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  1. Finasteride. Does it affect spermatogenesis and pregnancy?

    PubMed Central

    Pole, M.; Koren, G.

    2001-01-01

    QUESTION: A few women have asked me whether finasteride, taken by their partners for male pattern baldness, will affect their pregnancies. The product monograph is very alarming: it sounds as if even handling the medication could cause harm, especially to a male fetus. Should a man stop taking finasteride if his partner is planning pregnancy or is pregnant? What is the risk to the fetus if its mother accidentally handles crushed or broken tablets? ANSWER: To date, there are no reports of adverse pregnancy outcomes among women exposed to finasteride. Taking 1 mg of finasteride daily did not have any clinically significant effect on men's semen. Absorption through the skin while handling tablets is extremely unlikely to cause fetal exposure or harm. There is no reason to discontinue the drug. Motherisk is currently following up women who are pregnant or planning pregnancy and whose partners are taking finasteride. PMID:11785276

  2. Finasteride

    MedlinePlus

    Finasteride (Proscar) is used alone or in combination with another medication (doxazosin [Cardura]) to treat benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH, enlargement of the prostate gland). Finasteride is used to treat symptoms of BPH such ...

  3. Adverse Effects and Safety of 5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors (Finasteride, Dutasteride): A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hirshburg, Jason M.; Kelsey, Petra A.; Therrien, Chelsea A.; Gavino, A. Carlo; Reichenberg, Jason S.

    2016-01-01

    Finasteride and dutasteride, both 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, are considered first-line treatment for androgenetic hair loss in men and used increasingly in women. In each case, patients are expected to take the medications indefinitely despite the lack of research regarding long-term adverse effects. Concerns regarding the adverse effects of these medications has led the United States National Institutes of Health to add a link for post-finasteride syndrome to its Genetic and Rare Disease Information Center. Herein, the authors report the results of a literature search reviewing adverse events of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors as they relate to prostate cancer, psychological effects, sexual health, and use in women. Several large studies found no increase in incidence of prostate cancer, a possible increase of high-grade cancer when detected, and no change in survival rate with 5-alpha reductase inhibitor use. Currently, there is no direct link between 5-alpha reductase inhibitor use and depression; however, several small studies have led to depression being listed as a side effect on the medication packaging. Sexual effects including erectile dysfunction and decreased libido and ejaculate were reported in as many as 3.4 to 15.8 percent of men. To date, there are very few studies evaluating 5-alpha reductase inhibitor use in women. Risks include birth defects in male fetuses if used in pregnancy, decreased libido, headache, gastrointestinal discomfort, and isolated reports of changes in menstruation, acne, and dizziness. Overall, 5-alpha reductase inhibitors were well-tolerated in both men and women, but not without risk, highlighting the importance of patient education prior to treatment. PMID:27672412

  4. Persistent erectile dysfunction in men exposed to the 5α-reductase inhibitors, finasteride, or dutasteride

    PubMed Central

    Yarnold, Paul R.; Cashy, John; Brannigan, Robert E.; Nardone, Beatrice; Micali, Giuseppe; West, Dennis Paul

    2017-01-01

    Importance Case reports describe persistent erectile dysfunction (PED) associated with exposure to 5α-reductase inhibitors (5α-RIs). Clinical trial reports and the manufacturers’ full prescribing information (FPI) for finasteride and dutasteride state that risk of sexual adverse effects is not increased by longer duration of 5α-RI exposure and that sexual adverse effects of 5α-RIs resolve in men who discontinue exposure. Objective Our chief objective was to assess whether longer duration of 5α-RI exposure increases risk of PED, independent of age and other known risk factors. Men with shorter 5α-RI exposure served as a comparison control group for those with longer exposure. Design We used a single-group study design and classification tree analysis (CTA) to model PED (lasting ≥90 days after stopping 5α-RI). Covariates included subject attributes, diseases, and drug exposures associated with sexual dysfunction. Setting Our data source was the electronic medical record data repository for Northwestern Medicine. Subjects The analysis cohorts comprised all men exposed to finasteride or dutasteride or combination products containing one of these drugs, and the subgroup of men 16–42 years old and exposed to finasteride ≤1.25 mg/day. Main outcome and measures Our main outcome measure was diagnosis of PED beginning after first 5α-RI exposure, continuing for at least 90 days after stopping 5α-RI, and with contemporaneous treatment with a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (PDE5I). Other outcome measures were erectile dysfunction (ED) and low libido. PED was determined by manual review of medical narratives for all subjects with ED. Risk of an adverse effect was expressed as number needed to harm (NNH). Results Among men with 5α-RI exposure, 167 of 11,909 (1.4%) developed PED (persistence median 1,348 days after stopping 5α-RI, interquartile range (IQR) 631.5–2320.5 days); the multivariable model predicting PED had four variables: prostate disease, duration

  5. The 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride is not associated with alterations in sleep spindles in men referred for polysomnography

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Michael R.; Cook, Jesse D.; Plante, David T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Endogenous neurosteroids that potentiate the GABAA receptor are thought to enhance the generation of sleep spindles. This study tested the hypothesis that the 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride, an agent associated with reductions in neurosteroids, would be associated with reduced sleep spindles in men referred for polysomnography. Methods Spectral analysis and spindle waveform detection were performed on electroencephalographic (EEG) sleep data in the 11–16Hz sigma band, as well as several subranges, from 27 men taking finasteride and 27 matched comparison patients (ages 18 to 81 years). Results No significant differences between groups were observed for spectral power or sleep spindle morphology measures, including spindle density, amplitude, duration, and integrated spindle activity. Conclusions Contrary to our hypothesis, these findings demonstrate that finasteride is not associated with alterations in sleep spindle range activity or spindle morphology parameters. PMID:26494125

  6. The 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride is not associated with alterations in sleep spindles in men referred for polysomnography.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Michael R; Cook, Jesse D; Plante, David T

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous neurosteroids that potentiate the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA ) receptor are thought to enhance the generation of sleep spindles. This study tested the hypothesis that the 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride, an agent associated with reductions in neurosteroids, would be associated with reduced sleep spindles in men referred for polysomnography. Spectral analysis and spindle waveform detection were performed on electroencephalographic (EEG) sleep data in the 11-16 Hz sigma band, as well as several subranges, from 27 men taking finasteride and 27 matched comparison patients (ages 18 to 81 years). No significant differences between groups were observed for spectral power or sleep spindle morphology measures, including spindle density, amplitude, duration, and integrated spindle activity. Contrary to our hypothesis, these findings demonstrate that finasteride is not associated with alterations in sleep spindle range activity or spindle morphology parameters. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Finasteride in Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    PubMed Central

    Do, Melissa Voutsalath

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Hidradenitis suppurativa is associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome, and a hormonal component has been implicated. Finasteride is an anti-androgenic agent used for benign prostatic hypertrophy, androgenic alopecia, and, in females, hirsutism. Finasteride is an inhibitor of type II5 alpha-reductase that reduces dihydrotestosterone levels and appears to alter end-organ sensitivity of the folliculopilosebaceous unit. The objective is to review the use of finasteride for hidradenitis suppurativa. Design: Review of the literature. Setting: Clinical treatment of patients with hidradenitis suppurativa. Measurement/participants: Five publications described the use for hidradenitis suppurativa. Four global case reports cited 13 individual patients, four male and nine female. Females included three adolescent patients and a child aged seven with precocious puberty. In the United States, finasteride in obese male adults was mentioned to be helpful. Results: Oral finasteride, as monotherapy or additional therapy was utilized for advanced hidradenitis suppurativa. The outcomes were largely favorable, with complete resolution in three patients. A latency period was evident in a majority. Limited, or continuous use for up to six years, was detailed. Response to reintroduction was successful. A benign safety profile with excellent tolerability was described. Teratogenicity of finasteride was addressed and contraception advocated in female patients. Sexual adverse effects were not ascertained. Conclusion: In hidradenitis suppurativa, finasteride could be considered in adults of both sexes as well as in select female children and adolescents, particularly those with concurrent metabolic and hormonal alterations present. Finasteride provides another highly effective, durable, relatively safe, and inexpensive option in the treatment of hidradenitis suppurativa. PMID:27386051

  8. Evaluation of the 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride on reproduction and gonadal development in medaka, Oryzias latipes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael R; Loux-Turner, Jana R; Oliveira, Kenneth

    2015-05-15

    5-α reductase (5αR) inhibitors have an anti-androgenic effect in mammals because they inhibit the conversion of testosterone to the potent androgen, dihydrotestosterone. Finasteride is a type-2 5αR inhibitor that is used as a human pharmaceutical for the treatment of prostate cancer, benign prostate hyperplasia and male pattern baldness. This study evaluated the impacts of finasteride (50, 500 and 5000μg/L) on the development and reproduction of medaka (Oryzias latipes) exposed continuously over multiple generations (F0, F1 and F2). The exposure was initiated with reproductively mature fish (F0 generation) and continued until the hatching of the F2 generation. There were no significant effects on survival, fecundity or fertility in the F0 (50, 500, 5000μg/L) and F1 (50, 500μg/L) generations. The F1 generation exposed to 5000μg/L exhibited significant mortality. Histopathology of the gonads demonstrated that medaka and pre-clinical species respond similarly to finasteride exposure. Intersex condition and maldeveloped gonads were observed in F0 generation males exposed to 5000μg/L and F1 generation males exposed to 500μg/L. F1 generation males exposed to 500μg/L displayed reduced gonadosomatic index with an increased incidence of testicular degeneration. Males in both generations exhibited an increased incidence of Leydig cell hyperplasia at concentrations ⩾500μg/L. F0 generation females exposed to 5000μg/L exhibited increased gonadosomatic index. An increased prevalence of accelerated post-ovulatory follicle involution was observed in females at concentrations ⩾500μg/L in both generations. The gonadal changes induced by finasteride support the idea that 5-α reductase inhibition impacts androgen signaling in fish. Results from this study are discussed in the context of differential expression of the androgen receptor between species of fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride, increases differentiation and proliferation of embryonal carcinoma cell-derived-neural cells.

    PubMed

    Shoae-Hassani, Alireza; Sharif, Shiva; Verdi, Javad

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in stem cell biology have resulted in identifying new agents to differentiate stem cell-derived-neural cells. Different stem cell types have been shown to differentiate into neural cells. It has been shown that P19 line of embryonal carcinoma cells develops into neurons and astroglia after exposure to some hormones such as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Steroid 5α-reductase is a key enzyme in the conversion of several Δ4-3 keto steroids, such as testosterone into their respective 5α-reductase derivatives. Finasteride is a 5α-reductase inhibitor that inhibits conversion of testosterone to the more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Reduction in DHT and sustaining testosterone levels has an important impact on differentiation and proliferation of embryonal carcinoma cells to neural cells. We hypothesize that finasteride, a 5α-reductase inhibitor, will be differentiate embryonal carcinoma cell to the neural cell and increase their proliferation due to the elevation levels of testosterone, a neuroprotective neurosteroid. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. The 5-alpha reductase inhibitor finasteride reduces dyskinesia in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Frau, Roberto; Savoia, Paola; Fanni, Silvia; Fiorentini, Chiara; Fidalgo, Camino; Tronci, Elisabetta; Stancampiano, Roberto; Meloni, Mario; Cannas, Antonino; Marrosu, Francesco; Bortolato, Marco; Devoto, Paola; Missale, Cristina; Carta, Manolo

    2017-05-01

    Levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) is a disabling motor complication occurring in Parkinson's disease patients (PD) after long-term l-DOPA treatment. Although its etiology remains unclear, there is accumulating evidence that LID relies on an excessive dopamine receptor transmission, particularly at the downstream signaling of D1 receptors. We previously reported that the pharmacological blockade of 5-alpha reductase (5AR), the rate limiting enzyme in neurosteroids synthesis, rescued a number of behavioral aberrations induced by D1 receptor-selective and non-selective agonists, without inducing extrapyramidal symptoms. Thus, the present study was designed to verify whether the 5AR inhibitor finasteride (FIN) may counteract the dyskinesias induced by dopaminergic agonists in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats. First, we assessed the acute and chronic effect of different doses of FIN (30-60mg/kg) on LID, in male 6-OHDA-lesioned dyskinetic rats. Thereafter, to fully characterize the therapeutic potential of FIN on LID and its impact on l-DOPA efficacy, we assessed abnormal involuntary movements and forelimb use in hemiparkinsonian male rats chronically injected with FIN (30-60mg/kg/24days) either prior to- or concomitant with l-DOPA administration. In addition, to investigate whether the impact of FIN on LID may be ascribed to a modulation of the D1- or D2/D3-receptor function, dyskinesias were assessed in l-DOPA-primed 6-OHDA-lesioned rats that received FIN in combination with selective direct dopaminergic agonists. Finally, we set to investigate whether FIN may produce similar effect in female hemiparkinsonian rats, as seen in males. The results indicated that FIN administrations significantly dampened LID in all tested treatment regimens, without interfering with the ability of l-DOPA to ameliorate forelimb use in the stepping test. The antidyskinetic effect appears to be due to modulation of both D1- and D2/D3-receptor function, as FIN also reduced abnormal

  11. Does the level of prostate cancer risk affect cancer prevention with finasteride?

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Ian M.; Tangen, Catherine M.; Parnes, Howard L.; Lippman, Scott M.; Coltman, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Finasteride reduced the risk of prostate cancer by 24.8% in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial; whether this represents treatment or prevention and who is most likely to benefit are unknown. We sought to clarify these issues by this investigation. Methods We fit a logistic regression model to men in the placebo group of the PCPT using risk factors for prostate cancer at entry to predict prostate cancer during the subsequent 7 years of study. Men in the two treatment groups were categorized into quintiles of risk of prostate cancer based on the predictive logistic model. A second model was fit evaluating finasteride’s effect on prostate cancer for each subgroup defined by quartiles of baseline PSA. The magnitude of the prevention effect of finasteride on prostate cancer was then evaluated across risk and PSA strata. Results Finasteride significantly reduced prostate cancer risk for all risk quintiles. For quintiles 1 through 5, odds ratios were 0.72, 0.52, 0.64, 0.66, and 0.71, respectively (all p≤0.05). For quartiles of risk of entry PSA (< 0.7 ng/mL, 0.7–1.1 ng/mL, 1.1–1.7 ng/mL, and 1.8–3.0 ng/mL), odds ratios increased (smaller treatment effect) as PSA increased: 0.60, 0.62, 0.66, and 0.69 respectively, but remained significant for all strata (each p<0.001). Conclusions Finasteride significantly reduced prostate cancer risk, regardless of the level of this risk, estimated either by multivariable risk or by PSA stratum; this suggests that finasteride exerts both treatment and preventive effects. All men undergoing PSA screening should be informed of the potential for finasteride to reduce their risk of prostate cancer. PMID:18455628

  12. Comparison of the Pharmacological Effects of a Novel Selective Androgen Receptor Modulator, the 5α-Reductase Inhibitor Finasteride, and the Antiandrogen Hydroxyflutamide in Intact Rats: New Approach for Benign Prostate Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wenqing; Kearbey, Jeffrey D.; Nair, Vipin A.; Chung, Kiwon; Parlow, A. F.; Miller, Duane D.; Dalton, James T.

    2007-01-01

    Tissue-selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) demonstrate tissue selectivity in both castrated and intact male rats, behaving as partial agonists in androgenic tissues (i.e. prostate and seminal vesicle), but full agonists in anabolic tissues (i.e. levator ani muscle). The partial agonist activity of SARMs (compounds S-1 and S-4) in the prostate of intact rats suggested that SARM could be used for androgen suppression in the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). This study was designed to explore the mechanisms of action of SARM and to characterize the tissue selectivity of S-1 in intact male rats compared with that of hydroxyflutamide (antiandrogen) and finasteride (5α-reductase inhibitor), two major drugs used for androgen suppression treatment of BPH. In intact male rats, S-1 (5, 10, and 25 mg/kg) selectively decreased the prostate weight with similar efficacy to finasteride (5 mg/kg), without affecting the levator ani muscle or increasing the plasma levels of testosterone, LH, and FSH. Hydroxyflutamide (0.5, 1, 5, 10, and 25 mg/kg), however, decreased both the prostate and levator ani muscle weights without any selectivity and increased plasma hormone levels in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, S-1 and S-4 showed very weak inhibitory effects toward transiently expressed type I and II human 5α-reductase (Ki, >20 µM) during in vitro assays. Therefore, although S-1 and finasteride showed very similar suppressive effects in the prostate of intact male rats, they decreased prostate size via different mechanisms of action. S-1 simply worked as androgen receptor partial agonist, whereas finasteride inhibited prostatic 5α-reductase. These studies indicate that SARMs may demonstrate clinical utility as single agent or combination therapy for BPH. PMID:15308613

  13. [Finasteride adverse effects: An update].

    PubMed

    Carreño-Orellana, Néstor; Moll-Manzur, Catherina; Carrasco-Zuber, Juan Eduardo; Álvarez-Véliz, Sergio; Berroeta-Mauriziano, Daniela; Porras-Kusmanic, Ninoska

    2016-12-01

    Finasteride is a 5-α reductase inhibitor that is widely used in the management of benign prostate hyperplasia and male pattern hair loss. It is well known that these agents improve the quality of life in men suffering from these conditions. However, they are associated with some transient and even permanent adverse effects. The aim of this article is to clarify the controversies about the safety of finasteride by analyzing the evidence available in the literature.

  14. The 5α-reductase inhibitor Dutasteride but not Finasteride protects dopamine neurons in the MPTP mouse model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Litim, Nadhir; Bourque, Mélanie; Al Sweidi, Sara; Morissette, Marc; Di Paolo, Thérèse

    2015-10-01

    Finasteride and Dutasteride are 5α-reductase inhibitors used in the clinic to treat endocrine conditions and were recently found to modulate brain dopamine (DA) neurotransmission and motor behavior. We investigated if Finasteride and Dutasteride have a neuroprotective effect in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) male mice as a model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Experimental groups included saline treated controls and mice treated with saline, Finasteride (5 and 12.5 mg/kg) or Dutasteride (5 and 12.5 mg/kg) for 5 days before and 5 days after MPTP administration (4 MPTP injections, 6.5 mg/kg on day 5 inducing a moderate DA depletion) and then they were euthanized. MPTP administration decreased striatal DA contents measured by HPLC while serotonin contents remained unchanged. MPTP mice treated with Dutasteride 5 and 12.5 mg/kg had higher striatal DA and metabolites (DOPAC and HVA) contents with a decrease of metabolites/DA ratios compared to saline-treated MPTP mice. Finasteride had no protective effect on striatal DA contents. Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA levels measured by in situ hybridization in the substantia nigra pars compacta were unchanged. Dutasteride at 12.5 mg/kg reduced the effect of MPTP on specific binding to striatal DA transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT2) measured by autoradiography. MPTP reduced compared to controls plasma testosterone (T) and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) concentrations measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; Dutasteride and Finasteride increased plasma T levels while DHT levels remained low. In summary, our results showed that a 5α-reductase inhibitor, Dutasteride has neuroprotective activity preventing in male mice the MPTP-induced loss of several dopaminergic markers.

  15. Finasteride for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Tacklind, James; Fink, Howard A; Macdonald, Roderick; Rutks, Indy; Wilt, Timothy J

    2010-10-06

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a non-malignant enlargement of the prostate in aging men, can cause bothersome urinary symptoms (intermittency, weak stream, straining, urgency, frequency, incomplete emptying). Finasteride, a five-alpha reductase inhibitor (5ARI), blocks the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, reduces prostate size, and is commonly used to treat symptoms associated with BPH. To compare the clinical effectiveness and harms of finasteride versus placebo and active controls in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). We searched The Cochrane Library (which includes CDSR (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews), DARE (Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects), HTA (Heath Technology Assessments), and CENTRAL (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and which includes EMBASE and MEDLINE), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information) and Google Scholar for randomized, controlled trials (RCTs). We also handsearched systematic reviews, references, and clinical-practice guidelines. Randomized trials in the English language with placebo and/or active arms with a duration of at least 6 months. JT extracted the data, which included patient characteristics, outcomes, and harms. Our primary outcome was change in a validated, urinary symptom-scale score, such as the AUA/IPSS. A clinically meaningful change was defined as 4 points. We also categorized outcomes by trial lengths of ≤ 1 year (short term) and > 1 year (long term). Finasteride consistently improved urinary symptom scores more than placebo in trials of > 1 year duration, and significantly lowered the risk of BPH progression (acute urinary retention, risk of surgical intervention, ≥ 4 point increase in the AUASI/IPSS). In comparison to alpha-blocker monotherapy, finasteride was less effective than either doxazosin or terazosin, but equally effective compared to tamsulosin. Both doxazosin and terazosin were significantly more

  16. Transcriptomic profiling in Silurana tropicalis testes exposed to finasteride.

    PubMed

    Bissegger, Sonja; Martyniuk, Christopher J; Langlois, Valérie S

    2014-07-01

    Investigations of endocrine disrupting chemicals found in aquatic ecosystems with estrogenic and androgenic modes of action have increased over the past two decades due to a surge of evidence of adverse effects in wildlife. Chemicals that disrupt androgen signalling and steroidogenesis can result in an imbalanced conversion of testosterone (T) into 17β-estradiol (E2) and other androgens such as 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT). Therefore, a better understanding of how chemicals perturb these pathways is warranted. In this study, the brain, liver, and testes of Silurana tropicalis were exposed ex vivo to the human drug finasteride, a potent steroid 5α-reductase inhibitor and a model compound to study the inhibition of the conversion of T into 5α-DHT. These experiments were conducted (1) to determine organ specific changes in sex steroid production after treatment, and (2) to elucidate the transcriptomic response to finasteride in testicular tissue. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to measure hormone levels in media following finasteride incubation for 6 h. Finasteride significantly increased T levels in the media of liver and testis tissue, but did not induce any changes in E2 and 5α-DHT production. Gene expression analysis was performed in frog testes and data revealed that finasteride treatment significantly altered 1,434 gene probes. Gene networks associated with male reproduction such as meiosis, hormone biosynthesis, sperm entry, gonadotropin releasing hormone were affected by finasteride exposure as well as other pathways such as oxysterol synthesis, apoptosis, and epigenetic regulation. For example, this study suggests that the mode of action by which finasteride induces cellular damage in testicular tissue as reported by others, is via oxidative stress in testes. This data also suggests that 5-reductase inhibition disrupts the expression of genes related to reproduction. It is proposed that androgen-disrupting chemicals may mediate their

  17. A 5-year retrospective analysis of 5α-reductase inhibitors in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia: finasteride has comparable urinary symptom efficacy and prostate volume reduction, but less sexual side effects and breast complications than dutasteride.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, S A; Chung, D E; Lee, R K; Scofield, S; Te, A E

    2012-11-01

    We evaluated 5-year safety, efficacy and prostate volume data from BPH patients treated with finasteride or dutasteride. A retrospective analysis of 378 consecutive men treated with 5α-reductase inhibitor monotherapy between January 2004 and September 2009 (197 on finasteride and 211 on dutasteride) in a single clinic was performed. Efficacy assessments included International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), peak urinary flow rate (Qmax), postvoid residual urine volume (PVR), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostate volume (PV). Safety assessments included International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) and adverse events. Patients were evaluated at 3 months, 1 year and yearly thereafter. Mean age of the group was 58.7 ± 6.7 years. Maintenance of therapy at 5 years was 57.4% and 42.5% for the finasteride and dutasteride groups respectively. Changes in IPSS, Qmax, PVR, PV and PSA were similar for both groups at 5 years. The incidence of erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction and decreased libido resulting in discontinuation from therapy was significantly (p < 0.01) higher in the dutasteride (5.1%, 2.4%, 2.7% respectively) compared with the finasteride (2.1%, 1.8%, 1.4% respectively) group. In addition, the incidence of self-reported breast tenderness and/or enlargement was significantly (p < 0.01) greater in the dutasteride (3.5%) compared with the finasteride (1.2%) group. In this retrospective analysis of data from consecutive patients treated at a single clinic, both finasteride and dutasteride were effective therapies for the management of lower urinary tract symptoms. However, dutasteride resulted in significantly more sexual side effects and breast complications than finasteride. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Finasteride for Chronic Central Serous Chorioretinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Forooghian, Farzin; Meleth, Annal D.; Cukras, Catherine; Chew, Emily Y.; Wong, Wai T.; Meyerle, Catherine B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the safety and efficacy of finasteride, an inhibitor of dihyroxytestosterone (DHT) synthesis, in the treatment of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Methods Five patients with chronic CSC were prospectively enrolled in this pilot study. Patients were administered finasteride (5mg) daily for 3 months, following which study medication was withheld and patients were observed for 3 months. Main outcome measures included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), center-subfield macular thickness and subretinal fluid volume as assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT). Serum DHT, serum testosterone, and urinary cortisol were also measured. Results There was no change in mean BCVA. Mean center-subfield macular thickness and subretinal fluid volume reached a nadir at 3 months, and rose to levels that were below baseline by 6 months. The changes in both OCT parameters paralleled changes in serum DHT level. In four patients, center-subfield macular thickness and/or subretinal fluid volume increased following discontinuation of finasteride. In the remaining patient, both OCT parameters normalized with finasteride and remained stable when the study medication was discontinued. Conclusion Finasteride may represent a novel medical treatment for chronic CSC. Larger controlled clinical trials are needed to further assess the efficacy of finasteride for the treatment of CSC. Summary Pilot study to evaluate finasteride for treatment of chronic central serous chorioretinopathy suggests efficacy and tolerability. PMID:21273946

  19. Finasteride induced depression: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi-Ardabili, Babak; Pourandarjani, Ramin; Habibollahi, Peiman; Mualeki, Amir

    2006-01-01

    Background Finasteride is a competitive inhibitor of 5 alpha-reductase enzyme, and is used for treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and androgenetic alopecia. Animal studies have shown that finasteride might induce behavioral changes. Additionally, some cases of finasteride-induced depression have been reported in humans. The purpose of this study was to examine whether depressive symptoms or anxiety might be induced by finasteride administration. Methods One hundred and twenty eight men with androgenetic alopecia, who were prescribed finasteride (1 mg/day) were enrolled in this study. Information on depressed mood and anxiety was obtained by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Participants completed BDI and HADS questionnaires before beginning the treatment and also two months after it. Results Mean age of the subjects was 25.8(± 4.4) years. At baseline, mean BDI and HADS depression scores were 12.11(± 7.50) and 4.04(± 2.51), respectively. Finasteride treatment increased both BDI (p < 0.001) and HADS depression scores significantly (p = 0.005). HADS anxiety scores were increased, but the difference was not significant (p = 0.061). Conclusion This preliminary study suggests that finasteride might induce depressive symptoms; therefore this medication should be prescribed cautiously for patients with high risk of depression. It seems that further studies would be necessary to determine behavioral effects of this medication in higher doses and in more susceptible patients. PMID:17026771

  20. Finasteride Inhibits Human Prostate Cancer Cell Invasion through MMP2 and MMP9 Downregulation

    PubMed Central

    Moroz, Andrei; Delella, Flávia K.; Almeida, Rodrigo; Lacorte, Lívia Maria; Fávaro, Wágner José; Deffune, Elenice; Felisbino, Sérgio L.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The use of the 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) finasteride and dutasteride for prostate cancer prevention is still under debate. The FDA recently concluded that the increased prevalence of high-grade tumors among 5-ARI-treated patients must not be neglected, and they decided to disallow the use of 5-ARIs for prostate cancer prevention. This study was conducted to verify the effects of finasteride on prostate cell migration and invasion and the related enzymes/proteins in normal human and tumoral prostatic cell lines. Materials and Methods RWPE-1, LNCaP, PC3 and DU145 cells were cultivated to 60% confluence and exposed for different periods to either 10 µM or 50 µM finasteride that was diluted in culture medium. The conditioned media were collected and concentrated, and MMP2 and MMP9 activities and TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 protein expression were determined. Cell viability, migration and invasion were analyzed, and the remaining cell extracts were submitted to androgen receptor (AR) detection by western blotting techniques. Experiments were carried out in triplicate. Results Cell viability was not significantly affected by finasteride exposure. Finasteride significantly downregulated MMP2 and MMP9 activities in RWPE-1 and PC3 cells and MMP2 in DU145 cells. TIMP-2 expression in RWPE-1 cells was upregulated after exposure. The cell invasion of all four tested cell lines was inhibited by exposure to 50 µM of finasteride, and migration inhibition only occurred for RWPE-1 and LNCaP cells. AR was expressed by LNCaP, RWPE-1 and PC3 cells. Conclusions Although the debate on the higher incidence of high-grade prostate cancer among 5-ARI-treated patients remains, our findings indicate that finasteride may attenuate tumor aggressiveness and invasion, which could vary depending on the androgen responsiveness of a patient’s prostate cells. PMID:24386413

  1. Finasteride inhibits human prostate cancer cell invasion through MMP2 and MMP9 downregulation.

    PubMed

    Moroz, Andrei; Delella, Flávia K; Almeida, Rodrigo; Lacorte, Lívia Maria; Fávaro, Wágner José; Deffune, Elenice; Felisbino, Sérgio L

    2013-01-01

    The use of the 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) finasteride and dutasteride for prostate cancer prevention is still under debate. The FDA recently concluded that the increased prevalence of high-grade tumors among 5-ARI-treated patients must not be neglected, and they decided to disallow the use of 5-ARIs for prostate cancer prevention. This study was conducted to verify the effects of finasteride on prostate cell migration and invasion and the related enzymes/proteins in normal human and tumoral prostatic cell lines. RWPE-1, LNCaP, PC3 and DU145 cells were cultivated to 60% confluence and exposed for different periods to either 10 µM or 50 µM finasteride that was diluted in culture medium. The conditioned media were collected and concentrated, and MMP2 and MMP9 activities and TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 protein expression were determined. Cell viability, migration and invasion were analyzed, and the remaining cell extracts were submitted to androgen receptor (AR) detection by western blotting techniques. Experiments were carried out in triplicate. Cell viability was not significantly affected by finasteride exposure. Finasteride significantly downregulated MMP2 and MMP9 activities in RWPE-1 and PC3 cells and MMP2 in DU145 cells. TIMP-2 expression in RWPE-1 cells was upregulated after exposure. The cell invasion of all four tested cell lines was inhibited by exposure to 50 µM of finasteride, and migration inhibition only occurred for RWPE-1 and LNCaP cells. AR was expressed by LNCaP, RWPE-1 and PC3 cells. Although the debate on the higher incidence of high-grade prostate cancer among 5-ARI-treated patients remains, our findings indicate that finasteride may attenuate tumor aggressiveness and invasion, which could vary depending on the androgen responsiveness of a patient's prostate cells.

  2. Inhibition of Human Steroid 5β-Reductase (AKR1D1) by Finasteride and Structure of the Enzyme-Inhibitor Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Drury, Jason E.; Di Costanzo, Luigi; Penning, Trevor M.; Christianson, David W.

    2009-01-01

    The Δ4-3-ketosteroid functionality is present in nearly all steroid hormones apart from estrogens. The first step in functionalization of the A-ring is mediated in humans by steroid 5α- or 5β-reductase. Finasteride is a mechanism-based inactivator of 5α-reductase type 2 with subnanomolar affinity and is widely used as a therapeutic for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. It is also used for androgen deprivation in hormone-de pend ent prostate carcinoma, and it has been examined as a chemopreventive agent in prostate cancer. The effect of finasteride on steroid 5β-reductase (AKR1D1) has not been previously reported. We show that finasteride competitively inhibits AKR1D1 with low micromolar affinity but does not act as a mechanism-based inactivator. The structure of the AKR1D1·NADP+·finasteride complex determined at 1.7 Å resolution shows that it is not possible for NADPH to reduce the Δ1-2-ene of finasteride because the cofactor and steroid are not proximal to each other. The C3-ketone of finasteride accepts hydrogen bonds from the catalytic residues Tyr-58 and Glu-120 in the active site of AKR1D1, providing an explanation for the competitive inhibition observed. This is the first reported structure of finasteride bound to an enzyme involved in steroid hormone metabolism. PMID:19515843

  3. Finasteride in the treatment of alopecia.

    PubMed

    Libecco, James F; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2004-04-01

    Finasteride is a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor approved for the treatment of male pattern hair loss. Originally approved for the treatment of benign prostatic hypertrophy in 1992, its approval was expanded in 1997 to include the treatment of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) in men at a dose of 1 mg/day. Finasteride inhibits 5alpha-reductase, thereby prohibiting the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which is implicated in the development of hairless in some men. Reduction in DHT results in a significant improvement in subjective and objective assessments of hair growth and density. Finasteride is well-tolerated with a favourable adverse event history. The most common adverse events include reduced libido, decreased ejaculate volume and gynaecomastia.

  4. Atypical post-finasteride syndrome: A pharmacological riddle.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Anita K; Sharma, Neetu; Shukla, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    Finasteride and dutasteride are commonly used 5-alpha reductase inhibitors. While finasteride is a selective inhibitor of 5-alpha reductase Type II, dutasteride inhibits 5- alpha reductase Type I and II. The United States Food and Drug Administration approved the use of finasteride for benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) as well as androgenic alopecia (AGA) while dutasteride is approved only for BPH. Off-label use of dutasteride is not uncommon in AGA as well. Although the postfinasteride syndrome (PFS) is a well-established entity, its symptomatology is quite variable. Here, we describe a case of an atypical PFS in a patient treated with dutasteride and finasteride for AGA. The multisystem involvement and irreversible nature of this case warrant its reporting.

  5. Atypical post-finasteride syndrome: A pharmacological riddle

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Anita K.; Sharma, Neetu; Shukla, Prashant

    2016-01-01

    Finasteride and dutasteride are commonly used 5-alpha reductase inhibitors. While finasteride is a selective inhibitor of 5-alpha reductase Type II, dutasteride inhibits 5- alpha reductase Type I and II. The United States Food and Drug Administration approved the use of finasteride for benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) as well as androgenic alopecia (AGA) while dutasteride is approved only for BPH. Off-label use of dutasteride is not uncommon in AGA as well. Although the postfinasteride syndrome (PFS) is a well-established entity, its symptomatology is quite variable. Here, we describe a case of an atypical PFS in a patient treated with dutasteride and finasteride for AGA. The multisystem involvement and irreversible nature of this case warrant its reporting. PMID:27298504

  6. Finasteride, a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, potentiates antinociceptive effects of morphine, prevents the development of morphine tolerance and attenuates abstinence behavior in the rat.

    PubMed

    Verdi, Javad; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan

    2007-05-01

    It has been shown that morphine increases 5alpha-reductase enzyme activity in the rat central nervous system; however importance of this finding on morphine analgesia, tolerance and dependence has not been reported. In the present study, we investigated inhibition of 5alpha-reductase enzyme on morphine effects using finasteride. To determine whether the 5alpha-reductase enzyme interact with morphine analgesia, finasteride (5 mg/kg, i.p.) was administrated with morphine (5 and 7 mg/kg, i.p.). The tail-flick test was used to assess the nociceptive threshold, before and 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 min after drug administration. In tolerance experiments, morphine 20 mg/kg was injected i.p., twice daily for 4 days. The development and expression of dependence were assessed in the naloxone precipitation test 5 days after the morphine (20-30 mg/kg, i.p.) administration. We found that finasteride could potentiate the antinociceptive effect of morphine. In addition, chronic finasteride administration effectively blocked development of tolerance and dependence to morphine. Following chronic morphine administration, single dose injection of finasteride failed to reverse tolerance but prevented naloxone precipitate withdrawal syndrome. Therefore, it was concluded that there is a functional relationship between 5alpha-reductase enzyme and morphine.

  7. Comparison of finasteride (Proscar), a 5 alpha reductase inhibitor, and various commercial plant extracts in in vitro and in vivo 5 alpha reductase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, L; Primka, R L; Berman, C; Vergult, G; Gabriel, M; Pierre-Malice, M; Gibelin, B

    1993-01-01

    Human prostate was used as a source of 5 alpha reductase. Compounds were incubated with an enzyme preparation and [3H]testosterone. [3H]-dihydrotestosterone production was measured to calculate 5 alpha reductase activity. IC50 values (ng/ml) were finasteride = 1; Permixon = 5,600; Talso = 7,000; Strogen Forte = 31,000; Prostagutt = 40,000; and Tadenan = 63,000. Bazoton and Harzol had no activity at concentrations up to 500,000 ng/ml. In castrate rats stimulated with testosterone (T) or dihydrotestosterone (DHT), finasteride, but not Permixon or Bazoton, inhibited T stimulated prostate growth, while none of the three compounds inhibited DHT stimulated growth. These results demonstrate that finasteride inhibits 5 alpha reductase, while Permixon and Bazoton have neither anti-androgen nor 5 alpha reductase inhibitory activity. In addition, in a 7 day human clinical trial, finasteride, but not Permixon or placebo, decreased serum DHT in men, further confirming the lack of 5 alpha reductase inhibition by Permixon. Finasteride and the plant extracts listed above do not inhibit the binding of DHT to the rat prostatic androgen receptor (concentrations to 100 micrograms/ml). Based on these results, it is unlikely that these plant extracts would shrink the prostate by inhibiting androgen action or 5 alpha reductase.

  8. Enhancement of Intermittent Androgen Ablation Therapy by Finasteride Administration in Animal Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    1-0113 TITLE: Enhancement of Intermittent Androgen Ablation Therapy by Finasteride Administration in Animal Models...To) 14 JAN 2002 - 13 JAN 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Enhancement of Intermittent Androgen Ablation Therapy by Finasteride 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER... finasteride , an inhibitor of T to DHT conversion. We have tested our hypothesis using LNCaP xenograft tumors in nude mice. Our experiments showed

  9. Finasteride concentrations and prostate cancer risk: results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.

    PubMed

    Chau, Cindy H; Price, Douglas K; Till, Cathee; Goodman, Phyllis J; Chen, Xiaohong; Leach, Robin J; Johnson-Pais, Teresa L; Hsing, Ann W; Hoque, Ashraful; Tangen, Catherine M; Chu, Lisa; Parnes, Howard L; Schenk, Jeannette M; Reichardt, Juergen K V; Thompson, Ian M; Figg, William D

    2015-01-01

    In the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), finasteride reduced the risk of prostate cancer by 25%, even though high-grade prostate cancer was more common in the finasteride group. However, it remains to be determined whether finasteride concentrations may affect prostate cancer risk. In this study, we examined the association between serum finasteride concentrations and the risk of prostate cancer in the treatment arm of the PCPT and determined factors involved in modifying drug concentrations. Data for this nested case-control study are from the PCPT. Cases were drawn from men with biopsy-proven prostate cancer and matched controls. Finasteride concentrations were measured using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry validated assay. The association of serum finasteride concentrations with prostate cancer risk was determined by logistic regression. We also examine whether polymorphisms in the enzyme target and metabolism genes of finasteride are related to drug concentrations using linear regression. Among men with detectable finasteride concentrations, there was no association between finasteride concentrations and prostate cancer risk, low-grade or high-grade, when finasteride concentration was analyzed as a continuous variable or categorized by cutoff points. Since there was no concentration-dependent effect on prostate cancer, any exposure to finasteride intake may reduce prostate cancer risk. Of the twenty-seven SNPs assessed in the enzyme target and metabolism pathway, five SNPs in two genes, CYP3A4 (rs2242480; rs4646437; rs4986910), and CYP3A5 (rs15524; rs776746) were significantly associated with modifying finasteride concentrations. These results suggest that finasteride exposure may reduce prostate cancer risk and finasteride concentrations are affected by genetic variations in genes responsible for altering its metabolism pathway. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00288106.

  10. Finasteride Concentrations and Prostate Cancer Risk: Results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Till, Cathee; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Chen, Xiaohong; Leach, Robin J.; Johnson-Pais, Teresa L.; Hsing, Ann W.; Hoque, Ashraful; Tangen, Catherine M.; Chu, Lisa; Parnes, Howard L.; Schenk, Jeannette M.; Reichardt, Juergen K. V.; Thompson, Ian M.; Figg, William D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective In the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), finasteride reduced the risk of prostate cancer by 25%, even though high-grade prostate cancer was more common in the finasteride group. However, it remains to be determined whether finasteride concentrations may affect prostate cancer risk. In this study, we examined the association between serum finasteride concentrations and the risk of prostate cancer in the treatment arm of the PCPT and determined factors involved in modifying drug concentrations. Methods Data for this nested case-control study are from the PCPT. Cases were drawn from men with biopsy-proven prostate cancer and matched controls. Finasteride concentrations were measured using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry validated assay. The association of serum finasteride concentrations with prostate cancer risk was determined by logistic regression. We also examine whether polymorphisms in the enzyme target and metabolism genes of finasteride are related to drug concentrations using linear regression. Results and Conclusions Among men with detectable finasteride concentrations, there was no association between finasteride concentrations and prostate cancer risk, low-grade or high-grade, when finasteride concentration was analyzed as a continuous variable or categorized by cutoff points. Since there was no concentration-dependent effect on prostate cancer, any exposure to finasteride intake may reduce prostate cancer risk. Of the twenty-seven SNPs assessed in the enzyme target and metabolism pathway, five SNPs in two genes, CYP3A4 (rs2242480; rs4646437; rs4986910), and CYP3A5 (rs15524; rs776746) were significantly associated with modifying finasteride concentrations. These results suggest that finasteride exposure may reduce prostate cancer risk and finasteride concentrations are affected by genetic variations in genes responsible for altering its metabolism pathway. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00288106 PMID:25955319

  11. [Comparative evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of combined drug therapy of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia with finasteride and alfuzozine].

    PubMed

    Loran, O B; Pushkar', D Iu; Rasner, P I

    2002-01-01

    A finasteride + alfuzozine combination was used in 3-year treatment of 138 patients with initial benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The principle of the combination is in parallel administration of 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors which inhibit cell proliferation at the hormonal level and alpha-adrenoblockers affecting the smooth muscle component of prostatic stroma and detruzor blood supply. Patients participating in the study had enlanged prostate (at least 60 cm3) and pronounced symptoms (IPSS over 13 scores). Patients of two control groups received alfuzozine and finasteride monotherapy, respectively. Better micturition and relief of BPH symptoms were seen in 96% patients of the study group, 84 and 74% controls, respectively. Thus, compared to monotherapy, finasteride and alfuzozine were more effective in combination which is pathogenetically valid and perspective in BPH chemotherapy.

  12. Activation of caspases-3, -6, and -9 during finasteride treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Bozec, Aline; Ruffion, Alain; Decaussin, Myriam; Andre, Jean; Devonec, Marian; Benahmed, Mohamed; Mauduit, Claire

    2005-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) results from an increase in both epithelial and stromal compartments of the human prostate. Although inhibitors of 5alpha-reductase such as finasteride have been shown to reduce the size of BPH tissues by inducing apoptosis, their mechanisms of action still remain unknown. The present study supports that such a process triggered by finasteride is caspase dependent with a possible involvement of two effector caspases (caspase-3 and 6) and two initiator caspases (caspase-8 and 9). Indeed, by using tissues from patients affected by BPH and treated by finasteride (5 mg/d) for 2-3, 6-8, or 27-32 d, we observed that the 5alpha-reductase inhibitor induced apoptosis in epithelial cells (evaluated through cell number positive for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling) as early as 2-3 d of treatment, with a maximal activity (250-fold increase, P < 0.0001) at 6-8 d of treatment. However, after 27-32 d of treatment, the number of apoptotic cells was reduced and was close to control. Caspases-3, -6, -8, and -9 were immunolocalized to (basal and secretory) epithelial cells and to a lesser extent to stromal cells. Activated caspase-3 immunoexpression was restricted to epithelial secretory cells, and its immunostaining intensity appeared to be higher in BPH tissues from patients treated for 2-3 or 6-8 d. Consistently, in Western blotting analyses, activated caspases-3 and -6 were detected as early as 2-3 d of treatment in BPH tissues, and their levels were increased after 6-8 d of treatment. In real time quantitative PCR experiments, caspase-3 and -6 mRNA levels were found to be unchanged after finasteride treatment. Activated caspase-8 was not detected in the different conditions tested, whereas activated caspase-9 protein levels were maximally enhanced after 2-3 d of finasteride treatment. In conclusion, we report here that finasteride treatment of BPH tissues induced a caspase

  13. Treatment with finasteride and prostate cancer survival.

    PubMed

    Kjellman, Anders; Friis, Søren; Granath, Fredrik; Gustafsson, Ove; Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Akre, Olof

    2013-08-01

    This study compared survival after diagnosis of prostate cancer (PC) in men previously treated with finasteride, in men previously treated with α-adrenoceptor antagonists, in men treated with both, and in men who had received neither type of medication. In total, 3791 men diagnosed with PC in northern Denmark were identified. The region's prescription database was used to identify all men prescribed finasteride and α-adrenoceptor antagonists and those who had received neither medication during the period 1989-2001. Among men with a diagnosis of PC, overall survival and disease-specific survival were assessed after diagnosis using Cox proportional hazards regression. The risk of being diagnosed with non-localized PC was estimated using conditional logistic regression. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for PC death and overall death after treatment with finasteride was 0.93 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.76-1.14] and 0.92 (95% CI 0.77-1.10), respectively. Treatment with α-adrenoceptor antagonists was associated with a reduced risk of PC death and overall death (HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.67-0.90, and 0.82, 95% CI 0.73-0.93, respectively. The risk of being diagnosed with non-localized PC was increased for men taking finasteride (odds ratio 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.29) per 100 defined daily doses. Treatment with finasteride prior to a diagnosis of PC did not affect PC-specific survival, but increased the risk of being diagnosed with non-localized disease. Treatment with α-adrenoceptor antagonists was associated with better cause-specific survival and lower risk of non-localized disease.

  14. Characteristics of Men Who Report Persistent Sexual Symptoms After Finasteride Use for Hair Loss.

    PubMed

    Basaria, Shehzad; Jasuja, Ravi; Huang, Grace; Wharton, Whitney; Pan, Hong; Pencina, Karol; Li, Zhuoying; Travison, Thomas G; Bhawan, Jag; Gonthier, Renaud; Labrie, Fernand; Dury, Alain Y; Serra, Carlo; Papazian, Allen; O'Leary, Michael; Amr, Sami; Storer, Thomas W; Stern, Emily; Bhasin, Shalender

    2016-12-01

    Some men who use finasteride for hair loss report persistent sexual and other symptoms after discontinuing finasteride therapy. To determine whether these persistent symptoms after discontinuation of finasteride use are due to androgen deficiency, decreased peripheral androgen action, or persistent inhibition of steroid 5α-reductase (SRD5A) enzymes. Finasteride users, who reported persistent sexual symptoms after discontinuing finasteride (group 1); age-matched finasteride users who did not report sexual symptoms (group 2); and healthy men who had never used finasteride (group 3). Sexual function, mood, affect, cognition, hormone levels, body composition, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) response to sexually and affectively valenced stimuli, nucleotide sequences of androgen receptor (AR), SRD5A1, and SRD5A2; expression levels of androgen-dependent genes in skin. Academic medical center. Symptomatic finasteride users were similar in body composition, strength, and nucleotide sequences of AR, SRD5A1, and SRD5A2 genes to asymptomatic finasteride users and nonusers. Symptomatic finasteride users had impaired sexual function, higher depression scores, a more negative affectivity balance, and more cognitive complaints than men in groups 2 and 3 but had normal objectively assessed cognitive function. Testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol-glucuronide, testosterone to dihydrotestosterone and androsterone glucuronide to etiocholanolone glucuronide ratios, and markers of peripheral androgen action and expression levels of AR-dependent genes in skin did not differ among groups. fMRI blood oxygen level-dependent responses to erotic and nonerotic stimuli revealed abnormal function in brain circuitry linked to sexual arousal and major depression. We found no evidence of androgen deficiency, decreased peripheral androgen action, or persistent peripheral inhibition of SRD5A in men with persistent sexual symptoms after finasteride use

  15. Progesterone-induced stimulation of mammary tumorigenesis is due to the progesterone metabolite, 5α-dihydroprogesterone (5αP) and can be suppressed by the 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, John P; Rivas, Martin A; Mercogliano, Maria F; Elizalde, Patricia V; Schillaci, Roxana

    2015-05-01

    Progesterone has long been linked to breast cancer but its actual role as a cancer promoter has remained in dispute. Previous in vitro studies have shown that progesterone is converted to 5α-dihydroprogesterone (5αP) in breast tissue and human breast cell lines by the action of 5α-reductase, and that 5αP acts as a cancer-promoter hormone. Also studies with human breast cell lines in which the conversion of progesterone to 5αP is blocked by a 5α-reductase inhibitor, have shown that the in vitro stimulation in cell proliferation with progesterone treatments are not due to progesterone itself but to the metabolite 5αP. No similar in vivo study has been previously reported. The objective of the current studies was to determine in an in vivo mouse model if the presumptive progesterone-induced mammary tumorigenesis is due to the progesterone metabolite, 5αP. BALB/c mice were challenged with C4HD murine mammary cells, which have been shown to form tumors when treated with progesterone or the progestin, medroxyprogesterone acetate. Cells and mice were treated with various doses and combinations of progesterone, 5αP and/or the 5α-reductase inhibitor, finasteride, and the effects on cell proliferation and induction and growth of tumors were monitored. Hormone levels in serum and tumors were measured by specific RIA and ELISA tests. Proliferation of C4HD cells and induction and growth of tumors was stimulated by treatment with either progesterone or 5αP. The progesterone-induced stimulation was blocked by finasteride and reinstated by concomitant treatment with 5αP. The 5αP-induced tumors expressed high levels of ER, PR and ErbB-2. Hormone measurements showed significantly higher levels of 5αP in serum from mice with tumors than from mice without tumors, regardless of treatments, and 5αP levels were significantly higher (about 4-fold) in tumors than in respective sera, while progesterone levels did not differ between the compartments. The results indicate that

  16. Persistent sexual side effects of finasteride: could they be permanent?

    PubMed

    Irwig, Michael S

    2012-11-01

    Finasteride has been associated with sexual side effects that may persist despite discontinuation of the medication. In a clinical series, 20% of subjects with male pattern hair loss reported persistent sexual dysfunction for ≥6 years, suggesting the possibility that the dysfunction may be permanent. These subjects also reported a wide range of symptoms including changes in cognition, ejaculate quality, and genital sensation. Other medications have been associated with irreversible neurological effects, such as phenothiazines with tardive dyskinesias. To prospectively study whether the persistent sexual side effects associated with finasteride resolve or endure over time. Subjects (N = 54) with persistent sexual side effects associated with finasteride were reassessed after 9-16 months (mean 14 months). All subjects were otherwise healthy young men without any baseline sexual dysfunction, medical conditions, psychiatric conditions, or use of oral prescription medications prior to taking finasteride for male pattern hair loss. Scores from the Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX). The participation rate was 81%. At reassessment persistent sexual side effects continued to be present in 96% of subjects. According to the ASEX scores, 89% of subjects met the definition of sexual dysfunction. Neither the length of finasteride use nor the duration of the sexual side effects correlated to changes in scores of sexual dysfunction. In most men who developed persistent sexual side effects (≥3 months) despite the discontinuation of finasteride, the sexual dysfunction continued for many months or years. Although several rat studies have shown detrimental changes to erectile function caused by 5 alpha reductase inhibitors, the persistent nature of these changes is an area of active research. Prescribers of finasteride and men contemplating its use should be made aware of the potential adverse medication effects. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  17. Use of finasteride in the treatment of men with androgenetic alopecia (male pattern hair loss).

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Jerry; Kaufman, Keith D

    2003-06-01

    Finasteride, a type 2-selective 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, was approved in 1997 as the first oral pharmacologic therapy for the treatment of men with androgenetic alopecia (AGA; male pattern hair loss). Originally developed for the treatment of men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) at a dose of 5 mg/day, finasteride has a well-established, excellent safety profile. Subsequent studies demonstrated that finasteride was an effective treatment for men with AGA at an optimal dose of 1 mg/day. This report summarizes the published peer-reviewed literature on the use of finasteride in the treatment of men with AGA, including the data on long-term (5 years) use of finasteride in a placebo-controlled clinical trial environment.

  18. Persistent Sexual Dysfunction with Finasteride 1 mg Taken for Hair Loss.

    PubMed

    Guo, Michael; Heran, Balraj; Flannigan, Ryan; Kezouh, Abbas; Etminan, Mahyar

    2016-11-01

    To examine the risk of persistent sexual dysfunction (PSD) with finasteride 1 mg. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the IMS U.S. health claims database. From an original cohort of 6,110,723 patients, we identified 1390 men who had stopped using finasteride 1 mg and 20,000 randomly selected age- and calendar time-matched users of omeprazole from 2006 to 2014. First PSD event was defined as (1) the first PSD diagnosis through the first International Classification for Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification) code for sexual dysfunction and (2) use of a phosphodiesterase inhibitor (sildenafil, tadalafil, or vardenafil). In the primary analysis, we identified 1390 men taking finasteride 1 mg and 20,000 omeprazole users. The mean time to first PSD event after discontinuation of a finasteride 1 mg prescription was 391 days (SD, 357 days). The rate of PSD for finasteride 1 mg users and omeprazole users was 37.9 and 15.0 per 1000 person-years, respectively. For the primary analysis of sexual dysfunction, the adjusted hazard ratio (HR) comparing finasteride 1 mg users to omeprazole users was 1.62 (1.14-2.29). Adjusted HR in the secondary analysis comparing finasteride users to omeprazole users with respect to the first phosphodiesterase inhibitor was 2.73 (2.01-3.69). The risk of PSD in men who stopped finasteride 1 mg therapy was higher than that for omeprazole users. Patients who stopped finasteride therapy sought physician visits for sexual dysfunction up to 1 year after stopping finasteride. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.

  19. Safety Profile of Finasteride: Distribution of Adverse Effects According to Structural and Informational Dichotomies of the Mind/Brain.

    PubMed

    Motofei, Ion G; Rowland, David L; Manea, Mirela; Georgescu, Simona R; Păunică, Ioana; Sinescu, Ioanel

    2017-02-04

    Finasteride is currently used extensively for male androgenic alopecia and benign prostatic hyperplasia; however, some adverse effects are severe and even persistent after treatment cessation, the so-called 'post-finasteride syndrome'. The following most severe adverse effects-sexual dysfunction and depression-often occur together and may potentiate one other, a fact that could explain (at least in part) the magnitude and persistence of finasteride adverse effects. This paper presents the pharmacological action of finasteride and the corresponding adverse effects, the biological base explaining the occurrence, persistence and distribution of these adverse effects, and a possible therapeutic solution for post-finasteride syndrome. The distribution of finasteride adverse effects is presented within a comprehensive and modern neuro-endocrine perspective related to structural and informational dichotomies of the brain. Understanding the variation of finasteride side effects among different populations would be necessary not only to delineate the safety profile of finasteride for different subgroups of men (a subject may or may not be affected by a certain anti-hormonal compound dependent on the individual neuro-endocrine profile), but also as a possible premise for a therapeutic approach of finasteride adverse effects. Such therapeutic approach should include administration of exogenous hormones, which are deficient in men with post-finasteride syndrome, namely dihydrotestosterone (in right-handed men) or progesterone/dihydroprogesterone (in left-handed subjects).

  20. The effectiveness of reducing the daily dose of finasteride in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Michael J; Geller, Jack

    2002-01-01

    Background Finasteride, a 5 alpha reductase inhibitor, is an established treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia. The recommended dosage is 5 mg a day, however case reports have show effectiveness with lower doses. The objective of the current study was to determine in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia, previously treated for at least one year with finasteride 5 mg daily, if they will maintain subjective and objective improvements in urinary obstruction when treated with 2.5 mg of finasteride daily for one year. Methods In an open label, prospective study, 40 men with benign prostatic hyperplasia, previously treated for at least one year with 5 mg of finasteride, took 2.5 mg of finasteride daily for one year. Measurements included AUA symptom score, maximum flow rate, voided volume and PSA. Results There were no significant changes in maximum flow rate, voided volume, or AUA symptom score after one year of finasteride 2.5 mg daily therapy. PSA increased significantly, p < .01, after one year of finasteride 2.5 mg daily, 2.0 +1.4 ng/ml, when compared to finasteride 5 mg daily, 1.4+ 1.0 ng/ml. Conclusions The daily dose of finasteride can be reduced to 2.5 mg daily without significant effect on subjective and objective measures of urinary obstruction. Although statistically significant increases in PSA are noted when reducing the daily finasteride dose from 5 mg to 2.5 mg, the clinical significance of a mean .6 ng/ml increase in PSA is questionable. PMID:11818031

  1. Penetration profile and human cadaver skin distribution of finasteride from vesicular nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Rao, Yuefeng; Zheng, Feiyue; Liang, Xingguang; Wang, Huiyuan; Zhang, Jin; Lu, Xiaoyang

    2015-12-01

    The skin accumulation of therapeutic agents affects the efficiency of topical drug delivery. In this study, in vitro distribution of finasteride of ethosomes and liposomes in human cadaver skin after percutaneous delivery were investigated. Experiments were performed using modified Franz diffusion cells. Finasteride ethosomes, liposomes or hydroethanolic solutions were used as donor medium. Drug distribution at different skin layers and depths were studied by hotplate separation and frozen horizontal slicing technique. The result showed that the accumulation of finasteride in skin ranged from 9.7-24.3 μg/cm(2) at 12 or 24 hours. The ethosomes demonstrated better enhancing ability to deliver finasteride into the dermis layer than liposomes did. The finasteride concentration in the dermis layer from ethosomes was more than sevenfold higher than from liposomes. The finasteride accumulation in ethosomes group showed a distinctive reversed distribution profile. This distinctive reversed distribution profile is meaningful for exerting a favorable pharmacological effect for finasteride. The drug distribution profile in skin layers showed no significant difference between 12 and 24 hours application (p > 0.05). The study demonstrated that finasteride can be accumulated at target site more effectively and maintained at higher level through the application of novel ethosomal carriers.

  2. Finasteride (Propecia/Proscar) and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... best live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Finasteride (Propecia®|Proscar®) Tuesday, 20 May 2014 In every ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to finasteride may increase the risk for birth defects above ...

  3. Finasteride treatment alters tissue specific androgen receptor expression in prostate tissues.

    PubMed

    Bauman, Tyler M; Sehgal, Priyanka D; Johnson, Karen A; Pier, Thomas; Bruskewitz, Reginald C; Ricke, William A; Huang, Wei

    2014-06-01

    Normal and pathologic growth of the prostate is dependent on the synthesis of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) from testosterone by 5α-reductase. Finasteride is a selective inhibitor of 5α-reductase 2, one isozyme of 5α-reductase found in abundance in the human prostate. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of finasteride on androgen receptor expression and tissue morphology in human benign prostatic hyperplasia specimens. Patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate and either treated or not treated with finasteride between 2004 and 2010 at the University of Wisconsin-Hospital were retrospectively identified using an institutional database. Prostate specimens from each patient were triple-stained for androgen receptor, prostate-specific antigen, and basal marker cytokeratin 5. Morphometric analysis was performed using the multispectral imaging, and results were compared between groups of finasteride treated and non-treated patients. Epithelial androgen receptor but not stromal androgen receptor expression was significantly lower in patients treated with finasteride than in non-treated patients. Androgen receptor-regulated prostate-specific antigen was not significantly decreased in finasteride-treated patients. Significant luminal epithelial atrophy and basal cell hyperplasia were prevalent in finasteride treated patients. Epithelial androgen receptor expression was highly correlated to the level of luminal epithelial atrophy. In this study, finasteride decreased the expression of epithelial androgen receptor in a tissue specific manner. The correlation between epithelial androgen receptor and the extent of luminal epithelial atrophy suggests that epithelial androgen receptor may be directly regulating the atrophic effects observed with finasteride treatment. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Finasteride Treatment Alters Tissue Specific Androgen Receptor Expression in Prostate Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Bauman, Tyler M.; Sehgal, Priyanka D.; Johnson, Karen A.; Pier, Thomas; Bruskewitz, Reginald C.; Ricke, William A.; Huang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Normal and pathologic growth of the prostate is dependent on the synthesis of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) from testosterone by 5α-reductase. Finasteride is a selective inhibitor of 5α-reductase 2, one isozyme of 5α-reductase found in abundance in the human prostate. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of finasteride on androgen receptor expression and tissue morphology in human benign prostatic hyperplasia specimens. METHODS Patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate and either treated or not treated with finasteride between 2004 and 2010 at the University of Wisconsin-Hospital were retrospectively identified using an institutional database. Prostate specimens from each patient were triple-stained for androgen receptor, prostate-specific antigen, and basal marker cytokeratin 5. Morphometric analysis was performed using the multispectral imaging, and results were compared between groups of finasteride treated and non-treated patients. RESULTS Epithelial androgen receptor but not stromal androgen receptor expression was significantly lower in patients treated with finasteride than in non-treated patients. Androgen receptor-regulated prostate-specific antigen was not significantly decreased in finasteride-treated patients. Significant luminal epithelial atrophy and basal cell hyperplasia were prevalent in finasteride treated patients. Epithelial androgen receptor expression was highly correlated to the level of luminal epithelial atrophy. CONCLUSIONS In this study, finasteride decreased the expression of epithelial androgen receptor in a tissue specific manner. The correlation between epithelial androgen receptor and the extent of luminal epithelial atrophy suggests that epithelial androgen receptor may be directly regulating the atrophic effects observed with finasteride treatment. PMID:24789081

  5. Finasteride: a review of its use in male pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    McClellan, K J; Markham, A

    1999-01-01

    The 5alpha-reductase inhibitor finasteride blocks the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT), the androgen responsible for male pattern hair loss (androgenetic alopecia) in genetically predisposed men. Results of phase III clinical studies in 1879 men have shown that oral finasteride 1 mg/day promotes hair growth and prevents further hair loss in a significant proportion of men with male pattern hair loss. Evidence suggests that the improvement in hair count reported after 1 year is maintained during 2 years' treatment. In men with vertex hair loss, global photographs showed improvement in hair growth in 48% of finasteride recipients at 1 year and in 66% at 2 years compared with 7% of placebo recipients at each time point. Furthermore, hair counts in these men showed that 83% of finasteride versus 28% of placebo recipients had no further hair loss compared with baseline after 2 years. The clinical efficacy of oral finasteride has not yet been compared with that of topical minoxidil, the only other drug used clinically in patients with male pattern hair loss. Therapeutic dosages of finasteride are generally well tolerated. In phase III studies, 7.7% of patients receiving finasteride 1 mg/day compared with 7.0% of those receiving placebo reported treatment-related adverse events. The overall incidence of sexual function disorders, comprising decreased libido, ejaculation disorder and erectile dysfunction, was significantly greater in finasteride than placebo recipients (3.8 vs 2.1%). All sexual adverse events were reversed on discontinuation of therapy and many resolved in patients who continued therapy. No other drug-related events were reported with an incidence > or =1% in patients receiving finasteride. Most events were of mild to moderate severity. Oral finasteride is contraindicated in pregnant women because of the risk of hypospadias in male fetuses. Oral finasteride promotes scalp hair growth and prevents further hair loss in a significant

  6. Persistent sexual, emotional, and cognitive impairment post-finasteride: a survey of men reporting symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ganzer, Christine Anne; Jacobs, Alan Roy; Iqbal, Farin

    2015-05-01

    Finasteride is a synthetic 5-α reductase inhibitor, which prevents the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone and has been used for more than 20 years in the treatment of male pattern hair loss. Randomized, controlled trials have associated finasteride with both reversible and persistent adverse effects. In this pilot study, we sought to characterize sexual and nonsexual adverse effects that men reported experiencing at least 3 months after stopping the medication. Based on previous research on persistent side effects of finasteride, we constructed an Internet survey targeting six domains: physical symptoms, sexual libido, ejaculatory disorders, disorders of the penis and testes, cognitive symptoms, and psychological symptoms and was e-mailed to patients who reported experiencing symptoms of side effects of finasteride. Responses from 131 generally healthy men (mean age, 24 years) who had taken finasteride for male pattern hair loss was included in the analysis. The most notable finding was that adverse effects persisted in each of the domains, indicating the possible presence of a "post-finasteride syndrome." © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Advances in the treatment of male androgenetic alopecia: a brief review of finasteride studies.

    PubMed

    Whiting, D A

    2001-01-01

    Finasteride is a type 2 5a-reductase inhibitor and therefore mimics the biochemical profile of inherited type 2 5a-reductase deficiency in men. It was developed to grow hair in androgenetic alopecia and shrink benign prostatic hyperplasia. Various clinical trials of finasteride have confirmed its beneficial effects in androgenetic alopecia in males, but not in females. It can produce visible hair growth in up to 66% of men with mild to moderate alopecia, but importantly can stop hair loss in 91% of patients. In long-term finasteride studies, placebo patients were characterized by significant and progressive hair loss. It can be concluded that finasteride prevents further hair loss by actually continuing to grow enough hair to preserve scalp coverage. This is confirmed by the loss of hair following withdrawal of finasteride in such cases. The proven preservative effect of finasteride, in addition to its restorative effect, is a strong indication for prescribing it in early cases of androgenetic alopecia before much hair has been lost.

  8. In Vitro Analysis of Finasteride Activity against Candida albicans Urinary Biofilm Formation and Filamentation

    PubMed Central

    Chavez-Dozal, Alba A.; Lown, Livia; Jahng, Maximillian; Walraven, Carla J.

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is the 3rd most common cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infections, with a strong propensity to form drug-resistant catheter-related biofilms. Due to the limited efficacy of available antifungals against biofilms, drug repurposing has been investigated in order to identify novel agents with activities against fungal biofilms. Finasteride is a 5-α-reductase inhibitor commonly used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia, with activity against human type II and III isoenzymes. We analyzed the Candida Genome Database and identified a C. albicans homolog of type III 5-α-reductase, Dfg10p, which shares 27% sequence identity and 41% similarity to the human type III 5-α-reductase. Thus, we investigated finasteride for activity against C. albicans urinary biofilms, alone and in combination with amphotericin B or fluconazole. Finasteride alone was highly effective in the prevention of C. albicans biofilm formation at doses of ≥16 mg/liter and the treatment of preformed biofilms at doses of ≥128 mg/liter. In biofilm checkerboard analyses, finasteride exhibited synergistic activity in the prevention of biofilm formation in a combination of 4 mg/liter finasteride with 2 mg/liter fluconazole. Finasteride inhibited filamentation, thus suggesting a potential mechanism of action. These results indicate that finasteride alone is highly active in the prevention of C. albicans urinary biofilms in vitro and has synergistic activity in combination with fluconazole. Further investigation of the clinical utility of finasteride in the prevention of urinary candidiasis is warranted. PMID:25049253

  9. In vitro analysis of finasteride activity against Candida albicans urinary biofilm formation and filamentation.

    PubMed

    Chavez-Dozal, Alba A; Lown, Livia; Jahng, Maximillian; Walraven, Carla J; Lee, Samuel A

    2014-10-01

    Candida albicans is the 3rd most common cause of catheter-associated urinary tract infections, with a strong propensity to form drug-resistant catheter-related biofilms. Due to the limited efficacy of available antifungals against biofilms, drug repurposing has been investigated in order to identify novel agents with activities against fungal biofilms. Finasteride is a 5-α-reductase inhibitor commonly used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia, with activity against human type II and III isoenzymes. We analyzed the Candida Genome Database and identified a C. albicans homolog of type III 5-α-reductase, Dfg10p, which shares 27% sequence identity and 41% similarity to the human type III 5-α-reductase. Thus, we investigated finasteride for activity against C. albicans urinary biofilms, alone and in combination with amphotericin B or fluconazole. Finasteride alone was highly effective in the prevention of C. albicans biofilm formation at doses of ≥16 mg/liter and the treatment of preformed biofilms at doses of ≥128 mg/liter. In biofilm checkerboard analyses, finasteride exhibited synergistic activity in the prevention of biofilm formation in a combination of 4 mg/liter finasteride with 2 mg/liter fluconazole. Finasteride inhibited filamentation, thus suggesting a potential mechanism of action. These results indicate that finasteride alone is highly active in the prevention of C. albicans urinary biofilms in vitro and has synergistic activity in combination with fluconazole. Further investigation of the clinical utility of finasteride in the prevention of urinary candidiasis is warranted.

  10. Finasteride, not tamsulosin, increases severity of erectile dysfunction and decreases testosterone levels in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Traish, Abdulmaged M; Haider, Karim Sultan; Doros, Gheorghe; Haider, Ahmad

    2015-09-01

    5α-reductase inhibitors (5α-RIs) (finasteride and dutasteride) have been proven useful in treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) related to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). However, these inhibitors exert undesirable sexual side effects and, in some cases, these effects are persistent. There is considerable disagreement with regard to whether the adverse side effects resolve with continuous treatment. To investigate the long-term adverse effects of finasteride treatment in men with BPH on erectile function and to compare these adverse effects in men treated with the α1-adrenergic receptor blocker, tamsolusin. In this retrospective registry study, a cohort of 470 men aged between 47 and 68 years (mean 57.78±4.81) were treated with finasteride (5 mg/day). A second cohort of 230 men aged between 52 and 72 years (mean 62.62±4.65) were treated with tamsulosin (0.4 mg). All men were followed up for 45 months. At intervals of 3 months and at each visit, plasma testosterone (T) levels and the international index of erectile function (IIEF-EF) questionnaire scores were determined. Long-term treatment with finasteride therapy is associated with worsening of erectile dysfunction (ED) as shown by the significant decrease in the IIEF-EF scores in men treated with finasteride. No worsening of ED was observed in men treated with tamsulosin. The increase in ED due to finasteride did not resolve with continued treatment with finasteride. Most importantly, long-term finasteride therapy resulted in reduction in total T levels, contributing to a state of hypogonadism. On the contrary, no changes in T levels were noted in men treated with tamsolusin. Our findings suggest that in men with BPH, long-term finasteride therapy but not tamsulosin results in worsening of ED and reduces total T concentrations. Clinicians are urged to discuss the impact of 5α-RIs therapy on sexual function with their patients before commencing this therapy.

  11. Finasteride use and acute pancreatitis in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lai, Hsueh-Chou; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether there is an association between finasteride use and the risk of acute pancreatitis. This population-based case-control study used the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. There were 2,530 male subjects aged 40-84 years with a first-attack of acute pancreatitis during the period of 1998-2011 as the case group and 10,119 randomly selected subjects without acute pancreatitis as the control group. Both groups were matched by age and index year of diagnosing acute pancreatitis. Subjects who never had finasteride prescription were defined as "never use." Subjects who at least received 1 prescription for finasteride before the date of diagnosing acute pancreatitis were defined as "ever use." The association of acute pancreatitis with finasteride use was examined by the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) using the multivariable unconditional logistic regression model. The crude OR of acute pancreatitis was 1.78 (95%CI 1.33, 2.39) for subjects with ever use of finasteride, when compared with subjects with never use of finasteride. After adjusting for potential confounders, the adjusted OR of acute pancreatitis decreased to 1.25 (95%CI 0.90, 1.73) for subjects with ever use of finasteride, but no statistical significance was seen. No association can be detected between finasteride use and the risk of acute pancreatitis.

  12. Finasteride treatment of hair loss in women.

    PubMed

    Stout, Stephen M; Stumpf, Janice L

    2010-06-01

    To review available evidence on the safety and efficacy of finasteride in the treatment of alopecia in women. A literature search was conducted through PubMed (1948-March 2010) and MEDLINE (1950-March 2010) using the search terms finasteride and alopecia. References cited in relevant publications were reviewed. All data sources identified were reviewed for inclusion. Reports of finasteride treatment of female alopecia were included in the review. This included prospective and retrospective trials, case series, and case reports. Studies in men were not included. Few pharmacologic options exist for women with alopecia who do not achieve satisfactory responses to topical minoxidil solution. Treatment successes with finasteride in women with female pattern hair loss, although an off-label indication, have been primarily described in uncontrolled studies and anecdotal reports. In 2 controlled clinical studies, finasteride showed no benefit over placebo or no treatment in female pattern hair loss. A finasteride regimen of 1 mg orally daily, as indicated in male pattern hair loss, may be recommended for those who fail or cannot tolerate minoxidil therapy. A 12-month trial is needed to assess stabilization of hair loss, and hair regrowth may take 2 years or longer. Although data are sparse, menopausal status, circulating androgen concentrations, and concomitant symptoms of hyperandrogenism do not appear to predict response to finasteride. Overall, finasteride is well tolerated; however, women of childbearing potential must adhere to reliable contraception while receiving finasteride, and treatment is contraindicated in pregnancy, due to known teratogenicity. Although objective evidence of efficacy is limited, finasteride may be considered for treatment of female pattern hair loss in patients who fail topical minoxidil treatment.

  13. Effects of in utero exposure to finasteride on androgen-dependent reproductive development in the male rat.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Christopher J; Barlow, Norman J; Turner, Katie J; Wallace, Duncan G; Foster, Paul M D

    2003-08-01

    Finasteride is a specific inhibitor of type II 5alpha-reductase, the enzyme that converts testosterone (T) to the more potent androgen receptor agonist dihydrotestosterone (DHT). In utero exposure to androgen receptor antagonists and T biosynthesis inhibitors have induced permanent effects on androgen-sensitive end points such as anogenital distance (AGD), nipple retention, and malformations of the male rat reproductive tract. The objectives of this study were to (1) characterize the dose response of finasteride-mediated alterations in androgen-dependent developmental end points, (2) determine whether prenatal exposure to finasteride permanently decreases AGD or results in nipple retention, and (3) evaluate whether AGD or nipple retention is predictive of adverse alterations in the male reproductive tract. Pregnant Crl:CD(SD)BR rats (n=5-6/group) were gavaged with either vehicle or finasteride at 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 10, or 100 mg/kg/day on gestation days 12 to 21. All male offspring were monitored individually until necropsy on postnatal day (PND) 90. The present study design has been used previously for other antiandrogens and is sensitive to perturbations of the male rat reproductive tract. Decreases in AGD on PND 1 and increases in areolae-nipple retention on PND 13 were significantly different from controls in all finasteride-exposed male rats. Finasteride-induced changes in AGD and nipple retention were permanent in male rats exposed to finasteride at and above 0.1 mg/kg/day. On PND 90, dorsolateral and ventral prostate lobes were absent in 21 to 24% of rats exposed to 100 mg/kg/day finasteride and weighed significantly less at and above 10 mg/kg/day. In the highest dose group, 73% of animals had ectopic testes, much higher than previously reported. The most sensitive malformation other than decreased AGD and nipple retention was the dose-dependent increase in hypospadias. The lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) for finasteride-induced permanent effects

  14. Comparison of finasteride (Proscar) and Serenoa repens (Permixon) in the inhibition of 5-alpha reductase in healthy male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Strauch, G; Perles, P; Vergult, G; Gabriel, M; Gibelin, B; Cummings, S; Malbecq, W; Malice, M P

    1994-01-01

    A total of 32 healthy male volunteers (age range 20-30 years) were enrolled in a 1-week open, randomized, placebo-controlled study comparing finasteride (Proscar), a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor, with Permixon, the plant extract of Serenoa repens. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of single and multiple doses of the drugs on the inhibition of 5 alpha-reductase as assessed by serum dihydrotestosterone level determination. Following baseline measurements on day 1, the subjects were randomized to finasteride 5 mg once a day (n = 10), Permixon 80 mg x 2 twice a day (n = 11), or to placebo once a day (n = 11) for 7 days. Serum testosterone and dihydrotestosterone levels, were determined on day 1 (baseline and 12 h) and on days 2 (24 h), 3 (48 h), 4 (72 h), 6 (120 h), and 8 (168 h). After 12 h, a single dose of finasteride 5 mg reduced the serum dihydrotestosterone level by 65% (p < or = 0.01). The decreases ranged from -52 to -60% with multiple doses of finasteride 5 mg once a day (p < or = 0.01). As in the placebo group, there was no effect of Permixon on the serum dihydrotestosterone level. No significant difference was detected between finasteride and Permixon or between finasteride and placebo with respect to serum testosterone, except on days 3 and 6, respectively (p < or = 0.05). However, the corresponding serum testosterone levels remained within the normal ranges. These data confirm the efficacy of finasteride as inhibitor of 5 alpha-reductase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Finasteride Does Not Increase the Risk of High-grade Prostate Cancer: A Bias-adjusted Modeling Approach

    PubMed Central

    Redman, Mary W.; Tangen, Catherine M.; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Parnes, Howard; Ford, Leslie G.; Lucia, M. Scott; Coltman, Charles A.; Thompson, Ian M.

    2010-01-01

    The Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial found that seven years of administration of finasteride reduced the risk of prostate cancer by 25% but with an apparent increased risk of high grade disease. Subsequent analyses found that finasteride affects cancer detection and improves accuracy of tumor grading at biopsy. We herein estimate the impact of finasteride on the risk of overall and high grade prostate cancer, accounting for these biases. Study endpoints (biopsy-proven cancer or a 7-year end-of-study biopsy) were available in 10,182 of 15,990 subjects assessable for 7-year status and grading information from 500 subjects diagnosed with cancer who underwent radical prostatectomy. Prostate cancer was observed in 22.9% (4.8% with high grade) in the placebo group versus 16.6% (5.8% with high grade) in the finasteride group. In this bias-adjusted analysis, the estimated rates are 21.1% (4.2%) and 14.7% (4.8%), respectively, a 30% risk reduction in prostate cancer (RR =0.70 (95% confidence interval (CI) =0.64-0.76, p<0.0001) and a non-significant 14% increase in high grade cancer (RR=1.14 (95% CI = (0.96-1.35), p=0.12) with finasteride. Incorporating the prostatectomy data, estimated rates of high grade cancers are 8.2% (placebo) versus 6.0% (finasteride), a 27% risk reduction (RR = 0.73 (95% CI=0.56-0.96, p=0.02)) with finasteride. While the observed risk of high grade disease is greater with finasteride, this appears to be through facilitated diagnosis, primarily due to increased biopsy sensitivity. Men undergoing regular prostate cancer screening or who express an interest in cancer prevention should be informed of this prevention opportunity. PMID:19138953

  16. The effect of finasteride on the prostate gland in men with elevated serum prostate-specific antigen levels.

    PubMed Central

    Cote, R. J.; Skinner, E. C.; Salem, C. E.; Mertes, S. J.; Stanczyk, F. Z.; Henderson, B. E.; Pike, M. C.; Ross, R. K.

