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Sample records for inhibits 6-hydroxydopamine-induced cytochrome

  1. Inhibition of Mitochondrial Clearance and Cu/Zn-SOD Activity Enhance 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Neuronal Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    In, Sua; Hong, Chang-Won; Choi, Boyoung; Jang, Bong-Geum; Kim, Min-Ju

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common movement disorder among neurodegenerative diseases, involving neuronal cell death in the substantia nigra of the midbrain. Although mechanisms of cell death in PD have been studied, the exact molecular pathogenesis is still unclear. Here, we explore the relationship between two types of cell death, autophagy and apoptosis, which have been studied separately in parkinsonian mimetic model of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). 6-OHDA induced autophagy firstly and then later inhibition of autophagy flux occurred with apoptosis. The apoptosis was prevented by treatment of pan-caspase inhibitor, zVAD-fmk (benzyloxycarbonyl-VAD-fluoromethylketone (zVAD)), or early phase inhibitor of autophagy, 3-methyladenine (3-MA), indicating that autophagic induction was followed by the apoptosis. Interestingly, late step inhibitor of autophagy, bafilomycin A1 (BafA), aggravated 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis. This was associated with mitochondrial abnormality such as the inhibition of damaged mitochondrial clearance and aberrant increase of extracellular oxygen consumption. Furthermore, treatment of BafA did not inhibit 6-OHDA-mediated superoxide formation but strongly reduced the hydrogen peroxide production to below basal levels, indicating failure from superoxide to hydrogen peroxide. These results were accompanied by a lowered expression and activity of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) but not of manganese SOD (MnSOD) and catalase. Thus, the present study suggests that crosstalk among apoptosis, autophagy, and oxidative stress is a causative factor of 6-OHDA-induced neuronal death and provides a mechanistic understanding of PD pathogenesis.

  2. Salvianolic acid B, an antioxidant from Salvia miltiorrhiza, prevents 6-hydroxydopamine induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lin-Lin; Wang, Xue-Jun; Sun, Yu-Ning; Li, Chun-Rong; Xing, Ya-Ling; Zhao, Hai-Bao; Duan, Ming; Zhou, Zhe; Wang, Sheng-Qi

    2008-01-01

    Oxidative stress caused by dopamine may play an important role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease. Salvianolic acid B is an antioxidant derived from the Chinese herb, Salvia miltiorrhiza. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of salvianolic acid B against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced cell death in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Pretreatment of SH-SY5Y cells with salvianolic acid B significantly reduced 6-hydroxydopamine-induced generation of reactive oxygen species, and prevented 6-hydroxydopamine-induced increases in intracellular calcium. Our data demonstrated that 6-hydroxydopamine-induced apoptosis was reversed by salvianolic acid B treatment. Salvianolic acid B reduced the 6-hydroxydopamine-induced increase of caspase-3 activity, and reduced cytochrome C translocation into the cytosol from mitochondria. The 6-hydroxydopamine-induced decrease in the Bcl-x/Bax ratio was prevented by salvianolic acid B. Additionally, salvianolic acid B decreased the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and induced the activation of 6-hydroxydopamine-suppressed protein kinase C. These results indicate that the protective function of salvianolic acid B is dependent upon its antioxidative potential. Our results strongly suggest that salvianolic acid B may be effective in treating neurodegenerative diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  3. 6-HYDROXYDOPAMINE INDUCES MITOCHONDRIAL ERK ACTIVATION

    PubMed Central

    Kulich, Scott M.; Horbinski, Craig; Patel, Manisha; Chu, Charleen T.

    2007-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are implicated in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injury to catecholaminergic neurons; however, the mechanism(s) are unclear. In addition to ROS generated during autoxidation, 6-OHDA may initiate secondary cellular sources of ROS that contribute to toxicity. Using a neuronal cell line, we found that catalytic metalloporphyrin antioxidants conferred protection if added 1 hour after exposure to 6-OHDA, whereas the hydrogen peroxide scavenger catalase failed to protect if added more than 15 min after 6-OHDA. There was a temporal correspondence between loss of protection and loss of the ability of the antioxidant to inhibit 6-OHDA-induced ERK phosphorylation. Time course studies of aconitase inactivation, as an indicator of intracellular superoxide, and MitoSOX red, a mitochondria targeted ROS indicator, demonstrate early intracellular ROS followed by a delayed phase of mitochondrial ROS production, associated with phosphorylation of a mitochondrial pool of ERK. Furthermore, upon initiation of mitochondrial ROS and ERK activation, 6-OHDA-injured cells became refractory to rescue by metalloporphyrin antioxidants. Together with previous studies showing that inhibition of the ERK pathway confers protection from 6-OHDA toxicity, and that phosphorylated ERK accumulates in mitochondria of degenerating human Parkinson’s disease neurons, these studies implicate mitochondrial ERK activation in Parkinsonian oxidative neuronal injury. PMID:17602953

  4. Involvement of Mu Opioid Receptor Signaling in the Protective Effect of Opioid against 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced SH-SY5Y Human Neuroblastoma Cells Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhar-Vaghefi, Shahrzad; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Elyasi, Leila; Abbasnejad, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The neuroprotective role of opioid morphine against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced cell death has been demonstrated. However, the exact mechanism(s) underlying such neuroprotection, especially the role of subtype receptors, has not yet been fully clarified. Methods: Here, we investigated the effects of different opioid agonists on 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line as an in vitro model of Parkinson’s disease. Cell damage was induced by 150 μM 6-OHDA and the cells viability was examined by MTT assay. Intracellular calcium, reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial membrane potential were assessed by fluorescence spectrophotometry method. Immunoblot technique was used to evaluate cytochrome-c and activated caspase-3 as biochemical markers of apoptosis induction. Results: The data showed that 6-OHDA caused significant cell damage, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species and calcium levels as well as activated caspase-3 and cytochrome-c release. Incubation of SH-SY5Y cells with μ-opioid agonists, morphine and DAMGO, but not with δ-opioid agonist, DADLE, elicited protective effect and reduced biochemical markers of cell damage and death. Discussion: The results suggest that μ-opioid receptors signaling participate in the opioid neuroprotective effects against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:26904174

  5. Isoliquiritigenin isolated from licorice Glycyrrhiza uralensis prevents 6-hydroxydopamine-induced apoptosis in dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Cheol Kyu; Chun, Hong Sung

    2012-01-01

    Licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) is a medicinal herb containing various bioactive components implicated in antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and neuroprotective effects, but the effects of licorice against Parkinson's disease (PD)-related dopaminergic cell death have not been studied. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of isoliquiritigenin (ISL) isolated from Glycyrrhiza uralensis on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity in a dopaminergic cell line, SN4741. ISL (1 µM) significantly attenuated 6-OHDA (50 µM)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) generation and apoptotic cell death. ISL pretreatment effectively suppressed 6-OHDA-mediated upregulation of Bax, p-c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p-p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, cytochrome c release, and caspase 3 activation. In addition, ISL significantly attenuated 6-OHDA-induced Bcl-2, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) reduction. Pharmacological inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) pathway reversed ISL-mediated neuroprotection against 6-OHDA toxicity in SN4741 cells. These results provide the first evidence that ISL can protect dopaminergic cells under oxidative stress conditions by regulating the apoptotic process.

  6. Neuroprotective effect of trans-cinnamaldehyde on the 6-hydroxydopamine-induced dopaminergic injury.

    PubMed

    Pyo, Ji-Hi; Jeong, You-Kyung; Yeo, Sujung; Lee, Je-Hyun; Jeong, Mi-Young; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Choi, Yeong-Gon; Lim, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of trans-cinnamaldehyde (TCA) were investigated on the inflammatory cells and the dopaminergic degeneration in mice. TCA inhibited the up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory BV2 microglial cells. To investigate the TCA efficacy on the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced dopaminergic degeneration in mice, an intracerebroventricular injection of 6-OHDA was given to the mice, and TCA (30 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally administered. At 7 d after the 6-OHDA injection, 6-OHDA led to a severe loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive dopaminergic neurons in the striatum and substantia nigra (SN). On the other hand, TCA dramatically maintained the number of TH-positive dopaminergic neurons in the striatum and SN regions of the 6-OHDA-treated mice, which indicates that TCA is able to inhibit the 6-OHDA-induced reduction of TH expression in the dopaminergic neurons in the striatum and SN regions. TCA also inhibited the induction of iNOS and COX-2 in the 6-OHDA model, similarly as shown in the LPS-induced inflammatory BV2 microglial cells. These results indicate that TCA has a neuroprotective effect on dopaminergic neurons and that this effect may be associated with the inhibition of inflammatory responses. These findings suggest that TCA may be a therapeutic candidate for the prevention of inflammation-mediated neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. Effect of acupuncture on 6-hydroxydopamine-induced nigrostratal dopaminergic neuronal cell death in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeung-Kee; Lim, Hyung-Ho; Song, Yun-Kyung; Lee, Hee-Hyuk; Lim, Sabina; Han, Seung-Moo; Kim, Chang-Ju

    In this study, we investigated the effect of acupuncture at the Zusanli acupoint (ST36) on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal cell death in the rats with Parkinson's disease. Two weeks after unilateral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the striatum, an apomorphine-induced rotational behavior test showed significant rotational asymmetry in the rats with Parkinson's disease. Immunostaining for tyrosine hydroxylase demonstrated a dopaminergic neuronal loss in the substantia nigra and dopaminergic fiber loss in the striatum. Acupuncture at the ST36 for 14 days significantly inhibited rotational asymmetry in the rats with Parkinson's disease, and also protected against 6-OHDA-induced nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal loss. These effects of acupuncture were not observed for the non-acupoint (hip) acupuncture. The present study shows that acupuncture at the ST36 acupoint can be used as a useful strategy for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  8. The flavanoide caffeic acid phenethyl ester blocks 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Noelker, Carmen; Bacher, Michael; Gocke, Petra; Wei, Xing; Klockgether, Thomas; Du, Yansheng; Dodel, Richard

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta. 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) is specific to dopaminergic neurons in intrastriatal rodent models. It induces neuronal death either via uncoupling mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation resulting in energy deprivation or alternatively, is associated with its ability to produce hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an antioxidant flavanoid, has antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory properties. Recent studies have shown that CAPE has also a neuroprotective effects in ischemia and low potassium-induced neuronal apoptotic models. In cerebellar granule neurons CAPE significantly blocks 6-OHDA mediated cell death (70 microM) in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, CAPE was able to modulate the Ca(2+)-induced release of cyctochrome c in isolated liver mitochondria. Caspase-3 activation following 6-OHDA treatment was markedly inhibited in the presence of CAPE. Although the molecular mechanisms associated with CAPE's neuroprotective effects remain to be elucidated in more detail, our results clearly demonstrate a considerable neuroprotective effect of CAPE. Since a mitochondrial insult is a major cause for the degeneration of nigral neurons in PD, we hypothesize that propolis derivatives, in particular CAPE, may have a neuroprotective effect on those cells and may be a promising drug candidate to be taken into in vivo models of PD.

  9. Cortex Fraxini (Qingpi) Protects Rat Pheochromocytoma Cells against 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing-Jie; Zhou, Shi-Ya; Zhang, Huan; Lam, Kim-Hung; Lee, Simon Ming-Yuen; Yu, Peter Hoi-Fu; Chan, Shun-Wan

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder having close relationship with oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cortex Fraxini (QP) is a kind of traditional Chinese medicinal herb with antioxidant properties. It may be a potential candidate for preventing the development of chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, the key objective of the current study was to investigate the neuroprotective effect of QP water extract on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced apoptosis in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. It was found that QP water extract possesses strong antioxidant property with SC50 = 0.15 mg/mL. Total phenolic content of QP water extract was found to be 200.78 ± 2.65 mg GAE/g. QP water extract's free radical scavenging capacity was demonstrated by reversing the increased level of intracellular ROS induced by 6-OHDA, using 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. Moreover, QP water extract (0.5 mg/mL) could remarkably increase the viability of PC12 cells treated with 6-OHDA. The protective effect of QP water extract was found to be via inhibiting MEK/ERK pathway and reversing PI3-K/Akt/GSK3β pathway. The current results suggest that QP might be a potential candidate for preventing the development of neurodegenerative diseases, such as PD. PMID:26347850

  10. Peganum Harmala L. Extract Reduces Oxidative Stress and Improves Symptoms in 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Parkinson's Disease in Rats.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Maryam; Nasri, Sima; Roughani, Mehrdad; Niknami, Zeinab; Ziai, Seyed Ali

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders. There are many documents about the effects of oxidative stress in Parkinson's disease etiology. Angiotensin II activates NADPH dependent oxidases and causes superoxides formation. Peganum harmala L. extract, which has angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory effect, is considered to evaluate oxidative stress inhibition and Parkinson's disease improvement. Male rats weighting 200-250 g were divided into 5 groups: Control, Neurotoxin (injection of 6-hydroxydopamine into left hemisphere substantia nigra), Peganum harmala's seeds aqueous extract (10 mg/kg) and captopril (5 mg/kg). Peganum harmala and captopril were injected intraperitonealy -144, -120, -96, -72, -48, -24, -2, 4 and 24 h relative to 6-hydroxydopamine injection time. Muscle stiffness, apomorphine induced unilateral rotation, amount of brain's protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation, ACE activity and histology of substantia nigra were assayed in all groups. Peganum harmala improved Muscle stiffness and one-direction rotation behavior significantly. It also reduced brain's lipid and protein oxidation levels in neurotoxin-injected rats significantly. In Peganum harmala group compared to control group, brain's ACE activity was significantly inhibited. In histological study, Peganum harmala prevented degeneration of dopaminergic neurons, too. In conclusion, aqueous extract of Peganum harmala could prevent symptoms and reduced oxidative stress markers in rats with Parkinson's disease induced by 6-hydroxydopamine.

  11. Inhibition of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced PC12 cell apoptosis by olive (Olea europaea L.) leaf extract is performed by its main component oleuropein.

    PubMed

    Pasban-Aliabadi, Hamzeh; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Sheibani, Vahid; Abbasnejad, Mehdi; Mehdizadeh, Anahita; Yaghoobi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2013-04-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is the most common progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive death of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Most neurodegenerative disease treatments are, at present, palliative. However, some natural herbal products have been shown to rescue neurons from death and apoptosis in some of neurodegenerative diseases. Not only Olea europaea L. olive oil, but also the leaves of this plant have been used for medical purposes. Olive leaf extract (OLE) is being used by people as a drink across the world and as an integral ingredient in their desire to maintain and improve their health. Here, we investigated the effects of OLE and its main phenolic component oleuropein on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced toxicity in rat adrenal pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells as an in vitro model of PD. Cell damage was induced by 150 μM 6-OHDA. The cell survival rate was examined by MTT assay. Generation of intra-cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was studied using fluorescence spectrophotometry. Immunoblotting and DNA analysis were also employed to determine the levels of biochemical markers of apoptosis in the cells. The data showed that 6-OHDA could decrease the viability of the cells. In addition, intra-cellular ROS, activated caspase 3, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, as well as DNA fragmentation were significantly increased in 6-OHDA-treated cells. Incubation of cells with OLE (400 and 600 μg/mL) and oleuropein (20 and 25 μg/mL) could decrease cell damage and reduce biochemical markers of cell death. The results suggest that OLE and oleuropein have anti-oxidant protective effects against 6-OHDA-induced PC12 cell damage. The protective effects of OLE and oleuropein are correlative with their anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic properties and suggest their therapeutic potential in the treatment of PD.

  12. Peganum Harmala L. Extract Reduces Oxidative Stress and Improves Symptoms in 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Parkinson’s Disease in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Maryam; Nasri, Sima; Roughani, Mehrdad; Niknami, Zeinab; Ziai, Seyed Ali

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders. There are many documents about the effects of oxidative stress in Parkinson’s disease etiology. Angiotensin II activates NADPH dependent oxidases and causes superoxides formation. Peganum harmala L. extract, which has angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory effect, is considered to evaluate oxidative stress inhibition and Parkinson's disease improvement. Male rats weighting 200-250 g were divided into 5 groups: Control, Neurotoxin (injection of 6-hydroxydopamine into left hemisphere substantia nigra), Peganum harmala's seeds aqueous extract (10 mg/kg) and captopril (5 mg/kg). Peganum harmala and captopril were injected intraperitonealy -144, -120, -96, -72, -48, -24, -2, 4 and 24 h relative to 6-hydroxydopamine injection time. Muscle stiffness, apomorphine induced unilateral rotation, amount of brain's protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation, ACE activity and histology of substantia nigra were assayed in all groups. Peganum harmala improved Muscle stiffness and one-direction rotation behavior significantly. It also reduced brain's lipid and protein oxidation levels in neurotoxin-injected rats significantly. In Peganum harmala group compared to control group, brain's ACE activity was significantly inhibited. In histological study, Peganum harmala prevented degeneration of dopaminergic neurons, too. In conclusion, aqueous extract of Peganum harmala could prevent symptoms and reduced oxidative stress markers in rats with Parkinson’s disease induced by 6-hydroxydopamine. PMID:27610168

  13. Effects of (-)-sesamin on 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells and dopaminergic neuronal cells of Parkinson's disease rat models.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Jin; Zhao, Ting Ting; Lee, Kyung Sook; Lee, Seung Ho; Shin, Keon Sung; Park, Keun Hong; Choi, Hyun Sook; Lee, Myung Koo

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of (-)-sesamin on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity using PC12 cells and dopaminergic neuronal cells of 6-OHDA-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD). In PC12 cells, treatment with (-)-sesamin (25 µM) reduced 6-OHDA (100 µM)-induced cell death and induced transient extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) phosphorylation and Bad phosphorylation at Ser112 (BadSer112). In contrast, sustained ERK1/2 phosphorylation, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK1/2) phosphorylation, and cleaved-caspase-3 activity, all of which were induced by 6-OHDA (100 µM), were inhibited by treatment with (-)-sesamin (25 µM). Furthermore, co-treatment with (-)-sesamin (30 mg/kg, p.o.) once a day for 28 days significantly increased the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunopositive neuronal cells and the levels of dopamine, norepinephrine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, and homovanillic acid in the substantia nigra-striatum of 6-OHDA-lesioned rat model of PD with or without L-DOPA treatment. These results suggest that (-)-sesamin protects 6-OHDA-induced cytotoxicity via the activation of transient ERK1/2-BadSer112 system and the inhibition of sustained ERK-p38MAPK-JNK1/2-caspase-3 system in PC12 cells. (-)-Sesamin also shows protective effects on long-term L-DOPA therapy in dopaminergic neuronal cells of PD rat models. (-)-Sesamin may serve as adjuvant therapeutics in PD.

  14. An In Vivo Microdialysis Study of FLZ Penetration through the Blood-Brain Barrier in Normal and 6-Hydroxydopamine Induced Parkinson's Disease Model Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Jinfeng; Liu, Qian; Li, Yingfei; Sun, Hua; Zhang, Jinlan

    2014-01-01

    FLZ (N-[2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-ethyl]-2-(2,5-dimethoxy-phenyl)-3-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenyl)-acrylamide) is a novel synthetic squamosamide derivative and a potential anti-Parkinson's disease (PD) agent. The objective of the present study was to investigate the penetration of free FLZ across the BBB and the effects of P-gp inhibition on FLZ transport in normal and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced PD model rats. In vivo microdialysis was used to collect FLZ containing brain and blood dialysates following intravenous (i.v.) drug administration either with or without pretreatment with the specific P-gp inhibitor, zosuquidar trihydrochloride (zosuquidar·3HCl). A sensitive, rapid, and reliable ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) technique was developed and validated to quantitate free FLZ levels in the dialysates. No significant differences were observed in the brain/blood FLZ area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) ratio between normal and PD model rats. However, pretreatment with zosuquidar·3HCl markedly increased the AUC ratio in both rat models. In addition, FLZ penetration was similar in zosuquidar·3HCl-pretreated normal and PD rats. These results suggest that P-gp inhibition increases BBB permeability to FLZ, thereby supporting the hypothesis that P-gp normally restricts FLZ transfer to the brain. These findings could provide reference data for future clinical trials and may aid investigation of the BBB permeability of other CNS-active substances. PMID:25045708

  15. An in vivo microdialysis study of FLZ penetration through the blood-brain barrier in normal and 6-hydroxydopamine induced Parkinson's disease model rats.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jinfeng; Liu, Qian; Li, Yingfei; Sun, Hua; Zhang, Jinlan

    2014-01-01

    FLZ (N-[2-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-ethyl]-2-(2,5-dimethoxy-phenyl)-3-(3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenyl)-acrylamide) is a novel synthetic squamosamide derivative and a potential anti-Parkinson's disease (PD) agent. The objective of the present study was to investigate the penetration of free FLZ across the BBB and the effects of P-gp inhibition on FLZ transport in normal and 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced PD model rats. In vivo microdialysis was used to collect FLZ containing brain and blood dialysates following intravenous (i.v.) drug administration either with or without pretreatment with the specific P-gp inhibitor, zosuquidar trihydrochloride (zosuquidar·3HCl). A sensitive, rapid, and reliable ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) technique was developed and validated to quantitate free FLZ levels in the dialysates. No significant differences were observed in the brain/blood FLZ area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) ratio between normal and PD model rats. However, pretreatment with zosuquidar·3HCl markedly increased the AUC ratio in both rat models. In addition, FLZ penetration was similar in zosuquidar·3HCl-pretreated normal and PD rats. These results suggest that P-gp inhibition increases BBB permeability to FLZ, thereby supporting the hypothesis that P-gp normally restricts FLZ transfer to the brain. These findings could provide reference data for future clinical trials and may aid investigation of the BBB permeability of other CNS-active substances.

  16. Attenuation of hyperalgesia responses via the modulation of 5-hydroxytryptamine signalings in the rostral ventromedial medulla and spinal cord in a 6-hydroxydopamine-induced rat model of Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chen-Tao; Mao, Cheng-Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Zhang, Cai-Yi; Lv, Dong-Jun; Yang, Ya-Ping; Xia, Kai-Lin; Liu, Jun-Yi; Wang, Fen; Hu, Li-Fang; Xu, Guang-Yin

    2017-01-01

    Background Although pain is one of the most distressing non-motor symptoms among patients with Parkinson’s disease, the underlying mechanisms of pain in Parkinson’s disease remain elusive. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) in the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) and spinal cord in pain sensory abnormalities in a 6-hydroxydopamine-treated rat model of Parkinson’s disease. Methods The rotarod test was used to evaluate motor function. The radiant heat test and von Frey test were conducted to evaluate thermal and mechanical pain thresholds, respectively. Immunofluorescence was used to examine 5-hydroxytryptamine neurons and fibers in the rostral ventromedial medulla and spinal cord. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to determine 5-hydroxytryptamine and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels. Results The duration of running time on the rotarod test was significantly reduced in 6-hydroxydopamine-treated rats. Nociceptive thresholds of both mechanical and heat pain were reduced compared to sham-treated rats. In addition to the degeneration of cell bodies and fibers in the substantia nigra pars compacta, the number of rostral ventromedial medulla 5-hydroxytryptamine neurons and 5-hydroxytryptamine fibers in the spinal dorsal horn was dramatically decreased. 5-Hydroxytryptamine concentrations in both the rostral ventromedial medulla and spinal cord were reduced. Furthermore, the administration of citalopram significantly attenuated pain hypersensitivity. Interestingly, Intra-rostral ventromedial medulla (intra-RVM) microinjection of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine partially reversed pain hypersensitivity of 6-hydroxydopamine-treated rats. Conclusions These results suggest that the decreased 5-hydroxytryptamine contents in the rostral ventromedial medulla and spinal dorsal horn may be involved in hyperalgesia in the 6-hydroxydopamine-induced rat model of Parkinson’s disease. PMID:28326933

  17. Thiomers: Inhibition of cytochrome P450 activity.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Javed; Sakloetsakun, Duangkamon; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of different thiolated polymers (thiomers) on the catalytic activity of CYP450s on one hand and to explore new inhibitors for CYP activity on the other hand. Several thiolated polymers including poly(acrylic acid)-cysteine (PAA-cysteine), chitosan-thioglycolic acid (chitosan-TGA), and thiolated PEG-g-PEI copolymer along with brij 35, myrj 52 and the well-established CYPP450 inhibitor verapamil were screened for their CYP3A4 and CYP2A6 inhibitory activity, and their IC(50) values were determined. Both enzyme inhibition assays were performed in 96-well microtiter plates. 7-Benzyloxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)-coumarin (BFC) and 7-hydroxycoumarin (7-HC) were used as fluorescent substrates in order to determine CYP3A4 and CYP2A6 catalytic activity, respectively. All investigated compounds inhibited CYP3A4 as well as CYP2A6 activity. All tested (thiolated) polymers were found to be more potent inhibitors of CYP3A4 than of CYP2A6 catalytic activity. Apart from verapamil that is a known CYP3A4 inhibitor, brij 35 and myrj 52 were explored as potent inhibitors of CYP3A4 and CYP2A6 catalytic activity. Among the tested polymers, the rank order for CYP3A4 inhibition was PAA-cysteine (100 kDa)>brij 35>thiolated PEG-g-PEI copolymer (16 kDa)>myrj 52>PAA (100 kDa)>PAA-cysteine (450 kDa)>verapamil>PAA (450 kDa)>chitosan-TGA (150 kDa)>chitosan (150 kDa). On the other hand, the rank order of CYP2A6 inhibition was brij 35>PAA-cysteine (100kDa)>chitosan-TGA (150 kDa)>PAA (100 kDa)>thiolated PEG-g-PEI copolymer (16 kDa)>PAA-cysteine (450 kDa)>chitosan (150 kDa)>verapamil>PAA (450 kDa)>myrj 52. Thus, this study suggests that (thiolated) polymers display a promising potential to inhibit cytochrome P450s activity and might turn out to be potentially valuable tools for improving the oral bioavailability of actively secreted compounds by avoiding intestinal metabolism.

  18. Cytochrome c Oxidase Inhibition by Anesthetics: Thermodynamic Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderkooi, Garret; Chazotte, Brad

    1982-06-01

    The thermodynamic parameters that characterize the inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase activity, in rat liver submitochondrial particles, by n-butanol, tetracaine, and dibucaine were obtained. Three equilibria were assumed in order to account for the data: for the interaction of inhibitor with the native state of the enzyme, for the interaction of inhibitor with the thermally (reversibly) denatured state, and for the change between the native and thermally denatured states. Inhibition results from interaction with both the native and denatured states but, because the interaction is stronger with the denatured than with the native state, the native/denatured equilibrium is shifted to the right by the anesthetics. The enthalpies of interaction are -2.3, -4.7, and 3.7 kcal/mol (1 cal = 4.18 J) for the native state and -10, -6, and -14 kcal/mol for the denatured state, for n-butanol, tetracaine, and dibucaine, respectively. These values are much smaller than the previous estimates obtained by using the assumption that anesthetics interact only with the thermally denatured state of enzymes (e.g., -81 kcal/mol for tetracaine inhibition of luciferase). Our results suggest that local anesthetics inhibit enzyme activity by causing a reversible perturbation of protein conformation. The magnitude of the perturbation is much smaller (in energetic terms) than that which accompanies thermal denaturation.

  19. Vitamin K3 (menadione) redox cycling inhibits cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism and inhibits parathion intoxication.

    PubMed

    Jan, Yi-Hua; Richardson, Jason R; Baker, Angela A; Mishin, Vladimir; Heck, Diane E; Laskin, Debra L; Laskin, Jeffrey D

    2015-10-01

    Parathion, a widely used organophosphate insecticide, is considered a high priority chemical threat. Parathion toxicity is dependent on its metabolism by the cytochrome P450 system to paraoxon (diethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate), a cytotoxic metabolite. As an effective inhibitor of cholinesterases, paraoxon causes the accumulation of acetylcholine in synapses and overstimulation of nicotinic and muscarinic cholinergic receptors, leading to characteristic signs of organophosphate poisoning. Inhibition of parathion metabolism to paraoxon represents a potential approach to counter parathion toxicity. Herein, we demonstrate that menadione (methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone, vitamin K3) is a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of parathion. Menadione is active in redox cycling, a reaction mediated by NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase that preferentially uses electrons from NADPH at the expense of their supply to the P450s. Using human recombinant CYP 1A2, 2B6, 3A4 and human liver microsomes, menadione was found to inhibit the formation of paraoxon from parathion. Administration of menadione bisulfite (40mg/kg, ip) to rats also reduced parathion-induced inhibition of brain cholinesterase activity, as well as parathion-induced tremors and the progression of other signs and symptoms of parathion poisoning. These data suggest that redox cycling compounds, such as menadione, have the potential to effectively mitigate the toxicity of organophosphorus pesticides including parathion which require cytochrome P450-mediated activation.

  20. Dimerumic Acid and Deferricoprogen Activate Ak Mouse Strain Thymoma/Heme Oxygenase-1 Pathways and Prevent Apoptotic Cell Death in 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced SH-SY5Y Cells.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Wei-Ting; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2016-08-03

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder, which can be modeled using the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to generate oxidative stress. Here, we studied the effects of the antioxidants deferricoprogen (DFC) and dimerumic acid (DMA), produced by rice fermented with Monascus purpureus NTU 568, on 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells and their potential protective mechanisms. DMA and DFC inhibited 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis and cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. Molecular analysis demonstrated associated upregulation of the Ak mouse strain thymoma (Akt), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways along with inhibited phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 pathways and altered homodimeric glycoprotein, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, and immunoglobulin Fc receptor gene expression. These results suggested that the neuroprotection elicited by DMA and DFC against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity was associated with the Akt, MAPK, and HO-1 pathways via regulating the gene expression of NMDA receptor, homodimeric glycoprotein, and immunoglobulin Fc receptor.

  1. RETRACTED: S-allyl cysteine protects against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity in the rat striatum: involvement of Nrf2 transcription factor activation and modulation of signaling kinase cascades.

    PubMed

    Tobón-Velasco, Julio César; Vázquez-Victorio, Genaro; Macías-Silva, Marina; Cuevas, Elvis; Ali, Syed F; Maldonado, Perla D; González-Trujano, María Eva; Cuadrado, Antonio; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; Santamaría, Abel

    2012-09-01

    Pharmacological activation at the basal ganglia of the transcription factor Nrf2, guardian of redox homeostasis, holds a strong promise for the slow progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, a potent Nrf2 activator in the brain still must be found. In this study, we have investigated the potential use of the antioxidant compound S-allyl cysteine (SAC) in the activation of Nrf2 in 6-hydoxydopamine (6-OHDA)-intoxicated rats. In the rat striatum, SAC by itself promoted the Nrf2 dissociation of Keap-1, its nuclear translocation, the subsequent association with small MafK protein, and further binding of the Nrf2/MafK complex to ARE sequence, as well as the up-regulation of Nrf2-dependent genes encoding the antioxidant enzymes HO-1, NQO-1, GR, and SOD-1. In vivo and in vitro experiments to identify signaling pathways activated by SAC pointed to Akt as the most likely kinase participating in Nrf2 activation by SAC. In PC12 cells, SAC stimulated the activation of Akt and ERK1/2 and inhibited JNK1/2/3 activation. In the rat striatum, the SAC-induced activation of Nrf2 is likely to contribute to inhibit the toxic effects of 6-OHDA evidenced by phase 2 antioxidant enzymes up-regulation, glutathione recovery, and attenuation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and lipid peroxides formation. These early protective effects correlated with the long-term preservation of the cellular redox status, the striatal dopamine (DA) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) levels, and the improvement of motor skills. Therefore, this study indicates that, in addition to direct scavenging actions, the activation of Nrf2 by SAC might confer neuroprotective responses through the modulation of kinase signaling pathways in rodent models of PD, and suggests that this antioxidant molecule may have a therapeutic value in this human pathology.

  2. Neuroprotective effects of dimerumic acid and deferricoprogen from Monascus purpureus NTU 568-fermented rice against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in differentiated pheochromocytoma PC-12 cells.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Wei-Ting; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2016-08-01

    Context Oxidative stress plays a key role in neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD). Rice fermented with Monascus purpureus Went (Monascaceae) NTU 568 (red mould rice) was found to contain antioxidants, including dimerumic acid (DMA) and deferricoprogen (DFC). Objective The effects of DMA and DFC on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced cytotoxicity and potential protective mechanisms in differentiated PC-12 pheochromocytoma cells were investigated. Materials and methods DMA (0-60 μM) or DFC (0-10 μM) was co-treated with 6-OHDA (200 μM, 24 h exposure) in differentiated PC-12 cells. Cell viability and intercellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA) assays, respectively. Cell apoptosis was determined by DNA fragmentation analysis and propidium iodide staining by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis was used to measure the levels of cell protein expression. Results DMA and DFC significantly increased cell viability to 72% and 81% in 6-OHDA-induced differentiated PC-12 cell cultures, respectively. Furthermore, DMA and DFC reduced 6-OHDA-induced formation of extracellular and intercellular ROS by 25% and 20%, respectively, and decreased NADPH oxidase-2 expression in differentiated PC-12 cells. DMA and DFC inhibited 6-OHDA-induced apoptosis and decreased activation of caspase-3 via regulation of Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and Bcl-2 protein expression in differentiated PC-12 cells. Conclusion DMA and DFC may protect against 6-OHDA toxicity by inhibiting ROS formation and apoptosis. These results showed that the metabolites from M. purpureus NTU 568 fermentation were potential therapeutic agents for PD induced by oxidative damage and should be encouraged for further research.

  3. Ginsenoside Rb1 protects against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced oxidative stress by increasing heme oxygenase-1 expression through an estrogen receptor-related PI3K/Akt/Nrf2-dependent pathway in human dopaminergic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Yong Pil; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2010-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are polyphenolic non-steroidal plant compounds with estrogen-like biological activity. Ginseng, the root of Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer (Araliaceae), is a popular traditional herbal medicine. Ginsenoside Rb1 (Rb1), an active component commonly found in ginseng root, is a phytoestrogen that exerts estrogen-like activity. In this study, we demonstrate that the phytoestrogen Rb1 inhibits 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced oxidative injury via an ER-dependent Gbeta1/PI3K/Akt and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway. Pretreatment of SH-SY5Y cells with Rb1 significantly reduced 6-OHDA-induced caspase-3 activation and subsequent cell death. Rb1 also up-regulated HO-1 expression, which conferred cytoprotection against 6-OHDA-induced oxidative injury. Moreover, Rb1 induced both Nrf2 nuclear translocation, which is upstream of HO-1 expression and PI3K activation, a pathway that is involved in induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation, HO-1 expression and cytoprotection. Also, Rb1-mediated increases in PI3K activation and HO-1 induction were reversed by co-treatment with ICI 182,780 and pertussis toxin. Taken together, these results suggest that Rb1 augments the cellular antioxidant defenses through ER-dependent HO-1 induction via the Gbeta1/PI3K/Akt-Nrf2 signaling pathway, thereby protecting cells from oxidative stress. Thus our study indicates that Rb1 has a partial cytoprotective role in dopaminergic cell culture systems.

  4. β-asarone and levodopa co-administration protects against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced damage in parkinsonian rat mesencephalon by regulating autophagy: down-expression Beclin-1 and light chain 3B and up-expression P62.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Ping; Deng, Min-Zhen; He, Yu-Ping; Fang, Yong-Qi

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we investigated Beclin-1, light chain (LC)3B, and p62 expression in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced parkinsonian rats after β-asarone and levodopa (l-dopa) co-administration. Unilateral 6-OHDA injection into the medial forebrain bundle was used to create the models, except in sham-operated rats. Rats were divided into eight groups: sham-operated group; 6-OHDA model group; madopar group (75 mg/kg, per os (p.o.)); l-dopa group (60 mg/kg, p.o.); β-asarone group (15 mg/kg, p.o.); β-asarone + l-dopa co-administered group (15 mg/kg + 60 mg/kg, p.o.); 3-methyladenine group (500 nmol, intraperitoneal injection); and rapamycin group (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection). Then, Beclin-1, LC3B, and p62 expression in the mesencephalon were detected. The mesencephalon was also observed by transmission electron microscope. The results showed that Beclin-1 and LC3B expression decreased and that p62 expression increased significantly in the madopar, l-dopa, β-asarone, and co-administered groups when compared with the 6-OHDA model. Beclin-1 and LC3B expression in the β-asarone and co-administered groups were less than in the madopar or l-dopa groups, whereas p62 expression in the β-asarone and co-administered groups was higher than in the madopar or l-dopa groups. In addition, a significant decrease in autophagosome was exhibited in the β-asarone and co-administered groups when compared with the 6-OHDA group. Our findings indicate that Beclin-1 and LC3B expression decreased, whereas p62 expression increased after co-administration treatment. In sum, all data suggest that the co-administration of β-asarone and l-dopa may contribute to the treatment of 6-OHDA-induced damage in rats by inhibiting autophagy activity.

  5. Dexmedetomidine Regulates 6-hydroxydopamine-Induced Microglial Polarization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pei; Li, Yu; Han, Xuechang; Xing, Qunzhi; Zhao, Lei

    2017-02-28

    Microglia have undergone extensive characterization and have been shown to present distinct phenotypes, such as the M1 or M2 phenotypes, depending on their stimuli. As a highly specific neurotoxin, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) can be used to further our understanding of the immune response in Parkinson's disease (PD). Dexmedetomidine (DEX), a centrally selective α2-adrenoceptor agonist, performs very well as an anti-anxiety medication, sedative and analgesic. In the present study, we investigated the effects of DEX on 6-OHDA-induced microglial polarization. Our results indicate that treatment with 6-OHDA promotes microglial polarization toward the M1 state in BV2 microglia cells by increasing the release of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, or tumor necrosis factor-α, which can be prevented by pretreatment with DEX. In addition, we found that 6-OHDA blocked IL-4-mediated microglial M2 polarization by suppressing expression of the microglial M2 markers arginase-1 (Arg-1), resistin-like α (Retnla/Fizz1), and chitinase 3-like 3 (Chi3l3/Ym1), which could be ameliorated by pretreatment with DEX. Notably, the inhibitory effects of 6-OHDA on IL-4-mediated induction of the anti-inflammatory marker genes IL-10, IL-13, and transforming growth factor-β2 could be significantly alleviated by pretreatment with DEX in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.01). Mechanistically, alternations in the activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 were involved in this process. These findings suggest that administration of DEX has the potential to interrupt the process of microgliosis in PD.

  6. High-throughput mass spectrometric cytochrome P450 inhibition screening.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kheng B; Ozbal, Can C; Kassel, Daniel B

    2013-01-01

    We describe here a high-throughput assay to support rapid evaluation of drug discovery compounds for possible drug-drug interaction (DDI). Each compound is evaluated for its DDI potential by incubating over a range of eight concentrations and against a panel of six cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes: 1A2, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4. The method utilizes automated liquid handling for sample preparation, and online solid-phase extraction/tandem mass spectrometry (SPE/MS/MS) for sample analyses. The system is capable of generating two 96-well assay plates in 30 min, and completes the data acquisition and analysis of both plates in about 30 min. Many laboratories that perform the CYP inhibition screening automate only part of the processes leaving a throughput bottleneck within the workflow. The protocols described in this chapter are aimed to streamline the entire process from assay to data acquisition and processing by incorporating automation and utilizing high-precision instrument to maximize throughput and minimize bottleneck.

  7. Inhibiting Cytochrome C Oxidase Leads to Alleviated Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhaoyun; Duan, Zhongxin; Yu, Tian; Xu, Junmei

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives The overall purpose of this study was to investigate the role of cytochrome C oxidase (CcO) in preventing ischemia reperfusion-induced cardiac injury through gaseous signaling molecule pathways. Materials and Methods We used CcO inhibitor, potassium cyanide (KCN) to mimic the pre-treatment of gaseous signaling molecules in a global ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury model in rats. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined by measuring mitochondrial H2O2 and mitochondrial complex activity. Results KCN pre-treatment led to decreased infarction area after IR injury and improved cardiac function. KCN pre-treated group challenged with IR injury was associated with reduced ROS production through inhibition of activity and not downregulation of CcO expression. In addition, KCN pre-treatment was associated with enhanced expression and activity of mitochondrial antioxidase, suggesting the role of CcO in regulating IR injury through oxidative stress. Conclusion KCN pre-treatment reduced the severity of IR injury. The potential mechanism could be increased endogenous anti-oxidase activity and consequently, the enhanced clearance of ROS. PMID:28382074

  8. Cyanide inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase. A rapid-freeze e.p.r. investigation.

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, P; Wilson, M T; Aasa, R; Malmström, B G

    1984-01-01

    The inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase by cyanide, starting either with the resting or the pulsed enzyme, was studied by rapid-freeze quenching followed by quantitative e.p.r. It is found that a partial reduction of cytochrome oxidase by transfer of 2 electron equivalents from ferrocytochrome c to cytochrome a and CuA will induce a transition from a closed to an open enzyme conformation, rendering the cytochrome a3-CuB site accessible for cyanide binding, possibly as a bridging ligand. A heterogeneity in the enzyme is observed in that an e.p.r. signal from the cytochrome a3 3+-HCN complex is only found in 20% of the molecules, whereas the remaining cyanide-bound a3-CuB sites are e.p.r.-silent. PMID:6098268

  9. Enhancement of DMNQ-induced hepatocyte toxicity by cytochrome P450 inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Ishihara, Yasuhiro; Shiba, Dai; Shimamoto, Norio . E-mail: n-shimamoto@kph.bunri-u.ac.jp

    2006-07-15

    Two mechanisms have been proposed to explain quinone cytotoxicity: oxidative stress via the redox cycle and the arylation of intracellular nucleophiles. As the redox cycle is catalyzed by NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase, cytochrome P450 systems are expected to be related to the cytotoxicity induced by redox-cycling quinones. Thus, we investigated the relationship between cytochrome P450 systems and quinone toxicity for rat primary hepatocytes using an arylator, 1,4-benzoquinone (BQ), and a redox cycler, 2,3-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (DMNQ). The hepatocyte toxicity of both BQ and DMNQ increased in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with cytochrome P450 inhibitors, such as SKF-525A (SKF), ketoconazole and 2-methy-1,2-di-3-pyridyl-1-propanone, enhanced the hepatocyte toxicity induced by DMNQ but did not affect BQ-induced hepatocyte toxicity. The production of superoxide anion and the levels of glutathione disulfide and thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances were increased by treatment with DMNQ, and SKF pretreatment further enhanced their increases. In addition, NADPH oxidation in microsomes was increased by treatment with DMNQ and further augmented by pretreatment with SKF, and a NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium chloride completely suppressed NADPH oxidations increased by treatment with either DMNQ- or DMNQ + SKF. Pretreatment with antioxidants, such as {alpha}-tocopherol, reduced glutathione, N-acetyl cysteine or an iron ion chelator deferoxamine, totally suppressed DMNQ- and DMNQ + SKF-induced hepatocyte toxicity. These results indicate that the hepatocyte toxicity of redox-cycling quinones is enhanced under cytochrome P450 inhibition, and that this enhancement is caused by the potentiation of oxidative stress.

  10. Marked and variable inhibition by chemical fixation of cytochrome oxidase and succinate dehydrogenase in single motoneurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chalmers, G. R.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of tissue fixation on succinate dehydrogenase and cytochrome oxidase activity in single motoneurons of the rat was demonstrated using a computer image processing system. Inhibition of enzyme activity by chemical fixation was variable, with some motoneurons being affected more than others. It was concluded that quantification of enzymatic activity in chemically fixed tissue provides an imprecise estimate of enzyme activities found in fresh-frozen tissues.

  11. Protection against chemical-induced lung injury by inhibition of pulmonary cytochrome P-450

    SciTech Connect

    Verschoyle, R.D.; Dinsdale, D. )

    1990-04-01

    Protection afforded by trialkyl phosphorothionates against the lung injury caused by trialkyl phosphorothiolates probably results from the inhibition by the P{double bond}S moiety of the thionates, of one or more pulmonary cytochrome P-450 isozymes. The aromatic hydrocarbons p-xylene and pseudocumene also protect against this injury and inhibit some P-450 isozymes, but by a different mechanism. OOS-Trimethylphosphorothionate and p-xylene were compared as protective agents against the effect of OOS-trimethylphosphorothiolate and two other lung toxins ipomeanol and 1-nitronaphthalene that are known to be activated by cytochrome P-450. The effects of these protective compounds, in vivo, on pulmonary cytochrome P-450 activity were also determined. Both compounds inhibited pentoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity, but not ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase. The phosphorothionate was most effective against lung injury caused by the phosphorothiolates and 1-nitronaphthalene, whereas p-xylene was much more effective against ipomeanol. {beta}-Naphthoflavone, which induces pulmonary ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity, did not protect against phosphorothiolate or 1-nitronaphthalene injury, and it was only marginally effective in decreasing the toxicity or ipomeanol.

  12. Cytochrome P450 inhibition potential of new psychoactive substances of the tryptamine class.

    PubMed

    Dinger, Julia; Woods, Campbell; Brandt, Simon D; Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

    2016-01-22

    New psychoactive substances (NPS) are not tested for their cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition potential before consumption. Therefore, this potential was explored for tryptamine-derived NPS (TDNPS) including alpha-methyl tryptamines (AMTs), dimethyl tryptamines (DMTs), diallyl tryptamines (DALTs), and diisopropyl tryptamines (DiPTs) using test substrates preferred by the Food and Drug Administration in a cocktail assay. All tested TDNPS with the exception of DMT inhibited CYP2D6 activity with IC50 values below 100μM. DALTs inhibited CYP2D6 activity similar to paroxetine and quinidine and CYP1A2 activity comparable to fluvoxamine. 5-Methoxy-N,N-diallyltryptamine reduced in vivo the caffeine metabolism in rats consistent with in vitro results. Five of the AMTs also inhibited CYP1A2 activity comparable to amiodarone. AMT and 6-F-AMT inhibited CYP2A6 activity in the range of the test inhibitor tranylcypromine. CYP2B6 activity was inhibited by 19 tryptamines, but weakly compared to efavirenz. CYP2C8 activity was inhibited by five of the tested TDNPS and three showed values comparable to trimethoprim and gemfibrozil. Six tryptamines inhibited CYP2C9 and seven CYP2C19 activities comparable to fluconazole and chloramphenicol, respectively. Nineteen compounds showed inhibition of CYP2E1 and 18 of CYP3A activity, respectively. These results showed that the CYP inhibition by TDNPS might be clinically relevant, but clinical studies are needed to explore this further.

  13. Environmentally persistent free radicals inhibit cytochrome P450 activity in rat liver microsomes

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, James R.; Cawley, George F.; Ardoin, Taylor G.; Dellinger, Barry; Lomnicki, Slawomir M.; Hasan, Farhana; Kiruri, Lucy W.; Backes, Wayne L.

    2014-06-01

    Combustion processes generate particulate matter that affects human health. When incineration fuels include components that are highly enriched in aromatic hydrocarbons (especially halogenated varieties) and redox-active metals, ultrafine particulate matter containing air-stable, environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) is generated. The exposure to fine EPFRs (less than 2.5 μm in diameter) has been shown to negatively influence pulmonary and cardiovascular functions in living organisms. The goal of this study was to determine if these EPFRs have a direct effect on cytochrome P450 function. This was accomplished by direct addition of the EPFRs to rat liver microsomal preparations and measurement of several P450 activities using form-selective substrates. The EPFRs used in this study were formed by heating vapors from an organic compound (either monochlorophenol (MCP230) or 1,2-dichlorobenzene (DCB230)) and 5% copper oxide supported on silica (approximately 0.2 μm in diameter) to 230 °C under vacuum. Both types of EPFRs (but not silica, physisorbed silica, or silica impregnated with copper oxide) dramatically inhibited the activities of CYP1A, CYP2B, CYP2E1, CYP2D2 and CYP3A when incubated at concentrations less than 0.1 mg/ml with microsomes and NADPH. Interestingly, at the same concentrations, the EPFRs did not inhibit HO-1 activity or the reduction of cytochrome c by NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. CYP2D2-selective metabolism by rat liver microsomes was examined in more detail. The inhibition of CYP2D2-selective metabolism by both DCB230- and MCP230-EPFRs appeared to be largely noncompetitive and was attenuated in the presence of catalase suggesting that reactive oxygen species may be involved in the mechanism of inhibition. - Highlights: • Combustion of organic pollutants generates long-lived particulate radicals (EPFRs). • EPFRs inhibit metabolism by all cytochromes P450 tested in rat liver microsomes. • EPFR-mediated inhibition is related to

  14. Proteasome inhibition compromises direct retention of cytochrome P450 2C2 in the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Szczesna-Skorupa, Elzbieta; Kemper, Byron

    2008-10-15

    To determine whether protein degradation plays a role in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention of cytochromes P450, the effects of proteasomal inhibitors on the expression and distribution of green fluorescent protein chimeras of CYP2C2 and related proteins was examined. In transfected cells, expression levels of chimeras of full-length CYP2C2 and its cytosolic domain, but not its N-terminal transmembrane sequence, were increased by proteasomal inhibition. Redistribution of all three chimeras from the reticular ER into a perinuclear compartment and, in a subset of cells, also to the cell surface was observed after proteasomal inhibition. Redistribution was blocked by the microtubular inhibitor, nocodazole, suggesting that redistribution to the cell surface followed the conventional vesicular transport pathway. Similar redistributions were detected for BAP31, a CYP2C2 binding chaperone; CYP2E1 and CYP3A4, which are also degraded by the proteasomal pathway; and for cytochrome P450 reductase, which does not undergo proteasomal degradation; but not for the ER membrane proteins, sec61 and calnexin. Redistribution does not result from saturation of an ER retention "receptor" since in some cases protein levels were unaffected. Proteasomal inhibition may, therefore, alter ER retention by affecting a protein critical for ER retention, either directly, or indirectly by affecting the composition of the ER membranes.

  15. Toxoplasma gondii inhibits cytochrome c-induced caspase activation in its host cell by interference with holo-apoptosome assembly

    PubMed Central

    Graumann, Kristin; Schaumburg, Frieder; Reubold, Thomas F.; Hippe, Diana; Eschenburg, Susanne; Lüder, Carsten G. K.

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of programmed cell death pathways of mammalian cells often facilitates the sustained survival of intracellular microorganisms. The apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is a master regulator of host cell apoptotic pathways. Here, we have characterized a novel anti-apoptotic activity of T. gondii. Using a cell-free cytosolic extract model, we show that T. gondii interferes with the activities of caspase 9 and caspase 3/7 which have been induced by exogenous cytochrome c and dATP. Proteolytic cleavage of caspases 9 and 3 is also diminished suggesting inhibition of holo-apoptosome function. Parasite infection of Jurkat T cells and subsequent triggering of apoptosome formation by exogenous cytochrome c in vitro and in vivo indicated that T. gondii also interferes with caspase activation in infected cells. Importantly, parasite inhibition of cytochrome c-induced caspase activation considerably contributes to the overall anti-apoptotic activity of T. gondii as observed in staurosporine-treated cells. Co-immunoprecipitation showed that T. gondii abolishes binding of caspase 9 to Apaf-1 whereas the interaction of cytochrome c with Apaf-1 remains unchanged. Finally, T. gondii lysate mimics the effect of viable parasites and prevents holo-apoptosome functionality in a reconstituted in vitro system comprising recombinant Apaf-1 and caspase 9. Beside inhibition of cytochrome c release from host cell mitochondria, T. gondii thus also targets the holo-apoptosome assembly as a second mean to efficiently inhibit the caspase-dependent intrinsic cell death pathway. PMID:28357287

  16. Potent inhibition by star fruit of human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) activity.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Muneaki; Fujita, Ken-ichi; Ogikubo, Tetsuya; Yamasaki, Keishi; Iwakiri, Tomomi; Okumura, Manabu; Kodama, Hirofumi; Arimori, Kazuhiko

    2004-06-01

    There has been very limited information on the capacities of tropical fruits to inhibit human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) activity. Thus, the inhibitory effects of tropical fruits on midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activity of CYP3A in human liver microsomes were evaluated. Eight tropical fruits such as common papaw, dragon fruit, kiwi fruit, mango, passion fruit, pomegranate, rambutan, and star fruit were tested. We also examined the inhibition of CYP3A activity by grapefruit (white) and Valencia orange as controls. The juice of star fruit showed the most potent inhibition of CYP3A. The addition of a star fruit juice (5.0%, v/v) resulted in the almost complete inhibition of midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activity (residual activity of 0.1%). In the case of grape-fruit, the residual activity was 14.7%. The inhibition depended on the amount of fruit juice added to the incubation mixture (0.2-6.0%, v/v). The elongation of the preincubation period of a juice from star fruit (1.25 or 2.5%, v/v) with the microsomal fraction did not alter the CYP3A inhibition, suggesting that the star fruit did not contain a mechanism-based inhibitor. Thus, we discovered filtered extracts of star fruit juice to be inhibitors of human CYP3A activity in vitro.

  17. Molecular Modeling Analysis of the Inhibition of Mitochondrial Cytochrome BC1 Complex Activity by Tocol Derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Awantika; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Compadre, Cesar M.; Kumar, K. Sree

    2011-06-01

    The biological functions of vitamin E related compounds have been of interest in biomedical research for several decades. Among those compounds, α-, β-, δ-, and γ-tocopherols and their oxidation products, α-, β-, δ-, γ-tocopherylquinone and their analogs α-TQo, γ-TQo, TMC20 and TMC40 were recently shown to inhibit the mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex. In this investigation the effects of the structural variation on the inhibition of the mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex were analyzed using Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA). CoMFA performed using steric and electrostatic molecular fields produced a very good correlation. The best CoMFA models were obtained using the manual alignment of 12 compounds with 5 components (q2 = 0.589, SPRESS = 0.515, r2 = 0.992, s = 0.068 and F value = 156.520). The resulting contour maps produced by the best CoMFA model were helpful in identifying the structural features required for the biological activity of compounds under study. These results would be helpful for predicting the activity of new compounds, and they could be used for guiding the design, synthesis and development of new and more effective agents.

  18. Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 enzymes by hops (Humulus lupulus) and hop prenylphenols

    PubMed Central

    Nikolić, Dejan; Chen, Shao-Nong; Huang, Ke; Li, Guannan; Pauli, Guido F.; van Breemen, Richard B.

    2014-01-01

    As hops (Humulus lupulus L.) are used in the brewing of beer and by menopausal women as estrogenic dietary supplements, the potential for hop extracts and hop constituents to cause drug-botanical interactions by inhibiting human cytochrome P450 enzymes was investigated. Inhibition of major human cytochrome P450 enzymes by a standardized hop extract and isolated hop prenylated phenols was evaluated using a fast and efficient assay based on ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The hop extract at 5 μg/mL inhibited CYP2C8 (93%), CYP2C9 (88%), CYP2C19 (70%), and CYP1A2 (27%) with IC50 values of 0.8, 0.9, 3.3, and 9.4 μg/mL, respectively, but time-dependent inactivation was observed only for CYP1A2. Isoxanthohumol from hops was the most potent inhibitor of CYP2C8 with an IC50 of 0.2 μM, whereas 8-prenylnaringenin was the most potent inhibitor of CYP1A2, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 with IC50 values of 1.1 μM, 1.1 μM and 0.4 μM, respectively. Extracts of hops contain prenylated compounds such as the flavanones isoxanthohumol and 8-prenylnaringenin and the chalcone xanthohumol that can inhibit CYP450s, especially the CYP2C family, which may affect the efficacy and safety of some CYP2C substrate drugs when co-administered. PMID:24342125

  19. Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 enzymes by hops (Humulus lupulus) and hop prenylphenols.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yang; Qiu, Xi; Nikolić, Dejan; Chen, Shao-Nong; Huang, Ke; Li, Guannan; Pauli, Guido F; van Breemen, Richard B

    2014-03-12

    As hops (Humulus lupulus L.) are used in the brewing of beer and by menopausal women as estrogenic dietary supplements, the potential for hop extracts and hop constituents to cause drug-botanical interactions by inhibiting human cytochrome P450 enzymes was investigated. Inhibition of major human cytochrome P450 enzymes by a standardized hop extract and isolated hop prenylated phenols was evaluated using a fast and efficient assay based on ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The hop extract at 5 μg/mL inhibited CYP2C8 (93%), CYP2C9 (88%), CYP2C19 (70%), and CYP1A2 (27%) with IC50 values of 0.8, 0.9, 3.3, and 9.4 μg/mL, respectively, but time-dependent inactivation was observed only for CYP1A2. Isoxanthohumol from hops was the most potent inhibitor of CYP2C8 with an IC50 of 0.2 μM, whereas 8-prenylnaringenin was the most potent inhibitor of CYP1A2, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 with IC50 values of 1.1 μM, 1.1 μM and 0.4 μM, respectively. Extracts of hops contain prenylated compounds such as the flavanones isoxanthohumol and 8-prenylnaringenin and the chalcone xanthohumol that can inhibit CYP450s, especially the CYP2C family, which may affect the efficacy and safety of some CYP2C substrate drugs when co-administered.

  20. Interaction of isoflavonoids with human liver microsomal cytochromes P450: inhibition of CYP enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Kopečná-Zapletalová, Michaela; Krasulová, Kristýna; Anzenbacher, Pavel; Hodek, Petr; Anzenbacherová, Eva

    2017-04-01

    1. The possibility of interaction of isoflavonoids with concomitantly taken drugs to determined isoflavonoids safety was studied. Inhibition of nine forms of cytochrome P450 (CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP2E1) by 12 isoflavonoids (daidzein, genistein, biochanin A, formononetin, glycitein, equol and six glucosides, daidzin, puerarin, genistin, sissotrin, ononin and glycitin) was studied systematically. 2. The most potent inhibitors were genistein and daidzein inhibiting noncompetitively the CYP2C9 with Ki of 35.95 ± 6.96 and 60.56 ± 3.53 μmol/l and CYP3A4 (inhibited by genistein with Ki of 23.25 ± 5.85 μmol/l also by a noncompetitive mechanism). Potent inhibition of CYP3A4 was observed also with biochanin A (Ki of 57.69 ± 2.36 μmol/l) and equol (Ki of 38.47 ± 2.32 μmol/l). 3. Genistein and daidzein inhibit noncompetitively CYP3A4 and CYP2C9. With plasma levels in micromolar range, a clinically important interaction with concomitantly taken drugs does not seem to be probable.

  1. An improved substrate cocktail for assessing direct inhibition and time-dependent inhibition of multiple cytochrome P450s

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhong-hua; Zhang, Su-xing; Long, Na; Lin, Li-shan; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Fei-peng; Lv, Xue-qin; Ye, Pei-zhen; Li, Ning; Zhang, Ke-zhi

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The substrate cocktail is frequently used to evaluate cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme-mediated drug interactions and potential interactions among the probe substrates. Here, we re-optimized the substrate cocktail method to increase the reliability and accuracy of screening for candidate compounds and expanded the method from a direct CYP inhibition assay to a time-dependent inhibition (TDI) assay. Methods: In the reaction mixtures containing human liver microsome (0.1 mg/mL), both the concentrations of a substrate cocktail (phenacetin for 1A2, coumarin for 2A6, bupropion for 2B6, diclofenac for 2C9, dextromethorphan for 2D6, and testosterone for 3A4) and the incubation time were optimized. Metabolites of the substrate probes were simultaneously analyzed by multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) using a routine LC/MS/MS. Direct CYP inhibition was validated using 7 inhibitors (α-naphthoflavone, tranylcypromine, ticlopidine, fluconazole, quinidine, ketoconazole and 1-ABT). The time-dependent inhibition was partially validated with 5 inhibitors (ketoconazole, verapamil, quinidine, paroxetine and 1-ABT). Results: The inhibition curve profiles and IC50 values of 7 CYP inhibitors were approximate when a single substrate and the substrate cocktail were tested, and were consistent with the previously reported values. Similar results were obtained in the IC50 shifts of 5 inhibitors when a single substrate and the substrate cocktail were tested in the TDI assay. Conclusion: The 6-in-1 substrate cocktail (for 1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C9, 2D6 and 3A) is reliable for assessing CYP inhibition and time-dependent inhibition of drug candidates. PMID:27063220

  2. Selective inhibition of the cytochrome P450 isoform by hyperoside and its potent inhibition of CYP2D6.

    PubMed

    Song, Min; Hong, Miri; Lee, Min Young; Jee, Jun-Goo; Lee, You Mie; Bae, Jong-Sup; Jeong, Tae Cheon; Lee, Sangkyu

    2013-09-01

    Hyperoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside, is a flavonoid isolated from Oenanthe javanica. In the present study, we investigated potential herb-drug inhibitory effects of hyperoside on nine cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms in pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs) and human recombinant cDNA expressed CYP using a cocktail probe assay. Hyperoside strongly inhibited CYP2D6-catalyzed dextromethorphan O-demethylation, with IC₅₀ values of 1.2 and 0.81 μM after 0 and 15 min of preincubation, and a Ki value of 2.01 μM in HLMs, respectively. Hyperoside strongly decreased CYP2D6 activity dose-, but not time-, dependently in HLMs. In addition, the Lineweaver-Burk and Secondary plots for the inhibition of CYP2D6 in HLMs fitted a competitive inhibition mode. Furthermore, hyperoside decreased CYP2D6-catalyzed dextromethorphan O-demethylation activity of human recombinant cDNA-expressed CYP2D6, with an IC₅₀ value of 3.87 μM. However, other CYPs were not inhibited significantly by hyperoside. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that hyperoside is a potent selective CYP2D6 inhibitor in HLMs, and suggest that hyperoside might cause herb-drug interactions when co-administrated with CYP2D substrates.

  3. The curious case of benzbromarone: insight into super-inhibition of cytochrome P450.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Abhinav; Gade, Sudeep Kumar; Potnuru, Mahesh; Madhavan, Nandita; Manoj, Kelath Murali

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) family of redox enzymes metabolize drugs and xenobiotics in liver microsomes. Isozyme CYP2C9 is reported to be inhibited by benzbromarone (BzBr) and this phenomenon was hitherto explained by classical active-site binding. Theoretically, it was impossible to envisage the experimentally derived sub-nM Ki for an inhibitor, when supra-nM enzyme and 10X KM substrate concentrations were employed. We set out to find a more plausible explanation for this highly intriguing "super-inhibition" phenomenon. In silico docking of various BzBr analogs with known crystal structure of CYP2C9 did not provide any evidence in support of active-site based inhibition hypothesis. Experiments tested the effects of BzBr and nine analogs on CYPs in reconstituted systems of lab-purified proteins, complex baculosomes & crude microsomal preparations. In certain setups, BzBr and its analogs could even enhance reactions, which cannot be explained by an active site hypothesis. Generally, it was seen that Ki became smaller by orders of magnitude, upon increasing the dilution order of BzBr analogs. Also, it was seen that BzBr could also inhibit other CYP isozymes like CYP3A4, CYP2D6 and CYP2E1. Further, amphipathic derivatives of vitamins C & E (scavengers of diffusible reactive oxygen species or DROS) effectively inhibited CYP2C9 reactions in different reaction setups. Therefore, the inhibition of CYP activity by BzBr analogs (which are also surface-active redox agents) is attributed to catalytic scavenging of DROS at phospholipid interface. The current work expands the scope of interpretations of inhibitions in redox enzymes and ushers in a new cellular biochemistry paradigm that small amounts of DROS may be obligatorily required in routine redox metabolism for constructive catalytic roles.

  4. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Inhibit the Cytochrome P450 Enzyme, CYP3A4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sayed, Ramy; Bhattacharya, Kunal; Gu, Zonglin; Yang, Zaixing; Weber, Jeffrey K.; Li, Hu; Leifer, Klaus; Zhao, Yichen; Toprak, Muhammet S.; Zhou, Ruhong; Fadeel, Bengt

    2016-02-01

    We report a detailed computational and experimental study of the interaction of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with the drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP3A4. Dose-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4-mediated conversion of the model compound, testosterone, to its major metabolite, 6β-hydroxy testosterone was noted. Evidence for a direct interaction between SWCNTs and CYP3A4 was also provided. The inhibition of enzyme activity was alleviated when SWCNTs were pre-coated with bovine serum albumin. Furthermore, covalent functionalization of SWCNTs with polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains mitigated the inhibition of CYP3A4 enzymatic activity. Molecular dynamics simulations suggested that inhibition of the catalytic activity of CYP3A4 is mainly due to blocking of the exit channel for substrates/products through a complex binding mechanism. This work suggests that SWCNTs could interfere with metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics and provides a molecular mechanism for this toxicity. Our study also suggests means to reduce this toxicity, eg., by surface modification.

  5. Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 enzymes by the natural hepatotoxin safrole.

    PubMed

    Ueng, Yune-Fang; Hsieh, Chih-Hang; Don, Ming-Jaw

    2005-05-01

    The hepatotoxin, safrole is a methylenedioxy phenyl compound, found in sassafras oil and certain other essential oils. Recombinant cytochrome P450 (CYP, P450) and human liver microsomes were studied to investigate the selective inhibitory effects of safrole on human P450 enzymes and the mechanisms of action. Using Escherichia coli-expressed human P450, our results demonstrated that safrole was a non-selective inhibitor of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP3A4 in the IC(50) order CYP2E1 < CYP1A2 < CYP2A6 < CYP3A4 < CYP2D6. Safrole strongly inhibited CYP1A2, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1 activities with IC(50) values less than 20 microM. Safrole caused competitive, non-competitive, and non-competitive inhibition of CYP1A2, CYP2A6 and CYP2E1 activities, respectively. The inhibitor constants were in the order CYP1A2 < CYP2E1 < CYP2A6. In human liver microsomes, 50 microM safrole strongly inhibited 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation, coumarin hydroxylation, and chlorzoxazone hydroxylation activities. These results revealed that safrole was a potent inhibitor of human CYP1A2, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1. With relatively less potency, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 were also inhibited.

  6. Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Inhibit the Cytochrome P450 Enzyme, CYP3A4

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Ramy; Bhattacharya, Kunal; Gu, Zonglin; Yang, Zaixing; Weber, Jeffrey K.; Li, Hu; Leifer, Klaus; Zhao, Yichen; Toprak, Muhammet S.; Zhou, Ruhong; Fadeel, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    We report a detailed computational and experimental study of the interaction of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with the drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP3A4. Dose-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4-mediated conversion of the model compound, testosterone, to its major metabolite, 6β-hydroxy testosterone was noted. Evidence for a direct interaction between SWCNTs and CYP3A4 was also provided. The inhibition of enzyme activity was alleviated when SWCNTs were pre-coated with bovine serum albumin. Furthermore, covalent functionalization of SWCNTs with polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains mitigated the inhibition of CYP3A4 enzymatic activity. Molecular dynamics simulations suggested that inhibition of the catalytic activity of CYP3A4 is mainly due to blocking of the exit channel for substrates/products through a complex binding mechanism. This work suggests that SWCNTs could interfere with metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics and provides a molecular mechanism for this toxicity. Our study also suggests means to reduce this toxicity, eg., by surface modification. PMID:26899743

  7. Assessment of cytochrome p450 enzyme inhibition and inactivation in drug discovery and development.

    PubMed

    Nettleton, David O; Einolf, Heidi J

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of the potential of a drug candidate to inhibit or inactivate cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes remains an important part of pharmaceutical drug Discovery and Development programs. CYP enzymes are considered to be one of the most important enzyme families involved in the metabolic clearance of the vast majority of prescribed drugs. Clinical drug-drug interactions (DDI) involving inhibition or time-dependent inactivation of these enzymes can result in dangerous side effects resulting from reduced clearance/increased exposure of the drug being affected (the 'victim' drug). In this regard, pharmaceutical companies have become quite vigilant in mitigating CYP inhibition/inactivation liabilities of drug candidates early in Discovery including continued risk assessment throughout Development. In this review, common strategies and decision making processes for the assessment of DDI risk in the different stages of pharmaceutical development are discussed. In addition, in vitro study designs, analysis, and interpretation of CYP inhibition and inactivation data are described in stage appropriate context. The in vitro tools and knowledge available now enable the Discovery Chemist to place the potential CYP DDI liability of a drug candidate into perspective and to aid in the optimization of chemical drug design to further mitigate this risk.

  8. Cyanide inhibition and pyruvate-induced recovery of cytochrome c oxidase.

    PubMed

    Nůsková, Hana; Vrbacký, Marek; Drahota, Zdeněk; Houštěk, Josef

    2010-10-01

    The mechanism of cyanide's inhibitory effect on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (COX) as well as the conditions for its recovery have not yet been fully explained. We investigated three parameters of COX function, namely electron transport (oxygen consumption), proton transport (mitochondrial membrane potential Δψ(m)) and the enzyme affinity to oxygen (p₅₀ value) with regard to the inhibition by KCN and its reversal by pyruvate. 250 μM KCN completely inhibited both the electron and proton transport function of COX. The inhibition was reversible as demonstrated by washing of mitochondria. The addition of 60 mM pyruvate induced the maximal recovery of both parameters to 60-80% of the original values. When using low KCN concentrations of up to 5 μM, we observed a profound, 30-fold decrease of COX affinity for oxygen. Again, this decrease was completely reversed by washing mitochondria while pyruvate induced only a partial, yet significant recovery of oxygen affinity. Our results demonstrate that the inhibition of COX by cyanide is reversible and that the potential of pyruvate as a cyanide poisoning antidote is limited. Importantly, we also showed that the COX affinity for oxygen is the most sensitive indicator of cyanide toxic effects.

  9. Protein phosphorylation and prevention of cytochrome oxidase inhibition by ATP: coupled mechanisms of energy metabolism regulation

    PubMed Central

    Acin-Perez, Rebeca; Gatti, Domenico L.; Bai, Yidong; Manfredi, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Summary Rapid regulation of oxidative phosphorylation is crucial for mitochondrial adaptation to swift changes in fuels availability and energy demands. An intra-mitochondrial signaling pathway regulates cytochrome oxidase (COX), the terminal enzyme of the respiratory chain, through reversible phosphorylation. We find that PKA-mediated phosphorylation of a COX subunit dictates mammalian mitochondrial energy fluxes, and identify the specific residue (S58) of COX subunit IV-1 (COXIV-1) that is involved in this mechanism of metabolic regulation. Using protein mutagenesis, molecular dynamics simulations, and induced fit docking, we show that mitochondrial energy metabolism regulation by phosphorylation of COXIV-1 is coupled with prevention of COX allosteric inhibition by ATP. This regulatory mechanism is essential for efficient oxidative metabolism and cell survival. We propose that S58 COXIV-1 phosphorylation has evolved as a metabolic switch that allows mammalian mitochondria to rapidly toggle between energy utilization and energy storage. PMID:21641552

  10. In vitro inhibition and induction of human liver cytochrome p450 enzymes by milnacipran.

    PubMed

    Paris, Brandy L; Ogilvie, Brian W; Scheinkoenig, Julie A; Ndikum-Moffor, Florence; Gibson, Remi; Parkinson, Andrew

    2009-10-01

    Milnacipran (Savella) inhibits both norepinephrine and serotonin reuptake and is distinguished by a nearly 3-fold greater potency in inhibiting norepinephrine reuptake in vitro compared with serotonin. We evaluated the ability of milnacipran to inhibit and induce human cytochrome P450 enzymes in vitro. In human liver microsomes, milnacipran did not inhibit CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, or 2D6 (IC(50) >or= 100 microM); whereas, a comparator with dual reuptake properties [duloxetine (Cymbalta)] inhibited CYP2D6 (IC(50) = 7 microM) and CYP2B6 (IC(50) = 15 microM) with a relatively high potency. Milnacipran inhibited CYP3A4/5 in a substrate-dependent manner (i.e., midazolam 1'-hydroxylation IC(50) approximately 30 microM; testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation IC(50) approximately 100 microM); whereas, duloxetine inhibited both CYP3A4/5 activities with equal potency (IC(50) = 37 and 38 microM, respectively). Milnacipran produced no time-dependent inhibition (<10%) of P450 activity, whereas duloxetine produced time-dependent inhibition of CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C19, and 3A4/5. To evaluate P450 induction, freshly isolated human hepatocytes (n = 3) were cultured and treated once daily for 3 days with milnacipran (3, 10, and 30 microM), after which microsomal P450 activities were measured. Whereas positive controls (omeprazole, phenobarbital, and rifampin) caused anticipated P450 induction, milnacipran had minimal effect on CYP1A2, 2C8, 2C9, or 2C19 activity. The highest concentration of milnacipran (30 microM; >10 times plasma C(max)) produced 2.6- and 2.2-fold increases in CYP2B6 and CYP3A4/5 activity (making it 26 and 34% as effective as phenobarbital and rifampin, respectively). Given these results, milnacipran is not expected to cause clinically significant P450 inhibition or induction.

