks, then every year thereafter in all patients who received at least one dose of everolimus. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00789828. Of the original 117 randomly assigned patients, 111 were given everolimus between Aug 20, 2009, and Jan 11, 2013 (date of data cutoff); we included these patients in our longer-term analysis. Median duration of everolimus exposure was 29·3 months (IQR 19·4-33·8). Median follow-up was 28·3 months (IQR 19·3-33·0). 54 (49%) patients had a response of 50% or greater reduction in SEGA volume (95% CI 39·0-58·3), and duration of response was between 2·1 and 31·1 months (median

  7. Sorafenib with or without everolimus in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC): a randomized multicenter, multinational phase II trial (SAKK 77/08 and SASL 29).

    PubMed

    Koeberle, D; Dufour, J-F; Demeter, G; Li, Q; Ribi, K; Samaras, P; Saletti, P; Roth, A D; Horber, D; Buehlmann, M; Wagner, A D; Montemurro, M; Lakatos, G; Feilchenfeldt, J; Peck-Radosavljevic, M; Rauch, D; Tschanz, B; Bodoky, G

    2016-05-01

    Sorafenib (S), a multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is the standard of care for first-line systemic treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Everolimus (E) is a potent inhibitor of mTOR, a pathway frequently activated in HCC. Preclinical data suggest that the combination S + E has additive effects compared with single-agent S. Patients with unresectable or metastatic HCC and Child-Pugh ≤7 liver dysfunction were randomized to receive daily S 800 mg alone or with E 5 mg until progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary end point was progression-free survival at 12 weeks (PFS12). The secondary end points included response rate, PFS, time to progression (TTP), overall survival (OS), duration of disease stabilization (DDS), safety, and quality-of-life (QoL) assessments. A total of 106 patients were randomized: 46 patients received S and 60 patients received S + E. Ninety-three patients were assessable for the primary end point and 105 patients for the safety analysis. The PFS12 rate was 70% [95% confidence interval (CI) 54-83] and 68% (95% CI 53-81) in patients randomized to S and S + E, respectively. The RECIST (mRECIST) response rate was 0% (23%) in the S arm and 10% (35%) in the S + E arm. Median PFS (6.6 versus 5.7 months), TTP (7.6 versus 6.3 months), DDS (6.7 versus 6.7 months), and OS (10 versus 12 months) were similar in the S and S + E arms, respectively. Grade 3/4 adverse events occurred in 72% and 86% of patients in arm S and arm S + E, respectively. Patients had similar QoL scores over time, except for a greater worsening in physical well-being and mood in the arm S + E. No evidence was found that S + E improves the efficacy compared with S alone. Combining 5 mg E with full-dose S is feasible, but more toxic than S alone. Further testing of this drug combination in molecularly unselected HCCs appears unwarranted. NCT01005199. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical

  8. Gerosuppression by pan-mTOR inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Leontieva, Olga V.; Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    Rapamycin slows organismal aging and delays age-related diseases, extending lifespan in numerous species. In cells, rapamycin and other rapalogs such as everolimus suppress geroconversion from quiescence to senescence. Rapamycin inhibits some, but not all, activities of mTOR. Recently we and others demonstrated that pan-mTOR inhibitors, known also as dual mTORC1/C2 inhibitors, suppress senescent phenotype. As a continuation of these studies, here we investigated in detail a panel of pan-mTOR inhibitors, to determine their optimal gerosuppressive concentrations. During geroconversion, cells become hypertrophic and flat, accumulate lysosomes (SA-beta-Gal staining) and lipids (Oil Red staining) and lose their re-proliferative potential (RPP). We determined optimal gerosuppressive concentrations: Torin1 (30 nM), Torin 2 (30 nM), AZD8055 (100 nM), PP242 (300 nM), both KU-006379 and GSK1059615 (1000 nM). These agents decreased senescence-associated hypertrophy with IC50s: 20, 18, 15, 200 and 400 nM, respectively. Preservation of RPP by pan-mTOR inhibitors was associated with inhibition of the pS6K/pS6 axis. Inhibition of rapamycin-insensitive functions of mTOR further contributed to anti-hypertrophic and cytostatic effects. Torin 1 and PP242 were more “rapamycin-like” than Torin 2 and AZD8055. Pan-mTOR inhibitors were superior to rapamycin in suppressing hypertrophy, senescent morphology, Oil Red O staining and in increasing so-called “chronological life span (CLS)”. We suggest that, at doses lower than anti-cancer concentrations, pan-mTOR inhibitors can be developed as anti-aging drugs. PMID:28077803

  9. Everolimus-Eluting Stents or Bypass Surgery for Left Main Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Stone, Gregg W; Sabik, Joseph F; Serruys, Patrick W; Simonton, Charles A; Généreux, Philippe; Puskas, John; Kandzari, David E; Morice, Marie-Claude; Lembo, Nicholas; Brown, W Morris; Taggart, David P; Banning, Adrian; Merkely, Béla; Horkay, Ferenc; Boonstra, Piet W; van Boven, Ad J; Ungi, Imre; Bogáts, Gabor; Mansour, Samer; Noiseux, Nicolas; Sabaté, Manel; Pomar, José; Hickey, Mark; Gershlick, Anthony; Buszman, Pawel; Bochenek, Andrzej; Schampaert, Erick; Pagé, Pierre; Dressler, Ovidiu; Kosmidou, Ioanna; Mehran, Roxana; Pocock, Stuart J; Kappetein, A Pieter

    2016-12-08

    Patients with obstructive left main coronary artery disease are usually treated with coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG). Randomized trials have suggested that drug-eluting stents may be an acceptable alternative to CABG in selected patients with left main coronary disease. We randomly assigned 1905 eligible patients with left main coronary artery disease of low or intermediate anatomical complexity to undergo either percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with fluoropolymer-based cobalt-chromium everolimus-eluting stents (PCI group, 948 patients) or CABG (CABG group, 957 patients). Anatomic complexity was assessed at the sites and defined by a Synergy between Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) score of 32 or lower (the SYNTAX score reflects a comprehensive angiographic assessment of the coronary vasculature, with 0 as the lowest score and higher scores [no upper limit] indicating more complex coronary anatomy). The primary end point was the rate of a composite of death from any cause, stroke, or myocardial infarction at 3 years, and the trial was powered for noninferiority testing of the primary end point (noninferiority margin, 4.2 percentage points). Major secondary end points included the rate of a composite of death from any cause, stroke, or myocardial infarction at 30 days and the rate of a composite of death, stroke, myocardial infarction, or ischemia-driven revascularization at 3 years. Event rates were based on Kaplan-Meier estimates in time-to-first-event analyses. At 3 years, a primary end-point event had occurred in 15.4% of the patients in the PCI group and in 14.7% of the patients in the CABG group (difference, 0.7 percentage points; upper 97.5% confidence limit, 4.0 percentage points; P=0.02 for noninferiority; hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% confidence interval, 0.79 to 1.26; P=0.98 for superiority). The secondary end-point event of death, stroke, or myocardial infarction at 30 days occurred in 4.9% of the

  10. Meta-analysis of long-term clinical outcomes of everolimus-eluting stents.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Toshiaki; Shiomi, Hiroki; Morimoto, Takeshi; Kimura, Takeshi

    2015-07-15

    The superiority of everolimus-eluting stents (EES) over sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) for long-term clinical outcomes has not been yet firmly established. We conducted a systematic review and a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing EES directly with SES using the longest available follow-up data. We searched PubMed, the Cochrane database, and ClinicalTrials.gov for RCTs comparing outcomes between EES and SES and identified 13,434 randomly assigned patients from 14 RCTs. EES was associated with significantly lower risks than SES for definite stent thrombosis (ST), definite/probable ST, target-lesion revascularization (TLR), and major adverse cardiac events (MACE). The risks for all-cause death and myocardial infarction were similar between EES and SES. By the stratified analysis according to the timing after stent implantation, the favorable trend of EES relative to SES for ST, TLR, and MACE was consistently observed both within and beyond 1 year. The lower risk of EES relative to SES for MACE beyond 1 year was statistically significant (pooled odds ratio 0.77, 95% confidence interval 0.61 to 0.96, p = 0.02). In conclusion, the current meta-analysis of 14 RCTs directly comparing EES with SES suggested that EES provided improvement in both safety and efficacy; EES compared with SES was associated with significantly lower risk for definite ST, definite/probable ST, TLR, and MACE. The direction and magnitude of the effect beyond 1 year were comparable with those observed within 1 year.

  11. Controlled randomized study comparing the cardiovascular profile of everolimus with tacrolimus in renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Cruzado, Josep M; Pascual, Julio; Sánchez-Fructuoso, Ana; Serón, Daniel; Díaz, Joan M; Rengel, Manuel; Oppenheimer, Federico; Hernández, Domingo; Paravisini, Alexandra; Saval, Núria; Morales, José M

    2016-12-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) regression after kidney transplantation may be influenced by immunosuppression. In a 24-month open-label, multicenter, phase-IV study, 71 kidney allograft recipients without previous acute rejection, showing eGFR >40 ml/min and proteinuria <500 mg/day and between 6 months and 3 years post-transplantation, were randomized to receive everolimus (EVR) + mycophenolic acid (MPA) or were maintained on tacrolimus (TAC) + MPA. The aim was to assess whether the conversion to EVR could reduce left ventricular mass index (LVMi) at month-24. LVMi at month-24 decreased without differences between groups (TAC: 54.0 vs. 48.2 g/m(2.7) ; EVR: 53.4 vs. 49.4 g/m(2.7) ). The LVH prevalence at baseline and month-24 was 59.4% and 40.6% in TAC group and 57.1% and 50.0% in EVR group. EVR conversion was associated with nearly disappearance of concentric LVH and concentric remodeling pattern. The procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide at month-24 showed greater reduction in EVR group (51.6 vs. 58.2 mg/l; P = 0.004). Conversion from TAC to EVR was associated with a significant improvement of eGFR (P = 0.0315, ancova). Adverse events were similar between groups without rejection episode or graft loss. Conversion from TAC to EVR did not further reduce LVMi after 24 months, although its effect on concentric LVH deserves further investigation (NCT01169701). © 2016 Steunstichting ESOT.

  12. Response to everolimus is seen in TSC-associated SEGAs and angiomyolipomas independent of mutation type and site in TSC1 and TSC2.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowski, David J; Palmer, Michael R; Jozwiak, Sergiusz; Bissler, John; Franz, David; Segal, Scott; Chen, David; Sampson, Julian R

    2015-12-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex is an autosomal dominant disorder that occurs owing to inactivating mutations in either TSC1 or TSC2. Tuberous sclerosis complex-related tumors in the brain, such as subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, and in the kidney, such as angiomyolipoma, can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Recently, randomized clinical trials (EXIST-1 and EXIST-2) of everolimus for each of these tuberous sclerosis complex-associated tumors demonstrated the benefit of this drug, which blocks activated mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1. Here we report on the spectrum of mutations seen in patients treated during these trials and the association between mutation and response. TSC2 mutations were predominant among patients in both trials and were present in nearly all subjects with angiomyolipoma in whom a mutation was identified (97%), whereas TSC1 mutations were rare in those subjects (3%). The spectrum of mutations seen in each gene was similar to those previously reported. In both trials, there was no apparent association between mutation type or location within each gene and response to everolimus. Everolimus responses were also seen at a similar frequency for the 16-18% of patients in each trial in whom no mutation in either gene was identified. These observations confirm the strong association between TSC2 mutation and angiomyolipoma burden seen in previous studies, and they indicate that everolimus response occurs regardless of mutation type or location or when no mutation in TSC1 or TSC2 has been identified.

  13. Everolimus in the treatment of subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, angiomyolipomas, and pulmonary and skin lesions associated with tuberous sclerosis complex

    PubMed Central

    Franz, David Neal

    2013-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder caused by inactivating mutations in either the TSC1 or TSC2 genes. It is characterized by the development of multiple, benign tumors in several organs throughout the body. Lesions occur in the brain, kidneys, heart, liver, lungs, and skin and result in seizures and epilepsy, mental retardation, autism, and renal and pulmonary organ system dysfunction, as well as other complications. Elucidation of the molecular pathways and etiological factors responsible for causing TSC has led to a paradigm shift in the management and treatment of the disease. TSC1 or TSC2 mutations lead to constitutive upregulation of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, which affects many cellular processes involved in tumor growth. By targeting mammalian target of rapamycin with everolimus, an orally active rapamycin derivative, clinically meaningful and statistically significant reductions in tumor burden have been achieved for the main brain (subependymal giant cell astrocytoma) and renal manifestations (angiomyolipoma) associated with TSC. This review provides an overview of TSC, everolimus, and the clinical trials that led to its approval for the treatment of TSC-associated subependymal giant cell astrocytoma and renal angiomyolipoma. PMID:24143074

  14. A randomized study to compare bioactive titanium stents and everolimus-eluting stents in diabetic patients (TITANIC XV): 1-year results.

    PubMed

    López-Mínguez, José R; Nogales-Asensio, Juan M; Doncel-Vecino, Luis J; Merchán-Herrera, Antonio; Pomar-Domingo, Francisco; Martínez-Romero, Pedro; Fernández-Díaz, José A; Valdesuso-Aguilar, Raúl; Moreu-Burgos, José; Díaz-Fernández, José

    2014-07-01

    Up to 25% of patients who undergo a percutaneous coronary intervention show some limitation in the use of drug-eluting stents. The aim of this study was to evaluate if titanium-nitride-oxide-coated stents could be a good alternative to everolimus-eluting stents in diabetic patients. A total of 173 diabetic patients with lesions at moderate risk of restenosis (exclusion criteria: diameter < 2.5 mm or length > 28 mm in vessels < 3mm, chronic occlusion) were randomized to a titanium group (83 patients) or an everolimus group (90 patients). Baseline characteristics were well balanced; 28.3% of patients were insulin dependent. At 1 year, the incidence of major adverse cardiac events (death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, or repeat target vessel revascularization) was significantly higher in the titanium group than in the everolimus group (total, 14.5% vs 4.4%; P = .02; noninsulin-dependent subgroup, 9.7% vs 3.2%; P = .14; insulin-dependent subgroup, 28.6% vs 7.1%; P = .04). The incidence of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, stroke, or any revascularization was 16.9% in the titanium group and 7.8% in the everolimus group (P = .06). Target lesion and vessel revascularizations occurred in 8.4% compared with 3.3% (P = .15) and in 13.3% compared with 3.3% (P = .01) in the titanium and everolimus groups, respectively. Angiographic follow-up at 9 months showed significantly less late lumen loss in the everolimus group (in-segment, 0.52 [standard deviation, 0.58) mm vs -0.05 [0.32] mm; in-stent, 0.76 [0.54] mm vs 0.13 [0.31] mm; P < .0001). The everolimus-eluting stent is superior to the titanium stent for clinical and angiographic end points in diabetic patients with lesions at moderate risk of restenosis. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Efficacy and safety of everolimus in Chinese metastatic HR positive, HER2 negative breast cancer patients: a real-world retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Gong, Chengcheng; Zhao, Yannan; Wang, Biyun; Hu, Xichun; Wang, Zhonghua; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Sheng

    2017-08-29

    Everolimus combined with endocrine therapy has been proved to be effective among postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 negative (HR+/HER2-) metastatic breast cancer (MBC). We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of everolimus plus endocrine therapy in Chinese real-world practice for the first time, and investigate factors associated with efficacy. Seventy-five HR+/HER2- MBC patients were included in this retrospective study who received everolimus plus endocrine therapy after progression on prior endocrine therapy in Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center (FUSCC) between June 2013 and February 2016. Main outcome measures are progression free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), clinical benefit rate (CBR) and safety profile. After a median follow up of 10.3 (range: 2.1-32.2) months, median PFS was 5.9 months (95%CI 4.6-7.2), and median OS was not reached. The CBR was 38.8% (95%CI, 26.8-50.8) and ORR was 9.0% (95%CI, 2.0-16.0). Most common all-grade adverse events were stomatitis (57.1%), fatigue (25.7%), infection (24.3%) and hyperglycemia (21.4%). The most common ≥3 grade adverse events were stomatitis (9.3 %) and thrombocytopenia (5.7%). No treatment-related death was documented during and one month after the drug administration. The combination of everolimus and endocrine therapy proved to be effective in Chinese population. The safety profiles were similar to previous studies but incidences were lower. In conclusion, everolimus combined with endocrine therapy provides a reasonable option for Chinese HR+/HER2- metastatic breast cancer patients.

  16. Docosahexaenoic Acid Sensitizes Leukemia Lymphocytes to Barasertib and Everolimus by ROS-dependent Mechanism Without Affecting the Level of ROS and Viability of Normal Lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhelev, Zhivko; Ivanova, Donika; Lazarova, Desislava; Aoki, Ichio; Bakalova, Rumiana; Saga, Tsuneo

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was: (i) to investigate the possibility of sensitizing leukemia lymphocytes to anticancer drugs using docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); (ii) to find combinations with synergistic cytotoxic effect on leukemia lymphocytes, without or with only very low cytotoxicity towards normal lymphocytes; (iii) and to clarify the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the induction of apoptosis and cytotoxicity by such combinations. The study covered 15 anticancer drugs, conventional and new-generation. Well-expressed synergistic cytotoxic effects were observed after treatment of leukemia lymphocytes (Jurkat) with DHA in combination with: barasertib, lonafarnib, everolimus, and palbociclib. We selected two synergistic combinations, DHA with everolimus or barasertib, and investigated their effects on viability of normal lymphocytes, as well as on the production of ROS and induction of apoptosis in both cell lines (leukemia and normal). At the selected concentrations, DHA, everolimus and barasertib (applied separately) were cytotoxic towards leukemia lymphocytes, but not normal lymphocytes. In leukemia cells, the cytotoxicity of combinations was accompanied by strong induction of apoptosis and production of ROS. In normal lymphocytes, drugs alone and in combination with DHA did not affect the level of ROS and did not induce apoptosis. To our knowledge, the present study is the first to report synergistic ROS-dependent cytotoxicity between DHA and new-generation anticancer drugs, such as everolimus and barasertib, that is cancer cell-specific (particularly for acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells Jurkat). These combinations are harmless to normal lymphocytes and do not induce abnormal production of ROS in these cells. The data suggest that DHA could be used as a supplementary component in anticancer chemotherapy, allowing therapeutic doses of everolimus and barasertib to be reduced, minimizing their side-effects.

  17. Lifetime cost of everolimus vs axitinib in patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma who failed prior sunitinib therapy in the US.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Allison; Sherman, Steven; Pal, Sumanta; Chua, Andrew; Gorritz, Magdaliz; Liu, Zhimei; Wang, Xufang; Culver, Kenneth; Casciano, Roman; Garrison, Louis P

    2015-03-01

    Everolimus and axitinib are approved in the US to treat patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC) after failure on sunitinib or sorafenib, and one prior systemic therapy (e.g., sunitinib), respectively. Two indirect comparisons performed to evaluate progression-free survival in patients treated with everolimus vs axitinib suggested similar efficacy between the two treatments. Therefore, this analysis compares the lifetime costs of these two therapies among sunitinib-refractory advanced RCC patients from a US payer perspective. A Markov model was developed to simulate a cohort of sunitinib-refractory advanced RCC patients and estimate the cost of treating patients with everolimus vs axitinib. The following health states were included: stable disease without adverse events (AEs), stable disease with AEs, disease progression (PD), and death. The model included the following resources: active treatments, post-progression treatments, adverse events, physician and nurse visits, scans and tests, and palliative care. Resource utilization inputs were derived from a US claims database analysis. Additionally, a 3% annual discount rate was applied to costs, and the robustness of the model results was tested by conducting sensitivity analyses, including those on dosing scheme and post-progression treatment costs. Base case results demonstrated that patients treated with everolimus cost an average of $12,985 (11%) less over their lifetimes than patients treated with axitinib. The primary difference in costs was related to active treatment, which was largely driven by axitinib's higher dose intensity. RESULTS remained consistent across sensitivity analyses for AE and PD treatment costs, as well as dose intensity and discount rates. The results suggest that everolimus likely leads to lower lifetime costs than axitinib for sunitinib-refractory advanced RCC patients in the US.

  18. Biodegradable-Polymer Biolimus-Eluting Stents versus Durable-Polymer Everolimus-Eluting Stents at One-Year Follow-Up: A Registry-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Parsa, Ehsan; Saroukhani, Sepideh; Majlessi, Fereshteh; Poorhosseini, Hamidreza; Lofti-Tokaldany, Masoumeh; Jalali, Arash; Salarifar, Mojtaba; Nematipour, Ebrahim; Alidoosti, Mohammad; Aghajani, Hassan; Amirzadegan, Alireza; Kassaian, Seyed Ebrahim

    2016-04-01

    We compared outcomes of percutaneous coronary intervention patients who received biodegradable-polymer biolimus-eluting stents with those who received durable-polymer everolimus-eluting stents. At Tehran Heart Center, we performed a retrospective analysis of the data from January 2007 through December 2011 on 3,270 consecutive patients with coronary artery disease who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention with the biodegradable-polymer biolimus-eluting stent or the durable-polymer everolimus-eluting stent. We excluded patients with histories of coronary artery bypass grafting or percutaneous coronary intervention, acute ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction, or the implantation of 2 different stent types. Patients were monitored for 12 months. The primary endpoint was a major adverse cardiac event, defined as a composite of death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and target-vessel and target-lesion revascularization. Durable-polymer everolimus-eluting stents were implanted in 2,648 (81%) and biodegradable-polymer biolimus-eluting stents in 622 (19%) of the study population. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups (2.7% vs 2.7%; P=0.984) in the incidence of major adverse cardiac events. The cumulative adjusted probability of major adverse cardiac events in the biodegradable-polymer biolimus-eluting stent group did not differ from that of such events in the durable-polymer everolimus-eluting stent group (hazard ratio=0.768; 95% confidence interval, 0.421-1.44; P=0.388). We conclude that in our patients the biodegradable-polymer biolimus-eluting stent was as effective and safe, during the 12-month follow-up period, as was the durable-polymer everolimus-eluting stent.

  19. The Impact of Post-Procedural Asymmetry, Expansion, and Eccentricity of Bioresorbable Everolimus-Eluting Scaffold and Metallic Everolimus-Eluting Stent on Clinical Outcomes in the ABSORB II Trial.

    PubMed

    Suwannasom, Pannipa; Sotomi, Yohei; Ishibashi, Yuki; Cavalcante, Rafael; Albuquerque, Felipe N; Macaya, Carlos; Ormiston, John A; Hill, Jonathan; Lang, Irene M; Egred, Mohaned; Fajadet, Jean; Lesiak, Maciej; Tijssen, Jan G; Wykrzykowska, Joanna J; de Winter, Robbert J; Chevalier, Bernard; Serruys, Patrick W; Onuma, Yoshinobu

    2016-06-27

    The study sought to investigate the relationship between post-procedural asymmetry, expansion, and eccentricity indices of metallic everolimus-eluting stent (EES) and bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) and their respective impact on clinical events at 1-year follow-up. Mechanical properties of a fully BVS are inherently different from those of permanent metallic stent. The ABSORB II (A bioresorbable everolimus-eluting scaffold versus a metallic everolimus-eluting stent for ischaemic heart disease caused by de-novo native coronary artery lesions) trial compared the BVS and metallic EES in the treatment of a de novo coronary artery stenosis. Protocol-mandated intravascular ultrasound imaging was performed pre- and post-procedure in 470 patients (162 metallic EES and 308 BVS). Asymmetry index (AI) was calculated per lesion as: (1 - minimum scaffold/stent diameter/maximum scaffold/stent diameter). Expansion index and optimal scaffold/stent expansion followed the definition of the MUSIC (Multicenter Ultrasound Stenting in Coronaries) study. Eccentricity index (EI) was calculated as the ratio of minimum and maximum scaffold/stent diameter per cross section. The incidence of device-oriented composite endpoint (DoCE) was collected. Post-procedure, the metallic EES group was more symmetric and concentric than the BVS group. Only 8.0% of the BVS arm and 20.0% of the metallic EES arm achieved optimal scaffold/stent expansion (p < 0.001). At 1 year, there was no difference in the DoCE between both devices (BVS 5.2% vs. EES 3.1%; p = 0.29). Post-procedural devices asymmetry and eccentricity were related to higher event rates while there was no relevance to the expansion status. Subsequent multivariate analysis identified that post-procedural AI >0.30 is an independent predictor of DoCE (hazard ratio: 3.43; 95% confidence interval: 1.08 to 10.92; p = 0.037). BVS implantation is more frequently associated with post-procedural asymmetric and eccentric morphology compared

  20. One-month assessment of renal cell carcinoma treated by everolimus using FDG PET/CT predicts progression-free and overall survival.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroki; Kondo, Keiichi; Kawahara, Takashi; Kaneta, Tomohiro; Tateishi, Ukihide; Ueno, Daiki; Namura, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Kazuki; Miyoshi, Yasuhide; Yumura, Yasushi; Makiyama, Kazuhide; Hayashi, Narihiko; Hasumi, Hisashi; Osaka, Kimito; Yokomizo, Yumiko; Teranishi, Jun-Ichi; Hattori, Yusuke; Inoue, Tomio; Uemura, Hiroji; Yao, Masahiro; Nakaigawa, Noboru

    2017-05-01

    We evaluated (18)F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) results as outcome predictors for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) treated by everolimus (EVL), an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin. We retrospectively reviewed 30 patients who were treated with EVL for metastatic RCC between May 2010 and March 2015, by evaluating their FDG PET/CT result before and 1 month after starting EVL treatment. We examined the relationships between each patient's maximum standardized uptake value (max SUVmax) assessed by FDG PET/CT on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Median PFS for all 30 patients was 3.77 months (range 0.72-24.56 months) and median OS after EVL treatment of all 30 patients was 11.67 months (range 1.0-62.98 months). Enrolled patients were divided into two groups by max SUVmax prior to EVL (median = 7.6) and at 1 month after EVL treatment (median = 5.7). PFS were significantly shorter in higher max SUVmax prior to EVL (<7.6, PFS 7.8 vs 3.5 months, log-rank P = 0.017) and at 1 month after EVL (<5.7, PFS 10.6 vs 2.7 months, log-rank P = 0.002) than lower max SUVmax. OS were also significantly shorter in higher max SUVmax prior to EVL (<7.6, OS 18.1 vs 7.5 months, log-rank P = 0.010) and at 1 month after EVL (<5.7, OS 17.2 vs 7.5 months, log-rank P = 0.009) than lower max SUVmax. Multivariate Cox hazard regression analysis indicated that max SUVmax at 1 month after EVL is an independent predictor of both PFS and OS in patients treated with EVL although univariate regression analysis showed max SUVmax before EVL is a possible predictor. Max SUVmax assessed by FDG PET/CT prior to EVL and at 1 month after EVL treatment can accurately predict PFS and can guide decisions on whether to continue or change treatments for patients with EVL-treated RCC who suffer from adverse events.