    1998-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a disease associated with androgens. It has been hypothesized that reducing the conversion of testosterone (T) to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in the prostate by the use of the drug finasteride, a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, will reduce the incidence of prostate cancer. We investigated the chemopreventive potential of finasteride by evaluating its effect on the prostate gland of men with elevated serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Fifty-two men with elevated PSA and prostate sextant biopsies negative for cancer were randomized to receive finasteride 5 mg day(-1) (27 patients) or no medication (25 patients) for 12 months and were rebiopsied at 12 months. The biopsies were evaluated for the presence of cancer, the proportion of glandular and hyperplastic tissue, and the presence of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN). Epithelial proliferation was assessed in the prestudy and 12-month biopsies by immunohistochemistry using antibody to proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Serum blood samples were drawn at baseline and after 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of study. In the control group, serum levels of PSA and T were unchanged throughout the 12 months. In the finasteride group, PSA decreased 48% (P < 0.001), DHT decreased 67% (P < 0.001) and T increased 21% (P < 0.001). Histological evaluation of prestudy and 12-month biopsy specimens revealed that the finasteride group had a 30% reduction in the percentage of hyperplastic epithelial tissue (P = 0.002), although this decrease was not statistically significantly different between the finasteride and control groups (P = 0.11). In patients with PIN on prestudy biopsy, no change occurred in the PIN lesions with finasteride treatment. Finasteride also had no effect on the proliferation index of prostatic epithelial cells. Of the 27 patients treated with finasteride, eight (30%) had adenocarcinoma of the prostate detected on the 12-month biopsy, compared with one (4%) of the control patients

  17. The Effect of 5α-Reductase Inhibition With Dutasteride and Finasteride on Bone Mineral Density, Serum Lipoproteins, Hemoglobin, Prostate Specific Antigen and Sexual Function in Healthy Young Men

    PubMed Central

    Amory, John K.; Anawalt, Bradley D.; Matsumoto, Alvin M.; Page, Stephanie T.; Bremner, William J.; Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald S.; Clark, Richard V.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Dutasteride and finasteride are 5α-reductase inhibitors that dramatically decrease serum levels of dihydrotestosterone. Because androgens affect bone, lipids, hematopoiesis, prostate and sexual function, we determined the impact of 5α-reductase inhibitors on these end points. Materials and Methods We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled trial of 99 men 18 to 55 years old randomly assigned to receive 0.5 mg dutasteride (33), 5 mg finasteride (34) or placebo (32) daily for 1 year. Bone mineral density was measured at baseline, after 1 year of treatment and 6 months after drug discontinuation. In addition, markers of bone turnover, fasting serum lipoprotein concentrations, hemoglobin and prostate specific antigen were measured at baseline, after 26 and 52 weeks of treatment, and again 24 weeks after drug discontinuation. Sexual function was assessed at these points by a validated questionnaire. Results Significant suppression of circulating dihydrotestosterone levels with the administration of dutasteride or finasteride did not significantly affect bone mineral density or markers of bone metabolism. Similarly serum lipoproteins and hemoglobin were unaffected. Serum prostate specific antigen and self-assessed sexual function decreased slightly during treatment with both 5α-reductase inhibitors but returned to baseline during followup. Conclusions Profound suppression of circulating serum dihydrotestosterone induced by 5α-reductase inhibitors during 1 year does not adversely impact bone, serum lipoproteins or hemoglobin, and has a minimal, reversible effect on serum prostate specific antigen and sexual function in normal men. Circulating dihydrotestosterone does not appear to have a clinically significant role in modulating bone mass, hematopoiesis or lipid metabolism in normal men. PMID:18423697

  18. Cognitive effects of testosterone and finasteride administration in older hypogonadal men.

    PubMed

    Borst, Stephen E; Yarrow, Joshua F; Fernandez, Carmen; Conover, Christine F; Ye, Fan; Meuleman, John R; Morrow, Matthew; Zou, Baiming; Shuster, Jonathan J

    2014-01-01

    Serum concentrations of neuroactive androgens decline in older men and, in some studies, low testosterone is associated with decreased cognitive function and incidence of depression. Existing studies evaluating the effect of testosterone administration on cognition in older men have been largely inconclusive, with some studies reporting minor to moderate cognitive benefit, while others indicate no cognitive effect. Our objective was to assess the cognitive effects of treating older hypogonadal men for 1 year with a supraphysiological dose of testosterone, either alone or in combination with finasteride (a type II 5α-reductase inhibitor), in order to determine whether testosterone produces cognitive benefit and whether suppressed dihydrotestosterone influences cognition. Sixty men aged ≥ 60 years with a serum testosterone concentration of ≤ 300 ng/dL or bioavailable testosterone ≤ 70 ng/dL and no evidence of cognitive impairment received testosterone-enanthate (125 mg/week) versus vehicle, paired with finasteride (5 mg/day) versus placebo using a 2×2 factorial design. Testosterone caused a small decrease in depressive symptoms as assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale and a moderate increase in visuospatial memory as assessed by performance on a recall trial of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test. Finasteride caused a small increase in performance on the Benton Judgment of Line Orientation test. In total, major improvements in cognition were not observed either with testosterone or finasteride. Further studies are warranted to determine if testosterone replacement may improve cognition in other domains.

  19. Cognitive effects of testosterone and finasteride administration in older hypogonadal men

    PubMed Central

    Borst, Stephen E; Yarrow, Joshua F; Fernandez, Carmen; Conover, Christine F; Ye, Fan; Meuleman, John R; Morrow, Matthew; Zou, Baiming; Shuster, Jonathan J

    2014-01-01

    Serum concentrations of neuroactive androgens decline in older men and, in some studies, low testosterone is associated with decreased cognitive function and incidence of depression. Existing studies evaluating the effect of testosterone administration on cognition in older men have been largely inconclusive, with some studies reporting minor to moderate cognitive benefit, while others indicate no cognitive effect. Our objective was to assess the cognitive effects of treating older hypogonadal men for 1 year with a supraphysiological dose of testosterone, either alone or in combination with finasteride (a type II 5α-reductase inhibitor), in order to determine whether testosterone produces cognitive benefit and whether suppressed dihydrotestosterone influences cognition. Sixty men aged ≥60 years with a serum testosterone concentration of ≤300 ng/dL or bioavailable testosterone ≤70 ng/dL and no evidence of cognitive impairment received testosterone-enanthate (125 mg/week) versus vehicle, paired with finasteride (5 mg/day) versus placebo using a 2×2 factorial design. Testosterone caused a small decrease in depressive symptoms as assessed by the Geriatric Depression Scale and a moderate increase in visuospatial memory as assessed by performance on a recall trial of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test. Finasteride caused a small increase in performance on the Benton Judgment of Line Orientation test. In total, major improvements in cognition were not observed either with testosterone or finasteride. Further studies are warranted to determine if testosterone replacement may improve cognition in other domains. PMID:25143719

  20. Effects of finasteride and bicalutamide on prostatic blood flow in the rat.

    PubMed

    Lekås, E; Bergh, A; Damber, J E

    2000-05-01

    To determine whether finasteride and bicalutamide, both currently used in the clinical management of patients with prostate diseases because they have anti-androgenic properties, have any effects on prostatic blood flow in a rat prostate model, as androgens are known to be involved in the regulation of prostatic blood flow and angiogenesis. Both finasteride and bicalutamide were supplied as oral suspensions in water and given daily to rats for 7 days by tube feeding. Blood flows to the ventral and dorsal prostates, and to the kidneys, were measured using the radioactive microsphere technique. In the bicalutamide experiments, some rats were treated with the Leydig cell toxin ethane dimethane sulphonate (EDS), to obtain a castration-like effect, and one group of these rats received testosterone. Finasteride induced a clear decrease in blood flow to the ventral and dorsal prostates after 7 days of treatment, with no significant changes in blood pressure or kidney blood flow. Bicalutamide inhibited the testosterone-induced increment of prostatic blood flow observed in EDS-treated animals. Finasteride, a blocker of 5alpha-reductase, decreases prostate blood flow after 7 days of administration. The response was slower than that after castration, but was of similar magnitude. Blood flow was also decreased after treatment with the androgen-receptor inhibitor bicalutamide. These observations suggest that prostatic blood flow is increased by dihydrotestosterone, and that the androgen receptor is responsible for mediating this effect.

  1. Cancer Targeting Potential of (99m)Tc-Finasteride in Experimental Model of Prostate Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jan, Gowsia; Passi, Neelima D; Dhawan, Devinder Kumar; Chadha, Vijayta Dani

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to radiolabel finasteride, a novel 5α-reductase inhibitor, to evaluate its cancer targeting potential in experimental model of prostate carcinogenesis. Finasteride was effectively radiolabeled with (99m)Tc and showed >90% labeling efficiency. The radiopharmaceutical was found to be stable up to 6 hours in rat serum at 37°C. The blood kinetics of the (99m)Tc-finasteride followed a biphasic release pattern, whereby fast-release phase was observed at 15 seconds and a slow-release phase was observed after 30 minutes of administration. The plasma protein binding of the radio complex observed was 83.89%. For biodistribution studies, the rats were divided into two groups. Group I served as normal controls, while group II was subjected to carcinogen N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) and hormone testosterone propionate (T) for induction of prostate carcinogenesis, which was confirmed histopathologically. The biodistribution studies on control and carcinogen-treated rats revealed a significant percent-specific uptake in prostate, which was found to be increased significantly as a function of time. The most significant finding of the study was an increase in the percent-specific uptake in prostate of carcinogen-treated animals when compared to the percent-specific uptake in prostate of normal rats after 2 and 4 hours postinjection. The study concludes that (99m)Tc-finasteride possesses selectively toward prostate cancer tissue and can be explored further for its role in detection of prostate cancer.

  2. Overexpression of Aldo-Keto Reductase 1C3 (AKR1C3) in LNCaP Cells Diverts Androgen Metabolism towards Testosterone Resulting in Resistance to the 5α-Reductase Inhibitor Finasteride

    PubMed Central

    Byrns, Michael C.; Mindnich, Rebekka; Duan, Ling; Penning, Trevor M.

    2012-01-01

    Type 5 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (AKR1C3) is the major enzyme in the prostate that reduces 4-androstene-3,17-dione (Δ4-Adione) to the androgen receptor (AR) ligand testosterone. AKR1C3 is upregulated in prostate cancer (PCa) and castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) that develops after androgen deprivation therapy. PCa and CRPC often depend on intratumoral androgen biosynthesis and upregulation of AKR1C3 could contribute to intracellular synthesis of AR ligands and stimulation of proliferation through AR signalling. To test this hypothesis, we developed an LNCaP prostate cancer cell line overexpressing AKR1C3 (LNCaP-AKR1C3) and compared its metabolic and proliferative responses to Δ4-Adione treatment with that of the parental, AKR1C3 negative LNCaP cells. In LNCaP and LNCaP-AKR1C3 cells, metabolism proceeded via 5α-reduction to form 5α-androstane-3,17-dione and then (epi)androsterone-3-glucuronide. LNCaP-AKR1C3 cells made significantly higher amounts of testosterone-17β-glucuronide. When 5α-reductase was inhibited by finasteride, the production of testosterone-17β-glucuronide was further elevated in LNCaP-AKR1C3 cells. When AKR1C3 activity was inhibited with indomethacin the production of testosterone-17β-glucuronide was significantly decreased. Δ4-Adione treatment stimulated cell proliferation in both cell lines. Finasteride inhibited LNCaP cell proliferation, consistent with 5α-androstane-3,17-dione acting as the major metabolite that stimulates growth by binding to the mutated AR. However, LNCaP-AKR1C3 cells were resistant to the growth inhibitory properties of finasteride, consistent with the diversion of Δ4-Adione metabolism from 5α-reduced androgens to increased formation of testosterone. Indomethacin did not result in differences in Δ4-Adione induced proliferation since this treatment led to the same metabolic profile in LNCaP and LNCaP-AKR1C3 cells. We conclude that AKR1C3 overexpression diverts androgen metabolism to testosterone

  3. Proton pump inhibitors affect the gut microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Imhann, Floris; Bonder, Marc Jan; Vich Vila, Arnau; Fu, Jingyuan; Mujagic, Zlatan; Vork, Lisa; Tigchelaar, Ettje F; Jankipersadsing, Soesma A; Cenit, Maria Carmen; Harmsen, Hermie J M; Dijkstra, Gerard; Franke, Lude; Xavier, Ramnik J; Jonkers, Daisy; Wijmenga, Cisca; Weersma, Rinse K; Zhernakova, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are among the top 10 most widely used drugs in the world. PPI use has been associated with an increased risk of enteric infections, most notably Clostridium difficile. The gut microbiome plays an important role in enteric infections, by resisting or promoting colonisation by pathogens. In this study, we investigated the influence of PPI use on the gut microbiome. Methods The gut microbiome composition of 1815 individuals, spanning three cohorts, was assessed by tag sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The difference in microbiota composition in PPI users versus non-users was analysed separately in each cohort, followed by a meta-analysis. Results 211 of the participants were using PPIs at the moment of stool sampling. PPI use is associated with a significant decrease in Shannon's diversity and with changes in 20% of the bacterial taxa (false discovery rate <0.05). Multiple oral bacteria were over-represented in the faecal microbiome of PPI-users, including the genus Rothia (p=9.8×10−38). In PPI users we observed a significant increase in bacteria: genera Enterococcus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus and the potentially pathogenic species Escherichia coli. Conclusions The differences between PPI users and non-users observed in this study are consistently associated with changes towards a less healthy gut microbiome. These differences are in line with known changes that predispose to C. difficile infections and can potentially explain the increased risk of enteric infections in PPI users. On a population level, the effects of PPI are more prominent than the effects of antibiotics or other commonly used drugs. PMID:26657899

  4. A comparison between finasteride, flutamide, and finasteride plus flutamide combination in the treatment of hirsutism.

    PubMed

    Unluhizarci, K; Ozel, D; Tanriverdi, F; Karaca, Z; Kelestimur, F

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of the finasteride (5 mg/day) plus flutamide (125 mg/day) combination therapy in unselected women with hirsutism, 44 women were involved in the study. The effects of such combination treatment have not been reported previously. The patients were assigned to 3 treatment groups: 14 patients (group 1) were treated with finasteride (5 mg per day), 16 patients (group 2) were treated with flutamide (125 mg per day), and 14 patients (group 3) were treated with finasteride (5 mg per day) plus flutamide (125 mg per day) for 12 months. Serum FSH, LH, estradiol, total testosterone, free testosterone, androstenedione, DHEAS, and SHBG were obtained. Hirsutism score was measured before and after treatment. Blood chemistry and side effects were evaluated during the study. The reductions in hirsutism score (% of the baseline) at 6 months were as follows: 24% for group 1, 35% for group 2, and 33% for group 3. Combination therapy resulted in (49%) similar improvement to flutamide alone (45%), but significantly (p<0.05) more efficacious improvement in hirsutism when compared to finasteride (32%) after 12 months of treatment. In conclusion, flutamide is more effective than finasteride and the combination of these two drugs is not better than flutamide alone, but better than finasteride in hirsute women.

  5. Alcohol Exposure During Late Adolescence Increases Drinking in Adult Wistar Rats, an Effect that is not Reduced by Finasteride

    PubMed Central

    Milivojevic, Verica; Covault, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Aims: We tested whether an exposure to alcohol in late adolescence, an age of rapid increase in neuroactive steroid precursors, would increase voluntary alcohol consumption in adult rats and whether this effect would be modulated by finasteride, an inhibitor of neuroactive steroid synthesis. Methods: In Experiment 1, we exposed male Wistar rats to 8% alcohol during the dark cycle for 1 week during late adolescence [postnatal days (PNDs) 51–58], and then measured voluntary alcohol consumption 1 month later in adulthood (PNDs 91–104). In Experiment 2, finasteride was administered during the forced alcohol exposure in late adolescence and, in Experiment 3, during voluntary alcohol consumption in adulthood. Plasma was collected at the end of each finasteride treatment to confirm the reduction of plasma neuroactive steroid levels. Results: We found that a daily 12-h exposure to alcohol for 7 days in late adolescence significantly increased voluntary alcohol consumption (4-fold) a month later during adulthood. Finasteride administration in late adolescence increased group alcohol intake in late adolescence but did not block the effect of adolescent alcohol exposure on increasing alcohol preference in adulthood. There was no effect of finasteride treatment in adulthood on alcohol preference. Conclusions: A daily 12-h exposure to alcohol for 7 days in late adolescence was sufficient to induce chronically increased alcohol preference in adulthood, indicating that this age may be sensitive to the effects of alcohol. PMID:22997410

  6. Therapeutic hotline. Genetic variations in the androgen receptor gene and finasteride response in women with androgenetic alopecia mediated by epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Keene, Sharon; Goren, Andy

    2011-01-01

    When studies of postmenopausal women with hair loss failed to reveal a response to the 5 alpha reductase inhibitor, finasteride, researchers began to question the existence of androgenetic alopecia in women and renamed the clinical entity female pattern hair loss. However, recently published reports of finasteride response in some women with hair loss suggest that an androgenic mechanism is mediating response in this group. Variant repeat nucleotide sequences in exon 1 of the androgen receptor (AR) gene have been shown to determine androgen sensitivity in a variety of androgenic conditions in men and women. In an effort to identify whether this AR variant may help determine which women are likely to respond to finasteride therapy, a pilot study was undertaken. In our 6-month pilot of 13 patients, women with greater androgen sensitivity (<24 cytosine, adenine, and guanine (CAG) repeats) were likely to have a significant response to finasteride 1 mg/day compared with patients treated with placebo, and compared with patients with normal androgen sensitivity (≥24 CAG repeats) based on epigenetic weighted evaluation of the CAG alleles. Results of the present pilot study support the hypothesis that AR-CAG repeats, in conjunction with epigenetic factors, can help determine which women with hair loss will respond to finasteride therapy.

  7. Efficacy of terazosin and finasteride in symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Anwarul Islam, A K M; Kashem, M A; Shameem, I A; Kibria, S A M G

    2005-08-01

    Medical treatment for symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) has become popular for the last few years. This study was designed to find out and compare the efficacy of terazosin, a alpha1 adrenoceptor blocker and finasteride, a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor in symptomatic BPH. A total of 60 patients (30 in terazosin group and 30 finasteride group) of symptomatic BPH were selected. Terazosin group received 1 mg daily at bedtime for 3 days, 2 mg at bedtime for 7 days, thereafter 5 mg at bedtime daily for 6 months. Finasteride group received 5 mg once daily. In terazosin treated patients, improvement after 3 months were as follows, IPSS 3.93 +/- .74 points reduction, Qmax 2.13 +/- .68 ml/s increase, post-voided residual urine volume (PVR) 20.67 +/- 10.56 ml reduction (significant, p<0.001) and prostate volume 0.57 +/- 1.54 ml reduction (not significant). Similar statistical differences were observed at 6 months follow up. In finasteride treated patients, improvements after 3 months were as follows, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) 1.38 +/- .63 points reduction, Qmax 0.55 +/- 0.78 ml/s increase, PVR 5.93 +/- 7.64 ml reduction (significant, p<0.001) and prostate volume 0.17 +/- 5.6 ml reduction (non-significant). At 6 month follow up statistical differences were significant in all parameters including prostate volume 4.57 +/- 5.30 ml reduction (p<0.001). In comparison, statistically significant superiority of terazosin over finasteride was found in improving IPSS, Qmax and PVR in both follow up visits. But terazosin had nonsignificant effect in reducing prostate volume; in contrast, finasteride had significant effect in second visit. It can be concluded from this study that terazosin 5mg once daily is effective in mild to moderate cases of symptomatic BPH. On the other hand, finasteride 5mg once daily may be useful in large prostate and to be given for at least 6 months.

  8. A novel finasteride 0.25% topical solution for androgenetic alopecia: pharmacokinetics and effects on plasma androgen levels in healthy male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Caserini, Maurizio; Radicioni, Milko; Leuratti, Chiara; Annoni, Ottavia; Palmieri, Renata

    2014-10-01

    Finasteride, a selective inhibitor of type 2 5-α reductase isoenzyme, inhibits the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and is indicated in the treatment of male androgenetic alopecia. The study objective was to evaluate a newly developed finasteride 0.25% topical solution in comparison to the marketed finasteride 1 mg tablet, with respect to finasteride pharmacokinetics and suppressive effects on plasma DHT. 24 healthy men with androgenetic alopecia were randomized in a single center, open-label, parallel-group, exploratory study, and received either multiple scalp applications of the topical solution b.i.d. or oral doses of the reference tablet o.d. for 7 days. Plasma finasteride, testosterone and DHT concentrations were determined. After multiple doses, mean (± SD) finasteride C(max) and AUC(0-t) corresponded to 0.46 ± 0.28 ng/mL and 6.64 ± 7.50 ng/mL x h for the topical solution and to 6.86 ± 1.78 ng/mL and 57.93 ± 29.38 ng/mL x h for the tablet. Plasma DHT was reduced by ~ 68 - 75% with the topical solution and by ~ 62 - 72% with the tablet. No relevant changes occurred for plasma testosterone with either treatment. No clinically significant adverse events occurred. A strong and similar inhibition of plasma DHT was found after 1 week of treatment with the topical and tablet finasteride ormulations, albeit finasteride plasma exposure was significantly lower with the topical than with the oral product (p < 0.0001).

  9. Superiority of dutasteride over finasteride in hair regrowth and reversal of miniaturization in men with androgenetic alopecia: A randomized controlled open-label, evaluator-blinded study.

    PubMed

    Shanshanwal, Sujit J S; Dhurat, Rachita S

    2017-01-01

    Finasteride and dutasteride are inhibitors of the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase which inhibits the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. Dutasteride inhibits both type I and type II 5-alpha-reductase while finasteride inhibits only the type II enzyme. As both isoenzymes are present in hair follicles, it is likely that dutasteride is more effective than finasteride. To compare the efficacy, safety and tolerability of dutasteride and finasteride in men with androgenetic alopecia. Men with androgenetic alopecia between 18 and 40 years of age were randomized to receive 0.5 mg dutasteride or 1 mg finasteride daily for 24 weeks. The primary efficacy variables were hair counts (thick and thin) in the target area from modified phototrichograms and global photography evaluation by blinded and non-blinded investigators. The secondary efficacy variable was subjective assessment using a preset questionnaire. Patients were assessed monthly for side effects. Ninety men with androgenetic alopecia were recruited. The increase in total hair count per cm[2] representing new growth was significantly higher in dutasteride group (baseline- 223 hair; at 24 weeks- 246 hair) compared to finasteride group (baseline- 227 hair; at 24 weeks- 231 hair). The decrease in thin hair count per cm[2] suggestive of reversal of miniaturization was significantly higher in dutasteride group (baseline- 65 hair; at 24 weeks- 57 hair) compared to finasteride group (baseline- 67 hair; at 24 weeks- 66 hair). Both the groups showed a similar side effect profile with sexual dysfunction being the most common and reversible side effect. Limitations include the short duration of the study (6 months), the small sample size and the fact that it was an open-label study. Dutasteride was shown to be more efficacious than finasteride and the side-effect profiles were comparable.

  10. Protease Inhibitors Do Not Affect Antibody Responses to Pneumococcal Vaccination.

    PubMed

    De La Rosa, Indhira; Munjal, Iona M; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria; Yu, Xiaoying; Pirofski, Liise-Anne; Mendoza, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    HIV(+) subjects on optimal antiretroviral therapy have persistently impaired antibody responses to pneumococcal vaccination. We explored the possibility that this effect may be due to HIV protease inhibitors (PIs). We found that in humans and mice, PIs do not affect antibody production in response to pneumococcal vaccination. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. The effect of 5alpha-reductase inhibition with finasteride and dutasteride on bone mineral density in older men with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Mačukat, Indira Radin; Spanjol, Josip; Orlič, Zeljka Crncevič; Butorac, Marta Zuvič; Marinovič, Marin; Ćupič, Dora Fučkar

    2014-09-01

    Testosterone is converted to dihyrotestosterone by two isoenzymes of 5alpha-reductase. Finasteride and dutasteride are 5alpha-reductase inhibitors commonly used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. We compared indices of bone mineral density in 50 men treated with finasteride, 50 men treated with dutasteride and 50 men as control. Bone mineral density of spine and hip were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Bone formation was assessed by measuring serum osteocalcin and bone resorptionby measuring serum C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type 1. In addition serum total testosteron and estradiol were determined. The dutasteride group had significantly higher mean bone min- eral density, mean bone mineral content, mean T score, mean Z score at femoral neck and mean total hip Z score than control. Mean total testosterone and estradiol levels were higher in the dutasteride group. There were no significant dif- ferences between the groups in lumbar spine bone density parameters or bone turnover markers. Our results provide evidence that long-term 5alpha-reductase suppression does not adversely affect bone mineral density. Dutasteride therapy could have beneficial effect on bone density.

  12. Efficacy and safety of the coadministration of tadalafil once daily with finasteride for 6 months in men with lower urinary tract symptoms and prostatic enlargement secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Casabé, Adolfo; Roehrborn, Claus G; Da Pozzo, Luigi F; Zepeda, Sebastian; Henderson, R Jonathan; Sorsaburu, Sebastian; Henneges, Carsten; Wong, David G; Viktrup, Lars

    2014-03-01

    Medical treatment for men with lower urinary tract symptoms and prostatic enlargement secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia is 5α-reductase inhibitor monotherapy or coadministration with an α-blocker. We assessed the effects of tadalafil 5 mg coadministered with finasteride 5 mg during 26 weeks on lower urinary tract symptoms and sexual symptoms. In an international, randomized, double-blind, parallel study of men 45 years old or older who were 5α-reductase inhibitor naïve and had an I-PSS (International Prostate Symptom Score) of 13 or greater and prostate volume 30 ml or greater, 350 were treated with placebo/finasteride and 345 received tadalafil/finasteride for 26 weeks. Changes in lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia were assessed with the I-PSS, erectile dysfunction improvements were assessed with the IIEF-EF (International Index of Erectile Function-Erectile Function) in sexually active men and safety was assessed by evaluating adverse events. Least squares mean changes from baseline in I-PSS after 4, 12 and 26 weeks of tadalafil/finasteride coadministration were -4.0, -5.2 and -5.5, respectively. Corresponding values for placebo/finasteride coadministration were -2.3, -3.8 and -4.5 (p ≤ 0.022 at all visits favoring tadalafil/finasteride coadministration). I-PSS subscores (storage and voiding) and quality of life index were also numerically improved with tadalafil/finasteride coadministration. Least squares mean changes from baseline in IIEF-EF with tadalafil/finasteride coadministration were 3.7 after 4 weeks, and 4.7 after 12 and 26 weeks. Corresponding values for placebo/finasteride coadministration were -1.1, 0.6 and -0.0 (p <0.001 at all visits favoring tadalafil/finasteride coadministration). Tadalafil/finasteride coadministration was well tolerated and most adverse events were mild/moderate. The coadministration of tadalafil/finasteride provides early improvement in lower urinary tract symptoms in men with

  13. Musculoskeletal and prostate effects of combined testosterone and finasteride administration in older hypogonadal men: a randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Yarrow, Joshua F.; Conover, Christine F.; Nseyo, Unyime; Meuleman, John R.; Lipinska, Judyta A.; Braith, Randy W.; Beck, Darren T.; Martin, Jeffrey S.; Morrow, Matthew; Roessner, Shirley; Beggs, Luke A.; McCoy, Sean C.; Cannady, Darryl F.; Shuster, Jonathan J.

    2013-01-01

    Testosterone acts directly at androgen receptors and also exerts potent actions following 5α-reduction to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Finasteride (type II 5α-reductase inhibitor) lowers DHT and is used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia. However, it is unknown whether elevated DHT mediates either beneficial musculoskeletal effects or prostate enlargement resulting from higher-than-replacement doses of testosterone. Our purpose was to determine whether administration of testosterone plus finasteride to older hypogonadal men could produce musculoskeletal benefits without prostate enlargement. Sixty men aged ≥60 yr with a serum testosterone concentration of ≤300 ng/dl or bioavailable testosterone ≤70 ng/dl received 52 wk of treatment with testosterone enanthate (TE; 125 mg/wk) vs. vehicle, paired with finasteride (5 mg/day) vs. placebo using a 2 × 2 factorial design. Over the course of 12 mo, TE increased upper and lower body muscle strength by 8–14% (P = 0.015 to <0.001), fat-free mass 4.04 kg (P = 0.032), lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) 4.19% (P < 0.001), and total hip BMD 1.96% (P = 0.024) while reducing total body fat −3.87 kg (P < 0.001) and trunk fat −1.88 kg (P = 0.0051). In the first 3 mo, testosterone increased hematocrit 4.13% (P < 0.001). Coadministration of finasteride did not alter any of these effects. Over 12 mo, testosterone also increased prostate volume 11.4 cm3 (P = 0.0051), an effect that was completely prevented by finasteride (P = 0.0027). We conclude that a higher-than-replacement TE combined with finasteride significantly increases muscle strength and BMD and reduces body fat without causing prostate enlargement. These results demonstrate that elevated DHT mediates testosterone-induced prostate enlargement but is not required for benefits in musculoskeletal or adipose tissue. PMID:24326421

  14. Musculoskeletal and prostate effects of combined testosterone and finasteride administration in older hypogonadal men: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Borst, Stephen E; Yarrow, Joshua F; Conover, Christine F; Nseyo, Unyime; Meuleman, John R; Lipinska, Judyta A; Braith, Randy W; Beck, Darren T; Martin, Jeffrey S; Morrow, Matthew; Roessner, Shirley; Beggs, Luke A; McCoy, Sean C; Cannady, Darryl F; Shuster, Jonathan J

    2014-02-15

    Testosterone acts directly at androgen receptors and also exerts potent actions following 5α-reduction to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Finasteride (type II 5α-reductase inhibitor) lowers DHT and is used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia. However, it is unknown whether elevated DHT mediates either beneficial musculoskeletal effects or prostate enlargement resulting from higher-than-replacement doses of testosterone. Our purpose was to determine whether administration of testosterone plus finasteride to older hypogonadal men could produce musculoskeletal benefits without prostate enlargement. Sixty men aged ≥60 yr with a serum testosterone concentration of ≤300 ng/dl or bioavailable testosterone ≤70 ng/dl received 52 wk of treatment with testosterone enanthate (TE; 125 mg/wk) vs. vehicle, paired with finasteride (5 mg/day) vs. placebo using a 2 × 2 factorial design. Over the course of 12 mo, TE increased upper and lower body muscle strength by 8-14% (P = 0.015 to <0.001), fat-free mass 4.04 kg (P = 0.032), lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) 4.19% (P < 0.001), and total hip BMD 1.96% (P = 0.024) while reducing total body fat -3.87 kg (P < 0.001) and trunk fat -1.88 kg (P = 0.0051). In the first 3 mo, testosterone increased hematocrit 4.13% (P < 0.001). Coadministration of finasteride did not alter any of these effects. Over 12 mo, testosterone also increased prostate volume 11.4 cm(3) (P = 0.0051), an effect that was completely prevented by finasteride (P = 0.0027). We conclude that a higher-than-replacement TE combined with finasteride significantly increases muscle strength and BMD and reduces body fat without causing prostate enlargement. These results demonstrate that elevated DHT mediates testosterone-induced prostate enlargement but is not required for benefits in musculoskeletal or adipose tissue.

  15. Preventive and therapeutic efficacy of finasteride and dutasteride in TRAMP mice.

    PubMed

    Opoku-Acheampong, Alexander B; Unis, Dave; Henningson, Jamie N; Beck, Amanda P; Lindshield, Brian L

    2013-01-01

    The prostate cancer prevention trial (PCPT) and Reduction by dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) trial found that 5α-reductase (5αR) inhibitors finasteride and dutasteride respectively, decreased prostate cancer prevalence but also increased the incidence of high-grade tumors. 5αR2 is the main isoenzyme in normal prostate tissue; however, most prostate tumors have high 5αR1 and low 5αR2 expression. Because finasteride inhibits only 5αR2, we hypothesized that it would not be as efficacious in preventing prostate cancer development and/or progression in C57BL/6 TRAMP x FVB mice as dutasteride, which inhibits both 5αR1 and 5αR2. Six-week-old C57BL/6 TRAMP x FVB male mice were randomized to AIN93G control or pre- and post- finasteride and dutasteride diet (83.3 mg drug/kg diet) groups (n =30-33) that began at 6 and 12 weeks of age, respectively, and were terminated at 20 weeks of age. The pre- and post- finasteride and dutasteride groups were designed to test the preventive and therapeutic efficacy of the drugs, respectively. Final body weights, genitourinary tract weights, and genitourinary tract weights as percentage of body weights were significantly decreased in the Pre- and Post-dutasteride groups compared with the control. The Post-dutasteride group showed the greatest inhibition of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia progression and prostate cancer development. Surprisingly, the Post-dutasteride group showed improved outcomes compared with the Pre-dutasteride group, which had increased incidence of high-grade carcinoma as the most common and most severe lesions in a majority of prostate lobes. Consistent with our hypothesis, we found little benefit from the finasteride diets, and they increased the incidence of high-grade carcinoma. Our findings have commonalities with previously reported PCPT, REDUCE, and the Reduction by dutasteride of Clinical Progression Events in Expectant Management (REDEEM) trial results. Our results may support the

  16. Preventive and Therapeutic Efficacy of Finasteride and Dutasteride in TRAMP Mice

    PubMed Central

    Opoku-Acheampong, Alexander B.; Unis, Dave; Henningson, Jamie N.; Beck, Amanda P.; Lindshield, Brian L.

    2013-01-01

    Background The prostate cancer prevention trial (PCPT) and Reduction by dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events (REDUCE) trial found that 5α-reductase (5αR) inhibitors finasteride and dutasteride respectively, decreased prostate cancer prevalence but also increased the incidence of high-grade tumors. 5αR2 is the main isoenzyme in normal prostate tissue; however, most prostate tumors have high 5αR1 and low 5αR2 expression. Because finasteride inhibits only 5αR2, we hypothesized that it would not be as efficacious in preventing prostate cancer development and/or progression in C57BL/6 TRAMP x FVB mice as dutasteride, which inhibits both 5αR1 and 5αR2. Method/Principal Findings Six-week-old C57BL/6 TRAMP x FVB male mice were randomized to AIN93G control or pre- and post- finasteride and dutasteride diet (83.3 mg drug/kg diet) groups (n =30–33) that began at 6 and 12 weeks of age, respectively, and were terminated at 20 weeks of age. The pre- and post- finasteride and dutasteride groups were designed to test the preventive and therapeutic efficacy of the drugs, respectively. Final body weights, genitourinary tract weights, and genitourinary tract weights as percentage of body weights were significantly decreased in the Pre- and Post-dutasteride groups compared with the control. The Post-dutasteride group showed the greatest inhibition of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia progression and prostate cancer development. Surprisingly, the Post-dutasteride group showed improved outcomes compared with the Pre-dutasteride group, which had increased incidence of high-grade carcinoma as the most common and most severe lesions in a majority of prostate lobes. Consistent with our hypothesis, we found little benefit from the finasteride diets, and they increased the incidence of high-grade carcinoma. Conclusion Our findings have commonalities with previously reported PCPT, REDUCE, and the Reduction by dutasteride of Clinical Progression Events in Expectant Management

  17. Persistent Sexual Dysfunction and Suicidal Ideation in Young Men Treated with Low-Dose Finasteride: A Pharmacovigilance Study.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ayad K; Heran, Balraj S; Etminan, Mahyar

    2015-07-01

    Finasteride, a 5α-reductase inhibitor, is marketed in a low dose (1 mg) as a popular therapy for androgenic alopecia in young men. As case reports and small surveys have suggested a link between persistent sexual dysfunction (SD) and suicidal ideation (SI) with low-dose finasteride, the aim of this study was to detect signals of SD and SI secondary to low-dose finasteride use in young men. Retrospective pharmacovigilance disproportionality analysis. United States Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database. Low-dose finasteride-related adverse event reports for men aged 18-45 years that were submitted to the FAERS between 1998 and 2013 were retrieved. Multi-item Gamma Poisson Shrinker disproportionality analysis was applied to calculate the empirical Bayes geometric mean (EBGM) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) as an association metric between low-dose finasteride and the events of interest. Signals were defined as associations with thresholds of a CI lower limit of 2.0 or greater. Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities Preferred Terms denoting to SD and SI were identified to reflect the outcome of interest. In total, of 4910 reports, 577 persistent SD and 39 SI adverse event reports (11.8% and 7.9%, respectively) were identified for young men using low-dose finasteride; 34 (87.2%) of the 39 men with SI also experienced SD. The majority of these events were serious (e.g., contributed to the patient's death, hospitalization, or disability). Low-dose finasteride was associated with more than expected reporting of SD in young men compared with reporting of these events with all other drugs within the database (EBGM 28.0, 95% CI 26.1-30.0). Disproportional reporting in SI events was noted, although it did not reach signal threshold (EBGM 1.72; 95% CI 1.31-2.23). Among serious SD events, 43% led to disability; 28% required medical intervention, including hospitalization; and 5% were life-threatening. Six fatal SD

  18. Finasteride and fertility: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Giuseppe; Martinelli, Monica; Luppi, Stefania; Lo Bello, Leila; De Santis, Michela; Skerk, Kristina; Zito, Gabriella

    2012-12-01

    Although millions of men have taken or are taking finasteride, there are no documented cases of successful pregnancy in the literature after discontinuation of the drug. Early studies did not show significant influence of finasteride on semen parameters, whereas some recent observations have suggested that in subfertile patients, the effects of the drug might be amplified. Therefore, counseling is particularly difficult for men taking finasteride and planning pregnancy. We report the case of a couple whose male partner had used finasteride for approximately 10 years and who presented for primary infertility. The first semen analysis, carried out 3 months after finasteride cessation, revealed severe oligospermia. One month later, sperm concentration increased, and the following month, the couple spontaneously conceived. A healthy baby was delivered at full term. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of successful full-term pregnancy and live birth after long-term use of finasteride, which suggests that treatment with finasteride, even after several years, does not prevent normal conception. However, caution should be advised with the use of finasteride in male partners of couples who are attempting to become pregnant.

  19. Finasteride Inhibits the Disease-Modifying Activity of Progesterone in the Hippocampus Kindling Model of Epileptogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Doodipala Samba; Ramanathan, G.

    2012-01-01

    Progesterone (P) plays an important role in seizure susceptibility in women with epilepsy. Preclinical and experimental studies suggest that P appears to interrupt epileptogenesis, which is a process whereby a normal brain becomes progressively epileptic due to precipitating risk factors. P has not been investigated widely for its potential disease-modifying activity in epileptogenic models. Recently, P has been shown to exert disease-modifying effects in the kindling model of epileptogenesis. However, the mechanisms underlying the protective effects of P against epileptogenesis remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of P-derived neurosteroids in the disease-modifying activity of P. It is hypothesized that 5α-reductase converts P to allopregnanolone and related neurosteroids that retard epileptogenesis in the brain. To test this hypothesis, we utilized the mouse hippocampus kindling model of epileptogenesis and investigated the effect of finasteride, a 5α-reductase and neurosteroid synthesis inhibitor. P markedly retarded the development of epileptogenesis and inhibited the rate of kindling acquisition to elicit stage 5 seizures. Pretreatment with finasteride led to complete inhibition of the P-induced retardation of limbic epileptogenesis in mice. Finasteride did not significantly influence the acute seizure expression in fully-kindled mice expressing stage 5 seizures. Thus, neurosteroids that potentiate phasic and tonic inhibition in the hippocampus, such as allopregnanolone, may mediate the disease-modifying effect of P, indicating a new role of neurosteroids in acquired limbic epileptogenesis and temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:22835430

  20. Current Pharmacological Treatment for Male LUTS due to BPH: Dutasteride or Finasteride?

    PubMed

    Pirozzi, Luisella; Sountoulides, Petros; Castellan, Pietro; Presicce, Fabrizio; Lombardo, Riccardo; Romero, Marilena; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Tubaro, Andrea; Schips, Luigi; Cindolo, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a potentially progressive disease which is commonly associated with bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and might result in complications, such as acute urinary retention and BPH-related surgery. In the current medical therapy scenario for LUTS attributed to BPH, only one class of drugs, 5-α reductase inhibitors (5ARIs), has been found to be effective in reducing the risk of disease progression. The two 5ARIs that are currently available include finasteride and dutasteride. These two drugs have different pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. Greater suppression of dehydrotestosterone is achieved by dutasteride (>90% dutasteride vs 70% finasteride) which theoretically should correlate with greater efficacy in alleviating urinary symptoms. Unfortunately, this hypothesis has not yet been clinically demonstrated. The pertinent literature is scarce and heterogeneous and produces low scientific levels of evidence. The present review article aims to evaluate the comparative head-to-head studies in order to evaluate if the hypothetical clinical differences between dutasteride and finasteride do exist. Pharmacological treatment with either drug results in similar symptom improvements; however dutasteride seems to have a better profile in reducing the risk of prostate surgery and acute urinary retention (AUR). More studies are necessary to better evaluate both the clinical and pharmacoeconomic profile of the two 5ARIs.

  1. The Direct Inhibitory Effect of Dutasteride or Finasteride on Androgen Receptor Activity is Cell Line Specific

    PubMed Central

    Chhipa, Rishi Raj; Halim, Danny; Cheng, Jinrong; Zhang, Huan Yi; Mohler, James L.; Ip, Clement; Wu, Yue

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Finasteride and dutasteride were developed originally as 5α-reductase inhibitors to block the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). These drugs may possess off-target effects on the androgen receptor (AR) due to their structural similarity to DHT. METHODS A total of 4 human prostate cancer cell models were examined: LNCaP (T877A mutant AR), 22Rv1 (H874Y mutant AR), LAPC4 (wild type AR) and VCaP (wild type AR). Cells were cultured in 10% charcoal-stripped fetal bovine serum, either with or without DHT added to the medium. AR activity was evaluated using the ARE-luciferase assay or the expression of AR regulated genes. RESULTS Dutasteride was more potent than finasteride in interfering with DHT-stimulated AR signaling. Disruption of AR function was accompanied by decreased cell growth. Cells that rely on DHT for protection against death were particularly vulnerable to dutasteride. Different prostate cancer cell models exhibited different sensitivities to dutasteride and finasteride. LNCaP was most sensitive, LAPC4 and VCaP were intermediate, while 22Rv1 was least sensitive. Regardless of the AR genotype, if AR was transfected into drug-sensitive cells, AR was inhibited by drug treatment; and if AR was transfected into drug-resistant cells, AR was not inhibited. CONCLUSIONS The direct inhibitory effect of dutasteride or finasteride on AR signaling is cell line specific. Mutations in the ligand binding domain of AR do not appear to play a significant role in influencing the AR antagonistic effect of these drugs. Subcellular constituent is an important factor in determining the drug effect on AR function. PMID:23813737

  2. The direct inhibitory effect of dutasteride or finasteride on androgen receptor activity is cell line specific.

    PubMed

    Chhipa, Rishi Raj; Halim, Danny; Cheng, Jinrong; Zhang, Huan Yi; Mohler, James L; Ip, Clement; Wu, Yue

    2013-10-01

    Finasteride and dutasteride were developed originally as 5α-reductase inhibitors to block the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). These drugs may possess off-target effects on the androgen receptor (AR) due to their structural similarity to DHT. A total of four human prostate cancer cell models were examined: LNCaP (T877A mutant AR), 22Rv1 (H874Y mutant AR), LAPC4 (wild-type AR), and VCaP (wild-type AR). Cells were cultured in 10% charcoal-stripped fetal bovine serum, either with or without DHT added to the medium. AR activity was evaluated using the ARE-luciferase assay or the expression of AR regulated genes. Dutasteride was more potent than finasteride in interfering with DHT-stimulated AR signaling. Disruption of AR function was accompanied by decreased cell growth. Cells that rely on DHT for protection against death were particularly vulnerable to dutasteride. Different prostate cancer cell models exhibited different sensitivities to dutasteride and finasteride. LNCaP was most sensitive, LAPC4 and VCaP were intermediate, while 22Rv1 was least sensitive. Regardless of the AR genotype, if AR was transfected into drug-sensitive cells, AR was inhibited by drug treatment; and if AR was transfected into drug-resistant cells, AR was not inhibited. The direct inhibitory effect of dutasteride or finasteride on AR signaling is cell line specific. Mutations in the ligand binding domain of AR do not appear to play a significant role in influencing the AR antagonistic effect of these drugs. Subcellular constituent is an important factor in determining the drug effect on AR function. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Intermittent low-dose finasteride administration is effective for treatment of hirsutism in adolescent girls: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tartagni, Mario V; Alrasheed, Hala; Damiani, Gianluca R; Montagnani, Monica; De Salvia, Maria A; De Pergola, Giovanni; Tartagni, Massimo; Loverro, Giuseppe

    2014-06-01

    Hirsutism has negative impact on adolescent psychosocial development for both cosmetic and endocrine reasons. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a new intermittent, low-dose finasteride regimen consisting of 2.5 mg of drug given every 3 days (1 day of treatment, 2 days of drug withdrawal) for 6 months in girls with hirsutism by polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) or idiopathic hirsutism (IH). Twenty-eight girls (15-19 y old) with hirsutism were randomly assigned to 2 treatment groups and treated for 6 months. Fourteen patients (7 with IH, 7 with PCOS) received finasteride; fourteen patients (7 with IH, 7 with PCOS) received placebo. Hirsutism score (HS), clinical, and hormonal effects were compared between the 2 groups. In patients treated with finasteride, the HS value at 6 months was 52.9% lower than that observed at baseline in girls with IH, and 52.8% lower in girls with PCOS (P < .0001 for both). Similarly, the 3α-17 β-androstenediol glucuronide serum levels were decreased by 34.8% in patients with IH, and by 47.5% in patients with PCOS (P < .0001, respectively). Finasteride treatment was well tolerated and did not alter values of BMI, serum levels of sexual hormones, metabolic parameters related to liver and kidney function as well as glycemic and lipidic asset. A low-dose of finasteride, given every 3 days, reduces the HS in young patients affected by PCOS or IH. Compared with conventional continuous finasteride administration, the intermittent low-dose regimen has similar efficacy with the advantage to be safer and less expensive. Copyright © 2014 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. 5alpha-reductase inhibitors: what role should they play?

    PubMed

    Kaplan, S A

    2001-12-01

    The development of finasteride (PROSCAR, Merck & Co., Whitehouse Station, NJ) for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has had variable results. Numerous short-term and long-term studies comparing finasteride with placebo have been reported. The results suggest that, physiologically, treatment with finasteride significantly decreases levels of both serum and intraprostatic dihydrotestosterone about 70% to 80% from baseline. In addition, total gland size decreases significantly-about 15% to 25% from baseline-particularly in the area of the periurethral zone of the prostate after finasteride treatment. Baseline prostate size has been found to have a relation to efficacy of finasteride treatment. The larger the prostate at baseline, the greater the urinary flow rate increase and symptom score decrease compared with placebo. Health-related quality-of-life parameters improved in those taking finasteride. In studies evaluating combination therapy, no significant differences were noted between those treated with an alpha blocker, such as terazosin or doxazosin in combination with finasteride, and those receiving an alpha blocker alone. Long-term finasteride versus placebo studies, such as the PROSCAR Long-Term Efficacy and Safety Study (PLESS), suggest that long-term medical therapy with finasteride affects the natural history of the disease as manifested by the decrease in rates of acute urinary retention and surgery. In patients who are "therapeutic responders," the degree of symptomatic improvement in those treated with finasteride appears to be equal to that seen in patients receiving alpha blockers. Prostate cancer detection rates did not differ between those treated with finasteride and those receiving a placebo. The results of these studies suggest that physicians must evaluate what role finasteride plays in the spectrum of available options for the treatment of BPH and lower urinary tract symptoms. Baseline parameters, such as prostate volume

  5. Guidelines on the use of finasteride in androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Mysore, Venkataram; Shashikumar, B M

    2016-01-01

    Finasteride is a widely used drug in dermatology for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia. There are many reports of associated sexual side effects. This article reviews the use of once-daily 1 mg finasteride in androgenetic alopecia and its associated sexual adverse effects. A literature search was performed to collect data on the use of finasteride in male pattern baldness. Relevant literature published till March 2014 was obtained from MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane registers and LILACS. The keywords "finasteride", "male pattern baldness" and "androgenetic alopecia" were used for literature search. Similarly, a search was done for finasteride in female pattern hair loss with keywords "female pattern baldness", "finasteride" and "female pattern alopecia". All systematic reviews, meta-analyses, national guidelines, randomized controlled trials, prospective open label studies and retrospective case series in the English literature were reviewed. Two hundred sixty two studies were evaluated, twelve of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Current evidence on the safety of finasteride indicates that it is safe but there is growing concern about its sexual side effects. In view of this, proper information should be provided to patients prior to starting treatment (Level of recommendation 1+, Grade of recommendation B). The reported sexual side effects are few and reverse with stoppage of the drug (Grade of recommendation B) but further studies are required.

  6. The antiandrogenic effect of finasteride against a mutant androgen receptor

    PubMed Central

    Chhipa, Rishi Raj; Zhang, Haitao; Ip, Clement

    2011-01-01

    Finasteride is known to inhibit Type 2 5α-reductase and thus block the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT). The structural similarity of finasteride to DHT raises the possibility that finasteride may also interfere with the function of the androgen receptor (AR). Experiments were carried out to evaluate the antiandrogenic effect of finasteride in LNCaP, C4-2 and VCaP human prostate cancer cells. Finasteride decreased DHT binding to AR, and DHT-stimulated AR activity and cell growth in LNCaP and C4-2 cells, but not in VCaP cells. LNCaP and C4-2 (derived from castration-resistant LNCaP) cells express the T877A mutant AR, while VCaP cells express the wild-type AR. When PC-3 cells, which are AR-null, were transfected with either the wild-type or the T877A mutant AR, only the mutant AR-expressing cells were sensitive to finasteride inhibition of DHT binding. Peroxiredoxin-1 (Prx1) is a novel endogenous facilitator of AR binding to DHT. In Prx1-rich LNCaP cells, the combination of Prx1 knockdown and finasteride was found to produce a greater inhibitory effect on AR activity and cell growth than either treatment alone. The observation suggests that cells with a low expression of Prx1 are likely to be more responsive to the antiandrogenic effect of finasteride. Additional studies showed that the efficacy of finasteride was comparable to that of bicalutamide (a widely used non-steroidal antiandrogen). The implication of the above findings is discussed in the context of developing strategies to improve the outcome of androgen deprivation therapy. PMID:21386657

  7. [Treatment of prostate adenoma with finasteride. Contribution of cases].

    PubMed

    Avogadro, A; Secreto, G; Gattoni, F; Spadone, M; Sacrini, A; Blanc, M

    1996-12-01

    During recent years more and more researchers and clinicians have become interested in HPB in order to identify a medical therapy instead of surgery. The aim of our study was to find the value of finasteride in HPB therapy. We wanted to know if finasteride was able to improve the symptomatology and blood tests of patients afflicted with HPB. Every patient was agreed with the course of action of the 1991 Paris Urology Congress. All patients were treated with finasteride 5 mg/die for one year and inspected by prostatic echography and blood tests. The results of our study are every interesting and are discussed in the article.

  8. Global photographic assessment of men aged 18 to 60 years with male pattern hair loss receiving finasteride 1 mg or placebo.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Elise A; Whiting, David A; Savin, Ronald; Rodgers, Anthony; Johnson-Levonas, Amy O; Round, Elizabeth; Rotonda, Jennifer; Kaufman, Keith D

    2012-09-01

    Finasteride (1 mg) has been shown to increase vertex hair growth in men aged 18 to 60 years with male pattern hair loss and to increase frontal scalp hair growth in subjects aged 18 to 41 years. A secondary efficacy analysis was conducted to determine effects of finasteride (1 mg) on scalp hair growth in the 4 distinct scalp regions affected by male pattern hair loss. Multicenter, double-blind studies randomized patients with vertex hair loss (men aged 18-41 and 41-60 years) to finasteride (1 mg/d) or placebo. Efficacy was evaluated by review of standardized clinical photographs (global photographic assessment) of the vertex, anterior/mid scalp regions, and frontal and temporal hairlines over 24 months relative to baseline. At 24 months, treatment with finasteride resulted in statistically significant (P ≤ .05) hair growth versus placebo in all scalp regions. There was also a significant decrease in hair loss in the younger men treated with finasteride in all areas, but only in the vertex and anterior/mid scalp regions in the older men. A slightly higher incidence of drug-related sexual adverse experiences was reported in the finasteride group than in the placebo group, irrespective of age. These studies enrolled men with vertex pattern hair loss; therefore, the findings may not be extrapolated to men with predominantly anterior/mid scalp, frontal, or temporal hair loss. Based on global photographic assessment, finasteride (1 mg) is able to increase hair growth in all areas of the scalp affected by male pattern hair loss. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Therapeutic experience with oral finasteride for androgenetic alopecia in female-to-male transgender patients.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Arrones, O M; Becerra, A; Vano-Galvan, S

    2017-10-01

    Androgenic treatment of female-to-male transgender patients may result in androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Use of 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors are useful as oral treatment of AA in men. There are no previous studies of the use of finasteride in transgender men as treatment of AGA. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of an oral 5α-reductase inhibitor (finasteride) for AA developed in transgender men. This single-centre retrospective study enrolled female-to-male transgender patients with a clinical diagnosis of AGA to receive 1 mg of an oral type II 5α-reductase inhibitor for at least 12 months. In all, 10 patients were included in the study. All the patients received a clinical diagnosis of male-pattern AGA, with 90% classified as stage IV on the Norwood-Hamilton scale. Mean onset of AGA was 3.25 years after the introduction of androgenic treatment, and 70% of the patients had a family history of AGA. All the patients improved one grade on the Norwood-Hamilton scale after a mean of 5.5 months (range 4-6 months) since the start of finasteride treatment. Two patients stopped treatment for economic reasons and one stopped due to dyspepsia. No sexual or other adverse effects were observed. Patients were given periodic physical and analytical examinations by endocrinologists without any significant finding. Mean follow-up of patients was 16.2 months. AA in transgender men has a delayed onset, and is clinically and therapeutically similar to the common male-pattern-AGA in cis-gender men. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  10. Fadrozole and finasteride exposures modulate sex steroid- and thyroid hormone-related gene expression in Silurana (Xenopus) tropicalis early larval development.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Valérie S; Duarte-Guterman, Paula; Ing, Sally; Pauli, Bruce D; Cooke, Gerard M; Trudeau, Vance L

    2010-04-01

    Steroidogenic enzymes and their steroid products play critical roles during gonadal differentiation in amphibians; however their roles during embryogenesis remain unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the expression and activity of aromatase (cyp19; estrogen synthase) and 5 beta-reductase (srd5 beta; 5 beta-dihydrotestosterone synthase) during amphibian embryogenesis. Expression and activity profiles of cyp19 and srd5 beta were first established during Silurana (Xenopus) tropicalis embryogenesis from Nieuwkoop-Faber (NF) stage 2 (2-cell stage; 1h post-fertilization) to NF stage 46 (beginning of feeding; 72 h post-fertilization). Exposures to fadrozole (an aromatase inhibitor; 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 microM) and finasteride (a putative 5-reductase inhibitor; 25, 50 and 100 microM) were designed to assess the consequences of inhibiting these enzymes on gene expression in early amphibian larval development. Exposed embryos showed changes in both enzyme activities and sex steroid- and thyroid hormone-related gene expression. Fadrozole treatment inhibited cyp19 activity and increased androgen receptor and thyroid hormone receptor (alpha and beta) mRNAs. Finasteride treatment inhibited srd5 beta (activity and mRNA), decreased cyp19 mRNA and activity levels and increased estrogen receptor alpha mRNA. Both treatments altered the expression of deiodinases (thyroid hormone metabolizing enzymes). We conclude that cyp19 and srd5 beta are active in early embryogenesis and larval development in Silurana tropicalis and their inhibition affected transcription of genes associated with the thyroid and reproductive axes. (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of dutasteride 0.5 mg/d in men with androgenetic alopecia recalcitrant to finasteride.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jae Yoon; Yeon, Je Ho; Choi, Jee Woong; Kwon, Soon Hyo; Kim, Beom Joon; Youn, Sang Woong; Park, Kyoung Chan; Huh, Chang Hun

    2014-11-01

    Finasteride at a dose of 1 mg/d has been reported to show no significant improvement in 30-50% of patients with androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Dutasteride, a dual inhibitor of both type I and type II 5 alpha-reductase, inhibits the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, which is the key contributor of AGA. Our aim is to evaluate clinical efficacy and tolerability of dutasteride in men with AGA who do not show clinical improvement to the conventional finasteride treatment. A total of 35 Korean men with AGA who had not shown significant clinical improvement when treated with finasteride 1 mg/d for at least six months received dutasteride at a dose of 0.5 mg/d for six months. Efficacy was evaluated by global photograph assessment and phototrichogram. Safety assessment was performed through physical examination and adverse event report. Of the 31 patients who completed the treatment, 24 patients (77.4%) were improved by the global photography (17 were slightly, six moderately, and one markedly improved) compared with the post-finasteride treatment. There was no significant change in seven patients (22.6%), and aggravation was not reported. Hair density and thickness significantly increased by 10.3% (87 ± 12-96 ± 12/cm(2)) and 18.9% (0.053 ± 0.012-0.063 ± 0.011 mm), respectively, in phototrichogram assessment. Side effects included transient sexual dysfunction in six patients (17.1%). Dutasteride is suggestive to be an alternative treatment option to patients with AGA who do not clinically respond to finasteride in six months. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  12. Treatment satisfaction and clinically meaningful symptom improvement in men with lower urinary tract symptoms and prostatic enlargement secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia: Secondary results from a 6-month, randomized, double-blind study comparing finasteride plus tadalafil with finasteride plus placebo.

    PubMed

    Roehrborn, Claus G; Casabé, Adolfo; Glina, Sidney; Sorsaburu, Sebastian; Henneges, Carsten; Viktrup, Lars

    2015-06-01

    To report the secondary analyses of treatment satisfaction and clinically meaningful improvements in a randomized study comparing coadministration of tadalafil 5 mg with finasteride 5 mg versus finasteride alone in men with prostatic enlargement secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia. An international, randomized, double-blind, parallel study was carried out in men aged ≥45 years who were 5-alpha reductase inhibitor naïve, and had an International Prostate Symptom Score ≥13 and prostate volume ≥30 mL; 350 men received placebo/finasteride and 345 received tadalafil/finasteride over 26 weeks. Treatment satisfaction was assessed per protocol using the Treatment Satisfaction Scale-Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia. Responder cut-offs, analyzed post-hoc were total International Prostate Symptom Score improvement ≥3 points or ≥25% from randomization. Baseline patient characteristics were generally comparable between responders and non-responders. The proportion of patients with an International Prostate Symptom Score improvement ≥3 points with tadalafil/finasteride and placebo/finasteride, respectively, at week 4 was 57.0% and 47.9% (OR 1.45, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.97), at week 12 was 68.8% and 60.7% (OR 1.48, 95% confidence interval 1.07-2.05) and at week 26 was 71.4% and 70.2% (OR 1.14, 95% confidence interval 0.81-1.61); for IPSS change ≥25%, the corresponding proportions were 44.8% and 32.9% (OR 1.66, 95% confidence interval 1.21-2.28), 55.5% and 51.9% (OR 1.18, 95% confidence interval 0.87-1.62), and 62.0% and 58.3% (OR 1.23, 95% confidence interval 0.89-1.70). Treatment satisfaction at week 26 was significantly greater with tadalafil/finasteride versus placebo/finasteride for total treatment satisfaction scale score (P=0.031) and satisfaction with efficacy subscore (P = 0.025); scores were not significantly different between treatments for satisfaction with dosing or side-effects (both P ≥ 0.371). Tadalafil/finasteride

  13. Exogenous Testosterone, Finasteride and Castration Effects on Testosterone, Insulin, Zinc and Chromium in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yousofvand, Namdar; Zarei, Fatemeh; Ghanbari, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although effects of trace elements on secretion of sex steroids and insulin have been studied, the effects of these hormones on serum level of trace elements have been rarely investigated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of testosterone and finasteride administration and castration on serum levels of testosterone, insulin, zinc and chromium. Methods: Male adult rats (n = 32) were divided into 4 groups (n = 8). Group 1, control; Group 2, castration, castration was done at the first day of the study; Group 3, finasteride (20 mg/kg/day, dissolved in drinking water) and Group 4, testosterone (5 mg/kg/day, i.p.). At the end of the period of the study (35 days), serum testosterone, insulin, zinc and chromium levels were determined in the blood samples collected directly from the right atrium of the heart of the animals. Results: The data indicated that the serum levels of testosterone, insulin and zinc were significantly increased (P<0.01) in testosterone-administrated and finasteride groups, but the level of chromium was decreased in both groups (P<0.01). Castrated group had the lowest serum levels of testosterone, insulin and zinc (P<0.05). Also, the levels of serum chromium in this group were increased. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that testosterone and finasteride increases insulin and zinc levels and decreases chromium levels in the serum of male adult rats. According to these data, it seems that testosterone may affect glucose cycle through effect on serum insulin levels and trace elements such as zinc and chromium. PMID:23279835

  14. Exogenous testosterone, finasteride and castration effects on testosterone, insulin, zinc and chromium in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Yousofvand, Namdar; Zarei, Fatemeh; Ghanbari, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Although effects of trace elements on secretion of sex steroids and insulin have been studied, the effects of these hormones on serum level of trace elements have been rarely investigated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of testosterone and finasteride administration and castration on serum levels of testosterone, insulin, zinc and chromium. Male adult rats (n = 32) were divided into 4 groups (n = 8). Group 1, control; Group 2, castration, castration was done at the first day of the study; Group 3, finasteride (20 mg/kg/day, dissolved in drinking water) and Group 4, testosterone (5 mg/kg/day, i.p.). At the end of the period of the study (35 days), serum testosterone, insulin, zinc and chromium levels were determined in the blood samples collected directly from the right atrium of the heart of the animals. The data indicated that the serum levels of testosterone, insulin and zinc were significantly increased (P<0.01) in testosterone-administrated and finasteride groups, but the level of chromium was decreased in both groups (P<0.01). Castrated group had the lowest serum levels of testosterone, insulin and zinc (P<0.05). Also, the levels of serum chromium in this group were increased. The study demonstrates that testosterone and finasteride increases insulin and zinc levels and decreases chromium levels in the serum of male adult rats. According to these data, it seems that testosterone may affect glucose cycle through effect on serum insulin levels and trace elements such as zinc and chromium.

  15. Hormonal manipulation with finasteride or oral contraception does not influence incidence of renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kabra, Aashish; Gelfond, Jonathan; Liss, Michael A

    2017-03-23

    Androgens have been suspected to be involved in the initiation of renal cell carcinoma because of a two-fold increased risk in men compared with women. To investigate the role of self-reported finasteride or oral contraceptive use in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PCLO) to determine whether the androgen receptor reduces renal cancer development. We query the PCLO trial for predictor variables from the baseline questionnaire and follow-up questionnaires enquiring medication use, specifically the use of 5-α reductase inhibitors (dutasteride or finasteride) and oral contraceptive therapy. The primary outcome of this study was the incidence of renal cancer. Statistical analysis included Student's t-test for continuous variables, χ, or Fisher's exact tests for dichotomous or categorical variables, and multivariable analysis using Cox proportional hazards models. Eight percent (n=6117/73 694) of men in the PCLO trial reported the use of finasteride. 52 (10.6%) of the 492 men diagnosed with renal cancer had self-reported exposure to finasteride and this was not significant in univariable analysis (52/6169; 0.84% vs. 440/66 454; 0.67%, P=0.12) or multivariable main effects analysis (hazard ratio: 1.12; 95% confidence interval: 0.83-1.5; P=0.47). Approximately 54% of women (n=40 997/75 989) in the PCLO trial reported the use of oral contraceptives by questionnaire. 136 (52.1%) of the 261 women diagnosed with renal cancer had self-reported exposure to oral contraceptive therapy and this was not significant in univariable analysis (136/40 997; 0.33% vs. 125/34 992; 0.36%, P=0.36) or in multivariable main effects analysis (hazard ratio: 1.03; 95% confidence interval: 0.97-1.1; P=0.30). Self-reported use of finasteride or oral contraceptives is not associated with a reduced incidence of renal cancer.

  16. Dual Protonophore–Chitinase Inhibitors Dramatically Affect O. volvulus Molting

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The L3-stage-specific chitinase OvCHT1 has been implicated in the development of Onchocerca volvulus, the causative agent of onchocerciasis. Closantel, a known anthelmintic drug, was previously discovered as a potent and specific OvCHT1 inhibitor. As closantel is also a known protonophore, we performed a simple scaffold modulation to map out the structural features that are relevant for its individual or dual biochemical roles. Furthermore, we present that either OvCHT1 inhibition or protonophoric activity was capable of affecting O. volvulus L3 molting and that the presence of both activities in a single molecule yielded more potent inhibition of the nematode’s developmental process. PMID:24918716

  17. Dual protonophore-chitinase inhibitors dramatically affect O. volvulus molting.

    PubMed

    Gooyit, Major; Tricoche, Nancy; Lustigman, Sara; Janda, Kim D

    2014-07-10

    The L3-stage-specific chitinase OvCHT1 has been implicated in the development of Onchocerca volvulus, the causative agent of onchocerciasis. Closantel, a known anthelmintic drug, was previously discovered as a potent and specific OvCHT1 inhibitor. As closantel is also a known protonophore, we performed a simple scaffold modulation to map out the structural features that are relevant for its individual or dual biochemical roles. Furthermore, we present that either OvCHT1 inhibition or protonophoric activity was capable of affecting O. volvulus L3 molting and that the presence of both activities in a single molecule yielded more potent inhibition of the nematode's developmental process.

  18. Structural characterization of polymorphs and molecular complexes of finasteride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawrzycka, Irena; Stȩpniak, Krystyna; Matyjaszczyk, Sławomir; Kozioł, Anna E.; Lis, Tadeusz; Abboud, Khalil A.

    1999-01-01

    The molecular structure of finasteride, 17 β-( N-tert-butylcarbamoyl)-4-aza-5 α-androst-1-en-3-one, and structures of three related crystalline forms have been determined by X-ray analysis. The rigid steroid skeleton of the molecule adopts a half-chair/chair/chair/half-chair conformation. Two peptide groups, one cyclic (lactam) in the ring A and a second being a part of the substituent at C17, are the main factors influencing intermolecular contacts. Different hydrogen-bond interactions of these hydrophilic groups are observed in the crystal structures. An infinite ribbon of finasteride molecules is formed between lactam groups in the orthorhombic homomolecular crystal ( 1) obtained from an ethanol solution. The linear molecular complex finasteride-acetic acid ( 1a) is connected by hydrogen bonds between the lactam of finasteride and the carboxyl group of acetic acid. The crystallization from an ethyl acetate solution gives a complex structure of bis-finasteride monohydrate ethyl acetate clathrate ( 1b) with guest molecule disordered in channels. Crystals of a second (monoclinic) finasteride polymorph ( 2) were obtained during thermal decomposition of 1a, and sublimation of 1, 1a and 1b. Two polymorphic forms show different IR spectra.

  19. The Effect of Finasteride and Dutasteride on the Growth of WPE1-NA22 Prostate Cancer Xenografts in Nude Mice

    PubMed Central

    Opoku-Acheampong, Alexander B.; Nelsen, Michelle K.; Unis, Dave; Lindshield, Brian L.

    2012-01-01

    Background 5α-reductase 1 (5αR1) and 5α-reductase 2 (5αR2) convert testosterone into the more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone. 5αR2 is the main isoenzyme in normal prostate tissue; however, most prostate tumors have increased 5αR1 and decreased 5αR2 expression. Previously, finasteride (5αR2 inhibitor) treatment begun 3 weeks post-tumor implantation had no effect on Dunning R3327-H rat prostate tumor growth. We believe the tumor compensated for finasteride treatment by increasing tumor 5αR1 expression or activity. We hypothesize that finasteride treatment would not significantly alter tumor growth even if begun before tumor implantation, whereas dutasteride (5αR1 and 5αR2 inhibitor) treatment would decrease tumor growth regardless of whether treatment was initiated before or after tumor implantation. Methodology/Principal Findings Sixty 8-week-old male nude mice were randomized to Control, Pre- and Post-Finasteride, and Pre- and Post-Dutasteride (83.3 mg drug/kg diet) diet groups. Pre- and post-groups began their treatment diets 1–2 weeks prior to or 3 weeks after subcutaneous injection of 1×105 WPE1-NA22 human prostate cancer cells, respectively. Tumors were allowed to grow for 22 weeks; tumor areas, body weights, and food intakes were measured weekly. At study's conclusion, prostate and seminal vesicle weights were significantly decreased in all treatment groups versus the control; dutasteride intake significantly decreased seminal vesicle weights compared to finasteride intake. No differences were measured in final tumor areas or tumor weights between groups, likely due to poor tumor growth. In follow-up studies, proliferation of WPE1-NA22 prostate cancer cells and parent line RWPE-1 prostate epithelial cells were unaltered by treatment with testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, or mibolerone, suggesting that these cell lines are not androgen-sensitive. Conclusion The lack of response of WPE1-NA22 prostate cancer cells to androgen treatment may

  20. Natural scalp hair regression in preclinical stages of male androgenetic alopecia and its reversal by finasteride.

    PubMed

    Van Neste, D

    2006-01-01

    Using contrast-enhanced phototrichogram (CE-PTG) at monthly intervals during 48 months, we measured the duration of the hair cycle, i.e. anagen, catagen and telogen at the exclusion of exogen. Exogen, a recently identified phase of the hair cycle, is characterized by weakening of anchorage of the club hair to the surrounding epithelium. The processing of the club hair terminates at the time of exogen hair release, i.e. hair shedding. We combined a noninvasive exogen sampling before each CE-PTG so that the area contained only anagen, catagen and telogen hair or empty follicular openings. During the first 24 months of this study, natural regression of hair cycling in early i.e. preclinical stages of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) in androgen sensitive areas was documented. Shortening of the hair cycle of thicker hair characterized progression of AGA. During the next 24 months, finasteride (1 mg/day) was introduced into the system. Shortening of the hair cycle was reversed by finasteride in androgen sensitive sites as long as the affected follicle was able to produce a thick hair fiber at the time of treatment initiation. Compared to the baseline period, responding follicles did not produce thicker hair. On average, they initiated active growth more rapidly by reducing the duration of the lag phase by 40%. The duration of the anagen phase of thick hair showed an average 23% increase. In this particular experiment, the already miniaturized follicles producing thinner hair (<40 microm thickness) at the time of finasteride introduction regressed further on treatment. Our results seem to indicate that reversal of 'hair loss' by finasteride probably means that the terminal type follicles that are functionally deficient--a stage of reversible hypotrophy--will be reactivated by two non-mutually exclusive mechanisms: faster regrowth followed by extension of the duration of anagen. In our study, there was no clear evidence in favour of reversal of miniaturized hair into terminal

  1. Finasteride Reduces the Risk of Low-Grade Prostate Cancer in Men 55 and Older

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics of Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Screening Research Finasteride Reduces the Risk of Low-Grade Prostate Cancer ... PCPT) continue to show that regular use of finasteride (Proscar®) for up to 7 years decreased the ...

  2. In vitro selective inhibition of human UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A4 by finasteride, and prediction of in vivo drug-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Jun; Park, Jung Bae; Kim, Doyun; Bae, Soo Hyeon; Chin, Young-Won; Oh, Euichaul; Bae, Soo Kyung

    2015-01-22

    In the present study, we evaluated the inhibitory potentials of finasteride for the major human hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) (UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A4, UGT1A6, UGT1A9, UGT2B7, and UGT2B15) in vitro using LC-MS/MS by specific marker reactions in human liver microsomes (except for UGT2B15) or recombinant supersomes (UGT2B15). Of the seven tested UGTs, finasteride potently, selectively, and competitively inhibited UGT1A4-mediated trifluoperazine-N-glucuronidation in human liver microsomes with an IC₅₀ value of 11.5 ± 1.78 μM and Ki value of 6.03 ± 0.291 μM. This inhibitory potency was similar to that of hecogenin, a well-known inhibitor of UGT1A4. However, finasteride did not seem to inhibit any of the other six UGTs: UGT1A1, UGT1A3, UGT1A6, UGT1A9, UGT2B7, or UGT2B15. Similarly, finasteride markedly inhibited UGT1A4 activity in recombinant human UGT1A4 supersomes, with a Ki value of 6.05 ± 0.410 μM. In addition, finasteride strongly inhibited UGT1A4-catalyzed imipramine-N-β-D-glucuronidation. However, on the basis of an in vitro-in vivo extrapolation, our data strongly suggested that finasteride is unlikely to cause clinically significant drug-drug interactions mediated via inhibition of the hepatic UGT enzymes involved in drug metabolism in vivo.

  3. HIV-1 protease inhibitor mutations affect the development of HIV-1 resistance to the maturation inhibitor bevirimat.

    PubMed

    Fun, Axel; van Maarseveen, Noortje M; Pokorná, Jana; Maas, Renée Em; Schipper, Pauline J; Konvalinka, Jan; Nijhuis, Monique

    2011-08-24

    Maturation inhibitors are an experimental class of antiretrovirals that inhibit Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) particle maturation, the structural rearrangement required to form infectious virus particles. This rearrangement is triggered by the ordered cleavage of the precursor Gag polyproteins into their functional counterparts by the viral enzyme protease. In contrast to protease inhibitors, maturation inhibitors impede particle maturation by targeting the substrate of protease (Gag) instead of the protease enzyme itself. Direct cross-resistance between protease and maturation inhibitors may seem unlikely, but the co-evolution of protease and its substrate, Gag, during protease inhibitor therapy, could potentially affect future maturation inhibitor therapy. Previous studies showed that there might also be an effect of protease inhibitor resistance mutations on the development of maturation inhibitor resistance, but the exact mechanism remains unclear. We used wild-type and protease inhibitor resistant viruses to determine the impact of protease inhibitor resistance mutations on the development of maturation inhibitor resistance. Our resistance selection studies demonstrated that the resistance profiles for the maturation inhibitor bevirimat are more diverse for viruses with a mutated protease compared to viruses with a wild-type protease. Viral replication did not appear to be a major factor during emergence of bevirimat resistance. In all in vitro selections, one of four mutations was selected: Gag V362I, A364V, S368N or V370A. The impact of these mutations on maturation inhibitor resistance and viral replication was analyzed in different protease backgrounds. The data suggest that the protease background affects development of HIV-1 resistance to bevirimat and the replication profiles of bevirimat-selected HIV-1. The protease-dependent bevirimat resistance and replication levels can be explained by differences in CA/p2 cleavage processing by the different

  4. Combination therapy with finasteride and low-dose dutasteride in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Boyapati, Ann; Sinclair, Rodney

    2013-02-01

    We report on a 47-year-old man who was initially treated with finasteride for androgenetic alopecia. Despite continuous treatment, after year 4 his hair density was not as good as at year 2, and low-dose dutasteride at 0.5 mg/week was added to the finasteride therapy. This resulted in a dramatic increase in his hair density, demonstrating that combined therapy with finasteride and dutasteride can improve hair density in patients already taking finasteride.