  11. Clinical outcomes and management of mechanism-based inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shufeng; Chan, Eli; Li, Xiaotian; Huang, Min

    2005-01-01

    Mechanism-based inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 is characterized by NADPH-, time-, and concentration-dependent enzyme inactivation, occurring when some drugs are converted by CYPs to reactive metabolites. Such inhibition of CYP3A4 can be due to the chemical modification of the heme, the protein, or both as a result of covalent binding of modified heme to the protein. The inactivation of CYP3A4 by drugs has important clinical significance as it metabolizes approximately 60% of therapeutic drugs, and its inhibition frequently causes unfavorable drug–drug interactions and toxicity. The clinical outcomes due to CYP3A4 inactivation depend on many factors associated with the enzyme, drugs, and patients. Clinical professionals should adopt proper approaches when using drugs that are mechanism-based CYP3A4 inhibitors. These include early identification of drugs behaving as CYP3A4 inactivators, rational use of such drugs (eg, safe drug combination regimen, dose adjustment, or discontinuation of therapy when toxic drug interactions occur), therapeutic drug monitoring, and predicting the risks for potential drug–drug interactions. A good understanding of CYP3A4 inactivation and proper clinical management are needed by clinical professionals when these drugs are used. PMID:18360537

  12. Increased inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 with the tablet formulation of posaconazole.

    PubMed

    Petitcollin, A; Crochette, R; Tron, C; Verdier, M-C; Boglione-Kerrien, C; Vigneau, C; Bellissant, E; Lemaitre, F

    2016-10-01

    Being a substrate of the cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) isoenzyme, sirolimus metabolism is decreased when posaconazole is administered concomitantly. However, because of the poor bioavailability of the oral suspension of posaconazole with which low plasma concentrations are obtained, CYP3A4 inhibition is weak and a 50-75% dose reduction of sirolimus is sufficient to avoid sirolimus overdosage. The new tablet formulation allows reaching posaconazole concentrations 3-4 fold higher than those obtained with the oral suspension. Based on a case of sirolimus overdosage following posaconazole tablets administration, we modelled the inhibition of sirolimus clearance by posaconazole, and then simulated several dosage regimens of sirolimus taken together with posaconazole tablets. We were able to describe well the interaction, and found a value of IC50 of posaconazole towards sirolimus clearance of 0.68 μg/mL. The simulations showed that even a 80% decrease of the daily dose of sirolimus is unsuitable in many cases with trough concentrations of posaconazole of 2 μg/mL. A decrease of 40% of the dose with spacing administrations of 3 days may be considered. The clinicians and pharmacologists must be warned that the use of posaconazole tablets may result in an inhibition of CYP3A4 of greater magnitude than with the oral suspension.

  13. Inhibition of Cytochrome P450 by Propolis in Human Liver Microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Chang Seon; Oh, Soo Jin; Oh, Jung Min; Lee, Ji-Yoon; Lee, Sang Yoon; Chae, Jung-woo; Kwon, Kwang-il; Kim, Sang Kyum

    2016-01-01

    Although propolis is one of the most popular functional foods for human health, there have been no comprehensive studies of herb-drug interactions through cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition. The purpose of this study was to determine the inhibitory effects of propolis on the activities of CYP1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1 and 3A4 using pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs). Propolis inhibited CYP1A2, CYP2E1 and CYP2C19 with an IC50 value of 6.9, 16.8, and 43.1 μg/mL, respectively, whereas CYP2A6, 2B6, 2C9, 2D6, and 3A4 were unaffected. Based on half-maximal inhibitory concentration shifts between microsomes incubated with and without nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, propolis-induced CYP1A2, CYP2C19, and CYP2E1 inhibition was metabolism-independent. To evaluate the interaction potential between propolis and therapeutic drugs, the effects of propolis on metabolism of duloxetine, a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, were determined in HLMs. CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 are involved in hydroxylation of duloxetine to 4-hydroxy duloxetine, the major metabolite, which was decreased following propolis addition in HLMs. These results raise the possibility of interactions between propolis and therapeutic drugs metabolized by CYP1A2. PMID:27437087

  14. Inhibition of human cytochrome P450 enzymes by Bacopa monnieri standardized extract and constituents.

    PubMed

    Ramasamy, Seetha; Kiew, Lik Voon; Chung, Lip Yong

    2014-02-24

    Bacopa monnieri and the constituents of this plant, especially bacosides, possess various neuropharmacological properties. Like drugs, some herbal extracts and the constituents of their extracts alter cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, causing potential herb-drug interactions. The effects of Bacopa monnieri standardized extract and the bacosides from the extract on five major CYP isoforms in vitro were analyzed using a luminescent CYP recombinant human enzyme assay. B. monnieri extract exhibited non-competitive inhibition of CYP2C19 (IC50/Ki = 23.67/9.5 µg/mL), CYP2C9 (36.49/12.5 µg/mL), CYP1A2 (52.20/25.1 µg/mL); competitive inhibition of CYP3A4 (83.95/14.5 µg/mL) and weak inhibition of CYP2D6 (IC50 = 2061.50 µg/mL). However, the bacosides showed negligible inhibition of the same isoforms. B. monnieri, which is orally administered, has a higher concentration in the gut than the liver; therefore, this herb could exhibit stronger inhibition of intestinal CYPs than hepatic CYPs. At an estimated gut concentration of 600 µg/mL (based on a daily dosage of 300 mg/day), B. monnieri reduced the catalytic activities of CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 to less than 10% compared to the total activity (without inhibitor = 100%). These findings suggest that B. monnieri extract could contribute to herb-drug interactions when orally co-administered with drugs metabolized by CYP1A2, CYP3A4, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19.

  15. QSAR modeling of in vitro inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4.

    PubMed

    Mao, Boryeu; Gozalbes, Rafael; Barbosa, Frédérique; Migeon, Jacques; Merrick, Sandra; Kamm, Kelly; Wong, Eric; Costales, Chester; Shi, Wei; Wu, Cheryl; Froloff, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    We report the QSAR modeling of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) enzyme inhibition using four large data sets of in vitro data. These data sets consist of marketed drugs and drug-like compounds all tested in four assays measuring the inhibition of the metabolism of four different substrates by the CYP3A4 enzyme. The four probe substrates are benzyloxycoumarin, testosterone, benzyloxyresorufin, and midazolam. We first show that using state-of-the-art QSAR modeling approaches applied to only one of these four data sets does not lead to predictive models that would be useful for in silico filtering of chemical libraries. We then present the development and the testing of a multiple pharmacophore hypothesis (MPH) that is formulated as a conceptual extension of the traditional QSAR approach to modeling the promiscuous binding of a large variety of drugs to CYP3A4. In the simplest form, the MPH approach takes advantage of the multiple substrate data sets and identifies the binding of test compounds as either proximal or distal relative to that of a given substrate. Application of the approach to the in silico filtering of test compounds for potential inhibitors of CYP3A4 is also presented. In addition to an improvement in the QSAR modeling for the inhibition of CYP3A4, the results from this modeling approach provide structural insights into the drug-enzyme interactions. The existence of multiple inhibition data sets in the BioPrint database motivates the original development of the concept of a multiple pharmacophore hypothesis and provides a unique opportunity for formulating alternative strategies of QSAR modeling of the inhibition of the in vitro metabolism of CYP3A4.

  16. Inhibition of NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase by the model sulfur mustard vesicant 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, Joshua P.; Mishin, Vladimir; Heck, Diane E.; Laskin, Debra L.; Laskin, Jeffrey D.

    2010-09-01

    Inhalation of vesicants including sulfur mustard can cause significant damage to the upper airways. This is the result of vesicant-induced modifications of proteins important in maintaining the integrity of the lung. Cytochrome P450s are the major enzymes in the lung mediating detoxification of sulfur mustard and its metabolites. NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase is a flavin-containing electron donor for cytochrome P450. The present studies demonstrate that the sulfur mustard analog, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide (CEES), is a potent inhibitor of human recombinant cytochrome P450 reductase, as well as native cytochrome P450 reductase from liver microsomes of saline and {beta}-naphthoflavone-treated rats, and cytochrome P450 reductase from type II lung epithelial cells. Using rat liver microsomes from {beta}-naphthoflavone-treated rats, CEES was found to inhibit CYP 1A1 activity. This inhibition was overcome by microsomal cytochrome P450 reductase from saline-treated rats, which lack CYP 1A1 activity, demonstrating that the CEES inhibitory activity was selective for cytochrome P450 reductase. Cytochrome P450 reductase also generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) via oxidation of NADPH. In contrast to its inhibitory effects on the reduction of cytochrome c and CYP1A1 activity, CEES was found to stimulate ROS formation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that sulfur mustard vesicants target cytochrome P450 reductase and that this effect may be an important mechanism mediating oxidative stress and lung injury.

  17. Gallium-Protoporphyrin IX Inhibits Pseudomonas aeruginosa Growth by Targeting Cytochromes

    PubMed Central

    Hijazi, Sarah; Visca, Paolo; Frangipani, Emanuela

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a challenging pathogen due to both innate and acquired resistance to antibiotics. It is capable of causing a variety of infections, including chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Given the importance of iron in bacterial physiology and pathogenicity, iron-uptake and metabolism have become attractive targets for the development of new antibacterial compounds. P. aeruginosa can acquire iron from a variety of sources to fulfill its nutritional requirements both in the environment and in the infected host. The adaptation of P. aeruginosa to heme iron acquisition in the CF lung makes heme utilization pathways a promising target for the development of new anti-Pseudomonas drugs. Gallium [Ga(III)] is an iron mimetic metal which inhibits P. aeruginosa growth by interfering with iron-dependent metabolism. The Ga(III) complex of the heme precursor protoporphyrin IX (GaPPIX) showed enhanced antibacterial activity against several bacterial species, although no inhibitory effect has been reported on P. aeruginosa. Here, we demonstrate that GaPPIX is indeed capable of inhibiting the growth of clinical P. aeruginosa strains under iron-deplete conditions, as those encountered by bacteria during infection, and that GaPPIX inhibition is reversed by iron. Using P. aeruginosa PAO1 as model organism, we show that GaPPIX enters cells through both the heme-uptake systems has and phu, primarily via the PhuR receptor which plays a crucial role in P. aeruginosa adaptation to the CF lung. We also demonstrate that intracellular GaPPIX inhibits the aerobic growth of P. aeruginosa by targeting cytochromes, thus interfering with cellular respiration. PMID:28184354

  18. Interaction potential of Trigonella foenum graceum through cytochrome P450 mediated inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Ahmmed, Sk Milan; Mukherjee, Pulok K.; Bahadur, Shiv; Kar, Amit; Mukherjee, Kakali; Karmakar, Sanmoy; Bandyopadhyay, Arun

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum (TFG) (family: Leguminosae) are widely consumed both as a spice in food and Traditional Medicine in India. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the inhibitory effect of standardized extract of TFG and its major constituent trigonelline (TG) on rat liver microsome (RLM) and cytochrome P450 (CYP450) drug metabolizing isozymes (CYP3A4 and CYP2D6), which may indicate the possibility of a probable unwanted interaction. Materials and Methods: Reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography method was developed to standardize the hydroalcoholic seed extract with standard TG. The inhibitory potential of the extract and TG was evaluated on RLM and CYP isozymes using CYP450-carbon monoxide (CYP450-CO) complex assay and fluorescence assay, respectively. Results: The content of TG in TFG was found to be 3.38% (w/w). The CYP-CO complex assay showed 23.32% inhibition on RLM. Fluorescence study revealed that the extract and the biomarker had some inhibition on CYP450 isozymes e.g. CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 (IC50 values of the extract: 102.65 ± 2.63–142.23 ± 2.61 µg/ml and TG: 168.73 ± 4.03–180.90 ± 2.49 µg/ml) which was very less compared to positive controls ketoconazole and quinidine. Inhibition potential of TFG was little higher than TG but very less compared to positive controls. Conclusions: From the present study, we may conclude that the TFG or TG has very less potential to inhibit the CYP isozymes (CYP3A4, CYP2D6), so administration of this plant extract or its biomarker TG may be safe. PMID:26600643

  19. Gallium-Protoporphyrin IX Inhibits Pseudomonas aeruginosa Growth by Targeting Cytochromes.

    PubMed

    Hijazi, Sarah; Visca, Paolo; Frangipani, Emanuela

    2017-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a challenging pathogen due to both innate and acquired resistance to antibiotics. It is capable of causing a variety of infections, including chronic lung infection in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Given the importance of iron in bacterial physiology and pathogenicity, iron-uptake and metabolism have become attractive targets for the development of new antibacterial compounds. P. aeruginosa can acquire iron from a variety of sources to fulfill its nutritional requirements both in the environment and in the infected host. The adaptation of P. aeruginosa to heme iron acquisition in the CF lung makes heme utilization pathways a promising target for the development of new anti-Pseudomonas drugs. Gallium [Ga(III)] is an iron mimetic metal which inhibits P. aeruginosa growth by interfering with iron-dependent metabolism. The Ga(III) complex of the heme precursor protoporphyrin IX (GaPPIX) showed enhanced antibacterial activity against several bacterial species, although no inhibitory effect has been reported on P. aeruginosa. Here, we demonstrate that GaPPIX is indeed capable of inhibiting the growth of clinical P. aeruginosa strains under iron-deplete conditions, as those encountered by bacteria during infection, and that GaPPIX inhibition is reversed by iron. Using P. aeruginosa PAO1 as model organism, we show that GaPPIX enters cells through both the heme-uptake systems has and phu, primarily via the PhuR receptor which plays a crucial role in P. aeruginosa adaptation to the CF lung. We also demonstrate that intracellular GaPPIX inhibits the aerobic growth of P. aeruginosa by targeting cytochromes, thus interfering with cellular respiration.

  20. Mammalian liver cytochrome c is tyrosine-48 phosphorylated in vivo, inhibiting mitochondrial respiration.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hong; Lee, Icksoo; Salomon, Arthur R; Yu, Kebing; Hüttemann, Maik

    2008-01-01

    Cytochrome c (Cyt c) is part of the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC), accepting electrons from bc(1) complex and transferring them to cytochrome c oxidase (CcO). The ETC generates the mitochondrial membrane potential, which is used by ATP synthase to produce ATP. In addition, the release of Cyt c from the mitochondria often commits a cell to undergo apoptosis. Considering its central role in life (respiration) and death (apoptosis) decisions one would expect tight regulation of Cyt c function. Reversible phosphorylation is a main cellular regulatory mechanism, but the effect of cell signaling targeting the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system is not well understood, and only a small number of proteins that can be phosphorylated have been identified to date. We have recently shown that Cyt c isolated from cow heart tissue is phosphorylated on tyrosine 97 in vivo, which leads to inhibition of respiration in the reaction with CcO. In this study we isolated Cyt c from a different organ, cow liver, under conditions preserving the physiological phosphorylation state. Western analysis with a phosphotyrosine specific antibody suggested that liver Cyt c is phosphorylated. Surprisingly, the phosphorylation site was unambiguously assigned to Tyr-48 by immobilized metal affinity chromatography/nano-liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (IMAC/nano-LC/ESI-MS), and not to the previously identified phospho-Tyr-97 in cow heart. As is true of Tyr-97, Tyr-48 is conserved in eukaryotes. As one possible consequence of Tyr-48 phosphorylation we analyzed the in vitro reaction kinetics with isolated cow liver CcO revealing striking differences. Maximal turnover of Tyr-48 phosphorylated Cyt c was 3.7 s(-1) whereas dephosphorylation resulted in a 2.2 fold increase in activity to 8.2 s(-1). Effects of Tyr-48 phosphorylation based on the Cyt c crystal structure are discussed.

  1. Endotoxin administration to humans inhibits hepatic cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Shedlofsky, S I; Israel, B C; McClain, C J; Hill, D B; Blouin, R A

    1994-01-01

    In experimental animals, injection of gram-negative endotoxin (LPS) decreases hepatic cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism. To evaluate this phenomenon in a human model of gram-negative sepsis, LPS was administered on two consecutive days to healthy male volunteers during which time a cocktail of antipyrine (AP-250 mg), hexobarbital (HB-500 mg), and theophylline (TH-150 mg) was ingested and the apparent oral clearance of each drug determined. Each subject had a control drug clearance study with saline injections. In the first experiment, six subjects received the drug cocktail 0.5 h after the first dose of LPS. In the second experiment, another six subjects received the drug cocktail 0.5 h after the second dose of LPS. In both experiments, LPS caused the expected physiologic responses of inflammation including fever with increases in serum concentrations of TNF alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-6, and acute phase reactants. In the first experiment, only minor decreases in clearances of the probe drugs were observed (7-12%). However in the second experiment, marked decreases in the clearances of AP (35, 95% CI 18-48%), HB (27, 95% CI 14-34%), and TH (22, 95% CI 12-32%) were seen. The decreases in AP clearance correlated with initial peak values of TNF alpha (r = 0.82) and IL-6 (r = 0.86). These data show that in humans the inflammatory response to even a very low dose of LPS significantly decreases hepatic cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism and this effect evolves over a 24-h period. It is likely that septic patients with much higher exposures to LPS have more profound inhibition of drug metabolism. PMID:7989576

  2. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A: relevant drug interactions in gastroenterology.

    PubMed

    Sagir, A; Schmitt, M; Dilger, K; Häussinger, D

    2003-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) is involved in biotransformation of more than half of all drugs currently available. Drug interactions by inhibition of CYP3A are of major interest in patients receiving combinations of drugs. Some interactions with CYP3A inhibitors also involve inhibition of the multidrug export pump, P-glycoprotein. An increasing number of adverse drug reactions might be avoided on the basis of knowledge about CYP3A substrates and inhibitors. This article summarizes some examples of such interactions relevant to gastroenterologists. Serious cases by coadministration of CYP3A inhibitors resulting in acute hepatitis, hypotension, rhabdomyolyis, torsade de pointes, sedation, or ergotism are presented: interactions with azole antifungals (ketoconazole, itraconazole, fluconazole), HIV protease inhibitors (ritonavir, indinavir, saquinavir, nelfinavir), macrolide antibiotics (clarithromycin, erythromycin), and grapefruit juice. In addition, 1 case is reported who presented the highest trough levels of the CYP3A substrate budesonide in serum ever measured. Practitioners have to be aware of the high potential of metabolic drug interactions when they prescribe a CYP3A inhibitor. It is wise to check carefully comedication in patients complaining of side effects with substrates of CYP3A.

  3. Food Polyphenol Apigenin Inhibits the Cytochrome P450 Monoxygenase Branch of the Arachidonic Acid Cascade.

    PubMed

    Steuck, Maryvonne; Hellhake, Stefan; Schebb, Nils Helge

    2016-11-30

    The product of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (P450) ω-hydroxylation of arachidonic acid (AA), 20- hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (HETE), is a potent vasoconstrictor. Utilizing microsomes as well as individual CYP4 isoforms we demonstrate here that flavonoids can block 20-HETE formation. Apigenin inhibits CYP4F2 with an IC50 value of 4.6 μM and 20-HETE formation in human liver and kidney microsomes at 2.4-9.8 μM. Interestingly, the structurally similar naringenin shows no relevant effect on the formation of 20-HETE. Based on these in vitro data, it is impossible to evaluate if a relevant blockade of 20-HETE formation can result in humans from intake of polyphenols with the diet. However, the potency of apigenin is comparable to those of P450 inhibitors such as ketoconazole. Moreover, an IC50 value in the micromolar range is also described for the inhibition of CYP-mediated drug metabolism leading to food-drug interactions. The modulation of the arachidonic acid cascade by food polyphenols therefore warrants further investigation.

  4. Structural basis for inhibition of the histone chaperone activity of SET/TAF-Iβ by cytochrome c.

    PubMed

    González-Arzola, Katiuska; Díaz-Moreno, Irene; Cano-González, Ana; Díaz-Quintana, Antonio; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Moreno-Beltrán, Blas; López-Rivas, Abelardo; De la Rosa, Miguel A

    2015-08-11

    Chromatin is pivotal for regulation of the DNA damage process insofar as it influences access to DNA and serves as a DNA repair docking site. Recent works identify histone chaperones as key regulators of damaged chromatin's transcriptional activity. However, understanding how chaperones are modulated during DNA damage response is still challenging. This study reveals that the histone chaperone SET/TAF-Iβ interacts with cytochrome c following DNA damage. Specifically, cytochrome c is shown to be translocated into cell nuclei upon induction of DNA damage, but not upon stimulation of the death receptor or stress-induced pathways. Cytochrome c was found to competitively hinder binding of SET/TAF-Iβ to core histones, thereby locking its histone-binding domains and inhibiting its nucleosome assembly activity. In addition, we have used NMR spectroscopy, calorimetry, mutagenesis, and molecular docking to provide an insight into the structural features of the formation of the complex between cytochrome c and SET/TAF-Iβ. Overall, these findings establish a framework for understanding the molecular basis of cytochrome c-mediated blocking of SET/TAF-Iβ, which subsequently may facilitate the development of new drugs to silence the oncogenic effect of SET/TAF-Iβ's histone chaperone activity.

  5. Structural basis for inhibition of the histone chaperone activity of SET/TAF-Iβ by cytochrome c

    PubMed Central

    González-Arzola, Katiuska; Díaz-Moreno, Irene; Cano-González, Ana; Díaz-Quintana, Antonio; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; Moreno-Beltrán, Blas; López-Rivas, Abelardo; De la Rosa, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Chromatin is pivotal for regulation of the DNA damage process insofar as it influences access to DNA and serves as a DNA repair docking site. Recent works identify histone chaperones as key regulators of damaged chromatin’s transcriptional activity. However, understanding how chaperones are modulated during DNA damage response is still challenging. This study reveals that the histone chaperone SET/TAF-Iβ interacts with cytochrome c following DNA damage. Specifically, cytochrome c is shown to be translocated into cell nuclei upon induction of DNA damage, but not upon stimulation of the death receptor or stress-induced pathways. Cytochrome c was found to competitively hinder binding of SET/TAF-Iβ to core histones, thereby locking its histone-binding domains and inhibiting its nucleosome assembly activity. In addition, we have used NMR spectroscopy, calorimetry, mutagenesis, and molecular docking to provide an insight into the structural features of the formation of the complex between cytochrome c and SET/TAF-Iβ. Overall, these findings establish a framework for understanding the molecular basis of cytochrome c-mediated blocking of SET/TAF-Iβ, which subsequently may facilitate the development of new drugs to silence the oncogenic effect of SET/TAF-Iβ’s histone chaperone activity. PMID:26216969

  6. Activity, Inhibition, and Induction of Cytochrome P450 2J2 in Adult Human Primary Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista, Eric A.; Kaspera, Rüdiger; Mokadam, Nahush A.; Jones, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 2J2 plays a significant role in the epoxidation of arachidonic acid to signaling molecules important in cardiovascular events. CYP2J2 also contributes to drug metabolism and is responsible for the intestinal clearance of ebastine. However, the interaction between arachidonic acid metabolism and drug metabolism in cardiac tissue, the main expression site of CYP2J2, has not been examined. Here we investigate an adult-derived human primary cardiac cell line as a suitable model to study metabolic drug interactions (inhibition and induction) of CYP2J2 in cardiac tissue. The primary human cardiomyocyte cell line demonstrated similar mRNA-expression profiles of P450 enzymes to adult human ventricular tissue. CYP2J2 was the dominant isozyme with minor contributions from CYP2D6 and CYP2E1. Both terfenadine and astemizole oxidation were observed in this cell line, whereas midazolam was not metabolized suggesting lack of CYP3A activity. Compared with recombinant CYP2J2, terfenadine was hydroxylated in cardiomyocytes at a similar Km value of 1.5 μM. The Vmax of terfenadine hydroxylation in recombinant enzyme was found to be 29.4 pmol/pmol P450 per minute and in the cells 6.0 pmol/pmol P450 per minute. CYP2J2 activity in the cell line was inhibited by danazol, astemizole, and ketoconazole in submicromolar range, but also by xenobiotics known to cause cardiac adverse effects. Of the 14 compounds tested for CYP2J2 induction, only rosiglitazone increased mRNA expression, by 1.8-fold. This cell model can be a useful in vitro model to investigate the role of CYP2J2-mediated drug metabolism, arachidonic acid metabolism, and their association to drug induced cardiotoxicity. PMID:24021950

  7. Synergy between chronic corticosterone and sodium azide treatments in producing a spatial learning deficit and inhibiting cytochrome oxidase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, M C; Mlady, G W; Fleshner, M; Rose, G M

    1996-01-01

    Previously, we developed a rat model of persistent mitochondrial dysfunction based upon the chronic partial inhibition of the mitochondrial enzyme cytochrome oxidase (EC 1.9.3.1). Continuous systemic infusion of sodium azide at approximately 1 mg/kg per hr inhibited cytochrome oxidase activity and produced a spatial learning deficit. In other laboratories, glucocorticoids have been reported to exacerbate neuronal damage from various acute metabolic insults. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that corticosterone, the primary glucocorticoid in the rat, would potentiate the sodium azide-induced learning deficit. To this end, we first identified nonimpairing doses of sodium azide (approximately 0.75 mg/kg per hr) and corticosterone (100-mg pellet, 3-week sustained-release). We now report that chronic co-administration of these individually nonimpairing treatments produced a severe learning deficit. Moreover, the low dose of corticosterone, which did not elevate serum corticosterone, acted synergistically with sodium azide to inhibit cytochrome oxidase activity. The latter result represents a previously unidentified effect of glucocorticoids that provides a candidate mechanism for glucocorticoid potentiation of neurotoxicity induced by metabolic insult. These results may have the clinical implication of expanding the definition of hypercortisolism in patient populations with compromised oxidative metabolism. Furthermore, they suggest that glucocorticoid treatment may contribute to pathology in disease or trauma conditions that involve metabolic insult. PMID:8577764

  8. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 activity enhances the systemic availability of triclabendazole metabolites in sheep.

    PubMed

    Virkel, G; Lifschitz, A; Sallovitz, J; Ballent, M; Scarcella, S; Lanusse, C

    2009-02-01

    Understanding the disposition kinetics and the pattern of metabolism is critical to optimise the flukicidal activity of triclabendazole (TCBZ) in ruminants. TCBZ is metabolised by both flavin-monooxygenase (FMO) and cytochrome P450 (P450) in the liver. Interference with these metabolic pathways may be useful to increase the systemic availabilities of TCBZ metabolites, which may improve the efficacy against Fasciola hepatica. The plasma disposition of TCBZ metabolites was evaluated following TCBZ co-administration with FMO [methimazole (MTZ)] and P450 [piperonyl butoxyde (PB) and ketoconazole (KTZ)] inhibitors in sheep. Twenty (20) healthy Corriedale x Merino weaned female lambs were randomly allocated into four experimental groups. Animals of each group were treated as follow: Group A, TCBZ alone (5 mg/kg, IV route); Group B, TCBZ (5 mg/kg, IV) + MTZ (3 mg/kg, IV); Group C, TCBZ (5 mg/kg, IV) + PB (30 mg/kg, IV) and Group D, TCBZ (5 mg/kg, IV) + KTZ (10 mg/kg, orally). Blood samples were taken over 240 h post-treatment and analysed by HPLC. TCBZ sulphoxide and sulphone were the main metabolites recovered in plasma. MTZ did not affect TCBZ disposition kinetics. TCBZ sulphoxide Cmax values were significantly increased (P < 0.05) after the TCBZ + PB (62%) and TCBZ + KTZ (37%) treatments compared to those measured in the TCBZ alone treatment. TCBZ sulphoxide plasma AUCs were higher (P < 0.05) in the presence of both PB (99%) and KTZ (41%). Inhibition of TCBZ P450-mediated oxidation in the liver accounted for the increased systemic availability of its active metabolite TCBZ sulphoxide. This work contributes to the search of different strategies to improve the use of this flukicidal drug in ruminants.

  9. Curcumin Prevents Aflatoxin B1 Hepatoxicity by Inhibition of Cytochrome P450 Isozymes in Chick Liver

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ni-Ya; Qi, Ming; Zhao, Ling; Zhu, Ming-Kun; Guo, Jiao; Liu, Jie; Gu, Chang-Qin; Rajput, Shahid Ali; Krumm, Christopher Steven; Qi, De-Sheng; Sun, Lv-Hui

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to establish if Curcumin (CM) alleviates Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced hepatotoxic effects and to determine whether alteration of the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP450) isozymes is involved in the regulation of these effects in chick liver. One-day-old male broilers (n = 120) were divided into four groups and used in a two by two factorial trial in which the main factors included supplementing AFB1 (< 5 vs. 100 μg/kg) and CM (0 vs. 150 mg/kg) in a corn/soybean-based diet. Administration of AFB1 induced liver injury, significantly decreasing albumin and total protein concentrations and increasing alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities in serum, and induced hepatic histological lesions at week 2. AFB1 also significantly decreased hepatic glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and glutathione levels, while increasing malondialdehyde, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, and exo-AFB1-8,9-epoxide (AFBO)-DNA concentrations. In addition, the mRNA and/or activity of enzymes responsible for the bioactivation of AFB1 into AFBO—including CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, and CYP3A4—were significantly induced in liver microsomes after 2-week exposure to AFB1. These alterations induced by AFB1 were prevented by CM supplementation. Conclusively, dietary CM protected chicks from AFB1-induced liver injury, potentially through the synergistic actions of increased antioxidant capacities and inhibition of the pivotal CYP450 isozyme-mediated activation of AFB1 to toxic AFBO. PMID:27834912

  10. Inhibition selectivity of grapefruit juice components on human cytochromes P450.

    PubMed

    Tassaneeyakul, W; Guo, L Q; Fukuda, K; Ohta, T; Yamazoe, Y

    2000-06-15

    Five compounds including furanocoumarin monomers (bergamottin, 6', 7'-dihydroxybergamottin (DHB)), furanocoumarin dimers (4-¿¿6-hydroxy-71-¿(1-hydroxy-1-methyl)ethyl-4-methyl-6-(7-oxo-7H- furo¿3,2-g1benzopyran-4-yl)-4-hexenyl]oxy]-3,7-dimethyl- 2-octenyl]oxy]-7H-furo[3,2-g]¿1benzopyran-7-one (GF-I-1) and 4-¿¿6-hydroxy-7¿¿4-methyl-1-(1-methylethenyl)-6-(7-oxo-7H-furo¿3, 2-g1benzopyran-4-yl)-4-hexenylŏxy-3, 7-dimethyl-2-octenylŏxy-7H-furo¿3,2-g1benzopyran-7-one (GF-I-4)), and a sesquiterpene nootkatone have been isolated from grapefruit juice and screened for their inhibitory effects toward human cytochrome P450 (P450) forms using selective substrate probes. Addition of ethyl acetate extract of grapefruit juice into an incubation mixture resulted in decreased activities of CYP3A4, CYP1A2, CYP2C9, and CYP2D6. All four furanocoumarins clearly inhibited CYP3A4-catalyzed nifedipine oxidation in concentration- and time-dependent manners, suggesting that these compounds are mechanism-based inhibitors of CYP3A4. Of the furanocoumarins investigated, furanocoumarin dimers, GF-I-1 and GF-I-4, were the most potent inhibitors of CYP3A4. Inhibitor concentration required for half-maximal rate of inactivation (K(I)) values for bergamottin, DHB, GF-I-1, and GF-I-4 were calculated, respectively, as 40.00, 5. 56, 0.31, and 0.13 microM, whereas similar values were observed on their inactivation rate constant at infinite concentration of inhibitor (k(inact), 0.05-0.08 min(-1)). Apparent selectivity toward CYP3A4 does occur with the furanocoumarin dimers. In contrast, bergamottin showed rather stronger inhibitory effect on CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6 than on CYP3A4. DHB inhibited CYP3A4 and CYP1A2 activities at nearly equivalent potencies. Among P450 forms investigated, CYP2E1 was the least sensitive to the inhibitory effect of furanocoumarin components. A sesquiterpene nootkatone has no significant effect on P450 activities investigated except for CYP2A6 and CYP2C19

  11. Inhibition of cytochrome p450 enzymes by enrofloxacin in the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Vaccaro, E; Giorgi, M; Longo, V; Mengozzi, G; Gervasi, P G

    2003-01-10

    Currently, there are no reports on the effects of enrofloxacin (EF), a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, on the cytochrome p450 enzymes in fish, although its use as antimicrobial agent in aquaculture has been put forward. Therefore, the in vivo and in vitro effects of EF on hepatic p450 enzymes of sea bass, a widespread food-producing fish, have been evaluated. Sea bass pretreated with a single dose of EF (3 mg/kg i.p.) or with three daily doses of EF (1 mg/kg i.p.) markedly depressed the microsomal N-demethylation of aminopyrine, erythromycin, the O-deethylation of 7-ethoxycoumarin, ethoxyresorufin and the 6beta-testosterone hydroxylase. In vitro experiments showed that EF at 10 microM inhibited the above-mentioned activities and, in particular, the erythromycin N-demethylase (ERND) and 6beta-testosterone-hydroxylase, likely dependant on a p450 3A isoform. When the nature of ERND inhibition by EF was specifically studied with sea bass liver microsomes, it was found that EF is a potent mechanism-based inhibitor, with K(i) of 3.7 microM and a K(inact) of 0.045 min(-1). An immunoblot analysis with anti p450 3A27 of trout showed that the p450 3A isoform, constitutively expressed in sea bass, is particularly susceptible to inactivation by EF. In vitro experiments with sea bass microsomes have also demonstrated that EF is oxidative deethylated by the p450 system to ciprofloxacin (CF) and that this compound maintains the ability to inactivate the p450 enzymes. The mechanism by which EF or CF inactivate the p450 enzymes has not been studied but an attack of p450 on the cyclopropan ring, present, both in EF and CF structure, with the formation of electrophilic intermediates (i.e. radicals) has been postulated. In conclusion, the EF seems to be a powerful inhibitor of p450s in the sea bass. Therefore, the clinical use of this antibiotic in aquaculture has to be considered with caution.

  12. Inhibition of Cytochromes P450 and the Hydroxylation of 4-Monochlorobiphenyl in Whole Poplar

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Guangshu; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Schnoor, Jerald L.

    2013-01-01

    Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are potential enzymes responsible for hydroxylation of many xenobiotics and endogenous chemicals in living organisms. It has been found that 4-monochlorobiphenyl (PCB3), mainly an airborne pollutant, can be metabolized to hydroxylated transformation products (OH-PCB3s) in whole poplars. However, the enzymes involved in the hydroxylation of PCB3 in whole poplars have not been identified. Therefore, two CYP suicide inhibitors, 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT) and 17-octadecynoic acid (ODYA), were selected to probe the hydroxylation reaction of PCB3 in whole poplars in this work. Poplars (Populus deltoides × nigra, DN34) were exposed to PCB3 with or without inhibitor for 11 days. Results showed both ABT and ODYA can decrease the concentrations and yields of five OH-PCB3s in different poplar parts via the inhibition of CYPs. Furthermore, both ABT and ODYA demonstrated a dose-dependent relationship to the formation of OH-PCB3s in whole poplars. The higher the inhibitor concentrations, the lower the total yields of OH-PCB3s. For ABT spiked-additions, the total mass yield of five OH-PCB3s was inhibited by a factor of 1.6 times at an ABT concentration of 2.5 mg L−1, 4.0 times at 12.5 mg L−1, and 7.0 times at 25 mg L−1. For the inhibitor ODYA, the total mass of five OH-PCB3s was reduced by 2.1 times compared to the control at an ODYA concentration of 2.5 mg L−1. All results pointed to the conclusion that CYP enzymes were the agents which metabolized PCB3 to OH-PCB3s in whole poplars because suicide CYP inhibitors ABT and ODYA both led to sharp decreases of OH-PCB3s formation in whole poplars. A dose-response curve for each of the suicide inhibitors was developed. PMID:23320482

  13. Reduced expression of cytochrome oxidases largely explains cAMP inhibition of aerobic growth in Shewanella oneidensis

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jianhua; Meng, Qiu; Fu, Huihui; Gao, Haichun

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of bacterial growth under aerobic conditions by elevated levels of cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cAMP), first revealed more than 50 years ago, was attributed to accumulation of toxic methylglyoxal (MG). Here, we report a Crp-dependent mechanism rather than MG accumulation that accounts for the phenotype in Shewanella oneidensis, an emerging research model for the bacterial physiology. We show that a similar phenotype can be obtained by removing CpdA, a cAMP phosphodiesterase that appears more effective than its Escherichia coli counterpart. Although production of heme c and cytochromes c is correlated well with cAMP levels, neither is sufficient for the retarded growth. Quantities of overall cytochromes c increased substantially in the presence of elevated cAMP, a phenomenon resembling cells respiring on non-oxygen electron acceptors. In contrast, transcription of Crp-dependent genes encoding both cytochromes bd and cbb3 oxidases is substantially repressed under the same condition. Overall, our results suggest that cAMP of elevated levels drives cells into a low-energetic status, under which aerobic respiration is inhibited. PMID:27076065

  14. Neuroprotective effect of hydroxysafflor yellow A on 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinson's disease in rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Bing; Hu, Jia; Shen, Jingyu; Gao, Yonglin; Lu, Yan; Wang, Tian

    2013-08-15

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting predominantly the dopaminergic mesotelencephalic system. Enormous progress has been made in the treatment of PD. Our previous study has shown that hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) could attenuate the neurotoxicity induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine in mice. In the present work, we examined whether HSYA had the neuroprotective effect on dopaminergic neurons of substantia nigra in a rat model of PD. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were unilaterally injected with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the medial forebrain bundle. The PD rats were treated with HSYA (2 or 8 mg/kg) via caudal vein injection daily for 4 weeks. Rotational tests showed that HSYA significantly attenuated apomorphine-induced turns in 6-OHDA-induced PD rats. HSYA treatment resulted in a significant protection against the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive cells. Our data showed that HSYA also increased the levels of dopamine and its metabolites, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in striatum of PD rats. In conclusion, these results supported a role for HSYA in preserving dopamine neuron integrity and motor function in a rodent model of PD, and implied a potential neuroprotective role for HSYA in this disease.

  15. Protective effect of planarian DJ-1 against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Tsushima, Jun; Nishimura, Kaneyasu; Tashiro, Natsuka; Takata, Kazuyuki; Ashihara, Eishi; Yoshimoto, Kanji; Ariga, Hiroyoshi; Agata, Kiyokazu; Kitamura, Yoshihisa

    2012-12-01

    DJ-1/PARK7 has multiple functions as an antioxidant, an oncogene, and a molecular chaperone in vertebrates, and loss-of-function mutations in DJ-1 cause early onset of Parkinson's disease. However, the function of invertebrate DJ-1 remains unknown. In order to investigate the function of planarian DJ-1, we isolated the planarian DJ-1 gene Dugesia japonica DJ-1 (DjDJ-1) and analyzed its expression and function. In situ hybridization analysis revealed that DjDJ-1 mRNA was expressed throughout the body, including the central nervous system, cells surrounding the pharynx, and stem cells. Planarian DjDJ-1 protein exhibited antioxidant function, similar to human DJ-1, as evidenced by the fact that recombinant DjDJ-1 protein reduced reactive oxygen species and protected human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells from cell death. In addition, dopaminergic neurons in DjDJ-1(RNAi) planarians became susceptible to 6-hydroxydopamine, a dopaminergic neurotoxin. These results suggest that planarians have a DJ-1 ortholog, which has conserved antioxidant and neuroprotective functions.

  16. Salidroside Protects Against 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Cytotoxicity by Attenuating ER Stress.

    PubMed

    Tao, Kai; Wang, Bao; Feng, Dayun; Zhang, Wei; Lu, Fangfang; Lai, Juan; Huang, Lu; Nie, Tiejian; Yang, Qian

    2016-02-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by a persistent decline of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Despite its frequency, effective therapeutic strategies that halt the neurodegenerative processes are lacking, reinforcing the need to better understand the molecular drivers of this disease. Importantly, increasing evidence suggests that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced unfolded protein response is likely involved in DA neuronal death. Salidroside, a major compound isolated from Rhodiola rosea L., possesses potent anti-oxidative stress properties and protects against DA neuronal death. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that salidroside prevents 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced cytotoxicity by attenuating ER stress. Furthermore, treatment of a DA neuronal cell line (SN4741) and primary cortical neurons with salidroside significantly reduced neurotoxin-induced increases in cytoplasmic reactive oxygen species and calcium, both of which cause ER stress, and cleaved caspase-12, which is responsible for ER stress-induced cell death. Together, these results suggest that salidroside protects SN4741 cells and primary cortical neurons from 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity by attenuating ER stress. This provides a rationale for the investigation of salidroside as a potential therapeutic agent in animal models of PD.

  17. Astragalus Polysaccharide Suppresses 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Neurotoxicity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haifeng; Ding, Fei; Wang, Hongyu; Han, Wenjing; Ma, Fangli; Hu, Minghua; Ma, Chung Wah

    2016-01-01

    Astragalus membranaceus is a medicinal plant traditionally used in China for a variety of conditions, including inflammatory and neural diseases. Astragalus polysaccharides are shown to reduce the adverse effect of levodopa which is used to treat Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the neuroprotective effect of Astragalus polysaccharides per se in PD is lacking. Using Caenorhabditis elegans models, we investigated the protective effect of astragalan, an acidic polysaccharide isolated from A. membranaceus, against the neurotoxicity of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), a neurotoxin that can induce parkinsonism. We show that 6-OHDA is able to degenerate dopaminergic neurons and lead to the deficiency of food-sensing behavior and a shorter lifespan in C. elegans. Interestingly, these degenerative symptoms can be attenuated by astragalan treatment. Astragalan is also shown to alleviate oxidative stress through reducing reactive oxygen species level and malondialdehyde content and increasing superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities and reduce the expression of proapoptotic gene egl-1 in 6-OHDA-intoxicated nematodes. Further studies reveal that astragalan is capable of elevating the decreased acetylcholinesterase activity induced by 6-OHDA. Together, our results demonstrate that the protective effect of astragalan against 6-OHDA neurotoxicity is likely due to the alleviation of oxidative stress and regulation of apoptosis pathway and cholinergic system and thus provide an important insight into the therapeutic potential of Astragalus polysaccharide in neurodegeneration. PMID:27885333

  18. Cat retinal ganglion cell receptive-field alterations after 6-hydroxydopamine induced dopaminergic amacrine cell lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Maguire, G.W.; Smith, E.L. III

    1985-06-01

    Optic tract single-unit recordings were used to study ganglion cell response functions of the intact cat eye after 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioning of the dopaminergic amacrine cell (AC) population of the inner retina. The impairment of the dopaminergic AC was verified by high pressure-liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection of endogenous dopamine content and by (/sup 3/H)dopamine high-affinity uptake; the dopaminergic ACs of the treated eyes demonstrated reduced endogenous dopamine content and reduced (/sup 3/H)dopamine uptake compared with that of their matched controls. Normal appearing (/sup 3/H)GABA and (/sup 3/H)-glycine uptake in the treated retinas suggests the absence of any nonspecific action of the 6-OHDA on the neural retina. The impairment of the dopaminergic AC population was found to alter a number of response properties in off-center ganglion cells, but this impairment had only a modest effect on the on-center cells. An abnormally high proportion of the off-center ganglion cells in the 6-OHDA treated eyes possessed nonlinear, Y-type receptive fields. These cells also possessed shift-responses of greater than normal amplitude, altered intensity-response functions, reduced maintained activities, and more transient center responses. Of the on-center type cells, only the Y-type on-center cells were affected by 6-OHDA, possessing higher than normal maintained activities and altered intensity-response functions. The on-center X-cells were unaffected by 6-OHDA treatment. The dopaminergic AC of the photopically adapted cat retina therefore modulates a number of ganglion cell response properties and within the limits of this study is most prominent in off-center ganglion cell circuitry.

  19. tert-Butylphenylacetylene Is a Potent Mechanism-Based Inactivator of Cytochrome P450 2B4: Inhibition of Cytochrome P450 Catalysis by Steric Hindrance

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haoming; Lin, Hsia-lien; Walker, Vyvyca J.; Hamdane, Djemel

    2009-01-01

    We have demonstrated that 4-(tert-butyl)-phenylacetylene (tBPA) is a potent mechanism-based inactivator for cytochrome P450 2B4 (P450 2B4) in the reconstituted system. It inactivates P450 2B4 in a NADPH- and time-dependent manner with a KI of 0.44 μM and kinact of 0.12 min−1. The partition ratio was approximately zero, indicating that inactivation occurs without the reactive intermediate leaving the active site. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses revealed that tBPA forms a protein adduct with a 1:1 stoichiometry. Peptide mapping of the tBPA-modified protein provides evidence that tBPA is covalently bound to Thr302. This is consistent with results of molecular modeling that show the terminal carbon of the acetylenic group is only 3.65 Å away from Thr302. To characterize the effect of covalent modification of Thr302, tBPA-modified P450 2B4 was purified to homogeneity from the reconstituted system. The Soret band of tBPA-modified protein is red-shifted by 5 to 422 nm compared with unmodified protein. Benzphetamine binding to the modified P450 2B4 causes no spin shift, indicating that substrate binding and/or the heme environment has been altered by covalently bound tBPA. Cytochrome P450 reductase reduces the unmodified and tBPA-modified P450s at approximately the same rate. However, addition of benzphetamine stimulates the rate of reduction of unmodified P450 2B4 by ∼20-fold but only marginally stimulates reduction of the tBPA-modified protein. This large discrepancy in the stimulation of the first electron transfer by benzphetamine strongly suggests that the impairment of P450 catalysis is due to inhibition of benzphetamine binding to the tBPA-modified P450 2B4. PMID:19720728

  20. Environmentally persistent free radical-containing particulate matter competitively inhibits metabolism by cytochrome P450 1A2.

    PubMed

    Reed, James R; dela Cruz, Albert Leo N; Lomnicki, Slawo M; Backes, Wayne L

    2015-12-01

    Combustion processes generate different types of particulate matter (PM) that can have deleterious effects on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems. Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFRs) represent a type of particulate matter that is generated after combustion of environmental wastes in the presence of redox-active metals and aromatic hydrocarbons. Cytochromes P450 (P450/CYP) are membrane-bound enzymes that are essential for the phase I metabolism of most lipophilic xenobiotics. The EPFR formed by chemisorption of 2-monochlorophenol to silica containing 5% copper oxide (MCP230) has been shown to generally inhibit the activities of different forms of P450s without affecting those of cytochrome P450 reductase and heme oxygenase-1. The mechanism of inhibition of rat liver microsomal CYP2D2 and purified rabbit CYP2B4 by MCP230 has been shown previously to be noncompetitive with respect to substrate. In this study, MCP230 was shown to competitively inhibit metabolism of 7-benzyl-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin and 7-ethoxyresorufin by the purified, reconstituted rabbit CYP1A2. MCP230 is at least 5- and 50-fold more potent as an inhibitor of CYP1A2 than silica containing 5% copper oxide and silica, respectively. Thus, even though PM generally inhibit multiple forms of P450, PM interacts differently with the forms of P450 resulting in different mechanisms of inhibition. P450s function as oligomeric complexes within the membrane. We also determined the mechanism by which PM inhibited metabolism by the mixed CYP1A2-CYP2B4 complex and found that the mechanism was purely competitive suggesting that the CYP2B4 is dramatically inhibited when bound to CYP1A2.

  1. Reversal of cyanide inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase by the auxiliary substrate nitric oxide: an endogenous antidote to cyanide poisoning?

    PubMed

    Pearce, Linda L; Bominaar, Emile L; Hill, Bruce C; Peterson, Jim

    2003-12-26

    Nitric oxide (NO) is shown to overcome the cyanide inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase in the presence of excess ferrocytochrome c and oxygen. Addition of NO to the partially reduced cyanide-inhibited form of the bovine enzyme is shown by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to result in substitution of cyanide at ferriheme a3 by NO with reduction of the heme. The resulting nitrosylferroheme a3 is a 5-coordinate structure, the proximal bond to histidine having been broken. NO does not simply act as a reversibly bound competitive inhibitor but is an auxiliary substrate consumed in a catalytic cycle along with ferrocytochrome c and oxygen. The implications of this observation with regard to estimates of steady-state NO levels in vivo is discussed. Given the multiple sources of NO available to mitochondria, the present results appear to explain in part some of the curious biomedical observations reported by other laboratories; for example, the kidneys of cyanide poisoning victims surprisingly exhibit no significant irreversible damage, and lethal doses of potassium cyanide are able to inhibit cytochrome c oxidase activity by only approximately 50% in brain mitochondria.

  2. Traditional Preparations and Methanol Extracts of Medicinal Plants from Papua New Guinea Exhibit Similar Cytochrome P450 Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Larson, Erica C; Pond, Christopher D; Rai, Prem P; Matainaho, Teatulohi K; Piskaut, Pius; Franklin, Michael R; Barrows, Louis R

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis underlying this current work is that fresh juice expressed from Papua New Guinea (PNG) medicinal plants (succus) will inhibit human Cytochrome P450s (CYPs). The CYP inhibitory activity identified in fresh material was compared with inhibition in methanol extracts of dried material. Succus is the most common method of traditional medicine (TM) preparation for consumption in PNG. There is increasing concern that TMs might antagonize or complicate drug therapy. We have previously shown that methanol extracts of commonly consumed PNG medicinal plants are able to induce and/or inhibit human CYPs in vitro. In this current work plant succus was prepared from fresh plant leaves. Inhibition of three major CYPs was determined using human liver microsomes and enzyme-selective model substrates. Of 15 species tested, succus from 6/15 was found to inhibit CYP1A2, 7/15 inhibited CYP3A4, and 4/15 inhibited CYP2D6. Chi-squared tests determined differences in inhibitory activity between succus and methanol preparations. Over 80% agreement was found. Thus, fresh juice from PNG medicinal plants does exhibit the potential to complicate drug therapy in at risk populations. Further, the general reproducibility of these findings suggests that methanol extraction of dried material is a reasonable surrogate preparation method for fresh plant samples.

  3. Traditional Preparations and Methanol Extracts of Medicinal Plants from Papua New Guinea Exhibit Similar Cytochrome P450 Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Prem P.; Matainaho, Teatulohi K.; Piskaut, Pius; Franklin, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis underlying this current work is that fresh juice expressed from Papua New Guinea (PNG) medicinal plants (succus) will inhibit human Cytochrome P450s (CYPs). The CYP inhibitory activity identified in fresh material was compared with inhibition in methanol extracts of dried material. Succus is the most common method of traditional medicine (TM) preparation for consumption in PNG. There is increasing concern that TMs might antagonize or complicate drug therapy. We have previously shown that methanol extracts of commonly consumed PNG medicinal plants are able to induce and/or inhibit human CYPs in vitro. In this current work plant succus was prepared from fresh plant leaves. Inhibition of three major CYPs was determined using human liver microsomes and enzyme-selective model substrates. Of 15 species tested, succus from 6/15 was found to inhibit CYP1A2, 7/15 inhibited CYP3A4, and 4/15 inhibited CYP2D6. Chi-squared tests determined differences in inhibitory activity between succus and methanol preparations. Over 80% agreement was found. Thus, fresh juice from PNG medicinal plants does exhibit the potential to complicate drug therapy in at risk populations. Further, the general reproducibility of these findings suggests that methanol extraction of dried material is a reasonable surrogate preparation method for fresh plant samples. PMID:27642356

  4. Inhibition of cathepsin B activity reduces apoptosis by preventing cytochrome c release from mitochondria in porcine parthenotes

    PubMed Central

    KIM, Seon-Hyang; ZHAO, Ming-Hui; LIANG, Shuang; CUI, Xiang-Shun; KIM, Nam-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Cathepsin B, a lysosomal cysteine protease of the papain family, has recently been implicated in the quality and developmental competence of bovine preimplantation embryos. In this study, to determine whether inhibition of cathepsin B activity can improve porcine oocyte maturation and early embryo developmental competence, we supplemented in vitro maturation or embryo culture media with E-64, a cathepsin B inhibitor. Cathepsin B activity was high in poor quality germinal vesicle stage oocytes, but no differences in mRNA expression or protein localization were observed between good and poor quality oocytes, which were categorized based on morphology. Following treatment with 1 μM E-64, cathepsin B activity sharply decreased in 4-cell and blastocyst stage embryos. E-64 had no effect on cell number but significantly (P < 0.05) increased blastocyst formation and decreased the number of apoptotic cells in blastocysts. It also significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced mitochondrial membrane potential in blastocysts, reducing the release of cytochrome c and resulting in decreased expression of Caspase-3 and Caspase-9. In conclusion, inhibition of cathepsin B activity in porcine parthenotes using 1 μM E-64 resulted in attenuation of apoptosis via a reduction in the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. PMID:25903788

  5. Inhibition of cathepsin B activity reduces apoptosis by preventing cytochrome c release from mitochondria in porcine parthenotes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seon-Hyang; Zhao, Ming-Hui; Liang, Shuang; Cui, Xiang-Shun; Kim, Nam-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    Cathepsin B, a lysosomal cysteine protease of the papain family, has recently been implicated in the quality and developmental competence of bovine preimplantation embryos. In this study, to determine whether inhibition of cathepsin B activity can improve porcine oocyte maturation and early embryo developmental competence, we supplemented in vitro maturation or embryo culture media with E-64, a cathepsin B inhibitor. Cathepsin B activity was high in poor quality germinal vesicle stage oocytes, but no differences in mRNA expression or protein localization were observed between good and poor quality oocytes, which were categorized based on morphology. Following treatment with 1 μM E-64, cathepsin B activity sharply decreased in 4-cell and blastocyst stage embryos. E-64 had no effect on cell number but significantly (P < 0.05) increased blastocyst formation and decreased the number of apoptotic cells in blastocysts. It also significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced mitochondrial membrane potential in blastocysts, reducing the release of cytochrome c and resulting in decreased expression of Caspase-3 and Caspase-9. In conclusion, inhibition of cathepsin B activity in porcine parthenotes using 1 μM E-64 resulted in attenuation of apoptosis via a reduction in the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria.

  6. Spiroethers of German chamomile inhibit production of aflatoxin G and trichothecene mycotoxin by inhibiting cytochrome P450 monooxygenases involved in their biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Yoshinari, Tomoya; Yaguchi, Atsushi; Takahashi-Ando, Naoko; Kimura, Makoto; Takahashi, Haruo; Nakajima, Takashi; Sugita-Konishi, Yoshiko; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Sakuda, Shohei

    2008-07-01

    The essential oil of German chamomile showed specific inhibition toward aflatoxin G(1) (AFG(1)) production, and (E)- and (Z)-spiroethers were isolated as the active compounds from the oil. The (E)- and (Z)-spiroethers inhibited AFG(1) production of Aspergillus parasiticus with inhibitory concentration 50% (IC(50)) values of 2.8 and 20.8 microM, respectively, without inhibiting fungal growth. Results of an O-methylsterigmatocystin (OMST) conversion study indicated that the spiroethers specifically inhibited the OMST to AFG(1) pathway. A cytochrome P450 monooxygenase, CYPA, is known as an essential enzyme for this pathway. Because CYPA has homology with TRI4, a key enzyme catalyzing early steps in the biosynthesis of trichothecenes, the inhibitory actions of the two spiroethers against TRI4 reactions and 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON) production were tested. (E)- and (Z)-spiroethers inhibited the enzymatic activity of TRI4 dose-dependently and interfered with 3-ADON production by Fusarium graminearum, with IC(50) values of 27.1 and 103 microM, respectively. Our results suggest that the spiroethers inhibited AFG(1) and 3-ADON production by inhibiting CYPA and TRI4, respectively.

  7. Photodynamic therapy-induced apoptosis in lymphoma cells: translocation of cytochrome c causes inhibition of respiration as well as caspase activation.

    PubMed

    Varnes, M E; Chiu, S M; Xue, L Y; Oleinick, N L

    1999-02-24

    L5178Y-R mouse lymphoma (LY-R) cells undergo rapid apoptosis when treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT) sensitized with the silicon phthalocyanine Pc 4. In this study we show that cytochrome c is released into the cytosol within 10 min of an LD99.9 dose of PDT. Cellular respiration is inhibited by 42% at 15 min, and 60% at 30 min after PDT treatment, and caspase 3-like protease activity is elevated by 15 min post-PDT. In digitonin-permeabilized cells addition of cytochrome c to the respiration buffer reverses PDT-induced inhibition of state 3 respiration via Complex I by 40-60%, and via Complex III by 50-90%. In contrast, extramitochondrial cytochrome c does not stimulate respiration in permeabilized control cells, and catalyzes only a low rate of oxygen consumption via electron transfer to cytochrome b5 on the outer mitochondrial membrane. These results demonstrate that PDT-induced inhibition of respiration is primarily due to leakage of cytochrome c into the cytosol rather than to damage to the major enzyme complexes of the electron transport chain. Whether or not inhibition of respiration influences the time course or extent of Pc 4-PDT-induced apoptosis in LY-R cells is not clear at the present time.

  8. In vitro inhibition of methadone and oxycodone cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism: reversible inhibition by H2-receptor agonists and proton-pump inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Moody, David E; Liu, Fenyun; Fang, Wenfang B

    2013-10-01

    In vitro inhibition of oxycodone metabolism to noroxycodone and oxymorphone and R- and S-methadone metabolism to R- and S-2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP) was measured for four H2-receptor antagonists and five proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) using human liver microsomes (HLM) and cDNA-expressed human cytochrome P450s (rCYPs). Inhibitors were first incubated with HLM at three concentrations with and without preincubation of inhibitor, enzyme source and reducing equivalents to also screen for time-dependent inhibition (TDI). Cimetidine and famotidine (10-1,000 µM) inhibited all the four pathways >50%. Nizatidine and ranitidine did not. All the five PPIs (1-200 µM) inhibited one or more pathways >50%. Half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) were then determined using rCYPs. Cimetidine and famotidine both inhibited CYP3A4-mediated formation of noroxycodone and CYP2D6-mediated formation of oxymorphone, and famotidine inhibited CYP3A4-mediated formation of R- and S-EDDP, but IC50s were so high that only >10× therapeutic concentrations may have potential for reversible in vivo inhibition. The PPIs were more potent inhibitors; many have the potential for reversible in vivo inhibition at therapeutic concentrations. Omeprazole, esomeprazole and pantoprazole had greater effects on CYP3A4-mediated reactions, whereas lansoprazole was selective for CYP2D6-mediated formation of oxymorphone. Preincubation enhanced cimetidine inhibition of noroxycodone formation and rabeprazole inhibition of all pathways. Future studies will explore irreversible TDI.

  9. In vitro cytochrome P450 inhibition potential of methylenedioxy-derived designer drugs studied with a two-cocktail approach.

    PubMed

    Dinger, Julia; Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

    2016-02-01

    In vitro cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition assays are common approaches for testing the inhibition potential of drugs for predicting potential interactions. In contrast to marketed medicaments, drugs of abuse, particularly the so-called novel psychoactive substances, were not tested before distribution and consumption. Therefore, the inhibition potential of methylenedioxy-derived designer drugs (MDD) of different drug classes such as aminoindanes, amphetamines, benzofurans, cathinones, piperazines, pyrrolidinophenones, and tryptamines should be elucidated. The FDA-preferred test substrates, split in two cocktails, were incubated with pooled human liver microsomes and analysed after protein precipitation using LC-high-resolution-MS/MS. IC50 values were determined of MDD showing more than 50 % inhibition in the prescreening. Values were calculated by plotting the relative metabolite concentration formed over the logarithm of the inhibitor concentration. All MDD showed inhibition against CYP2D6 activity and most of them in the range of the clinically relevant CYP2D6 inhibitors quinidine and fluoxetine. In addition, the beta-keto compounds showed inhibition of the activity of CYP2B6, 5,6-MD-DALT of CYP1A2 and CYP3A, and MDAI of CYP2A6, all in the range of clinically relevant inhibitors. In summary, all MDD showed inhibition of the activity of CYP2D6, six of CYP1A2, three of CYP2A6, 13 of CYP2B6, two of CYP2C9, six of CYP2C19, one of CYP2E1, and six of CYP3A. These results showed that the CYP inhibition by MDD might be clinically relevant, but further studies are needed for final conclusions.

  10. Mechanism of inhibition of purified leaping mullet (Liza saliens) NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase by toxic metals: aluminum and thallium.

    PubMed

    Bozcaarmutlu, Azra

    2007-01-01

    Aluminum and thallium may reach life-threatening levels in aquatic systems in the near future because of their extensive use in various industrial fields. It is therefore important to study the mechanism of toxicity of aluminum and thallium on fish enzymes. To this aim, the effects of aluminum and thallium on the activity of purified leaping mullet (Liza saliens) cytochrome P450 reductase, an essential component of the important cytochrome P450 system, have been studied. Results indicated that both metal ions strongly inhibited the NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. The IC50 values of AlCl3 and TlCl3 were estimated to be 34 microM and 3 microM, respectively. The Lineweaver-Burk plot and Dixon plot revealed that both metal ions noncompetitively inhibited the purified mullet cytochrome P450 reductase. The K(i) values of Al3+ and Tl3+ were calculated from Dixon plots as 8.9 and 5.6 microM, respectively. The inhibitory effects of Al3+ and Tl3+ on purified cytochrome P450 reductase were partially recovered by 1 mM EDTA. Additionally, tin and magnesium were shown to have no apparent effect on purified mullet cytochrome P450 reductase.

  11. Inhibition of rat respiratory-tract cytochrome P-450 isozymes following inhalation of m-Xylene: possible role of metabolites.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Anu; Foy, J W-D; Schatz, Robert

    2003-06-27

    Xylene is used as a solvent in paints, cleaning agents, and gasoline. Exposure occurs primarily by inhalation. The volatility and lipophilicity of the xylenes make the lung and nasal mucosa the primary target organs. m-Xylene (m-XYL) has been shown to alter cytochrome P-450 (CYP) activity in an organ- and isozyme-specific manner. The purpose of this work was to determine if the metabolism of m-XYL to the inhibitory metabolite m-tolualdehyde (m-ALD) is the cause of inhibition of CYP isozymes following in vivo inhalation exposure to m-XYL (100, 300 ppm), 3-methylbenzyl alcohol (3-MBA) (50, 100 ppm), or m-ALD (50, 100 ppm). A single 6-h inhalation exposure of rats to m-XYL inhibited pulmonary CYPs 2B1, 2E1, and 4B1 in a dose-dependent manner. Inhalation of 3-MBA inhibited pulmonary CYPs 2B1 and 4B1 in a dose-dependent manner. m-ALD inhibited pulmonary CYPs 2B1 and 2E1 in a dose-dependent manner, while 4B1 activity was increased dose dependently. Nasal mucosa CYP 2B1 and 2E1 activity was inhibited following exposure to m-XYL dose dependently, 3-MBA inhibited nasal mucosa CYPs 2E1 and 4B1 dose dependently. CYPs 2B1, 2E1, and 4B1 were inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion following inhalation of m-ALD. Following high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, m-ALD was detected after in vivo exposure to m-XYL, m-ALD, and 3-MBA in a dose-dependent manner, with highest m-ALD levels in the nasal mucosa and lung. Alteration of cytochrome P-450 activity by m-XYL could result in increased or decreased toxicity, changing the metabolic profiles of xenobiotics in coexposure scenarios in an organ-specific manner.

  12. Structure–function relationships of inhibition of mosquito cytochrome P450 enzymes by flavonoids of Andrographis paniculata.

    PubMed

    Kotewong, Rattanawadee; Duangkaew, Panida; Srisook, Ekaruth; Sarapusit, Songklod; Rongnoparut, Pornpimol

    2014-09-01

    The cytochrome P450 monooxygenases are known to play a major role in pyrethroid resistance, by means of increased rate of insecticide detoxification as a result of their overexpression. Inhibition of detoxification enzymes may help disrupting insect detoxifying defense system. The Anopheles minimus CYP6AA3 and CYP6P7 have shown pyrethroid degradation activity and been implicated in pyrethroid resistance. In this study inhibition of the extracts and constituents of Andrographis paniculata Nees. leaves and roots was examined against benzyloxyresorufin O-debenzylation (BROD) of CYP6AA3 and CYP6P7. Four purified flavones (5,7,4′-trihydroxyflavone, 5-hydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyflavone, 5-hydroxy-7,8,2′,3′-tetramethoxyflavone, and 5,4′-dihydroxy-7,8,2′,3′-tetramethoxyflavone), one flavanone (5-hydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyflavanone) and a diterpenoid (14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolide) containing inhibitory effects toward both enzymes were isolated from A. paniculata. Structure–function relationships were observed for modes and kinetics of inhibition among flavones, while diterpenoid and flavanone were inferior to flavones. Docking of flavones onto enzyme homology models reinforced relationships on flavone structures and inhibition modes. Cell-based inhibition assays employing 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-y-l)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cytotoxicity assays revealed that these flavonoids efficiently increased susceptibility of CYP6AA3- and CYP6P7-expressing Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells to cypermethrin toxicity, due to inhibition effects on mosquito enzymes. Thus synergistic effects on cypermethrin toxicity of A. paniculata compounds as a result of enzyme inhibition could be useful for mosquito vector control and insecticide resistance management in the future.

  13. The inhibition of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase by the gases carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen sulfide: chemical mechanism and physiological significance.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Chris E; Brown, Guy C

    2008-10-01

    The four gases, nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) all readily inhibit oxygen consumption by mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. This inhibition is responsible for much of their toxicity when they are applied externally to the body. However, recently these gases have all been implicated, to greater or lesser extents, in normal cellular signalling events. In this review we analyse the chemistry of this inhibition, comparing and contrasting mechanism and discussing physiological consequences. The inhibition by NO and CO is dependent on oxygen concentration, but that of HCN and H(2)S is not. NO and H(2)S are readily metabolised by oxidative processes within cytochrome oxidase. In these cases the enzyme may act as a physiological detoxifier of these gases. CO oxidation is much slower and unlikely to be as physiologically important. The evidence for normal physiological levels of these gases interacting with cytochrome oxidase is equivocal, in part because there is little robust data about their steady state concentrations. A reasonable case can be made for NO, and perhaps CO and H(2)S, inhibiting cytochrome oxidase in vivo, but endogenous levels of HCN seem unlikely to be high enough.

  14. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 activity by schisandrol A and gomisin A isolated from Fructus Schisandrae chinensis.

    PubMed

    Wan, C-K; Tse, A K; Yu, Z-L; Zhu, G-Y; Wang, H; Fong, D W F

    2010-07-01

    We studied the effects of schisandrol A (SCH) and gomisin A (GOM), two of the main bioactive components of Fructus Schisandrae chinensis, on cytochrome P450-3A4 (CYP3A4) activity and cellular glutathione (GSH) level. In a cell-free system both SCH and GOM inhibited CYP3A4 activity with IC(50) values of 32.02 microM and 1.39 microM, respectively. SCH or GOM at concentrations up to 100 microM did not alter cellular GSH level in regular HepG2 cells and P-glycoprotein overexpressing HepG2-DR cells. Since SCH and GOM may reverse multidrug resistance (MDR) by impeding the activity of P-glycoprotein, a membrane xenobiotic exporter, SCH or GOM could affect cellular drug metabolism in addition to drug uptake.

  15. Zinc inhibition of bacterial cytochrome bc1 reveals the role of cytochrome b E295 in proton release at the Qo site†

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Woo; Khoury, Youssef El; Francia, Francesco; Zambelli, Barbara; Ciurli, Stefano; Venturoli, Giovanni; Hellwig, Petra; Daldal, Fevzi

    2011-01-01

    The cytochrome (cyt) bc1 complex (cyt bc1) plays a major role in the electrogenic extrusion of protons across the membrane responsible for the proton motive force to produce ATP. Proton-coupled electron transfer underlying the catalysis of cyt bc1 is generally accepted, but the molecular basis of coupling and associated proton efflux pathway(s) remains unclear. Herein we studied Zn2+-induced inhibition of Rhodobacter capsulatus cyt bc1 using enzyme kinetics, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and electrochemically-induced FTIR difference spectroscopy with the purpose to understand the Zn2+-binding mechanism and its inhibitory effect on cyt bc1 function. Analogous studies were carried out on a mutant of cyt b, E295, a residue previously proposed to bind Zn2+ on the basis of extended X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy. ITC analysis indicated that mutation of E295 into valine, a non-coordinating residue, results in the reduction of Zn2+-binding affinity. The kinetic study showed that wild-type cyt bc1 and its E295V mutant have similar levels of apparent Km values for decylbenzohydroquinone as a substrate (4.9 ± 0.2 μM and 3.1 ± 0.4 μM, respectively), whereas their KI values for Zn2+ are 8.3 μM and 38.5 μM, respectively. The calorimetry-based KD values for the high affinity site of cyt bc1 are of the same order of magnitude as the KI values derived from the kinetic analysis. Furthermore, the FTIR signal of protonated acidic residues was perturbed in the presence of Zn2+, whereas the E295V mutant exhibited no significant change in electrochemically induced FTIR difference spectra measured in the presence and absence of Zn2+. Our overall results indicate that the proton-active E295 residue near the Qo site of cyt bc1 can bind directly to Zn2+, resulting in a decrease of the electron transferring activity without changing drastically the redox potentials of the cofactors of the enzyme. We conclude that E295 is involved in proton efflux coupled to

  16. A dual inhibition: microRNA-552 suppresses both transcription and translation of cytochrome P450 2E1.

    PubMed

    Miao, Lingling; Yao, Hailan; Li, Chenggang; Pu, Mengfan; Yao, Xuan; Yang, Hui; Qi, Xinming; Ren, Jin; Wang, Yizheng

    2016-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can direct post-transcriptional or transcriptional gene silencing. Here, we report that miR-552 is in the nucleus and cytosol and inhibits human cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 expression at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. MiR-552 via its non-seed sequence forms hybrids with a loop hairpin of the cruciform structure in CYP2E1 promoter region to inhibit SMARCE1 and RNA polymerase II binding to the promoter and CYP2E1 transcription. Expressing SMARCE1 reverses the inhibitory effects of miR-552 on CYP2E1 mRNA expression. MiR-552 with mutations in non-seed region losses its transcriptional, but retains its post-transcriptional repression to CYP2E1. In contrast, mutation in miR-552 seed sequence suppresses its inhibitory effects on CYP2E1 expression at protein, but not at mRNA, levels. Our results suggest that miR-552 is a miRNA with a dual inhibitory ability at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels leading to an effective inhibition.