  1. ACE inhibitors

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACE inhibitors There are many different names and brands of ACE inhibitors. Most work as well as ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  2. Renal function at two years in liver transplant patients receiving everolimus: results of a randomized, multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Saliba, F; De Simone, P; Nevens, F; De Carlis, L; Metselaar, H J; Beckebaum, S; Jonas, S; Sudan, D; Fischer, L; Duvoux, C; Chavin, K D; Koneru, B; Huang, M A; Chapman, W C; Foltys, D; Dong, G; Lopez, P M; Fung, J; Junge, G

    2013-07-01

    In a 24-month prospective, randomized, multicenter, open-label study, de novo liver transplant patients were randomized at 30 days to everolimus (EVR) + Reduced tacrolimus (TAC; n = 245), TAC Control (n = 243) or TAC Elimination (n = 231). Randomization to TAC Elimination was stopped prematurely due to a significantly higher rate of treated biopsy-proven acute rejection (tBPAR). The incidence of the primary efficacy endpoint, composite efficacy failure rate of tBPAR, graft loss or death postrandomization was similar with EVR + Reduced TAC (10.3%) or TAC Control (12.5%) at month 24 (difference -2.2%, 97.5% confidence interval [CI] -8.8%, 4.4%). BPAR was less frequent in the EVR + Reduced TAC group (6.1% vs. 13.3% in TAC Control, p = 0.010). Adjusted change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from randomization to month 24 was superior with EVR + Reduced TAC versus TAC Control: difference 6.7 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (97.5% CI 1.9, 11.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2), p = 0.002). Among patients who remained on treatment, mean (SD) eGFR at month 24 was 77.6 (26.5) mL/min/1.73 m(2) in the EVR + Reduced TAC group and 66.1 (19.3) mL/min/1.73 m(2) in the TAC Control group (p < 0.001). Study medication was discontinued due to adverse events in 28.6% of EVR + Reduced TAC and 18.2% of TAC Control patients. Early introduction of everolimus with reduced-exposure tacrolimus at 1 month after liver transplantation provided a significant and clinically relevant benefit for renal function at 2 years posttransplant. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  3. Co-administration strategy to enhance brain accumulation of vandetanib by modulating P-glycoprotein (P-gp/Abcb1) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1/Abcg2) mediated efflux with m-TOR inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Minocha, Mukul; Khurana, Varun; Qin, Bin; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (i) to characterize the interaction of vandetanib with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1) in vitro and in vivo (ii) to study the modulation of P-gp and BCRP mediated efflux of vandetanib with specific transport inhibitors and m-TOR inhibitors, everolimus and temsirolimus. Cellular accumulation and bi-directional transport studies in MDCKII cell monolayers were conducted to delineate the role of efflux transporters on disposition of vandetanib. Brain distribution studies were conducted in male FVB wild-type mice with vandetanib administered intravenously either alone or in the presence of specific inhibitors and m-TOR inhibitors. In vitro studies suggested that vandetanib is a high affinity substrate of Bcrp1 but is not transported by P-gp. Interestingly, in vivo brain distribution studies in FVB wild type mice indicated that vandetanib penetration into the brain is restricted by both Bcrp1 and P-gp mediated active efflux at the blood brain barrier (BBB). Co-administration of elacridar, a dual P-gp/BCRP inhibitor increased the brain to plasma concentration ratio of vandetanib upto 5 fold. Of the two m-TOR pathway inhibitors examined; everolimus showed potent effect on modulating vandetanib brain penetration whereas no significant affect on vandetanib brain uptake was observed following temsirolimus co-administration. This finding could be clinically relevant as everolimus can provide synergistic pharmacological effect in addition to primary role of vandetanib efflux modulation at BBB for the treatment of brain tumors. PMID:22633931

  4. Influence of cyclosporine and everolimus on the main mycophenolate mofetil pharmacokinetic parameters: Cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Noreikaitė, Aurelija; Saint-Marcoux, Franck; Marquet, Pierre; Kaduševičius, Edmundas; Stankevičius, Edgaras

    2017-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of cyclosporine (CsA) on the pharmacokinetic parameters of mycophenolic acid (MPA), an active mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) metabolite, and to compare with the effect of everolimus (EVR).Anonymized medical records of 404 kidney recipients were reviewed. The main MPA pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC(0-12) and Cmax) were evaluated.The patients treated with a higher mean dose of CsA displayed higher MPA AUC(0-12) exposure in the low-dose MMF group (1000 mg/day) (40.50 ± 10.97 vs 28.08 ± 11.03 h mg/L; rs = 0.497, P < 0.05), medium-dose MMF group (2000 mg/day) (43.00 ± 6.27 vs 28.85 ± 11.08 h mg/L; rs = 0.437, P < 0.01), and high-dose MMF group (3000 mg/day) (56.75 ± 16.78 vs 36.20 ± 3.70 h mg/L; rs = 0.608, P < 0.05).A positive correlation was also observed between the mean CsA dose and the MPA Cmax in the low-dose MMF group (Cmax 22.83 ± 10.82 vs 12.08 ± 5.59 mg/L; rs = 0.507, P < 0.05) and in the medium-dose MMF group (22.77 ± 8.86 vs 13.00 ± 6.82 mg/L; rs = 0.414, P < 0.01).The comparative analysis between 2 treatment arms (MMF + CsA and MMF + EVR) showed that MPA AUC(0-12) exposure was by 43% higher in the patients treated with a medium dose of MMF and EVR than in the patients treated with a medium dose of MMF and CsA.The data of the present study suggest a possible CsA versus EVR influence on MMF pharmacokinetics. Study results show that CsA has an impact on the main MPA pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC(0-12) and Cmax) in a CsA dose-related manner, while EVR mildly influence or does not affect MPA pharmacokinetic parameters. Low-dose CsA (lower than 180 mg/day) reduces MPA AUC(0-12) exposure under the therapeutic window and may lead to ineffective therapy, while a high-dose CsA (>240 mg/day) is related to greater than 10 mg/L MPA Cmax and increases the likelihood of adverse events.

  5. A Polylactide Bioresorbable Scaffold Eluting Everolimus for Treatment of Coronary Stenosis: 5-Year Follow-Up.

    PubMed

    Serruys, Patrick W; Ormiston, John; van Geuns, Robert-Jan; de Bruyne, Bernard; Dudek, Dariusz; Christiansen, Evald; Chevalier, Bernard; Smits, Pieter; McClean, Dougal; Koolen, Jacques; Windecker, Stephan; Whitbourn, Robert; Meredith, Ian; Wasungu, Luc; Ediebah, Divine; Veldhof, Susan; Onuma, Yoshinobu

    2016-02-23

    Long-term benefits of coronary stenosis treatment with an everolimus-eluting bioresorbable scaffold are unknown. This study sought to evaluate clinical and imaging outcomes 5 years after bioresorbable scaffold implantation. In the ABSORB multicenter, single-arm trial, 45 (B1) and 56 patients (B2) underwent coronary angiography, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), and optical coherence tomography (OCT) at different times. At 5 years, 53 patients without target lesion revascularization underwent final imaging. Between 6 months/1 year and 5 years, angiographic luminal late loss remained unchanged (B1: 0.14 ± 19 mm vs. 0.13 ± 0.33 mm; p = 0.7953; B2: 0.23 ± 0.28 mm vs. 0.18 ± 0.32 mm; p = 0.5685). When patients with a target lesion revascularization were included, luminal late loss was 0.15 ± 0.20 mm versus 0.15 ± 0.24 mm (p = 0.8275) for B1 and 0.30 ± 0.37 mm versus 0.32 ± 0.48 mm (p = 0.8204) for B2. At 5 years, in-scaffold and -segment binary restenosis was 7.8% (5 of 64) and 12.5% (8 of 64). On IVUS, the minimum lumen area of B1 decreased from 5.23 ± 0.97 mm(2) at 6 months to 4.89 ± 1.81 mm(2) at 5 years (p = 0.04), but remained unchanged in B2 (4.95 ± 0.91 mm(2) at 1 year to 4.84 ± 1.28 mm(2) at 5 years; p = 0.5). At 5 years, struts were no longer discernable by OCT and IVUS. On OCT, the minimum lumen area in B1 decreased from 4.51 ± 1.28 mm(2) at 6 months to 3.65 ± 1.39 mm(2) at 5 years (p = 0.01), but remained unchanged in B2, 4.35 ± 1.09 mm(2) at 1 year and 4.12 ± 1.38 mm(2) at 5 years (p = 0.24). Overall, the 5-year major adverse cardiac event rate was 11.0%, without any scaffold thrombosis. At 5 years, bioresorbable scaffold implantation in a simple stenotic lesion resulted in stable lumen dimensions and low restenosis and major adverse cardiac event rates. (ABSORB Clinical Investigation, Cohort B [ABSORB B]; NCT00856856). Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of cyclosporine and everolimus on the main mycophenolate mofetil pharmacokinetic parameters

    PubMed Central

    Noreikaitė, Aurelija; Saint-Marcoux, Franck; Marquet, Pierre; Kaduševičius, Edmundas; Stankevičius, Edgaras

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of cyclosporine (CsA) on the pharmacokinetic parameters of mycophenolic acid (MPA), an active mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) metabolite, and to compare with the effect of everolimus (EVR). Anonymized medical records of 404 kidney recipients were reviewed. The main MPA pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC(0–12) and Cmax) were evaluated. The patients treated with a higher mean dose of CsA displayed higher MPA AUC(0–12) exposure in the low-dose MMF group (1000 mg/day) (40.50 ± 10.97 vs 28.08 ± 11.03 h mg/L; rs = 0.497, P < 0.05), medium-dose MMF group (2000 mg/day) (43.00 ± 6.27 vs 28.85 ± 11.08 h mg/L; rs = 0.437, P < 0.01), and high-dose MMF group (3000 mg/day) (56.75 ± 16.78 vs 36.20 ± 3.70 h mg/L; rs = 0.608, P < 0.05). A positive correlation was also observed between the mean CsA dose and the MPA Cmax in the low-dose MMF group (Cmax 22.83 ± 10.82 vs 12.08 ± 5.59 mg/L; rs = 0.507, P < 0.05) and in the medium-dose MMF group (22.77 ± 8.86 vs 13.00 ± 6.82 mg/L; rs = 0.414, P < 0.01). The comparative analysis between 2 treatment arms (MMF + CsA and MMF + EVR) showed that MPA AUC(0–12) exposure was by 43% higher in the patients treated with a medium dose of MMF and EVR than in the patients treated with a medium dose of MMF and CsA. The data of the present study suggest a possible CsA versus EVR influence on MMF pharmacokinetics. Study results show that CsA has an impact on the main MPA pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC(0–12) and Cmax) in a CsA dose-related manner, while EVR mildly influence or does not affect MPA pharmacokinetic parameters. Low-dose CsA (lower than 180 mg/day) reduces MPA AUC(0–12) exposure under the therapeutic window and may lead to ineffective therapy, while a high-dose CsA (>240 mg/day) is related to greater than 10 mg/L MPA Cmax and increases the

  7. Oral everolimus treatment in a preterm infant with multifocal inoperable cardiac rhabdomyoma associated with tuberous sclerosis complex and a structural heart defect.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ibrahim; Ethier, Guillaume; Goyer, Isabelle; Major, Philippe; Dahdah, Nagib

    2014-11-26

    Rhabdomyoma (RHM) is a benign cardiac tumour usually associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Most RHMs are asymptomatic and regress spontaneously during the first years of life. Haemodynamically significant RHMs are classically treated with surgical excision. We present a case of a premature infant, born to a mother having TSC, with a prenatal diagnosis of pulmonary valve atresia and a large ventricular septal defect. Multiple cardiac RHMs were also present, including a large tumour affecting the right ventricular filling. Owing to the prematurity and low birth weight, the infant was inoperable. In this report, we describe our approach to pharmacologically reduce the RHM size using oral everolimus in preparation for a two-ventricle surgical repair of the structural cardiac defect. We also specifically describe the dose of everolimus that was used in this case to achieve therapeutic serum levels, which was seven times lower than the conventional dose applicable for older infants.

  8. Non-melanoma skin cancer is reduced after switch of immunosuppression to mTOR-inhibitors in organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Alter, Mareike; Satzger, Imke; Schrem, Harald; Kaltenborn, Alexander; Kapp, Alexander; Gutzmer, Ralf

    2014-06-01

    Organ transplant recipients are prone to the development of non-melanoma skin cancer. Organ transplant recipients often develop multiple non-melanoma skin cancers and the tumors show an aggressive growth pattern, therefore surgical therapy can be difficult. Switch of the immunosuppressive regimen to mTOR-inhibitors such as everolimus or sirolimus can have an antitumor effect. In a monocentric retrospective study we evaluated organ transplant recipients who presented with non-melanoma skin cancer in the years 2008-2010. Experience with patients who were switched to an mTOR-inhibitor due to non-melanoma skin cancer are reported in detail, and recent clinical studies are reviewed. 60 organ transplant recipients with non-melanoma skin cancer were evaluated. Due to the development of multiple non-melanoma skin cancer within a few years, the immunosuppressive regimen was switched to everolimus in 7 patients and to sirolimus in 5 patients. Eight patients were evaluable for the effect of mTOR-inhibitors on the development of non-melanoma skin cancer; 4 patients had to discontinue the medication with mTOR-inhibitors early due to various side effects. In the year before the switch to mTOR-inhibitors, 8 patients developed 16 squamous cell carcinomas, 3 Basal cell carcinomas and 22 cases of Bowen's disease. All tumors were histologically confirmed. In the year after switch of immunosuppression, the rate of squamous cell carcinomas (n = 2) and Bowen's disease (n = 3), but not of basal cell carcinomas (n = 2) was significantly reduced. Moreover, 5 prospective randomized trials recently have demonstrated a reduced number of non-melanoma skin cancers in organ transplant recipients after switch of the immunosuppressive regimen to mTOR-inhibitors. Switch of the immunosuppressive regimen to mTOR-inhibitors should be considered for organ transplant recipients suffering from multiple non-melanoma skin cancers. © 2014 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley

  9. Wound healing complications and the use of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors in kidney transplantation: a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Nashan, Björn; Citterio, Franco

    2012-09-27

    Surgical complications, including events such as lymphocele and urological complications that affect wound healing, are reported with an incidence of 15% to 32% after kidney transplantation. The experience of the surgeon and comorbidities play an important role in determining the risk of such complications occurring. Since the introduction of the inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitors (mycophenolate mofetil) to the immunosuppressive armamentarium, replacing the antimetabolite prodrug azathioprine, reports have associated certain forms of wound healing complications (wound dehiscence, impaired healing, lymphocele, and incisional hernia) with the use of these agents. When mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors (sirolimus, everolimus) became available, these findings were observed increasingly, particularly in direct comparisons with inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase inhibitors. The purpose of this article was to review the reported incidence of wound healing complications from randomized clinical trials that investigated the use of sirolimus- and everolimus-based treatment regimens in de novo kidney transplantation and the information available from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration database. The clinical trials included were primarily identified using biomedical literature database searches, with additional studies added at the authors' discretion. This review summarizes these studies to consider whether modern mTOR inhibitor-based immunosuppressive regimens exert and affect wound healing after kidney transplantation.

  10. FTY720 and everolimus in de novo renal transplant patients at risk for delayed graft function: results of an exploratory one-yr multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Tedesco-Silva, H; Lorber, M I; Foster, C E; Sollinger, H W; Mendez, R; Carvalho, D B; Shapiro, R; Rajagopalan, P R; Mayer, H; Slade, J; Kahan, B D

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory, multicenter, open-label study evaluated the efficacy and safety of FTY720, as a part of an immunosuppressive regimen, in combination with everolimus and steroids in de novo renal transplant recipients at increased risk of delayed graft function (DGF). Patients received FTY720 (5 mg) and everolimus (4 mg) 2-12 h pre-transplantation, followed by 2.5 mg/d FTY720 and concentration-controlled everolimus (4-8 ng/mL) post-transplant for 12 months. Induction therapy was prohibited. After enrollment of 56 of the planned 200 patients between 2000 and 2002, the recruitment was terminated. The primary endpoint, rate of graft loss, or death at three months was 15.4% and the biopsy-confirmed acute rejection was 42.3%. Death or graft loss at 12 months in the DGF and non-DGF arms was 36.0% and 25.9%, respectively. The mean estimated creatinine clearance at three months was 63 and 55 mL/min in the non-DGF and DGF groups, respectively, while at 12 months it was 56 mL/min in both the groups. Although there was no comparator arm, the results from this exploratory study (compared with data from other phases II and III trials) indicated no apparent benefits of FTY720-based regimens for prevention of acute rejection and preservation of renal function in renal transplant recipients at high risk of DGF.

  11. Use of a small particle solid-core packing for improved efficiency and rapid measurement of sirolimus and everolimus by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Phillip; Nwafor, Magnus; Tredger, Mike

    2016-06-01

    Measurement of whole blood sirolimus and everolimus is required in order to optimize patient treatment following solid organ transplant. Assay by LC-MS/MS is increasingly preferred; however efficient use of the instrument and short turnaround times are crucial. Use of a 1.6 µm solid-core packing HPLC column (Cortecs) gave significant increases in efficiency, sensitivity and throughput compared with an existing method, following simple protein precipitation of small-volume (20 μL) whole blood samples. Sirolimus, everolimus and the stable isotopic internal standard ((13) C2 D4 - everolimus) eluted at around 0.8 min, and total analytical run time was 2.2 min, saving almost 4 min per sample compared with an existing method. Within-assay imprecision (CV) was 3.3-8.5%, and between-assay imprecision was 2.2-10.8%. Retrospective assay of external quality assurance samples and comparison of patient samples assayed in parallel showed only small differences (between +6.8 and -1.9%) in results using the Cortecs column when compared with the existing method. No significant interferences or ion suppression were observed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Clinical activity of everolimus in relapsed/refractory marginal zone B-cell lymphomas: results of a phase II study of the International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group.

    PubMed

    Conconi, Annarita; Raderer, Markus; Franceschetti, Silvia; Devizzi, Liliana; Ferreri, Andrés J M; Magagnoli, Massimo; Arcaini, Luca; Zinzani, Pier Luigi; Martinelli, Giovanni; Vitolo, Umberto; Kiesewetter, Barbara; Porro, Elena; Stathis, Anastasios; Gaidano, Gianluca; Cavalli, Franco; Zucca, Emanuele

    2014-07-01

    The International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group coordinated a phase II trial to evaluate the activity and safety of everolimus in marginal zone lymphomas (MZLs). Thirty patients with relapsed/refractory MZLs received everolimus for six cycles or until dose-limiting toxicity or progression. Median age was 71 years (range, 51-88 years). Twenty patients had extranodal, six splenic, four nodal MZL. Twenty-four patients had stage III-IV. Median number of prior therapies was two (range 1-5). Seventeen patients had early treatment discontinuation, in most cases due to toxicity. Median number of cycles was 4.5 (range, 1-16). Among the 24 assessable patients, the overall response rate (ORR) was 25% (95% confidence interval: 10-47). Grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia and thrombocytopenia (17% of patients, each), infections (17%), mucositis and odontogenic infections (13%) and lung toxicity (3%). The median response duration was 6.8 months (range, 1.4-11.1+). After a median follow-up of 14.5 months, five deaths were reported: four deaths were due to lymphoma, one was due to toxicity. In an intent-to-treat analysis, the projected median progression-free survival was 14 months. The moderate antitumour activity of everolimus in relapsed/refractory MZLs and the observed toxicity limit its therapeutical applicability in these indolent entities. Lower doses of the drug and, perhaps, different strategies including combination with additional agents need to be explored.

  13. The androgen receptor is a negative regulator of eIF4E phosphorylation at S209: implications for the use of mTOR inhibitors in advanced prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    D'Abronzo, L S; Bose, S; Crapuchettes, M E; Beggs, R E; Vinall, R L; Tepper, C G; Siddiqui, S; Mudryj, M; Melgoza, F U; Durbin-Johnson, B P; deVere White, R W; Ghosh, P M

    2017-07-24

    The antiandrogen bicalutamide is widely used in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer (PCa) in many countries, but its effect on castration-resistant PCa (CRPC) is limited. We previously showed that resistance to bicalutamide results from activation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR). Interestingly, clinical trials testing combinations of the mTOR inhibitor RAD001 with bicalutamide were effective in bicalutamide-naïve CRPC patients, but not in bicalutamide-pretreated ones. Here we investigate causes for their difference in response. Evaluation of CRPC cell lines identified resistant vs sensitive in vitro models, and revealed that increased eIF4E(S209) phosphorylation is associated with resistance to the combination. We confirmed using a human-derived tumor xenograft mouse model that bicalutamide pre-treatment is associated with an increase in eIF4E(S209) phosphorylation. Thus, AR suppressed eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) phosphorylation, while the use of antiandrogens relieved this suppression, thereby triggering its increase. Additional investigation in human prostatectomy samples showed that increased eIF4E phosphorylation strongly correlated with the cell proliferation marker Ki67. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown (k/d) of eIF4E-sensitized CRPC cells to RAD001+bicalutamide, whereas eIF4E overexpression induced resistance. Inhibition of eIF4E phosphorylation by treatment with CGP57380 (an inhibitor of mitogen-activated protein kinase-interacting serine-threonine kinases MAP kinase-interacting kinase 1 (Mnk1/2), the eIF4E upstream kinase) or inhibitors of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), the upstream kinase-regulating Mnk1/2, also sensitized CRPC cells to RAD001+bicalutamide. Examination of downstream targets of eIF4E-mediated translation, including survivin, demonstrated that eIF4E(S209) phosphorylation increased cap-independent translation, whereas its inhibition restored cap-dependent translation, which could be

  14. Sex-related Impact on Clinical Outcome of Everolimus-eluting Versus Bare-metal Stents in ST-segment Myocardial Infarction. Insights From the EXAMINATION Trial.

    PubMed

    Regueiro, Ander; Fernández-Rodríguez, Diego; Brugaletta, Salvatore; Martín-Yuste, Victoria; Masotti, Monica; Freixa, Xavier; Cequier, Ángel; Íñiguez, Andrés; Serruys, Patrick W; Sabaté, Manel

    2015-05-01

    The use of second-generation drug-eluting stents compared with bare-metal stents in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction reduces the rate of major adverse cardiac events. We aimed to evaluate the impact of sex on the performance of everolimus-eluting stents vs bare-metal stents in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction at 2-year follow-up. This is a sub-study of the EXAMINATION trial that randomized 1498 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention to everolimus-eluting or bare-metal stents. Primary end point was combined all-cause death, any recurrent myocardial infarction, and any revascularization. All end points were analyzed according to sex at 2-year follow-up. Of 1498 patients included in the trial, 254 (17.0%) were women. Women were older and had higher prevalence of hypertension and lower prevalence of smoking compared with men. In contrast with men, stent diameter was smaller in women. After multivariate analysis, the primary end point was similar between women and men (hazard ratio=0.95; 95% confidence interval, 0.66-1.37), and among women, between those treated with bare-metal vs everolimus-eluting stents (hazard ratio=2.48; 95% confidence interval, 0.95-6.46). Women showed a lower rate of repeat revascularization than men (hazard ratio=0.55; 95% confidence interval, 0.32-0.95) despite worse baseline characteristics. This difference was driven by better performance of the everolimus-eluting stent in women. Despite poorer baseline clinical characteristics, women with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction treated with percutaneous coronary intervention showed outcomes similar to men. The use of everolimus-eluting stents may represent an added value in women as it showed a reduced rate of repeated revascularization compared to men. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. The use of everolimus in the treatment of neurocognitive problems in tuberous sclerosis (TRON): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Randell, Elizabeth; McNamara, Rachel; Davies, D Mark; Owen-Jones, Eleri; Kirby, Nigel; Angel, Lianna; Drew, Cheney; Cannings-John, Rebecca; Smalley, Michelle; Saxena, Anurag; McDermott, Emer; Stockwell, Laura; de Vries, Petrus J; Hood, Kerry; Sampson, Julian R

    2016-08-11

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic disorder affecting about 1 in 6000 people and is characterised by the development of tumours in many organs, including the skin and kidneys, and by a range of neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations. TSC-associated neuropsychiatric disorders (TAND) occur in the majority of those with TSC, and they have a significant impact on patients and their families, given the everyday impact of TAND on education, employment, family and social life. The potential benefits of better treatment for TAND therefore include reduction in health care demands and wider benefits for patients and their carers. We have planned a single-centre, two-arm, individually randomised, phase II, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of everolimus versus placebo in the treatment of neurocognitive problems in patients with tuberous sclerosis. Everolimus is a licensed medicine in this patient group, but for a different target of effect. The present trial is a proof-of-principle study developed to provide effect size estimates which may be used to inform the design of subsequent trials. Forty-eight patients aged 16-60 years with tuberous sclerosis who have an IQ >60 and a significant deficit (at least -2 SD) in one or more primary outcome measures will be randomly allocated in a ratio of 2:1 to receive everolimus or placebo, respectively. Participants will be assessed for eligibility and then be started on study medication 4 weeks later. They will then be randomised and receive placebo or everolimus for 24 weeks. Neurocognitive and safety assessments will be carried out at baseline and weeks 4, 12, 24 and 36. This study is designed to determine the effect sizes of treatment with everolimus or placebo for 6 months on specific neurocognitive functions-recall memory (verbal and non-verbal) and executive function-in people affected by TSC who have significant deficits in these functions. These data will provide new evidence to determine whether

  16. Ultrathin, bioresorbable polymer sirolimus-eluting stents versus thin, durable polymer everolimus-eluting stents in patients undergoing coronary revascularisation (BIOFLOW V): a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Kandzari, David E; Mauri, Laura; Koolen, Jacques J; Massaro, Joseph M; Doros, Gheorghe; Garcia-Garcia, Hector M; Bennett, Johan; Roguin, Ariel; Gharib, Elie G; Cutlip, Donald E; Waksman, Ron

    2017-08-25

    The development of coronary drug-eluting stents has included use of new metal alloys, changes in stent architecture, and use of bioresorbable polymers. Whether these advancements improve clinical safety and efficacy has not been shown in previous randomised trials. We aimed to examine the clinical outcomes of a bioresorbable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent compared with a durable polymer everolimus-eluting stent in a broad patient population undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. BIOFLOW V was an international, randomised trial done in patients undergoing elective and urgent percutaneous coronary intervention in 90 hospitals in 13 countries (Australia, Belgium, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Hungary, Israel, the Netherlands, New Zealand, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, and the USA). Eligible patients were those aged 18 years or older with ischaemic heart disease undergoing planned stent implantation in de-novo, native coronary lesions. Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) to either an ultrathin strut (60 μm) bioresorbable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent or to a durable polymer everolimus-eluting stent. Randomisation was via a central web-based data capture system (mixed blocks of 3 and 6), and stratified by study site. The primary endpoint was 12-month target lesion failure. The primary non-inferiority comparison combined these data from two additional randomised trials of bioresorbable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent and durable polymer everolimus-eluting stent with Bayesian methods. Analysis was by intention to treat. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02389946. Between May 8, 2015, and March 31, 2016, 4772 patients were recruited into the study. 1334 patients met inclusion criteria and were randomly assigned to treatment with bioresorbable polymer sirolimus-eluting stents (n=884) or durable polymer everolimus-eluting stents (n=450). 52 (6%) of 883 patients in the bioresorbable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent group and 41 (10%) of

  17. Role of inhibitors of mammalian target of rapamycin in the treatment of luminal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ciruelos, Eva; Cortes-Funes, Hernán; Ghanem, Ismael; Manso, Luis; Arteaga, Carlos

    2013-09-01

    Approximately 75% of patients with breast cancer present hormone receptor-positive tumors. This subtype of breast cancer initially shows a high overall response rate to hormonal treatments. However, resistance eventually develops, resulting in tumor progression. The PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway regulates several cellular functions in cancer such as cell growth, survival, and proliferation. In addition, a high activation level of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway is related to resistance to conventional chemotherapy and hormone therapy. The mTOR inhibitor everolimus, in combination with hormonal treatments, has led to excellent results in progression-free survival in patients with metastatic breast cancer resistant to hormone therapies. Therefore, everolimus has entered the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) guidelines 2012 and its combination with exemestane was approved recently by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency. This is the first time that a drug will have been approved for the restoration of hormone sensitivity in breast cancer.

  18. Role of mTOR Inhibitors in Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kajiwara, Moto; Masuda, Satohiro

    2016-01-01

    The first compound that inhibited the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), sirolimus (rapamycin) was discovered in the 1970s as a soil bacterium metabolite collected on Easter Island (Rapa Nui). Because sirolimus showed antiproliferative activity, researchers investigated its molecular target and identified the TOR1 and TOR2. The mTOR consists of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTORC2. Rapalogues including sirolimus, everolimus, and temsirolimus exert their effect mainly on mTORC1, whereas their inhibitory effect on mTORC2 is mild. To obtain compounds with more potent antiproliferative effects, ATP-competitive inhibitors of mTOR targeting both mTORC1 and mTORC2 have been developed and tested in clinical trials as anticancer drugs. Currently, mTOR inhibitors are used as anticancer drugs against several solid tumors, and immunosuppressive agents for transplantation of various organs. This review discusses the role of mTOR inhibitors in renal disease with a particular focus on renal cancer, diabetic nephropathy, and kidney transplantation. PMID:27338360

  19. Review of hormone-based treatments in postmenopausal patients with advanced breast cancer focusing on aromatase inhibitors and fulvestrant

    PubMed Central

    Kümler, Iben; Knoop, Ann S; Jessing, Christina A R; Ejlertsen, Bent; Nielsen, Dorte L

    2016-01-01

    Background Endocrine therapy constitutes a central modality in the treatment of oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive advanced breast cancer. Purpose To evaluate the evidence for endocrine treatment in postmenopausal patients with advanced breast cancer focusing on the aromatase inhibitors, letrozole, anastrozole, exemestane and fulvestrant. Methods A review was carried out using PubMed. Randomised phase II and III trials reporting on ≥100 patients were included. Results 35 trials met the inclusion criteria. If not used in the adjuvant setting, a non-steroid aromatase inhibitor was the optimal first-line option. In general, the efficacy of the different aromatase inhibitors and fulvestrant was similar in tamoxifen-refractory patients. A randomised phase II trial of palbociclib plus letrozole versus letrozole alone showed significantly increased progression-free survival (PFS) when compared with endocrine therapy alone in the first-line setting (20.2 vs 10.2 months). Furthermore, the addition of everolimus to exemestane in the Breast Cancer Trials of OraL EveROlimus-2 (BOLERO-2) study resulted in an extension of median PFS by 4.5 months after recurrence/progression on a non-steroid aromatase inhibitor. However, overall survival was not significantly increased. Conclusion Conventional treatment with an aromatase inhibitor or fulvestrant may be an adequate treatment option for most patients with hormone receptor-positive advanced breast cancer. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibition and cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) inhibition might represent substantial advances for selected patients in some specific settings. However, there is an urgent need for prospective biomarker-driven trials to identify patients for whom these treatments are cost-effective. PMID:27843622

  20. One-Year Outcomes After Everolimus-Eluting Stents Implantation in Ostial Lesions of Left Anterior Descending Coronary Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Golmohamadi, Zahra; Sokhanvar, Sepideh; Aslanabadi, Naser; Ghaffari, Samad; Sohrabi, Bahram

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years, stents are increasingly used in variety of coronary lesions. Ostial lesion of left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) however remains a challenge area because of the invariable involvement of distal left main coronary artery (LMCA). This study was designed to evaluate the clinical and angiographic outcomes of everolimus-eluting stent (EES) implantation for ostial LAD. Methods EESs were implanted in 45 consecutive patients with ostial LAD stenoses. For complete lesion coverage, stent positing was extended into the distal LMCA in 6 patients (13.3%) with intermediated LMCA narrowing. We assess MACE during one-year follow-up. Results In-hospital success rate was 100%; neither cardiac death nor stent thrombosis in our patients, but two patients had myocardial infarction in non-related coronary artery during follow-up. Two patients had angiographic restenosis and underwent TLR. The cumulative MACE-free survival rate was 95.6% at one year. Conclusion EES was in ostial LAD lesions with complete lesion coverage achieving high procedural success rate and acceptable clinical outcomes during one-year follow-up period.