  5. Finasteride Reduces the Risk of Incident Clinical Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, J. Kellogg; Schenk, Jeannette M.; Arnold, Kathryn B.; Messer, Karen; Till, Cathee; Thompson, Ian M.; Kristal, Alan R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the high prevalence of clinical benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) among older men, there remains a notable absence of studies focused on BPH prevention. Objective To determine if finasteride prevents incident clinical BPH in healthy older men. Design, setting, and participants Data for this study are from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial. After excluding those with a history of BPH diagnosis or treatment, or an International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) ≥8 at study entry, 9253 men were available for analysis. Outcome measurements and statistical analysis The primary outcome was incident clinical BPH, defined as the initiation of medical treatment, surgery, or sustained, clinically significant urinary symptoms (IPSS >14). Finasteride efficacy was estimated using Cox proportional regression models to generate hazards ratios (HRs). Results and limitations Mean length of follow-up was 5.3 yr. The rate of clinical BPH was 19 per 1000 person-years in the placebo arm and 11 per 1000 person-years in the finasteride arm (p < 0.001). In a covariate-adjusted model, finasteride reduced the risk of incident clinical BPH by 40% (HR: 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.51–0.69; p < 0.001). The effect of finasteride on incident clinical BPH was attenuated in men with a body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 (pinteraction = 0.04) but otherwise did not differ significantly by physical activity, age, race, current diabetes, or current smoking. The post hoc nature of the analysis is a potential study limitation. Conclusions Finasteride substantially reduces the risk of incident clinical BPH in healthy older men. These results should be considered in formulating recommendations for the use of finasteride to prevent prostate diseases in asymptomatic older men. PMID:22459892

  6. Finasteride administration potentiates the disruption of prepulse inhibition induced by forced swim stress.

    PubMed

    Pallarès, M; Llidó, A; Mòdol, L; Vallée, M; Darbra, S

    2015-08-01

    Acute stress has been demonstrated to alter sensory gating processes, measured by the prepulse inhibition of the startle response (PPI). It is well known that brain and plasma levels of the neurosteroid allopregnanolone (ALLO) increase after acute environmental stress, fact that has been considered a homeostatic mechanism in restoring normal function following stress. Thus, it is of great interest to study the contribution of stress-altered plasma ALLO levels on PPI function. For this purpose, animals were injected with finasteride, an ALLO synthesis inhibitor, and submitted to swim stress before PPI testing. In order to obtain ALLO plasma levels, a separate set of animals that followed the same experimental procedure was used. We hypothesize that the blockade of ALLO production in response to stress can increase the stress-induced PPI disruption. In accordance with other authors, our results indicate that acute swim stress disrupted the normal PPI evolution (increase) related to the increase in prepulse intensities, and also decreased PPI at the highest prepulse intensity level (15 db above background). Finasteride potentiated the PPI decrease induced by swim stress in the intermediate prepulse intensity (10 db above background). As expected, plasma ALLO levels were increased in stressed animals and this increase was neutralized by prior finasteride administration. These results indicate that the neutralization of the physiological plasma ALLO levels increase after acute stress potentiates stress-induced PPI disruption. This data suggests that alterations in homeostatic ALLO synthesis mechanism may be linked to some neuropsychiatric disorders related to stress, such as anxiety/depression disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Finasteride improves motor, EEG, and cellular changes in rat brain in thioacetamide-induced hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Mladenović, Dušan; Hrnčić, Dragan; Petronijević, Nataša; Jevtić, Gordana; Radosavljević, Tatjana; Rašić-Marković, Aleksandra; Puškaš, Nela; Maksić, Nebojša; Stanojlović, Olivera

    2014-11-01

    Neurosteroids are involved in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). This study evaluated the effects of finasteride, inhibitor of neurosteroid synthesis, on motor, EEG, and cellular changes in rat brain in thioacetamide-induced HE. Male Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: 1) control; 2) thioacetamide-treated group, TAA (300 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)); 3) finasteride-treated group, FIN (50 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)); and 4) group treated with FIN and TAA (FIN + TAA). Daily doses of TAA and FIN were administered in three subsequent days intraperitoneally, and in the FIN + TAA group FIN was administered 2 h before every dose of TAA. Motor and reflex activity was determined at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 24 h, whereas EEG activity was registered about 24 h after treatment. The expressions of neuronal (NeuN), astrocytic [glial fibrilary acidic protein (GFAP)], microglial (Iba1), and oligodendrocyte (myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein) marker were determined 24 h after treatment. While TAA decreased all tests, FIN pretreatment (FIN + TAA) significantly improved equilibrium, placement test, auditory startle, head shake reflex, motor activity, and exploratory behavior vs. the TAA group. Vital reflexes (withdrawal, grasping, righting and corneal reflex) together with mean EEG voltage were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in the FIN + TAA vs. the TAA group. Hippocampal NeuN expression was significantly lower in TAA vs. control (P < 0.05). Cortical Iba1 expression was significantly higher in experimental groups vs. control (P < 0.05), whereas hippocampal GFAP expression was increased in TAA and decreased in the FIN + TAA group vs. control (P < 0.05). Finasteride improves motor and EEG changes in TAA-induced HE and completely prevents the development of hepatic coma.

  8. Cholinesterase inhibitors affect brain potentials in amnestic mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Irimajiri, Rie; Michalewski, Henry J; Golob, Edward J; Starr, Arnold

    2007-01-01

    Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an isolated episodic memory disorder that has a high likelihood of progressing to Alzheimer’s disease. Auditory sensory cortical responses (P50, N100) have been shown to be increased in amplitude in MCI compared to older controls. We tested whether (1) cortical potentials to other sensory modalities (somatosensory and visual) were also affected in MCI and (2) cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs), one of the therapies used in this disorder, modulated sensory cortical potentials in MCI. Somatosensory cortical potentials to median nerve stimulation and visual cortical potentials to reversing checkerboard stimulation were recorded from 15 older controls and 15 amnestic MCI subjects (single domain). Results were analyzed as a function of diagnosis (Control, MCI) and ChEIs treatment (Treated MCI, Untreated MCI). Somatosensory and visual potentials did not differ significantly in amplitude in MCI subjects compared to controls. When ChEIs use was considered, somatosensory potentials (N20, P50) but not visual potentials (N70, P100, N150) were of larger amplitude in untreated MCI subjects compared to treated MCI subjects. Three individual MCI subjects showed increased N20 amplitude while off ChEIs compared to while on ChEIs. An enhancement of N20 somatosensory cortical activity occurs in amnestic single domain MCI and is sensitive to modulation by ChEIs. PMID:17320833

  9. Steady-state pharmacokinetics of oral testosterone undecanoate with concomitant inhibition of 5α-reductase by finasteride

    PubMed Central

    Roth, M. Y.; Dudley, R. E.; Hull, L.; Leung, A.; Christenson, P.; Wang, C.; Swerdloff, R.; Amory, J. K.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Oral testosterone undecanoate (TU) is used to treat testosterone deficiency; however, oral TU treatment elevates dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which may be associated with an increased risk of acne, male pattern baldness and prostate hyperplasia. Co-administration of 5α-reductase inhibitors with other formulations of oral testosterone suppresses DHT production and increases serum testosterone. We hypothesized that finasteride would increase serum testosterone and lower DHT during treatment with oral TU. Therefore, we studied the steady-state pharmacokinetics of oral TU, 200 mg equivalents of testosterone twice daily for 7 days, alone and with finasteride 0.5 and 1.0 mg po twice daily in an open-label, three-way crossover study in 11 young men with experimentally induced hypogonadism. On the seventh day of each dosing period, serum testosterone, DHT and oestradiol were measured at baseline and 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 13, 14, 16, 20 and 24 h after the morning dose. Serum testosterone and DHT were significantly increased into and above their normal ranges similarly by all three treatments. Co-administration of finasteride at 0.5 and 1.0 mg po twice daily had no significant effect on either serum testosterone or DHT. Oral TU differs from other formulations of oral testosterone in its response to concomitant inhibition of 5α-reductase, perhaps because of its unique lymphatic route of absorption. PMID:20969601

  10. The integrin inhibitor cilengitide affects meningioma cell motility and invasion.

    PubMed

    Wilisch-Neumann, Annette; Kliese, Nadine; Pachow, Doreen; Schneider, Thomas; Warnke, Jan-Peter; Braunsdorf, Werner Ek; Böhmer, Frank-Dietmar; Hass, Peter; Pasemann, Diana; Helbing, Cornelia; Kirches, Elmar; Mawrin, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Meningiomas are frequent intracranial or spinal neoplasms, which recur frequently and can show aggressive clinical behaviour. We elucidated the impact of the integrin inhibitor cilengitide on migration, proliferation, and radiosensitization of meningioma cells. We analyzed integrin expression in tissue microarrays of human meningiomas and the antimeningioma properties of cilengitide in cell cultures, subcutaneous and intracranial nude mouse models by measuring tumor volumes and survival times. αvβ5 was the predominantly expressed integrin heterodimer in meningiomas, whereas αvβ3 was mainly detected in tumor blood vessels. Application of up to 100 μg/mL cilengitide resulted in only mildly reduced proliferation/survival of meningioma cell lines. Effects on cell survival could be enhanced by irradiation. One μg/mL cilengitide was sufficient to significantly inhibit meningioma cell migration and invasion in vitro. A daily dosage of 75 mg/kg did neither affect tumor volumes nor overall survival (P = 0.813, log-rank test), but suppressed brain invasion in a significant fraction of treated animals. A combination of 75 mg/kg cilengitide daily and irradiation (2 × 5 Gy) led to a 67% reduction of MRI-estimated tumor volumes in the intracranial model (P < 0.01), whereas the corresponding reduction reached by irradiation alone was only 55% (P < 0.05). These data show that a monotherapy with cilengitide is not likely to achieve major responses in rapidly growing malignant meningiomas, although brain invasion may be reduced because of the strong antimigratory properties of the drug. The combination with radiotherapy warrants further attention. ©2013 AACR.

  11. NEUROACTIVE STEROID LEVELS AND PSYCHIATRIC AND ANDROLOGICAL FEATURES IN POST-FINASTERIDE PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo; Santi, Daniele; Spezzano, Roberto; Grimoldi, Maria; Tabacchi, Tommaso; Fusco, Maria Letizia; Diviccaro, Silvia; Giatti, Silvia; Carrà, Giuseppe; Caruso, Donatella; Simoni, Manuela; Cavaletti, Guido

    2017-04-10

    Recent reports show that, in patients treated with finasteride for male pattern hair loss, persistent side effects including sexual side effects, depression, anxiety and cognitive complaints may occur. We here explored the psychiatric and andrological features of patients affected by post-finasteride syndrome (PFS) and verified whether the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma levels of neuroactive steroids (i.e., important regulators of nervous function) are modified. We found that eight out of sixteen PFS male patients considered suffered from a DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD). In addition, all PFS patients showed erectile dysfunction (ED); in particular, ten patients showed a severe and six a mild-moderate ED. We also reported abnormal somatosensory evoked potentials of the pudendal nerve in PFS patients with severe ED, the first objective evidence of a neuropathy involving peripheral neurogenic control of erection. Testicular volume by ultrasonography was normal in PFS patients. Data obtained on neuroactive steroid levels also indicate interesting features. Indeed, decreased levels of pregnenolone, progesterone and its metabolite (i.e., dihydroprogesterone), dihydrotestosterone and 17beta-estradiol and increased levels of dehydroepiandrosterone, testosterone and 5alpha-androstane-3alpha,17beta-diol were observed in CSF of PFS patients. Neuroactive steroid levels were also altered in plasma of PFS patients, however these changes did not reflect exactly what occurs in CSF. Finally, finasteride did not only affect, as expected, the levels of 5alpha-reduced metabolites of progesterone and testosterone, but also the further metabolites and precursors suggesting that this drug has broad consequence on neuroactive steroid levels of PFS patients.

  12. Androgen levels and apoptosis in the testis during postnatal development of finasteride-treated male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Kolasa-Wolosiuk, Agnieszka; Misiakiewicz-Has, Kamila; Baranowska-Bosiacka, Irena; Gutowska, Izabela; Wiszniewska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The hormone-dependent events that occur throughout the first wave of spermatogenesis, such as the establishment of the number of Sertoli cells (SCs) and spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) within the seminiferous cords and the setting up of the blood-testis barrier, are important for adult male fertility. Any changes in the T/DHT ratio can result in male subfertility or even infertility. In this study we aimed to evaluate effects of paternal exposure to 5-alpha reductase type 2 inhibitor, finasteride on litter size, androgen levels and germ cell apoptosis in male offspring during postnatal development. The subjects of the study were 7, 14, 21/22, 28, and 90-day-old Wistar male rats (F1:Fin) born from females fertilized by finasteride-treated rats. Offspring born from untreated parental animals were used as a control group (F1:Control). Animals and the collected testes were weighed, blood and intratesticular levels of T and DHT were measured by ELISA, and the apoptotic index of testicular cells was evaluated by TUNEL technique. We observed difficulties in obtaining male newborns from female rats fertilized by finasteride-treated male rats. In the F1:Fin rats, changes in the body and testes weights occurred, and a lower number of apoptotic cells was found during postnatal maturation of the seminiferous epithelium. Changes in androgen concentrations during the first spermatogenesis wave and adult life were also evident. Finasteride treatment of male adult rats may not only cause a decrease in the fertility of parental rats, but also could lead to incorrect, androgen-sensitive course of spermatogenesis in their offspring.

  13. An observational retrospective evaluation of 79 young men with long-term adverse effects after use of finasteride against androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Chiriacò, G; Cauci, S; Mazzon, G; Trombetta, C

    2016-03-01

    Concern regarding adverse effects of finasteride is increasing. We aimed to determine the type and frequency of symptoms in men having long-term sexual and non-sexual side effects after finasteride treatment (a condition recently called post-finasteride syndrome, PFS) against androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Subjects were recruited at the Urology Unit of the Trieste University-Hospital, and from a dedicated website. Out of 79 participants, 34% were white Italians, mean age was 33.4 ± 7.60 years, mean duration of finasteride use was 27.3 ± 33.21 months; mean time from finasteride discontinuation was 44.1 ± 34.20 months. Symptoms were investigated by an ad hoc 100 questions' questionnaire, and by validated Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX) and Aging Male Symptom Scale (AMS) questionnaires. By ASEX questionnaire, 40.5% of participants declared getting and keeping erection very difficult, and 3.8% never achieved; reaching orgasm was declared very difficult by 16.5%, and never achieved by 2.5%. By the ad hoc questionnaire, the most frequent sexual symptoms referred were loss of penis sensitivity (87.3%), decreased ejaculatory force (82.3%), and low penile temperature (78.5%). The most frequent non-sexual symptoms were reduced feeling of life pleasure or emotions (anhedonia) (75.9%); lack of mental concentration (72.2%), and loss of muscle tone/mass (51.9%). We contributed to inform about symptoms of PFS patients; unexpectedly loss of penis sensitivity was more frequent than severe erectile dysfunction and loss of muscle tone/mass was affecting half of the subjects. Further studies are necessary to investigate the pathophysiological and biochemical pathways leading to the post-finasteride syndrome. © 2016 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  14. Finasteride use in the male infertility population: effects on semen and hormone parameters.

    PubMed

    Samplaski, Mary K; Lo, Kirk; Grober, Ethan; Jarvi, Keith

    2013-12-01

    To determine the degree of improvement in semen parameters after finasteride discontinuation. A prospective database of men presenting for a fertility evaluation was analyzed for semen and hormone parameters before and after discontinuation of finasteride. A male infertility specialty clinic. Men presenting for fertility evaluation from 2008-2012 on finasteride. None. Semen and hormone parameters before and after discontinuation of finasteride. At presentation, 27 (0.6%) of 4,400 men on finasteride. The mean duration of treatment with finasteride was 57.4 months, and mean dose was 1.04 mg/day. There was an average 11.6-fold increase in sperm counts after finasteride discontinuation. Of the men with severe oligospermia (<5 M/mL), 57% had counts increase to >15 M/mL after finasteride cessation. No man had a decrease in sperm count. There was no change in hormone parameters, sperm motility, or sperm morphology. Finasteride, even at low doses, may cause reduced sperm counts in some men. In this population, counts improved dramatically for the majority of men after finasteride discontinuation. The hormone parameters, sperm motility, and sperm morphology were unchanged after cessation. Finasteride should be discontinued in subfertile men with oligospermia, and used with caution in men who desire fertility. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Protein profiling of rat ventral prostate following chronic finasteride administration: identification and localization of a novel putative androgen-regulated protein.

    PubMed

    Cayatte, Corinne; Pons, Catherine; Guigonis, Jean-Marie; Pizzol, Jérôme; Elies, Laetitia; Kennel, Philippe; Rouquié, David; Bars, Rémi; Rossi, Bernard; Samson, Michel

    2006-11-01

    To better understand the effects of antiandrogens on the prostate, we investigated the changes in the proteome of rat ventral prostate (VP) following treatment with a well characterized 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, finasteride. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated daily by gavage with finasteride at 0, 1, 5, 25, and 125 mg/kg/day. Changes in plasma hormone levels as well as the weight and histology of sex accessory tissues were determined after 28 days of treatment and showed a dose-related decrease of VP weights together with a marked atrophy of the tissue visible at the macroscopic and microscopic levels. In addition, significant reductions in seminal vesicle and epididymis weights were noted. VP proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis: 37 proteins, mainly involved in protein synthesis, processing, and cellular trafficking and in metabolism, detoxification, and oxidative stress, were identified as modulated by finasteride. The prominent feature of this study is the demonstration of finasteride dose-dependent up-regulation of a protein similar to l-amino-acid oxidase 1 (Lao1). An up-regulation of this protein was also observed with the antiandrogen flutamide. Lao1 expression occurred as early as 48 h after antiandrogen administration and persisted throughout the treatment duration. Immunohistochemistry showed that this protein was only detectable in epithelial cells and secretory vesicles. Altogether these data point to a potential use of Lao1 to reveal antiandrogen-induced prostate injury.

  16. The anti-androgen combination, flutamide plus finasteride, paradoxically suppressed LH and androgen concentrations in pregnant spotted hyenas, but not in males.

    PubMed

    Place, Ned J; Coscia, Elizabeth M; Dahl, Nancy J; Drea, Christine M; Holekamp, Kay E; Roser, Janet F; Sisk, Cheryl L; Weldele, Mary L; Glickman, Stephen E

    2011-02-01

    The androgen receptor blocker flutamide and the 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride have been used in a variety of species to investigate the ontogeny of sexual dimorphisms by treating pregnant females or neonates at critical periods of sexual differentiation. Likewise, we have used these drugs to study the profound masculinization of the external genitalia in female spotted hyenas. However, a potential pitfall of administering flutamide, either alone or in combination with finasteride, is that it maintains or even raises plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone (T), because negative feedback of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is disrupted. Contrary to expectations, when pregnant spotted hyenas were treated with flutamide and finasteride (F&F), the concentrations of T during late gestation were suppressed relative to values in untreated dams. Herein, we further investigate the paradoxical effects of F&F treatment on a battery of sex hormones in spotted hyenas. Beyond the effects on T, we found plasma concentrations of LH, estradiol, progesterone and androstenedione (A4) were also significantly lower in F&F-treated pregnant hyenas than in controls. Flutamide and finasteride did not have similar effects on LH, T, and A4 concentrations in male hyenas. The paradoxical effect of F&F treatment on LH and T concentrations in the maternal circulation suggests that negative feedback control of gonadotropin and androgen secretion may be modified in spotted hyenas during pregnancy.

  17. Aromatase inhibitors affect vaginal proliferation and steroid hormone receptors.

    PubMed

    Kallak, Theodora Kunovac; Baumgart, Juliane; Göransson, Emma; Nilsson, Kerstin; Poromaa, Inger Sundström; Stavreus-Evers, Anneli

    2014-04-01

    Women with breast cancer who are treated with aromatase inhibitors often experience vaginal atrophy symptoms and sexual dysfunction. This work aims to study proliferation and the presence and distribution of steroid hormone receptors in vaginal biopsies in relation to vaginal atrophy and vaginal pH in women with breast cancer who are on adjuvant endocrine treatment and in healthy postmenopausal women. This is a cross-sectional study that compares postmenopausal aromatase inhibitor-treated women with breast cancer (n = 15) with tamoxifen-treated women with breast cancer (n = 16) and age-matched postmenopausal women without treatment (n = 19) or with vaginal estrogen therapy (n = 16). Immunohistochemistry was used to study proliferation and steroid hormone receptor staining intensity. Data was correlated with estrogen and androgen levels, vaginal atrophy scores, and vaginal pH. Aromatase inhibitor-treated women had a lower grade of proliferation, weaker progesterone receptor staining, and stronger androgen receptor staining, which correlated with plasma estrone levels, vaginal atrophy scores, and vaginal pH. Women with aromatase inhibitor-treated breast cancer exhibit reduced proliferation and altered steroid hormone receptor staining intensity in the vagina, which are related to clinical signs of vaginal atrophy. Although these effects are most probably attributable to estrogen suppression, a possible local inhibition of aromatase cannot be ruled out.

  18. [Transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy combined with finasteride for recurrent hematospermia].

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Yong-Chuan; Du, Jing; Zhou, Hai-Jun; Yu, Zhi-Yong; Gao, En-Jiang; Lu, Hong-Kai

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical effectiveness of transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy (TUSV) combined with finasteride in the treatment of recurrent hemospermia. This study included 32 patients with recurrent hematospermia, with the disease course of 3 months to 4 years. After administration of finasteride at 5 mg/d for 2 weeks, the patients underwent TUSV for both exploration of the causes and treatment, followed by medication with finasteride at the same dose for another 2 weeks. Postoperative follow-up was conducted for observation of the outcomes and complications. TUSV was successfully accomplished in all the 32 cases, which revealed 16 cases of seminal vesiculitis, 10 seminal calculi, 1 seminal vesicle cyst, 2 seminal vesicle polyps, and 3 seminal vesicle abscess. The operative time was 20 to 51 (31.0 +/- 5.2) minutes. Postoperative complications included 1 case of acute epididymitis and 3 cases of breast discomfort within the first 4 weeks. No incontinence, urethral stricture, rectal injury, retrograde ejaculation, and sexual dysfunction occurred postoperatively. All the patients but 1 were followed up for 6 months to 2 years. Twenty-nine of the cases were cured, and 2 experienced recurrence. Transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy combined with finasteride is safe and effective for the treatment of recurrent hemospermia.

  19. A pharmacogenetic survey of androgen receptor (CAG)n and (GGN)n polymorphisms in patients experiencing long term side effects after finasteride discontinuation.

    PubMed

    Cecchin, Erika; De Mattia, Elena; Mazzon, Giorgio; Cauci, Sabina; Trombetta, Carlo; Toffoli, Giuseppe

    2014-12-09

    Finasteride is a steroid 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor, approved for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and benign prostate hyperplasia. In some patients the treatment is associated with adverse side effects that could become persistent after therapy discontinuation, resulting in the so-called post-finasteride syndrome (PFS). A pharmacogenetic component in the response to finasteride treatment was previously demonstrated. Two polymorphisms (CAG) rs4045402 and (GGN) rs3138869 in the gene encoding for the androgen receptor (AR) have been hypothesized to play a role in finasteride sensitivity. We aimed to compare the rs4045402 and rs3138869 polymorphisms prevalence in a group of 69 selected subjects (AGA+PFS) that used finasteride to treat alopecia and developed persistent side effects, with that in a group of 91 untreated subjects with AGA (AGA), and a group of 76 untreated subjects without AGA (NO-AGA). The rs4045402 and rs3138869 polymorphisms extreme-lengths alleles were more frequent among AGA+PFS (odds ratio, 5.88; 95% CI, 1.87-18.52) and AGA subjects (odds ratio, 3.55; 95% CI, 1.13-11.21) than among NO-AGA subjects, probably reflecting the genetic predisposing factors for AGA development. In conclusion, we described a predictive effect of the less common repeats' length CAG-rs4045402 and GGN-rs3138869 on AGA development. Prospective trials are required to confirm our findings also in other ethnicities, and to highlight possible further pharmacogenetic predictive markers of susceptibility to adverse effects.

  20. The Influence of Finasteride on Mean and Relative Spectral Density of EEG Bands in Rat Model of Thioacetamide-Induced Hepatic Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Mladenović, D; Hrnčić, D; Rašić-Marković, A; Macut, Dj; Stanojlović, O

    Liver failure is associated with a neuropsychiatric syndrome, known as hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Finasteride, inhibitor of neurosteroid synthesis, may improve the course of HE. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of finasteride on mean and relative power density of EEG bands, determined by spectral analysis, in rat model of thioacetamide-induced HE. Male Wistar rats were divided into groups: (1) control; (2) thioacetamide-treated group, TAA (900 mg/kg); (3) finasteride-treated group, FIN (150 mg/kg); and (4) group treated with finasteride (150 mg/kg) and thioacetamide (900 mg/kg), FIN + TAA. Daily doses of FIN (50 mg/kg) and TAA (300 mg/kg) were administered during 3 subsequent days, and in FIN + TAA group FIN was administered 2 h before every dose of TAA. EEG was recorded 22-24 h after treatment and analyzed by fast Fourier transformation. While TAA did not induce significant changes in the beta band, mean and relative power in this band were significantly higher in FIN + TAA versus control group (p < 0.01). TAA caused a significant decline in mean power in alpha, theta, and delta band, and in FIN + TAA group the mean power in these bands was significantly higher compared with control. While in TAA group relative power was significantly decreased in theta (p < 0.01) and increased in delta band (p < 0.01) versus control, the opposite changes were found in FIN + TAA group: an increase in theta (p < 0.01) and a decrease in delta relative power (p < 0.01). In this study, finasteride pretreatment caused EEG changes that correspond to mild TAA-induced HE.

  1. Immunohistochemical evaluation of androgen receptor and nerve structure density in human prepuce from patients with persistent sexual side effects after finasteride use for androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Di Loreto, Carla; La Marra, Francesco; Mazzon, Giorgio; Belgrano, Emanuele; Trombetta, Carlo; Cauci, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Finasteride is an inhibitor of 5-α-reductase used against male androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Reported side effects of finasteride comprise sexual dysfunction including erectile dysfunction, male infertility, and loss of libido. Recently these effects were described as persistent in some subjects. Molecular events inducing persistent adverse sexual symptoms are unexplored. This study was designed as a retrospective case-control study to assess if androgen receptor (AR) and nerve density in foreskin prepuce specimens were associated with persistent sexual side effects including loss of sensitivity in the genital area due to former finasteride use against AGA. Cases were 8 males (aged 29-43 years) reporting sexual side effects including loss of penis sensitivity over 6 months after discontinuation of finasteride who were interviewed and clinically visited. After informed consent they were invited to undergo a small excision of skin from prepuce. Controls were 11 otherwise healthy matched men (aged 23-49 years) who undergone circumcision for phimosis, and who never took finasteride or analogues. Differences in AR expression and nerve density in different portions of dermal prepuce were evaluated in the 2 groups. Density of nuclear AR in stromal and epithelial cells was higher in cases (mean 40.0%, and 80.6% of positive cells, respectively) than controls (mean 23.4%, and 65.0% of positive cells, respectively), P = 0.023 and P = 0.043, respectively. Conversely, percentage of vessel smooth muscle cells positive for AR and density of nerves were similar in the 2 groups. The ratio of AR positive stromal cells % to serum testosterone concentrations was 2-fold higher in cases than in controls (P = 0.001). Our findings revealed that modulation of local AR levels might be implicated in long-term side effects of finasteride use. This provides the first evidence of a molecular objective difference between patients with long-term adverse sexual effects after

  2. Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Androgen Receptor and Nerve Structure Density in Human Prepuce from Patients with Persistent Sexual Side Effects after Finasteride Use for Androgenetic Alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Di Loreto, Carla; La Marra, Francesco; Mazzon, Giorgio; Belgrano, Emanuele; Trombetta, Carlo; Cauci, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Finasteride is an inhibitor of 5-α-reductase used against male androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Reported side effects of finasteride comprise sexual dysfunction including erectile dysfunction, male infertility, and loss of libido. Recently these effects were described as persistent in some subjects. Molecular events inducing persistent adverse sexual symptoms are unexplored. This study was designed as a retrospective case-control study to assess if androgen receptor (AR) and nerve density in foreskin prepuce specimens were associated with persistent sexual side effects including loss of sensitivity in the genital area due to former finasteride use against AGA. Cases were 8 males (aged 29–43 years) reporting sexual side effects including loss of penis sensitivity over 6 months after discontinuation of finasteride who were interviewed and clinically visited. After informed consent they were invited to undergo a small excision of skin from prepuce. Controls were 11 otherwise healthy matched men (aged 23–49 years) who undergone circumcision for phimosis, and who never took finasteride or analogues. Differences in AR expression and nerve density in different portions of dermal prepuce were evaluated in the 2 groups. Density of nuclear AR in stromal and epithelial cells was higher in cases (mean 40.0%, and 80.6% of positive cells, respectively) than controls (mean 23.4%, and 65.0% of positive cells, respectively), P = 0.023 and P = 0.043, respectively. Conversely, percentage of vessel smooth muscle cells positive for AR and density of nerves were similar in the 2 groups. The ratio of AR positive stromal cells % to serum testosterone concentrations was 2-fold higher in cases than in controls (P = 0.001). Our findings revealed that modulation of local AR levels might be implicated in long-term side effects of finasteride use. This provides the first evidence of a molecular objective difference between patients with long-term adverse sexual effects after

  3. Ketocazole as an adjunct to finasteride in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in men.

    PubMed

    Hugo Perez, B S

    2004-01-01

    Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) binding to androgen receptors (AR) in hair follicles is commonly accepted as the first step leading to the miniaturizing of follicles associated with androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Testosterone is converted to DHT by the enzyme 5alpha-reductase. Finasateride a 5alpha-reducase inhibitor blocks the production of DHT and is currently used to treat AGA. The inhibition is not complete but a reduction of DHT systemically and in the scalp is accomplished. Ketoconazole has been clinically shown to be effective in the treatment of AGA. In this paper, evidence is presented to support the hypothesis that ketoconazole 2% shampoo has a local disruption of the DHT pathway. It is proposed that using ketoconazole 2% shampoo as an adjunct to finasteride treatment could lead to a more complete inhibition of DHT and thus better treat AGA.

  4. Enhancement of Intermittent Androgen Ablation Therapy by Finasteride Administration in Animal Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    AD Award Number: DAMD17-02-1-0113 TITLE: Enhancement of Intermittent Androgen Ablation Therapy by Finasteride Administration in Animal Models...Enhancement of Intermittent Androgen Ablation Therapy by DAMDI7-02-1-0113 Finasteride Administration in Animal Models 6. AUTHOR(S) Zhou Wang, Ph.D. 7...differentiation but weaker in stimulating proliferation, which led to our hypothesis that intermittent androgen suppression (IAS) can be enhanced by finasteride

  5. Novel glycosaminoglycan biosynthetic inhibitors affect tumor-associated angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Karthik; Ninomiya, Masayuki; Nguyen, Thao Kim Nu; Tsuzuki, Yasuhiro; Koketsu, Mamoru; Kuberan, Balagurunathan

    2011-01-01

    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are essential players in several steps of tumor-associated angiogenesis. As co-receptors for several pro-angiogenic factors such as VEGF and FGF, HSPGs regulate receptor-ligand interactions and play a vital role in signal transduction. Previously, we have employed an enzymatic strategy to show the importance of cell surface HSPGs in endothelial tube formation in vitro. We have recently found several fluoro-xylosides that can selectively inhibit proteoglycan synthesis in endothelial cells. The current study demonstrates that these fluoro-xylosides are effective inhibitors of endothelial tube formation in vitro using a matrigel based assay to simulate tumor-associated angiogenesis. These first generation scaffolds offer a promising stepping-stone to the discovery of more potent fluoro-xylosides that can effectively neutralize tumor growth. PMID:21094131

  6. Voltammetric reduction of finasteride at mercury electrode and its determination in tablets.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Lueje, A; Brain-Isasi, S; Núñez-Vergara, L J; Squella, J A

    2008-05-15

    Finasteride in hydroalcoholic solutions (ethanol/Britton-Robinson buffer, 30/70) exhibits cathodic response in a wide range of pH (-0.5 to 12) using differential pulse (DPP) and test polarography (TP). The reduction peak of finasteride at acidic pH, is a catalytic proton peak resulting from a mechanism involving a first protonation of finasteride followed by the reduction of the protons combined with finasteride in order to regenerate finasteride and liberate hydrogen. Based on the catalytic hydrogen wave, a novel method for the determination of finasteride can be proposed. For analytical purposes we selected DPP technique in an ethanol/0.0625 mol L(-1) H(2)SO(4) (30/70) solution medium. In this condition the I(p) varied linearly with finasteride concentration between 5 x 10(-5) and 5 x 10(-4) mol L(-1). Within-day and inter-day reproducibility's were adequate with R.S.D. values lower than 2%. The selectivity of the method was checked with both accelerated degradation trials and typical excipients formulations. The developed method was applied to the assay and the uniformity content of finasteride tablets and compared with the standard HPLC method. The DPP-developed method was adequate for the finasteride determination in pharmaceutical forms as that exhibited an adequate accuracy, reproducibility and selectivity. Furthermore, treatment of the sample was not required as in HPLC; the method is not time-consuming and less expensive than the HPLC ones.

  7. Finasteride is effective for the treatment of central serous chorioretinopathy.

    PubMed

    Moisseiev, E; Holmes, A J; Moshiri, A; Morse, L S

    2016-06-01

    PurposeTo evaluate the safety and efficacy of finasteride treatment in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC).MethodsRetrospective review of 29 eyes of 23 patients who were treated with finasteride for CSC. Previous medical and ocular history, steroid use, length of finasteride treatment, additional treatments for CSC, visual acuity (VA), central macular thickness (CMT), and presence of subretinal fluid (SRF) throughout the follow-up period, and the occurrence of any complications were recorded.ResultsInitial VA was 0.29±0.31 logMAR, and a trend towards improved VA was noted after 3 months (0.25±0.36 logMAR; P=0.07). VA was significantly improved at the final follow-up (0.23±0.27 logMAR; P=0.024). Initial CMT was 354±160 μm, and was significantly reduced after 1 month of treatment (284±77 μm; P=0.002) and this was maintained to the end of follow-up (247±85 μm; P=0.001). A significant reduction in SRF presence was found at all time points, with an overall 75.9% rate of complete resolution. Following discontinuation, SRF recurrence was noted in 37.5% of cases. No adverse events were recorded.ConclusionsFinasteride is a safe and effective treatment for CSC. It may be a possible new option for the initial management of patient with CSC, and a suggested treatment approach is presented.

  8. Secondary infertility due to use of low-dose finasteride.

    PubMed

    Şalvarci, Ahmet; Istanbulluoğlu, Okan

    2013-02-01

    Herein, we present an unusual case of secondary infertility after prolonged use of low-dose finasteride for androgenetic alopecia in a 40-year-old man. We detected sperm DNA damage in the patient. Despite such a long-term use, we observed that impairment in semen parameters and sperm DNA fragmentation index regressed after the drug was discontinued. Consequently, pregnancy occurred and resulted in live birth.

  9. Effects of Subchronic Finasteride Treatment and Withdrawal on Neuroactive Steroid Levels and Their Receptors in the Male Rat Brain.

    PubMed

    Giatti, Silvia; Foglio, Benedetta; Romano, Simone; Pesaresi, Marzia; Panzica, Giancarlo; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Caruso, Donatella; Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo

    2016-01-01

    The enzymatic conversion of progesterone and testosterone by the enzyme 5alpha-reductase exerts a crucial role in the control of nervous function. The effects of finasteride in the brain, an inhibitor of this enzyme used for the treatment of human benign prostatic hyperplasia and androgenic alopecia, have been poorly explored. Therefore, the effects of a subchronic treatment with finasteride at low doses (3 mg/kg/day) and the consequences of its withdrawal on neuroactive steroid levels in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and some brain regions as well as on the expression of classical and non-classical steroid receptors have been evaluated in male rats. After subchronic treatment (i.e., for 20 days) the following effects were detected: (i) depending on the compartment considered, alteration in the levels of neuroactive steroids, not only in 5alpha-reduced metabolites but also in its precursors and in neuroactive steroids from other steroidogenic pathways and (ii) an upregulation of the androgen receptor in the cerebral cortex and beta3 subunit of the GABA-A receptor in the cerebellum. One month after the last treatment (i.e., withdrawal period), some of these effects persisted (i.e., the upregulation of the androgen receptor in the cerebral cortex, an increase of dihydroprogesterone in the cerebellum, a decrease of dihydrotestosterone in plasma). Moreover, other changes in neuroactive steroid levels, steroid receptors (i.e., an upregulation of the estrogen receptor alpha and a downregulation of the estrogen receptor beta in the cerebral cortex) and GABA-A receptor subunits (i.e., a decrease of alpha 4 and beta 3 mRNA levels in the cerebral cortex) were detected. These findings suggest that finasteride treatment may have broad consequences for brain function. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. In vitro percutaneous permeation and skin accumulation of finasteride using vesicular ethosomal carriers.

    PubMed

    Rao, Yuefeng; Zheng, Feiyue; Zhang, Xingguo; Gao, Jianqing; Liang, Wenquan

    2008-01-01

    In order to develop a novel transdermal drug delivery system that facilitates the skin permeation of finasteride encapsulated in novel lipid-based vesicular carriers (ethosomes)finasteride ethosomes were constructed and the morphological characteristics were studied by transmission electron microscopy. The particle size, zeta potential and the entrapment capacity of ethosome were also determined. In contrast to liposomes ethosomes were of more condensed vesicular structure and they were found to be oppositely charged. Ethosomes were found to be more efficient delivery carriers with high encapsulation capacities. In vitro percutaneous permeation experiments demonstrated that the permeation of finasteride through human cadaver skin was significantly increased when ethosomes were used. The finasteride transdermal fluxes from ethosomes containing formulation (1.34 +/- 0.11 microg/cm(2)/h) were 7.4, 3.2 and 2.6 times higher than that of finasteride from aqueous solution, conventional liposomes and hydroethanolic solution respectively (P < 0.01).Furthermore, ethosomes produced a significant (P < 0.01) finasteride accumulation in the skin, especially in deeper layers, for instance in dermis it reached to 18.2 +/- 1.8 microg/cm(2). In contrast, the accumulation of finasteride in the dermis was only 2.8 +/- 1.3 microg/cm(2) with liposome formulation. The study demonstrated that ethosomes are promising vesicular carriers for enhancing percutaneous absorption of finasteride.

  11. Altered brain and pituitary androgen metabolism by prenatal, perinatal or pre- and postnatal finasteride, flutamide or dihydrotestosterone treatment in juvenile male rats.

    PubMed

    Lephart, E D; Husmann, D A

    1993-11-01

    1. The authors investigated the administration of finasteride, a 5 alpha-reductase inhibitor; flutamide, an androgen receptor blocker and; exogenous dihydrotestosterone (DHT) during intervals covering different portions of the "critical period" of neural development (i.e. prenatal, perinatal or pre- and postnatal development) to determine the long-term effects of these agents on altering androgen metabolism in hypothalamic and pituitary tissue of juvenile (30 day-old) male rats. 2. The efficacy of the treatments and hypothalamic-pituitary axis function was monitored by measuring luteinizing hormone levels by radioimmunoassay. 5 alpha-Reductase and aromatase activity was determined in hypothalamic and pituitary tissue. 3. Significant alterations in pituitary 5 alpha-reductase activity was detected in DHT-treated animals, whereas, hypothalamic 5 alpha-reductase activity was significantly decreased by finasteride treatment and significantly increased by DHT treatment. Hypothalamic aromatase activity was significantly decreased in flutamide-treated animals. 4. These results suggest that: a) prenatal exposure to exogenous DHT stimulates hypothalamic (but inhibits pituitary) 5 alpha-reductase activity long-term and b) basal 5 alpha-reductase activity levels can be inhibited by finasteride treatment in hypothalamic but not in pituitary tissue, suggesting that a different regulatory mechanism exists for 5 alpha-reductase in hypothalamic versus pituitary tissue.

  12. Neuroactive steroid levels are modified in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of post-finasteride patients showing persistent sexual side effects and anxious/depressive symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo; Caruso, Donatella; Abbiati, Federico; Giatti, Silvia; Calabrese, Donato; Piazza, Fabrizio; Cavaletti, Guido

    2013-10-01

    Observations performed in a subset of subjects treated with finasteride (an inhibitor of the enzyme 5α-reductase) for male pattern hair loss seem to indicate that sexual dysfunction as well as anxious/depressive symptomatology may occur at the end of the treatment and continue after discontinuation. A possible hypothesis to explain depression symptoms after finasteride treatment might be impairment in the levels of neuroactive steroids. Therefore, neuroactive steroid levels were evaluated in paired plasma and cerebrospinal fluid samples obtained from male patients who received finasteride for the treatment of androgenic alopecia and who, after drug discontinuation, still show long-term sexual side effects as well as anxious/depressive symptomatology. The levels of neuroactive steroids were evaluated by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in three postfinasteride patients and compared to those of five healthy controls. Neuroactive steroid levels in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of postfinasteride patients and healthy controls. At the examination, the three postfinasteride patients reported muscular stiffness, cramps, tremors, and chronic fatigue in the absence of clinical evidence of any muscular disorder or strength reduction. Severity and frequency of the anxious/depressive symptoms were quite variable; overall, all the subjects had a fairly complex and constant neuropsychiatric pattern. Assessment of neuroactive steroid levels in patients showed some interindividual differences. However, the most important finding was the comparison of their neuroactive steroid levels with those of healthy controls. Indeed, decreased levels of tetrahydroprogesterone, isopregnanolone and dihydrotestosterone and increased levels of testosterone and 17β-estradiol were reported in cerebrospinal fluid of postfinasteride patients. Moreover, decreased levels of dihydroprogesterone and increased levels of 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol and 17β-estradiol were observed in

  13. Effect of finasteride on serum levels of androstenedione, testosterone and their 5α-reduced metabolites in men at risk for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Stanczyk, Frank Z; Azen, Colleen G; Pike, Malcolm C

    2013-11-01

    Studies show that treatment of men with 5α-reductase inhibitors such as finasteride is effective for the primary prevention of prostate cancer. Although it is known that finasteride treatment suppresses serum levels of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and its distal metabolite, 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol glucuronide (3α-diol G), and increases serum testosterone (T) levels, little is known about its effect on other precursors and metabolites of DHT, as well as on the relationship of these androgens to prostate specific antigen (PSA), a marker of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. The present study provides new data on the effect of finasteride on precursors and metabolites of DHT. Fifty-three men, ages 57-79 years, with elevated PSA levels (>4ng/ml), were randomized to treatment with finasteride (5mg/day) or observation (controls) for 12 months. Blood samples were obtained at baseline, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months for measurement of PSA, androstenedione (A), T, DHT, 3α-diol G, androsterone glucuronide (ADT G) and DHT sulfate (DHT S) in serum by validated, highly specific radioimmunoassays. Statistical analysis was carried out using mixed model ANOVA and t-tests. In the control group, PSA and androgen levels were unchanged throughout the 12 months of treatment. In the finasteride group, PSA, DHT, DHT S, 3α-diol G and ADT G decreased from baseline to 1 month by 23.2%, 78.7%, 71.0%, 75.7% and 43.0%, respectively. The change in PSA decreased further to 46.1% and 55.1% at 3 and 12 months of treatment, respectively, whereas the decrease in androgens observed at 1 month did not change by more than 6.9% for DHT, DHT S and 3α-diol G in the subsequent months of sampling. However, the decline in ADT G was only 22.2% at month 3, and remained essentially at this level after that time. In contrast, T and A increased significantly from baseline, and the increase in A of approximately 34.5% was about 1.9 times the increase in T (approximately 18.3%). The present data suggest that either

  14. Beneficial effects of finasteride on hepatic and pulmonary immune response after trauma hemorrhage in mice.

    PubMed

    Neunaber, Claudia; Angela, Yenny; Safi, Schabnam; Krettek, Christian; Zeckey, Christian

    2015-07-01

    The literature reveals evidence for a gender specific outcome after major trauma and hemorrhage. Increased levels of male sex hormones such as testosterone and even more dihydrotestosterone (DHT) mediate negative effects on the posttraumatic immune response. Pretreatment with finasteride several days before trauma hemorrhage (TH) led to improved outcomes in mice. We hypothesized that finasteride mediates its protective effects also when administered after TH within the resuscitation process. Male C57BL/6N-mice underwent TH (blood pressure: 35 mmHg, 90 min) followed by finasteride application and fluid resuscitation. Plasma cytokines (MIP-1β, TNF-α, MCP-1, MCP-3, IL-6), productive capacity of alveolar macrophages (AM) and hepatic Kupffer cells (KC) and systemic DHT levels were determined 4 h and 24 h thereafter. Pulmonary and hepatic infiltration of PMN was determined by immunohistochemical staining. Finasteride treatment resulted in reduced levels of systemic cytokines. This was accompanied by a reduced posttraumatic cytokine secretion of AM as well as Kupffer cells, thereby reducing hepatic distant organ damage as measured by reduced PMN infiltration. Systemic DHT levels were decreased following finasteride treatment. Finasteride exerts salutary effects on the pulmonary and hepatic immune response using a therapeutic approach following TH in mice. Therefore, finasteride might represent a potential agent following multiple trauma and hemorrhage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Antiandrogenic therapy with finasteride attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and left ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Zwadlo, Carolin; Schmidtmann, Elisa; Szaroszyk, Malgorzata; Kattih, Badder; Froese, Natali; Hinz, Hebke; Schmitto, Jan Dieter; Widder, Julian; Batkai, Sandor; Bähre, Heike; Kaever, Volkhard; Thum, Thomas; Bauersachs, Johann; Heineke, Joerg

    2015-03-24

    In comparison with men, women have a better prognosis when experiencing aortic valve stenosis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, or heart failure. Recent data suggest that androgens like testosterone or the more potent dihydrotestosterone contribute to the development of cardiac hypertrophy and failure. Therefore, we analyzed whether antiandrogenic therapy with finasteride, which inhibits the generation of dihydrotestosterone by the enzyme 5-α-reductase, improves pathological ventricular remodeling and heart failure. We found a strongly induced expression of all 3 isoforms of the 5-α-reductase (Srd5a1 to Srd5a3) in human and mouse hearts with pathological hypertrophy, which was associated with increased myocardial accumulation of dihydrotestosterone. Starting 1 week after the induction of pressure overload by transaortic constriction, mice were treated with finasteride for 2 weeks. Cardiac function, hypertrophy, dilation, and fibrosis were markedly improved in response to finasteride treatment in not only male, but also in female mice. In addition, finasteride also very effectively improved cardiac function and mortality after long-term pressure overload and prevented disease progression in cardiomyopathic mice with myocardial Gαq overexpression. Mechanistically, finasteride, by decreasing dihydrotestosterone, potently inhibited hypertrophy and Akt-dependent prohypertrophic signaling in isolated cardiac myocytes, whereas the introduction of constitutively active Akt blunted these effects of finasteride. Finasteride, which is currently used in patients to treat prostate disease, potently reverses pathological cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction in mice and might be a therapeutic option for heart failure. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Depressive symptoms and suicidal thoughts among former users of finasteride with persistent sexual side effects.

    PubMed

    Irwig, Michael S

    2012-09-01

    Finasteride, a commonly prescribed medication for male pattern hair loss, has recently been associated with persistent sexual side effects. In addition, depression has recently been added to the product labeling of Propecia (finasteride 1 mg). Finasteride reduces the levels of several neuroactive steroids linked to sexual function and depression. This study assesses depressive symptoms and suicidal thoughts in former users of finasteride who developed persistent sexual side effects despite the discontinuation of finasteride. In 2010-2011, former users of finasteride (n = 61) with persistent sexual side effects for ≥ 3 months were administered standardized interviews that gathered demographic information, medical and psychiatric histories, and information on medication use, sexual function, and alcohol consumption. All former users were otherwise healthy men with no baseline sexual dysfunction, chronic medical conditions, current or past psychiatric conditions, or use of oral prescription medications before or during finasteride use. A control group of men (n = 29), recruited from the community, had male pattern hair loss but had never used finasteride and denied any history of psychiatric conditions or use of psychiatric medications. The primary outcomes were the prevalence of depressive symptoms and the prevalence of suicidal thoughts as determined by the Beck depression inventory II (BDI-II); all subjects self-administered this questionnaire at the time of the interview or up to 10 months later. Rates of depressive symptoms (BDI-II score ≥ 14) were significantly higher in the former finasteride users (75%; 46/61) as compared to the controls (10%; 3/29) (P < .0001). Moderate or severe depressive symptoms (BDI-II score ≥ 20) were present in 64% (39/61) of the finasteride group and 0% of the controls. Suicidal thoughts were present in 44% (27/61) of the former finasteride users and in 3% (1/29) of the controls (P < .0001). Clinicians and potential users of

  17. Tissue Effects in a Randomized Controlled Trial of Short-term Finasteride in Early Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeri; Davis, John W; Klein, Eric A; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; Lotan, Yair; Ward, John F; Pisters, Louis L; Basler, Joseph W; Pettaway, Curtis A; Stephenson, Andrew; Li Ning Tapia, Elsa M; Efstathiou, Eleni; Wang, Xuemei; Do, Kim-Anh; Lee, J Jack; Gorlov, Ivan P; Vornik, Lana A; Hoque, Ashraful M; Prokhorova, Ina N; Parnes, Howard L; Lippman, Scott M; Thompson, Ian M; Brown, Powel H; Logothetis, Christopher J; Troncoso, Patricia

    2016-05-01

    In the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial, finasteride selectively suppressed low-grade prostate cancer and significantly reduced the incidence of prostate cancer in men treated with finasteride compared with placebo. However, an apparent increase in high-grade disease was also observed among men randomized to finasteride. We aimed to determine why and hypothesized that there is a grade-dependent response to finasteride. From 2007 to 2012, we randomized dynamically by intranet-accessible software 183 men with localized prostate cancer to receive 5mg finasteride or placebo daily in a double-blind study during the 4-6weeks preceding prostatectomy. As the primary end point, the expression of a predefined molecular signature (ERβ, UBE2C, SRD5A2, and VEGF) differentiating high- and low-grade tumors in Gleason grade (GG) 3 areas of finasteride-exposed tumors from those in GG3 areas of placebo-exposed tumors, adjusted for Gleason score (GS) at prostatectomy, was compared. We also determined androgen receptor (AR) levels, Ki-67, and cleaved caspase 3 to evaluate the effects of finasteride on the expression of its downstream target, cell proliferation, and apoptosis, respectively. The expression of these markers was also compared across grades between and within treatment groups. Logistic regression was used to assess the expression of markers. We found that the predetermined molecular signature did not distinguish GG3 from GG4 areas in the placebo group. However, AR expression was significantly lower in the GG4 areas of the finasteride group than in those of the placebo group. Within the finasteride group, AR expression was also lower in GG4 than in GG3 areas, but not significantly. Expression of cleaved caspase 3 was significantly increased in both GG3 and GG4 areas in the finasteride group compared to the placebo group, although it was lower in GG4 than in GG3 areas in both groups. We showed that finasteride's effect on apoptosis and AR expression is tumor grade dependent

  18. Transurethral Resection of Prostate and Bleeding: A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial to See the Efficacy of Short-Term Use of Finasteride and Dutasteride on Operative Blood Loss and Prostatic Microvessel Density.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Ankur; Arora, Aditi

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of short-duration use of finasteride and dutasteride before transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) on intraoperative blood loss and microvessel density (MVD) of prostate stroma and suburethral tissues in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This study includes 450 patients who were planned for TURP. They were prospectively randomized into three groups (150 patients each). Group 1 received placebo, group 2 received finasteride, 5 mg per day, and group 3 patients received dutasteride, 0.5 mg per day, for 4 weeks before surgery. The total blood loss, requirement of blood, and MVDs in prostate stroma and suburethral tissues were calculated in each patient and then compared among three groups. There was significant reduction in mean blood loss, blood loss/time, and total blood loss per gram of resected tissue in finasteride and dutasteride groups compared with placebo. Prostate stromal and suburethral MVDs were significantly higher compared with placebo. Blood transfusion was required in 9.3%, 2.7%, and 2% of the patients, respectively (p = 0.004). However, no statistically significant differences were observed between finasteride and dutasteride groups for these parameters (p > 0.05). The weight of resected prostate, operating time, and amount of irrigation fluid used did not show any significant difference between the three groups. Short-term pretreatment with finasteride and dutasteride has similar efficacy and significantly reduces perioperative bleeding during TURP and has minimal negative impact on sexual function. According to our findings, a 4-week prior administration of 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors may reduce operative blood loss and prostatic MVD in TURP, thus potentially decreasing blood loss-related complications and the requirement of blood transfusion.

  19. Decreased alcohol consumption among former male users of finasteride with persistent sexual side effects: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Irwig, Michael S

    2013-11-01

    There is a robust literature in rodents, but not in humans, on the interaction between finasteride and alcohol, particularly as it relates to neurosteroids. Finasteride has been shown to reduce alcohol intake and suppress alcohol preference in male mice. This study examines the role of finasteride in alcohol consumption in humans with male pattern hair loss. The subjects were 83 otherwise healthy men who developed persistent sexual side effects associated with finasteride, despite the cessation of this medication for at least 3 months. Information from standardized interviews was collected regarding medical histories, sexual function, and alcohol consumption before and after finasteride use. Of the 63 men who consumed at least 1 alcoholic beverage/wk prior to starting finasteride, 41 (65%) noted a decrease in their alcohol consumption after stopping finasteride. This reduction typically began before discontinuing finasteride. Twenty men (32%) reported no change in their alcohol consumption, and 2 men (3%) reported an increase in their alcohol consumption. For the 63 consumers of alcohol, the mean number (± SE) of alcoholic beverages/wk declined from 5.2 ± 0.7 before finasteride to 2.0 ± 0.3 after finasteride (p < 0.0001). A major study limitation is the lack of a comparison group. In former male users of finasteride who developed persistent sexual side effects, 65% noticed a decline in their alcohol consumption as compared to baseline. This finding is consistent with finasteride's ability to modulate alcohol intake in rodents. Further research is needed on the central nervous system effects of finasteride in humans. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  20. Fibrinolysis inhibitors adversely affect remodeling of tissues sealed with fibrin glue.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Lissy K; Vijayan Lal, Arthur; Uma Shankar, P R; Mohanty, Mira

    2003-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out to determine if aprotinin and epsilon -amino caproic acid increases the quality of Fibrin glue. A rat model was used for tissues such as liver and skin while rabbits were used for application of glue in dura mater. Apposition of all the tissues, glued with fibrin was found to be good and remnants of the polymerized fibrin were seen even on the seventh day of application, though inhibitors were not incorporated with the glue. In skin, excessive amounts of fibrin remained as a result of addition of aprotinin and epsilon -amino caproic acid, as compared to the glue applied without any inhibitor. After dural sealing, the wound repair and new bone formation at craniotomy site progressed well in the fibrin glue applied area as compared to the commercially available glue that contained aprotinin. The adhesive strength of the glue without or with fibrinolysis inhibitors was found to be similar, after 1h grafts on rat back. The observations from this study suggests that the use of aprotinin with fibrin glue may not be required because, even liver tissue that is known to have high fibrinolytic activity was sealed and repaired well in the absence of plasminogen inhibitors. On the other hand, it was found that if inhibitors were added, nondegraded matrix remained in the tissue even after 15 days and affected migration of repair cells. Thus, the inhibition of fibrinolysis after fibrin glue application is found detrimental to wound healing.

  1. Expression of basic fibroblast growth factor and its receptors FGFR1 and FGFR2 in human benign prostatic hyperplasia treated with finasteride.

    PubMed

    Sáez, C; González-Baena, A C; Japón, M A; Giráldez, J; Segura, D I; Rodríguez-Vallejo, J M; González-Esteban, J; Miranda, G; Torrubia, F

    1999-07-01

    The development of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an androgen-dependent process which may be mediated by a number of locally produced growth factors. One of these, the basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF or FGF2), has a mitogenic effect on prostatic stroma. High expression levels of bFGF have been reported in BPH. FGFR1 and FGFR2 receptors, that exhibit affinity for bFGF, have been identified in normal and hyperplastic prostate. Finasteride, a 5alpha-reductase inhibitor, is an effective drug in the treatment of BPH, inducing regressive changes in the prostate of treated patients, even though its mechanisms of action are not yet completely elucidated. This study was designed to assess the effects of finasteride on the expression levels of bFGF, FGFR1, and FGFR2 in patients with BPH. The expression levels of bFGF, FGFR1, and FGFR2 in 9 patients with prostatic hyperplasia treated with finasteride were assessed by immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis of mRNA expression and were compared with those of 9 control patients with untreated BPH. Immunohistochemistry showed strong bFGF immunoreactivity in the prostatic stroma of untreated patients, this being somewhat weaker in the epithelium. In treated patients, epithelial immunoreactivity was practically negative, and a considerable reduction in stromal immunoreactivity was seen. These findings were also confirmed by RT-PCR. FGFR1 showed a weak immunoreactivity in the stroma and in basal epithelial cells. FGFR1 showed a weak immunoreactivity in the stroma and in basal epithelial cells. FGFR2 exhibited strong stromal immunoreactivity, becoming weaker in the basal epithelium. No differences were seen in the expression of both receptors between the groups of treated and untreated patients. A marked reduction in bFGF levels is seen in BPH treated with finasteride in comparison to untreated BPH. In our opinion, finasteride may act as a negative regulator of b

  2. Bowman-Birk inhibitor affects pathways associated with energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Li, H-M; Sun, L; Mittapalli, O; Muir, W M; Xie, J; Wu, J; Schemerhorn, B J; Jannasch, A; Chen, J Y; Zhang, F; Adamec, J; Murdock, L L; Pittendrigh, B R

    2010-06-01

    Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) is toxic when fed to certain insects, including the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Dietary BBI has been demonstrated to slow growth and increase insect mortality by inhibiting the digestive enzymes trypsin and chymotrypsin, resulting in a reduced supply of amino acids. In mammals, BBI influences cellular energy metabolism. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that dietary BBI affects energy-associated pathways in the D. melanogaster midgut. Through microarray and metabolomic analyses, we show that dietary BBI affects energy utilization pathways in the midgut cells of D. melanogaster. In addition, ultrastructure studies indicate that microvilli are significantly shortened in BBI-fed larvae. These data provide further insights into the complex cellular response of insects to dietary protease inhibitors.

  3. PARP inhibitors may affect normal cells in patients with a BRCA mutation | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    PARP inhibition has been approved for treatment of advanced ovarian cancer with BRAC1 and BRAC2 mutations and is being studied in the treatment advanced breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer.  A new study by Center for Cancer Research scientists in the Mouse Cancer Genetics Program and the Laboratory of Genome Integrity, raises concerns that when cancer patients with a BRCA mutation are treated with PARP inhibitors their normal cells may also be affected.  

  4. Development of a doxazosin and finasteride transdermal system for combination therapy of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Pupe, Carolina Gonçalves; Do Carmo, Flávia Almada; De Sousa, Valéria Pereira; Lopes, Marlene; Abrahim-Vieira, Bárbara; Ribeiro, António José; Veiga, Francisco; Rodrigues, Carlos Rangel; Padula, Cristina; Santi, Patrizia; Cabral, Lucio Mendes

    2013-11-01

    The treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia can be accomplished by the use of different drugs including, doxazosin, an α-1 adrenergic antagonist, and finasteride (FIN), a 5-α reductase inhibitor. Traditionally, treatments using these drugs have been administered as either a mono or combination therapy by the oral route. A transdermal delivery system optimized for doxazosin and FIN combination therapy would provide increased patient adherence and facilitate dose adjustment. Doxazosin base (DB) was prepared from doxazosin mesylate and characterized together with FIN, by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The permeation enhancers, azone and lauric acid, and the gelling agents, hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) and Poloxamer 407 (P407), were evaluated to determine their ability to promote in vitro permeation of drugs through the pig ear epidermis. Successful preparation of DB was confirmed by evaluating the XRD, DSC, and NMR patterns and in vitro studies revealed that 3% (w/w) azone was the best permeation enhancer. When P407 gel was compared with HPC gel, it showed reduced lag time and promoted higher permeation of both drugs. This may be because of the interactions of the former with the stratum corneum, which disorganizes the lipid structure and consequently promotes higher drug permeation.

  5. Quality evaluation of the Finasteride polymorphic forms I and II in capsules.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Lucélia Magalhães; Montanari, Cristina Martiniano; Santos, Olimpia Maria Martins; Cazedey, Edith Cristina Laignier; Ângelo, Marilene Lopes; de Araújo, Magali Benjamin

    2015-02-01

    Finasteride (FNS) is a specific competitive inhibitor of steroid type-II 5α-reductase and is widely used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostate cancer, and androgenetic alopecia. FNS has two polymorphic forms identified as Form I and Form II. It is known that polymorphism can cause significant differences in the physicochemical properties of a compound such as melting point, density, morphology, solubility, and color. Thus, proper qualitative and quantitative monitoring of the solid-state forms is crucial to ensure high-quality products. There are no published papers studying the influence of the FNS polymorphs on the physicochemical quality of capsules. Furthermore, the available analytical methods are time-consuming, expensive, use buffer or do not demonstrate stability-indicating capacity. The aim of this work was to validate a rapid high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method to evaluate FNS in capsules and to study the physicochemical properties of polymorphic forms, evaluating their possible influence in the dissolution profile and stability of FNS in capsules. Capsules containing Forms I and II of FNS were prepared and subjected to quality control studies, dissolution profiles and a stability study at 50°C. A significant effect of polymorphism on the FNS solubility and dissolution properties was observed. These results suggest that changes in the effects of FNS can occur if a suitable control study is not performed on the raw material used to produce the capsules.

  6. Finasteride Reduces Risk of Bladder Cancer in a Large Prospective Screening Study.

    PubMed

    Morales, Edwin E; Grill, Sonja; Svatek, Robert S; Kaushik, Dharam; Thompson, Ian M; Ankerst, Donna P; Liss, Michael A

    2016-03-01

    The androgen receptor has been implicated in the development and progression of bladder cancer (BCa), largely based on studies of animal models. We investigated whether finasteride was associated with a reduced incidence of BCa as observed by self-report in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian cancer screening trial. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was performed to determine the association of finasteride use with time to diagnosis of BCa, controlling for age and tobacco use. Of the 72,370 male participants who met inclusion criteria, 6069 (8.4%) had reported the use of finasteride. BCa was diagnosed in 1.07% (65 of 6069) of those who reported finasteride compared with 1.46% (966 of 66,301) of those who reported no use during the trial. In a multiple Cox regression analysis, self-reported use of finasteride was associated with a decreased risk of development of BCa (hazard ratio: 0.634; 95% confidence interval, 0.493-0.816; p=0.0004), controlling for age and smoking. Limitations of this study include that it is observational and not randomized, that many of the confounding variables for BCa, such as alcohol use, were not available for use in the analysis, and that finasteride use was by annual self-report, which is subject to missing values and error. Finasteride is a common medication used to reduce the size of the prostate and to promote hair growth by manipulating testosterone in men. Men are more likely than women to develop bladder cancer (BCa), but our study noted that men using finasteride were less likely to have a BCa diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The effectiveness of finasteride and dutasteride used for 3 years in women with androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Boersma, Ids H; Oranje, Arnold P; Grimalt, Ramon; Iorizzo, Matilde; Piraccini, Bianca M; Verdonschot, Emiel H

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of finasteride and dutasteride in women with androgenetic alopecia has been the subject of debate. To evaluate the effectiveness of finasteride and dutasteride on hair loss in women with androgenetic alopecia over a period of 3 years. From a database containing systematically retrieved data on 3500 women treated for androgenetic alopecia between 2002 and 2012 with finasteride 1.25 mg or dutasteride 0.15 mg, a random sample stratified for age and type of medication was taken to yield 30 women in two age categories: below and above 50 years, and for both medications. Hair thickness of the three thinnest hairs was measured from standardized microscopic images at three sites of the scalp at the start of the treatment and after 3 years of continuous medication intake. The macroscopic images were evaluated independently by three European dermatologists/hair experts. The diagnostic task was to identify the image displaying superior density of the hair. Both age categories showed a statistically significant increase in hair thickness from baseline over the 3-year period for finasteride and dutasteride (signed rank test, P=0.02). Hair thickness increase was observed in 49 (81.7%) women in the finasteride group and in 50 (83.3%) women in the dutasteride group. On average, the number of post-treatment images rated as displaying superior density was 124 (68.9%) in the finasteride group, and 118 (65.6%) in the dutasteride group. Dutasteride performed statistically significantly better than finasteride in the age category below 50 years at the central and vertex sites of the scalp. Finasteride 1.25 mg and dutasteride 0.15 mg given daily for 3 years effectively increased hair thickness and arrested further deterioration in women with androgenetic alopecia.

  8. 5 mg/day finasteride treatment for normoandrogenic Asian women with female pattern hair loss.

    PubMed

    Yeon, J H; Jung, J Y; Choi, J W; Kim, B J; Youn, S W; Park, K C; Huh, C H

    2011-02-01

    Various treatments have been attempted for female pattern hair loss (FPHL), including topical minoxidil, oral antiandrogen and finasteride. But, there is no consensus on the standard treatment options. Clinical efficacy of finasteride in treating FPHL is still in controversy, but there is a tendency to high dose finasteride, which is more effective than lower dose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficacy of high dose (5 mg/day) oral finasteride in normoandrogenic Asian women with FPHL. Total of 87 normoandrogenic, pre and post-menopausal women with FPHL were enrolled in this study. They were treated with oral finasteride (Proscar(®)), 5 mg daily for 12 months. Efficacy was evaluated with hair density and thickness changes assessed by phototrichogram and global photographs using 7-point scale. Eighty-six patients completed 12 months of finasteride treatment schedule. One patient (1.1%) withdrew due to headache. At initial visits, mean hair density was 90 ± 22/cm(2) and mean hair thickness was 64 ± 11 μm. After 12 months of finasteride treatment, hair density was significantly increased to 107 ± 23/cm(2) (P<0.001), and hair thickness was also significantly increased to 70 ± 9 μm (P=0.02). In global photographs, 70 (81.4%) of the 86 patients were improved (57 were slightly, 10 were moderately and four were greatly improved). Patients without any changes were 13 (15.1%) and 3 (3.5%) patients reported slightly aggravated. Four patients (4.6%) reported adverse events (headache, menstrual irregularity, dizziness and increased body hair growth). However, these adverse events were mild and disappeared soon.   Oral finasteride, 5 mg/day, may be an effective and safe treatment for normoandrogenic women with FPHL. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  9. Lifetime implications and cost-effectiveness of using finasteride to prevent prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Zeliadt, Steven B; Etzioni, Ruth D; Penson, David F; Thompson, Ian M; Ramsey, Scott D

    2005-08-01

    We estimate the lifetime implications of daily treatment with finasteride following the results of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT). In this trial, prostate cancer prevalence was reduced by 25%; however, an increase in the number of high-grade tumors among the treatment group necessitates the long-term projection of the likely benefits and costs. We use a Markov decision analysis model with data from the trial, the SEER program, and published literature. The model measures the cost per life-year and cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained for a cohort of men age 55 years who initiate preventive treatment with finasteride. Finasteride is associated with a gain of 6 life-years per 1000 men treated at an incremental cost of 1660000 dollars per life-year gained. The quality-adjusted analysis results in 46 QALYs gained per 1000 men treated at an incremental cost of 200000 dollars per QALY gained, due primarily to the favorable effects of finasteride on benign prostatic hyperplasia. Under the assumption that the increase in high-grade tumors observed among finasteride treated men is a pathologic artifact, the incremental costs are 290000 dollars per life-year gained and 130000 dollars per QALY gained. The cost burden associated with finasteride is substantial, while its survival benefit is small and only realized many years after initiating treatment. To achieve an incremental cost below 100000 dollars per QALY gained, the price of finasteride must be reduced by 50% from its current average wholesale price and finasteride must be shown to prevent high-grade as well as low-grade disease.

  10. Effects of long-term finasteride treatment on prostate cancer morphology and clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Mark A; Allory, Yves; Molinié, Vincent; Leroy, Xavier; Faucon, Hugo; Vacherot, Francis; Huang, Wei; Kuten, Adam; Salomon, Laurent; Rebillard, Xavier; Cussenot, Olivier; Abbou, Claude; de la Taille, Alexandre

    2005-11-01

    To examine the morphologic alterations of finasteride therapy on prostate cancer compared with no treatment or treatment with a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist and the clinical outcomes of patients treated with finasteride. The data of 56 patients with prostate cancer who had taken finasteride for at least 6 months were reviewed. A central pathology review was performed in a blinded manner comparing these patients with 56 matched controls and 44 patients who received a 3-month course of LHRH agonist before radical prostatectomy. The histologic hormonal treatment effects included apoptosis, vacuolated cytoplasm, pyknotic nuclei, and small irregular glands. An overall consensus was scored using a three-tiered system: no apparent effect (score = 0), suspicious for hormonal effect (score = 1), and highly suggestive of hormonal treatment (score = 2). A Gleason score was assigned to all prostatectomy specimens. The mean hormonal treatment score for the prostatectomy specimens was 0.4, 0.5, and 1.6 for the control, finasteride, and 3-month LHRH groups, respectively. Surprisingly, 20% of control patients had suspicious or highly suggestive hormonal effects and 26% of the finasteride-treated patients did so. For the LHRH-treated group, only 23% did not demonstrate classic features of hormonal treatment. Similar clinical outcomes were observed between the finasteride and control groups. No consistent hormonal therapy effects with finasteride treatment were observed compared with LHRH agonists. The hormonal effect was observed in the control group. Therefore, although other aspects of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial design might account for the greater percentage of Gleason grade tumors in the study arm, morphologic changes due to long-term finasteride treatment were not a likely cause.

  11. Comparitive effectiveness of finasteride vs Serenoa repens in male androgenetic alopecia: a two-year study.

    PubMed

    Rossi, A; Mari, E; Scarno, M; Garelli, V; Maxia, C; Scali, E; Iorio, A; Carlesimo, M

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this open label study is to determine the effectiveness of Serenoa repens in treating male androgenetic alopecia (AGA), by comparing its results with finasteride. For this purpose, we enrolled 100 male patients with clinically diagnosed mild to moderate AGA. One group received Serenoa repens 320 mg every day for 24 months, while the other received finasteride 1 mg every day for the same period. In order to assess the efficacy of the treatments, a score index based on the comparison of the global photos taken at the beginning (T0) and at the end (T24) of the treatment, was used. The results showed that only 38% of patients treated with Serenoa repens had an increase in hair growth, while 68% of those treated with finasteride noted an improvement. Moreover finasteride was more effective for more than half of the patients (33 of 50, i.e. 66%), with level II and III alopecia. We can summarize our results by observing that Serenoa repens could lead to an improvement of androgenetic alopecia, while finasteride confirmed its efficacy. We also clinically observed, that finasteride acts in both the front area and the vertex, while Serenoa repens prevalently in the vertex. Obviously other studies will be necessary to clarify the mechanisms that cause the different responses of these two treatments.

  12. Post-Finasteride Adverse Effects in Male Androgenic Alopecia: A Case Report of Vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Motofei, Ion G; Rowland, David L; Georgescu, Simona R; Tampa, Mircea; Paunica, Stana; Constantin, Vlad D; Balalau, Cristian; Manea, Mirela; Baleanu, Bogdan C; Sinescu, Ioanel

    2017-01-01

    Finasteride has proved to be relatively safe and effective in the therapeutic management of male androgenic alopecia. However, literature data report several endocrine imbalances inducing various adverse effects, which often persist after treatment cessation in the form of post-finasteride syndrome. Here we present the case of a 52-year-old man receiving finasteride (1 mg/day) who developed an uncommon adverse effect represented by generalized vitiligo 2 months after finasteride discontinuation. Associated adverse effects encountered were represented by mild sexual dysfunction (as determined by the International Index of Erectile Function, IIEF) and moderate depressive symptoms (according to DSM-V criteria), all of these manifestations aggregating within/as a possible post-finasteride syndrome. Further studies should develop and compare several therapeutic approaches, taking into account not only compounds that decrease the circulating dihydrotestosterone level but also those that could block the dihydrotestosterone receptors (if possible, compounds with selective tropism towards the skin). In addition, the possibility of predicting adverse effects of finasteride (according to hand preference and sexual orientation) should be taken into account. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Effect of Exogenous Testosterone, Finasteride, and Castration on Serum Level of Thyroxin

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Fatemeh; Yousofvand, Namdar; Khazaei, Mozafar; Ghanbari, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Background: The secretion of thyroxin (T4) as the main hormone of thyroid gland is regulated by androgens. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of testosterone and finasteride administration and castration on serum levels of T4 and to show the effect of this regulation on total body weight, weight of testis, and the weight of prostate. Methods: Male adult rats (n = 32) were divided into 4 groups (n = 8): Group 1 (control), Group 2 (castration), Group 3 (finasteride: 20 mg/kg/day) and Group 4 (testosterone: 5 mg/kg/day). At the end of the study (35 days), serum level of thyroxin, body weight, weight of testis, and prostate were determined. Results: The data showed that the body weight increased in castrated (P = 0.04) and decreased in testosterone (P = 0.00) groups but did not differ in finasteride (P>0.05) group. There were not any differences in the weight of testis among control, finasteride, and testosterone groups but the weight of prostate increased in testosterone group (P = 0.00) and decreased in castrated (P = 0.03) and finasteride groups (P = 0.04). In addition, the serum level of T4 (nmo/ml) decreased in the three groups: finasteride (P = 0.03), testosterone (P = 0.04), and castrated (P = 0.00). Conclusion: Testosterone in both high and low levels decreased the amount of T4 with a time-dependent manner. PMID:23999719

  14. Effect of exogenous testosterone, finasteride, and castration on serum level of thyroxin.

    PubMed

    Zarei, Fatemeh; Yousofvand, Namdar; Khazaei, Mozafar; Ghanbari, Ali

    2013-01-01

    The secretion of thyroxin (T4) as the main hormone of thyroid gland is regulated by androgens. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of testosterone and finasteride administration and castration on serum levels of T4 and to show the effect of this regulation on total body weight, weight of testis, and the weight of prostate. Male adult rats (n = 32) were divided into 4 groups (n = 8): Group 1 (control), Group 2 (castration), Group 3 (finasteride: 20 mg/kg/day) and Group 4 (testosterone: 5 mg/kg/day). At the end of the study (35 days), serum level of thyroxin, body weight, weight of testis, and prostate were determined. The data showed that the body weight increased in castrated (P = 0.04) and decreased in testosterone (P = 0.00) groups but did not differ in finasteride (P>0.05) group. There were not any differences in the weight of testis among control, finasteride, and testosterone groups but the weight of prostate increased in testosterone group (P = 0.00) and decreased in castrated (P = 0.03) and finasteride groups (P = 0.04). In addition, the serum level of T4 (nmo/ml) decreased in the three groups: finasteride (P = 0.03), testosterone (P = 0.04), and castrated (P = 0.00). Testosterone in both high and low levels decreased the amount of T4 with a time-dependent manner.

  15. Comprehensive spectroscopic characterization of finasteride polymorphic forms. Does the form X exist?

    PubMed

    Frelek, Jadwiga; Górecki, Marcin; Dziedzic, Alicja; Jabłońska, Ewa; Kamieński, Bohdan; Wojcieszczyk, Ryszard K; Luboradzki, Roman; Szczepek, Wojciech J

    2015-05-01

    The pure polymorphic forms I, II, and III of finasteride were prepared and their purity was confirmed by FTIR, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray powder diffraction measurements. The preparation experiments demonstrated that the desolvation process of some finasteride solvates does result not only in the formation of polymorphic forms I and II, but also in obtaining the pure form III. The (13)C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP-MAS) and the (15)N CP-MAS spectra can distinguish all three polymorphic forms of finasteride. Additionally, the data point to the presence of only one molecule in crystallographic asymmetric unit of polymorphic forms I and III and two molecules in the form II. The application of electronic circular dichroism (ECD) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy for finasteride polymorphic forms shows that the three polymorphs could be distinguished by the characteristic shapes of their VCD spectra in the spectral range 1520-1440 cm(-1). The ECD spectral patterns of all these forms, however, are almost indistinguishable because of their close similarity. Comparison of the (13)C CP-MAS spectra of forms I, II, and III with those reported in the literature indicates that the so-called finasteride "form X" is identical to the previously known finasteride form III. On this basis, the existence of form X was excluded.

  16. Basic nuclear processes affected by histone acetyltransferases and histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Legartová, Soňa; Stixová, Lenka; Strnad, Hynek; Kozubek, Stanislav; Martinet, Nadine; Dekker, Frank J; Franek, Michal; Bártová, Eva

    2013-08-01

    The optimal balance between histone acetylation and deacetylation is important for proper gene function. Therefore, we addressed how inhibitors of histone-modifying enzymes can modulate nuclear events, including replication, transcription, splicing and DNA repair. Changes in cell signaling pathways upon treatment with histone acetyltransferases and/or histone deacetylase inhibitors were studied by cDNA microarrays and western blots. We analyzed the effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and the histone acetylase inhibitor MG149. SAHA altered the expression of factors involved in DNA replication complexes, basal transcription and the spliceosome pathway. DNA repair-related genes, including Rad51, Rad54 and BRCA2, were significantly downregulated by SAHA. However, MG149 had no effect on the investigated nuclear processes, with the exception of the spliceosome network and Sestrins, involved in DNA repair. Based on our results, we propose that the studied epigenetic drugs have the distinct potential to affect specific cell signaling pathways depending on their respective molecular targets.