  17. Inhibition of testicular microsomal cytochrome P-450 (17 alpha-hydroxylase/C-17,20-lyase) by estrogens.

    PubMed

    Onoda, M; Hall, P F

    1981-09-01

    Highly purified cytochrome P-450 from neonatal pig testicular microsomes is capable of catalyzing both 17 alpha-hydroxylation and C-17,20-lyase activity. Estradiol was found to inhibit both activities of the purified enzyme with delta 4 and with delta 5 substrates (progesterone, pregnenolone, and the corresponding 17 alpha-hydroxysteroids). For the delta 4 series, inhibition of lyase is competitive and that of 17 alpha-hydroxylase is noncompetitive; for the delta 5 series, inhibition was noncompetitive for both activities. Ki values for lyase activity were determined from enzyme kinetics (5.0 microM for the delta 4 substrate and 20 microM for the delta 5 substrate). Estradiol produces a typical type I spectral shift with the pure enzyme (Ks = 3.0 microM where Ks is the concentration of steroid required to give half maximal spectral shift), so that Ki values were also determined directly from binding studies by using substrate-induced difference spectroscopy. Fifty per cent inhibition of the maximal spectral shift induced by the 17 alpha-hydroxysubstrates (Ki) are 3.8 and 7.6 microM for the delta 4 and delta 5 substrates, respectively. Values for Ki are higher with the substrates of 17 alpha-hydroxylase (progesterone and pregnenolone), by either method, than the corresponding Ki values for the lyase substrates. The concentration of estradiol in Leydig cells of neonatal pig testis is approximately 1.5 nmol/g. It is proposed that estradiol may influence testicular steroidogensis under physiological conditions by competitive inhibition of lyase activity.

  18. Bioactivation of dibrominated biphenyls by cytochrome P450 activity to metabolites with estrogenic activity and estrogen sulfotransferase inhibition capacity.

    PubMed

    van Lipzig, Marola M H; Commandeur, Jan N; de Kanter, Frans J J; Damsten, Micaela C; Vermeulen, Nico P E; Maat, Evelina; Groot, Ed J; Brouwer, Abraham; Kester, Monique H A; Visser, Theo J; Meerman, John H N

    2005-11-01

    Exposure of humans and wildlife to xenobiotics, such as halogenated biphenyls, that interfere with the endogenous estrogen balance may lead to endocrine disruption. Such compounds may either mimic or block estradiol's action by agonistic or antagonistic action, respectively. They may also affect endogenous estradiol concentrations by induction or inhibition of enzymes that metabolize estradiol. In the present study, we demonstrate that estrogenic metabolites of two brominated biphenyls, 2,2'-dibromobiphenyl (2,2'-DBB) and 4,4'-dibromobiphenyl (4,4'-DBB), are formed by rat liver microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity. Bioactivation of 2,2'-DBB and 4,4'-DBB yielded various mono- and dihydroxylated bromobiphenyl metabolites, which were collected by preparative HPLC and analyzed by LC/MS. Several of the metabolites bound to the estrogen receptor (ER) activated the ER and inhibited human estrogen sulfotransferase (hEST). Seven monohydroxylated metabolites were positively identified using synthetic monohydroxylated reference compounds. These synthetic monohydroxylated bromobiphenyls also bound to and activated the ER and inhibited hEST. The highest ER affinity was observed for 4-OH-2,2'-DBB, with an EC50 of 6.6 nM. The highest ER activation was observed for 4-OH-3,4'-DBB (EC50 of 74 nM) while 4-OH-4'-MBB and 4-OH-2,2'-DBB induced a supramaximal (as compared to estradiol) ER activation. The strongest hEST inhibition was found with 4-OH-3,4'-DBB (EC50 = 40 nM). In conclusion, we show that two dibrominated biphenyls are bioactivated by CYP activity into very potent estrogenic metabolites and inhibitors of hEST. These findings are of vital importance for accurate risk assessment of exposure to environmental contaminants, such as halogenated biphenyls. Neglecting bioactivation through biotransformation will lead to underestimation of health risks of this class of xenobiotics.

  19. AM-2201 Inhibits Multiple Cytochrome P450 and Uridine 5'-Diphospho-Glucuronosyltransferase Enzyme Activities in Human Liver Microsomes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju-Hyun; Kwon, Soon-Sang; Kong, Tae Yeon; Cheong, Jae Chul; Kim, Hee Seung; In, Moon Kyo; Lee, Hye Suk

    2017-03-10

    AM-2201 is a synthetic cannabinoid that acts as a potent agonist at cannabinoid receptors and its abuse has increased. However, there are no reports of the inhibitory effect of AM-2201 on human cytochrome P450 (CYP) or uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes. We evaluated the inhibitory effect of AM-2201 on the activities of eight major human CYPs (1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4) and six major human UGTs (1A1, 1A3, 1A4, 1A6, 1A9, and 2B7) enzymes in pooled human liver microsomes using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to investigate drug interaction potentials of AM-2201. AM-2201 potently inhibited CYP2C9-catalyzed diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation, CYP3A4-catalyzed midazolam 1'-hydroxylation, UGT1A3-catalyzed chenodeoxycholic acid 24-acyl-glucuronidation, and UGT2B7-catalyzed naloxone 3-glucuronidation with IC50 values of 3.9, 4.0, 4.3, and 10.0 μM, respectively, and showed mechanism-based inhibition of CYP2C8-catalyzed amodiaquine N-deethylation with a Ki value of 2.1 μM. It negligibly inhibited CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A6, and UGT1A9 activities at 50 μM in human liver microsomes. These in vitro results indicate that AM-2201 needs to be examined for potential pharmacokinetic drug interactions in vivo due to its potent inhibition of CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP3A4, UGT1A3, and UGT2B7 enzyme activities.

  20. Potent inhibition of cytochrome P450 2B6 by sibutramine in human liver microsomes.

    PubMed

    Bae, Soo Hyeon; Kwon, Min Jo; Choi, Eu Jin; Zheng, Yu Fen; Yoon, Kee Dong; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Bae, Soo Kyung

    2013-09-05

    The present study was performed to evaluate the potency and specificity of sibutramine as an inhibitor of the activities of nine human CYP isoforms in liver microsomes. Using a cocktail assay, the effects of sibutramine on specific marker reactions of the nine CYP isoforms were measured in human liver microsomes. Sibutramine showed potent inhibition of CYP2B6-mediated bupropion 6-hydroxylation with an IC50 value of 1.61μM and Ki value of 0.466μM in a competitive manner at microsomal protein concentrations of 0.25mg/ml; this was 3.49-fold more potent than the typical CYP2B6 inhibitor thio-TEPA (Ki=1.59μM). In addition, sibutramine slightly inhibited CYP2C19 activity (Ki=16.6μM, noncompetitive inhibition) and CYP2D6 activity (Ki=15.7μM, noncompetitive inhibition). These observations indicated 35.6- and 33.7-fold decreases in inhibition potency, respectively, compared with that of CYP2B6 by sibutramine. However, no inhibition of CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, or CYP2E1 activities was observed. In addition, the CYP2B6 inhibitory potential of sibutramine was enhanced at a lower microsomal protein concentration of 0.05mg/ml. After 30min preincubation of human liver microsomes with sibutramine in the presence of NADPH, no shift in IC50 was observed in terms of inhibition of the activities of the nine CYPs, suggesting that sibutramine is not a time-dependent inactivator. These observations suggest that sibutramine is a selective and potent inhibitor of CYP2B6 in vitro, whereas inhibition of other CYPs is substantially lower. These in vitro data support the use of sibutramine as a well-known inhibitor of CYP2B6 for routine screening of P450 reversible inhibition when human liver microsomes are used as the enzyme source.

  1. Selective inhibition by chloramphenicol of pregnenolone-16. cap alpha. -carbonitrile-inducible rat liver cytochrome P-450 isozymes

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, P.E.; Kaminsky, L.S.; Halpert, J.

    1986-03-01

    Pregnenolone-16 ..cap alpha..-carbonitrile (PCN) has been shown to induce, in male rats, cytochrome P-450 isozymes responsible for the formation of R-10-hydroxywarfarin and R-dehydrowarfarin. Antibodies to the major PCN-inducible isozyme (PB/PCN-E) inhibit both activities in microsomal preparations. Recently the authors have shown that PCN treatment of female rats also induces the formation of both R-warfarin metabolites. However, in both sexes chloramphenicol (CAP) treatment selectively inhibits only the rate of formation of the R-dehydrowarfarin. A decrease in microsomal P-450 content occurs after in vivo administration of CAP to PCN-treated rats of both sexes. This is in contrast to the lack of effect of CAP on P-450 levels in phenobarbital-treated rats. Covalent binding of /sup 14/C-CAP to microsomal protein in vitro was increased 3 to 4-fold following PCN treatment. Chromatographic evidences suggests the presence of at least two PCN-induced isozymes of similar molecular weights in both male and female rat liver microsomes. These data are consistent with the multiplicity of PCN-inducible P-450 in rat liver.

  2. Differential time course of cytochrome P450 2D6 enzyme inhibition by fluoxetine, sertraline, and paroxetine in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Liston, Heidi L; DeVane, C Lindsay; Boulton, David W; Risch, Samuel C; Markowitz, John S; Goldman, Juliet

    2002-04-01

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) paroxetine, sertraline, and fluoxetine have varying degrees of potency in inhibiting the hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 enzyme. However, the time course for maximum inhibition to occur or for inhibition to dissipate when dosing is discontinued, requires clarification. In an open label, parallel group study of 45 healthy volunteers, the time course of CYP2D6 inhibition of the above SSRIs was evaluated. Subjects were randomized to receive paroxetine at 20 mg/day for 10 days; sertraline at 50 mg/day for 3 days, followed by sertraline at 100 mg/day for 10 days; or fluoxetine at 20 mg/day for 28 days. CYP2D6 activity was assessed using the dextromethorphan metabolic ratio (DMR) on antidepressant days 5 and 10 for sertraline and paroxetine and at weekly intervals for fluoxetine. Following SSRI discontinuation, calculation of a CYP2D6 inhibition half-life (t(1/2)inh) revealed the time course of fluoxetine inhibition (t(1/2)inh = 7.0 +/- 1.5 days) to be significantly longer than either paroxetine (t(1/2)inh = 2.9 +/- 1.9) or sertraline (t(1/2)inh = 3.0 +/- 3.0) (p < 0.01), but the latter were not significantly different from each other (p > 0.05). Time for the extrapolated DMR versus time log-linear plots to return to baseline was significantly different between fluoxetine (63.2 +/- 5.6 days) and both paroxetine (20.3 +/- 6.4 days) and sertraline (25.0 +/- 11.0 days) (p < 0.01), making the rank order (from longest to shortest) of time for CYP2D6 inhibition to dissipate: fluoxetine > sertraline >or= paroxetine. Differences between mean baseline DMR values and measured values obtained after drug discontinuation for each drug group became nonsignificant on discontinuation day 5 for both paroxetine and sertraline and on discontinuation day 42 for fluoxetine. These data define the time course of a persistent effect that fluoxetine, sertraline, and paroxetine have on CYP2D6 following drug discontinuation and should be

  3. Atovaquone and ELQ-300 Combination Therapy as a Novel Dual-Site Cytochrome bc1 Inhibition Strategy for Malaria.

    PubMed

    Stickles, Allison M; Smilkstein, Martin J; Morrisey, Joanne M; Li, Yuexin; Forquer, Isaac P; Kelly, Jane X; Pou, Sovitj; Winter, Rolf W; Nilsen, Aaron; Vaidya, Akhil B; Riscoe, Michael K

    2016-08-01

    Antimalarial combination therapies play a crucial role in preventing the emergence of drug-resistant Plasmodium parasites. Although artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) comprise the majority of these formulations, inhibitors of the mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex (cyt bc1) are among the few compounds that are effective for both acute antimalarial treatment and prophylaxis. There are two known sites for inhibition within cyt bc1: atovaquone (ATV) blocks the quinol oxidase (Qo) site of cyt bc1, while some members of the endochin-like quinolone (ELQ) family, including preclinical candidate ELQ-300, inhibit the quinone reductase (Qi) site and retain full potency against ATV-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strains with Qo site mutations. Here, we provide the first in vivo comparison of ATV, ELQ-300, and combination therapy consisting of ATV plus ELQ-300 (ATV:ELQ-300), using P. yoelii murine models of malaria. In our monotherapy assessments, we found that ATV functioned as a single-dose curative compound in suppressive tests whereas ELQ-300 demonstrated a unique cumulative dosing effect that successfully blocked recrudescence even in a high-parasitemia acute infection model. ATV:ELQ-300 therapy was highly synergistic, and the combination was curative with a single combined dose of 1 mg/kg of body weight. Compared to the ATV:proguanil (Malarone) formulation, ATV:ELQ-300 was more efficacious in multiday, acute infection models and was equally effective at blocking the emergence of ATV-resistant parasites. Ultimately, our data suggest that dual-site inhibition of cyt bc1 is a valuable strategy for antimalarial combination therapy and that Qi site inhibitors such as ELQ-300 represent valuable partner drugs for the clinically successful Qo site inhibitor ATV.

  4. Atovaquone and ELQ-300 Combination Therapy as a Novel Dual-Site Cytochrome bc1 Inhibition Strategy for Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Smilkstein, Martin J.; Morrisey, Joanne M.; Li, Yuexin; Forquer, Isaac P.; Kelly, Jane X.; Pou, Sovitj; Winter, Rolf W.; Nilsen, Aaron; Vaidya, Akhil B.

    2016-01-01

    Antimalarial combination therapies play a crucial role in preventing the emergence of drug-resistant Plasmodium parasites. Although artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) comprise the majority of these formulations, inhibitors of the mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex (cyt bc1) are among the few compounds that are effective for both acute antimalarial treatment and prophylaxis. There are two known sites for inhibition within cyt bc1: atovaquone (ATV) blocks the quinol oxidase (Qo) site of cyt bc1, while some members of the endochin-like quinolone (ELQ) family, including preclinical candidate ELQ-300, inhibit the quinone reductase (Qi) site and retain full potency against ATV-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strains with Qo site mutations. Here, we provide the first in vivo comparison of ATV, ELQ-300, and combination therapy consisting of ATV plus ELQ-300 (ATV:ELQ-300), using P. yoelii murine models of malaria. In our monotherapy assessments, we found that ATV functioned as a single-dose curative compound in suppressive tests whereas ELQ-300 demonstrated a unique cumulative dosing effect that successfully blocked recrudescence even in a high-parasitemia acute infection model. ATV:ELQ-300 therapy was highly synergistic, and the combination was curative with a single combined dose of 1 mg/kg of body weight. Compared to the ATV:proguanil (Malarone) formulation, ATV:ELQ-300 was more efficacious in multiday, acute infection models and was equally effective at blocking the emergence of ATV-resistant parasites. Ultimately, our data suggest that dual-site inhibition of cyt bc1 is a valuable strategy for antimalarial combination therapy and that Qi site inhibitors such as ELQ-300 represent valuable partner drugs for the clinically successful Qo site inhibitor ATV. PMID:27270285

  5. Marketed Drugs Can Inhibit Cytochrome P450 27A1, a Potential New Target for Breast Cancer Adjuvant Therapy.

    PubMed

    Mast, Natalia; Lin, Joseph B; Pikuleva, Irina A

    2015-09-01

    Cytochrome P450 CYP27A1 is the only enzyme in humans converting cholesterol to 27-hydroxycholesterol, an oxysterol of multiple functions, including tissue-specific modulation of estrogen and liver X receptors. Both receptors seem to mediate adverse effects of 27-hydroxycholesterol in breast cancer when the levels of this oxysterol are elevated. The present work assessed druggability of CYP27A1 as a potential antibreast cancer target. We selected 26 anticancer and noncancer medications, most approved by the Food and Drug Administration, and evaluated them first in vitro for inhibition of purified recombinant CYP27A1 and binding to the enzyme active site. Six strong CYP27A1 inhibitors/binders were identified. These were the two antibreast cancer pharmaceuticals anastrozole and fadrozole, antiprostate cancer drug bicalutamide, sedative dexmedetomidine, and two antifungals ravuconazole and posaconazole. Anastrozole was then tested in vivo on mice, which received subcutaneous drug injections for 1 week. Mouse plasma and hepatic 27-hydroxycholesterol levels were decreased 2.6- and 1.6-fold, respectively, whereas plasma and hepatic cholesterol content remained unchanged. Thus, pharmacologic CYP27A1 inhibition is possible in the whole body and individual organs, but does not negatively affect cholesterol elimination. Our results enhance the potential of CYP27A1 as an antibreast cancer target, could be of importance for the interpretation of Femara versus Anastrozole Clinical Evaluation Trial, and bring attention to posaconazole as a potential complementary anti-breast cancer medication. More medications on the US market may have unanticipated off-target inhibition of CYP27A1, and we propose strategies for their identification.

  6. Marketed Drugs Can Inhibit Cytochrome P450 27A1, a Potential New Target for Breast Cancer Adjuvant Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Mast, Natalia; Lin, Joseph B.

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 CYP27A1 is the only enzyme in humans converting cholesterol to 27-hydroxycholesterol, an oxysterol of multiple functions, including tissue-specific modulation of estrogen and liver X receptors. Both receptors seem to mediate adverse effects of 27-hydroxycholesterol in breast cancer when the levels of this oxysterol are elevated. The present work assessed druggability of CYP27A1 as a potential antibreast cancer target. We selected 26 anticancer and noncancer medications, most approved by the Food and Drug Administration, and evaluated them first in vitro for inhibition of purified recombinant CYP27A1 and binding to the enzyme active site. Six strong CYP27A1 inhibitors/binders were identified. These were the two antibreast cancer pharmaceuticals anastrozole and fadrozole, antiprostate cancer drug bicalutamide, sedative dexmedetomidine, and two antifungals ravuconazole and posaconazole. Anastrozole was then tested in vivo on mice, which received subcutaneous drug injections for 1 week. Mouse plasma and hepatic 27-hydroxycholesterol levels were decreased 2.6- and 1.6-fold, respectively, whereas plasma and hepatic cholesterol content remained unchanged. Thus, pharmacologic CYP27A1 inhibition is possible in the whole body and individual organs, but does not negatively affect cholesterol elimination. Our results enhance the potential of CYP27A1 as an antibreast cancer target, could be of importance for the interpretation of Femara versus Anastrozole Clinical Evaluation Trial, and bring attention to posaconazole as a potential complementary anti-breast cancer medication. More medications on the US market may have unanticipated off-target inhibition of CYP27A1, and we propose strategies for their identification. PMID:26082378

  7. In vitro inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 by Aronia melanocarpa constituents.

    PubMed

    Bräunlich, Marie; Christensen, Hege; Johannesen, Siri; Slimestad, Rune; Wangensteen, Helle; Malterud, Karl E; Barsett, Hilde

    2013-01-01

    Extracts, subfractions, isolated anthocyanins and procyanidins, and two phenolic acids from aronia [Aronia melanocarpa] were investigated for their CYP3A4 inhibitory effects, using midazolam as the probe substrate and recombinant insect cell microsomes expressing CYP3A4 as the enzyme source. Procyanidin B5 was a considerably stronger CYP3A4 inhibitor in vitro than the isomeric procyanidin B2 and comparable to bergamottin, a known CYP3A4 inhibitor from grapefruit juice. The inhibitory activity of proanthocyanidin-containing fractions was correlated to the degree of polymerization. Among the anthocyanins, cyanidin 3-arabinoside showed stronger CYP3A4 inhibition than cyanidin 3-galactoside and cyanidin 3-glucoside. Thus, the ability to inhibit CYP3A4 in vitro seems to be influenced by the sugar unit linked to the anthocyanidin.

  8. Time-dependent inhibition of human drug metabolizing cytochromes P450 by tricyclic antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Polasek, Thomas M; Miners, John O

    2008-01-01

    AIMS To investigate time-dependent inhibition (TDI) of human drug metabolizing CYP enzymes by tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs). METHODS CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A/CYP3A4 activities were investigated following co- and preincubation with TCAs using human liver microsomes (HLM) and human recombinant CYP proteins (expressed in Escherichia coli) as the enzyme sources. A two-step incubation method was employed to examine the in vitro mechanism-based inactivation (MBI) criteria. Potential metabolite–intermediate complex (MIC) formation was studied by spectral analysis. RESULTS TCAs generally exhibited significant TDI of recombinant CYP1A2, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 (>10% positive inhibition differences between co- and preincubation conditions). TDI of recombinant CYP2C9 was minor (<10%), and was minor or absent in experiments utilizing recombinant CYP3A4 or HLM as the enzyme sources. Where observed, TDI of recombinant CYP occurred via alkylamine MIC formation, but evidence to support similar behaviour in HLM was limited. Indeed, only secondary amine TCAs reduced the apparent P450 content of HLM (3–6%) consistent with complexation. As a representative TCA, nortriptyline fulfilled the in vitro MBI criteria using recombinant CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 (KI and kinact values of 4 µm and 0.19 min−1, and 70 µm and 0.06 min−1), but not with the human liver microsomal enzymes. CONCLUSIONS TCAs appear to have minimal potential for MBI of human liver microsomal CYP enzymes involved in drug metabolism. HLM and recombinant CYP (expressed in E. coli) are not equivalent enzyme sources for evaluating the TDI associated with some drugs. WHAT IS ALREADY KNOWN ABOUT THIS SUBJECT Much of the literature evidence for mechanism-based inactivation (MBI) of CYP by tricyclic antidepressants is limited to studies in rat liver microsomes. One report from this laboratory characterized MBI of human recombinant CYP2C8 by nortriptyline. WHAT THIS STUDY ADDS Tricyclic antidepressants form

  9. Glycyrrhetinic acid might increase the nephrotoxicity of bakuchiol by inhibiting cytochrome P450 isoenzymes

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zijing; Yuan, Mei

    2016-01-01

    Background Licorice, a popular traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is widely used to moderate the effects (detoxification) of other herbs in TCM and often combined with Fructus Psoraleae. However, the classical TCM book states that Fructus Psoraleae is incompatible with licorice; the mechanism underlying this incompatibility has not been identified. Glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), the active metabolite of licorice, may increase the toxicity of bakuchiol (BAK), the main chemical ingredient in Psoralea corylifolia, by inhibiting its detoxification enzymes CYP450s. Methods The effect of concomitant GA administration on BAK-induced nephrotoxicity was investigated, and the metabolic interaction between BAK and GA was further studied in vitro and in vivo. The cytotoxicity was assessed using an MTT assay in a co-culture model of HK-2 cell and human liver microsomes (HLMs). The effect of GA on the metabolism of BAK, and on the activities of CYP isoforms were investigated in HLMs. The toxicokinetics and tissue exposure of BAK as well as the renal and hepatic functional markers were measured after the administration of a single oral dose in rats. Results In vitro studies showed that the metabolic detoxification of BAK was significantly reduced by GA, and BAK was toxic to HK-2 cells, as indicated by 25∼40% decreases in viability when combined with GA. Further investigation revealed that GA significantly inhibited the metabolism of BAK in HLMs in a dose-dependent manner. GA strongly inhibits CYP3A4 and weakly inhibits CYP2C9 and CYP1A2; these CYP isoforms are involved in the metabolism of BAK. In vivo experiment found that a single oral dose of BAK combined with GA or in the presence of 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT), altered the toxicokinetics of BAK in rats, increased the internal exposure, suppressed the elimination of BAK prototype, and therefore may have enhanced the renal toxicity. Conclusion The present study demonstrated that GA inhibits CYP isoforms and subsequently may

  10. Organophosphorothionate pesticides inhibit the bioactivation of imipramine by human hepatic cytochrome P450s

    SciTech Connect

    Di Consiglio, Emma; Meneguz, Annarita; Testai, Emanuela . E-mail: testai@iss.it

    2005-06-15

    The drug-toxicant interaction between the antidepressant imipramine (IMI) and three organophosphorothionate pesticides (OPTs), to which humans may be chronically and simultaneously exposed, has been investigated in vitro. Concentrations of IMI (2-400 {mu}M) and OPTs ({<=}10 {mu}M) representative of actual human exposure have been tested with recombinant human CYPs and human liver microsomes (HLM). The different CYPs involved in IMI demethylation to the pharmacologically active metabolite desipramine (DES) were CYP2C19 > CYP1A2 > CYP3A4. The OPTs significantly inhibited (up to >80%) IMI bioactivation catalyzed by the recombinant CYPs tested, except CYP2D6, and by HLM; the inhibition was dose-dependent and started at low pesticide concentrations (0.25-2.5 {mu}M). The OPTs, having lower K {sub m} values, efficiently competed with IMI for the enzyme active site, as in the case of CYP2C19. However, with CYP1A2 and CYP3A4, a time- and NADPH-dependent mechanism-based inactivation also occurred, consistently with irreversible inhibition due to the release of the sulfur atom, binding to the active CYP during OPT desulfuration. At low IMI and OPT concentrations, lower IC50 values have been obtained with recombinant CYP1A2 (0.7-1.1 {mu}M) or with HLM rich in 1A2-related activity (2-10.8 {mu}M). The K {sub i} values (2-14 {mu}M), independent on substrate concentrations, were quite low and similar for the three pesticides. Exposure to OPTs during IMI therapeutic treatments may lead to decreased DES formation, resulting in high plasma levels of the parent drug, eventual impairment of its pharmacological action and possible onset of adverse drug reactions (ADRs)

  11. Correlation between the potency of flavonoids for cytochrome c reduction and inhibition of cardiolipin-induced peroxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Lagoa, Ricardo; Samhan-Arias, Alejandro K; Gutierrez-Merino, Carlos

    2017-03-20

    There are large differences between flavonoids to protect against apoptosis, a process in which cytochrome c (Cyt c) plays a key role. In this work, we show that 7 of 13 flavonoids studied have a capacity to reduce Cyt c similar or higher than ascorbate, the flavonols quercetin, kaempferol and myricetin, flavanol epigallocatechin-gallate, anthocyanidins cyanidin and malvidin, and the flavone luteolin. In contrast, the kaempferol 3(O)- and 3,4'(O)-methylated forms, the flavanone naringenin, and also apigenin and chrysin, had a negligible reducing capacity. Equilibrium dialysis and quenching of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene fluorescence experiments showed that flavonoids did not interfere with Cyt c binding to cardiolipin (CL)/phosphatidylcholine (PC) vesicles. However, the CL-induced loss of Cyt c Soret band intensity was largely attenuated by flavonoids, pointing out a stabilizing action against Cyt c unfolding in the complex. Moreover, flavonoids that behave as Cyt c reductants also inhibited the pro-apoptotic CL-induced peroxidase activity of Cyt c, indicating that modulation of Cyt c signaling are probable mechanisms behind the protective biological activities of flavonoids. © 2017 BioFactors, 2017.

  12. Inhibition and induction of cytochrome P450 2B1 in rat liver by promazine and chlorpromazine.

    PubMed

    Murray, M

    1992-09-25

    Phenothiazine tranquilizers have been associated with pharmacokinetic drug interactions in man. In this study the in vivo and in vitro effects of the clinically important phenothiazines promazine (PZ) and chlorpromazine (CPZ) on drug oxidations catalysed by specific cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes were investigated in the rat. In vitro, the two drugs were relatively ineffective inhibitors of constitutive P450 activities, but were inhibitory toward the principal phenobarbital-inducible P450 2B1 and, to a lesser extent, P450 1A1. Administration of PZ and CPZ to male rats did not markedly influence the total microsomal P450 content of the liver. However, the quantitatively important male-specific P450 2C11 was down-regulated by CPZ and concomitant induction of P450 2B1 and associated 7-pentylresorufin O-depentylase activity were noted. A small increase in the activity of microsomal 7-ethylresorufin O-deethylase was also observed following administration of both drugs to rats, suggesting induction of P450 1A1/2. Considered together, it is apparent that the two phenothiazines are preferential inhibitors and inducers of P450 2B1 in rat liver. Drug interactions in humans involving phenothiazines may reflect a combined effect of induction and inhibition processes as well as down-regulation of other P450s, such as that produced by CPZ on P450 2C11.

  13. Induction or inhibition of cytochrome P450 2E1 modifies the acute toxicity of acrylonitrile in rats: biochemical evidence.

    PubMed

    Suhua, Wang; Rongzhu, Lu; Wenrong, Xu; Guangwei, Xing; Xiaowu, Zhao; Shizhong, Wang; Ye, Zhang; Fangan, Han; Aschner, Michael

    2010-06-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effects of the inhibition or induction of CYP2E1 activity on acute acrylonitrile (AN) toxicity in rats. Increased or decreased hepatic CYP2E1 activity was achieved by pretreatment with acetone or trans-1,2-dichloroethylene (DCE), respectively. AN (50 mg/kg) was administered by intraperitoneal injection. Onset of convulsions and death were observed in rats with increased CYP2E1 activity, whereas convulsions and death did not appear in rats within 1 h after treatment with AN alone. Convulsions occurred in all AN-treated animals with increased CYP2E1 activity at approximately 18 min. The levels of cyanide (CN(-)), a terminal metabolite of AN, were significantly increased in the brains and livers of the AN-treated rats with increased CYP2E1 activity, compared with the levels in rats treated with AN alone, DCE + AN or acetone + DCE + AN. The cytochrome c oxidase (CcOx) activities in the brains and livers of the rats treated with AN or AN + acetone were significantly lower than those in the normal control rats and the rats treated with DCE, whereas the CcOx activities in the brains and livers of rats with decreased CYP2E1 activity were significantly higher than those in AN-treated rats. Brain lipid peroxidation was enhanced, and the antioxidant capacity was significantly compromised in rats with decreased CYP2E1 activity compared with rats with normal or increased CYP2E1 activity. Therefore, inhibition of CYP2E1 and simultaneous antioxidant therapy should be considered as supplementary therapeutic interventions in acute AN intoxication cases with higher CYP2E1 activity, thus a longer window of opportunity would be got to offer further emergency medication.

  14. Cytochrome P450 2E1 inhibition prevents hepatic carcinogenesis induced by diethylnitrosamine in alcohol-fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qinyuan; Lian, Fuzhi; Chavez, Pollyanna R.G.; Chung, Jayong; Ling, Wenhua; Qin, Hua; Seitz, Helmut K.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic alcohol ingestion increases hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), which is associated with hepatocarcinogenesis. We investigated whether treatment with chlormethiazole (CMZ), a CYP2E1 inhibitor, protects against alcohol-associated hepatic carcinogenesis in rats. Rats were fed either an ethanol liquid diet or a non-ethanol liquid diet, with or without CMZ for one and ten months. A single intraperitoneal injection of diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 20 mg/kg) was given to initiate hepatic carcinogenesis. CYP2E1 expression, inflammatory proteins, cell proliferation, protein-bound 4-HNE, etheno-DNA adducts, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), retinoid concentrations, and hepatic carcinogenesis were examined. Ethanol feeding for 1 month with DEN resulted in significantly increased hepatic CYP2E1 levels and increased nuclear accumulation of NF-κB protein and TNF-α expression, which were associated with increased cyclin D1 expression and p-GST positive altered hepatic foci. All of these changes induced by ethanol feeding were significantly inhibited by the one month CMZ treatment. At 10-months of treatment, hepatocellular adenomas were detected in ethanol-fed rats only, but neither in control rats nor in animals receiving ethanol and CMZ. The 8-OHdG formation was found to be significantly increased in ethanol fed animals and normalized with CMZ treatment. In addition, alcohol-reduced hepatic retinol and retinoic acid concentrations were restored by CMZ treatment to normal levels in the rats at 10 months of treatment. These data demonstrate that the inhibition of ethanol-induced CYP2E1 as a key pathogenic factor can counteract the tumor-promoting action of ethanol by decreasing TNF-α expression, NF-κB activation, and oxidative DNA damage as well as restoring normal hepatic levels of retinoic acid in DEN-treated rats. PMID:23543859

  15. Let-7b Inhibits Human Cancer Phenotype by Targeting Cytochrome P450 Epoxygenase 2J2

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shenglan; Gong, Wei; Wang, Yan; Cianflone, Katherine; Tang, Jiarong; Wang, Dao Wen

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNA molecules of 20 to 22 nucleotides that regulate gene expression by binding to their 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR). Increasing data implicate altered miRNA participation in the progress of cancer. We previously reported that CYP2J2 epoxygenase promotes human cancer phenotypes. But whether and how CYP2J2 is regulated by miRNA is not understood. Methods and Results Using bioinformatics analysis, we found potential target sites for miRNA let-7b in 3′UTR of human CYP2J2. Luciferase and western blot assays revealed that CYP2J2 was regulated by let-7b. In addition, let-7b decreased the enzymatic activity of endogenous CYP2J2. Furthermore, let-7b may diminish cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis of tumor cells via posttranscriptional repression of CYP2J2. Tumor xenografts were induced in nude mice by subcutaneous injection of MDA-MB-435 cells. The let-7b expression vector, pSilencer-let-7b, was injected through tail vein every 3 weeks. Let-7b significantly inhibited the tumor phenotype by targeting CYP2J2. Moreover, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used to determine the expression levels of let-7b and CYP2J2 protein from 18 matched lung squamous cell cancer and adjacent normal lung tissues; the expression level of CYP2J2 was inversely proportional to that of let-7b. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that the decreased expression of let-7b could lead to the high expression of CYP2J2 protein in cancerous tissues. These findings suggest that miRNA let-7b reduces CYP2J2 expression, which may contribute to inhibiting tumor phenotypes. PMID:22761738

  16. A Unified Proteochemometric Model for Prediction of Inhibition of Cytochrome P450 Isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Lapins, Maris; Worachartcheewan, Apilak; Spjuth, Ola; Georgiev, Valentin; Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Nantasenamat, Chanin; Wikberg, Jarl E. S.

    2013-01-01

    A unified proteochemometric (PCM) model for the prediction of the ability of drug-like chemicals to inhibit five major drug metabolizing CYP isoforms (i.e. CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4) was created and made publicly available under the Bioclipse Decision Support open source system at www.cyp450model.org. In regards to the proteochemometric modeling we represented the chemical compounds by molecular signature descriptors and the CYP-isoforms by alignment-independent description of composition and transition of amino acid properties of their protein primary sequences. The entire training dataset contained 63 391 interactions and the best PCM model was obtained using signature descriptors of height 1, 2 and 3 and inducing the model with a support vector machine. The model showed excellent predictive ability with internal AUC = 0.923 and an external AUC = 0.940, as evaluated on a large external dataset. The advantage of PCM models is their extensibility making it possible to extend our model for new CYP isoforms and polymorphic CYP forms. A key benefit of PCM is that all proteins are confined in one single model, which makes it generally more stable and predictive as compared with single target models. The inclusion of the model in Bioclipse Decision Support makes it possible to make virtual instantaneous predictions (∼100 ms per prediction) while interactively drawing or modifying chemical structures in the Bioclipse chemical structure editor. PMID:23799117

  17. Integrated in silico-in vitro strategy for addressing cytochrome P450 3A4 time-dependent inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zientek, Michael; Stoner, Chad; Ayscue, Robyn; Klug-McLeod, Jacquelyn; Jiang, Ying; West, Michael; Collins, Claire; Ekins, Sean

    2010-03-15

    Throughout the past decade, the expectations from the regulatory agencies for safety, drug-drug interactions (DDIs), pharmacokinetic, and disposition characterization of new chemical entities (NCEs) by pharmaceutical companies seeking registration have increased. DDIs are frequently assessed using in silico, in vitro, and in vivo methodologies. However, a key gap in this screening paradigm is a full structural understanding of time-dependent inhibition (TDI) on the cytochrome P450 systems, particularly P450 3A4. To address this, a number of high-throughput in vitro assays have been developed. This work describes an automated assay for TDI using two concentrations at two time points (2 + 2 assay). Data generated with this assay for over 2000 compounds from multiple therapeutic programs were used to generate in silico Bayesian classification models of P450 3A4-mediated TDI. These in silico models were validated using several external test sets and multiple random group testing (receiver operator curve value >0.847). We identified a number of substructures that were likely to elicit TDI, the majority containing indazole rings. These in vitro and in silico approaches have been implemented as a part of the Pfizer screening paradigm. The Bayesian models are available on the intranet to guide synthetic strategy, predict whether a NCE is likely to cause a TDI via P450 3A4, filter for in vitro testing, and identify substructures important for TDI as well as those that do not cause TDI. This represents an integrated in silico-in vitro strategy for addressing P450 3A4 TDI and improving the efficiency of screening.

  18. Caspase-resistant BAP31 inhibits fas-mediated apoptotic membrane fragmentation and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, M; Breckenridge, D G; Ducret, A; Shore, G C

    2000-09-01

    BAP31 is a 28-kDa integral membrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum whose cytosolic domain contains two identical caspase recognition sites (AAVD.G) that are preferentially cleaved by initiator caspases, including caspase 8. Cleavage of BAP31 during apoptosis generates a p20 fragment that remains integrated in the membrane and, when expressed ectopically, is a potent inducer of cell death. To examine the consequences of maintaining the structural integrity of BAP31 during apoptosis, the caspase recognition aspartate residues were mutated to alanine residues, and Fas-mediated activation of caspase 8 and cell death were examined in human KB epithelial cells stably expressing the caspase-resistant mutant crBAP31. crBAP31 only modestly slowed the time course for activation of caspases, as assayed by the processing of procaspases 8 and 3 and the measurement of total DEVDase activity. As a result, cleavage of the caspase targets poly(ADP-ribosyl) polymerase and endogenous BAP31, as well as the redistribution of phosphatidylserine and fragmentation of DNA, was observed. In contrast, cytoplasmic membrane blebbing and fragmentation and apoptotic redistribution of actin were strongly inhibited, cell morphology was retained near normal, and the irreversible loss of cell growth potential following removal of the Fas stimulus was delayed. Of note, crBAP31-expressing cells also resisted Fas-mediated release of cytochrome c from mitochondria, and the mitochondrial electrochemical potential was only partly reduced. These results argue that BAP31 cleavage is important for manifesting cytoplasmic apoptotic events associated with membrane fragmentation and reveal an unexpected cross talk between mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum during Fas-mediated apoptosis in vivo.

  19. Increasing CO[sub 2] concentration inhibits cytochrome c oxidase (cytox) in vitro, cytochrome pathway (cytpath) activity in plant mitochondria and dark respiration in plant tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Meler, M.A.; Drake, B.G.; Jacob, J. ); Ribas-Carbo, M.; Siedow, J.N. ); Aranda, X.; Azcon-Bieto, J.; Palet, A. )

    1994-06-01

    Dark respiration is inhibited in many plant be exposure to elevated atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentration. The addition of 0.2mM free CO[sub 2] in the reaction medium decreased citpath activity in Pisum sativum and Glycine max mitochondria at pH 7.2, possibly by inhibiting cytox. Under similar conditions, activity of purified cytox from beef heart was also inhibited. Cytox activity extracted from plants grown in elevated CO[sub 2] for 7 years was lower than in those grown in normal ambient. The relationship among these effects and the rate of respiration as well as the role of the alternative pathway in each case will be discussed.

  20. Inhibition of Human Cytochrome P450 2c8-catalyzed Amodiaquine N-desethylation: Effect of Five Traditionally and Commonly Used Herbs

    PubMed Central

    Muthiah, Yasotha Devi; Ong, Chin Eng; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Ismail, Rusli

    2016-01-01

    Background: In Southeast Asia and many parts of the world, herbal products are increasingly used in parallel with modern medicine. Objective: This study aimed to investigate the effects of herbs commonly used in Southeast Asia on activity of cytochrome P450 2C8 (CYP2C8), an important human hepatic enzyme in drug metabolism. Materials and Methods: The selected herbs, such as Eurycoma longifolia Jack (ELJ), Labisia pumila (LP), Echinacea purpurea (EP), Andrographis paniculata (AP), and Ginkgo biloba (GB), were subjected to inhibition studies using an in vitro CYP2C8 activity marker, amodiaquine N-desethylase assay. Inhibition parameters, inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50), and Ki values were determined to study the potency and mode of inhibition. Results: All herbs inhibited CYP2C8 with the following order of potency: LP > ELJ > GB > AP > EP. LP and ELJ inhibited potently at Ki's of 2 and 4 times the Ki of quercetin, the positive control. The inhibition by LP was uncompetitive in nature as compared to competitive or mixed type inhibition observed with other herbs. GB exhibited moderate inhibitory effect at a Ki6 times larger than quercetin Ki. AP and EP, on the other hand, showed only weak inhibition. Conclusion: The herbs we chose represented the more commonly used herbs in Southeast Asia where collision of tradition and modernization in healthcare, if not properly managed, may lead to therapeutic misadventures. We conclude that concurrent consumption of some herbs, in particular, LP and ELJ, may have relevance in drug-herb interactions via CYP2C8 inhibition in vivo. SUMMARY Herbs are increasingly used in parallel with modern medicines nowadays. In this study five commonly used herbs in Southeast Asia region, ELJ, LP, EP, AP and GB, were investigated for their in vitro inhibitory potency on CYP2C8, an important drug-metaboliz-ing human hepatic enzyme. All herbs inhibited CYP2C8 activity marker, amodiaquine N-desethylation, with potency order of LP > ELJ > GB >AP

  1. Melatonin inhibits the caspase-1/cytochrome c/caspase-3 cell death pathway, inhibits MT1 receptor loss and delays disease progression in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Cook, Anna; Kim, Jinho; Baranov, Sergei V.; Jiang, Jiying; Smith, Karen; Cormier, Kerry; Bennett, Erik; Browser, Robert P.; Day, Arthur L.; Carlisle, Diane; Ferrante, Robert J.; Wang, Xin; Friedlander, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    Caspase-mediated cell death contributes to the pathogenesis of motor neuron degeneration in the mutant SOD1G93A transgenic mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), along with other factors such as inflammation and oxidative damage. By screening a drug library, we found that melatonin, a pineal hormone, inhibited cytochrome c release in purified mitochondria and prevented cell death in cultured neurons. In this study, we evaluated whether melatonin would slow disease progression in SOD1G93A mice. We demonstrate that melatonin significantly delayed disease onset, neurological deterioration and mortality in ALS mice. ALS-associated ventral horn atrophy and motor neuron death were also inhibited by melatonin treatment. Melatonin inhibited Rip2/caspase-1 pathway activation, blocked the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, and reduced the overexpression and activation of caspase-3. Moreover, for the first time, we determined that disease progression was associated with the loss of both melatonin and the melatonin receptor 1A (MT1) in the spinal cord of ALS mice. These results demonstrate that melatonin is neuroprotective in transgenic ALS mice, and this protective effect is mediated through its effects on the caspase-mediated cell death pathway. Furthermore, our data suggest that melatonin and MT1 receptor loss may play a role in the pathological phenotype observed in ALS. The above observations indicate that melatonin and modulation of Rip2/caspase-1/cytochrome c or MT1 pathways may be promising therapeutic approaches for ALS. PMID:23537713

  2. Inhibition against mosquito cytochrome P450 enzymes by rhinacanthin-A, -B, and -C elicits synergism on cypermethrin cytotoxicity in Spodoptera frugiperda cells.

    PubMed

    Pethuan, Sirikun; Duangkaew, Panida; Sarapusit, Songklod; Srisook, Ekaruth; Rongnoparut, Pornpimol

    2012-09-01

    Rhinacanthus nasutus (Acanthaceae) is a shrub reported to contain insecticidal activities. The current study was conducted to determine whether R. nasutus constituents could inhibit benzyloxyresorufin O-debenzylation (BROD) mediated by CYP6AA3 and CYP6P7. Both enzymes have shown pyrethroid degradation activity and been implicated to play role in pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles minumus (Theobald) mosquito, a malaria vector. Three compounds, rhinacanthin-A, -B, and -C that exhibited potent inhibitory activity were isolated and purified from aerial part of R. nasutus. Their kinetic parameters and modes of inhibition were determined. Rhinacanthin-B was the most potent inhibitor in in vitro inhibition assay and exhibited mechanism-based inhibition against both CYP6AA3 and CYP6P7. Rhinacanthin-C which is a major compound of R. nasutus reversibly inhibited both enzymes in vitro with 2-4 folds less inhibitory potency than rhinacanthin-B. In contrast, rhinacanthin-A reversibly inhibited CYP6AA3, but inhibition against CYP6P7 was a mechanism-based inhibition type. Where mechanism-based inhibition was found, the inhibition showed characteristic of time-, concentration-dependence, and requirement of NADPH. Using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-y-l)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cytotoxicity assay in intact Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells, the three compounds increased susceptibility of CYP6AA3- and CYP6P7-expressing cells to cypermethrin cytotoxicity because of inhibition effect on mosquito enzymes. The combined inhibition effect on mosquito cytochrome P450 enzyme and synergistic effect on cypermethrin cytotoxicity of the three R. nasutus compounds could be beneficial for resistance management strategies in mosquito vector control.

  3. Neuroprotective Effect of Thymoquinone, the Nigella Sativa Bioactive Compound, in 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Hemi-Parkinsonian Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Sedaghat, Reza; Roghani, Mehrdad; Khalili, Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is the most common movement disorder with progressive degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic neurons for which current treatments afford symptomatic relief with no-prevention of disease progression. Due to the neuroprotective property of the Nigella sativa bioactive compound thymoquinone (TQ), this study was undertaken to evaluate whether TQ could improve behavioral and cellular abnormalities and markers of oxidative stress in an experimental model of early PD in rat. Unilateral intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats were daily pretreated p.o. with TQ at doses of 5 and/or 10 mg/Kg three times at an interval of 24 h. After 1 week, apomorphine caused contralateral rotations, a reduction in the number of neurons on the left side of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC) was observed, malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrite level in midbrain homogenate increased and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) reduced in the 6-OHDA lesion group. TQ pretreatment significantly improved turning behavior, prevented loss of SNC neurons, and lowered level of MDA. These results suggest that TQ could afford neuroprotection against 6-OHDA neurotoxicity that is partly due to the attenuation of lipid peroxidation and this may provide benefits, along with other therapies, in neurodegenerative disorders including PD. PMID:24734075

  4. Acetyl-l-carnitine protects dopaminergic nigrostriatal pathway in 6-hydroxydopamine-induced model of Parkinson's disease in the rat.

    PubMed

    Afshin-Majd, Siamak; Bashiri, Keyhan; Kiasalari, Zahra; Baluchnejadmojarad, Tourandokht; Sedaghat, Reza; Roghani, Mehrdad

    2017-02-12

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a movement disorder and the second most common neurodegenerative disease worldwide in which nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons within substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC) are lost, with clinical motor and non-motor symptoms including bradykinesia, resting tremor, rigidity, stooping posture and cognitive deficits. This study was undertaken to evaluate the neuroprotective potential of acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) against unilateral striatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced model of PD and to explore some involved mechanisms. In this experimental study, intrastriatal 6-OHDA-lesioned rats received ALC at doses of 100 or 200mg/kg/day for 1 week. ALC (200mg/kg) lowered apomorphine-induced rotational asymmetry and reduced the latency to initiate and the total time in the narrow beam test, reduced striatal malondialdehyde (MDA), increased catalase activity and glutathione (GSH) level, prevented reduction of nigral tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons and striatal TH-immunoreactivity, and lowered striatal glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and its immunoreactivity as an indicator of astrogliosis, and nuclear factor NF-kappa B and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) as reliable markers of neuroinflammation. Meanwhile, ALC at both doses mitigated nigral DNA fragmentation as a valuable marker of apoptosis. The results of this study clearly suggest the neuroprotective effect of ALC in 6-OHDA-induced model of PD through abrogation of neuroinflammation, apoptosis, astrogliosis, and oxidative stress and it may be put forward as an ancillary therapeutic candidate for controlling PD.

  5. Acupuncture prevents 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neuronal death in the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in the rat Parkinson's disease model.

    PubMed

    Park, Hi-Joon; Lim, Sabina; Joo, Wan-Seok; Yin, Chang-Shik; Lee, Hyang-Sook; Lee, Hye-Jung; Seo, Jung Chul; Leem, Kanghyun; Son, Yang-Sun; Kim, Youn-Jung; Kim, Chang-Ju; Kim, Yong-Sik; Chung, Joo-Ho

    2003-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder, and it has been suggested that treatments promoting survival and functional recovery of affected dopaminergic neurons could have a significant and long-term therapeutic value. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of acupuncture on the nigrostriatal system in rat unilaterally lesioned with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 4 microg/microl, intrastriatal injection) using tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and receptor for brain-derived neurotrophic factor, trkB, immunohistochemistries. Two weeks after the lesions were made, rats presented with asymmetry in rotational behavior (118.3 +/- 17.5 turns/h) following injection with apomorphine, a dopamine receptor agonist (0.5 mg/kg, sc). In contrast, acupunctural treatment at acupoints GB34 and LI3 was shown to significantly reduce this motor deficit (14.6 +/- 13.4 turns/h). Analysis via TH immunohistochemistry revealed a substantial loss of cell bodies in the substantia nigra (SN) (45.7% loss) and their terminals in the dorsolateral striatum ipsilateral to the 6-OHDA-induced lesion. However, acupunctural treatment resulted in the enhanced survival of dopaminergic neurons in the SN (21.4% loss) and their terminals in the dorsolateral striatum. Acupuncture also increased the expression of trkB significantly (35.6% increase) in the ipsilateral SN. In conclusion, we observed that only acupuncturing without the use of any drug has the neuroprotective effects against neuronal death in the rat PD model and these protective properties of acupuncture could be mediated by trkB.

  6. Regional distributions of manganese, iron, copper, and zinc in the brains of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced parkinsonian rats.

    PubMed

    Tarohda, Tohru; Ishida, Yasushi; Kawai, Keiichi; Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Amano, Ryohei

    2005-09-01

    Time courses of changes in manganese, iron, copper, and zinc concentrations were examined in regions of the brain of a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced rat model of Parkinson's disease using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The concentrations were simultaneously determined in brain section at the level of the substantia nigra 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, and 21 days after the 6-OHDA treatment and compared with those of control rats. The distributions of these elements were obtained for 18 regions of the sagittal section (1-mm thick). The ICP-MS results indicated that Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn levels of the 6-OHDA-induced parkinsonian brain were observed to increase in all regions that lay along the dopaminergic pathway. In the substantia nigra, the increase in Mn level occurred rapidly from 3 to 7 days and preceded those in the other elements, reaching a plateau in the 6-OHDA brain. Iron and Zn levels increased gradually until 7 days and then increased rapidly from 7 to 10 days. The increase in the copper level was slightly delayed. In other regions, such as the globus pallidus, putamen, and amygdala, the levels of Mn, Fe, Cu, and Zn increased with time after 6-OHDA treatment, although the time courses of their changes were region-specific. These findings contribute to our understanding of the roles of Mn and Fe in the induction of neurological symptoms and progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in the development of Parkinson's disease. Manganese may hold the key to disturbing cellular Fe homeostasis and accelerating Fe levels, which play the most important role in the development of Parkinson's disease.

  7. Neuroprotective effect of D-psicose on 6-hydroxydopamine-induced apoptosis in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells.

    PubMed

    Takata, Maki K; Yamaguchi, Fuminori; Nakanose, Koichi; Watanabe, Yasuo; Hatano, Naoya; Tsukamoto, Ikuko; Nagata, Mitsuhiro; Izumori, Ken; Tokuda, Masaaki

    2005-11-01

    We evaluated the neuroprotective effects of D-psicose, one of the rare sugars, on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced apoptosis in catecholaminergic PC12 cells, the in vitro model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Apoptotic characteristics of PC12 cells were assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay. The results showed that D-psicose at a concentration of 50 mM, exerted significant protective effects against the 6-OHDA (200 muM)-induced PC12 cell apoptosis, while other sugars had little or no protective effects. We have observed a significant increase in the level of intracellular glutathione after 24 h in 6-OHDA (200 muM) treated cells, while a decrease in the level was observed at 3 h and 6 h. Also, a synergistic exposure to D-psicose and 6-OHDA for 24 h showed a significant increase in intracellular glutathione level. Therefore, these results suggest that D-psicose may play a potential role as a neuroprotective agent in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases by inducing an up-regulation of intracellular glutathione.

  8. Effects of discontinuing a high-fat diet on mitochondrial proteins and 6-hydroxydopamine-induced dopamine depletion in rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Delin; Shuler, Jeffrey M; Raider, Kayla D; Rogers, Robert S; Wheatley, Joshua L; Geiger, Paige C; Stanford, John A

    2015-07-10

    Diet-induced obesity can increase the risk for developing age-related neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD). Increasing evidence suggests that mitochondrial and proteasomal mechanisms are involved in both insulin resistance and PD. The goal of this study was to determine whether diet intervention could influence mitochondrial or proteasomal protein expression and vulnerability to 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) depletion in rats' nigrostriatal system. After a 3 month high-fat diet regimen, we switched one group of rats to a low-fat diet for 3 months (HF-LF group), while the other half continued with the high-fat diet (HF group). A chow group was included as a control. Three weeks after unilateral 6-OHDA lesions, HF rats had higher fasting insulin levels and higher Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), indicating insulin resistance. HOMA-IR was significantly lower in HF-LF rats than HF rats, indicating that insulin resistance was reversed by switching to a low-fat diet. Compared to the Chow group, the HF group exhibited significantly greater DA depletion in the substantia nigra but not in the striatum. DA depletion did not differ between the HF-LF and HF group. Proteins related to mitochondrial function (such as AMPK, PGC-1α), and to proteasomal function (such as TCF11/Nrf1) were influenced by diet intervention, or by 6-OHDA lesion. Our findings suggest that switching to a low-fat diet reverses the effects of a high-fat diet on systemic insulin resistance, and mitochondrial and proteasomal function in the striatum. Conversely, they suggest that the effects of the high-fat diet on nigrostriatal vulnerability to 6-OHDA-induced DA depletion persist.

  9. Treadmill exercise alleviates short-term memory impairment in 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinson’s rats

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Han-Sam; Shin, Mal-Soon; Song, Wook; Jun, Tae-Won; Lim, Baek-Vin; Kim, Young-Pyo; Kim, Chang-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra is a key pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on short-term memory, apoptotic dopaminergic neuronal cell death and fiber loss in the nigrostriatum, and cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of Parkinson’s rats. Parkinson’s rats were made by injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the striatum using stereotaxic instrument. Four weeks after 6-OHDA injection, the rats in the 6-OHDA-injection group exhibited significant rotational asymmetry following apomorphine challenge. The rats in the exercise groups were put on the treadmill to run for 30 min once a day for 14 consecutive days starting 4 weeks after 6-OHDA injection. In the present results, extensive degeneration of the dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra with loss of dopaminergic fibers in the striatum were produced in the rats without treadmill running, which resulted in short-term memory impairment. However, the rats performing treadmill running for 2 weeks alleviated nigrostriatal dopaminergic cell loss and alleviated short-term memory impairment with increasing cell proliferation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of Parkinson’s rats. The present results show that treadmill exercise may provide therapeutic value for the Parkinson’s disease. PMID:24278884

  10. Echinacoside Protects against 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Inflammatory Responses in PC12 Cells via Reducing ROS Production

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-Hua; Xuan, Zhao-Hong; Tian, Shuo; Du, Guan-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons at the substantia nigra. Mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammatory responses are involved in the mechanism of cell damage in PD. 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), a dopamine analog, specifically damages dopaminergic neurons. Echinacoside (ECH) is a phenylethanoid glycoside isolated from the stems of Cistanche salsa, showing a variety of neuroprotective effects in previous studies. The present study was to investigate its effect against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity and possible mechanisms in PC12 cells. The results showed that 6-OHDA reduced cell viability, decreased oxidation-reduction activity, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, and induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis compared with untreated PC12 cells. However, echinacoside treatment significantly attenuated these changes induced by 6-OHDA. In addition, echinacoside also could significantly alleviate the inflammatory responses induced by 6-OHDA. Further research showed that echinacoside could reduce 6-OHDA-induced ROS production in PC12 cells. These results suggest that the underlying mechanism of echinacoside against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity may be involve in attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammatory responses by reducing ROS production. PMID:25788961

  11. Effects of discontinuing a high-fat diet on mitochondrial proteins and 6-hydroxydopamine-induced dopamine depletion in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Delin; Shuler, Jeffrey M.; Raider, Kayla D.; Rogers, Robert S.; Wheatley, Joshua L.; Geiger, Paige C.; Stanford, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Diet-induced obesity can increase the risk for developing age-related neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson’s disease (PD). Increasing evidence suggests that mitochondrial and proteasomal mechanisms are involved in both insulin resistance and PD. The goal of this study was to determine whether diet intervention could influence mitochondrial or proteasomal protein expression and vulnerability to 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) depletion in rats’ nigrostriatal system. After a 3 month high-fat diet regimen, we switched one group of rats to a low-fat diet for 3 months (HF-LF group), while the other half continued with the high-fat diet (HF group). A chow group was included as a control. Three weeks after unilateral 6-OHDA lesions, HF rats had higher fasting insulin levels and higher Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), indicating insulin resistance. HOMA-IR was significantly lower in HF-LF rats than HF rats, indicating that insulin resistance was reversed by switching to a low-fat diet. Compared to the Chow group, the HF group exhibited significantly greater DA depletion in the substantia nigra but not in the striatum. DA depletion did not differ between the HF-LF and HF group. Proteins related to mitochondrial function (such as AMPK, PGC-1α), and to proteasomal function (such as TCF11/Nrf1) were influenced by diet intervention, or by 6-OHDA lesion. Our findings suggest that switching to a low-fat diet reverses the effects of a high-fat diet on systemic insulin resistance, and mitochondrial and proteasomal function in the striatum. Conversely, they suggest that the effects of the high-fat diet on nigrostriatal vulnerability to 6-OHDA-induced DA depletion persist. PMID:25862572

  12. Cytochrome P450 2E1 inhibition prevents hepatic carcinogenesis induced by diethylnitrosamine in alcohol-fed rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic alcohol ingestion increases hepatic cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), which is associated with hepatocarcinogenesis. We investigated whether treatment with chlormethiazole (CMZ), a CYP2E1 inhibitor, protects against alcohol-associated hepatic carcinogenesis in rats. Rats were fed either an ethan...

  13. Characterization of the structural determinants required for potent mechanism-based inhibition of human cytochrome P450 1A1 by cannabidiol.

    PubMed

    Yamaori, Satoshi; Okushima, Yoshimi; Yamamoto, Ikuo; Watanabe, Kazuhito

    2014-05-25

    We previously demonstrated that cannabidiol (CBD) was a potent mechanism-based inhibitor of human cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1). However, the moiety of CBD that contributes to the potent mechanism-based inhibition of human CYP1A1 remains unknown. Thus, the effects of compounds structurally related to CBD on CYP1A1 activity were examined with recombinant human CYP1A1 in order to characterize the structural requirements for potent inactivation by CBD. When preincubated in the presence of NADPH for 20min, olivetol, which corresponds to the pentylresorcinol moiety of CBD, enhanced the inhibition of the 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity of CYP1A1. In contrast, d-limonene, which corresponds to the terpene moiety of CBD, failed to inhibit CYP1A1 activity in a metabolism-dependent manner. Pentylbenzene, which lacks two free phenolic hydroxyl groups, also did not enhance CYP1A1 inhibition. On the other hand, preincubation of the CBD-2'-monomethyl ether (CBDM) and CBD-2',6'-dimethyl ether (CBDD) enhanced the inhibition of CYP1A1 activity. Inhibition by cannabidivarin (CBDV), which possessed a propyl side chain, was strongly potentiated by its preincubation. Orcinol, which has a methyl group, augmented CYP1A1 inhibition, whereas its derivative without an alkyl side chain, resorcinol, did not exhibit any metabolism-dependent inhibition. The preincubation of CBD-hydroxyquinone did not markedly enhance CYP1A1 inhibition. We further confirmed that olivetol, CBDM, CBDD, CBDV, and orcinol, as well as CBD (kinact=0.215min(-1)), inactivated CYP1A1 activity; their kinact values were 0.154, 0.0638, 0.0643, 0.226, and 0.0353min(-1), respectively. These results suggest that the methylresorcinol structure in CBD may have structurally important roles in the inactivation of CYP1A1.

  14. Inhibition on human liver cytochrome P450 3A4 by constituents of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare): identification and characterization of a mechanism-based inactivator.

    PubMed

    Subehan; Zaidi, Syed F H; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2007-12-12

    Fennel, a seed of Foeniculum vulgare, is used as a culinary spice and traditional medicine. The methanolic extract of fennel showed a characteristic of mechanism-based inactivation on erythromycin N-demethylation mediated by human liver microsomal cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). The present study was conducted to identify the fennel constituent having the inhibition. Thirteen compounds have been isolated from a methanol extract of fennel and tested for their inhibition on CYP3A4. Among them, 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) showed the strongest inhibition with an IC50 value of 18.3 microM and a mixed type of inhibition. In addition, with the preincubation time of 20 min only 5-MOP showed preincubation time dependency; the IC50 value decreased from 18.3 microM with a preincubation time of 0 min to 4.6 microM with a preincubation time of 20 min. Further investigation on 5-MOP showed the characteristics of time-dependent inhibition, requirement of NADPH, lack of protecting effect of nucleophiles, and recovery of CYP3A4 activity by the competitive inhibitor. This result suggests that the inhibitory activity of CYP3A4 by 5-MOP was a mechanism-based inactivation. The kinetic parameter for mechanism-based inactivation was characterized by a KI value of 15.0 microM and a kinact value of 0.098 min(-1).

  15. Investigation of drug-drug interaction via mechanism-based inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A by macrolides in dexamethasone-treated female rats.

    PubMed

    Kanazu, Takushi; Sato, Norihito; Kadono, Kyoko; Touchi, Akira; Takeda, Yuri; Yamaguchi, Yoshitaka; Baba, Takahiko

    2012-05-01

    The in vitro and in vivo inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A with mechanism-based inhibition (MBI) by macrolides was investigated using dexamethasone-treated female rats (DEX-female rats). In the in vitro CYP inhibition studies using erythromycin (ERM) and clarithromycin (CAM), similar inhibition responses were observed between human and DEX-female rat liver microsomes, however, there were fewer effects in intact male rats. The ex vivo study showed that midazolam (MDZ) metabolism in liver microsomes of DEX-female rats was reduced by ERM administration and the inhibitory effect was increased with increasing ERM doses, indicating that metabolite intermediate complex formation caused irreversible inhibition of CYP3A activity in DEX-female rats as well as in humans. In the in vivo studies, ERM and CAM significantly increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of MDZ and decreased the total clearance in DEX-female rats. It was concluded that the DDIs via MBI of CYP3A following macrolide administration in humans could be reproduced in female rats, suggesting that DEX-female rats can serve as an in vivo model for assessing this DDI in humans.

  16. Effect of antipsychotic drugs on human liver cytochrome P-450 (CYP) isoforms in vitro: preferential inhibition of CYP2D6.

    PubMed

    Shin, J G; Soukhova, N; Flockhart, D A

    1999-09-01

    The ability of antipsychotic drugs to inhibit the catalytic activity of five cytochrome P-450 (CYP) isoforms was compared using in vitro human liver microsomal preparations to evaluate the relative potential of these drugs to inhibit drug metabolism. The apparent kinetic parameters for enzyme inhibition were determined by nonlinear regression analysis of the data. All antipsychotic drugs tested competitively inhibited dextromethorphan O-demethylation, a selective marker for CYP2D6, in a concentration-dependent manner. Thioridazine and perphenazine were the most potent, with IC(50) values (2.7 and 1.5 microM) that were comparable to that of quinidine (0.52 microM). The estimated K(i) values for CYP2D6-catalyzing dextrorphan formation were ranked in the following order: perphenazine (0.8 microM), thioridazine (1.4 microM), chlorpromazine (6.4 microM), haloperidol (7.2 microM), fluphenazine (9.4 microM), risperidone (21.9 microM), clozapine (39.0 microM), and cis-thiothixene (65.0 microM). No remarkable inhibition of other CYP isoforms was observed except for moderate inhibition of CYP1A2-catalyzed phenacetin O-deethylation by fluphenazine (K(i) = 40.2 microM) and perphenazine (K(i) = 65.1). The estimated K(i) values for the inhibition of CYP2C9, 2C19, and 3A were >300 microM in almost all antipsychotics tested. These results suggest that antipsychotic drugs exhibit a striking selectivity for CYP2D6 compared with other CYP isoforms. This may reflect a remarkable commonality of structure between the therapeutic targets for these drugs, the transporters, and metabolic enzymes that distribute and eliminate them. Clinically, coadministration of these medicines with drugs that are primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 may result in significant drug interactions.

  17. Coupling of electron transfer with proton transfer at heme a and Cu(A) (redox Bohr effects) in cytochrome c oxidase. Studies with the carbon monoxide inhibited enzyme.

    PubMed

    Capitanio, N; Capitanio, G; Minuto, M; De Nitto, E; Palese, L L; Nicholls, P; Papa, S

    2000-05-30

    A study is presented on the coupling of electron transfer with proton transfer at heme a and Cu(A) (redox Bohr effects) in carbon monoxide inhibited cytochrome c oxidase isolated from bovine heart mitochondria. Detailed analysis of the coupling number for H(+) release per heme a, Cu(A) oxidized (H(+)/heme a, Cu(A) ratio) was based on direct measurement of the balance between the oxidizing equivalents added as ferricyanide to the CO-inhibited fully reduced COX, the equivalents of heme a, Cu(A), and added cytochrome c oxidized and the H(+) released upon oxidation and all taken up back by the oxidase upon rereduction of the metal centers. One of two reductants was used, either succinate plus a trace of mitochondrial membranes (providing a source of succinate-c reductase) or hexaammineruthenium(II) as the chloride salt. The experimental H(+)/heme a, Cu(A) ratios varied between 0.65 and 0.90 in the pH range 6.0-8.5. The pH dependence of the H(+)/heme a, Cu(A) ratios could be best-fitted by a function involving two redox-linked acid-base groups with pK(o)-pK(r) of 5.4-6.9 and 7.3-9.0, respectively. Redox titrations in the same samples of the CO-inhibited oxidase showed that Cu(A) and heme a exhibited superimposed E'(m) values, which decreased, for both metals, by around 20 mV/pH unit increase in the range 6.0-8.5. A model in which oxido-reduction of heme a and Cu(A) are both linked to the pK shifts of the two acid-base groups, characterized by the analysis of the pH dependence of the H(+)/heme a, Cu(A) ratios, provided a satisfactory fit for the pH dependence of the E'(m) of heme a and Cu(A). The results presented are consistent with a primary involvement of the redox Bohr effects shared by heme a and Cu(A) in the proton-pumping activity of cytochrome c oxidase.

  18. Genetic Evidence for Cytochrome b Qi Site Inhibition by 4(1H)-Quinolone-3-Diarylethers and Antimycin in Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Alday, P Holland; Bruzual, Igor; Nilsen, Aaron; Pou, Sovitj; Winter, Rolf; Ben Mamoun, Choukri; Riscoe, Michael K; Doggett, J Stone

    2017-02-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite that causes fatal and debilitating brain and eye disease. Endochinlike quinolones (ELQs) are preclinical compounds that are efficacious against apicomplexan-caused diseases, including toxoplasmosis, malaria, and babesiosis. Of the ELQs, ELQ-316 has demonstrated the greatest efficacy against acute and chronic experimental toxoplasmosis. Although genetic analyses in other organisms have highlighted the importance of the cytochrome bc1 complex Qi site for ELQ sensitivity, the mechanism of action of ELQs against T. gondii and the specific mechanism of ELQ-316 remain unknown. Here, we describe the selection and genetic characterization of T. gondii clones resistant to ELQ-316. A T. gondii strain selected under ELQ-316 drug pressure was found to possess a Thr222-Pro amino acid substitution that confers 49-fold resistance to ELQ-316 and 19-fold resistance to antimycin, a well-characterized Qi site inhibitor. These findings provide further evidence for ELQ Qi site inhibition in T. gondii and greater insight into the interactions of Qi site inhibitors with the apicomplexan cytochrome bc1 complex.

  19. SKF 525-A and cytochrome P-450 ligands inhibit with high affinity the binding of ( sup 3 H)dextromethorphan and. sigma. ligands to guinea pig brain

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, M.; Canoll, P.D.; Musacchio, J.M. )

    1991-01-01

    The DM{sub 1}/{sigma}{sub 1} site binds dextromethorphan (DM) and {sigma} receptor ligands. The broad binding specificity of this site and its peculiar subcellular distribution prompted us to explore the possibility that this site is a member of the cytochrome P-450 superfamily of enzymes. We tested the effects of the liver microsomal monooxygenase inhibitor SKF 525-A (Proadifen), and other P-450 substrates on the binding of ({sup 3}H)dextromethorphan, ({sup 3}H)3- (3-Hydroxyphenyl) -N- (1-propyl) piperidine and (+)-({sup 3}H)1,3-Di-o-tolyl-guanidine (({sup 3}H)DTG) to the guinea pig brain. SKF 525-A, l-lobeline and GBR-12909 inhibited the binding of the three labeled ligands with nM affinity. Each drug has identical nM K{sub i} values for the high-affinity site labeled by the three ligands. This indicated that they displaced the labeled ligands from the common DM{sub 1}{sigma}{sub 1} site. Debrisoquine and sparteine, prototypical substrates for liver debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase, displayed K{sub i} values of 9-13 and 3-4 {mu}M respectively against the three labeled ligands. These results, the broad specificity of the DM{sub 1}/{sigma}{sub 1} binding site, and its peculiar subcellular distribution, raises the possibility that this binding site is a member of the cytochrome P-450 superfamily of isozymes, rather than a neurotransmitter receptor.

  20. Mechanism-based inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP)2A6 by chalepensin in recombinant systems, in human liver microsomes and in mice in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ueng, Yune-Fang; Chen, Chien-Chih; Chung, Yu-Ting; Liu, Tsung-Yun; Chang, Yu-Ping; Lo, Wei-Sheng; Murayama, Norie; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Souček, Pavel; Chau, Gar-Yang; Chi, Chin-Wen; Chen, Ruei-Ming; Li, Ding-Tzai

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Chalepensin is a pharmacologically active furanocoumarin compound found in rue, a medicinal herb. Here we have investigated the inhibitory effects of chalepensin on cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2A6 in vitro and in vivo. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Mechanism-based inhibition was studied in vitro using human liver microsomes and bacterial membranes expressing genetic variants of human CYP2A6. Effects in vivo were studied in C57BL/6J mice. CYP2A6 activity was assayed as coumarin 7-hydroxylation (CH) using HPLC and fluorescence measurements. Metabolism of chalepensin was assessed with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). KEY RESULTS CYP2A6.1, without pre-incubation with NADPH, was competitively inhibited by chalepensin. After pre-incubation with NADPH, inhibition by chalepensin was increased (IC50 value decreased by 98%). This time-dependent inactivation (kinact 0.044 min−1; KI 2.64 µM) caused the loss of spectrally detectable P450 content and was diminished by known inhibitors of CYP2A6, pilocarpine or tranylcypromine, and by glutathione conjugation. LC/MS analysis of chalepensin metabolites suggested an unstable epoxide intermediate was formed, identified as the corresponding dihydrodiol, which was then conjugated with glutathione. Compared with the wild-type CYP2A6.1, the isoforms CYP2A6.7 and CYP2A6.10 were less inhibited. In mouse liver microsomes, pre-incubation enhanced inhibition of CH activity. Oral administration of chalepensin to mice reduced hepatic CH activity ex vivo. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Chalepensin was a substrate and a mechanism-based inhibitor of human CYP2A6. Formation of an epoxide could be a key step in this inactivation. ‘Poor metabolizers’ carrying CYP2A6*7 or *10 may be less susceptible to inhibition by chalepensin. Given in vivo, chalepensin decreased CYP2A activity in mice. PMID:21418183

  1. Inhibition effects of Vernonia cinerea active compounds against cytochrome P450 2A6 and human monoamine oxidases, possible targets for reduction of tobacco dependence.