  1. Clinical outcomes of chronic kidney disease patients treated with everolimus-eluting stents (EES) and paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES).

    PubMed

    Kitasato, Lisa; Shimohama, Takao; Ikeda, Yuki; Namba, Sayaka; Hashikata, Takehiro; Kameda, Ryo; Sato, Nobuhiro; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Yamaoka-Tojo, Minako; Tojo, Taiki; Ako, Junya

    2015-05-01

    The target lesion revascularization of paclitaxel-eluting stents (PES) has been reported to be lower than that of sirolimus-eluting stents in patients on hemodialysis (HD). However, the comparison of PES and second generation drug-eluting stents in CKD patients has not been fully investigated. We compared clinical outcomes of everolimus-eluting stents (EES) and PES in CKD patients. Hundred and forty seven CKD patients (eGFR<60mLmin(-1)1.73m(-2)) treated with PES (n=74, from May 2007 to December 2009) and EES (n=73, from January 2010 to January 2013) were enrolled in the study. Major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) were defined as death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and ischemia driven target lesion revascularization. The incidence of 36-month MACE was significantly lower in EES, non-HD group compared to PES, non HD group (0% in EES group and 13.5% in PES group, respectively, P<0.01). There was no significant difference in MACE between EES and PES in HD patients (5.4% in PES group and 5.5% in EES group, P=0.98). In multivariate analysis, PES group and PES ISR were independent factors for worse incidence of MACE. In CKD patients, PES was associated with worse clinical outcomes in non-HD patients as compared with EES. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Long-Term Follow-Up of Patients after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Everolimus-Eluting Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold

    PubMed Central

    Meneguz-Moreno, Rafael Alexandre; Costa Junior, José de Ribamar; Moscoso, Freddy Antônio Britto; Staico, Rodolfo; Tanajura, Luiz Fernando Leite; Centemero, Marinella Patrizia; Chaves, Auréa Jacob; Abizaid, Andrea Claudia Leão de Sousa; Sousa, Amanda Guerra de Moraes Rego e; Abizaid, Alexandre Antonio Cunha

    2017-01-01

    Background Bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (BVS) were developed to improve the long-term results of percutaneous coronary intervention, restoring vasomotion. Objectives To report very late follow-up of everolimus-eluting Absorb BVS (Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, USA) in our center. Methods Observational retrospective study, in a single Brazilian center, from August 2011 to October 2013, including 49 patients submitted to Absorb BVS implantation. Safety and efficacy outcomes were analyzed in the in-hospital and very late follow-up phases (> 2 years). Results All 49 patients underwent a minimum follow-up of 2.5 years and a maximum of 4.6 years. Mean age was 56.8 ± 7.6 years, 71.4% of the patients were men, and 26.5% were diabetic. Regarding clinical presentation, the majority (94%) had stable angina or silent ischemia. Device success was achieved in 100% of cases with 96% overall procedure success rate. Major adverse cardiovascular events rate was 4% at 30 days, 8.2% at 1 year, and 12.2% at 2 years, and there were no more events until 4.6 years. There were 2 cases of thrombosis (1 subacute and 1 late). Conclusions In this preliminary analysis, Absorb BVS showed to be a safe and effective device in the very late follow-up. Establishing the efficacy and safety profiles of these devices in more complex scenarios is necessary. PMID:28076449

  3. First Report of a Successful Pregnancy in an Everolimus-Treated Heart-Transplanted Patient: Neonatal Disappearance of Immunosuppressive Drugs.

    PubMed

    Fiocchi, R; D'Elia, E; Vittori, C; Sebastiani, R; Strobelt, N; Eleftheriou, G; Introna, M; Freddi, C; Crippa, A

    2016-04-01

    The use of everolimus (EVL) as primary immunosuppression is steadily increasing in heart transplantation (HTx) patients. Limited data currently exist in kidney transplantation, but there is no report of EVL use during pregnancy after HTx and its pharmacokinetics in the newborn. We report a case of an unplanned pregnancy discovered at 21 weeks of gestation in a female HTx patient aged 40 years treated with EVL and cyclosporine (CyA). Because pregnancy was advanced, immunosuppression therapy was left unchanged. At 36 weeks, a healthy infant was delivered. At birth, CyA blood levels were lower in the neonate, but EVL concentrations in maternal and neonatal umbilical blood were similar. Amniotic fluid concentrations were undetectable for both drugs. In the newborn, EVL was measurable at 5 days after birth, whereas CyA disappeared within 2 days. Cord blood displayed a normal count of B and T cells and CD4, CD8 and natural killer cell populations. At birth, both mother and newborn displayed the same blood levels of EVL; therefore, a filter effect of the placenta may be hypothesized for CyA but not for EVL. No immediate complications were observed with this pregnancy. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  4. Detection of Rapalog-Mediated Therapeutic Response in Renal Cancer Xenografts Using 64Cu-bevacizumab ImmunoPET

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Albert J.; Sohn, Rebecca; Lu, Zhi Hong; Arbeit, Jeffrey M.; Lapi, Suzanne E.

    2013-01-01

    The importance of neovascularization for primary and metastatic tumor growth fostered numerous clinical trials of angiogenesis inhibitors either alone or in combination with conventional antineoplastic therapies. One challenge with the use of molecularly targeted agents has been the disconnection between size reduction and tumor biologic behavior, either when the drug is efficacious or when tumor resistance emerges. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of 64Cu-NOTA-bevacizumab as a PET imaging agent for imaging intratumoral VEGF content in vivo. 64Cu-NOTA-bevacizumab avidly accumulated in 786-O renal carcinoma xenografts with lower levels in host organs. RAD001 (everolimus) markedly attenuated 64Cu-NOTA-bevacizumab accumulation within 786-O renal carcinoma xenografts. Tumor tissue and cellular molecular analysis validated PET imaging, demonstrating decreases in total and secreted VEGF content and VEGFR2 activation. Notably, 64Cu-NOTA-bevacizumab PET imaging was concordant with the growth arrest of RAD001 tumors. These data suggest that immunoPET targeting of angiogenic factors such as VEGF could be a new class of surrogate markers complementing the RECIST criteria in patients receiving molecularly targeted therapies. PMID:23516584

  5. Detection of rapalog-mediated therapeutic response in renal cancer xenografts using ⁶⁴Cu-bevacizumab immunoPET.

    PubMed

    Chang, Albert J; Sohn, Rebecca; Lu, Zhi Hong; Arbeit, Jeffrey M; Lapi, Suzanne E

    2013-01-01

    The importance of neovascularization for primary and metastatic tumor growth fostered numerous clinical trials of angiogenesis inhibitors either alone or in combination with conventional antineoplastic therapies. One challenge with the use of molecularly targeted agents has been the disconnection between size reduction and tumor biologic behavior, either when the drug is efficacious or when tumor resistance emerges. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of (64)Cu-NOTA-bevacizumab as a PET imaging agent for imaging intratumoral VEGF content in vivo. (64)Cu-NOTA-bevacizumab avidly accumulated in 786-O renal carcinoma xenografts with lower levels in host organs. RAD001 (everolimus) markedly attenuated (64)Cu-NOTA-bevacizumab accumulation within 786-O renal carcinoma xenografts. Tumor tissue and cellular molecular analysis validated PET imaging, demonstrating decreases in total and secreted VEGF content and VEGFR2 activation. Notably, (64)Cu-NOTA-bevacizumab PET imaging was concordant with the growth arrest of RAD001 tumors. These data suggest that immunoPET targeting of angiogenic factors such as VEGF could be a new class of surrogate markers complementing the RECIST criteria in patients receiving molecularly targeted therapies.

  6. Cyclosporin but not everolimus inhibits chemokine receptor expression on CD4+ T cell subsets circulating in the peripheral blood of renal transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Hoerning, A; Köhler, S; Jun, C; Lu, J; Fu, J; Tebbe, B; Dolff, S; Feldkamp, T; Kribben, A; Hoyer, P F; Witzke, O

    2012-01-01

    The peripheral chemokine receptors chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) and CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) have been reported to be associated with allograft rejection. The impact of the expression of immunosuppressive drugs on peripherally circulating CD4+ T cell subsets after renal transplantion is unknown. Expression of CXCR3 and CCR5 was investigated by flow cytometry in 20 renal allograft recipients participating in a prospective, randomized trial (NCT00514514). Initial immunosuppression consisted of basiliximab, cyclosporin A (CsA), mycophenolate sodium and corticosteroids. After 3 months, patients were treated either with CsA, mycophenolate sodium (MPA) plus corticosteroids (n = 6), CsA and everolimus plus corticosteroids (n = 8) or CsA-free (CsAfree) receiving everolimus, MPA and corticosteroids (n = 6). After initial reduction of CD4+forkhead box protein 3 (FoxP3)+ and CD4+CD25hiFoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) (P < 0·05; P < 0·01), 3-month post-transplant percentages of Tregs were reconstituted in CsAfree and CsAlo arms compared to CsAreg 12 months post transplant. Expression of CCR5 and CXCR3 on CD4+FoxP3+ and CD4+FoxP3- T cells 12 months post transplant was increased in CsAfreeversus CsAreg. Increase in CCR5+CXCR3+ co-expressing CD4+FoxP3- cells between 3 and 12 months correlated negatively with the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) slope/year [modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD); r = −0·59, P < 0·01]. CsA, but not everolimus, inhibits both Treg development and expression of CXCR3 and CCR5 on CD4+ T cell subsets. Increase in CCR5+CXCR3+ co-expressing CD4+FoxP3- T cells is associated with early loss in allograft function. PMID:22471287

  7. Risk and timing of clinical events according to diabetic status of patients treated with everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffolds versus everolimus-eluting stent: 2-year results from a propensity score matched comparison of ABSORB EXTEND and SPIRIT trials.

    PubMed

    Campos, Carlos M; Caixeta, Adriano; Franken, Marcelo; Bartorelli, Antonio L; Whitbourn, Robert J; Wu, Chiung-Jen; Li Paul Kao, Hsien; Rosli, Mohd Ali; Carrie, Didier; De Bruyne, Bernard; Stone, Gregg W; Serruys, Patrick W; Abizaid, Alexandre

    2017-05-04

    to compare the occurrence of clinical events in diabetics treated with the Absorb bioresorbable vascular scaffold (Absorb BVS; Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, CA) versus everolimus-eluting metal stents (EES; XIENCE V; Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, CA) BACKGROUND: There are limited data dedicated to clinical outcomes of diabetic patients treated with bioresorbable scaffolds (BRS) at 2-year horizon. The present study included 812 patients in the ABSORB EXTEND study in which a total of 215 diabetic patients were treated with Absorb BVS. In addition, 882 diabetic patients treated with EES in pooled data from the SPIRIT clinical program (SPIRIT II, SPIRIT III and SPIRIT IV trials) were used for comparison by applying propensity score matching using 29 different variables. The primary endpoint was ischemia driven major adverse cardiac events (ID-MACE), including cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), and ischemia driven target lesion revascularization (ID-TLR). After 2 years, the ID-MACE rate was 6.5% in the Absorb BVS vs. 8.9% in the Xience group (P = 0.40). There was no difference for MACE components or definite/probable device thrombosis (HR: 1.43 [0.24,8.58]; P = 0.69). The occurrence of MACE was not different for both diabetic status (insulin- and non-insulin-requiring diabetes) in all time points up to the 2-year follow-up for the Absorb and Xience groups. In this largest ever patient-level pooled comparison on the treatment of diabetic patients with BRS out to two years, individuals with diabetes treated with the Absorb BVS had a similar rate of MACE as compared with diabetics treated with the Xience EES. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Comparative assessment of "plaque/media" change on three modalities of IVUS immediately after implantation of either everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffold or everolimus-eluting metallic stent in Absorb II study.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yaping; Cavalcante, Rafael; Tenekecioglu, Erhan; Suwannasom, Pannipa; Sotomi, Yohei; Collet, Carlos; Abdelghani, Mahammad; Jonker, Hans; Digne, Franck; Horstkotte, Dieter; Zehender, Manfred; Indolfi, Ciro; Saia, Francesco; Fiorilli, Rosario; Chevalier, Bernard; Bolognese, Leonardo; Goicolea, Javier; Nie, Shaoping; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Serruys, Patrick W

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the study to assess the comparability of immediate changes in plaque/media volume (PV) on three modalities of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) after implantation of either bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) or everolimus-eluting metallic stent (EES) in Absorb II Study. The two devices have different device volume and ultrasound backscattering that may interfere with the "plaque/media" assessed by three modalities on IVUS: grayscale, backscattering of radiofrequency and brightness function. In a multicenter randomized controlled trial, 501 patients with stable or unstable angina underwent documentary IVUS pre- and post- implantation. The change in plaque/media volume (PV) was categorized into three groups according to the relative PV change in device segment: PV "increased" >+5% (PVI), PV unchanged ±5% (PVU), and PV decreased <-5% (PVD). The change in PV was re-evaluated three times: after subtraction of theoretical device volume, after analysis of echogenicity based on brightness function. In 449 patients, 483 lesions were analyzed pre- and post-implantation. "PVI" was more frequently observed in BVS (53.8%) than EES group (39.4%), p = 0.006. After subtraction of the theoretical device volume, the frequency of "PVI" decreased in both BVS (36.2%) and EES (32.1%) groups and became comparable (p = 0.581). In addition, the percentage of "PVI" was further reduced in both device groups after correction for either radiofrequency backscattering (BVS 34.4% vs. EES 22.6%) or echogenicity (BVS 25.2% vs. EES 9.7%). PV change in device segment was differently affected by BVS and EES devices implantation due to their differences in device volume and ultrasound backscattering. It implies that the lumen volume was also artifactually affected by the type of device implanted. Comparative IVUS assessment of lumen and plaque/media volume changes following implantation of BVS and EES requires specific methodological adjustment.

  9. The evolving field of kinase inhibitors in thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Marotta, V; Sciammarella, C; Vitale, M; Colao, A; Faggiano, A

    2015-01-01

    Most of the genetic events implicated in the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer (TC) involve genes with kinase activity. Thus, kinase inhibitors (KIs) are very relevant in this field. KIs are considered the most suitable treatment for patients with iodine-refractory differentiated TC; these patients comprise the subgroup with the poorer prognosis. To date, only sorafenib has been approved for this indication, but promising results have been reported with several other KIs. In particular, lenvatinib has demonstrated excellent efficacy, with both progression-free survival and objective tumour response being better than with sorafenib. Despite being considered to be well tolerated, both sorafenib and lenvatinib have shown a remarkable toxicity, which has led to dose reductions in the majority of patients and to treatment discontinuation in a significant proportion of cases. The role of KIs in differentiated TC may be revolutionised by the finding that selumetinib may restore a clinical response to radioactive iodine (RAI). Vandetanib and cabozantinib have been approved for the treatment of advanced, progressive medullary TC (MTC). Nevertheless, the toxicity of both compounds suggests their selective use in those patients with strong disease progression. Treatment with the mTOR-inhibitor everolimus, alone or in combination with somatostatin analogues, should be studied in metastatic MTC patients with slow progression of disease, these representing the vast majority of patients. KIs did not significantly impact on the clinical features of anaplastic TC (ATC).

  10. Long-Term Follow-Up of Patients after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with Everolimus-Eluting Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold.

    PubMed

    Meneguz-Moreno, Rafael Alexandre; Costa, José de Ribamar; Moscoso, Freddy Antônio Britto; Staico, Rodolfo; Tanajura, Luiz Fernando Leite; Centemero, Marinella Patrizia; Chaves, Auréa Jacob; Abizaid, Andrea Claudia Leão de Sousa; Sousa, Amanda Guerra de Moraes Rego E; Abizaid, Alexandre Antonio Cunha

    2017-02-01

    Bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (BVS) were developed to improve the long-term results of percutaneous coronary intervention, restoring vasomotion. To report very late follow-up of everolimus-eluting Absorb BVS (Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, USA) in our center. Observational retrospective study, in a single Brazilian center, from August 2011 to October 2013, including 49 patients submitted to Absorb BVS implantation. Safety and efficacy outcomes were analyzed in the in-hospital and very late follow-up phases (> 2 years). All 49 patients underwent a minimum follow-up of 2.5 years and a maximum of 4.6 years. Mean age was 56.8 ± 7.6 years, 71.4% of the patients were men, and 26.5% were diabetic. Regarding clinical presentation, the majority (94%) had stable angina or silent ischemia. Device success was achieved in 100% of cases with 96% overall procedure success rate. Major adverse cardiovascular events rate was 4% at 30 days, 8.2% at 1 year, and 12.2% at 2 years, and there were no more events until 4.6 years. There were 2 cases of thrombosis (1 subacute and 1 late). In this preliminary analysis, Absorb BVS showed to be a safe and effective device in the very late follow-up. Establishing the efficacy and safety profiles of these devices in more complex scenarios is necessary. Os suportes vasculares bioabsorvíveis (SVB) foram desenvolvidos com o intuito de melhorar os resultados da intervenção coronária percutânea a longo prazo, restabelecendo-se a vasomotricidade. Reportar o seguimento muito tardio do implante do SVB eluidor de everolimus Absorb® (Abbot Vascular, Santa Clara, EUA) em nosso centro. Estudo observacional, retrospectivo, em um único centro brasileiro, que incluiu 49 pacientes submetidos ao implante do SVB Absorb® entre agosto/2011 e outubro/2013. Foram analisados os desfechos de segurança e eficácia na fase hospitalar e bastante tardia (> 2 anos). Todos os 49 pacientes completaram um seguimento mínimo de 2,5 anos, sendo o máximo de 4,6 anos

  11. Differential effects of selective inhibitors targeting the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Badura, Susanne; Tesanovic, Tamara; Pfeifer, Heike; Wystub, Sylvia; Nijmeijer, Bart A; Liebermann, Marcus; Falkenburg, J H Frederik; Ruthardt, Martin; Ottmann, Oliver G

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling has been linked to oncogenesis and therapy resistance in various malignancies including leukemias. In Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) positive leukemias, activation of PI3K by dysregulated BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase (TK) contributes to the pathogenesis and development of resistance to ABL-TK inhibitors (TKI). The PI3K pathway thus is an attractive therapeutic target in BCR-ABL positive leukemias, but its role in BCR-ABL negative ALL is conjectural. Moreover, the functional contribution of individual components of the PI3K pathway in ALL has not been established. We compared the activity of the ATP-competitive pan-PI3K inhibitor NVP-BKM120, the allosteric mTORC1 inhibitor RAD001, the ATP-competitive dual PI3K/mTORC1/C2 inhibitors NVP-BEZ235 and NVP-BGT226 and the combined mTORC1 and mTORC2 inhibitors Torin 1, PP242 and KU-0063794 using long-term cultures of ALL cells (ALL-LTC) from patients with B-precursor ALL that expressed the BCR-ABL or TEL-ABL oncoproteins or were BCR-ABL negative. Dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitors profoundly inhibited growth and survival of ALL cells irrespective of their genetic subtype and their responsiveness to ABL-TKI. Combined suppression of PI3K, mTORC1 and mTORC2 displayed greater antileukemic activity than selective inhibitors of PI3K, mTORC1 or mTORC1 and mTORC2. Inhibition of the PI3K/mTOR pathway is a promising therapeutic approach in patients with ALL. Greater antileukemic activity of dual PI3K/mTORC1/C2 inhibitors appears to be due to the redundant function of PI3K and mTOR. Clinical trials examining dual PI3K/mTORC1/C2 inhibitors in patients with B-precursor ALL are warranted, and should not be restricted to particular genetic subtypes.

  12. Differential Effects of Selective Inhibitors Targeting the PI3K/AKT/mTOR Pathway in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Badura, Susanne; Tesanovic, Tamara; Pfeifer, Heike; Wystub, Sylvia; Nijmeijer, Bart A.; Liebermann, Marcus; Falkenburg, J. H. Frederik; Ruthardt, Martin; Ottmann, Oliver G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Aberrant PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling has been linked to oncogenesis and therapy resistance in various malignancies including leukemias. In Philadelphia chromosome (Ph) positive leukemias, activation of PI3K by dysregulated BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase (TK) contributes to the pathogenesis and development of resistance to ABL-TK inhibitors (TKI). The PI3K pathway thus is an attractive therapeutic target in BCR-ABL positive leukemias, but its role in BCR-ABL negative ALL is conjectural. Moreover, the functional contribution of individual components of the PI3K pathway in ALL has not been established. Experimental Design We compared the activity of the ATP-competitive pan-PI3K inhibitor NVP-BKM120, the allosteric mTORC1 inhibitor RAD001, the ATP-competitive dual PI3K/mTORC1/C2 inhibitors NVP-BEZ235 and NVP-BGT226 and the combined mTORC1 and mTORC2 inhibitors Torin 1, PP242 and KU-0063794 using long-term cultures of ALL cells (ALL-LTC) from patients with B-precursor ALL that expressed the BCR-ABL or TEL-ABL oncoproteins or were BCR-ABL negative. Results Dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitors profoundly inhibited growth and survival of ALL cells irrespective of their genetic subtype and their responsiveness to ABL-TKI. Combined suppression of PI3K, mTORC1 and mTORC2 displayed greater antileukemic activity than selective inhibitors of PI3K, mTORC1 or mTORC1 and mTORC2. Conclusions Inhibition of the PI3K/mTOR pathway is a promising therapeutic approach in patients with ALL. Greater antileukemic activity of dual PI3K/mTORC1/C2 inhibitors appears to be due to the redundant function of PI3K and mTOR. Clinical trials examining dual PI3K/mTORC1/C2 inhibitors in patients with B-precursor ALL are warranted, and should not be restricted to particular genetic subtypes. PMID:24244612

  13. Outcomes in ethnic minority renal transplant recipients receiving everolimus versus mycophenolate: comparative risk assessment results from a pooled analysis.

    PubMed

    Melancon, Keith; Mulgaonkar, Shamkant P; Delcoro, Carlos; Wiland, Anne; McCague, Kevin; Shihab, Fuad S

    2013-12-27

    Everolimus (EVR) has demonstrated good efficacy after renal transplantation. Racial disparities in clinical outcomes after de novo renal transplantation are well documented; whether the efficacy of EVR varies based on recipient ethnicity is unknown. We conducted a comparative risk assessment of EVR by ethnicity. Data on 2004 renal transplant recipients from three EVR studies were pooled to identify the impact of ethnicity on efficacy outcomes across EVR dosing groups and control groups. Ethnic groups compared were African Americans, non-U.S. blacks, Asians, Hispanics, and Caucasians. EVR groups received either 1.5 or 3 mg per day, with either standard-dose cyclosporine or reduced-dose cyclosporine. Control groups received mycophenolic acid (MPA) with standard-dose cyclosporine. Composite efficacy failure endpoint was graft loss, death, biopsy-proven acute rejection, or lost to follow-up. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated using a logistic regression model. The proportion of renal transplant recipients who met the composite endpoint was African Americans (46%), non-U.S. black (35%), Caucasian (31%), Hispanic (28%), and Asian (25%). The odds of meeting the composite endpoint were significantly (P=0.0001) greater for African Americans versus Caucasians but did not differ among the other ethnic groups (ethnic groups were only compared with Caucasians). EVR and MPA were associated with similar efficacy among each of the ethnic groups. In this pooled data analysis in more than 2000 renal transplant recipients, EVR versus MPA resulted in similar composite endpoint incidence events across ethnicities. Consistent with previously published data, African Americans had poorer clinical outcomes. EVR is efficacious regardless of ethnicity.

  14. Bioresorbable everolimus-eluting vascular scaffold for the treatment of chronic total occlusions: CTO-ABSORB pilot study.

    PubMed

    Vaquerizo, Beatriz; Barros, Antonio; Pujadas, Sandra; Bajo, Ester; Estrada, Darlene; Miranda-Guardiola, F; Rigla, Juan; Jiménez, Marcelo; Cinca, Juan; Serra, Antonio

    2015-09-01

    We sought to assess the safety and performance of the Absorb everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffold (BVS) in percutaneous chronic total occlusion (CTO) revascularisation guided by intracoronary imaging. The feasibility of using the BVS in CTO lesions is unknown. Thirty-five consecutive true CTO lesions (EuroCTO Club definition) were included in this prospective registry. After mandatory predilatation and IVUS analysis, all target lesions were treated with BVS and no other stents were deployed. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed after BVS implantation. Multislice computed tomography (MSCT) was performed at baseline and at six to eight months. The mean age was 60.7±9.7 years; 80% were male; 20% were diabetic; 37% had a previous PCI. The most frequently treated vessel was the RCA (46%). According to the Japanese-CTO (J-CTO) complexity score, most lesions were classified as intermediate (49%) or difficult-very difficult (26%); 34% were moderate-severely calcified. Most cases (86%) were treated with an anterograde strategy, 60% by radial or biradial approach. In 71% a cutting balloon was used. The total scaffold length implanted per lesion was 52.5±22.9 mm. All scaffolds were successfully delivered and deployed. Post-dilatation was undertaken in 63%. By OCT, final minimum scaffold area and lumen stenosis were 7.1±1.5 mm2 and 11.7±6.6%, without areas of significant strut malapposition. At complete six-month follow-up, no major adverse events were observed. MSCT identified two cases of scaffold reocclusion. BVS for CTO recanalisation demonstrates excellent feasibility and safety as well as midterm efficacy. Appropriate lesion preparation is key to aiding adequate expansion of these scaffolds in this setting.

  15. The AngiographiC Evaluation of the Everolimus-Eluting Stent in Chronic Total Occlusion (ACE-CTO) Study.

    PubMed

    Kotsia, Anna; Navara, Rachita; Michael, Tesfaldet T; Sherbet, Daniel P; Roesle, Michele; Christopoulos, George; Rangan, Bavana V; Haagen, Donald; Garcia, Santiago; Maniu, Calin; Pershad, Ashish; Abdullah, Shuaib M; Hastings, Jeffrey L; Kumbhani, Dharam J; Luna, Michael; Addo, Tayo; Banerjee, Subhash; Brilakis, Emmanouil S

    2015-09-01

    There are limited data on outcomes after implantation of second-generation drug-eluting stents in coronary chronic total occlusions (CTOs). We aimed to evaluate the frequency of angiographic restenosis and clinical outcomes after implantation of the everolimus-eluting stent (EES) in coronary CTOs. One hundred patients undergoing successful CTO percutaneous coronary intervention using EES at our institution between 2009 and 2012 were enrolled. The primary study endpoint was binary in-segment restenosis at 8-month follow-up quantitative coronary angiography. Secondary endpoints included death, myocardial infarction, target-lesion and target-vessel revascularization, and symptom improvement. Mean age was 64 ± 7 years and 99% of the patients were men. The successful crossing technique was antegrade wiring in 51 patients, antegrade dissection/reentry in 24 patients, and retrograde in 25 patients. Binary angiographic restenosis occurred in 46% of the patients (95% confidence interval [CI], 35%-57%). The pattern of restenosis was focal, proliferative, and total occlusion in 19 lesions (46%), 14 lesions (34%), and 8 lesions (20%), respectively. At 12 months, the incidences of death, myocardial infarction, target-lesion revascularization, and target-vessel revascularization were 2%, 2%, 37%, and 39%, respectively. At 12 months, symptoms were improved, unchanged, or worse compared with baseline in 89 patients, 8 patients, and 1 patient, respectively (2 patients died before the 12-month follow-up). On multivariable analysis, smaller stent diameter was associated with higher risk for binary angiographic restenosis. High rates of angiographic restenosis and repeat revascularization were observed among patients receiving EES in coronary CTOs, but most had significant symptom improvement.

  16. Outcomes in Ethnic Minority Renal Transplant Recipients Receiving Everolimus versus Mycophenolate: Comparative Risk Assessment Results From a Pooled Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Melancon, Keith; Mulgaonkar, Shamkant P.; Delcoro, Carlos; Wiland, Anne; McCague, Kevin; Shihab, Fuad S.