  17. A randomized, active- and placebo-controlled study of the efficacy and safety of different doses of dutasteride versus placebo and finasteride in the treatment of male subjects with androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Gubelin Harcha, Walter; Barboza Martínez, Julia; Tsai, Tsen-Fang; Katsuoka, Kensei; Kawashima, Makoto; Tsuboi, Ryoji; Barnes, Allison; Ferron-Brady, Geraldine; Chetty, Dushen

    2014-03-01

    Dihydrotestosterone is the main androgen causative of androgenetic alopecia, a psychologically and physically harmful condition warranting medical treatment. We sought to compare the efficacy and safety of dutasteride (type 1 and 2 5-alpha reductase inhibitor) with finasteride (type 2 5-alpha reductase inhibitor) and placebo in men with androgenetic alopecia. Men aged 20 to 50 years with androgenetic alopecia were randomized to receive dutasteride (0.02, 0.1, or 0.5 mg/d), finasteride (1 mg/d), or placebo for 24 weeks. The primary end point was hair count (2.54-cm diameter) at week 24. Other assessments included hair count (1.13-cm diameter) and width, photographic assessments (investigators and panel), change in stage, and health outcomes. In total, 917 men were randomized. Hair count and width increased dose dependently with dutasteride. Dutasteride 0.5 mg significantly increased hair count and width in a 2.54-cm diameter and improved hair growth (frontal view; panel photographic assessment) at week 24 compared with finasteride (P = .003, P = .004, and P = .002, respectively) and placebo (all P < .001). The number and severity of adverse events were similar among treatment groups. The study was limited to 24 weeks. Dutasteride increased hair growth and restoration in men with androgenetic alopecia and was relatively well tolerated. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Adverse Event Reporting in Clinical Trials of Finasteride for Androgenic Alopecia: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Belknap, Steven M; Aslam, Imran; Kiguradze, Tina; Temps, William H; Yarnold, Paul R; Cashy, John; Brannigan, Robert E; Micali, Giuseppe; Nardone, Beatrice; West, Dennis P

    2015-06-01

    Two meta-analyses conclude that finasteride treatment of androgenic alopecia (AGA) is safe but do not assess quality of safety reporting. To assess safety reporting for clinical trial reports of finasteride for AGA. MEDLINE, ClinicalTrials.gov, and a clinical data repository for an academic medical center. Published clinical trial reports for finasteride treatment of AGA. For each trial, we assessed quality of adverse event reporting, extracted the number and type of adverse events in treatment and placebo groups, and assessed duration of safety evaluation and adequacy of blinding. Two observers independently extracted the data; differences were resolved by consensus. We assessed generalizability in a large cohort of men prescribed finasteride, 1.25 mg/d or less, by assessing for eligibility in the finasteride-AGA pivotal trials. Quality was assessed as adequate, partially adequate, inadequate, or no events reported. We used funnel plots of the hazard ratio to assess bias. Of 34 clinical trials, none had adequate safety reporting, 19 were partially adequate, 12 were inadequate, and 3 reported no adverse events. Funnel plots were asymmetric with a bias toward lower odds ratio for sexual adverse effects, suggesting systematic underdetection. No reports assessed adequacy of blinding, 18 (53%) disclosed conflicts of interest, and 19 (56%) received funding from the manufacturer. Duration of drug safety evaluation was 1 year or less for 26 of 34 trials (76%). Of 5704 men in the clinical data repository who were treated for AGA with finasteride, 1.25 mg/d or less, for AGA, only 31% met inclusion criteria for the pivotal trials referenced in the manufacturer's full prescribing information and 33% took finasteride for more than 1 year. Available toxicity information from clinical trials of finasteride in men with AGA is very limited, is of poor quality, and seems to be systematically biased. In a cohort of men prescribed finasteride for routine treatment of AGA, most would

  19. Long-term Consequences of Finasteride vs Placebo in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.

    PubMed

    Unger, Joseph M; Till, Cathee; Thompson, Ian M; Tangen, Catherine M; Goodman, Phyllis J; Wright, Jason D; Barlow, William E; Ramsey, Scott D; Minasian, Lori M; Hershman, Dawn L

    2016-12-01

    Finasteride has been found to reduce the risk of low-grade prostate cancer but to have no impact on overall survival. The long-term adverse and beneficial consequences of finasteride have not been examined. We used a linkage between data from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) and Medicare claims. Patients were examined by randomized study arm (finasteride vs placebo for 7 years) for long-term consequences of the intervention, including cardiac, endocrine, and sexual dysfunction, depression, diabetes, and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)-related events. To examine time to events, we used cumulative incidence and Cox regression, adjusting for covariates. All statistical tests were two-sided. A total of 13 935 of 18 880 participants (73.8%) in the PCPT were linked to Medicare claims, with median Medicare follow-up assessment time of 16 years from trial registration. There were no differences between finasteride and placebo participants with respect to important baseline factors or amount of Medicare follow-up assessment time. Finasteride patients had a 10% higher risk of new claims for depression (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01 to 1.19, P = .04) and a 6% lower risk of procedures for BPH-related events (primarily lower urinary tract symptoms; HR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.89 to 1.00, P = .03). No other differences were found in rates of long-term consequences of intervention in the two study arms. Finasteride use is associated with reduced need for procedures for relief of BPH-related events and a modest increase in depression. Overall, there is little need to worry about long-term noncancer consequences of finasteride use in those who use it for treatment of symptomatic BPH, hair growth, or prevention of cancer. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. The benefits of finasteride for hirsute women with polycystic ovary syndrome or idiopathic hirsutism.

    PubMed

    Lakryc, E M; Motta, E L A; Soares, J M; Haidar, M A; de Lima, G Rodrigues; Baracat, E C

    2003-02-01

    Finasteride has been used frequently in the treatment of prostate hyperplasia, but this drug inhibits 5alpha-reductase and for this reason could be useful for the treatment of hirsutism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and hormonal effects of finasteride on hirsute women with idiopathic hirsutism or polycystic ovary syndrome. Twenty-four women were randomly divided into two groups: those given placebo and those given finasteride 5 mg/day. The treatment period was 6 months. All patients were evaluated before the beginning of treatment (baseline) and after 3 and 6 months of treatment using clinical examination through Ferriman-Gallwey score, blood pressure, cardiac frequency and body mass index. Also, we collected blood for hormonal determination of levels of prolactin, 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, total and free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, androstenedione and dihydrotestosterone. Furthermore, all patients were asked about their concerns and satisfaction with the treatment. The results showed that the Ferriman-Gallwey score in the 6th month of finasteride treatment was significantly lower than at baseline and the 3rd month of this drug treatment. The dihydrotestosterone level in the finasteride group was also significantly reduced compared to that in the placebo group. The other hormones did not show any statistical difference during the study. All the patients treated with finasteride perceived a reduction in hirsutism after 6 months. In conclusion, our data suggest that finasteride may be effective for the treatment of the hirsute woman with idiopathic hirsutism or polycystic ovary syndrome.

  1. Histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid affects plasmacytoid dendritic cells phenotype and function.

    PubMed

    Arbez, Jessy; Lamarthée, Baptiste; Gaugler, Béatrice; Saas, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC) represent a rare subset of dendritic cells specialized in the production of type I IFN in response to microbial pathogens. Recent data suggested that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors possess potent immunomodulatory properties both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we assayed the ability of the HDAC inhibitor, valproic acid (VPA), to influence the phenotype and functional properties of human PDC isolated from peripheral blood. We showed that VPA inhibited the production of IFN-α and the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 by CpG-activated PDC. VPA also affected the phenotype of PDC by reducing the expression of costimulatory molecules induced by CpG activation. Moreover, VPA reduced the capacity of CpG-stimulated PDC to promote CD4(+) T cell proliferation and IFN-γ production, while enhancing the proportion of IL-10 positive T cells. These results suggest that HDAC inhibition by VPA alters essential human PDC functions, highlighting the need for monitoring immune functions in cancer patients receiving HDAC inhibitors, but also making these drugs attractive therapies in inflammatory, and autoimmune diseases implicating PDC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Pharmacokinetics of 2 Novel Formulations of Modified-Release Oral Testosterone Alone and With Finasteride in Normal Men With Experimental Hypogonadism

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Christin N.; Clark, Richard V.; Caricofe, Ralph B.; Bush, Mark A.; Roth, Mara Y.; Page, Stephanie T.; Bremner, William J.; Amory, John K.

    2011-01-01

    Oral administration of testosterone might be useful for the treatment of testosterone deficiency. However, current “immediate-release” formulations of oral testosterone exhibit suboptimal pharmacokinetics, with supraphysiologic peaks of testosterone and its metabolite, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), immediately after dosing. To dampen these peaks, we have developed 2 novel modified-release formulations of oral testosterone designed to slow absorption from the gut and improve hormone delivery. We studied these testosterone formulations in 16 normal young men enrolled in a 2-arm, open-label clinical trial. Three hundred-mg and 600-mg doses of immediate-release and modified fast-release or slow-release formulations were administered sequentially to 8 normal men rendered hypogonadal by the administration of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist acyline. Blood for measurement of serum testosterone, DHT, and estradiol was obtained before and 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hours after each dose. A second group of 8 men was studied with the coadministration of 1 mg of the 5α-reductase inhibitor finasteride daily throughout the treatment period. Serum testosterone was increased with all formulations of oral testosterone. The modified slow-release formulation significantly delayed the postdose peaks of serum testosterone and reduced peak concentrations of serum DHT compared with the immediate-release formulation. The addition of finasteride further increased serum testosterone and decreased serum DHT. We conclude that the oral modified slow-release testosterone formulation exhibits superior pharmacokinetics compared with immediate-release oral testosterone both alone and in combination with finasteride. This formulation might have efficacy for the treatment of testosterone deficiency. PMID:20378927

  3. Bax inhibitor 1, a modulator of calcium homeostasis, confers affective resilience

    PubMed Central

    Hunsberger, Joshua G.; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Austin, Daniel R.; Zarate, Carlos; Chuang, De-Maw; Chen, Guang; Reed, John C.; Manji, Husseini K.

    2011-01-01

    The endoplamic reticulum (ER) is a critical site for intracellular calcium storage as well as protein synthesis, folding, and trafficking. Disruption of these processes is gaining support for contributing to heritable vulnerability of certain diseases. Here, we investigated Bax inhibitor 1 (BI-1), an anti-apoptotic protein that primarily resides in the ER and associates with B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-XL, as an affective resiliency factor through its modulation of calcium homeostasis. We found that transgenic (TG) mice with BI-1 reinforced expression, via the neuronal specific enolase promoter, showed protection against the learned helplessness (LH) paradigm, an animal model to test stress coping. TG mice were also protected against anhedonia following both serotonin and catecholamine depletion as measured in two different models, the female urine sniffing test and the saccharine preference test. In addition, we used primary mouse cortical cultures to explore the ability of BI-1 to influence calcium homeostasis under basal conditions and also following challenge with thapsigargin (THPS), an inhibitor of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) that disrupts calcium homeostasis. TG neurons showed decreased basal cytosolic calcium levels and decreased Ca2+ cytosolic accumulation following challenge with THPS as compared to WT neuronal cultures. Together, these data suggest that BI-1, through its actions on calcium homeostasis, may confer affective resiliency in multiple animal models of depression and anhedonia. PMID:21718971

  4. Bax inhibitor 1, a modulator of calcium homeostasis, confers affective resilience.

    PubMed

    Hunsberger, Joshua G; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Austin, Daniel R; Zarate, Carlos; Chuang, De-Maw; Chen, Guang; Reed, John C; Manji, Husseini K

    2011-07-27

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a critical site for intracellular calcium storage as well as protein synthesis, folding, and trafficking. Disruption of these processes is gaining support for contributing to heritable vulnerability of certain diseases. Here, we investigated Bax inhibitor 1 (BI-1), an anti-apoptotic protein that primarily resides in the ER and associates with B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-XL, as an affective resiliency factor through its modulation of calcium homeostasis. We found that transgenic (TG) mice with BI-1 reinforced expression, via the neuronal specific enolase promoter, showed protection against the learned helplessness (LH) paradigm, an animal model to test stress coping. TG mice were also protected against anhedonia following both serotonin and catecholamine depletion as measured in two different models, the female urine sniffing test and the saccharine preference test. In addition, we used primary mouse cortical cultures to explore the ability of BI-1 to influence calcium homeostasis under basal conditions and also following challenge with thapsigargin (THPS), an inhibitor of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase (SERCA) that disrupts calcium homeostasis. TG neurons showed decreased basal cytosolic calcium levels and decreased Ca(2+) cytosolic accumulation following challenge with THPS as compared to WT neuronal cultures. Together, these data suggest that BI-1, through its actions on calcium homeostasis, may confer affective resiliency in multiple animal models of depression and anhedonia.

  5. Five-year efficacy of finasteride in 801 Japanese men with androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Yoshitake, Toshihiro; Takeda, Akira; Ohki, Kensaku; Inoue, Yuko; Yamawaki, Takanori; Otsuka, Saori; Akimoto, Minekatsu; Nemoto, Mitsuru; Shimakura, Yasuhito; Sato, Akio

    2015-07-01

    Finasteride is standard medical treatment for androgenetic alopecia; however, no large studies with 5 years or more of follow up have been performed in Japan. The authors followed Japanese men with androgenetic alopecia treated with finasteride for 5 years to evaluate long-term treatment efficacy. Of 903 men treated with finasteride (1 mg/day), 801 patients were evaluated over 5 years by modified global photographic assessment. Although the proportion of improvement was high (99.4%), modified global photographic assessment scores after 5 years of treatment were lower in patients with more advanced disease as measured by the modified Norwood-Hamilton scale. After separating patients into "sufficient" and "insufficient" efficacy groups according to the modified global photographic assessment score after 5 years (scores ≥6 and <6, respectively), multivariate analysis showed that independent risk factors of insufficient efficacy were age at start of treatment of 40 years or more (P = 0.021) and classification on the modified Norwood-Hamilton scale (P < 0.001), whereas presence of stress at start of treatment was a negative predictor (P = 0.025). In conclusion, continuous finasteride treatment for 5 years improved androgenetic alopecia with sustained effect among Japanese. Younger age and less advanced disease at start of treatment were the key predictors of higher finasteride efficacy. © 2015 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  6. Persistent sexual dysfunction and depression in finasteride users for male pattern hair loss: a serious concern or red herring?

    PubMed

    Singh, Meena K; Avram, Marc

    2014-12-01

    The use of finasteride for the treatment of male pattern hair loss has recently been the focus of media and internet attention for potential irreversible sexual dysfunction and severe depression. The purpose of this study was to perform a critical review of the recent studies reporting prolonged sexual dysfunction and depression with the use of finasteride for the treatment of male pattern hair loss. A literature search was performed using PubMed to review the literature pertaining to any potential adverse effects with the use of finasteride and its treatment of male pattern hair loss. The authors conclude that the reports of potential irreversible sexual dysfunction and severe depression do raise concerns about the safety of finasteride; however, these studies are wrought with significant bias. Therefore, larger, randomized, double blind, controlled trials are warranted to further ascertain the true potential risks or confirm long-term safety profile of finasteride use.

  7. Associations of serum sex steroid hormones and 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol glucuronide concentrations with prostate cancer risk among men treated with finasteride

    PubMed Central

    Kristal, Alan R.; Till, Cathee; Tangen, Catherine M.; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Chu, Lisa W.; Patel, Sherfaraz K.; Thompson, Ian; Reichardt, Juergen K.; Hoque, Ashraful; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Figg, William D.; Van Bokhoven, Adrie; Lippman, Scott M.; Hsing, Ann W

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Finasteride, an inhibitor of 5 α-reductase (Type II), lowers intraprostatic dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which is reflected in serum as reduced 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol glucuronide (3α-dG). It also modestly increases serum testosterone (T), estrone (E1) and estradiol (E2). In this altered hormonal milieu, it is unknown whether serum concentrations of these hormones are associated with prostate cancer risk. METHODS In this nested case-control study of men in the finasteride arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial, sex steroid hormones and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were measured at baseline and approximately 3-years post-treatment in 553 prostate cancer cases and 694 controls. RESULTS Median post-treatment changes in concentrations of 3α-dG, T, E1, and E2 were −73.8%, +10.1%, +11.2%, and +7.5% (all p<0.001), respectively. Neither the pre- nor post-treatment concentrations of 3α-dG, nor its change, were associated with risk. Pre-treatment, high concentrations of E1 and low concentrations of T were associated with increased cancer risk (Odds Ratio[95% CI] quartile 4 vs 1: 1.38[0.99–1.93] ptrend=0.03; 0.64 [0.43–0.93] ptrend=0.07, respectively). Post-treatment, high concentrations of both E1 and E2 and were associated with increased cancer risk (OR[95% CI] quartile 4 vs 1: 1.54[1.09–2.17] ptrend=0.03; 1.49[1.07–2.07] ptrend=0.02, respectively). CONCLUSIONS Among finasteride-treated men, concentrations of 3α-dG were not associated with total or Gleason grades 2–6, 7–10 or 8–10 cancer. High serum estrogens may increase cancer risk when intraprostatic DHT is pharmacologically lowered. IMPACT Low post-treatment serum estrogens may identify men more likely to benefit from use of finasteride to prevent prostate cancer. PMID:22879203

  8. Optimisation of microstructured biodegradable finasteride formulation for depot parenteral application.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Osama A; Hussein, Amal K; Mady, Fatma M

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to use the biocompatibility features of the biodegradable polymers to prepare depot injectable finasteride (FIN) microspheres for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. FIN microspheres were prepared utilising an emulsion-solvent evaporation/extraction technique. The Box-Behnken experimental design was adopted to optimise the preparation process. FIN plasma levels in albino rabbits were determined after injection with optimised FIN microspheres formula and compared with oral FIN suspension. Results revealed that the optimum microspheres displayed an amended sustained release pattern with lower initial burst. The cumulative FIN % released after 25 days was in the range 27.83-73.18% for F4 and F1, respectively. The optimised formula, with 50.0% (X1), and 22.316% (X2) and 1.38% (X3) showed 6.503 μm, 93.213%, 14.574%, and 64.838% for Y1, Y2, Y3, and Y4, respectively. In vivo studies displayed a sustained release pattern with minimal initial burst release when injected into rabbits.

  9. Role of 5α-dihydrotestosterone in testicular development of gilthead seabream following finasteride administration.

    PubMed

    García-García, M; Sánchez-Hernández, M; García-Hernández, M P; García-Ayala, A; Chaves-Pozo, E

    2017-07-21

    In teleosts, spermatogenesis is regulated by pituitary gonadotropins and sex steroids. 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), derived from testosterone (T) through the action of 5α-reductase, has recently been suggested to play a physiologically important role in some fish species. In this study, gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata L., males received an implant of 1μgT/g body mass (bm) or vehicle alone and, 7days later, 1mg finasteride (FIN, an inhibitor of 5α-reductase)/kg bm or vehicle. Serum levels of T, 11-ketotestosterone (11KT), DHT and 17β-estradiol (E2), and the mRNA levels of the main enzymes involved in their synthesis, were analysed. T promoted a transient increase in the serum levels of T, 11KT and E2 but a decrease in those of DHT at day 15 following T injection, in accordance with the up-regulation of mRNA levels of the enzymes involved in T transformation to 11KT (coding genes: cyp11b1 and hsd11b) and the down-regulation of mRNA levels of the enzyme responsible for T transformation to DHT (coding gene: srd5a). Interestingly, a similar effect was observed when FIN was injected. However, when fish were injected with T and FIN successively (T+FIN), control levels were not recovered at the end of the experimental period (28days). DHT seems to regulate E2 serum levels via the down-regulation of mRNA levels of aromatase (coding gene: cyp19a1a), which is needed for the transformation of T into E2. The testis histology, together with the proliferative rates recorded upon T, FIN or T+FIN treatment, suggests that DHT is involved in the onset of the meiotic phase of spermatogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Testosterone Plus Finasteride Prevents Bone Loss Without Prostate Growth in a Rodent Spinal Cord Injury Model.

    PubMed

    Yarrow, Joshua F; Phillips, Ean G; Conover, Christine F; Bassett, Taylor E; Chen, Cong; Teurlings, Tyler; Vasconez, Andrea; Alerte, Jonathan; Prock, Hannah M; Jiron, Jessica M; Flores, Micah; Aguirre, J Ignacio; Borst, Stephen E; Ye, Fan

    2017-03-24

    We have reported that testosterone-enanthate (TE) prevents the musculoskeletal decline occurring acutely after spinal cord injury (SCI), but results in a near doubling of prostate mass. Our purpose was to test the hypothesis that administration of TE plus finasteride (FIN, type II 5α-reductase inhibitor) would prevent the chronic musculoskeletal deficits in our rodent severe contusion SCI model, without inducing prostate enlargement. Forty-three 16-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats received: (1) SHAM surgery (T9 laminectomy), (2) severe (250 kdyne) contusion SCI, (3) SCI+TE (7.0mg/week, i.m.) or (4) SCI+TE+FIN (5mg/kg/day, s.c.). At 8 weeks post-surgery, SCI animals exhibited reduced serum testosterone and levator ani/bulbocavernosus (LABC) muscle mass, effects that were prevented by TE. Cancellous and cortical (periosteal) bone turnover (assessed via histomorphometry) were elevated after SCI, resulting in reduced distal femur cancellous and cortical bone mass (assessed via microcomputed tomography). TE treatment normalized cancellous and cortical bone turnover and maintained cancellous bone mass at the level of SHAM animals, but produced prostate enlargement. FIN co-administration did not inhibit the TE-induced musculoskeletal effects, but prevented prostate growth. Neither drug regimen prevented SCI-induced cortical bone loss, although no differences in whole bone strength were present among groups. Our findings indicate that TE+FIN prevented the chronic cancellous bone deficits and LABC muscle loss in SCI animals without inducing prostate enlargement, which provides rationale for the inclusion of TE+FIN in multimodal therapeutic interventions intended to alleviate the musculoskeletal decline after SCI.

  11. The Effect of Two Weeks Preoperative Finasteride Therapy in Reducing Prostate Vascularity.

    PubMed

    Khwaja, Muhammad Athar; Nawaz, Gul; Muhammad, Shujah; Jamil, Muhammad Imran; Faisal, Muhammad; Akhter, Saeed

    2016-03-01

    To determine the effect of two weeks preoperative finasteride therapy in reducing prostate vascularity in terms of mean microvessel density (MVD) and expression of VEGF in prostate urothelium among patients of BPH by comparing with controls. Randomized controlled trial. Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, from January 2013 to January 2014. A total of 80 patients of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) planned for Trans-Urethral Resection of Prostate (TURP) having prostate size of more than 40 grams on trans-abdominal ultrasonography was randomized into two groups, each group having 40 patients. The finasteride group (Group A) was prescribed oral 5 mg of finasteride daily for 2 weeks before surgery. The control group (Group B) did not receive any agent. After 2 weeks, TURP was performed and prostate samples were sent for histopathological determination of MVD and expression of VEGF. The mean age of patients was 66.21 ±10.08 years, ranging from 48 to 86 years. The mean prostate gland size was comparable in both groups (55 ±10.7 vs. 58.1 ±10.8 grams, p=0.21). Mean MVD in finasteride group (20.25 ±10.3) was significantly lower as compared to control group (48.9 ±22.6, p < 0.001). Similarly expression of VEGF was also significantly lower in finasteride group (30%) as compared to control group (65%) [p= 0.0017]. Mean MVD had a significant weak correlation with the size of prostate gland on Pearson correlation test (2-tailed) with r = 0.222. Finasteride reduces microvessel density and hence prostate vascularity with only 2-week therapy and the mean MVD is clearly correlated with size of prostate.

  12. Evaluation of efficacy and safety of finasteride 1 mg in 3177 Japanese men with androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Sato, Akio; Takeda, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Before now, there has been no study of finasteride use exceeding 1 year in Japanese men with androgenetic alopecia (AGA) except the study subsequently conducted from the development phase. Since the launch of finasteride, no study in a larger population had been reported. Ethnic variation of the onset age, progressive nature and degree of hair loss of androgenetic alopecia are known. The therapeutic effect of oral finasteride (Propecia) was examined on androgenetic alopecia of Japanese men. The efficacy and safety of finasteride (1 mg tablet) was evaluated in Japanese men with AGA in the long term. The study enrolled 3177 men given finasteride 1 mg/day from January 2006 to June 2009 at our clinic. Efficacy was evaluated in 2561 men by the modified global photographic assessment; the photographs were assessed using the standardized 7-point rating scale. Safety data were assessed by interviews and laboratory tests in all men enrolled in the study. The overall effect of hair growth was seen in 2230 of 2561 men (87.1%), in whom hair greatly (11.1%), moderately (36.5%) and slightly (39.5%) increased. The response rate improved with increasing duration of treatment. Adverse reactions occurred in 0.7% (23/3177) of men; seven men discontinued treatment based on risk-benefit considerations. No specific safety problems associated with long-term use were observed. This study represents data collected at a single institution. Many patients did not receive follow-up examination. In Japanese men with AGA, oral finasteride used in the long-term study maintained progressive hair regrowth without recognized side-effect.

  13. Cost-sharing for prescriptions of sildenafil and finasteride: a case study in veteran patients.

    PubMed

    Yu, E I; Glassman, P A; Asch, S M; Paige, N M; Passman, L J; Shekelle, P G

    2001-04-01

    To evaluate patients willingness to share the costs of 2 medications (often described as "lifestyle medications"): sildenafil for erectile dysfunction and finasteride for hair loss, which are not routinely covered by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system. Self-administered, anonymous survey. Adult men (n = 339) were recruited from waiting rooms for primary care or erectile dysfunction clinic appointments at 2 Los Angeles VA facilities. Participants with self-reported need were analyzed separately for finasteride (primary care patients only) and sildenafil (both primary care and erectile dysfunction clinic patients). The mean age of the participants was 56 and 60 years for the finasteride and sildenafil groups, respectively. Mean annual household income for both groups was under $10,000. Respondents reported a mean willingness to cost-share $4.20 for a 30-day prescription of daily finasteride (VA wholesale cost = $27) and $5.40 for 4 sildenafil pills (VA wholesale cost = $20). In the multivariate analysis, higher income (P = .002) and increasing self-reported need for medication (P = .04) were associated with increased willingness to cost-share for finasteride after controlling for age, race/ethnicity, insured status, comorbid conditions, and type of clinic. In addition, younger age (P = .01) was associated with greater willingness to cost-share for sildenafil. In this low-income veteran population, patients with a self-reported need for sildenafil and finasteride would be willing to make a higher copayment than the current VA maximum copayment of $2.00 per 30-day prescription, if these medicines were made available.

  14. High-resolution mass spectrometric investigation of the phase I and II metabolites of finasteride in pig plasma, urine and bile.

    PubMed

    Lundahl, Anna; Tevell Åberg, Annica; Bondesson, Ulf; Lennernäs, Hans; Hedeland, Mikael

    2014-06-01

    1. The metabolite profile of the 5α-reductase type II inhibitor finasteride has been studied in pig plasma, urine and bile using high-resolution mass spectrometry. The porcine biotransformation products were compared to those formed by human liver microsomes and to literature data of recently identified human in vivo metabolites. The objective of this study was to gain further evidence for the validity of using pigs for advanced, invasive drug-drug interaction studies that are not possible to perform in humans. 2. The use of high-resolution mass spectrometry with accurate mass measurements enabled identification of the metabolites by calculation of their elemental compositions as well as their fragmentation patterns. 3. There was an excellent match between the porcine and human metabolic profiles, corroborating the pig as a model of human drug metabolism. The glucuronides of the two recently described human hydroxylated metabolites MX and MY and the carboxylated metabolite M3 were identified as the major biotransformation products of finasteride in pig urine and bile. 4. Furthermore, the CYP enzymes involved in the formation of the hydroxylated metabolites were characterized. Human recombinant CYP3A4 could produce the two major hydroxylated metabolites MX and MY, whereas human recombinant CYP2D6 formed MY only.

  15. A risk-benefit assessment of treatment with finasteride in benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Ekman, P

    1998-03-01

    As an androgen target organ, the prostate gland has the almost unique characteristic of being less sensitive to testosterone than to its metabolite 5 alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5 alpha-DHT). The conversion of testosterone to 5 alpha-DHT is induced by the enzyme 5 alpha-reductase. By blocking the activity of 5 alpha-reductase, the androgenic stimulation of the prostate gland can be significantly reduced. The first drug with such capacity to be introduced on the market was finasteride. Following the administration of this drug to men, serum 5 alpha-DHT levels were reduced by approximately 80%. Large phase III trials have demonstrated the efficacy of finasteride in treating benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). While in some patients the drug was poorly effective, other patients showed significant improvements. The mean reduction in size of the prostate gland was 20 to 25% after 6 months of therapy, and this effect was maintained as long as the patient was on the drug, at least up to the end of a 6-year follow-up period. Prostatic symptom scores were improved by a mean of 30%, while urinary flow was only improved by a mean of 1.5 ml/sec (15%). In a recent double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing the alpha-blocker terazosin with finasteride, significant improvement was demonstrated for the alpha-blocker, while finasteride produced little improvement overall and was not significantly more effective than placebo in treating moderately symptomatic BPH. However, a subanalysis of this study showed that while finasteride was poorly effective in patients with small prostate glands, a significant improvement was apparent in those with glands larger than 40 ml. There is some evidence that early intervention with finasteride can reduce the number of surgical procedures that are required, at least over a 2-year period. Finasteride is very well tolerated. However, since 5 alpha-DHT potentiates erectile capacity, a 3 to 4% incidence of impotence has been reported, as well as

  16. Topical formulations containing finasteride. Part II: determination of finasteride penetration into hair follicles using the differential stripping technique.

    PubMed

    Tampucci, Silvia; Burgalassi, Susi; Chetoni, Patrizia; Lenzi, Carla; Pirone, Andrea; Mailland, Federico; Caserini, Maurizio; Monti, Daniela

    2014-08-01

    The differential stripping technique consists of a tape-stripping phase followed by a cyanoacrylate biopsy. This technique not only allows the quantification of drug retained in the stratum corneum (SC) and in the hair follicles but also differentiates transepidermal from transfollicular penetration. Our study aimed at both validating the differential stripping procedure on hairless rat skin and assessing the role of the hair follicle in the cutaneous penetration of finasteride (FNS) after application of two experimental formulations for 6 or 24 h: P-08-016, a hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCH)-based formulation and P-10-008, an anhydrous formulation devoid of HPCH. Microscopic and histological evaluation showed that after 15 tape strips both the SC and the viable epidermis were completely removed. A subsequent cyanoacrylate skin surface biopsy led to the removal of the infundibula content. The largest amounts of FNS were found in the epidermis and in the appendages after application of P-08-016, regardless of the time from application. In contrast, smaller and statistically significant amounts of FNS were recovered with P-10-008 6 h after application, compared with that at 24 h. In conclusion, the differential stripping technique allowed determination of the amount of FNS localized in different skin districts, focusing particularly on the follicular contribution.

  17. Transdermal film-loaded finasteride microplates to enhance drug skin permeation: Two-step optimization study.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Tarek A; El-Say, Khalid M

    2016-06-10

    The goal was to develop an optimized transdermal finasteride (FNS) film loaded with drug microplates (MIC), utilizing two-step optimization, to decrease the dosing schedule and inconsistency in gastrointestinal absorption. First; 3-level factorial design was implemented to prepare optimized FNS-MIC of minimum particle size. Second; Box-Behnken design matrix was used to develop optimized transdermal FNS-MIC film. Interaction among MIC components was studied using physicochemical characterization tools. Film components namely; hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (X1), dimethyl sulfoxide (X2) and propylene glycol (X3) were optimized for their effects on the film thickness (Y1) and elongation percent (Y2), and for FNS steady state flux (Y3), permeability coefficient (Y4), and diffusion coefficient (Y5) following ex-vivo permeation through the rat skin. Morphological study of the optimized MIC and transdermal film was also investigated. Results revealed that stabilizer concentration and anti-solvent percent were significantly affecting MIC formulation. Optimized FNS-MIC of particle size 0.93μm was successfully prepared in which there was no interaction observed among their components. An enhancement in the aqueous solubility of FNS-MIC by more than 23% was achieved. All the studied variables, most of their interaction and quadratic effects were significantly affecting the studied variables (Y1-Y5). Morphological observation illustrated non-spherical, short rods, flakes like small plates that were homogeneously distributed in the optimized transdermal film. Ex-vivo study showed enhanced FNS permeation from film loaded MIC when compared to that contains pure drug. So, MIC is a successful technique to enhance aqueous solubility and skin permeation of poor water soluble drug especially when loaded into transdermal films. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Evidence for the efficacy and safety of tadalafil and finasteride in combination for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms and erectile dysfunction in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia

    PubMed Central

    Olesovsky, Chris; Kapoor, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is an age-related phenomenon associated with prostatic enlargement and bladder outlet obstruction that can cause significant lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). These LUTS have a negative impact on an individual’s quality of life, which is why treatment of symptomatic BPH has become a major priority. Although surgical interventions exist for treating BPH, pharmacological therapies are often preferred due to their minimal invasiveness and high degree of effectiveness. The three classes of drugs approved for treating BPH include α-blockers, 5-α-reductase inhibitors (5-ARIs) and phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors. Individually, each class of drug has been studied and shown to improve symptom relief through a variety of different mechanisms. A more recent focus has been on the development of combinatorial therapies that combine classes of drugs in order to provide maximal benefit. The mTOPS and CombAT studies were the first of their kind to examine whether the combination of 5-ARIs and α-blockers was more effective than monotherapy alone. Both studies found similar results in that the combinatorial therapy was superior to monotherapy. Over the last decade other combinatorial therapies have been at the forefront of investigation. One in particular is the combination of tadalafil, a PDE-5 inhibitor, with finasteride, a 5-ARI. Studies have shown that the combination of tadalafil and finasteride is a safe, effective, and well tolerated treatment for BPH. Evidence suggests that this combination may be particularly effective in reducing treatment-related sexual adverse events associated with 5-ARI treatments. The following review will explore in detail the current evidence surrounding treatment of BPH LUTS using tadalafil and finasteride. PMID:27928428

  19. BCL-2 and Bax Expression in Skin Flaps Treated with Finasteride or Azelaic Acid.

    PubMed

    Ayatollahi, Seyyed Abdulmajid; Ajami, Marjan; Reyhanfard, Hamed; Asadi, Yasin; Nassiri-Kashani, Mansour; Rashighi Firoozabadi, Mehdi; Davoodi, Sayed Hossein; Habibi, Esmaeil; Pazoki-Toroudi, Hamidreza

    2012-01-01

    Despite all modern surgical techniques, skin flap that is considered as the main method in most reconstructive surgeries puts the skin tissue at danger of necrosis and apoptosis derived from ischemia. Therefore, finding a treatment for decreasing the apoptosis derived from flap ischemia will be useful in clinic. In present study, we evaluated the effect of azelaic acid 20% and finasteride on expression of BCL-2 and bax proteins after the skin flap surgery. For this purpose, 21 rats were entered in three groups including control, azelaic acid 20% and finasteride, all experienced skin flap surgery and then flap tissue was assessed for determining the expression of proteins in 5 slices prepared from each rat that were graded between - to +++ scales. Both azelaic acid and finasteride increased the expression of BCL-2 protein (p < 0.05) and decrease the expression of bax protein (p < 0.05). These results suggested an antiapoptotic role for finasteride and azelaic acid in preserving the flap after the ischemia reperfusion insult.

  20. BCL-2 and Bax Expression in Skin Flaps Treated with Finasteride or Azelaic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Ayatollahi, Seyyed Abdulmajid; Ajami, Marjan; Reyhanfard, Hamed; Asadi, Yasin; Nassiri-Kashani, Mansour; Rashighi Firoozabadi, Mehdi; Davoodi, Sayed Hossein; Habibi, Esmaeil; Pazoki-Toroudi, Hamidreza

    2012-01-01

    Despite all modern surgical techniques, skin flap that is considered as the main method in most reconstructive surgeries puts the skin tissue at danger of necrosis and apoptosis derived from ischemia. Therefore, finding a treatment for decreasing the apoptosis derived from flap ischemia will be useful in clinic. In present study, we evaluated the effect of azelaic acid 20% and finasteride on expression of BCL-2 and bax proteins after the skin flap surgery. For this purpose, 21 rats were entered in three groups including control, azelaic acid 20% and finasteride, all experienced skin flap surgery and then flap tissue was assessed for determining the expression of proteins in 5 slices prepared from each rat that were graded between – to +++ scales. Both azelaic acid and finasteride increased the expression of BCL-2 protein (p < 0.05) and decrease the expression of bax protein (p < 0.05). These results suggested an antiapoptotic role for finasteride and azelaic acid in preserving the flap after the ischemia reperfusion insult. PMID:24250563

  1. [Finasteride: a new drug for the treatment of male hirsutism and androgenetic alopecia?].

    PubMed

    Spinucci, G; Pasquali, R

    1996-06-01

    Finasteride is a drug which inhibits the transformation of testosterone into its active metabolite, dihydrotestosterone, in the target organs, i.e. the skin, the scalp, the liver and the prostate. In the pathogenic mechanism of hirsutism and androgenetic alopecia, and important role is presumably played by alterations of the mechanisms which transform testosterone into dihydrotestosterone. In some conditions an increase in dihydrotestosterone has been demonstrated, due to increased activity of the enzyme 5 alpha-reductase. The effect of finasteride develops above all at the level of type II 5 alpha-reductase. Recent studies have evaluated the effect of finasteride in patients of both sexes with hirsutism and androgenetic alopecia. In women with various forms of hyperandrogenism, the use of the drug at the doses commonly used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia seems to have induced a significant reduction in the degree of hirsutism. Furthermore, both in animals and men with alopecia, the drug seems to have led to an increase in the number and an improvement in the shape of the follicles in the anagen phase, and a simultaneous decrease of dehydrotestosterone at the level of the scalp. This study represents a review of the main results obtained over the last two years and reports the prospects which the use of finasteride may have in this context.

  2. Low-dose (2.5 mg/day) finasteride treatment in hirsutism.

    PubMed

    Bayram, F; Müderris, I; Güven, M; Ozçelik, B; Keleştimur, F

    2003-10-01

    This study was performed to confirm the therapeutic effects of low-dose, (2.5 mg/day) finasteride in hirsute women. Our study was a non-randomized prospective clinical trial. Twenty-nine patients with hirustism were included in the study. The patients received 2.5 mg finasteride once a day over a period of 12 months. Follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, sex hormone binding globulin, 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, estradiol, androstenedione, total and free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate levels and hirsutism scores were determined in all patients before treatment and at every 6 months during the therapy. The hirsutism score decreased from a mean of 18.4 +/- 4.6 to 8.4 +/- 4.2 during the study. The per cent reduction in hirsutism score (mean +/- SD) at 6 and 12 months was 29.2 +/- 14.5 and 55.7 +/- 14.9%, respectively. There were no significant differences in any of the hormone levels and no serious side-effects were observed during the treatment. In conclusion, low-dose finasteride (2.5 mg/day) is a cost-effective, well-tolerated therapeutic agent without significant abnormal biochemical findings and can be used in place of high-dose (5 mg/day) finasteride in the treatment of hirsutism.

  3. An open, randomized, comparative study of oral finasteride and 5% topical minoxidil in male androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Arca, Ercan; Açikgöz, Gürol; Taştan, Halis Bülent; Köse, Osman; Kurumlu, Zafer

    2004-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is undoubtedly the most common form of hair loss in males. It is a condition which may cause cosmetic and psychosocial problems in androgen-dependent cases. In this open, randomized and comparative study we evaluated the efficacy of oral finasteride and 5% topical minoxidil treatment for 12 months in 65 male patients with mild to severe AGA. We randomly assigned 40 (61.53%) patients to receive 1 mg/day oral finasteride for 12 months, and 25 (38.47%) patients applied 5% topical minoxidil solution twice daily for 12 months. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups considering age, age of onset of hair loss, family history and type of hair loss (p > 0.05). In the clinical evaluation at the endpoint of treatment, the clinical cure rates (i.e. increased intensity of hair) were 80% (32/40) for the oral finasteride group and 52% (13/25) for the 5% topical minoxidil group. Encountered side effects were all mild, and there was no need to stop the treatment. In the group given oral finasteride, side effects were noted in 7 patients: 6 patients suffered from loss of libido, and 1 patient had an increase in other body hairs; irritation of the scalp was seen in 1 patient in the group administered 5% minoxidil. These adverse events disappeared as soon as the treatment was stopped. The laboratory data on both drug groups did not show any statistically or clinically significant intragroup changes from baseline values to the endpoint (p > 0.05), except the level of serum total testosterone which was increased, and free testosterone and serum prostate-specific antigen in the finasteride group which were statistically decreased from baseline values to the endpoint (p < 0.05). In this comparative study of systemic finasteride and topical minoxidil, it was concluded that both drugs were effective and safe in the treatment of mild to severe AGA, although oral finasteride treatment was more effective (p < 0.05). Adverse events were not

  4. Preparation of finasteride capsules-loaded drug nanoparticles: formulation, optimization, in vitro, and pharmacokinetic evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Tarek A

    2016-01-01

    In this study, optimized freeze-dried finasteride nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared from drug nanosuspension formulation that was developed using the bottom–up technique. The effects of four formulation and processing variables that affect the particle size and solubility enhancement of the NPs were explored using the response surface optimization design. The optimized formulation was morphologically characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Physicochemical interaction among the studied components was investigated. Crystalline change was investigated using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). Crystal growth of the freeze-dried NPs was compared to the corresponding aqueous drug nanosuspension. Freeze-dried NPs formulation was subsequently loaded into hard gelatin capsules that were examined for in vitro dissolution and pharmacokinetic behavior. Results revealed that in most of the studied variables, some of the quadratic and interaction effects had a significant effect on the studied responses. TEM image illustrated homogeneity and shape of the prepared NPs. No interaction among components was noticed. XRPD confirmed crystalline state change in the optimized NPs. An enhancement in the dissolution rate of more than 2.5 times from capsules filled with optimum drug NPs, when compared to capsules filled with pure drug, was obtained. Crystal growth, due to Ostwald ripening phenomenon and positive Gibbs free energy, was reduced following lyophilization of the nanosuspension formulation. Pharmacokinetic parameters from drug NPs were superior to that of pure drug and drug microparticles. In conclusion, freeze-dried NPs based on drug nanosuspension formulation is a successful technique in enhancing stability, solubility, and in vitro dissolution of poorly water-soluble drugs with possible impact on the drug bioavailability. PMID:26893559

  5. Preparation of finasteride capsules-loaded drug nanoparticles: formulation, optimization, in vitro, and pharmacokinetic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Tarek A

    2016-01-01

    In this study, optimized freeze-dried finasteride nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared from drug nanosuspension formulation that was developed using the bottom-up technique. The effects of four formulation and processing variables that affect the particle size and solubility enhancement of the NPs were explored using the response surface optimization design. The optimized formulation was morphologically characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Physicochemical interaction among the studied components was investigated. Crystalline change was investigated using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). Crystal growth of the freeze-dried NPs was compared to the corresponding aqueous drug nanosuspension. Freeze-dried NPs formulation was subsequently loaded into hard gelatin capsules that were examined for in vitro dissolution and pharmacokinetic behavior. Results revealed that in most of the studied variables, some of the quadratic and interaction effects had a significant effect on the studied responses. TEM image illustrated homogeneity and shape of the prepared NPs. No interaction among components was noticed. XRPD confirmed crystalline state change in the optimized NPs. An enhancement in the dissolution rate of more than 2.5 times from capsules filled with optimum drug NPs, when compared to capsules filled with pure drug, was obtained. Crystal growth, due to Ostwald ripening phenomenon and positive Gibbs free energy, was reduced following lyophilization of the nanosuspension formulation. Pharmacokinetic parameters from drug NPs were superior to that of pure drug and drug microparticles. In conclusion, freeze-dried NPs based on drug nanosuspension formulation is a successful technique in enhancing stability, solubility, and in vitro dissolution of poorly water-soluble drugs with possible impact on the drug bioavailability.

  6. Design of Finasteride-Loaded Nanoparticles for Potential Treatment of Alopecia.

    PubMed

    Roque, Luís V; Dias, Inês S; Cruz, Nuno; Rebelo, Ana; Roberto, Amílcar; Rijo, Patrícia; Reis, Catarina P

    2017-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia is an extremely common dermatological disorder affecting both men and women. Oral finasteride (FNS), a synthetic 4-aza-3-oxosteroid compound with poor aqueous solubility, blocks the peripheral conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in a significant reduction in DHT concentration, achieving satisfactory results in alopecia treatment. However, its oral intake generally causes severe side effects. Considering that there is currently no scientifically proven treatment, new drug delivery systems able to improve alopecia therapy are urgently required. In this study, polymeric nanoparticles have been proposed as a new carrier for topical delivery of FNS in hair follicles. Polymeric nanoparticles, prepared by using a modified method of the emulsification/solvent diffusion, showed a mean particle size around 300 nm, which may be sufficient for reaching the dermis and hair follicles and negative zeta potential values. Scanning electron microscope measurements showed that all the polymeric nanoparticles exhibited a spherical shape and a smooth surface regardless of their composition. A high encapsulation efficiency was achieved for FNS (79.49 ± 0.47%). In vitro release assays in physiological conditions demonstrated that nanoparticles yielded a prolonged release of FNS for 3 h. Skin assays through an in vitro permeation study demonstrated that nanoparticles had low levels of penetration of FNS, improving its time residence onto the skin. All excipients used in nanoparticle composition and in 3 different vehicles were safe. These results suggest that the proposed novel formulation presents several good characteristics indicating its suitability for dermal delivery of FNS for alopecia treatment. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. JAK-STAT Signaling Pathways and Inhibitors Affect Reversion of Envelope-Mutated HIV-1.

    PubMed

    Quan, Yudong; Xu, Hongtao; Han, Yingshan; Mesplède, Thibault; Wainberg, Mark A

    2017-05-01

    HIV can spread by both cell-free and cell-to-cell transmission. Here, we show that many of the amino acid changes in Env that are close to the CD4 binding pocket can affect HIV replication. We generated a number of mutant viruses that were unable to infect T cells as cell-free viruses but were nevertheless able to infect certain T cell lines as cell-associated viruses, which was followed by reversion to the wild type. However, the activation of JAK-STAT signaling pathways caused the inhibition of such cell-to-cell infection as well as the reversion of multiple HIV Env mutants that displayed differences in their abilities to bind to the CD4 receptor. Specifically, two T cell activators, interleukin-2 (IL-2) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), both capable of activation of JAK-STAT pathways, were able to inhibit cell-to-cell viral transmission. In contrast, but consistent with the above result, a number of JAK-STAT and mTOR inhibitors actually promoted HIV-1 transmission and reversion. Hence, JAK-STAT signaling pathways may differentially affect the replication of a variety of HIV Env mutants in ways that differ from the role that these pathways play in the replication of wild-type viruses.IMPORTANCE Specific alterations in HIV Env close to the CD4 binding site can differentially change the ability of HIV to mediate infection for cell-free and cell-associated viruses. However, such differences are dependent to some extent on the types of target cells used. JAK-STAT signaling pathways are able to play major roles in these processes. This work sheds new light on factors that can govern HIV infection of target cells. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  8. Production of biologically active oxidized derivatives of finasteride through metabolism by Aspergillus niger culture.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sajid; Nisar, Muhammad; Shah, Zarbad

    2016-11-01

    Among the 4-azasteroids, finasteride is biologically the most important compound having preventive effect against male pattern baldness (MPH) and benign prostatic hyperplasia commonly called enlargement of prostate gland. The microbial transformation of finasteride by fungus Aspergillus niger (ATCC 10549) has been investigated to obtain biologically more potent derivatives. Fermentation of finasteride was performed with filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger (ATCC 10549). This transformation resulted in the production of two transformed products, which were purified through column chromatography. In vitro lipoxygenase inhibitory potential was determined by incubating 20 mL of the enzyme with 10 mL of test sample (100 μM) in 0.1 mM (pH 7.0) phosphate buffer for 5 min at 258 °C followed by addition of 10 μL of substrate (linolenic acid) to reaction mixture and measuring the formation of complex spectrophotometrically. Structure elucidation of biotransformed metabolites was ascertained through extensive 1D and 2D spectroscopic techniques. This study established the fact that A. niger promoted stereospecific dihydroxylation at C-11 and C-15 of finasteride. The resulting biotransformed metabolites were characterized as 11α-hydroxyfinasteride and 15β-hydroxyfinasteride, respectively. Finasteride along with transformed metabolites were analyzed for their in vitro lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibition assay. Among the tested compounds 15β-hydroxyfinasteride showed good activity with IC50 value 112.56 ± 2.23 μM while inhibitory effect in case of 11α-hydroxyfinasteride was low with IC50 value 186.05 ± 1.34 μM. Standard compound baicalein revealed IC50 value being 22.0 ± 0.05 μM. The present investigation highlighted the fact that potentially active compound can be produced through the technology of biotransformation.

  9. Antiangiogenic and finasteride therapies: responses of the prostate microenvironment in elderly mice.

    PubMed

    Kido, Larissa Akemi; Hetzl, Amanda Cia; Cândido, Eduardo Marcelo; Montico, Fabio; Lorencini, Raísa Mistieri; Cagnon, Valéria Helena Alves

    2014-06-13

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the structural and molecular effects of antiangiogenic therapies and finasteride on the ventral prostate of senile mice. 90 male FVB mice were divided into: Young (18 weeks old) and senile (52 weeks old) groups; finasteride group: finasteride (20mg/kg); SU5416 group: SU5416 (6 mg/kg); TNP-470 group: TNP-470 (15 mg/kg,) and SU5416+TNP-470 group: similar to the SU5416 and TNP-470 groups. After 21 days, prostate ventral lobes were collected for morphological, immunohistochemical and Western blotting analyses. The results demonstrated atrophy, occasional proliferative lesions and inflammatory cells in the prostate during senescence, which were interrupted and/or blocked by treatment with antiangiogenic drugs and finasteride. Decreased AR and endostatin reactivities, and an increase for ER-α, ER-β and VEGF, were seen in the senile group. Decreased VEGF and ER-α reactivities and increased ER-β reactivity were verified in the finasteride, SU5416 groups and especially in SU5416+TNP-470 group. The TNP-470 group showed reduced AR and ER-β protein levels. The senescence favored the occurrence of structural and/or molecular alterations suggesting the onset of malignant lesions, due to the imbalance in the signaling between the epithelium and stroma. The SU5416+TNP-470 treatment was more effective in maintaining the structural, hormonal and angiogenic factor balance in the prostate during senescence, highlighting the signaling of antiproliferation via ER-β. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Research on intraoperative iris behavior in rabbits treated with tamsulosin and finasteride

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, K; Vultur, F; Simon, V; Voidazan, S; Mühlfay, Gh

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate intraoperative iris behavior during some phacoemulsification maneuvers in rabbits treated with tamsulosin or finasteride. Material and Method: An experimental study was conducted on 26 Metis male rabbits aged 1.5 - 2 years, body weight between 3.4 and 5.6 kg, divided into three groups: Group 1 - Control, 6 rabbits; Group 2 - tamsulosin, 10 rabbits; Group 3 - finasteride, 10 rabbits. Dose calculation was performed according to body surface area ratio man/rabbit, taking into account the median lethal dose LD50. Surgery study in rabbits was done over two days by the same specialist using an adapted protocol. He was not informed before or during surgeries which group the animal belonged to, the order being random with a quasi-uniform distribution. Valid results for a modified iris behavior were obtained from two steps of the procedure (cannula irrigation maneuver and irrigation-aspiration). The iris billowing was graded from 0 to 3, according to severity. Results: The risk of intraoperative iris billowing was higher in rabbits included in tamsulosin group [OR=8.33 (CI 95% 0.63-110.09)], but insignificant statistically compare with control group (p= 0.13). In rabbits treated with finasteride the risk of intraoperative iris billowing is increased compared with those without treatment [OR=11.6 (CI 95% 0.92-147.6)], but insignificant statistically (p= 0.11). Conclusion: In our research, we showed an increased risk of intraoperative iris billowing in rabbits treated with finasteride, almost similar with those obtained in rabbits treated with tamsulosin. Further experimental or clinical studies to confirm the role of finasteride in the etiology of intraoperative floppy iris syndrome in humans are needed. Hippokratia 2015, 19 (1): 20-24. PMID:26435641

  11. Oral finasteride improved the quality of life of androgenetic alopecia patients.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Masashi; Miyakura, Takashi; Uchiyama, Masaki; Hobo, Ayako; Irisawa, Ryokichi; Tsuboi, Ryoji

    2011-08-01

    Although androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is not a systemic disease, some patients suffer from anxiety about the progression of their condition. This study was conducted in order to ascertain whether treatment by oral finasteride can improve the quality of life (QOL) of these patients. Twenty-seven male AGA patients aged 19-76 years (average, 33.8) answered the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI), WHO/QOL-26 and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaires before and after the administration of finasteride (1 mg/day) for 6 months. Patients assessed by physicians as "excellent" or "good" were defined as "high responders"; those assessed as "moderate" or "no change" were "low responders". The changes in QOL before and after the treatment were statistically analyzed, and the improved value of each QOL index of the high responders and low responders from baseline were compared. There was a statistical difference in the VAS (P < 0.0001) and DLQI (P < 0.01) indices before and after the administration of finasteride. No significant changes occurred in the WHO/QOL-26 and STAI indices. Comparison of the high responders (11 cases) and low responders (16 cases) revealed no statistical difference in the improvement of VAS and DLQI scores. Oral finasteride improves the QOL of these patients, and VAS and DLQI are useful for the evaluation of patients' QOL because of the high sensitivity of these tests. However, oral finasteride did not alleviate the patients' anxiety nor did its efficacy correlate with the level of reported anxiety.

  12. T cell-mediated acute localized exanthematous pustulosis caused by finasteride.

    PubMed

    Tresch, Sandra; Cozzio, Antonio; Kamarashev, Jivko; Harr, Thomas; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; French, Lars E; Feldmeyer, Laurence

    2012-02-01

    A 21-year-old man presented with multiple erythematous nonfollicular papules partially confluent to plaques on his breast and lower abdomen that had been present for 1 month. Grouped pustules were present under the right breast. The patient had been taking finasteride over the past 3 months for androgenetic alopecia. His medical history was negative for psoriasis. Our initial differential diagnosis included dyskeratosis follicularis Darier, allergic contact dermatitis, infectious folliculitis, varicella zoster virus infection, fixed drug eruption, and IgA pemphigus. The white blood cell count and differential were within the normal limits. Results of viral cultures and PCR, as well as bacterial and fungal cultures of skin lesions proved negative. A lesional biopsy specimen showed a slight psoriasiform acanthosis in association with spongiosis and infiltration of both the epidermis and dermis by neutrophils and eosinophils, resulting in formation of subcorneal, intraepidermal, and subepidermal pustules. The results of direct immunofluorescence were negative, excluding an IgA pemphigus. The result of a lymphocyte transformation test was positive for finasteride. On the basis of the time relationship between the administration of finasteride and the development of the skin disease in combination with symptoms resolution on cessation of the drug, the histologic findings, and the positive lymphocyte transformation test result, we consider this to be an unusual type of acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis defined as acute localized exanthematous pustulosis caused by finasteride. Within 4 weeks after withdrawal of finasteride, the rash resolved without any specific therapy. Transient discrete residual hyperpigmentation and scaling were present. The patient refused an oral provocation challenge.

  13. Rates of prostate surgery and acute urinary retention for benign prostatic hyperplasia in men treated with dutasteride or finasteride.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, Josephina G; Bezemer, Irene D; Driessen, Maurice T; Vasylyev, Averyan; Roehrborn, Claus G; Penning-van Beest, Fernie J A; Herings, Ron M C

    2016-08-31

    Previous studies have suggested a greater benefit for various outcomes in men diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) who are treated with dutasteride than for men treated with finasteride. This study investigates whether the rates of BPH-related prostate surgery and acute urinary retention (AUR) differ between dutasteride and finasteride users in the Netherlands. From the PHARMO Database Network, men aged ≥50 years with a dispensing of dutasteride or finasteride with or without concomitant alpha-blocker treatment between March 1, 2003 and December 31, 2011 were selected. The incidence of BPH-related prostate surgery and AUR was determined during dutasteride or finasteride treatment and stratified by type of initial BPH-treatment (5-ARI monotherapy or combination with alpha-blocker) and prescriber (general practitioner (GP) or urologist). Comparison of the incidence of BPH-related prostate surgery and AUR between the treatment groups was done by Cox proportional hazard regression. 11,822 dutasteride users and 5,781 finasteride users were identified. Most users started treatment in combination with an alpha-blocker. Overall, dutasteride users had a lower risk of BPH-related prostate surgery was lower among dutasteride users than finasteride users (HR: 0.75; 95 % CI: 0.56-0.99). This lower risk among dutasteride users was also seen when stratifying by monotherapy or combination therapy (HR: 0.73; 95 % CI: 0.54-0.98 for monotherapy and HR: 0.85; 95 % CI: 0.74-0.97 for combination therapy). However, the association was only present among men treated by urologists. For AUR the rates were low and no statistical significant difference was observed between dutasteride and finasteride users. The risk of undergoing BPH-related prostate surgery was lower among men using dutasteride compared to men using finasteride. The association was observed for monotherapy as well as combination therapy, however, only among men who received their prescription from a

  14. Anti-proliferative activities of finasteride in benign prostate epithelial cells require stromal fibroblasts and c-Jun gene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Jin, Song; Fan, Dongdong; Wang, Mingshuai; Xing, Nianzeng; Niu, Yinong

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the role of mouse fibroblast-mediated c-Jun and IGF-1 signaling in the therapeutic effect of finasteride on benign prostatic epithelial cells. BPH-1 cells, alone or with fibroblasts (c-Jun+/+ or c-Jun-/-), were implanted subcutaneously in male nude mice who were then treated with finasteride. The degrees of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and sizes of the xenografts were determined. BPH-1 cells were grown alone or co-cultured with mouse fibroblasts in the presence of finasteride and the level of IGF-1 secreted into the medium by the fibroblasts was determined. The proliferation-associated signaling pathway in BPH-1 cells was also evaluated. Fibroblasts and c-Jun promoted xenograft growth, stimulated Ki-67 expression, and inhibited BPH-1 apoptosis. Finasteride did not induce the shrinkage of xenografts in the combined-grafted groups despite repressing Ki-67 expression and inducing cell apoptosis. The addition of c-Jun-/- fibroblasts did not promote xenograft growth. In the absence of c-Jun and fibroblasts, finasteride did not alter xenograft growth, Ki-67 expression, or cell apoptosis. The in vitro results demonstrated that when BPH-1 cells were grown in monoculture, treatment with finasteride did not induce cell death and stimulated the expression of pro-proliferative signaling molecules, while in the presence of fibroblasts containing c-Jun, finasteride treatment repressed epithelial cell proliferation, the level of IGF-1 in the medium, and the activation of downstream pro-proliferative signaling pathways. Taken together, our results suggest that fibroblasts, c-Jun, and IGF-1 play key roles in mediating stromal-epithelial interactions that are required for the therapeutic effects of finasteride in benign prostate epithelial cells.

  15. Patterns of finasteride use in the male populations of four Nordic countries: A cross-national drug utilization study.

    PubMed

    Kjærulff, T M; Ersbøll, A K; Green, A; Emneus, M; Pukkala, E; Bolin, K; Stavem, K; Iversen, P; Brasso, K; Hallas, J; Thygesen, L C

    2016-06-01

    Objective Finasteride 5 mg is a drug used to treat prostate hyperplasia. Little is known about its pattern of usage. This cross-national analysis of individual-level data from Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden was undertaken to appraise its usage and describe cross-national differences. Materials and methods Individual-level data from nationwide prescription registers in Denmark (1995-2009), Finland (1997-2010), Norway (2004-2009) and Sweden (July 2005-2011) were used to examine cross-national finasteride utilization patterns in the adult male population (≥15 years). The study presents period prevalences, incidence rates, waiting time distributions and Lorenz curves. Results During the study period, 295,620 men had at least one prescription redemption of finasteride 5 mg, and there were approximately 3 million dispensing events of finasteride prescriptions in the four Nordic countries. Different patterns of finasteride use were observed among the four Nordic countries. The period prevalence was markedly higher in Finland and Sweden than in Denmark and Norway. In 2009, period prevalences were 18.2/1000 males in Finland and 12.0/1000 males in Sweden compared to 6.7/1000 males in Norway and 4.9/1000 males in Denmark. Incidence rates of finasteride use for Finland, Norway and Sweden were about three times that for Denmark in 2008-2009. Long-term use of finasteride was found in all four Nordic countries with a high ratio between prevalent and incident users. Conclusion Despite resemblances regarding political systems and healthcare services in the Nordic countries, differences in finasteride utilization were found across Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.

  16. Gleason grade remains an important prognostic predictor in men diagnosed with prostate cancer while on finasteride therapy

    PubMed Central

    CARVER, BRETT S.; KATTAN, MICHAEL W.; SCARDINO, PETER T.; EASTHAM, JAMES A.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate men treated with finasteride for lower urinary tract symptoms, who subsequently were diagnosed with prostate cancer and had a radical prostatectomy (RP) at our institution, to determine if finasteride therapy prevented accurate Gleason grade assignment and prediction of biochemical recurrence. PATIENTS AND METHODS Between May 1996 and July 2003, 45 men were identified who had RP and had previously been treated with finasteride for ≥6 months before the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Clinical and pathological information was gathered from a RP database. Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, duration of finasteride therapy, biopsy Gleason grade, clinical stage, RP Gleason grade and pathological stage were reviewed. Freedom from recurrence was predicted using validated nomograms before and after RP, and compared against actuarial 5-year freedom from recurrence using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS The mean duration of finasteride therapy before diagnosis was 23.6 months, the mean serum PSA (doubled to account for finasteride use) 11.02 ng/mL and mean biopsy Gleason score 6. When comparing the biopsy and RP specimen Gleason score, it was downgraded by 1 point in six men, upgraded by 1 point in eight, and upgraded by 2 points in one. The Gleason score was constant in 30 patients. The nomograms predicted freedom from recurrence in 83% and 85%, respectively; the 5-year actuarial freedom from recurrence was 86%. CONCLUSION Finasteride does not appear to compromise the assignment of Gleason grade for use in prediction tools before or after RP in men undergoing prostate biopsy or RP. The actuarial 5-year freedom from recurrence was similar to that predicted by the validated nomograms. Gleason grade remains an important prognostic predictor in men treated with finasteride and undergoing RP for clinically localized prostate cancer. PMID:15705069

  17. Anti-proliferative activities of finasteride in benign prostate epithelial cells require stromal fibroblasts and c-Jun gene

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Dongdong; Wang, Mingshuai; Xing, Nianzeng; Niu, Yinong

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the role of mouse fibroblast-mediated c-Jun and IGF-1 signaling in the therapeutic effect of finasteride on benign prostatic epithelial cells. BPH-1 cells, alone or with fibroblasts (c-Jun+/+ or c-Jun-/-), were implanted subcutaneously in male nude mice who were then treated with finasteride. The degrees of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and sizes of the xenografts were determined. BPH-1 cells were grown alone or co-cultured with mouse fibroblasts in the presence of finasteride and the level of IGF-1 secreted into the medium by the fibroblasts was determined. The proliferation-associated signaling pathway in BPH-1 cells was also evaluated. Fibroblasts and c-Jun promoted xenograft growth, stimulated Ki-67 expression, and inhibited BPH-1 apoptosis. Finasteride did not induce the shrinkage of xenografts in the combined-grafted groups despite repressing Ki-67 expression and inducing cell apoptosis. The addition of c-Jun-/- fibroblasts did not promote xenograft growth. In the absence of c-Jun and fibroblasts, finasteride did not alter xenograft growth, Ki-67 expression, or cell apoptosis. The in vitro results demonstrated that when BPH-1 cells were grown in monoculture, treatment with finasteride did not induce cell death and stimulated the expression of pro-proliferative signaling molecules, while in the presence of fibroblasts containing c-Jun, finasteride treatment repressed epithelial cell proliferation, the level of IGF-1 in the medium, and the activation of downstream pro-proliferative signaling pathways. Taken together, our results suggest that fibroblasts, c-Jun, and IGF-1 play key roles in mediating stromal-epithelial interactions that are required for the therapeutic effects of finasteride in benign prostate epithelial cells. PMID:28196103

  18. Survivin inhibitor YM155 suppresses gastric cancer xenograft growth in mice without affecting normal tissues.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiao Jiao; Lin, Jia Cheng; Ding, Yan Fei; Zhu, Liming; Ye, Jing; Tu, Shui Ping

    2016-02-09

    Survivin overexpression is associated with poor prognosis of human gastric cancer, and is a target for gastric cancer therapy. YM155 is originally identified as a specific inhibitor of survivin. In this study, we investigated the antitumor effect of YM155 on human gastric cancer. Our results showed that YM155 treatment significantly inhibited cell proliferation, reduced colony formation and induced apoptosis of gastric cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner. Accordingly, YM155 treatment significantly decreased survivin expression without affecting XIAP expression and increased the cleavage of apoptosis-associated proteins caspase 3, 7, 8, 9. YM155 significantly inhibited sphere formation of gastric cancer cells, suppressed expansion and growth of the formed spheres (cancer stem cell-like cells, CSCs) and downregulated the protein levels of β-catenin, c-Myc, Cyclin D1 and CD44 in gastric cancer cells. YM155 infusion at 5 mg/kg/day for 7 days markedly inhibited growth of gastric cancer xenograft in a nude mouse model. Immunohistochemistry staining and Western Blot showed that YM155 treatment inhibited expression of survivin and CD44, induced apoptosis and reduced CD44+ CSCs in xenograft tumor tissues in vivo. No obvious pathological changes were observed in organs (e.g. heart, liver, lung and kidney) in YM155-treated mice. Our results demonstrated that YM155 inhibits cell proliferation, induces cell apoptosis, reduces cancer stem cell expansion, and inhibits xenograft tumor growth in gastric cancer cells. Our results elucidate a new mechanism by which YM155 inhibits gastric cancer growth by inhibition of CSCs. YM155 may be a promising agent for gastric cancer treatment.

  19. Investigation of the Plausibility of 5-Alpha-Reductase Inhibitor Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fertig, Raymond; Shapiro, Jerry; Bergfeld, Wilma; Tosti, Antonella

    2017-01-01

    Postfinasteride syndrome (PFS) is a term recently coined to characterize a constellation of reported undesirable side effects described in postmarketing reports and small uncontrolled studies that developed during or after stopping finasteride treatment, and persisted after drug discontinuation. Symptoms included decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, sexual anhedonia, decreased sperm count, gynecomastia, skin changes, cognitive impairment, fatigue, anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation. The aim of this study is to review the existing medical literature for evidence-based research of permanent sexual dysfunction and mood changes during treatment with 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors including finasteride and dutasteride. PMID:28232919

  20. Combined treatment with oral finasteride and topical minoxidil in male androgenetic alopecia: a randomized and comparative study in Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ruiming; Xu, Feng; Sheng, Youyu; Qi, Sisi; Han, Yumei; Miao, Ying; Rui, Wenlong; Yang, Qinping

    2015-01-01

    Finasteride at 1 mg/day and 5% topical minoxidil are effective in male androgenetic alopecia (MAGA). However, studies describing their effects in Chinese individuals are scarce. 450 Chinese MAGA patients were randomly assigned to receive finasteride (n = 160), minoxidil (n = 130) and combined medication (n = 160) for 12 months. The patients returned to the clinic every 3 months for efficacy evaluation. And efficacy was evaluated in 428 men at treatment end, including 154, 122, and 152 in the finasteride, 5% minoxidil, and combination groups, respectively. All groups showed similar baseline characteristics, including age at enrollment, and duration and severity of alopecia (p > 0.05). At 12 months, 80.5, 59, and 94.1% men treated with finasteride, 5% minoxidil and the combination therapy showed improvement, respectively. Adverse reactions were rare (finasteride, 1.8%; minoxidil, 6.1%), and disappeared right after drug withdrawal. In conclusion, finasteride is superior to 5% minoxidil, while the combined medication showed the best efficacy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Finasteride adverse effects in subjects with androgenic alopecia: A possible therapeutic approach according to the lateralization process of the brain.

    PubMed

    Motofei, Ion G; Rowland, David L; Georgescu, Simona R; Tampa, Mircea; Baconi, Daniela; Stefanescu, Emil; Baleanu, Bogdan C; Balalau, Cristian; Constantin, Vlad; Paunica, Stana

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays, finasteride is a relatively frequently prescribed drug in the therapeutic management of male androgenic alopecia. The reported adverse effects are notable in some patients, consisting in signs and symptoms that are encountered both during finasteride administration and after treatment cessation. Clinical and imagistic data show that cognition and sexuality are two distinct but interrelated environmental functions, most probable due to lateralization process of the brain. Specific for our topic, relatively recent published studies found that frequency and severity of finasteride adverse effects could be interrelated with hand preference and sexual orientation of the respective subjects. This paper tries to explain/support this interrelation through a psychophysiologic approach, to suggest how this premise could be further proved in dermatological practice, and to highlight its relevance in respect to therapeutic approach of male androgenic alopecia. As a possible therapeutic application, subjects having preference for a certain sexual orientation and/or predisposition for a given dominant hand could be advised before finasteride administration, that present an increased risk/sensitivity to develop adverse effects. Finally, even if finasteride and post-finasteride symptoms overlap to a large extent they should be, however, viewed as distinct physiopathologic entities, which could require perhaps different therapeutic approaches.

  2. Protease Inhibitors Extracted from Caesalpinia echinata Lam. Affect Kinin Release during Lung Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Silva, Ilana; Praxedes-Garcia, Priscila; Tanaka, Aparecida Sadae; Shimamoto, Kazuaki

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is an essential process in many pulmonary diseases in which kinins are generated by protease action on kininogen, a phenomenon that is blocked by protease inhibitors. We evaluated kinin release in an in vivo lung inflammation model in rats, in the presence or absence of CeKI (C. echinata kallikrein inhibitor), a plasma kallikrein, cathepsin G, and proteinase-3 inhibitor, and rCeEI (recombinant C. echinata elastase inhibitor), which inhibits these proteases and also neutrophil elastase. Wistar rats were intravenously treated with buffer (negative control) or inhibitors and, subsequently, lipopolysaccharide was injected into their lungs. Blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung tissue were collected. In plasma, kinin release was higher in the LPS-treated animals in comparison to CeKI or rCeEI groups. rCeEI-treated animals presented less kinin than CeKI-treated group. Our data suggest that kinins play a pivotal role in lung inflammation and may be generated by different enzymes; however, neutrophil elastase seems to be the most important in the lung tissue context. These results open perspectives for a better understanding of biological process where neutrophil enzymes participate and indicate these plant inhibitors and their recombinant correlates for therapeutic trials involving pulmonary diseases. PMID:28044105

  3. Whisker Hair (Acquired Progressive Kinking of the Hair): An Indication for Finasteride 1 mg?

    PubMed Central

    Bagazgoitia, Lorea; Aboín, Sonsoles

    2016-01-01

    Acquired progressive kinking of the hair (APKH) and whisker hair are relatively rare conditions. To our knowledge, fewer than 25 cases have been reported in the English literature. We present the case of a 23-year-old man whose hair on the parietal and occipital areas changed and turned curlier and shorter. Patients suffering from APKH have higher risk of developing androgenetic alopecia and therefore finasteride 1 mg daily is proposed as an adequate treatment for these patients. PMID:27127372

  4. Hidradenitis Suppurativa in Children Treated with Finasteride-A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Mota, Fernando; Machado, Susana; Selores, Manuela

    2017-09-01

    Hidradenitis suppurativa (HS) is rare in childhood, with only 2% of cases in patients younger than 11 years. It is a chronic, recurrent, debilitating condition for which no universally effective treatment has been developed. We present five cases of children with HS diagnosed between the ages of 6 and 11 years. Patients were treated with oral finasteride 1 to 5 mg/day. All had entered puberty at the time of treatment initiation. All had normal laboratory results before starting treatment. The maximum duration of treatment was 24 months. Four patients were female. Two were overweight. Three had been previously treated with oral antibiotics, and two of these with oral isotretinoin, with partial or no improvement. Overall improvement of the disease was observed in all patients, with a reduction of the frequency and intensity of the flares. No adverse effects were observed or reported during treatment. Treatment of HS can be challenging. The options available include antimicrobials, immunosuppressants, hormonal therapies, lasers, and surgery. The authors report the largest series of children with HS treated with finasteride. The results support the use of finasteride as monotherapy for the treatment of this disease in children. Further studies are necessary to fully understand the role of this drug in the management of this disease. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The intriguing role of fibroblasts and c-Jun in the chemopreventive and therapeutic effect of finasteride on xenograft models of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yi-Nong; Wang, Kai; Jin, Song; Fan, Dong-Dong; Wang, Ming-Shuai; Xing, Nian-Zeng; Xia, Shu-Jie

    2016-01-01

    In a large clinical trial, finasteride reduced the rate of low-grade prostate cancer (PCa) while increasing the incidence of high-grade cancer. Whether finasteride promotes the development of high-grade tumors remains controversial. We demonstrated the role of fibroblasts and c-Jun in chemopreventive and therapeutic effect of finasteride on xenograft models of PCa. LNCaP (PC3) cells or recombinants of cancer cells and fibroblasts were implanted in male athymic nude mice treated with finasteride. Tumor growth, cell proliferation, apoptosis, p-Akt, and p-ERK1/2 were evaluated. In LNCaP (PC3) mono-grafted models, finasteride did not change the tumor growth. In recombinant-grafted models, fibroblasts and c-Jun promoted tumor growth; finasteride induced proliferation of LNCaP cells and repressed PC3 cell apoptosis. When c-Jun was knocked out, fibroblasts and/or finasteride did not promote the tumor growth. Finasteride inhibited p-Akt and p-ERK1/2 in mono-culture cancer cells while stimulating the same signaling molecules in the presence of fibroblasts. Reduced p-Akt and p-ERK1/2 were noted in the presence of c-Jun-/- fibroblasts. Fibroblasts and c-Jun promote PCa growth; finasteride further stimulates tumor growth with promoted proliferation, repressed apoptosis, and up-regulated pro-proliferative molecular pathway in the presence of fibroblasts and c-Jun. Stromal-epithelial interactions play critical roles in finasteride's therapeutic effects on PCa. Our findings have preliminary implications in using finasteride as a chemopreventive or therapeutic agent for PCa patients.

  6. Finasteride reduces microvessel density and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in renal tissue of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Tian, He-lin; Zhao, Chao-xian; Wu, Hai-ying; Xu, Zhong-xin; Wei, Li-shun; Zhao, Ru-tong; Jin, Dong-ling

    2015-06-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of diabetic microvascular complications. Finasteride has been confirmed to decrease VEGF expression in prostate and prostatic suburethral tissue resulting in limiting hematuria from human benign prostatic hyperplasia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of finasteride on microvessel density (MVD), VEGF protein and mRNA expressions in the renal tissue of diabetic rats. Diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin were intragastrically given finasteride at 30 mg/kg body weight once a day for 4 weeks. Histomorphologic changes in kidney were observed under light microscope. Immunohistochemistry for CD34 and VEGF on kidney sections was performed to assess MVD and VEGF protein expression in glomeruli of rats, respectively. The VEGF mRNA expression in the renal tissue was examined using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. The glomerular tuft area, glomerular volume, MVD, VEGF protein expression in glomeruli and VEGF mRNA expression in the renal cortex tissue were significantly increased in diabetic rats and finasteride-treated rats when compared with controls (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). When compared with diabetic rats, the glomerular tuft area, glomerular volume, MVD, VEGF protein expression in glomeruli and VEGF mRNA expression in the renal cortex tissue of finasteride-treated rats were significantly decreased (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Finasteride reduces the VEGF expression and decreases the MVD in the renal tissue of diabetic rats, suggesting the therapeutic potential of finasteride on diabetic microvascular complications.

  7. Bowman-Birk inhibitor affects pathways associated with energy metabolism in Drosophila melanogaster

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI) is toxic when fed to certain insects, including the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. Dietary BBI has been demonstrated to slow growth and increase insect mortality by inhibiting the digestive enzymes trypsin and chymotrypsin, resulting in a reduced supply of amino acid...

  8. Plant Defense Inhibitors Affect the Structures of Midgut Cells in Drosophila melanogaster and Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Pittendrigh, Barry R.; Murdock, Larry L.

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce proteins such as protease inhibitors and lectins as defenses against herbivorous insects and pathogens. However, no systematic studies have explored the structural responses in the midguts of insects when challenged with plant defensive proteins and lectins across different species. In this study, we fed two kinds of protease inhibitors and lectins to the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and alpha-amylase inhibitors and lectins to the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. We assessed the changes in midgut cell structures by comparing them with such structures in insects receiving normal diets or subjected to food deprivation. Using light and transmission electron microscopy in both species, we observed structural changes in the midgut peritrophic matrix as well as shortened microvilli on the surfaces of midgut epithelial cells in D. melanogaster. Dietary inhibitors and lectins caused similar lesions in the epithelial cells but not much change in the peritrophic matrix in both species. We also noted structural damages in the Drosophila midgut after six hours of starvation and changes were still present after 12 hours. Our study provided the first evidence of key structural changes of midguts using a comparative approach between a dipteran and a coleopteran. Our particular observation and discussion on plant–insect interaction and dietary stress are relevant for future mode of action studies of plant defensive protein in insect physiology. PMID:27594789

  9. Aminocarnitine and acylaminocarnitines: Carnitine acyltransferase inhibitors affecting long-chain fatty acid and glucose metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    DL-Aminocarnitine (DL-3-amino-4-trimethylaminobutyrate) and the acylaminocarnitines acetyl-, decanoyl- and palmitoyl-DL-aminocarnitine have been synthesized and tested as inhibitors of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase and carnitine acetyltransferase in vitro and in vivo. Acetyl-DL-aaminocarnitine is the most potent reversible inhibitor of carnitine acetyltransferase reported to date, and is competitive with respect to acetyl-L-carnitine. Mice given acetyl-DL-aminocarnitine metabolize (U-{sup 14}C)acetyl-L-carnitine at about 60% of the rate of control mice. Palmitoyl-DL-aminocarnitine is the most potent reversible inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyltransferase reported to date. Decanoyl-DL-aminocarnitine and DL-aminocarnitine are also very potent inhibitors; all compounds inhibit the catabolism of ({sup 14}C)palmitate to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} in intact mice by at least 50%. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase controls the entry of long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondrial matrix for {beta}-oxidation. The inhibition of carnitine palmitoyltransferase by aminocarnitine or acylaminocarnitines in vivo prevents or reverses ketogenesis in fasted mice, and causes the reversible accumulation of triglycerides in liver, kidney and plasma. Administration of DL-aminocarnitine to streptozotocindiabetic mice lowers plasma glucose levels and improves the glucose tolerance test.