    PubMed

    Prasopthum, Aruna; Pouyfung, Phisit; Sarapusit, Songklod; Srisook, Ekaruth; Rongnoparut, Pornpimol

    2015-04-01

    The human cytochrome P450 2A6 (CYP2A6) and monoamine oxidases (MAO-A and MAO-B), catalyzing nicotine and dopamine metabolisms, respectively, are two therapeutic targets of nicotine dependence. Vernonia cinerea, a medicinal plant commonly used for treatment of diseases such as asthma and bronchitis, has been shown reducing tobacco dependence effect among tobacco users. In the present study, we found eight active compounds isolated from V. cinerea that comprise inhibitory activity toward CYP2A6 and MAO-A and MAO-B enzymes using activity-guided assays, with coumarin as substrate of CYP2A6 and kynuramine of MAOs. These compounds were three flavones (apigenin, chrysoeriol, luteolin), one flavonol (quercetin), and four hirsutinolide-type sesquiterpene lactones (8α-(2-methylacryloyloxy)-hirsutinolide-13-O-acetate, 8α-(4-hydroxymethacryloyloxy)-hirsutinolide-13-O-acetate, 8α-tigloyloxyhirsutinolide-13-O-acetate, and 8α-(4-hydroxytigloyloxy)-hirsutinolide-13-O-acetate). Modes and kinetics of inhibition against the three enzymes were determined. Flavonoids possessed strong inhibitory effect on CYP2A6 in reversible mode, while inhibition by hirsutinolides was mechanism-based (NADPH-, concentration-, and time-dependence) and irreversible. Inhibition by hirsutinolides could not be reversed by dialysis and by addition of trapping agents or potassium ferricyanide. Flavonoids inhibited MAOs with variable degrees and were more prominent in inhibition toward MAO-A than hirsutinolides, while two of hirsutinolides inhibited MAO-B approximately comparable to two flavonoids. These results could have implications in combination of drug therapy for smoking cessation.

  2. Cytochrome f

    SciTech Connect

    Soriano, G.M.; Smith, J.L.; Cramer, W.A.

    2001-07-17

    Cytochrome f (f, folium, leaf), a c-type cytochrome with a characteristic CysXXCysHis amino acid sequence for heme ligation, is the largest of the four major protein subunits of the membrane-embedded cytochrome b{sub 6}{sup f} complex of oxygenic photosynthesis. It contains 285-86 amino acids, consisting of a soluble 250-residue domain on the p-side (positive-side) or lumen-side of the membrane, a single trans-membrane 20-residue {alpha}-helix, and an n- or stromal-side segment consisting of 15 residues. These domains contain, respectively, the heme prosthetic group and intraprotein electron transfer pathway, the membrane anchor and a short segment that is important in the assembly of the b{sub 6}{sup f} complex. The function of the cytochrome f in oxygenic photosynthesis is to act as the terminal electron acceptor in the membrane-embedded cytochrome b{sub 6}{sup f} complex that provides the electron transport connection between the photosystem II and photosystem I reaction centers. Electron transfer through the complex is coupled to proton translocation and generation of a proton electrochemical potential that is utilized to drive the synthesis of ATP through the proton-motive ATP synthase. These functions of the cytochrome b{sub 6}{sup f} complex are analogous to those of the multisubunit cytochrome bc{sub 1} complex (ubiquinol:cytochrome c oxidoreductase) of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and photosynthetic bacteria. Both complexes contain four redox centers with very similar redox and structural properties: a covalently bound c-type heme in cytochrome f or c{sub 1}, the 2Fe-2S cluster of the Rieske ISP, and the two noncovalently bound hemes of cytochrome b. The structure properties have been defined in 3.0-3.1 {angstrom} structures of the b{sub 6}{sup f} complex from a thermophilic cyanobacterium and a green alga. These structures also defined a fifth redox prosthetic group, a novel covalently bound heme, tentatively called heme x. With the exception of

  3. Anti-cytochrome P450 IIE1 (anti IIE1) and dimethyl sulfoxide inhibit acetaminophen and dimethylnitrosamine oxidation similarly

    SciTech Connect

    Jaw, S.; Jeffery, E.H. ); Roberts, D.W. )

    1991-03-11

    To evaluate specificity of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), the authors compared anti IIE1 and DMSO inhibition of P450 oxidations. Hepatic microsomes from control and acetone-induced female Swiss-Webster mice were preincubated with polyclonal anti IIE1 or IgG for 20 min at 4C before addition of an NADPH-generating system, DMSO or buffer, and substrate (Ethylmorphine, EM; dimethylnitrosamine, DMN; or acetaminophen, AP; 1 mM final concentration). After 20 min at 37C, the incubations were terminated by adding 20% trichloroacetic acid or methanol. Formaldehyde was determined by the Nash method when using EM or DMN as substrate. AP-glutathione conjugate was determined by HPLC when using AP as substrate. Anti IIE1 and DMSO did not inhibit EM demethylation in control or acetone microsomes. However, DMSO inhibited DMN demethylation by 26% and 64% in control and 30% and 75% in acetone microsomes. Anti IIE1 inhibited DMN demethylation by 44% and 24% in control and acetone microsomes, respectively. DMSO inhibited AP metabolism by 31% and 56% and anti IIE1 inhibited AP metabolism by 33%, in control microsomes. The inhibitions of DMN and AP metabolism by anti IIE1 and DMSO were only additive at submaximal inhibitor concentrations and confirm that DMSO specifically inhibits IIE1 activity.

  4. Enantioselective inhibition of Cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism by a novel antithrombotic agent, S002-333: Major effect on CYP2B6.

    PubMed

    Bhateria, Manisha; Ramakrishna, Rachumallu; Puttrevu, Santosh Kumar; Saxena, Anil K; Bhatta, Rabi Sankar

    2016-08-25

    A significant number of new chemical entities (NCEs) fail in drug discovery due to inhibition of Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. Therefore, to avert costly drug failure at the clinical phase it becomes indispensable to evaluate the CYP inhibition profile of NCEs early in drug discovery. In light of these concerns, we envisioned to investigate the inhibitory effects of S002-333 [2-(4-methoxy-benzenesulfonyl)-2,3,4,9-tetrahydro-1H-b-carboxylic acid amide], a novel and potent antithrombotic agent, on nine major CYP enzymes (CYP1A2, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1 and 3A4) of human liver microsomes (HLM). S002-333 exists as racemic mixture of S004-1032 (R-isomer) and S007-1558 (S-isomer), consequently, we further examined the enantioselective differences of S002-333 in the inhibition of human CYP enzymes. Of the CYP enzymes tested, CYP2B6-catalyzed bupropion 6-hydroxylation was inhibited by S002-333 (IC50 ∼ 9.25 ± 2.46 μM) in a stereoselective manner with (S)-isomer showing potent inhibition (IC50 ∼ 5.28 ± 1.25 μM) in contrast to (R)-isomer which showed negligible inhibition on CYP2B6 activity (IC50 > 50 μM). S002-333 and its (S)-isomer inhibited CYP2B6 activity in a non-competitive fashion with estimated Ki values of 10.1 ± 3.4 μM and 5.09 ± 1.05 μM, respectively. No shift in the IC50 value was observed for S002-333 and its isomers when preincubated for 30 min in the presence of NADPH suggesting that neither S002-333 nor its enantiomers are time-dependent inhibitors. Thus, the present findings signified that S002-333 is a potent stereoselective inhibitor of CYP2B6, whereas, inhibition for other CYPs was substantially negligible. These in vitro findings would be useful in deciding the development of S002-333 as a single-enantiomer or as a racemic mixture.

  5. Acute toxicity of some synthetic cyanogens in rats: time-dependent cyanide generation and cytochrome oxidase inhibition in soft tissues after sub-lethal oral intoxication.

    PubMed

    Rao, Pooja; Singh, Poonam; Yadav, Shiv Kumar; Gujar, Niranjan L; Bhattacharya, Rahul

    2013-09-01

    Cyanogens include complex nitrile-containing compounds that can generate free cyanide of toxicological significance. Acute toxicity, time-dependent cyanide generation and cytochrome oxidase (CYTOX) inhibition in soft tissues, and urinary thiocyanate levels were measured after acute cyanogen intoxication in rats. Order of cyanogens in terms of LD₅₀ was: malononitrile (MCN)>propionitrile (PCN)≈sodium nitroprusside (SNP)>acrylonitrile (ACN)>succinonitrile (SCN)>acetonitrile (ATCN) for oral, and SNP>MCN>ACN>PCN>SCN>ATCN for intraperitoneal and subcutaneous routes. MCN was most toxic by oral (LD₅₀=66.4 mg/kg) and SNP by intraperitoneal (LD₅₀=16.7 mg/kg) and subcutaneous (LD₅₀=11.9 mg/kg) routes. Minimum survival time (25 min) was recorded after 4.0 LD₅₀ ATCN. Order of cyanogens (0.75 LD₅₀; oral) on the basis of maximum blood cyanide and time of peak cyanide generation were: ATCN>SNP>SCN>PCN>MCN>ACN, and MCN (30 min)inhibition and urinary thiocyanate levels. With the understanding of time-dependent toxicity of different cyanogens, suitable therapeutic windows can be designed for their management.

  6. Rough Set Theory as an Interpretable Method for Predicting the Inhibition of Cytochrome P450 1A2 and 2D6.

    PubMed

    Burton, Julien; Petit, Joachim; Danloy, Emeric; Maggiora, Gerald M; Vercauteren, Daniel P

    2013-07-01

    Early prediction of ADME properties such as the cytochrome P450 (CYP) mediated drug-drug interactions is an important challenge in the drug discovery area. In this study, we propose to couple an original data mining approach based on Rough Set Theory (RST) to a structural description of molecules. The latter was achieved by using two types of structural keys: (1) the MACCS keys and (2) a set of five in-house fingerprints based on properties of the electron density distributions of chemical groups. The compounds considered are involved in the inhibition of CYP1A2 and CYP2D6. RST allowed the extraction of rules further used as classifiers to predict the inhibitory profile of an independent set of molecules. The results reached prediction accuracies of 90.6 and 88.2 % for CYP1A2 and CYP2D6, respectively. In addition, these classifiers were analyzed to determine which structural fragments were most used for building the rules, revealing relationships between the occurrence of particular molecular fragments and CYP inhibition. The results assessed RST as a suitable tool to build strongly predictive models and infer structure-activity rules associated with potency.

  7. Peony-Glycyrrhiza Decoction, an Herbal Preparation, Inhibits Clozapine Metabolism via Cytochrome P450s, but Not Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase in In Vitro Models.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Tian, Dan-Dan; Zheng, Bin; Wang, Di; Tan, Qing-Rong; Wang, Chuan-Yue; Zhang, Zhang-Jin

    2015-07-01

    Our previous studies have shown the therapeutic efficacy and underlying mechanisms of Peony-Glycyrrhiza Decoction (PGD), an herbal preparation, in treating antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia in cultured cells, animal models, and human subjects. In the present study, we further evaluated pharmacokinetic interactions of PGD with clozapine (CLZ) in human liver microsomes (HLM), recombinantly expressed cytochrome P450s (P450s), and flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs). CLZ metabolites, N-demethyl-clozapine and clozapine-N-oxide, were measured. PGD, individual peony and glycyrrhiza preparations, and the two individual preparations in combination reduced production of CLZ metabolites to different extents in HLM. While the known bioactive constituents of PGD play a relatively minor role in the kinetic effects of PGD on P450 activity, PGD as a whole had a weak-to-moderate inhibitory potency toward P450s, in particular CYP1A2 and CYP3A4. FMOs are less actively involved in mediating CLZ metabolism and the PGD inhibition of CLZ. These results suggest that PGD has the capacity to suppress CLZ metabolism in the human liver microsomal system. This suppression is principally associated with the inhibition of related P450 activity but not FMOs. The present study provides in vitro evidence of herb-antipsychotic interactions.

  8. 12(R)-hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid: a cytochrome P450-dependent arachidonate metabolite that inhibits Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase in the cornea

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartzman, M.L.; Balazy, M.; Masferrer, J.; Abraham, N.G.; McGiff, J.C.; Murphy, R.C.

    1987-11-01

    When corneal microsomes were incubated with arachidonic acid in the presence of an NADPH-generating system, four polar metabolites (compounds A-D) were formed. Synthesis of these metabolites could be inhibited by carbon monoxide, SKF 525A, and anti-cytochrome c reductase antibodies. One of the metabolites, compound C, was found to inhibit partially purified Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase from the corneal epithelium in a dose-dependent manner. After compound C was purified by TLC and HPLC, it was found to have a UV absorption spectrum with a maximum absorbance at 236 nm suggesting the presence of a conjugated diene. Mass spectrometric analysis using positive- and negative-ionization modes was carried out on derivatized compound C. Abundant fragment ions were consistent with compound C being a monooxygenated derivative of arachidonic acid with a hydroxyl substituent at carbon-12 of the icosanoid backbone; all deuterium atoms from (/sup 2/H/sub 8/)arachidonate were retained in the structure. Compound C was characterized as a 12-hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid. However, only 12(R) isomer was found to be an inhibitor of the Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase from the corneal epithelium, suggesting that the biologically active compound C was 12(R)-hydroxyy-5,8,10,14-icosatetraenoic acid. Such an inhibitor of Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase synthesized in the cornea may have an important role in regulating ocular transparency and aqueous human secretion.

  9. Acute and Chronic Toxicity, Cytochrome P450 Enzyme Inhibition, and hERG Channel Blockade Studies with a Polyherbal, Ayurvedic Formulation for Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Debendranath; Chaskar, Sunetra; Athavale, Nitin; Chitre, Deepa

    2015-01-01

    Ayurvedic plants are known for thousands of years to have anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic effect. We have recently shown that BV-9238, a proprietary formulation of Withania somnifera, Boswellia serrata, Zingiber officinale, and Curcuma longa, inhibits LPS-induced TNF-alpha and nitric oxide production from mouse macrophage and reduces inflammation in different animal models. To evaluate the safety parameters of BV-9238, we conducted a cytotoxicity study in RAW 264.7 cells (0.005–1 mg/mL) by MTT/formazan method, an acute single dose (2–10 g/kg bodyweight) toxicity study and a 180-day chronic study with 1 g and 2 g/kg bodyweight in Sprague Dawley rats. Some sedation, ptosis, and ataxia were observed for first 15–20 min in very high acute doses and hence not used for further chronic studies. At the end of 180 days, gross and histopathology, blood cell counts, liver and renal functions were all at normal levels. Further, a modest attempt was made to assess the effects of BV-9238 (0.5 µg/mL) on six major human cytochrome P450 enzymes and 3H radioligand binding assay with human hERG receptors. BV-9238 did not show any significant inhibition of these enzymes at the tested dose. All these suggest that BV-9238 has potential as a safe and well tolerated anti-inflammatory formulation for future use. PMID:25893199

  10. Curcuminoids inhibit multiple human cytochromes P450 (CYP), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), and sulfotransferase (SULT) enzymes, while piperine is a relatively selective CYP3A4 inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Volak, Laurie P.; Ghirmai, Senait; Cashman, John R.; Court, Michael H.

    2008-01-01

    Curcuminoid extract and piperine are being evaluated for beneficial effects in Alzheimer’s disease, among other intractable disorders. Consequently, we studied the potential for herb-drug interactions involving cytochrome P450 (CYP), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT), and sulfotransferase (SULT) enzymes. The curcuminoid extract inhibited SULT > CYP2C19 > CYP2B6 > UGT > CYP2C9 > CYP3A activities with IC50 values ranging from 0.99 ± 0.04 to 25.3 ± 1.3 μM, while CYP2D6, CYP1A2, and CYP2E1 activities were less affected (IC50 values >60 μM). Inhibition of CYP3A activity by curcuminoid extract was consistent with competitive inhibition (Ki = 11.0 ± 1.3 μM), while inhibition of both CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 activities were consistent with mixed competitive-noncompetitive inhibition (10.6 ± 1.1 μM and 7.8 ± 0.9 μM, respectively). Piperine was a relatively selective noncompetitive inhibitor of CYP3A (IC50 5.5 ± 0.7 μM, Ki = 5.4 ± 0.3 μM) with less effect on other enzymes evaluated (IC50 >29 μM). Curcuminoid extract and piperine inhibited recombinant CYP3A4 much more potently (by >5-fold) than CYP3A5. Pure synthetic curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin) were also evaluated for their effects on CYP3A, CYP2C9, UGT, and SULT activities. All three curcuminoids had similar effects on CYP3A, UGT, and SULT activity, but demethoxycurcumin (IC50 = 8.8 ± 1.2 μM) was more active against CYP2C9 than either curcumin or bisdemethoxycurcumin (IC50 >50 μM). Based on these data and expected tissue concentrations of inhibitors, we predict that an orally administered curcuminoid/piperine combination is most likely to inhibit CYP3A, CYP2C9, UGT, and SULT metabolism within the intestinal mucosa. PMID:18480186

  11. The gap junction inhibitor 2-aminoethoxy-diphenyl-borate protects against acetaminophen hepatotoxicity by inhibiting cytochrome P450 enzymes and c-jun N-terminal kinase activation

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Kuo; Williams, C. David; McGill, Mitchell R.; Xie, Yuchao; Farhood, Anwar; Vinken, Mathieu; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2013-12-15

    Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity is the leading cause of acute liver failure in the US. Although many aspects of the mechanism are known, recent publications suggest that gap junctions composed of connexin32 function as critical intercellular communication channels which transfer cytotoxic mediators into neighboring hepatocytes and aggravate liver injury. However, these studies did not consider off-target effects of reagents used in these experiments, especially the gap junction inhibitor 2-aminoethoxy-diphenyl-borate (2-APB). In order to assess the mechanisms of protection of 2-APB in vivo, male C56Bl/6 mice were treated with 400 mg/kg APAP to cause extensive liver injury. This injury was prevented when animals were co-treated with 20 mg/kg 2-APB and was attenuated when 2-APB was administered 1.5 h after APAP. However, the protection was completely lost when 2-APB was given 4–6 h after APAP. Measurement of protein adducts and c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation indicated that 2-APB reduced both protein binding and JNK activation, which correlated with hepatoprotection. Although some of the protection was due to the solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), in vitro experiments clearly demonstrated that 2-APB directly inhibits cytochrome P450 activities. In addition, JNK activation induced by phorone and tert-butylhydroperoxide in vivo was inhibited by 2-APB. The effects against APAP toxicity in vivo were reproduced in primary cultured hepatocytes without use of DMSO and in the absence of functional gap junctions. We conclude that the protective effect of 2-APB was caused by inhibition of metabolic activation of APAP and inhibition of the JNK signaling pathway and not by blocking connexin32-based gap junctions. - Highlights: • 2-APB protected against APAP-induced liver injury in mice in vivo and in vitro • 2-APB protected by inhibiting APAP metabolic activation and JNK signaling pathway • DMSO inhibited APAP metabolic activation as the solvent of 2-APB

  12. Inhibitors of the mitochondrial cytochrome b-c1 complex inhibit the cyanide-insensitive respiration of Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Turrens, J F; Bickar, D; Lehninger, A L

    1986-06-01

    The cyanide-insensitive respiration of bloodstream trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma brucei (75 +/- 8 nmol O2 min-1(mg protein)-1) is completely inhibited by the mitochondrial ubiquinone-like inhibitors 2-hydroxy-3-undecyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (UHNQ) and 5-n-undecyl-6-hydroxy-4,7-dioxobenzothiazole (UHDBT). The Ki values for UHDBT (30 nM) and UHNQ (2 microM) are much lower than the reported Ki for salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) (5 microM), a widely used inhibitor of the cyanide-insensitive oxidase. UHNQ also stimulated the glycerol-3-phosphate-dependent reduction of phenazine methosulfate, demonstrating that the site of UHNQ inhibition is on the terminal oxidase of the cyanide-insensitive respiration of T. brucei. These results suggest that a ubiquinone-like compound may act as an electron carrier between the two enzymatic components of the cyanide-insensitive glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase.

  13. Use of In Vitro and Predictive In Silico Models to Study the Inhibition of Cytochrome P4503A by Stilbenes

    PubMed Central

    Basheer, Loai; Schultz, Keren; Fichman, Merav; Kerem, Zohar

    2015-01-01

    CYP3A4 is recognized as the main enzyme involved in the metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics in the human body and its inhibition may lead to undesirable consequences. Stilbenes, including resveratrol, belong to a group of dietary health-promoting compounds that also act as inhibitors of CYP3A4. The aim of this study was to examine the use of computer modeling of enzyme-ligand interactions to analyze and predict the inhibition of structurally related compounds. To this end, an aldehyde group was attached to resveratrol and the interactions of CYP3A4 with resveratrol, its aldehyde analogue (RA) and a known synthetic inhibitor were studied and compared in two biological models. Specifically, the metabolism of testosterone was examined in a human intestine cell line (Caco-2/TC7) and in rat liver microsomes (RLM). The results demonstrated a weak inhibitory effect of RA on CYP3A4, as compared to resveratrol itself, in both biological models. Human CYP3A4 was more susceptible to inhibition than the commonly used model isozyme from rat. Modeling of the binding site of CYP3A4 revealed a combination of three types of interactions: hydrophobic interactions, electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonds. A docking simulation revealed that the RA lacked an important binding feature, as compared to resveratrol, and that that difference may be responsible for its lower level of affinity for CYP3A4. Software analysis of binding affinity may serve as a predictive tool for designing new therapeutic compounds in terms of inhibition of CYP3A4 and help to reveal the biochemical nature of the interactions of dietary compounds, herbal compounds and drugs whose metabolism is mediated by this enzyme. PMID:26485399

  14. Evaluation of the inhibition potential of plumbagin against cytochrome P450 using LC-MS/MS and cocktail approach

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ang; Zhou, Xiaojing; Tang, Shuowen; Liu, Mingyao; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Plumbagin (5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone), a natural naphthoquinone compound isolated from roots of Plumbago zeylanica L., has drawn a lot of attention for its plenty of pharmacological properties including antidiabetes and anti-cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of plumbagin on CYP1A2, CYP2B1/6, CYP2C9/11, CYP2D1/6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A2/4 activities in human and rat liver and evaluate the potential herb-drug interactions using the cocktail approach. All CYP substrates and their metabolites were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Plumbagin presented non-time-dependent inhibition of CYP activities in both human and rat liver. In humans, plumbagin was not only a mixed inhibitor of CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4, but also a non-competitive inhibitor of CYP1A2, with Ki values no more than 2.16 μM. In rats, the mixed inhibition of CYP1A2 and CYP2D1, and competitive inhibition for CYP2B1, CYP2C11 and CYP2E1 with Ki values less than 9.93 μM were observed. In general, the relatively low Ki values of plumbagin in humans would have a high potential to cause the toxicity and drug interactions involving CYP enzymes. PMID:27329697

  15. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A by acetoxylated analogues of resveratrol in in vitro and in silico models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basheer, Loai; Schultz, Keren; Kerem, Zohar

    2016-08-01

    Many dietary compounds, including resveratrol, are potent inhibitors of CYP3A4. Here we examined the potential to predict inhibition capacity of dietary polyphenolics using an in silico and in vitro approaches and synthetic model compounds. Mono, di, and tri-acetoxy resveratrol were synthesized, a cell line of human intestine origin and microsomes from rat liver served to determine their in vitro inhibition of CYP3A4, and compared to that of resveratrol. Docking simulation served to predict the affinity of the synthetic model compounds to the enzyme. Modelling of the enzyme’s binding site revealed three types of interaction: hydrophobic, electrostatic and H-bonding. The simulation revealed that each of the examined acetylations of resveratrol led to the loss of important interactions of all types. Tri-acetoxy resveratrol was the weakest inhibitor in vitro despite being the more lipophilic and having the highest affinity for the binding site. The simulation demonstrated exclusion of all interactions between tri-acetoxy resveratrol and the heme due to distal binding, highlighting the complexity of the CYP3A4 binding site, which may allow simultaneous accommodation of two molecules. Finally, the use of computational modelling may serve as a quick predictive tool to identify potential harmful interactions between dietary compounds and prescribed drugs.

  16. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A by acetoxylated analogues of resveratrol in in vitro and in silico models

    PubMed Central

    Basheer, Loai; Schultz, Keren; Kerem, Zohar

    2016-01-01

    Many dietary compounds, including resveratrol, are potent inhibitors of CYP3A4. Here we examined the potential to predict inhibition capacity of dietary polyphenolics using an in silico and in vitro approaches and synthetic model compounds. Mono, di, and tri-acetoxy resveratrol were synthesized, a cell line of human intestine origin and microsomes from rat liver served to determine their in vitro inhibition of CYP3A4, and compared to that of resveratrol. Docking simulation served to predict the affinity of the synthetic model compounds to the enzyme. Modelling of the enzyme’s binding site revealed three types of interaction: hydrophobic, electrostatic and H-bonding. The simulation revealed that each of the examined acetylations of resveratrol led to the loss of important interactions of all types. Tri-acetoxy resveratrol was the weakest inhibitor in vitro despite being the more lipophilic and having the highest affinity for the binding site. The simulation demonstrated exclusion of all interactions between tri-acetoxy resveratrol and the heme due to distal binding, highlighting the complexity of the CYP3A4 binding site, which may allow simultaneous accommodation of two molecules. Finally, the use of computational modelling may serve as a quick predictive tool to identify potential harmful interactions between dietary compounds and prescribed drugs. PMID:27530542

  17. Hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme activity in relation to in vitro metabolism/inhibition of polychlorinated biphenyls and testosterone in Baltic grey seal (Halichoerus grypus).

    PubMed

    Li, Hongxia; Boon, Jan P; Lewis, Wilma E; van den Berg, Martin; Nyman, Madeleine; Letcher, Robert J

    2003-03-01

    Among other factors, cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activity determines polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) bioaccumulation, biotransformation, and toxicity in exposed species. We measured the oxidative metabolism in vitro of 12 PCB congeners, representing structural groups based on the number and position of the chlorine atoms, by the hepatic microsomes of one Baltic grey seal (Halichoerus grypus). Microsomal metabolism was observed for several PCBs with vicinal H atoms exclusively in the ortho and meta positions and without any ortho-Cl substituents (CB-15 [4,4'-Cl2] and CB-77 [3,3',4,4'-Cl4]), vicinal meta and para-H atoms (CB-52 [2,2',5,5'-Cl4], and -101 [2,2',4,5,5'-Cl5]) or with both characteristics in combination with either only one ortho-Cl (CB-26 [2,3',5-Cl3], CB-31 [2,4',5-Cl3]) or two ortho-Cl substituents (CB-44 [2,2',3,5'-Cl4]). To allocate PCB biotransformation to specific CYPs, the inhibitive effect of compounds with known CYP-specific inhibition properties was assessed on in vitro PCB metabolism and on regio- and stereospecific testosterone hydroxylase activities. Metabolic inhibition was considered relevant at concentrations < or = 1.0 microM because these inhibitors became decreasingly selective at higher concentrations. At < 1.0 microM, ellipticine (CYPIAI/2 inhibitor) selectively inhibited CB-15, -26, -31, and -77 metabolism, with no significant inhibition of CB-44, -52, and -101 metabolism. Inhibition of CB-52 and -101 metabolism by chloramphenicol (CYP2B inhibitor) started at 1.0 microM and maximized at about 100% at 10 microM. Ketoconazole (CYP3A inhibitor) appeared to selectively inhibit CB-26, -31, and -44 metabolism relative to CB-15, -77, and -52 at concentrations < or = 1.0 microM. Major testosterone metabolites formed in vitro were 2beta-(CYP3A), 6beta- (CYP3A, CYPIA), and 16beta- (CYP2B) hydroxytestosterone and androstenedione (CYP2B, CYP2C11). The CYP forms indicated are associated with the specific metabolism of testosterone in laboratory

  18. In vitro chemopreventive potential of fucophlorethols from the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus L. by anti-oxidant activity and inhibition of selected cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Parys, Sabine; Kehraus, Stefan; Krick, Anja; Glombitza, Karl-Werner; Carmeli, Shmuel; Klimo, Karin; Gerhäuser, Clarissa; König, Gabriele M

    2010-02-01

    Within a project focusing on the chemopreventive potential of algal phenols, two phloroglucinol derivatives, belonging to the class of fucophlorethols, and the known fucotriphlorethol A were obtained from the ethanolic extract of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus L. The compounds trifucodiphlorethol A and trifucotriphlorethol A are composed of six and seven units of phloroglucinol, respectively. The compounds were examined for their cancer chemopreventive potential, in comparison with the monomer phloroglucinol. Trifucodiphlorethol A, trifucotriphlorethol A as well as fucotriphlorethol A were identified as strong radical scavengers, with IC(50) values for scavenging of 1,1-diphenyl-2 picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH) in the range of 10.0-14.4 microg/ml. All three compounds potently scavenged peroxyl radicals in the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay. In addition, the compounds were shown to inhibit cytochrome P450 1A activity with IC(50) values in the range of 17.9-33 microg/ml, and aromatase (Cyp19) activity with IC(50) values in the range of 1.2-5.6 microg/ml.

  19. Metabolic Drug-Drug Interaction Potential of Macrolactin A and 7-O-Succinyl Macrolactin A Assessed by Evaluating Cytochrome P450 Inhibition and Induction and UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase Inhibition In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Soo Hyeon; Kwon, Min Jo; Park, Jung Bae; Kim, Doyun; Kim, Dong-Hee; Kang, Jae-Seon; Kim, Chun-Gyu; Oh, Euichaul

    2014-01-01

    Macrolactin A (MA) and 7-O-succinyl macrolactin A (SMA), polyene macrolides containing a 24-membered lactone ring, show antibiotic effects superior to those of teicoplanin against vancomycin-resistant enterococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. MA and SMA are currently being evaluated as antitumor agents in preclinical studies in Korea. We evaluated the potential of MA and SMA for the inhibition or induction of human liver cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) in vitro to assess their safety as new molecular entities. We demonstrated that MA and SMA are potent competitive inhibitors of CYP2C9, with Ki values of 4.06 μM and 10.6 μM, respectively. MA and SMA also weakly inhibited UGT1A1 activity, with Ki values of 40.1 μM and 65.3 μM, respectively. However, these macrolactins showed no time-dependent inactivation of the nine CYPs studied. In addition, MA and SMA did not induce CYP1A2, CYP2B6, or CYP3A4/5. On the basis of an in vitro-in vivo extrapolation, our data strongly suggested that MA and SMA are unlikely to cause clinically significant drug-drug interactions mediated via inhibition or induction of most of the CYPs involved in drug metabolism in vivo, except for the inhibition of CYP2C9 by MA. Similarly, MA and SMA are unlikely to inhibit the activity of UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A6, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7 enzymes in vivo. Although further investigations will be required to clarify the in vivo interactions of MA with CYP2C9-targeted drugs, our findings offer a clearer understanding and prediction of drug-drug interactions for the safe use of MA and SMA in clinical practice. PMID:24890600

  20. Metabolic drug-drug interaction potential of macrolactin A and 7-O-succinyl macrolactin A assessed by evaluating cytochrome P450 inhibition and induction and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase inhibition in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bae, Soo Hyeon; Kwon, Min Jo; Park, Jung Bae; Kim, Doyun; Kim, Dong-Hee; Kang, Jae-Seon; Kim, Chun-Gyu; Oh, Euichaul; Bae, Soo Kyung

    2014-09-01

    Macrolactin A (MA) and 7-O-succinyl macrolactin A (SMA), polyene macrolides containing a 24-membered lactone ring, show antibiotic effects superior to those of teicoplanin against vancomycin-resistant enterococci and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. MA and SMA are currently being evaluated as antitumor agents in preclinical studies in Korea. We evaluated the potential of MA and SMA for the inhibition or induction of human liver cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) in vitro to assess their safety as new molecular entities. We demonstrated that MA and SMA are potent competitive inhibitors of CYP2C9, with Ki values of 4.06 μM and 10.6 μM, respectively. MA and SMA also weakly inhibited UGT1A1 activity, with Ki values of 40.1 μM and 65.3 μM, respectively. However, these macrolactins showed no time-dependent inactivation of the nine CYPs studied. In addition, MA and SMA did not induce CYP1A2, CYP2B6, or CYP3A4/5. On the basis of an in vitro-in vivo extrapolation, our data strongly suggested that MA and SMA are unlikely to cause clinically significant drug-drug interactions mediated via inhibition or induction of most of the CYPs involved in drug metabolism in vivo, except for the inhibition of CYP2C9 by MA. Similarly, MA and SMA are unlikely to inhibit the activity of UGT1A1, UGT1A4, UGT1A6, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7 enzymes in vivo. Although further investigations will be required to clarify the in vivo interactions of MA with CYP2C9-targeted drugs, our findings offer a clearer understanding and prediction of drug-drug interactions for the safe use of MA and SMA in clinical practice.

  1. Benzo[a]pyrene-induced cytochrome P450 1A and DNA binding in cultured trout hepatocytes – inhibition by plant polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Petra A.; Walle, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) mainly induce lung cancer in humans, but induce liver cancer in fishes. The chemoprevention of cancers through inhibition of molecular events via phytochemicals is a potentially beneficial area of research, and has been carried out in human cell cultures in the past. Carcinogenesis initiation events are thought to occur in similar ways in fish and humans. Our study investigated the feasibility of using cultured rainbow trout CRL-2301 liver cells as a model for BaP-induced carcinogenesis and its prevention by dietary phytochemicals. Treatment with 1 μM BaP resulted in extensive time-dependent covalent binding to cellular DNA and marked cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A induction, for both about a 20-fold increase, which is similar to what has been observed in cultured human cells. A surprisingly high expression of epoxide hydrolase (EH) activity in these cells likely contributed substantially to the bioactivation of BaP. Two methoxylated flavones and the stilbene resveratrol were effective inhibitors of both the BaP-DNA binding and CYP 1A induction, in particular 5,7-dimethoxyflavone (5,7-DMF), supporting a role for these dietary compounds as cancer chemopreventive agents. Unlike in human liver or bronchial cells, the main mechanism of inhibition of BaP-induced CYP 1A activity in trout liver cells appears to be direct competition at the protein level. Different cellular responses in any particular model used can be expected and the effect of cell context on the biological responses to xenobiotics, including carcinogens as well as polyphenols, must be considered. The trout CRL-2301 cells' sensitivity to BaP treatment is a clear advantage when contemplating a model system for studies of PAH-induced carcinogenesis and cancer chemoprevention. However, extrapolation to human organs should be done cautiously. PMID:17583686

  2. Concurrent Cooperativity and Substrate Inhibition in the Epoxidation of Carbamazepine by Cytochrome P450 3A4 Active Site Mutants Inspired by Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is the major human P450 responsible for the metabolism of carbamazepine (CBZ). To explore the mechanisms of interactions of CYP3A4 with this anticonvulsive drug, we carried out multiple molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, starting with the complex of CYP3A4 manually docked with CBZ. On the basis of these simulations, we engineered CYP3A4 mutants I369F, I369L, A370V, and A370L, in which the productive binding orientation was expected to be stabilized, thus leading to increased turnover of CBZ to the 10,11-epoxide product. In addition, we generated CYP3A4 mutant S119A as a control construct with putative destabilization of the productive binding pose. Evaluation of the kinetics profiles of CBZ epoxidation demonstrate that CYP3A4-containing bacterial membranes (bactosomes) as well as purified CYP3A4 (wild-type and mutants I369L/F) exhibit substrate inhibition in reconstituted systems. In contrast, mutants S119A and A370V/L exhibit S-shaped profiles that are indicative of homotropic cooperativity. MD simulations with two to four CBZ molecules provide evidence that the substrate-binding pocket of CYP3A4 can accommodate more than one molecule of CBZ. Analysis of the kinetics profiles of CBZ metabolism with a model that combines the formalism of the Hill equation with an allowance for substrate inhibition demonstrates that the mechanism of interactions of CBZ with CYP3A4 involves multiple substrate-binding events (most likely three). Despite the retention of the multisite binding mechanism in the mutants, functional manifestations reveal an exquisite sensitivity to even minor structural changes in the binding pocket that are introduced by conservative substitutions such as I369F, I369L, and A370V. PMID:25545162

  3. Concurrent cooperativity and substrate inhibition in the epoxidation of carbamazepine by cytochrome P450 3A4 active site mutants inspired by molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christian S; Knehans, Tim; Davydov, Dmitri R; Bounds, Patricia L; von Mandach, Ursula; Halpert, James R; Caflisch, Amedeo; Koppenol, Willem H

    2015-01-27

    Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is the major human P450 responsible for the metabolism of carbamazepine (CBZ). To explore the mechanisms of interactions of CYP3A4 with this anticonvulsive drug, we carried out multiple molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, starting with the complex of CYP3A4 manually docked with CBZ. On the basis of these simulations, we engineered CYP3A4 mutants I369F, I369L, A370V, and A370L, in which the productive binding orientation was expected to be stabilized, thus leading to increased turnover of CBZ to the 10,11-epoxide product. In addition, we generated CYP3A4 mutant S119A as a control construct with putative destabilization of the productive binding pose. Evaluation of the kinetics profiles of CBZ epoxidation demonstrate that CYP3A4-containing bacterial membranes (bactosomes) as well as purified CYP3A4 (wild-type and mutants I369L/F) exhibit substrate inhibition in reconstituted systems. In contrast, mutants S119A and A370V/L exhibit S-shaped profiles that are indicative of homotropic cooperativity. MD simulations with two to four CBZ molecules provide evidence that the substrate-binding pocket of CYP3A4 can accommodate more than one molecule of CBZ. Analysis of the kinetics profiles of CBZ metabolism with a model that combines the formalism of the Hill equation with an allowance for substrate inhibition demonstrates that the mechanism of interactions of CBZ with CYP3A4 involves multiple substrate-binding events (most likely three). Despite the retention of the multisite binding mechanism in the mutants, functional manifestations reveal an exquisite sensitivity to even minor structural changes in the binding pocket that are introduced by conservative substitutions such as I369F, I369L, and A370V.

  4. Dynamic modeling of cytochrome P450 inhibition in vitro: impact of inhibitor depletion on IC₅₀ shift.

    PubMed

    Berry, Loren M; Zhao, Zhiyang; Lin, Min-Hwa Jasmine

    2013-07-01

    The impact of inhibitor depletion on the determination of shifted IC₅₀ (IC₅₀ determined after 30 minutes of preincubation with inhibitor) is examined. In addition, IC₅₀-shift data are analyzed using a mechanistic model that incorporates the processes of inhibitor depletion, as well as reversible and time-dependent inhibition. Anomalies such as a smaller-than-expected shift in IC₅₀ and even increases in IC₅₀ with preincubation were explained by the depletion of inhibitor during the preincubation. The IC₅₀-shift assay remains a viable approach to characterizing a wide range of reversible and time-dependent inhibitors. However, as with more traditional time-dependent inactivation methods, it is recommended that IC₅₀-shift experimental data be interpreted with some knowledge of the magnitude of inhibitor depletion. For the most realistic classification of time-dependent inhibitors using IC₅₀-shift methods, shifted IC₅₀ should be calculated using observed inhibitor concentrations at the end of the incubation rather than nominal inhibitor concentrations. Finally, a mechanistic model that includes key processes, such as competitive inhibition, enzyme inactivation, and inhibitor depletion, can be used to describe accurately the observed IC₅₀ and shifted IC₅₀ curves. For compounds showing an IC₅₀ fold shift >1.5 based on the observed inhibitor concentrations, reanalyzing the IC₅₀-shift data using the mechanistic model appeared to allow for reasonable estimation of Ki, KI, and kinact directly from the IC₅₀ shift experiments.

  5. Metformin inhibits 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced breast carcinogenesis and adduct formation in human breast cells by inhibiting the cytochrome P4501A1/aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Maayah, Zaid H.; Ghebeh, Hazem; Alhaider, Abdulqader A.; El-Kadi, Ayman O.S.; Soshilov, Anatoly A.; Denison, Michael S.; Ansari, Mushtaq Ahmad; Korashy, Hesham M.

    2015-04-15

    Recent studies have established that metformin (MET), an oral anti-diabetic drug, possesses antioxidant activity and is effective against different types of cancer in several carcinogen-induced animal models and cell lines. However, whether MET can protect against breast cancer has not been reported before. Therefore, the overall objectives of the present study are to elucidate the potential chemopreventive effect of MET in non-cancerous human breast MCF10A cells and explore the underlying mechanism involved, specifically the role of cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1)/aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway. Transformation of the MCF10A cells into initiated breast cancer cells with DNA adduct formation was conducted using 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA), an AhR ligand. The chemopreventive effect of MET against DMBA-induced breast carcinogenesis was evidenced by the capability of MET to restore the induction of the mRNA levels of basic excision repair genes, 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) and apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease1 (APE1), and the level of 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Interestingly, the inhibition of DMBA-induced DNA adduct formation was associated with proportional decrease in CYP1A1 and in NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) gene expression. Mechanistically, the involvements of AhR and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) in the MET-mediated inhibition of DMBA-induced CYP1A1 and NQO1 gene expression were evidenced by the ability of MET to inhibit DMBA-induced xenobiotic responsive element and antioxidant responsive element luciferase reporter gene expression which suggests an AhR- and Nrf2-dependent transcriptional control. However, the inability of MET to bind to AhR suggests that MET is not an AhR ligand. In conclusion, the present work shows a strong evidence that MET inhibits the DMBA-mediated carcinogenicity and adduct formation by inhibiting the expression of CYP1A1 through an AhR ligand-independent mechanism

  6. IL-1β hampers glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in Cohen diabetic rat islets through mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase inhibition by nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Weksler-Zangen, Sarah; Aharon-Hananel, Genya; Mantzur, Carmit; Aouizerat, Tzemach; Gurgul-Convey, Ewa; Raz, Itamar; Saada, Ann

    2014-03-01

    A high-sucrose, low-copper-diet (HSD) induces inhibition of glucose-sensitive rats (CDs) but not Cohen diabetes-resistant rats (CDr). Copper-supplemented HSD increased activity of the copper-dependent mitochondrial respiratory chain enzyme cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and reversed hyperglycemia. This study examined the mechanism by which interleukin-1β modulates GSIS and the role of COX in this process. We measured COX activity, ATP content, GSIS, iNOS expression, and nitrite production with and without IL-1β, N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine, copper, or potassium cyanide in isolated islets of CDs and CDr fed different diets. We found reduced COX activity, ATP content, and GSIS in isolated islets of CDs rats fed a regular diet. These were severely reduced following HSD and were restored to regular diet levels on copper-supplemented HSD (P < 0.01 vs. CDr islets). Potassium cyanide chemically reduced COX activity, decreasing GSIS and thus reinforcing the link between islet COX activity and GSIS. Interleukin-1β (2.5 U/ml) reduced GSIS and COX activity in CDs islets. Exposure to 10 U/ml interleukin-1β decreased GSIS and COX activity in both CDs and CDr islets, inducing a similar nitrite production. Nevertheless, the effect on GSIS was more marked in CDs islets. A significant iNOS expression was detected in CDs on the HSD diet, which was reduced by copper supplementation. N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine and copper prevented the deleterious effect of interleukin-1β on COX activity and GSIS. We conclude that reduced islet COX activity renders vulnerability to GSIS inhibition on low-copper HSD through two interrelated pathways: 1) by further reducing the activity of COX that is essential for β-cell ATP-production and insulin secretion and 2) by inducing the expression of iNOS and nitric oxide-mediated COX inhibition. We suggest that islet COX activity must be maintained above a critical threshold to sustain adequate GSIS with exposure to low-copper HSD.

  7. A high-throughput inhibition screening of major human cytochrome P450 enzymes using an in vitro cocktail and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Qin, Chong-Zhen; Ren, Xian; Tan, Zhi-Rong; Chen, Yao; Yin, Ji-Ye; Yu, Jing; Qu, Jian; Zhou, Hong-Hao; Liu, Zhao-Qian

    2014-02-01

    A sensitive and high-throughput inhibition screening liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of five probe metabolites (7-hydroxycoumarin, CYP2A6; 4-hydroxytolbutamide, CYP2C9; 4'-hydroxymephenytoin, CYP2C19; α-hydroxymetoprolol, CYP2D6; and 1-hydroxymidazolam, CYP3A4) for in vitro cytochrome P450 activity determination in human liver microsome and recombinant. All the metabolites and the internal standard, tramadol, were separated on a Waters 2695 series liquid chromatograph with a Phenomenex Luna C18 column (150 × 2.0 mm, 5 µm). Quality control samples and a positive control CYP inhibitor were included in the method. The IC50 values determined for typical CYP inhibitors were reproducible and in agreement with the literature. The method was selective and showed good accuracy (99.13-103.37%), and inter-day (RSD < 6.20%) and intra-day (RSD < 6.13%) precision. Also, the incubation extracts of the sample were stable at room temperature (20 °C) for 48 h and for 96 h in the autosampler (4 °C). The presented method is the first HPLC-MS/MS method of this combination for simultaneous detection of the five metabolites 7-hydroxycoumarin, 4-hydroxytolbutamide, 4'-hydroxymephenytoin, α-hydroxymetoprolol and 1-hydroxymidazolam in a single-run process. It is possible that the high-quality and -throughput cocktail provides suitable information in drug discovery and screening for new drug entities.

  8. Appetite suppressant drugs as inhibitors of human cytochromes P450: in vitro inhibition of P450-2D6 by D- and L-fenfluramine, but not phentermine.

    PubMed

    von Moltke, L L; Greenblatt, D J; Ciraulo, D A; Grassi, J M; Granda, B W; Duan, S X; Harmatz, J S; Shader, R I

    1998-08-01

    The activity of D-fenfluramine, L-fenfluramine, and phentermine as inhibitors of five human cytochromes P450 was evaluated using human liver microsomes in vitro. All three compounds produced negligible inhibition of P450-1A2, -2C9, -2E1, and -3A. Phentermine also did not inhibit P450-2D6. However, D- and L-fenfluramine significantly inhibited P450-2D6 activity as measured by dextromethorphan O-demethylation, with mean 50% inhibitory concentrations (15.1 microM) within one order of magnitude of that for fluoxetine (2.7 microM). Findings from the in vitro assay are consistent with clinical studies showing significant inhibition of desipramine clearance by coadministration of fenfluramine.

  9. The Interaction of Microsomal Cytochrome P450 2B4 with its Redox Partners, Cytochrome P450 Reductase and Cytochrome b5

    PubMed Central

    Im, Sang-Choul; Waskell, Lucy

    2010-01-01

    1 Cytochrome P450 2B4 is a microsomal protein with a multi-step reaction cycle similar to that observed in the majority of other cytochromes P450. The cytochrome P450 2B4-substrate complex is reduced from the ferric to the ferrous form by cytochrome P450 reductase. After binding oxygen, the oxyferrous protein accepts a second electron which is provided by either cytochrome P450 reductase or cytochrome b5. In both instances, product formation occurs. When the second electron is donated by cytochrome b5, catalysis (product formation) is ∼ 10 to 100-fold faster than in the presence of cytochrome P450 reductase. This allows less time for side product formation (hydrogen peroxide and superoxide) and improves by ∼ 15% the coupling of NADPH consumption to product formation. Cytochrome b5 has also been shown to compete with cytochrome P450 reductase for a binding site on the proximal surface of cytochrome P450 2B4. These two different effects of cytochrome b5 on cytochrome P450 2B4 reactivity can explain how cytochrome b5 is able to stimulate, inhibit, or have no effect on cytochrome P450 2B4 activity. At low molar ratios (<1) of cytochrome b5 to cytochrome P450 reductase, the more rapid catalysis results in enhanced substrate metabolism. In contrast, at high molar ratios (>1) of cytochome b5 to cytochrome P450 reductase, cytochrome b5 inhibits activity by binding to the proximal surface of cytochrome P450 and preventing the reductase from reducing ferric cytochrome P450 to the ferrous protein, thereby aborting the catalytic reaction cycle. When the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of cytochrome b5 are equal, it will appear to have no effect on the enzymatic activity. It is hypothesized that cytochrome b5 stimulates catalysis by causing a conformational change in the active site, which allows the active oxidizing oxyferryl species of cytochrome P450 to be formed more rapidly than in the presence of reductase. PMID:21055385

  10. Porcine Hypothalamic Aromatase Cytochrome P450: Isoform Characterization, Sex-Dependent Activity, Regional Expression, and Regulation by Enzyme Inhibition in Neonatal Boars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Domestic pigs have three CYP19 genes encoding functional paralogues of the enzyme aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom) that are expressed in the gonads, placenta and pre-implantation blastocyst. All catalyze estrogen synthesis, but the “gonadal” type enzyme is unique in also synthesizing a nonaromat...

  11. Effect of naphthalene on cytochrome oxidase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    Previous reports have demonstrated that naphthalene inhibits oxygen consumption in Daphnia magna tissue culture cells, and intact mitochondria and submitochondrial particles. These studies were extended to algal mitochondrial respiration as well as photosynthetic activity. The authors were able to demonstrate the specific site of apparent respiratory inhibition to be coenzyme Q (ubiquinone, UQ) and later to demonstrate the molecular basis of this inhibition at ubiquinone. The authors previously could not demonstrate an effect of naphthalene on cytochrome oxidase activity. However, the observation that naphthalene can stimulate respiration in algae prompted the reinvestigation of the effect of naphthalene on the kinetics of cytochrome oxidase. Cytochrome oxidase is a multi-subunit membranous protein responsible for the oxidation of cytochrome c and the reduction of molecular oxygen to water. Because of the complicated nature and mechanism of this enzyme, the potential exists for multiple and possibly opposite effects of naphthalene on its function.

  12. Stimulation of cellular XTT reduction by cytochrome oxidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Kunimoto, S; Nosaka, C; Takeuchi, T

    1999-06-01

    XTT reducing activity by CHO and L1210 cells was found to be stimulated by the presence of cytochrome oxidase inhibitors such as NaN3 or KCN. Among the other respiratory chain inhibitors, antimycin A (a complex III inhibitor) and chlorpromazine inhibited cellular XTT reduction, and rotenone and malonate showed slight inhibition and no effect, respectively. It is suggested that XTT reduction is coupled with the respiratory chain via cytochrome c, which is located between complexes III and IV (cytochrome oxidase).

  13. Protective effect of L-kynurenine and probenecid on 6-hydroxydopamine-induced striatal toxicity in rats: implications of modulating kynurenate as a protective strategy.

    PubMed

    Silva-Adaya, Daniela; Pérez-De La Cruz, Verónica; Villeda-Hernández, Juana; Carrillo-Mora, Paul; González-Herrera, Irma Gabriela; García, Esperanza; Colín-Barenque, Laura; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; Santamaría, Abel

    2011-01-01

    The neuroactive metabolite at the kynunerine pathway, kynurenic acid (KYNA), is a well-known competitive antagonist at the co-agonist glycine site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAr), and also decreases the extracellular levels of glutamate by blocking α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAchr) located on glutamatergic terminals. KYNA has been often reported to be neuroprotective in different neurotoxic models. The systemic administration of L-kynurenine (L-KYN)--the precursor of KYNA--together with probenecid (PROB)--an inhibitor of organic acids transport--to rodents increases KYNA levels in the brain in a dose-dependent manner. The striatal infusion of the toxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) to rodents is one of the common models used to simulate Parkinson's disease (PD). Different studies have linked PD alterations with excessive glutamatergic transmission in the striatum since NMDAr antagonists exert beneficial effects in PD models. In this work we investigated the effect that a systemic administration of L-KYN+PROB exerted on the toxic model induced by 6-OHDA in rats. PROB (50 mg/kg, i.p.) + L-KYN (75 mg/kg, i.p.) were given to rats for seven consecutive days. On day two of treatment, the animals were infused with a single injection of 6-OHDA (20 μg/2 μl) into the right striatum. Fourteen days post-lesion, rotation behavior was assessed as a marker of motor impairment. The total levels of dopamine (DA) were also estimated in striatal tissue samples of 6-OHDA-treated animals as a neurochemical marker of damage. In addition, twenty eight days post-lesion, the striatal damage was assessed by hematoxylin/eosin staining and immunohistochemistry against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the same animals. Neurodegeneration was also assessed by Fluoro Jade staining. 6-OHDA infusion increased rotation behavior, striatal reactive gliosis and neurodegeneration, while DA levels were decreased. For all markers evaluated, we observed protective effects of L-KYN+PROB on the dopaminergic damage induced by 6-OHDA. Our results suggest that this strategy was useful to mitigate dopaminergic toxicity in the hemiparkinsonian model. The combined use of L-KYN and PROB is a valuable tool to modulate glutamatergic and cholinergic activities, presumably by means of increased levels of endogenous KYNA.

  14. Carnosic acid protects against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity in in vivo and in vitro model of Parkinson's disease: involvement of antioxidative enzymes induction.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chi-Rei; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Chang, Shu-Wei; Lin, Chia-Yuan; Huang, Li-Chun; Tsai, Chia-Wen

    2015-01-05

    The neuroprotective effects of carnosic acid (CA), a phenolic diterpene isolated from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), have been widely investigated in recent years, however, its protection in in vivo still unclear. In this study, we investigated the behavioral activity and neuroprotective effects of CA in a rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD) induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Rats were treated with 20mg/kg body weight of CA for 3 weeks before 6-OHDA exposure. Results indicated that CA improved the locomotor activity and reduced the apomorphine-caused rotation in 6-OHDA-stimulated rats. Significant protection against lipid peroxidation and GSH reduction was observed in the 6-OHDA rats pretreated with CA. Pretreatment with CA increased the protein expression of γ-glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit, γ-glutamate-cysteine ligase modifier subunit, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione reductase compared with 6-OHDA-stimulated rats and SH-SY5Y cells. Immunoblots showed that the reduction of the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, the induction of caspase 3 cleavage, and the induction of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage by 6-OHDA was reversed in the presence of SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor) or SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) in SH-SY5Y cells. Rats treated with CA reversed the 6-OHDA-mediated the activation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase and p38, the down-regulation of the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, the up-regulation of cleaved caspase 3/caspase 3 and cleaved PARP/PARP ratio, and the down-regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase protein. However, BAM7, an activator of Bax, attenuated the effect of CA on apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells. These results suggest that CA protected against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity is attributable to its anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative action. The present findings may help to clarify the possible mechanisms of rosemary in the neuroprotection of PD.

  15. Orexin-A Protects Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells Against 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Neurotoxicity: Involvement of PKC and PI3K Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Pasban-Aliabadi, Hamzeh; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed; Abbasnejad, Mehdi

    2017-04-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by progressive and selective death of dopaminergic neurons. Multifunctional neuropeptide orexin-A is involved in many biological events of the body. It has been shown that orexin-A has protective effects in neurodegenerative disease such as PD. However, its cellular mechanisms have not yet been fully clarified. Here, we investigated the intracellular signaling pathway of orexin-A neuroprotection in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced SH-SY5H cells damage as an in vitro model of PD. The cells were incubated with 150 μM 6-OHDA, and the viability was examined by 3-[4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl]-2,5-diphenyl-2-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular calcium were measured by fluorescent probes. Western blotting was also used to determine cyclooxygenase type 2 (COX-2), nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2), and HSP70 protein levels. The data showed that 6-OHDA has decreasing effects on cell viability, Nrf2, and HSP70 protein expression and increases the level of mitochondrial membrane potential, intracellular calcium, and COX-2 protein. Orexin-A (500 pM) significantly attenuated the 6-OHDA-induced cell damage. Furthermore, Orexin-A significantly prevented the mentioned effects of 6-OHDA on SH-SY5Y cells. Orexin 1 receptor antagonist (SB3344867), PKC, and PI3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors (chelerythrin and LY294002, respectively) could suppress the orexin-A neuroprotective effect. In contrast, blockage of PKA by a selective inhibitor (KT5720) had no effects on the orexin protection. The results suggest that orexin-A protective effects against 6-OHDA-induced neurotoxicity are performed via its receptors, PKC and PI3K signaling pathways.

  16. Effect of different doses of estrogen on the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system in two 6-hydroxydopamine-induced lesion models of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Cordellini, Marcela Ferreira; Piazzetta, Giovana; Pinto, Karin Cristine; Delattre, Ana Márcia; Matheussi, Francesca; Carolino, Ruither O G; Szawka, Raphael Escorsim; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A; Ferraz, Anete Curte

    2011-06-01

    Parkinson's disease results from a degeneration of dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and it is more prevalent in men than in women. Estrogen has neuroprotective action of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic (NSDA) neurons. It was investigated whether differences in plasma 17β-estradiol (E2) levels alter the degree of neuroprotection in NSDA neurons. Ovariectomized rats, implanted with subcutaneous capsules containing 400, 800 or 1,600 μg of E2 or corn oil, were injected with 1 μg of 6-OHDA in the SNpc or the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). Striatal dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and plasma E2 levels were measured. Only at 400 μg, E2 protected striatal DA against lesion of the MFB. In the SNpc, E2 failed to prevent DA depletion, but increased DOPAC/DA ratio in the striatum. In an NSDA moderate lesion, E2 has a neuroprotective action. In a severe lesion, E2 could stimulate DA activity in remaining neurons.

  17. Alcoholic extract of Bacopa monniera Linn. protects against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced changes in behavioral and biochemical aspects: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Shobana, Chandrasekar; Kumar, Radhakrishnan Ramesh; Sumathi, Thangarajan

    2012-10-01

    Parkinson's disease is one of the commonest neurodegenerative diseases, and oxidative stress has been evidenced to play a vital role in its causation. In this study, we evaluated whether alcoholic extract of Bacopa monniera (AEBM), an antioxidant and memory enhancer can slow the neuronal injury in a 6-OHDA-rat model of Parkinson's. Rats were treated with 20 and 40 mg/kg bodyweight of AEBM for 3 weeks. On Day 21, 2 μl of 6-OHDA (12 μg in 0.01 % in ascorbic acid-saline) was infused into the right striatum, while the control group received 2 μl of vehicle. Three weeks after the 6-OHDA injection, the rats were tested for neurobehavioral activity (rotarod, locomotor activity, grip test, forced swim test, radial arm maze) and were killed after 6 weeks for the estimation of lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione (GSH) content, activities of glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). The deficits in behavioral activity due to 6-OHDA lesioning were significantly and dose dependently restored by AEBM. Lesioning was followed by an increased lipid peroxidation and significant depletion of reduced GSH content in the substantia nigra, which was prevented with AEBM pretreatment. The activities of GSH-dependent enzymes, CAT and SOD in striatum were reduced significantly by lesioning, which were restored significantly and dose dependently by AEBM. This study indicates that the extract of B. monniera might be helpful in attenuating 6-OHDA-induced lesioning in rats.

  18. Pharmacognostical Analysis and Protective Effect of Standardized Extract and Rizonic Acid from Erythrina velutina against 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Aline H.; Fonseca, Francisco Noé; Pimenta, Antônia T. A.; Lima, MaryAnne S.; Silveira, Edilberto Rocha; Viana, Glauce S. B.; Vasconcelos, Silvânia M. M.; Leal, Luzia Kalyne A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Erythrina velutina is a tree common in the northeast of Brazil extensively used by traditional medicine for the treatment of central nervous system disorders. Objective: To develop a standardized ethanol extract of E. velutina (EEEV) and to investigate the neuroprotective potential of the extract and rizonic acid (RA) from E. velutina on neuronal cells. Materials and methods: The plant drug of E. velutina previously characterized was used for the production of EEEV. Three methods were evaluated in order to obtain an extract with higher content of phenols. The neuroprotective effect of standardized EEEV (HPLC-PDA) and RA was investigated on SH-SY5Y cell exposure to the neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Results: The powder of the plant drug was classified as moderately coarse and several quality control parameters were determined. EEEV produced by percolation gave the highest phenol content when related to others extractive methods, and its HPLC-PDA analysis allowed to identify four flavonoids and RA, some reported for the first time for the species. EEEV and RA reduced significantly the neurotoxicity induced by 6-OHDA in SH-SY5Y cells determined by the MTT assay and the nitrite concentration. EEEV also showed a free radical scavenging activity. Conclusion: This is the first pharmacological study about E. velutina which used a controlled standardized extract since the preparation of the herbal drug. This extract and RA, acting as an antioxidant, presents a neuroprotective effect suggesting that they have potential for future development as a therapeutic agent in neurodegenerative disease as Parkinson. SUMMARY The powder of Erythrina velutina was classified as moderately coarse and several quality-control parameters were determined.Ethanolic extract from E. velutina (EEEV) produced by percolation gave the highest phenol content when related to others extractive methods and its HPLC–PDA analysis of EEEV allowed to identify four flavonoids and rizonic acid (RA), some reported for the first time for the species.The EEEV and RA reduced significantly the neurotoxicity induced by 6-OHDA in SH-SY5Y cells determined by the MTT assay and the nitrite concentration.The EEEV also showed a free radical scavenging activity. Abbreviations used: ±: More or less, %: Percentage, °C: Degree Celsius, <: Less than, μg: Microgram, μL: Microliter, μM: Micromol, [1D] MNR: One-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, [2D] MNR:Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, 6-OHDA: [6-] Hydroxydopamine. Abs: Absorbance, CFU: Colony forming units, CH2Cl2: Dichloromethane, CHCl3: Chloroform cmCentimeter, DMEM/F12: Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium: Nutrient Mixture F-12. DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide, DPPH: 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, EAG: Gallic acid equivalents, EEEV: Ethanolic extract of Erythrina velutina, EtOAc: Ethyl acetate, g: Gram, h: Hour, H2O: Water, HPLC: High-performance liquid chromatography, H REIMS: Hydrogen rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry, Kg: Kilogram M: Molar, m: Metro, MeOH: Methanol, mg: Milligram, min: Minute, mL: Milliliter, mm: Millimeter, MTT: Bromide 3 [4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl] -2,5-diphenyltetrazolium, N: Normal, NBT: Nitroblue tetrazolium, nm: Nanometer, PDA: Photodiode array detector, TPC: Total polyphenol content, RA: Rizonic acid, RP: Reverse phase, SOD: Superoxide dismutase, v/v: Volume per volume, Vs: Versus W: Watts PMID:27867274

  19. Lever pressing responses under a fixed-ratio schedule of mice with 6-hydroxydopamine-induced dopamine depletion in the nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Yuji; Nishizawa, Kayo; Kai, Nobuyuki; Kobayashi, Kazuto

    2011-02-02

    In order to investigate the relationship between dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens and operant behavior in mice, mice with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced dopamine depletion in the nucleus accumbens were tested for their performance in lever pressing tasks under FR schedules with 8 ratios from FR5 to FR120. The mice were given one 20-mg food pellet per completed FR schedule in FR5, FR10, and FR20; they were given 2 pellets in FR40, and one more cumulatively in the rest of the schedules. Before the 6-OHDA injection surgery, all mice were trained to press a lever under all FR schedules. Then, 6-OHDA or ascorbate was injected into the nucleus accumbens. Postoperatively, the mice were tested under each FR schedule, with 3 sessions per schedule. 6-OHDA-treated mice exhibited an increase in lever pressing latency, i.e., the time interval between the last presentation of the reward and the next lever press, and a decrease in inter-response intervals, i.e., the time interval between 2 lever presses excluding lever pressing latency, irrespective of the FR ratios. Furthermore, in these 6-OHDA-treated mice, the number of lever presses during the first 300s of the session decreased under FR schedules with low ratios (5, 10, and 20). Open field activity, food motivation, and the amount of food consumed were not affected by dopamine depletion in the nucleus accumbens. These results suggest that the dopamine system in the nucleus accumbens had an important role in the control of lever pressing latency and inter-response intervals under FR reinforcement schedules.

  20. In vivo visualization and monitoring of viable neural stem cells using noninvasive bioluminescence imaging in the 6-hydroxydopamine-induced mouse model of Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Im, Hyung-Jun; Hwang, Do Won; Lee, Han Kyu; Jang, Jaeho; Lee, Song; Youn, Hyewon; Jin, Yeona; Kim, Seung U; Kim, E Edmund; Kim, Yong Sik; Lee, Dong Soo

    2013-06-01

    Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) has been proposed as a treatment for Parkinson disease (PD). The aim of this study was to monitor the viability of transplanted NSCs expressing the enhanced luciferase gene in a mouse model of PD in vivo. The PD animal model was induced by unilateral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). The behavioral test using apomorphine-induced rotation and positron emission tomography with [18F]N-(3-fluoropropyl)-2'-carbomethoxy-3'-(4-iodophenyl)nortropane ([18F]FP-CIT) were conducted. HB1.F3 cells transduced with an enhanced firefly luciferase retroviral vector (F3-effLuc cells) were transplanted into the right striatum. In vivo bioluminescence imaging was repeated for 2 weeks. Four weeks after transplantation, [18F]FP-CIT PET and the rotation test were repeated. All 6-OHDA-injected mice showed markedly decreased [18F]FP-CIT uptake in the right striatum. Transplanted F3-effLuc cells were visualized on the right side of the brain in all mice by bioluminescence imaging. The bioluminescence intensity of the transplanted F3-effLuc cells gradually decreased until it was undetectable by 10 days. The behavioral test showed that stem cell transplantation attenuated the motor symptoms of PD. No significant change was found in [18F]FP-CIT imaging after cell transplantation. We successfully established an in vivo bioluminescence imaging system for the detection of transplanted NSCs in a mouse model of PD. NSC transplantation induced behavioral improvement in PD model mice.

  1. Allogeneic/xenogeneic transplantation of peptide-labeled mitochondria in Parkinson's disease: restoration of mitochondria functions and attenuation of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jui-Chih; Wu, Shey-Lin; Liu, Ko-Hung; Chen, Ya-Hui; Chuang, Chieh-Sen; Cheng, Fu-Chou; Su, Hong-Lin; Wei, Yau-Huei; Kuo, Shou-Jen; Liu, Chin-San

    2016-04-01

    Although restoration of mitochondrial function in mitochondrial diseases through peptide-mediated allogeneic mitochondrial delivery (PMD) has been demonstrated in vitro, the in vivo therapeutic efficacy of PMD in Parkinson's disease (PD) has yet to be determined. In this study, we compared the functionality of mitochondrial transfer with or without Pep-1 conjugation in neurotoxin (6-hydroxydopamine, 6-OHDA)-induced PC12 cells and PD rat models. We injected mitochondria into the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) of the PD rats after subjecting the nigrostriatal pathway to a unilateral 6-OHDA lesion for 21 days, and we verified the effectiveness of the mitochondrial graft in enhancing mitochondrial function in the soma of the substantia nigra (SN) neuron through mitochondrial transport dynamics in the nigrostriatal circuit. The result demonstrated that only PMD with allogeneic and xenogeneic sources significantly sustained mitochondrial function to resist the neurotoxin-induced oxidative stress and apoptotic death in the rat PC12 cells. The remaining cells exhibited a greater capability of neurite outgrowth. Furthermore, allogeneic and xenogeneic transplantation of peptide-labeled mitochondria after 3 months improved the locomotive activity in the PD rats. This increase was accompanied by a marked decrease in dopaminergic neuron loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and consistent enhancement of tyrosine hydroxylase-positive immunoreaction of dopaminergic neurons in the SNc and striatum. We also observed that in the SN dopaminergic neuron in the treated PD rats, mitochondrial complex I protein and mitochondrial dynamics were restored, thus ameliorating the oxidative DNA damage. Moreover, we determined signal translocation of graft allogeneic mitochondria from the MFB to the calbindin-positive SN neuron, which demonstrated the regulatory role of mitochondrial transport in alleviating 6-OHDA-induced degeneration of dopaminergic neurons.

  2. Neurotoxic Effect of Benzo[a]pyrene and Its Possible Association with 6-Hydroxydopamine Induced Neurobehavioral Changes during Early Adolescence Period in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Das, Saroj Kumar; Patel, Bhupesh

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to persistent genotoxicants like benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) during postnatal days causes neurobehavioral changes in animal models. However, neurotoxic potential of B[a]P and its association with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced neurobehavioral changes are yet to be explored. The growth of rat brain peaks at the first week of birth and continues up to one month with the attainment of adolescence. Hence, the present study was conducted on male Wistar rats at postnatal day 5 (PND 5) following single intracisternal administration of B[a]P to compare with neurobehavioral and neurotransmitter changes induced by 6-OHDA at PND 30. Spontaneous motor activity was significantly increased by 6-OHDA showing similar trend following B[a]P administration. Total distance travelled in novel open field arena and elevated plus maze was significantly increased following B[a]P and 6-OHDA administration. Neurotransmitter estimation showed significant alleviation of dopamine in striatum following B[a]P and 6-OHDA administration. Histopathological studies of striatum by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining revealed the neurodegenerative potential of B[a]P and 6-OHDA. Our results indicate that B[a]P-induced spontaneous motor hyperactivity in rats showed symptomatic similarities with 6-OHDA. In conclusion, early postnatal exposure to B[a]P in rats causing neurobehavioral changes may lead to serious neurodegenerative consequences during adolescence. PMID:27034665

  3. Fibroblast growth factor 1attenuates 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity: an in vitro and in vivo investigation in experimental models of parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiaojie; He, Songbin; Wang, Zhouguang; Wu, Jiamin; Zhang, Jinjing; Cheng, Yi; Yang, Jie; Xu, Xinlong; Chen, Zaifeng; Ye, Junmin; Chen, Li; Lin, Li; Xiao, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system and is characterized by motor system disorders resulting in loss of dopamine producing brain cells. Acidic fibroblast growth factor, also called FGF1, promotes the survival of neurons. The aims of the present study were to confirm FGF1 could protect neurons cultures from 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) toxicity in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrated FGF1 administration improved the motor function recovery, increased the TH-positive neurons survival and up-regulated the levels of neurotransmitters in PD rats. Meanwhile, FGF1 prevents the death of DA neuron at least in part by reducing the levels of α-synuclein and ER stress. The administration of FGF1 activated downstream signals PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2. In conclusion, FGF1 diminished α-synuclein neurotoxicity by down regulating ER stress mediators and the level of apoptosis, and these effects may underlying the activation of the PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 signal pathway. PMID:25628778

  4. Inhibition of cytochrome P-450 with 2-diethylamino-ethyl-2,2-diphenylpropylacetate (SKF-525A) reduces immunotoxicity of chlorinated carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Zabrodskii, P F; Mandych, V G; Germanchuk, V G

    2006-09-01

    Experiments on outbred albino rats showed that single intraperitoneal injection of cytochrome P-450 inhibitor 2-diethylaminoethyl-2,2-diphenylpropylacetate (SKF-525A) in a dose of 50 mg/kg before acute poisoning with 1,2-dichloroethane and trichloroethane in a dose of 1.0 LD(50), metabolized in the body to compounds with higher toxicity (the phenomenon of "lethal synthesis") reduced their immunotoxicity by decreasing the formation of their biotransformation products.

  5. Isolation of ubiquinol oxidase from Paracoccus denitrificans and resolution into cytochrome bc1 and cytochrome c-aa3 complexes.

    PubMed

    Berry, E A; Trumpower, B L

    1985-02-25

    An enzyme complex with ubiquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase, cytochrome c oxidase, and ubiquinol oxidase activities was purified from a detergent extract of the plasma membrane of aerobically grown Paracoccus denitrificans. This ubiquinol oxidase consists of seven polypeptides and contains two b cytochromes, cytochrome c1, cytochrome aa3, and a previously unreported c-type cytochrome. This c-type cytochrome has an apparent Mr of 22,000 and an alpha absorption maximum at 552 nm. Retention of this c cytochrome through purification presumably accounts for the independence of ubiquinol oxidase activity on added cytochrome c. Ubiquinol oxidase can be separated into a 3-subunit bc1 complex, a 3-subunit c-aa3 complex, and a 57-kDa polypeptide. This, together with detection of covalently bound heme and published molecular weights of cytochrome c1 and the subunits of cytochrome c oxidase, allows tentative identification of most of the subunits of ubiquinol oxidase with the prosthetic groups present. Ubiquinol oxidase contains cytochromes corresponding to those of the mitochondrial bc1 complex, cytochrome c oxidase complex, and a bound cytochrome c. Ubiquinol-cytochrome c oxidoreductase activity of the complex is inhibited by inhibitors of the mitochondrial bc1 complex. Thus it seems likely that the pathway of electron transfer through the bc1 complex of ubiquinol oxidase is similar to that through the mitochondrial bc1 complex. The number of polypeptides present is less than half the number in the corresponding mitochondrial complexes. This structural simplicity may make ubiquinol oxidase from P. denitrificans a useful system with which to study the mechanisms of electron transfer and energy transduction in the bc1 and cytochrome c oxidase sections of the respiratory chain.