    2013-01-01

    Background Everolimus (EVR) has demonstrated good efficacy after renal transplantation. Racial disparities in clinical outcomes after de novo renal transplantation are well documented; whether the efficacy of EVR varies based on recipient ethnicity is unknown. We conducted a comparative risk assessment of EVR by ethnicity. Methods Data on 2004 renal transplant recipients from three EVR studies were pooled to identify the impact of ethnicity on efficacy outcomes across EVR dosing groups and control groups. Ethnic groups compared were African Americans, non-U.S. blacks, Asians, Hispanics, and Caucasians. EVR groups received either 1.5 or 3 mg per day, with either standard-dose cyclosporine or reduced-dose cyclosporine. Control groups received mycophenolic acid (MPA) with standard-dose cyclosporine. Composite efficacy failure endpoint was graft loss, death, biopsy-proven acute rejection, or lost to follow-up. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated using a logistic regression model. Results The proportion of renal transplant recipients who met the composite endpoint was African Americans (46%), non-U.S. black (35%), Caucasian (31%), Hispanic (28%), and Asian (25%). The odds of meeting the composite endpoint were significantly (P=0.0001) greater for African Americans versus Caucasians but did not differ among the other ethnic groups (ethnic groups were only compared with Caucasians). EVR and MPA were associated with similar efficacy among each of the ethnic groups. Conclusion In this pooled data analysis in more than 2000 renal transplant recipients, EVR versus MPA resulted in similar composite endpoint incidence events across ethnicities. Consistent with previously published data, African Americans had poorer clinical outcomes. EVR is efficacious regardless of ethnicity. PMID:24345868

  17. Carboxylesterase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hatfield, M. Jason; Potter, Philip M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Carboxylesterases play major roles in the hydrolysis of numerous therapeutically active compounds. This is, in part, due to the prevalence of the ester moiety in these small molecules. However, the impact these enzymes may play on drug stability and pharmacokinetics is rarely considered prior to molecule development. Therefore, the application of selective inhibitors of this class of proteins may have utility in modulating the metabolism, distribution and toxicity of agents that are subjected to enzyme hydrolysis. Areas covered This review details the development of all such compounds dating back to 1986, but principally focuses on the very recent identification of selective human carboxylesterases inhibitors. Expert opinion The implementation of carboxylesterase inhibitors may significantly revolutionize drug discovery. Such molecules may allow for improved efficacy of compounds inactivated by this class of enzymes and/or reduce the toxicity of agents that are activated by these proteins. Furthermore, since lack of carboxylesterase activity appears to have no obvious biological consequence, these compounds could be applied in combination with virtually any esterified drug. Therefore, inhibitors of these proteins may have utility in altering drug hydrolysis and distribution in vivo. The characteristics, chemical and biological properties, and potential uses of such agents, are discussed here. PMID:21609191

  18. [An Elderly Patient with Metastatic Breast Cancer Who Developed Severe Adverse Events such as Stomatitis and Interstitial Pneumonia after Everolimus plus Exemestane Treatment].

    PubMed

    Sakiyama, Kana; Yoshida, Takashi; Goto, Yoshinari; Kimura, Morihiko

    2016-06-01

    An 80-year-old woman was diagnosed with right breast cancer with clinical Stage IIIA 6 years previously. She underwent mastectomy and axillary lymph node dissection. The pathological diagnosis was invasive micropapillary carcinoma with lymph node involvement. Immunohistochemically, the tumor was positive for estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, and negative for HER2. Postoperatively, the patient was treated with adjuvant chemotherapy consisting of cyclophosphamide, epirubicin, 5-fluorouracil, and paclitaxel, followed by endocrine therapy with letrozole. Four years after surgery, she experienced a recurrence of breast cancer in the thoracic wall, and was treated with exemestane, toremifene, and fulvestrant for 1 year and 5 months. However, she developed carcinomatous pleurisy and was treated with eribulin. This last treatment was ineffective. Subsequently, she received combination therapy with everolimus and exemestane. Although the pleural effusion reduced markedly after 5 weeks, stomatitis, diarrhea, melena, and interstitial pneumonia occurred as adverse events. The symptoms improved after drug discontinuation and steroid therapy. The combination therapy with everolimus and exemestane is a prospective therapy for hormone-resistant recurrent breast cancer, but the management of adverse events is very important.

  19. Fasting glucose and body mass index as predictors of activity in breast cancer patients treated with everolimus-exemestane: The EverExt study.

    PubMed

    Pizzuti, Laura; Marchetti, Paolo; Natoli, Clara; Gamucci, Teresa; Santini, Daniele; Scinto, Angelo Fedele; Iezzi, Laura; Mentuccia, Lucia; D'Onofrio, Loretta; Botticelli, Andrea; Moscetti, Luca; Sperati, Francesca; Botti, Claudio; Ferranti, Francesca; Buglioni, Simonetta; Sanguineti, Giuseppe; Filippo, Simona Di; Lauro, Luigi di; Sergi, Domenico; Catenaro, Teresa; Tomao, Silverio; Giordano, Antonio; Maugeri-Saccà, Marcello; Barba, Maddalena; Vici, Patrizia

    2017-09-06

    Evidence on everolimus in breast cancer has placed hyperglycemia among the most common high grade adverse events. Anthropometrics and biomarkers of glucose metabolism were investigated in a observational study of 102 postmenopausal, HR + HER2- metastatic breast cancer patients treated with everolimus-exemestane in first and subsequent lines. Best overall response (BR) and clinical benefit rate (CBR) were assessed across subgroups defined upon fasting glucose (FG) and body mass index (BMI). Survival was estimated by Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Survival predictors were tested in Cox models. Median follow up was 12.4 months (1.0-41.0). The overall cohort showed increasing levels of FG and decreasing BMI (p < 0.001). Lower FG fasting glucose at BR was more commonly associated with C/PR or SD compared with PD (p < 0.001). We also observed a somewhat higher BMI associated with better response (p = 0.052). More patients in the lowest FG category achieved clinical benefit compared to the highest (p < 0.001), while no relevant differences emerged for BMI. Fasting glucose at re-assessment was also predictive of PFS (p = 0.037), as confirmed in models including BMI and line of therapy (p = 0.049). Treatment discontinuation was significantly associated with changes in FG (p = 0.014). Further research is warranted to corroborate these findings and clarify the underlying mechanisms.

  20. Biolimus-eluting versus everolimus-eluting stents in coronary artery disease: a pooled analysis from the NEXT (NOBORI biolimus-eluting versus XIENCE/PROMUS everolimus-eluting stent) and COMPARE II (Abluminal biodegradable polymer biolimus-eluting stent versus durable polymer everolimus-eluting stent) randomised trials.

    PubMed

    Vlachojannis, Georgios J; Puricel, Serban; Natsuaki, Masahiro; Morimoto, Takeshi; Smits, Pieter C; Kimura, Takeshi

    2017-03-20

    This study sought to investigate the safety and efficacy of a biolimus-eluting stent with biodegradable polymer (BP-BES) (Nobori; Terumo Corp.) compared to an everolimus-eluting stent with durable polymer (DP-EES) (XIENCE V or Prime; Abbott Vascular, or PROMUS; Boston Scientific). The all-comers NEXT and COMPARE II clinical trials randomly assigned 5,942 patients to BP-BES (N=3,412) or DP-EES (N=2,530). We conducted a patient level pooled analysis at three-year follow-up with specified study endpoints: definite stent thrombosis (ST), the combined safety endpoint cardiac death or target vessel myocardial infarction (TV-MI), and the efficacy endpoint target lesion revascularisation (TLR). At three-year follow-up, all endpoints, namely definite stent thrombosis (BP-BES 0.8% vs. 0.4%, p=0.20), death or TV-MI (BP-BES 7.8% vs. 6.7%, p=0.07), as well as TLR (BP-BES 6.4% vs. 6.4%, p=0.78) were similar between groups. Interestingly, unadjusted (BP-BES 5.6% vs. 4.5%, p=0.02) and adjusted (HR 1.36; 1.01-1.82, p=0.04) TV-MI rates were higher in the BP-BES group than in the DP-EES group. In this large-scale patient level pooled analysis of the NEXT and COMPARE II randomised trials, the use of BP-BES compared with DP-EES resulted in similar outcomes, but with an observed higher rate of TV-MI in the BP-BES group.

  1. Immunosuppressive potency of mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibitors in solid-organ transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Baroja-Mazo, Alberto; Revilla-Nuin, Beatriz; Ramírez, Pablo; Pons, José A

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin, also known as mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a protein kinase that belongs to the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway, which is involved in several fundamental cellular functions such as cell growth, proliferation, and survival. This protein and its associated pathway have been implicated in cancer development and the regulation of immune responses, including the rejection response generated following allograft transplantation. Inhibitors of mTOR (mTORi) such as rapamycin and its derivative everolimus are potent immunosuppressive drugs that both maintain similar rates of efficacy and could optimize the renal function and diminish the side effects compared with calcineurin inhibitors. These drugs are used in solid-organ transplantationtoinduceimmunosuppression while also promoting the expansion of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T-cells that could favor a scenery of immunological tolerance. In this review, we describe the mechanisms by which inhibitors of mTOR induce suppression by regulation of these pathways at different levels of the immune response. In addition, we particularly emphasize about the main methods that are used to assess the potency of immunosuppressive drugs, highlighting the studies carried out about immunosuppressive potency of inhibitors of mTOR. PMID:27011916

  2. Systemic meta-analysis assessing the short term applicability of early conversion to mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors in kidney transplant.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Jayant; Reccia, Isabella; Kusano, Tomokazu; Julie, Bridson M; Sharma, Ajay; Halawa, Ahmed

    2017-04-24

    To consolidate the present evidence of effectiveness in renal functioning and graft survival following early introduction of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors with or without calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) in renal transplant recipients. We analysed the current literature following PROSPERO approval describing the role of immunosuppressive agent, mTOR inhibitors as an alternative to CNI within six months of renal transplant by searching the PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, Crossref, and Scopus using MeSH terms. Six articles of early withdrawal of CNI and introduction of mTOR-inhibitors within six months of renal transplantation were sought. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and serum creatinine were significantly better in mTOR inhibitor group with equivalent survival at 12 mo, even though Biopsy Proven Acute rejection was significantly higher in mTOR-inhibitor group. The evidence reviewed in this meta-analysis suggests that early introduction mTOR-inhibitors substantial CNI minimization. The mTOR inhibitors such as everolimus and sirolimus, due to their complementary mechanism of action and favourable nephrotoxicity profile; better glomerular filtration, lower serum creatinine with equivalent survival. Having said that, due to the higher rejection rate, may influence the use of these regimens to patients with moderate to high immunological risk patients.

  3. The impact of genetic polymorphisms, diltiazem, and demographic variables on everolimus trough concentrations in lung transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Schoeppler, Kelly E; Aquilante, Christina L; Kiser, Tyree H; Fish, Douglas N; Zamora, Martin R

    2014-05-01

    Everolimus (EVR) has inter-individual pharmacokinetic (PK) variability and a narrow therapeutic index. The study objective was to determine whether genetic polymorphisms, co-medications, and/or demographic variables accounted for inter-individual variability in EVR PK in lung transplant recipients (LTxR). LTxR were genotyped for ABCB1 c.1236C>T, ABCB1 c.2677G>T/A, ABCB1 c.3435C>T, CYP3A4*1B, CYP3A5*3, CYP2C8*2/*3/*4, and pregnane X receptor (NR1I2) c.44477T>C, c.63396C>T, c.69789A>G polymorphisms. The primary outcome was the difference in dose-adjusted EVR levels (EVR L/D) between ABCB1 diplotype groups (2 vs. 1 vs. 0 copies of the 1236C/2677G/3435C haplotype). Sixty-five LTxR were included. There was no significant difference in EVR L/D between ABCB1 CGC diplotype groups (CGC/CGC = 2.4 ± 1.1 [n = 9] vs. CGC/XXX = 2.5 ± 1.7 [n = 36] vs. XXX/XXX = 2.7 ± 1.7 ng/mL per mg/d [n = 20]; p = 0.9). CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4*1B, CYP2C8*3/*4, and NR1I2 polymorphisms were not associated with EVR L/D. EVR L/D was 3.4 ± 1.7 in LTxR receiving diltiazem (DILT) vs. 1.8 ± 1.1 ng/mL per mg/d in LTxR not receiving DILT (p <0.001). Demographic variables, including cystic fibrosis, were not associated with EVR PK. DILT use increased EVR L/D, but selected polymorphisms in ABCB1, CYP3A5, CYP3A4, CYP2C8, and NR1I2 did not affect EVR L/D in LTxR. Genotyping LTxR for these polymorphisms is unlikely to aid clinicians in optimizing EVR therapy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Safety and Efficacy of Everolimus- Versus Sirolimus-Eluting Stents: 5-Year Results From SORT OUT IV.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Thayssen, Per; Christiansen, Evald Høj; Maeng, Michael; Ravkilde, Jan; Hansen, Knud Nørregaard; Hansen, Henrik Steen; Krusell, Lars; Kaltoft, Anne; Tilsted, Hans Henrik; Berencsi, Klara; Junker, Anders; Lassen, Jens Flensted

    2016-02-23

    Long-term safety and efficacy for everolimus-eluting stents (EES) versus those of sirolimus-eluting stents (SES) are unknown. This study compared 5-year outcomes for EES with those for SES from the SORT OUT IV (Scandinavian Organization for Randomized Trials with Clinical Outcome) trial. Five-year follow-up was completed for 2,771 patients (99.9%). Primary endpoint was a composite of major adverse cardiac events (MACE), including cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), target vessel revascularization (TVR), and definite stent thrombosis. At 5-years, MACE occurred in 14.0% and 17.4% in the EES and SES groups, respectively (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.66 to 0.97; p = 0.02). The MACE rate did not differ significantly within the first year (HR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.71 to 1.19; p = 0.79), but from years 1 through 5, the MACE rate was lower with EES (HR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.55 to 0.90; p = 0.006; p interaction = 0.12). Definite stent thrombosis was lower with EES (0.4%) than with SES (2.0%; HR: 0.18, 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.46), with a lower risk of very late definite stent thrombosis in the EES group (0.2% vs. 1.4%, respectively; HR: 0.16, 95% CI: 0.05 to 0.53). When censoring the patients at the time of stent thrombosis, we found no significant differences between the 2 stent groups for MACE rates (HR: 0.89, 95% CI: 0.73 to 1.08; p = 0.23), target lesion revascularization (HR: 0.90, 95% CI: 0.64 to 1.27; p = 0.55), and MI (HR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.64 to 1.36; p = 0.72). At 5-year follow-up, MACE rate was significantly lower with EES- than with SES-treated patients, due largely due to a lower risk of very late definite stent thrombosis. (Randomized Clinical Comparison of the Xience V and the Cypher Coronary Stents in Non-selected Patients With Coronary Heart Disease [SORT OUT IV]; NCT00552877). Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Incidence and Clinical Impact of Stent Fracture After PROMUS Element Platinum Chromium Everolimus-Eluting Stent Implantation.

    PubMed

    Kuramitsu, Shoichi; Hiromasa, Takashi; Enomoto, Soichiro; Shinozaki, Tomohiro; Iwabuchi, Masashi; Mazaki, Toru; Domei, Takenori; Yamaji, Kyohei; Soga, Yoshimitsu; Hyodo, Makoto; Shirai, Shinichi; Ando, Kenji

    2015-08-17

    This study sought to assess the incidence and clinical impact of stent fracture (SF) after the PROMUS Element platinum-chromium everolimus-eluting stent (PtCr-EES). SF remains an unresolved, clinically relevant issue, even in the newer-generation drug-eluting stent era. From March 2012 to August 2013, 816 patients with 1,094 lesions were treated only with PtCr-EES and 700 patients (85.7%) with 898 lesions undergoing follow-up angiography within 9 months after the index procedure were analyzed. SF was defined as complete or partial separation of the stent, as assessed by plain fluoroscopy, intravascular ultrasound, or optical coherence tomography during the follow-up. We assessed the rate of SF and the cumulative incidence of clinically driven target lesion revascularization and definite stent thrombosis within 9 months after the index procedure. SF was observed in 16 of 898 lesions (1.7%) and 16 of 700 patients (2.2%). Lesions with in-stent restenosis at baseline (odds ratio [OR]: 14.2, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 5.09 to 39.7; p < 0.001) or hinge motion (OR: 4.31, 95% CI: 1.12 to 16.5; p = 0.03), and total stent length (per 10-mm increase; OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.12 to 1.57; p = 0.001) were predictors of SF. Cumulative incidence of clinically driven target lesion revascularization within 9-months was numerically higher in the SF group than that in the non-SF group (18.7% vs. 2.3%). Cumulative incidence of definite stent thrombosis within 9 months after the index procedure was similar between the SF and non-SF groups (0.0% vs. 0.23%). SF after PtCr-EES occurs in 1.7% of lesions and appears to be associated with clinically driven target lesion revascularization. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. PLATINUM China: a prospective, randomized investigation of the platinum chromium everolimus-eluting stent in de novo coronary artery lesions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Runlin; Han, Yaling; Yang, Yuejin; Zhang, Jian; Hou, Yuqing; Wang, Haichang; Li, Hui; Fang, Quan; Yu, Bo; Xu, Bo; Allocco, Dominic J; Dawkins, Keith D

    2015-03-01

    The PLATINUM China clinical trial evaluated the safety and effectiveness of the thin-strut, everolimus-eluting, platinum-chromium PROMUS™ Element™ stent (PtCr-EES) (Boston Scientific, Marlborough, MA) for the treatment of patients in China. Clinical outcomes from the PtCr-EES have not been evaluated in patients from China, nor has it been directly compared with the second-generation stainless steel paclitaxel-eluting TAXUS Liberté stent (PES) in a randomized head-to-head trial. Methods In this prospective, multicenter, single-blind, superiority trial, patients with a single de novo atherosclerotic coronary artery lesion were randomized 1:3 to receive either the PES or PtCr-EES. The primary endpoint was in-stent late loss at 9 months. Among 127 PES and 373 PtCr-EES patients (71.2% male; mean age 57.3 years), the primary endpoint of 9-month in-stent late loss was 0.40 ± 0.45 mm for PES versus 0.11 ± 0.36 mm for PtCr-EES (P < 0.001). In-stent % diameter stenosis was 22.20 ± 16.00% for PES versus 11.06 ± 13.86% for PtCr-EES (P < 0.001) at 9 months. The 1-year rate of death/MI was 1.6% (2/127) for PES versus 0% (0/371) for PtCr-EES (P = 0.06) and target vessel revascularization was 4.7% (6/127) for PES versus 2.7% (10/371) for PtCr-EES (P = 0.26). No stent thromboses occurred at 12 months in either group. In the largest prospective angiographic evaluation conducted to date with this stent, the PROMUS Element PtCr-EES was superior to the TAXUS Liberté PES for the primary endpoint of late loss at 9 months, with low rates of clinical events at 1 year. Clinical follow-up will continue to 2 years. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The SPIRIT V study: a clinical evaluation of the XIENCE V everolimus-eluting coronary stent system in the treatment of patients with de novo coronary artery lesions.

    PubMed

    Grube, Eberhard; Chevalier, Bernard; Smits, Peter; Džavík, Vladimir; Patel, Tejas M; Mullasari, Ajit S; Wöhrle, Jochen; Stuteville, Marrianne; Dorange, Cécile; Kaul, Upendra

    2011-02-01

    The SPIRIT V (A Clinical Evaluation of the XIENCE V Everolimus-Eluting Coronary Stent System in the Treatment of Patients With De Novo Coronary Artery Lesions) study is a post-market surveillance experience of the XIENCE V (Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, California) everolimus-eluting stent (EES) in patients with higher-risk coronary anatomy. Previous pre-approval studies have shown the safety and efficacy of EES in highly selected groups of patients. The SPIRIT V trial is a prospective, open label, single arm, multicenter study. Two thousand seven hundred patients with multiple de novo coronary artery lesions suitable for treatment with a planned maximum of 4 EES were enrolled at 93 centers in Europe, Asia Pacific, Canada, and South Africa. Lesions had a reference vessel diameter between 2.25 and 4.0 mm and a length of ≤ 28 mm by visual estimation. An independent clinical events committee adjudicated all end point-related events. The primary end point was the composite rate of all death, myocardial infarction (MI), and target vessel revascularization at 30 days. Secondary end points included stent thrombosis and acute success (clinical device and procedure success). At 30 days, the primary composite end point of all death, MI, and target vessel revascularization was 2.7%. At 1 year, rates of cardiac death, overall MI, and target lesion revascularization were 1.1%, 3.5%, and 1.8%, respectively. The cumulative rate of definite and probable stent thrombosis was low at 0.66% at 1 year. Use of EES in patients with multiple, complex de novo lesions yielded 1-year major adverse cardiac events, stent thrombosis, and target lesion revascularization rates that are comparable to those of the more controlled SPIRIT II and SPIRIT III trials-which included patients with restricted inclusion/exclusion criteria-and other all-comer population, physician-initiated studies like the X-SEARCH (Xience Stent Evaluated At Rotterdam Cardiology Hospital) and COMPARE (A Randomized

  8. 6-Month Versus 12-Month Dual-Antiplatelet Therapy Following Long Everolimus-Eluting Stent Implantation: The IVUS-XPL Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung-Jin; Shin, Dong-Ho; Kim, Jung-Sun; Kim, Byeong-Keuk; Ko, Young-Guk; Choi, Donghoon; Her, Ae-Young; Kim, Yong Hoon; Jang, Yangsoo; Hong, Myeong-Ki

    2016-07-25

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a 6-month dual-antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) duration was comparable with a 12-month duration in patients who underwent everolimus-eluting stent implantation. Well-designed studies that determine optimal DAPT strategies after everolimus-eluting stent implantation are limited. A total of 1,400 patients (implanted mean total stent length >45 mm) were randomly assigned to receive 6-month (n = 699) or 12-month (n = 701) DAPT between October 2010 and July 2014 at 20 centers in Korea. The primary endpoint was the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or TIMI (Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction) major bleeding at 1 year, analyzed using an intention-to-treat approach. The primary endpoint occurred in 15 patients (2.2%) in the 6-month DAPT group and 14 patients (2.1%) in the 12-month DAPT group (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.07; p = 0.854). Definite or probable stent thrombosis occurred in 2 patients (0.3%) in the 6-month DAPT group and in 2 patients (0.3%) in the 12-month DAPT group (HR: 1.00; p = 0.999). There were no significant between-group differences in the primary endpoint in 686 patients with acute coronary syndrome (2.4% in both groups; HR: 1.00; p = 0.994) and in 506 patients with diabetes mellitus (2.2% [6-month] vs. 3.3% [12-month]; HR: 0.64; p = 0.428). Compared with 12-month DAPT, 6-month DAPT did not increase the composite events of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or TIMI major bleeding at 1 year in patients who underwent everolimus-eluting stent implantation. (Impact of Intravascular Ultrasound Guidance on Outcomes of XIENCE PRIME Stents in Long Lesions [IVUS-XPL Study]; NCT01308281). Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Primary endpoint results of the EVOLVE trial: a randomized evaluation of a novel bioabsorbable polymer-coated, everolimus-eluting coronary stent.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Ian T; Verheye, Stefan; Dubois, Christophe L; Dens, Joseph; Fajadet, Jean; Carrié, Didier; Walsh, Simon; Oldroyd, Keith G; Varenne, Olivier; El-Jack, Seif; Moreno, Raul; Joshi, Anita A; Allocco, Dominic J; Dawkins, Keith D

    2012-04-10

    This study sought to compare the safety and efficacy of 2 dose formulations of SYNERGY, a novel bioabsorbable polymer everolimus-eluting stent (EES) (Boston Scientific Corp., Natick, Massachusetts) compared with the durable polymer PROMUS Element EES (Boston Scientific Corp.). Durable polymer coatings on drug-eluting stents have been associated with chronic inflammation and impaired healing. Bioabsorbable polymer-coated drug-delivery systems may reduce the risk of late adverse events, including stent thrombosis, and thus the need for prolonged dual-antiplatelet therapy. A total of 291 patients with a de novo lesion ≤28 mm in length, in a coronary artery of ≥2.25 to ≤3.5 mm diameter, were enrolled in the EVOLVE study, a prospective, randomized, single-blind, noninferiority trial. Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to PROMUS Element, SYNERGY, or SYNERGY half dose. The primary clinical endpoint was the 30-day rate of target lesion failure, defined as cardiac death or myocardial infarction related to the target vessel, or target lesion revascularization. The primary angiographic endpoint was 6-month in-stent late loss measured by quantitative coronary angiography. The 30-day primary clinical endpoint of target lesion failure occurred in 0%, 1.1%, and 3.1% of patients in the PROMUS Element, SYNERGY, and SYNERGY half dose groups, respectively. The 6-month in-stent late loss was 0.15 ± 0.34 mm for PROMUS Element, 0.10 ± 0.25 mm for SYNERGY, and 0.13 ± 0.26 mm for SYNERGY half dose (SYNERGY, difference -0.06, upper 95.2% confidence limit: 0.02, p for noninferiority <0.001; SYNERGY half dose, difference -0.03, upper 95.2% confidence limit: 0.05, p for noninferiority <0.001). Clinical event rates remained low and comparable between groups, with no stent thromboses in any group at 6 months. The EVOLVE trial confirms the effective delivery of everolimus by a unique directional bioabsorbable polymer system utilizing the SYNERGY stent. (A Prospective

  10. Adverse events associated with mTOR inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pallet, Nicolas; Legendre, Christophe

    2013-03-01

    The mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin, formerly known as mammalian target of rapamycin) kinase is centrally involved in the regulation of cell growth and metabolism in response to intra- and extracellular energetic stimuli and growth factors. The importance of mTOR in health and diseases has fueled the development of molecules that inhibit mTOR signaling, including rapalogs (sirolimus, temsirolimus, everolimus and deforolimus), which complex with FK506-binding protein 12 (FK-BP12) to inhibit mTOR complex 1 (MTORC1) activity in an allosteric manner, or the more recent ATP-competitive mTOR inhibitors (mTORi), which target the catalytic site of the enzyme. However, clinical development of these mTORi has revealed that these drugs produced numerous side effects that could be serious and/or debilitating. Despite pharmacological efforts to develop drugs with an improved safety profile, these side effects are often unpredictable and may frequently preclude the efficiency of mTORi. The objective of this review is to perform a comprehensive survey of the safety profiles of various rapalog-based therapies from the available clinical literature. The authors will discuss the potential mechanisms of these therapies, taking into account the knowledge of the biological pathways regulated by mTOR. A better prevention and management of mTORi-related side effects requires the identification of alterations in related biological pathways that will help to delineate therapeutic targets.

  11. Clinical Outcomes in Kidney Transplant Recipients Receiving Long-Term Therapy with Inhibitors of the Mammalian Target of Rapamycin

    PubMed Central

    Cortazar, F; Molnar, MZ; Isakova, T; Czira, ME; Kovesdy, CP; Roth, D; Mucsi, I; Wolf, M

    2013-01-01

    Inhibitors of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), sirolimus and everolimus, reduce the incidence of acute rejection following kidney transplantation but their impact on clinical outcomes beyond two years after transplantation is unknown. We examined risks of mortality and allograft loss in a prospective observational study of 993 prevalent kidney transplant recipients who enrolled a median of 72 months after transplantation. During a median follow-up of 37 months, 87 patients died and 102 suffered allograft loss. In the overall population, use of mTOR inhibitors at enrollment was not associated with altered risk of allograft loss, and their association with increased mortality was of borderline significance. However, history of malignancy was the strongest predictor of both mortality and therapy with an mTOR inhibitor. Among patients without a history of malignancy, use of mTOR inhibitors was associated with significantly increased risk of mortality in propensity score-adjusted (hazard ratio [HR] 2.6; 95%CI, 1.2, 5.5; P = 0.01), multivariable-adjusted (HR 3.2; 95%CI, 1.5, 6.5; P = 0.002) and one-to-one propensity score-matched analyses (HR 5.6; 95% CI 1.2, 25.7; P = 0.03). Additional studies are needed to examine the long-term safety of mTOR inhibitors in kidney transplantation, especially among recipients without a history of malignancy. PMID:22054244

  12. Role of natural and adaptive immunity in renal cell carcinoma response to VEGFR-TKIs and mTOR inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Santoni, Matteo; Berardi, Rossana; Amantini, Consuelo; Burattini, Luciano; Santini, Daniele; Santoni, Giorgio; Cascinu, Stefano

    2014-06-15

    Angiogenesis and immunosuppression work hand-in-hand in the renal cell carcinoma (RCC) microenvironment. Tumor growth is associated with impaired antitumor immune response in RCC, which involves T cells, natural killer cells, dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), such as sorafenib, sunitinib, pazopanib and axitinib, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, such as temsirolimus and everolimus, do exert both antiangiogenic and immunomodulatory functions. Indeed, these agents affect neutrophil migration, as well as T lymphocyte-DC cross-talk, DC maturation and immune cell metabolism and reactivity. In this review, we overview the essential role of innate and adaptive immune response in RCC proliferation, invasion and metastasis and the relationship between tumor-associated immune cells and the response to targeted agents approved for the treatment of metastatic RCC. © 2013 UICC.