  10. Plant Defense Inhibitors Affect the Structures of Midgut Cells in Drosophila melanogaster and Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Li-Byarlay, Hongmei; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Murdock, Larry L

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce proteins such as protease inhibitors and lectins as defenses against herbivorous insects and pathogens. However, no systematic studies have explored the structural responses in the midguts of insects when challenged with plant defensive proteins and lectins across different species. In this study, we fed two kinds of protease inhibitors and lectins to the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and alpha-amylase inhibitors and lectins to the cowpea bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. We assessed the changes in midgut cell structures by comparing them with such structures in insects receiving normal diets or subjected to food deprivation. Using light and transmission electron microscopy in both species, we observed structural changes in the midgut peritrophic matrix as well as shortened microvilli on the surfaces of midgut epithelial cells in D. melanogaster. Dietary inhibitors and lectins caused similar lesions in the epithelial cells but not much change in the peritrophic matrix in both species. We also noted structural damages in the Drosophila midgut after six hours of starvation and changes were still present after 12 hours. Our study provided the first evidence of key structural changes of midguts using a comparative approach between a dipteran and a coleopteran. Our particular observation and discussion on plant-insect interaction and dietary stress are relevant for future mode of action studies of plant defensive protein in insect physiology.

  11. Dabigatran and rivaroxaban do not affect AA- and ADP-induced platelet aggregation in patients receiving concomitant platelet inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Olivier, Christoph B; Weik, Patrick; Meyer, Melanie; Weber, Susanne; Diehl, Philipp; Bode, Christoph; Moser, Martin; Zhou, Qian

    2016-08-01

    Dabigatran and rivaroxaban are novel, vitamin K-independent oral anticoagulants (NOACs) and act via antagonism of the coagulation factor (F) IIa (dabigatran) or FXa (rivaroxaban), respectively. Compared to vitamin-K-antagonists, NOACs have shown non-inferiority of risk and benefit in patients with non valvular atrial fibrillation (AF). In clinical practice there is increasing use of NOACs combined with platelet inhibitors in patients with AF and coronary artery disease. However, whether NOACs affect the function of platelet inhibitors remains incompletely known. This observational study aimed to assess the platelet function in patients receiving dabigatran or rivaroxaban and concomitant platelet inhibitors. A single centre observational study was performed analysing the platelet aggregation of patients treated with dabigatran or rivaroxaban with or without concomitant platelet inhibitors. Measurements before the initiation of NOAC therapy served as the respective control group. Platelet aggregation was measured by multiple electrode aggregometry and was induced with adenosine diphosphate (ADP, 6.5 µM) and arachidonic acid (AA, 0.5 mM), respectively. In order to evaluate whether NOACs interact with platelet inhibition by ASA or the P2Y12-antagonist clopidogrel, 87 patients were grouped according to their concomitant antiplatelet medication. Comparing the ADP- and AA-induced platelet aggregation in patients without concomitant platelet inhibitors (n = 45) no significant differences under therapy with dabigatran (d) or rivaroxaban (r) compared to the control group (c) were observed. In patients taking clopidogrel as a concomitant platelet inhibitor (n = 21), neither dabigatran nor rivaroxaban affected the ADP-induced platelet aggregation (c 20 ± 11, d 21 ± 14, r 18 ± 8 AU*min, p = 0.200). Patients receiving dabigatran or rivaroxaban in combination with ASA (n = 42; 21 ASA only, 21 ASA + clopidogrel) showed no significant differences of the AA

  12. Clinical effects and economical impact of dutasteride and finasteride therapy in Italian men with LUTS.

    PubMed

    Cindolo, Luca; Berardinelli, Francesco; Fanizza, Caterina; Romero, Marilena; Pirozzi, Luisella; Tamburro, Fabiola Raffaella; Pellegrini, Fabrizio; Neri, Fabio; Pitrelli, Andrea; Schips, Luigi

    2013-12-31

    To investigate differences in the risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)- related hospitalization, for surgical and non-surgical reasons, and of new prostate cancer (PCa) diagnosis between patients under dutasteride or finasteride treatment. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from record-linkage of administrative databases. Men aged ≥ 40 years old who had received a prescription for at least 10 boxes/year (index years: 2004-06) were included. The association of the outcomes was assessed using a multiple Cox proportional hazard model. Propensity score matched analysis and a 5-to-1, greedy 1:1 matching algorithm were performed. The budget impact analysis of dutasteride vs finasteride in BPH-treated patient was performed. From an initial cohort of about 1.5 million of Italian men, 19620 were selected. The overall hospitalization for BPH-non surgical reasons, for BPH-related surgery and for new detection of PCa incidence rates (IRs) were 8.20 (95% CI, 7.62-8.23), 18.0 (95% CI, 17.12-18.93) and 8.62 (95% CI, 8.03-9.26) per 1000 person-years, respectively. The multivariate analysis after the propensity score-matching showed that dutasteride was associated with an independent reduced likelihood of hospitalization for BPH-related surgery (HR 0.82; 95% CI 0.73-0.93; p = 0.0025) and of newly detected PCa (HR: 0.76,95% CI, 0.65-0.85; p = 0.0116). The IR for BPH-non surgical reasons was 8.07 (95% CI, 7.10-9.17) and 9.25 (95% CI, 8.19-10.44) per 1000 person-years, respectively. The IR for BPH-related surgery was 18.28 (95% CI, 17.17-20.32) and 21.28 (95% CI, 19.24-23.06) per 1000 person-years among patients under dutasteride compared with those under finasteride, respectively. For new-onset PCa, the IR was 8.01 (95% CI, 7.07-9.08) and 9.38 (95% CI, 8.32-10.58) per 1000 person-years The pharmacoeconomical evaluation showed that the net budget impact of the use of dutasteride vs. finasteride in 1000 BPH-treated patient for 1 year induces a saving of 3933

  13. Is platelet function as measured by Thrombelastograph monitoring in whole blood affected by platelet inhibitors?

    PubMed

    Bailey, Lori A; Sistino, Joseph J; Uber, Walter E

    2005-03-01

    Platelet inhibitors, especially the glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa receptor antagonists, have demonstrated their effectiveness in reducing the acute ischemic complications of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and in improving clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary crisis. Three common platelet inhibitors observed in emergent cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) for failed PCI are abciximab, eptifibatide, and tirofiban. An in vitro model was constructed in two parts to determine whether platelet aggregation inhibition induced by platelet inhibitors would be demonstrated by the Thrombelastograph (TEG) monitor when compared with baseline samples with no platelet inhibitor. In part A, 20 mL of fresh whole blood was divided into four groups: group I = baseline, group A = abcix-imab microg/mL, group E = eptifibatide ng/mL, and group T = tirofiban ng/mL. Platelet inhibitor concentrations in whole blood were derived starting with reported serum concentrations with escalation to achieve 80% platelet inhibition using the Medtronic hemoSTATUS and/or Lumi-aggregometer. A concentration range determined by our in vitro tests were chosen for each drug using concentrations achieving less than, equal to, or greater than 80% platelet inhibition. In part B, TEG analysis was then performed using baseline and concentrations for each drug derived in part A. Parameters measured were clot formation reaction time (R), coagulation time (K), maximum amplitude (MA) and alpha angle (A). Groups E1000 and E2000 extended R over control by 37% and 23%, respectively (p = 0.01 and 0.03). Groups E1000 and E2000 increased K times by 45% and 58% (p = .02 and .04). T160 samples prolonged K by 20% (p = 0.01). The angle or clot strength (A) was decreased in groups T160 and E1000 by 23% (+ 7.06 SD) and 18% (+ 11.23 SD), respectively (p = 0.001 and 0.01). The MA decrease was statistically significant in the T160, E1000 and E2000 by 9%, 6% and 13% respectively (p = 0.01). Samples treated with abciximab

  14. Failure of corn trypsin inhibitor to affect the thrombin generation assay in plasma from severe hemophiliacs.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, B M; Martin, E J; Salinas, V; Carmona, R; Young, G; Brophy, D F

    2014-09-01

    The thrombin generation assay (TGA) is an important global coagulation assay; however, it suffers from the lack of preanalytical standardization. The addition of corn trypsin inhibitor (CTI) to blood collection tubes before TGA has been previously advocated to block the contact activation pathway. Emerging data, however, suggest that CTI may only be necessary when minimal tissue factor (TF) concentrations < 1 pmol are used. To determine whether blood collection tubes containing CTI influenced TGA parameters. This cross-sectional, observational study performed the TGA using TF 1 pmol L(-1) in 15 healthy volunteers, 14 severely factor VIII (FVIII)-deficient patients, and 15 severely FVIII-deficient patients with documented FVIII inhibitors. TGA was conducted using blood tubes that contained CTI 33 μg mL(-1) and no CTI. CTI markedly reduced peak thrombin (P = 0.002) and endogenous thrombin potential (P < 0.001) in the healthy volunteers but had no significant effect on TGA parameters in severely FVIII-deficient patients or those with inhibitors. This lack of effect raises additional questions regarding the need for CTI as a preanalytical addition to blood collection tubes during TGA in severe hemophiliacs, particularly when activating samples with TF 1 pmol L(-1) . © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  15. Comparisons of the Efficacy and Safety of Finasteride and Dutasteride for Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Network Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ting; Qiao, Zhanbing; Li, You; Li, Dezhi; Jiang, Min; An, Chao; Wang, Fen; Zuo, Minghuan; Hu, Kaiwen; Li, Quanwang

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of dutasteride compared with finasteride, used for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). Pertinent studies were identified by searching of PubMed and Web of Science. The random effect model was used to combine the results. Both direct comparison using traditional meta-analysis method and indirect comparison using network meta-analysis method were performed. Twenty-one articles involving a total of 29,094 patients were included in this network meta-analysis. Pooled data demonstrated a significantly reduction in International Prostate Symptom Score in the dutasteride group compared with finasteride group [weighted mean difference (WMD) = -1.80, 95% confidence interval (CI), -2.90 to -0.11]. The treatment effects of dutasteride compared with finasteride were not significant in peak urinary flow (Qmax) (WMD = 0.76, 95% CI, -0.67 to 2.00) and total prostate volume (WMD = -7.6, 95% CI, -21 to 6.6). Also, there is no significant association between dutasteride and finasteride of the safety for the treatment of BPH. Our results suggested that there were no statistically significant differences in the treatment of symptomatic BPH among dutasteride compared with finasteride except that dutasteride can improve BPH symptoms measured by International Prostate Symptom Score.

  16. Increase of Intracellular Cyclic AMP by PDE4 Inhibitors Affects HepG2 Cell Cycle Progression and Survival.

    PubMed

    Massimi, Mara; Cardarelli, Silvia; Galli, Francesca; Giardi, Maria Federica; Ragusa, Federica; Panera, Nadia; Cinque, Benedetta; Cifone, Maria Grazia; Biagioni, Stefano; Giorgi, Mauro

    2017-06-01

    Type 4 cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDE4) are major members of a superfamily of enzymes (PDE) involved in modulation of intracellular signaling mediated by cAMP. Broadly expressed in most human tissues and present in large amounts in the liver, PDEs have in the last decade been key therapeutic targets for several inflammatory diseases. Recently, a significant body of work has underscored their involvement in different kinds of cancer, but with no attention paid to liver cancer. The present study investigated the effects of two PDE4 inhibitors, rolipram and DC-TA-46, on the growth of human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Treatment with these inhibitors caused a marked increase of intracellular cAMP level and a dose- and time-dependent effect on cell growth. The concentrations of inhibitors that halved cell proliferation to about 50% were used for cell cycle experiments. Rolipram (10 μM) and DC-TA-46 (0.5 μM) produced a decrease of cyclin expression, in particular of cyclin A, as well as an increase in p21, p27 and p53, as evaluated by Western blot analysis. Changes in the intracellular localization of cyclin D1 were also observed after treatments. In addition, both inhibitors caused apoptosis, as demonstrated by an Annexin-V cytofluorimetric assay and analysis of caspase-3/7 activity. Results demonstrated that treatment with PDE4 inhibitors affected HepG2 cell cycle and survival, suggesting that they might be useful as potential adjuvant, chemotherapeutic or chemopreventive agents in hepatocellular carcinoma. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1401-1411, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Therapeutic hotline. Treatment of androgenic alopecia with finasteride may result in a high grade prostate cancer in patients: fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Lynn, Rikk; Krunic, Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    Finasteride at a dose of 1 mg (Propecia®) has been used for the treatment of androgenic alopecia in men. Though finasteride has been successfully used, there is ongoing controversy surrounding its use since the publication of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) which includes claims of increased risk for higher grade prostate cancers. This has produced confusion on consulting and treatment of patients interested in starting finasteride for androgenic alopecia. We felt there was a need to clarify further the results of PCPT for our readers and help understanding the real risk of prostate cancer development of patients on finasteride. In conclusion, we suggest the guidelines for treatment monitoring for patients on finasteride which based on comprehensive review of the trial presents safe treatment for androgenetic alopecia without the concern for the induction of high-grade prostate cancer.

  18. Comparing Clinical and Economic Outcomes Associated with Early Initiation of Combination Therapy of an Alpha Blocker and Dutasteride or Finasteride in Men with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia in the United States.

    PubMed

    DerSarkissian, Maral; Xiao, Yongling; Duh, Mei Sheng; Lefebvre, Patrick; Swensen, Andrine R; Bell, Christopher F

    2016-10-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease in men that is characterized by lower urinary tract symptoms. Pharmacologic treatment with alpha blockers (ABs) and 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5ARIs) is recommended to alleviate symptoms, prevent disease progression that can lead to complications, and reduce health care costs. To compare clinical, economic, and health care resource utilization outcomes among BPH patients treated with early continuous combination AB and 5ARI therapy (dutasteride vs. finasteride) using administrative claims data from the United States. A retrospective analysis of administrative claims data from 2003-2013 was conducted to compare outcomes between patients with claims for early combination therapy with dutasteride + AB and patients with claims for early finasteride + AB. The study population included males aged older than 50 years with at least 1 medical claim with a diagnosis of BPH and pharmacy dispensing for AB and 5ARI therapies. Outcomes included acute urinary retention (AUR), prostate-related surgery, clinical progression, medical and pharmacy costs, and health care resource utilization. Inverse probability of treatment (IPT) weighted Cox proportional hazards, linear, and Poisson regression models were used to assess the association between outcomes and early combination therapy as appropriate. A total of 2,778 patients were included in the early finasteride + AB treatment cohort, and 4,125 patients were included in the early dutasteride + AB cohort. Dutasteride users were younger than finasteride users (mean age: 64.8 vs. 67.5 years, P < 0.001) and had a greater mean number of urologist visits (10.7 vs. 7.9, P < 0.001) during baseline. After adjusting for confounding using IPT weighting, no statistically significant difference was observed between dutasteride and finasteride for AUR (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.845, 95% CI = 0.660-1.070, P = 0.1643), prostate-related surgery (HR = 0.806, 95% CI = 0.568-1.171, P = 0.2525), and

  19. Are hand preference and sexual orientation possible predicting factors for finasteride adverse effects in male androgenic alopecia?

    PubMed

    Motofei, Ion G; Rowland, David L; Georgescu, Simona R; Tampa, Mircea; Baleanu, Bogdan C; Paunica, Stana

    2016-07-01

    Sexual side effects of finasteride seem to be redoubtable, being encountered not only during therapy but also after treatment cessation. Consequently, any possible clinical/paraclinical elements that might predict these adverse effects would be useful in the selection of a therapeutic strategy for male androgenic alopecia. Previous published studies show that some compounds that interfere with sexual hormones can decrease sexual activation and response, according to hand preference (as reported for finasteride and tamoxifen) and according to sexual orientation (as noted for bicalutamide). Our preliminary published data and the arguments presented here suggest that these two individual parameters might be used by dermatologists in the therapeutic approach of male androgenic alopecia, so as to alert specific subsets of men, prior to treatment, of the potential increased risk for developing adverse effects to finasteride.

  20. The mustard trypsin inhibitor 2 affects the fertility of Spodoptera littoralis larvae fed on transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    De Leo, F; Gallerani, R

    2002-05-01

    The effects of mustard trypsin inhibitor MTI-2 expressed at different levels in transgenic tobacco lines have been evaluated by feeding the lepidopteran Spodoptera littoralis throughout its larval life. Specific conditions were selected to study the long-term effects of feeding larvae on transgenic plants expressing the inhibitor at various levels. The data obtained led to the establishment of three relevant parameters to be considered during the experimentation: (i) the PI content of the plant lines to be used; (ii) the developmental stage of larvae sensitive to that PI content; (iii) the ratio of MTI-2/proteases sufficient to inhibit gut proteases. The experimental data obtained from feeding S. littoralis larvae using these conditions led to two main results. First, when L2 S. littoralis larvae were fed on high MTI-2 expressing tobacco plants, no effects on larval development were detected but there was a significantly reduced fertility. When the same larvae were fed on low expressing MTI-2 tobacco plants, only a less marked lowering of fertility was observed. Second, after the first generation, no differences in protease activity were observed in insects derived from larvae fed on high or low MTI-2 expressing tobacco lines, suggesting that genetic traits observed in previous studies were not inherited.

  1. Inflammation in Benign Prostate Tissue and Prostate Cancer in the Finasteride Arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.

    PubMed

    Murtola, Teemu J; Gurel, Bora; Umbehr, Martin; Lucia, M Scott; Thompson, Ian M; Goodman, Phyllis J; Kristal, Alan R; Parnes, Howard L; Lippman, Scott M; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Peskoe, Sarah B; Barber, John R; Drake, Charles G; Nelson, William G; De Marzo, Angelo M; Platz, Elizabeth A

    2016-03-01

    A previous analysis of the placebo arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) reported 82% overall prevalence of intraprostatic inflammation and identified a link between inflammation and higher-grade prostate cancer and serum PSA. Here, we studied these associations in the PCPT finasteride arm. Prostate cancer cases (N = 197) detected either on a clinically indicated biopsy or on protocol-directed end-of-study biopsy, and frequency-matched controls (N = 248) with no cancer on an end-of-study biopsy were sampled from the finasteride arm. Inflammation in benign prostate tissue was visually assessed using digital images of hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. Logistic regression was used for statistical analysis. In the finasteride arm, 91.6% of prostate cancer cases and 92.4% of controls had at least one biopsy core with inflammation in benign areas (P < 0.001 for difference compared with placebo arm). Overall, the odds of prostate cancer did not differ by prevalence [OR, 0.90; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.44-1.84] or extent (P trend = 0.68) of inflammation. Inflammation was not associated with higher-grade disease (prevalence: OR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.43-2.69). Furthermore, mean PSA concentration did not differ by the prevalence or extent of inflammation in either cases or controls. The prevalence of intraprostatic inflammation was higher in the finasteride than placebo arm of the PCPT, with no association with higher-grade prostate cancer. Finasteride may attenuate the association between inflammation and higher-grade prostate cancer. Moreover, the missing link between intraprostatic inflammation and PSA suggests that finasteride may reduce inflammation-associated PSA elevation. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  2. Inflammation in benign prostate tissue and prostate cancer in the finasteride arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial*

    PubMed Central

    Murtola, Teemu J.; Gurel, Bora; Umbehr, Martin; Lucia, M. Scott; Thompson, Ian M.; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Kristal, Alan R.; Parnes, Howard L.; Lippman, Scott M.; Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Peskoe, Sarah B.; Barber, John R.; Drake, Charles G.; Nelson, William G.; De Marzo, Angelo M.; Platz, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Background A previous analysis of the placebo arm of the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) reported 82% overall prevalence of intraprostatic inflammation and identified a link between inflammation and higher-grade prostate cancer and serum PSA. Here we studied these associations in the PCPT finasteride arm. Methods Prostate cancer cases (N=197) detected either on a clinically indicated biopsy or on protocol-directed end-of-study biopsy, and frequency-matched controls (N=248) with no cancer on an end-of-study biopsy were sampled from the finasteride arm. Inflammation in benign prostate tissue was visually assessed using digital images of H&E stained sections. Logistic regression was used for statistical analysis. Results In the finasteride arm, 91.6% of prostate cancer cases and 92.4% of controls had at least one biopsy core with inflammation in benign areas; p < 0.001 for difference compared to placebo arm. Overall, the odds of prostate cancer did not differ by prevalence (OR=0.90, 95% CI 0.44-1.84) or extent (P-trend=0.68) of inflammation. Inflammation was not associated with higher-grade disease (prevalence: OR=1.07, 95% CI 0.43-2.69). Furthermore, mean PSA concentration did not differ by the prevalence or extent of inflammationin either cases or controls. Conclusion The prevalence of intraprostatic inflammation was higher in the finasteride than placebo arm of the PCPT, with no association with higher-grade prostate cancer. Impact Finasteride may attenuate the association between inflammation and higher-grade prostate cancer. Moreover, the missing link between intraprostatic inflammation and PSA suggests that finasteride may reduce inflammation-associated PSA elevation. PMID:26715424

  3. Does Variation in Either Age at Start of Therapy or Duration of Therapy Make Chemoprevention with Finasteride Cost-Effective?

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Suzanne Biehn; Scales, Charles D.; Moul, Judd W.; Reed, Shelby D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICER) of finasteride for prostate cancer prevention are consistent with estimates beyond $100,000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). The majority of these analyses are based on chemoprevention starting in men aged 50–55yrs. We sought to evaluate the impact of varying both age at commencement of therapy and length of therapy on the cost-effectiveness of finasteride. Methods A probabilistic Markov model was designed to estimate lifetime prostate health related costs and quality-adjusted survival for men receiving or not receiving chemoprevention with finasteride. ICERs across scenarios varying age at start of therapy and duration of chemoprevention were compared. Results The ICER for men starting chemoprevention at age 50 and continuing to age 75 was $88,800 per QALY when assuming finasteride causes a constant risk reduction across all tumor grades (base case 1) and $142,300 per when assuming a differential treatment effect according to Gleason score (base case 2). When starting age is increased, the ICERs trend downward and nadir at 65 years to $64,700 per QALY (base case 1) and $118,600 per QALY (base case 2). Altering duration of therapy had minimal impact. Patient-level experiences with finasteride and BPH significantly influenced the cost-effectiveness of chemoprevention. Conclusion Initiating chemoprevention at ages when prostate cancer incidence is higher improves its cost-effectiveness profile. Only when assuming a constant risk reduction for all tumor grades, did finasteride fall below $100,000 per QALY, but this finding was not upheld when accounting for side effects associated with the drug. PMID:22777393

  4. Finasteride to Prevent Prostate Cancer: Should All Men or Only a High-Risk Subgroup Be Treated?

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Andrew J.; Savage, Caroline J.; Lilja, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Finasteride has been shown to reduce the incidence of prostate cancer. Yet the use of finasteride remains low, likely because of the risk of adverse effects. We sought to determine whether prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels could identify a high-risk subgroup for which the benefits of finasteride treatment outweigh the potential harms. Patients and Methods Raw data from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial were used to model chemopreventive treatment strategies: treat all men, treat no men, or treat a high-risk subgroup based on PSA level. We weighted the benefits (reduction in cancer rate) and harms (treatment rate) of each strategy using numbers-needed-to-treat thresholds—the maximum number of men a clinician would treat with finasteride to prevent one cancer. Results Of 9,058 men, 1,957 were diagnosed with prostate cancer during the 7-year study. For the end point of all cancers, including both for-cause and end-of-study biopsies, the optimal strategy is to treat all or nearly all men. To reduce risk of cancers detected through routine care, treating men with PSA > 1.3 or > 2 ng/mL is optimal. For example, treating only men with PSA > 2 ng/mL reduced the treatment rate by 83% and resulted in a cancer rate only 1.1% higher than treating all men. Conclusion Clinicians wishing to reduce the risk of any biopsy-detectable prostate cancer should recommend finasteride to all men. Clinicians who believe that it is unnecessary to prevent all cancers, but that preventing those readily detectable by screening would be desirable, would be best off recommending finasteride only to a high-risk subgroup. PMID:20124185

  5. Does variation in either age at start of therapy or duration of therapy make chemoprevention with finasteride cost-effective?

    PubMed

    Stewart, S B; Scales, C D; Moul, J W; Reed, S D

    2012-12-01

    Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of finasteride for prostate cancer prevention are consistent with estimates beyond $100 000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). The majority of these analyses are based on chemoprevention starting in men aged 50-55 years. We sought to evaluate the impact of varying both age at commencement of therapy and length of therapy on the cost-effectiveness of finasteride. A probabilistic Markov model was designed to estimate lifetime prostate health-related costs and quality-adjusted survival for men receiving or not receiving chemoprevention with finasteride. ICERs across scenarios varying age at start of therapy and duration of chemoprevention were compared. The ICER for men starting chemoprevention at age 50 and continuing to age 75 was $88 800 per QALY when assuming finasteride causes a constant risk reduction across all tumor grades (base case 1) and $142 300 per QALY when assuming a differential treatment effect according to Gleason score (base case 2). When starting age is increased, the ICERs trend downward and nadir at 65 years to $64 700 per QALY (base case 1) and $118 600 per QALY (base case 2). Altering duration of therapy had minimal impact. Patient-level experiences with finasteride and BPH significantly influenced the cost-effectiveness of chemoprevention. Initiating chemoprevention at ages when prostate cancer incidence is higher improves its cost-effectiveness profile. Only when assuming a constant risk reduction for all tumor grades, did finasteride fall below $100 000 per QALY, but this finding was not upheld when accounting for side effects associated with the drug.

  6. Short-term Effect of Tamsulosin and Finasteride Monotherapy and their Combination on Nigerian Men with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Odusanya, Benjamin O; Tijani, Kehinde H; Jeje, Emmanuel A; Ogunjimi, Moses A; Ojewola, Rufus W

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of tamsulosin and finasteride monotherapies, and their combination in men with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). This is a prospective single-blind randomized study of ninety men with BPH who were managed using drugs. The International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), peak urinary flow rate, and prostate volume were measured as parameters for assessment at the beginning, 3 months, and 6 months of the study. The mean age of patients was 61.65 with a range of 44-81 years. There was a progressive and sustained improvement in the IPSS score in all patient groups with mean decrease at 3 months of 7.24 (42.59%), 7.60 (41.85%), and 7.24 (40.61%) and at 6 months of 8.14 (47.88%), 10.33 (56.88%), and 11.1 (62.25%) in the tamsulosin, finasteride, and combination groups, respectively. There was an increase in peak urinary flow rate in all groups with mean increase at 3 months of 0.98, 0.05, and 3.55 (ml/s) and at 6 months of 4.11, 0.87, and 3.74 (ml/s) in the tamsulosin, finasteride, and combination groups, respectively. There was a reduction in the prostate volume in the finasteride and combination groups at 6 months of 6.8 and 6.32 cm(3), respectively, while the tamsulosin group recorded an increase. At the end of 6 months, tamsulosin monotherapy and combination therapy appear to be equally effective in the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms BPH while finasteride monotherapy appears to be the least effective. Bothersome, side effects were more in patients taking finasteride alone or as combination therapy.

  7. Caspase inhibitors affect the kinetics and dimensions of tracheary elements in xylogenic Zinnia (Zinnia elegans) cell cultures

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The xylem vascular system is composed of fused dead, hollow cells called tracheary elements (TEs) that originate through trans-differentiation of root and shoot cambium cells. TEs undergo autolysis as they differentiate and mature. The final stage of the formation of TEs in plants is the death of the involved cells, a process showing some similarities to programmed cell death (PCD) in animal systems. Plant proteases with functional similarity to proteases involved in mammalian apoptotic cell death (caspases) are suggested as an integral part of the core mechanism of most PCD responses in plants, but participation of plant caspase-like proteases in TE PCD has not yet been documented. Results Confocal microscopic images revealed the consecutive stages of TE formation in Zinnia cells during trans-differentiation. Application of the caspase inhibitors Z-Asp-CH2-DCB, Ac-YVAD-CMK and Ac-DEVD-CHO affected the kinetics of formation and the dimensions of the TEs resulting in a significant delay of TE formation, production of larger TEs and in elimination of the 'two-wave' pattern of TE production. DNA breakdown and appearance of TUNEL-positive nuclei was observed in xylogenic cultures and this was suppressed in the presence of caspase inhibitors. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge this is the first report showing that caspase inhibitors can modulate the process of trans-differentiation in Zinnia xylogenic cell cultures. As caspase inhibitors are closely associated with cell death inhibition in a variety of plant systems, this suggests that the altered TE formation results from suppression of PCD. The findings presented here are a first step towards the use of appropriate PCD signalling modulators or related molecular genetic strategies to improve the hydraulic properties of xylem vessels in favour of the quality and shelf life of plants or plant parts. PMID:20691058

  8. Specific proton pump inhibitors E3810 and lansoprazole affect the recovery process of gastric secretion in rats differently.

    PubMed

    Tomiyama, Y; Morii, M; Takeguchi, N

    1994-11-29

    After a single subcutaneous administration (30 mg/kg) of proton pump inhibitor 2-[(4-(3-methoxypropoxy)-3-methylpyridin-2-yl)-methylsulfiny l]- 1H-benzimidazole sodium salt (E3810), or lansoprazole in rats, time courses of inhibitory and recovery processes of acid secretion in vivo and pump enzyme activity in isolated microsomes were measured. The acid secretion rate which reflects H+,K(+)-ATPase activity in the secretory canalicular (apical) membrane was compared with that in the microsomal fraction which consists mostly of resting, intracellularly-pooled tubulovesicles. We found that the canalicular pump was first inhibited, followed by slow inhibition of the microsomal pump enzyme activity, with the rate of the latter process depending on the inhibitors. It took 2.5 hr for the half-maximal inhibition of the microsomal pump in E3810-treated rats, and 6 hr in lansoprazole-treated rats. The acid secretion and the microsomal enzyme activity completely recovered within 48 hr after the administration of E3810, but recovered by only 20% even 96 hr after the administration of lansoprazole. Incubation with dithiothreitol of isolated microsomes obtained from E3810-treated rats reactivated the enzyme activity, but not from rats treated with lansoprazole. These results suggest that dissociation of inhibitor from the pump and/or intracellular transport of the pump is affected differently by these inhibitors. Furthermore, it is possible that the half life of the proton pump protein is much longer (greater than 96 hr) than the previously proposed value of 30-48 hr.

  9. Caspase inhibitors affect the kinetics and dimensions of tracheary elements in xylogenic Zinnia (Zinnia elegans) cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Twumasi, Peter; Iakimova, Elena T; Qian, Tian; van Ieperen, Wim; Schel, Jan H N; Emons, Anne Mie C; van Kooten, Olaf; Woltering, Ernst J

    2010-08-06

    The xylem vascular system is composed of fused dead, hollow cells called tracheary elements (TEs) that originate through trans-differentiation of root and shoot cambium cells. TEs undergo autolysis as they differentiate and mature. The final stage of the formation of TEs in plants is the death of the involved cells, a process showing some similarities to programmed cell death (PCD) in animal systems. Plant proteases with functional similarity to proteases involved in mammalian apoptotic cell death (caspases) are suggested as an integral part of the core mechanism of most PCD responses in plants, but participation of plant caspase-like proteases in TE PCD has not yet been documented. Confocal microscopic images revealed the consecutive stages of TE formation in Zinnia cells during trans-differentiation. Application of the caspase inhibitors Z-Asp-CH2-DCB, Ac-YVAD-CMK and Ac-DEVD-CHO affected the kinetics of formation and the dimensions of the TEs resulting in a significant delay of TE formation, production of larger TEs and in elimination of the 'two-wave' pattern of TE production. DNA breakdown and appearance of TUNEL-positive nuclei was observed in xylogenic cultures and this was suppressed in the presence of caspase inhibitors. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report showing that caspase inhibitors can modulate the process of trans-differentiation in Zinnia xylogenic cell cultures. As caspase inhibitors are closely associated with cell death inhibition in a variety of plant systems, this suggests that the altered TE formation results from suppression of PCD. The findings presented here are a first step towards the use of appropriate PCD signalling modulators or related molecular genetic strategies to improve the hydraulic properties of xylem vessels in favour of the quality and shelf life of plants or plant parts.

  10. Finasteride in the treatment of female pattern (androgenic) alopecia: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Boychenko, Olga; Bernstein, Robert M; Schweiger, Eric S

    2012-08-01

    We describe a case of a 44-year-old woman with biopsy-proven female androgenic alopecia (FAGA), or female pattern alopecia, who was nonresponsive to topical minoxidil. After careful consideration and discussion with the patient, the decision was made to introduce oral finasteride 1.25 mg daily. After only 3.5 months of therapy there was a remarkable reduction in hair shedding and increased hair regrowth without any reported side effects. We also present a comprehensive review of the limited studies and case series that have reported finasteride use for FAGA.

  11. Phosphodiesterase 3 inhibitors suppress oocyte maturation and consequent pregnancy without affecting ovulation and cyclicity in rodents.

    PubMed Central

    Wiersma, A; Hirsch, B; Tsafriri, A; Hanssen, R G; Van de Kant, M; Kloosterboer, H J; Conti, M; Hsueh, A J

    1998-01-01

    During each reproductive cycle, a preovulatory surge of gonadotropins induces meiotic maturation of the oocyte in the preovulatory follicle followed by ovulation. Although gonadotropins stimulate cAMP production in somatic cells of the follicle, a decrease in intra-oocyte cAMP levels is required for resumption of meiosis in oocytes. Based on the observed compartmentalization of the cAMP-degrading enzyme, phosphodiesterase, in follicular somatic and germ cells, inhibitors of phosphodiesterase 3 were used to block meiosis in ovulating oocytes in rodents. By this strategy, we demonstrated that fertilization and pregnancy could be prevented without disturbing follicle rupture and normal estrous cyclicity. In contrast to conventional contraceptive pills that disrupt ovarian steroidogenesis and reproductive cycles, the present strategy achieves effective contraception by selective blockage of oocyte maturation and development without alterations in ovulation and reproductive cyclicity. PMID:9691090

  12. How do pectin methylesterases and their inhibitors affect the spreading of tobamovirus?

    PubMed

    Lionetti, Vincenzo; Raiola, Alessandro; Cervone, Felice; Bellincampi, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    After replication in the cytoplasm, viruses spread from the infected cell into the neighboring cells through plasmodesmata, membranous channels embedded by the cell wall. As obligate parasites, viruses have acquired the ability to utilize host factors that unwillingly cooperate for the viral infection process. For example, the viral movement proteins (MP) interacts with the host pectin methylesterase (PME) and both proteins cooperate to sustain the viral spread. However, how and where PMEs interact with MPs and how the PME/MP complexes favor the viral translocation is not well understood. Recently, we demonstrated that the overexpression of PME inhibitors (PMEIs) in tobacco and Arabidopsis plants limits the movement of Tobacco mosaic virus and Turnip vein clearing virus and reduces plant susceptibility to these viruses. Here we discuss how overexpression of PMEI may reduce tobamovirus spreading.

  13. Safety, tolerability, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics of rivaroxaban--an oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor--are not affected by aspirin.

    PubMed

    Kubitza, Dagmar; Becka, Michael; Mueck, Wolfgang; Zuehlsdorf, Michael

    2006-09-01

    Rivaroxaban (BAY 59-7939) is an oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor in advanced clinical development for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic disorders. This was a randomized, 2-way crossover study in healthy male subjects, with an aspirin run-in period, to examine whether aspirin influences the safety, tolerability, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics of rivaroxaban. All treatments were well tolerated; drug-related adverse events were mild and transient. Aspirin did not alter the effects of rivaroxaban on Factor Xa activity or clotting tests. Platelet aggregation and bleeding time were not affected by rivaroxaban, and rivaroxaban did not influence the effects of aspirin on these parameters to a clinically relevant extent. Aspirin did not affect the pharmacokinetics of rivaroxaban, including the fraction unbound. This study suggests that there is no clinically relevant interaction between rivaroxaban and aspirin and that the 2 drugs could be administered concomitantly at the doses used in this study.

  14. [How aliphatic alcohols and ph affect reactional capability of the horse blood serum cholinesterase at its interaction with organophosphorus inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Basova, N E; Kormilitsin, B N; Perchenok, A Iu; Rozengart, E V; Saakov, V S; Suvorov, A A

    2013-01-01

    There was studied action of aliphatic alcohols (ethanol, propanol, isopropanol, n-butanol, isobutanol, secbutanol, tretbetanol) and pH on various kinds of reactional capability the serum cholinesterase. At the alcohols-affected inhibition of the cholinesterase hydrolytic activity, the determining role was played not the total number carbon atoms in the alcohol molecule, but by the "effective length" of the carbohydrate chain. The fact that the presence of alcohols did not affect parameters of the reverse cholinesterase inhibition with onium ions tetramethylammonium and choline allows suggesting the absence of effect solvents on specific acetylcholine sorption in the enzyme active center. With aid of two rows of hydrophobic organophosphorus inhibitors (OPI), we have managed to estimate both the degree and the character itself of the modifying action of alcohols and pH on the process of irreversible inhibition of serum cholinesterase.

  15. The new insight of prostate-specific antigen reduction during finasteride therapy in aging men.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ding; Ding, Jie; Zhu, Yunkai; Qian, Xiaoqiang; Duan, Liujian; Qi, Jun

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of finasteride on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in Chinese population. From Feb 2011 to Jan 2012, 83 benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients with prostate volume (PV) >30 mL were enrolled in our study. All the patients were older than 50 years and all of them received combined therapy (finasteride + doxazosin). All the patients were required for 1-year follow-up. PSA level and PV was measured at the start, 6 and 12 months, respectively. 79 patients completed the follow up. PSA level reduced by approximately 40 % during finasteride therapy. We defined baseline PSA as PSA1, PSA at 6 months as PSA2, PSA at 12 months as PSA3. PSA1 was significantly correlated with PSA2/PSA1 and PSA3/PSA1. However, prostate volume was not correlated with PSA1. We divided the patients into three groups according to PSA level. Groups 1, 2, 3 represented the patients with PSA less than 2 ng/mL, between 2 and 4 ng/mL and greater than 4 ng/mL, respectively. Both the PSA2/PSA1 and the PSA3/PSA1 had significant difference among three groups. Furthermore, group 1 and group 2 both showed the fairly large data variance. When baseline PSA level was greater than 4 ng/mL, the doubling rule could be used for screening. When baseline PSA level was less than 4 ng/Ml, the doubling rule might not be an accurate predictor. We can use the PSA rise from nadir or proPSA to predict prostate cancer.

  16. Role of 5α-reductase inhibitors in androgen-stimulated skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Azzouni, Faris; Zeitouni, Nathalie; Mohler, James

    2013-02-01

    5α-reductase (5α-R) isozymes are ubiquitously expressed in human tissues. This enzyme family is composed of 3 members that perform several important biologic functions. 5α-R isozymes play an important role in benign prostate hyperplasia, prostate cancer, and androgen-stimulated skin disorders, which include androgenic alopecia, acne, and hirsutism. Discovery of 5α-R type 2 deficiency in 1974 sparked interest in development of pharmaceutical agents to inhibit 5α-R isozymes, and 2 such inhibitors are currently available for clinical use: finasteride and dutasteride. 5α-R inhibitors are US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved for the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia. Only finasteride is FDA-approved for treatment of male androgenic alopecia. This article reviews the pathophysiology of androgen-stimulated skin disorders and the key clinical trials using 5α-R inhibitors in the treatment of androgen-stimulated skin disorders.

  17. Peptidyl alpha-keto amide inhibitor of calpain blocks excitotoxic damage without affecting signal transduction events.

    PubMed

    Caba, Ebru; Brown, Queenie B; Kawasaki, Brian; Bahr, Ben A

    2002-03-15

    The cysteine protease calpain is activated by calcium and has a wide range of substrates. Calpain-mediated cellular damage is associated with many neuropathologies, and calpain also plays a role in signal transduction events that are essential for cell maintenance, including the activation of important kinases and transcription factors. In the present study, the hippocampal slice culture was used as a model of excitotoxicity to test whether the neuroprotection elicited by selective calpain inhibition is associated with changes in cell signaling. Peptidyl alpha-keto amide and alpha-keto acid inhibitors reduced both calpain-mediated cytoskeletal damage and the concomitant synaptic deterioration resulting from an N-methyl-D-aspartate exposure. The alpha-keto amide CX295 was protective when infused into slice cultures before or after the excitotoxic episode. The slices protected with CX295 exhibited normal activation levels of mitogen-activated protein kinase and the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB. Thus, selective inhibition of calpain provides neuroprotection without influencing critical signaling pathways.

  18. The Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Sunitinib Affects Ovulation but Not Ovarian Reserve in Mouse: A Preclinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Valérie; Bouilly, Justine; Kramer, Piet; Carré, Nadège; Schlumberger, Martin; Visser, Jenny A.; Young, Jacques; Binart, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate ovarian toxicity of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) sunitinib, since only scarce data are available on gonadal function after this treatment. Six-week-old female mice received orally, once daily, vehicle or sunitinib (50 mg/kg/d) during 5 weeks. Fertility parameters were analyzed from ovulation to litter assessment. Sunitinib exposure significantly reduced (i) corpora lutea number per ovary (1.1 ± 0.38 in sunitinib group versus 4 ± 0.79 in control group, p<0.01) and (ii) serum Anti Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels in sunitinib treated mice (12.01 ± 1.16) compared to control mice (14.33 ± 0.87 ng/ml, p< 0.05). However, primordial and growing follicles numbers per ovary were not different in both groups. After treatment withdrawal, female mice in both groups were able to obtain litters. These data could be helpful to counsel clinicians and patients, when fertility preservation methods are discussed, before TKI treatment in girls and young women. PMID:27035144

  19. The monoamine reuptake inhibitor milnacipran does not affect nociception to acute visceral distension in rats.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sang-Wook; Eisenach, James C; Rao, Srinias G; Tong, Chuanyao

    2004-05-01

    The role of antidepressants in the treatment of visceral pain has not been extensively examined. Milnacipran, an antidepressant that inhibits monoamine reuptake, is widely used in the treatment of depression and fibromyalgia. In this study, we sought to determine the activity of milnacipran against acute visceral nociception. Female virgin rats were studied 7 days after bilateral ovariectomy. For uterine cervical distension (UCD), two metal rods were inserted into the cervical osses under general anesthesia for manual distension. Colorectal distension (CRD) was performed by insertion of a balloon catheter into the descending colon and rectum, followed by manual inflation. Two electrodes were inserted into the rectus abdominus muscle for recording UCD- or CRD-induced reflex contraction, which was quantified by electromyography (EMG). A dose response for milnacipran, administered intrathecally or i.v., was obtained for UCD and CRD stimulation. Milnacipran failed to inhibit the UCD-induced EMG response, whether administered i.v. or intrathecally. Similarly, i.v. milnacipran, administered either acutely or chronically, failed to inhibit the CRD-induced EMG response. CRD and UCD are well established animal models for the study of acute visceral pain. Milnacipran, although it provides some unique advantages compared with other antidepressants, is unlikely to produce analgesia after acute administration in the setting of acute visceral pain. Neither intrathecal nor i.v. milnacipran, a monoamine reuptake inhibitor, inhibits an acute visceral pain response induced by colorectal or uterine cervical distension.

  20. Prolongation of Off-Cycle Interval by Finasteride Is Not Associated with Survival Improvement in Intermittent Androgen Deprivation Therapy in LNCaP Tumor Model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yujuan; Gupta, Shubham; Hua, Vi; Ramos-Garcia, Raquel; Shevrin, Daniel; Jovanovic, Borko D.; Nelson, Joel B

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND We have previously reported that finasteride administration in intermittent androgen deprivation therapy (IADT) can improve survival of nude mice bearing LNCaP xenograft tumors when the duration of off-cycle in IADT was fixed. A recent retrospective study showed that addition of finasteride doubled the duration of the off-cycle, without changing progression to castration resistance. In view of the above difference, we attempted to investigate the relationship of 5α-reductase inhibition with the off-cycle interval and overall survival in a murine model. METHODS Subcutaneous LNCaP tumors were established in nude mice (Balb/C-Nu). After the tumors reached a size of 0.5 cm in diameter, the mice were castrated and followed up for 2 weeks after which they were randomized to continuous androgen deprivation (CAD), CAD plus finasteride, IADT, and IADT plus finasteride. The off-cycle was discontinued when the tumor volume was doubled. Subsequent cycles were carried out similarly. RESULTS Use of finasteride during the off-cycle of IADT doubled the first off-cycle duration. However, prolongation of the off-cycle by finasteride did not translate into an increase in overall survival. CONCLUSIONS The survival advantage of IADT+F over IADT that we previously reported was lost when the off-cycle prolongation by finasteride was allowed. Maximum possible lengthening of the off-cycle by 5α-reductase inhibition is not associated with survival improvement in this animal model. PMID:19739129

  1. Oral administration of the p38α MAPK inhibitor, UR13870, inhibits affective pain behavior after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Galan-Arriero, Iriana; Avila-Martin, Gerardo; Ferrer-Donato, Agueda; Gomez-Soriano, Julio; Bravo-Esteban, Elisabeth; Taylor, Julian

    2014-10-01

    The p38α mitogenous activated protein kinase (MAPK) cell signaling pathway is a key mechanism of microglia activation and has been studied as a target for neuropathic pain. The effect of UR13870, a p38α MAPK inhibitor, on microglia expression in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and spinal dorsal horn was addressed after T9 contusion spinal cord injury (SCI) in the rat, in addition to behavioral testing of pain-related aversion and anxiety. Administration of intravenous UR13870 (1mg/kg i.v.) and pregabalin (30 mg/kg i.v.) reduced place escape avoidance paradigm (PEAP) but did not affect open-field anxiety behavior 42 days after SCI. PEAP behavior was also reduced in animals administered daily with oral UR13870 (10mg/kg p.o.) and preserved spinal tissue 28 days after SCI. Although UR13870 (10mg/kg p.o.) failed to reduce OX-42 and glial fibrillar acid protein immunoreactivity within the spinal dorsal horn, a reduction toward the control level was observed close to the SCI site. In the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), a significant increase in OX-42 immunoreactivity was identified after SCI. UR13870 (10mg/kg p.o.) treatment significantly reduced OX-42, metabotropic glutamate type 5 receptor (mGluR5), and NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) 2B subunit receptor (NR2B) expression in the ACC after SCI. To conclude, oral treatment with a p38α MAPK inhibitor reduces the affective behavioral component of pain after SCI in association with a reduction of microglia and specific glutamate receptors within the ACC. Nevertheless the role of neuroinflammatory processes within the vicinity of the SCI site in the development of affective neuropathic pain cannot be excluded.

  2. Improvement of Tissue Survival of Skin Flaps by 5α-Reductase Inhibitors: Possible Involvement of Nitric Oxide and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Ali Asghar; Ajami, Marjan; Asadi, Yasin; Aboutaleb, Nahid; Gorjipour, Fazel; Malekloo, Roya; Pazoki-Toroudi, Hamidreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Skin flap grafting is a popular approach for reconstruction of critical skin and underlying soft tissue injuries. In a previous study, we demonstrated the beneficial effects of two 5α-reductase inhibitors, azelaic acid and finasteride, on tissue survival in a rat model of skin flap grafting. In the current study, we investigated the involvement of nitric oxide and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in graft survival mediated by these agents. Methods: A number of 42 male rats were randomly allocated into six groups: 1, normal saline topical application; 2, azelaic acid (100 mg/flap); 3, finasteride (1 mg/flap); 4, injection of L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (i.p., 20 mg/kg); 5, L-NAME (20 mg/kg, i.p.) + azelaic acid (100 mg/flap, topical); 6, L-NAME (20 mg/kg, i.p.) + finasteride (1 mg/flap, topical). Tissue survival, level of nitric oxide, and iNOS expression in groups were measured. Results: Our data revealed that azelaic acid and finasteride significantly increased the expression of iNOS protein and nitric oxide (NO) levels in graft tissue (P < 0.05). These increases in iNOS expression and NO level were associated with higher survival of the graft tissue. Conclusion: It appears that alterations of the NO metabolism are implicated in the azelaic acid- and finasteride-mediated survival of the skin flaps. PMID:25864816

  3. Race affects healing of erosive oesophagitis in patients treated with proton pump inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sharma, P; Johnson, D A; Monyak, J T; Illueca, M

    2011-08-01

    Erosive oesophagitis appears to be more common in white vs. nonwhite patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD). To evaluate the association between race and erosive oesophagitis healing in patients with GERD treated with once-daily proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). Data from five double-blind trials of once-daily treatment with esomeprazole 40mg vs. omeprazole 20mg or lansoprazole 30mg for erosive oesophagitis healing (evaluated at weeks 4 and 8 by endoscopy) were pooled and stratified by baseline race and Los Angeles (LA) severity grade. Multiple logistic regression models were fit with erosive oesophagitis healing (dependent variable) and race (independent variable), with adjustments for treatment, study, baseline LA grade, age, gender, BMI, Helicobacter pylori status, hiatal hernia and interactions of these factors with race. Of 11,027 patients, 91% were white. Nonwhite (n=978) and black (n=613) patients were less likely to have severe baseline erosive oesophagitis (LA grade C or D) than white patients [adjusted OR: 0.69 (95% CI, 0.61-0.79) and 0.67 (0.57-0.78), respectively; P<0.0001]. At week 8, nonwhite and black patients had lower healing rates than white patients [OR: 0.75 (0.63-0.89) and 0.67 (0.54-0.83), respectively; P≤0.001]. Greater odds of healing were associated with less severe baseline LA grade, increasing age, hiatal hernia, esomeprazole treatment (vs. lansoprazole or omeprazole) and lansoprazole treatment (vs. omeprazole) (all P≤0.0009); no factor interacted significantly with race. Nonwhite patients with GERD had less severe baseline erosive oesophagitis, but were less likely than white patients to have erosive oesophagitis healing after 8-week PPI therapy. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Modulation of endogenous Cysteine Protease Inhibitor (ICP) 1 expression in Entamoeba histolytica affects amoebic adhesion to Extracellular Matrix proteins.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Ah; Saito-Nakano, Yumiko; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Min, Arim; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi; Shin, Myeong Heon

    2015-02-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is an enteric tissue-invading protozoan parasite that causes amoebic colitis and occasionally liver abscess in humans. During tissue invasion, amoebic adhesion to host components is an important event for host cell death leading to successful invasion and infection. Among amoebic virulence factors, Gal/GalNAc lectin is known to be major adhesion factor to host cells. In this study, we investigated the role of amoebic secreted CP (Cysteine Proteases) in amoebic adhesion to extracellular matrix (ECM) protein using CP inhibitor and E. histolytica strains in which the endogenous inhibitor of cysteine protease (ICP) 1 gene was overexpressed (ICP1(+)) or repressed by antisense small RNA-mediated gene silencing (ICP1(-)). We found that pretreatment of wild-type amoebae with CP inhibitor E64, or thiol-group modifiers such as diamide and N-Ethylmaleimide resulted in a significant decrease in adhesion to laminin and collagen ECM proteins. Furthermore, ICP1(+) strain, with a reduction of secreted CP activity, exhibited reduced ability by 40% to adhere to laminin. In contrast, ICP1(-) strain, with a 1.9-fold increase of secreted CP activity, showed a two-fold increase in amoebic adherence to laminin compared to the control strain. In addition, total amount of secreted CP5 was decreased in ICP1(+) amoeba. Conversely, total amount of secreted CP1 and mature-form CP5 were increased in ICP1(-) amoeba. We also found that ICP1 was secreted into extracellular milieu. These results suggest that secreted CP activity by E. histolytica may be an important factor affecting adhesion to host proteins, and regulation of CP secretion by ICP plays a major role in pathogenesis. This study provides insight into the CP-mediated tissue pathogenesis in amoeba-invaded lesions during human amoebiasis.

  5. The Aurora-A inhibitor MLN8237 affects multiple mitotic processes and induces dose-dependent mitotic abnormalities and aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    Asteriti, Italia Anna; Di Cesare, Erica; De Mattia, Fabiola; Hilsenstein, Volker; Neumann, Beate; Cundari, Enrico; Lavia, Patrizia; Guarguaglini, Giulia

    2014-08-15

    Inhibition of Aurora kinase activity by small molecules is being actively investigated as a potential anti-cancer strategy. A successful therapeutic use of Aurora inhibitors relies on a comprehensive understanding of the effects of inactivating Aurora kinases on cell division, a challenging aim given the pleiotropic roles of those kinases during mitosis. Here we have used the Aurora-A inhibitor MLN8237, currently under phase-I/III clinical trials, in dose-response assays in U2OS human cancer cells synchronously proceeding towards mitosis. By following the behaviour and fate of single Aurora-inhibited cells in mitosis by live microscopy, we show that MLN8237 treatment affects multiple processes that are differentially sensitive to the loss of Aurora-A function. A role of Aurora-A in controlling the orientation of cell division emerges. MLN8237 treatment, even in high doses, fails to induce efficient elimination of dividing cells, or of their progeny, while inducing significant aneuploidy in daughter cells. The results of single-cell analyses show a complex cellular response to MLN8237 and evidence that its effects are strongly dose-dependent: these issues deserve consideration in the light of the design of strategies to kill cancer cells via inhibition of Aurora kinases.

  6. The Aurora-A inhibitor MLN8237 affects multiple mitotic processes and induces dose-dependent mitotic abnormalities and aneuploidy

    PubMed Central

    Asteriti, Italia Anna; Cesare, Erica Di; Mattia, Fabiola De; Hilsenstein, Volker; Neumann, Beate; Cundari, Enrico; Lavia, Patrizia; Guarguaglini, Giulia

    2014-01-01

    Inhibition of Aurora kinase activity by small molecules is being actively investigated as a potential anti-cancer strategy. A successful therapeutic use of Aurora inhibitors relies on a comprehensive understanding of the effects of inactivating Aurora kinases on cell division, a challenging aim given the pleiotropic roles of those kinases during mitosis. Here we have used the Aurora-A inhibitor MLN8237, currently under phase-I/III clinical trials, in dose-response assays in U2OS human cancer cells synchronously proceeding towards mitosis. By following the behaviour and fate of single Aurora-inhibited cells in mitosis by live microscopy, we show that MLN8237 treatment affects multiple processes that are differentially sensitive to the loss of Aurora-A function. A role of Aurora-A in controlling the orientation of cell division emerges. MLN8237 treatment, even in high doses, fails to induce efficient elimination of dividing cells, or of their progeny, while inducing significant aneuploidy in daughter cells. The results of single-cell analyses show a complex cellular response to MLN8237 and evidence that its effects are strongly dose-dependent: these issues deserve consideration in the light of the design of strategies to kill cancer cells via inhibition of Aurora kinases. PMID:25153724

  7. Regressive changes in finasteride-treated human hyperplastic prostates correlate with an upregulation of TGF-beta receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Sáez, C; González-Baena, A C; Japón, M A; Giráldez, J; Segura, D I; Miranda, G; Rodríguez-Vallejo, J M; González-Esteban, J; Torrubia, F

    1998-10-01

    Prostatic atrophy has been documented histologically as a consequence of finasteride action on human hyperplastic prostates. An increase in apoptotic rates has also been reported in androgen-deprived hyperplastic prostates. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signaling is implicated in apoptotic cell death. TGF-betas have been detected in normal and diseased human prostate. In the normal prostate, TGF-beta acts as a predominantly negative growth regulator. TGF-beta signaling receptors TbetaRI and TbetaRII have been shown to be negatively regulated by androgens. We studied the histological changes in 9 selected finasteride-treated patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and analyzed the levels of expression and localization of TGF-beta receptor types TbetaRI and TbetaRII in these patients as compared to selected BPH controls. The prostatic epithelial compartment seemed to be a primary target site for finasteride action, since we observed moderate to severe glandular atrophy after 4-6 months of treatment. TGF-beta receptors were upregulated in treated cases. We assessed a twofold increase in TbetaRII mRNA levels in treated cases as compared to controls. An increase in both TbetaRI and TbetaRII at the protein level by immunostaining was observed, which also provided a helpful means for detecting glands undergoing regression. We conclude that finasteride may modulate the TGF-beta signaling system to promote changes leading to apoptosis of epithelial cells and prostatic glandular atrophy.

  8. Finasteride in the treatment of Taiwanese men with androgenetic alopecia: a 12-month open-label study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jeng-Hsien; Chen, Wen-Chieh

    2002-08-01

    Finasteride 1 mg/day is effective in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Our open-label study assessed the efficacy and safety of finasteride for the treatment of Taiwanese men with AGA. We enrolled 34 Taiwanese men (aged 18-40 yr) with AGA of modified Norwood/Hamilton scale (MNHS) grade II-V. In investigator assessments at 12 months, five of 21 subjects (23.8%) had two-grade improvement in MNHS grade and 12 of 21 subjects (57.1%) had one-grade improvement; the others remained at the same grade. In global photographic evaluation, five of 31 subjects (15.1%) had observable hair growth at 6 months and 11 of 21 subjects (52.4%) had observable hair growth at 12 months. Patient self-assessment of hair growth was favorable across all questions in the treatment course, more significantly at 12 months than at 6 months; nine of 21 subjects (42.9%) were satisfied with their overall appearance at 12 months. Serum prostate specific antigen levels had decreased by 23.4% at 12 months. Adverse effects, including abnormal liver function (5/34), were minimal, and the causal relationship with finasteride could not be established. Thus, in Taiwanese men with AGA, finasteride 1 mg/day for 1 year slowed the progression of hair loss and increased hair growth.

  9. Alterations in neonatal neurosteroids affect exploration during adolescence and prepulse inhibition in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Darbra, Sònia; Pallarès, Marc

    2010-05-01

    Allopregnanolone (AlloP) is a neurosteroid that plays an important role during neural development. Alterations of endogenous neonatal allopregnanolone levels alter the localisation and function of GABA neurons in the adult brain and affect behaviour in adulthood. We have carried out research into the effects of an increase (AlloP administration) or a decrease (administration of finasteride, inhibitor of the AlloP synthesis) of neonatal AlloP levels during the fifth to ninth postnatal days in male Wistar rats on the novelty exploration (Boissier test) at adolescent ages (40 and 60 days old), and on the prepulse inhibition achievement in adulthood (85 days). We also investigated the role of a GABA(A) modulator (midazolam, 1, 1.75 or 2.5mg/kg body weight) in the long-lasting behavioural changes in adulthood (85 days). Results indicate that neonatal finasteride decreases both novelty-exploration (head-dipping and locomotion) and anxiety-relevant scores (the distance travelled in and the number of entries into the central zone) at adolescent age, along with a reduction in body weight and general locomotion. Also, neonatal AlloP administration decreases prepulse inhibition in adulthood. Prepulse inhibition disruption was only partially reproduced decreasing the neonatal AlloP levels by means of finasteride administration. Although there was no interaction between neonatal neurosteroid manipulation and adult benzodiazepine treatments, the effects of midazolam were dose-dependent: the lowest dose of midazolam increased whereas the highest disrupted the expected progressive reduction of the startle response (and the consequent improvement of the PPI percentage) after the gradual increase in prepulse intensity. Reduced prepulse inhibition of startle provides evidence of deficient sensorimotor gating in several disorders, including schizophrenia. Alterations of AlloP levels during maturation could partly explain the inter-individual differences shown by adult subjects in

  10. Investigation of intermolecular interactions in finasteride drug crystals in view of X-ray and Hirshfeld surface analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojarska, Joanna; Maniukiewicz, Waldemar

    2015-11-01

    The N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) solvate hemihydrate (1) of finasteride, has been structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction at 100 K and compared with previously reported finasteride crystalline forms. In addition, in order to resolve ambiguity concerning H-bond interactions, the crystal structure of finasteride hemihydrate, (2), originally reported by Schultheiss et al. in 2009, has been redetermined with higher precision. The (1) and (2) pseudopolymorphs of finasteride crystallize as orthorhombic in chiral P212121 space group with two very similar host molecules in the asymmetric unit. The conformation of fused 6-membered rings are screw-boat, chair and chair for both molecules, while 5-membered rings assume chair in (1), and half-chair in (2). There is a fairly close resemblance of the molecular geometry for all analyzed compounds, arising due to the rigid host molecule. Inter- and intramolecular host-host, host-guest strong O-H⋯O, N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and weak C-H⋯O interactions form 3D net conferring stability to the crystal packing. Finasterides can be classified as synthon pseudopolymorphs. Isostructural solvates crystallizing in the orthorhombic space group P212121, with Z‧ = 2, exhibit R22(8) C22(15) network, monoclinic solvate (Z‧ = 1) possess D11(2), while both orthorhombic and monoclinic polymorphs have C(4) motifs, respectively. The structural similarities and subtle differences have been interpreted in view of the 3D Hirshfeld surface analysis and associated 2D fingerprint plots, which enabled detailed qualitative and quantitative insight into the intermolecular interactions. The 97-100% of Hirshfeld surface areas are due to H···H, O···H/H⋯O, C···H/H⋯C and N⋯H/H⋯N contacts. Furthermore, the electrostatic potential has been mapped over the Hirshfeld surfaces to decode the electrostatic complementarities, which exist in the crystal packing.

  11. Long-term treatment with finasteride 1 mg decreases the likelihood of developing further visible hair loss in men with androgenetic alopecia (male pattern hair loss).

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Keith D; Rotonda, Jennifer; Shah, Arvind K; Meehan, Alan G

    2008-01-01

    There are no reports on the effects of pharmacologic treatment on the likelihood of developing further visible hair loss in men with androgenetic alopecia (AGA). Our objectives were to examine whether finasteride 1 mg treatment decreases the likelihood of developing further visible hair loss in men with AGA. We conducted an analysis of global photographic assessment data from two Phase III trials in which 1553 men with AGA received finasteride 1 mg/day or placebo for up to 5 years. Finasteride 1 mg treatment led to a 93% decrease relative to placebo in the 5-year likelihood of developing further visible hair loss (95% CI: 89-97%; p < 0.001). We conclude that, in men with AGA, treatment with finasteride 1 mg/day over 5 years led to a marked and sustained decrease in the likelihood of developing further visible hair loss.

  12. Bisphenol A affects early bovine embryo development and metabolism that is negated by an oestrogen receptor inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Bom-Ie; Harvey, Alexandra J.; Green, Mark P.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports an association between exposure to endocrine disruptors, such as the xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA), a commonly used plasticiser, and the developmental programming of offspring health. To date however animal studies to investigate a direct causal have mainly focussed on supra-environmental BPA concentrations, without investigating the effect on the early embryo. In this study we investigated the effect of acute BPA exposure (days 3.5 to 7.5 post-fertilisation) at environmentally relevant concentrations (1 and 10 ng/mL) on in vitro bovine embryo development, quality and metabolism. We then examined whether culturing embryos in the presence of the oestrogen receptor inhibitor fulvestrant could negate effects of BPA and 17β-oestradiol (E2). Exposure to BPA or E2 (10 ng/mL) decreased blastocyst rate and the percentage of transferrable quality embryos, without affecting cell number, lineage allocation or metabolic gene expression compared to untreated embryos. Notably, blastocysts exposed to BPA and E2 (10 ng/mL) displayed an increase in glucose consumption. The presence of fulvestrant however negated the adverse developmental and metabolic effects, suggesting BPA elicits its effects via oestrogen-mediated pathways. This study demonstrates that even acute exposure to an environmentally relevant BPA concentration can affect early embryo development and metabolism. These may have long-term health consequences on an individual. PMID:27384909

  13. Prenatal Exposure to Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Affects Gene Expression of Autism-Related Molecules and Delays Neuronal Maturation.

    PubMed

    Kawanai, Takuya; Ago, Yukio; Watanabe, Ryo; Inoue, Aya; Taruta, Atsuki; Onaka, Yusuke; Hasebe, Shigeru; Hashimoto, Hitoshi; Matsuda, Toshio; Takuma, Kazuhiro

    2016-10-01

    Valproic acid (VPA) is a multi-target drug and an inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC). We have previously demonstrated that prenatal exposure to VPA at embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5), but not at E14.5, causes autism-like behavioral abnormalities in male mouse offspring. We have also found that prenatal VPA exposure causes transient histone hyperacetylation in the embryonic brain, followed by decreased neuronal cell numbers in the prefrontal and somatosensory cortices after birth. In the present study, we examined whether prenatal HDAC inhibition affects neuronal maturation in primary mouse cortical neurons. Pregnant mice were injected intraperitoneally with VPA (500 mg/kg) and the more selective HDAC inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA; 500 µg/kg) at E12.5 or E14.5, and primary neuronal cultures were prepared from the cerebral cortices of their embryos. Prenatal exposure to VPA at E12.5, but not at E14.5, decreased total number, total length, and complexity of neuronal dendrites at 14 days in vitro (DIV). The effects of VPA weakened at 21 DIV. Exposure to TSA at E12.5, but not at E14.5, also delayed maturation of cortical neurons. In addition, real-time quantitative PCR revealed that the prenatal exposure to TSA decreased neuroligin-1 (Nlgn1), Shank2, and Shank3 mRNA levels and increased contactin-associated protein-like 2 mRNA level. The delay in neuronal maturation was also observed in Nlgn1-knockdown cells, which were transfected with Nlgn1 siRNA. These findings suggest that prenatal HDAC inhibition causes changes in gene expression of autism-related molecules linked to a delay of neuronal maturation.

  14. Perceptions of erectile dysfunction and phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor therapy in a qualitative study of men and women in affected relationships.

    PubMed

    McGraw, Sarah A; Rosen, Raymond C; Althof, Stanley E; Dunn, Marian; Cameron, Ann; Wong, David

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction negatively affects men and women in relationships; however, the subjective experience of erectile dysfunction and phosphodiesterase-type 5 inhibitor therapy remains poorly understood. The authors therefore characterized participants' subjective understanding of erectile dysfunction and phosphodiesterase-type 5 inhibitor therapy using individual interviews with affected heterosexual men (n = 58) and women (n = 65). Responses were characterized by 6 psychosocial domains: explanation of the experience, emotional responses, socially expected responses, value of sex, communication with the partner, and treatment expectations. The findings may aid clinicians in relating to men with erectile dysfunction and thus potentially improve effectiveness of therapy.

  15. Identification of IAA transport inhibitors including compounds affecting cellular PIN trafficking by two chemical screening approaches using maize coleoptile systems.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Takeshi; Matano, Naoyuki; Morishima, Taichi; Kakinuma, Chieko; Hayashi, Ken-Ichiro; Komano, Teruya; Kubo, Minoru; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Kasahara, Hiroyuki; Kamiya, Yuji; Koshiba, Tomokazu

    2012-10-01

    The monocot coleoptile tip region has been generally supposed to be the source of IAA to supply IAA to basal parts by the polar IAA transport system, which results in gravi- and phototropic curvature of coleoptiles. Based on this IAA transport system and gravitropism of maize coleoptiles, we have developed two screening methods to identify small molecules from a large chemical library that inhibit IAA transport. The methods detect molecules that affect (i) gravitropic curvature of coleoptiles; and (ii) the amount of IAA transported from the tip. From 10,000 chemicals, eight compounds were identified and categorized into two groups. Four chemicals in group A decreased IAA transport from the tip, and increased endogenous IAA levels in the tip. The structures of two compounds resembled that of 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA), but those of the other two differed from structures of known IAA transport inhibitors. Four chemicals in group B strongly inhibited IAA transport from the tip, but IAA levels at the tip were only slightly affected. At higher concentrations, group B compounds inhibited germination of Arabidopsis, similarly to brefeldin A (BFA). Analysis of the cellular distribution of PIN2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) and PIN1-GFP in Arabidopsis revealed that one of the four chemicals in group B induced internalization of PIN1 and PIN2 proteins into vesicles smaller than BFA bodies, suggesting that this compound affects cellular vesicle trafficking systems related to PIN trafficking. The eight chemicals identified here will be a useful tool for understanding the mechanisms of IAA transport in plants.

  16. Post-translational modification and conformational state of Heat Shock Protein 90 differentially affect binding of chemically diverse small molecule inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Beebe, Kristin; Mollapour, Mehdi; Scroggins, Bradley; Prodromou, Chrisostomos; Xu, Wanping; Tokita, Mari; Taldone, Tony; Pullen, Lester; Zierer, Bettina K.; Lee, Min-Jung; Trepel, Jane; Buchner, Johannes; Bolon, Daniel; Chiosis, Gabriela; Neckers, Leonard

    2013-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is an essential molecular chaperone in eukaryotes that facilitates the conformational maturation and function of a diverse protein clientele, including aberrant and/or over-expressed proteins that are involved in cancer growth and survival. A role for Hsp90 in supporting the protein homeostasis of cancer cells has buoyed interest in the utility of Hsp90 inhibitors as anti-cancer drugs. Despite the fact that all clinically evaluated Hsp90 inhibitors target an identical nucleotide-binding pocket in the N domain of the chaperone, the precise determinants that affect drug binding in the cellular environment remain unclear, and it is possible that chemically distinct inhibitors may not share similar binding preferences. Here we demonstrate that two chemically unrelated Hsp90 inhibitors, the benzoquinone ansamycin geldanamycin and the purine analog PU-H71, select for overlapping but not identical subpopulations of total cellular Hsp90, even though both inhibitors bind to an amino terminal nucleotide pocket and prevent N domain dimerization. Our data also suggest that PU-H71 is able to access a broader range of N domain undimerized Hsp90 conformations than is geldanamycin and is less affected by Hsp90 phosphorylation, consistent with its broader and more potent anti-tumor activity. A more complete understanding of the impact of the cellular milieu on small molecule inhibitor binding to Hsp90 should facilitate their more effective use in the clinic. PMID:23867252

  17. Development of liposomal systems of finasteride for topical applications: design, characterization, and in vitro evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajiv; Singh, Bhupinder; Bakshi, Gautam; Katare, Om Prakash

    2007-01-01

    Finasteride (FNS) is a "drug of choice" for benign prostate hypertrophy and prostate cancer. The drug has also been reported to be useful orally in the treatment of some difficult-to-treat androgen-dependent skin disorders, such as seborrhea, acne, hirsutism, and androgenetic alopecia. However, the ideal route for its administration (i.e., topical) remains unexplored. This has logically suggested the search for strategic formulation approaches to make the drug effective on topical applications, hitherto unexplored. The present study targets the encasement of drug molecules in the interiors of vesicular compartments (liposomes) made up of hydrogenated phospholipids, as an attempt toward the development of a trans-epidermal therapeutic system of FNS. Multilamellar drug-loaded liposomes were prepared by thin-film hydration with sonication method and optimized with respect to drug payload, entrapment efficiency, and size by formulating different vesicular compositions under different process conditions. The vesicular systems consisting of saturated phospholipid (100 mg), cholesterol (50 mg), and FNS (5 mg) showed highest drug payload (2.9 mg/100 mg of total lipids), and drug entrapment efficiency (88.6%). Mean (+/-SD) vesicle size of the prepared liposomes was found to be 3.66+/-1.6 microm. Significantly higher skin permeation of FNS through excised abdominal mice skin of FNS was achieved from the liposomal formulations vis-à-vis corresponding solution and conventional gels. Liposomal FNS formulations also showed more than fivefold higher deposition of drug in skin than the corresponding plain drug solution and conventional gel. Stability studies indicated that the liposomal formulations were quite stable in the refrigerated conditions for 2 months with negligible drug leakage or vesicle size alteration during the storage period. Results of the current studies with FNS-loaded vesicular systems project the high plausibility of a topical liposomal formulation for

  18. Inhibitor of DASH proteases affects expression of adhesion molecules in osteoclasts and reduces myeloma growth and bone disease.

    PubMed

    Pennisi, Angela; Li, Xin; Ling, Wen; Khan, Sharmin; Gaddy, Dana; Suva, Larry J; Barlogie, Bart; Shaughnessy, John D; Aziz, Nazneen; Yaccoby, Shmuel

    2009-06-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) IV activity and/or structure homologues (DASH) are serine proteases implicated in tumourigenesis. We previously found that a DASH protease, fibroblast activation protein (FAP), was involved in osteoclast-induced myeloma growth. Here we further demonstrated expression of various adhesion molecules in osteoclasts cultured alone or cocultured with myeloma cells, and tested the effects of DASH inhibitor, PT-100, on myeloma cell growth, bone disease, osteoclast differentiation and activity, and expression of adhesion molecules in osteoclasts. PT-100 had no direct effects on viability of myeloma cells or mature osteoclasts, but significantly reduced survival of myeloma cells cocultured with osteoclasts. Real-time PCR array for 85 adhesion molecules revealed upregulation of 17 genes in osteoclasts after coculture with myeloma cells. Treatment of myeloma/osteoclast cocultures with PT-100 significantly downregulated 18 of 85 tested genes in osteoclasts, some of which are known to play roles in tumourigenesis and osteoclastogenesis. PT-100 also inhibited osteoclast differentiation and subsequent pit formation. Resorption activity of mature osteoclasts and differentiation of osteoblasts were not affected by PT-100. In primary myelomatous severe combined immunodeficient (SCID)-hu mice PT-100 reduced osteoclast activity, bone resorption and tumour burden. These data demonstrated that DASH proteases are involved in myeloma bone disease and tumour growth.

  19. Oligomerization affects the kinetics and thermodynamics of the interaction of a Bowman-Birk inhibitor with proteases.

    PubMed

    Brand, G D; Pires, D A T; Furtado, J R; Cooper, A; Freitas, S M; Bloch, C

    2017-03-15

    The black-eyed pea trypsin/chymotrypsin inhibitor (BTCI) forms concentration dependent homomultimers, as previously demonstrated by Light scattering and Atomic Force Microscopy. Considering that these self-aggregates might influence their binding to cognate enzymes, we investigated the interaction of BTCI at picomolar concentrations using surface immobilized Chymotrypsin (α-CT) and Trypsin (T) by Surface Plasmon Resonance. Our results indicate that BTCI has subnanomolar affinity to both immobilized enzymes, which is approximately two orders of magnitude higher than previously reported. Moreover, we probed the influence of temperature on protein binding equilibria in order to investigate their interaction energetics. While the BTCI/T interaction concurs with the canonical entropy-driven mechanism described for BBI interactions with serine proteinases, the BTCI/α-CT interaction does not. Our measurements indicate that bimolecular BTCI/α-CT complexes form with a negative enthalpy change and a moderate entropic increase. Direct calorimetric evaluation is in accord with the van't Hoff approximation obtained by SPR. We demonstrate that as protein concentrations increase to the micromolar range, secondary endothermic events become prevalent and affect both the kinetics and thermodynamics of protein associations. Our study reinforces that BBI interactions with serine proteinases should be studied in dilute solutions to abridge often neglected secondary interactions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Early malnourished rats are not affected by anorexia induced by a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor in adult life.

    PubMed

    Barreto Medeiros, J M; Cabral Filho, J E; De Souza, S L; Freitas Silva, S R; Mendes Da Silva, C; Deiró, T C B J; Monteiro, J M; Guedes, R C A; De Castro, C M M B; Manhães De Castro, R

    2002-06-01

    The effect of early postnatal malnutrition upon food intake and its modulation by the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) citalopram, was investigated in adult rats. Sixty four Wistar rats were allocated to two groups, according to their mother's diet during lactation. Mothers receiving a 23% protein diet fed the well-nourished group; mothers receiving 8% protein diet fed the malnourished. After weaning, all rats received the 23% protein diet ad libitum. On the 120th day after birth, each nutritional group was divided in two subgroups (each one, n = 16) which received a single daily injection of citalopram (10 mg/kg) or saline (0.9% NaCl) for 14 days. Chronic treatment with citalopram decreased both the food intake and weight gain in the well-nourished rats, but not in the malnourished ones. These data are consistent with findings concerning the nutritional manipulation of the nervous system during its higher vulnerable phase, suggesting that early malnutrition alters the effect of treatment of SSRI in adult rats, and that malnutrition during the critical period of brain development affects the serotoninergic system.

  1. The selective anandamide transport inhibitor VDM11 attenuates reinstatement of nicotine seeking behaviour, but does not affect nicotine intake.

    PubMed

    Gamaleddin, Islam; Guranda, Mihail; Goldberg, Steven R; Le Foll, Bernard

    2011-11-01

    The endocannabinoid system appears to play a pivotal role in mediating the rewarding and reinforcing effects of nicotine. Recent studies have shown that the inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) attenuates reinstatement of nicotine-seeking induced by nicotine priming and nicotine-associated cues. FAAH hydrolyses the endogenous endocannabinoid anandamide, as well as other non-cannabinoid ligands such as oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA). As OEA and PEA can attenuate both nicotine-taking and nicotine-seeking behaviour, the specific role of anandamide remains unclear. In this study, we have tested the selective anadamide uptake inhibitor, VDM11, which elevates anandamide levels without affecting levels of OEA/PEA, on nicotine-taking and nicotine-seeking behaviour. We used a nicotine intravenous self-administration model in rats to assess the effect of VDM11, given i.p., on nicotine taking using fixed and progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement as well as on reinstatement of nicotine-seeking induced by nicotine priming and nicotine-associated cues. VDM11 did not affect levels of responding for nicotine under fixed-ratio and progressive-ratio schedules of reinforcement. In contrast, VDM11 dose-dependently attenuated reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behaviour induced by nicotine-associated cues and nicotine priming. These results indicate that ligands elevating anandamide levels could have therapeutic value for preventing relapse into nicotine-seeking behaviour and should be tested in humans trying to quit smoking. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. The fatty-acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB597 does not affect triacylglycerol hydrolysis in rat tissues.