  6. Further Characterization of the Metabolism of Desloratadine and Its Cytochrome P450 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase Inhibition Potential: Identification of Desloratadine as a Relatively Selective UGT2B10 Inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Kazmi, Faraz; Yerino, Phyllis; Barbara, Joanna E; Parkinson, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    Desloratadine (Clarinex), the major active metabolite of loratadine (Claritin), is a nonsedating antihistamine used for the treatment of seasonal allergies and hives. Previously we reported that the formation of 3-hydroxydesloratadine, the major human metabolite of desloratadine, involves three sequential reactions, namely N-glucuronidation by UGT2B10 followed by 3-hydroxylation by CYP2C8 followed by deconjugation (rapid, nonenzymatic hydrolysis of the N-glucuronide). In this study we assessed the perpetrator potential of desloratadine based on in vitro studies of its inhibitory effects on cytochrome P450 and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes in human liver microsomes (HLM). Desloratadine (10 µM) caused no inhibition (<15%) of CYP1A2, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, or CYP2C19 and weak inhibition (32-48%) of CYP2B6, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4/5. In cryopreserved human hepatocytes (CHH), which can form the CYP2C8 substrate desloratadine N-glucuronide, desloratadine did not inhibit the CYP2C8-dependent metabolism of paclitaxel or amodiaquine. Assessment of UGT inhibition identified desloratadine as a potent and relatively selective competitive inhibitor of UGT2B10 (Ki value of 1.3 μM). Chemical inhibition of UGT enzymes in HLM demonstrated that nicotine (UGT2B10 inhibitor) but not hecogenin (UGT1A4 inhibitor) completely inhibited the conversion of desloratadine (1 µM) to 3-hydroxydesloratadine in HLM fortified with both NADPH and UDP-glucuronic acid. 3-Hydroxydesloratadine formation correlated well with levomedetomidine glucuronidation (UGT2B10 marker activity) with a panel of individual CHH (r(2) = 0.72). Overall, the results of this study confirm the role of UGT2B10 in 3-hydroxydesloratadine formation and identify desloratadine as a relatively selective in vitro inhibitor of UGT2B10.

  7. The respiratory system of the marine bacterium Beneckea natriegens. I. Cytochrome composition.

    PubMed

    Weston, J A; Knowles, C J

    1974-02-22

    (1) The cytochrome composition of Beneckea natriegens grown under aerobic conditions has been examined. (2) Cell-free extracts obtained by sonication were separated into particulate and supernatant fractions by centrifugation at 150,000 x g. (3) The particulate fraction contained cytochromes b562, b557, b or c554, c549.5, c547, and low concentrations of cytochromes a1 and a2. (Subscripts refer to the wavelength optima of the b and c type cytochrome alpha-peaks in low temperature (77 degrees K) difference spectra.) Also present was a second cytochrome c549.5 which is capable of binding carbon monoxide (cytochrome c549.5(CO)) and which is also found in the supernatant fraction. (4) Reduced plus CO minus reduced difference spectra had spectral peaks corresponding to cytochrome o and two c type cytochromes, and low concentrations of cytochromes a1 and a2. (5) Action spectra for the relief of CO inhibition showed that cytochrome a2, the CO binding c type cytochrome(s) and possibly cytochrome o, but not cytochrome a1, had oxidase activity in intact cells. In cells grown to the late stationary phase, when cytochrome a2 and particularly cytochrome a1 were induced, the primary functual oxidase was cytochrome a1.

  8. 2-Diethylaminoethyl-2,2-diphenylvalerate-HCl (SKF525A) revisited: comparative cytochrome P450 inhibition in human liver microsomes by SKF525A, its metabolites, and SKF-acid and SKF-alcohol.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Michael R; Hathaway, Laura B

    2008-12-01

    When incubated with human liver microsomes, 2-diethylaminoethyl-2,2-diphenylvalerate-HCl (SKF525A) undergoes cytochrome P450 (P450)-dependent oxidative N-deethylation to the secondary amine metabolite 2-ethylaminoethyl-2,2-diphenylvalerate (SKF8742). P450-selective inhibitors indicated CYP3As catalyzed this reaction, and the deethylation rate correlated best with the CYP3A activity across a range of human liver microsomes. SKF525A and its metabolite and primary amine analog all inhibited CYP2B6-, CYP2C9-, CYP2C19-, CYP2D6-, and CYP3A-selective reactions to varying degrees but had little effect on CYP1A2, CYP2A6, and CYP2E1 reactions. Only the inhibition of CYP3A showed major enhancement when the inhibitors were preincubated with NADPH-fortified microsomes, and the extent of metabolic intermediate (MI) complex formation approximated typical CYP3A content. Two "lost with time" SKF525A derivatives devoid of the ethylamine moiety, 2,2-diphenylpropylethanol (SKF-Alcohol) and 2,2-diphenylpropylacetic acid (SKF-Acid) did not form an MI complex and were identified as selective inhibitors of CYP2C9. Although without detectable metabolism, their CYP2C9 inhibition fitted best with a competitive mechanism. Thus, not all the human P450s are inhibited by SKF525A and related compounds, and the mechanisms contributing to those that are inhibited vary with the isoform. P450 MI-complex formation only seems to play a role with CYP3As.

  9. Isolation and purification of the cytochrome oxidase of Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed

    Jurtshuk, P; Mueller, T J; Wong, T Y

    1981-09-14

    A membrane-bound cytochrome oxidase for Azobacter vinelandii was purified 20-fold using a detergent-solubilization procedure. Activity was monitored using as ascorbate-TMPD oxidation assay. The oxidase was 'solubilized' from a sonic-type electron-transport particle (R3 fraction) using Triton X-100 and deoxycholate. Low detergent concentrations first solubilized the flavoprotein oxidoreductases, then higher concentrations of Triton X-100 and KCl solubilized the oxidase, which was precipitated at 27-70% (NH4)2SO4. The highly purified cytochrome oxidase has a V of 60-78 microgatom O consumed/min per mg protein. TMPD oxidation by the purified enzyme was inhibited by CO, KCN, NaN3 and NH2OH; NaNO2 (but not NaNO3) also had a potent inhibitory effect. Spectral analyses revealed two major hemoproteins, the c-type cytochrome c4 and cytochrome o; cytochromes a1 and d were not detected. The Azotobacter cytochrome oxidase is an integrated cytochrome c4-o complex, TMPD-dependent cytochrome oxidase activity being highest in preparations having a high c-type cytochrome content. This TMPD-dependent cytochrome oxidase serves as a major oxygen-activation site for the A. vinelandii respiratory chain. It appears functionally analogous to cytochrome a+a3 oxidase of mammalian mitochondria.

  10. Structure-function relationships of inhibition of human cytochromes P450 1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2C9, and 3A4 by 33 flavonoid derivatives.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Katsuhiro; Takenaka, Shigeo; Murayama, Norie; Martin, Martha V; Foroozesh, Maryam K; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Guengerich, F Peter; Komori, Masayuki

    2010-12-20

    Structure-function relationships for the inhibition of human cytochrome P450s (P450s) 1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2C9, and 3A4 by 33 flavonoid derivatives were studied. Thirty-two of the 33 flavonoids tested produced reverse type I binding spectra with P450 1B1, and the potencies of binding were correlated with the abilities to inhibit 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation activity. The presence of a hydroxyl group in flavones, for example, 3-, 5-, and 7-monohydroxy- and 5,7-dihydroxyflavone, decreased the 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of P450 1B1 from 0.6 μM to 0.09, 0.21, 0.25, and 0.27 μM, respectively, and 3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone (galangin) was the most potent, with an IC50 of 0.003 μM. The introduction of a 4'-methoxy- or 3',4'-dimethoxy group into 5,7-dihydroxyflavone yielded other active inhibitors of P450 1B1 with IC50 values of 0.014 and 0.019 μM, respectively. The above hydroxyl and/or methoxy groups in flavone molecules also increased the inhibition activity with P450 1A1 but not always toward P450 1A2, where 3-, 5-, or 7-hydroxyflavone and 4'-methoxy-5,7-dihydroxyflavone were less inhibitory than flavone itself. P450 2C9 was more inhibited by 7-hydroxy-, 5,7-dihydroxy-, and 3,5,7-trihydroxyflavones than by flavone but was weakly inhibited by 3- and 5-hydroxyflavone. Flavone and several other flavonoids produced type I binding spectra with P450 3A4, but such binding was not always related to the inhibitiory activities toward P450 3A4. These results indicate that there are different mechanisms of inhibition for P450s 1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2C9, and 3A4 by various flavonoid derivatives and that the number and position of hydroxyl and/or methoxy groups highly influence the inhibitory actions of flavonoids toward these enzymes. Molecular docking studies suggest that there are different mechanisms involved in the interaction of various flavonoids with the active site of P450s, thus causing differences in inhibition of these P450 catalytic activities by flavonoids.

  11. Structure-Function Relationships of Inhibition of Human Cytochromes P450 1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2C9, and 3A4 by 33 Flavonoid Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Katsuhiro; Takenaka, Shigeo; Murayama, Norie; Martin, Martha V.; Foroozesh, Maryam K.; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Guengerich, F. Peter; Komori, Masayuki

    2010-01-01

    Structure-function relationships for inhibition of human cytochrome P450s (P450s) 1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2C9, and 3A4 by 33 flavonoid derivatives were studied. Thirty-two of the 33 flavonoids tested produced Reverse Type I binding spectra with P450 1B1, and the potencies of binding were correlated with the abilities to inhibit 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation activity. The presence of a hydroxyl group in flavones, e.g. 3-, 5-, and 7-monohydroxy- and 5,7-dihydroxyflavone, decreased the 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of P450 1B1 from 0.6 µM to 0.09, 0.21, 0.25, and 0.27 µM, respectively, and 3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone (galangin) was the most potent, with an IC50 of 0.003 µM. The introduction of a 4’-methoxy- or 3’,4’-dimethoxy group into 5,7-dihydroxyflavone yielded other active inhibitors of P450 1B1 with IC50 values of 0.014 and 0.019 µM, respectively. The above hydroxyl- and/or methoxy-groups in flavone molecules also increased the inhibition activity with P450 1A1 but not always towards P450 1A2, where 3-, 5-, or 7-hydroxyflavone, and 4’-methoxy-5,7-dihydroxyflavone were less inhibitory than flavone itself. P450 2C9 was more inhibited by 7-hydroxy-,5,7-dihydroxy-, and 3,5,7-trihydroxyflavones than by flavone but was weakly inhibited by 3-and 5-hydroxyflavone. Flavone and several other flavonoids produced Type I binding spectra with P450 3A4, but such binding was not always related to the inhibitiory activities towards P450 3A4. These results indicate that there are different mechanisms of inhibition for P450s 1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2C9, and 3A4 by various flavonoid derivatives and that the number and position of hydroxyl and/or methoxy groups highly influence the inhibitory actions of flavonoids towards these enzymes. Molecular docking studies suggest that there are different mechanisms involved in the interaction of various flavonoids with the active site of P450s, thus causing differences in inhibition of these P450 catalytic activities by flavonoids. PMID

  12. Suicide Inhibition of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes by Cyclopropylamines via a Ring-Opening Mechanism: Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer Makes a Difference

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoqian; Li, Xiao-Xi; Liu, Yufang; Wang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    N-benzyl-N-cyclopropylamine (BCA) has been attracting great interests for decades for its partial suicide inactivation role to cytochrome P450 (P450) via a ring-opening mechanism besides acting as a role of normal substrates. Understanding the mechanism of such partial inactivation is vital to the clinical drug design. Thus, density functional theoretical (DFT) calculations were carried out on such P450-catalyzed reactions, not only on the metabolic pathway, but on the ring-opening inactivation one. Our theoretical results demonstrated that, in the metabolic pathway, besides the normal carbinolamine, an unexpected enamine was formed via the dual hydrogen abstraction (DHA) process, in which the competition between rotation of the H-abstracted substrate radical and the rotation of hydroxyl group of the protonated Cpd II moiety plays a significant role in product branch; In the inactivation pathway, the well-noted single electron transfer (SET) mechanism-involved process was invalidated for its high energy barrier, a proton-coupled electron transfer [PCET(ET)] mechanism plays a role. Our results are consistent with other related theoretical works on heteroatom-hydrogen (X-H, X = O, N) activation and revealed new features. The revealed mechanisms will play a positive role in relative drug design. PMID:28197402

  13. Modulation of cytochromes P450 with xanthone-based molecules: from aromatase to aldosterone synthase and steroid 11β-hydroxylase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Gobbi, Silvia; Hu, Qingzhong; Negri, Matthias; Zimmer, Christina; Belluti, Federica; Rampa, Angela; Hartmann, Rolf W; Bisi, Alessandra

    2013-02-28

    Imidazolylmethylflavones previously reported by us as aromatase inhibitors proved to be able to interact with aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2), a cytochrome P450 enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the mineralcorticoid hormone aldosterone, and were used to obtain a pharmacophore model for this enzyme. Here, in the search for potential ligands for CYP11B2 and the related CYP11B1, a virtual screening of a small compounds library of our earlier synthesized aromatase inhibitors was performed and, according to the results and the corresponding biological data, led to the design and synthesis of a series of xanthones derivatives carrying an imidazolylmethyl substituent in position 1 and different substituents in position 4. Some very potent inhibitors were obtained; in particular, the 4-chlorine derivative was active in the low nanomolar or subnanomolar range on CYP11B2 and CYP11B1, respectively, proving that xanthone can be considered as an excellent scaffold, whose activity can be directed to different targets when appropriately functionalized.

  14. Suicide Inhibition of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes by Cyclopropylamines via a Ring-Opening Mechanism: Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer Makes a Difference.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoqian; Li, Xiao-Xi; Liu, Yufang; Wang, Yong

    2017-01-01

    N-benzyl-N-cyclopropylamine (BCA) has been attracting great interests for decades for its partial suicide inactivation role to cytochrome P450 (P450) via a ring-opening mechanism besides acting as a role of normal substrates. Understanding the mechanism of such partial inactivation is vital to the clinical drug design. Thus, density functional theoretical (DFT) calculations were carried out on such P450-catalyzed reactions, not only on the metabolic pathway, but on the ring-opening inactivation one. Our theoretical results demonstrated that, in the metabolic pathway, besides the normal carbinolamine, an unexpected enamine was formed via the dual hydrogen abstraction (DHA) process, in which the competition between rotation of the H-abstracted substrate radical and the rotation of hydroxyl group of the protonated Cpd II moiety plays a significant role in product branch; In the inactivation pathway, the well-noted single electron transfer (SET) mechanism-involved process was invalidated for its high energy barrier, a proton-coupled electron transfer [PCET(ET)] mechanism plays a role. Our results are consistent with other related theoretical works on heteroatom-hydrogen (X-H, X = O, N) activation and revealed new features. The revealed mechanisms will play a positive role in relative drug design.

  15. Kinetics and selectivity of mechanism-based inhibition of guinea pig hepatic and pulmonary cytochrome P450 by N-benzyl-1-aminobenzotriazole and N-alpha-methylbenzyl-1-aminobenzotriazole.

    PubMed

    Sinal, C J; Bend, J R

    1996-09-01

    The time dependence for mechanism-based inactivation of cytochrome P450 (P450)-dependent 7-pentoxyresorufin O-depentylation (PROD), 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD), and 7-methoxyresorufin O-demethylation (MROD) activities by N-benzyl-1-aminobenzotriazole (BBT) and N-alpha-methylbenzyl-1-aminobenzotriazole (alpha MB) was investigated in hepatic and pulmonary microsomes from phenobarbital-treated guinea pigs. In the presence of NADPH, both compounds inhibited P450-dependent catalytic activity in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Inactivation of hepatic PROD activity was more rapid (t1/2 = 13.2 vs. 155 min) for 0.1 microM alpha MB when compared with equimolar BBT. On the other hand, hepatic EROD inactivation was more rapid (t1/2 = 8.1 vs. 11 min) with 0.1 microM BBT, compared with equimolar alpha MB. Inactivation of pulmonary PROD activity was the most rapid and potent, with an apparent half-life for inactivation of t1/2 = 0.94 and 32.2 min for 0.025 microM alpha MB and BBT, respectively. Incubation of hepatic microsomes for 45 min in the presence of NADPH and 10 microM BBT or alpha MB resulted in > 90% inhibition of PROD, EROD, and MROD activities. After washing by repeated sedimentation and resuspension, inhibition of PROD (78%; 93% for BBT and alpha MB, respectively), EROD (80% and 50%), and MROD (15% and 3%) activities was reversed to varying degrees. We conclude that BBT and alpha MB are rapidly metabolized to products that inhibit individual P450 isozymes by both mechanism-based (P4502B and P4501A1) and reversible (P4501A2) mechanisms. Of the two inhibitors, alpha MB is relatively more potent and selective for guinea pig lung P4502B isozyme(s).

  16. Ferulic acid attenuated acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity though down-regulating the cytochrome P 2E1 and inhibiting toll-like receptor 4 signaling-mediated inflammation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Junhui; Ge, Kuang; Mu, Junhuan; Rong, Jiang; Zhang, Li; Wang, Bin; Wan, Jingyuan; Xia, Gong

    2016-01-01

    Ferulic acid (FA), a phenolic acid which is abundant in vegetables and fruits, has been reported to exert anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, the pharmacological effects and the underlying mechanisms of FA in mice with acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity were investigated. Our results revealed that FA pretreatment inhibited the augments of serum aminotransferases in a dose-dependent manner and attenuated the hepatic histopathological abnormalities and hepatocellular apoptosis in acetaminophen (APAP) exposed mice. Moreover, FA inhibited the expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1), enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) as well as the contents of glutathione (GSH). Furthermore, FA markedly attenuated acetaminophen-induced serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β production, suppressed Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 expression and dampened p38 mitogen-activated (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa (NF-κB) activation. These data suggested that FA could effectively protect against APAP-induced liver injury by down-regulated expression of CYP 2E1 and the suppression of TLR4-mediated inflammatory responses. PMID:27830004

  17. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A by clarithromycin uniformly affects the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oxycodone in young and elderly volunteers.

    PubMed

    Liukas, Antti; Hagelberg, Nora M; Kuusniemi, Kristiina; Neuvonen, Pertti J; Olkkola, Klaus T

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitor clarithromycin on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of oral oxycodone in young and elderly subjects. Ten young and 10 elderly healthy subjects participated in this placebo-controlled, randomized, 2-phase crossover study. Subjects took clarithromycin 500 mg or placebo twice daily for 5 days. On day 4, subjects ingested an oral dose of 10 mg oxycodone. Plasma concentrations of oxycodone and its oxidative metabolites were measured for 48 hours, and pharmacological response for 12 hours. Clarithromycin decreased the apparent clearance of oxycodone by 53% in young and 48% in elderly subjects (P < 0.001) and prolonged its elimination half-life. The mean area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞) of oxycodone was increased by 2.0-fold (range, 1.3-fold to 2.7-fold) (P < 0.001) in young and 2.3-fold (range, 1.1-fold to 3.8-fold) (P < 0.001) in elderly subjects. The formation of noroxycodone was decreased by 74% in young and 71% in elderly subjects (P < 0.001). The ratio of AUC0-∞ of oxycodone during the clarithromycin phase compared with the one with placebo did not differ between the age groups. Clarithromycin did not alter the pharmacological response to oxycodone. Clarithromycin increased the exposure to oral oxycodone, but the magnitude of this effect was not age related. Although the pharmacological response to oxycodone was not significantly influenced by clarithromycin, dose reductions may be necessary in the most sensitive patients to avoid adverse effects when oxycodone is used concomitantly with clarithromycin.

  18. Inhibitive effect of cremophor RH40 or tween 80-based self-microemulsiflying drug delivery system on cytochrome P450 3A enzymes in murine hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Rao, Zichao; Si, Luqin; Guan, Yanbin; Pan, Hongping; Qiu, Jun; Li, Gao

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the effect of self-microemulsiflying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) containing Cremophor RH40 or Tween 80 at various dilutions on cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) enzymes in rat hepatocytes, with midazolam serving as a CYP3A substrate. The particle size and zeta potential of microemulsions were evaluated upon dilution with aqueous medium. In vitro release was detected by a dialysis method in reverse. The effects of SMEDDS at different dilutions and surfactants at different concentrations on the metabolism of MDZ were investigated in murine hepatocytes. The cytotoxicity of SMEDDS at different dilutions was measured by LDH release and MTT technique. The effects of SMEDDS on the CYP3A enzymes activity were determined by Western blotting. Our results showed that dilution had less effect on the particle size and zeta potential in the range from 1:25 to 1:500. The MDZ was completely released in 10 h. A significant decrease in the formation of 1'-OH-MDZ in rat hepatocytes was observed after treatment with both SMEDDS at dilutions ranging from 1:50 to 1:250 and Cremophor RH 40 or Tween 80 at concentrations ranging from 0.1% to 1% (w/v), with no cytotoxicity observed. A significant decrease in CYP3A protein expression was observed in cells by Western blotting in the presence of either Cremophor RH40 or Tween 80-based SMEDDS at the dilutions ranging from 1:50 to 1:250. This study suggested that the excipient inhibitor-based formulation is a potential protective platform for decreasing metabolism of sensitive drugs that are CYP3A substrates.

  19. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 and cytochrome P450 3A4 improves the oral absorption of octreotide in rats with portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao-Yu; Duan, Zhi-Jun; Liu, Zhen; Tang, Shun-Xiong; Li, Yang; He, Shou-Cheng; Wang, Qiu-Ming; Chang, Qing-Yong

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to increase the intestinal transport of octreotide (OCT) by targeting the first-pass impact to identify a potential method for decreasing portal vein pressure (PVP) using oral OCT. Thus, the bioavailability of intestinally absorbed OCT was evaluated in normal rats and rats with portal hypertension (PH) that had been administered P-glycoprotein/multidrug resistance-associated protein 2/cytochrome P450 3A4 (P-gp/MRP2/CYP3A4) inhibitors. The mRNA and protein expression levels of P-gp, MRP2 and CYP3A4 were evaluated in normal and PH rats with or without OCT and the inhibitors using RT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. The potential effects of the inhibitor administration on PVP were also examined. The results suggest that P-gp, MRP2 and CYP3A4 play important roles in prohibiting the enteral absorption of OCT, particularly under a PH environment. Moreover, inhibitors of P-gp, MRP2 and CYP3A4 decrease the first-pass effects of OCT and effectively reduce PVP under PH conditions. Therefore, the present results suggest P-gp, MRP2 and CYP3A4 are key factors in the intestinal absorption of OCT. The inhibition of P-gp, MRP2 and CYP3A4 can markedly decrease the first-pass effects of OCT, and their use may facilitate the use of orally administered OCT.

  20. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 and cytochrome P450 3A4 improves the oral absorption of octreotide in rats with portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiao-Yu; Duan, Zhi-Jun; Liu, Zhen; Tang, Shun-Xiong; Li, Yang; He, Shou-Cheng; Wang, Qiu-Ming; Chang, Qing-Yong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to increase the intestinal transport of octreotide (OCT) by targeting the first-pass impact to identify a potential method for decreasing portal vein pressure (PVP) using oral OCT. Thus, the bioavailability of intestinally absorbed OCT was evaluated in normal rats and rats with portal hypertension (PH) that had been administered P-glycoprotein/multidrug resistance-associated protein 2/cytochrome P450 3A4 (P-gp/MRP2/CYP3A4) inhibitors. The mRNA and protein expression levels of P-gp, MRP2 and CYP3A4 were evaluated in normal and PH rats with or without OCT and the inhibitors using RT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemical analyses. The potential effects of the inhibitor administration on PVP were also examined. The results suggest that P-gp, MRP2 and CYP3A4 play important roles in prohibiting the enteral absorption of OCT, particularly under a PH environment. Moreover, inhibitors of P-gp, MRP2 and CYP3A4 decrease the first-pass effects of OCT and effectively reduce PVP under PH conditions. Therefore, the present results suggest P-gp, MRP2 and CYP3A4 are key factors in the intestinal absorption of OCT. The inhibition of P-gp, MRP2 and CYP3A4 can markedly decrease the first-pass effects of OCT, and their use may facilitate the use of orally administered OCT. PMID:28105103

  1. Binding of diverse environmental chemicals with human cytochromes P450 2A13, 2A6, and 1B1 and enzyme inhibition.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Tsutomu; Kim, Donghak; Murayama, Norie; Tanaka, Katsuhiro; Takenaka, Shigeo; Nagy, Leslie D; Folkman, Lindsay M; Foroozesh, Maryam K; Komori, Masayuki; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Guengerich, F Peter

    2013-04-15

    A total of 68 chemicals including derivatives of naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, biphenyl, and flavone were examined for their abilities to interact with human P450s 2A13 and 2A6. Fifty-one of these 68 chemicals induced stronger Type I binding spectra (iron low- to high-spin state shift) with P450 2A13 than those seen with P450 2A6, i.e., the spectral binding intensities (ΔAmax/Ks ratio) determined with these chemicals were always higher for P450 2A13. In addition, benzo[c]phenanthrene, fluoranthene, 2,3-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydrofluoranthene, pyrene, 1-hydroxypyrene, 1-nitropyrene, 1-acetylpyrene, 2-acetylpyrene, 2,5,2',5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 7-hydroxyflavone, chrysin, and galangin were found to induce a Type I spectral change only with P450 2A13. Coumarin 7-hydroxylation, catalyzed by P450 2A13, was strongly inhibited by 2'-methoxy-5,7-dihydroxyflavone, 2-ethynylnaphthalene, 2'-methoxyflavone, 2-naphththalene propargyl ether, acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, naphthalene, 1-acetylpyrene, flavanone, chrysin, 3-ethynylphenanthrene, flavone, and 7-hydroxyflavone; these chemicals induced Type I spectral changes with low Ks values. On the basis of the intensities of the spectral changes and inhibition of P450 2A13, we classified the 68 chemicals into eight groups based on the order of affinities for these chemicals and inhibition of P450 2A13. The metabolism of chemicals by P450 2A13 during the assays explained why some of the chemicals that bound well were poor inhibitors of P450 2A13. Finally, we compared the 68 chemicals for their abilities to induce Type I spectral changes of P450 2A13 with the Reverse Type I binding spectra observed with P450 1B1: 45 chemicals interacted with both P450s 2A13 and 1B1, indicating that the two enzymes have some similarty of structural features regarding these chemicals. Molecular docking analyses suggest similarities at the active sites of these P450 enzymes. These results indicate that P450 2A13, as well as Family 1 P450

  2. Binding of Diverse Environmental Chemicals with Human Cytochromes P450 2A13, 2A6, and 1B1 and Enzyme Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Shimada, Tsutomu; Kim, Donghak; Murayama, Norie; Tanaka, Katsuhiro; Takenaka, Shigeo; Nagy, Leslie D.; Folkman, Lindsay M.; Foroozesh, Maryam K.; Komori, Masayuki; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Guengerich, F. Peter

    2014-01-01

    A total of 68 chemicals including derivatives of naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, biphenyl, and flavone were examined for their abilities to interact with human P450s 2A13 and 2A6. Fifty-one of these 68 chemicals induced stronger Type I binding spectra (iron low- to high-spin state shift) with P450 2A13 than those seen with P450 2A6, i.e. the spectral binding intensities (ΔAmax/Ks ratio) determined with these chemicals were always higher for P450 2A13. In addition, benzo[c]phenanthrene, fluoranthene, 2,3-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydrofluoranthene, pyrene, 1-hydroxypyrene, 1-nitropyrene, 1-acetylpyrene, 2-acetylpyrene, 2,5,2’,5’-tetrachlorobiphenyl, 7-hydroxyflavone, chrysin, and galangin were found to induce a Type I spectral change only with P450 2A13. Coumarin 7-hydroxylation, catalyzed by P450 2A13, was strongly inhibited by 2’-methoxy-5,7-dihydroxyflavone, 2-ethynylnaphthalene, 2’-methoxyflavone, 2-naphththalene propargyl ether, acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, naphthalene, 1-acetylpyrene, flavanone, chrysin, 3-ethynylphenanthrene, flavone, and 7-hydroxyflavone; these chemicals induced Type I spectral changes with low Ks values. On the basis of the intensities of the spectral changes and inhibition of P450 2A13, we classified the 68 chemicals into eight groups based on the order of affinities for these chemicals and inhibition of P450 2A13. The metabolism of chemicals by P450 2A13 during the assays explained why some of the chemicals that bound well were poor inhibitors of P450 2A13. Finally, we compared the 68 chemicals for their abilities to induce Type I spectral changes of P450 2A13 with the Reverse Type I binding spectra observed with P450 1B1: 45 chemicals interacted with both P450s 2A13 and 1B1, indicating that the two enzymes have some similarty of structural features regarding these chemicals. Molecular docking analyses suggest similarities at the active sites of these P450 enzymes. These results indicate that P450 2A13, as well as Family

  3. In vitro metabolism of N'-Nitrosonornicotine catalyzed by cytochrome P450 2A13 and its inhibition by nicotine, N'-Nitrosoanatabine and N'-Nitrosoanabasine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xingyu; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Limeng; Yang, Bicheng; Zhang, Chen; Liu, Wei; Zhou, Jun

    2016-12-25

    N'-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN) is considered to be one of the most carcinogenic compounds of the four conventionally measured tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines (TSNAs). In order to evaluate the significance of metabolic activation for the carcinogenic potential of NNN, its catalysis by different phase I enzymes and its interaction with nicotine and nicotine-derived TSNAs need to be investigated. Using an in vitro model system, NNN was found to interact with various cytochrome P450 enzymes, predominantly CYP2A13. Mass-spectrometric analysis confirmed the presence of various predicted NNN metabolites, including 4-hydroxy-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (HPB) and 4-hydroxy-4-(3-pyridyl)-butyric acid (hydroxy acid) but little amount of 4-oxo-4-(3-pyridyl) butanal (OPB), which was somewhat different from in vitro NNK metabolism. Addition of nicotine, N'-Nitrosoanatabine (NAT), N'-Nitrosoanabasine (NAB) resulted in a competitive inhibition for NNN metabolism. The inhibition constant Ki value was calculated as 0.98 μM (nicotine), 1.37 μM (NAT), 0.71 μM (NAB) for HPB formation, 1.35 μM (nicotine), 1.35 μM (NAT), 1.01 μM (NAB) for hydroxy acid formation and 8.40 μM (nicotine), 3.40 μM (NAT), 3.04 μM (NAB) for OPB formation, respectively. These results implied that CYP2A13 is the most efficient enzyme to metabolize NNN in vitro and structurally similar tobacco constitutes including nicotine, NAT and NAB influence the metabolic activation of NNN, which may further interfere in its carcinogenicity.

  4. Purification and characterization of an NADPH-cytochrome P450 (cytochrome c) reductase from spearmint (Mentha spicata) glandular trichomes.

    PubMed

    Ponnamperuma, K; Croteau, R

    1996-05-01

    Solubilized NADPH-cytochrome c (P450) reductase was purified to homogeneity from an extract of spearmint (Mentha spicata) glandular trichomes by dye-ligand interaction chromatography on Matrex-Gel Red A and affinity chromatography on 2', 5'-adenosine diphosphate agarose. SDS-PAGE of the purified enzyme preparation revealed the presence of two similar proteins with masses of 82 kDa (major) and 77 kDa (minor) that crossreacted on immunoblot analysis with polyclonal antibodies directed against NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase from Jerusalem artichoke and from mung bean. Complete immunoinhibition of reductase activity was observed with both types of polyclonal antibodies, while only partial inhibition of activity resulted using a family of monoclonal antibodies directed against the Jerusalem artichoke cytochrome P450 reductase. Inhibition of the spearmint oil gland cytochrome c reductase was also observed with the diphenyliodonium ion. The K(m) values for the cosubstrates NADPH and cytochrome c were 6.2 and 3.7 microM, respectively, and the pH optimum for activity was at 8.5. The NADPH-cytochrome c reductase reconstituted NADPH-dependent (-)-4S-limonene-6-hydroxylase activity in the presence of cytochrome P450, purified from the microsomal fraction of spearmint oil gland cells and dilauroyl phosphatidyl choline. These characteristics establish the identity of the purified enzyme as a NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase.

  5. The role of cytochrome P4501A activity inhibition in three- to five-ringed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons embryotoxicity of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma).

    PubMed

    Mu, Jing-li; Wang, Xin-hong; Jin, Fei; Wang, Ju-ying; Hong, Hua-sheng

    2012-07-01

    The mode of action of PAHs that causes fish developmental malformations is unclear. The embryotoxicity of marine medaka (Oryzias melastigma) was investigated after individual exposure to three- to five-ring PAHs Phe, Py, and BaP or co-exposure with α-ANF for 18 days. We found that the relationships between EROD induction and developmental deformities of embryos showed a various pattern under different exposure scenarios of Phe, Py, and BaP, which suggested possibly different modes of action in determining the developmental toxicities. As for co-exposure scenarios of each PAH combined with ANF, it showed potentially synergistic effects. The inhibited CYP1A mediated enzyme activity by ANF after co-exposure did not effectively alleviate developmental toxicity of embryo. It showed potentially synergistic effects after co-exposure of marine fish embryos to CYP1A inhibitors and PAH-type CYP1A inducers. Heart deformities in the early life stages of marine medaka were recommended as a biomarker for indicating the extent of PAH pollution.

  6. Reverse type I binding spectra of human cytochrome P450 1B1 induced by flavonoid, stilbene, pyrene, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and biphenyl derivatives that inhibit catalytic activity: a structure-function relationship study.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Tsutomu; Tanaka, Katsuhiro; Takenaka, Shigeo; Foroozesh, Maryam K; Murayama, Norie; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Guengerich, F Peter; Komori, Masayuki

    2009-07-01

    Fifty-one chemicals including derivatives of 16 flavonoids, three stilbenes, six pyrenes, seven naphthalenes, seven phenanthrenes, 10 biphenyls, 17beta-estradiol, and estrone were examined for their abilities to induce reverse type I binding spectra with human cytochrome P450 (P450) 1B1 and to inhibit 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD) activities catalyzed by P450 1B1. Forty-nine chemicals showed reverse type I spectra with P450 1B1, and we found that 3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone, 3',4'-dimethoxy-5,7-dihydroxyflavone, 4'-methoxy-5,7-dihydroxyflavone, alpha- and beta-naphthoflavones, 2,4,3',5'-tetramethoxystilbene, pyrene, and several acetylenic pyrenes and phenanthrenes were strong inducers of the spectra and also potent inhibitors of EROD activities catalyzed by P450 1B1. The spectral dissociation constant (K(s)) and the magnitude of the binding (DeltaA(max)/K(s)) of 49 chemicals were correlated with the inhibition potencies of EROD activities by these chemicals [correlation coefficients (r) of 0.72 and 0.74, respectively]. The K(s) and DeltaA(max)/K(s) values were more correlated with IC(50) values when compared in a group of derivatives of flavonoids, stilbenes, and estrogens (r = 0.81 and 0.88, respectively) or a group of derivatives of pyrenes, naphthalenes, phenanthrenes, and biphenyls (r = 0.88 and 0.91, respectively). Among 14 flavonoids examined, 3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone and 4'-methoxy- and 3',4'-dimethoxy-5,7-dihydroxyflavone were more active than flavone in interacting with P450 1B1, but the respective 7,8-dihydroxyflavones were less active. Pyrene itself was highly active in interacting with P450 1B1, but its binding was slightly decreased when substituted with acetylenic groups. In contrast, substitution of naphthalene with methyl and ethyl propargyl ethers led to more interaction with P450 1B1 than with naphthalene itself. Similarly, substitution on phenanthrene or biphenyl with acetylenic groups and propargyl ethers increased affinities to P450 1B1

  7. Preventive effect of rikkunshito on gastric motor function inhibited by L-dopa in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lixin; Mogami, Sachiko; Karasawa, Hiroshi; Yamada, Chihiro; Yakabi, Seiichi; Yakabi, Koji; Hattori, Tomohisa; Taché, Yvette

    2014-05-01

    We previously reported that ghrelin prevented l-dopa (LD)-induced inhibition of gastric emptying (GE) of a non-nutrient solution in rats. Parkinson's disease treatment involves the combined administration of l-dopa with the enzyme l-amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor, carbidopa (CD) to reduce peripheral formation of dopamine. We investigated the effect LD/CD given orogastrically (og) on GE of a non-nutrient or nutrient meal and whether og pretreatment with rikkunshito, a kampo medicine clinically used to treat gastroparesis, influenced LD/CD effect on GE and postprandial antral and duodenal motility in conscious rats. LD/CD (20/2 mgkg(-1)) decreased significantly GE to 26.3 ± 6.0% compared to 61.2 ± 3.2% in og vehicle monitored 20-min after a non-nutrient meal and to 41.9 ± 5.8% compared to 72.9 ± 5.2% in og vehicle monitored 60 min after a nutrient meal. Rikkunshito (0.5 or 1.0 g kg(-1)) reduced the LD/CD (20/2 mg kg(-1)) inhibition of GE of non-nutrient meal (36.9 ± 7.4% and 46.6 ± 4.8% respectively vs. 12.1 ± 7.4% in og vehicle plus LD/CD) while having no effect alone (56.6 ± 8.5%). The ghrelin antagonist, [d-Lys(3)]-GHRP-6 (1 mg kg(-1)) injected intraperitoneally partially reversed rikkunshito preventive effect on LD/CD-inhibited GE. Rikkunshito (1.0 g kg(-1)) blocked LD/CD (20/2 mg kg(-1))-induced delayed GE of a nutrient meal and the reduction of postprandial antral motility. In 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinson's disease rat model, rikkunshito (1.0 g kg(-1), og) also prevented LD/CD-inhibited gastric emptying of a nutrient meal and enhanced fasting plasma levels of acylated ghrelin. These data indicate that oral rikkunshito alleviates the delayed GE induced by LD/CD in naïve and PD rat model in part through ghrelin-related mechanisms.

  8. Building Structure Feature-based Models for Predicting Isoform-specific Human Cytochrome P-450 (hCYP 3A4, 2D6 and 2C9) Inhibition Assay Results in ToxCast

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA’s ToxCast project is using high-throughput screening (HTS) to profile and prioritize chemicals for further testing. ToxCast Phase I evaluated 309 unique chemicals, the majority pesticide actives, in over 500 HTS assays. These included 3 human cytochrome P450 (hCYP3A4, hCYP2...

  9. Reduction of Hg2+ with reduced mammalian cytochrome c by cytochrome c oxidase purified from a mercury-resistant acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans strain, MON-1.

    PubMed

    Sugio, Tsuyoshi; Fujii, Mitsuko; Ninomiya, Yumika; Kanao, Tadayoshi; Negishi, Atsunori; Takeuchi, Fumiaki

    2008-07-01

    Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans AP19-3, ATCC 23270, and MON-1 are mercury-sensitive, moderately mercury-resistant, and highly mercury-resistant strains respectively. It is known that 2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-p-phenylendiamine (TMPD) and reduced cytochrome c are used as electron donors specific for cytochrome c oxidase. Resting cells of strain MON-1 had TMPD oxidase activity and volatilized metal mercury with TMPD as an electron donor. Cytochrome c oxidase purified from strain MON-1 reduced mercuric ions to metalic mercury with reduced mammalian cytochrome c as well as TMPD. These mercury volatilization activities with reduced cytochrome c and TMPD were completely inhibited by 1 mM NaCN. These results indicate that cytochrome c oxidase is involved in mercury reduction in A. ferrooxidans cells. The cytochrome c oxidase activities of strains AP19-3 and ATCC 23270 were completely inhibited by 1 muM and 5 muM of mercuric chloride respectively. In contrast, the activity of strain MON-1 was inhibited 33% by 5 muM, and 70% by 10 muM of mercuric chloride, suggesting that the levels of mercury resistance in A. ferrooxidans strains correspond well with the levels of mercury resistance of cytochrome c oxidase.

  10. Cytochrome C — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    CYCS, or cytochrome C, is an electron carrier protein that is an important part of the electron transport chain in mitochondria. The cytochrome C protein is a small heme protein that associates with the inner membrane of the mitochondrion where it accepts electrons from cytochrome b and transfers them to the cytochrome oxidase complex. Cytochrome C also plays a role in apoptosis.

  11. The mechanism by which oxygen and cytochrome c increase the rate of electron transfer from cytochrome a to cytochrome a3 of cytochrome c oxidase.

    PubMed

    Bickar, D; Turrens, J F; Lehninger, A L

    1986-11-05

    When cytochrome c oxidase is isolated from mitochondria, the purified enzyme requires both cytochrome c and O2 to achieve its maximum rate of internal electron transfer from cytochrome a to cytochrome a3. When reductants other than cytochrome c are used, the rate of internal electron transfer is very slow. In this paper we offer an explanation for the slow reduction of cytochrome a3 when reductants other than cytochrome c are used and for the apparent allosteric effects of cytochrome c and O2. Our model is based on the conventional understanding of cytochrome oxidase mechanism (i.e. electron transfer from cytochrome a/CuA to cytochrome a3/CuB), but assumes a relatively rapid two-electron transfer between cytochrome a/CuA and cytochrome a3/CuB and a thermodynamic equilibrium in the "resting" enzyme (the enzyme as isolated) which favors reduced cytochrome a and oxidized cytochrome a3. Using the kinetic constants that are known for this reaction, we find that the activating effects of O2 and cytochrome c on the rate of electron transfer from cytochrome a to cytochrome a3 conform to the predictions of the model and so provide no evidence of any allosteric effects or control of cytochrome c oxidase by O2 or cytochrome c.

  12. Cytochromes P450

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Søren; Beisson, Fred; Bishop, Gerard; Hamberger, Björn; Höfer, René; Paquette, Suzanne; Werck-Reichhart, Danièle

    2011-01-01

    There are 244 cytochrome P450 genes (and 28 pseudogenes) in the Arabidopsis genome. P450s thus form one of the largest gene families in plants. Contrary to what was initially thought, this family diversification results in very limited functional redundancy and seems to mirror the complexity of plant metabolism. P450s sometimes share less than 20% identity and catalyze extremely diverse reactions leading to the precursors of structural macromolecules such as lignin, cutin, suberin and sporopollenin, or are involved in biosynthesis or catabolism of all hormone and signaling molecules, of pigments, odorants, flavors, antioxidants, allelochemicals and defense compounds, and in the metabolism of xenobiotics. The mechanisms of gene duplication and diversification are getting better understood and together with co-expression data provide leads to functional characterization. PMID:22303269

  13. Bioflavonoid effects on the mitochondrial respiratory electron transport chain and cytochrome c redox state.

    PubMed

    Moini, H; Arroyo, A; Vaya, J; Packer, L

    1999-01-01

    The polyphenolic structure common to flavonoids enables them to donate electrons and exert antioxidant activity. Since the mitochondrial electron transport chain consists of a series of redox intermediates, the effect of flavonoids in a complex mixture of polyphenols, as well as related pure flavonoids, was evaluated on the rat liver mitochondrial electron transport chain. A French maritime pine bark extract (PBE), a complex mixture of polyphenols and related pure flavonoids, was able to reduce cytochrome c reversibly, possibly by donation of electrons to the iron of the heme group; the donated electrons can be utilized by cytochrome c oxidase. Among single flavonoids tested, (-)-epicatechin gallate had the greatest ability to reduce cytochrome c. In addition, PBE competitively inhibited electron chain activity in both whole mitochondria and submitochondrial particles. A 3.5-fold increase in the apparent Km value for succinate was calculated from reciprocal plots. Among the flavonoids tested, taxifolin and (-)-epicatechin gallate showed minor inhibitory effects, while (+/-)-catechin and (+)-epicatechin were ineffective. Activities of NADH-ubiquinone, succinate-ubiquinone, and ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductases were inhibited by low concentrations of PBE to a similar extent. However, inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase activity required 4-fold higher PBE concentrations. These results suggest that flavonoids reduce cytochrome c and that PBE inhibits electron transport chain activity mainly through NADH-ubiquinone, succinate-ubiquinone, and ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductases.

  14. Alterations of BDNF and trkB mRNA Expression in the 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Model of Preclinical Stages of Parkinson’s Disease: An Influence of Chronic Pramipexole in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Berghauzen-Maciejewska, Klemencja; Wardas, Jadwiga; Kosmowska, Barbara; Głowacka, Urszula; Kuter, Katarzyna; Ossowska, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    Our recent study has indicated that a moderate lesion of the mesostriatal and mesolimbic pathways in rats, modelling preclinical stages of Parkinson’s disease, induces a depressive-like behaviour which is reversed by chronic treatment with pramipexole. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signalling in the aforementioned model of depression. Therefore, we investigated the influence of 6-hydoxydopamine (6-OHDA) administration into the ventral region of the caudate-putamen on mRNA levels of BDNF and tropomyosin-related kinase B (trkB) receptor. The BDNF and trkB mRNA levels were determined in the nigrostriatal and limbic structures by in situ hybridization 2 weeks after the operation. Pramipexole (1 mg/kg sc twice a day) and imipramine (10 mg/kg ip once a day) were injected for 2 weeks. The lesion lowered the BDNF and trkB mRNA levels in the hippocampus [CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG)] and amygdala (basolateral/lateral) as well as the BDNF mRNA content in the habenula (medial/lateral). The lesion did not influence BDNF and trkB expression in the caudate-putamen, substantia nigra, nucleus accumbens (shell and core) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). Chronic imipramine reversed the lesion-induced decreases in BDNF mRNA in the DG. Chronic pramipexole increased BDNF mRNA, but decreased trkB mRNA in the VTA in lesioned rats. Furthermore, it reduced BDNF and trkB mRNA expression in the shell and core of the nucleus accumbens, BDNF mRNA in the amygdala and trkB mRNA in the caudate-putamen in these animals. The present study indicates that both the 6-OHDA-induced dopaminergic lesion and chronic pramipexole influence BDNF signalling in limbic structures, which may be related to their pro-depressive and antidepressant activity in rats, respectively. PMID:25739024

  15. β-asarone and levodopa co-administration increase striatal dopamine level in 6-hydroxydopamine induced rats by modulating P-glycoprotein and tight junction proteins at the blood-brain barrier and promoting levodopa into the brain.

    PubMed

    Huang, Liping; Deng, Minzhen; He, Yuping; Lu, Shiyao; Ma, Ruanxin; Fang, Yongqi

    2016-06-01

    Levodopa (L-dopa) is widely considered as one of the most effective drug constituents in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD), but the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability of L-dopa is <5%, which causes low efficacy. Neuroprotective effects of β-asarone on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced PD rats were demonstrated by our previous studies. Co-administration of β-asarone and L-dopa has not been explored until being investigated on PD rats in this study. PD rats were divided into four groups: untreated, L-dopa-treated, β-asarone-treated and co-administered-treated groups. All of the treatments were administered to the rats twice per day for 30 days. The L-dopa, dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA), S100β and neuron-specific enolase (NSE) levels were subsequently determined. The P-glycoprotein (P-gp), zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), claudin-5, occludin and actin expression was also assessed in cortex. Changes in BBB ultrastructure were observed using transmission electron microscopy. Our results showed that the co-administered treatment increased levels of L-dopa, DA, DOPAC and HVA in striatum, and S100β in plasma, but down-regulated NSE, P-gp, ZO-1, occludin, actin and claudin-5 in cortex. Crevices were observed between capillary endothelial cells at intercellular tight junction of the striatum in co-administered-treated group, while the endothelial cells in untreated group were tightly jointing each other. In addition, the correlations of L-dopa or DA and P-gp or tight junction proteins respectively were significantly negative in co-administered- and β-asarone-treated groups. These findings suggest that co-administered treatment may enhance the L-dopa BBB permeability and attenuate brain injury, which may be beneficial to PD treatment.

  16. Relationships among rat ultrasonic vocalizations, behavioral measures of striatal dopamine loss, and striatal tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactivity at acute and chronic time points following unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine-induced dopamine depletion.

    PubMed

    Grant, Laura M; Barnett, David G; Doll, Emerald J; Leverson, Glen; Ciucci, Michelle

    2015-09-15

    Voice deficits in Parkinson disease (PD) emerge early in the disease process, but do not improve with standard treatments targeting dopamine. Experimental work in the rat shows that severe and chronic unilateral nigrostriatal dopamine depletion with 6-OHDA results in decreased intensity, bandwidth, and complexity of ultrasonic vocalizations. However, it is unclear if mild/acute dopamine depletion, paralleling earlier stages of PD, results in vocalization deficits, or to what degree vocalization parameters are correlated with other dopamine-dependent indicators of lesion severity or percent of tyrosine hydroxylase (%TH) loss. Here, we assayed ultrasonic vocalizations, forelimb asymmetry, and apomorphine rotations in rats with a range of unilateral dopamine loss resulting from 6-OHDA or vehicle control infusions to the medial forebrain bundle at acute (72 h) and chronic (4 weeks) time points post-infusion. The %TH loss was evaluated at 4 weeks. At 72 h, forelimb asymmetry and %TH loss were significantly correlated, while at 4 weeks, all measures of lesion severity were significantly correlated with each other. Call complexity was significantly correlated with all measures of lesion severity at 72 h but only with %TH loss at 4 weeks. Bandwidth was correlated with forelimb asymmetry at both time points. Duration was significantly correlated with all dopamine depletion measures at 4 weeks. Notably, not all parameters were affected universally or equally across time. These results suggest that vocalization deficits may be a sensitive index of acute and mild catecholamine loss and further underscores the need to characterize the neural mechanisms underlying vocal deficits in PD.

  17. Similar L-dopa-stimulated motor activity in mice with adult-onset 6-hydroxydopamine-induced symmetric dopamine denervation and in transcription factor Pitx3 null mice with perinatal-onset symmetric dopamine denervation.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Sagot, Ben; Zhou, Fu-Ming

    2015-07-30

    The transcription factor Pitx3 null mutant (Pitx3Null) mice have a constitutive perinatal-onset and symmetric bilateral dopamine (DA) loss in the striatum. In these mice l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (l-dopa) induces apparently normal horizontal movements (walking) but also upward movements consisting of the vertical body trunk and waving paws that are absent in normal animals and in animals with the classic unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesion-induced DA denervation. Thus, a concern is that the perinatal timing of the DA loss and potential developmental abnormalities in Pitx3Null mice may underlie these upward movements, thus reducing the usefulness as a DA denervation model. Here we show that in normal wild-type (Pitx3WT) mice with adult-onset symmetric, bilateral 6-OHDA-induced DA lesion in the dorsal striatum, l-dopa induces normal horizontal movements and upward movements that are qualitatively identical to those in Pitx3Null mice. Furthermore, after unilateral 6-OHDA lesion of the residual DA innervation in the striatum in Pitx3Null mice, l-dopa induces contraversive rotation that is similar to that in Pitx3WT mice with the classic unilateral 6-OHDA lesion. These results indicate that in Pitx3Null mice, the bilateral symmetric DA denervation in the dorsal striatum is sufficient for expressing the l-dopa-induced motor phenotype and the perinatal timing of their DA loss is not a determining factor, providing further evidence that Pitx3Null mice are a convenient and suitable mouse model to study the consequences of DA loss and dopaminergic replacement therapy in Parkinson's disease.

  18. The ameliorative effect of Monascus purpureus NTU 568-fermented rice extracts on 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells and the rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Wei-Ting; Hsu, Ya-Wen; Pan, Tzu-Ming

    2016-02-01

    Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation underlie the major pathogenesis in Parkinson's disease (PD). Antioxidants are known to protect against the degeneration of dopaminergic neurons. Monascus purpureus-fermented rice, a traditional Chinese medicine as well as a health food, includes multifunctional metabolites. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of the antioxidant-containing M. purpureus NTU 568-fermented rice extract (extracted with 50% ethanol, so called R50E) in 6-hydrodopamine (6-OHDA)-induced neurotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, treatment with R50E reduced 6-OHDA-induced SH-SY5Y cell death. In vivo, two doses of R50E (5.5 and 11.0 mg kg(-1)) were administered for a period of 28 days following 6-OHDA-induced lesioning. The administration of R50E reduced parkinsonian motor dysfunction and the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-immunoreactive neurons present in 6-OHDA-induced lesioned rats. Moreover, the administration of R50E reversed the elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and promoted the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase via down-regulation of p47 phox, NOX1, and NOX2 expression in the 6-OHDA-lesion rats. Furthermore, treatment with R50E attenuated nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) levels in the 6-OHDA-lesion rats. In conclusion, R50E may prevent neurodegeneration via anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory mechanisms, suggesting its potential therapeutic value for PD treatment. This is the first study for evaluating the neuroprotective effects of red mold fermented products in PD models.

  19. Effects of zingerone [4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-butanone] and eugenol [2-methoxy-4-(2-propenyl)phenol] on the pathological progress in the 6-hydroxydopamine-induced Parkinson's disease mouse model.

    PubMed

    Kabuto, Hideaki; Yamanushi, Tomoko T

    2011-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the nigrostriatal system and dopamine (DA) depletion in the striatum. The most popular therapeutic medicine for treating PD, 3-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl)-L-alanine (L-DOPA), has adverse effects, such as dyskinesia and disease acceleration. As superoxide (·O(2)(-)) and hydroxyl radical (·OH) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of PD, free radical scavenging and antioxidants have attracted attention as agents to prevent disease progression. Rodents injected with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) intracerebroventricularly are considered to be a good animal model of PD. Zingerone and eugenol, essential oils extracted from ginger and cloves, are known to have free radical scavenging and antioxidant effects. Therefore, we examined the effects of zingerone and eugenol on the behavioral problems in mouse model and on the DA concentration and antioxidant activities in the striatum after 6-OHDA administration and L-DOPA treatment. Daily oral administration of eugenol/zingerone and injection of L-DOPA intraperitoneally for 4 weeks following a single 6-OHDA injection did not improve abnormal behaviors induced by L-DOPA treatment. 6-OHDA reduced the DA level in the striatum; surprisingly, zingerone and eugenol enhanced the reduction of striatal DA and its metabolites. Zingerone decreased catalase activity, and increased glutathione peroxidase activity and the oxidized L-ascorbate level in the striatum. We previously reported that pre-treatment with zingerone or eugenol prevents 6-OHDA-induced DA depression by preventing lipid peroxidation. However, the present study shows that post-treatment with these substances enhanced the DA decrease. These substances had adverse effects dependent on the time of administration relative to model PD onset. These results suggest that we should be wary of ingesting these spice elements after the onset of PD symptoms.

  20. Alterations of BDNF and trkB mRNA expression in the 6-hydroxydopamine-induced model of preclinical stages of Parkinson's disease: an influence of chronic pramipexole in rats.

    PubMed

    Berghauzen-Maciejewska, Klemencja; Wardas, Jadwiga; Kosmowska, Barbara; Głowacka, Urszula; Kuter, Katarzyna; Ossowska, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    Our recent study has indicated that a moderate lesion of the mesostriatal and mesolimbic pathways in rats, modelling preclinical stages of Parkinson's disease, induces a depressive-like behaviour which is reversed by chronic treatment with pramipexole. The purpose of the present study was to examine the role of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signalling in the aforementioned model of depression. Therefore, we investigated the influence of 6-hydoxydopamine (6-OHDA) administration into the ventral region of the caudate-putamen on mRNA levels of BDNF and tropomyosin-related kinase B (trkB) receptor. The BDNF and trkB mRNA levels were determined in the nigrostriatal and limbic structures by in situ hybridization 2 weeks after the operation. Pramipexole (1 mg/kg sc twice a day) and imipramine (10 mg/kg ip once a day) were injected for 2 weeks. The lesion lowered the BDNF and trkB mRNA levels in the hippocampus [CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG)] and amygdala (basolateral/lateral) as well as the BDNF mRNA content in the habenula (medial/lateral). The lesion did not influence BDNF and trkB expression in the caudate-putamen, substantia nigra, nucleus accumbens (shell and core) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). Chronic imipramine reversed the lesion-induced decreases in BDNF mRNA in the DG. Chronic pramipexole increased BDNF mRNA, but decreased trkB mRNA in the VTA in lesioned rats. Furthermore, it reduced BDNF and trkB mRNA expression in the shell and core of the nucleus accumbens, BDNF mRNA in the amygdala and trkB mRNA in the caudate-putamen in these animals. The present study indicates that both the 6-OHDA-induced dopaminergic lesion and chronic pramipexole influence BDNF signalling in limbic structures, which may be related to their pro-depressive and antidepressant activity in rats, respectively.

  1. Metallothionein-III protects against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced oxidative stress by increasing expression of heme oxygenase-1 in a PI3K and ERK/Nrf2-dependent manner

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Yong Pil; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Han, Eun Hee; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2008-09-15

    The zinc-binding protein metallothionein-III (MT-III) is associated with resistance to neuronal injury. However, the underlying mechanism for its effects is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that MT-III prevents the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells challenged with the Parkinson's disease-related neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) by a mechanism that involves phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and ERK kinase/NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) dependent induction of the stress response protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Pretreatment of SH-SY5Y cells with MT-III significantly reduced 6-OHDA-induced generation of ROS, caspase-3 activation, and subsequent cell death. Also, MT-III up-regulates HO-1 expression and this expression confers neuroprotection against oxidative injury induced by 6-OHDA. Moreover, MT-III induces Nrf2 nuclear translocation, which is upstream of MT-III-induced HO-1 expression, and PI3K and ERK1/2 activation, a pathway that is involved in induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation, HO-1 expression and neuroprotection. Taken together, these results suggest that the PI3K and ERK/Nrf2 signaling pathway controls the intracellular levels of ROS by regulating the expression of the antioxidant enzyme HO-1.

  2. Cumene hydroperoxide supported demethylation of N,N-dimethylaniline by cytochrome P-450 from adrenal cortex mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Akhrem, A A; Khatyleva SYu; Shkumatov, V M; Chashchin, V L; Kiselev, P A

    1982-01-01

    The interaction of highly purified cytochrome P-450 from bovine adrenal cortex mitochondria (cytochrome P-450scc) with N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA), aniline, N-dimethylcyclohexylamine and cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) has been investigated. The formation of complexes between cytochrome P-450scc and the above listed compounds could be demonstrated. The reaction of oxidative demethylation of DMA by cumene hydroperoxide involving cytochrome P-450scc has been carried out at 37 degrees C; the mechanism of this process is discussed. Incubation of cytochrome P-450scc with negatively charged phospholipids, phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and phosphatidylinosite (PI) exerts an inhibiting effect on the reaction of oxidative demethylation. The interaction of cytochrome P-450scc with CHP is accompanied by hemoprotein destruction in a complex biphasic way. The process of oxidative demethylation of DMA in the system of cytochrome P-450scc-CHP has been concluded to have a predominantly radical character.

  3. Cytochrome P450 arachidonic acid metabolism in bovine corneal epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Masferrer, J.; Schwartzman, M.L.; Abraham, N.G.; Dunn, M.W.; McGiff, J.C.

    1986-03-01

    The presence of the cytochrom P450 system and its involvement in the metabolism of AA was studied in the corneal epithelium. This tissue contains cytochrome P450 as assessed directly by measurement of the carbon monoxide reduced spectrum (specific activity of 161 pmol/10 mg protein) and indirectly by measuring the activity of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) - a cytochrome P450-dependent enzyme (11-39 pmol 3-OH benzopyrene/mg protein/10 min). When corneal epithelial microsomes were incubated with /sup 14/C-arachidonic acid, 30-50% of the total radioactivity was converted to two peaks, I and II. Further separation using high performance liquid chromatography has shown that each peak contains two metabolites, A,B and C,D. Metabolite formation was dependent on the addition of NADPH (1 mM) and inhibited by carbon monoxide and SKF-525A (100 ..mu..M) suggesting a cytochrome P450-dependent mechanism. Compound C (5-10 ..mu..M) inhibited the activity of corneal epithelial Na-K-ATPase by 30-60%, being 100-fold more potent than ouabain. Compound D (10-100 ng) induced a dose dependent relaxation of the rat caudal artery. Compound D also inhibited corneal Na-K-ATPase activity but less potently than compound C. These compounds may be important to transport processes of ocular epithelia and participate in the control of the ocular circulation and aqueous humor dynamics.

  4. The cytochrome p450 homepage.

    PubMed

    Nelson, David R

    2009-10-01

    The Cytochrome P450 Homepage is a universal resource for nomenclature and sequence information on cytochrome P450 ( CYP ) genes. The site has been in continuous operation since February 1995. Currently, naming information for 11,512 CYPs are available on the web pages. The P450 sequences are manually curated by David Nelson, and the nomenclature system conforms to an evolutionary scheme such that members of CYP families and subfamilies share common ancestors. The organisation and content of the Homepage are described.

  5. Enzyme kinetics of oxidative metabolism: cytochromes P450.

    PubMed

    Korzekwa, Ken

    2014-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) are the most important enzymes in the oxidative metabolism of hydrophobic drugs and other foreign compounds (xenobiotics). The versatility of these enzymes results in some unusual kinetic properties, stemming from the simultaneous interaction of multiple substrates with the CYP active site. Often, the CYPs display kinetics that deviate from standard hyperbolic saturation or inhibition kinetics. Non-Michaelis-Menten or "atypical" saturation kinetics include sigmoidal, biphasic, and substrate inhibition kinetics (see Chapter 3 ). Interactions between substrates include competitive inhibition, noncompetitive inhibition, mixed inhibition, partial inhibition, activation, and activation followed by inhibition (see Chapter 4 ). Models and equations that can result in these kinetic profiles will be presented and discussed.

  6. Evidence for cytochrome b5 as an electron donor in ricinoleic acid biosynthesis in microsomal preparations from developing castor bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M A; Jonsson, L; Stymne, S; Stobart, K

    1992-01-01

    The major b-type cytochrome in microsomal membrane preparations from developing endosperm of castor bean (Ricinus communis) was cytochrome b5. Cytochrome P-450 was also present. The microsomal membranes had delta 12-hydroxylase activity and catalysed the NAD(P)H-dependent hydroxylation of oleate to yield ricinoleic acid. CO had no effect on the hydroxylase activity. Rabbit polyclonal antibodies were raised against the hydrophilic cytochrome b5 fragment purified from cauliflower (Brassica oleracea) floret microsomes. The anti-(cytochrome b5) IgG inhibited delta 12-hydroxylase, delta 12-desaturase and cytochrome c reductase activity in the microsomes. The results indicate that electrons from NAD(P)H were transferred to the site of hydroxylation via cytochrome b5 and that cytochrome P-450 was not involved. Images Fig. 1. PMID:1417766

  7. Human cytochrome c enters murine J774 cells and causes G{sub 1} and G{sub 2}/M cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraoka, Yoshinori; Granja, Ana Teresa; Fialho, Arsenio M.; Schlarb-Ridley, Beatrix G.; Das Gupta, Tapas K.; Chakrabarty, Ananda M.; Yamada, Tohru . E-mail: tohru@uic.edu

    2005-12-16

    Cytochrome c is well known as a carrier of electrons during respiration. Current evidence indicates that cytochrome c also functions as a major component of apoptosomes to induce apoptosis in eukaryotic cells as well as an antioxidant. More recently, a prokaryotic cytochrome c, cytochrome c {sub 551} from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, has been shown to enter in mammalian cells such as the murine macrophage-like J774 cells and causes inhibition of cell cycle progression. Much less is known about such functions by mammalian cytochromes c, particularly the human cytochrome c. We now report that similar to P. aeruginosa cytochrome c {sub 551}, the purified human cytochrome c protein can enter J774 cells and induce cell cycle arrest at the G{sub 1} to S phase, as well as at the G{sub 2}/M phase at higher concentrations. Unlike P. aeruginosa cytochrome c {sub 551} which had no effect on the induction of apoptosis, human cytochrome c induces significant apoptosis and cell death in J774 cells, presumably through inhibition of the cell cycle at the G{sub 2}/M phase. When incubated with human breast cancer MCF-7 and normal mammary epithelial cell line MCF-10A1 cells, human cytochrome c entered in both types of cells but induced cell death only in the normal MCF-10A1 cells. The ability of human cytochrome c to enter J774 cells was greatly reduced at 4 deg. C, suggesting energy requirement in the entry process.

  8. Interaction of azole antifungal antibiotics with cytochrome P-450-dependent 14 alpha-sterol demethylase purified from Candida albicans.

    PubMed Central

    Hitchcock, C A; Dickinson, K; Brown, S B; Evans, E G; Adams, D J

    1990-01-01

    The interaction of azole antifungal antibiotics with purified Candida albicans cytochrome P-450-dependent 14 alpha-sterol demethylase (P-450DM) was measured spectrophotometrically and by inhibition of enzyme activity. Ketoconazole and ICI 153066 (a triazole derivative) formed low-spin complexes with the ferric cytochrome and induced type II difference spectra. These spectra are indicative of an interaction between the azole moiety and the sixth co-ordination position of P-450DM haem. Both azoles inhibited the binding of CO to the sodium dithionite-reduced ferrous cytochrome, and inhibited reconstituted P-450DM activity by binding to the cytochrome with a one-to-one stoichiometry. Similarly, total inhibition of enzyme activity occurred when equimolar amounts of clotrimazole, miconazole or fluconazole were added to reconstituted P-450DM. These results correlated with the inhibition of P-450DM in broken cell preparations, confirming that all five azoles are potent inhibitors of ergosterol biosynthesis in C. albicans. PMID:2180400

  9. Cation binding site of cytochrome c oxidase: progress report.

    PubMed

    Vygodina, Tatiana V; Kirichenko, Anna; Konstantinov, Alexander A

    2014-07-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase from bovine heart binds Ca(2+) reversibly at a specific Cation Binding Site located near the outer face of the mitochondrial membrane. Ca(2+) shifts the absorption spectrum of heme a, which allowed earlier the determination of the kinetic and equilibrium characteristics of the binding, and, as shown recently, the binding of calcium to the site inhibits cytochrome oxidase activity at low turnover rates of the enzyme [Vygodina, Т., Kirichenko, A., Konstantinov, A.A (2013). Direct Regulation of Cytochrome c Oxidase by Calcium Ions. PloS ONE 8, e74436]. This paper summarizes further progress in the studies of the Cation Binding Site in this group presenting the results to be reported at 18th EBEC Meeting in Lisbon, 2014. The paper revises specificity of the bovine oxidase Cation Binding Site for different cations, describes dependence of the Ca(2+)-induced inhibition on turnover rate of the enzyme and reports very high affinity binding of calcium with the "slow" form of cytochrome oxidase. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 18th European Bioenergetic Conference. Guest Editors: Manuela Pereira and Miguel Teixeira.

  10. Selective Targeting of Heme Protein in Cytochrome P450 and Nitric Oxide Synthase by Diphenyleneiodonium.

    PubMed

    Szilagyi, John T; Mishin, Vladimir; Heck, Diane E; Jan, Yi-Hua; Aleksunes, Lauren M; Richardson, Jason R; Heindel, Ned D; Laskin, Debra L; Laskin, Jeffrey D

    2016-05-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes mediate mixed-function oxidation reactions important in drug metabolism. The aromatic heterocyclic cation, diphenyleneiodonium (DPI), binds flavin in cytochrome P450 reductase and inhibits CYP-mediated activity. DPI also inhibits CYP by directly interacting with heme. Herein, we report that DPI effectively inhibits a number of CYP-related monooxygenase reactions including NADPH oxidase, a microsomal enzyme activity that generates hydrogen peroxide in the absence of metabolizing substrates. Inhibition of monooxygenase by DPI was time and concentration dependent with IC50's ranging from 0.06 to 1.9 μM. Higher (4.6-23.9 μM), but not lower (0.06-1.9 μM), concentrations of DPI inhibited electron flow via cytochrome P450 reductase, as measured by its ability to reduce cytochrome c and mediate quinone redox cycling. Similar results were observed with inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), an enzyme containing a C-terminal reductase domain homologous to cytochrome P450 reductase that mediates reduction of cytochrome c, and an N-terminal heme-thiolate oxygenase domain mediating nitric oxide production. Significantly greater concentrations of DPI were required to inhibit cytochrome c reduction by iNOS (IC50 = 3.5 µM) than nitric oxide production (IC50 = 0.16 µM). Difference spectra of liver microsomes, recombinant CYPs, and iNOS demonstrated that DPI altered heme-carbon monoxide interactions. In the presence of NADPH, DPI treatment of microsomes and iNOS yielded a type II spectral shift. These data indicate that DPI interacts with both flavin and heme in CYPs and iNOS. Increased sensitivity for inhibition of CYP-mediated metabolism and nitric oxide production by iNOS indicates that DPI targets heme moieties within the enzymes.

  11. The role of cytochrome b5 in delta 12 desaturation of oleic acid by microsomes of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.).

    PubMed

    Kearns, E V; Hugly, S; Somerville, C R

    1991-02-01

    The electron donors for the membrane-bound fatty acid desaturases of higher plants have not previously been identified. In order to assess the participation of cytochrome b5 in microsomal fatty acid desaturation, the cytoplasmic domain of microsomal cytochrome b5 was purified from Brassica oleracea, and murine polyclonal antibodies were prepared. The IgG fraction from ascites fluid inhibited 62% of NADH-dependent cytochrome c reduction in safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) microsomes. These antibodies also blocked desaturation of oleic acid to linoleic acid in lipids of C. tinctorius microsomes by 93%, suggesting that cytochrome b5 is the electron donor for the delta 12 desaturase.

  12. Coulometric and spectroscopic analysis of the purified cytochrome d complex of Escherichia coli: evidence for the identification of "cytochrome a1" as cytochrome b595.

    PubMed

    Lorence, R M; Koland, J G; Gennis, R B

    1986-05-06

    Coulometric and spectroscopic analyses were performed on the three cytochrome components (cytochrome d, cytochrome b558, and the cytochrome previously described as cytochrome a1) of the purified cytochrome d complex, a terminal oxidase of the Escherichia coli aerobic respiratory chain. On the basis of heme extraction, spectroscopic, and coulometric data, the "cytochrome a1" component was identified as a b-type cytochrome: cytochrome b595. The pyridine hemochromogen technique revealed the presence of two molecules of protoheme IX per cytochrome d complex. This quantity of protoheme IX fully accounted for the sum of the cytochrome b558 and cytochrome b595 components as determined coulometrically. The renaming of cytochrome a1 as cytochrome b595 was further indicated by the lack of any heme a in the complex and by its resolved reduced-minus-oxidized spectrum. The latter was found to be similar to that of cytochrome c peroxidase, which contains protoheme IX. Coulometric titrations and carbon monoxide binding titrations revealed that there are two molecules of cytochrome d per complex. A convenient measurement of the amount of cytochrome b558 was found to be the beta-band at 531 nm since cytochrome b558 was observed to be the only component of the cytochrome d complex with a peak at this wavelength. By use of this method and the extinction coefficient for the purified cytochrome b558, it was estimated that there is one molecule of cytochrome b595 and one of cytochrome b558 per cytochrome complex.

  13. The Cytochrome P450 Homepage

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The Cytochrome P450 Homepage is a universal resource for nomenclature and sequence information on cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes. The site has been in continuous operation since February 1995. Currently, naming information for 11,512 CYPs are available on the web pages. The P450 sequences are manually curated by David Nelson, and the nomenclature system conforms to an evolutionary scheme such that members of CYP families and subfamilies share common ancestors. The organisation and content of the Homepage are described. PMID:19951895

  14. Cytochrome a620 in Tetrahymena pyriformis. Reactions with carbon monoxide and oxygen at subzero temperatures and photochemical action spectra.