  13. Dual Inhibition of PI3K and mTOR Signaling Pathways Decreases Human Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor (PNET) Metastatic Progression

    PubMed Central

    Djukom, Clarisse; Porro, Laura J.; Mrazek, Amy; Townsend, Courtney M.; Hellmich, Mark R.; Chao, Celia

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Patients with advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNET) have limited therapeutic options. RAD001, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, has been shown to increase progression-free survival, but not overall survival, indicating a need to identify additional therapeutic targets. Inhibition of mTORC1 by RAD001 may induce upstream AKT upregulation. We hypothesized that dual inhibition of AKT along with mTOR will overcome the limited activity of RAD001 alone. Methods The BON cell line has been used as a model to study PNET cell biology. Western blots and cell growth assays were performed with mTOR inhibitor RAD001 (50 nM), MEK inhibitor PD0325901 (50 nM), PI3K inhibitor LY294002 (25 μM) or vehicle control. Nude mice were treated daily for 6 weeks with RAD001 (oral gavage), LY29400 (SQ) one week after intrasplenic injection of BON cells. Results Cellular proliferation was most attenuated with the combination therapy LY29400 and RAD001. Similarly, the volume of liver metastasis was lowest in the group treated with both LY29400 (100 mg/kg/week, SQ) and RAD001 (2.5 mg/kg/d) compared to vehicle (p=0.04). Conclusion The combination LY29400 and RAD001 decreased the cell growth in vitro and progression of liver metastasis in vivo compared vehicle or to single drug. PMID:24263107

  14. Autophagy inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pasquier, Benoit

    2016-03-01

    Autophagy is a lysosome-dependent mechanism of intracellular degradation. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this process are highly complex and involve multiple proteins, including the kinases ULK1 and Vps34. The main function of autophagy is the maintenance of cell survival when modifications occur in the cellular environment. During the past decade, extensive studies have greatly improved our knowledge and autophagy has exploded as a research field. This process is now widely implicated in pathophysiological processes such as cancer, metabolic, and neurodegenerative disorders, making it an attractive target for drug discovery. In this review, we will summarize the different types of inhibitors that affect the autophagy machinery and provide some potential therapeutic perspectives.

  15. mTOR inhibitors counteract tamoxifen-induced activation of breast cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Karthik, Govindasamy-Muralidharan; Ma, Ran; Lövrot, John; Kis, Lorand Levente; Lindh, Claes; Blomquist, Lennart; Fredriksson, Irma; Bergh, Jonas; Hartman, Johan

    2015-10-10

    Breast cancer cells with stem cell characteristics (CSC) are a distinct cell population with phenotypic similarities to mammary stem cells. CSCs are important drivers of tumorigenesis and the metastatic process. Tamoxifen is the most widely used hormonal therapy for estrogen receptor (ER) positive cancers. In our study, tamoxifen was effective in reducing proliferation of ER + adherent cancer cells, but not their CSC population. We isolated, expanded and incubated CSC from seven breast cancers with or without tamoxifen. By genome-wide transcriptional analysis we identified tamoxifen-induced transcriptional pathways associated with ribosomal biogenesis and mRNA translation, both regulated by the mTOR-pathway. We observed induction of the key mTOR downstream targets S6K1, S6RP and 4E-BP1 in-patient derived CSCs by tamoxifen on protein level. Using the mTOR inhibitors rapamycin, everolimus and PF-04691502 (a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor) and in combination with tamoxifen, significant reduction in mammosphere formation was observed. Hence, we suggest that the CSC population play a significant role during endocrine resistance through activity of the mTOR pathway. In addition, tamoxifen further stimulates the mTOR-pathway but can be antagonized using mTOR-inhibitors.

  16. Third-generation zotarolimus-eluting and everolimus-eluting stents in all-comer patients requiring a percutaneous coronary intervention (DUTCH PEERS): a randomised, single-blind, multicentre, non-inferiority trial.

    PubMed

    von Birgelen, Clemens; Sen, Hanim; Lam, Ming Kai; Danse, Peter W; Jessurun, Gillian A J; Hautvast, Raymond W M; van Houwelingen, Gert K; Schramm, Alexander R; Gin, R Melvyn Tjon Joe; Louwerenburg, Johannes W; de Man, Frits H A F; Stoel, Martin G; Löwik, Marije M; Linssen, Gerard C M; Saïd, Salah A M; Nienhuis, Mark B; Verhorst, Patrick M J; Basalus, Mounir W Z; Doggen, Carine J M; Tandjung, Kenneth

    2014-02-01

    Third-generation, permanent-polymer-based drug-eluting stents with novel, flexible designs might be more easily delivered than previous generations of stents in complex coronary lesions, but might be less longitudinally stable. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy in all-comer patients of two third-generation stents that are often used clinically, but that have not yet been compared, and one of which has not previously been assessed in a randomised trial. In this investigator-initiated, single-blind, multicentre, randomised, two-arm, non-inferiority trial, patients aged 18 years and older who required a percutaneous coronary intervention with implantation of a drug-eluting stent were recruited from four study sites in the Netherlands. We randomly assigned patients by independently managed computer-generated allocation sequences in a 1:1 ratio to receive either cobalt-chromium-based zotarolimus-eluting stents (Resolute Integrity, Medtronic, Santa Rosa, CA, USA) or platinum-chromium-based everolimus-eluting stents (Promus Element, Boston Scientific, Natick, MA, USA). Patients and analysts were masked to the allocated stent, but treating clinicians were not. The primary endpoint of target-vessel failure was a composite of safety (cardiac death or target-vessel-related myocardial infarction) and efficacy (target-vessel revascularisation) at 12 months, analysed by intention to treat (with a non-inferiority margin of 3·6%). This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01331707. Between Nov 25, 2010, and May 24, 2012, 1811 eligible all-comer patients, with 2371 target lesions, were enrolled in the study. 370 (20%) patients presented with ST-elevation myocardial infarction and 447 (25%) with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction. 906 patients were assigned to receive zotarolimus-eluting stents and 905 to receive everolimus-eluting stents. Ease of stent delivery was shown by very low numbers of patients requiring treatment other than their assigned

  17. Calcineurin inhibitor sparing strategies in renal transplantation, part one: Late sparing strategies

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Andrew Scott; Egloff, Gwen; Ghin, Hoytin Lee

    2014-01-01

    Kidney transplantation improves quality of life and reduces the risk of mortality. A majority of the success of kidney transplantation is attributable to the calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs), cyclosporine and tacrolimus, and their ability to reduce acute rejection rates. However, long-term graft survival rates have not improved over time, and although controversial, evidence does suggest a role of chronic CNI toxicity in this failure to improve outcomes. Consequently, there is interest in reducing or removing CNIs from immunosuppressive regimens in an attempt to improve outcomes. Several strategies exist to spare calcineurin inhibitors, including use of agents such as mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), mycophenolate sodium (MPS), sirolimus, everolimus or belatacept to facilitate late calcineurin inhibitor withdrawal, beyond 6 mo post-transplant; or using these agents to plan early withdrawal within 6 mo; or to avoid the CNIs all together using CNI-free regimens. Although numerous reviews have been written on this topic, practice varies significantly between centers. This review organizes the data based on patient characteristics (i.e., the baseline immunosuppressive regimen) as a means to aid the practicing clinician in caring for their patients, by matching up their situation with the relevant literature. The current review, the first in a series of two, examines the potential of immunosuppressive agents to facilitate late CNI withdrawal beyond 6 mo post-transplant, and has demonstrated that the strongest evidence resides with MMF/MPS. MMF or MPS can be successfully introduced/maintained to facilitate late CNI withdrawal and improve renal function in the setting of graft deterioration, albeit with an increased risk of acute rejection and infection. Additional benefits may include improved blood pressure, lipid profile and serum glucose. Sirolimus has less data directly comparing CNI withdrawal to an active CNI-containing regimen, but modest improvement in short-term renal

  18. Ultrathin strut biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent versus durable polymer everolimus-eluting stent for percutaneous coronary revascularisation (BIOSCIENCE): a randomised, single-blind, non-inferiority trial.

    PubMed

    Pilgrim, Thomas; Heg, Dik; Roffi, Marco; Tüller, David; Muller, Olivier; Vuilliomenet, André; Cook, Stéphane; Weilenmann, Daniel; Kaiser, Christoph; Jamshidi, Peiman; Fahrni, Therese; Moschovitis, Aris; Noble, Stéphane; Eberli, Franz R; Wenaweser, Peter; Jüni, Peter; Windecker, Stephan

    2014-12-13

    Refinements in stent design affecting strut thickness, surface polymer, and drug release have improved clinical outcomes of drug-eluting stents. We aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of a novel, ultrathin strut cobalt-chromium stent releasing sirolimus from a biodegradable polymer with a thin strut durable polymer everolimus-eluting stent. We did a randomised, single-blind, non-inferiority trial with minimum exclusion criteria at nine hospitals in Switzerland. We randomly assigned (1:1) patients aged 18 years or older with chronic stable coronary artery disease or acute coronary syndromes undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention to treatment with biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stents or durable polymer everolimus-eluting stents. Randomisation was via a central web-based system and stratified by centre and presence of ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. Patients and outcome assessors were masked to treatment allocation, but treating physicians were not. The primary endpoint, target lesion failure, was a composite of cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction, and clinically-indicated target lesion revascularisation at 12 months. A margin of 3·5% was defined for non-inferiority of the biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stent compared with the durable polymer everolimus-eluting stent. Analysis was by intention to treat. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01443104. Between Feb 24, 2012, and May 22, 2013, we randomly assigned 2119 patients with 3139 lesions to treatment with sirolimus-eluting stents (1063 patients, 1594 lesions) or everolimus-eluting stents (1056 patients, 1545 lesions). 407 (19%) patients presented with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. Target lesion failure with biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stents (69 cases; 6·5%) was non-inferior to durable polymer everolimus-eluting stents (70 cases; 6·6%) at 12 months (absolute risk difference -0·14%, upper limit of one

  19. Ultrathin Strut Biodegradable Polymer Sirolimus-Eluting Stent Versus Durable-Polymer Everolimus-Eluting Stent for Percutaneous Coronary Revascularization: 2-Year Results of the BIOSCIENCE Trial.

    PubMed

    Zbinden, Rainer; Piccolo, Raffaele; Heg, Dik; Roffi, Marco; Kurz, David J; Muller, Olivier; Vuilliomenet, André; Cook, Stéphane; Weilenmann, Daniel; Kaiser, Christoph; Jamshidi, Peiman; Franzone, Anna; Eberli, Franz; Jüni, Peter; Windecker, Stephan; Pilgrim, Thomas

    2016-03-15

    No data are available on the long-term performance of ultrathin strut biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting stents (BP-SES). We reported 2-year clinical outcomes of the BIOSCIENCE (Ultrathin Strut Biodegradable Polymer Sirolimus-Eluting Stent Versus Durable Polymer Everolimus-Eluting Stent for Percutaneous Coronary Revascularisation) trial, which compared BP-SES with durable-polymer everolimus-eluting stents (DP-EES) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. A total of 2119 patients with minimal exclusion criteria were assigned to treatment with BP-SES (n=1063) or DP-EES (n=1056). Follow-up at 2 years was available for 2048 patients (97%). The primary end point was target-lesion failure, a composite of cardiac death, target-vessel myocardial infarction, or clinically indicated target-lesion revascularization. At 2 years, target-lesion failure occurred in 107 patients (10.5%) in the BP-SES arm and 107 patients (10.4%) in the DP-EES arm (risk ratio [RR] 1.00, 95% CI 0.77-1.31, P=0.979). There were no significant differences between BP-SES and DP-EES with respect to cardiac death (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.62-1.63, P=0.984), target-vessel myocardial infarction (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.60-1.39, P=0.669), target-lesion revascularization (RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.81-1.71, P=0.403), and definite stent thrombosis (RR 1.38, 95% CI 0.56-3.44, P=0.485). There were 2 cases (0.2%) of definite very late stent thrombosis in the BP-SES arm and 4 cases (0.4%) in the DP-EES arm (P=0.423). In the prespecified subgroup of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, BP-SES was associated with a lower risk of target-lesion failure compared with DP-EES (RR 0.48, 95% CI 0.23-0.99, P=0.043, Pinteraction=0.026). Comparable safety and efficacy profiles of BP-SES and DP-EES were maintained throughout 2 years of follow-up. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01443104. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by

  20. Differences in vessel healing following delivery of everolimus or paclitaxel: a comparative experimental study using identical stent and biodegradable polymer platforms.

    PubMed

    Buszman, Piotr P; Milewski, Krzysztof; Pająk, Jacek; Jelonek, Michał; Orlik, Bartłomiej; Krauze, Agata; Gwiazdowska-Nowotka, Beata; Wojakowski, Wojciech; Tellez, Armando; Granada, Juan F; Buszman, Paweł E

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to compare the vascular effects exclusive to antiproliferative agents by using identical stent and biodegradable polymeric matrices eluting everolimus (BP-EES) (Carlo; Balton) and paclitaxel (BP-PES) (Luc-Chopin2; Balton) in the porcine model of coronary injury. A total of 37 stents were implanted with 110% overstretch in the coronary arteries of 14 domestic pigs: 13 BP-PES, 16 BP-EES and eight bare metal stents (BMS) (Chopin2; Balton). Coronary angiography was performed after 28 and 90 days, the animals were sacrificed and the stented segments harvested for histopathological evaluation. At 28 days, BP-PES most effectively limited angiographic late loss (LL PES: 0.15±0.1 vs. EES: 0.40±0.3 vs. BMS: 0.5±0.2 mm; p=0.04) and neointimal thickness (NT) in histology (PES: 0.12 [0.1-0.2] vs. EES: 0.38 [0.3-0.4] vs. BMS: 0.35 [0.3-0.4] mm; p<0.01). The BP-PES had lower endothelialisation (EES: 100% vs. PES: 40±4% vs. BMS: 97.5±5%; p<0.01) and slightly higher inflammation scores (EES: 1 vs. PES: 2.1±0.3 vs. BMS: 1; p<0.01). At three months, LL remained unchanged in the EES and BMS groups in contrast to an increase in the PES group (EES: 0.38±0.3 vs. PES: 0.52±0.4 vs. BMS: 0.51±0.3 mm; p=0.69). NT stabilised at 90 days in the EES group in comparison to a fourfold increase in the PES group and a 30% increase in the BMS group (EES: 0.35 [0.3-0.5] vs. PES: 0.53 [0.5-0.8] vs. BMS: 0.46 [0.4-0.5] mm: p=0.07). Stent endothelialisation and inflammation were comparable at 90 days in all groups. Temporal differences in vascular response were seen by the delivery of different antiproliferative agents. In contrast to everolimus, paclitaxel seems to induce a slightly higher degree of inflammation in the short term, potentially leading to further neointimal hyperplasia in the long term.

  1. mTOR inhibitors in pancreas transplant: adverse effects and drug-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Fernandes-Silva, Gabriel; Ivani de Paula, Mayara; Rangel, Érika B

    2017-04-01

    Patient and pancreas allograft survival improved following reductions in surgical complications, tighter donor selection and optimization in immunosuppressive protocols. However, long-term survival of pancreas allografts is adversely affected by rejection and immunosuppressive regimen toxicity. Areas covered: This article reviews the existing literature and knowledge of mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTORi). Some clinically relevant drug-drug interactions are highlighted. We summarize the nephrotoxic and diabetogenic mechanisms of mTORi after pancreas transplant, the alternatives to minimize these effects, and report on other adverse events. Expert opinion: Calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-based regimens remain the mainstay treatment after pancreas-kidney transplant. However, long-term use of CNIs may be associated with nephrotoxicity. Switching from CNIs to mTORi (sirolimus/SRL and everolimus/EVR) may preserve kidney function, mainly EVR conversion. However, mTORi promote an imbalance of mTOR signaling during long-term follow-up and may ultimately contribute to proteinuria and hyperglycemia. These drugs disrupt autophagy, inhibit cell proliferation, and downregulate VEGF. Therefore, it is important to comprehend and interpret the experimental data. It is equally important to critically analyze clinical studies. Of importance, minimization of side effects, based on safe approaches, can prolong kidney allograft survival. Additional randomized-controlled studies are required to assess the impact of mTORi on pancreas allograft survival.

  2. Pazopanib: a multikinase inhibitor with activity in advanced renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Ronald M

    2010-05-01

    Treatment options for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have changed dramatically, and a new paradigm has evolved. IFN-alpha and IL-2 were previously mainstays of therapy, but since December 2005, six new agents have been approved in the USA for the treatment of advanced RCC. Three of these new agents are multitargeted kinase inhibitors, including sunitinib, sorafenib, and recently pazopanib, two target the mTOR (temsirolimus and everolimus), and one is a humanized monoclonal antibody (bevacizumab in combination with IFN-alpha) that targets VEGF. Sunitinib has emerged as the standard of care for treatment-naive RCC patients, with the recently approved bevacizumab and IFN-alpha combination providing an additional option for this population. The recent approval of pazopanib, based on the results from sequential Phase II and III clinical trials demonstrating improved overall response rates and progression-free survival, provides yet another option for front-line therapy. The current article examines the pazopanib preclinical and clinical data, provides an overview of the development of this tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and provides some speculation concerning its role in RCC therapy.

  3. The Mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors in breast cancer: current evidence and future directions.

    PubMed

    Malaguti, Paola; Vari, Sabrina; Cognetti, Francesco; Fabi, Alessandra

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a crucial mediator of tumor progression and may be a promising target in a significant proportion of patients with breast cancer. More specifically, the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (AKT)/mTOR pathway plays a critical role in multiple cellular functions including metabolism, proliferation, growth and survival. This pathway is higly active in many types of cancer and is linked to resistance to many types of therapy. Direct blockade of the mTOR pathway is a new area in breast cancer therapy, with the potential to modulate growth factor- and estrogen-dependent and estrogen-independent pathways, which contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of tumors. Thus, inhibitors of mTOR are of interest as potential therapeutic agents for patients with breast cancer, everolimus and temsirolimus being the main representatives of this category. This review of the literature analyzes the available data emerging from trials and evaluates the efficacy and safety of mTOR inhibitors in all subtypes of breast cancer.

  4. mTOR function and therapeutic targeting in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Stephen H; Harvey, Amanda J

    2017-01-01

    The mTOR pathway was discovered in the late 1970s after the compound and natural inhibitor of mTOR, rapamycin was isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces hygroscopicus. mTOR is serine/threonine kinase belonging to the phosphoinositide 3-kinase related kinase (PIKK) family. It forms two distinct complexes; mTORC1 and mTORC2. mTORC1 has a key role in regulating protein synthesis and autophagy whilst mTORC2 is involved in regulating kinases of the AGC family. mTOR signaling is often over active in multiple cancer types including breast cancer. This can involve mutations in mTOR itself but more commonly, in breast cancer, this is related to an increase in activity of ErbB family receptors or alterations and mutations of PI3K signaling. Rapamycin and its analogues (rapalogues) bind to the intercellular receptor FKBP12, and then predominantly inhibit mTORC1 signaling via an allosteric mechanism. Research has shown that inhibition of mTOR is a useful strategy in tackling cancers, with it acting to slow tumor growth and limit the spread of a cancer. Rapalogues have now made their way into the clinic with the rapalogue everolimus (RAD-001/Afinitor) approved for use in conjunction with exemestane, in post-menopausal breast cancer patients with advanced disease who are HER-2 negative (normal expression), hormone receptor positive and whose prior treatment with non-steroidal aromatase inhibitors has failed. Testing across multiple trials has proven that everolimus and other rapalogues are a viable way of treating certain types of cancer. However, rapalogues have shown some drawbacks both in research and clinically, with their use often activating feedback pathways that counter their usefulness. As such, new types of inhibitors are being explored that work via different mechanisms, including inhibitors that are ATP competitive with mTOR and which act to perturb signaling from both mTOR complexes. PMID:28400999

  5. Pilot conversion trial from mycophenolic acid to everolimus in ABO-incompatible kidney-transplant recipients with BK viruria and/or viremia.

    PubMed

    Belliere, Julie; Kamar, Nassim; Mengelle, Catherine; Allal, Asma; Sallusto, Federico; Doumerc, Nicolas; Game, Xavier; Congy-Jolivet, Nicolas; Esposito, Laure; Debiol, Benedicte; Rostaing, Lionel

    2016-03-01

    Immunosuppression using everolimus (EVR) plus low-dose tacrolimus (Tac) is commonly used in organ transplantation. EVR has potential antiviral effects. Herein, the long-term outcomes and impacts of Tac-EVR on the BK virus are reported in ABO-incompatible kidney-transplant recipients. The initial immunosuppressive regimen combined steroids, Tac, and mycophenolic acid (MPA). At a median of 141 (34-529) days post-transplantation, seven stable ABO-incompatible kidney-transplant recipients were converted from MPA to EVR because of active BK replication, and compared with a reference group of fourteen ABO-incompatible patients receiving classical Tac plus MPA. At 1 month before conversion, at 1, 3 months after, and at last follow-up, clinical and biological parameters were monitored. The median time from conversion to the last follow-up was 784 (398-866) days. Conversion to EVR caused no change to rejection episodes or immunological status (isoagglutinin titers, anti-HLA antibodies). At last follow-up, median eGFR was similar in the Tac-MPA versus Tac-EVR group (40 [range: 14-56] vs. 54.5 ml/min/1.73 m(2) [range: 0-128], P = 0.07). The major adverse event was dyslipidemia. Interestingly, conversion from MPA to EVR decreased BK viral load in five patients. ABO-incompatible kidney-transplant recipients with an active BK virus infection may benefit from conversion to EVR.

  6. Metal allergy to everolimus-eluting cobalt chromium stents confirmed by positive skin testing as a cause of recurrent multivessel in-stent restenosis.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Yoshifumi; Itoh, Tomonori; Morino, Yoshihiro

    2016-03-01

    A 54-year-old woman treated with cobalt-chromium everolimus eluting stents (CoCr-EES) for her left distal circumflex and diagonal branch lesions suffered from repeated in-stent restenosis in both lesions. Neointimal proliferation occurred rapidly and almost simultaneously in the two lesions. The cause was established to be metal allergy, as determined by patch tests which were strongly positive for bare metal stents and weakly positive for CoCr-EES. Following the third successive angioplasty, we initiated treatment with prednisolone (30 mg daily) and the anti-allergic and anti-proliferative drug tranilast (300 mg daily). An elective angiogram performed 3 months later showed no evidence of in-stent restenosis in any of the stented lesions. Furthermore, the patient has remained angina-free for 15 months. The unique features of this case include: (1) near-simultaneous repeated multivessel in-stent restenosis in a patient with skin test-documented metal allergy to cobalt-chromium stents; (2) adjunctive systemic medical therapy with prednisolone and tranilast appeared to terminate the malignant restenotic cycle.

  7. Evaluation of the XIENCE V everolimus eluting coronary stent system in the Asian population of the SPIRIT V single arm study. 2-year clinical follow-up data.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Upendra; Patel, Tejas M; Zambahari, Robaayah; Mullasari, Ajit S; Bahl, Vinay K; Stuteville, Marrianne; Dorange, Cécile; Veldhof, Susan; Grube, Eberhard

    2011-01-01

    Asian patients have a uniquely high risk for heart disease compared to other ethnicities. Past drug eluting stent trials have examined mainly populations of European heritage. As a significant proportion of the real world population in the SPIRIT V single arm study is Asian, the study provides insight into how this population responds to stenting with the XIENCE V Everolimus Eluting Coronary Stent (EES). 2,700 patients were enrolled at 93 sites in Europe, Asia Pacific and Canada between November 2006 and November 2007. 698 (26%) patients were recruited from Asian sites in India, China, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. De novo coronary artery lesions of all patients were to be treated with up to 4 planned EES. Up to 2 year follow-up, major adverse cardiac events, myocardial infarction and target lesion revascularization rates were lower in the Asian subgroup than in the non-Asian subgroup. These results were mainly driven by better clinical outcomes in the Indian population. All populations showed similar low stent thrombosis rates. These findings demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the EES when used in a real-world Asian population, known to be at higher risk for heart disease.

  8. A Randomized Comparison of Biodegradable Polymer- and Permanent Polymer-coated Platinum Chromium Everolimus-ElutingCoronary Stents in China: The EVOLVE China Study.

    PubMed

    Han, YaLing; Liu, Haiwei; Yang, Yuejin; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Kai; Fu, Guosheng; Su, Xi; Jiang, Tiemin; Pang, Wenyue; Chen, Jiyan; Yuan, Zuyi; Li, Hui; Wang, Haichang; Hong, Tao; Liu, Huiliang; Sun, Fucheng; Allocco, Dominic J; Zhang, Mingdong; Dawkins, Keith D

    2017-07-25

    The EVOLVE China randomized study sought to evaluate clinical safety and effectiveness of the SYNERGY bioabsorbable polymer-coated everolimus-eluting stent (EES) for the treatment of patients with coronary heart disease in China. Eligible patients with de novo native coronary artery lesions were randomized (1:1) to receive the SYNERGY or PROMUS Element Plus (PE Plus) stents. The primary endpoint was in-stent late loss at 9 months. Secondary endpoints included death, MI, revascularization, and stent thrombosis through 12 months. A total of 412 subjects were randomized (205 SYNERGY; 207 PE Plus) at 14sites in China from October 2013 to July 2014. SYNERGY was non-inferior to PE Plus for the primary endpoint of 9-month in stent late loss: SYNERGY 0.20mm±0.33mm vs PE Plus 0.17mm± 0.38mm with an upper 1-sided 97.5% confidence interval of the difference (0.10 mm)significantly less than the non-inferiority margin (0.15mm;P<0.0008). Clinical adverse event rates were low and not significantly different between groups at 9 and 12 months (all P>0.05). In the EVOLVE China trial, the SYNERGY bioabsorbable polymer-coated EES was non-inferior to the PE Plus permanent polymer-coated EES for the primary endpoint of late loss at 9 months.

  9. 5 year comparison of very low-dose cyclosporine and high-dose everolimus vs standard cyclosporine and enteric-coated mycophenolate in renal transplantation patients.

    PubMed

    Carta, P; Zanazzi, M; Di Maria, L; Larti, A; Caroti, L; Antognoli, G; Buti, E; Moscarelli, L; Minetti, E E

    2014-09-01

    In this retrospective study, we compared the outcome of renal transplanted patients who received everolimus (EVR) (C0: 8-12 ng/mL)+cyclosporine (CsA) (C2: 150-300 ng/mL)+steroids, vs those who received enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS) (1,440 mg/d)+CsA (C2: 500-700 ng/mL)+steroids. Efficacy was evaluated at 5 years. We found a nonsignificant trend toward a better 5-year graft survival (81.2% vs 68.6%) and better graft function (estimated glomerular filtration rate 71.8±35.7 vs 60.0±26.2 mL/min, P=.114) in favor of the EVR group. In our experience, EVR with a very low dose of CsA was associated with a nonstatistical trend toward better renal function and graft survival compared to a standard regimen of CsA and EC-MPS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Proton pump inhibitors

    MedlinePlus

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are medicines that work by reducing the amount of stomach acid made by ... Proton pump inhibitors are used to: Relieve symptoms of acid reflux, or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This ...

  11. The influence of immunosuppressive drugs on neural stem/progenitor cell fate in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Skardelly, Marco; Glien, Anja; Groba, Claudia; Schlichting, Nadine; Kamprad, Manja; Meixensberger, Juergen; Milosevic, Javorina

    2013-12-10

    In allogenic and xenogenic transplantation, adequate immunosuppression plays a major role in graft survival, especially over the long term. The effect of immunosuppressive drugs on neural stem/progenitor cell fate has not been sufficiently explored. The focus of this study is to systematically investigate the effects of the following four different immunotherapeutic strategies on human neural progenitor cell survival/death, proliferation, metabolic activity, differentiation and migration in vitro: (1) cyclosporine A (CsA), a calcineurin inhibitor; (2) everolimus (RAD001), an mTOR-inhibitor; (3) mycophenolic acid (MPA, mycophenolate), an inhibitor of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase and (4) prednisolone, a steroid. At the minimum effective concentration (MEC), we found a prominent decrease in hNPCs' proliferative capacity (BrdU incorporation), especially for CsA and MPA, and an alteration of the NAD(P)H-dependent metabolic activity. Cell death rate, neurogenesis, gliogenesis and cell migration remained mostly unaffected under these conditions for all four immunosuppressants, except for apoptotic cell death, which was significantly increased by MPA treatment. - Highlights: • Four immunosuppresants (ISs) were tested in human neural progenitor cells in vitro. • Cyclosporine A and mycophenolic acid showed a prominent anti-proliferative activity • Mycophenolic acid exhibited a significant pro-apoptotic effect. • NAD(P)H-dependent metabolic activity was occasionally induced by ISs. • Neuronal differentiation and migration potential remained unaffected by ISs treatment.