    PubMed

    Clapper, Jason R; Duranti, Andrea; Tontini, Andrea; Mor, Marco; Tarzia, Giorgio; Piomelli, Daniele

    2006-11-01

    The O-arylcarbamate URB597 (cyclohexylcarbamic acid 3'-carbamoylbiphenyl-3-yl ester; also referred to as KDS-4103) is a potent inhibitor of fatty-acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an intracellular serine hydrolase responsible for the inactivation of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide. URB597 demonstrates a remarkable degree of selectivity for FAAH over other serine hydrolases (e.g. cholinesterases) or other components of the endocannabinoid system (e.g. cannabinoid receptors). However, in a proteomic-based selectivity screen based on the displacement of fluorophosphonate-rhodamine (FPR) from mouse brain proteins, it was recently shown that URB597 prevents FPR binding to triacylglycerol hydrolase (TGH) with a median inhibitory concentration of 192nM. To determine whether this effect correlates with inhibition of TGH activity, we investigated the ability of URB597 to inhibit triolein hydrolysis in rat liver and heart tissues, which are rich in TGH, as well as white adipose tissue (WAT), which is rich in adipose triacylglycerol lipase (TGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase. The results show that URB597 does not affect triolein hydrolysis in any of these tissues at concentrations as high as 10microM, whereas it inhibits FAAH activity at low nanomolar concentrations. Moreover, intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of URB597 at doses that maximally inhibit FAAH in vivo (0.3-3mgkg(-1)) exerts no effect on triolein hydrolysis and tissue triacylglycerol (TAG) levels in rat liver, heart or WAT. The results indicate that URB597, while potent at inhibiting FAAH, does not affect TGH and TGL activities in rat tissues.

  3. Effects of Family History and Genetic Polymorphism on the Cost-Effectiveness of Chemoprevention With Finasteride for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Shelby D.; Scales, Charles D.; Stewart, Suzanne B.; Sun, Jielin; Moul, Judd W.; Schulman, Kevin A.; Xu, Jianfeng

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Improvement in the cost-effectiveness of chemoprevention for prostate cancer could be realized through the identification of patients at higher risk. We estimated the cost-effectiveness of prostate cancer chemoprevention across risk groups defined by family history and number of risk alleles and the cost-effectiveness of targeting chemoprevention to higher-risk groups. Materials and Methods We developed a probabilistic Markov model to estimate costs, survival, and quality-adjusted survival across risk groups for patients receiving or not receiving chemoprevention with finasteride. The model uses data from national cancer registries, online sources, and the medical literature. Results The incremental cost-effectiveness of 25 years of chemoprevention with finasteride in patients aged 50 years was an estimated $89,300 per quality-adjusted life-year (95% confidence interval, $58,800-$149,800), assuming finasteride reduced all grades of prostate cancer by 24.8%. Among patients with positive family history (without genetic testing), chemoprevention provided 1 additional QALY at a cost of $64,200. Among patients with negative family history, at $400 per person tested, the cost-effectiveness of genetically targeted chemoprevention ranged from $98,100 per QALY when limiting finasteride to patients with 14 or more risk alleles to $103,200 per QALY when including patients with 8 or more risk alleles. Conclusions Although there are small differences in the cost-effectiveness of genetically targeted chemoprevention strategies in patients with negative family history, genetic testing could reduce total expenditures if used to target chemoprevention for higher-risk groups. PMID:21239023

  4. Effects of family history and genetic polymorphism on the cost-effectiveness of chemoprevention with finasteride for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Reed, Shelby D; Scales, Charles D; Stewart, Suzanne B; Sun, Jielin; Moul, Judd W; Schulman, Kevin A; Xu, Jianfeng

    2011-03-01

    Improvement in the cost-effectiveness of chemoprevention for prostate cancer could be realized through the identification of patients at higher risk. We estimated the cost-effectiveness of prostate cancer chemoprevention across risk groups defined by family history and number of risk alleles, and the cost-effectiveness of targeting chemoprevention to higher risk groups. We developed a probabilistic Markov model to estimate costs, survival and quality adjusted survival across risk groups for patients receiving or not receiving chemoprevention with finasteride. The model uses data from national cancer registries, online sources and the medical literature. The incremental cost-effectiveness of 25 years of chemoprevention with finasteride in patients 50 years old was an estimated $89,300 per quality adjusted life-year (95% CI $58,800-$149,800), assuming finasteride decreased all grades of prostate cancer by 24.8%. Among patients with a positive family history (without genetic testing) chemoprevention provided 1 additional quality adjusted life-year at a cost of $64,200. Among patients with a negative family history at $400 per person tested, the cost-effectiveness of genetically targeted chemoprevention ranged from $98,100 per quality adjusted life-year when limiting finasteride to individuals with 14 or more risk alleles, to $103,200 per quality adjusted life-year when including those with 8 or more risk alleles. Although there are small differences in the cost-effectiveness of genetically targeted chemoprevention strategies in patients with a negative family history, genetic testing could reduce total expenditures if used to target chemoprevention for higher risk groups. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Validated RP-HPLC and TLC methods for simultaneous estimation of tamsulosin hydrochloride and finasteride in combined dosage forms.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dipti B; Patel, Natubhai J

    2010-06-01

    Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) methods have been developed and validated for simultaneous estimation of tamsulosin hydrochloride and finasteride in bulk drug and in combined dosage forms. RP-HPLC separation was achieved on a Phenomenex C18 column using methanol/0.02 mol L-1 ammonium acetate buffer/triethylamine (79.9 + 20 + 0.1, V/V/V) (pH 9.2) as mobile phase. TLC separation was achieved on an aluminium-backed layer of silica gel 60 F254 using toluene/methanol/triethylamine (9 + 1.5 + 1, V/V/V) as eluent. Quantification was achieved with photodiode array (PDA) detection at 235 nm over the concentration range 0.5-16 and 1-50 μg mL-1 with mean recovery of 99.8 ± 0.9 and 100.0 ± 0.8% for tamsulosin hydrochloride and finasteride, respectively, by the RP-HPLC method. Quantification was achieved with UV detection at 270 nm over the concentration range 100-2000 ng per spot and 250-5000 ng per spot with mean recovery of 98.9 ± 0.9 and 99.6 ± 0.7 % for tamsulosin hydrochloride and finasteride, respectively, by the TLC method. Both methods are simple, precise, accurate and sensitive and are applicable to the simultaneous determination of tamsulosin hydrochloride and finasteride in bulk drug and in combined dosage forms.

  6. [Two cases of stroke associated with the use of finasteride, an approved drug for male-pattern hair loss in Japan].

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Yukio; Nakayama, Takahiro; Bono, Keiko; Kitamura, Mizuki; Imafuku, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    We report two cases of stroke associated with the use of finasteride at 1 mg/day, which is approved in Japan for the treatment of male-pattern hair loss. The first case involved a 35-year-old male taking 1 mg of finasteride daily for 6 months to prevent male-pattern hair loss. He was taken to a hospital and later admitted to our hospital owing to headache and seizures. Brain computed tomography (CT) images showed a low-density area in the right frontal lobe. CT venography (CTV) revealed sinus thrombosis and he was treated with an anticoagulant. As the headache gradually subsided, medications were tapered and terminated 10 months later when venous flow to the sagittal sinus and left transverse sinus was confirmed to be recanalized. The second case involved a 41-year-old male taking 1 mg of finasteride and 6 mg of minoxidil daily for 1 year for male-pattern hair loss. He started having headaches and was admitted to our hospital when diffusion-weighted images of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a high-intensity area in the left parietotemporal lobe. He was treated with antiplatelet and anticoagulation medicines. The Japan Pharmaceutical and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) has reported 14 cases of thrombosis in patients taking finasteride in Japan; 4 cases of stroke (our 2 cases and 2 reported by PMDA), 6 cases of myocardial infarction, and 4 cases of other thrombotic diseases. Increases in estrone and estradiol levels in prostate cancer patients and controls receiving 5 mg of finasteride have been reported. Gynecomastia has also been reported as one of the adverse effects of finasteride at 1 mg or 5 mg daily. Taken together, we assume that the increases in estrone and estradiol levels induced by finasteride lead to thrombosis development.

  7. Timing and duration of nursing from birth affect neonatal porcine uterine matrix metalloproteinase 9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1.

    PubMed

    Ho, T Y; Rahman, K M; Camp, M E; Wiley, A A; Bartol, F F; Bagnell, C A

    2017-04-01

    Nursing for 2 d from birth supports neonatal porcine uterine and cervical development. However, it is not clear how timing or duration of lactocrine signaling from birth (postnatal day = PND 0) affects development of neonatal female reproductive tract tissues. Therefore, studies were conducted to determine effects of age at first nursing and duration of nursing from birth on specific elements of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) system in uterine and cervical tissues at PND 2. When nursing was initiated at 0 h or 30 min of age, targeted proteins, including proMMP9 and MMP9, were detected in uterine and cervical tissues on PND 2, as was uterine TIMP1. However, these proteins were undetectable when nursing was delayed for 12 h and when gilts were fed milk replacer for 48 h from birth. Increasing the duration of nursing from 30 min to 12 h from birth increased uterine (P < 0.05) and cervical (P < 0.001) MMP9 levels to those observed in gilts nursed for 48 h. Similarly, uterine TIMP1 levels increased with duration of nursing. Uterine MMP2 levels were detectable but unaffected by age at first nursing or duration of nursing from birth. Uterine MMP2 and MMP9 activities, monitored by zymography, reflected immunoblotting data. Results provide evidence for the utility of MMP9 and TIMP1 as markers of age- and lactocrine-sensitive porcine female reproductive tract development.

  8. Gingipains of Porphyromonas gingivalis Affect the Stability and Function of Serine Protease Inhibitor of Kazal-type 6 (SPINK6), a Tissue Inhibitor of Human Kallikreins.

    PubMed

    Plaza, Karolina; Kalinska, Magdalena; Bochenska, Oliwia; Meyer-Hoffert, Ulf; Wu, Zhihong; Fischer, Jan; Falkowski, Katherine; Sasiadek, Laura; Bielecka, Ewa; Potempa, Barbara; Kozik, Andrzej; Potempa, Jan; Kantyka, Tomasz

    2016-09-02

    Periodontitis, a chronic inflammation driven by dysbiotic subgingival bacterial flora, is linked on clinical levels to the development of a number of systemic diseases and to the development of oral and gastric tract tumors. A key pathogen, Porphyromonas gingivalis, secretes gingipains, cysteine proteases implicated as the main factors in the development of periodontitis. Here we hypothesize that gingipains may be linked to systemic pathologies through the deregulation of kallikrein-like proteinase (KLK) family members. KLKs are implicated in cancer development and are clinically utilized as tumor progression markers. In tissues, KLK activity is strictly controlled by a limited number of tissue-specific inhibitors, including SPINK6, an inhibitor of these proteases in skin and oral epithelium. Here we identify gingipains as the only P. gingivalis proteases responsible for SPINK6 degradation. We further show that gingipains, even at low nanomolar concentrations, cleaved SPINK6 in concentration- and time-dependent manner. The proteolysis was accompanied by loss of inhibition against KLK13. We also mapped the cleavage by Arg-specific gingipains to the reactive site loop of the SPINK6 inhibitor. Moreover, we identified a significant fraction of SPINK6-sensitive proteases in healthy saliva and confirmed the ability of gingipains to inactivate SPINK6 under ex vivo conditions. Finally, we demonstrate the double-edge action of gingipains, which, in addition, can activate KLKs because of gingipain K-mediated proteolytic processing of the zymogenic proform of KLK13. Altogether, the results indicate the potential of P. gingivalis to disrupt the control system of KLKs, providing a possible mechanistic link between periodontal disease and tumor development. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  9. B-cell phenotype and IgD-CD27- memory B cells are affected by TNF-inhibitors and tocilizumab treatment in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves, Maria J.; Polido-Pereira, Joaquim; Romão, Vasco C.; Martins, Nádia; Canhão, Helena; Fonseca, João E.

    2017-01-01

    Background The use of TNF-inhibitors and/or the IL-6 receptor antagonist, tocilizumab, in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have pleiotropic effects that also involve circulating B-cells. The main goal of this study was to assess the effect of TNF-inhibitors and tocilizumab on B-cell phenotype and gene expression in RA. Methods Blood samples were collected from untreated early RA (ERA) patients, established RA patients under methotrexate treatment, established RA patients before and after treatment with TNF-inhibitors and tocilizumab, and healthy donors. B-cell subpopulations were characterized by flow cytometry and B-cell gene expression was analyzed by real-time PCR on isolated B-cells. Serum levels of BAFF, CXCL13 and sCD23 were determined by ELISA. Results The frequency of total CD19+ B cells in circulation was similar between controls and all RA groups, irrespective of treatment, but double negative (DN) IgD-CD27- memory B cells were significantly increased in ERA and established RA when compared to controls. Treatment with TNF-inhibitors and tocilizumab restored the frequency of IgD-CD27- B-cells to normal levels, but did not affect other B cell subpopulations. TACI, CD95, CD5, HLA-DR and TLR9 expression on B-cells significantly increased after treatment with either TNF-inhibitors and/ or tocilizumab, but no significant changes were observed in BAFF-R, BCMA, CD69, CD86, CXCR5, CD23, CD38 and IgM expression on B-cells when comparing baseline with post-treatment follow-ups. Alterations in B-cell gene expression of BAFF-R, TACI, TLR9, FcγRIIB, BCL-2, BLIMP-1 and β2M were found in ERA and established RA patients, but no significant differences were observed after TNF-inhibitors and tocilizumab treatment when comparing baseline and follow-ups. Serum levels of CXCL13, sCD23 and BAFF were not significantly affected by treatment with TNF-inhibitors and tocilizumab. Conclusions In RA patients, the use of TNF-inhibitors and/ or tocilizumab treatment affects B-cell phenotype

  10. Cognitive and affective changes in mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease patients undergoing switch of cholinesterase inhibitors: a 6-month observational study.

    PubMed

    Spalletta, Gianfranco; Caltagirone, Carlo; Padovani, Alessandro; Sorbi, Sandro; Attar, Mahmood; Colombo, Delia; Cravello, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Patients with Alzheimer's disease after an initial response to cholinesterase inhibitors may complain a later lack of efficacy. This, in association with incident neuropsychiatric symptoms, may worsen patient quality of life. Thus, the switch to another cholinesterase inhibitor could represent a valid therapeutic strategy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the switch from one to another cholinesterase inhibitor on cognitive and affective symptoms in mild to moderate Alzheimer disease patients. Four hundred twenty-three subjects were included from the EVOLUTION study, an observational, longitudinal, multicentre study conducted on Alzheimer disease patients who switched to different cholinesterase inhibitor due either to lack/loss of efficacy or response, reduced tolerability or poor compliance. All patients underwent cognitive and neuropsychiatric assessments, carried out before the switch (baseline), and at 3 and 6-month follow-up. A significant effect of the different switch types was found on Mini-Mental State Examination score during time, with best effectiveness on mild Alzheimer's disease patients switching from oral cholinesterase inhibitors to rivastigmine patch. Depressive symptoms, when measured using continuous Neuropsychiatric Inventory values, decreased significantly, while apathy symptoms remained stable over the 6 months after the switch. However, frequency of both depression and apathy, when measured categorically using Neuropsychiatric Inventory cut-off scores, did not change significantly during time. In mild to moderate Alzheimer disease patients with loss of efficacy and tolerability during cholinesterase inhibitor treatment, the switch to another cholinesterase inhibitor may represent an important option for slowing cognitive deterioration. The evidence of apathy stabilization and the positive tendency of depressive symptom improvement should definitively be confirmed in double-blind controlled studies.

  11. Pharmacokinetic interaction of finasteride with tamsulosin hydrochloride: an open-label, randomized, 3-period crossover study in healthy Chinese male volunteers.

    PubMed

    Chu, Nannan; Xu, Hongrong; Wang, Guoqin; Wang, Jiangdian; Chen, Weili; Yuan, Fei; Yang, Mengjie; Li, Xuening

    2015-02-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate whether there was clinically significant pharmacokinetic (PK) interaction between finasteride and tamsulosin in healthy Chinese male subjects. This was an open-label, randomized, 3-period, crossover study. Subjects received single and multiple doses of 5 mg finasteride alone, single and multiple doses of 0.2 mg tamsulosin hydrochloride sustained-release capsule alone, and single and multiple doses of 5 mg finasteride with 0.2 mg tamsulosin hydrochloride, in an order determined by a computerized randomization schedule. Blood samples were collected up to 48 hours after dosing on study day 1 and up to 24 hours after dosing on study day 9 for determination of plasma concentrations with a validated LC-MS/MS method. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated via noncompartmental methods. Tolerability was evaluated by monitoring adverse events, laboratory assays, vital signs, and 12-lead ECG. Fifteen subjects were enrolled, and 14 completed the study. The geometric mean ratios (GMRs) (90% CIs) of AUC(τ,ss) and C(max,ss) values of finasteride at steady state between coadministration of finasteride and tamsulosin hydrochloride and finasteride alone were 1.14 (1.05-1.23) and 1.06 (0.99-1.14), respectively. The GMRs (90% CIs) for AUC(0-t) and C(max) values of finasteride for a single dose of coadministration of finasteride and tamsulosin hydrochloride and finasteride alone were 1.02 (0.94-1.11) and 1.06 (1.01-1.11), respectively. The GMRs (90% CIs) for AUC(τ,ss) and C(max,ss) values of tamsulosin at steady-state for coadministration of finasteride and tamsulosin hydrochloride and tamsulosin hydrochloride alone were 1.18 (1.05-1.33) and 1.23 (1.06-1.43), respectively. The GMRs (90% CIs) for AUC(0-t) and C(max) values of tamsulosin for a single dose of coadministration of finasteride and tamsulosin hydrochloride and tamsulosin hydrochloride alone were 1.04 (0.97-1.10) and 1.04 (0.98-1.11), respectively. Statistical analyses

  12. Economic analysis of finasteride: a model-based approach using data from the Proscar Long-Term Efficacy and Safety Study.

    PubMed

    Albertsen, P C; Pellissier, J M; Lowe, F C; Girman, C J; Roehrborn, C G

    1999-06-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common medical conditions in older men in the United States. BPH is often associated with a reduction in quality of life and may progress to acute urinary retention (AUR), the inability to pass any urine. Recently, a 4-year placebo-controlled clinical trial known as the Proscar Long-Term Efficacy and Safety Study (PLESS) demonstrated that finasteride use reduces the risk of developing AUR by 57% and the need for BPH-related surgery by 55%. The economic implications of these findings were investigated using a model-based decision-analytic approach to compare finasteride with both watchful waiting and alpha-blocker therapy. The modeling used the longest-term published controlled data concerning alpha-blockers, which were for the alpha-blocker terazosin. The base case considered a 64-year-old man (the mean age of a PLESS patient) with prostatic enlargement on digital rectal examination and moderate-to-severe symptoms of BPH. The model suggested savings in surgical and AUR costs with finasteride versus watchful waiting, with an estimated 25% of total finasteride costs recouped in savings on surgical events avoided in the first year. Over 2 years, the expected cost per patient starting finasteride therapy was $2304, whereas the expected cost per patient starting terazosin was $2334. Analyses also explored the variation in economic results by baseline levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a proxy for prostate volume. For patients with PSA levels > or =1.4 ng/mL, expected 2-year costs with finasteride and terazosin were $2342 and $2479, respectively. For patients with PSA levels > or =3.3 ng/mL, expected 2-year costs with finasteride were $373 less than with terazosin ($2347 vs $2720). Results were robust over a range of model assumptions and cost estimates. The analyses illustrate that all medical interventions, including watchful waiting, have associated costs. Finasteride shows cost offsets compared with

  13. A glycoprotein α-amylase inhibitor from Withania somnifera differentially inhibits various α-amylases and affects the growth and development of Tribolium castaneum.

    PubMed

    Kasar, Sainath S; Marathe, Kiran R; Bhide, Amey J; Herwade, Abhijeet P; Giri, Ashok P; Maheshwari, Vijay L; Pawar, Pankaj K

    2017-07-01

    Identification and characterisation of plant defensive molecules enrich our resources to design crop protection strategies. In particular, plant-derived proteinaceous inhibitor(s) of insect digestive enzymes appear to be a safe, sustainable and attractive option. A glycoprotein having non-competitive α-amylase inhibitory activity with a molecular weight of 8.3 kDa was isolated and purified from seeds of Withania somnifera α-amylase inhibitor (WSAI). Its mass spectrometry analysis revealed 59% sequence coverage with Wrightide II-type α-amylase inhibitor from Wrightia religiosa. A dose-dependent inhibition of α-amylases from Aspergillus oryzae, Bacillus subtilis, Helicoverpa armigera and Tribolium castaneum was recorded. Interestingly, WSAI did not inhibit human salivary α-amylase significantly. When adults of T. castaneum were fed with WSAI (1.6 mg g(-1) ), decrease in consumption, growth and efficiency of conversion of ingested food was evident, along with over fourfold increases in feeding deterrence index. A decline in larval residual α-amylase activity after feeding of WSAI resulted in a reduction in longevity of T. castaneum. The study reflects the significance of WSAI in affecting the overall growth and development of T. castaneum. Pre- and post-harvest pest resistive capability makes WSAI a potential candidate for insect pest management. Further, the effectiveness of this inhibitor could be explored either in formulations or through a transgenic approach. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Effects of in utero exposure to D-004, a lipid extract from Roystonea regia fruits, in the male rat: a comparison with finasteride.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Ariadne Gutiérrez; Pardo, Balia; Gámez, Rafael; Mas, Rosa; Noa, Miriam; Marrero, Gisela; Valle, Maikel; García, Haydee; Curveco, Dayisell; Mendoza, Nilda; Goicochea, Edy

    2011-12-01

    D-004 is a lipid extract obtained from Cuban royal palm fruits, consisting of a mixture of free fatty acids, that prevents prostate hyperplasia induced with testosterone in rodents. This study investigated the possible alterations due to D-004 of androgen-dependent development after exposure in utero and compared them with those due to finasteride. Rats were randomized into five experimental groups: a control group, three groups treated with D-004 at 500, 750, or 1,000 mg/kg/day, respectively, and a group treated with finasteride (10 mg/kg/day). Male rats were treated 10 weeks before and during mating. Female rats were treated for 15 days prior mating, during mating, during pregnancy, and until lactation (day 21) except for those treated with finasteride, which were only administered the drug on gestational days 12-21. All male offspring were monitored individually until necropsy after postnatal day 90. The results of the present study indicate that D-004 induced no alterations in androgen-dependent development after the exposure in utero. Also, the current study demonstrated a permanent reduction in anogenital distance and retention of nipples in adult male rats exposed to finasteride during late gestation. Significant alterations induced by exposure to finasteride were mainly in tissues dependent on dihydrotestosterone during development.

  15. 5α-Reductase Inhibitors for Treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jun, Jennifer E J; Kinkade, Angus; Tung, Anthony C H; Tejani, Aaron M

    2017-01-01

    Finasteride and dutasteride are competitive inhibitors of 5α-reductase enzymes and are commonly used to treat symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). To compare the efficacy and safety of finasteride and dutasteride in terms of clinically important outcomes. A literature search was performed using the search terms "prostatic hyperplasia", "prostatic hypertrophy", "dutasteride", "finasteride", "quality of life", "adverse drug reaction", and "mortality". The Embase, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature databases were searched from inception to December 2015. Randomized controlled trials, quasi-randomized trials, and systematic reviews comparing finasteride with dutasteride, either as monotherapy or in combination with α-blockers, for treatment of men with BPH were included. The outcomes of interest included need for prostate-related surgery, episodes of acute urinary retention, withdrawals due to adverse events, number of patients experiencing serious adverse events, mortality, and sexual dysfunction. Four studies involving a total of 1879 patients were included in the analysis. There were no significant differences in any of the clinically important outcomes examined: for prostate-related surgery, odds ratio (OR) 2.01 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.18-22.24); for episodes of acute urinary retention, OR 1.47 (95% CI 0.68-3.19); for number of withdrawals due to adverse events, OR 1.10 (95% CI 0.68-1.75); for total number of patients experiencing adverse events, OR 0.94 (95% CI 0.78-1.14); for number of patients experiencing serious adverse events, OR 1.31 (95% CI 0.87-1.97); and for sexual dysfunction, OR 0.83 (95% CI 0.64-1.08). There is insufficient evidence to suggest that either finasteride or dutasteride offers an advantage in efficacy or safety over the other, in terms of

  16. Simultaneous pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic analysis of 5α-reductase inhibitors and androgens by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Upreti, Rita; Naredo, Gregorio; Faqehi, Abdullah M.M.; Hughes, Katherine A.; Stewart, Laurence H.; Walker, Brian R.; Homer, Natalie Z.M.; Andrew, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer can be treated with the 5α-reductase inhibitors, finasteride and dutasteride, when pharmacodynamic biomarkers are useful in assessing response. A novel method was developed to measure the substrates and products of 5α-reductases (testosterone, 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androstenedione) and finasteride and dutasteride simultaneously by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, using an ABSciex QTRAP® 5500, with a Waters Acquity™ UPLC. Analytes were extracted from serum (500 µL) via solid-phase extraction (Oasis® HLB), with 13C3-labelled androgens and d9-finasteride included as internal standards. Analytes were separated on a Kinetex C18 column (150×3 mm, 2.6 µm), using a gradient run of 19 min. Temporal resolution of analytes from naturally occurring isomers and mass +2 isotopomers was ensured. Protonated molecular ions were detected in atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mode and source conditions optimised for DHT, the least abundant analyte. Multiple reaction monitoring was performed as follows: testosterone (m/z 289→97), DHT (m/z 291→255), androstenedione (m/z 287→97), dutasteride (m/z 529→461), finasteride (m/z 373→317). Validation parameters (intra- and inter-assay precision and accuracy, linearity, limits of quantitation) were within acceptable ranges and biological extracts were stable for 28 days. Finally the method was employed in men treated with finasteride or dutasteride; levels of DHT were lowered by both drugs and furthermore the substrate concentrations increased. PMID:25281165

  17. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) inhibitors affect ATP depletion, endogenous ROS and mediate S-phase arrest in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Mohamad Fairus, A K; Choudhary, B; Hosahalli, S; Kavitha, N; Shatrah, O

    2017-04-01

    Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) is the key enzyme in de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidine in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The de novo pathway of pyrimidine biosynthesis is essential in cancer cells proliferation. Leflunomide is an approved DHODH inhibitor that has been widely used for the treatment of arthritis. Similarly, brequinar sodium is another DHODH inhibitor that showed anti-tumour effect in MC38 colon carcinoma cells when used in combination with fluorouracil. Despite the potential role of DHODH inhibitors in cancer therapy, their mechanisms of action remain obscure and await further elucidation. Here, we evaluated the effect of DHODH inhibitors on the production of ATP and ROS in sensitive and non-sensitive breast cancer cells. Subsequently, the effects of DHODH inhibitors on cell cycle as well as on signalling molecules such as p53, p65 and STAT6 were evaluated in sensitive T-47D and non-sensitive MDAMB-436 cells. The correlations between DHODH protein expression, proliferation speed and sensitivity to DHODH inhibitors were also investigated in a panel of cancer cell lines. DHODH inhibitors-sensitive T-47D and MDAMB-231 cells appeared to preserve ROS production closely to endogenous ROS level whereas the opposite was observed in non-sensitive MDAMB-436 and W3.006 cells. In addition, we observed approximately 90% of intracellular ATP depletion in highly sensitive T-47D and MDAMB-231 cells compared to non-sensitive MDAMB-436 cells. There was significant over-expression of p53, p65 and STAT6 signalling molecules in sensitive cells which may be involved in mediating the S-phase arrest in cell cycle progression. The current study suggests that DHODH inhibitors are most effective in cells that express high levels of DHODH enzyme. The inhibition of cell proliferation by these inhibitors appears to be accompanied by ROS production as well as ATP depletion. The increase in expression of signalling molecules observed may be due to pyrimidine depletion

  18. A new spectrophotometric method for the determination of finasteride in tablets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulu, Sevgi Tatar

    2007-07-01

    A simple, rapid, accurate, precise and sensitive colorimetric method for the determination of finasteride in tablets is described. The proposed methods are based on the formation of ion-pair complexes between the examined drug with bromophenol blue (BPB), bromocresol green (BCG) and bromothymol blue (BTB), which can be measured at the optimum λmax. Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration ranges 3.0-15.0, 3.0-15.0 and 5.0-20 μg/mL with BPB, BCG and BTB, respectively. The detection limits of FIN was found to be 1.16 μg/mL for BPB, 1.17 for BCG, 1.76 μg/mL for BTB. All the methods gave similar results and were validated for selectivity, linearity, precision and sensitivity. The proposed methods were directly and easily applied to the pharmaceutical preparation with accuracy, resulting from recovery experiments between 100.11 and 100.33% for BPB, 100.17 and 100.67% for BCG and 100.33 and 100.60% for BTB methods. The low relative standard deviation values indicate good precision and high recovery values indicate accuracy of the proposed methods. The proposed methods have been applied to the determination of drug in commercial tablets. Results obtained from the analysis of commercial preparations with the proposed methods are in good agreement with those obtained with the official HPLC method.

  19. A new spectrophotometric method for the determination of finasteride in tablets.

    PubMed

    Ulu, Sevgi Tatar

    2007-07-01

    A simple, rapid, accurate, precise and sensitive colorimetric method for the determination of finasteride in tablets is described. The proposed methods are based on the formation of ion-pair complexes between the examined drug with bromophenol blue (BPB), bromocresol green (BCG) and bromothymol blue (BTB), which can be measured at the optimum lambda(max). Beer's law is obeyed in the concentration ranges 3.0-15.0, 3.0-15.0 and 5.0-20 microg/mL with BPB, BCG and BTB, respectively. The detection limits of FIN was found to be 1.16 microg/mL for BPB, 1.17 for BCG, 1.76 microg/mL for BTB. All the methods gave similar results and were validated for selectivity, linearity, precision and sensitivity. The proposed methods were directly and easily applied to the pharmaceutical preparation with accuracy, resulting from recovery experiments between 100.11 and 100.33% for BPB, 100.17 and 100.67% for BCG and 100.33 and 100.60% for BTB methods. The low relative standard deviation values indicate good precision and high recovery values indicate accuracy of the proposed methods. The proposed methods have been applied to the determination of drug in commercial tablets. Results obtained from the analysis of commercial preparations with the proposed methods are in good agreement with those obtained with the official HPLC method.

  20. Finasteride Enhances the Generation of Human Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells by Up-Regulating the COX2/PGE2 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yufeng; Lin, Yingtong; Zhang, Xu; Zhou, Jie; Zhang, Hui; Pan, Ting; Fu, Yongshui

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) have been known to be a key factor in the regulation of the immune system under numerous conditions such as tumors, infections, autoimmune diseases, and transplantations. In contrast to the proposed deleterious role of MDSCs in tumors and infections, MDSCs with their suppressive function are now proved to have the beneficial potential of suppressing the autoimmune response and promoting tolerance to transplantation. Therefore, the expansion of MDSCs could be a promising therapeutic strategy for many diseases. In this study, we aimed to identify FDA-approved drugs that could aid in the expansion of functional MDSCs. We performed a high-throughput screening (HTS) of FDA-approved drugs based on the in vitro human MDSC-differentiation system and identified finasteride (FIN) to have the best potency to aid the generation of human MDSCs. The FIN-induced MDSCs were quite similar to monocytic MDSCs with regard to their surface phenotype, morphology, immunosuppressive function, and related gene expression. Next, we aimed to determine the mechanism of action of FIN and found that FIN induced the expansion of MDSCs through up-regulation of the COX2/PGE2 pathway by enhancing the activity of COX2 promoter. In addition, the administration of indomethacin (IND), a COX2 inhibitor, abrogated the effect of FIN. Based on these results, we suggested that FIN could find applications in the future in the expansion of MDSCs. Further development of FIN-like compounds could be a novel strategy for generating functional MDSCs for immunosuppressive therapies in various immune disorder conditions. PMID:27253400

  1. Systemic use of selective iNOS inhibitor 1400W or non-selective NOS inhibitor l-NAME differently affects systemic nitric oxide formation after oral Porphyromonas gingivalis inoculation in mice.

    PubMed

    Nemec, Ana; Pavlica, Zlatko; Petelin, Milan; Crossley, David A; Sentjurc, Marjeta; Jerin, Ales; Erzen, Damijan; Zdovc, Irena; Hitti, Tina; Skaleric, Uros

    2010-07-01

    Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors are reported to protect against the local tissue damage in gingivitis and periodontal disease by reducing nitroxidative stress during inflammation, but their systemic effects are not well investigated. NOS inhibitors systemic effects were investigated in a murine chronic oral inoculation model using live Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC 33277 (0.3 ml; 10(9)cfu/ml) or sterile broth (0.3 ml). Organ nitric oxide (NO) and plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx) were determined in mice treated with non-selective NOS inhibitor l-NAME (50mg/kg/24h i.p.) or selective iNOS inhibitor 1400W (10mg/kg/6h i.p.) for the last 5 days of the experiment. Differences between groups were evaluated by nonparametric Wilcoxon's rank-sum one-sided two-sample test and the results compared to those obtained from sham-treated (sterile broth) sham-inoculated animals (water for injection i.p./6h). Repeated ingestion of P. gingivalis resulted in generalized production of NO in organs and NOx in plasma, the levels of both typically being reduced in P. gingivalis-inoculated-1400W-treated mice, whilst the use of l-NAME was largerly ineffective, even promoting NO/NOx formation. Application of either inhibitor to sham-inoculated animals enhanced NO/NOx formation, due only in part to the repeated i.p. injections. The systemic use of 1400W or l-NAME differently affects systemic nitric oxide formation in mice orally challenged with P. gingivalis, but the sequelae of such an intervention should be evaluated further. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Transcriptome analysis of ankylosing spondylitis patients before and after TNF-α inhibitor therapy reveals the pathways affected.

    PubMed

    Wang, X B; Ellis, J J; Pennisi, D J; Song, X; Batra, J; Hollis, K; Bradbury, L A; Li, Z; Kenna, T J; Brown, M A

    2017-08-24

    Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibitors are highly effective in suppressing inflammation in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients, and operate by suppression of TFN-α and downstream immunological pathways. To determine the mechanisms of action of TNF-α inhibitors in AS patients, we used transcriptomic and bioinformatic approaches on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from AS patients pre and post treatment. We found 656 differentially expressed genes, including the genome-wide significant AS-associated genes, IL6R, NOTCH1, IL10, CXCR2 and TNFRSF1A. A distinctive gene expression profile was found between male and female patients, mainly because of sex chromosome-linked genes and interleukin 17 receptor C, potentially accounting for the differences in clinical manifestation and treatment response between the genders. In addition to immune and inflammation regulatory pathways, like intestinal immune network for IgA production, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, Ras signaling pathway, allograft rejection and hematopoietic cell lineage, KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analyses revealed that infection-associated pathways (influenza A and toxoplasmosis) and metabolism-associated pathways were involved in response to TNF-α inhibitor treatment, providing insight into the mechanism of TNF-α inhibitors.Genes and Immunity advance online publication, 24 August 2017; doi:10.1038/gene.2017.19.

  3. Post-translational regulation of acid invertase activity by vacuolar invertase inhibitor affects resistance to cold-induced sweetening of potato tubers.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Marian J; Chen, Ronan K Y; Harris, John C; Ashworth, Matthew J; Brummell, David A

    2013-01-01

    Cold-induced sweetening (CIS) is a serious post-harvest problem for potato tubers, which need to be stored cold to prevent sprouting and pathogenesis in order to maintain supply throughout the year. During storage at cold temperatures (below 10 °C), many cultivars accumulate free reducing sugars derived from a breakdown of starch to sucrose that is ultimately cleaved by acid invertase to produce glucose and fructose. When affected tubers are processed by frying or roasting, these reducing sugars react with free asparagine by the Maillard reaction, resulting in unacceptably dark-coloured and bitter-tasting product and generating the probable carcinogen acrylamide as a by-product. We have previously identified a vacuolar invertase inhibitor (INH2) whose expression correlates both with low acid invertase activity and with resistance to CIS. Here we show that, during cold storage, overexpression of the INH2 vacuolar invertase inhibitor gene in CIS-susceptible potato tubers reduced acid invertase activity, the accumulation of reducing sugars and the generation of acrylamide in subsequent fry tests. Conversely, suppression of vacuolar invertase inhibitor expression in a CIS-resistant line increased susceptibility to CIS. The results show that post-translational regulation of acid invertase by the vacuolar invertase inhibitor is an important component of resistance to CIS.

  4. Chitosan-decorated polystyrene-b-poly(acrylic acid) polymersomes as novel carriers for topical delivery of finasteride.

    PubMed

    Caon, Thiago; Porto, Ledilege Cucco; Granada, Andréa; Tagliari, Monika Piazzon; Silva, Marcos Antonio Segatto; Simões, Cláudia Maria Oliveira; Borsali, Redouane; Soldi, Valdir

    2014-02-14

    In view of the fact that the oral administration of finasteride (FIN) has resulted in various undesirable systemic side effects, the topical application of polystyrene and poly(acrylic acid)-based polymersomes (underexplored system) was investigated. Undecorated PS139-b-PAA17 and PS404-b-PAA63 vesicles (C3 and C7, respectively) or vesicles decorated with chitosan samples of different molecular weight (C3/CS-oligo, C7/CS-oligo, C3/CS-37 and C7/CS-37) were prepared by the co-solvent self-assembly method and characterized by small-angle X-ray scattering,transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering techniques. In vitro release experiments and ex vivo permeation using Franz diffusion cells were carried out (through comparison with hydroethanolic finasteride solution). The ideal system should provide high finasteride retention in the dermis and epidermis while allowing some control of the drug release. The particle size and in vitro release were negatively correlated with the permeation coefficient and skin retention in both the epidermis and dermis. The findings that the longest lag time was obtained for the hydroethanolic drug solution and lowest permeation for the systems able to release the drug faster support the hypothesis that nanostructured systems may be required to enhance the penetration and permeation of the drug. Chitosan-decorated polymersomes interacted more strongly with the skin components than non-decorated samples, probably due to the positive surface charge, which increased the FIN retention and reduced the lag time. C7 polymersomes decorated with chitosan were more appropriate for topical applications (high retention in the dermis and epidermis and controlled drug delivery).

  5. Finasteride modifies the relation between serum C-peptide and prostate cancer risk: results from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Neuhouser, Marian L.; Till, Cathee; Kristal, Alan; Goodman, Phyllis; Hoque, Ashraful; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Hsing, Ann W.; Albanes, Demetrius; Parnes, Howard L.; Pollak, Michael

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hyperinsulinemia and obesity-related metabolic disturbances are common and have been associated with increased cancer risk and poor prognosis. METHODS Data are from a case-control study within the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), a randomized, placebo-controlled trial testing finasteride vs. placebo for primary prevention of prostate cancer. Cases (n=1803) and controls (n= 1797) were matched on age, PCPT treatment arm, and family history of prostate cancer; controls included all eligible non-whites. Outcomes were biopsy-determined. Baseline bloods were assayed for serum C-peptide (marker of insulin secretion) and leptin (an adipokine) using ELISA. Logistic regression calculated odds ratios for total prostate cancer and polytomous logistic regression calculated odds ratios for low-grade (Gleason < 7) and high-grade (Gleason ≥ 7) disease. Results were stratified by treatment arm for C-peptide. RESULTS For men on placebo, higher vs. lower serum C-peptide was associated with a near two-fold increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer (Gleason ≥ 7) (multivariate-adjusted OR= 1.88, 95%CI 1.19-2.97, p trend = 0.004). When C-peptide was modeled as a continuous variable, every unit increase in [log(C-peptide)], resulted in a 39% increased risk of high-grade disease (p=0.01). In contrast, there was no significant relationship between C-peptide and high-grade prostate cancer among men receiving finasteride. Leptin was not independently associated with high-grade prostate cancer. CONCLUSIONS These results support findings from other observational studies that high serum C-peptide and insulin-resistance, but not leptin, are associated with increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer. Our novel finding is that the C-peptide-associated risk was attenuated by use of finasteride. PMID:20179296

  6. The use of tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) and PHOSPHO1 inhibitors to affect mineralization by cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Kiffer-Moreira, Tina; Narisawa, Sonoko

    2013-01-01

    Here, we describe methods to evaluate the ability of small molecules inhibitors of TNAP and PHOSPHO1 in preventing mineralization of primary cultures of murine vascular smooth muscle cells. The procedures are also applicable to primary cultures of calvarial osteoblasts. These cell-based assays are used to complement kinetic testing during structure-activity relationship studies aimed at improving scaffolds in the generation of pharmaceuticals for the treatment for medial vascular calcification.

  7. Evaluation of the clinical indications, adverse drug reactions, and finasteride use in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia in Poland.

    PubMed

    Ząbkowski, Tomasz

    2014-08-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH) is one of the most common urinary disorders in elderly men. The symptoms of the disease include prostate gland enlargement, bladder outlet obstruction, and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs). BPH predisposes patients to bladder infections and bladder stone formation and increases their risk of urinary retention, which in turn causes renal failure. Hence, the disease requires surgical treatment. However, over the recent years, the number of surgical interventions performed in pharmacotherapy has significantly reduced because of the increased efficacy of conservative therapy, including combination treatment mostly with 2 groups of drugs, namely, alpha-1-adrenolitics and other 5-alpha-reductase blockers, with a different pharmacological activity [5]. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical indications, adverse drug reactions, and finasteride use in patients with diagnosed BPH in Poland. We conducted a clinical trial from November 2009 to November 2010 that included 5751 patients who were enrolled in 46 urological centres in Poland. The researchers who conducted the clinical trial were urologists from different regions of Poland. The clinical trial involved 6 follow-up visits. The mean age of the patients was 67 years (range, 45-93 years; median, 67.00; SD, 8.507). The inclusion criteria were as follows: LUTSs, finasteride therapy for at least 2 weeks, age>40 years, and BPH. Patients self-reported data on LUTSs, the symptom frequency, concurrent diseases, and intensification of urinary system symptoms. In addition, additional examinations were performed, including prostate-specific antigen test, urinary tract ultrasonography with evaluation of residual urine and prostate, and uroflowmetry. The study did not exclude data on the combined treatment with finasteride and alpha-1-adrenolitics. Finasteride was demonstrated to be effective, as evidenced by the significant decrease in TPV by 40% even after 12 months. It was

  8. Biotransformation of finasteride by Ocimum sanctum L., and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of transformed metabolites: experimental and computational insights.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sajid; Nisar, Muhammad; Iriti, Marcello; Shah, Mohammad Raza; Mahmud, Maqsood; Ali, Ihsan; Khan, Inamullah

    2014-12-01

    Transformation of Finasteride (I) by cell suspension cultures of Ocimum sanctum L. was investigated. Fermentation of compound (I) with O. sanctum afforded three oxidized derivatives, 16β-hydroxyfinasteride (II), 11α-hydroxyfinasteride (III) and 15β-hydroxyfinasteride (IV). Among these metabolites, compound (II) was a new metabolite. Compound (I) and its derivatives were studied for their tyrosinase inhibition assay. All test compounds exhibited significant activity compared to standard drug kojic acid, with compound IV being the most potent member with an IC50 of 1.87μM. Molecular docking revealed significant molecular interactions behind the potent tyrosinase inhibitory activity of the tested compounds.

  9. The protein phosphatase inhibitor calyculin-A affects catecholamine secretion and granular distribution in cultured adrenomedullary chromaffin cells.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, L M; Quintanar, J L; Rueda, J; Viniegra, S; Reig, J A

    1995-09-01

    Calyculin-A, a potent inhibitor of types 1 and 2A protein phosphatases, increases basal catecholamine secretion in cultured chromaffin cells with a maximum effect observed at 100 nM. This effect was increased by forskolin and the calmodulin antagonist W7, but was modified neither by phorbol esters nor the protein kinase inhibitor, H7. The effect of the toxin, calyculin-A, on basal secretion was completely prevented by the protein kinase inhibitor K252a. In digitonin-permeabilized cells calyculin-A induced an increase in basal release, but, in contrast, it partially reduced calcium-induced secretion. Analysis of total proteins revealed that calyculin-A treatment of the cells increased the level of phosphorylation of different protein bands. Examination of the Triton X-100-insoluble fraction revealed a clear increase in the phosphorylation level of various proteins, including vimentin. Calyculin-A provoked a rapid morphological change in chromaffin cells in the same range of concentration (50-300 nM). Cells became rounder and were partially detached from the substratum forming clusters, this effect was also blocked by K252a. Transmission electron microscopy of calyculin-A-treated cells showed an increase in the proportion of chromaffin granules located closer to the membrane. These results suggest that calyculin-A induces changes both in the catecholamine secretory response and in the cytoskeletal elements of chromaffin cells by protein phosphorylation.

  10. The role of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors in prostate pathophysiology: Is there an additional advantage to inhibition of type 1 isoenzyme?

    PubMed Central

    Goldenberg, Larry; So, Alan; Fleshner, Neil; Rendon, Ricardo; Drachenberg, Darrel; Elhilali, Mostafa

    2009-01-01

    Normal growth and function of the prostate are contingent on the reduction of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by 5-alpha reductase (5-AR) enzymes types 1 and 2. It has been theorized that an overabundance of DHT may be implicated in the pathogenesis of both benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. Inhibitors of 5-AR such as dutasteride and finasteride may therefore have an important role in the prevention and treatment of BPH and prostate cancer. Dutasteride provides greater suppression of DHT than finasteride, thereby underlying the hypothesis that inhibition of both type 1 and type 2 would provide correspondingly greater protection than inhibition of type 2 alone. We review the potential significance of the 5-AR inhibitors in reducing the risk of prostate cancer according to the basic biology of prostate disease PMID:19543428

  11. Metals affect the structure and activity of human plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. I. Modulation of stability and protease inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Lawrence C; Goswami, Sumit; Ginsberg, David S; Day, Duane E; Verhamme, Ingrid M; Peterson, Cynthia B

    2011-01-01

    Human plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) is a serine protease inhibitor with a metastable active conformation. Under physiological conditions, half of the inhibitor transitions to a latent state within 1–2 h. The interaction between PAI-1 and the plasma protein vitronectin prolongs this active lifespan by ∼50%. Previously, our group demonstrated that PAI-1 binds to resins using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (Day, U.S. Pat. 7,015,021 B2, March 21, 2006). In this study, the effect of these metals on function and stability was investigated by measuring the rate of the transition from the active to latent conformation. All metals tested showed effects on stability, with the majority falling into one of two types depending on their effects. The first type of metal, which includes magnesium, calcium and manganese, invoked a slight stabilization of the active conformation of PAI-1. A second category of metals, including cobalt, nickel and copper, showed the opposite effects and a unique vitronectin-dependent modulation of PAI-1 stability. This second group of metals significantly destabilized PAI-1, although the addition of vitronectin in conjunction with these metals resulted in a marked stabilization and slower conversion to the latent conformation. In the presence of copper and vitronectin, the half-life of active PAI-1 was extended to 3 h, compared to a half-life of only ∼30 min with copper alone. Nickel had the largest effect, reducing the half-life to ∼5 min. Together, these data demonstrate a heretofore-unknown role for metals in modulating PAI-1 stability. PMID:21280127

  12. Resveratrol dimers are novel sphingosine kinase 1 inhibitors and affect sphingosine kinase 1 expression and cancer cell growth and survival

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Keng Gat; Gray, Alexander I; Pyne, Susan; Pyne, Nigel J

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Sphingosine kinase 1 catalyses formation of the bioactive lipid, sphingosine 1-phosphate, which protects cancer cells from apoptosis. Therefore, sphingosine kinase 1 is a novel target for intervention with anti-cancer agents. We have assessed the effect of the anti-cancer agent, resveratrol and its dimers (ampelopsin A and balanocarpol) on sphingosine kinase 1 activity and on survival of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Ampelopsin A and balanocarpol were purified from Hopea dryobalanoides and their effect on sphingosine kinase 1 activity and expression, [3H] thymidine incorporation, ERK-1/2 phosphorylation and PARP activity assessed in MCF-7 cells. KEY RESULTS Resveratrol, ampelopsin A and balanocarpol were novel inhibitors of sphingosine kinase 1 activity. Balanocarpol was a mixed inhibitor (with sphingosine) of sphingosine kinase 1 with a Kic= 90 ± 10 µM and a Kiu of ∼500 µM. Balanocarpol and ampelopsin A also induced down-regulation of sphingosine kinase 1 expression and reduced DNA synthesis, while balanocarpol stimulated PARP cleavage in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Resveratrol was a competitive inhibitor (with sphingosine) of sphingosine kinase 1 with a Kic= 160 ± 40 µM, reduced sphingosine kinase 1 expression and induced PARP cleavage in MCF-7 cells. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Each molecule of balanocarpol may bind at least two sphingosine kinase 1 catalytic molecules to reduce the activity of each simultaneously. These findings suggest that resveratrol, ampelopsin A and balanocarpol could perturb sphingosine kinase 1-mediated signalling and this might explain their activity against MCF-7 breast cancer cells. LINKED ARTICLE This article is commented on by Hergst and Yun, pp. 1603–1604 of this issue. To view this commentary visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2012.01898.x PMID:22251058

  13. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Globally Enhance H3/H4 Tail Acetylation Without Affecting H3 Lysine 56 Acetylation

    PubMed Central

    Drogaris, Paul; Villeneuve, Valérie; Pomiès, Christelle; Lee, Eun-Hye; Bourdeau, Véronique; Bonneil, Éric; Ferbeyre, Gerardo; Verreault, Alain; Thibault, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) represent a promising avenue for cancer therapy. We applied mass spectrometry (MS) to determine the impact of clinically relevant HDACi on global levels of histone acetylation. Intact histone profiling revealed that the HDACi SAHA and MS-275 globally increased histone H3 and H4 acetylation in both normal diploid fibroblasts and transformed human cells. Histone H3 lysine 56 acetylation (H3K56ac) recently elicited much interest and controversy due to its potential as a diagnostic and prognostic marker for a broad diversity of cancers. Using quantitative MS, we demonstrate that H3K56ac is much less abundant than previously reported in human cells. Unexpectedly, in contrast to H3/H4 N-terminal tail acetylation, H3K56ac did not increase in response to inhibitors of each class of HDACs. In addition, we demonstrate that antibodies raised against H3K56ac peptides cross-react against H3 N-terminal tail acetylation sites that carry sequence similarity to residues flanking H3K56. PMID:22355734

  14. Metals affect the structure and activity of human plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. II. Binding affinity and conformational changes

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Lawrence C; Goswami, Sumit; Peterson, Cynthia B

    2011-01-01

    Human plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) is a serine protease inhibitor with a metastable active conformation. The lifespan of the active form of PAI-1 is modulated via interaction with the plasma protein, vitronectin, and various metal ions. These metal ions fall into two categories: Type I metals, including calcium, magnesium, and manganese, stabilize PAI-1 in the absence of vitronectin, whereas Type II metals, including cobalt, copper, and nickel, destabilize PAI-1 in the absence of vitronectin, but stabilize PAI-1 in its presence. To provide a mechanistic basis for understanding the unusual modulation of PAI-1 structure and activity, the binding characteristics and conformational effects of these two types of metals were further evaluated. Steady-state binding measurements using surface plasmon resonance indicated that both active and latent PAI-1 exhibit a dissociation constant in the low micromolar range for binding to immobilized nickel. Stopped-flow measurements of approach-to-equilibrium changes in intrinsic protein fluorescence indicated that the Type I and Type II metals bind in different modes that induce distinct conformational effects on PAI-1. Changes in the observed rate constants with varying concentrations of metal allowed accurate determination of binding affinities for cobalt, nickel, and copper, yielding dissociation constants of ∼40, 30, and 0.09 μM, respectively. Competition experiments that tested effects on PAI-1 stability were consistent with these measurements of affinity and indicate that copper binds tightly to PAI-1. PMID:21280128

  15. Acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase inhibitor Avasimibe affect survival and proliferation of glioma tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Bemlih, Sana; Poirier, Marie-Denise; El Andaloussi, Abdeljabar

    2010-06-15

    Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain tumor in adults and one of its hallmarks is resistance to apoptosis. Acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) is an intracellular membrane-bound enzyme that uses cholesterol and long chain fatty acyl-CoA as substrates to produce cholesteryl esters. The presence of cholesteryl esters in glioblastoma may be related to vascular and/or cell neoplastic proliferation in the tumor mass, two prerequisites for tumor cell growth. ACAT activity has been detected in glioblastoma cell homogenates. The present study is the first report on the effect of Avasimibe, a specific inhibitor of ACAT, on glioma cell lines (U87, A172 and GL261). Our results showed that Avasimibe inhibited ACAT-1 expression and cholesterol ester synthesis in glioma cell lines. Moreover, Avasimibe inhibited the growth of the cells by inducing cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis as a result of caspase-8 and caspase-3 activation. Also, Our findings provide proof of principle that targeting ACAT-1 with the inhibitor Avasimibe could be an efficient therapy in the treatment of glioblastoma.

  16. A validated RP-HPLC method to investigate finasteride in human skin after in vitro topically applying vesicular nanocarrier.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Feiyue; Rao, Yuefeng; Lou, Yan; Lu, Xiaoyang

    2014-05-01

    The pharmacotherapeutic efficiency of topical drug delivery systems is mainly dominated by the skin distribution of therapeutic agents. In this work, a sensitive, rapid and fully-validated reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed to determine finasteride in human cadaver skin after different vesicular formulations were applied. Drug in different depth of skin layers were measured with an EclipseXDB-C18 column. The mobile phase consisted of 75% (v/v) methanol containing 0.2% phosphoric acid buffered to pH 3.0 with triethylamine under isocratic conditions. The system was operated at 40°C and the mobile phase flow rate was set at 1 mL/min. The standard-calibration curve was linear within range of 5 to 200 ng/ml with correlation coefficient 0.9996. The intra-assay precision was less than 3.9% while the inter-assay precision was less than 7.1% with the bias range of -8.6 to 4.1%. This method was found to be specific, accurate, and sensitive and was successfully used to determine the accumulation of finasteride after in-vitro percutaneous delivery by liposomal or ethosomal drug delivery nanocarriers.

  17. Finasteride, 1 mg daily administration on male androgenetic alopecia in different age groups: 10-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Rossi, A; Cantisani, C; Scarnò, M; Trucchia, A; Fortuna, M C; Calvieri, S

    2011-01-01

    Finasteride 1 mg is indicated for the treatment of men with androgenetic alopecia (AGA). However, more than 5 years efficacy and safety has not been previously reported. To assess the efficacy over 10 years in different age groups of men with AGA. 118 men, between 20 and 61 years, with AGA receiving finasteride (1 mg/day), were enrolled in this uncontrolled study. Efficacy evaluation was assessed with standardized global photographs at T0,T1,T2,T5,T10. Statistical analysis was made using frequency tables and evaluating the chi-square index with its p-value. Better improvements are observed in patients older than 30 years (42.8% aged between 20 and 30 years did not improve also after 10 years) or with higher AGA grades (58.9% for AGA grade IV and 45.4% for AGA grade V had the first improvement just after 1 year). In 21% of cases, the treatment continuation beyond 5 years provided better results. Side effects were referred by 6% of the patients; nevertheless, some of them went on with treatment because of the great results. In our opinion, the result after the first year can help in predicting the effectiveness of the treatment. Its efficacy was not reduced as time goes on; in fact, a big proportion of subjects unchanged after 1 year, improved later on, maintaining a positive trend.

  18. [INHIBITORS OF MAP-KINASE PATHWAY U0126 AND PD98059 DIFFERENTLY AFFECT ORGANIZATION OF TUBULIN CYTOSKELETON AFTER STIMULATION OF EGF RECEPTOR ENDOCYTOSIS].

    PubMed

    Zlobina, M V; Steblyanko, Yu Yu; Shklyaeva, M A; Kharchenko, V V; Salova, A V; Kornilova, E S

    2015-01-01

    To confirm the hypothesis about the involvement of EGF-stimulated MAP-kinase ERK1/2 in the regulation of microtubule (MT) system, the influence of two widely used ERK1/2 inhibitors, U0126 and PD98059, on the organization of tubulin cytoskeleton in interphase HeLa cells during EGF receptor endocytosis has been investigated. We have found that addition of U0126 or PD98059 to not-stimulated with EGF ells for 30 min has no effect on radially organized MT system. However, in the case of U0126 addition before EGF endocytosis stimulation, the number of MT per cell decreased within 15 min after such stimulation and was followed by complete MT depolymerization by 60-90 min. Stimulation of EGF endocytosis in the presence of PD98059 resulted only in insignificant depolymerization of MT and it could be detected mainly from their minus-ends. At the same time, MT regions close to plasma membrane became stabilized, which was proved by increase in tubulin acetylation level. This situation was characteristic for all period of the experiment. It has been also found that the inhibitors affect endocytosis dynamics of EGF-receptor complexes. Quantitative analysis demonstrated that the stimulation of endocytosis in the presence of U0126 generated a greater number of endosomes compared to control cells, and their number did not change significantly during the experiment. All these endosomes were localized peripherally. Effect of PD98059 resulted in the formation of lower number of endosomes that in control, but they demonstrated very slow clusterization despite the presence of some intact MT. Both inhibitors decreased EGFR colocolization with early endosomal marker EEA1, which indicated a delay in endosome fusions and maturation. The inhibitors were also shown to affect differently phospho-ERK 1 and 2 forms: U0126 completely inhibited phospho-ERK1 and 2, white, in the presence of PD98059, the two ERK forms demonstrated sharp transient activation in 15 min after stimulation, but only

  19. Cost effectiveness comparison of dutasteride and finasteride in patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia--The Markov model based on data from Montenegro.

    PubMed

    Dabanović, Vera; Kostić, Marina; Janković, Slobodan

    2016-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is one of the most common disease among males aging 50 years and more. The rise of the prevalence of BPH is related to aging, and since duration of life time period has the tendency of rising the prevalence of BPH will rise as costs of BPH treatment will and its influence on health economic budget. Dutasteride is a new drug similar to finasteride, inhibits enzyme testosterone 5-alpha reductase, diminish symptoms of BPH, reduce risk of the complications and increases quality of life in patients with BPH. But, the use of dutasteride is limited by its high costs. The aim of this study was to compare cost effectiveness of dutasteride and finasteride from the perspective of a purchaser of health care service (Republic Institute for Health Insuranse, Montenegro). We constructed a Markov model to compare cost effectivenss of dutasteride and finasteride using data from the available pharmacoeconomic literature and data about socioeconomic sphere actual in Montenegro. A time horizon was estimated to be 20 years, with the duration of 1 year per one cycle. The discount rate was 3%. We performed Monte Carlo simulation for virtual cohort of 1,000 patients with BPH. The total costs for one year treatment of BPH with dutasteride were estimated to be 6,458.00 € which was higher comparing with finasteride which were 6,088.56 €. The gain in quality adjusted life years (QALY) were higher with dutasteride (11.97 QALY) than with finasteride (11.19 QALY). The results of our study indicate that treating BPH with dutasteride comparing to finasteride is a cost effective option since the value of incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) is 1,245.68 €/QALY which is below estimated threshold (1,350.00 € per one gained year of life). Dutasteride is a cost effective option for treating BPH comparing to finasteride. The results of this study provide new information for health care decision makers about treatment of BPH in socioeconomic environment

  20. Immunosuppression using the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor everolimus: pilot study shows significant cognitive and affective improvement.

    PubMed

    Lang, U E; Heger, J; Willbring, M; Domula, M; Matschke, K; Tugtekin, S M

    2009-12-01

    Immunosuppression using calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) is accompanied by neuropsychiatric side effects, which counteract longevity and quality of life benefits in 10% to 28% of patients. Following the availability of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, it became possible to replace CNI without increasing the risk of acute graft rejection. mTOR, a member of the phosphatidyl inositol 3' kinase family, is a downstream target of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, which has been implicated in the pathophysiology and treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Preclinical evidence has implicated the mTOR pathway in synaptic plasticity and fear memory consolidation and reconsolidation. In the present study we prospectively evaluated the psychiatric outcomes of CNI-free immunosuppression in adult maintenance heart transplant recipients (n = 9; age: 66.1 +/- 6.1) using the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Trail Making Tests A and B, Digit Span (DS), and Hamilton Depression Scale (HAMD). Four weeks after switching to CNI-free immunosuppression using everolimus, BDI (Z = -1.14; P = .048), Trail Making tests A and B (Z = -2.52; P = .012), WMS-R (Z = 2.37; P = .018), and SCL-90-R (Z = -2.37; P = .018) were all significantly improved while DS (Z = -1.18; P = .236) and HAMD (Z = -0.595; P = .552) remained unchanged. This report describes favorable psychiatric outcome variables using everolimus in maintenance heart transplant recipients. CNI-free immunosuppression with everolimus might provide significant improvement in memory, concentration, and overall psychiatric symptoms among heart transplant recipients.

  1. The tankyrase-specific inhibitor JW74 affects cell cycle progression and induces apoptosis and differentiation in osteosarcoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Stratford, Eva Wessel; Daffinrud, Jeanette; Munthe, Else; Castro, Russell; Waaler, Jo; Krauss, Stefan; Myklebost, Ola

    2014-02-01

    Wnt/β-catenin is a major regulator of stem cell self-renewal and differentiation and this signaling pathway is aberrantly activated in a several cancers, including osteosarcoma (OS). Attenuation of Wnt/β-catenin activity by tankyrase inhibitors is an appealing strategy in treatment of OS. The efficacy of the tankyrase inhibitor JW74 was evaluated in three OS cell lines (KPD, U2OS, and SaOS-2) both at the molecular and functional level. At the molecular level, JW74 induces stabilization of AXIN2, a key component of the β-catenin destruction complex, resulting in reduced levels of nuclear β-catenin. At the functional level, JW74 induces reduced cell growth in all three tested cell lines, in part due to a delay in cell cycle progression and in part due to an induction of caspase-3-mediated apoptosis. Furthermore, JW74 induces differentiation in U2OS cells, which under standard conditions are resistant to osteogenic differentiation. JW74 also enhances differentiation of OS cell lines, which do not harbor a differentiation block. Interestingly, microRNAs (miRNAs) of the let-7 family, which are known tumor suppressors and inducers of differentiation, are significantly upregulated following treatment with JW74. We demonstrate for the first time that tankyrase inhibition triggers reduced cell growth and differentiation of OS cells. This may in part be due to an induction of let-7 miRNA. The presented data open for novel therapeutic strategies in the treatment of malignant OS. © 2013 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. The Urease Inhibitor NBPT Negatively Affects DUR3-mediated Uptake and Assimilation of Urea in Maize Roots.

    PubMed

    Zanin, Laura; Tomasi, Nicola; Zamboni, Anita; Varanini, Zeno; Pinton, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of urease inhibitors in agriculture, little information is available on their effect on nitrogen (N) uptake and assimilation. Aim of this work was to study, at physiological and transcriptional level, the effects of N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) on urea nutrition in hydroponically grown maize plants. Presence of NBPT in the nutrient solution limited the capacity of plants to utilize urea as a N-source; this was shown by a decrease in urea uptake rate and (15)N accumulation. Noteworthy, these negative effects were evident only when plants were fed with urea, as NBPT did not alter (15)N accumulation in nitrate-fed plants. NBPT also impaired the growth of Arabidopsis plants when urea was used as N-source, while having no effect on plants grown with nitrate or ammonium. This response was related, at least in part, to a direct effect of NBPT on the high affinity urea transport system. Impact of NBPT on urea uptake was further evaluated using lines of Arabidopsis overexpressing ZmDUR3 and dur3-knockout; results suggest that not only transport but also urea assimilation could be compromised by the inhibitor. This hypothesis was reinforced by an over-accumulation of urea and a decrease in ammonium concentration in NBPT-treated plants. Furthermore, transcriptional analyses showed that in maize roots NBPT treatment severely impaired the expression of genes involved in the cytosolic pathway of ureic-N assimilation and ammonium transport. NBPT also limited the expression of a gene coding for a transcription factor highly induced by urea and possibly playing a crucial role in the regulation of its acquisition. This work provides evidence that NBPT can heavily interfere with urea nutrition in maize plants, limiting influx as well as the following assimilation pathway.

  3. The Urease Inhibitor NBPT Negatively Affects DUR3-mediated Uptake and Assimilation of Urea in Maize Roots

    PubMed Central

    Zanin, Laura; Tomasi, Nicola; Zamboni, Anita; Varanini, Zeno; Pinton, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of urease inhibitors in agriculture, little information is available on their effect on nitrogen (N) uptake and assimilation. Aim of this work was to study, at physiological and transcriptional level, the effects of N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT) on urea nutrition in hydroponically grown maize plants. Presence of NBPT in the nutrient solution limited the capacity of plants to utilize urea as a N-source; this was shown by a decrease in urea uptake rate and 15N accumulation. Noteworthy, these negative effects were evident only when plants were fed with urea, as NBPT did not alter 15N accumulation in nitrate-fed plants. NBPT also impaired the growth of Arabidopsis plants when urea was used as N-source, while having no effect on plants grown with nitrate or ammonium. This response was related, at least in part, to a direct effect of NBPT on the high affinity urea transport system. Impact of NBPT on urea uptake was further evaluated using lines of Arabidopsis overexpressing ZmDUR3 and dur3-knockout; results suggest that not only transport but also urea assimilation could be compromised by the inhibitor. This hypothesis was reinforced by an over-accumulation of urea and a decrease in ammonium concentration in NBPT-treated plants. Furthermore, transcriptional analyses showed that in maize roots NBPT treatment severely impaired the expression of genes involved in the cytosolic pathway of ureic-N assimilation and ammonium transport. NBPT also limited the expression of a gene coding for a transcription factor highly induced by urea and possibly playing a crucial role in the regulation of its acquisition. This work provides evidence that NBPT can heavily interfere with urea nutrition in maize plants, limiting influx as well as the following assimilation pathway. PMID:26635834

  4. Nitrous oxide and greenhouse gas emissions from grazed pastures as affected by use of nitrification inhibitor and restricted grazing regime.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiafa; Ledgard, Stewart F; Lindsey, Stuart B

    2013-11-01

    Integration of a restricted grazing regime in winter with the use of a nitrification inhibitor can potentially reduce N2O emissions from grazed pasture systems. A three year field study was conducted to compare annual N2O emission rates from a "tight nitrogen" grazed farmlet with those from a control farmlet. The control farmlet was managed under a conventional rotational all-year grazing regime, while the "tight nitrogen" farmlet was under a similar grazing regime, except during winter and early spring seasons when cows grazed for about 6h per day. A nitrification inhibitor (dicyandiamide, DCD) was applied onto the "tight nitrogen" farmlet immediately after grazing through winter and early spring. A chamber technique was used to measure N2O emissions in several paddocks from each farmlet during three contrasting seasons each year. The IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) inventory methodology was used to estimate CH4 and indirect N2O emissions and the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology was used to calculate CO2 emissions from the farm systems. The individual and combined effects of restricted grazing and DCD use on N2O emissions were also determined. During the late spring/summer and autumn periods, N2O emission rates were generally similar between the two farmlets. The use of a restricted grazing regime and DCD reduced N2O emissions from the grazed farmlet during the winter/early spring seasons by 43-55%, 64-79% and 45-60% over each of the three years, respectively. The use of restricted grazing and DCD both resulted in a similar reduction in N2O emissions, but there was no significant further reduction from the combination of these technologies. For the three study years, the annual N2O emission rate from the "tight nitrogen" farmlet was 20% lower, on average, than from the control. Total annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, however, were only 5% less in the "tight nitrogen" system.

  5. Finasteride Quantification in Human Plasma by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Electrospray Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Application to a Comparative Pharmacokinetics Study.

    PubMed

    Moreno, R A; Moreno, P; Borges, N C; Donato, J L; Oliveira, S E; Borges, N C

    2015-09-01

    A specific, fast and sensitive LC-MS/MS assay was developed for the determination of finasteride in human plasma using betamethsone dipropionate as the internal standard (IS). The limit of quantification was 1.0 ng/ml and the method was linear in the range of 1.0-25.0 ng/ml. The retention times were 0.75 min for finasteride and 0.85 min for IS. Method intra-batch precision and accuracy ranged from 3.6 to 7.1%, and 96.6 to 103.9%, respectively. Inter-batch precision ranged from 2.5 to 3.4%, while Inter-batch accuracy ranged from 100.3 to 103.5%. The analytical method was applied to evaluate the pharmacokinetic and relative bioavailability of 2 different pharmaceutical formulations containing 1.0 mg of finasteride. This study evaluated 38 volunteers in a randomized, 2-period crossover study with 7 days washout period between doses. The geometric mean and respective 90% CI of finasteride test/reference percent ratios were 95.68% (91.2 - 104.6%) for Cmax, 97.5% (92.1-103.3%) for AUC0-t and 98.1 (92.67-103.8) for AUC0-inf. Based on the 90% confidence interval of the individual ratios (test formulation/reference formulation) for Cmax and AUC0-inf, it was concluded that the test formulation is bioequivalent to the reference one with respect to the rate and extent of absorption of finasteride. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Patients treated for male pattern hair with finasteride show, after discontinuation of the drug, altered levels of neuroactive steroids in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Donatella; Abbiati, Federico; Giatti, Silvia; Romano, Simone; Fusco, Letizia; Cavaletti, Guido; Melcangi, Roberto Cosimo

    2015-02-01

    Observations performed in a subset of patients treated for male pattern hair loss indicate that persistent sexual side effects as well as anxious/depressive symptomatology have been reported even after discontinuation of finasteride treatment. Due to the capability of finasteride to block the metabolism of progesterone (PROG) and/or testosterone (T) we have evaluated, by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, the levels of several neuroactive steroids in paired plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples obtained from post-finasteride patients and in healthy controls. At the examination, post-finasteride patients reported muscular stiffness, cramps, tremors and chronic fatigue in the absence of clinical evidence of any muscular disorder or strength reduction. Although severity of the anxious/depressive symptoms was quite variable in their frequency, overall all the subjects had a fairly complex and constant neuropsychiatric pattern. Assessment of neuroactive steroid levels in CSF showed a decrease of PROG and its metabolites, dihydroprogesterone (DHP) and tetrahydroprogesterone (THP), associated with an increase of its precursor pregnenolone (PREG). Altered levels were also observed for T and its metabolites. Thus, a significant decrease of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) associated with an increase of T as well as of 3α-diol was detected. Changes in neuroactive steroid levels also occurred in plasma. An increase of PREG, T, 3α-diol, 3β-diol and 17β-estradiol was associated with decreased levels of DHP and THP. The present observations show that altered levels of neuroactive steroids, associated with depression symptoms, are present in androgenic alopecia patients even after discontinuation of the finasteride treatment. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Sex steroids and brain disorders'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The microarray gene profiling analysis of glioblastoma cancer cells reveals genes affected by FAK inhibitor Y15 and combination of Y15 and temozolomide.

    PubMed

    Huang, Grace; Ho, Baotran; Conroy, Jeffrey; Liu, Song; Qiang, Hu; Golubovskaya, Vita

    2014-01-01

    Focal adhesion is known to be highly expressed and activated in glioma cells. Recently, we demonstrated that FAK autophosphorylation inhibitor, Y15 significantly decreased tumor growth of DBTRG and U87 cells, especially in combination with temozolomide. In the present report, we performed gene expression analysis in these cells to reveal genes affected by Y15, temozolomide and combination of Y15 and temozolomide. We tested the effect of Y15 on gene expression by Illumina Human HT12v4 microarray assay and detected 8087 and 6555 genes, which were significantly either up- or down-regulated by Y15-treatment in DBTRG and U87 cells, respectively (p<0.05). Moreover, DBTRG and U87 cells treated with Y15 changed expression of 1332 and 462 genes more than 1.5 fold, p<0.05, respectively and had 237 common genes affected by Y15. The common genes up-regulated by Y15 included GADD45A, HSPA6 (heat-shock 70); DUSP1, DUSP 5 (dual-phosphatase 5); CDKN1A (p21) and common down-regulated genes included kinesins, such as KIF11, 14, 20A, 20B; topoisomerase II, TOP2A; cyclin F; cell cycle protein: BUB1; PARP1, POLA1. In addition, we detected genes affected by temozolomide and by combination of Y15 and temozolomide treatment in U87 cells. Among genes up-regulated by Y15 and temozolomide more significantly than by each agent alone were: COX7B; interferon, gamma-inducible transcript: IFI16; DDIT4; GADD45G and down-regulated: KIF3A, AKT1; ABL; JAK1, GLI3 and ALDH1A3. Thus, microarray gene expression analysis can be effective in establishing genes affected in response to FAK inhibitor alone and in response to combination of Y15 with temozolomide that is important for glioblastoma therapy.

  8. Novel histone deacetylase inhibitor AR-42 exhibits antitumor activity in pancreatic cancer cells by affecting multiple biochemical pathways.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Jin; Wang, Wen-Hung; Wu, Wan-Yu; Hsu, Chia-Chi; Wei, Ling-Rung; Wang, Sheng-Fan; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Liaw, Chih-Chuang; Tsai, Wan-Chi

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer with a 5-year survival rate of ~5%. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) participate in many cellular processes, including carcinogenesis, and pharmacological inhibition of HDACs has emerged as a potential therapeutic strategy. In this study, we explored antitumor activity of the novel HDAC inhibitor AR-42 in pancreatic cancer. Human pancreatic cancer cell lines BxPC-3 and PANC-1 were used in this study. Real-time PCR, RT-PCR, and western blotting were employed to investigate expression of specific genes and proteins, respectively. Translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor was investigated by immunofluorescence and subcellular fractionation. The number of apoptotic cells, cell cycle stages, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation levels were determined by flow cytometry. Cell invasiveness was examined by the Matrigel invasion assay. Efficacy of AR-42 in vivo was evaluated by utilizing BxPC-3 xenograft mouse model. AR-42 inhibited pancreatic cancer cell proliferation by causing G2/M cell cycle arrest via regulating expression levels of genes and proteins involved in cell cycle. AR-42 also induced ROS generation and DNA damage, triggering apoptosis of pancreatic cancer cells via both caspase-3-dependent and caspase-3-independent pathways. In addition, AR-42 increased expression levels of negative regulators of p53 (miR-125b, miR-30d, and miR33), which could contribute to lower expression level of mutant p53 in pancreatic cancer cells. Cell invasion assay showed that AR-42 reduced cancer cell aggressiveness and significantly diminished BxPC-3 xenograft tumor growth in vivo. AR-42, a novel HDAC inhibitor, inhibited pancreatic cancer cells by regulating p53 expression, inducing cell cycle arrest, particularly at the G2/M stage, and activating multiple apoptosis pathways. Additionally, AR-42 inhibited cell invasiveness and potently suppressed pancreatic cancer tumors in vivo. We conclude that by virtue of its

  9. Fasting and refeeding affect the expression of the Inhibitor of DNA Binding (ID) genes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) muscle.

    PubMed

    Gahr, Scott A; Weber, Gregory M; Rexroad, Caird E

    2006-08-01

    The Inhibitor of DNA Binding/Differentiation (ID) proteins are a family of dominant negative regulators of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, shown in mammals to delay cell differentiation and prolong proliferation. In the current study we used real-time PCR to investigate the effects of fasting and refeeding on the expression of ID genes in rainbow trout muscle. Fry shortly following yolk-sac absorption (approximately 250 mg) were used in a pair of experiments. In the first experiment, the treatment groups included fish fed or fasted throughout the duration of the experiment, and fish fasted for 14 days followed by feeding for the remainder of the experiment. The second experiment consisted of the same treatment groups; however the fish were only fasted for 7 days prior to refeeding. In both experiments, ID gene expression in the muscle of fasted fish was significantly lower than the fed samples after 7 days. Refeeding for 3 or 7 days returned the ID expression to levels similar to the fed fish. The reduction of ID expression during a fast and the subsequent return to fed levels with refeeding suggests the ID proteins participate in the regulation of muscle growth in the rainbow trout.

  10. Sirtinol, a Sir2 protein inhibitor, affects stem cell maintenance and root development in Arabidopsis thaliana by modulating auxin-cytokinin signaling components

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sharmila; Singh, Alka; Yadav, Sandeep; Gautam, Vibhav; Singh, Archita; Sarkar, Ananda K.