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, D; Scott, R I; Edwards, S W; Edwards, C; Chance, B

    1982-01-01

    1. Mitochondria-enriched fractions of the ciliate protozoan Tetrahymena pyriformis ST contained CO-reacting cytochromes b560 and a620. 2. A non-photodissociable oxygen-containing compound of cytochrome a620 was formed in whole cell suspensions at -114 degrees C after photolysis of CO in the presence of 200 microM-O2. 3. Electron transport, indicated by the oxidation of cytochrome a620 and cytochrome c, occurred at temperatures higher than -72 degrees C. 4. Photochemical action spectra for the relief of respiratory inhibition of whole cells by CO obtained by using a liquid dye laser indicate that the only CO-reacting terminal oxidase detectable was cytochrome a620. 5. It is concluded that the alternative electron transport chains in this organism utilize non-cytochrome terminal oxidases. PMID:6816222

  15. Cyanide-induced cytochrome a,a3 oxidation-reduction responses in rat brain in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Piantadosi, C A; Sylvia, A L; Jöbsis, F F

    1983-01-01

    The sensitivity of the brain to cyanide-induced histotoxic hypoxia and the protective effects of known cyanide antagonists, have been assessed in vivo by reflectance spectrophotometry. Cyanide-related changes in cytochrome a,a3 (cytochrome c oxidase) oxidation-reduction (redox) state, tissue hemoglobin saturation, and local blood volume were continuously monitored in cerebral cortex of rats. Noncumulative, dose-dependent inhibition of the in situ mitochondrial respiratory chain was evaluated directly by measuring increases in reduction levels of the terminal oxidase. These transient cytochrome a,a3 reductions were accompanied by increases in regional cerebral hemoglobin saturation and blood volume. Cytochrome redox responses were not altered either in magnitude or kinetics by hyperoxia; however, the cyanide-cytochrome dose-response curve was greatly shifted to the right by pretreatment with sodium nitrite, and the recovery rate of cytochrome a,a3 from cyanide-induced reduction was enhanced fourfold by pretreatment with sodium thiosulfate. PMID:6313756

  16. Cytochrome b5 promotes the synthesis of delta 16-C19 steroids by homogeneous cytochrome P-450 C21 side-chain cleavage from pig testis.

    PubMed

    Nakajin, S; Takahashi, M; Shinoda, M; Hall, P F

    1985-10-30

    Conversion of progesterone to 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone plus androstenedione (17 alpha-hydroxylation) and to androstadienone (delta 16 synthetase activity) by microsomes from neonatal pig testis, were both inhibited by antibodies raised against homogeneous cytochrome P-450 C21 side-chain cleavage. Inhibition of the two activities showed the same relationship to the concentration of antibody added. Analogous results were obtained with pregnenolone as substrate. In a reconstituted enzyme system consisting of the homogeneous cytochrome P-450 C21 side-chain cleavage enzyme, P-450 reductase and NADPH, addition of cytochrome b5 resulted in the synthesis of the corresponding delta 16-C19-steroid from progesterone (androstadienone) and pregnenolone (androstadienol). The effect of cytochrome b5 was concentration-dependent and prevented by anti-cytochrome b5. It is concluded that the cytochrome P-450 C21 side-chain cleavage enzyme from pig testicular microsomes is also capable of synthesizing delta 16-C19-steroids and is, therefore, likely to be responsible for the large amounts of the pherormone androstadienone produced by male pigs.

  17. Specific labeling and partial inactivation of cytochrome oxidase by fluorescein mercuric acetate.

    PubMed

    Stonehuerner, J; O'Brien, P; Kendrick, L; Hall, J; Millett, F

    1985-09-25

    Addition of 1 eq of fluorescein mercuric acetate (FMA) to beef heart cytochrome oxidase was found to inhibit the steady-state electron transfer activity by 50%, but further additions up to 10 eq had no additional effect on activity. The partial inhibition caused by FMA is thus similar to that observed with other mercury compounds (Mann, A. J., and Auer, H. E. (1980) J. Biol. Chem. 255, 454-458). The fluorescence of FMA was quenched by a factor of 10 upon binding to cytochrome oxidase, consistent with the involvement of a sulfhydryl group. However, addition of mercuric chloride to FMA-cytochrome oxidase resulted in an increase in fluorescence, suggesting that FMA was displaced from the high affinity binding site. Cytochrome c binding to FMA-cytochrome oxidase resulted in a 10% decrease in the fluorescence, possibly caused by Forster energy transfer from FMA to the cytochrome c heme. The binding site for FMA in cytochrome oxidase was investigated by carrying out sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis under progressively milder dissociation conditions. When FMA-cytochrome oxidase was dissociated with 3% sodium dodecyl sulfate and 6 M urea, FMA was predominantly bound to subunit II following electrophoresis. However, when the dissociation was carried out at 4 degrees C in the absence of urea with progressively smaller amounts of lithium dodecyl sulfate, the labeling of subunit II decreased and that of subunit I increased. These experiments demonstrate that mercury compounds bind to a high affinity site on cytochrome oxidase, possibly located in subunit I, but then migrate to subunit II under the normal sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis conditions. A definitive assignment of the high affinity binding site in the native enzyme cannot be made, however, because it is possible that mercury compounds can migrate from one sulfhydryl to another under even the mildest electrophoresis conditions.

  18. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A in rat liver by the Diorganotin (IV) compound di-n-Butyl-di-(4-chlorobenzo-hydroxamato)tin (IV) and Its Probable Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunxia; Li, Yunlan; Li, Qingshan

    2012-09-12

    The specific aims of this study were to evaluate the inhibition effect on CYP3A of di-n-butyl-di-(4-chlorobenzohydroxamato)tin (IV) (DBDCT), a tin-based complex with high antitumor activity, and the probable mechanism(s) of this action. Adult male SD rats were treated separately with natural saline (NS), lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5 mg/kg), DBDCT (1.25, 2.5 and 5.0 mg/kg) intraperitoneally for 2 days after induction of CYP3A with dexamethasone (DEX, 100 mg/kg) for 4 days. Western blot analysis and fluorescent quantitation PCR (FQ-PCR) were conducted to determine the changes in expression of CYP3A, PXR, CAR and RXR. The biological accumulation of DBDCT and total Sn were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). CYP450 content and CYP3A activities were significantly inhibited (p < 0.05) in DBDCT-treated rats compared with the control group, as was the expression of CYP3A (p < 0.05) at both protein and mRNA levels. In DBDCT-treated groups, the expression of PXR protein and mRNA increased, while the expression of CAR decreased. The biological accumulation of DBDCT and Sn in rat livers treated with DBDCT was high. The accumulation of DBDCT and Sn due to the inhibition of CYP3A may be involved in the mechanism of toxicity of DBDCT in rat liver.

  19. Utilizing Chemical Genomics to Identify Cytochrome b as a Novel Drug Target for Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Khare, Shilpi; Roach, Steven L.; Barnes, S. Whitney; Hoepfner, Dominic; Walker, John R.; Chatterjee, Arnab K.; Neitz, R. Jeffrey; Arkin, Michelle R.; McNamara, Case W.; Ballard, Jaime; Lai, Yin; Fu, Yue; Molteni, Valentina; Yeh, Vince; McKerrow, James H.; Glynne, Richard J.; Supek, Frantisek

    2015-01-01

    Unbiased phenotypic screens enable identification of small molecules that inhibit pathogen growth by unanticipated mechanisms. These small molecules can be used as starting points for drug discovery programs that target such mechanisms. A major challenge of the approach is the identification of the cellular targets. Here we report GNF7686, a small molecule inhibitor of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, and identification of cytochrome b as its target. Following discovery of GNF7686 in a parasite growth inhibition high throughput screen, we were able to evolve a GNF7686-resistant culture of T. cruzi epimastigotes. Clones from this culture bore a mutation coding for a substitution of leucine by phenylalanine at amino acid position 197 in cytochrome b. Cytochrome b is a component of complex III (cytochrome bc1) in the mitochondrial electron transport chain and catalyzes the transfer of electrons from ubiquinol to cytochrome c by a mechanism that utilizes two distinct catalytic sites, QN and QP. The L197F mutation is located in the QN site and confers resistance to GNF7686 in both parasite cell growth and biochemical cytochrome b assays. Additionally, the mutant cytochrome b confers resistance to antimycin A, another QN site inhibitor, but not to strobilurin or myxothiazol, which target the QP site. GNF7686 represents a promising starting point for Chagas disease drug discovery as it potently inhibits growth of intracellular T. cruzi amastigotes with a half maximal effective concentration (EC50) of 0.15 µM, and is highly specific for T. cruzi cytochrome b. No effect on the mammalian respiratory chain or mammalian cell proliferation was observed with up to 25 µM of GNF7686. Our approach, which combines T. cruzi chemical genetics with biochemical target validation, can be broadly applied to the discovery of additional novel drug targets and drug leads for Chagas disease. PMID:26186534

  20. Cytochrome aa3 in Haloferax volcanii

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Mikiei; Ogawa, Naohide; Ihara, Kunio; Sugiyama, Yasuo; Mukohata, Yasuo

    2002-01-01

    A cytochrome in an extremely halophilic archaeon, Haloferax volcanii, was purified to homogeneity. This protein displayed a redox difference spectrum that is characteristic of a-type cytochromes and a CN− complex spectrum that indicates the presence of heme a and heme a3. This cytochrome aa3 consisted of 44- and 35-kDa subunits. The amino acid sequence of the 44-kDa subunit was similar to that of the heme-copper oxidase subunit I, and critical amino acid residues for metal binding, such as histidines, were highly conserved. The reduced cytochrome c partially purified from the bacterial membrane fraction was oxidized by the cytochrome aa3, providing physiological evidence for electron transfer from cytochrome c to cytochrome aa3 in archaea. PMID:11790755

  1. The rabbit pulmonary cytochrome P450 arachidonic acid metabolic pathway: characterization and significance.

    PubMed Central

    Zeldin, D C; Plitman, J D; Kobayashi, J; Miller, R F; Snapper, J R; Falck, J R; Szarek, J L; Philpot, R M; Capdevila, J H

    1995-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 metabolizes arachidonic acid to several unique and biologically active compounds in rabbit liver and kidney. Microsomal fractions prepared from rabbit lung homogenates metabolized arachidonic acid through cytochrome P450 pathways, yielding cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and their hydration products, vic-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids, mid-chain cis-trans conjugated dienols, and 19- and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids. Inhibition studies using polyclonal antibodies prepared against purified CYP2B4 demonstrated 100% inhibition of arachidonic acid epoxide formation. Purified CYP2B4, reconstituted in the presence of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and cytochrome b5, metabolized arachidonic acid, producing primarily EETs. EETs were detected in lung homogenate using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy, providing evidence for the in vivo pulmonary cytochrome P450 epoxidation of arachidonic acid. Chiral analysis of these lung EETs demonstrated a preference for the 14(R),15(S)-, 11(S),12(R)-, and 8(S),9(R)-EET enantiomers. Both EETs and vic-dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids were detected in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. At micromolar concentrations, methylated 5,6-EET and 8,9-EET significantly relaxed histamine-contracted guinea pig hilar bronchi in vitro. In contrast, 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid caused contraction to near maximal tension. We conclude that CYP2B4, an abundant rabbit lung cytochrome P450 enzyme, is the primary constitutive pulmonary arachidonic acid epoxygenase and that these locally produced, biologically active eicosanoids may be involved in maintaining homeostasis within the lung. Images PMID:7738183

  2. Inactivation of nitric oxide by cytochrome c oxidase under steady-state oxygen conditions.

    PubMed

    Unitt, David C; Hollis, Veronica S; Palacios-Callender, Miriam; Frakich, Nanci; Moncada, Salvador

    2010-03-01

    We have developed a respiration chamber that allows intact cells to be studied under controlled oxygen (O(2)) conditions. The system measures the concentrations of O(2) and nitric oxide (NO) in the cell suspension, while the redox state of cytochrome c oxidase is continuously monitored optically. Using human embryonic kidney cells transfected with a tetracycline-inducible NO synthase we show that the inactivation of NO by cytochrome c oxidase is dependent on both O(2) concentration and electron turnover of the enzyme. At a high O(2) concentration (70 microM), and while the enzyme is in turnover, NO generated by the NO synthase upon addition of a given concentration of l-arginine is partially inactivated by cytochrome c oxidase and does not affect the redox state of the enzyme or consumption of O(2). At low O(2) (15 microM), when the cytochrome c oxidase is more reduced, inactivation of NO is decreased. In addition, the NO that is not inactivated inhibits the cytochrome c oxidase, further reducing the enzyme and lowering O(2) consumption. At both high and low O(2) concentrations the inactivation of NO is decreased when sodium azide is used to inhibit cytochrome c oxidase and decrease electron turnover.

  3. Cytochromes P450 in Nanodiscs

    PubMed Central

    Denisov, Ilia G.; Sligar, Stephen G.

    2010-01-01

    Nanodiscs have proven to be a versatile tool for the study all types of membrane proteins, including receptors, transporters, enzymes and viral antigens. The self-assembled Nanodisc system provides a robust and common means for rendering these targets soluble in aqueous media while providing a native like bilayer environment that maintains functional activity. This system has thus provided a means for studying the extensive collection of membrane bound cytochromes P450 with the same biochemical and biophysical tools that have been previously limited to use with the soluble P450s. These include a plethora of spectroscopic, kinetic and surface based methods. Significant improvements in homogeneity and stability of these preparations open new possibilities for detailed analysis of equilibrium and steady-state kinetic characteristics of catalytic mechanisms of human cytochromes P450 involved in xenobiotic metabolism and in steroid biosynthesis. The experimental methods developed for physico-chemical and functional studies of membrane cytochromes P450 incorporated in Nanodiscs allow for more detailed understanding of the scientific questions along the lines pioneered by Professor Klaus Ruckpaul and his array of colleagues and collaborators. PMID:20685623

  4. A cytochrome c mutant with high electron transfer and antioxidant activities but devoid of apoptogenic effect.

    PubMed Central

    Abdullaev, Ziedulla Kh; Bodrova, Marina E; Chernyak, Boris V; Dolgikh, Dmitry A; Kluck, Ruth M; Pereverzev, Mikhail O; Arseniev, Alexander S; Efremov, Roman G; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P; Mokhova, Elena N; Newmeyer, Donald D; Roder, Heinrich; Skulachev, Vladimir P

    2002-01-01

    A cytochrome c mutant lacking apoptogenic function but competent in electron transfer and antioxidant activities has been constructed. To this end, mutant species of horse and yeast cytochromes c with substitutions in the N-terminal alpha-helix or position 72 were obtained. It was found that yeast cytochrome c was much less effective than the horse protein in activating respiration of rat liver mitoplasts deficient in endogenous cytochrome c as well as in inhibition of H(2)O(2) production by the initial segment of the respiratory chain of intact rat heart mitochondria. The major role in the difference between the horse and yeast proteins was shown to be played by the amino acid residue in position 4 (glutamate in horse, and lysine in yeast; horse protein numbering). A mutant of the yeast cytochrome c containing K4E and some other "horse" modifications in the N-terminal alpha-helix, proved to be (i) much more active in electron transfer and antioxidant activity than the wild-type yeast cytochrome c and (ii), like the yeast cytochrome c, inactive in caspase stimulation, even if added in 400-fold excess compared with the horse protein. Thus this mutant seems to be a good candidate for knock-in studies of the role of cytochrome c-mediated apoptosis, in contrast with the horse K72R, K72G, K72L and K72A mutant cytochromes that at low concentrations were less active in apoptosis than the wild-type, but were quite active when the concentrations were increased by a factor of 2-12. PMID:11879204

  5. Zinc ions as cytochrome C oxidase inhibitors: two sites of action.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, S S; Azarkina, N V; Vygodina, T V; Siletsky, S A; Konstantinov, A A

    2005-02-01

    Zinc ions are shown to be an efficient inhibitor of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase activity, both in the solubilized and the liposome-reconstituted enzyme. The effect of zinc is biphasic. First there occurs rapid interaction of zinc with the enzyme at a site exposed to the aqueous phase corresponding to the mitochondrial matrix. This interaction is fully reversed by EDTA and results in a partial inhibition of the enzyme activity (50-90%, depending on preparation) with an effective K(i) of approximately 10 microM. The rapid effect of zinc is observed with the solubilized enzyme, it vanishes upon incorporation of cytochrome oxidase in liposomes, and it re-appears when proteoliposomes are supplied with alamethicin that makes the membrane permeable to low molecular weight substances. Zinc presumably blocks the entrance of the D-protonic channel opening into the inner aqueous phase. Second, zinc interacts slowly (tens of minutes, hours) with a site of cytochrome oxidase accessible from the outer aqueous phase bringing about complete inhibition of the enzymatic activity. The slow phase is characterized by high affinity of the inhibitor for the enzyme: full inhibition can be achieved upon incubation of the solubilized oxidase for 24 h with zinc concentration as low as 2 microM. The rate of zinc inhibitory action in the slow phase is proportional to Zn(2+) concentration. The slow interaction of zinc with the outer surface of liposome-reconstituted cytochrome oxidase is observed only with the enzyme turning over or in the presence of weak reductants, whereas incubation of zinc with the fully oxidized proteoliposomes does not induce the inhibition. It is shown that zinc ions added to cytochrome oxidase proteoliposomes from the outside inhibit specifically the slow electrogenic phase of proton transfer, coupled to a transition of cytochrome oxidase from the oxo-ferryl to the oxidized state (the F --> O step corresponding to transfer of the 4th electron in the catalytic

  6. Cytochrome Electron Transfer and Biomolecular Electronics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-22

    polarograms of cytochrome c3 "a) DvM: Desulfovibrio vulgaris Miyazaki F (solid line,rmeasured; dots, si ulated) .. b) DvH: Desulfovibrio vulgaris ...Miyazaki); 2. D. vulgaris (H ldenborough); 3. D. sulfurlcans (Norway) and % 4. D. gigas. The macroscopic redox potentials for each of the hemes in the...Structure of Cytochrome C 3 Four cytochromes C have been selected for study: 1. D. vulgaris (Miyazaki) DvM) ; 2. D. vulgaris (Hildenborough) (DvH); 3. D

  7. Cytochrome P450-activated prodrugs

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz de Montellano, Paul R

    2013-01-01

    A prodrug is a compound that has negligible, or lower, activity against a specified pharmacological target than one of its major metabolites. Prodrugs can be used to improve drug delivery or pharmacokinetics, to decrease toxicity, or to target the drug to specific cells or tissues. Ester and phosphate hydrolysis are widely used in prodrug design because of their simplicity, but such approaches are relatively ineffective for targeting drugs to specific sites. The activation of prodrugs by the cytochrome P450 system provides a highly versatile approach to prodrug design that is particularly adaptable for targeting drug activation to the liver, to tumors or to hypoxic tissues. PMID:23360144

  8. Cytochrome C oxidase activity in germinating Phaseolus vulgaris l. seeds: Effects of carbon monoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Caughey, W.S. ); Sowa, S.; Roos, E.E.

    1989-04-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase is a key bioenergetic enzyme required for seed germination. The enzyme was isolated from 2-day germinating beans and biochemically compared to its bovine heart counterpart. Carbon monoxide, which binds to the heme a{sub 3} site of cytochrome c oxidase, we used to probe O{sub 2} utilization activity in isolated enzyme, mitochondrial particles, and whole seeds. Bean seeds under 80% CO/20% O{sub 2} exhibited 46% growth inhibition as determined by root length. Reversible, dose-dependent partial inhibition of bean seed mitochondrial respiration was observed in the presence of CO; heart mitochondria had a more sensitive, less reversible response. Effects of CO on bean and bovine heart enzyme were similar. The close correlation of CO effects observed on seedling growth, mitochondrial respiration and cytochrome oxidase activity indicate an important role for this enzyme during the early stages of seed germination.

  9. Interaction of new sulfaphenazole derivatives with human liver cytochrome p450 2Cs: structural determinants required for selective recognition by CYP 2C9 and for inhibition of human CYP 2Cs.

    PubMed

    Ha-Duong, N T; Marques-Soares, C; Dijols, S; Sari, M A; Dansette, P M; Mansuy, D

    2001-10-15

    A series of new derivatives of sulfaphenazole (SPA), in which the NH(2) and phenyl substituents of SPA are replaced by various groups or in which the sulfonamide function of SPA is N-alkylated, were synthesized in order to further explore CYP 2C9 active site and to determine the structural factors explaining the selectivity of SPA for CYP 2C9 within the human P450 2C subfamily. Compounds in which the NH(2) group of SPA was replaced with R(1) = CH(3), Br, CH = CH(2), CH(2)CH = CH(2), and CH(2)CH(2)OH exhibited a high affinity for CYP 2C9, as shown by the dissociation constant of their CYP 2C9 complexes, K(s), which was determined by difference visible spectroscopy (K(s) between 0.1 and 0.4 microM) and their constant of CYP 2C9 inhibition (K(i) between 0.3 and 0.6 microM). This indicates that the CYP 2C9-iron(III)-NH(2)R bond previously described to exist in the CYP 2C9-SPA complex does not play a key role in the high affinity of SPA for CYP 2C9. Compounds in which the phenyl group of SPA was replaced with various aryl or alkyl R(2) substituents only exhibited a high affinity for CYP 2C9 if R(2) is a freely rotating and sufficiently electron-rich aryl substituent. Finally, compounds resulting from a N-alkylation of the SPA sulfonamide function (R(3) = CH(3), C(2)H(5), or C(3)H(7)) did not retain the selective inhibitory properties of SPA toward CYP 2C9. However, they are reasonably good inhibitors of CYP 2C8 and CYP 2C18 (IC(50) approximately 20 microM). These data allow one to better understand the structural factors that are important for selective binding in the CYP 2C9 active site. They also provide us with clues towards new selective inhibitors of CYP 2C8 and CYP 2C18.

  10. Cytochrome c Adducts with PCB Quinoid Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Li, Miao; Teesch, Lynn M.; Murry, Daryl J.; Pope, R. Marshal; Li, Yalan; Robertson, Larry W.; Ludewig, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    PCBs are a group of 209 individual congeners widely used as industrial chemicals. PCBs are found as by-products in dye and paint manufacture and are legacy, ubiquitous and persistent as human and environmental contaminants. PCBs with fewer chlorine atoms may be metabolized to hydroxy- and dihydroxy- metabolites and further oxidized to quinoid metabolites both in vitro and in vivo. Specifically, quinoid metabolites may form adducts on nucleophilic sites within cells. We hypothesized that the PCB-quinones covalently bind to cytochrome c and thereby cause defects in the function of cytochrome c. In this study synthetic PCB quinones (2-(4’-chlorophenyl)-1,4-benzoquinone, 2-(3’, 5’-dichlorophenyl)-1,4-benzoquinone, 2-(3’,4’, 5’-trichlorophenyl)-1,4-benzoquinone, and 2-(4’-chlorophenyl)-3,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone) were incubated with cytochrome c, and adducts were detected by LC-MS and MALDI TOF. SDS PAGE gel electrophoresis was employed to separate the adducted proteins, while trypsin digestion and LC-MS/MS were applied to identify the amino acid binding sites on cytochrome c. Conformation change of cytochrome c after binding with PCB3-para-quinone was investigated by SYBYL-X simulation and cytochrome c function was examined. We found that more than one molecule of PCB-quinone may bind to one molecule of cytochrome c. Lysine and glutamic acid were identified as the predominant binding sites. Software simulation showed conformation changes of adducted cytochrome c. Additionally, cross-linking of cytochrome c was observed on the SDS PAGE gel. Cytochrome c was found to be in the reduced form after incubation with PCB quinones. These data provide evidence that the covalent binding of PCB quinone metabolites to cytochrome c may be included among the toxic effects of PCBs. PMID:26062463

  11. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Rak, Malgorzata; Bénit, Paule; Chrétien, Dominique; Bouchereau, Juliette; Schiff, Manuel; El-Khoury, Riyad; Tzagoloff, Alexander; Rustin, Pierre

    2016-03-01

    As with other mitochondrial respiratory chain components, marked clinical and genetic heterogeneity is observed in patients with a cytochrome c oxidase deficiency. This constitutes a considerable diagnostic challenge and raises a number of puzzling questions. So far, pathological mutations have been reported in more than 30 genes, in both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, affecting either structural subunits of the enzyme or proteins involved in its biogenesis. In this review, we discuss the possible causes of the discrepancy between the spectacular advances made in the identification of the molecular bases of cytochrome oxidase deficiency and the lack of any efficient treatment in diseases resulting from such deficiencies. This brings back many unsolved questions related to the frequent delay of clinical manifestation, variable course and severity, and tissue-involvement often associated with these diseases. In this context, we stress the importance of studying different models of these diseases, but also discuss the limitations encountered in most available disease models. In the future, with the possible exception of replacement therapy using genes, cells or organs, a better understanding of underlying mechanism(s) of these mitochondrial diseases is presumably required to develop efficient therapy.

  12. Mitochondrial Cytochrome c Oxidase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Rak, Malgorzata; Bénit, Paule; Chrétien, Dominique; Bouchereau, Juliette; Schiff, Manuel; El-Khoury, Riyad; Tzagoloff, Alexander; Rustin, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    As with other mitochondrial respiratory chain components, marked clinical and genetic heterogeneity is observed in patients with a cytochrome c oxidase deficiency. This constitutes a considerable diagnostic challenge and raises a number of puzzling questions. So far, pathological mutations have been reported in more than 30 genes, in both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, affecting either structural subunits of the enzyme or proteins involved in its biogenesis. In this review, we discuss the possible causes of the discrepancy between the spectacular advances made in the identification of the molecular bases of cytochrome oxidase deficiency and the lack of any efficient treatment in diseases resulting from such deficiencies. This brings back many unsolved questions related to the frequent delay of clinical manifestation, variable course and severity, and tissue-involvement often associated with these diseases. In this context, we stress the importance to study different models of these diseases, but also discuss the limitations encountered in most available disease models. In the future, with the possible exception of replacement therapy using genes, cells or organs, a better understanding of underlying mechanism(s) of these mitochondrial diseases is presumably required to develop efficient therapy. PMID:26846578

  13. Cytochrome P450 structure, function and clinical significance: A review.

    PubMed

    Palrasu, Manikandan; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2017-01-25

    The cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are membrane-bound hemoproteins that play a pivotal role in the detoxification of xenobiotics, cellular metabolism and homeostasis. Induction or inhibition of CYP enzymes is a major mechanism that underlies drug-drug interactions. CYP enzymes can be transcriptionally activated by various xenobiotics and endogenous substrates through receptor-dependent mechanisms. CYP enzyme inhibition is a principal mechanism for metabolism-based drug-drug interactions. Many chemotherapeutic drugs can cause drug interactions due to their ability to either inhibit or induce the CYP enzyme system. Predictions based on in silico analyses followed by validation have identified several microRNAs that regulate CYPs. Genetic polymorphisms and epigenetic changes in CYP genes may be responsible for inter-individual and inter-ethnic variations in disease susceptibility and the therapeutic efficacy of drugs. Knowledge about the substrates, inducers, inhibitors of CYP isoforms, and the polymorphisms of CYP enzymes may be used as an aid by clinicians to determine therapeutic strategy, and treatment doses for drugs that are metabolized by CYP gene products. The present review is a comprehensive compilation of cytochrome P450 structure, function, pharmacogenetics, and pharmacoepigenetics and clinical significance.

  14. Cumene hydroperoxide effected hydroperoxidation by cytochrome P-450.

    PubMed

    Chen, C; Gurka, D P

    1985-04-01

    9-Methylfluorene was found to be oxygenated to 9-hydroperoxy-9-methylfluorene and 9-hydroxy-9-methylfluorene by cytochrome P-450 in the presence of cumene hydroperoxide. Molecular oxygen is required and carbon monoxide is inhibitory. The reaction is inhibited by SKF-525A and metyrapone. Metyrapone and cumene hydroperoxide also retard the conversion of 9-hydroperoxy-9-methylfluorene to 9-hydroxy-9-methylfluorene. The reaction is different from hydroperoxide-supported oxygenation, since the cumene hydroperoxide appears to act as an effector of the enzyme rather than oxygen donor. It is suggested that substrates with stable radicals can be dioxygenated in this manner.

  15. Cytochrome c Negatively Regulates NLRP3 Inflammasomes

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Chong-Shan; Kehrl, John H.

    2016-01-01

    The release of cytochrome c from the inner mitochondrial membrane, where it is anchored by caridolipin, triggers the formation of the Apaf-1 apoptosome. Cardiolipin also interacts with NLRP3 recruiting NLRP3 to mitochondria and facilitating inflammasome assembly. In this study we investigated whether cytosolic cytochrome c impacts NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages. We report that cytochrome c binds to the LRR domain of NLRP3 and that cytochrome c reduces the interactions between NLRP3 and cardiolipin and between NLRP3 and NEK7, a recently recognized component of the NLRP3 inflammasome needed for NLRP3 oligomerization. Protein transduction of cytochrome c impairs NLRP3 inflammasome activation, while partially silencing cytochrome c expression enhances it. The addition of cytochrome c to an in vitro inflammasome assay severely limited caspase-1 activation. We propose that there is a crosstalk between the NLRP3 inflammasome and apoptosome pathways mediated by cytochrome c, whose release during apoptosis acts to limit NLRP3 inflammasome activation. PMID:28030552

  16. PROPICONAZOLE-INDUCED CYTOCHROME P450 GENE EXPRESSION AND ENZYMATIC ACTIVITIES IN RAT AND MOUSE LIVER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Conazoles are N-substituted azole antifungal agents used as both pesticides and drugs. Some of these compounds are hepatocarcinogenic in mice and some can induce thyroid tumors in rats. Many of these compounds are able to induce and/or inhibit mammalian hepatic cytochrome P450s t...

  17. Action of DCCD on the H+/O stoichiometry of mitoplast cytochrome c oxidase.

    PubMed

    Lehninger, A L; Reynafarje, B; Costa, L

    1985-01-01

    The mechanistic H+/O ejection stoichiometry of the cytochrome c oxidase reaction in rat liver mitoplasts is close to 4 at level flow when the reduced oxidase is pulsed with O2. Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) up to 30 nmol/mg protein fails to influence the rate of electron flow through the mitoplast oxidase, but inhibits H+ ejection. The inhibition of H+ ejection appears to be biphasic; ejection of 2-3 H+ per O is completely inhibited by very low DCCD, whereas inhibition of the remaining H+ ejection requires very much higher concentrations of DCCD. This effect suggests the occurrence of two types of H+ pumps in the native cytochrome oxidase of mitoplasts.

  18. Aryl Hydroxylation of the Herbicide Diclofop by a Wheat Cytochrome P-450 Monooxygenase 1

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerlin, Alfred; Durst, Francis

    1992-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Etoile de Choisy) microsomes catalyzed the cytochrome P-450-dependent oxidation of the herbicide diclofop to three hydroxy-diclofop isomers. Hydroxylation was predominant at carbon 4, with migration of chlorine to carbon 5 (67%) and carbon 3 (25%). The 2,4-dichloro-5-hydroxy isomer was identified as a minor reaction product (8%). Substrate-specificity studies showed that the activity was not inhibited or was weakly inhibited by a range of xenobiotic or physiological cytochrome P-450 substrates, with the exception of lauric acid. Wheat microsomes also catalyze the metabolism of the herbicides chlorsulfuron, chlortoluron, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and of the model substrate ethoxycoumarin, as well as the hydroxylation of the endogenous substrates cinnamic and lauric acids. Treatments of wheat seedlings with phenobarbital or the safener naphthalic acid anhydride enhanced the cytochrome P-450 content of the microsomes and all related activities except that of cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase, which was reduced. The stimulation patterns of diclofop aryl hydroxylase and lauric acid hydroxylase were similar, in contrast with the other activities tested. Lauric acid inhibited competitively (Ki = 9 μm) the oxidation of diclofop and reciprocally. The similarity of diclofop aryl hydroxylase and lauric acid hydroxylase was further investigated by alternative substrate kinetics, autocatalytic inactivation, and computer-aided molecular modelisation studies, and the results suggest that both reactions are catalyzed by the same cytochrome P-450 isozyme. PMID:16653070

  19. Comparative kinetics of Qi site inhibitors of cytochrome bc1 complex: picomolar antimycin and micromolar cyazofamid.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Zhu, Xiao-Lei; Yang, Wen-Chao; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Antimycin and cyazofamid are specific inhibitors of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and bind to the Qi site of the cytochrome bc1 complex. With the aim to understand the detailed molecular inhibition mechanism of Qi inhibitors, we performed a comparative investigation of the inhibitory kinetics of them against the porcine bc1 complex. The results showed that antimycin is a slow tight-binding inhibitor of succinate-cytochrome c reductase (SCR) with Ki  = 0.033 ± 0.00027 nm and non-competitive inhibition with respect to cytochrome c. Cyazofamid is a classical inhibitor of SCR with Ki  = 12.90 ± 0.91 μm and a non-competitive inhibitor with respect to cytochrome c. Both of them show competitive inhibition with respect to substrate DBH2 . Further molecular docking and quantum mechanics calculations were performed. The results showed that antimycin underwent significant conformational change upon the binding. The energy barrier between the conformations in the crystal and in the binding pocket is ~13.63 kcal/mol. Antimycin formed an H-bond with Asp228 and two water-bridged H-bonds with Lys227 and His201, whereas cyazofamid formed only one H-bond with Asp228. The conformational change and the different hydrogen bonding network might account for why antimycin is a slow tight-binding inhibitor, whereas cyazofamid is a classic inhibitor.

  20. Role of cytochrome P450 in drug interactions

    PubMed Central

    Bibi, Zakia

    2008-01-01

    Drug-drug interactions have become an important issue in health care. It is now realized that many drug-drug interactions can be explained by alterations in the metabolic enzymes that are present in the liver and other extra-hepatic tissues. Many of the major pharmacokinetic interactions between drugs are due to hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450 or CYP) enzymes being affected by previous administration of other drugs. After coadministration, some drugs act as potent enzyme inducers, whereas others are inhibitors. However, reports of enzyme inhibition are very much more common. Understanding these mechanisms of enzyme inhibition or induction is extremely important in order to give appropriate multiple-drug therapies. In future, it may help to identify individuals at greatest risk of drug interactions and adverse events. PMID:18928560

  1. Cyclosporin A-induced free radical generation is not mediated by cytochrome P-450

    PubMed Central

    Krauskopf, Alexandra; Buetler, Timo M; Nguyen, Nathalie S D; Macé, Katherine; Ruegg, Urs T

    2002-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been proposed to play a role in the side effects of the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin A (CsA). The aim of this study was to investigate whether cytochrome P-450 (CYP) dependent metabolism of CsA could be responsible for ROS generation since it has been suggested that CsA may influence the CYP system to produce ROS. We show that CsA (1 – 10 μM) generated antioxidant-inhibitable ROS in rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMC) using the fluorescent probe 2,7-dichlorofluorescin diacetate. Using cytochrome c as substrate, we show that CsA (10 μM) did not inhibit NADPH cytochrome P-450 reductase in microsomes prepared from rat liver, kidney or RASMC. CsA (10 μM) did not uncouple the electron flow from NADPH via NADPH cytochrome P-450 reductase to the CYP enzymes because CsA did not inhibit the metabolism of substrates selective for several CYP enzymes that do not metabolize CsA in rat liver microsomes. CsA (10 μM) did not generate more radicals in CYP 3A4 expressing immortalized human liver epithelial cells (T5-3A4 cells) than in control cells that do not express CYP 3A4. Neither diphenylene iodonium nor the CYP 3A inhibitor ketoconazole were able to block ROS formation in rat aortic smooth muscle or T5-3A4 cells. These results demonstrate that CYP enzymes do not contribute to CsA-induced ROS formation and that CsA neither inhibits NADPH cytochrome P-450 reductase nor the electron transfer to the CYP enzymes. PMID:11861326

  2. Cytochrome P450 (CYP450) Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... By Mayo Clinic Staff Your doctor may use cytochrome P450 (CYP450) tests to help determine how your body processes (metabolizes) a drug. The human body contains P450 enzymes to process medications. Because of inherited (genetic) traits ...

  3. Role of cytochrome P sub 450 in the control of the production of erythropoietin

    SciTech Connect

    Fandrey, J.; Seydel, F.P.; Siegers, C.P.; Jelkmann, W. )

    1990-01-01

    Effects of agents affecting cytochrome P{sub 450} were studied on the production of erythropoietin (Epo) in cultures of the human hepatoma cell line HepG2. Epo was measured by radioimmunoassay of the culture media after 24 h of incubation. The addition of phenobarbital or 3-methylcholanthrene, which induce cytochrome P{sub 450}, significantly enhanced the formation of Epo. Likewise, the thyroid hormones T{sub 3} and T{sub 4} stimulated the rate of the production of Epo. On the other hand, the formation of Epo was lowered following the addition of diethyl-dithiocarbamate or cysteamine chloride, which inhibit cytochrome P{sub 450}. These findings support the idea that O{sub 2} sensitive hemoproteins of the microsomal mixed-functional oxidases play a role in the control of the synthesis of Epo.

  4. Molecular surveillance of mutations in the cytochrome b gene of Plasmodium falciparum in Gabon and Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gebru, Tamirat; Hailu, Asrat; Kremsner, Peter G; Kun, Jürgen FJ; Grobusch, Martin P

    2006-01-01

    Background Atovaquone is part of the antimalarial drug combination atovaquone-proguanil (Malarone®) and inhibits the cytochrome bc1 complex of the electron transport chain in Plasmodium spp. Molecular modelling showed that amino acid mutations are clustered around a putative atovaquone-binding site resulting in a reduced binding affinity of atovaquone for plasmodial cytochrome b, thus resulting in drug resistance. Methods The prevalence of cytochrome b point mutations possibly conferring atovaquone resistance in Plasmodium falciparum isolates in atovaquone treatment-naïve patient cohorts from Lambaréné, Gabon and from South Western Ethiopia was assessed. Results Four/40 (10%) mutant types (four different single polymorphisms, one leading to an amino acid change from M to I in a single case) in Gabonese isolates, but all 141/141 isolates were wild type in Ethiopia were found. Conclusion In the absence of drug pressure, spontaneous and possibly resistance-conferring mutations are rare. PMID:17118179

  5. A Mycobacterium tuberculosis cytochrome bd oxidase mutant is hypersensitive to bedaquiline.

    PubMed

    Berney, Michael; Hartman, Travis E; Jacobs, William R

    2014-07-15

    The new medicinal compound bedaquiline (BDQ) kills Mycobacterium tuberculosis by inhibiting F1Fo-ATP synthase. BDQ is bacteriostatic for 4 to 7 days and kills relatively slowly compared to other frontline tuberculosis (TB) drugs. Here we show that killing with BDQ can be improved significantly by inhibiting cytochrome bd oxidase, a non-proton-pumping terminal oxidase. BDQ was instantly bactericidal against a cytochrome bd oxidase null mutant of M. tuberculosis, and the rate of killing was increased by more than 50%. We propose that this exclusively bacterial enzyme should be a high-priority target for new drug discovery. Importance: A major drawback of current TB chemotherapy is its long duration. New drug regimens with rapid killing kinetics are desperately needed. Our study demonstrates that inhibition of a nonessential bacterial enzyme greatly improves the efficacy of the latest TB drug bedaquiline and emphasizes that screening for compounds with synergistic killing mechanisms is a promising strategy.

  6. Reaction of ozone with protein tryptophans: band III, serum albumin, and cytochrome C.

    PubMed

    Mudd, J B; Dawson, P J; Tseng, S; Liu, F P

    1997-02-15

    Treatment of red cell ghosts with ozone inhibited both AChE (marking the outside of the membrane) and G3PDH (marking the inside of the membrane). There was no change in tryptophan fluorescence of the ghosts after the ozone treatment. Band 3 protein was isolated from the ozone-treated ghosts. The protein was digested with trypsin to obtain water soluble peptides from the cytoplasmic N-terminal tail and the interhelical loops. Fluorescent peptides included GWVIHPLGLR from the outer loop between helices 7 and 8, and peptide WMEAAR from the N-terminal cytoplasmic tail. Neither one of these peptides was oxidized by ozone. This was true whether or not the ghosts were sealed. We conclude that the position of these tryptophans either in the membrane structure, or because of binding to other proteins in the cytoplasmic tail, protects them from oxidation by ozone. Treatment of horse heart cytochrome c with ozone did not change the absorbance spectrum in the heme region or the tryptophan absorbing region. HPLC of the ozone-treated cytochrome c showed that cytochrome c was being modified, indicated by a change in the elution time. Treatment of cytochrome c with ozone did not change the activity in the NADH-cytochrome c reductase assay. Digestion of the ozone-treated cytochrome c with trypsin gave peptides which demonstrated normal fluorescence. (Cytochrome c has abnormally low fluorescence, which is not changed by ozone exposure.) The peptides were separated by HPLC. The fluorescence of the tryptophan-containing peptide (GITWK) was not decreased by treatment of the cytochrome c by ozone. Amino acid analysis of the ozone-treated cytochrome c indicated that methionine was oxidized. We conclude that tryptophan in cytochrome c is protected from oxidation by ozone because of the interaction with the porphyrin ring. Bovine serum albumin and human serum albumin were treated with ozone. There was a monotonic decrease in tryptophan fluorescence in both cases. Digestion of BSA with

  7. Inhibition of Hageman factor activation

    PubMed Central

    Nossel, H. L.; Rubin, H.; Drillings, M.; Hsieh, R.

    1968-01-01

    A method for studying inhibitors of the contact stages of blood coagulation is described. A number of positively charged substances were shown to inhibit the contact stages. The inhibitory substances include spermine, cytochrome c, ribonuclease, and lysozyme. The inhibitory effect of these substances was neutralized by the addition of an activated plasma thromboplastin antecedent, factor XI, (PTA) fraction. Other positively charged substances including protamine, hexadimethrine, polylysine, polyornithine, methylene blue, and ortho-toluidine blue also inhibited the contact stages of coagulation, but the inhibitory effect on coagulation was not neutralized by the activated PTA fraction. Negatively charged substances such as heparin and insulin did not inhibit the contact stages of coagulation. Cytochrome c inhibited Celite adsorption of a partially purified Hageman factor fraction, and cytochrome, ribonuclease, spermine, and lysozome inhibited the adsorption of Hageman factor from PTA-deficient plasma. Very much smaller quantities of Celite completely adsorbed Hageman factor from the fraction rather than from whole plasma, which suggested the possibility that plasma contains an inhibitor or inhibitors of Hageman factor adsorption. Furthermore cytochrome c, spermine, ribonuclease, and lysozyme inhibited the coagulant activity of the following activators of the Hageman and PTA factors: Celite, kaolin, sodium stearate, ellagic acid, and skin. It is suggested that negatively charged sites on these activators are critical for adsorption and activation and that inhibition results from neutralization of the negatively charged sites by the adsorbed inhibtor. Tests with polylysine polymers indicate that inhibitory activity is directly related to molecular size over the molecular weight range of 4000 to 100,000. PMID:5645860

  8. Metazoan cytochrome P450 evolution.

    PubMed

    Nelson, D R

    1998-11-01

    There are 37 cytochrome P450 families currently identified in animals. The concept of higher order groupings of P450 families called P450 CLANS is introduced. The mammalian CYP3 and CYP5 families belong to the same clan as insect CYP6 and CYP9. All mitochondrial P450s seem to belong to the same clan. Lack of mitochondrial P450s in C. elegans suggests that mitochondrial P450s probably arose from the mistargeting of a microsomal P450 after the coelomates diverged from acoelomates and pseudocoelomates. Different taxonomic groups appear to have recruited different ancestral P450s for expansion as they evolved, since each major taxon seems to have one large cluster of P450s. In insects, this cluster derives from the ancestor to the CYP4 family. Vertebrates and C. elegans may have used the same ancestor independently to generate the CYP1, 2, 17, and 21 families in vertebrates and a large distinctive clan with 45 genes in C. elegans.

  9. Cytochrome bd Displays Significant Quinol Peroxidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Al-Attar, Sinan; Yu, Yuanjie; Pinkse, Martijn; Hoeser, Jo; Friedrich, Thorsten; Bald, Dirk; de Vries, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome bd is a prokaryotic terminal oxidase that catalyses the electrogenic reduction of oxygen to water using ubiquinol as electron donor. Cytochrome bd is a tri-haem integral membrane enzyme carrying a low-spin haem b558, and two high-spin haems: b595 and d. Here we show that besides its oxidase activity, cytochrome bd from Escherichia coli is a genuine quinol peroxidase (QPO) that reduces hydrogen peroxide to water. The highly active and pure enzyme preparation used in this study did not display the catalase activity recently reported for E. coli cytochrome bd. To our knowledge, cytochrome bd is the first membrane-bound quinol peroxidase detected in E. coli. The observation that cytochrome bd is a quinol peroxidase, can provide a biochemical basis for its role in detoxification of hydrogen peroxide and may explain the frequent findings reported in the literature that indicate increased sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide and decreased virulence in mutants that lack the enzyme. PMID:27279363

  10. Chemoreceptor discharges and cytochrome redox changes of the rat carotid body: Role of heme ligands

    PubMed Central

    Lahiri, Sukhamay; Ehleben, Wilhelm; Acker, Helmut

    1999-01-01

    In superfused in vitro rat carotid body, we recorded chemoreceptor discharges and the redox state of cytochromes simultaneously to identify the primary oxygen-sensing protein controlling transmitter release and electrical activity of the carotid sinus nerve. These parameters were tested under the influence of heme ligands such as oxygen, cyanide, 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl fluoride, and CO. During stimulation, there was an initial increase in discharge frequency followed by a decline or suppression of activity. Photometric changes lagged and were maintained as nerve activity decreased. Reducing mitochondrial cytochromes by cyanide or prolonged severe hypoxia, suppressed the chemoreceptor discharge. 4-(2-Aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl fluoride, a specific inhibitor of the phagocytic cytochrome b558, also silenced the chemoreceptors after an initial excitation. CO increased the chemoreceptor discharge under normoxia, an effect inhibited by light, when the cytochromes were not reduced. When the discharges were depressed by severe hypoxia, exposure to light excited the chemoreceptors and the cytochromes were reduced. The rapidity of the chemosensory responses to light and lack of effect on dopamine release from type I cells led us to hypothesize that carotid body type I cells and the apposed nerve endings use different mechanisms for oxygen sensing: the nerve endings generate action potentials in association with membrane heme proteins whereas cytosolic heme proteins signal the redox state, releasing modulators or transmitters from type I cells. PMID:10430959

  11. Metabolism of N-nitroso-2,6-dimethylmorpholine by isozymes of rabbit liver microsomal cytochrome P-450.

    PubMed

    Kokkinakis, D M; Koop, D R; Scarpelli, D G; Coon, M J; Hollenberg, P F

    1985-02-01

    The cis isomer of N-nitroso-2,6-dimethylmorpholine (NNDM), a pancreatic carcinogen for the Syrian golden hamster, is metabolized by hamster liver microsomes to yield N-nitroso(2-hydroxypropyl)(2-oxopropyl)amine (HPOP) as the major product. Rabbit liver microsomes catalyze the metabolism of cis-NNDM to HPOP at a rate slower than that observed with hamster microsomes, but significantly faster than that obtained with rat microsomes. Pretreatment of rabbits with phenobarbital results in a 6-fold increase in the cis-NNDM hydroxylase activity of the rabbit microsomes to levels equal to that observed with the hamster; pretreatment of rabbits with other xenobiotics had no effect on the hydroxylation of cis-NNDM. The role of rabbit liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 in the metabolism of the cis isomer of NNDM was studied in the reconstituted system consisting of NADPH:cytochrome P-450 reductase, phospholipid, and cytochrome P-450. Cytochrome P-450LM2, which is induced by pretreatment with phenobarbital, exhibited the highest activity for the metabolism of cis-NNDM. The Vmax for the formation of HPOP was 1.78 nmol/min/nmol cytochrome P-450LM2, and the apparent Km was 360 microM. Cytochrome P-450LM3a also catalyzed the metabolism of NNDM to HPOP at a significant rate (0.25 nmol/min/nmol cytochrome P-450). Of the four other isozymes of cytochrome P-450 (forms 3b, 3c, 4, and 6) tested in the reconstituted system, only forms 3b and 3c exhibited measurable activities (approximately 0.04 nmol of HPOP formed/min/nmol cytochrome P-450). The addition of antibodies to isozyme 2 to microsomes from phenobarbital-treated rabbits resulted in approximately 95% inhibition of the metabolism of NNDM, while the addition of antibodies to LM3a inhibited NNDM metabolism by only 7%. In microsomes from untreated rabbits, inhibition by anti-LM2 and anti-LM3a antibodies was 50 and 64%, respectively. The addition of antibodies to isozyme 3a to microsomes isolated from ethanol-treated rabbits caused

  12. Cytochrome c1 exhibits two binding sites for cytochrome c in plants.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Beltrán, Blas; Díaz-Quintana, Antonio; González-Arzola, Katiuska; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; De la Rosa, Miguel A; Díaz-Moreno, Irene

    2014-10-01

    In plants, channeling of cytochrome c molecules between complexes III and IV has been purported to shuttle electrons within the supercomplexes instead of carrying electrons by random diffusion across the intermembrane bulk phase. However, the mode plant cytochrome c behaves inside a supercomplex such as the respirasome, formed by complexes I, III and IV, remains obscure from a structural point of view. Here, we report ab-initio Brownian dynamics calculations and nuclear magnetic resonance-driven docking computations showing two binding sites for plant cytochrome c at the head soluble domain of plant cytochrome c1, namely a non-productive (or distal) site with a long heme-to-heme distance and a functional (or proximal) site with the two heme groups close enough as to allow electron transfer. As inferred from isothermal titration calorimetry experiments, the two binding sites exhibit different equilibrium dissociation constants, for both reduced and oxidized species, that are all within the micromolar range, thus revealing the transient nature of such a respiratory complex. Although the docking of cytochrome c at the distal site occurs at the interface between cytochrome c1 and the Rieske subunit, it is fully compatible with the complex III structure. In our model, the extra distal site in complex III could indeed facilitate the functional cytochrome c channeling towards complex IV by building a "floating boat bridge" of cytochrome c molecules (between complexes III and IV) in plant respirasome.

  13. Cytochrome P450 3A, NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase and cytochrome b5 in the upper airways in horse.

    PubMed

    Tydén, E; Olsén, L; Tallkvist, J; Tjälve, H; Larsson, P

    2008-08-01

    Gene and protein expression as well as catalytic activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A were studied in the nasal olfactory and respiratory mucosa and the tracheal mucosa of the horse. We also examined the activity of NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase (NADPH P450 reductase), the amount of cytochrome b(5) and the total CYP content in these tissues. Comparative values for the above were obtained using liver as a control. The CYP3A related catalytic activity in the tissues of the upper airways was considerably higher than in the liver. The CYP3A gene and protein expression, on the other hand, was higher in the liver than in the upper airway tissues. Thus, the pattern of CYP3A metabolic activity does not correlate with the CYP3A gene and protein expression. Our results showed that the activity of NADPH P450 reductase and the level of cytochrome b(5) in the relation to the gene and protein expression of CYP3A were higher in the tissues of the upper airways than in the liver. It is concluded that CYP3A related metabolism in horse is not solely dependent on the expression of the enzyme but also on adequate levels of NADPH P450 reductase and cytochrome b(5).

  14. Comparison of brain mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase activity with cyanide LD(50) yields insight into the efficacy of prophylactics.

    PubMed

    Marziaz, Mandy L; Frazier, Kathryn; Guidry, Paul B; Ruiz, Robyn A; Petrikovics, Ilona; Haines, Donovan C

    2013-01-01

    Cyanide inhibits cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase of the mitochondrial respiratory pathway, therefore inhibiting the cell oxygen utilization and resulting in the condition of histotoxic anoxia. The enzyme rhodanese detoxifies cyanide by utilizing sulfur donors to convert cyanide to thiocyanate, and new and improved sulfur donors are actively sought as researchers seek to improve cyanide prophylactics. We have determined brain cytochrome c oxidase activity as a marker for cyanide exposure for mice pre-treated with various cyanide poisoning prophylactics, including sulfur donors thiosulfate (TS) and thiotaurine (TT3). Brain mitochondria were isolated by differential centrifugation, the outer mitochondrial membrane was disrupted by a maltoside detergent, and the decrease in absorbance at 550 nm as horse heart ferrocytochrome c (generated by the dithiothreitol reduction of ferricytochrome c) was oxidized was monitored. Overall, the TS control prophylactic treatment provided significant protection of the cytochrome c oxidase activity. The TT3-treated mice showed reduced cytochrome c oxidase activity even in the absence of cyanide. In both treatment series, addition of exogenous Rh did not significantly enhance the prevention of cytochrome c oxidase inhibition, but the addition of sodium nitrite did. These findings can lead to a better understanding of the protection mechanism by various cyanide antidotal systems.

  15. Cytochrome bc1 complexes of microorganisms.

    PubMed Central

    Trumpower, B L

    1990-01-01

    The cytochrome bc1 complex is the most widely occurring electron transfer complex capable of energy transduction. Cytochrome bc1 complexes are found in the plasma membranes of phylogenetically diverse photosynthetic and respiring bacteria, and in the inner mitochondrial membrane of all eucaryotic cells. In all of these species the bc1 complex transfers electrons from a low-potential quinol to a higher-potential c-type cytochrome and links this electron transfer to proton translocation. Most bacteria also possess alternative pathways of quinol oxidation capable of circumventing the bc1 complex, but these pathways generally lack the energy-transducing, protontranslocating activity of the bc1 complex. All cytochrome bc1 complexes contain three electron transfer proteins which contain four redox prosthetic groups. These are cytochrome b, which contains two b heme groups that differ in their optical and thermodynamic properties; cytochrome c1, which contains a covalently bound c-type heme; and a 2Fe-2S iron-sulfur protein. The mechanism which links proton translocation to electron transfer through these proteins is the proton motive Q cycle, and this mechanism appears to be universal to all bc1 complexes. Experimentation is currently focused on understanding selected structure-function relationships prerequisite for these redox proteins to participate in the Q-cycle mechanism. The cytochrome bc1 complexes of mitochondria differ from those of bacteria, in that the former contain six to eight supernumerary polypeptides, in addition to the three redox proteins common to bacteria and mitochondria. These extra polypeptides are encoded in the nucleus and do not contain redox prosthetic groups. The functions of the supernumerary polypeptides of the mitochondrial bc1 complexes are generally not known and are being actively explored by genetically manipulating these proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Images PMID:2163487

  16. Mechanisms of m-cresol induced protein aggregation studied using a model protein cytochrome c†

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Surinder M.; Hutchings, Regina L.; Mallela, Krishna M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Multi-dose protein formulations require an effective antimicrobial preservative (AP) to inhibit microbial growth during long-term storage of unused formulations. m-cresol is one such AP, but has been shown to cause protein aggregation. However, the fundamental physical mechanisms underlying such AP-induced protein aggregation are not understood. In this study, we used a model protein cytochrome c to identify the protein unfolding that triggers protein aggregation. m-cresol induced cytochrome c aggregation at preservative concentrations that are commonly used to inhibit microbial growth. Addition of m-cresol decreased the temperature at which the protein aggregated and increased the aggregation rate. However, m-cresol did not perturb the tertiary or secondary structure of cytochrome c. Instead, it populated an “invisible” partially unfolded intermediate where a local protein region around the methionine residue at position 80 was unfolded. Stabilizing the Met80 region drastically decreased the protein aggregation, which conclusively shows that this local protein region acts as an aggregation “hot-spot”. Based on these results, we propose that APs induce protein aggregation by partial rather than global unfolding. Because of the availability of site-specific probes to monitor different levels of protein unfolding, cytochrome c provided a unique advantage in characterizing the partial protein unfolding that triggers protein aggregation. PMID:21229618

  17. Involvement of cytochrome P-450 enzyme activity in the selectivity and safening action of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl.

    PubMed

    Yun, M S; Shim, I S; Usui, K

    2001-03-01

    To investigate the selectivity and safening action of the sulfonylurea herbicide pyrazosulfuron-ethyl (PSE), pyrazosulfuron-ethyl O-demethylase (PSEOD) activity involving oxidative metabolism by cytochrome P-450 was studied in rice (Oryza sativa L cv Nipponbare) and Cyperus serotinus Rottb. Cytochrome P-450-dependent activity was demonstrated by the use of the inducers 1,8-naphthalic anhydride and ethanol, the herbicides PSE, bensulfuron-methyl, dimepiperate and dymron, or the inhibitor piperonyl butoxide (PBO). Growth inhibition in C serotinus seedlings was more severe than that in rice seedlings. O-Dealkylation activities of PSE were induced differently in rice and in C serotinus, with distinctly higher activity in rice seedlings. The induced PSEOD activities were slightly inhibited by PBO in rice seedlings, whereas they were strongly inhibited in C serotinus seedlings. Dimepiperate and dymron were effective safeners of rice against PSE treatment. Treatments with herbicide alone resulted in less induction of PSEOD activity compared with combined treatments of the herbicide and safener. PSEOD activity in rice seedlings induced with herbicide alone was strongly inhibited by PBO, whereas it was weakly inhibited in rice seedlings induced with combinations of PSE and two safeners. These results suggest that O-demethylation by cytochrome P-450 enzymes may be involved in the metabolism of PSE and may contribute to its selectivity and safening action. Furthermore, these results suggest the existence of a multiple form of cytochrome P-450 in plants.

  18. Pharmacological profile of the abeorphine 201-678, a potent orally active and long lasting dopamine agonist

    SciTech Connect

    Jaton, A.L.; Giger, R.K.A.; Vigouret, J.M.; Enz, A.; Frick, W.; Closse, A.; Markstein, R.

    1986-01-13

    The central dopaminergic effects of an abeorphine derivative 201-678 were compared to those of apomorphine and bromocriptine in different model systems. After oral administration, this compound induced contralateral turning in rats with 6-hydroxydopamine induced nigral lesions and exhibited strong anti-akinetic properties in rats with 6-hydroxydopamine induced hypothalamic lesions. It decreased dopamine metabolism in striatum and cortex, but did not modify noradrenaline and serotonin metabolism in the rat brain. 201-678 counteracted the in vivo increase of tyrosine hydroxylase activity induced by ..gamma..-butyrolactone. In vitro it stimulated DA-sensitive adenylate cyclase and inhibited acetylcholine release from rat striatal slices. This compound had high affinity for /sup 3/H-dopamine and /sup 3/H-clonidine binding sites. These results indicate that 201-678 is a potent, orally active dopamine agonist with a long duration of action. Furthermore it appears more selective than other dopaminergic drugs. 29 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  19. A cytochrome c methyltransferase from Crithidia oncopelti.

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, J; Pettigrew, G W

    1982-01-01

    The mitochondrial cytochrome c-557 of Crithidia oncopelti contains two lysine residues and an N-terminal proline residue that are methylated in vivo by the methyl group of methionine. The purified cytochrome can act as a methyl acceptor for a methyltransferase activity in the cell extract that uses S-adenosylmethionine as methyl donor. Crithidia cytochrome c-557 is by far the best substrate for this methyltransferase of those tested, in spite of the fact that methylation sites are already almost fully occupied. The radioactive uptake of [14C]methyl groups from S-adenosylmethionine occurred only at a lysine residue (-8) and the N-terminal proline residue. This methyltransferase appears to differ from that of Neurospora and yeast [Durban, Nochumson, Kim, Paik & Chan (1978) J. Biol. Chem. 253, 1427-1435; DiMaria, Polastro, DeLange, Kim & Paik (1979) J. Biol. Chem. 254, 4645-4652] in that lysine-72 of horse cytochrome c is a poor acceptor. Also, the Crithidia methyltransferase appears to be stable to carry lysine methylation much further to completion than do the enzymes from yeast and Neurospora, which produce very low degrees of methylation in native cytochromes c. PMID:6282265

  20. Cytochrome b5 from Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Alam, Samiah; Yee, Janet; Couture, Manon; Takayama, Shin-ichi J; Tseng, Wan-Hsin; Mauk, A Grant; Rafferty, Steven

    2012-12-01

    The protozoan intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia lacks mitochondria and the ability to make haem yet encodes several putative haem-binding proteins, including three of the cytochrome b(5) family. We cloned one of these (gCYTb5-I) and expressed it within Escherichia coli as a soluble holoprotein. UV-visible and resonance Raman spectra of gCYTb5-I resemble those of microsomal cytochrome b(5), and homology modelling supports a structure in which a pair of invariant histidine residues act as axial ligands to the haem iron. The reduction potential of gCYTb5-I is -165 mV vs. SHE and is relatively low compared to most values (-110 to +80 mV) for this class of protein. The amino- and carboxy-terminal sequences that flank the central haem-binding core of the Giardia cytochromes are highly charged and differ from those of other family members. A core gCYTb5-I variant lacking these flanking sequences was also able to bind haem. The presence of one actual and two probable functional cytochromes b(5) in Giardia is evidence of uncharacterized cytochrome-mediated metabolic processes within this medically important protist.

  1. Yeast mutants overproducing iso-cytochromes c

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, F.; Cardillo, T.S.; Errede, B.; Friedman, L.; McKnight, G.; Stiles, J.I.

    1980-01-01

    For over 15 years, the iso-cytochrome c system in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been used to investigate a multitude of problems in genetics and molecular biology. More recently, attention has been focused on using mutants for examining translation and transcriptional processes and for probing regulatory regions governing gene expression. In an effort to explore regulatory mechanisms and to investigate mutational alterations that lead to increased levels of gene products, we have isolated and characterized mutants that overproduce cytochrome c. In this paper we have briefly summarized background information of some essential features of the iso-cytochrome c system and we have described the types of mutants that overproduce iso-1-cytochrome c or iso-2-cytochrome c. Genetic procedures and recombinant DNA procedures were used to demonstrate that abnormally high amounts of gene products occur in mutants as result of duplications of gene copies or of extended alteration of regulatory regions. The results summarized in this paper point out the requirements of gross mutational changes or rearrangements of chromosomal segments for augmenting gene products.

  2. Kinetics of the interaction of the cytochrome c oxidase of Paracoccus denitrificans with its own and bovine cytochrome c.

    PubMed

    Bolgiano, B; Smith, L; Davies, H C

    1988-04-22

    We have devised a relatively simple method for the purification of cytochrome aa3 of Paracoccus denitrificans with three major subunits similar to those of the larger subunits of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. This preparation has no c-type cytochrome. Studies were made of the oxidation of soluble cytochromes c from bovine heart and Paracoccus. The cytochrome-c oxidase activity was stimulated by low concentrations of either cytochrome c, providing an explanation for the multiphasic nature of plots of v/S versus v. Kinetics of the oxidation of bovine cytochrome c by the Paracoccus oxidase resembled those of bovine oxidase with bovine cytochrome c in every way; the Paracoccus oxidase with bovine cytochrome c can serve as an appropriate model for the mitochondrial system. The kinetics of the oxidation of the soluble Paracoccus cytochrome c by the Paracoccus oxidase were different from those seen with bovine cytochrome c, but resembled the latter if poly(L-lysine) was added to the assays. The important difference between the two species of cytochrome c is the more highly negative hemisphere on the side of the molecule way from the heme crevice in the Paracoccus cytochrome. Thus, the data emphasize the importance of all of the charged groups on cytochrome c in influencing the binding or electron transfer reactions of this oxidation-reduction system. The data also permit some interesting connotations about the possible evolution from the bacterial to the mitochondrial electron transport system.

  3. Two-dimensional crystallization of monomeric bovine cytochrome c oxidase with bound cytochrome c in reconstituted lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Osuda, Yukiho; Shinzawa-Itoh, Kyoko; Tani, Kazutoshi; Maeda, Shintaro; Yoshikawa, Shinya; Tsukihara, Tomitake; Gerle, Christoph

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase utilizes electrons provided by cytochrome c for the active vectorial transport of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane through the reduction of molecular oxygen to water. Direct structural evidence on the transient cytochrome c oxidase-cytochrome c complex thus far, however, remains elusive and its physiological relevant oligomeric form is unclear. Here, we report on the 2D crystallization of monomeric bovine cytochrome c oxidase with tightly bound cytochrome c at a molar ratio of 1:1 in reconstituted lipid membranes at the basic pH of 8.5 and low ionic strength.

  4. Detection of human lung cytochromes P450 that are immunochemically related to cytochrome P450IIE1 and cytochrome P450IIIA.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, C W; Wrighton, S A; Guenthner, T M

    1992-07-07

    We have used monoclonal antibodies that were prepared against and specifically recognize human hepatic cytochromes P450 as probes for solid phase radioimmunoassay and Western immunoblotting to directly demonstrate the presence in human lung microsomes of cytochromes P450 immunochemically related to human liver cytochromes P450IIE1 (CYP2E1) and P450IIIA (CYP3A). The detected levels of these cytochromes are much lower than levels in human liver microsomes, but similar to the levels seen in microsomes from untreated baboon lung. Proteins immunochemically related to two other constitutive hepatic cytochromes P450, cytochrome P450IIC8 (CYP2C8) and cytochrome P450IIC9 (CYP2C9), were not detectable in lung microsomes.

  5. Nerval influences on liver cytochrome P450.

    PubMed

    Klinger, W; Karge, E; Danz, M; Krug, M

    1995-09-01

    In male young adult Wistar rats the influences of nucleus raphe electrocoagulation, spinal cord dissection (cordotomy between C7 and Th1), vagotomy and denervation of liver hilus by phenol on liver cytochrome P450-system (cytochrome P450 concentration, ethylmorphine N-demethylation and ethoxycoumarin O-deethylation activities, hexobarbitone sleeping time) were investigated. In general the influences were small or negligible when compared with sham operated controls, only after vagotomy the depressing effect of sham operation was abolished. In all cases sham operation had a depressing effect until up to five weeks after operation.

  6. Reactive Intermediates in Cytochrome P450 Catalysis*

    PubMed Central

    Krest, Courtney M.; Onderko, Elizabeth L.; Yosca, Timothy H.; Calixto, Julio C.; Karp, Richard F.; Livada, Jovan; Rittle, Jonathan; Green, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we reported the spectroscopic and kinetic characterizations of cytochrome P450 compound I in CYP119A1, effectively closing the catalytic cycle of cytochrome P450-mediated hydroxylations. In this minireview, we focus on the developments that made this breakthrough possible. We examine the importance of enzyme purification in the quest for reactive intermediates and report the preparation of compound I in a second P450 (P450ST). In an effort to bring clarity to the field, we also examine the validity of controversial reports claiming the production of P450 compound I through the use of peroxynitrite and laser flash photolysis. PMID:23632017

  7. Genetic characterization of Bagarius species using cytochrome c oxidase I and cytochrome b genes.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Muniyandi; Raja, Manikam; Vikram, Potnuru

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we first inferred the genetic variability of two Bagarius bagarius populations collected from Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers of India using two mtDNA markers. Sequence analysis of COI gene did not show significant differences between two populations whereas cytochrome b gene showed significant differences between two populations. Followed by, genetic relationship of B. bagarius and B. yarrielli was analyzed using COI and cytochrome b gene and the results showed a higher level genetic variation between two species. The present study provides support for the suitability of COI and cytochrome b genes for the identification of B. bagarius and B. yarrielli.

  8. Interaction of epicatechins derived from green tea with rat hepatic cytochrome P-450.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z Y; Das, M; Bickers, D R; Mukhtar, H

    1988-01-01

    Green tea has been used for generations in China and Asia as an antipyretic and diuretic. Prior studies have shown that extracts of green tea inhibit the mutagenicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and aflatoxin B1. In this study, we investigated the interaction of certain flavonoid components of green tea epicatechin derivatives including (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC), (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), and (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) with rat hepatic microsomal cytochrome P-450 (P-450). The addition of EC, EGC, ECG, and EGCG to hepatic microsomes prepared from phenobarbital (PB)-treated rats resulted in spectral changes characterized by absorbance maxima at 420 nm and minima at 380 nm, typical of modified Type II (reverse Type I) binding. Of the epicatechin derivatives, EGCG and ECG showed greater spectral change with oxidized P-450 and time- and concentration-dependent inhibition of the binding of carbon monoxide to dithionite-reduced cytochrome P-450. The addition of EC, EGC, ECG, and EGCG to microsomes prepared from control, PB- or 3-methylcholanthrene-treated rats resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cytochrome P-450-dependent aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase, 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase, and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activities. EGCG was the most potent in this regard. Green tea polyphenols and epicatechin derivatives also significantly inhibited NADPH-cytochrome c reductase activity. An examination of the structure activity relationship of epicatechin derivatives suggests that the inhibitory effect on the microsomal enzyme system may be due to the galloyl groups or hydroxyl groups on the molecule. Our data indicate that these extracts of green tea may have potential as anticarcinogens.

  9. Fungal lactone ring opening of 6', 7'-dihydroxybergamottin diminishes cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibitory activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Furanocoumarins (FCs) are a class of aromatic compounds in grapefruit that inhibit human intestinal cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). Since fungi metabolize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, we hypothesized that certain fungi might also metabolize FCs into forms that may be inactive as CYP3A4 inhibitors...

  10. Regulation of cytochrome c oxidase by adenylic nucleotides. Is oxidative phosphorylation feedback regulated by its end-products?

    PubMed

    Beauvoit, B; Rigoulet, M

    2001-01-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase, which catalyzes an irreversible step of the respiratory chain, is one of the rate-controlling steps of oxidative phosphorylation on isolated mitochondria. The rate of electron transfer through the complex is primarily controlled by the associated thermodynamic forces, i.e., the span in redox potential between oxygen and cytochrome c and the protonmotive force. However, the electron flux also depends on the various kinetic effectors, including adenylic nucleotides. Although the number of binding sites for ATP and ADP on cytochrome oxidase is still a matter of debate, experiments performed on the solubilized and reconstituted enzyme provide strong functional evidence that the mammalian cytochrome c oxidase binds adenylic nucleotides on both sides of the inner membrane. These effects include modification in cytochrome c affinity, allosteric inhibition and changes in proton pumping efficiency. Immunological studies have pointed out the role of subunit IV and that of an ATP-binding protein, subunit VIa, in these kinetic regulations. In yeast, the role of the nuclear-encoded subunits in assembly and regulation of the cytochrome c oxidase has been further substantiated by using gene-disruption analysis. Using a subunit VIa-null mutant, the consequences of the ATP regulation on oxidative phosphorylation have been further investigated on isolated mitochondria. Taken together, the data demonstrate that there are multiple regulating sites for ATP on the yeast cytochrome oxidase with respect to the location (matrix versus cytosolic side), kinetic effect (activation versus inhibition) and consequence on the flow-force relationships. The question is therefore raised as to the physiological meaning of such feedback regulation of the respiratory chain by ATP in the control and regulation of cellular energy metabolism.

  11. Induction and characterization of a cytochrome P-450-dependent camphor hydroxylase in tissue cultures of common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, C.; Croteau, R. )

    1993-04-01

    (+)-Camphor, a major monoterpene of the essential oil of common sage (Salvia officinalis), is catabolized in senescent tissue, and the pathway for the breakdown of this bicyclic ketone has been previously elucidated in sage cell-suspension cultures. In the initial step of catabolism, camphor is oxidized to 6-exo-hydroxycamphor, and the corresponding NADPH- and O[sub 2]-dependent hydroxylase activity was demonstrated in microsomal preparations of sage cells. Several well-established inhibitors of cytochrome P-450-dependent reactions, including cytochrome c, clotrimazole, and CO, inhibited the hydroxylation of camphor, and CO-dependent inhibition was partially reversed by blue light. Upon treatment of sage suspension cultures with 30 mM MnCl[sub 2], camphor-6-hydroxylase activity was induced up to 7-fold. A polypeptide with estimated molecular mass of 58 kD from sage microsomal membranes exhibited antigenic cross-reactivity in western blot experiments with two heterologous polyclonal antibodies raised against cytochrome P-450 camphor-5-exo-hydroxylase from Pseudomonas putida and cytochrome P-450 limonene-6S-hydroxylase from spearmint (Mentha spicata). Dot blotting indicated that the concentration of this polypeptide increased with camphor hydroxylase activity in microsomes of Mn[sup 2+]-induced sage cells. These results suggest that camphor-6-exo-hydroxylase from sage is a microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase that may share common properties and epitopes with bacterial and other plant monoterpene hydroxylases. 44 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Induction and Characterization of a Cytochrome P-450-Dependent Camphor Hydroxylase in Tissue Cultures of Common Sage (Salvia officinalis).