  12. UV-visible spectroscopy as an alternative to liquid chromatography for determination of everolimus in surfactant-containing dissolution media: a useful approach based on solid-phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Kamberi, Marika; Tran, Thu-Ngoc

    2012-11-01

    High-throughput 96-well solid phase extraction (SPE) plate with C-18 reversed phase sorbent followed by UV-visible (UV-Vis) microplate reader was applied to the analysis of hydrophobic drugs in surfactant-containing dissolution media, which are often used to evaluate the in-vitro drug release of drug eluting stents (DES). Everolimus and dissolution medium containing Triton X-405 were selected as representatives, and the appropriate SPE conditions (adsorption, washing and elution) were investigated to obtain a practical and reliable sample clean-up. It was shown that the developed SPE procedure was capable of removing interfering components (Triton X-405 and its impurities), allowing for an accurate automated spectrophotometric analysis to be performed. The proposed UV-Vis spectrophotometric method yielded equivalent results compared to a classical LC analysis method. Linear regression analysis indicated that both methods have the ability to obtain test results that are directly proportional to the concentration of analyte in the sample within the selected range of 1.0-10 μg/ml for everolimus, with a coefficient of correlation (r(2)) value of >0.998 and standard deviation of the residuals (Syx) of <2%. The individual recoveries of everolimus ranged from 97 to 104% for the UV-Vis spectrophotometric method and from 98 to 102 for the HPLC method, respectively. The 95% CI of the mean recovery for the UV-Vis spectrophotometric method was 99-102% and for the HPLC method was 99-101%. No statistical difference was found between the mean recoveries of the methods (p=0.42). Hence the methods are free from interference due to Triton and other chemicals present in the dissolution medium. The variation in the amount of everolimus estimated by UV-Vis spectrophotometric and HPLC methods was ≤3.5%, and the drug release profiles obtained by both methods were found to be equivalent by evaluation with two-one-sided t-test (two-tailed, p=0.62; mean of differences, 0.17; 95% CI, 0

  13. SAR405, a PIK3C3/Vps34 inhibitor that prevents autophagy and synergizes with MTOR inhibition in tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Pasquier, Benoit

    2015-04-03

    Autophagy plays an important role in cancer and it has been suggested that it functions not only as a tumor suppressor pathway to prevent tumor initiation, but also as a prosurvival pathway that helps tumor cells endure metabolic stress and resist death triggered by chemotherapeutic agents. We recently described the discovery of inhibitors of PIK3C3/Vps34 (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, catalytic subunit type 3), the lipid kinase component of the class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns3K). This PtdIns3K isoform has attracted significant attention in recent years because of its role in autophagy. Following chemical optimization we identified SAR405, a low molecular mass kinase inhibitor of PIK3C3, highly potent and selective with regard to other lipid and protein kinases. We demonstrated that inhibiting the catalytic activity of PIK3C3 disrupts vesicle trafficking from late endosomes to lysosomes. SAR405 treatment also inhibits autophagy induced either by starvation or by MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) inhibition. Finally our results show that combining SAR405 with everolimus, the FDA-approved MTOR inhibitor, results in a significant synergy on the reduction of cell proliferation using renal tumor cells. This result indicates a potential therapeutic application for PIK3C3 inhibitors in cancer.

  14. Effect of Intravascular Ultrasound-Guided vs Angiography-Guided Everolimus-Eluting Stent Implantation: The IVUS-XPL Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung-Jin; Kim, Byeong-Keuk; Shin, Dong-Ho; Nam, Chung-Mo; Kim, Jung-Sun; Ko, Young-Guk; Choi, Donghoon; Kang, Tae-Soo; Kang, Woong-Chol; Her, Ae-Young; Kim, Yong Hoon; Kim, Yonghoon; Hur, Seung-Ho; Hong, Bum-Kee; Kwon, Hyuckmoon; Jang, Yangsoo; Hong, Myeong-Ki

    2015-11-24

    Use of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) promotes better clinical outcomes for coronary intervention in complex coronary lesions. However, randomized data demonstrating the clinical usefulness of IVUS are limited for lesions treated with drug-eluting stents. To determine whether the long-term clinical outcomes with IVUS-guided drug-eluting stent implantation are superior to those with angiography-guided implantation in patients with long coronary lesions. The Impact of Intravascular Ultrasound Guidance on Outcomes of Xience Prime Stents in Long Lesions (IVUS-XPL) randomized, multicenter trial was conducted in 1400 patients with long coronary lesions (implanted stent ≥28 mm in length) between October 2010 and July 2014 at 20 centers in Korea. Patients were randomly assigned to receive IVUS-guided (n = 700) or angiography-guided (n = 700) everolimus-eluting stent implantation. Primary outcome measure was the composite of major adverse cardiac events, including cardiac death, target lesion-related myocardial infarction, or ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization at 1 year, analyzed by intention-to-treat. One-year follow-up was complete in 1323 patients (94.5%). Major adverse cardiac events at 1 year occurred in 19 patients (2.9%) undergoing IVUS-guided and in 39 patients (5.8%) undergoing angiography-guided stent implantation (absolute difference, -2.97% [95% CI, -5.14% to -0.79%]) (hazard ratio [HR], 0.48 [95% CI, 0.28 to 0.83], P = .007). The difference was driven by a lower risk of ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization in patients undergoing IVUS-guided (17 [2.5%]) compared with angiography-guided (33 [5.0%]) stent implantation (HR, 0.51 [95% CI, 0.28 to 0.91], P = .02). Cardiac death and target lesion-related myocardial infarction were not significantly different between the 2 groups. For cardiac death, there were 3 patients (0.4%) in the IVUS-guided group and 5 patients (0.7%) in the angiography-guided group (HR, 0.60 [95% CI, 0

  15. Comparison of early-phase arterial repair following cobalt-chrome everolimus-eluting stent and slow-release zotarolimus-eluting stent: an angioscopic study.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Takayuki; Iida, Osamu; Fujita, Masashi; Masuda, Masaharu; Okamoto, Shin; Nanto, Kiyonori; Kanda, Takashi; Tsujimura, Takuya; Sunaga, Akihiro; Awata, Masaki; Nanto, Shinsuke; Uematsu, Masaaki

    2017-03-02

    Whether arterial repair following implantation of drug-eluting stents (DES) of the second generation differs among stent types remains unknown. We examined 41 DES placed in 28 patients (age 72 ± 7 years, male 89%) presenting with stable angina pectoris due to de novo lesions in native coronary arteries. Coronary angioscopy was performed 4 ± 1 months after stent implantation. Patients were divided into two groups based on the DES types: 22 cobalt-chrome everolimus-eluting stents (CoCr-EES) in 13 patients and 19 slow-release zotarolimus-eluting stents (R-ZES) in 15 patients. Neointimal coverage (NIC) was graded as: grade 0, stent struts exposed; grade 1, struts bulging into the lumen, although covered; grade 2, struts embedded in the neointima, but translucent; grade 3, struts fully embedded and invisible. NIC was defined as heterogeneous when the NIC grade variation was ≥1. Presence of thrombus was also investigated. Distribution of dominant NIC grade (CoCr-EES: grade 0, 9%; grade 1, 77%; grade 2, 9%; grade 3, 5%; R-ZES: grade 0, 16%; grade 1: 47%; grade 2, 37%; grade 3, 0%, P = 0.38) and heterogeneity of NIC (P = 0.43) were similar between CoCr-EES and R-ZES groups. Existence of thrombus was not significantly different in CoCr-EES and R-ZES (18 versus 42%, P = 0.17). Arterial repair occurred without significant differences between CoCr-EES and R-ZES 4 months after implantation.

  16. Impact of the distance from the stent edge to the residual plaque on edge restenosis following everolimus-eluting stent implantation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masao; Miyazaki, Susumu; Myojo, Masahiro; Sawaki, Daigo; Iwata, Hiroshi; Kiyosue, Arihiro; Higashikuni, Yasutomi; Tanaka, Tomofumi; Fujita, Daishi; Ando, Jiro; Fujita, Hideo; Hirata, Yasunobu; Komuro, Issei

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the relation between stent edge restenosis (SER) and the distance from the stent edge to the residual plaque using quantitative intravascular ultrasound. Although percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents has improved SER rates, determining an appropriate stent edge landing zone can be challenging in cases of diffuse plaque lesions. It is known that edge vascular response can occur within 2 mm from the edge of a bare metal stent, but the distance to the adjacent plaque has not been evaluated for drug-eluting stents. A total of 97 proximal residual plaque lesions (plaque burden [PB] >40%) treated with everolimus-eluting stents were retrospectively evaluated to determine the distance from the stent edge to the residual plaque. The SER group had significantly higher PB (59.1 ± 6.1% vs. 51.9 ± 9.1% for non-SER; P = 0.04). Higher PB was associated with SER, with the cutoff value of 54.74% determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. At this cutoff value of PB, the distance from the stent edge to the lesion was significantly associated with SER (odds ratio = 2.05, P = 0.035). The corresponding area under the ROC curve was 0.725, and the cutoff distance value for predicting SER was 1.0 mm. An interval less than 1 mm from the proximal stent edge to the nearest point with the determined PB cutoff value of 54.74% was significantly associated with SER in patients with residual plaque lesions.

  17. Comparison of endothelium-dependent and -independent vasomotor response after abluminal biodegradable polymer biolimus-eluting stent and persistent polymer everolimus-eluting stent implantation (COMPARE-IT).

    PubMed

    Puricel, Serban; Kallinikou, Zacharenia; Espinola, Jaqueline; Arroyo, Diego; Goy, Jean-Jacques; Stauffer, Jean-Christophe; Baeriswyl, Gérard; Smits, Pieter Cornelis; Cook, Stéphane; Togni, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Drug-eluting stents (DES) have been associated with local endothelial dysfunction in the segments proximal and distal to the stent (peristent segments) and increased thrombotic risk in long term follow-up. Little data exists on endothelial function post-implantation of new DES with biodegradable polymer. The aim of our study was to compare the local endothelial function assessed by exercise induced coronary vasomotion after implantation of a biolimus A9-eluting stent with biodegradable polymer (BES) with an everolimus-eluting stent with durable polymer (EES). Coronary vasomotion was evaluated with quantitative coronary angiography at rest and during supine bicycle exercise in nine patients with EES and thirteen patients with BES, 16 months after stent implantation. Mean luminal diameter of the stent, peristent segments, and of a control vessel were determined at rest, during exercise, and after the administration of nitroglycerine. The control vessel showed exercise-induced vasodilatation in both groups (EES: +6.4±5.5%, p=0.07; BES: +7.8±10.1%, p=0.07). Vasomotion in the stented vessel segment was abolished. There was exercise-induced vasoconstriction in both groups in the segments proximal (EES: -9.6±4.5%; p=0.03; BES: -4.3±5.4%, p=0.02) and distal to the stent (EES: -3.2±9.3%; p=0.41, BES -8.6±8.0%, p<0.01). Sublingual nitroglycerin was associated with maximal vasodilatation of the peristent segments in both groups. Alike DES with durable polymer, stents with a biodegradable polymer are associated with exercise-induced paradoxical coronary vasoconstriction of the peristent segments. This data suggests that endothelial dysfunction after DES implantation is not primarily caused by the durability of the polymer coating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Long-term invasive follow-up of the everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffold: five-year results of multiple invasive imaging modalities.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Cihan; Karanasos, Antonios; Magro, Michael; Garcia-Garcia, Hector M; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Regar, Evelyn; Boersma, Eric; Serruys, Patrick W; van Geuns, Robert J

    2016-01-22

    Invasive imaging modalities have shown restoration of vasomotion, prevention of restenosis and, most importantly, increase in lumen area between six months and two years after first-generation everolimus-eluting bioresorbable vascular scaffold (Absorb BVS) implantation. Our aim was to assess whether these positive findings were sustained in the long term. Patients included in the ABSORB cohort A from the Thoraxcenter Rotterdam cohort underwent coronary catheterisation including angiography, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS), virtual histology, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and vasomotion testing at five years. Eight out of 16 patients underwent catheterisation and scaffold assessment with multiple imaging modalities. A trend towards an increase in minimum luminal diameter was observed between two and five years by angiography (1.95±0.37 mm vs. 2.14±0.38 mm; p=0.09). IVUS data showed an increase in mean lumen area at five years (6.96±1.13 mm2) compared to six months (6.17±0.74 mm2; p=0.06) and two years (6.56±1.16 mm2; p=0.12), primarily due to a persistent reduction in plaque area size between six months and five years (9.17±1.86 mm2 vs. 7.57±1.63 mm2; p=0.03). The necrotic core area was reduced at five years compared to post-procedural results. In OCT, an increase in mean and minimal luminal area was observed. Moreover, no scaffold struts could be identified and a smooth endoluminal lining was observed. The scaffolded coronary segment did not show signs of endothelial dysfunction with acetylcholine testing. At five years, the Absorb BVS is no longer discernible by any invasive imaging method and endothelial function is restored. Late luminal enlargement persists up to five years of follow-up without adaptive vessel remodelling.

  19. Long-term (three-year) safety and efficacy of everolimus-eluting stents compared to paclitaxel-eluting stents (from the SPIRIT III Trial).

    PubMed

    Applegate, Robert J; Yaqub, Manejeh; Hermiller, James B; Sood, Poornima; Yu, Shui; Doostzadeh, Julie; Williams, Jerome E; Farhat, Naim; Caputo, Ronald; Lansky, Alexandra J; Cutlip, Donald E; Sudhir, Krishnankutty; Stone, Gregg W

    2011-03-15

    The safety and efficacy of the XIENCE V everolimus-eluting stent (EES) compared to the Taxus Express(2) paclitaxel-eluting stent (PES) has been demonstrated through 2 years in the SPIRIT II and III randomized clinical trials, but limited longer-term data have been reported. In the SPIRIT III trial, 1,002 patients with up to 2 lesions in 2 coronary arteries were randomized 2:1 to EESs versus PESs at 65 United States sites. At completion of 3-year follow-up, treatment with EES compared to PES resulted in a significant 30% decrease in the primary clinical end point of target vessel failure (cardiac death, myocardial infarction, or ischemic-driven target vessel revascularization, 13.5% vs 19.2%, hazard ratio 0.70, 95% confidence interval 0.50 to 0.96, p = 0.03) and a 43% decrease in major adverse cardiovascular events, cardiac death, myocardial infarction, or ischemic-driven target lesion revascularization (9.1% vs 15.7%, hazard ratio 0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.39 to 0.83, p = 0.003). In a landmark analysis, major adverse cardiovascular events were decreased to a similar extent with EES compared to PES 0 through 1 year and 1 year through 3 years (hazard ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.35 to 0.90; hazard ratio 0.59, 95% confidence interval 0.31 to 1.11, respectively). In conclusion, patients treated with EES rather than PES in the SPIRIT III trial had significantly improved event-free survival at 3 years. From 1 year to 3 years hazard curves continued to diverge in favor of EES, consistent with an improving long-term safety and efficacy profile of EES compared to PES, with no evidence of late catchup.

  20. Initial clinical experience with an everolimus eluting platinum chromium stent (Promus Element) in unselected patients from the Swedish Coronary Angiography and Angioplasty Registry (SCAAR).

    PubMed

    Sarno, Giovanna; Lagerqvist, Bo; Carlsson, Jörg; Olivecrona, Göran; Nilsson, Johan; Calais, Fredrik; Götberg, Matthias; Nilsson, Tage; Sjögren, Iwar; James, Stefan

    2013-07-15

    The safety and efficacy of the Promus Element stent have been recently demonstrated in a selected population from one randomized trial. The aim of this study was to describe the initial clinical experience with the everolimus eluting platinum chromium stent (Promus Element) in unselected patients from a real life nationwide registry. The Promus Element DES was compared to all other DES implanted in Sweden (with more than 500 implants) from November 2009 to March 2011. The results were assessed using Cox regression. A total of 13,577 stents (Promus Element, n=2724, Cypher, n=782; Endeavor, n=747; Taxus Liberté, n=1393, Xience V/Promus, n=4832, Resolute, n=1566, Xience Prime, n=4832) were implanted at 8375 procedures. At one year the restenosis rate in the Promus Element was not significantly different from the overall DES group (2.8% vs. 2.7%, adjusted HR:1.17, 95% CI: 0.75-1.75). A significantly lower restenosis rate was observed in the Promus Element when compared with Endeavor (2.8% vs. 5.8%; adjusted HR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.26-0.74). The stent thrombosis (ST) rate at one year was not significantly different in the Promus Element as compared with the overall DES group (0.2% vs. 0.5% adjusted HR: 0.59; 95% CI: 025-1.40). ST rate was significantly lower as compared with Endeavor stent (0.2% vs. 0.8%; HR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.08-0.67). In a large unselected population the Promus Element stent appears to be safe and effective with a low risk of restenosis and ST. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of abluminal biodegradable polymer biolimus-eluting stents and durable polymer everolimus-eluting stents in the treatment of coronary bifurcations.

    PubMed

    Costopoulos, Charis; Latib, Azeem; Naganuma, Toru; Sticchi, Alessandro; Ferrarello, Santo; Regazzoli, Damiano; Chieffo, Alaide; Figini, Filippo; Carlino, Mauro; Montorfano, Matteo; Naim, Charbel; Kawaguchi, Masanori; Gerasimou, Argyrios; Giannini, Francesco; Godino, Cosmo; Colombo, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    To compare biodegradable polymer biolimus-eluting (BES) with abluminal drug elution and durable polymer everolimus-eluting (EES) stents in the treatment of bifurcation lesions. The persistence of a polymer in drug-eluting stents (DES) following drug elution has been viewed as a possible culprit for restenosis. DES with biodegradable polymer may thus be associated with improved clinical outcomes, especially in high-risk lesions such as those at bifurcation sites. We performed a retrospective study of consecutive de novo bifurcation lesions treated with EES between October 2006 and October 2011 and BES between February 2008 and March 2012. Study endpoints included major adverse cardiac events (MACE) defined as all-cause death, myocardial infarction (MI), including peri-procedural MI, and target vessel revascularization (TVR) as well as target lesion revascularization (TLR) separately. We analyzed 236 bifurcation lesions treated with either BES (79 lesions in 69 patients) or EES (157 lesions in 154 patients). Patient and procedural characteristics were broadly similar between the two groups. Estimated MACE and TVR rates at 2-year follow-up were similar between the BES and EES groups (MACE = 13.6 ± 4.6% vs. 14.6 ± 3.2% (P = 0.871); TVR = 6.9 ± 3.5% vs. 8.0 ± 2.7% (P = 0.889). No significant differences were noted between the two groups following propensity-score matched analysis. There was no probable or definite stent thrombosis. BES use in the treatment of bifurcation lesions appears to be associated with good clinical outcomes, comparable to those seen with EES, at long-term follow-up. These results are hypothesis-generating and need to be validated with larger studies. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Cost of adverse events during treatment with everolimus plus exemestane or single-agent chemotherapy in patients with advanced breast cancer in Western Europe.

    PubMed

    Campone, Mario; Yang, Hongbo; Faust, Elizabeth; Kageleiry, Andrew; Signorovitch, James E; Zhang, Jie; Gao, Haitao

    2014-12-01

    Treatment options for recurrent or progressive hormone receptor-positive (HR+) advanced breast cancer include chemotherapy and everolimus plus exemestane (EVE + EXE). This study estimates the costs of managing adverse events (AEs) during EVE + EXE therapy and single-agent chemotherapy in Western Europe. An economic model was developed to estimate the per patient cost of managing grade 3/4 AEs for patients who were treated with EVE + EXE or chemotherapies. AE rates for patients receiving EVE + EXE were collected from the phase III BOLERO-2 trial. AE rates for single-agent chemotherapy, capecitabine, docetaxel, or doxorubicin were collected from published clinical trial data. AEs with at least 2% prevalence for any of the treatments were included in the model. A literature search was conducted to obtain costs of managing each AE, which were then averaged across Western European countries (when available). Per patient costs for managing AEs among patients receiving different therapies were reported in 2012 euros (€). The EVE + EXE combination had the lowest average per patient cost of managing AEs (€730) compared to all chemotherapies during the first year of treatment (doxorubicin: €1230; capecitabine: €1721; docetaxel: €2390). The most costly adverse event among all patients treated with EVE + EXE was anemia (on average €152 per patient). The most costly adverse event among all patients treated with capecitabine, docetaxel, or doxorubicin was lymphocytopenia (€861 per patient), neutropenia (€821 per patient), and leukopenia (€382 per patient), respectively. The current model estimates that AE management during the treatment of HR+ advanced breast cancer will cost one-half to one-third less for EVE + EXE patients than for chemotherapy patients. The consideration of AE costs could have important implications in the context of healthcare spending for advanced breast cancer treatment.

  3. Japanese and non-Japanese patient outcomes in the PLATINUM randomized trial comparing the PROMUS Element and XIENCE V everolimus-eluting stents.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shigeru; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa; Seki, Atsushi; Igarashi, Keiichi; Muramatsu, Toshiya; Yajima, Junji; Yokoi, Hiroyoshi; Nakamura, Masato; Fujii, Kenshi; Isshiki, Takaaki; Stone, Gregg W; Teirstein, Paul S; Meredith, Ian T; Allocco, Dominic J; Dawkins, Keith D

    2014-08-01

    The PLATINUM randomized trial enrolled 1530 patients treated with either the platinum chromium PROMUS Element everolimus-eluting stent (PtCr-EES; Boston Scientific, Natick, MA, USA) or the predicate cobalt chromium PROMUS/XIENCE V EES (CoCr-EES; manufactured as XIENCE V by Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, CA, USA also distributed as PROMUS by Boston Scientific), including 124 patients from Japanese sites. This substudy examines 2-year outcomes in the Japanese and non-Japanese cohorts. Patients with 1 or 2 de novo native coronary artery lesions (baseline vessel diameter ≥2.50mm to ≤4.25mm and length ≤24mm) were randomized 1:1 to PtCr-EES (N=63 patients in Japan) versus CoCr-EES (N=61 patients in Japan). Several significant differences were noted in baseline demographics, lesion characteristics, and procedural technique between Japanese and non-Japanese patients, including longer fluoroscopy time, less use of contrast, and greater post-dilatation usage and maximum pressure in Japan. Dual antiplatelet usage at 2 years was also higher in Japan. Despite these differences, the 2-year rates of target lesion failure were comparable in patients treated with PtCr-EES and CoCr-EES both in Japan (3.2% vs 5.0% respectively, p=0.68) and outside Japan (4.7% vs 5.9% respectively, p=0.33; p for interaction=0.82). This PLATINUM study subanalysis suggests that the PtCr-EES and CoCr-EES provide comparable safety and efficacy in both Japanese and non-Japanese patients. Copyright © 2013 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of everolimus- versus paclitaxel-eluting stents for patients undergoing percutaneous coronary revascularization (from the SPIRIT-IV Trial).

    PubMed

    Amin, Amit P; Reynolds, Matthew R; Lei, Yang; Magnuson, Elizabeth A; Vilain, Katherine; Durtschi, Amy J; Simonton, Charles A; Stone, Gregg W; Cohen, David J

    2012-09-15

    Although several drug-eluting stents (DESs) have been shown to be economically attractive compared to bare-metal stents in patients at moderate to high risk of restenosis, little is known about the cost-effectiveness of alternative DES designs, especially second-generation DESs. We therefore performed an economic substudy alongside the SPIRIT-IV trial, in which 3,687 patients undergoing single or multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention were randomized to receive second-generation everolimus-eluting stents (EESs; n = 2,458) or first-generation paclitaxel-eluting stents (PESs; n = 1,229). Costs through 2 years of follow-up were assessed from the perspective of the United States health care system. The primary cost-effectiveness end point was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio assessed as cost per quality-adjusted life year gained. Over a 2-year period, use of EESs versus PESs led to a trend toward decreased overall repeat revascularization procedures (14.2 vs 16.2 per 100 subjects, p = 0.20) driven by a significant decrease in the number of target vessel revascularization procedures (8.2 vs 11.0 per 100 subjects, p = 0.02) but also a slight increase in the number of nontarget vessel revascularization procedures (6.0 vs 5.1 per 100 subjects, p = 0.37). Follow-up cardiovascular costs were decreased by $273/patient in the EES group (95% confidence interval for difference 1,048 less to 502 more, p = 0.49). Formal cost-effectiveness analysis based on these results demonstrated that the probability that EES was an economically attractive strategy (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio <$50,000/quality-adjusted life year gained) was 85.7%. These findings demonstrate that in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with DESs, use of EESs is economically attractive compared to PESs with improved clinical outcomes and lower overall medical care costs at 2 years.

  5. Biodegradable Polymer Biolimus-Eluting Stents Versus Durable Polymer Everolimus-Eluting Stents in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease: Final 5-Year Report From the COMPARE II Trial (Abluminal Biodegradable Polymer Biolimus-Eluting Stent Versus Durable Polymer Everolimus-Eluting Stent).

    PubMed

    Vlachojannis, Georgios J; Smits, Pieter C; Hofma, Sjoerd H; Togni, Mario; Vázquez, Nicolás; Valdés, Mariano; Voudris, Vassilis; Slagboom, Ton; Goy, Jean-Jaques; den Heijer, Peter; van der Ent, Martin

    2017-06-26

    This analysis investigates the 5-year outcomes of the biodegradable polymer biolimus-eluting stent (BP-BES) and durable polymer everolimus-eluting stent (DP-EES) in an all-comers population undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Recent 1- and 3-year results from randomized trials have indicated similar safety and efficacy outcomes of BP-BES and DP-EES. Whether benefits of the biodegradable polymer device arise over longer follow-up is unknown. Moreover, in-depth, prospective, long-term follow-up data on metallic drug-eluting stents with durable or biodegradable polymers are scarce. The COMPARE II trial (Abluminal Biodegradable Polymer Biolimus-Eluting Stent Versus Durable Polymer Everolimus-Eluting Stent) was a prospective, randomized, multicenter, all-comers trial in which 2,707 patients were randomly allocated (2:1) to BP-BES or DP-EES. The pre-specified endpoint at 5 years was major adverse cardiac events, a composite of cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or target vessel revascularization. Five-year follow-up was available in 2,657 patients (98%). At 5 years, major adverse cardiac events occurred in 310 patients (17.3%) in the BP-BES group and 142 patients (15.6%) in the DP-EES group (p = 0.26). The rate of the combined safety endpoint all-cause death or myocardial infarction was 15.0% in the BP-BES group versus 14.8% in the DP-EES group (p = 0.90), whereas the efficacy measure target vessel revascularization was 10.6% versus 9.0% (p = 0.18), respectively. Interestingly, definite stent thrombosis rates did not differ between groups (1.5% for BP-BES vs. 0.9% for DP-EES; p = 0.17). The 5-year analysis comparing biodegradable polymer-coated BES and the durable polymer-coated EES confirms the initial early- and mid-term results regarding similar safety and efficacy outcomes in this all-comers percutaneous coronary intervention population. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  6. 2-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of everolimus- and paclitaxel-eluting stents for coronary revascularization in daily practice. COMPARE (Comparison of the everolimus eluting XIENCE-V stent with the paclitaxel eluting TAXUS LIBERTÉ stent in all-comers: a randomized open label trial).

    PubMed

    Smits, Pieter C; Kedhi, Elvin; Royaards, Kees-Jan; Joesoef, Kaiyum Sheik; Wassing, Jochem; Rademaker-Havinga, Tessa A M; McFadden, Eugene

    2011-06-28

    The purpose of this study was to compare the safety and efficacy of the Xience V (Abbott Vascular, Santa Clara, California) everolimus-eluting stent (EES) with the Taxus Liberté (Boston Scientific, Natick, Massachusetts) paclitaxel-eluting stent (PES) at 2-year follow-up. COMPARE (Comparison of the everolimus eluting XIENCE-V stent with the paclitaxel eluting TAXUS LIBERTÉ stent in all-comers: a randomized open label trial) demonstrated a superior clinical outcome of EES over PES at 1 year in all comers. Whether this superiority is maintained after discontinuation, at 12 months, of dual antiplatelet therapy is unclear. Patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with limited exclusion criteria were randomly allocated to EES or PES. The 2-year pre-specified endpoints are composites of safety and efficacy and stent thrombosis. Follow-up was completed in 1,795 of 1,800 patients (99.7%). The groups had similar baseline characteristics. At 2 years, significantly fewer EES patients took dual antiplatelet therapy (11.4% vs. 15.4%, p = 0.02). The primary composite of all death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization occurred in 9.0% of EES patients and 13.7% of PES patients (relative risk [RR]: 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50 to 0.86) driven by a lower rate of myocardial infarction (3.9% vs. 7.5%; RR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.35 to 0.77) and target vessel revascularization (3.2% vs. 8.0%; RR: 0.41; 95% CI: 0.27 to 0.62), in parallel with a lower rate of definite or probable stent thrombosis (0.9% vs. 3.9%; RR: 0.23; 95% CI: 0.11 to 0.49). Differences significantly increased between 1- and 2-year follow-up for the primary composite endpoint (p = 0.04), target vessel revascularization (p = 0.02), and definite or probable stent thrombosis (p = 0.02). The substantial clinical benefit of the EES over the PES with regard to measures of both safety and efficacy is maintained at 2 years in real-life practice with an increasing benefit in

  7. A prospective, randomized evaluation of a novel everolimus-eluting coronary stent: the PLATINUM (a Prospective, Randomized, Multicenter Trial to Assess an Everolimus-Eluting Coronary Stent System [PROMUS Element] for the Treatment of Up to Two de Novo Coronary Artery Lesions) trial.