    2017-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, besides several key transcription factors and chromatin modifiers, phytohormones auxin and cytokinin play pivotal role in shoot and root meristem maintenance, and lateral root (LR) development. Sirtinol, a chemical inhibitor of Sir2 proteins, is known to promote some auxin induced phenotypes in Arabidopsis. However, its effect on plant stem cell maintenance or organ formation remained unaddressed. Here we show that sirtinol affects meristem maintenance by altering the expression of key stem cell regulators, cell division and differentiation by modulating both auxin and cytokinin signaling in Arabidopsis thaliana. The expression of shoot stem cell niche related genes WUSCHEL (WUS) and CLAVATA3 (CLV3) was upregulated, whereas SHOOT MERISTEMLESS (STM) was downregulated in sirtinol treated seedlings. The expression level and domain of key root stem cell regulators PLETHORA (PLTs) and WUS-Related Homeobox 5 (WOX5) were altered in sirtinol treated roots. Sirtinol affects LR development by disturbing proper auxin transport and maxima formation, similar to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). Sirtinol also affects LR formation by altering cytokinin biosynthesis and signaling genes in roots. Therefore, sirtinol affects shoot and root growth, meristem maintenance and LR development by altering the expression of cytokinin-auxin signaling components, and regulators of stem cells, meristems, and LRs. PMID:28195159

  11. NF-kappaB inhibitor dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin suppresses osteoclastogenesis and expression of NFATc1 in mouse arthritis without affecting expression of RANKL, osteoprotegerin or macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Tetsuo; Hoshino, Machiko; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Ohya, Keiichi; Komano, Yukiko; Nanki, Toshihiro; Miyasaka, Nobuyuki; Umezawa, Kazuo

    2007-01-01

    Inhibition of NF-kappaB is known to be effective in reducing both inflammation and bone destruction in animal models of arthritis. Our previous study demonstrated that a small cell-permeable NF-kappaB inhibitor, dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ), suppresses expression of proinflammatory cytokines and ameliorates mouse arthritis. It remained unclear, however, whether DHMEQ directly affects osteoclast precursor cells to suppress their differentiation to mature osteoclasts in vivo. The effect of DHMEQ on human osteoclastogenesis also remained elusive. In the present study, we therefore examined the effect of DHMEQ on osteoclastogenesis using a mouse collagen-induced arthritis model, and using culture systems of fibroblast-like synovial cells obtained from patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and of osteoclast precursor cells from peripheral blood of healthy volunteers. DHMEQ significantly suppressed formation of osteoclasts in arthritic joints, and also suppressed expression of NFATc1 along the inner surfaces of bone lacunae and the eroded bone surface, while serum levels of soluble receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL), osteoprotegerin and macrophage colony-stimulating factor were not affected by the treatment. DHMEQ also did not suppress spontaneous expression of RANKL nor of macrophage colony-stimulating factor in culture of fibroblast-like synovial cells obtained from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. These results suggest that DHMEQ suppresses osteoclastogenesis in vivo, through downregulation of NFATc1 expression, without significantly affecting expression of upstream molecules of the RANKL/receptor activator of NF-kappaB/osteoprotegerin cascade, at least in our experimental condition. Furthermore, in the presence of RANKL and macrophage colony-stimulating factor, differentiation and activation of human osteoclasts were also suppressed by DHMEQ, suggesting the possibility of future application of NF-kappaB inhibitors to rheumatoid arthritis

  12. Serine Protease Inhibitor-6 Differentially Affects the Survival of Effector and Memory Alloreactive CD8-T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Azzi, J.; Ohori, S.; Ting, C.; Uehara, M.; Abdoli, R.; Smith, B. D.; Safa, K.; Solhjou, Z.; Lukyanchykov, P.; Patel, J.; McGrath, M.; Abdi, R.

    2016-01-01

    The clonal expansion of effector T cells and subsequent generation of memory T cells are critical in determining the outcome of transplantation. While cytotoxic T lymphocytes induce direct cytolysis of target cells through secretion of Granzyme-B (GrB), they also express cytoplasmic serine protease inhibitor-6 (Spi6) to protect themselves from GrB that has leaked from granules. Here, we studied the role of GrB/Spi6 axis in determining clonal expansion of alloreactive CD8-T cells and subsequent generation of memory CD8-T cells in transplantation. CD8-T cells from Spi6−/− mice underwent more GrB mediated apoptosis upon alloantigen stimulation in vitro and in vivo following adoptive transfer into an allogeneic host. Interestingly, while OT1.Spi6−/− CD8 T cells showed significantly lower clonal expansion following skin transplants from OVA mice, there was no difference in the size of the effector memory CD8-T cells long after transplantation. Furthermore, lack of Spi6 resulted in a decrease of short-lived-effector-CD8-cells but did not impact the pool of memory-precursor-effector-CD8-cells. Similar results were found in heart transplant models. Our findings suggest that the final alloreactive CD8-memory-pool-size is independent from the initial clonal-proliferation as memory precursors express low levels of GrB and therefore are independent of Spi6 for survival. These data advance our understanding of memory T cells generation in transplantation and provide basis for Spi6 based strategies to target effector T cells. PMID:25534448

  13. Sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, does not affect the pharmacokinetics of ethinyl estradiol or norethindrone in healthy female subjects.

    PubMed

    Migoya, Elizabeth; Larson, Patrick; Bergman, Arthur; Miller, Jutta; Johnson-Levonas, Amy O; Lasseter, Kenneth C; Wagner, John A

    2011-09-01

    Sitagliptin is a dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-4) inhibitor used for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This randomized, placebo-controlled, 2-period, crossover study evaluated the effect of sitagliptin on the pharmacokinetics of 17 α-ethinyl estradiol (EE(2)) and norethindrone (NET) in healthy female subjects who were receiving oral contraceptives for >3 months prior to enrollment. A total of 18 subjects with normal menstrual cycles received the oral contraceptive pill ORTHO-NOVUM(®) 7/7/7 on days 1 to 28 for 2 successive cycles, and on days 1 to 21 were randomly assigned to receive sitagliptin 200 mg/day (2 × 100 mg tablets) or placebo using a computer-generated allocation schedule. Blood samples for determination of plasma EE(2) and NET concentrations were collected predose and 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, and 24 hours postdose on day 20 or 21 of each treatment period. The GMRs (90% confidence interval [CI]) for the AUC(0-24 hr) of EE(2) and NET were 0.99 (0.93, 1.06) and 1.03 (0.97, 1.09), respectively, and for C(max) were 0.97 (0.86, 1.10) and 0.98 (0.89, 1.07), respectively. The coadministration of sitagliptin 200 mg/day with an oral contraceptive for 21 days did not lead to clinically meaningful alterations in the pharmacokinetics of EE(2) and NET.

  14. Treatment with the MAO-A inhibitor clorgyline elevates monoamine neurotransmitter levels and improves affective phenotypes in a mouse model of Huntington disease.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Miralles, Marta; Ooi, Jolene; Ferrari Bardile, Costanza; Tan, Liang Juin; George, Maya; Drum, Chester L; Lin, Rachel Yanping; Hayden, Michael R; Pouladi, Mahmoud A

    2016-04-01

    Abnormal monoamine oxidase A and B (MAO-A/B) activity and an imbalance in monoamine neurotransmitters have been suggested to underlie the pathobiology of depression, a major psychiatric symptom observed in patients with neurodegenerative diseases, such as Huntington disease (HD). Increased MAO-A/B activity has been observed in brain tissue from patients with HD and in human and rodent HD neural cells. Using the YAC128 mouse model of HD, we studied the effect of an irreversible MAO-A inhibitor, clorgyline, on the levels of select monoamine neurotransmitters associated with affective function. We observed a decrease in striatal levels of the MAO-A/B substrates, dopamine and norepinephrine, in YAC128 HD mice compared with wild-type mice, which was accompanied by increased anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour at five months of age. Treatment for 26 days with clorgyline restored dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine neurotransmitter levels in the striatum and reduced anxiety- and depressive-like behaviour in YAC128 HD mice. This study supports a potential therapeutic use for MAO-A inhibitors in the treatment of depression and anxiety in patients with HD.

  15. Modulation of HIV-1 Gag NC/p1 cleavage efficiency affects protease inhibitor resistance and viral replicative capacity.

    PubMed

    van Maarseveen, Noortje M; Andersson, Dan; Lepšík, Martin; Fun, Axel; Schipper, Pauline J; de Jong, Dorien; Boucher, Charles A B; Nijhuis, Monique

    2012-04-01

    Mutations in the substrate of HIV-1 protease, especially changes in the NC/p1 cleavage site, can directly contribute to protease inhibitor (PI) resistance and also compensate for defects in viral replicative capacity (RC) due to a drug resistant protease. These NC/p1 changes are known to enhance processing of the Gag protein. To investigate the capacity of HIV-1 to modulate Gag cleavage and its consequences for PI resistance and RC, we performed a detailed enzymatic and virological analysis using a set of PI resistant NC/p1 variants (HXB2431V, HXB2436E+437T, HXB2437T and HXB2437V). Here, we demonstrate that single NC/p1 mutants, which displayed only a slight increase in PI resistance did not show an obvious change in RC. In contrast, the double NC/p1 mutant, which displayed a clear increase in processing efficiency and PI resistance, demonstrated a clear reduction in RC. Cleavage analysis showed that a tridecameric NC/p1 peptide representing the double NC/p1 mutant was cleaved in two specific ways instead of one.The observed decrease in RC for the double NC/p1 mutant (HXB2436E+437T) could (partially) be restored by either reversion of the 436E change or by acquisition of additional changes in the NC/p1 cleavage site at codon 435 or 438 as was revealed during in vitro evolution experiments. These changes not only restored RC but also reduced PI resistance levels. Furthermore these changes normalized Gag processing efficiency and obstructed the novel secondary cleavage site observed for the double NC/p1 mutant. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that HIV-1 can modulate Gag processing and thereby PI resistance. Distinct increases in Gag cleavage and PI resistance result in a reduced RC that can only be restored by amino acid changes in NC/p1 which reduce Gag processing to an optimal rate.

  16. Diabetes may affect the expression of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors more than smoking in chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Bastos, M F; Tucci, M A; de Siqueira, A; de Faveri, M; Figueiredo, L C; Vallim, P C; Duarte, P M

    2017-04-01

    No previous study has directly compared the levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) between smokers and individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM) with periodontitis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the gene expression of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-8, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in tissues with chronic periodontitis (ChP) of smokers and individuals with type 2 DM. Gingival biopsies were harvested from: non-smokers and non-diabetic individuals with ChP (n = 18) (ChP group); non-diabetic smokers (≥ 10 cigarettes per day for at least the past 5 years) with ChP (n = 18) (SChP group); non-smoking individuals with type 2 diabetes (glycated hemoglobin levels ≥ 7.5%) and ChP (n = 18) (DMChP group). The tissue levels of mRNA of MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-8, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The MMP-8 expression was the lowest in the ChP group (p < 0.05). The DMChP group presented increased mRNA levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9, when compared to the SChP group (p < 0.05). MMP-1 expression and the MMP-1/TIMP-1, MMP-2/TIMP-1, MMP-8/TIMP-1, MMP-9/TIMP-1, MMP-1/TIMP-2 and MMP-2/TIMP-2 ratios were higher in the DMChP group than in the ChP and SChP groups (p < 0.05). The DMChP group presented lower mRNA levels of TIMP-1 than the ChP group (p < 0.05). The MMP-8/TIMP-2 ratio was the highest in the SChP group (p < 0.05). Uncontrolled type 2 DM upregulates the ratio of MMP/TIMPs in sites with ChP more than smoking, which may contribute to a greater extracellular matrix degradation and periodontal breakdown in DM-related periodontitis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Roscovitine, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, affects several gating mechanisms to inhibit cardiac L-type (Ca(V)1.2) calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Yarotskyy, V; Elmslie, K S

    2007-10-01

    L-type calcium channels (Ca((V))1.2) play an important role in cardiac contraction. Roscovitine, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor and promising anticancer drug, has been shown to affect Ca((V))1.2 by inhibiting current amplitude and slowing activation. This research investigates the mechanism by which roscovitine inhibits Ca((V))1.2 channels. Ca((V))1.2 channels were transfected into HEK 293 cells, using the calcium phosphate precipitation method, and currents were measured using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Roscovitine slows activation at all voltages, which precludes one previously proposed mechanism. In addition, roscovitine enhances voltage-dependent, but not calcium-dependent inactivation. This enhancement resulted from both an acceleration of inactivation and a slowing of the recovery from inactivation. Internally applied roscovitine failed to affect Ca((V))1.2 currents, which supports a kinase-independent mechanism and extracellular binding site. Unlike the dihydropyridines, closed state inactivation was not affected by roscovitine. Inactivation was enhanced in a dose-dependent manner with an IC(50)=29.5+/-12 microM, which is close to that for slow activation and inhibition. We conclude that roscovitine binds to an extracellular site on Ca((V))1.2 channels to inhibit current by both slowing activation and enhancing inactivation. Purine-based drugs could become a new option for treatment of diseases that benefit from L-channel inhibition such as cardiac arrhythmias and hypertension.

  18. Selection of Inhibitor-Resistant Viral Potassium Channels Identifies a Selectivity Filter Site that Affects Barium and Amantadine Block

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Yuichiro; Arrigoni, Cristina; Domigan, Courtney; Ferrara, Giuseppina; Pantoja, Carlos; Thiel, Gerhard; Moroni, Anna; Minor, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Understanding the interactions between ion channels and blockers remains an important goal that has implications for delineating the basic mechanisms of ion channel function and for the discovery and development of ion channel directed drugs. Methodology/Principal Findings We used genetic selection methods to probe the interaction of two ion channel blockers, barium and amantadine, with the miniature viral potassium channel Kcv. Selection for Kcv mutants that were resistant to either blocker identified a mutant bearing multiple changes that was resistant to both. Implementation of a PCR shuffling and backcrossing procedure uncovered that the blocker resistance could be attributed to a single change, T63S, at a position that is likely to form the binding site for the inner ion in the selectivity filter (site 4). A combination of electrophysiological and biochemical assays revealed a distinct difference in the ability of the mutant channel to interact with the blockers. Studies of the analogous mutation in the mammalian inward rectifier Kir2.1 show that the T→S mutation affects barium block as well as the stability of the conductive state. Comparison of the effects of similar barium resistant mutations in Kcv and Kir2.1 shows that neighboring amino acids in the Kcv selectivity filter affect blocker binding. Conclusions/Significance The data support the idea that permeant ions have an integral role in stabilizing potassium channel structure, suggest that both barium and amantadine act at a similar site, and demonstrate how genetic selections can be used to map blocker binding sites and reveal mechanistic features. PMID:19834614

  19. Effects of topical antiandrogen and 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors on sebaceous glands in male fuzzy rats.

    PubMed

    Ye, F; Imamura, K; Imanishi, N; Rhodes, L; Uno, H

    1997-01-01

    The fuzzy rat, a genetic mutant between hairless and hairy albino rats, expresses androgen-dependent hypersecretion of sebum and hyperplastic sebaceous glands. Using this model for human acne, we examined the effects of inhibitors of human steroid 5 alpha-reductase isozymes, type I (MK 386) and type II (finasteride), and an androgen receptor blocker (RU58841) on regression of glandular and ductal hyperplasia. The above three agents, 1% weight volume, were dissolved into the vehicle (propylene glycol, alcohol and water) and applied on the backs of peripubertal male rats for 2 months. Control and castrate groups received vehicle alone. At 8 weeks, we examined the size the sebaceous glandular lobules and ducts in split epidermal preparations as well as in frozen sections of skin stained with osmium-potassium dichromate solution. The number of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive cells was counted in the glandular lobes in split-skin tissues stained with BrdU immunochemistry. The results revealed that the sizes of both lobes and ducts in castrates were 40-60% smaller than in controls. RU58841 induced glandular and ductal regression equivalent to that in castrates. Finasteride induced a moderate degree of lobular and ductal reduction, whereas MK386 caused only ductal regression. Reduction of BrdU-positive cells in the sebaceous lobes was found in the skin treated with finasteride and RU58841. Serum concentrations of testosterone and dihydrotestosterone showed no significant changes in all drug-treated rats. The weight of the prostatic lobes was reduced significantly in rats treated with finasteride but not by the other two agents. RU58841 effectively counteracted endogenous androgens resulting in a suppression of growth of the sebaceous glands but not the prostate. This rodent model for androgen-dependent hyperplasia of the sebaceous glands is useful for the study of many pharmacological aspects comprising the rate of percutaneous absorption, stability and affinity to

  20. Effect of Finasteride on Serum Androstenedione and Risk of Prostate Cancer within the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial: Differential Effect on High and Low Grade Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hoque, Ashraful; Yao, Song; Till, Cathee; Kristal, Alan R.; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Hsing, Ann W.; Tangen, Catherine M.; Platz, Elizabeth A.; Stanczyk, Frank Z.; Reichardt, Juergen K.V.; vanBokhoven, Adrie; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Santella, Regina M.; Figg, William D.; Price, Douglas K.; Parnes, Howard L.; Lippman, Scott M.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Thompson, Ian M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effect of finasteride on serum Androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (androstenedione) and its association with prostate cancer risk among subjects who participated in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT). Methods We analyzed serum androstenedione levels in 317 prostate cancer cases and 353 controls, nested in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT), a randomized, placebo-controlled trial that found finasteride decreased prostate cancer risk. Androstenedione is the second most important circulating androgen in men beside testosterone and also a substrate for 5α-reductase enzyme. Results We observed 22% increase in andostenedione levels compared to baseline values in subjects who were treated with finasteride for 3 years. This significant increase did not vary by case-control status. Adjusted OR and 95% CI for the 3rd tertile of absolute change of androstenedione levels compared to the 1st tertile was 0.42 (95% CI 0.19–0.94) for low-grade (Gleason <7) cases. Similar results were observed when analyzed using percent change. There were no significant associations between serum androstenedione levels and risk of high-grade disease. Conclusions The results of this nested case-control study confirm that finasteride blocks the conversion of testosterone to DHT and of androstenedione to 5α-androstanedione-3, 17-dione, which also leads to reduction of DHT formation. This decrease in DHT may help reduce the risk of low-grade prostate cancer in men. Our data on a differential effect of androstenedione also suggest that some high-grade prostate cancers may not require androgen for progression. PMID:25733274

  1. Effect of finasteride on serum androstenedione and risk of prostate cancer within the prostate cancer prevention trial: differential effect on high- and low-grade disease.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Ashraful; Yao, Song; Till, Cathee; Kristal, Alan R; Goodman, Phyllis J; Hsing, Ann W; Tangen, Catherine M; Platz, Elizabeth A; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Reichardt, Juergen K V; vanBokhoven, Adrie; Neuhouser, Marian L; Santella, Regina M; Figg, William D; Price, Douglas K; Parnes, Howard L; Lippman, Scott M; Ambrosone, Christine B; Thompson, Ian M

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of finasteride on serum androst-4-ene-3,17-dione (androstenedione) and its association with prostate cancer risk among subjects who participated in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial. We analyzed serum androstenedione levels in 317 prostate cancer cases and 353 controls, nested in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial, a randomized placebo-controlled trial that found finasteride decreased prostate cancer risk. Androstenedione is the second most important circulating androgen in men besides testosterone and also a substrate for 5α-reductase enzyme. We observed a 22% increase in androstenedione levels compared with the baseline values in subjects who were treated with finasteride for 3 years. This significant increase did not vary by case-control status. Adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for the third tertile of absolute change in androstenedione levels compared with the first tertile were 0.42 (95% confidence interval, 0.19-0.94) for low-grade (Gleason score <7) cases. Similar results were observed when analyzed using percent change. There were no significant associations between serum androstenedione levels and the risk of high-grade disease. The results of this nested case-control study confirm that finasteride blocks the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and of androstenedione to 5α-androstanedione-3,17-dione, which also leads to the reduction of DHT formation. This decrease in DHT may help reduce the risk of low-grade prostate cancer in men. Our data on a differential effect of androstenedione also suggest that some high-grade prostate cancers may not require androgen for progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Moraxella catarrhalis two-component signal transduction system necessary for growth in liquid media affects production of two lysozyme inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Joslin, Stephanie N; Pybus, Christine; Labandeira-Rey, Maria; Evans, Amanda S; Attia, Ahmed S; Brautigam, Chad A; Hansen, Eric J

    2015-01-01

    There are a paucity of data concerning gene products that could contribute to the ability of Moraxella catarrhalis to colonize the human nasopharynx. Inactivation of a gene (mesR) encoding a predicted response regulator of a two-component signal transduction system in M. catarrhalis yielded a mutant unable to grow in liquid media. This mesR mutant also exhibited increased sensitivity to certain stressors, including polymyxin B, SDS, and hydrogen peroxide. Inactivation of the gene (mesS) encoding the predicted cognate sensor (histidine) kinase yielded a mutant with the same inability to grow in liquid media as the mesR mutant. DNA microarray and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR analyses indicated that several genes previously shown to be involved in the ability of M. catarrhalis to persist in the chinchilla nasopharynx were upregulated in the mesR mutant. Two other open reading frames upregulated in the mesR mutant were shown to encode small proteins (LipA and LipB) that had amino acid sequence homology to bacterial adhesins and structural homology to bacterial lysozyme inhibitors. Inactivation of both lipA and lipB did not affect the ability of M. catarrhalis O35E to attach to a human bronchial epithelial cell line in vitro. Purified recombinant LipA and LipB fusion proteins were each shown to inhibit human lysozyme activity in vitro and in saliva. A lipA lipB deletion mutant was more sensitive than the wild-type parent strain to killing by human lysozyme in the presence of human apolactoferrin. This is the first report of the production of lysozyme inhibitors by M. catarrhalis. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. A Moraxella catarrhalis Two-Component Signal Transduction System Necessary for Growth in Liquid Media Affects Production of Two Lysozyme Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Joslin, Stephanie N.; Pybus, Christine; Labandeira-Rey, Maria; Evans, Amanda S.; Attia, Ahmed S.; Brautigam, Chad A.

    2014-01-01

    There are a paucity of data concerning gene products that could contribute to the ability of Moraxella catarrhalis to colonize the human nasopharynx. Inactivation of a gene (mesR) encoding a predicted response regulator of a two-component signal transduction system in M. catarrhalis yielded a mutant unable to grow in liquid media. This mesR mutant also exhibited increased sensitivity to certain stressors, including polymyxin B, SDS, and hydrogen peroxide. Inactivation of the gene (mesS) encoding the predicted cognate sensor (histidine) kinase yielded a mutant with the same inability to grow in liquid media as the mesR mutant. DNA microarray and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR analyses indicated that several genes previously shown to be involved in the ability of M. catarrhalis to persist in the chinchilla nasopharynx were upregulated in the mesR mutant. Two other open reading frames upregulated in the mesR mutant were shown to encode small proteins (LipA and LipB) that had amino acid sequence homology to bacterial adhesins and structural homology to bacterial lysozyme inhibitors. Inactivation of both lipA and lipB did not affect the ability of M. catarrhalis O35E to attach to a human bronchial epithelial cell line in vitro. Purified recombinant LipA and LipB fusion proteins were each shown to inhibit human lysozyme activity in vitro and in saliva. A lipA lipB deletion mutant was more sensitive than the wild-type parent strain to killing by human lysozyme in the presence of human apolactoferrin. This is the first report of the production of lysozyme inhibitors by M. catarrhalis. PMID:25312959

  4. Proteins associated with heat-induced leaf senescence in creeping bentgrass as affected by foliar application of nitrogen, cytokinins, and an ethylene inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Jespersen, David; Huang, Bingru

    2015-02-01

    Heat stress causes premature leaf senescence in cool-season grass species. The objective of this study was to identify proteins regulated by nitrogen, cytokinins, and ethylene inhibitor in relation to heat-induced leaf senescence in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera). Plants (cv. Penncross) were foliar sprayed with 18 mM carbonyldiamide (N source), 25 μM aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, ethylene inhibitor), 25 μM zeatin riboside (ZR, cytokinin), or a water control, and then exposed to 20/15°C (day/night) or 35/30°C (heat stress) in growth chambers. All treatments suppressed heat-induced leaf senescence, as shown by higher turf quality and chlorophyll content, and lower electrolyte leakage in treated plants compared to the untreated control. A total of 49 proteins were responsive to N, AVG, or ZR under heat stress. The abundance of proteins in photosynthesis increased, with ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase affected by all three treatments, chlorophyll a/b-binding protein by AVG and N or Rubisco activase by AVG. Proteins for amino acid metabolism were upregulated, including alanine aminotransferase by three treatments and ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase by AVG and N. Upregulated proteins also included catalase by AVG and N and heat shock protein by ZR. Exogenous applications of AVG, ZR, or N downregulated proteins in respiration (enolase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and succinate dehygrogenase) under heat stress. Alleviation of heat-induced senescence by N, AVG, or ZR was associated with enhanced protein abundance in photosynthesis and amino acid metabolism and stress defense systems (heat shock protection and antioxidants), as well as suppression of those imparting respiration metabolism.

  5. Lipid phosphate phosphatase inhibitors locally amplify lysophosphatidic acid LPA1 receptor signalling in rat brain cryosections without affecting global LPA degradation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a signalling phospholipid with multiple biological functions, mainly mediated through specific G protein-coupled receptors. Aberrant LPA signalling is being increasingly implicated in the pathology of common human diseases, such as arteriosclerosis and cancer. The lifetime of the signalling pool of LPA is controlled by the equilibrium between synthesizing and degradative enzymatic activity. In the current study, we have characterized these enzymatic pathways in rat brain by pharmacologically manipulating the enzymatic machinery required for LPA degradation. Results In rat brain cryosections, the lifetime of bioactive LPA was found to be controlled by Mg2+-independent, N-ethylmaleimide-insensitive phosphatase activity, attributed to lipid phosphate phosphatases (LPPs). Pharmacological inhibition of this LPP activity amplified LPA1 receptor signalling, as revealed using functional autoradiography. Although two LPP inhibitors, sodium orthovanadate and propranolol, locally amplified receptor responses, they did not affect global brain LPA phosphatase activity (also attributed to Mg2+-independent, N-ethylmaleimide-insensitive phosphatases), as confirmed by Pi determination and by LC/MS/MS. Interestingly, the phosphate analog, aluminium fluoride (AlFx-) not only irreversibly inhibited LPP activity thereby potentiating LPA1 receptor responses, but also totally prevented LPA degradation, however this latter effect was not essential in order to observe AlFx--dependent potentiation of receptor signalling. Conclusions We conclude that vanadate- and propranolol-sensitive LPP activity locally guards the signalling pool of LPA whereas the majority of brain LPA phosphatase activity is attributed to LPP-like enzymatic activity which, like LPP activity, is sensitive to AlFx- but resistant to the LPP inhibitors, vanadate and propranolol. PMID:22686545

  6. Efficacy and safety of 3% minoxidil versus combined 3% minoxidil / 0.1% finasteride in male pattern hair loss: a randomized, double-blind, comparative study.

    PubMed

    Tanglertsampan, Chuchai

    2012-10-01

    Topical minoxidil and oral finasteride have been used to treat men with androgenetic alopecia (AGA). There are concerns about side effects of oral finasteride especially erectile dysfunction. To compare the efficacy and safety of the 24 weeks application of 3% minoxidil lotion (MNX) versus combined 3% minoxidil and 0.1% finasteride lotion (MFX) in men with AGA. Forty men with AGA were randomized treated with MNX or MFX. Efficacy was evaluated by hair counts and global photographic assessment. Safety assessment was performed by history and physical examination. At week 24, hair counts were increased from baseline in both groups. However paired t-test revealed statistical difference only in MFX group (p = 0.044). Unpaired t-test revealed no statistical difference between two groups with respect to change of hair counts at 24 weeks from baseline (p = 0.503). MFX showed significantly higher efficacy than MNX by global photographic assessment (p = 0.003). There was no significant difference in side effects between both groups. Although change of hair counts was not statistically different between two groups, global photographic assessment showed significantly greater improvement in the MFX group than the MNX group. There was no sexual side effect. MFX may be a safe and effective treatment option.

  7. Roscovitine, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, affects several gating mechanisms to inhibit cardiac L-type (Ca(V)1.2) calcium channels

    PubMed Central

    Yarotskyy, V; Elmslie, K S

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: L-type calcium channels (Ca (V)1.2) play an important role in cardiac contraction. Roscovitine, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor and promising anticancer drug, has been shown to affect Ca (V)1.2 by inhibiting current amplitude and slowing activation. This research investigates the mechanism by which roscovitine inhibits Ca (V)1.2 channels. Experimental approach: Ca (V)1.2 channels were transfected into HEK 293 cells, using the calcium phosphate precipitation method, and currents were measured using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Key results: Roscovitine slows activation at all voltages, which precludes one previously proposed mechanism. In addition, roscovitine enhances voltage-dependent, but not calcium-dependent inactivation. This enhancement resulted from both an acceleration of inactivation and a slowing of the recovery from inactivation. Internally applied roscovitine failed to affect Ca (V)1.2 currents, which supports a kinase-independent mechanism and extracellular binding site. Unlike the dihydropyridines, closed state inactivation was not affected by roscovitine. Inactivation was enhanced in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50=29.5±12 μM, which is close to that for slow activation and inhibition. Conclusions and implications: We conclude that roscovitine binds to an extracellular site on Ca (V)1.2 channels to inhibit current by both slowing activation and enhancing inactivation. Purine-based drugs could become a new option for treatment of diseases that benefit from L-channel inhibition such as cardiac arrhythmias and hypertension. PMID:17700718

  8. Combination therapy with omega-3 fatty acids plus tamsulocin and finasteride in the treatment of men with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

    PubMed

    Ghadian, Alireza; Rezaei, Mehran

    2017-08-01

    Inflammation and Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) as a part of it are common in BPH specimens and may play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease through cytokines that promote cell growth or lead to smooth muscle contraction. The aim of this study is to analyze whether combination therapy with omega-3 fatty acids, which have anti-inflammatory and COX-2 inhibitory effects, and tamsulocin plus finasteride offers an advantage compared to tamsulocin plus finasteride therapy in patients with BPH. This is a single-center blinded clinical trial. One hundred consecutive men between 50 and 70 years of age and no other comorbidities with LUTS and BPH were entered into the study and were randomized to receive omega-3 fatty acids 300 mg three times a day with meals plus tamsulocin 0.4 mg at bed time and finasteride 5 mg/day (study group) versus tamsulocin 0.4 mg at bed time and finasteride 5 mg/day (control group) for 6 months. The efficacy and safety of treatments were assessed at baseline and at month one, three and six. In our population, both treatments (groups study and control) produced statistically significant improvements in IPSS, Q max, Q ave and prostate volume from baseline during follow-up (p < 0.05). We found that study group showed higher improvement in IPSS (p = 0.007), Q max (p = 0.011) and Q ave (p = 0.004) at the 1 month interval. These higher improvements last at month three and six (p < 0.05). Prostate volume in the study group also showed more improvement at month six (p = 0.000). Adverse effects were the same in both groups during the study. It can be concluded that association of omega-3 fatty acids with tamsulocin and finasteride may produce better clinical results.

  9. Melanocytes from Patients Affected by Ullrich Congenital Muscular Dystrophy and Bethlem Myopathy have Dysfunctional Mitochondria That Can be Rescued with Cyclophilin Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zulian, Alessandra; Tagliavini, Francesca; Rizzo, Erika; Pellegrini, Camilla; Sardone, Francesca; Zini, Nicoletta; Maraldi, Nadir Mario; Santi, Spartaco; Faldini, Cesare; Merlini, Luciano; Petronilli, Valeria; Bernardi, Paolo; Sabatelli, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy and Bethlem myopathy are caused by mutations in collagen VI (ColVI) genes, which encode an extracellular matrix protein; yet, mitochondria play a major role in disease pathogenesis through a short circuit caused by inappropriate opening of the permeability transition pore, a high-conductance channel, which causes a shortage in ATP production. We find that melanocytes do not produce ColVI yet they bind it at the cell surface, suggesting that this protein may play a trophic role and that its absence may cause lesions similar to those seen in skeletal muscle. We show that mitochondria in melanocytes of Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy and Bethlem myopathy patients display increased size, reduced matrix density, and disrupted cristae, findings that suggest a functional impairment. In keeping with this hypothesis, mitochondria (i) underwent anomalous depolarization after inhibition of the F-ATP synthase with oligomycin, and (ii) displayed decreased respiratory reserve capacity. The non-immunosuppressive cyclophilin inhibitor NIM811 prevented mitochondrial depolarization in response to oligomycin in melanocytes from both Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy and Bethlem myopathy patients, and partially restored the respiratory reserve of melanocytes from one Bethlem myopathy patient. These results match our recent findings on melanocytes from patients affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (Pellegrini et al., 2013), and suggest that skin biopsies may represent a minimally invasive tool to investigate mitochondrial dysfunction and to evaluate drug efficacy in ColVI-related myopathies and possibly in other muscle wasting conditions like aging sarcopenia.

  10. AI-2 quorum-sensing inhibitors affect the starvation response and reduce virulence in several Vibrio species, most likely by interfering with LuxPQ.

    PubMed

    Brackman, Gilles; Celen, Shari; Baruah, Kartik; Bossier, Peter; Van Calenbergh, Serge; Nelis, Hans J; Coenye, Tom

    2009-12-01

    The increase of disease outbreaks caused by Vibrio species in aquatic organisms as well as in humans, together with the emergence of antibiotic resistance in Vibrio species, has led to a growing interest in alternative disease control measures. Quorum sensing (QS) is a mechanism for regulating microbial gene expression in a cell density-dependent way. While there is good evidence for the involvement of auto-inducer 2 (AI-2)-based interspecies QS in the control of virulence in multiple Vibrio species, only few inhibitors of this system are known. From the screening of a small panel of nucleoside analogues for their ability to disturb AI-2-based QS, an adenosine derivative with a p-methoxyphenylpropionamide moiety at C-3' emerged as a promising hit. Its mechanism of inhibition was elucidated by measuring the effect on bioluminescence in a series of Vibrio harveyi AI-2 QS mutants. Our results indicate that this compound, as well as a truncated analogue lacking the adenine base, block AI-2-based QS without interfering with bacterial growth. The active compounds affected neither the bioluminescence system as such nor the production of AI-2, but most likely interfered with the signal transduction pathway at the level of LuxPQ in V. harveyi. The most active nucleoside analogue (designated LMC-21) was found to reduce the Vibrio species starvation response, to affect biofilm formation in Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae, to reduce pigment and protease production in V. anguillarum, and to protect gnotobiotic Artemia from V. harveyi-induced mortality.

  11. Prognostic role of the cumulative toxicity in patients affected by metastatic renal cells carcinoma and treated with first-line tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Iacovelli, Roberto; Verri, Elena; Cossu Rocca, Maria; Aurilio, Gaetano; Cullurà, Daniela; de Cobelli, Ottavio; Nolè, Franco

    2017-02-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitor-related toxicities have been reported to be predictive and/or prognostic factors in patients affected by metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). We aim to investigate the incidence of cumulative toxicity and its prognostic role in mRCC patients treated with sunitinib or pazopanib. mRCC patients treated with sunitinib or pazopanib at the European Institute of Oncology in Milan were reviewed for the incidence of adverse events. Cumulative toxicity was defined as the presence of more than one selected adverse event of any grade. Prognoses were evaluated by the International mRCC Database Consortium criteria. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox analysis. A total of 104 patients were included in the final analysis. Only 18.3% did not experience any of the selected toxicities: 26.9% had one, 35.6% had two and 19.2% all three toxicities. Accordingly, 54.8% of patients experienced cumulative toxicity. In those with or without cumulative toxicity, the median PFS was 27.6 versus 7.2 months and the median OS was 61.2 versus 18.7 months, respectively. When cumulative toxicity was adjusted for International mRCC Database Consortium prognostic groups, it maintained its prognostic role for both PFS (hazard ratio: 0.31, 95% confidence interval, 0.20-0.49; P<0.001) and OS (hazard ratio: 0.27, 95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.48; P<0.001). A major limitation was the retrospective and monocentric nature of the analysis. We reported the prognostic role of cumulative toxicity because of hypertension, hypothyroidism and hand-foot syndrome in patients affected by mRCC and treated with sunitinib or pazopanib.

  12. A PHARMACOKINETIC-PHARMACODYNAMIC MODEL FOR GENE-REGULATED PROSTATE MAINTENANCE: COMPARING THE EFFECTS OF CASTRATION WITH ANTIANDROGEN EXPOSURE IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Antiandrogens affect prostate maintenance in two ways. Androgen antagonists, such as the fungicide vinclozolin, act as competitive ligands for the androgen receptor (AR). Enzyme inhibitors, such as the therapeutic drug Finasteride, inhibit the enzyme 5 -reductase (5 R) from metab...

  13. A PHARMACOKINETIC-PHARMACODYNAMIC MODEL FOR GENE-REGULATED PROSTATE MAINTENANCE: COMPARING THE EFFECTS OF CASTRATION WITH ANTIANDROGEN EXPOSURE IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Antiandrogens affect prostate maintenance in two ways. Androgen antagonists, such as the fungicide vinclozolin, act as competitive ligands for the androgen receptor (AR). Enzyme inhibitors, such as the therapeutic drug Finasteride, inhibit the enzyme 5 -reductase (5 R) from metab...

  14. Topical formulations containing finasteride. Part I: in vitro permeation/penetration study and in vivo pharmacokinetics in hairless rat.

    PubMed

    Monti, Daniela; Tampucci, Silvia; Burgalassi, Susi; Chetoni, Patrizia; Lenzi, Carla; Pirone, Andrea; Mailland, Federico

    2014-08-01

    In hair follicle (Hf) cells, the type-2 5-α-reductase enzyme, implicated in androgenetic alopecia, is selectively inhibited by finasteride (FNS). Because an effective topical formulation to deliver FNS to Hf is currently unavailable, this investigation aimed at evaluating in vitro FNS skin permeation and retention through and into hairless rat and human abdominal skin. Four hydroxypropyl chitosan (HPCH)-based formulations (P-08-012, P-08-016, P-08-063, and P-08-064) and one anhydrous formulation without HPCH (P-10-008) were tested. The pharmacokinetics in plasma and skin after application of P-08-016 or P-10-008 on dorsal rat skin with single and repeated doses was investigated. P-08-016 performed the best in driving FNS to the reticular dermis without producing a high transdermal flux. Neither the in vivo single nor the repeated dose experiments produced plasma levels of FNS and no differences were found between formulations concerning skin retention. No increase in the amount of drug retained in the skin was obtained with the repeated dose experiment. In conclusion, the HPCH-based formulation P-08-016 might represent an alternative to systemic therapy for its ability to promote a cutaneous depot of FNS in the region of hair bulbs, minimizing systemic absorption even after repeated treatments. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  15. Limits of visual detection for finasteride polymorphs in prepared binary mixtures: analysis by X-ray powder diffraction.

    PubMed

    Bezzon, Vinícius D N; Antonio, Selma G; Paiva-Santos, Carlos O

    2014-11-01

    Finasteride (FNT) is a drug that inhibits human enzyme type II 5α-reductase that metabolizes testosterone into dihydrotestosterone. There are two enantiotropic polymorphs with known crystal structure: designated as forms I and II. Identification and control of these polymorphic forms in mixtures can be performed using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) data and Rietveld method (RM). As experimental conditions may limit the detection of minority phases in mixtures, it is interesting to show what are these limits for some usual and one high-resolution equipment. So, in this work, we discuss the parameters to find the limit of the detection in binary mixtures of forms I and II of FNT according to each experimental condition. The samples analyzed were binary mixtures prepared with anhydrous polymorphs of the drug FNT. These samples were measured in four diffractometers with different experimental condition. These equipments represent the main resolutions generally used for drug analysis by XRPD. For the development of this work, a batch of form I was obtained pure, and another batch with forms I and II was used to obtain pure form II by heat treatment. Depending on the experimental condition, the polymorphs could be detected in a proportion as low as 0.5 wt%. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 103:3567-3575, 2014.

  16. Enhanced topical delivery of finasteride using glyceryl monooleate-based liquid crystalline nanoparticles stabilized by cremophor surfactants.

    PubMed

    Madheswaran, Thiagarajan; Baskaran, Rengarajan; Yong, Chul Soon; Yoo, Bong Kyu

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the capability of two surfactants, Cremophor RH 40 (RH) and Cremophor EL (EL), to prepare liquid crystalline nanoparticles (LCN) and to study its influence on the topical delivery of finasteride (FNS). FNS-loaded LCN was formulated with the two surfactants and characterized for size distribution, morphology, entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release, and skin permeation/retention. Influence of FNS-loaded LCN on the conformational changes on porcine skin was also studied using attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Transmission electron microscopical image confirmed the formation of LCN. The average particle size of formulations was in the range of 165.1-208.6 and 153.7-243.0 nm, respectively. The formulations prepared with higher surfactant concentrations showed faster release and significantly increased skin permeation. Specifically, LCN prepared with RH 2.5% presented higher permeation flux (0.100 ± 0.005 μgcm(-2)h(-1)) compared with lower concentration (0.029 ± 0.007 μgcm(-2)h(-1)). Typical spectral bands of lipid matrix of porcine skin were shifted to higher wavenumber, indicating increased degree of disorder of the lipid acyl chains which might cause fluidity increase of stratum corneum. Taken together, Cremophor surfactants exhibited a promising potential to stabilize the LCN and significantly augmented the skin permeation of FNS.

  17. Oral Finasteride Presents With Sexual-Unrelated Withdrawal in Long-Term Treated Androgenic Alopecia in Men.

    PubMed

    Perez-Mora, Nicolas; Velasco, Carlos; Bermüdez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Side effects associated with oral finasteride (FT) (1 mg/d) and topical 5% minoxidil (M5) have been previously described. The authors have evaluated long-term adverse effects and causes of long-term therapy withdrawal in patients with androgenic alopecia (AGA) treated with M5+FT vs M5 without FT. A total of 130 AGA patients with a minimum 2-year follow-up volunteered to complete a questionnaire on side effects. Patients' responses were classified as "never," "rarely," "sometimes," "often," and "all the time." An adverse effect was considered in the presence of an "often" or "all the time" response. A total of 100 patients received combined M5+FT and were compared with 30 patients receiving single-therapy M5 according to the physician's clinical criteria. Erectile dysfunction (3%), diminished libido (4%), and reduced ejaculation (7%) were present in patients taking M5+FT but were absent in patients taking M5. Only 1 of 100 patients taking M5+FT quit long-term therapy due to sexual adverse effects (diminished libido). The main causes for therapy withdrawal in the FT group were lack of positive results in 11% and in the M5 group side effects in 4% (P < .02). Increased body hair was different between groups: with 6.6% in the M5 group and 4% in the M5+FT group (P < .03). FT demonstrates sexual-unrelated reasons as the main cause of therapy withdrawal in long-term treated AGA patients.

  18. Change in sexual function in men with lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hyperplasia associated with long-term treatment with doxazosin, finasteride and combined therapy.

    PubMed

    Fwu, Chyng-Wen; Eggers, Paul W; Kirkali, Ziya; McVary, Kevin T; Burrows, Pamela K; Kusek, John W

    2014-06-01

    We examined the effects of doxazosin, finasteride and combined therapy in men with lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia on sexual function, as assessed by the Brief Male Sexual Function Inventory during 4 years. The MTOPS (Medical Therapy of Prostatic Symptoms) study was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical trial with a primary outcome of time to benign prostatic hyperplasia progression. Change in sexual function was a secondary outcome. We analyzed the records of 2,783 men enrolled in the study who completed the inventory at baseline and at least once during followup. In men enrolled in MTOPS sexual function decreased with time. Men assigned to finasteride and combined therapy experienced overall statistically significant but slight worsening of ejaculatory function compared with men on placebo. Men assigned to combined therapy also experienced significant worsening in erectile function and sexual problem assessment. There was no significant difference in changes in any inventory domain in men assigned to doxazosin alone compared to placebo. This study significantly extends understanding of the effects of long-term treatment with these drugs on sexual function in men with lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia. Treatment with finasteride or combined therapy was associated with worsening sexual function while treatment with doxazosin alone was associated with minimal negative impact, if any. Physicians should discuss with their patients the possible long-term effects of these drugs for lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia on sexual function. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Broad-range TRP channel inhibitors (2-APB, flufenamic acid, SKF-96365) affect differently contraction of resistance and conduit femoral arteries of rat.

    PubMed

    Bencze, Michal; Behuliak, Michal; Vavřínová, Anna; Zicha, Josef

    2015-10-15

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are proposed to contribute to membrane depolarization and Ca2+ influx into vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells. Our aim was to study the effects of widely used broad-range TRP channel inhibitors--2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), flufenamic acid (FFA) and SKF-96365--on the contraction of freshly isolated small and large arteries. Endothelium-denuded resistance (≈250 µm) and conduit (≈1000 µm) femoral arteries were isolated from adult Wistar rats and mounted in wire myograph. The effects of the above mentioned TRP channel inhibitors and voltage-dependent calcium channel inhibitor nifedipine were studied on arterial contractions induced by phenylephrine, U-46619 or K+. Phenylephrine-induced contractions were also studied in the absence of extracellular Na+. mRNA expression of particular canonical and melastatin TRP channel subunits in femoral vascular bed was determined. TRP channel inhibitors attenuated K+-induced contraction less than nifedipine. Phenylephrine-induced contraction was more influenced by 2-APB in resistance arteries, while FFA completely prevented U-46619-induced contraction in both sizes of arteries. The absence of extracellular Na+ prevented the inhibitory effects of 2-APB, but not those of FFA. The observed effects of broad-range TRP channel inhibitors, which were dependent on the size of the artery, confirmed the involvement of TRP channels in agonist-induced contractions. The inhibitory effects of 2-APB (but not those of FFA or SKF-96365) were dependent on the presence of extracellular Na+.

  20. Phenothiazine Inhibitors of TLKs Affect Double-Strand Break Repair and DNA Damage Response Recovery and Potentiate Tumor Killing with Radiomimetic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ronald, Sharon; Awate, Sanket; Rath, Abhijit; Carroll, Jennifer; Galiano, Floyd; Dwyer, Donard; Kleiner-Hancock, Heather; Mathis, J Michael; Vigod, Simone; De Benedetti, Arrigo

    2013-01-01

    The Tousled-like kinases (TLKs) are involved in chromatin assembly, DNA repair, and transcription. Two TLK genes exist in humans, and their expression is often dysregulated in cancer. TLKs phosphorylate Asf1 and Rad9, regulating double-strand break (DSB) repair and the DNA damage response (DDR). TLKs maintain genomic stability and are important therapeutic intervention targets. We identified specific inhibitors of TLKs from several compound libraries, some of which belong to the family of phenothiazine antipsychotics. The inhibitors prevented the TLK-mediated phosphorylation of Rad9(S328) and impaired checkpoint recovery and DSB repair. The inhibitor thioridazine (THD) potentiated tumor killing with chemotherapy and also had activity alone. Staining for γ-H2AX revealed few positive cells in untreated tumors, but large numbers in mice treated with low doxorubicin or THD alone, possibly the result of the accumulation of DSBs that are not promptly repaired as they may occur in the harsh tumor growth environment.

  1. Factors affecting the reactivation of the oligomycin-sensitive adenosine 5'-triphosphatase and the release of ATPase inhibitor protein during the re-energization of intact mitochondria from ischemic cardiac muscle.

    PubMed

    Rouslin, W

    1987-03-15

    In the present study we examined factors affecting the reversal of the ischemia-induced protonic inhibition of the mitochondrial ATPase described earlier (Rouslin, W. (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 9657-9661). It was found that ATPase reactivation and accompanying inhibitor protein release during the re-energization of intact mitochondria isolated from 20-min ischemic canine heart muscle could be blocked completely by either carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) or nigericin but was unaffected by valinomycin at 35 mM K+. At higher K+ concentrations, valinomycin also blocked ATPase reactivation but not quite as completely as did nigericin. These observations suggest that ATPase reactivation and inhibitor protein release are particularly dependent upon either the trans-inner membrane pH gradient (delta pH) or possibly upon matrix pH per se and slightly less dependent upon membrane potential (delta psi) in intact cardiac muscle mitochondria. The addition of FCCP at the end of the re-energization incubations limited partially the extent of both ATPase reactivation and inhibitor protein release. This latter effect appears to have been mediated by a partial reassociation of the inhibitor protein with the enzyme, and it was accentuated (when FCCP was added at the end of the incubations) or mimicked (when FCCP was absent) by lowering the pH of the re-energization medium. A close examination of the first 10 min of the time course of enzyme activation and of inhibitor protein release revealed that while the former process was essentially finished in 1 min or less, the latter required approximately 10 min for completion. This observation led to the proposal of a two-site model of enzyme-inhibitor interaction which is discussed.

  2. A pilot study on the sexual side effects of finasteride as related to hand preference for men undergoing treatment of male pattern baldness.

    PubMed

    Motofei, Ion G; Rowland, David L; Georgescu, Simona R; Baconi, Daniela L; Dimcevici, Nicoleta P; Paunica, Stana; Constantin, Vlad D; Balalau, Cristian

    2013-04-01

    To investigate the relationships between pharmacologically induced deprivation of dihydrotestosterone, sexual arousal, libido and hand preference, by comparing the self-reported sexual response prior to and during reception of the anti-androgen finasteride in men undergoing treatment for male pattern baldness. In total, 33 sexually healthy Romanian men participated in this study. Patients prospectively provided information regarding their sexual functioning (over 4 weeks), as measured by the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) prior to and after commencing treatment with 1 mg finasteride for male pattern baldness. Overall IIEF scores as well as the erectile function, orgasmic function, sexual desire and overall satisfaction subscales showed group, treatment and group by treatment effects. The intercourse satisfaction subscale showed group and group by treatment effects. On most subscales, right-handed men showed no effect or lower sexual function whereas left-handed men reported no effect or improved sexual function, primarily. These results suggest that the sexual effects of dihydrotestosterone deprivation may depend on handedness--a proxy variable that may represent cognitive style--which lends further support to the idea of two distinct neuroendocrine psychosexual axes. They further suggest that detection of such sexual effects may be enhanced by using research methodologies and communication strategies that increase patients' sensitization to such effects. © 2012 THE AUTHORS. BJU INTERNATIONAL © 2012 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

  3. A new chitinase-like xylanase inhibitor protein (XIP) from coffee (Coffea arabica) affects Soybean Asian rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) spore germination

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Asian rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) is a common disease in Brazilian soybean fields and it is difficult to control. To identify a biochemical candidate with potential to combat this disease, a new chitinase-like xylanase inhibitor protein (XIP) from coffee (Coffea arabica) (CaclXIP) leaves was cloned into the pGAPZα-B vector for expression in Pichia pastoris. Results A cDNA encoding a chitinase-like xylanase inhibitor protein (XIP) from coffee (Coffea arabica) (CaclXIP), was isolated from leaves. The amino acid sequence predicts a (β/α)8 topology common to Class III Chitinases (glycoside hydrolase family 18 proteins; GH18), and shares similarity with other GH18 members, although it lacks the glutamic acid residue essential for catalysis, which is replaced by glutamine. CaclXIP was expressed as a recombinant protein in Pichia pastoris. Enzymatic assay showed that purified recombinant CaclXIP had only residual chitinolytic activity. However, it inhibited xylanases from Acrophialophora nainiana by approx. 60% when present at 12:1 (w/w) enzyme:inhibitor ratio. Additionally, CaclXIP at 1.5 μg/μL inhibited the germination of spores of Phakopsora pachyrhizi by 45%. Conclusions Our data suggests that CaclXIP belongs to a class of naturally inactive chitinases that have evolved to act in plant cell defence as xylanase inhibitors. Its role on inhibiting germination of fungal spores makes it an eligible candidate gene for the control of Asian rust. PMID:21299880

  4. The potent cell permeable calpain inhibitor MDL28170 affects the interaction of Leishmania amazonensis with macrophages and shows anti-amastigote activity.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Fernanda A; Sangenito, Leandro S; Oliveira, Simone S C; De Arruda, Luciana B; D'Ávila-Levy, Claudia M; Santos, André L S; Branquinha, Marta H

    2017-10-01

    Since the discovery of the28 first drugs used in leishmaniasis treatment up to now, the search for compounds with anti-Leishmania activity without toxic effects and able to overcome the emergency of resistant strains remains a major goal to combat this neglected disease. With this in mind, in the present work, we evaluated the effects of the calpain inhibitor MDL28170 on the interaction process of Leishmania amazonensis promastigote forms with murine peritoneal macrophages and on the intracellular amastigotes. Our results showed that the calpain inhibitor MDL28170 at 15 and 30μM significantly reduced the interaction process of promastigotes with macrophages by 16% and 41%, respectively. The inhibitor was also able to drastically reduce the number of infected macrophages in a time- and dose-dependent manner: after only 24h, MDL28170 was able to significantly diminish the infection rate, presenting an IC50 value of 18.2μM for amastigotes. The treatment with MDL28170 did not alter the nitric oxide production, but the production of TNF-α was significantly raised. Altogether, the results presented here contribute to the search of new proteolytic inhibitors able to act in a selective and effective manner against the diseases caused by trypanosomatids. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Atypical dopamine transporter inhibitors R-modafinil and JHW 007 differentially affect D2 autoreceptor neurotransmission and the firing rate of midbrain dopamine neurons.

    PubMed

    Avelar, Alicia J; Cao, Jianjing; Newman, Amy Hauck; Beckstead, Michael J

    2017-09-01

    Abuse of psychostimulants like cocaine that inhibit dopamine (DA) reuptake through the dopamine transporter (DAT) represents a major public health issue, however FDA-approved pharmacotherapies have yet to be developed. Recently a class of ligands termed "atypical DAT inhibitors" has gained attention due to their range of effectiveness in increasing extracellular DA levels without demonstrating significant abuse liability. These compounds not only hold promise as therapeutic agents to treat stimulant use disorders but also as experimental tools to improve our understanding of DAT function. Here we used patch clamp electrophysiology in mouse brain slices to explore the effects of two atypical DAT inhibitors (R-modafinil and JHW 007) on the physiology of single DA neurons in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area. Despite their commonalities of being DAT inhibitors that lack cocaine-like behavioral profiles, these compounds exhibited surprisingly divergent cellular effects. Similar to cocaine, R-modafinil slowed DA neuron firing in a D2 receptor-dependent manner and rapidly enhanced the amplitude and duration of D2 receptor-mediated currents in the midbrain. In contrast, JHW 007 exhibited little effect on firing, slow DAT blockade, and an unexpected inhibition of D2 receptor-mediated currents that may be due to direct D2 receptor antagonism. Furthermore, pretreatment with JHW 007 blunted the cellular effects of cocaine, suggesting that it may be valuable to investigate similar DAT inhibitors as potential therapeutic agents. Further exploration of these and other atypical DAT inhibitors may reveal important cellular effects of compounds that will have potential as pharmacotherapies for treating cocaine use disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Prostate Cancer Cells Differ in Testosterone Accumulation, Dihydrotestosterone Conversion, and Androgen Receptor Signaling Response to Steroid 5α-Reductase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yue; Godoy, Alejandro; Azzouni, Faris; Wilton, John H.; Ip, Clement; Mohler, James L.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Blocking 5α-reductase-mediated testosterone conversion to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) with finasteride or dutasteride is the driving hypothesis behind two prostate cancer prevention trials. Factors affecting intracellular androgen levels and the androgen receptor (AR) signaling axis need to be examined systematically in order to fully understand the outcome of interventions using these drugs. METHODS The expression of three 5α-reductase isozymes, as determined by immunohistochemistry and qRT-PCR, was studied in five human prostate cancer cell lines. Intracellular testosterone and DHT were analyzed using mass spectrometry. A luciferase reporter assay and AR-regulated genes were used to evaluate the modulation of AR activity. RESULTS Prostate cancer cells were capable of accumulating testosterone to a level 15–50 times higher than that in the medium. The profile and expression of 5α-reductase isozymes did not predict the capacity to convert testosterone to DHT. Finasteride and dutasteride were able to depress testosterone uptake in addition to lowering intracellular DHT. The inhibition of AR activity following drug treatment often exceeded the expected response due to reduced availability of DHT. The ability to maintain high intracellular testosterone might compensate for the shortage of DHT. CONCLUSIONS The biological effect of finasteride or dutasteride appears to be complex and may depend on the interplay of several factors, which include testosterone turnover, enzymology of DHT production, ability to use testosterone and DHT interchangeably, and propensity of cells for off-target AR inhibitory effect. PMID:23813697

  7. Autophagy inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pasquier, Benoit

    2016-03-01

    Autophagy is a lysosome-dependent mechanism of intracellular degradation. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this process are highly complex and involve multiple proteins, including the kinases ULK1 and Vps34. The main function of autophagy is the maintenance of cell survival when modifications occur in the cellular environment. During the past decade, extensive studies have greatly improved our knowledge and autophagy has exploded as a research field. This process is now widely implicated in pathophysiological processes such as cancer, metabolic, and neurodegenerative disorders, making it an attractive target for drug discovery. In this review, we will summarize the different types of inhibitors that affect the autophagy machinery and provide some potential therapeutic perspectives.

  8. Chelation Motifs Affecting Metal-dependent Viral Enzymes: N′-acylhydrazone Ligands as Dual Target Inhibitors of HIV-1 Integrase and Reverse Transcriptase Ribonuclease H Domain

    PubMed Central

    Carcelli, Mauro; Rogolino, Dominga; Gatti, Anna; Pala, Nicolino; Corona, Angela; Caredda, Alessia; Tramontano, Enzo; Pannecouque, Christophe; Naesens, Lieve; Esposito, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, still represent a serious global health emergency. The chronic toxicity derived from the current anti-retroviral therapy limits the prolonged use of several antiretroviral agents, continuously requiring the discovery of new antiviral agents with innovative strategies of action. In particular, the development of single molecules targeting two proteins (dual inhibitors) is one of the current main goals in drug discovery. In this contest, metal-chelating molecules have been extensively explored as potential inhibitors of viral metal-dependent enzymes, resulting in some important classes of antiviral agents. Inhibition of HIV Integrase (IN) is, in this sense, paradigmatic. HIV-1 IN and Reverse Transcriptase-associated Ribonuclease H (RNase H) active sites show structural homologies, with the presence of two Mg(II) cofactors, hence it seems possible to inhibit both enzymes by means of chelating ligands with analogous structural features. Here we present a series of N′-acylhydrazone ligands with groups able to chelate the Mg(II) hard Lewis acid ions in the active sites of both the enzymes, resulting in dual inhibitors with micromolar and even nanomolar activities. The most interesting identified N′-acylhydrazone analog, compound 18, shows dual RNase H-IN inhibition and it is also able to inhibit viral replication in cell-based antiviral assays in the low micromolar range. Computational modeling studies were also conducted to explore the binding attitudes of some model ligands within the active site of both the enzymes. PMID:28373864

  9. ACE inhibitors

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACE inhibitors There are many different names and brands of ACE inhibitors. Most work as well as ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  10. Long-term Treatment with Finasteride Resulted in a Significant Improvement Relative to Placebo in Clinical Progression of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) in Men with Enlarged Prostates (≥30 mL), But Not in Those with Smaller Prostates (<30 mL): Data from the Medical Therapy of Prostatic Symptoms (MTOPS) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Steven A.; Lee, Jeannette Y.; Meehan, Alan G.; Kusek, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This post hoc analysis of the Medical Therapy of Prostatic Symptoms (MTOPS) trial examined the effect of finasteride alone compared to placebo on clinical progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in men with baseline prostate volume (PV) <30 mL and ≥30 mL. Materials and Methods Men were randomized to placebo (n=737), doxazosin alone (4 to 8 mg) (n=756), finasteride alone (5 mg) (n=768), or doxazosin plus finasteride (n=786) (average duration of follow-up was 4.5 yrs); ~50% of patients had a baseline PV ≥30 mL. The present analysis was based on the finasteride alone and placebo arms only and included patients for whom baseline and end of study data were available. We examined the effect of treatment on the cumulative percentage of men who did not experience clinical progression of BPH by study end. Results In men with baseline PV ≥30 mL, treatment with finasteride produced a significant (p<0.001) increase relative to placebo in the cumulative percentage of patients who did not experience clinical progression of BPH (finasteride, 88.1%, versus placebo, 77.8%). There was no significant (p=0.441) between-group difference in men with baseline PV <30 mL (91.4% versus 89.1%, respectively). Conclusions Long-term treatment with finasteride led to a significant beneficial effect compared to placebo on clinical progression of BPH in LUTS patients with enlarged prostates (baseline PV ≥30 mL). Finasteride had no significant effect, compared to placebo on clinical progression of BPH in LUTS patients with smaller prostates (baseline PV <30 mL). PMID:21334655

  11. Risk of erectile dysfunction associated with use of 5-α reductase inhibitors for benign prostatic hyperplasia or alopecia: population based studies using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink.

    PubMed

    Hagberg, Katrina Wilcox; Divan, Hozefa A; Persson, Rebecca; Nickel, J Curtis; Jick, Susan S

    2016-09-22

     To estimate the risk of erectile dysfunction in men who used 5-α reductase inhibitors to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia or alopecia.  Cohort studies with nested case-control analyses.  UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink.  Two populations of men free of risk factors for erectile dysfunction and other sexual dysfunction or its treatment: men aged 40 or more with benign prostatic hyperplasia who received a prescription for a 5-α reductase inhibitor (finasteride or dutasteride) or α blocker, or both, and men aged 18-59 with alopecia.  In the benign prostatic hyperplasia study, exposures were classified as 5-α reductase inhibitors only, 5-α reductase inhibitors+α blockers, or α blockers only. In the alopecia study, exposures were finasteride 1 mg or no treatment.  Cases were men with a diagnosis of erectile dysfunction or treatment (procedure or prescription for a phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor) during follow-up. We calculated incidence rates and adjusted incidence rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals. We also conducted nested case-control analyses to control for major confounders, and calculated adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals.  In the population with benign prostatic hyperplasia (n=71 849), the risk of erectile dysfunction was not increased with use of 5-α reductase inhibitors only (incidence rate ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.85 to 0.99; odds ratio 0.94, 95% confidence interval 0.85 to 1.03) or 5-α reductase inhibitors+α blocker (1.09, 0.99 to 1.21, 0.92; 0.80 to 1.06) compared with α blockers only, and remained null regardless of number of prescriptions or timing of use. The risk of erectile dysfunction increased with longer duration of benign prostatic hyperplasia, regardless of exposure. For the alopecia population (n=12 346), the risk of erectile dysfunction was not increased for users of finasteride 1 mg compared with unexposed men with alopecia (1.03, 0.73 to 1.44; 0.95, 0.64 to 1.41).  5-

  12. The VMAT-2 Inhibitor Tetrabenazine Affects Effort-Related Decision Making in a Progressive Ratio/Chow Feeding Choice Task: Reversal with Antidepressant Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Patrick A.; Lee, Christie A.; Nunes, Eric J.; Yohn, Samantha E.; Nowak, Victoria; Khan, Bilal; Shah, Priya; Pandit, Saagar; Vemuri, V. Kiran; Makriyannis, Alex; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E.; Correa, Merce; Salamone, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral activation is a fundamental feature of motivation, and organisms frequently make effort-related decisions based upon evaluations of reinforcement value and response costs. Furthermore, people with major depression and other disorders often show anergia, psychomotor retardation, fatigue, and alterations in effort-related decision making. Tasks measuring effort-based decision making can be used as animal models of the motivational symptoms of depression, and the present studies characterized the effort-related effects of the vesicular monoamine transport (VMAT-2) inhibitor tetrabenazine. Tetrabenazine induces depressive symptoms in humans, and also preferentially depletes dopamine (DA). Rats were assessed using a concurrent progressive ratio (PROG)/chow feeding task, in which they can either lever press on a PROG schedule for preferred high-carbohydrate food, or approach and consume a less-preferred lab chow that is freely available in the chamber. Previous work has shown that the DA antagonist haloperidol reduced PROG work output on this task, but did not reduce chow intake, effects that differed substantially from those of reinforcer devaluation or appetite suppressant drugs. The present work demonstrated that tetrabenazine produced an effort-related shift in responding on the PROG/chow procedure, reducing lever presses, highest ratio achieved and time spent responding, but not reducing chow intake. Similar effects were produced by administration of the subtype selective DA antagonists ecopipam (D1) and eticlopride (D2), but not by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor neutral antagonist and putative appetite suppressant AM 4413, which suppressed both lever pressing and chow intake. The adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3, the antidepressant and catecholamine uptake inhibitor bupropion, and the MAO-B inhibitor deprenyl, all reversed the impairments induced by tetrabenazine. This work demonstrates the potential utility of the PROG/chow procedure as a rodent model of

  13. The VMAT-2 inhibitor tetrabenazine affects effort-related decision making in a progressive ratio/chow feeding choice task: reversal with antidepressant drugs.

    PubMed

    Randall, Patrick A; Lee, Christie A; Nunes, Eric J; Yohn, Samantha E; Nowak, Victoria; Khan, Bilal; Shah, Priya; Pandit, Saagar; Vemuri, V Kiran; Makriyannis, Alex; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; Correa, Merce; Salamone, John D

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral activation is a fundamental feature of motivation, and organisms frequently make effort-related decisions based upon evaluations of reinforcement value and response costs. Furthermore, people with major depression and other disorders often show anergia, psychomotor retardation, fatigue, and alterations in effort-related decision making. Tasks measuring effort-based decision making can be used as animal models of the motivational symptoms of depression, and the present studies characterized the effort-related effects of the vesicular monoamine transport (VMAT-2) inhibitor tetrabenazine. Tetrabenazine induces depressive symptoms in humans, and also preferentially depletes dopamine (DA). Rats were assessed using a concurrent progressive ratio (PROG)/chow feeding task, in which they can either lever press on a PROG schedule for preferred high-carbohydrate food, or approach and consume a less-preferred lab chow that is freely available in the chamber. Previous work has shown that the DA antagonist haloperidol reduced PROG work output on this task, but did not reduce chow intake, effects that differed substantially from those of reinforcer devaluation or appetite suppressant drugs. The present work demonstrated that tetrabenazine produced an effort-related shift in responding on the PROG/chow procedure, reducing lever presses, highest ratio achieved and time spent responding, but not reducing chow intake. Similar effects were produced by administration of the subtype selective DA antagonists ecopipam (D1) and eticlopride (D2), but not by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor neutral antagonist and putative appetite suppressant AM 4413, which suppressed both lever pressing and chow intake. The adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3, the antidepressant and catecholamine uptake inhibitor bupropion, and the MAO-B inhibitor deprenyl, all reversed the impairments induced by tetrabenazine. This work demonstrates the potential utility of the PROG/chow procedure as a rodent model of

  14. Self-microemulsifying systems of Finasteride with enhanced oral bioavailability: multivariate statistical evaluation, characterization, spray-drying and in vivo studies in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Fagir, Wael; Hathout, Rania M; Sammour, Omaima A; ElShafeey, Ahmed H

    2015-11-01

    To develop Finasteride-loaded self micro-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) for the treatment of hormonal associated problems. Ternary phase diagrams were constructed to obtain self-emulsification regions. Multivariate statistical methods viz. Principal component analysis and agglomerative hierarchy clustering analysis were used to evaluate the microemulsions stability. In vitro redispersibility study was adopted and two formulations were selected for spray-drying. Further investigations were performed (Fourier transform infrared, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy). Finally, the in vivo performance was tested in human volunteers. Multivariate statistical methods selected stable SMEDDS. Spray-drying utilizing maltodextrin/leucin carrier system yielded a flowable product. Selected solid SMEDDS scored 129.35% relative bioavailability compared with a commercial tablet. The developed SMEDDS poses successful platform for glucosteroid analogs oral delivery.

  15. Effects of a novel finasteride 0.25% topical solution on scalp and serum dihydrotestosterone in healthy men with androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Caserini, Maurizio; Radicioni, Milko; Leuratti, Chiara; Terragni, Emanuela; Iorizzo, Matilde; Palmieri, Renata

    2016-01-01

    The effects on scalp and serum dihydrotestosterone (DHT) of different doses of a novel topical solution of 0.25% finasteride (P-3074), a type 2 5α-reductase, were investigated in men with androgenetic alopecia. Two randomized, parallel-group studies were conducted. Study I: 18 men received 1 mL (2.275 mg) P-3074, applied to the scalp once a day (o.d.) or twice a day (b.i.d), or 1 mg oral tablet o.d. for 1 week. Study II: 32 men received P-3074 at the dose of 100 (0.2275 mg), 200 (0.455 mg), 300 (0.6285 mg), or 400 (0.91 mg) μL or the vehicle o.d. for 1 week. Scalp and serum DHT and serum testosterone were evaluated at baseline and treatment end. Change from baseline in scalp DHT was -70% for P-3074 o.d. and approx. -50% for P-3074 b.i.d. and the tablet. Serum DHT decreased by 60 - 70%. The doses of 100 and 200 μL P-3074 resulted in a -47/-52% scalp DHT reduction, similar to the 300 and 400 μL doses (i.e., -37/-54%). A -5.6% inhibition was observed for the vehicle. Serum DHT was reduced by only -24/-26% with 100 and 200 μL P-3074 and by -44/-48% with 300 and 400 μL P-3074. No relevant changes occurred for serum testosterone. The novel finasteride 0.25% solution applied o.d. at the doses of 100 and 200 μL results in an appropriate inhibition of scalp DHT potentially minimizing the untoward sexual side-effects linked to a systemic DHT reduction.

  16. Readministration of EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients after Initial Failure, What Affects its Efficacy?

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ze-Rui; li, Wei; Long, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Few therapeutic options are available for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after failure to primary epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs). Since TKI rechallenge is one of the most common salvage approaches in clinical practice, we sought to identify the independent factors that associated with 2nd progression progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Seventy-two consecutive EGFR-mutated NSCLC patients with TKI retreatment after initial failure were retrospectively analyzed in this study. Univariate survival analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to determine if EGFR-TKIs readministration is tolerable as well as efficacious for a certain group of patients. PMID:25104233

  17. 1-Deoxy-D-galactonojirimycins with dansyl capped N-substituents as β-galactosidase inhibitors and potential probes for GM1 gangliosidosis affected cell lines.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Richard F G; Furneaux, Richard H; Mahuran, Don J; Saf, Robert; Stütz, Arnold E; Tropak, Michael B; Wicki, Jacqueline; Withers, Stephen G; Wrodnigg, Tanja M

    2011-09-06

    Two simple and reliably accessible intermediates, N-carboxypentyl- and N-aminohexyl-1-deoxy-D-galactonojirimycin were employed for the synthesis of a set of terminally N-dansyl substituted derivatives. Reaction of the terminal carboxylic acid of N-carboxypentyl-1-deoxy-D-galactonojirimycin with N-dansyl-1,6-diaminohexane provided the chain-extended fluorescent derivative. Employing bis(6-dansylaminohexyl)amine, the corresponding branched di-N-dansyl compound was obtained. Partially protected N-aminohexyl-1-deoxy-D-galactonojirimycin served as intermediate for two additional chain-extended fluorescent 1-deoxy-D-galactonojirimycin (1-DGJ) derivatives featuring terminal dansyl groups in the N-alkyl substituent. These new compounds are strong inhibitors of d-galactosidases and may serve as leads en route to pharmacological chaperones for GM1-gangliosidosis. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. 1-Deoxy-d-galactonojirimycins with dansyl capped N-substituents as β-galactosidase inhibitors and potential probes for GM1 gangliosidosis affected cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Fröhlich, Richard F.G.; Furneaux, Richard H.; Mahuran, Don J.; Saf, Robert; Stütz, Arnold E.; Tropak, Michael B.; Wicki, Jacqueline; Withers, Stephen G.; Wrodnigg, Tanja M.

    2011-01-01

    Two simple and reliably accessible intermediates, N-carboxypentyl- and N-aminohexyl-1-deoxy-d-galactonojirimycin were employed for the synthesis of a set of terminally N-dansyl substituted derivatives. Reaction of the terminal carboxylic acid of N-carboxypentyl-1-deoxy-d-galactonojirimycin with N-dansyl-1,6-diaminohexane provided the chain-extended fluorescent derivative. Employing bis(6-dansylaminohexyl)amine, the corresponding branched di-N-dansyl compound was obtained. Partially protected N-aminohexyl-1-deoxy-d-galactonojirimycin served as intermediate for two additional chain-extended fluorescent 1-deoxy-d-galactonojirimycin (1-DGJ) derivatives featuring terminal dansyl groups in the N-alkyl substituent. These new compounds are strong inhibitors of d-galactosidases and may serve as leads en route to pharmacological chaperones for GM1-gangliosidosis. PMID:21645885

  19. Nuclear localization of CPI-17, a protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor protein, affects histone H3 phosphorylation and corresponds to proliferation of cancer and smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Masumi; Kirkbride, Jason A.; Chugh, Rishika; Karikari, Nana Kofi; Kim, Jee In

    2013-04-26

    Highlights: •Non-canonical roles of the myosin phosphatase inhibitor (CPI-17) were studied. •CPI-17 is localized in the nucleus of hyperplastic cancer and smooth muscle cells. •CPI-17 Ser12 phosphorylation may regulate the nuclear import. •CPI-17 regulates histone H3 phosphorylation and cell proliferation. •The nuclear CPI-17-PP1 axis plays a proliferative role in cells. -- Abstract: CPI-17 (C-kinase-activated protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) inhibitor, 17 kDa) is a cytoplasmic protein predominantly expressed in mature smooth muscle (SM) that regulates the myosin-associated PP1 holoenzyme (MLCP). Here, we show CPI-17 expression in proliferating cells, such as pancreatic cancer and hyperplastic SM cells. Immunofluorescence showed that CPI-17 was concentrated in nuclei of human pancreatic cancer (Panc1) cells. Nuclear accumulation of CPI-17 was also detected in the proliferating vascular SM cell culture and cells at neointima of rat vascular injury model. The N-terminal 21-residue tail domain of CPI-17 was necessary for the nuclear localization. Phospho-mimetic Asp-substitution of CPI-17 at Ser12 attenuated the nuclear import. CPI-17 phosphorylated at Ser12 was not localized at nuclei, suggesting a suppressive role of Ser12 phosphorylation in the nuclear import. Activated CPI-17 bound to all three isoforms of PP1 catalytic subunit in Panc1 nuclear extracts. CPI-17 knockdown in Panc1 resulted in dephosphorylation of histone H3 at Thr3, Ser10 and Thr11, whereas it had no effects on the phosphorylation of myosin light chain and merlin, the known targets of MLCP. In parallel, CPI-17 knockdown suppressed Panc1 proliferation. We propose that CPI-17 accumulated in the nucleus through the N-terminal tail targets multiple PP1 signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation.

  20. Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitor and a Low Carbohydrate Diet Affect Gluconeogenesis and Glycogen Content Differently in the Kidney and the Liver of Non-Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Atageldiyeva, Kuralay; Fujita, Yukihiro; Yanagimachi, Tsuyoshi; Mizumoto, Katsutoshi; Takeda, Yasutaka; Honjo, Jun; Takiyama, Yumi; Abiko, Atsuko; Makino, Yuichi; Haneda, Masakazu

    2016-01-01

    A low carbohydrate diet (LCHD) as well as sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) may reduce glucose utilization and improve metabolic disorders. However, it is not clear how different or similar the effects of LCHD and SGLT2i are on metabolic parameters such as insulin sensitivity, fat accumulation, and especially gluconeogenesis in the kidney and the liver. We conducted an 8-week study using non-diabetic mice, which were fed ad-libitum with LCHD or a normal carbohydrate diet (NCHD) and treated with/without the SGLT-2 inhibitor, ipragliflozin. We compared metabolic parameters, gene expression for transcripts related to glucose and fat metabolism, and glycogen content in the kidney and the liver among the groups. SGLT2i but not LCHD improved glucose excursion after an oral glucose load compared to NCHD, although all groups presented comparable non-fasted glycemia. Both the LCHD and SGLT2i treatments increased calorie-intake, whereas only the LCHD increased body weight compared to the NCHD, epididimal fat mass and developed insulin resistance. Gene expression of certain gluconeogenic enzymes was simultaneously upregulated in the kidney of SGLT2i treated group, as well as in the liver of the LCHD treated group. The SGLT2i treated groups showed markedly lower glycogen content in the liver, but induced glycogen accumulation in the kidney. We conclude that LCHD induces deleterious metabolic changes in the non-diabetic mice. Our results suggest that SGLT2i induced gluconeogenesis mainly in the kidney, whereas for LCHD it was predominantly in the liver. PMID:27327650

  1. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor lowers PPARγ agonist-induced body weight gain by affecting food intake, fat mass, and beige/brown fat but not fluid retention

    PubMed Central

    Masuda, Takahiro; Fu, Yiling; Eguchi, Akiko; Czogalla, Jan; Rose, Michael A.; Kuczkowski, Alexander; Gerasimova, Maria; Feldstein, Ariel E.; Scadeng, Miriam

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonists like pioglitazone (PGZ) are effective antidiabetic drugs, but they induce fluid retention and body weight (BW) gain. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) inhibitors are antidiabetic drugs that enhance renal Na+ and fluid excretion. Therefore, we examined whether the DPP IV inhibitor alogliptin (ALG) ameliorates PGZ-induced BW gain. Male Sv129 mice were treated with vehicle (repelleted diet), PGZ (220 mg/kg diet), ALG (300 mg/kg diet), or a combination of PGZ and ALG (PGZ + ALG) for 14 days. PGZ + ALG prevented the increase in BW observed with PGZ but did not attenuate the increase in body fluid content determined by bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS). BIS revealed that ALG alone had no effect on fat mass (FM) but enhanced the FM-lowering effect of PGZ; MRI analysis confirmed the latter and showed reductions in visceral and inguinal subcutaneous (sc) white adipose tissue (WAT). ALG but not PGZ decreased food intake and plasma free fatty acid concentrations. Conversely, PGZ but not ALG increased mRNA expression of thermogenesis mediator uncoupling protein 1 in epididymal WAT. Adding ALG to PGZ treatment increased the abundance of multilocular cell islets in sc WAT, and PGZ + ALG increased the expression of brown-fat-like “beige” cell marker TMEM26 in sc WAT and interscapular brown adipose tissue and increased rectal temperature vs. vehicle. In summary, DPP IV inhibition did not attenuate PPARγ agonist-induced fluid retention but prevented BW gain by reducing FM. This involved ALG inhibition of food intake and was associated with food intake-independent synergistic effects of PPARγ agonism and DPP-IV inhibition on beige/brown fat cells and thermogenesis. PMID:24347054

  2. Histone deacetylase inhibitor AR-42 differentially affects cell cycle transit in meningeal and meningioma cells, potently inhibiting NF2-deficient meningioma growth

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Sarah S.; Akhmametyeva, Elena M.; Oblinger, Janet L.; Bush, Matthew L.; Huang, Jie; Senner, Volker; Chen, Ching-Shih; Jacob, Abraham; Welling, D. Bradley; Chang, Long-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Meningiomas constitute ~34% of primary intracranial tumors and are associated with increased mortality in NF2 patients. To evaluate potential medical therapies for these tumors, we have established a quantifiable orthotopic model for NF2-deficient meningiomas. We showed that telomerase-immortalized Ben-Men-1 benign meningioma cells harbored a single nucleotide deletion in NF2 exon 7 and did not express the NF2 protein, merlin. We also demonstrated that AR-42, a pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor, inhibited proliferation of both Ben-Men-1 and normal meningeal cells by increasing expression of p16INK4A, p21CIP1/WAF1, and p27KIP1. Also, AR-42 increased pro-apoptotic Bim expression and decreased anti-apoptotic BclXL levels. However, AR-42 predominantly arrested Ben-Men-1 cells at G2/M, while inducing cell-cycle arrest at G1 in meningeal cells. Consistently, AR-42 substantially decreased the levels of cyclin D1, E, and A, and PCNA in meningeal cells while significantly reducing the expression of cyclin B, important for progression through G2, in Ben-Men-1 cells. In addition, AR-42 decreased Aurora A and B expression. To compare the in vivo efficacies of AR-42 and AR-12, a PDK1 inhibitor, we generated and used luciferase-expressing Ben-Men-1-LucB cells to establish intracranial xenografts that grew over time. While AR-12 treatment moderately slowed tumor growth, AR-42 caused regression of Ben-Men-1-LucB tumors. Importantly, AR-42-treated tumors showed minimal regrowth when xenograft-bearing mice were switched to normal diet. Together, these results suggest that AR-42 is a potential therapy for meningiomas. The differential effect of AR-42 on cell-cycle progression of normal meningeal and meningioma cells may have implications for why AR-42 is well-tolerated while it potently inhibits tumor growth. PMID:23151902

  3. The allosteric HIV-1 integrase inhibitor BI-D affects virion maturation but does not influence packaging of a functional RNA genome.