    PubMed Central

    Funk, C.; Croteau, R.

    1993-01-01

    (+)-Camphor, a major monoterpene of the essential oil of common sage (Salvia officinalis), is catabolized in senescent tissue, and the pathway for the breakdown of this bicyclic ketone has been previously elucidated in sage cell-suspension cultures. In the initial step of catabolism, camphor is oxidized to 6-exo-hydroxycamphor, and the corresponding NADPH- and O2-dependent hydroxylase activity was demonstrated in microsomal preparations of sage cells. Several well-established inhibitors of cytochrome P-450-dependent reactions, including cytochrome c, clotrimazole, and CO, inhibited the hydroxylation of camphor, and CO-dependent inhibition was partially reversed by blue light. Upon treatment of sage suspension cultures with 30 mM MnCl2, camphor-6-hydroxylase activity was induced up to 7-fold. A polypeptide with estimated molecular mass of 58 kD from sage microsomal membranes exhibited antigenic cross-reactivity in western blot experiments with two heterologous polyclonal antibodies raised against cytochrome P-450 camphor-5-exo-hydroxylase from Pseudomonas putida and cytochrome P-450 limonene-6S-hydroxylase from spearmint (Mentha spicata). Dot blotting indicated that the concentration of this polypeptide increased with camphor hydroxylase activity in microsomes of Mn2+-induced sage cells. These results suggest that camphor-6-exo-hydroxylase from sage is a microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase that may share common properties and epitopes with bacterial and other plant monoterpene hydroxylases. PMID:12231778

  13. Evolution of cytochrome c genes and pseudogenes.

    PubMed

    Wu, C I; Li, W H; Shen, J J; Scarpulla, R C; Limbach, K J; Wu, R

    1986-01-01

    A statistical analysis of the nucleotide sequences of cytochrome c genes from four species of animals and two of yeast and of cytochrome c pseudogenes from rat, mouse, and human was conducted. It was estimated that animals and yeast diverged 1.2 billion years ago, that the two duplicated genes DC3 and DC4 in Drosophila diverged 520 million years ago, and that the two duplicated genes Iso-1 and Iso-2 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae diverged 200 million years ago. DC3 is expressed at a low level and has evolved 3 times faster than DC4. This observation supports the neutralist view that relaxation of functional constraints is a more likely cause of accelerated evolution following gene duplication than is advantageous mutation. All the rodent pseudogenes examined appear to be processed pseudogenes derived directly from the functional genes, and most of them apparently arose after the mouse-rat split. No event of gene conversion could be detected between any pair of the rodent pseudogenes. Our analysis suggests that the human cytochrome c gene has evolved at a rate comparable to the average rate for pseudogenes, whereas some human cytochrome c pseudogenes have evolved at an exceptionally low rate.

  14. Design and Use of Photoactive Ruthenium Complexes to Study Electron Transfer within Cytochrome bc1 and from Cytochrome bc1 to Cytochrome c

    PubMed Central

    Millett, Francis; Havens, Jeffrey; Rajagukguk, Sany; Durham, Bill

    2012-01-01

    The cytochrome bc1 complex (ubiquinone:cytochrome c oxidoreductase) is the central integral membrane protein in the mitochondrial respiratory chain as well as the electron-transfer chains of many respiratory and photosynthetic prokaryotes. Based on X-ray crystallographic studies of cytochrome bc1, a mechanism has been proposed in which the extrinsic domain of the iron-sulfur protein first binds to cytochrome b where it accepts an electron from ubiquinol in the Qo site, and then rotates by 57o to a position close to cytochrome c1 where it transfers an electron to cytochrome c1. This review describes the development of a ruthenium photooxidation technique to measure key electron transfer steps in cytochrome bc1, including rapid electron transfer from the iron-sulfur protein to cytochrome c1. It was discovered that this reaction is rate-limited by the rotational dynamics of the iron-sulfur protein rather than true electron transfer. A conformational linkage between the occupant of the Qo ubiquinol binding site and the rotational dynamics of the iron-sulfur protein was discovered which could play a role in the bifurcated oxidation of ubiquinol. A ruthenium photoexcitation method is also described for the measurement of electron transfer from cytochrome c1 to cytochrome c. This article is part of a special issue entitled: Respiratory Complex III. PMID:22985600

  15. Metabolism and binding of cyclophosphamide and its metabolite acrolein to rat hepatic microsomal cytochrome P-450

    SciTech Connect

    Marinello, A.J.; Bansal, S.K.; Paul, B.; Koser, P.L.; Love, J.; Struck, R.F.; Gurtoo, H.L.

    1984-10-01

    The hepatic cytochrome P-450-mediated metabolism and metabolic activation of (chloroethyl-3H)cyclophosphamide (( chloroethyl-3H)CP) and (4-14C)cyclophosphamide (( 4-14C)CP) were investigated in vitro in the reconstituted system containing cytochrome P-450 isolated from phenobarbital-treated rats. In addition, hepatic microsomal binding and the hepatic microsome-mediated metabolism of (14C)acrolein, a metabolite of (4-14C)CP, were also investigated. The metabolism of (chloroethyl-3H)CP and (4-14C)CP to polar metabolites was found to depend on the presence of NADPH and showed concentration dependence with respect to cytochrome P-450 and NADPH:cytochrome P-450 reductase. Km and Vmax values were essentially similar. The patterns of inhibition by microsomal mixed-function oxidase inhibitors, anti-cytochrome P-450 antibody, and heat denaturation of the cytochrome P-450 were essentially similar, with subtle differences between (4-14C)CP and (chloroethyl-3H)CP metabolism. The in vitro metabolic activation of CP in the reconstituted system demonstrated predominant binding of (chloroethyl-3H)CP to nucleic acids and almost exclusive binding of (4-14C)CP to proteins. Gel electrophoresis-fluorography of the proteins in the reconstituted system treated with (4-14C)CP demonstrated localization of the 14C label in the cytochrome P-450 region. To examine this association further, hepatic microsomes were modified with (14C)acrolein in the presence and the absence of NADPH. The results confirmed covalent association between (14C)acrolein and cytochrome P-450 in the microsomes and also demonstrated further metabolism of (14C)acrolein, apparently to an epoxide, which is capable of binding covalently to proteins. The results of these investigations not only confirm the significance of primary metabolism but also emphasize the potential role of the secondary metabolism of cyclophosphamide in some of its toxic manifestations.

  16. Pungent ginger components modulates human cytochrome P450 enzymes in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mian; Chen, Pei-zhan; Yue, Qing-xi; Li, Jing-quan; Chu, Rui-ai; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Ginger rhizome is used worldwide as a spicy flavor agent. This study was designed to explore the potential effects of pungent ginger components, 6-, 8-, and 10-gingerol, on human cytochrome P450 (CYP450) enzymes that are responsible for the metabolism of many prescription drugs. Methods: The activities of human CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4 were analyzed using Vivid P450 assay kits. The mRNA expression of CYP3A4 in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2 was measured using quantitative real-time PCR assay. Results: All three gingerols potently inhibited CYP2C9 activity, exerted moderate inhibition on CYP2C19 and CYP3A4, and weak inhibion on CYP2D6. 8-Gingerol was the most potent in inhibition of P450 enzymes with IC50 values of 6.8, 12.5, 8.7, and 42.7 μmol/L for CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP3A4, and CYP2D6, respectively. By comparing the effects of gingerols on CYP3A4 with three different fluorescent substrate probes, it was demonstrated that the inhibition of gingerols on CYP3A4 had no substrate-dependence. In HepG2 cells, 8-gingerol and 10-gingerol inhibited, but 6-gingerol induced mRNA expression of CYP3A4. Conclusion: 6-, 8-, and 10-gingerol suppress human cytochrome P450 activity, while 8- and 10-gingerol inhibit CYP3A4 expression. The results may have an implication for the use of ginger or ginger products when combined with therapeutic drugs that are metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes. PMID:23770984

  17. Role of Bradyrhizobium japonicum cytochrome c550 in nitrite and nitrate respiration.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Emilio; Bedmar, Eulogio J; Richardson, David J; Delgado, María J

    2008-02-01

    Bradyrhizobium japonicum cytochrome c(550), encoded by cycA, has been previously suggested to play a role in denitrification, the respiratory reduction of nitrate to dinitrogen. However, the exact role of this cytochrome in the denitrification process is unknown. This study shows that cytochrome c(550) is involved in electron transfer to the copper-containing nitrite reductase of B. japonicum, as revealed by the inability of a cycA mutant strain to consume nitrite and, consequently, to grow under denitrifying conditions with nitrite as the electron acceptor. Mutation of cycA had no apparent effect on methylviologen-dependent nitrite reductase activity. However, succinate-dependent nitrite reduction was largely inhibited, suggesting that c(550) is the in vivo electron donor to copper-containing nitrite reductase. In addition, this study demonstrates that a cytochrome c(550) mutation has a negative effect on expression of the periplasmic nitrate reductase. This phenotype can be rescued by extending the growth period of the cells. A model is proposed whereby a mutation in cycA reduces expression of the cbb(3)-type oxidase, affecting oxygen consumption rate by the cells and consequently preventing maximal expression of the periplasmic nitrate reductase during the first days of the growth period.

  18. Histone chaperone activity of Arabidopsis thaliana NRP1 is blocked by cytochrome c.

    PubMed

    González-Arzola, Katiuska; Díaz-Quintana, Antonio; Rivero-Rodríguez, Francisco; Velázquez-Campoy, Adrián; De la Rosa, Miguel A; Díaz-Moreno, Irene

    2016-12-06

    Higher-order plants and mammals use similar mechanisms to repair and tolerate oxidative DNA damage. Most studies on the DNA repair process have focused on yeast and mammals, in which histone chaperone-mediated nucleosome disassembly/reassembly is essential for DNA to be accessible to repair machinery. However, little is known about the specific role and modulation of histone chaperones in the context of DNA damage in plants. Here, the histone chaperone NRP1, which is closely related to human SET/TAF-Iβ, was found to exhibit nucleosome assembly activity in vitro and to accumulate in the chromatin of Arabidopsis thaliana after DNA breaks. In addition, this work establishes that NRP1 binds to cytochrome c, thereby preventing the former from binding to histones. Since NRP1 interacts with cytochrome c at its earmuff domain, that is, its histone-binding domain, cytochrome c thus competes with core histones and hampers the activity of NRP1 as a histone chaperone. Altogether, the results obtained indicate that the underlying molecular mechanisms in nucleosome disassembly/reassembly are highly conserved throughout evolution, as inferred from the similar inhibition of plant NRP1 and human SET/TAF-Iβ by cytochrome c during DNA damage response.

  19. Studies on NADH(NADPH)-cytochrome c reductase (FMN-containing) from yeast: steady-state kinetic properties of the flavoenzyme from top-fermenting ale yeast.

    PubMed

    Johnson, M S; Kuby, S A

    1986-02-15

    A study of the steady-state kinetics of NADH(NADPH)-cytochrome c reductase (FMN-containing) from ale yeast (M. S. Johnson and S. A. Kuby (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 12341-12350) has led to a postulated three-substrate random-ordered hybrid mechanism, where NAD(P)H and FMN add randomly and very likely in a steady-state fashion, followed by an ordered addition of cytochrome c. Kinetic parameters have been derived from this mechanism. Arrhenius plots showed large differences between NADH and NADPH, as the substrate-reductant. Menadione accelerated cytochrome c reduction and also O2 uptake, but vitamin K1 and coenzyme Q10 were ineffective as electron mediators, possibly as a result of their insolubility. With NADPH as the substrate-reductant, the order of the rate of reduction of electron acceptors was ferricyanide greater than DCIP greater than cytochrome c greater than oxygen; with menadione, the specificity sequence was cytochrome c greater than ferricyanide greater than DCIP greater than oxygen. With NADH, the order was ferricyanide greater than cytochrome c greater than oxygen greater than DCIP, which changed to cytochrome c greater than ferricyanide greater than oxygen greater than DCIP on addition of menadione. Cytochrome b5 was also reduced in the absence of oxygen. No transhydrogenase activity was observed, but the reduced thionicotinamide analogs of NADH and NADPH acted as substrates. Superoxide dismutase inhibited cytochrome c reduction in air by 50%, but O2-. was not necessary for cytochrome c reduction, as evidenced by the increase in rate in the absence of O2. The product of the reaction with oxygen appeared to be H2O2.

  20. Expression of cytochromes P-450 in rat hepatoma cells. Analysis by monoclonal antibodies specific for cytochromes P-450 from rat liver induced by 3-methylcholanthrene or phenobarbital.

    PubMed

    Wiebel, F J; Park, S S; Kiefer, F; Gelboin, H V

    1984-12-17

    We have studied the expression of aldrin eposidase (AE), 7-ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase (ECDE), and aryl hydrocarbon (benzo[a]pyrene) hydroxylase (AHH) in nine differentiated or dedifferentiated cell lines derived from H4IIEC3 rat hepatoma cells. The nature of the cytochromes P-450 mediating AE, ECDE and AHH activities was analysed using monoclonal antibodies (MAb) made to the major 3-methylcholanthrene-induced cytochrome P-450 (MAb-MC) or phenobarbital-induced cytochrome P-450 (MAb-PB) from rat liver. The cells were treated with 5 microM dexamethasone for 30 h to increase the levels of the monoxygenase activities. (a) The six differentiated cell lines examined (Faza967, Fao, HF1-4, 2sFou, C2Rev7, and H4IIEC3/G-) contained MAb-PB-sensitive AE comprising 30-75% of the total AE activity. In most of these cell lines MAb-PB also markedly inhibited ECDE; however, the antibody had a considerably weaker effect on AHH. (b) MAb-PB-sensitive AHH, ECDE and AE activities were also observed in untreated and phenobarbital-treated cells. (c) MAb-MC inhibited AHH and ECDE in the two dedifferentiated lines HF1 and H5 by 50-80%. The antibody also inhibited AHH activities in the poorly differentiated line H4IIEC3/T and in the majority of the differentiated lines by 40-65%. MAb-MC-sensitive AHH was found in Fao cells after treatment with benz[a]anthracene but induced AHH in H4IIEC3/T, H4IIEC3/G-, and 2sFou cells 20-30-fold and in Faza967 and Fao cells 3-5-fold. Benz[a]anthracene remained without effect on AHH activity in C2Rev7 cells. The results show that the hepatoma cells examined express to various degrees phenobarbital-inducible cytochrome P-450 and/or 3-methylcholanthrene-inducible cytochrome P-450. These cell lines are versatile tools for studying the regulation of monooxygenase activities and analysing their role in the activation and inactivation of xenobiotics such as carcinogens, drugs and pesticides.

  1. Data on cytochrome c oxidase assembly in mice and human fibroblasts or tissues induced by SURF1 defect.

    PubMed

    Kovářová, Nikola; Pecina, Petr; Nůsková, Hana; Vrbacký, Marek; Zeviani, Massimo; Mráček, Tomáš; Viscomi, Carlo; Houštěk, Josef

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes data related to a research article entitled "Tissue- and species-specific differences in cytochrome c oxidase assembly induced by SURF1 defects" [1]. This paper includes data of the quantitative analysis of individual forms of respiratory chain complexes I, III and IV present in SURF1 knockout (SURF1 (-/-) ) and control (SURF1 (+/+) ) mouse fibroblasts and tissues and in fibroblasts of human control and patients with SURF1 gene mutation. Also it includes data demonstrating response of complex IV, cytochrome c oxidase (COX), to reversible inhibition of mitochondrial translation in SURF1 (-/-) mouse and SURF1 patient fibroblast cell lines.

  2. Structural Basis of Resistance to Anti-Cytochrome bc1 Complex Inhibitors: Implication for Drug Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Esser, Lothar; Yu, Chang-An; Xia, Di

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of drug resistance has devastating economic and social consequences, a testimonial of which is the rise and fall of inhibitors against the respiratory component cytochrome bc1 complex, a time tested and highly effective target for disease control. Unfortunately, the mechanism of resistance is a multivariate problem, including primarily mutations in the gene of the cytochrome b subunit but also activation of alternative pathways of ubiquinol oxidation and pharmacokinetic effects. There is a considerable interest in designing new bc1 inhibitors with novel modes of binding and lower propensity to induce the development of resistance. The accumulation of crystallographic data of bc1 complexes with and without inhibitors bound provides the structural basis for rational drug design. In particular, the cytochrome b subunit offers two distinct active sites that can be targeted for inhibition - the quinol oxidation site and the quinone reduction site. This review brings together available structural information of inhibited bc1 by various quinol oxidation- and reduction-site inhibitors, the inhibitor binding modes, conformational changes upon inhibitor binding of side chains in the active site and large scale domain movements of the iron-sulfur protein subunit. Structural data analysis provides a clear understanding of where and why existing inhibitors fail and points towards promising alternatives. PMID:23688079

  3. [Inhibitory action of divalent copper compounds on cumene hydroperoxide oxidative demethylation of N,N-dimethylaniline by cytochrome P-450].

    PubMed

    Kurchenko, V P; Usanov, S A; Metelitsa, D I

    1980-07-01

    The inhibitory action of divalent copper compounds on hydroperoxide-dependent oxidative demethylation of N,N-demethylaniline involving rabbit liver microsomes and highly purified cytochrome P-450 has been studied. CuCl2 is a non-competitive inhibitor, whereas copper tyrosine and lysine complexes are characterized by a mixed type inhibition. The inhibitory action of copper complexes is based on a decrease of cumene hydroperoxide concentration. The reaction results in formation of RO and RO2 radicals destroying cytochrome P-450 CuCl2 (0,001 M) also destroys cytochrome P-450 in the absence of cumene hydroperoxide; the destruction process is characterized by two phases with different rate constants. The nature of the inhibitory action of CuCl2 on N,N-demethylaniline oxidation by hydroperoxides is discussed.

  4. Unusual Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Reactions*

    PubMed Central

    Guengerich, F. Peter; Munro, Andrew W.

    2013-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 enzymes primarily catalyze mixed-function oxidation reactions, plus some reductions and rearrangements of oxygenated species, e.g. prostaglandins. Most of these reactions can be rationalized in a paradigm involving Compound I, a high-valent iron-oxygen complex (FeO3+), to explain seemingly unusual reactions, including ring couplings, ring expansion and contraction, and fusion of substrates. Most P450s interact with flavoenzymes or iron-sulfur proteins to receive electrons from NAD(P)H. In some cases, P450s are fused to protein partners. Other P450s catalyze non-redox isomerization reactions. A number of permutations on the P450 theme reveal the diversity of cytochrome P450 form and function. PMID:23632016

  5. NADPH- and linoleic acid hydroperoxide-induced lipid peroxidation and destruction of cytochrome P-450 in hepatic microsomes.

    PubMed

    Iba, M M; Mannering, G J

    1987-05-01

    Temporal aspects of the effects of inhibitors on hepatic cytochrome P-450 destruction and lipid peroxidation induced by NADPH and linoleic acid hydroperoxide (LAHP) were compared. In the absence of added Fe2+, NADPH-induced lipid peroxidation in hepatic microsomes exhibited a slow phase followed by a fast phase. The addition of Fe2+ eliminated the slow phase, thus demonstrating that iron is a rate-limiting component in the reaction. EDTA, which complexes iron, and p-chloromercurobenzoate (pCMB), which inhibits NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase, inhibited both phases of the reaction. Catalase as well as scavengers of hydroxyl radical, inhibited NADPH-induced lipid peroxidation almost completely. GSH also inhibited the NADPH-dependent reaction but only when added at the beginning of the reaction. In contrast with NADPH-dependent lipid peroxidation, the autocatalytic reaction induced by LAHP was not biphasic, NADPH-dependent or iron-dependent, nor was it inhibited by hydroxyl radical scavengers, catalase or GSH. A synergistic effect on lipid peroxidation was observed when both NADPH and LAHP were added to microsomes. It is concluded that both the fast and slow phases of NADPH-dependent microsomal lipid peroxidation are catalyzed enzymatically and are dependent upon Fe2+, whereas LAHP-dependent lipid peroxidation is autocatalytic. Since the fast phase of enzymatic lipid peroxidation occurred during the fast phase of destruction of cytochrome P-450, it is postulated that iron made available from cytochrome P-450 is sufficient to promote optimal lipid peroxidation. Since catalase and hydroxyl radical scavengers inhibited NADPH-dependent but not LAHP-dependent lipid peroxidation, it is concluded that the hydroxyl radical derived from H2O2 is the initiating active-oxygen species in the enzymatic reaction but not in the autocatalytic reaction.

  6. Photoaffinity labeling of cytochrome P4501A1 with azidocumene: identification of cumene hydroperoxide binding region.

    PubMed

    Cvrk, T; Strobel, H W

    1998-01-01

    Cumene hydroperoxide can support cytochrome P450-catalyzed reactions in the absence of molecular oxygen, NADPH, and cytochrome P450-NADPH oxidoreductase. Its binding at the cytochrome P450 active site is governed by the structure of the cumene hydroperoxide binding region. In order to define the region of cytochrome P4501A1 at which cumene hydroperoxide binds, we prepared an analog of cumene hydroperoxide for use as a photoaffinity label. p-Azido-isopro-pylbenzene (azidocumene) and its tritiated derivative were photolyzed in water solution by uv light with a half-life of 29 s. The 7-ethoxycoumarin deethylatation catalyzed by P450 using the cumene hydroperoxide-supported system was strongly inhibited by the presence of the label. Covalent binding to the protein after photoactivation was blocked by 50% in the presence of cumene hydroperoxide. HPLC analysis after trypsin digestion of the labeled protein showed that [3H]-azidocumene was attached covalently to the peptide VDMTPAYGLTLK corresponding to residues 492-503 in the 1A1 sequence. The radioactivity level of this fraction was reduced by 50% when the labeling was carried out in the presence of cumene hydroperoxide. To confirm the identified region the labeled protein was cleaved by cyanogen bromide. HPLC separation of the CNBr digest showed two peaks with a high level of radioactivity. The SDS/Tricine PAGE analysis of the radioactive fraction with an elution time of 43 min revealed a 2.4-kDa peptide carrying a high level of covalently bound radioactivity. The N-terminal sequence identified the labeled peptide to be a fragment generated by CNBr corresponding to residues 494-512. The N-terminal sequence of the labeled peptide with elution time of 27 min, TLKH, matches amino acid residues 501-504 in the P4501A1 sequence. We can conclude that in the overlapping region of all three identified peptides, T501-L502-K503, is the site where azidocumene covalently binds to P4501A1. The sequence alignment of cytochrome P4501A

  7. The role of cytochrome P450s in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon carcinogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Polzer, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Metabolic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) to carcinogenic diol epoxides has been determined to be a critical step in tumor initiation by PAH. The key enzyme(s) involved in the metabolic activation are members of the cytochrome P450 superfamily. Two distinct isoforms of cytochrome P450 have been determined to be induced upon treatment of cells in culture with benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) by use of Immobilized Artificial Membrane Column High Performance Liquid Chromatography, Western blotting, Northern blotting, and in vitro metabolism studies. Cytochrome P4501A is involved in the metabolism of PAH in the human hepatoma cell line, HepG2; the human mammary carcinoma cell line, MCF-7; and the mouse hepatoma cell line; Hepa-1; whereas cytochrome P450EF is involved in this metabolism in both secondary hamster and mouse embryo cell cultures. Induction of cytochrome P450s by B(a)P generally leads to an increased metabolism of tritiated B(a)P, DMBA, and DB(a,1)P to water-soluble metabolities and to the formation of PAH-DNA adducts, suggesting that induction by B(a)P alters the metabolism of PAH to metabolic activation. DMBA induction of cytochrome P450s leads to various changes in metabolism and PAH-DNA binding and these changes were both cell and PAH specific. These results suggest that DMBA can shift metabolism of certain PAH towards metabolic activation in some cells, while in other cells DMBA or one of its metabolities can compete with other PAH for metabolic activation. UDP-glucuronosyl-transferase and epoxide hydrase do not have significant roles in detoxifying proximate or ultimate carcinogenic PAH metabolites, however, sulfotransferase and glutathione-S-transferase do detoxify proximate and ultimate carcinogenic metabolities in the HepG2 cell line. Finally, attempts to inhibit B(a)P metabolism and DNA-binding in intact cells in culture through conjugation of inhibitory cytochrome P4501A1 antibodies to insulin or folic acid were examined.

  8. Identification and validation of tetracyclic benzothiazepines as Plasmodium falciparum cytochrome bc1 inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Carolyn; Urgaonkar, Sameer; Cortese, Joseph F.; Gamo, F. Javier; Garcia-Bustos, Jose F.; Lafuente, Maria J.; Patel, Vishal; Ross, Leila; Coleman, Bradley I.; Derbyshire, Emily R.; Clish, Clary B.; Serrano, Adelfa E.; Cromwell, Mandy; Barker, Robert H.; Dvorin, Jeffrey D.; Duraisingh, Manoj T.; Wirth, Dyann F.; Clardy, Jon; Mazitschek, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Summary Here we report the discovery of tetracyclic benzothiazepines (BTZ) as highly potent and selective antimalarials along with the identification of the Plasmodium falciparum cytochrome bc1 complex as the primary functional target of this novel compound class. Investigation of the structure activity relationship within this previously unexplored chemical scaffold has yielded inhibitors with low nanomolar activity. A combined approach employing genetically modified parasites, biochemical profiling, and resistance selection validated inhibition of cytochrome bc1 activity, an essential component of the parasite respiratory chain and target of the widely used antimalarial drug atovaquone, as the mode of action of this novel compound class. Resistance to atovaquone is eroding the efficacy of this widely used antimalarial drug. Intriguingly, BTZ-based inhibitors retain activity against atovaquone resistant parasites, suggesting this chemical class may provide an alternative to atovaquone in combination therapy. PMID:22195562

  9. Diagnosis of cyanide intoxication by measurement of cytochrome c oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Ikegaya, H; Iwase, H; Hatanaka, K; Sakurada, K; Yoshida, K; Takatori, T

    2001-02-28

    Cytochrome c oxidase (CCO), a mitochondrial enzyme, is inactivated by cyanide or carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication. We measured CCO activity, in the major organs of the rat at various times after death caused by cyanide intoxication. Tissue samples were homogenized, and the CCO activity in the mitochondrial fraction was measured using ferrous cytochrome c as the substrate. The CCO activity inhibition was highest in the brain, although the cyanide concentration was lowest level. As a result of this and the clinical symptoms displayed, we consider the brain to be the primary organ of cyanide intoxication. As cyanide is highly toxic to humans, in small amounts and many patients and victims have already had some medical care, it is difficult to detect cyanide in criminal investigations. The CCO activities in various organs remained significantly low for 2 days after the cyanide intoxication, suggesting that the diagnosis may be possible by measuring not only the cyanide concentration but also the CCO activity.

  10. Recent applications of a synthetic model of cytochrome c oxidase: beyond functional modeling.

    PubMed

    Collman, James P; Ghosh, Somdatta

    2010-07-05

    This account reports recent developments of a functional model for the active site of cytochrome c oxidase (CcO). This CcO mimic not only performs the selective four-electron reduction of oxygen to water but also catalytically reduces oxygen using the biological one-electron reductant, cytochrome c. This functional model has been used to understand other biological reactions of CcO, for example, the interaction between the gaseous hormone, NO, and CcO. A mechanism for inactivating NO-CcO complexes is found to involve a reaction between oxygen and Cu(B). Moreover, NO is shown to be capable of protecting CcO from toxic inhibitors such as CN(-) and CO. Finally, this functional CcO model has been used to show how H(2)S could induce hibernation by reversibly inhibiting the oxygen binding step involved in respiration.

  11. Cytochrome c upregulation during capacitation and spontaneous acrosome reaction determines the fate of pig sperm cells: linking proteome analysis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Jung; Uhm, Sang-Jun; Song, Sang-Jin; Song, Hyuk; Park, Jin-Ki; Kim, Teoan; Park, Chankyu; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2008-02-01

    To identify the mechanisms underlying capacitation, we undertook a high-resolution differential proteomic analysis of pig sperm cells. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and subsequent MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analyses led to identification of 56 differentially expressed proteins. After induction of capacitation in vitro, the well-established markers of the capacitation (lactadherin P47, acrosomal protein SP-10 precursor, prohibitin, proteasomes, DJ-1 protein and arylsulfatase-A) and TCA cycle proteins (isocitrate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase) were identified. During induction, cytochrome c expression via the p53 pathway increased, however apoptotic executors, such as caspase-3, decreased significantly. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that cytochrome c upregulation in spermatozoa is capable of activating tyrosine phosphorylation for capacitation, rather than apoptosis. Exposure of sperm cells to soluble Na2CrO4 [Cr (VI)], which induces cytochrome c upregulation, caused a dose- and time-dependent increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of sperm proteins in non-capacitating medium. In contrast, supplementation of cyclosporin A, which blocks cytochrome c upregulation, inhibited tyrosine phosphorylation of sperm proteins. Furthermore, spermatozoa in capacitation medium or non-capacitation media supplemented with soluble Cr (VI) showed similar levels of capacitation. These findings indicate that differential expression of many of these proteins has previously been unrecognized in sperm cells incubated in capacitation medium also suggest that a gradual increase of cytochrome c during incubation to induce capacitation determines sperm cell fate, i.e., apoptosis or further development for fertilization.

  12. Cytochrome cbb3 of Thioalkalivibrio is a Na+-pumping cytochrome oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Muntyan, Maria S.; Cherepanov, Dmitry A.; Malinen, Anssi M.; Bloch, Dmitry A.; Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Severina, Inna I.; Ivashina, Tatiana V.; Lahti, Reijo; Muyzer, Gerard; Skulachev, Vladimir P.

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome c oxidases (Coxs) are the basic energy transducers in the respiratory chain of the majority of aerobic organisms. Coxs studied to date are redox-driven proton-pumping enzymes belonging to one of three subfamilies: A-, B-, and C-type oxidases. The C-type oxidases (cbb3 cytochromes), which are widespread among pathogenic bacteria, are the least understood. In particular, the proton-pumping machinery of these Coxs has not yet been elucidated despite the availability of X-ray structure information. Here, we report the discovery of the first (to our knowledge) sodium-pumping Cox (Scox), a cbb3 cytochrome from the extremely alkaliphilic bacterium Thioalkalivibrio versutus. This finding offers clues to the previously unknown structure of the ion-pumping channel in the C-type Coxs and provides insight into the functional properties of this enzyme. PMID:26056262

  13. Amicyanin transfers electrons from methylamine dehydrogenase to cytochrome c-551i via a ping-pong mechanism, not a ternary complex.

    PubMed

    Meschi, Francesca; Wiertz, Frank; Klauss, Linda; Cavalieri, Chiara; Blok, Anneloes; Ludwig, Bernd; Heering, Hendrik A; Merli, Angelo; Rossi, Gian Luigi; Ubbink, Marcellus

    2010-10-20

    The first crystal structure of a ternary redox protein complex was comprised of the enzyme methylamine dehydrogenase (MADH) and two electron transfer proteins, amicyanin and cytochrome c-551i from Paracoccus denitrificans [Chen et al. Science 1994, 264, 86-90]. The arrangement of the proteins suggested possible electron transfer from the active site of MADH via the amicyanin copper ion to the cytochrome heme iron, although the distance between the metals is large. We studied the interactions between these proteins in solution. A titration followed by NMR spectroscopy shows that amicyanin binds cytochrome c-551i. The interface comprises the hydrophobic and positive patches of amicyanin, not the binding site observed in the ternary complex. NMR experiments further show that amicyanin binds tightly to MADH with an interface that matches the one observed in the crystal structure and that mostly overlaps with the binding site for cytochrome c-551i. Upon addition of cytochrome c-551i, no changes in the NMR spectrum of MADH-bound amicyanin are observed, suggesting that a possible interaction of the cytochrome with the binary complex must be very weak, with a dissociation constant higher than 2 mM. Reconstitution of the entire redox chain in vitro demonstrates that amicyanin can react rapidly with cytochrome c-551i, but that association of amicyanin with MADH inhibits this reaction. It is concluded that electron transfer from MADH to cytochrome c-551i does not involve a ternary complex but occurs via a ping-pong mechanism in which amicyanin uses the same interface for the reactions with MADH and cytochrome c-551i.

  14. The cytochrome c peroxidase and cytochrome c encounter complex: the other side of the story.

    PubMed

    Schilder, Jesika; Löhr, Frank; Schwalbe, Harald; Ubbink, Marcellus

    2014-05-21

    Formation of an encounter complex is important for efficient protein complex formation. The encounter state consists of an ensemble of orientations of two proteins in the complex. Experimental description of such ensembles inherently suffers from insufficient data availability. We have measured paramagnetic relaxation enhancements (PRE) on cytochrome c peroxidase (CcP) caused by its partner cytochrome c (Cc) carrying a spin label. The data complement earlier PRE data of spin labelled CcP, identifying several new interactions. This work demonstrates the need of obtaining as many independent data sets as possible to achieve the most accurate description of an encounter complex.

  15. Biogenesis of cytochrome b6 in photosynthetic membranes

    PubMed Central

    Saint-Marcoux, Denis; Wollman, Francis-André

    2009-01-01

    In chloroplasts, binding of a c′-heme to cytochrome b6 on the stromal side of the thylakoid membranes requires a specific mechanism distinct from the one at work for c-heme binding to cytochromes f and c6 on the lumenal side of membranes. Here, we show that the major protein components of this pathway, the CCBs, are bona fide transmembrane proteins. We demonstrate their association in a series of hetero-oligomeric complexes, some of which interact transiently with cytochrome b6 in the process of heme delivery to the apoprotein. In addition, we provide preliminary evidence for functional assembly of cytochrome b6f complexes even in the absence of c′-heme binding to cytochrome b6. Finally, we present a sequential model for apo- to holo-cytochrome b6 maturation integrated within the assembly pathway of b6f complexes in the thylakoid membranes. PMID:19564403

  16. Biogenesis of cytochrome b6 in photosynthetic membranes.

    PubMed

    Saint-Marcoux, Denis; Wollman, Francis-André; de Vitry, Catherine

    2009-06-29

    In chloroplasts, binding of a c'-heme to cytochrome b(6) on the stromal side of the thylakoid membranes requires a specific mechanism distinct from the one at work for c-heme binding to cytochromes f and c(6) on the lumenal side of membranes. Here, we show that the major protein components of this pathway, the CCBs, are bona fide transmembrane proteins. We demonstrate their association in a series of hetero-oligomeric complexes, some of which interact transiently with cytochrome b(6) in the process of heme delivery to the apoprotein. In addition, we provide preliminary evidence for functional assembly of cytochrome b(6)f complexes even in the absence of c'-heme binding to cytochrome b(6). Finally, we present a sequential model for apo- to holo-cytochrome b(6) maturation integrated within the assembly pathway of b(6)f complexes in the thylakoid membranes.

  17. Characterization of the cytochrome c oxidase in isolated and purified plasma membranes from the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans.

    PubMed

    Peschek, G A; Wastyn, M; Trnka, M; Molitor, V; Fry, I V; Packer, L

    1989-04-04

    Functionally intact plasma membranes were isolated from the cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) Anacystis nidulans through French pressure cell extrusion of lysozyme/EDTA-treated cells, separated from thylakoid membranes by discontinuous sucrose density gradient centrifugation, and purified by repeated recentrifugation. Origin and identity of the chlorophyll-free plasma membrane fraction were confirmed by labeling of intact cells with impermeant protein markers, [35S]diazobenzenesulfonate and fluorescamine, prior to membrane isolation. Rates of oxidation of reduced horse heart cytochrome c by purified plasma and thylakoid membranes were 90 and 2 nmol min-1 (mg of protein)-1, respectively. The cytochrome oxidase in isolated plasma membranes was identified as a copper-containing aa3-type enzyme from the properties of its redox-active and EDTA-resistant Cu2+ ESR signal, the characteristic inhibition profile, reduced minus oxidized difference spectra, carbon monoxide difference spectra, photoaction and photodissociation spectra of the CO-inhibited enzyme, and immunological cross-reaction of two subunits of the enzyme with antibodies against subunits I and II, and the holoenzyme, of Paracoccus denitrificans aa3-type cytochrome oxidase. The data presented are the first comprehensive evidence for the occurrence of aa3-type cytochrome oxidase in the plasma membrane of a cyanobacterium similar to the corresponding mitochondrial enzyme (EC 1.9.3.1).

  18. Spectral and potentiometric analysis of cytochromes from Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    de Vrij, W; van den Burg, B; Konings, W N

    1987-08-03

    Bacillus subtilis cytoplasmic membranes contain several cytochromes which are linked to the respiratory chain. At least six different cytochromes have been separated and identified by ammonium sulphate fractionation and ion-exchange chromatography. They include two terminal oxidases with CO-binding properties and cyanide sensitivity. One of these is an aa3-type cytochrome c oxidase which has characteristic absorption maxima in the reduced-oxidized difference spectrum at 601 nm in the alpha-band and at 443 nm in the Soret band regions. In the alpha-band two separate electron transitions with Em = +205 mV and Em = +335 mV can be discriminated by redox potentiometric titration. The other CO-binding cytochrome c oxidase contains two cytochrome b components with alpha-band maxima at 556 nm and 559 nm. Cytochrome b556 can be reduced by ascorbate and has an Em + +215 mV, whereas cytochrome b559 has an Em = +140 mV. Furthermore a complex consisting of a cytochrome b564 (Em = +140 mV) associated with a cytochrome c554 (Em = +250 mV) was found. This cytochrome c554, which can be reduced by ascorbate, appears to have an asymmetrical alpha-peak and stains for heme-catalyzed peroxidase activity on SDS-containing polyacrylamide gels. A protein with a molecular mass of about 30 kDa is responsible for this activity. A cytochrome b559 (Em = +65 mV) appears to be an essential part of succinate dehydrogenase. Finally a cytochrome c550 component with an apparent mid-point potential of Em = +195 mV has been detected.

  19. Reduction of uranium by cytochrome c3 of Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovley, D.R.; Widman, P.K.; Woodward, J.C.; Phillips, E.J.P.

    1993-01-01

    The mechanism for U(VI) reduction by Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough) was investigated. The H2-dependent U(VI) reductase activity in the soluble fraction of the cells was lost when the soluble fraction was passed over a cationic exchange column which extracted cytochrome c3. Addition of cytochrome c3 back to the soluble fraction that had been passed over the cationic exchange column restored the U(VI)-reducing capacity. Reduced cytochrome c3 was oxidized by U(VI), as was a c-type cytochrome(s) in whole-cell suspensions. When cytochrome c3 was combined with hydrogenase, its physiological electron donor, U(VI) was reduced in the presence of H2. Hydrogenase alone could not reduce U(VI). Rapid U(VI) reduction was followed by a subsequent slow precipitation of the U(IV) mineral uraninite. Cytochrome c3 reduced U(VI) in a uranium-contaminated surface water and groundwater. Cytochrome c3 provides the first enzyme model for the reduction and biomineralization of uranium in sedimentary environments. Furthermore, the finding that cytochrome c3 can catalyze the reductive precipitation of uranium may aid in the development of fixed-enzyme reactors and/or organisms with enhanced U(VI)-reducing capacity for the bioremediation of uranium- contaminated waters and waste streams.

  20. Reduction of uranium by cytochrome c3 of Desulfovibrio vulgaris.

    PubMed Central

    Lovley, D R; Widman, P K; Woodward, J C; Phillips, E J

    1993-01-01

    The mechanism for U(VI) reduction by Desulfovibrio vulgaris (Hildenborough) was investigated. The H2-dependent U(VI) reductase activity in the soluble fraction of the cells was lost when the soluble fraction was passed over a cationic exchange column which extracted cytochrome c3. Addition of cytochrome c3 back to the soluble fraction that had been passed over the cationic exchange column restored the U(VI)-reducing capacity. Reduced cytochrome c3 was oxidized by U(VI), as was a c-type cytochrome(s) in whole-cell suspensions. When cytochrome c3 was combined with hydrogenase, its physiological electron donor, U(VI) was reduced in the presence of H2. Hydrogenase alone could not reduce U(VI). Rapid U(VI) reduction was followed by a subsequent slow precipitation of the U(IV) mineral uraninite. Cytochrome c3 reduced U(VI) in a uranium-contaminated surface water and groundwater. Cytochrome c3 provides the first enzyme model for the reduction and biomineralization of uranium in sedimentary environments. Furthermore, the finding that cytochrome c3 can catalyze the reductive precipitation of uranium may aid in the development of fixed-enzyme reactors and/or organisms with enhanced U(VI)-reducing capacity for the bioremediation of uranium-contaminated waters and waste streams. PMID:8285665

  1. The axial ligands of heme in cytochromes: a near-infrared magnetic circular dichroism study of yeast cytochromes c, c1, and b and spinach cytochrome f.

    PubMed

    Simpkin, D; Palmer, G; Devlin, F J; McKenna, M C; Jensen, G M; Stephens, P J

    1989-10-03

    Room temperature near-infrared magnetic circular dichroism and low-temperature electron paramagnetic resonance measurements have been used to characterize the ligands of the heme iron in mitochondrial cytochromes c, c1, and b and in cytochrome f of the photosynthetic electron transport chain. The MCD data show that methionine is the sixth ligand of the heme of oxidized yeast cytochrome c1; the identify of this residue is inferred to be the single conserved methionine identified from a partial alignment of the available cytochrome c1 amino acid sequences. A different residue, which is most likely lysine, is the sixth heme ligand in oxidized spinach cytochrome f. The data for oxidized yeast cytochrome b are consistent with bis-histidine coordination of both hemes although the possibility that one of the hemes is ligated by histidine and lysine cannot be rigorously excluded. The neutral and alkaline forms of oxidized yeast cytochrome c have spectroscopic properties very similar to those of the horse heart proteins, and thus, by analogy, the sixth ligands are methionine and lysine, respectively.

  2. Studies on cytochrome c oxidase activity of the cytochrome c1aa3 complex from Thermus thermophilus.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, T; Fee, J A

    1984-01-25

    Cytochrome oxidase from T. thermophilus is isolated as a noncovalent complex of cytochromes c1 and aa3 in which the four redox components of aa3 appear to be associated with a single approximately 55,000-D subunit while the heme C is associated with a approximately 33,000-D peptide (Yoshida, T., Lorence, R. M., Choc, M. G., Tarr, G. E., Findling, K. L., and Fee, J. A. (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 112-123). We have examined the steady state transfer of electrons from ascorbate to oxygen by cytochrome c1aa3 as mediated by horse heart, Candida krusei, and T. thermophilus (c552) cytochromes c as well as tetramethylphenylenediamine (TMPD). These mediators exhibit simple Michaelis-Menten kinetic behavior yielding Vmax and KM values characteristic of the experimental conditions. Three classes of kinetic behavior were observed and are qualitatively discussed in terms of a reaction scheme. The data show that tetramethylphenyldiamine and cytochromes c react with the enzyme at independent sites; it is suggested that cytochrome c1 may efficiently transfer electrons to cytochrome aa3. When incorporated into phospholipid vesicles, the highly purified cytochrome c1aa3 was found to translocate one proton into the exterior medium for each molecule of cytochrome c552 oxidized. The combined results suggest that this bacterial enzyme functions in a manner generally identical with the more complex eucaryotic enzyme.

  3. Discovery of potent and novel S-nitrosoglutathione reductase inhibitors devoid of cytochrome P450 activities.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xicheng; Qiu, Jian; Strong, Sarah A; Green, Louis S; Wasley, Jan W F; Blonder, Joan P; Colagiovanni, Dorothy B; Mutka, Sarah C; Stout, Adam M; Richards, Jane P; Rosenthal, Gary J

    2011-10-01

    The pyrrole based N6022 was recently identified as a potent, selective, reversible, and efficacious S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR) inhibitor and is currently undergoing clinical development for the treatment of acute asthma. GSNOR is a member of the alcohol dehydrogenase family (ADH) and regulates the levels of S-nitrosothiols (SNOs) through catabolism of S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO). Reduced levels of GSNO, as well as other nitrosothiols (SNOs), have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases including those of the respiratory, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal systems. Preservation of endogenous SNOs through GSNOR inhibition presents a novel therapeutic approach with broad applicability. We describe here the synthesis and structure-activity relationships (SAR) of novel pyrrole based analogues of N6022 focusing on removal of cytochrome P450 inhibition activities. We identified potent and novel GSNOR inhibitors having reduced CYP inhibition activities and demonstrated efficacy in a mouse ovalbumin (OVA) model of asthma.

  4. Size-dependent effects of nanoparticles on the activity of cytochrome P450 isoenzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Froehlich, Eleonore; Kueznik, Tatjana; Samberger, Claudia; Roblegg, Eva; Wrighton, Christopher

    2010-02-01

    Nanoparticles are known to be able to interfere with cellular metabolism and to cause cytotoxicity and moreover may interfere with specific cellular functions. Serious effects on the latter include changes in liver cell function. The cytochrome P450 system is expressed in many cells but is especially important in hepatocytes and hormone-producing cells. The interaction of polystyrene nanoparticles with the most important drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 isoenzymes, CYP3A4, CYP2D6, CYP2C9 and CYP2A1 expressed individually in insect cells (BACULOSOMES) was studied by the cleavage of substrates coupled to a fluorescent dye. The data obtained for individual isoenzymes were compared to metabolism in microsomes isolated from normal liver and from the hepatoma cell line H4-II-E-C3. Small (20-60 nm) carboxyl polystyrene particles but not larger (200 nm) ones reached high intracellular concentrations in the vicinity of the endoplasmic reticulum. These small particles inhibited the enzymatic activity of CYP450 isoenzymes in BACULOSOMES and substrate cleavage in normal liver microsomes. They moreover increased the effect of known inhibitors of the cytochrome P450 system (cimetidine, phenobarbital and paclitaxel). Substrate cleavage by the hepatoma cell line H4-II-E-C3 in contrast was undetectable, making this cell line unsuitable for this type of study. Our results thus demonstrate that nanoparticles can inhibit the metabolism of xenobiotics by the CYP450 system in model systems in vitro. Such inhibition could also potentially occur in vivo and possibly cause adverse effects in persons receiving medication.

  5. Cytochrome P450-2D6 Screening Among Elderly Using Antidepressants (CYSCE)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-24

    Depression; Depressive Disorder; Poor Metabolizer Due to Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 Variant; Intermediate Metabolizer Due to Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 Variant; Ultrarapid Metabolizer Due to Cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 Variant

  6. Cytochrome P450 Inhibitors Reduce Creeping Bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) Tolerance to Topramezone.

    PubMed

    Elmore, Matthew T; Brosnan, James T; Armel, Gregory R; Kopsell, Dean A; Best, Michael D; Mueller, Thomas C; Sorochan, John C

    2015-01-01

    Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) is moderately tolerant to the p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase-inhibiting herbicide topramezone. However, the contribution of plant metabolism of topramezone to this tolerance is unknown. Experiments were conducted to determine if known cytochrome P450 monooxygenase inhibitors 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT) and malathion alone or in combination with the herbicide safener cloquintocet-mexyl influence creeping bentgrass tolerance to topramezone. Creeping bentgrass in hydroponic culture was treated with ABT (70 μM), malathion (70 μm and 1000 g ha(-1)), or cloquintocet-mexyl (70 μM and 1000 g ha(-1)) prior to topramezone (8 g ha(-1)) application. Topramezone-induced injury to creeping bentgrass increased from 22% when applied alone to 79 and 41% when applied with malathion or ABT, respectively. Cloquintocet-mexyl (70 μM and 1000 g ha(-1)) reduced topramezone injury to 1% and increased creeping bentgrass biomass and PSII quantum yield. Cloquintocet-mexyl mitigated the synergistic effects of ABT more than those of malathion. The effects of malathion on topramezone injury were supported by creeping bentgrass biomass responses. Responses to ABT and malathion suggest that creeping bentgrass tolerance to topramezone is influenced by cytochrome P450-catalyzed metabolism. Future research should elucidate primary topramezone metabolites and determine the contribution of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and glutathione S-transferases to metabolite formation in safened and non-safened creeping bentgrass.

  7. Purification and characterization of a benzene hydroxylase: A cytochrome P-450 from rat liver mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Karaszkiewicz, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    This laboratory previously demonstrated that incubation of ({sup 14}C)benzene with isolated mitochondria resulted in the formation of mtDNA adducts. Since benzene is incapable of spontaneously covalently binding to nuclei acids, it was hypothesized that enzyme(s) present in the organelle metabolized benzene to reactive derivatives. We have purified, to electrophoretic homogeneity, a 52 kDa cytochrome P-450 from liver mitoplasts which metabolizes benzene to phenol. The enzyme has a K{sub M} for benzene of 0.012 mM, and a V{sub MAX} of 22.6 nmol phenol/nmol P-450/10 min, and requires NADPH, adrenodoxin, and adrenodoxin reductase for activity. Activity also can be reconstituted with microsomal cytochrome P-450 reductase. Benzene hydroxylase activity could be inhibited by carbon monoxide and SKF-525A, and by specific inhibitors of microsomal benzene metabolism. The purified enzyme oxidized phenol, forming catechol; aminopyrine N-demethylase activity was also demonstrated. These data confirm that a cytochrome P-450 of mitochondrial origin is involved in benzene metabolism, and indicate a role for the mitochondrion in xenobiotic activation.

  8. Cytochrome P450 Inhibitors Reduce Creeping Bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) Tolerance to Topramezone

    PubMed Central

    Elmore, Matthew T.; Brosnan, James T.; Armel, Gregory R.; Kopsell, Dean A.; Best, Michael D.; Mueller, Thomas C.; Sorochan, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.) is moderately tolerant to the p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase-inhibiting herbicide topramezone. However, the contribution of plant metabolism of topramezone to this tolerance is unknown. Experiments were conducted to determine if known cytochrome P450 monooxygenase inhibitors 1-aminobenzotriazole (ABT) and malathion alone or in combination with the herbicide safener cloquintocet-mexyl influence creeping bentgrass tolerance to topramezone. Creeping bentgrass in hydroponic culture was treated with ABT (70 μM), malathion (70 μm and 1000 g ha-1), or cloquintocet-mexyl (70 μM and 1000 g ha-1) prior to topramezone (8 g ha-1) application. Topramezone-induced injury to creeping bentgrass increased from 22% when applied alone to 79 and 41% when applied with malathion or ABT, respectively. Cloquintocet-mexyl (70 μM and 1000 g ha-1) reduced topramezone injury to 1% and increased creeping bentgrass biomass and PSII quantum yield. Cloquintocet-mexyl mitigated the synergistic effects of ABT more than those of malathion. The effects of malathion on topramezone injury were supported by creeping bentgrass biomass responses. Responses to ABT and malathion suggest that creeping bentgrass tolerance to topramezone is influenced by cytochrome P450-catalyzed metabolism. Future research should elucidate primary topramezone metabolites and determine the contribution of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and glutathione S-transferases to metabolite formation in safened and non-safened creeping bentgrass. PMID:26186714

  9. Evidence that cytochrome b{sub 559} protects photosystem II against photoinhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Poulson, M.; Samson, G.; Whitmarsh, J.

    1995-08-29

    Light that exceeds the photosynthetic capacity of a plant can impair the ability of photosystem II to oxidize water. The light-induced inhibition is initiated by inopportune electron transport reactions that create damaging redox states. There is evidence that secondary electron transport pathways within the photosystem II reaction center can protect against potentially damaging redox states. Experiments using thylakoid membranes poised at different ambient redox potentials demonstrate that light-induced damage to photosystem II can be controlled by a redox component within the reaction center. The rate of photoinhibition is slow when the redox component is oxidized, but increases by more than 10-fold when the redox. component is reduced. Here, using spinach thylakoid membranes, we provide evidence that the redox component is cytochrome b{sub 559}, an intrinsic heme protein of the photosystem II reaction center. The results support a model in which the low-potential (LP) form of cytochrome b{sub 559} protects photosystem II by deactivating a rarely formed, but hazardous redox state of photosystem II, namely, P680/Pheo{sup -}/Q{sub A}{sup -}. Cytochrome b{sub 559}LP is proposed to deactivate this potentially lethal redox state by accepting electrons from reduced pheophytin.

  10. Studies on NADPH-cytochrome c reductase. II. Steady-state kinetic properties of the crystalline enzyme from ale yeast.

    PubMed

    Tryon, E; Kuby, S A

    1984-01-01

    From a study of the steady-state kinetics (at pH 7.6, 30 degrees C) of the reduction of cytochrome c, a 'ping-pong' mechanism may be postulated for the crystalline NADPH-cytochrome c reductase from ale yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae [1], a result derivable from a three-substrate ordered system with a rapid equilibrium random sequence in substrates, NADPH and FAD, followed by reactions of the third substrate, Cyt C3+. On this basis, estimates for the kinetic parameters were made together with the inhibitor dissociation constants for NADP+ (competitive with respect to NADPH as variable substrate, but noncompetitive with respect to cytochrome c3+ as the variable substrate). A noncompetitive type of inhibition was also found for cytochrome c2+ with NADPH as variable substrate, in confirmation of the proposed mechanism. With 2,6-dichloroindophenol as the acceptor, in place of cytochrome c3+, a value for KNADPH could be estimated which agreed with that estimated above, with cytochrome c3+ as the acceptor, again, in confirmation of the postulated mechanism. The reactions with molecular O2 catalyzed by the enzyme with NADPH as the reductant have been studied polarographically, and its Km for O2 estimated to be about 0.15 mmol/l at pH 7.6, 25 degrees C. The product of the reaction appears to be H2O2, which acts as a noncompetitive inhibitor for NADPH (Ki = 0.5 mmol/l), and tentatively an enzyme ternary complex containing oxygen and FADoh (semiquinone of FAD) may be assumed to be the kinetically important intermediate, which may be postulated to be in quasi-equilibrium with an enzyme ternary complex containing Oo2 (superoxide) and FAD.

  11. Effective cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibitor isolated from thyme (Thymus saturoides) purchased from a Japanese market.

    PubMed

    Brahmi, Zeineb; Niwa, Hitomi; Yamasato, Mio; Shigeto, Sakurako; Kusakari, Yuna; Sugaya, Kouichi; Onose, Jun-ichi; Abe, Naoki

    2011-01-01

    A highly polymethylated flavone that effectively inhibited cytochrome P450s (CYPs) 1A2 and 3A4 (IC(50) = 2.41 and 1.71 µM) in vitro was isolated from thyme leaves (Thymus saturoides) purchased from a Japanese market. Its structure was spectroscopically identified as 4',5-dihydroxy-3',6,7,8-tetramethoxy flavone (8-methoxycirsilineol, 1). This is the first report describing a strong inhibitor of CYP1A2 and 3A4 isolated from Thymus saturoides.

  12. The photosynthetic cytochrome c 550 from the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Bernal-Bayard, Pilar; Puerto-Galán, Leonor; Yruela, Inmaculada; García-Rubio, Inés; Castell, Carmen; Ortega, José M; Alonso, Pablo J; Roncel, Mercedes; Martínez, Jesús I; Hervás, Manuel; Navarro, José A

    2016-12-28

    The photosynthetic cytochrome c 550 from the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum has been purified and characterized. Cytochrome c 550 is mostly obtained from the soluble cell extract in relatively large amounts. In addition, the protein appeared to be truncated in the last hydrophobic residues of the C-terminus, both in the soluble cytochrome c 550 and in the protein extracted from the membrane fraction, as deduced by mass spectrometry analysis and the comparison with the gene sequence. Interestingly, it has been described that the C-terminus of cytochrome c 550 forms a hydrophobic finger involved in the interaction with photosystem II in cyanobacteria. Cytochrome c 550 was almost absent in solubilized photosystem II complex samples, in contrast with the PsbO and Psb31 extrinsic subunits, thus suggesting a lower affinity of cytochrome c 550 for the photosystem II complex. Under iron-limiting conditions the amount of cytochrome c 550 decreases up to about 45% as compared to iron-replete cells, pointing to an iron-regulated synthesis. Oxidized cytochrome c 550 has been characterized using continuous wave EPR and pulse techniques, including HYSCORE, and the obtained results have been interpreted in terms of the electrostatic charge distribution in the surroundings of the heme centre.

  13. Periplasmic c cytochromes and chlorate reduction in Ideonella dechloratans.

    PubMed

    Bäcklund, Anna Smedja; Bohlin, Jan; Gustavsson, Niklas; Nilsson, Thomas

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the pathway of electron transfer between the inner membrane components and the periplasmic chlorate reductase. Several soluble c-type cytochromes were found in the periplasm. The optical difference spectrum of dithionite-reduced periplasmic extract shows that at least one of these components is capable of acting as an electron donor to the enzyme chlorate reductase. The cytochromes were partially separated, and the fractions were analyzed by UV/visible spectroscopy to determine the ability of donating electrons to chlorate reductase. Our results show that one of the c cytochromes (6 kDa) is able to donate electrons, both to chlorate reductase and to the membrane-bound cytochrome c oxidase, whereas the roles of the remaining c cytochromes still remain to be elucidated. Peptide extracts of the c cytochromes were obtained by tryptic in-gel digestion for matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry analysis. Peptide sequences obtained indicate that the 6-kDa cytochrome c protein is similar to c cytochromes from the chlorate-reducing bacterium Dechloromonas aromatica.

  14. INDUCTION AND POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL SUPPRESSION OF HEPATIC CYTOCHROME P450 1A1 BY 3,3',4,4'-TETRACHLOROBIPHENYL. (R827102)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    3,3',4,4'-Tetrachlorobiphenyl (TCB) can induce and inhibit cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) in vertebrates. TCB may also suppress CYP1A1 protein levels, but the mechanism is unknown. This study examined transcriptional and translational aspects of hepatic ...

  15. Activation of the human neutrophil NADPH oxidase results in coupling of electron carrier function between ubiquinone-10 and cytochrome b559.

    PubMed

    Gabig, T G; Lefker, B A

    1985-04-10

    The enzymatic activity underlying the respiratory burst in human neutrophils was examined in a subcellular fraction with high specific activity and shown to be a membrane-associated complex of a flavoprotein, ubiquinone-10, and cytochrome b559 in an approximate 1.3:1:2 molar ratio. Study of the redox poise of these electron carriers indicated that electron flow in the intact complex from unstimulated cells proceeded: NADPH----E-FAD----ubiquinone-10. Similar studies on the complex prepared from stimulated neutrophils indicated that electron flow proceeded: NADPH----E-FAD----ubiquinone-10----cytochrome b559----oxygen. The active enzyme complex was inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate. Inhibition persisted after removal of excess inhibitor, was reversed by dithiothreitol, and could be blocked by prior addition of substrate (NADPH). Inhibition of the active oxidase complex by p-chloromercuribenzoate also inhibited electron flow from NADPH to all purported electron carriers in the chain (i.e. E-FAD, ubiquinone-10, and cytochrome b559). We conclude that activation of the oxidase enzyme complex in the intact neutrophil resulted in linkage of electron carrier function between endogenous ubiquinone-10 and cytochrome b559 and was without demonstrable effect on proximal electron flow. The p-chloromercuribenzoate sensitive site(s) proximal to the initial electron acceptor (E-FAD) did not appear to be altered by the cellular activation process.

  16. Preparation of a one-subunit cytochrome oxidase from Paracoccus denitrificans: spectral analysis and enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Müller, M; Schlapfer, B; Azzi, A

    1988-09-20

    Cytochrome c oxidase was isolated from Paracoccus denitrificans as a two-subunit enzyme. Chymotrypsin-catalyzed proteolysis reduced the molecular weight of each subunit by about 8000. The spectral properties of this preparation, as well as its Km for cytochrome c(1.7 muM), remained unchanged with respect to the native enzyme. Vmax was reduced by about 55% when assayed in Triton X-100 or in Triton X-100 supplemented with asolectin. Following further proteolysis by Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease, subunit I remained unchanged as judged by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, whereas subunit II was split into small peptides. These were removed by ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography. The one-subunit enzyme had an apparent molecular weight of 43,000. The reduction of molecular weight was also confirmed by the diminution of the ultraviolet/Soret absorption ratio. This value was 1.8-2.1 for the native enzyme and 1.3-1.5 for the one-subunit enzyme. The spectral properties (including the spectrum CO reduced minus reduced) were not modified by the proteolytic treatment, indicating that cytochromes a and a3 were present in equal amounts. The lack of spectral alteration and the known close association of the copper B atom with cytochrome a3 suggest that copper B is also contained within the one-subunit enzyme. The Km of the one-subunit oxidase was similar to that of the two-subunit enzyme; Vmax was decreased by about 50%. The activity of the one-subunit oxidase had a salt-dependent maximum at 30 mM KCl, almost identical with that of the undigested enzyme, and was inhibited by micromolar concentrations of KCN.

  17. Cytochrome P450 CYP1B1 activity in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    McFadyen, M C E; Melvin, W T; Murray, G I

    2004-08-31

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common malignancy of the kidney and has a poor prognosis due to its late presentation and resistance to current anticancer drugs. One mechanism of drug resistance, which is potentially amenable to therapeutic intervention, is based on studies in our laboratory. CYP1B1 is a cytochrome P450 enzyme overexpressed in a variety of malignant tumours. Our studies are now elucidating a functional role for CYP1B1 in drug resistance. Cytochrome P450 reductase (P450R) is required for optimal metabolic activity of CYP1B1. Both CYP1B1 and P450R can catalyse the biotransformation of anticancer drugs at the site of the tumour. In this investigation, we determined the expression of CYP1B1 and P450R in samples of normal kidney and RCC (11 paired normal and tumour and a further 15 tumour samples). The O-deethylation of ethoxyresorufin to resorufin was used to measure CYP1B1 activity in RCC. Cytochrome P450 reductase activity was determined by following the reduction of cytochrome c at 550 nm. The key finding of this study was the presence of active CYP1B1 in 70% of RCC. Coincubation with the CYP1B1 inhibitor alpha-naphthoflavone (10 nM) inhibited this activity. No corresponding CYP1B1 activity was detected in any of the normal tissue examined (n=11). Measurable levels of active P450R were determined in all normal (n=11) and tumour samples (n=26). The presence of detectable CYP1B1, which is capable of metabolising anticancer drugs in tumour cells, highlights a novel target for therapeutic intervention.

  18. Periplasmic Cytochrome c(3) of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Is Directly Involved in H2-Mediated Metal but Not Sulfate Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, Dwayne A.; Suflita, Joseph M.; McInerney, Michael J.; Krumholz, Lee R.

    2004-01-01

    Kinetic parameters and the role of cytochrome c3 in sulfate, Fe(III), and U(VI) reduction were investigated in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough. While sulfate reduction followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics (Km 220 uM), loss of Fe(III) and U(VI) was first-order at all concentrations tested. Initial reduction rates of all electron acceptors were similar for cells grown with H2 and sulfate, while cultures grown using lactate and sulfate had similar rates of metal loss but lower sulfate reduction activities. The similarities in metal, but not sulfate, reduction with H2 and lactate suggest divergent pathways. Respiration assays and reduced minus oxidized spectra were carried out to determine c-type cytochrome involvement in electron acceptor reduction. c-type cytochrome oxidation was immediate with Fe(III) and U(VI) in the presence of H2, lactate, or pyruvate. Sulfidogenesis occurred with all three electron donors and effectively oxidized the c-type cytochrome in lactate or pyruvate-reduced, but not H2-reduced cells. Correspondingly, electron acceptor competition assays with lactate or pyruvate as electron donors showed that Fe(III) inhibited U(VI) reduction, and U(VI) inhibited sulfate loss. However, sulfate reduction was slowed but not halted when H2 was the electron donor in the presence of Fe(III) or U(VI). U(VI) loss was still impeded by Fe(III) when H2 was used. Hence, we propose a modified pathway for the reduction of sulfate, Fe(III), and U(VI) which helps explain why these bacteria cannot grow using these metals. We further propose that cytochrome c3 is an electron carrier involved in lactate and pyruvate oxidation and is the reductase for alternate electron acceptors with higher redox potentials than sulfate.

  19. Periplasmic Cytochrome c3 of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Is Directly Involved in H2-Mediated Metal but Not Sulfate Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Dwayne A.; Suflita, Joseph M.; McInerney, Michael J.; Krumholz, Lee R.

    2004-01-01

    Kinetic parameters and the role of cytochrome c3 in sulfate, Fe(III), and U(VI) reduction were investigated in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough. While sulfate reduction followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics (Km = 220 μM), loss of Fe(III) and U(VI) was first-order at all concentrations tested. Initial reduction rates of all electron acceptors were similar for cells grown with H2 and sulfate, while cultures grown using lactate and sulfate had similar rates of metal loss but lower sulfate reduction activities. The similarities in metal, but not sulfate, reduction with H2 and lactate suggest divergent pathways. Respiration assays and reduced minus oxidized spectra were carried out to determine c-type cytochrome involvement in electron acceptor reduction. c-type cytochrome oxidation was immediate with Fe(III) and U(VI) in the presence of H2, lactate, or pyruvate. Sulfidogenesis occurred with all three electron donors and effectively oxidized the c-type cytochrome in lactate- or pyruvate-reduced, but not H2-reduced cells. Correspondingly, electron acceptor competition assays with lactate or pyruvate as electron donors showed that Fe(III) inhibited U(VI) reduction, and U(VI) inhibited sulfate loss. However, sulfate reduction was slowed but not halted when H2 was the electron donor in the presence of Fe(III) or U(VI). U(VI) loss was still impeded by Fe(III) when H2 was used. Hence, we propose a modified pathway for the reduction of sulfate, Fe(III), and U(VI) which helps explain why these bacteria cannot grow using these metals. We further propose that cytochrome c3 is an electron carrier involved in lactate and pyruvate oxidation and is the reductase for alternate electron acceptors with higher redox potentials than sulfate. PMID:14711670

  20. Mitochondrial cytochrome c biogenesis: no longer an enigma

    PubMed Central

    Babbitt, Shalon E.; Sutherland, Molly C.; Francisco, Brian San; Mendez, Deanna L.; Kranz, Robert G.

    2015-01-01

    Cytochromes c and c1are heme proteins that are essential for aerobic respiration. Release of cytochrome c from mitochondria is an important signal in apoptosis initiation. Biogenesis of c-type cytochromes involves covalent attachment of heme to two cysteines (at a conserved CXXCH sequence) in the apocytochrome. Heme attachment is catalyzed in most mitochondria by holocytochrome c synthase (HCCS), which is also necessary for import of apocytochrome c. Thus, HCCS affects cellular levels of cytochrome c, impacting mitochondrial physiology and cell death. Here, we review the mechanisms of HCCS function and the roles played by heme and residues in the CXXCH motif. Additionally, we consider concepts emerging within the two prokaryotic cytochrome c biogenesis pathways. PMID:26073510

  1. Cytochrome c6 from Monoraphidium braunii. A cytochrome with an unusual heme axial coordination.

    PubMed

    Campos, A P; Aguiar, A P; Hervás, M; Regalla, M; Navarro, J A; Ortega, J M; Xavier, A V; De La Rosa, M A; Teixeira, M

    1993-08-15

    A soluble monoheme c-type cytochrome (cytochrome c6) has been isolated from the green alga Monoraphidium braunii. It has a molecular mass of 9.3 kDa, an isoelectric point of 3.6 and a reduction potential of 358 mV at pH 7. The determined amino acid sequence allows its classification as a class-I c-type cytochrome. The ferric and ferrous cytochrome forms and their pH equilibria have been studied using 1H-NMR, ultraviolet/visible, EPR and Mössbauer spectroscopies. The pH equilibria are complex, several pKa values and pH-dependent forms being observed. The amino acid sequence, the reduction-potential value and the visible and NMR spectroscopies data in the pH range 4-9 indicate that the heme iron has a methionine-histidine axial coordination. However, the EPR and Mössbauer data obtained for the ferricytochrome show that in this pH range two distinct forms are present: form I, gz = 3.27, gy = 2.05 and gx = 1.05; form II, gz = 2.95, gy = 2.29 and gx = 1.43. While form I has crystal-field parameters typical of a methionine-histidine coordination, those associated with form II would suggest a histidine-histidine axial ligation. This possibility was extensively analyzed by spectroscopic methods and by chemical modification of a histidine residue. It was concluded that form II actually corresponds to an unusual type of methionine-histidine axial coordination. Straightforward examples of this type of coordination have recently been found in other c-type hemeproteins [Teixeira, M., Campos, A. P., Aguiar, A. P., Costa, H. S., Santos, H., Turner, D. L. & Xavier, A. V. (1993) FEBS Lett. 317, 233-236], corroborating our proposal. Since both forms, with very distinct crystal-field parameters, are shown to have the same reduction potential, it may be concluded that the axial and rhombic distortions of the heme-iron ligand field cannot be directly correlated with the heme-reduction potential. The pH-dependence studies have also shown that the form I and form II are

  2. Cytochrome cb-type nitric oxide reductase with cytochrome c oxidase activity from Paracoccus denitrificans ATCC 35512.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, T; Fukumori, Y

    1996-04-01

    A highly active nitric oxide reductase was purified from Paracoccus denitrificans ATCC 35512, formerly named Thiosphaera pantotropha, which was anaerobically cultivated in the presence of nitrate. The enzyme was composed of two subunits with molecular masses of 34 and 15 kDa and contained two hemes b and one heme c per molecule. Copper was not found in the enzyme. The spectral properties suggested that one of the two hemes b and heme c were in six-coordinated low-spin states and another heme b was in a five-coordinated high-spin state and reacted with carbon monoxide. The enzyme showed high cytochrome c-nitric oxide oxidoreductase activity and formed nitrous oxide from nitric oxide with the expected stoichiometry when P. denitrificans ATCC 35512 ferrocytochrome c-550 was used as the electron donor. The V max and Km values for nitric oxide were 84 micromol of nitric oxide per min/mg of protein and 0.25 microM, respectively. Furthermore, the enzyme showed ferrocytochrome c-550-O2 oxidoreductase activity with a V max of 8.4 micromol of O2 per min/mg of protein and a Km value of 0.9 mM. Both activities were 50% inhibited by about 0.3 mM KCN.

  3. Xanthommatin formation in rat liver mitochondria and its inhibition by respiratory chain substrates.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, H; Nagamura, Y; Ishiguro, I

    1983-11-01

    3-Hydroxykynurenine is condensed to xanthommatin by cytochrome c and cytochrome oxidase in rat liver mitochondria. In intact mitochondria the reaction is inhibited by respiratory chain substrates. However, this was not the case with preincubated mitochondria or with isolated cytochrome c and cytochrome oxidase. The inhibition of xanthommatin formation in native mitochondria by succinate was abolished by addition of antimycin A or malonate, whereas the inhibition by citrate, glutamate or fumarate was not impaired by antimycin A or amobarbital. However, after preincubation of mitochondria at 37 degrees C for 30 min the inhibition disappeared in these cases too. It is suggested that the inhibition by succinate is due to the supply of reduced cytochrome b which competes with 3-hydroxykynurenine for ferricytochrome c, while the other respiratory chain substrates inhibit xanthommatin formation only in the case of intact mitochondria by a yet unknown mechanism. These inhibition mechanisms prevent xanthommatin formation in rat liver mitochondria, even though 3-hydroxykynurenine is synthesized in the outer mitochondrial membrane.