    PubMed

    Stone, Gregg W; Teirstein, Paul S; Meredith, Ian T; Farah, Bruno; Dubois, Christophe L; Feldman, Robert L; Dens, Joseph; Hagiwara, Nobuhisa; Allocco, Dominic J; Dawkins, Keith D

    2011-04-19

    We sought to evaluate the clinical outcomes with a novel platinum chromium everolimus-eluting stent (PtCr-EES) compared with a predicate cobalt chromium everolimus-eluting stent (CoCr-EES) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Randomized trials have demonstrated an excellent safety and efficacy profile for the CoCr-EES. The PtCr-EES uses the identical antiproliferative agent and polymer but with a novel platinum chromium scaffold designed for enhanced deliverability, vessel conformability, side-branch access, radiopacity, radial strength, and fracture resistance. A total of 1,530 patients undergoing PCI of 1 or 2 de novo native lesions were randomized at 132 worldwide sites to CoCr-EES (n = 762) or PtCr-EES (n = 768). The primary endpoint was the 12-month rate of target lesion failure (TLF), the composite of target vessel-related cardiac death, target vessel-related myocardial infarction (MI), or ischemia-driven target lesion revascularization (TLR) in the per-protocol population (patients who received ≥1 assigned study stent), powered for noninferiority. The 12-month rate of TLF in the per-protocol population occurred in 2.9% versus 3.4% of patients assigned to CoCr-EES versus PtCr-EES, respectively (difference: 0.5%, 95% confidence interval: -1.3% to 2.3%, p(noninferiority) = 0.001, p(superiority) = 0.60). By intention-to-treat, there were no significant differences between CoCr-EES and PtCr-EES in the 12-month rates of TLF (3.2% vs. 3.5%, p = 0.72), cardiac death or MI (2.5% vs. 2.0%, p = 0.56), TLR (1.9% vs. 1.9%, p = 0.96), or Academic Research Consortium definite or probable stent thrombosis (0.4% vs. 0.4%, p = 1.00). In this large-scale, prospective, single-blind randomized trial, a novel PtCr-EES was noninferior to the predicate CoCr-EES for TLF, with nonsignificant differences in measures of safety and efficacy through 12-month follow-up after PCI. Copyright © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by

  8. Clinical outcomes in kidney transplant recipients receiving long-term therapy with inhibitors of the mammalian target of rapamycin.

    PubMed

    Cortazar, F; Molnar, M Z; Isakova, T; Czira, M E; Kovesdy, C P; Roth, D; Mucsi, I; Wolf, M

    2012-02-01

    Inhibitors of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), sirolimus and everolimus, reduce the incidence of acute rejection following kidney transplantation, but their impact on clinical outcomes beyond 2 years after transplantation is unknown. We examined risks of mortality and allograft loss in a prospective observational study of 993 prevalent kidney transplant recipients who enrolled a median of 72 months after transplantation. During a median follow-up of 37 months, 87 patients died and 102 suffered allograft loss. In the overall population, use of mTOR inhibitors at enrollment was not associated with altered risk of allograft loss, and their association with increased mortality was of borderline significance. However, history of malignancy was the strongest predictor of both mortality and therapy with an mTOR inhibitor. Among patients without a history of malignancy, use of mTOR inhibitors was associated with significantly increased risk of mortality in propensity score-adjusted (hazard ratio [HR] 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2, 5.5; p = 0.01), multivariable-adjusted (HR 3.2; 95% CI, 1.5, 6.5; p = 0.002) and one-to-one propensity score-matched analyses (HR 5.6; 95% CI 1.2, 25.7; p = 0.03). Additional studies are needed to examine the long-term safety of mTOR inhibitors in kidney transplantation, especially among recipients without a history of malignancy. © 2011 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  9. Very thin strut biodegradable polymer everolimus-eluting and sirolimus-eluting stents versus durable polymer zotarolimus-eluting stents in allcomers with coronary artery disease (BIO-RESORT): a three-arm, randomised, non-inferiority trial.

    PubMed

    von Birgelen, Clemens; Kok, Marlies M; van der Heijden, Liefke C; Danse, Peter W; Schotborgh, Carl E; Scholte, Martijn; Gin, R Melvyn Tjon Joe; Somi, Samer; van Houwelingen, K G; Stoel, M G; de Man, Frits H A F; Louwerenburg, J Hans W; Hartmann, Marc; Zocca, Paolo; Linssen, Gerard C M; van der Palen, Job; Doggen, Carine J M; Löwik, Marije M

    2016-11-26

    In patients with coronary artery disease, treated with durable polymer-coated drug-eluting stents, the life-long presence of the polymer might delay arterial healing. Novel very thin strut biodegradable polymer stents, which leave only a bare metal stent after polymer resorption, might improve long-term outcome. We investigated in allcomers the safety and efficacy of three stents eluting either everolimus, sirolimus, or zotarolimus, often clinically used but never compared, of which the biodegradable polymer everolimus-eluting stent was never before assessed in allcomers. The large-scale, investigator-initiated, multicentre, assessor and patient blinded, three-arm, randomised, BIO-RESORT non-inferiority trial was done at four clinical sites in the Netherlands. All-comer patients were aged 18 years or older, capable of providing informed consent, and required a percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stent implantation according to clinical guidelines or the operators' judgment. Exclusion criteria were: participation in another randomised drug or device study before reaching the primary endpoint of that study; planned surgery necessitating interruption of dual antiplatelet therapy within the first 6 months; known intolerance to components of the investigational product or medication required; uncertainty about the adherence to follow-up procedures or an assumed life expectancy of less than 1 year; or known pregnancy. Web-based computer-generated allocation sequences randomly assigned patients (1:1:1) to treatment with very thin strut biodegradable polymer everolimus-eluting or sirolimus-eluting stents (which differ substantially in type, amount, distribution, and resorption speed of their respective coating), or thin strut durable polymer zotarolimus-eluting stents. The primary endpoint was a composite of safety (cardiac death or target vessel-related myocardial infarction) and efficacy (target vessel revascularisation) at 12 months of follow up with a

  10. One-year outcomes in 1,010 unselected patients treated with the PROMUS Element everolimus-eluting stent: the multicentre PROMUS Element European Post-Approval Surveillance Study.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Martyn R; Birkemeyer, Ralf; Schwimmbeck, Peter; Legrand, Victor; Moreno, Raul; Briguori, Carlo; Werner, Nikos; Bramucci, Ezio; Ungi, Imre; Richardt, Gert; Underwood, Paul L; Dawkins, Keith D

    2015-03-01

    The PROMUS™ Element™ European Post-Approval Surveillance Study (PE-Prove) is a prospective, open-label, multicentre observational study designed to assess outcomes following PROMUS Element everolimus-eluting stent implantation in an unselected patient population. A total of 1,010 patients were enrolled at 40 clinical sites in Europe, including 24.9% with medically treated diabetes, 50.0% with Type B2/C lesions, 6.1% with chronic total occlusion, 17.8% with acute myocardial infarction (MI ≤24 hours pre-procedure), and 20.1% with unstable angina. The target lesion was the culprit for ST-segment elevation MI in 7.3% of patients. The one-year, per patient target vessel failure rate was 6.2% (60/975), 3.4% (33) being related to the PROMUS Element stent. Rates of cardiac death, MI, and Academic Research Consortium (ARC) definite/probable stent thrombosis were 1.7%, 3.5%, and 0.6%, respectively. The target vessel revascularisation rate was 3.2% (31/975), 2.1% (20) being related to the PROMUS Element stent. In a large and relatively complex group of "real-world" patients, coronary artery revascularisation with the PROMUS Element everolimus-eluting stent provides favourable results with low event rates consistent with those reported for other contemporary drug-eluting stents.

  11. Six-month IVUS and two-year clinical outcomes in the EVOLVE FHU trial: a randomised evaluation of a novel bioabsorbable polymer-coated, everolimus-eluting stent.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Ian T; Verheye, Stefan; Weissman, Neil J; Barragan, Paul; Scott, Douglas; Valdés Chávarri, Mariano; West, Nick E J; Kelbæk, Henning; Whitbourn, Robert; Walters, Darren L; Kubica, Jacek; Thuesen, Leif; Masotti, Monica; Banning, Adrian; Sjögren, Iwar; Stables, Rod H; Allocco, Dominic J; Dawkins, Keith D

    2013-07-01

    The EVOLVE FHU trial demonstrated non-inferiority of six-month late loss with two dose formulations of SYNERGY, a novel bioabsorbable polymer everolimus-eluting stent (EES) compared with the durable polymer PROMUS Element (PE) EES. The current analysis describes the six-month IVUS and clinical results through two years from the EVOLVE FHU trial. EVOLVE recruited 291 patients from 29 centres. At six months, IVUS-assessed in-stent net volume obstruction was 3.40 ± 5.06% for PROMUS Element (PE) vs. 2.68 ± 4.60% for SYNERGY (p=0.34) and 3.09 ± 4.29% for SYNERGY ½ dose (p=0.68 vs. PE). There were no significant differences between groups for any other measured IVUS parameter including resolved, persistent, and late-acquired incomplete stent apposition (ISA). At two years, target lesion failure (TLF) was 6.1% for PE vs. 5.5% for SYNERGY (p=0.87) and 5.2% for SYNERGY ½ dose (p=0.81). There were no significant differences between groups for cardiac death, repeat revascularisation, MI or stent thrombosis through two years. At six months, everolimus delivered from an ultrathin bioabsorbable abluminal polymer resulted in equivalent net volume obstruction and ISA compared with a permanent polymer EES. There were no significant differences between PE and either SYNERGY stent for any major cardiac endpoint through two years. Clinical trials number: NCT01135225.

  12. Six-month IVUS and two-year clinical outcomes in the EVOLVE FHU trial: a randomised evaluation of a novel bioabsorbable polymer-coated, everolimus-eluting stent.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Ian T; Verheye, Stefan; Weissman, Neil J; Barragan, Paul; Scott, Douglas; Chávarri, Mariano Valdés; West, Nick E J; Kelbæk, Henning; Whitbourn, Robert; Walters, Darren L; Kubica, Jacek; Thuesen, Leif; Masotti, Monica; Banning, Adrian; Sjögren, Iwar; Stables, Rod H; Allocco, Dominic J; Dawkins, Keith D

    2013-05-22

    Aims: The EVOLVE FHU trial demonstrated non-inferiority of six-month late loss with two dose formulations of SYNERGY, a novel bioabsorbable polymer everolimus-eluting stent (EES) compared with the durable polymer PROMUS Element (PE) EES. The current analysis describes the six-month IVUS and clinical results through two years from the EVOLVE FHU trial. Methods and results: EVOLVE recruited 291 patients from 29 centres. At six months, IVUS-assessed in-stent net volume obstruction was 3.40±5.06% for PROMUS Element (PE) vs. 2.68±4.60% for SYNERGY (p=0.34) and 3.09±4.29% for SYNERGY ½ dose (p=0.68 vs. PE). There were no significant differences between groups for any other measured IVUS parameter including resolved, persistent, and late-acquired incomplete stent apposition (ISA). At two years, target lesion failure (TLF) was 6.1% for PE vs. 5.5% for SYNERGY (p=0.87) and 5.2% for SYNERGY ½ dose (p=0.81). There were no significant differences between groups for cardiac death, repeat revascularisation, MI or stent thrombosis through two years. Conclusions: At six months, everolimus delivered from an ultrathin bioabsorbable abluminal polymer resulted in equivalent net volume obstruction and ISA compared with a permanent polymer EES. There were no significant differences between PE and either SYNERGY stent for any major cardiac endpoint through two years. Clinical trials number: NCT01135225.

  13. Clinical presentation and management of mTOR inhibitor-associated stomatitis.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Marcio Augusto; Martins E Martins, Fabiana; Wang, Qian; Sonis, Stephen; Demetri, George; George, Suzanne; Butrynski, James; Treister, Nathaniel S

    2011-10-01

    Anti-cancer agents that inhibit the mTOR pathway are associated with a number of unique toxicities, with one of the most significant and potentially dose-limiting being stomatitis. The objective of this study was to report the clinical features and management outcomes of a series of cancer patients who developed painful mTOR inhibitor-associated stomatitis (mIAS). Seventeen cancer patients developed mIAS while being treated with everolimus- or ridaforolimus-containing protocols at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and were referred to the oral medicine clinic for evaluation and management. Clinical characteristics, toxicity management, and outcomes were summarized. In addition, the frequency and rationale for dose reductions and therapy discontinuation were assessed. The median duration of mTOR inhibitor therapy was 80 days (range 9-187 days). The median time to development of mouth ulcers was 10 days (range 4-25 days). Five patients required protocol-directed dose reductions due to grades 2 and 3 stomatitis and one patient discontinued cancer treatment due to mouth ulcers. Clinical improvement and pain relief was reported in 86.6% of patients following topical, intralesional, or systemic corticosteroid therapy, with side effects limited to secondary candidiasis (n=2). Mouth ulcers are a common and potentially dose limiting toxicity associated with the use of mTOR inhibitors in cancer treatment. This case series demonstrates that local and systemic corticosteroid therapy is an effective approach to managing patients with symptomatic mIAS. Prospective studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment and prevention strategies with the ultimate goal of improving overall cancer treatment outcomes.

  14. Recent Advances and Challenges of mTOR Inhibitors Use in the Treatment of Patients with Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    PubMed Central

    Robalo, Conceição

    2017-01-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic condition characterized by the presence of benign, noninvasive, and tumor-like lesions called hamartomas that can affect multiple organ systems and are responsible for the clinical features of the disease. In the majority of cases, TSC results from mutations in the TSC1 and TSC2 genes, leading to the overactivation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway, which controls several cell functions, including cell growth, proliferation, and survival. The establishment of a connection between TSC and mTOR led to the clinical use of drugs known as mTOR inhibitors (like rapamycin, also known as sirolimus and everolimus), which are becoming an increasingly interesting tool in the management of TSC-associated features, such as subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, renal angiomyolipomas, and also epilepsy. However, the intrinsic characteristics of these drugs and their systemic effects in such a heterogeneous condition pose many challenges in clinical practice, so that some questions remain unanswered. This article provides an overview of the pharmacological aspects of mTOR inhibitors about the clinical trials leading to their approval in TSC-related conditions and exposes current challenges and future directions associated with this promising therapeutic line. PMID:28386314

  15. Acquired Factor V Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Daisuke; Yamashita, Yugo; Masunaga, Nobutoyo; Katsura, Toshiaki; Akao, Masaharu; Okuno, Yoshiaki; Koyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitors directed against factor V rarely occur, and the clinical symptoms vary. We herein report the case of a patient who presented with a decreased factor V activity that had decreased to <3 %. We administered vitamin K and 6 units of fresh frozen plasma, but she thereafter developed an intracerebral hemorrhage. It is unclear whether surgery >10 years earlier might have caused the development of a factor V inhibitor. The treatment of acquired factor V inhibitors is mainly the transfusion of platelet concentrates and corticosteroids. Both early detection and the early initiation of the treatment of factor V inhibitor are thus considered to be important. PMID:27746446

  16. Inhibitors of Pyruvate Carboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Zeczycki, Tonya N.; Maurice, Martin St.; Attwood, Paul V.

    2010-01-01

    This review aims to discuss the varied types of inhibitors of biotin-dependent carboxylases, with an emphasis on the inhibitors of pyruvate carboxylase. Some of these inhibitors are physiologically relevant, in that they provide ways of regulating the cellular activities of the enzymes e.g. aspartate and prohibitin inhibition of pyruvate carboxylase. Most of the inhibitors that will be discussed have been used to probe various aspects of the structure and function of these enzymes. They target particular parts of the structure e.g. avidin – biotin, FTP – ATP binding site, oxamate – pyruvate binding site, phosphonoacetate – binding site of the putative carboxyphosphate intermediate. PMID:22180764

  17. mTOR inhibitors induce apoptosis in colon cancer cells via CHOP-dependent DR5 induction on 4E-BP1 dephosphorylation.

    PubMed

    He, K; Zheng, X; Li, M; Zhang, L; Yu, J

    2016-01-14

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is commonly activated in colon cancer. mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) is a major downstream target of the PI3K/ATK pathway and activates protein synthesis by phosphorylating key regulators of messenger RNA translation and ribosome synthesis. Rapamycin analogs Everolimus and Temsirolimus are non-ATP-competitive mTORC1 inhibitors, and suppress proliferation and tumor angiogenesis and invasion. We now show that apoptosis plays a key role in their anti-tumor activities in colon cancer cells and xenografts through the DR5, FADD and caspase-8 axis, and is strongly enhanced by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) and 5-fluorouracil. The induction of DR5 by rapalogs is mediated by the ER stress regulator and transcription factor CHOP, but not the tumor suppressor p53, on rapid and sustained inhibition of 4E-BP1 phosphorylation, and attenuated by eIF4E expression. ATP-competitive mTOR/PI3K inhibitors also promote DR5 induction and FADD-dependent apoptosis in colon cancer cells. These results establish activation of ER stress and the death receptor pathway as a novel anticancer mechanism of mTOR inhibitors.

  18. mTOR inhibitors induce apoptosis in colon cancer cells via CHOP-dependent DR5 induction upon 4E-BP1 dephosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    He, Kan; Zheng, Xingnan; Li, Mei; Zhang, Lin; Yu, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is commonly activated in colon cancer. mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) is a major downstream target of the PI3K/ATK pathway and activates protein synthesis by phosphorylating key regulators of mRNA translation and ribosome synthesis. Rapamycin analogs Everolimus and Temsirolimus are non-ATP-competitive mTORC1 inhibitors, and suppress proliferation and tumor angiogenesis and invasion. We now show that apoptosis plays a key role in their anti-tumor activities in colon cancer cells and xenografts through the DR5, FADD and caspase-8 axis, and is strongly enhanced by TRAIL and 5-fluorouracil. The induction of DR5 by rapalogs is mediated by the ER stress regulator and transcription factor CHOP, but not the tumor suppressor p53, upon rapid and sustained inhibition of 4E-BP1 phosphorylation, and attenuated by eIF4E expression. ATP-competitive mTOR/PI3K inhibitors also promote DR5 induction and FADD-dependent apoptosis in colon cancer cells. These results establish activation of ER stress and the death receptor pathway as a novel anticancer mechanism of mTOR inhibitors. PMID:25867072

  19. Review of US Comparative Economic Evidence for Treatment of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma after Failure of First-Line VEGF Inhibitor Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Michael K.; Wang, Xufang; Chulikavit, Maruit J.; Liu, Zhimei

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2006, the economic burden of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) was estimated to be up to $1.6 billion worldwide and has since grown annually. With the continuing increase of the economic burden of this disease in the United States, there is a growing need for economic analyses to guide treatment and policy decisions for this patient population. Objective To evaluate available comparative economic data on targeted therapies for patients with mRCC who have failed first-line targeted therapies. Method A broad and comprehensive literature review was conducted of US-based studies between January 1, 2005, and February 11, 2013, evaluating comparative economic evidence for targeted agents that are used as second-line therapy or beyond. Based on the specific search parameters that focused on cost-effectiveness and economic comparisons between vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGF receptor (VEGFr) inhibitors and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, only 7 relevant, US-based economic evaluations were found appropriate for inclusion in the analysis. All authors, who are experts in the health economics and outcomes research field, reviewed the search results. Studies of interest were those with a targeted agent, VEGF/VEGFr or mTOR inhibitor, in at least 1 study arm. Discussion As a group, targeted therapies were found to be cost-effective options in treating patients with refractory mRCC in the United States. Oral therapies showed an economic advantage over intravenous agents, presumably because oral therapies have a lower impact on outpatient resources. Based on 3 studies, everolimus has been shown to have an economic advantage over temsirolimus and to be cost-effective compared with sorafenib. No economic comparison between everolimus and axitinib, the only 2 drugs with a National Comprehensive Cancer Network category 1 recommendation for use after the failure of VEGFr tyrosine kinase inhibitors, is available. Conclusion The limited

  20. Novel corrosion inhibitor technology

    SciTech Connect

    Van de Ven, P.; Fritz, P.; Pellet, R.

    1999-11-01

    A novel, patented corrosion inhibitor technology has been identified for use in heat transfer applications such as automotive and heavy-duty coolant. The new technology is based on a low-toxic, virtually depletion-free carboxylic acid corrosion inhibitor package that performs equally well in mono ethylene glycol and in less toxic propylene glycol coolants. An aqueous inhibitor concentrate is available to provide corrosion protection where freezing protection is not an issue. In the present paper, this inhibitor package is evaluated in the different base fluids: mono ethylene glycol, mono propylene glycol and water. Results are obtained in both standardized and specific corrosion tests as well as in selected field trials. These results indicate that the inhibitor package remains effective and retains the benefits previously identified in automotive engine coolant applications: excellent corrosion protection under localized conditions, general corrosion conditions as well as at high temperature.

  1. Clinical outcomes in real-world patients with bifurcation lesions receiving Xience V everolimus-eluting stents: Four-year results from the Xience V USA study.

    PubMed

    Hermiller, James B; Applegate, Robert J; Baird, Colleen; Butler, Michael M; Rutledge, David; Wang, Jin; Kakarala, Kalyan; Krucoff, Mitchell W; Sudhir, Krishnankutty

    2016-07-01

    The Xience V USA Study demonstrated safety and efficacy of the XIENCE V(®) everolimus-eluting stent (EES) in a large, prospective study of a real-world, unselected patient population. There is limited long-term data regarding EES performance in high risk patients with bifurcation lesions (BIF). The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the long-term safety and effectiveness of EES in patients with BIF from the XIENCE V USA study. The Xience V USA Study was a single arm, prospective, multicenter, real-world study (n = 5,054) undergoing PCI with EES. Baseline data and clinical outcomes at 4 years were evaluated in the subgroup of patients with ≥ 1 BIF who did not undergo a staged procedure. Co-primary endpoints were ARC definite/probable stent thrombosis and a composite of cardiac death and ARC-defined myocardial infarction (MI). Endpoints were adjudicated by an independent CEC. Of 4,768 patients who did not undergo a staged procedure, there were 511 (10.7%) patients with BIF and 4,257 (89.3%) patients without BIF. Follow-up data was available in 4,459 patients (466 BIF, 3,993 non-BIF). Through binary outcome analysis, at 1 year the overall definite/probable stent thrombosis rates were higher in the BIF group (1.84% vs. 0.76%, P = 0.03). However, at 4 years, the difference in cumulative rates of ARC definite/probable stent thrombosis (BIF 2.3% vs. non-BIF 1.4%, P = 0.13) remained the same as that at 1 year, with no incremental definite/probable stent thrombosis in BIF patients from 2-4 years. The 4-year rates of composite cardiac death and MI were 13.5% for BIF vs. 14.1% for non-BIF (P = 0.78). At 4 years, target lesion failure (19.1% vs. 18.3%, P = 0.66) and ischemia driven-target lesion revascularization (10.2% vs. 10.1%, P = 0.89) were comparable between the two groups. This subgroup analysis of BIF lesions in a real world population receiving EES demonstrates continued low rates of clinical outcomes in the BIF subgroup at 4

  2. Clinical outcomes of real-world patients treated with an amphilimus polymer-free stent versus new generation everolimus-eluting stents.

    PubMed

    Panoulas, Vasileios F; Latib, Azeem; Naim, Charbel; Sato, Katsumasa; Ielasi, Alfonso; Tespili, Maurizio; Godino, Cosmo; Testa, Luca; Bedogni, Francesco; Colombo, Antonio

    2015-12-01

    To compare the 1-year clinical outcomes after implantation of the amphilimus, polymer-free stent (Cre8) versus new generation everolimus-eluting stents (EESs) in a real-world patient registry. A total of 187 consecutive patients treated with Cre8 between January 2011 and August 2013 in four Italian centers were included. These were propensity matched with 150 patients treated with new generation EES during the same period. Primary outcome was 1-year major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), defined as all-cause death, myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization. Both groups had similar baseline characteristics, including diabetes (28% Cre8 vs. 27.3% EES, P = 0.972) and previous percutaneous coronary intervention (56% Cre8 vs. 58% EES, P = 0.726). There was a higher prevalence of B2/C lesions in the EES group (70.1% vs. 83.8%, P < 0.001). Total stent length per patient was similar. There were no significant differences in 1-year estimated MACE (7.4% Cre8 vs. 10.2% EES, P = 0.261), all-cause mortality (1.3% Cre8 vs. 1.4% EES, P = 0.823), target vessel revascularization (5.2% Cre8 vs. 8.8% EES, P = 0.169), and target lesion revascularization (3% Cre8 vs. 7.4% EES, P = 0.108) between the two groups. When adjusting for differences in baseline lesion characteristics, hazard ratio(Cre8/EES) for MACE was not significantly different between the two groups (0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.37-1.53, P(noninferiority) = 0.001, P(superiority) = 0.432). In patients with diabetes (Cre8, n = 42; EEE, n = 41), 1-year target lesion revascularization was 2.5% in the Cre8 group versus 14.6% in the EES group (P = 0.056). In a "real-world" patient registry, the Cre8 stent is associated with noninferior 1-year MACE rates compared with that of new generation EES. Trends of superior efficacy in patients with diabetes treated with Cre8 require further investigation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Comparison of outcomes after everolimus-eluting stent implantation in diabetic versus non-diabetic patients in the Tokyo-MD PCI study.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Yuji; Ashikaga, Takashi; Sasaoka, Taro; Kurihara, Ken; Yoshikawa, Syunji; Isobe, Mitsuaki

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM), especially in those requiring insulin for treatment, is known to be a risk factor for adverse events after percutaneous coronary intervention using first-generation drug-eluting stents. However, the role of DM in patients treated with everolimus-eluting stents (EES) is less known. The purpose of the present analysis was to evaluate the outcomes of treatment with EES for DM patients both requiring and not requiring insulin, and to compare them with non-DM patients. Of patients treated with EES in the Tokyo-MD PCI study, an all-comer, multicenter, observational cohort study, we identified 199 insulin-requiring diabetics (IRDM), 575 non-insulin requiring diabetics (NIRDM), and 1092 non-diabetics (non-DM). The main outcomes were major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) defined as a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, and stroke, and target lesion revascularization (TLR). The cumulative incidence of MACE and TLR was significantly greater in patients with IRDM than non-DM [MACE: hazard ratio 1.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.31-2.90, p<0.01; TLR: hazard ratio 3.43, 2.07-5.55, p<0.0001] according to univariate Cox proportional hazards model. After adjusting for confounders using the multivariate Cox proportional hazard model, the risk of IRDM versus non-DM for TLR remained significant (hazard ratio 1.92, 1.10-3.29, p=0.02). The incidence of TLR in NIRDM was slightly greater than that in non-DM according to univariate analysis (hazard ratio 1.65, 1.07-2.54, p=0.02). However, the risk was not statistically different in the multivariate analysis (hazard ratio 1.52, 0.97-2.35, p=0.06). In this all-comer, observational study, the risk of TLR was greater in IRDM compared with non-DM after EES implantation, while the increased risk for TLR from NIRDM did not reach statistical significance. Copyright © 2015 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Are Everolimus-Eluting Stents Associated With Better Clinical Outcomes Compared to Other Drug-Eluting Stents in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus?

    PubMed Central

    Bundhun, Pravesh Kumar; Pursun, Manish; Teeluck, Abhishek Rishikesh; Long, Man-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Controversies still exist with the use of Everolimus-Eluting Stents (EES) compared to other Drug-Eluting Stents (DES) in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Therefore, in order to solve this issue, we aim to compare the 1-year adverse clinical outcomes between EES and non-EE DES with a larger number of patients with T2DM. Medline, EMBASE, PubMed databases, as well as the Cochrane library were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies (OS) comparing EES and non-EE DES in patients with T2DM. One-year adverse outcomes were considered as the clinical endpoints in this study. Odd ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to express the pooled effect on discontinuous variables and the pooled analyses were performed with RevMan 5.3. Ten studies consisting of a total of 11,981 patients with T2DM (6800 patients in the EES group and 5181 in the non-EE DES group) were included in this meta-analysis. EES were associated with a significantly lower major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) with OR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.70–0.98, P = 0.03. Revascularization including target vessel revascularization (TVR) and target lesion revascularization (TLR) were also significantly lower in the EES group with OR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.40–0.94, P = 0.03 and OR: 0.74, 95% CI: 0.57–0.95, P = 0.02, respectively. Also, a significantly lower rate of stent thrombosis with OR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.46–0.86, P = 0.003 was observed in the EES group. However, a similar mortality rate was reported between the EES and non-EE DES groups. During this 1-year follow-up period, EES were associated with significantly better clinical outcomes compared to non-EE DES in patients suffering from T2DM. However, further research comparing EES with non-EE DES in insulin-treated and noninsulin-treated patients with T2DM are recommended. PMID:27057888

  5. Comparison of the Efficacy of Everolimus-Eluting Stents Versus Drug-Eluting Balloons in Patients With In-Stent Restenosis (from the RIBS IV and V Randomized Clinical Trials).