    PubMed

    van Bel, Nikki; van der Velden, Yme; Bonnard, Damien; Le Rouzic, Erwann; Das, Atze T; Benarous, Richard; Berkhout, Ben

    2014-01-01

    The viral integrase (IN) is an essential protein for HIV-1 replication. IN inserts the viral dsDNA into the host chromosome, thereby aided by the cellular co-factor LEDGF/p75. Recently a new class of integrase inhibitors was described: allosteric IN inhibitors (ALLINIs). Although designed to interfere with the IN-LEDGF/p75 interaction to block HIV DNA integration during the early phase of HIV-1 replication, the major impact was surprisingly found on the process of virus maturation during the late phase, causing a reverse transcription defect upon infection of target cells. Virus particles produced in the presence of an ALLINI are misformed with the ribonucleoprotein located outside the virus core. Virus assembly and maturation are highly orchestrated and regulated processes in which several viral proteins and RNA molecules closely interact. It is therefore of interest to study whether ALLINIs have unpredicted pleiotropic effects on these RNA-related processes. We confirm that the ALLINI BI-D inhibits virus replication and that the produced virus is non-infectious. Furthermore, we show that the wild-type level of HIV-1 genomic RNA is packaged in virions and these genomes are in a dimeric state. The tRNAlys3 primer for reverse transcription was properly placed on this genomic RNA and could be extended ex vivo. In addition, the packaged reverse transcriptase enzyme was fully active when extracted from virions. As the RNA and enzyme components for reverse transcription are properly present in virions produced in the presence of BI-D, the inhibition of reverse transcription is likely to reflect the mislocalization of the components in the aberrant virus particle.

  4. The Proteasome Inhibitor Bortezomib Affects Chondrosarcoma Cells via the Mitochondria-Caspase Dependent Pathway and Enhances Death Receptor Expression and Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Lohberger, Birgit; Steinecker-Frohnwieser, Bibiane; Stuendl, Nicole; Kaltenegger, Heike; Leithner, Andreas; Rinner, Beate

    2016-01-01

    High grade chondrosarcoma is characterized by its lack of response to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy, the tendency to develop lung metastases, and low survival rates. Research within the field prioritizes the development and expansion of new treatment options for dealing with unresectable or metastatic diseases. Numerous clinical trials using the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib have shown specific efficacy as an active antitumor agent for treating a variety of solid tumors. However, as of yet the effect of bortezomib on chondrosarcoma has not been investigated. In our study, bortezomib decreased cell viability and proliferation in two different chondrosarcoma cell lines in a time- and dose dependent manner. FACS analysis, mRNA- and protein expression studies illustrated that induction of apoptosis developed through the intrinsic mitochondria-caspase dependent pathway. Furthermore, bortezomib treatment significantly increased expression of the death receptors TRAILR-1 and TRAILR-2 in chondrosarcoma cells. An increased expression of the autophagy markers Atg5/12, Beclin, and LC3BI-II supports the interpretation that bortezomib functions as a trigger for autophagy. Our results demonstrated for the first time that bortezomib reduced viability and proliferation of chondrosarcoma cells, induced apoptosis via the mitochondria-caspase dependent pathway and enhanced death receptor expression and autophagy. PMID:27978543

  5. An inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor function does not affect the ability of human papillomavirus 11 to form warts in the xenografted immunodeficient mouse model.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Tanya; Howett, Mary K; Welsh, Patricia A; Patrick, Susan D; Neely, Elizabeth B; Flanagan, Neil; Pollack, Vincent A; Pustilnik, Leslie R; Moyer, Jim; Perros, Manos

    2007-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFr) has been shown to be induced and activated in cells infected with HPV, suggesting that it may play a physiological role in viral replication or in the formation or maintenance of warts. To investigate this possibility, human foreskin tissue was infected with HPV11 and transplanted onto the renal capsule and the dermis of immunodeficient mice. The animals were treated orally or topically with the potent EGFr inhibitor CP-545130, with treatment starting either immediately following graft attachment, or following a 70 day period to allow development of warts. The rate of appearance of warts, wart size and number were monitored. In addition, we measured intra-lesional HPV replication levels and examined the morphology of the graft tissues. Analysis of the results showed no significant difference between placebo and compound-treated groups, despite high levels of compound present in the graft tissue. We conclude that EGFr kinase activity is not required for the development and maintenance of HPV-11-induced warts in this model.

  6. Nuclear localization of CPI-17, a protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor protein, affects histone H3 phosphorylation and corresponds to proliferation of cancer and smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Eto, Masumi; Kirkbride, Jason A; Chugh, Rishika; Karikari, Nana Kofi; Kim, Jee In

    2013-04-26

    CPI-17 (C-kinase-activated protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) inhibitor, 17kDa) is a cytoplasmic protein predominantly expressed in mature smooth muscle (SM) that regulates the myosin-associated PP1 holoenzyme (MLCP). Here, we show CPI-17 expression in proliferating cells, such as pancreatic cancer and hyperplastic SM cells. Immunofluorescence showed that CPI-17 was concentrated in nuclei of human pancreatic cancer (Panc1) cells. Nuclear accumulation of CPI-17 was also detected in the proliferating vascular SM cell culture and cells at neointima of rat vascular injury model. The N-terminal 21-residue tail domain of CPI-17 was necessary for the nuclear localization. Phospho-mimetic Asp-substitution of CPI-17 at Ser12 attenuated the nuclear import. CPI-17 phosphorylated at Ser12 was not localized at nuclei, suggesting a suppressive role of Ser12 phosphorylation in the nuclear import. Activated CPI-17 bound to all three isoforms of PP1 catalytic subunit in Panc1 nuclear extracts. CPI-17 knockdown in Panc1 resulted in dephosphorylation of histone H3 at Thr3, Ser10 and Thr11, whereas it had no effects on the phosphorylation of myosin light chain and merlin, the known targets of MLCP. In parallel, CPI-17 knockdown suppressed Panc1 proliferation. We propose that CPI-17 accumulated in the nucleus through the N-terminal tail targets multiple PP1 signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation.

  7. KRN951, a highly potent inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases, has antitumor activities and affects functional vascular properties.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kazuhide; Taguchi, Eri; Miura, Toru; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Takahashi, Kazumi; Bichat, Francis; Guilbaud, Nicolas; Hasegawa, Kazumasa; Kubo, Kazuo; Fujiwara, Yasunari; Suzuki, Rika; Kubo, Kinya; Shibuya, Masabumi; Isae, Toshiyuki

    2006-09-15

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a key role in tumor angiogenesis by stimulating the proangiogenic signaling of endothelial cells via activation of VEGF receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinases. Therefore, VEGFRs are an attractive therapeutic target for cancer treatment. In the present study, we show that a quinoline-urea derivative, KRN951, is a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor for VEGFRs with antitumor angiogenesis and antigrowth activities. KRN951 potently inhibited VEGF-induced VEGFR-2 phosphorylation in endothelial cells at in vitro subnanomolar IC50 values (IC50 = 0.16 nmol/L). It also inhibited ligand-induced phosphorylation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta (PDGFR-beta) and c-Kit (IC50 = 1.72 and 1.63 nmol/L, respectively). KRN951 blocked VEGF-dependent, but not VEGF-independent, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and proliferation of endothelial cells. In addition, it inhibited VEGF-mediated migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Following p.o. administration to athymic rats, KRN951 decreased the microvessel density within tumor xenografts and attenuated VEGFR-2 phosphorylation levels in tumor endothelium. It also displayed antitumor activity against a wide variety of human tumor xenografts, including lung, breast, colon, ovarian, pancreas, and prostate cancer. Furthermore, dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) analysis revealed that a significant reduction in tumor vascular hyperpermeability was closely associated with the antitumor activity of KRN951. These findings suggest that KRN951 is a highly potent, p.o. active antiangiogenesis and antitumor agent and that DCE-MRI would be useful in detecting early responses to KRN951 in a clinical setting. KRN951 is currently in phase I clinical development for the treatment of patients with advanced cancer.

  8. Galloflavin, a new lactate dehydrogenase inhibitor, induces the death of human breast cancer cells with different glycolytic attitude by affecting distinct signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Farabegoli, F; Vettraino, M; Manerba, M; Fiume, L; Roberti, M; Di Stefano, G

    2012-11-20

    Galloflavin (GF), a recently identified lactate dehydrogenase inhibitor, hinders the proliferation of cancer cells by blocking glycolysis and ATP production. The aim of the present experiments was to study the effect of this compound on breast cancer cell lines reproducing different pathological subtypes of this tumor: MCF-7 (the well differentiated form), MDA-MB-231 (the aggressive triple negative tumor) and MCF-Tam (a sub-line of MCF-7 with acquired tamoxifen resistance). We observed marked differences in the energetic metabolism of these cell lines. Compared to MCF-7 cells, both MDA-MB-231 and MCF-Tam cells exhibited higher LDH levels and glucose uptake and showed lower capacity of oxygen consumption. In spite of these differences, GF exerted similar growth inhibitory effects. This result was explained by the finding of a constitutively activated stress response in MDA-MB-231 and MCF-Tam cells, which reproduce the poor prognosis tumor forms. As a further proof, different signaling pathways were found to be involved in the antiproliferative action of GF. In MCF-7 cells we observed a down regulation of the ERα-mediated signaling needed for cell survival. On the contrary, in MCF-Tam and MDA-MB-231 cells growth inhibition appeared to be contributed by an oxidative stress condition. The prevalent mechanism of cell death was found to be apoptosis induction. Because of the clinical relevance of breast cancer forms having the triple negative and/or chemoresistant phenotype, our results showing comparable effects of GF even on aggressively growing cells encourage further studies to verify the potential of this compound in improving the chemotherapy of breast cancer.

  9. Pamidronate, farnesyl transferase, and geranylgeranyl transferase-I inhibitors affects cell proliferation, apoptosis, and OPG/RANKL mRNA expression in stromal cells of giant cell tumor of bone.

    PubMed

    Lau, Carol P Y; Huang, Lin; Tsui, Stephen K W; Ng, Patrick K S; Leung, Pui-Yin; Kumta, Shekhar M

    2011-03-01

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) is the most common nonmalignant primary bone tumor reported in Hong Kong. It usually affects young adults between the ages of 20 and 40. This tumor is well known for its potential to recur following treatment. To date no effective adjuvant therapy exists for GCT. Our project aimed to study the effects of pamidronate (PAM), farnesyl transferase inhibitor (FTI-277), geranylgeranyl transferase inhibitor (GGTI-298), and their combinations on GCT stromal cells (SC). Individual treatment with PAM, FTI-277, and GGTI-298, inhibited the cell viability and proliferation of GCT SC in a dose-dependent way. Combination of FTI-277 with GGTI-298 caused synergistic effects in reducing cell viability, and its combination index was 0.49, indicating a strong synergism. Moreover, the combination of FTI-277 with GGTI-298 synergistically enhanced cell apoptosis and activated caspase-3/7, -8, and -9 activities. PAM induced cell-cycle arrest at the S-phase. The combination of PAM with GGTI-298 significantly increased OPG/RANKL mRNA ratio and activated caspase-3/7 activity. Our findings support that the combination of bisphosphonates with GGTIs or FTIs with GGTIs may be used as potential adjuvants in the treatment of GCT of bone. Copyright © 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  10. The Quorum Sensing Inhibitor Hamamelitannin Increases Antibiotic Susceptibility of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms by Affecting Peptidoglycan Biosynthesis and eDNA Release

    PubMed Central

    Brackman, Gilles; Breyne, Koen; De Rycke, Riet; Vermote, Arno; Van Nieuwerburgh, Filip; Meyer, Evelyne; Van Calenbergh, Serge; Coenye, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infections has become increasingly challenging due to the rapid emergence and dissemination of methicillin-resistant strains. In addition, S. aureus reside within biofilms at the site of infection. Few novel antibacterial agents have been developed in recent years and their bacteriostatic or bactericidal activity results in selective pressure, inevitably inducing antimicrobial resistance. Consequently, innovative antimicrobials with other modes of action are urgently needed. One alternative approach is targeting the bacterial quorum sensing (QS) system. Hamamelitannin (2′,5-di-O-galloyl-d-hamamelose; HAM) was previously suggested to block QS through the TraP QS system and was shown to increase S. aureus biofilm susceptibility towards vancomycin (VAN) although mechanistic insights are still lacking. In the present study we provide evidence that HAM specifically affects S. aureus biofilm susceptibility through the TraP receptor by affecting cell wall synthesis and extracellular DNA release of S. aureus. We further provide evidence that HAM can increase the susceptibility of S. aureus biofilms towards different classes of antibiotics in vitro. Finally, we show that HAM increases the susceptibility of S. aureus to antibiotic treatment in in vivo Caenorhabditis elegans and mouse mammary gland infection models. PMID:26828772

  11. Vaccination with a genetically modified Brugia malayi cysteine protease inhibitor-2 reduces adult parasite numbers and affects the fertility of female worms following a subcutaneous challenge of Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) with B. malayi infective larvae.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Sridhar; Wei, Junfei; Ward, Danielle; Abraham, David; Lustigman, Sara; Zhan, Bin; Klei, Thomas R

    2014-09-01

    Vaccination of Mongolian gerbils with Brugia malayi cysteine protease inhibitor-2 in which the amino acid Asn66 was mutated to Lys66 (Bm-CPI-2M) resulted in reduced parasite numbers of 48.6% and 48.0% at 42 and 90 days p.i. with B. malayi L3s. Fertility of female worms was also affected at 90 days p.i. In vitro killing of L3s observed in the presence of gerbil peritoneal exudate cells and anti-Bm-CPI-2M sera suggests antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity as a putative protective mechanism. These observations suggest that Bm-CPI-2M is a promising prophylactic and anti-fecundity vaccine candidate.

  12. Effect of Preoperative Finasteride on the Volume or Length Density of Prostate Vessels, Intraoperative, Postoperative Blood Loss during and after Monopolar Transurethral Resection of Prostate: A Dose Escalation Randomized Clinical Trial Using Stereolog Methods.

    PubMed

    Aminsharifi, Alireza; Salehi, Alireza; Noorafshan, Ali; Aminsharifi, Amirhossein; Alnajar, Khalil

    2016-03-05

    To evaluate the effects of two preoperative treatment courses with Finasteride on intraoperative and postoperative bleeding complications and prostate blood vessel characteristics in men who underwent transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) using monopolar energy. Men scheduled for TURP were randomized into group 1 (control n = 25, no medication), group 2 and 3 (n = 20 in each, 5 mg Finasteride daily for 2 and 4 weeks before TURP; respectively). Hematocrit level in the irrigation fluid, weight of the resected prostate chips, decreases in blood hemoglobin (Hb) level 6 and 24 hours after the operation together with volume and length density of prostate vessels using stereological methods were compared. The three groups were matched regarding preoperative demographic data, resection time and weight of the resected tissue. Men who received preoperative Finasteride (groups 2 and 3) had significantly lower hematocrit levels in irrigation fluid than control group (control, 0.59 ± 0.85, group 2, 0.25 ± 0.4, group 3, 0.175 ± 0.16; P = .028; Power = .80). However, no statistically significant difference was found in hematocrit level in irrigation fluid between groups 2 and 3 (0.25 ± 0.4 vs. 0.175 ± 0.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -0.28-0.42; P = .68). These values were independent of the weight of the resected tissue and resection time. There were no significant differences between the three groups in the decrease in Hb 6 hours (P = .58) and 24 hours after TURP (P = .65). The stereological and histological characteristics of blood vessels in suburethral prostate tissue were similar in all three groups. A 2-week preoperative course of daily Finasteride seems sufficient to significantly reduce intraoperative blood loss; this effect was independent of the weight of the resected tissue and resection time. Neither the 2-week nor the 4-week presurgical Finasteride regimen could significantly decrease postoperative blood loss, and neither regimen induced significant

  13. Association between variants in genes involved in the immune response and prostate cancer risk in men randomized to the finasteride arm in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial.

    PubMed

    Winchester, Danyelle A; Till, Cathee; Goodman, Phyllis J; Tangen, Catherine M; Santella, Regina M; Johnson-Pais, Teresa L; Leach, Robin J; Xu, Jianfeng; Zheng, S Lilly; Thompson, Ian M; Lucia, M Scott; Lippman, Scott M; Parnes, Howard L; Isaacs, William B; De Marzo, Angelo M; Drake, Charles G; Platz, Elizabeth A

    2017-06-01

    We reported that some, but not all single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in select immune response genes are associated with prostate cancer, but not individually with the prevalence of intraprostatic inflammation in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) placebo arm. Here, we investigated whether these same SNPs are associated with risk of lower- and higher-grade prostate cancer in men randomized to finasteride, and with prevalence of intraprostatic inflammation among controls. Methods A total of 16 candidate SNPs in IL1β, IL2, IL4, IL6, IL8, IL10, IL12(p40), IFNG, MSR1, RNASEL, TLR4, and TNFA and 7 tagSNPs in IL10 were genotyped in 625 white prostate cancer cases, and 532 white controls negative for cancer on an end-of-study biopsy nested in the PCPT finasteride arm. We used logistic regression to estimate log-additive odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusting for age and family history. Minor alleles of rs2243250 (T) in IL4 (OR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.03-2.08, P-trend = 0.03), rs1800896 (G) in IL10 (OR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.61-0.96, P-trend = 0.02), rs2430561 (A) in IFNG (OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.02-1.74; P-trend = 0.04), rs3747531 (C) in MSR1 (OR = 0.55, 95% CI 0.32-0.95; P-trend = 0.03), and possibly rs4073 (A) in IL8 (OR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.64-1.01, P-trend = 0.06) were associated with higher- (Gleason 7-10; N = 222), but not lower- (Gleason 2-6; N = 380) grade prostate cancer. In men with low PSA (<2 ng/mL), these higher-grade disease associations were attenuated and/or no longer significant, whereas associations with higher-grade disease were apparent for minor alleles of rs1800795 (C: OR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.51-0.94, P-trend = 0.02) and rs1800797 (A: OR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.53-0.98, P-trend = 0.04) in IL6. While some IL10 tagSNPs were associated with lower- and higher-grade prostate cancer, distributions of IL10 haplotypes did not differ, except possibly between higher-grade cases and controls

  14. Reduced estradiol synthesis by letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, is protective against development of pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling in mice.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Davood; Panda, B P; Vohora, Divya

    2015-11-01

    Neurosteroids, such as testosterone and their metabolites, are known to modulate neuronal excitability. The enzymes regulating the metabolism of these neurosteroids, thus, may be targeted as a noval strategy for the development of new antiepileptic drugs. The present work targeted two such enzymes i,e aromatase and 5α-reductase in order to explore the potential of letrozole (an aromatase inhibitor) on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling in mice and the ability of finasteride (a 5α-reductase inhibitor) to modulate any such effects. PTZ (30 mg/kg, i.p.), when administered once every two days (for a total of 24 doses) induced kindling in Swiss albino mice. Letrozole (1 mg/kg, p.o.), administered prior to PTZ, significantly reduced the % incidence of kindling, delayed mean onset time of seizures and reduced seizure severity score. Letrozole reduced the levels of plasma 17β-estradiol after induction of kindling. The concurrent administration of finasteride and letrozole produced effects similar to letrozole on PTZ-kindling and on estradiol levels. This implies that the ability of letrozole to redirect the synthesis of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 5α-androstanediol from testosterone doesn't appear to play a significant role in the protective effects of letrozole against PTZ kindling. Letrozole, however, increased the levels of 5α-DHT in mice plasma. The aromatase inhibitors, thus, may be exploited for inhibiting the synthesis of proconvulsant (17β-estradiol) and/or redirecting the synthesis of anticonvulsant (DHT and 5α-androstanediol) neurosteroids.

  15. The 37/67kDa laminin receptor (LR) inhibitor, NSC47924, affects 37/67kDa LR cell surface localization and interaction with the cellular prion protein

    PubMed Central

    Sarnataro, Daniela; Pepe, Anna; Altamura, Gennaro; De Simone, Imma; Pesapane, Ada; Nitsch, Lucio; Montuori, Nunzia; Lavecchia, Antonio; Zurzolo, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    The 37/67 kDa laminin receptor (LR) is a non-integrin protein, which binds both laminin-1 of the extracellular matrix and prion proteins, that hold a central role in prion diseases. The 37/67 kDa LR has been identified as interactor for the prion protein (PrPC) and to be required for pathological PrP (PrPSc) propagation in scrapie-infected neuronal cells, leading to the possibility that 37/67 kDa LR-PrPC interaction is related to the pathogenesis of prion diseases. A relationship between 37/67 kDa LR and PrPC in the presence of specific LR inhibitor compounds has not been investigated yet. We have characterized the trafficking of 37/67 kDa LR in both neuronal and non-neuronal cells, finding the receptor on the cell surface and nuclei, and identified the 67 kDa LR as the almost exclusive isoform interacting with PrPC. Here, we show that the treatment with the 37/67 kDa LR inhibitor, NSC47924, affects both the direct 37/67 kDa LR-PrPC interaction in vitro and the formation of the immunocomplex in live cells, inducing a progressive internalization of 37/67 kDa LR and stabilization of PrPC on the cell surface. These data reveal NSC47924 as a useful tool to regulate PrPC and 37/67 kDa LR trafficking and degradation, representing a novel small molecule to be tested against prion diseases. PMID:27071549

  16. Adherence to Selective Serotonin and Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor Prescriptions Affects Overall Medication Adherence in Older Persons: Evidence From the Italian Nationwide OsMed Health-DB Database.

    PubMed

    Marengoni, Alessandra; Onder, Graziano; Degli Esposti, Luca; Russo, Pierluigi; Sangiorgi, Diego; Buda, Stefano; Fini, Massimo; Marchionni, Niccolò; Bonassi, Stefano; Mammarella, Federica; Marrocco, Walter; Pozzi, Giuseppe; Palmer, Katie; Monaco, Alessandro; Pecorelli, Sergio; Pani, Luca

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate prevalence of prescription of and adherence to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) and whether adherence to these classes of drugs affects overall medication adherence in older persons. In a cross-sectional analysis of administrative data comprehensive of all prescribed drugs reimbursed by the Italian national health care system, new prescriptions of SSRIs and SNRIs to persons aged 65 years or older were analyzed (n = 380,400 in 2011; 395,806 in 2012; 409,741 in 2013, from a total sample of 3,762,299 persons aged 65 years or older) as well as prescriptions of antihypertensives, statins, other psychiatric drugs, antidiabetics, antiplatelets, anticoagulants, drugs for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and antiosteoporotics. Adherence was estimated by calculating the proportion of days covered by drugs dispensed during a period of 365 days. Adherence was defined as a proportion of days covered of more than 80%. Prevalence of SSRI and SNRI prescriptions varied from 11.4% in 2011 to 12.1% in 2013. Adherence to SSRI and SNRI prescriptions ranged from 31.2% in persons aged ≥ 95 years in 2011 to 41.8% in persons aged 75-84 years in 2013. Persons adherent to SSRI and SNRI prescriptions were more likely to be adherent to the other medications, after adjustment for age, gender, and number of drugs prescribed. The highest association was found for adherence to psychiatric drugs (OR = 1.9; 95% CI, 1.8-2.0). Adherence to SSRI and SNRI prescriptions is poor in older persons. However, people adherent to these classes of antidepressants are more likely to be adherent to the other medications they are prescribed. Studies are needed to evaluate the reasons for and the potential benefits of increasing adherence to antidepressants on overall adherence.

  17. Efficacy of 5α-reductase inhibitors for patients with large benign prostatic hyperplasia (>80 mL) after transurethral resection of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Qian, Xiaoqiang; Yu, Guopeng; Qian, Yu; Xu, Ding; Liu, Hailong; Kong, Xiangjie; Zhu, Yunkai; Wang, Zhong; Zheng, Junhua; Qi, Jun

    2015-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate 5α-reductase inhibitors (5αRIs) for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients with a large prostate (>80 mL) after transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). Eighty-seven patients were recruited from January 2007 to October 2014. Patients were randomized into a trial and a control group. The trial group was treated with 5αRIs for 3 years after TURP, while the control group received a placebo. We evaluated the indicators before, peri and after TURP. There were no significant differences in the indicators before and peri-TURP. Six months later, there were significant differences in PSA and hematuria (HU). Three years after TURP, there were significant differences in prostate volume (PV), level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), the maximum flow rate (Qm), and HU between the trial and control groups. Additionally, there were significant differences in the PV, PSA, international prostate symptom score (IPSS), patient quality of life (QoL) in the trial group alone between those treated with finasteride and those treated with dutasteride. After TURP for large BPH, administration of 5αRIs for 3 years improved PV, PSA, Qm and HU. Additionally, dutasteride produced superior improvements in PV, PSA, IPSS and QoL compared with finasteride.

  18. Carboxylesterase inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hatfield, M. Jason; Potter, Philip M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Carboxylesterases play major roles in the hydrolysis of numerous therapeutically active compounds. This is, in part, due to the prevalence of the ester moiety in these small molecules. However, the impact these enzymes may play on drug stability and pharmacokinetics is rarely considered prior to molecule development. Therefore, the application of selective inhibitors of this class of proteins may have utility in modulating the metabolism, distribution and toxicity of agents that are subjected to enzyme hydrolysis. Areas covered This review details the development of all such compounds dating back to 1986, but principally focuses on the very recent identification of selective human carboxylesterases inhibitors. Expert opinion The implementation of carboxylesterase inhibitors may significantly revolutionize drug discovery. Such molecules may allow for improved efficacy of compounds inactivated by this class of enzymes and/or reduce the toxicity of agents that are activated by these proteins. Furthermore, since lack of carboxylesterase activity appears to have no obvious biological consequence, these compounds could be applied in combination with virtually any esterified drug. Therefore, inhibitors of these proteins may have utility in altering drug hydrolysis and distribution in vivo. The characteristics, chemical and biological properties, and potential uses of such agents, are discussed here. PMID:21609191

  19. sp(2) -Iminosugar α-Glucosidase Inhibitor 1-C-octyl-2-oxa-3-oxocastanospermine Specifically Affected Breast Cancer Cell Migration through Stim1, β1-Integrin, and FAK Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Gueder, Nahla; Allan, Ghada; Telliez, Marie-Sophie; Hague, Frédéric; Garcia Fernandez, José M; Sanchez-Fernandez, Elena M; Ortiz-Mellet, Carmen; Ahidouch, Ahmed; Ouadid-Ahidouch, Halima

    2017-02-01

    Aberrant glycosylation changes on many glycoproteins are often related to cancer progression and metastasis. sp(2) -Iminosugar-type castanospermine analogues, inhibitors of α-glucosidases, have been reported to exhibit antitumor activity. However, their effects on cell migration and the underlying molecular mechanism are not fully understood. Here, we investigated the effect of the pseudo- C-octyl glycoside 2-oxa-3-oxocastanospermine derivatives (CO-OCS) on breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells), and MCF-10A mammary normal cell lines. We showed that CO-OCS treatment results in the drastic decrease of breast cancer cell migration without affecting cell proliferation. Furthermore, CO-OCS significantly reduced both the expression of β1-integrin, which is a crucial interacting partner of Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK), and the phosphorylation rates of FAK and ERK1/2. CO-OCS also drastically reduced Ca(2+) entry through Store Operated Channels (SOC). Orai1 and Stim1, two N-glycosylated proteins, are involved in Store-Operated Calcium Entry (SOCE), and are essential for breast tumor cell migration. Our results showed that CO-OCS decreased the expression, at the protein level, of Stim1 without affecting that of Orai1. Moreover, cell migration and SOCE were attenuated by CO-OCS as well as when Stim1 was silenced. In contrast, in MCF-10A cells, CO-OCS slightly reduced cell migration, but was without effect on gene expression of Stim1, Orai1, β1-integrin or FAK and ERK1/2 activation. Our results provide strong evidence for a significant effect of CO-OCS on breast cancer cell migration and support that this effect was associated with β1-integrin, Stim1 and FAK signaling pathways. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  20. AGN-2979, an inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase activation, does not affect serotonin synthesis in Flinders Sensitive Line rats, a rat model of depression, but produces a significant effect in Flinders Resistant Line rats

    PubMed Central

    Kanemaru, Kazuya; Nishi, Kyoko; Diksic, Mirko

    2009-01-01

    The neurotransmitter, serotonin, is involved in several brain functions, including both normal, physiological functions, and pathophysiological functions. Alterations in any of the normal parameters of serotonergic neurotransmission can produce several different psychiatric disorders, including major depression. In many instances, brain neurochemical variables are not able to be studied properly in humans, thus making the use of good animal models extremely valuable. One of these animal models is the Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) of rats, which has face, predictive and constructive validities in relation to human depression. The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of the tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) activation inhibitor, AGN-2979, on the FSL rats (rats with depression-like behaviour), and compare it to the effect on the Flinders Resistant Line (FRL) of rats used as the control rats. The effect was evaluated by measuring changes in regional serotonin synthesis in the vehicle treated rats (FSL-VEH and FRL-VEH) relative to those measured in the AGN-2979 treated rats (FSL-AGN and FRL-AGN). Regional serotonin synthesis was measured autoradiographically in more than thirty brain regions. The measurements were performed using α-[14C]methyl-L-tryptophan as the tracer. The results indicate that AGN-2979 did not produce a significant reduction of TPH activity in the AGN-2979 group relative to the vehicle group (a reduction would have been observed if there had been an activation of TPH by the experimental set up) in the FSL rats. On the other hand, there was a highly significant reduction of synthesis in the FRL rats treated by AGN-2979, relative to the vehicle group. Together, the results demonstrate that in the FSL rats, AGN-2979 does not affect serotonin synthesis. This suggests that there was no activation of TPH in the FSL rats during the experimental procedure, but such activation did occur in the FRL rats. Because of this finding, it could be

  1. The putative P-gp inhibitor telmisartan does not affect the transcellular permeability and cellular uptake of the calcium channel antagonist verapamil in the P-glycoprotein expressing cell line MDCK II MDR1

    PubMed Central

    Saaby, Lasse; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Brodin, Birger

    2015-01-01

    Verapamil is used in high doses for the treatment of cluster headache. Verapamil has been described as a P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) substrate. We wished to evaluate in vitro whether co administration of a P-gp inhibitor with verapamil could be a feasible strategy for increasing CNS uptake of verapamil. Fluxes of radiolabelled verapamil across MDCK II MDR1 monolayers were measured in the absence and presence of the putative P-gp inhibitor telmisartan (a clinically approved drug compound). Verapamil displayed a vectorial basolateral-to-apical transepithelial efflux across the MDCK II MDR1 monolayers with a permeability of 5.7 × 10−5 cm sec−1 compared to an apical to basolateral permeability of 1.3 × 10−5 cm sec-1. The efflux could be inhibited with the P-gp inhibitor zosuquidar. Zosuquidar (0.4 μmol/L) reduced the efflux ratio (PB-A/PA-B) for verapamil 4.6–1.6. The presence of telmisartan, however, only caused a slight reduction in P-gp-mediated verapamil transport to an efflux ratio of 3.4. Overall, the results of the present in vitro approach indicate, that clinical use of telmisartan as a P-gp inhibitor may not be an effective strategy for increasing brain uptake of verapamil by co-administration with telmisartan. PMID:26171231

  2. In Vivo Testing of Chemopreventive Agents Using the Dog Model of Spontaneous Prostate Carcinogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    selenium, finasteride , DNA damage, animal model 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION 18. NUMBER 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON OF ABSTRACT...treatment with the 5-alpha reductase inhibitor finasteride (with or without selenium) induces prostatic atrophy without significantly reducing the...the prostate (using the 5ot-reductase inhibitor finasteride ) significantly influences the response of the aging prostate to selenium supplementation

  3. Understanding Prostate Changes: A Health Guide for Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... Studies have shown that 5-alpha reductase inhibitors finasteride and dutasteride can lower the risk of developing ... of other races. And some drugs, such as finasteride and dutasteride, can cause a man's PSA level ...

  4. Inter-α-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain 5 (ITIH5) is overexpressed in inflammatory skin diseases and affects epidermal morphology in constitutive knockout mice and murine 3D skin models.

    PubMed

    Huth, Sebastian; Heise, Ruth; Vetter-Kauczok, Claudia S; Skazik, Claudia; Marquardt, Yvonne; Czaja, Katharina; Knüchel, Ruth; Merk, Hans F; Dahl, Edgar; Baron, Jens M

    2015-09-01

    Inter-α-trypsin inhibitors are protease inhibitors that are thought to be important regulators in various acute-phase processes. They are composed of one light chain (bikunin) and different heavy chains (ITIHs). The only function known so far of ITIHs is the covalent linkage to hyaluronan (HA). As there is virtually no knowledge on the distribution and function of ITIH proteins in skin tissue, we performed a systematic characterization of ITIH expression in healthy and diseased skin. Using GeneChip(®) Human Exon 1.0 ST expression profiling, we found that ITIH5 represents the major ITIH family member expressed in human skin. Moreover, the use of quantitative reverse transcription PCR and a customized ITIH5-specific antibody indicated that ITIH5 is predominantly produced by dermal fibroblasts. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed a clearly detectable ITIH5 protein expression in normal skin. Interestingly, ITIH5 expression was significantly up-regulated in inflammatory skin diseases. Furthermore, 3D skin models employing murine Itih5(-/-) epidermal keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts as well as skin specimens of Itih5(-/-) mice revealed a significantly altered epidermal structure compared to wild-type controls. Hence, we can strengthen the presumption that ITIH5 may constitute a novel regulatory molecule of the human skin that could play an important role in inflammation via its interaction with HA.

  5. The P21-activated kinase expression pattern is different in non-small cell lung cancer and affects lung cancer cell sensitivity to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Si; Dong, Qian-Ze; Jiang, Gui-Yang; Han, Yong; Wang, Liang; Wang, En-Hua

    2016-03-01

    Exploring methods for increasing epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) sensitivity has become a major focus in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Major downstream effectors of the Rho family small guanosine triphosphatases, P21-activated kinases (PAKs) activate the main signaling pathways downstream of EGFR and thus promote tumor cell proliferation. In this study, we explored the expression pattern of phosphorylated PAKs in NSCLC and their potential value as drug targets for treating cancer. The expression and prognostic significance of phosphorylated group I and II PAKs were evaluated in 182 patients with NSCLC. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed low group I PAK expression in normal lung tissues and increased expressed in the cytoplasm, particularly in lung squamous cell carcinoma. Abnormal group I PAK expression was associated with lymph node metastases and high tumor-node-metastases (TNM) stage in NSCLC patients and correlated with poor prognosis. We used group I PAK inhibitor (IPA3) to specifically decrease group I PAK activity in human lung cancer cell lines. Decreased group I PAK activity inhibited cell proliferation and combined IPA3 and EGFR-TKI (gefitinib) treatment inhibited cell proliferation in an obvious manner. Together, our results revealed the PAK expression pattern in NSCLC, and a role for group I PAK in cell proliferation, which provides evidence that decreased PAK activity may have a potential application as a molecular targeted therapy in advanced NSCLC.

  6. Proton pump inhibitors

    MedlinePlus

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are medicines that work by reducing the amount of stomach acid made by ... Proton pump inhibitors are used to: Relieve symptoms of acid reflux, or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This ...

  7. Synthesis and biological evaluation of esters of 16-formyl-17-methoxy-dehydroepiandrosterone derivatives as inhibitors of 5α-reductase type 2.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Márquez, Araceli; Arellano, Yazmín; Bratoeff, Eugene; Heuze, Yvonne; Córdova, Karen; Nieves, Gladys; Soriano, Juan; Cabeza, Marisa

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the in vitro effect of 16-formyl-17-methoxy dehydroepiandrosterone derivatives on the activity of 5α-reductase type 2 (5α-R2) obtained from human prostate. The activity of different concentrations of these derivatives was determined for the conversion of labelled testosterone to dihydrotestosterone. The results indicated that an aliphatic ester moiety at the C-3 position of these derivatives increases their in vitro potency as inhibitors of 5α-R2 activity compared to finasteride®, which is considered to be a potent inhibitor of 5α-R2. In this case, the augmentation of the lipophilicity of these dehydroepiandrosterone derivatives increased their potency as inhibitors of 5α-R2. However, the presence of cyclopropyl, cyclobutyl, cyclopentyl, cyclohexyl or cycloheptyl rings as the cycloaliphatic ester moiety at C-3 of the formyl methoxy dehydroepiandrosterone scaffold did not inhibit the activity of this enzyme. This may be due to the presence of steric factors between the enzyme and the spatial structure of these derivatives.

  8. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Wojtowicz-Praga, S M; Dickson, R B; Hawkins, M J

    1997-01-01

    The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of at least fifteen secreted and membrane-bound zinc-endopeptidases. Collectively, these enzymes can degrade all of the components of the extracellular matrix, including fibrallar and non-fibrallar collagens, fibronectin, laminin and basement membrane glycoproteins. MMPs are thought to be essential for the diverse invasive processes of angiogenesis and tumor metastasis. Numerous studies have shown that there is a close association between expression of various members of the MMP family by tumors and their proliferative and invasive behavior and metastatic potential. In some of human cancers a positive correlation has also been demonstrated between the intensity of new blood vessel growth (angiogenesis) and the likelihood of developing metastases. Thus, control of MMP activity in these two different contexts has generated considerable interest as a possible therapeutic target. The tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) are naturally occurring proteins that specifically inhibit matrix metalloproteinases, thus maintaining balance between matrix destruction and formation. An imbalance between MMPs and the associated TIMPs may play a significant role in the invasive phenotype of malignant tumors. TIMP-1 has been shown to inhibit tumor-induced angiogenesis in experimental systems. These findings raised the possibility of using an agent that affects expression or activity of MMPs as an anti-cancer therapy. TIMPs are probably not suitable for pharmacologic applications due to their short half-life in vivo. Batimastat (BB-94) and marimastat (BB-2516) are synthetic, low-molecular weight MMP inhibitors. They have a collagen-mimicking hydroxamate structure, which facilitates chelation of the zinc ion in the active site of the MMPs. These compounds inhibit MMPs potently and specifically. Batimastat was the first synthetic MMP inhibitor studied in humans with advanced malignancies, but its usefulness has been limited by

  9. Methods to identify molecular expression of mTOR pathway: a rationale approach to stratify patients affected by clear cell renal cell carcinoma for more likely response to mTOR inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Fiorini, Claudia; Massari, Francesco; Pedron, Serena; Sanavio, Sara; Ciccarese, Chiara; Porcaro, Antonio Benito; Artibani, Walter; Bertoldo, Francesco; Zampini, Claudia; Sava, Teodoro; Ficial, Miriam; Caliò, Anna; Chilosi, Marco; D’Amuri, Alessandro; Sanguedolce, Francesca; Tortora, Giampaolo; Scarpa, Aldo; Delahunt, Brett; Porta, Camillo; Martignoni, Guido; Brunelli, Matteo

    2014-01-01

    Since target therapy with mTOR inhibitors plays an important role in the current management of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC), there is an increasing demand for predictive biomarkers, which may help to select patients that are most likely to benefit from personalized treatment. When dealing with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) cancer tissue specimens, several techniques may be used to identify potential molecular markers, yielding different outcome in terms of accuracy. We sought to investigate and compare the capability of three main techniques to detect molecules performing an active function in mTOR pathway in RCC. Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Western blot (WB) and immunofluorescence (IF) analyses were performed on FFPE RCC tissue specimens from 16 patients by using the following mTOR pathway-related: mTOR (Ser235/236), phospho-mTOR (p-mTOR/Ser2448), phospho-p70S6k (p-p70S6k/Thr389), both monoclonal and polyclonal, phospho-S6Rb (p-S6Rb) and phospho-4EBP1 (p-4EBP1/Thr37/46). No single molecule was simultaneously revealed by all three techniques. Only p-p70S6k was detected by two methods (IHC and IF) using a monoclonal antibody. The other molecules were detected exclusively by one technique, as follows: p-mTOR and polyclonal p-p70S6K by IHC, p70S6K, p-S6Rb and p-4EBP1 by WB, and, finally, mTOR by IF. We found significant differences in detecting mTOR pathway-related active biomarkers by using three common techniques such as IHC, WB and IF on RCC samples. Such results have important implications in terms of predictive biomarker testing, and need to be related to clinical end-points such as responsiveness to targeted drugs by prospective studies. PMID:25520878

  10. The Gene Expression Response of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells to IL-4 Is Specific, Depends on ZAP-70 Status and Is Differentially Affected by an NFκB Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Sebastián-Ruiz, Silvia; Gómez-Espuch, Joaquín; Funes, Consuelo; Moraleda, José-María; García-Garay, María-Carmen; Montes-Barqueros, Natividad; Minguela, Alfredo; Álvarez-López, María-Rocío; Parrado, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin 4 (IL-4), an essential mediator of B cell development, plays a role in survival of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells. To obtain new insights into the function of the IL-4 pathway in CLL, we analyzed the gene expression response to IL-4 in CLL and in normal B cells (NBC) by oligonucleotide microarrays, resulting in the identification of 232 non-redundant entities in CLL and 146 in NBC (95 common, 283 altogether), of which 189 were well-defined genes in CLL and 123 in NBC (83 common, 229 altogether) (p<0.05, 2-fold cut-off). To the best of our knowledge, most of them were novel IL-4 targets for CLL (98%), B cells of any source (83%), or any cell type (70%). Responses were significantly higher for 54 and 11 genes in CLL and NBC compared to each other, respectively. In CLL, ZAP-70 status had an impact on IL-4 response, since different sets of IL-4 targets correlated positively or negatively with baseline expression of ZAP-70. In addition, the NFκB inhibitor 6-Amino-4-(4-phenoxyphenethylamino)quinazoline, which reversed the anti-apoptotic effect of IL-4, preferentially blocked the response of genes positively correlated with ZAP-70 (e.g. CCR2, SUSD2), but enhanced the response of genes negatively correlated with ZAP-70 (e.g. AUH, BCL6, LY75, NFIL3). Dissection of the gene expression response to IL-4 in CLL and NBC contributes to the understanding of the anti-apoptotic response. Initial evidence of a connection between ZAP-70 and NFκB supports further exploration of targeting NFκB in the context of the assessment of inhibition of the IL-4 pathway as a therapeutic strategy in CLL, especially in patients expressing bad prognostic markers. PMID:25280001

  11. Acquired Factor V Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Daisuke; Yamashita, Yugo; Masunaga, Nobutoyo; Katsura, Toshiaki; Akao, Masaharu; Okuno, Yoshiaki; Koyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitors directed against factor V rarely occur, and the clinical symptoms vary. We herein report the case of a patient who presented with a decreased factor V activity that had decreased to <3 %. We administered vitamin K and 6 units of fresh frozen plasma, but she thereafter developed an intracerebral hemorrhage. It is unclear whether surgery >10 years earlier might have caused the development of a factor V inhibitor. The treatment of acquired factor V inhibitors is mainly the transfusion of platelet concentrates and corticosteroids. Both early detection and the early initiation of the treatment of factor V inhibitor are thus considered to be important. PMID:27746446

  12. Inhibitors of Pyruvate Carboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Zeczycki, Tonya N.; Maurice, Martin St.; Attwood, Paul V.

    2010-01-01

    This review aims to discuss the varied types of inhibitors of biotin-dependent carboxylases, with an emphasis on the inhibitors of pyruvate carboxylase. Some of these inhibitors are physiologically relevant, in that they provide ways of regulating the cellular activities of the enzymes e.g. aspartate and prohibitin inhibition of pyruvate carboxylase. Most of the inhibitors that will be discussed have been used to probe various aspects of the structure and function of these enzymes. They target particular parts of the structure e.g. avidin – biotin, FTP – ATP binding site, oxamate – pyruvate binding site, phosphonoacetate – binding site of the putative carboxyphosphate intermediate. PMID:22180764

  13. Novel corrosion inhibitor technology

    SciTech Connect

    Van de Ven, P.; Fritz, P.; Pellet, R.

    1999-11-01

    A novel, patented corrosion inhibitor technology has been identified for use in heat transfer applications such as automotive and heavy-duty coolant. The new technology is based on a low-toxic, virtually depletion-free carboxylic acid corrosion inhibitor package that performs equally well in mono ethylene glycol and in less toxic propylene glycol coolants. An aqueous inhibitor concentrate is available to provide corrosion protection where freezing protection is not an issue. In the present paper, this inhibitor package is evaluated in the different base fluids: mono ethylene glycol, mono propylene glycol and water. Results are obtained in both standardized and specific corrosion tests as well as in selected field trials. These results indicate that the inhibitor package remains effective and retains the benefits previously identified in automotive engine coolant applications: excellent corrosion protection under localized conditions, general corrosion conditions as well as at high temperature.

  14. Curbing indoor mold growth with mold inhibitors

    Treesearch

    Carol A. Clausen; Vina W. Yang

    2004-01-01

    Environmentally acceptable mold inhibitors are needed to curb the growth of mold fungi in woodframe housing when moisture management measures fail. Excess indoor moisture can lead to rapid mold establishment which, in turn, can have deleterious affects on indoor air quality. Compounds with known mold inhibitory properties and low mammalian toxicity, such as food...

  15. Chemical origins of isoform selectivity in histone deacetylase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Butler, Kyle V; Kozikowski, Alan P

    2008-01-01

    Histones undergo extensive posttranslational modifications that affect gene expression. Acetylation is a key histone modification that is primarily regulated by two enzymes, one of which is histone deacetylase (HDAC). The activity of HDAC causes transcriptional silencing of DNA. Eleven distinct zinc-dependent histone deacetylase isoforms have been identified in humans. Each isoform has a unique structure and function, and regulates a unique set of genes. HDAC is responsible for the regulation of many genes involved in cancer cell proliferation, and it has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many neurological conditions. HDAC inhibitors are known to be very effective anti-cancer agents, and research has shown them to be potential treatments for many other conditions. Histone deacetylase inhibitors modify the expression of many genes, and it is possible that inhibition of one isoform could cause epigenetic changes that are beneficial to treatment of a disease, while inhibition of another isoform could cause contradictory changes. Selective HDAC inhibitors will be better able to avoid these types of situations than non-specific inhibitors, and may also be less toxic than pan-HDAC inhibitors. Many potent pan-HDAC inhibitors have already been developed, leaving the development of selective inhibitors at the forefront of HDAC drug development. Certain structural moieties may be added to HDAC inhibitors to give isoform selectivity, and these will be discussed in this review. This review will focus on the applications of selective HDAC inhibitors, inhibitors reported to show selectivity, and the relationship between inhibitor structure and selectivity.

  16. CRYSTALLINE SOYBEAN TRYPSIN INHIBITOR

    PubMed Central

    Kunitz, M.

    1947-01-01

    A study has been made of the general properties of crystalline soybean trypsin inhibitor. The soy inhibitor is a stable protein of the globulin type of a molecular weight of about 24,000. Its isoelectric point is at pH 4.5. It inhibits the proteolytic action approximately of an equal weight of crystalline trypsin by combining with trypsin to form a stable compound. Chymotrypsin is only slightly inhibited by soy inhibitor. The reaction between chymotrypsin and the soy inhibitor consists in the formation of a reversibly dissociable compound. The inhibitor has no effect on pepsin. The inhibiting action of the soybean inhibitor is associated with the native state of the protein molecule. Denaturation of the soy protein by heat or acid or alkali brings about a proportional decrease in its inhibiting action on trypsin. Reversal of denaturation results in a proportional gain in the inhibiting activity. Crystalline soy protein when denatured is readily digestible by pepsin, and less readily by chymotrypsin and by trypsin. Methods are given for measuring trypsin and inhibitor activity and also protein concentration with the aid of spectrophotometric density measurements at 280 mµ. PMID:19873496

  17. Tumor necrosis factor inhibitors – state of knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Lis, Krzysztof; Kuzawińska, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is considered a major proinflammatory cytokine, affecting various aspects of the immune reaction. All five TNF inhibitors currently available on the market (i.e., etanercept, infliximab, adalimumab, certolizumab and golimumab) are top sellers, although indicated only in autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease and psoriasis. This article briefly discusses the background and place for TNF inhibitors in modern therapy. The main safety aspects of TNF inhibitor administration are described in particular, with special consideration of the available meta-analyses. Finally, perspectives on the next-generation TNF inhibitors and their use in the clinic are given. PMID:25624856

  18. Hereditary angioedema with normal C1 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Bork, Konrad

    2013-11-01

    Until recently it was assumed that hereditary angioedema was a disease that results exclusively from a genetic deficiency of the C1 inhibitor. In 2000, families with hereditary angioedema, normal C1 inhibitor activity, and protein in plasma were described. Since then, numerous patients and families with that condition have been reported. Most of the patients were women. In many of the affected women, oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy containing estrogens, and pregnancies triggered the clinical symptoms. In some families mutations in the coagulation factor XII (Hageman factor) gene were detected.

  19. [Isolation of a specific inhibitor of microbial serine proteinase from kidney bean seeds].

    PubMed

    Mosolov, V V; Malova, E L; Cheban, A N

    1983-10-01

    A protein acting as a specific inhibitor of microbial serine proteinases was isolated from kidney bean seeds. The purification procedure included complex formation between the inhibitor and Aspergillus oryzae proteinase. The protein with a Mr approximately 10 000 inhibits subtilisin and Asp. oryzae proteinase but does not affect trypsin and chymotrypsin. The inhibitor molecule contains no half-cystine residues.

  20. MMP Inhibitors on Dentin Stability

    PubMed Central

    Montagner, A.F.; Sarkis-Onofre, R.; Pereira-Cenci, T.; Cenci, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature for in vitro and ex vivo studies that evaluated the effect of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitors during the adhesive procedure on the immediate and long-term resin-dentin bond strength. The search was conducted in 6 databases with no publication year or language limits, following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. From 1,336 potentially eligible studies, 48 were selected for full-text analysis, and 30 were included for review, with 17 considered in the meta-analysis. Two reviewers independently selected the studies, extracted the data, and assessed the risk of bias. Pooled effect estimates were expressed as the weighted mean difference between groups. The most used MMP inhibitor was chlorhexidine (CHX). Immediate bond strength results showed no difference between 2% CHX and control; however, a difference was found between 0.2% CHX and control at baseline. After aging, CHX presented higher bond strength values compared to control groups (p < .05). However, this was not observed for longer periods of aging. High heterogeneity was found in some comparisons, especially for the water storage aging subgroup. Subgroup analyses showed that self-etching and etch-and-rinse adhesives are benefited by the CHX use. From the studies included, only 1 presented low risk of bias, while the others showed medium or high risk of bias. The use of MMP inhibitors did not affect the immediate bond strength overall, while it influenced the aged bond strength. Aging procedures influenced bond strength values of the dentin adhesion stability. PMID:24935066

  1. Natural inhibitors of thrombin.

    PubMed

    Huntington, James A

    2014-04-01

    The serine protease thrombin is the effector enzyme of blood coagulation. It has many activities critical for the formation of stable clots, including cleavage of fibrinogen to fibrin, activation of platelets and conversion of procofactors to active cofactors. Thrombin carries-out its multiple functions by utilising three special features: a deep active site cleft and two anion binding exosites (exosite I and II). Similarly, thrombin inhibitors have evolved to exploit the unique features of thrombin to achieve rapid and specific inactivation of thrombin. Exogenous thrombin inhibitors come from several different protein families and are generally found in the saliva of haematophagous animals (blood suckers) as part of an anticoagulant cocktail that allows them to feed. Crystal structures of several of these inhibitors reveal how peptides and proteins can be targeted to thrombin in different and interesting ways. Thrombin activity must also be regulated by endogenous inhibitors so that thrombi do not occlude blood flow and cause thrombosis. A single protein family, the serpins, provides all four of the endogenous thrombin inhibitors found in man. The crystal structures of these serpins bound to thrombin have been solved, revealing a similar exosite-dependence on complex formation. In addition to forming the recognition complex, serpins destroy the structure of thrombin, allowing them to be released from cofactors and substrates for clearance. This review examines how the special features of thrombin have been exploited by evolution to achieve inhibition of the ultimate coagulation protease.

  2. [Acquired coagulant factor inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Nogami, Keiji

    2015-02-01

    Acquired coagulation factor inhibitors are an autoimmune disease causing bleeding symptoms due to decreases in the corresponding factor (s) which result from the appearance of autoantibodies against coagulation factors (inhibitor). This disease is quite different from congenital coagulation factor deficiencies based on genetic abnormalities. In recent years, cases with this disease have been increasing, and most have anti-factor VIII autoantibodies. The breakdown of the immune control mechanism is speculated to cause this disease since it is common in the elderly, but the pathology and pathogenesis are presently unclear. We herein describe the pathology and pathogenesis of factor VIII and factor V inhibitors. Characterization of these inhibitors leads to further analysis of the coagulation process and the activation mechanisms of clotting factors. In the future, with the development of new clotting examination method (s), we anticipate that further novel findings will be obtained in this field through inhibitor analysis. In addition, detailed elucidation of the coagulation inhibitory mechanism possibly leading to hemostatic treatment strategies for acquired coagulation factor disorders will be developed.

  3. SGLT2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Dardi, I; Kouvatsos, T; Jabbour, S A

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a serious health issue and an economic burden, rising in epidemic proportions over the last few decades worldwide. Although several treatment options are available, only half of the global diabetic population achieves the recommended or individualized glycemic targets. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of antidiabetic agents with a novel insulin-independent action. SGLT2 is a transporter found in the proximal renal tubules, responsible for the reabsorption of most of the glucose filtered by the kidney. Inhibition of SGLT2 lowers the blood glucose level by promoting the urinary excretion of excess glucose. Due to their insulin-independent action, SGLT2 inhibitors can be used with any degree of beta-cell dysfunction or insulin resistance, related to a very low risk of hypoglycemia. In addition to improving glycemic control, SGLT2 inhibitors have been associated with a reduction in weight and blood pressure when used as monotherapy or in combination with other antidiabetic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors is usually well tolerated; however, they have been associated with an increased incidence of urinary tract and genital infections, although these infections are usually mild and easy to treat. SGLT2 inhibitors are a promising new option in the armamentarium of drugs for patients with T2DM.

  4. Monoamine Reuptake Inhibitors in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Huot, Philippe; Fox, Susan H.; Brotchie, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    The motor manifestations of Parkinson's disease (PD) are secondary to a dopamine deficiency in the striatum. However, the degenerative process in PD is not limited to the dopaminergic system and also affects serotonergic and noradrenergic neurons. Because they can increase monoamine levels throughout the brain, monoamine reuptake inhibitors (MAUIs) represent potential therapeutic agents in PD. However, they are seldom used in clinical practice other than as antidepressants and wake-promoting agents. This review article summarises all of the available literature on use of 50 MAUIs in PD. The compounds are divided according to their relative potency for each of the monoamine transporters. Despite wide discrepancy in the methodology of the studies reviewed, the following conclusions can be drawn: (1) selective serotonin transporter (SERT), selective noradrenaline transporter (NET), and dual SERT/NET inhibitors are effective against PD depression; (2) selective dopamine transporter (DAT) and dual DAT/NET inhibitors exert an anti-Parkinsonian effect when administered as monotherapy but do not enhance the anti-Parkinsonian actions of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA); (3) dual DAT/SERT inhibitors might enhance the anti-Parkinsonian actions of L-DOPA without worsening dyskinesia; (4) triple DAT/NET/SERT inhibitors might exert an anti-Parkinsonian action as monotherapy and might enhance the anti-Parkinsonian effects of L-DOPA, though at the expense of worsening dyskinesia. PMID:25810948

  5. Progress towards clinically useful aldosterone synthase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cerny, Matthew A

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the high degree of similarity between aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) and cortisol synthase (CYP11B1), the design of selective inhibitors of one or the other of these two enzymes was, at one time, thought to be impossible. Through development of novel enzyme screening assays and significant medicinal chemistry efforts, highly potent inhibitors of CYP11B2 have been identified with selectivities approaching 1000-fold between the two enzymes. Many of these molecules also possess selectivity against other steroidogenic cytochromes P450 (e.g. CYP17A1 and CYP19A1) as well as hepatic drug metabolizing P450s. Though not as well developed or explored, inhibitors of CYP11B1, with selectivities approaching 50-fold, have also been identified. The therapeutic benefits of affecting the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system have been well established with the therapeutically useful angiotensin-converting enzymes inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists. Data regarding the additional benefits of an aldosterone synthase inhibitor (ASi) are beginning to emerge from animal models and human clinical trials. Despite great promise and much progress, additional challenges still exist in the path towards development of a therapeutically useful ASi.

  6. Cholinesterase inhibitors from botanicals

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Faiyaz; Ghalib, Raza Murad; Sasikala, P.; Ahmed, K. K. Mueen

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease, wherein a progressive loss of cholinergic synapses occurs in hippocampus and neocortex. Decreased concentration of the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine (ACh), appears to be critical element in the development of dementia, and the most appropriate therapeutic approach to treat AD and other form of dementia is to restore acetylcholine levels by inhibiting both major form of cholinesterase: Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Consequently, researches have focused their attention towards finding cholinesterase inhibitors from natural products. A large number of such inhibitors have been isolated from medicinal plants. This review presents a comprehensive account of the advances in field of cholinesterase inhibitor phytoconstituents. The structures of some important phytoconstituents (collected through www.Chemspider.com) are also presented and the scope for future research is discussed. PMID:24347920

  7. Macrocyclic Inhibitors of Hsp90

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Victoria A.; Singh, Erinprit K.; Nazarova, Lidia A.; Alexander, Leslie D.; McAlpine, Shelli R.

    2011-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSP) are a family of highly conserved proteins, whose expression increases in response to stresses that may threaten cell survival. Over the past decade, heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) has emerged as a potential therapeutic target for cancer as it plays a vital role in normal cell maturation and acts as a molecular chaperone for proper folding, assembly, and stabilization of many oncogenic proteins. To date, a majority of Hsp90 inhibitors that have been discovered are macrocycles. The relatively rigid conformation provided by the macrocyclic scaffold allows for a selective interaction with a biological target such as Hsp90. This review highlights the discovery and development of nine macro-cycles that inhibit the function of Hsp90, detailing their potency and the client proteins affected by Hsp90 inhibition. PMID:20536417

  8. Thrombin inhibitor design.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, P E; Naylor-Olsen, A M

    1998-08-01

    Recently, iv formulated direct thrombin inhibitors have been shown to be safe and efficacious alternatives to heparin. These results have fueled the hopes for an orally active compound. Such a compound could be a significant advance over warfarin if it had predictable pharmacokinetics and a duration of action sufficient for once or twice a day dosing. In order to develop an orally active compound which meets these criteria, the deficiencies of the prototype inhibitor efegatran have had to be addressed. First, using a combination of structure based design and empirical structure optimization, more selective compounds have been identified by modifying the P1 group or by incorporating different peptidomimetic P2/P3 scaffolds. Secondly, this optimization has resulted in the development of potent and selective non-covalent inhibitors, thus bypassing the liabilities of the serine trap. Thirdly, oral bioavailability has been achieved while maintaining selectivity and efficacy through the incorporation of progressively less basic P1 groups. The duration of action of these compounds remains to be optimized. Other advances in thrombin inhibitor design have included the development of uncharged P1 groups and the discovery of two non-peptide templates.

  9. Altering cancer transcriptomes using epigenomic inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Gaddis, Malaina; Gerrard, Diana; Frietze, Seth; Farnham, Peggy J

    2015-01-01

    Due to the hyper-activation of WNT signaling in a variety of cancer types, there has been a strong drive to develop pathway-specific inhibitors with the eventual goal of providing a chemotherapeutic antagonist of WNT signaling to cancer patients. A new category of drugs, called epigenetic inhibitors, are being developed that hold high promise for inhibition of the WNT pathway. The canonical WNT signaling pathway initiates when WNT ligands bind to receptors, causing the nuclear localization of the co-activator β-catenin (CTNNB1), which leads to an association of β-catenin with a member of the TCF transcription factor family at regulatory regions of WNT-responsive genes. The TCF/β-catenin complex then recruits CBP (CREBBP) or p300 (EP300), leading to histone acetylation and gene activation. A current model in the field is that CBP-driven expression of WNT target genes supports proliferation whereas p300-driven expression of WNT target genes supports differentiation. The small molecule inhibitor ICG-001 binds to CBP, but not to p300, and competitively inhibits the interaction of CBP with β-catenin. Upon treatment of cancer cells, this should reduce expression of CBP-regulated transcription, leading to reduced tumorigenicity and enhanced differentiation. We have compared the genome-wide effects on the transcriptome after treatment with ICG-001 (the specific CBP inhibitor) versus C646, a compound that competes with acetyl-coA for the Lys-coA binding pocket of both CBP and p300. We found that both drugs cause large-scale changes in the transcriptome of HCT116 colon cancer cells and PANC1 pancreatic cancer cells and reverse some tumor-specific changes in gene expression. Interestingly, although the epigenetic inhibitors affect cell cycle pathways in both the colon and pancreatic cancer cell lines, the WNT signaling pathway was affected only in the colon cancer cells. Notably, WNT target genes were similarly downregulated after treatment of HCT116 with C646 as with ICG

  10. Skin problems and EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kozuki, Toshiyuki

    2016-04-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition is a good target for the treatment of lung, colon, pancreatic and head and neck cancers. Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor was first approved for the treatment of advanced lung cancer in 2002. Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor plays an essential role in the treatment of cancer, especially for patients harbouring epidermal growth factor receptor activating mutation. Hence, skin toxicity is the most concerning issue for the epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. Skin toxicity is bothersome and sometimes affects the quality of life and treatment compliance. Thus, it is important for physicians to understand the background and how to manage epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor-associated skin toxicity. Here, the author reviewed the mechanism and upfront preventive and reactive treatments for epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor-associated skin toxicities.

  11. Skin problems and EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Kozuki, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition is a good target for the treatment of lung, colon, pancreatic and head and neck cancers. Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor was first approved for the treatment of advanced lung cancer in 2002. Epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor plays an essential role in the treatment of cancer, especially for patients harbouring epidermal growth factor receptor activating mutation. Hence, skin toxicity is the most concerning issue for the epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment. Skin toxicity is bothersome and sometimes affects the quality of life and treatment compliance. Thus, it is important for physicians to understand the background and how to manage epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor-associated skin toxicity. Here, the author reviewed the mechanism and upfront preventive and reactive treatments for epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor-associated skin toxicities. PMID:26826719

  12. New Approaches for Prostate Cancer Combination Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    but not all NSAIDs induced apoptosis in DU145 cells. Strong inducers of apoptosis included Sulindac sulfide, Finasteride , Diclofenac, Flufenamic... Finasteride , Diclofenac and Sulindac Sulfone can be reduced 2 times when compared with the solvent controls, and 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 6-Amino-4... Finasteride and NS398 and NF-B inhibitors 6-Amino-4-(4-phenoxyphenylethylamino) quinazoline and IKK- 2 inhibitor SC-514 were tested for their abilities

  13. Acyclic peptide inhibitors of amylases.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Nicola

    2005-12-01

    In this issue of Chemistry and Biology, a library screening approach reveals a linear octapeptide inhibitor of alpha-amylases reached by de novo design . The selected molecule shares characteristics with naturally occurring protein inhibitors -- a result that suggests general rules for the design of peptide-based amylase inhibitors may be achievable.

  14. [SGLT2 inhibitor].

    PubMed

    Kubota, Naoto; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2015-12-01

    SGLT2 is a glucose transporter which plays an important role for reabsorption of urinary glucose depending on the sodium concentration gradient. SGLT2 is mainly present in apical site of S1 segment of renal proximal tubule and accounts for approximately 90% of total urinary glucose reabsorption. SLC5a2, which codes SGLT2, is also known as the causative gene of familial renal glucosuria. SGLT2 inhibitors are attracting attention as newly developed oral anti-diabetic agents which improve glucose intolerance and also have an anti-obese effect by promoting urinary glucose excretion (UGE), which is a different pharmacological effect from other conventional anti-diabetic agents. In this review, we will discuss the effect of SGLT2 inhibitor on the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism in type 2 diabetes.

  15. Protease inhibitor studies enrolling.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The protease enzyme is essential for HIV to make copies of itself. So far, research has failed to find a protease inhibitor that works against HIV. It is believed that, regardless of what type of protease inhibitor someone takes, it will need to be supplemented with other anti-HIV drugs. Three protease inhibitors have thus far been found to be safe, although long-term effects are unknown. These drugs are saquinavir, ABT-538, and L-735,524 produced by Hoffman-LaRoche, Abbott, and Merck respectively. Clinical trials of saquinavir are promising but it has not been shown to be the knock-out drug needed. ABT-538 has high bioavailability, but studies are showing it can cause liver and eye damage. L-735,524 studies are showing that resistance develops quite quickly. Future studies at higher doses are expected. To obtain information on protease studies currently looking for participants, contact The Network. Information on other approved, alternative, and experimental drugs is also available.

  16. Development of scale inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Gill, J.S.

    1996-12-01

    During the last fifty years, scale inhibition has gone from an art to a science. Scale inhibition has changed from simple pH adjustment to the use of optimized dose of designer polymers from multiple monomers. The water-treatment industry faces many challenges due to the need to conserve water, availability of only low quality water, increasing environmental regulations of the water discharge, and concern for human safety when using acid. Natural materials such as starch, lignin, tannin, etc., have been replaced with hydrolytically stable organic phosphates and synthetic polymers. Most progress in scale inhibition has come from the use of synergistic mixtures and copolymerizing different functionalities to achieve specific goals. Development of scale inhibitors requires an understanding of the mechanism of crystal growth and its inhibition. This paper discusses the historic perspective of scale inhibition and the development of new inhibitors based on the understanding of the mechanism of crystal growth and the use of powerful tools like molecular modeling to visualize crystal-inhibitor interactions.

  17. Cox-2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Brown, E

    1999-01-01

    Increasing pharmacy costs are among the fastest growing segments of the health care budget. Health plans are focusing on appropriately managing pharmaceutical costs, both from a long-term global perspective and a short-term approach emphasizing newly marketed products. Over the next six months, cox-2 inhibitors are expected to be approved by the FDA. This new class of drugs, investigated as a safer alternative to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), is among the most highly anticipated medications to hit the marketplace. How health plans react to the launch of cox-2 inhibitors may serve as an example for future pharmacy management efforts. A proactive policy regarding the use of cox-2 inhibitors may be challenging, but should include: Reviewing clinical information; evaluating the cost of the new drug; and identifying appropriate patient selection criteria. The available management strategies include precertification, a tiered co-payment system, restricting prescriptions to a provider specialty, retrospective physician profiling, and physician education.

  18. [Affective dependency].

    PubMed

    Scantamburlo, G; Pitchot, W; Ansseau, M

    2013-01-01

    Affective dependency is characterized by emotional distress (insecure attachment) and dependency to another person with a low self-esteem and reassurance need. The paper proposes a reflection on the definition of emotional dependency and the confusion caused by various denominations. Overprotective and authoritarian parenting, cultural and socio-environmental factors may contribute to the development of dependent personality. Psychological epigenetic factors, such as early socio-emotional trauma could on neuronal circuits in prefronto-limbic regions that are essential for emotional behaviour.We also focus on the interrelations between dependent personality, domestic violence and addictions. The objective for the clinician is to propose a restoration of self-esteem and therapeutic strategies focused on autonomy.

  19. A Porphodimethene Chemical Inhibitor of Uroporphyrinogen Decarboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Kenneth W.; Zhang, Zhan; Sakemura-Nakatsugawa, Noriko; Huang, Jui-Wen; Vu, Nhu Mai; Chiang, Yi-Kun; Lin, Chih-Lung; Kwan, Jennifer Y. Y.; Yue, Shijun; Jitkova, Yulia; To, Terence; Zahedi, Payam; Pai, Emil F.; Schimmer, Aaron D.; Lovell, Jonathan F.; Sessler, Jonathan L.; Liu, Fei-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD) catalyzes the conversion of uroporphyrinogen to coproporphyrinogen during heme biosynthesis. This enzyme was recently identified as a potential anticancer target; its inhibition leads to an increase in reactive oxygen species, likely mediated by the Fenton reaction, thereby decreasing cancer cell viability and working in cooperation with radiation and/or cisplatin. Because there is no known chemical UROD inhibitor suitable for use in translational studies, we aimed to design, synthesize, and characterize such a compound. Initial in silico-based design and docking analyses identified a potential porphyrin analogue that was subsequently synthesized. This species, a porphodimethene (named PI-16), was found to inhibit UROD in an enzymatic assay (IC50 = 9.9 µM), but did not affect porphobilinogen deaminase (at 62.5 µM), thereby exhibiting specificity. In cellular assays, PI-16 reduced the viability of FaDu and ME-180 cancer cells with half maximal effective concentrations of 22.7 µM and 26.9 µM, respectively, and only minimally affected normal oral epithelial (NOE) cells. PI-16 also combined effectively with radiation and cisplatin, with potent synergy being observed in the case of cisplatin in FaDu cells (Chou-Talalay combination index <1). This work presents the first known synthetic UROD inhibitor, and sets the foundation for the design, synthesis, and characterization of higher affinity and more effective UROD inhibitors. PMID:24587102

  20. Risk of gynecomastia and breast cancer associated with the use of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors for benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Hagberg, Katrina Wilcox; Divan, Hozefa A; Fang, Shona C; Nickel, J Curtis; Jick, Susan S

    2017-01-01

    Clinical trial results suggest that 5-alpha reductase inhibitors (5ARIs) for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) may increase the risk of gynecomastia and male breast cancer, but epidemiological studies have been limited. We conducted a cohort study with nested case-control analyses using the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink. We identified men diagnosed with BPH who were free from Klinefelter syndrome, prostate, genital or urinary cancer, prostatectomy or orchiectomy, or evidence of gynecomastia or breast cancer. Patients entered the cohort at age ≥40 years and at least 3 years after the start of their electronic medical record. We classified exposure as 5ARIs (alone or in combination with alpha blockers [ABs]), AB only, or unexposed to 5ARIs and ABs. Cases were men who had a first-time diagnosis of gynecomastia or breast cancer. Incidence rates and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) in the gynecomastia analysis and crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CIs in both analyses were calculated. Compared to no exposure, gynecomastia risk was elevated for users of 5ARIs (alone or in combination with ABs) in both the cohort (IRR=3.55, 95% CI 3.05-4.14) and case-control analyses (OR=3.31, 95% CI 2.66-4.10), whereas the risk was null for users of AB only. The increased risk of gynecomastia with the use of 5ARIs persisted regardless of the number of prescriptions, exposure timing, and presence or absence of concomitant prescriptions for drugs known to be associated with gynecomastia. The risk was higher for dutasteride than for finasteride. 5ARI users did not have an increased risk of breast cancer compared to unexposed men (OR=1.52, 95% CI 0.61-3.80). In men with BPH, 5ARIs significantly increased the risk of gynecomastia, but not breast cancer, compared to AB use and no exposure.

  1. Secreted and Transmembrane Wnt Inhibitors and Activators

    PubMed Central

    Cruciat, Cristina-Maria; Niehrs, Christof

    2013-01-01

    Signaling by the Wnt family of secreted glycoproteins plays important roles in embryonic development and adult homeostasis. Wnt signaling is modulated by a number of evolutionarily conserved inhibitors and activators. Wnt inhibitors belong to small protein families, including sFRP, Dkk, WIF, Wise/SOST, Cerberus, IGFBP, Shisa, Waif1, APCDD1, and Tiki1. Their common feature is to antagonize Wnt signaling by preventing ligand–receptor interactions or Wnt receptor maturation. Conversely, the Wnt activators, R-spondin and Norrin, promote Wnt signaling by binding to Wnt receptors or releasing a Wnt-inhibitory step. With few exceptions, these antagonists and agonists are not pure Wnt modulators, but also affect additional signaling pathways, such as TGF-β and FGF signaling. Here we discuss their interactions with Wnt ligands and Wnt receptors, their role in developmental processes, as well as their implication in disease. PMID:23085770

  2. [Clinical cases of acquired coagulation inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Yamane, T; Hino, M; Ota, K; Akahori, M; Hirai, M; Inoue, T; Mugitani, A; Tatsumi, N

    2000-12-01

    The acquired coagulation factor inhibitors are classified into alloantibodies, which appear in association with supplementary treatment for congenital coagulation factor deficiency, and autoantibodies, which are spontaneously produced. We report here 2 cases of acquired factor VIII inhibitor and 1 case of factor V inhibitor. Case 1: A 52-year-old woman noted swelling of the right parotid region in March 1988. Though contrast examination was scheduled, she was admitted for detailed examination due to a markedly prolonged coagulation time. An APTT correction test suggested that decreased factor VIII activity was due to the presence of an inhibitor. Since antinuclear antibody and SS-A antibody were positive and infiltration by lymphocytes in the salivary gland acini in a lip biopsy specimen was detected, Sjögren's syndrome was diagnosed. Case 2: A 33-year-old woman had normal delivery of her second child in February 1998. In June 1998, she suffered slight contusion in the left lower limb. The affected site became swollen and painful, making walking difficult. Since both upper limbs became markedly swollen after 1 week, she visited our hospital. Prolonged APTT and a marked decrease in factor VIII activity were observed. Factor VIII inhibitor titer was high at 19 Bethesda units. Case 3: A 64-year-old man had had asymptomatic macroscopic hematuria since the beginning of August 1998 but was placed under observation since no abnormal findings were observed on various imaging tests. However, he was admitted to Osaka City General Medical Center because of vesicular tamponade. Factor V activity was markedly decreased to 1.0%. PT correction test suggested that decreased factor V activity was due to the presence of an inhibitor. The underlying disease could not be determined in this case. In patients with acquired coagulation inhibitors, bleeding symptoms are reported to be mild in many cases, and severe bleeding is rare. However, cases of death without severe bleeding or

  3. [Tyrosine kinase inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Robert, Jacques

    2011-11-01

    Membrane receptors with tyrosine kinase activity and cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases have emerged as important potential targets in oncology. Starting from basic structures such as anilino-quinazoline, numerous compounds have been synthesised, with the help of tyrosine kinase crystallography, which has allowed to optimise protein-ligand interactions. The catalytic domains of all kinases present similar three-dimensional structures, which explains that it may be difficult to identify molecules having a high specificity for a given tyrosine kinase. Some tyrosine kinase inhibitors are relatively specific for epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) such as géfitinib and erlotinib; other are mainly active against platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and the receptor KIT, such as imatinib or nilotinib, and other against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors involved in angiogenesis, such as sunitinib and sorafenib. The oral formulation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors is well accepted by the patients but may generate sometimes compliance problems requiring pharmacokinetic monitoring. This chemical family is in full expansion and several dozens of compounds have entered clinical trials.

  4. Synthesis of Lysine Methyltransferase Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Tao; Hui, Chunngai

    2015-07-01

    Lysine methyltransferase which catalyze methylation of histone and nonhistone proteins, play a crucial role in diverse biological processes and has emerged as a promising target for the development of various human diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and psychiatric disorders. However, inhibiting Lysine methyltransferases selectively has presented many challenges to medicinal chemists. During the past decade, lysine methyltransferase inhibitors covering many different structural classes have been designed and developed. In this review, we describe the development of selective, small-molecule inhibitors of lysine methyltransferases with an emphasis on their discovery and chemical synthesis. We highlight the current state of lysine methyltransferase inhibitors and discuss future directions and opportunities for lysine methyltransferase inhibitor discovery.