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Fernando; Pérez-Vizcayno, María José; García Del Blanco, Bruno; García-Touchard, Arturo; Masotti, Mónica; López-Minguez, José R; Iñiguez, Andrés; Zueco, Javier; Velazquez, Maite; Cequier, Angel; Lázaro-García, Rosa; Martí, Vicens; Moris, César; Urbano-Carrillo, Cristobal; Bastante, Teresa; Rivero, Fernando; Cárdenas, Alberto; Gonzalo, Nieves; Jiménez-Quevedo, Pilar; Fernández, Cristina

    2016-02-15

    Treatment of patients with in-stent restenosis (ISR) remains a challenge. This study sought to compare the efficacy of everolimus-eluting stents (EESs) and drug-eluting balloons (DEBs) with paclitaxel in patients with ISR. A pooled analysis of the Restenosis Intra-Stent of Drug-Eluting Stents: Drug-Eluting Balloon vs Everolimus-Eluting Stent (RIBS IV) and Restenosis Intra-Stent of Bare-Metal Stents: Drug-Eluting Balloon vs Everolimus-Eluting Stent (RIBS V) randomized trials was performed using patient-level data. In both trials, EESs were compared with DEBs in patients with ISR (RIBS V included 189 patients with bare-metal ISR; RIBS IV included 309 patients with drug-eluting ISR). Inclusion and exclusion criteria were identical in both trials. A total of 249 patients were allocated to EES and 249 to DEB. Clinical follow-up at 1 year was obtained in all (100%) patients and late angiography (median 249 days) in 91% of eligible patients. Compared with patients treated with DEBs, patients treated with EESs obtained better short-term results (postprocedural minimal lumen diameter 2.28 ± 0.5 vs 2.12 ± 0.4 mm, p <0.0001). At follow-up, patients treated with EESs had larger in-segment minimal lumen diameter (primary end point 2.16 ± 0.7 vs 1.88 ± 0.6 mm, p <0.0001; absolute mean difference 0.28 mm; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.16 to 0.40) and net lumen gain (1.33 ± 0.6 vs 1.00 ± 0.7 mm, p <0.0001) and had lower %diameter stenosis (19 ± 21% vs 28 ± 22%, p <0.0001) and binary restenosis rate (8.7% vs 15.7%, p = 0.02). Consistent results were observed in the in-lesion analysis. No interactions were found between the underlying stent type and treatment effects. At 1-year clinical follow-up, the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, and target vessel revascularization was significantly reduced in the EES arm (8.8% vs 14.5%, p = 0.03; hazard ratio 0.59, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.94) mainly driven by a lower need for target vessel revascularization (6% vs 12.4%, p

  6. Economic Outcomes of Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffolds Versus Everolimus-Eluting Stents in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: 1-Year Results From the ABSORB III Trial.

    PubMed

    Baron, Suzanne J; Lei, Yang; Chinnakondepalli, Khaja; Vilain, Katherine; Magnuson, Elizabeth A; Kereiakes, Dean J; Ellis, Stephen G; Stone, Gregg W; Cohen, David J

    2017-04-24

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the economic impact of the Absorb bioresorbable vascular scaffold compared with the Xience everolimus-eluting stent in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. The ABSORB III trial (Everolimus-Eluting Bioresorbable Scaffolds for Coronary Artery Disease) demonstrated that the Absorb scaffold was noninferior to the Xience stent with respect to target lesion failure at 1 year. Whether health care costs differ between the Absorb scaffold and the Xience stent is unknown. We performed a prospective health economic study alongside the ABSORB III trial, in which patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for stable or unstable angina were randomized to receive the Absorb scaffold (n = 1,322) or Xience stent (n = 686). Resource use data were collected through 1 year of follow-up. Costs were assessed using resource-based accounting (for procedures), MedPAR data (for other index hospitalization costs), and Medicare reimbursements (for follow-up costs and physician fees). Initial procedural costs were higher with the Absorb scaffold than the Xience stent ($6,316 ± 1,892 vs. $6,103 ± 1,895; p = 0.02), driven mainly by greater balloon catheter use and the higher cost of the scaffold in the Absorb group. Nonetheless, index hospitalization costs ($15,035 ± 2,992 for Absorb vs. $14,903 ± 3,449 for Xience; p = 0.37) and total 1-year costs ($17,848 ± 6,110 for Absorb vs. $17,498 ± 7,411 for Xience; p = 0.29) were similar between the 2 groups. Although initial procedural costs were higher with the Absorb scaffold, there were no differences in total 1-year health care costs between the 2 cohorts. Longer term follow-up is needed to determine whether meaningful cost savings emerge after scaffold resorption. (A Clinical Evaluation of Absorb™ BVS, the Everolimus-Eluting Bioresorbable Vascular Scaffold in the Treatment of Subjects With de Novo Native Coronary Artery Lesions; NCT01751906). Copyright © 2017

  7. CRYSTALLINE SOYBEAN TRYPSIN INHIBITOR

    PubMed Central

    Kunitz, M.

    1947-01-01

    A study has been made of the general properties of crystalline soybean trypsin inhibitor. The soy inhibitor is a stable protein of the globulin type of a molecular weight of about 24,000. Its isoelectric point is at pH 4.5. It inhibits the proteolytic action approximately of an equal weight of crystalline trypsin by combining with trypsin to form a stable compound. Chymotrypsin is only slightly inhibited by soy inhibitor. The reaction between chymotrypsin and the soy inhibitor consists in the formation of a reversibly dissociable compound. The inhibitor has no effect on pepsin. The inhibiting action of the soybean inhibitor is associated with the native state of the protein molecule. Denaturation of the soy protein by heat or acid or alkali brings about a proportional decrease in its inhibiting action on trypsin. Reversal of denaturation results in a proportional gain in the inhibiting activity. Crystalline soy protein when denatured is readily digestible by pepsin, and less readily by chymotrypsin and by trypsin. Methods are given for measuring trypsin and inhibitor activity and also protein concentration with the aid of spectrophotometric density measurements at 280 mµ. PMID:19873496

  8. Inhibition of Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) and mTOR Signaling: Novel Strategies Towards the Treatment of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    of the combination of the HDAC inhibitor panobinostat with the mTORC1 inhibitor everolimus . Panobinostat/ everolimus combination treatment resulted in...to single treatments. We identified that panobinostat/ everolimus combination resulted in enhanced anti-tumor activity mediated by decreased tumor...that low dose concurrent panobinostat/ everolimus combination therapy is well tolerated and results in greater anti-tumor activity and therapeutic

  9. Long-term clinical outcomes of biodegradable polymer biolimus-eluting stents versus durable polymer everolimus-eluting stents in patients with coronary artery disease: three-year follow-up of the COMPARE II (Abluminal biodegradable polymer biolimus-eluting stent versus durable polymer everolimus-eluting stent) trial.

    PubMed

    Vlachojannis, Georgios J; Smits, Pieter C; Hofma, Sjoerd H; Togni, Mario; Vázquez, Nicolás; Valdés, Mariano; Voudris, Vassilis; Puricel, Serban; Slagboom, Ton; Goy, Jean-Jacques; den Heijer, Peter; van der Ent, Martin

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this analysis was to compare the long-term safety and efficacy of the biodegradable polymer biolimus-eluting stent (BES) with that of the durable polymer everolimus-eluting stent (EES). The COMPARE II study was a prospective, randomised, multicentre, all-comers trial in which 2,707 patients were randomly allocated (2:1) to BES or EES. The pre-specified endpoint at three years was major adverse cardiac events (MACE), a composite of cardiac death, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI), or target vessel revascularisation (TVR). Moreover, the combined endpoint all-cause death or MI was analysed as a safety, and TVR as an efficacy measure. Three-year follow-up was available in 2,683 patients (99.1%). At three years, MACE occurred in 213 patients (11.9%) in the BES group and in 101 patients (11.1 %) in the EES group (p=0.57). The rate of the combined safety endpoint all-cause death or MI was 9.3% in the BES group vs. 8.4% (p=0.52), while the efficacy measure TVR was 7.6% in BES vs. 6.5% (p=0.27). Interestingly, definite stent thrombosis rates did not differ between groups (1.2% for BES vs. 0.8%, p=0.33). At three-year follow-up, MACE as well as safety and efficacy measures including stent thrombosis were not statistically different between the biodegradable polymer-coated BES and the durable polymer-coated EES. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01233453.

  10. Optical coherence tomography findings after chronic total occlusion interventions: Insights from the "AngiographiC evaluation of the everolimus-eluting stent in chronic Total occlusions" (ACE-CTO) study (NCT01012869).

    PubMed

    Sherbet, Daniel P; Christopoulos, Georgios; Karatasakis, Aris; Danek, Barbara Anna; Kotsia, Anna; Navara, Rachita; Michael, Tesfaldet T; Roesle, Michele; Rangan, Bavana V; Haagen, Donald; Garcia, Santiago; Maniu, Calin; Pershad, Ashish; Abdullah, Shuaib M; Hastings, Jeffrey L; Kumbhani, Dharam J; Luna, Michael; Addo, Tayo; Banerjee, Subhash; Brilakis, Emmanouil S

    There is limited information on optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of chronic total occlusions (CTOs). OCT allows high resolution imaging that can enhance understanding of the vascular response after stenting of chronically occluded vessels. The Angiographic Evaluation of the Everolimus-Eluting Stent in Chronic Total Occlusions (ACE-CTO) study collected angiographic and clinical outcomes from 100 patients undergoing CTO PCI with the everolimus-eluting stent (EES). OCT was performed 8-months post stenting in 62 patients. Every third frame was analyzed throughout the course of the stented arterial segment. Lumen contours were semi-automatically traced and stent struts were manually delineated, with automatic measurement of the strut to lumen distance. Struts on the luminal side of the lumen contour were classified as malapposed if the distance to the lumen contour exceeded 0.108mm. A total of 44,450 struts in 6047 frames were analyzed, of which 4113 9.3%, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 9.0% to 9.5%) were malapposed and 1230 (2.8%, 95% CI 2.6% to 2.9%) were uncovered. Fifty-five of 62 patients (88.7%, 95% CI 78.5% to 98.4%) had at least one malapposed stent strut and 50 patients (80.7%, 95% CI 69.2% to 88.6%) had at least one uncovered stent strut. Mean strut-intimal thickness of the apposed and malapposed struts was 0.126±0.140mm and -0.491±0.440mm, respectively. High rates of stent strut malapposition and incomplete stent strut coverage were observed after CTO PCI using EES, highlighting unique challenges associated with stent implantation in CTOs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Assessing Metabolic Changes in Response to mTOR Inhibition in a Mantle Cell Lymphoma Xenograft Model Using AcidoCEST MRI

    PubMed Central

    Akhenblit, Paul J.; Hanke, Neale T.; Gill, Alexander; Persky, Daniel O.; Howison, Christine M.; Pagel, Mark D.; Baker, Amanda F.

    2016-01-01

    AcidoCEST magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has previously been shown to measure tumor extracellular pH (pHe) with excellent accuracy and precision. This study investigated the ability of acidoCEST MRI to monitor changes in tumor pHe in response to therapy. To perform this study, we used the Granta 519 human mantle cell lymphoma cell line, which is an aggressive B-cell malignancy that demonstrates activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. We performed in vitro and in vivo studies using the Granta 519 cell line to investigate the efficacy and associated changes induced by the mTOR inhibitor, everolimus (RAD001). AcidoCEST MRI studies showed a statistically significant increase in tumor pHe of 0.10 pH unit within 1 day of initiating treatment, which foreshadowed a decrease in tumor growth of the Granta 519 xenograft model. AcidoCEST MRI then measured a decrease in tumor pHe 7 days after initiating treatment, which foreshadowed a return to normal tumor growth rate. Therefore, this study is a strong example that acidoCEST MRI can be used to measure tumor pHe that may serve as a marker for therapeutic efficacy of anticancer therapies. PMID:27140422

  12. Oncogenic Kit signaling and therapeutic intervention in a mouse model of gastrointestinal stromal tumor

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Ferdinand; Ehlers, Imke; Agosti, Valter; Socci, Nicholas D.; Viale, Agnes; Sommer, Gunhild; Yozgat, Yasemin; Manova, Katia; Antonescu, Cristina R.; Besmer, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Kit receptor-activating mutations are critical in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST). We investigated mechanisms of oncogenic Kit signaling and the consequences of therapeutic intervention in a mouse model of human GIST. Treatment of GIST mice with imatinib decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in the tumor. Analysis of tumor tissue from imatinib-treated mice showed diminished phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling suggesting that oncogenic Kit signaling critically contributes to the translational response in GIST. Treatment with RAD001 (everolimus), an mTOR inhibitor, diminished the translational response and cell proliferation in tumor lesions, pointing to mTOR inhibition as a therapeutic approach for imatinib-resistant GIST. Analysis of RNA expression profiles in GIST lesions with and without imatinib treatment showed changes in expression of IFN-inducible genes and cell cycle regulators. These results convincingly show that KitV558Δ/+ mice represent a unique faithful mouse model of human familial GIST, and they demonstrate the utility of these mice for preclinical investigations and to elucidate oncogenic signaling mechanisms by using genetic approaches and targeted pharmacological intervention. PMID:16908864

  13. IVUS radiofrequency analysis in the evaluation of the polymeric struts of the bioabsorbable everolimus-eluting device during the bioabsorption process.

    PubMed

    Sarno, Giovanna; Onuma, Yoshinobu; Garcia Garcia, Hector M; Garg, Scot; Regar, Evelyn; Thuesen, Leif; Dudek, Dariusz; Veldhof, Susan; Dorange, Cecile; Ormiston, John A; Serruys, Patrick W

    2010-05-01

    related to a synergistic effect of the bio-absorption process and the anti-inflammatory action of everolimus. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Natural inhibitors of thrombin.

    PubMed

    Huntington, James A

    2014-04-01

    The serine protease thrombin is the effector enzyme of blood coagulation. It has many activities critical for the formation of stable clots, including cleavage of fibrinogen to fibrin, activation of platelets and conversion of procofactors to active cofactors. Thrombin carries-out its multiple functions by utilising three special features: a deep active site cleft and two anion binding exosites (exosite I and II). Similarly, thrombin inhibitors have evolved to exploit the unique features of thrombin to achieve rapid and specific inactivation of thrombin. Exogenous thrombin inhibitors come from several different protein families and are generally found in the saliva of haematophagous animals (blood suckers) as part of an anticoagulant cocktail that allows them to feed. Crystal structures of several of these inhibitors reveal how peptides and proteins can be targeted to thrombin in different and interesting ways. Thrombin activity must also be regulated by endogenous inhibitors so that thrombi do not occlude blood flow and cause thrombosis. A single protein family, the serpins, provides all four of the endogenous thrombin inhibitors found in man. The crystal structures of these serpins bound to thrombin have been solved, revealing a similar exosite-dependence on complex formation. In addition to forming the recognition complex, serpins destroy the structure of thrombin, allowing them to be released from cofactors and substrates for clearance. This review examines how the special features of thrombin have been exploited by evolution to achieve inhibition of the ultimate coagulation protease.

  15. [Acquired coagulant factor inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Nogami, Keiji

    2015-02-01

    Acquired coagulation factor inhibitors are an autoimmune disease causing bleeding symptoms due to decreases in the corresponding factor (s) which result from the appearance of autoantibodies against coagulation factors (inhibitor). This disease is quite different from congenital coagulation factor deficiencies based on genetic abnormalities. In recent years, cases with this disease have been increasing, and most have anti-factor VIII autoantibodies. The breakdown of the immune control mechanism is speculated to cause this disease since it is common in the elderly, but the pathology and pathogenesis are presently unclear. We herein describe the pathology and pathogenesis of factor VIII and factor V inhibitors. Characterization of these inhibitors leads to further analysis of the coagulation process and the activation mechanisms of clotting factors. In the future, with the development of new clotting examination method (s), we anticipate that further novel findings will be obtained in this field through inhibitor analysis. In addition, detailed elucidation of the coagulation inhibitory mechanism possibly leading to hemostatic treatment strategies for acquired coagulation factor disorders will be developed.

  16. SGLT2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Dardi, I; Kouvatsos, T; Jabbour, S A

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a serious health issue and an economic burden, rising in epidemic proportions over the last few decades worldwide. Although several treatment options are available, only half of the global diabetic population achieves the recommended or individualized glycemic targets. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of antidiabetic agents with a novel insulin-independent action. SGLT2 is a transporter found in the proximal renal tubules, responsible for the reabsorption of most of the glucose filtered by the kidney. Inhibition of SGLT2 lowers the blood glucose level by promoting the urinary excretion of excess glucose. Due to their insulin-independent action, SGLT2 inhibitors can be used with any degree of beta-cell dysfunction or insulin resistance, related to a very low risk of hypoglycemia. In addition to improving glycemic control, SGLT2 inhibitors have been associated with a reduction in weight and blood pressure when used as monotherapy or in combination with other antidiabetic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors is usually well tolerated; however, they have been associated with an increased incidence of urinary tract and genital infections, although these infections are usually mild and easy to treat. SGLT2 inhibitors are a promising new option in the armamentarium of drugs for patients with T2DM.

  17. Anti-tumor activity of selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE) compounds, is enhanced in non-Hodgkin lymphoma through combination with mTOR inhibitor and dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Muqbil, Irfana; Aboukameel, Amro; Elloul, Sivan; Carlson, Robert; Senapedis, William; Baloglu, Erkan; Kauffman, Michael; Shacham, Sharon; Bhutani, Divaya; Zonder, Jeffrey; Azmi, Asfar S; Mohammad, Ramzi M

    2016-12-28

    In previous studies we demonstrated that targeting the nuclear exporter protein exportin-1 (CRM1/XPO1) by a selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE) compound is a viable therapeutic strategy against Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL). Our studies along with pre-clinical work from others led to the evaluation of the lead SINE compound, selinexor, in a phase 1 trial in patients with CLL or NHL (NCT02303392). Continuing our previous work, we studied combinations of selinexor-dexamethasone (DEX) and selinexor-everolimus (EVER) in NHL. Combination of selinexor with DEX or EVER resulted in enhanced cytotoxicity in WSU-DLCL2 and WSU-FSCCL cells which was consistent with enhanced apoptosis. Molecular analysis showed enhancement in the activation of apoptotic signaling and down-regulation of XPO1. This enhancement is consistent with the mechanism of action of these drugs in that both selinexor and DEX antagonize NF-κB (p65) and mTOR (EVER target) is an XPO1 cargo protein. SINE compounds, KPT-251 and KPT-276, showed activities similar to CHOP (cyclophosphamide-hydroxydaunorubicin-oncovin-prednisone) regimen in subcutaneous and disseminated NHL xenograft models in vivo. In both animal models the anti-lymphoma activity of selinexor is enhanced through combination with DEX or EVER. The in vivo activity of selinexor and related SINE compounds relative to 'standard of care' treatment is consistent with the objective responses observed in Phase I NHL patients treated with selinexor. Our pre-clinical data provide a rational basis for testing these combinations in Phase II NHL trials.

  18. Long-term mTOR inhibitors administration evokes altered calcium homeostasis and platelet dysfunction in kidney transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    López, Esther; Berna-Erro, Alejandro; Bermejo, Nuria; Brull, José María; Martinez, Rocío; Garcia Pino, Guadalupe; Alvarado, Raul; Salido, Ginés María; Rosado, Juan Antonio; Cubero, Juan José; Redondo, Pedro Cosme

    2013-01-01

    The use of the mammal target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors has been consolidated as the therapy of election for preventing graft rejection in kidney transplant patients, despite their immunosuppressive activity is less strong than anti-calcineurin agents like tacrolimus and cyclosporine A. Furthermore, as mTOR is widely expressed, rapamycin (a macrolide antibiotic produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus) is recommended in patients presenting neoplasia due to its antiproliferative actions. Hence, we have investigated whether rapamycin presents side effects in the physiology of other cell types different from leucocytes, such as platelets. Blood samples were drawn from healthy volunteers and kidney transplant patients long-term medicated with rapamycin: sirolimus and everolimus. Platelets were either loaded with fura-2 or directly stimulated, and immunoassayed or fixed with Laemmli's buffer to perform the subsequent analysis of platelet physiology. Our results indicate that rapamycin evokes a biphasic time-dependent alteration in calcium homeostasis and function in platelets from kidney transplant patients under rapamycin regime, as demonstrated by the reduction in granule secretion observed and subsequent impairment of platelet aggregation in these patients compared with healthy volunteers. Platelet count was also reduced in these patients, thus 41% of patients presented thrombocytopenia. All together our results show that long-term administration of rapamycin to kidney transplant patients evokes alteration in platelet function. PMID:23577651

  19. Clinical Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Profile of Lenvatinib, an Orally Active, Small-Molecule, Multitargeted Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Ziad; Mizuo, Hitoshi; Hayato, Seiichi; Namiki, Masayuki; Shumaker, Robert

    2017-02-24

    Lenvatinib is a multikinase inhibitor that targets vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors 1-3, fibroblast growth factor receptors 1-4, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-alpha, and RET and KIT proto-oncogenes. Lenvatinib is approved for the treatment of radioiodine-refractory differentiated thyroid cancer in the United States (US), European Union (EU), Canada, Japan, and Switzerland. It is also approved in combination with everolimus for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma following ≥1 VEGF-targeted treatment in the US and EU. In addition, lenvatinib is under investigation for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. As lenvatinib becomes more widely available, a better understanding of its pharmacokinetic profile has become increasingly important. Following oral administration, lenvatinib is absorbed rapidly and is metabolized extensively prior to excretion. This metabolism is mediated by multiple pathways, and several metabolites of lenvatinib have been identified. The effect of food intake on lenvatinib exposure has also been studied and was found to not significantly influence overall exposure to the drug. Exposure to lenvatinib is increased in patients with severe hepatic impairment, indicating that dose reduction must be considered for those patients. The findings summarized here indicate that the clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile for lenvatinib are predictable, with a dose-independent absorption and elimination profile that supports once-daily administration, and has minimal effects due to mild or moderate renal or hepatic impairment or drug interactions.

  20. PI3Kδ inhibitor, GS-1101 (CAL-101), attenuates pathway signaling, induces apoptosis, and overcomes signals from the microenvironment in cellular models of Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Meadows, Sarah A; Vega, Francisco; Kashishian, Adam; Johnson, Dave; Diehl, Volker; Miller, Langdon L; Younes, Anas; Lannutti, Brian J

    2012-02-23

    GS-1101 (CAL-101) is an oral PI3Kδ-specific inhibitor that has shown preclinical and clinical activity in non-Hodgkin lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. To investigate the potential role of PI3Kδ in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), we screened 5 HL cell lines and primary samples from patients with HL for PI3Kδ isoform expression and constitutive PI3K pathway activation. Inhibition of PI3Kδ by GS-1101 resulted in the inhibition of Akt phosphorylation. Cocultures with stroma cells induced Akt activation in HL cells, and this effect was blocked by GS-1101. Conversely, production of the stroma-stimulating chemokine, CCL5, by HL cells was reduced by GS-1101. GS-1101 also induced dose-dependent apoptosis of HL cells at 48 hours. Reductions in cell viability and apoptosis were enhanced when combining GS-1101 with the mTOR inhibitor everolimus. Our findings suggest that excessive PI3Kδ activity is characteristic in HL and support clinical evaluation of GS-1101, alone and in combination, as targeted therapy for HL.

  1. Cholinesterase inhibitors from botanicals

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Faiyaz; Ghalib, Raza Murad; Sasikala, P.; Ahmed, K. K. Mueen

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, wherein a progressive loss of cholinergic synapses occurs in hippocampus and neocortex. Decreased concentration of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine (ACh), appears to be critical element in the development of dementia, and the most appropriate therapeutic approach to treat AD and other form of dementia is to restore acetylcholine levels by inhibiting both major form of cholinesterase: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Consequently, researches have focused their attention towards finding cholinesterase inhibitors from natural products. A large number of such inhibitors have been isolated from medicinal plants. This review presents a comprehensive account of the advances in field of cholinesterase inhibitor phytoconstituents. The structures of some important phytoconstituents (collected through www.Chemspider.com) are also presented and the scope for future research is discussed. PMID:24347920

  2. REACT expanded-access program in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma: real-world data from a European subanalysis.

    PubMed

    Bracarda, Sergio; Rottey, Sylvie; Bahl, Amit; Eichelberg, Christian; Mellado, Begoña; Mangel, László; Cattaneo, Agnese; Panneerselvam, Ashok; Grünwald, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    RAD001 Expanded Access Clinical Trial (REACT) provided everolimus to patients with metastatic RCC before its commercial availability. This retrospective subgroup analysis evaluated eventual differences, mainly in safety, between the large European population (n = 906; 66.3%) and the overall population (n = 1367). REACT enrolled patients from 34 countries who received everolimus 10 mg/day until progression/discontinuation or commercial availability. Baseline characteristics, except race/ethnicity, were similar. Incidences of grade 3/4 adverse events were 50.7/11.3% in the European population and 48.8/12.8% in the overall population. A similar percentage of the European and overall populations achieved stable disease (∼ 51%) and completed treatment (20.6 and 19.7%). These results do not suggest differences for the European population and support everolimus as a worldwide standard of care for VEGFR-refractory metastatic RCC (NCT00655252).

  3. Thrombin inhibitor design.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, P E; Naylor-Olsen, A M

    1998-08-01

    Recently, iv formulated direct thrombin inhibitors have been shown to be safe and efficacious alternatives to heparin. These results have fueled the hopes for an orally active compound. Such a compound could be a significant advance over warfarin if it had predictable pharmacokinetics and a duration of action sufficient for once or twice a day dosing. In order to develop an orally active compound which meets these criteria, the deficiencies of the prototype inhibitor efegatran have had to be addressed. First, using a combination of structure based design and empirical structure optimization, more selective compounds have been identified by modifying the P1 group or by incorporating different peptidomimetic P2/P3 scaffolds. Secondly, this optimization has resulted in the development of potent and selective non-covalent inhibitors, thus bypassing the liabilities of the serine trap. Thirdly, oral bioavailability has been achieved while maintaining selectivity and efficacy through the incorporation of progressively less basic P1 groups. The duration of action of these compounds remains to be optimized. Other advances in thrombin inhibitor design have included the development of uncharged P1 groups and the discovery of two non-peptide templates.

  4. Study of the Pan-ERBB Inhibitor Neratinib Given in Combination With Everolimus, Palbociclib or Trametinib in Advanced Cancer Subjects With EGFR Mutation/Amplification, HER2 Mutation/Amplification or HER3/4 Mutation

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-07-10

    Malignant Neoplasm of Breast; Malignant Neoplasms of Digestive Organs; Malignant Neoplasms of Female Genital Organs; Malignant Neoplasms of Ill-defined Secondary and Unspecified Sites; Malignant Neoplasms of Independent (Primary) Multiple Sites; Malignant Neoplasms of Lip Oral Cavity and Pharynx; Malignant Neoplasms of Mesothelial and Soft Tissue; Malignant Neoplasms of Respiratory and Intrathoracic Organs; Malignant Neoplasms of Thyroid and Other Endocrine Glands; Malignant Neoplasms of Urinary Tract; Neoplasms of Uncertain or Unknown Behavior

  5. The therapeutic potential of mTOR inhibitors in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Steelman, Linda S; Martelli, Alberto M; Cocco, Lucio; Libra, Massimo; Nicoletti, Ferdinando; Abrams, Stephen L; McCubrey, James A

    2016-11-01

    Rapamycin and modified rapamycins (rapalogs) have been used to prevent allograft rejection after organ transplant for over 15 years. The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) has been determined to be a key component of the mTORC1 complex which consists of the serine/threonine kinase TOR and at least five other proteins which are involved in regulating its activity. Some of the best characterized substrates of mTORC1 are proteins which are key kinases involved in the regulation of cell growth (e.g., p70S6K) and protein translation (e.g., 4E-BP1). These proteins may in some cases serve as indicators to sensitivity to rapamycin-related therapies. Dysregulation of mTORC1 activity frequently occurs due to mutations at, or amplifications of, upstream growth factor receptors (e.g., human epidermal growth factor receptor-2, HER2) as well as kinases (e.g., PI3K) and phosphatases (e.g., PTEN) critical in the regulation of cell growth. More recently, it has been shown that certain rapalog