  4. Catalytic reduction of O2 by cytochrome C using a synthetic model of cytochrome C oxidase.

    PubMed

    Collman, James P; Ghosh, Somdatta; Dey, Abhishek; Decréau, Richard A; Yang, Ying

    2009-04-15

    Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) catalyzes the four-electron reduction of oxygen to water, the one-electron reductant Cytochrome c (Cytc) being the source of electrons. Recently we reported a functional model of CcO that electrochemically catalyzes the four-electron reduction of O(2) to H(2)O (Collman et al. Science 2007, 315, 1565). The current paper shows that the same functional CcO model catalyzes the four-electron reduction of O(2) using the actual biological reductant Cytc in a homogeneous solution. Both single and steady-state turnover kinetics studies indicate that O(2) binding is rate-determining and that O-O bond cleavage and electron transfer from reduced Cytc to the oxidized model complex are relatively fast.

  5. Flower colour and cytochromes P450.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Brugliera, Filippa

    2013-02-19

    Cytochromes P450 play important roles in biosynthesis of flavonoids and their coloured class of compounds, anthocyanins, both of which are major floral pigments. The number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of anthocyanidins (the chromophores and precursors of anthocyanins) impact the anthocyanin colour, the more the bluer. The hydroxylation pattern is determined by two cytochromes P450, flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) and flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) and thus they play a crucial role in the determination of flower colour. F3'H and F3'5'H mostly belong to CYP75B and CYP75A, respectively, except for the F3'5'Hs in Compositae that were derived from gene duplication of CYP75B and neofunctionalization. Roses and carnations lack blue/violet flower colours owing to the deficiency of F3'5'H and therefore lack the B-ring-trihydroxylated anthocyanins based upon delphinidin. Successful redirection of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway to delphinidin was achieved by expressing F3'5'H coding regions resulting in carnations and roses with novel blue hues that have been commercialized. Suppression of F3'5'H and F3'H in delphinidin-producing plants reduced the number of hydroxyl groups on the anthocyanidin B-ring resulting in the production of monohydroxylated anthocyanins based on pelargonidin with a shift in flower colour to orange/red. Pelargonidin biosynthesis is enhanced by additional expression of a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase that can use the monohydroxylated dihydrokaempferol (the pelargonidin precursor). Flavone synthase II (FNSII)-catalysing flavone biosynthesis from flavanones is also a P450 (CYP93B) and contributes to flower colour, because flavones act as co-pigments to anthocyanins and can cause blueing and darkening of colour. However, transgenic plants expression of a FNSII gene yielded paler flowers owing to a reduction of anthocyanins because flavanones are precursors of anthocyanins and flavones.

  6. Effect of mercury, cadmium, nickel, chromium and zinc on kinetic properties of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase purified from leaping mullet (Liza saliens).

    PubMed

    Bozcaarmutlu, Azra; Arinç, Emel

    2007-04-01

    Information on the mechanism of metal ion inhibition of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase is limited. The purpose of the present paper was to elucidate in vitro effect of Hg(+2), Cd(+2), Ni(+2), Cr(+3) and Zn(+2) ions on the purified mullet NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase. NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase was purified from detergent-solubilized liver microsomes from leaping mullet (Liza saliens). All of the metal ions caused inhibition of the enzyme activity except Zn(+2). At 50 microM metal concentration, Hg(+2) inhibited the cytochrome P450 reductase activity completely (100%), while, at the same concentrations, Cd(+2), Cr(+3) and Ni(+2) caused 66%, 65% and 37% inhibition, respectively. At 50 microM metal concentration, Zn(+2) had no apparent effect on cytochrome P450 reductase activity. The IC(50) values of HgCl(2), CrCl(3), CdCl(2) and NiCl(2) were estimated to be 0.07 microM, 24 microM, 33 microM and 143 microM, respectively. Of the metal ions tested, Hg(+2) exhibited much higher inhibitory effect at lower concentrations, so it was evidently a more potent inhibitor than the others. All four metal ions displayed noncompetitive type of inhibition mechanism for the purified reductase as analyzed by Dixon plot. K(i) values of Hg(+2), Cr(+3), Cd(+2), and Ni(+2) were calculated from Dixon plots as 0.048 microM, 18 microM, 73 microM and 329 microM, respectively.

  7. Characterization of Cytochrome 579, an Unusual Cytochrome Isolated from an Iron-Oxidizing Microbial Community

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, Steven; Chan, Clara S; Zemla, Adam; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Hwang, Mona; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Banfield, Jillian F.; Thelen, Michael P.

    2008-01-01

    Proteogenomic studies of Fe(II)-oxidizing microbial biofilms collected from an extremely acidic environment have identified a novel, soluble cytochrome as one of the most abundant proteins produced by these communities. This red cytochrome, extracted from biofilms with dilute sulfuric acid and purified by cation exchange chromatography, has an unusual visible spectral signature at 579 nm. Fe(II)-dependent reduction of Cyt579 was thermodynamically favorable at pH>3, raising the possibility that Cyt579 acts as an accessory protein for electron transfer. Transmission electron microscopy of immuno-gold labeled biofilm indicated that the Cyt579 is localized near the bacterial cell surface, consistent with periplasmic localization. Further protein analysis of Cyt579, using preparative chromatofocusing and SDS-PAGE, revealed three forms of the protein that correspond to different N-terminal truncations of the amino acid sequence. Intact protein analysis corroborated the post-translational modifications of these forms and identified a genomically uncharacterized Cyt579 variant. Homology modeling was used to predict the overall cytochrome structure and heme binding site; positions of nine amino acid substitutions found in 3 Cyt579 variants all map to the surface of the protein and away from the heme group. Based on this detailed characterization of Cyt579, we propose that Cyt579 acts an electron transfer protein shuttling electrons derived from Fe(II) oxidation to support critical metabolic functions in the acidophilic microbial community.

  8. Molecular characterization of cytochrome P450 genes in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degrading Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1.

    PubMed

    Brezna, Barbara; Kweon, Ohgew; Stingley, Robin L; Freeman, James P; Khan, Ashraf A; Polek, Bystrik; Jones, Richard C; Cerniglia, Carl E

    2006-07-01

    Mycobacterium vanbaalenii PYR-1 has the ability to degrade low- and high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In addition to dioxygenases, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases have been implicated in PAH degradation. Three cytochrome P450 genes, cyp151 (pipA), cyp150, and cyp51, were detected and amplified by polymerase chain reaction from M. vanbaalenii PYR-1. The complete sequence of these genes was determined. The translated putative proteins were > or = 80% identical to other GenBank-listed mycobacterial CYP151, CYP150, and CYP51. Genes pipA and cyp150 were cloned, and the proteins partially expressed in Escherichia coli as soluble heme-containing cytochrome P450s that exhibited a characteristic peak at 450 nm in reduced carbon monoxide difference spectra. Monooxygenation metabolites of pyrene, dibenzothiophene, and 7-methylbenz[alpha]anthracene were detected in whole cell biotransformations, with E. coli expressing pipA or cyp150 when analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The cytochrome P450 inhibitor metyrapone strongly inhibited the S-oxidation of dibenzothiophene. Thirteen other Mycobacterium strains were screened for the presence of pipA, cyp150, and cyp51 genes, as well as the initial PAH dioxygenase (nidA and nidB). The results indicated that many of the Mycobacterium spp. surveyed contain both monooxygenases and dioxygenases to degrade PAHs. Our results provide further evidence for the diverse enzymatic capability of Mycobacterium spp. to metabolize polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  9. Development of GC-MS based cytochrome P450 assay for the investigation of multi-herb interaction.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyun-A; Lee, Hyunbeom; Kim, Donghak; Jung, Byung Hwa

    2017-02-15

    As drug interactions with cytochrome P450 enzymes become increasingly important in the field of drug discovery, a high-throughput screening method for analysing the effects of a drug is needed. We have developed a simple and rapid simultaneous analytical method using a cocktail approach for measuring the activities of seven cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1 and CYP3A4). Human liver microsomes were used as a source for the seven cytochrome P450 enzymes, and a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for analysing their activities. Kinetic studies and inhibition assays of CYP enzymes were performed using known substrates and inhibitors for validating and comparing the reaction rates and time-dependent activities between methods using each substrate versus a method using a cocktail solution. The optimized cocktail method was successfully applied to evaluate the effects of the decoction of Socheongryong-tang (SCRT) on cytochrome P450 enzymes. Our cocktail method provides a simultaneous high-throughput activity assay using GC-MS for the first time. This method is applicable for analysing the drug interactions of various plant-derived mixtures.

  10. The cytochrome bd-I respiratory oxidase augments survival of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli during infection

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Mark; Achard, Maud E. S.; Idris, Adi; Totsika, Makrina; Phan, Minh-Duy; Peters, Kate M.; Sarkar, Sohinee; Ribeiro, Cláudia A.; Holyoake, Louise V.; Ladakis, Dimitrios; Ulett, Glen C.; Sweet, Matthew J.; Poole, Robert K.; McEwan, Alastair G.; Schembri, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a toxic free radical produced by neutrophils and macrophages in response to infection. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) induces a variety of defence mechanisms in response to NO, including direct NO detoxification (Hmp, NorVW, NrfA), iron-sulphur cluster repair (YtfE), and the expression of the NO-tolerant cytochrome bd-I respiratory oxidase (CydAB). The current study quantifies the relative contribution of these systems to UPEC growth and survival during infection. Loss of the flavohemoglobin Hmp and cytochrome bd-I elicit the greatest sensitivity to NO-mediated growth inhibition, whereas all but the periplasmic nitrite reductase NrfA provide protection against neutrophil killing and promote survival within activated macrophages. Intriguingly, the cytochrome bd-I respiratory oxidase was the only system that augmented UPEC survival in a mouse model after 2 days, suggesting that maintaining aerobic respiration under conditions of nitrosative stress is a key factor for host colonisation. These findings suggest that while UPEC have acquired a host of specialized mechanisms to evade nitrosative stresses, the cytochrome bd-I respiratory oxidase is the main contributor to NO tolerance and host colonisation under microaerobic conditions. This respiratory complex is therefore of major importance for the accumulation of high bacterial loads during infection of the urinary tract. PMID:27767067

  11. Coexistence of translocated cytochrome c and nitrated protein in neurons of the rat cerebral cortex after oxygen and glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    Alonso, D; Encinas, J M; Uttenthal, L O; Boscá, L; Serrano, J; Fernández, A P; Castro-Blanco, S; Santacana, M; Bentura, M L; Richart, A; Fernández-Vizarra, P; Rodrigo, J

    2002-01-01

    Changes in the distribution of immunoreactive cytochrome c and protein nitration were studied in the rat cerebral cortex after oxygen and glucose deprivation by bright field, confocal and electron microscopy. In control cerebral cortex, nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity indicating protein nitration was found mostly in the neuronal nuclear region, with only a small amount distributed in the cytosol, whereas cytochrome c immunoreactivity was found at the inner membrane and in the intermembrane space of the mitochondria. During the recovery phase after oxygen and glucose deprivation, cytochrome c immunoreactivity was released from the intermembrane space of swollen mitochondria into the surrounding cytosol. The cytosol now also displayed nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity, which had diminished in the nuclear region. Both immunoreactivities were dispersed throughout the soma and processes of the cortical neurons. These changes were largely prevented by the administration of cyclosporin A, which inhibits both the mitochondrial permeability transition and the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase while blocking the induction of the inducible isoform. Ischemia/reperfusion injury increases the production of nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species and intracellular factors that damage the mitochondria and liberate apoptotic factors. We suggest that translocation of cytochrome c from the mitochondria to the cytosol, which has been shown to precede the mitochondrial permeability transition, could result from peroxynitrite-mediated nitration. This phenomenon is attenuated by cyclosporin A administration, suggesting a neuroprotective role for this agent.

  12. High-throughput cytochrome P450 (CYP) inhibition screening via cassette probe-dosing strategy. I. Development of direct injection/on-line guard cartridge extraction/tandem mass spectrometry for the simultaneous detection of CYP probe substrates and their metabolites.

    PubMed

    Bu, H Z; Magis, L; Knuth, K; Teitelbaum, P

    2000-01-01

    A highly efficient direct injection/on-line guard cartridge extraction/tandem mass spectrometry (DI-GCE/MS/MS) method utilizing electrospray polarity switching was developed for the simultaneous detection of probe substrates and marker metabolites of seven human hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) isozymes: CYP1A2, 2A6, 3A4, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6 and 2E1. Microsomal incubations were terminated with formic acid, centrifuged, and the resulting supernatants were injected for analysis by DI-GCE/MS/MS. This method employed an extremely short C(18) cartridge (4 mm in length) which allowed rapid cleanup of sample matrices while retaining the analytes an appropriate time (2. 0-2.2 min). From 1.5 to 2.7 min the effluent was directed to the mass spectrometer for detection otherwise diverted to waste. As a result of the efficient on-line extraction, matrix (e.g., salts and proteins) suppression was minimized. In addition, no visible source contamination was observed and system performance (chromatographic and mass spectrometric) did not significantly deteriorate after 500 consecutive injections. Electrospray polarity switching was strategically executed on a Micromass Quattro II mass spectrometer by establishing dummy ion transitions to protect the analytes from the interference of the overwhelming noise which was unavoidable for the first transition scanned following each polarity switch. This unique strategy led to the simultaneous detection of seven CYP probe substrates and seven corresponding marker metabolites (12 by positive mode and 2 by negative mode).

  13. Structures of cytochrome P450 17A1 with prostate cancer drugs abiraterone and TOK-001.

    PubMed

    DeVore, Natasha M; Scott, Emily E

    2012-01-22

    Cytochrome P450 17A1 (also known as CYP17A1 and cytochrome P450c17) catalyses the biosynthesis of androgens in humans. As prostate cancer cells proliferate in response to androgen steroids, CYP17A1 inhibition is a new strategy to prevent androgen synthesis and treat lethal metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer, but drug development has been hampered by lack of information regarding the structure of CYP17A1. Here we report X-ray crystal structures of CYP17A1, which were obtained in the presence of either abiraterone, a first-in-class steroidal inhibitor recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for late-stage prostate cancer, or TOK-001, an inhibitor that is currently undergoing clinical trials. Both of these inhibitors bind the haem iron, forming a 60° angle above the haem plane and packing against the central I helix with the 3β-OH interacting with aspargine 202 in the F helix. Notably, this binding mode differs substantially from those that are predicted by homology models and from steroids in other cytochrome P450 enzymes with known structures, and some features of this binding mode are more similar to steroid receptors. Whereas the overall structure of CYP17A1 provides a rationale for understanding many mutations that are found in patients with steroidogenic diseases, the active site reveals multiple steric and hydrogen bonding features that will facilitate a better understanding of the enzyme's dual hydroxylase and lyase catalytic capabilities and assist in rational drug design. Specifically, structure-based design is expected to aid development of inhibitors that bind only CYP17A1 and solely inhibit its androgen-generating lyase activity to improve treatment of prostate and other hormone-responsive cancers.

  14. Novel function of glutathione transferase in rat liver mitochondrial membrane: Role for cytochrome c release from mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kang Kwang; Shimoji, Manami; Hossain, Quazi Sohel; Sunakawa, Hajime; Aniya, Yoko

    2008-10-01

    Microsomal glutathione transferase (MGST1) is activated by oxidative stress. Although MGST1 is found in mitochondrial membranes (mtMGST1), there is no information about the oxidative activation of mtMGST1. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether mtMGST1 also undergoes activation and about its function. When rats were treated with galactosamine/lipopolysaccharide (GalN/LPS), mtMGST1 activity was significantly increased, and the increased activity was reduced by the disulfide reducing agent dithiothreitol. In mitochondria from GalN/LPS-treated rats, disulfide-linked mtMGST1 dimer and mixed protein glutathione disulfides (glutathionylation) were detected. In addition, cytochrome c release from mitochondria isolated from GalN/LPS-treated rats was observed, and the release was inhibited by anti-MGST1 antibodies. Incubation of mitochondria from control rats with diamide and diamide plus GSH in vitro resulted in dimer- and mixed disulfide bond-mediated activation of mtMGST1, respectively. The activation of mtMGST1 by diamide plus GSH caused cytochrome c release from the mitochondria, and the release was prevented by treatment with anti-MGST1 antibodies. In addition, diamide plus GSH treatment caused mitochondrial swelling accompanied by cytochrome c release, which was inhibited by cyclosporin A (CsA) and bongkrekic acid (BKA), inhibitors of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) pore. Furthermore, mtMGST1 activity was also inhibited by CsA and BKA. These results indicate that mtMGST1 is activated through mixed disulfide bond formation that contributes to cytochrome c release from mitochondria through the MPT pore.

  15. Multilayered polyelectrolyte microcapsules: interaction with the enzyme cytochrome C oxidase.

    PubMed

    Pastorino, Laura; Dellacasa, Elena; Noor, Mohamed R; Soulimane, Tewfik; Bianchini, Paolo; D'Autilia, Francesca; Antipov, Alexei; Diaspro, Alberto; Tofail, Syed A M; Ruggiero, Carmelina

    2014-01-01

    Cell-sized polyelectrolyte capsules functionalized with a redox-driven proton pump protein were assembled for the first time. The interaction of polyelectrolyte microcapsules, fabricated by electrostatic layer-by-layer assembly, with cytochrome c oxidase molecules was investigated. We found that the cytochrome c oxidase retained its functionality, that the functionalized microcapsules interacting with cytochrome c oxidase were permeable and that the permeability characteristics of the microcapsule shell depend on the shell components. This work provides a significant input towards the fabrication of an integrated device made of biological components and based on specific biomolecular functions and properties.

  16. Automated cytochrome c oxidase bioassay developed for ionic liquids' toxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Costa, Susana P F; Martins, Bárbara S F; Pinto, Paula C A G; Saraiva, M Lúcia M F S

    2016-05-15

    A fully automated cytochrome c oxidase assay resorting to sequential injection analysis (SIA) was developed for the first time and implemented to evaluate potential toxic compounds. The bioassay was validated by evaluation of 15 ionic liquids (ILs) with distinct cationic head groups, alkyl side chains and anions. The assay was based on cytochrome c oxidase activity reduction in presence of tested compounds and quantification of inhibitor concentration required to cause 50% of enzyme activity inhibition (EC50). The obtained results demonstrated that enzyme activity was considerably inhibited by BF4 anion and ILs incorporating non-aromatic pyrrolidinium and tetrabutylphosphonium cation cores. Emim [Ac] and chol [Ac], on contrary, presented the higher EC50 values among the ILs tested. The developed automated SIA methodology is a simple and robust high-throughput screening bioassay and exhibited good repeatability in all the tested conditions (rsd<3.7%, n=10). Therefore, it is expected that due to its simplicity and low cost, the developed approach can be used as alternative to traditional screening assays for evaluation of ILs toxicity and identification of possible toxicophore structures. Additionally, the results presented in this study provide further information about ILs toxicity.

  17. Cyanide-resistant respiration in Euglena gracilis does not correlate with mitochondrial cytochrome O content

    SciTech Connect

    Devars, S.; Uribe, A.; Torres-Marquez, M.E.; Gonzalez-Halphen, D. ); Moreno-Sanchez, P. )

    1991-03-15

    Basal respiration Euglena gracilis cells grown in the dark with distinct carbon sources showed different sensitivity to KCN: 1-10% inhibition by 0.1 mM KCM for cells grown with glutamate+malate (g+m) and 40-55% for those grown with peptone+acetate (p+a). The basal respiration was stimulated 1.6 to 2.4 times by TMPD: the values reached by cells grown in g+m resembled those of p+a cells, suggesting a similar maximal cytochrome oxidase activity in both types. Dixon plots for KCM showed two components in basal and TMPD-stimulated respiration with K{sub i} values of 4-10 and 70-80 {mu}M for TMPC-stimulated respiration and 20-50 and 400-600 {mu}M for basal activity. Thus, the distinct sensitivities to KCN seems not to be due to a different content of aa{sub 3} in the cells, not to different K{sub i} for the inhibitor. Diphenyl amine, an inhibitor of alternate respiratory pathways, inhibited 85-95% basal respiration with a single K{sub i} value of 0.15-0.2 mM and 40-60% TMPD-stimulated activity. Determination of cytochrome o content, the postulated alternate oxidase, showed no differences in the cells grown with distinct carbon sources. Then the different sensitivity to cyanide is more likely related to the oxidation of different substrates.

  18. Isolation and Characterization of a Hybrid Respiratory Supercomplex Consisting of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Cytochrome bcc and Mycobacterium smegmatis Cytochrome aa3.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Sun; Jang, Jichan; Ab Rahman, Nurlilah Binte; Pethe, Kevin; Berry, Edward A; Huang, Li-Shar

    2015-06-05

    Recently, energy production pathways have been shown to be viable antitubercular drug targets to combat multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and eliminate pathogen in the dormant state. One family of drugs currently under development, the imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine derivatives, is believed to target the pathogen's homolog of the mitochondrial bc1 complex. This complex, denoted cytochrome bcc, is highly divergent from mitochondrial Complex III both in subunit structure and inhibitor sensitivity, making it a good target for drug development. There is no soluble cytochrome c in mycobacteria to transport electrons from the bcc complex to cytochrome oxidase. Instead, the bcc complex exists in a "supercomplex" with a cytochrome aa3-type cytochrome oxidase, presumably allowing direct electron transfer. We describe here purification and initial characterization of the mycobacterial cytochrome bcc-aa3 supercomplex using a strain of M. smegmatis that has been engineered to express the M. tuberculosis cytochrome bcc. The resulting hybrid supercomplex is stable during extraction and purification in the presence of dodecyl maltoside detergent. It is hoped that this purification procedure will potentiate functional studies of the complex as well as crystallographic studies of drug binding and provide structural insight into a third class of the bc complex superfamily.

  19. Inhibition of cellular respiration by endogenously produced carbon monoxide.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Gabriela; Lam, Francis; Hagen, Thilo; Moncada, Salvador

    2006-06-01

    Endogenously produced nitric oxide (NO) interacts with mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase, leading to inhibition of cellular respiration. This interaction has been shown to have important physiological and pathophysiological consequences. Exogenous carbon monoxide (CO) is also known to inhibit cytochrome c oxidase in vitro; however, it is not clear whether endogenously produced CO can inhibit cellular respiration and, if so, what the significance of this might be. In this study, we show that exogenous CO inhibits respiration in a moderate but persistent manner in HEK293 cells under ambient (21%) oxygen concentrations (K(i) = 1.44 microM). This effect of CO was increased (K(i) = 0.35 microM) by incubation in hypoxic conditions (1% oxygen). Endogenous CO, generated by HEK293 cells transfected with the inducible isoform of haem oxygenase (haem oxygenase-1; HO-1), also inhibited cellular respiration moderately (by 12%) and this was accompanied by inhibition (23%) of cytochrome c oxidase activity. When the cells were incubated in hypoxic conditions during HO-1 induction, the inhibitory effect of CO on cell respiration was markedly increased to 70%. Furthermore, endogenously produced CO was found to be responsible for the respiratory inhibition that occurs in RAW264.7 cells activated in hypoxic conditions with lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma, in the presence of N-(iminoethyl)-L-ornithine to prevent the synthesis of NO. Our results indicate that CO contributes significantly to the respiratory inhibition in activated cells, particularly under hypoxic conditions. Inhibition of cell respiration by endogenous CO through its interaction with cytochrome c oxidase might have an important role in inflammatory and hypoxic conditions.

  20. Microelectrochemistry and Measurement of the Diffusivity of Oxidized and Reduced Horse Heart Cytochrome c

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    outer-sphere redox components and cytochrome c have been studied extensively. 4 However, cytochrome c is a solution protein where cytochrome c oxidase and...ferrocytochrome c to cytochrome c oxidase . This study profiles the diffusion of species over 1.4 lm to 26 4m and the characteristic collection

  1. Identification of Small Molecule Inhibitors of Human Cytochrome c Oxidase That Target Chemoresistant Glioma Cells.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Claudia R; Markert, Tahireh; Ross, Larry J; White, E Lucile; Rasmussen, Lynn; Zhang, Wei; Everts, Maaike; Moellering, Douglas R; Bailey, Shannon M; Suto, Mark J; Griguer, Corinne E

    2016-11-11

    The enzyme cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) or complex IV (EC 1.9.3.1) is a large transmembrane protein complex that serves as the last enzyme in the respiratory electron transport chain of eukaryotic mitochondria. CcO promotes the switch from glycolytic to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) metabolism and has been associated with increased self-renewal characteristics in gliomas. Increased CcO activity in tumors has been associated with tumor progression after chemotherapy failure, and patients with primary glioblastoma multiforme and high tumor CcO activity have worse clinical outcomes than those with low tumor CcO activity. Therefore, CcO is an attractive target for cancer therapy. We report here the characterization of a CcO inhibitor (ADDA 5) that was identified using a high throughput screening paradigm. ADDA 5 demonstrated specificity for CcO, with no inhibition of other mitochondrial complexes or other relevant enzymes, and biochemical characterization showed that this compound is a non-competitive inhibitor of cytochrome c When tested in cellular assays, ADDA 5 dose-dependently inhibited the proliferation of chemosensitive and chemoresistant glioma cells but did not display toxicity against non-cancer cells. Furthermore, treatment with ADDA 5 led to significant inhibition of tumor growth in flank xenograft mouse models. Importantly, ADDA 5 inhibited CcO activity and blocked cell proliferation and neurosphere formation in cultures of glioma stem cells, the cells implicated in tumor recurrence and resistance to therapy in patients with glioblastoma. In summary, we have identified ADDA 5 as a lead CcO inhibitor for further optimization as a novel approach for the treatment of glioblastoma and related cancers.

  2. Flower colour and cytochromes P450†

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Brugliera, Filippa

    2013-01-01

    Cytochromes P450 play important roles in biosynthesis of flavonoids and their coloured class of compounds, anthocyanins, both of which are major floral pigments. The number of hydroxyl groups on the B-ring of anthocyanidins (the chromophores and precursors of anthocyanins) impact the anthocyanin colour, the more the bluer. The hydroxylation pattern is determined by two cytochromes P450, flavonoid 3′-hydroxylase (F3′H) and flavonoid 3′,5′-hydroxylase (F3′5′H) and thus they play a crucial role in the determination of flower colour. F3′H and F3′5′H mostly belong to CYP75B and CYP75A, respectively, except for the F3′5′Hs in Compositae that were derived from gene duplication of CYP75B and neofunctionalization. Roses and carnations lack blue/violet flower colours owing to the deficiency of F3′5′H and therefore lack the B-ring-trihydroxylated anthocyanins based upon delphinidin. Successful redirection of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway to delphinidin was achieved by expressing F3′5′H coding regions resulting in carnations and roses with novel blue hues that have been commercialized. Suppression of F3′5′H and F3′H in delphinidin-producing plants reduced the number of hydroxyl groups on the anthocyanidin B-ring resulting in the production of monohydroxylated anthocyanins based on pelargonidin with a shift in flower colour to orange/red. Pelargonidin biosynthesis is enhanced by additional expression of a dihydroflavonol 4-reductase that can use the monohydroxylated dihydrokaempferol (the pelargonidin precursor). Flavone synthase II (FNSII)-catalysing flavone biosynthesis from flavanones is also a P450 (CYP93B) and contributes to flower colour, because flavones act as co-pigments to anthocyanins and can cause blueing and darkening of colour. However, transgenic plants expression of a FNSII gene yielded paler flowers owing to a reduction of anthocyanins because flavanones are precursors of anthocyanins and flavones. PMID:23297355

  3. Two cytochrome P-450 isoforms catalysing O-de-ethylation of ethoxycoumarin and ethoxyresorufin in higher plants.

    PubMed Central

    Werck-Reichhart, D; Gabriac, B; Teutsch, H; Durst, F

    1990-01-01

    The O-dealkylating activities of 7-ethoxycoumarin O-de-ethylase (ECOD) and 7-ethoxyresorufin O-de-ethylase (EROD) have been fluorimetrically detected in microsomes prepared from manganese-induced Jerusalem artichoke tubers. Cytochrome P-450 dependence of the reactions was demonstrated by light-reversed CO inhibition, NADPH-dependence, NADH-NADPH synergism and by use of specific inhibitors: antibodies to NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase, mechanism-based inactivators and tetcyclasis. Apparent Km values of 161 microM for 7-ethoxycoumarin and 0.4 microM for 7-ethoxyresorufin were determined. O-De-ethylase activity was also detected in microsomes prepared from several other plant species, including wheat, maize, tulip, avocado and Vicia. ECOD and EROD were low or undetectable in uninduced plant tissues, and both activities were stimulated by wounding or by chemical inducers. Two distinct cytochrome P-450 isoforms are involved in ECOD and EROD activities since (1) they showed different distributions among plant species; (2) they showed contrasting inhibition and induction patterns; and (3) ECOD but not EROD activity was supported by cumene hydroperoxide. PMID:2241905

  4. Genetics Home Reference: cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... hormones, which are needed for normal development and reproduction. The hormonal changes associated with cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase ... which are essential for normal sexual development and reproduction; corticosteroids, which are involved in the body's response ...

  5. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1 improves hypoxia-impaired energy production in cardiomyocytes through increasing activity of cytochrome c oxidase subunit II.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Fei; Ma, Si-Yuan; Zhang, Dong-Xia; Zhang, Qiong; Huang, Yue-Sheng

    2016-10-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1 protects cardiomyocytes against hypoxia, but the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. In the present study, we used gain- and loss-of-function approaches to explore the effects of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit II on energy production in hypoxic cardiomyocytes. Hypoxia repressed ATP production in cultured cardiomyocytes, whereas overexpression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1 significantly improved ATP production. Conversely, knockdown of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1 facilitated the hypoxia-induced decrease in ATP synthesis. Further investigation revealed that tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1 induced the expression and activity of cytochrome c oxidase subunit II, a component of cytochrome c oxidase that is important in mitochondrial respiratory chain function. Moreover, lentiviral-mediated overexpression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit II antagonized the decrease in ATP synthesis caused by knockdown of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1, whereas knockdown of cytochrome c oxidase subunit II attenuated the increase in ATP synthesis caused by overexpression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1. In addition, inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase subunit II by a specific inhibitor sodium azide suppressed the ATP sy nthesis induced by overexpressed tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1. Hence, tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1 protects cardiomyocytes from hypoxia at least partly via potentiation of energy generation, and cytochrome c oxidase subunit II is one of the downstream effectors that mediates the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1-mediated energy generation program.

  6. ANGIOTENSIN II-INDUCED VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE CELL MIGRATION AND GROWTH ARE MEDIATED BY CYTOCHROME P450 1B1-DEPENDENT SUPEROXIDE GENERATION

    PubMed Central

    Yaghini, Fariborz A.; Song, Chi Young; Lavrentyev, Eduard N.; Ghafoor, Hafiz U. B.; Fang, Xiao R.; Estes, Anne M.; Campbell, William B.; Malik, Kafait U.

    2010-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 1B1, expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells, can metabolize arachidonic acid in vitro into several products including 12- and 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids that stimulate vascular smooth muscle cell growth. This study was conducted to determine if cytochrome P450 1B1 contributes to angiotensin II-induced rat aortic smooth muscle cell migration, proliferation and protein synthesis. Ang II stimulated migration of these cells, measured by the wound healing approach, by 1.78 fold and DNA synthesis, measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation, by 1.44 fold after 24 hours, and protein synthesis, measured by [3H]leucine incorporation, by 1.40 fold after 48 hours. Treatment of vascular smooth muscle cells with the cytochrome P450 1B1 inhibitor, 2, 4, 3′, 5′-tetramethoxystilbene, or transduction of these cells with adenovirus cytochrome P450 1B1 shRNA, but not its scrambled control, reduced the activity of this enzyme and abolished angiotensin II- and arachidonic acid-induced cell migration, [3H]thymidine and [3H]leucine incorporation. Metabolism of arachidonic acid to 5-, 12-, 15- and 20-hydoxyeicosatetraenoic acids in these cells was not altered, but angiotensin II- and arachidonic acid-induced reactive oxygen species production and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, activity were inhibited by 2, 4, 3′, 5′-tetramethoxystilbene and cytochrome P450 1B1 shRNA, and by tempol that inactivates reactive oxygen species. Tempol did not alter cytochrome P450 1B1 activity. These data suggest that angiotensin II-induced vascular smooth muscle cell migration and growth are mediated by reactive oxygen species generated from arachidonic acid by cytochrome P450 1B1 and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. PMID:20439821

  7. Bilirubin and amyloid-beta peptide induce cytochrome c release through mitochondrial membrane permeabilization.

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, C. M.; Solá, S.; Silva, R.; Brites, D.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of bilirubin encephalopathy and Alzheimer's disease appears to result from accumulation of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) and amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide, respectively, which may cause apoptosis. Permeabilization of the mitochondrial membrane, with release of intermembrane proteins, has been strongly implicated in cell death. Inhibition of the mitochondrial permeability is one pathway by which ursodeoxycholate (UDC) and tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC) protect against apoptosis in hepatic and nonhepatic cells. In this study, we further characterize UCB- and Abeta-induced cytotoxicty in isolated neural cells, and investigate membrane perturbation during incubation of isolated mitochondria with both agents. In addition, we evaluate whether the anti-apoptotic drugs UDC and TUDC prevent any changes from occurring. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Primary rat neuron and astrocyte cultures were incubated with UCB or Abeta peptide, either alone or in the presence of UDC. Apoptosis was assessed by DNA fragmentation and nuclear morphological changes. Isolated mitochondria were treated with each toxic, either alone or in combination with UDC, TUDC, or cyclosporine A. Mitochondrial swelling was measured spectrophotometrically and cytochrome c protein levels determined by Western blot. RESULTS: Incubation of neural cells with both UCB and Abeta induced apoptosis (p < 0.01). Coincubation with UDC reduced apoptosis by > 50% (p < 0.05). Both toxins caused membrane permeabilization in isolated mitochondria (p < 0.001); whereas, pretreatment with UDC was protective (p < 0.05). TUDC was even more effective at preventing matrix swelling mediated by Abeta (p < 0.01). UDC and TUDC markedly reduced cytochrome c release associated with mitochondrial permeabilization induced by UCB and Abeta, respectively (p < 0.05). Moreover, cyclosporine A significantly inhibited mitochondrial swelling and cytochrome c efflux mediated by UCB (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: UCB and Abeta peptide

  8. Modular assembly of yeast cytochrome oxidase.

    PubMed

    McStay, Gavin P; Su, Chen Hsien; Tzagoloff, Alexander

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies of yeast cytochrome oxidase (COX) biogenesis identified Cox1p, one of the three mitochondrially encoded core subunits, in two high-molecular weight complexes combined with regulatory/assembly factors essential for expression of this subunit. In the present study we use pulse-chase labeling experiments in conjunction with isolated mitochondria to identify new Cox1p intermediates and place them in an ordered pathway. Our results indicate that before its assimilation into COX, Cox1p transitions through five intermediates that are differentiated by their compositions of accessory factors and of two of the eight imported subunits. We propose a model of COX biogenesis in which Cox1p and the two other mitochondrial gene products, Cox2p and Cox3p, constitute independent assembly modules, each with its own complement of subunits. Unlike their bacterial counterparts, which are composed only of the individual core subunits, the final sequence in which the mitochondrial modules associate to form the holoenzyme may have been conserved during evolution.

  9. Novel extrahepatic cytochrome P450s

    SciTech Connect

    Karlgren, Maria . E-mail: Maria.Karlgren@imm.ki.se; Miura, Shin-ichi; Ingelman-Sundberg, Magnus

    2005-09-01

    The cytochrome P450 enzymes are highly expressed in the liver and are involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics. Because of the initiatives associated with the Human Genome Project, a great progress has recently been seen in the identification and characterization of novel extrahepatic P450s, including CYP2S1, CYP2R1, CYP2U1 and CYP2W1. Like the hepatic enzymes, these P450s may play a role in the tissue-specific metabolism of foreign compounds, but they may also have important endogenous functions. CYP2S1 has been shown to metabolize all-trans retinoic acid and CYP2R1 is a major vitamin D 25-hydroxylase. Regarding their metabolism of xenobiotics, much remains to be established, but CYP2S1 metabolizes naphthalene and it is likely that these P450s are responsible for metabolic activation of several different kinds of xenobiotic chemicals and contribute to extrahepatic toxicity and carcinogenesis.

  10. Cytochrome P450 expression in oesophageal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Murray, G I; Shaw, D; Weaver, R J; McKay, J A; Ewen, S W; Melvin, W T; Burke, M D

    1994-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes play a central part in the metabolism of carcinogens and anti-cancer drugs. The expression, cellular localisation, and distribution of different forms of P450 and the functionally associated enzymes epoxide hydrolase and glutathione S-transferases have been investigated in oesophageal cancer and non-neoplastic oesophageal tissue using immunohistochemistry. Expression of the different enzymes was confined to epithelial cells in both non-neoplastic samples and tumour samples except the CYP3A was also identified in mast cells and glutathione S-transferase pi was present in chronic inflammatory cells. CYP1A was present in a small percentage of non-neoplastic samples but both CYP2C and CYP3A were absent. Epoxide hydrolase was present in half of the non-neoplastic samples and the different classes of glutathione S-transferase were present in a low number of samples. In carcinomas CYP1A, CYP3A, epoxide hydrolase, and glutathione S-transferase pi were expressed in at least 60% of samples. The expression of glutathione S-transferases alpha and mu were significantly less in adenocarcinoma compared with squamous carcinoma. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:8200549

  11. Cytochrome C stabilization and immobilization in aerogels.

    PubMed

    Harper-Leatherman, Amanda S; Wallace, Jean Marie; Rolison, Debra R

    2011-01-01

    Sol-gel-derived aerogels are three-dimensional, nanoscale materials that combine large surface areas and high porosities. These traits make them useful for any rate-critical chemical process, particularly sensing or electrochemical applications, once physical or chemical moieties are incorporated into the gels to add their functionality into the ultraporous scaffold. Incorporating biomolecules into aerogels has been challenging due to the inability of most biomolecules to remain structurally intact within the gels during the necessary supercritical fluid processing. However, the heme protein cytochrome c (cyt. c) forms self-organized superstructures around gold (or silver) nanoparticles in buffer that can be encapsulated within silica and processed to form aerogels in which cyt. c retains its characteristic visible absorption. The gold (or silver) nanoparticle-nucleated superstructures protect the majority of the protein from the harsh physicochemical conditions necessary to form an aerogel. The Au∼cyt. c superstructures exhibit rapid gas-phase recognition of nitric oxide (NO) within the aerogel matrix, as facilitated by the high-quality pore structure of the aerogel, and remain viable for weeks at room temperature.

  12. Purification of cytochrome c oxidase by lysine-affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Felsch, J; Kotake, S; Copeland, R A

    1992-02-01

    A method for the purification of cytochrome c oxidase that is based on the affinity of this enzyme for polycations such as poly-L-lysine is described. When detergent extracts of bovine cardiac mitochondria were applied to either a poly-L-lysine-agarose or a lysine-Sepharose column at low ionic strength, cytochrome c oxidase was found to adhere tightly, whereas the bulk of the proteins were eluted by washing with the same buffer. The cytochrome c oxidase was eluted by application of a linear potassium chloride gradient to the columns. The resulting enzyme was identical to that obtained by more traditional purification methods in terms of its subunit composition, optical and resonance Raman spectra, and cytochrome c oxidizing activity. When detergent extracts of spheroplasts from Paracoccus denitrificans were applied to these columns, the cytochrome c oxidase from this organism was also found to adhere tightly. Thus this purification method appears applicable to both prokaryotic and eukaryotic forms of the enzyme. The advantages of this new purification method are that it is less labor intensive than the traditional procedure and less expensive than methods based on cytochrome c-affinity chromatography.

  13. Functional characterization of PccH, a key cytochrome for electron transfer from electrodes to the bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Joana M; Tomaz, Diogo M; Morgado, Leonor; Salgueiro, Carlos A

    2013-08-19

    The cytochrome PccH from Geobacter sulfurreducens (Gs) plays a crucial role in current-consuming fumarate-reducing biofilms. Deletion of pccH gene inhibited completely electron transfer from electrodes toward Gs cells. The pccH gene was cloned and the protein heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. Complementary biophysical techniques including CD, UV-visible and NMR spectroscopy were used to characterize PccH. This cytochrome contains one low-spin c-type heme with His-Met axial coordination and unusual low-reduction potential. This reduction potential is pH-dependent, within the Gs physiological pH range, and is discussed within the context of the electron transfer mechanisms from electrodes to Gs cells.

  14. Electrochemistry suggests proton access from the exit site to the binuclear center in Paracoccus denitrificans cytochrome c oxidase pathway variants.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Thomas; Melin, Frédéric; Richter, Oliver-M H; Ludwig, Bernd; Kannt, Aimo; Müller, Hanne; Michel, Hartmut; Hellwig, Petra

    2015-02-27

    Two different pathways through which protons access cytochrome c oxidase operate during oxygen reduction from the mitochondrial matrix, or the bacterial cytoplasm. Here, we use electrocatalytic current measurements to follow oxygen reduction coupled to proton uptake in cytochrome c oxidase isolated from Paracoccus denitrificans. Wild type enzyme and site-specific variants with defects in both proton uptake pathways (K354M, D124N and K354M/D124N) were immobilized on gold nanoparticles, and oxygen reduction was probed electrochemically in the presence of varying concentrations of Zn(2+) ions, which are known to inhibit both the entry and the exit proton pathways in the enzyme. Our data suggest that under these conditions substrate protons gain access to the oxygen reduction site via the exit pathway.

  15. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 enzymes by saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in human liver microsomes, characterization of enzyme kinetics in the presence of bovine serum albumin (0.1 and 1.0% w/v) and in vitro - in vivo extrapolation of hepatic clearance.

    PubMed

    Palacharla, Raghava Choudary; Uthukam, Venkatesham; Manoharan, Arunkumar; Ponnamaneni, Ranjith Kumar; Padala, Nagasurya Prakash; Boggavarapu, Rajesh Kumar; Bhyrapuneni, Gopinadh; Ajjala, Devender Reddy; Nirogi, Ramakrishna

    2017-04-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effect of fatty acids on CYP enzymes and the effect of BSA on intrinsic clearance of probe substrates. The inhibitory effect of thirteen fatty acids including saturated, mono-unsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids on CYP enzymes, kinetic parameters and intrinsic clearance values of nine CYP marker probe substrate reactions in the absence and presence of BSA (0.1 and 1.0% w/v) were characterized in human liver microsomes. The results demonstrate that most of the unsaturated fatty acids showed marked inhibition towards CYP2C8 mediated amodiaquine N-deethylation followed by inhibition of CYP2C9 and CYP2B6 mediated activities. The addition of 0.1% BSA in the incubation markedly improved the unbound intrinsic clearance values of probe substrates by reducing the Km values with little or no effect on maximal velocity. The addition of BSA (0.1 and 1.0% w/v) did not influence the unbound intrinsic clearance of marker reactions for CYP2A6, and CYP3A4 enzymes. The addition of 0.1% w/v BSA is sufficient to determine the intrinsic clearance of marker probe reactions by metabolite formation approach. The predicted hepatic clearance values for the substrates using the well-stirred model, in the presence of BSA (0.1% BSA), are comparable to the in vivo hepatic clearance values.

  16. Electron transfer properties and catalytic competence of cytochrome b5 in the fusion protein Hmwb5-EGFP in reactions catalyzed by cytochrome P450 3A4.

    PubMed

    Yantsevich, A V; Gilep, A A; Usanov, S A

    2009-08-01

    In the present paper we describe studies on molecular mechanisms of protein-protein interactions between cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and cytochrome b(5), the latter being incorporated into the artificial recombinant protein Hmwb(5)-EGFP containing full-length cytochrome b(5) (functional module) and a mutant form of the green fluorescent protein EGFP (signal module) fused into a single polypeptide chain. It is shown that cytochrome b(5) within the fusion protein Hmwb(5)-EGFP can be reduced by NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase in the presence of NADPH, the rate of reduction being dependent on solution ionic strength, indicating that the signal module does not prevent the interaction of the flavo- and hemeproteins. Interaction of cytochrome P450 3A4 and Hmwb(5)-EGFP was estimated based on spin equilibrium shift of cytochrome P450 3A4 to high-spin state in the presence of Hmwb(5)-EGFP, as well as based on steady-state fluorescence anisotropy of the EGFP component of the fusion protein in the presence of CYP3A4. The engineering of chimeric protein Hmwb(5)-EGFP gives an independent method to determine dissociation constant for the complex of cytochrome P450 and cytochrome b(5) that is less sensitive to environmental factors compared to spectrophotometric titration used before. Reconstitution of catalytic activity of cytochrome P450 3A4 in the reaction of testosterone 6beta-hydroxylation in the presence of Hmwb(5)-EGFP indicates that cytochrome b(5) in the fusion protein is able to stimulate the hydroxylation reaction. Using other fusion proteins containing either cytochrome b(5) or its hydrophilic domain to reconstitute catalytic activity of cytochrome P450 3A4 showed that the hydrophobic domain of cytochrome b(5) participates not only in hemeprotein interaction, but also in electron transfer from cytochrome b(5) to cytochrome P450.

  17. Caspase cleavage of cytochrome c1 disrupts mitochondrial function and enhances cytochrome c release.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yushan; Li, Min; Wang, Xiaohui; Jin, Haijing; Liu, Shusen; Xu, Jianxin; Chen, Quan

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial catastrophe can be the cause or consequence of apoptosis and is associated with a number of pathophysiological conditions. The exact relationship between mitochondrial catastrophe and caspase activation is not completely understood. Here we addressed the underlying mechanism, explaining how activated caspase could feedback to attack mitochondria to amplify further cytochrome c (cyto.c) release. We discovered that cytochrome c1 (cyto.c1) in the bc1 complex of the mitochondrial respiration chain was a novel substrate of caspase 3 (casp.3). We found that cyto.c1 was cleaved at the site of D106, which is critical for binding with cyto.c, following apoptotic stresses or targeted expression of casp.3 into the mitochondrial intermembrane space. We demonstrated that this cleavage was closely linked with further cyto.c release and mitochondrial catastrophe. These mitochondrial events could be effectively blocked by expressing non-cleavable cyto.c1 (D106A) or by caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. Our results demonstrate that the cleavage of cyto.c1 represents a critical step for the feedback amplification of cyto.c release by caspases and subsequent mitochondrial catastrophe.

  18. Identification of a small tetraheme cytochrome c and a flavocytochrome c as two of the principal soluble cytochromes c in Shewanella oneidensis strain MR1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsapin, A. I.; Vandenberghe, I.; Nealson, K. H.; Scott, J. H.; Meyer, T. E.; Cusanovich, M. A.; Harada, E.; Kaizu, T.; Akutsu, H.; Leys, D.; Van Beeumen, J. J.

    2001-01-01

    Two abundant, low-redox-potential cytochromes c were purified from the facultative anaerobe Shewanella oneidensis strain MR1 grown anaerobically with fumarate. The small cytochrome was completely sequenced, and the genes coding for both proteins were cloned and sequenced. The small cytochrome c contains 91 residues and four heme binding sites. It is most similar to the cytochromes c from Shewanella frigidimarina (formerly Shewanella putrefaciens) NCIMB400 and the unclassified bacterial strain H1R (64 and 55% identity, respectively). The amount of the small tetraheme cytochrome is regulated by anaerobiosis, but not by fumarate. The larger of the two low-potential cytochromes contains tetraheme and flavin domains and is regulated by anaerobiosis and by fumarate and thus most nearly corresponds to the flavocytochrome c-fumarate reductase previously characterized from S. frigidimarina to which it is 59% identical. However, the genetic context of the cytochrome genes is not the same for the two Shewanella species, and they are not located in multicistronic operons. The small cytochrome c and the cytochrome domain of the flavocytochrome c are also homologous, showing 34% identity. Structural comparison shows that the Shewanella tetraheme cytochromes are not related to the Desulfovibrio cytochromes c(3) but define a new folding motif for small multiheme cytochromes c.

  19. Molecular organization of cytochrome c2 near the binding domain of cytochrome bc1 studied by electron spin-lattice relaxation enhancement.

    PubMed

    Pietras, Rafał; Sarewicz, Marcin; Osyczka, Artur

    2014-06-19

    Measurements of specific interactions between proteins are challenging. In redox systems, interactions involve surfaces near the attachment sites of cofactors engaged in interprotein electron transfer (ET). Here we analyzed binding of cytochrome c2 to cytochrome bc1 by measuring paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) of spin label (SL) attached to cytochrome c2. PRE was exclusively induced by the iron atom of heme c1 of cytochrome bc1, which guaranteed that only the configurations with SL to heme c1 distances up to ∼30 Å were detected. Changes in PRE were used to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize the binding. Our data suggest that at low ionic strength and under an excess of cytochrome c2 over cytochrome bc1, several cytochrome c2 molecules gather near the binding domain forming a "cloud" of molecules. When the cytochrome bc1 concentration increases, the cloud disperses to populate additional available binding domains. An increase in ionic strength weakens the attractive forces and the average distance between cytochrome c2 and cytochrome bc1 increases. The spatial arrangement of the protein complex at various ionic strengths is different. Above 150 mM NaCl the lifetime of the complexes becomes so short that they are undetectable. All together the results indicate that cytochrome c2 molecules, over the range of salt concentration encompassing physiological ionic strength, do not form stable, long-lived complexes but rather constantly collide with the surface of cytochrome bc1 and ET takes place coincidentally with one of these collisions.

  20. Measuring cytochrome P450 activity in aquatic invertebrates: a critical evaluation of in vitro and in vivo methods.

    PubMed

    Gottardi, Michele; Kretschmann, Andreas; Cedergreen, Nina

    2016-03-01

    The first step in xenobiotic detoxification in aquatic invertebrates is mainly governed by the cytochrome P450 mixed function oxidase system. The ability to measure cytochrome P450 activity provides an important tool to understand macroinvertebrates' responses to chemical stressors. However, measurements of P450 activity in small aquatic invertebrates have had variable success and a well characterized assay is not yet available. The general lack of success has been scarcely investigated and it is therefore the focus of the present work. In particular, the suitability of the substrate selected for the assay, the sensitivity of the assay and the possible inhibition/attenuation of enzymatic activity caused by endogenous substances were investigated. 7-ethoxycoumarin-O-dealkylation activity of Daphnia magna, Chironomus riparius larvae and Hyalella azteca was assessed in vivo and in vitro and possible inhibition of enzymatic activity by macroinvertebrates homogenate was investigated. Activities of D. magna and C. riparius larvae measured in vivo were 1.37 ± 0.08 and 2.2 ± 0.2 pmol h(-1) organism(-1), respectively, while activity of H. azteca could not be detected. In vitro activity could be measured in C. riparius larvae only (500-1000 pmol h(-1) mg microsomal protein(-1)). The optimization of the in vitro assay has been especially long and resource consuming and particularly for D. magna, substances that inhibited cytochrome P450 activity seemed to be released during tissue homogenization preventing activity measurements in vitro. We therefore recommend testing the P450 inhibition potential of homogenate preparations prior to any investigation of P450 activity in vitro in macroinvertebrates.

  1. Cytochrome P450 gene polymorphism and cancer.

    PubMed

    Agundez, Jose A G

    2004-06-01

    Human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes play a key role in the metabolism of drugs and environmental chemicals. Several CYP enzymes metabolically activate procarcinogens to genotoxic intermediates. Phenotyping analyses revealed an association between CYP enzyme activity and the risk to develop several forms of cancer. Research carried out in the last decade demonstrated that several CYP enzymes are polymorphic due to single nucleotide polymorphisms, gene duplications and deletions. As genotyping procedures became available for most human CYP, an impressive number of association studies on CYP polymorphisms and cancer risk were conducted. Here we review the findings obtained in these studies regarding CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2A6, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, CYP2C18, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP3A7, CYP8A1 and CYP21 gene polymorphisms. Consistent evidences for association between CYP polymorphisms and lung, head and neck, and liver cancer were reported. Controversial findings suggest that colorectal and prostate cancers may be associated to CYP polymorphisms, whereas no evidences for a relevant association with breast or bladder cancers were reported. We summarize the available information related to the association of CYP polymorphisms with leukaemia, lymphomas and diverse types of cancer that were investigated only for some CYP genes, including brain, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, pituitary, cervical epithelium, melanoma, ovarian, kidney, anal and vulvar cancers. This review discusses on causes of heterogeneity in the proposed associations, controversial findings on cancer risk, and identifies topics that require further investigation. In addition, some recommendations on study design, in order to obtain more conclusive findings in further studies, are provided.

  2. Recent advances in cytochrome c biosensing technologies.

    PubMed

    Manickam, Pandiaraj; Kaushik, Ajeet; Karunakaran, Chandran; Bhansali, Shekhar

    2017-01-15

    This review is an attempt, for the first time, to describe advancements in sensing technology for cytochrome c (cyt c) detection, at point-of-care (POC) application. Cyt c, a heme containing metalloprotein is located in the intermembrane space of mitochondria and released into bloodstream during pathological conditions. The release of cyt c from mitochondria is a key initiative step in the activation of cell death pathways. Circulating cyt c levels represents a novel in-vivo marker of mitochondrial injury after resuscitation from heart failure and chemotherapy. Thus, cyt c detection is not only serving as an apoptosis biomarker, but also is of great importance to understand certain diseases at cellular level. Various existing techniques such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), Western blot, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), spectrophotometry and flow cytometry have been used to estimate cyt c. However, the implementation of these techniques at POC application is limited due to longer analysis time, expensive instruments and expertise needed for operation. To overcome these challenges, significant efforts are being made to develop electrochemical biosensing technologies for fast, accurate, selective, and sensitive detection of cyt c. Presented review describes the cutting edge technologies available in the laboratories to detect cyt c. The recent advancements in designing and development of electrochemical cyt c biosensors for the quantification of cyt c are also discussed. This review also highlights the POC cyt c biosensors developed recently, that would prove of interest to biologist and therapist to get real time informatics needed to evaluate death process, diseases progression, therapeutics and processes related with mitochondrial injury.

  3. Comparative modelling of cytochromes P450.

    PubMed

    Kirton, Stewart B; Baxter, Carol A; Sutcliffe, Michael J

    2002-03-31

    The superfamily of enzymes known as the cytochromes P450 (P450s) comprises a wide-ranging class of proteins with diverse functions. They are known, amongst other things, to be involved in the hormonal regulation of metabolism and reproduction, as well as having a major clinical significance through their association with diseases such as cancer, diabetes and hepatitis. Knowledge of the three-dimensional (3D) structure of a protein gives insight into its function. The 3D structures of P450s are therefore of considerable scientific interest. A number of high-resolution structures of P450s have been determined by X-ray crystallography and studies of these structures have provided valuable insights into the mechanism of these enzymes. Only one of these structures is mammalian and as yet there is no structural information on human P450s in the public domain. Until such a structure is solved it is necessary to employ alternative methods to gain structural insight into how human P450s perform their biological function. Here we report on the use of comparative modelling to predict the structure of human P450s based on knowledge of their amino acid sequences plus the 3D structures of other (not human) P450s. As an illustrative example of these techniques we have modelled the structure of P450 2C5 using five bacterial P450 structures as templates. We examine the importance of selecting suitable templates, obtaining a good amino acid sequence alignment, and evaluating the models generated. To improve the quality of the models an iterative cycle of sequence alignment, model building, and model evaluation is employed. The result is a model with excellent stereochemistry, good amino acid side chain environment properties, and a Calpha trace similar to the crystal structure.

  4. Cytochrome c Stabilization and Immobilization in Aerogels.

    PubMed

    Harper-Leatherman, Amanda S; Wallace, Jean Marie; Rolison, Debra R

    2017-01-01

    Sol-gel-derived aerogels are three-dimensional, nanoscale materials that combine large surface area with high porosity. These traits make them useful for any rate-critical chemical process, particularly sensing or electrochemical applications, once physical or chemical moieties are incorporated into the gels to add their functionality to the ultraporous scaffold. Incorporating biomolecules into aerogels, other than such rugged species as lipases or cellulose, has been challenging due to the inability of most biomolecules to remain structurally intact within the gels during the necessary supercritical fluid (SCF) processing. However, the heme protein cytochrome c (cyt.c) forms self-organized superstructures around gold (or silver) nanoparticles in buffer that can be encapsulated into wet gels as the sol undergoes gelation. The guest-host wet gel can then be processed to form composite aerogels in which cyt.c retains its characteristic visible absorption. The gold (or silver) nanoparticle-nucleated superstructures protect the majority of the protein from the harsh physicochemical conditions necessary to form an aerogel. The Au~cyt.c superstructures exhibit rapid gas-phase recognition of nitric oxide (NO) within the bioaerogel matrix, as facilitated by the high-quality pore structure of the aerogel, while remaining viable for weeks at room temperature. More recently, careful control of synthetic parameters (e.g., buffer concentration, protein concentration, SCF extraction rate) have allowed for the preparation of cyt.c-silica aerogels, sans nucleating nanoparticles; these bioaerogels also exhibit rapid gas-phase sensing while retaining protein structural stability.

  5. Cytochrome P450 1 family and cancers.

    PubMed

    Go, Ryeo-Eun; Hwang, Kyung-A; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2015-03-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcriptional factor that dimerizes with aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT). This complex binds to xenobiotics response element (XREs), and then starts the expressions of downstream genes including cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1 family members: CYP1A1, CYP1A2 and CYP1B1. Role of CYP1 family is involved in the metabolism of endogenous hormones, xenobiotics and drug. The expression of CYP1 family is regulated by estradiol (E2) or xenobiotics in diverse cancers. In breast cancers expressing estrogen receptors (ERs), level of CYP1B1 is increased by E2 and reversed by an estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI 182,780 or 4-hydrotamoxifen, which indicates that the expression of CYP1 family in downstream region of AhR is regulated by an activation of ERα. In metabolic pathways, E2 is converted into 4-hydroxyestradiol by CYP1B1, which can be converted into mainly estradiol-3,4-quinone, a potential carcinogen, by peroxidase. Increased expression of CYP1 family indicates the possibility of carcinogenesis by exposure of xenobiotics in endometrial and ovarian cancers. Apart from roles of CYP1 family in relation with ER pathway, CYP1 family is over-expressed in ER independent cancers. CYP1A1 exhibits hydroxylase activity in oxidation of arachidonic acid, which has been transformed to 12(R)-hydrxyeicosatetraenoic (HETEs), a potent activator of AhR activity. On the basis of results, phytoestrogens and dexamethasone are provided as cancer therapy regulating the expression of CYP1 family. Thus, this review focuses on the role(s) of CYP1 family in ER-dependent or ER-independent cancers and the potential for cancer therapy to target CYP1 family in these cancers.

  6. Cytochrome P450s and molecular epidemiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Frank J.; Gelboin, Harry V.

    1993-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 (P450) represent a superfamily of heme-containing monooxygenases that are found throughout the animal and plant kingdoms and in many microorganisms. A number of these enzymes are involved in biosynthetic pathways of steroid synthesis but in mammals the vast majority of P450s function to metabolize foreign chemicals or xenobiotics. In the classical phase I reactions on the latter, a membrane-bound P450 will hydroxylate a compound, usually hydrophobic in nature, and the hydroxyl group will serve as a substrate for the various transferases or phase II enzymes that attach hydrophilic substituents such as glutathione, sulfate or glucuronic acid. Some chemicals, however, are metabolically-activated by P450s to electrophiles capable of reacting with cellular macromolecules. The cellular concentrations of the chemical and P450, reactivity of the active metabolite with nucleic acid and the repairability of the resultant adducts, in addition to the nature of the cell type, likely determines whether a chemical will be toxic and kill the cell or will transform the cell. Immunocorrelative and cDNA-directed expression have been used to define the substrate specificities of numerous human P450s. Levels of expression of different human P450 forms have been measured by both in vivo and in vitro methodologies leading to the realization that a large degree of interindividual differences occur in P450 expression. Reliable procedures for measuring P450 expression in healthy and diseased subjects will lead to prospective and case- cohort studies to determine whether interindividual differences in levels of P450 are associated with susceptibility or resistance to environmentally-based disease.

  7. Upper and lower limits of the proton stoichiometry of cytochrome c oxidation in rat liver mitoplasts.

    PubMed

    Reynafarje, B; Costa, L E; Lehninger, A L

    1986-06-25

    The stoichiometry of vectorial H+ translocation coupled to oxidation of added ferrocytochrome c by O2 via cytochrome-c oxidase of rat liver mitoplasts was determined employing a fast-responding O2 electrode. Electron flow was initiated by addition of either ferrocytochrome c or O2. When the rates were extrapolated to level flow, the H+/O ratios in both cases were less than but closely approached 4; the directly observed H+/O ratios significantly exceeded 3.0. The mechanistic H+/O ratio was then more closely fixed by a kinetic approach that eliminates the necessity for measuring energy leaks and is independent of any particular model of the mechanism of energy transduction. From two sets of kinetic measurements, an overestimate and an underestimate and thus the upper and lower limits of the mechanistic H+/O ratio could be obtained. In the first set, the utilization of respiratory energy was systematically varied through changes in the concentrations of valinomycin or K+. From the slope of a plot of the initial rates of H+ ejection (JH) and O2 uptake (JO) obtained in such experiments, the upper limit of the H+/O ratio was in the range 4.12-4.19. In the second set of measurements, the rate of respiratory energy production was varied by inhibiting electron transport. From the slope of a plot of JH versus JO, the lower limit of the H+/O ratio, equivalent to that at level flow, was in the range 3.83-3.96. These data fix the mechanistic H+/O ratio for the cytochrome oxidase reaction of mitoplasts at 4.0, thus confirming our earlier measurements (Reynafarje, B., Alexandre, A., Davies, P., and Lehninger, A. L. (1982) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79, 7218-7222). Possible reasons for discrepancies in published reports on the H+/O ratio of cytochrome oxidase in various mitochondrial and reconstituted systems are discussed.

  8. A Brownian Dynamics Study of the Interaction of Phormidium Cytochrome f with Various Cyanobacterial Plastocyanins

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Elizabeth L.; Rosenberg, Irving

    2006-01-01

    Brownian dynamics simulations were used to study the role of electrostatic forces in the interactions of cytochrome f from the cyanobacterium Phormidium laminosum with various cyanobacterial plastocyanins. Both the net charge on the plastocyanin molecule and the charge configuration around H92 (H87 in higher plants) are important in determining the interactions. Those plastocyanins (PCs) with a net charge more negative than −2.0, including those from Synechococcus sp. PCC7942, Synechocystis sp. 6803, and P. laminosum showed very little complex formation. On the other hand, complex formation for those with a net charge more positive than −2.0 (including Nostoc sp. PCC7119 and Prochlorothrix hollandica) as well as Nostoc plastocyanin mutants showed a linear dependence of complex formation upon the net charge on the plastocyanin molecule. Mutation of charged residues on the surface of the PC molecules also affected complex formation. Simulations involving plastocyanin mutants K35A, R93A, and K11A (when present) showed inhibition of complex formation. In contrast, D10A and E17A mutants showed an increase in complex formation. All of these residues surround the H92 (H87 in higher plant plastocyanins) ligand to the copper. An examination of the closest electrostatic contacts shows that these residues interact with D63, E123, R157, D188, and the heme on Phormidium cytochrome f. In the complexes formed, the long axis of the PC molecule lies perpendicular to the long axis of cytochrome f. There is considerable heterogeneity in the orientation of plastocyanin in the complexes formed. PMID:16214856

  9. Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase participates in nitric oxide consumption by rat brain.

    PubMed

    Hall, Catherine N; Keynes, Robert G; Garthwaite, John

    2009-04-15

    In low nanomolar concentrations, NO (nitric oxide) functions as a transmitter in brain and other tissues, whereas near-micromolar NO concentrations are associated with toxicity and cell death. Control of the NO concentration, therefore, is critical for proper brain function, but, although its synthesis pathway is well-characterized, the major route of breakdown of NO in brain is unclear. Previous observations indicate that brain cells actively consume NO at a high rate. The mechanism of this consumption was pursued in the present study. NO consumption by a preparation of central glial cells was abolished by cell lysis and recovered by addition of NADPH. NADPH-dependent consumption of NO localized to cell membranes and was inhibited by proteinase K, indicating the involvement of a membrane-bound protein. Purification of this activity yielded CYPOR (cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase). Antibodies against CYPOR inhibited NO consumption by brain membranes and the amount of CYPOR in several cell types correlated with their rate of NO consumption. NO was also consumed by purified CYPOR but this activity was found to depend on the presence of the vitamin E analogue Trolox (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchromane-2-carboxylic acid), included in the buffer as a precaution against inadvertent NO consumption by lipid peroxidation. In contrast, NO consumption by brain membranes was independent of Trolox. Hence, it appears that, during the purification process, CYPOR becomes separated from a partner needed for NO consumption. Cytochrome P450 inhibitors inhibited NO consumption by brain membranes, making these proteins likely candidates.

  10. Properties of cytochrome c modified by attachment to a carbohydrate polymer.

    PubMed

    Silvestrini, M C; Colosimo, A; Brunori, M; Antonini, E

    1978-02-01

    By enzymic digestion of the polysaccharide part of the covalent complex between cytochrome c and Sephadex G-200, a new water-soluble cytochrome c derivative is obtained (called cytochrome cr). Measurement of the free amino groups of this derivative indicates that on average the molar ratio between cytochrome c and polysaccharide is close to 1. Chemical determination of the sugar content gives a value of approx. 24000 for the molecular weight of cytochrome cr. On these bases the soluble cytochrome cr complex may be thought of as a folded protein to which a long polysaccharide tail is covalently bound. The functional behaviour of cytochrome cr is much more similar to that of the native molecule than to that of the insoluble complex (cytochrome ci). In particular the kinetics of the reaction of cytochrome cr and cytochrome cn (native) with ascorbate, ferrocyanide-ferricyanide, O2 and cytochrome c oxidase were investigated in considerable detail. The results of these experiments, together with the observation that the insoluble complex of cytochrome c is a very poor substrate of cytochrome c oxidase [Colosimo, Brunori & Antonini (1976) Biochem. J. 153, (657-661], indicate that hindrance effects constraining the approach between cytochrome cr and its oxidase are of greater importance than specific chemical modifications in determining the functional behavior of the protein.

  11. Testicular microsomal cytochrome P-450 for C21 steroid side chain cleavage. Spectral and binding studies.

    PubMed

    Nakajin, S; Hall, P F; Onoda, M

    1981-06-25

    Kinetic and binding studies were performed with a purified microsomal cytochrome P-450 from neonatal pig testis, the C21 side chain cleavage system (17 alpha-hydroxylase/C17,20-lyase). Binding of substrates and inhibitors was measured by spectral methods and by equilibrium dialysis. Kinetic data revealed that pregnenolone inhibits lyase activity with 17 alpha-hydroxypregnenolone as substrate (Ki, 0.3 microM) and that progesterone inhibits lyase activity with 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (Ki, 1.5 microM); inhibition is competitive in both cases. Binding and kinetic studies revealed that Km, Ks, and Kd (Michaelis constant and dissociation constants determined by spectral and dialysis methods, respectively) are all considerably lower for the delta 5 substrates than for the corresponding delta 4 compounds. Equilibrium dialysis shows that there is a single binding site for the substrates of both activities (hydroxylase and lyase). Spectral studies revealed a lag in the development of the spectral shift produced by the addition of steroids and gave results compatible with a single active site, although this spectral evidence is not conclusive by itself. It is concluded that (i) the powerful forward competitive inhibition by pregnenolone and progesterone may be important in regulating synthesis of androgens in vivo; (ii) the porcine enzyme uses delta 5 substrates in preference to delta 4 substrates, thereby accounting for extensive use of the delta 5 pathway by pig testis in vivo; (iii) the evidence presented suggests one active site for both hydroxylase and lyase activities.

  12. Cytochrome P450-inhibitory activity of parabens and phthalates used in consumer products.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Hitomi; Sugihara, Kazumi; Watanabe, Yoko; Ohta, Shigeru; Kitamura, Shigeyuki

    2016-01-01

    The in vitro cytochrome P450 (CYP)-inhibitory effects of 11 parabens and 7 phthalates used in consumer products, as well as their hydrolytic metabolites, were investigated, using rat liver microsomes as an enzyme source. The effects on individual CYP isozymes were evaluated by assaying inhibition of activities towards specific substrates, i.e., ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (EROD), methoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (MROD), pentoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (PROD), 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin dealkylase (BFCD), 7-methoxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin dealkylase (MFCD) and 7-ethoxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin dealkylase (EFCD) activities. These activities were dose-dependently inhibited, most potently by medium-side-chain parabens (C6-9) and phthalates (C4-6), and less potently by shorter- and longer-side-chain esters. The hydrolytic product of parabens, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, was not inhibitory, while those of phthalates, phthalic acid monoesters, showed lower inhibitory activity than the parent phthalates. Parabens showed relatively potent inhibition of MFCD activity, considered to be mainly due to CYP2C, and phthalates showed relatively potent inhibition of PROD activity, considered to be mainly due to CYP2B.

  13. Cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of vitamin D

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Glenville; Prosser, David E.; Kaufmann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The vitamin D signal transduction system involves a series of cytochrome P450-containing sterol hydroxylases to generate and degrade the active hormone, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, which serves as a ligand for the vitamin D receptor-mediated transcriptional gene expression described in companion articles in this review series. This review updates our current knowledge of the specific anabolic cytochrome P450s involved in 25- and 1α-hydroxylation, as well as the catabolic cytochrome P450 involved in 24- and 23-hydroxylation steps, which are believed to initiate inactivation of the vitamin D molecule. We focus on the biochemical properties of these enzymes; key residues in their active sites derived from crystal structures and mutagenesis studies; the physiological roles of these enzymes as determined by animal knockout studies and human genetic diseases; and the regulation of these different cytochrome P450s by extracellular ions and peptide modulators. We highlight the importance of these cytochrome P450s in the pathogenesis of kidney disease, metabolic bone disease, and hyperproliferative diseases, such as psoriasis and cancer; as well as explore potential future developments in the field. PMID:23564710

  14. Reduction of Heavy Metals by Cytochrome c(3)

    SciTech Connect

    ABDELOUAS,A.; GONG,W.L.; LUTZE,W.; NUTTALL,E.H.; SPRAGUE,F.; SHELNUTT,JOHN A.; STRIETELMEIER,B.A.; FRANCO,R.; MOURA,I.; MOURA,J.J.G.

    2000-01-18

    We report on reduction and precipitation of Se(VI), Pb(II), CU(II), U(VI), Mo(VI), and Cr(VI) in water by cytochrome c{sub 3} isolated from Desulfomicrobium baczdatum [strain 9974]. The tetraheme protein cytochrome c{sub 3} was reduced by sodium dithionite. Redox reactions were monitored by UV-visible spectroscopy of cytochrome c{sub 3}. Analytical electron microscopy work showed that Se(VI), Pb(II), and CU(II) were reduced to the metallic state, U(W) and Mo(W) to U(IV) and Mo(IV), respectively, and Cr(VI) probably to Cr(III). U(IV) and Mo(W) precipitated as oxides and Cr(III) as an amorphous hydroxide. Cytochrome c{sub 3} was used repeatedly in the same solution without loosing its effectiveness. The results suggest usage of cytochrome c{sub 3} to develop innovative and environmentally benign methods to remove heavy metals from waste- and groundwater.

  15. Homotropic cooperativity of monomeric cytochrome P450 3A4

    SciTech Connect

    Baas, Bradley J.; Denisov, Ilia G.; Sligar, Stephen G.

    2010-11-16

    Mechanistic studies of mammalian cytochrome P450s are often obscured by the phase heterogeneity of solubilized preparations of membrane enzymes. The various protein-protein aggregation states of microsomes, detergent solubilized cytochrome or a family of aqueous multimeric complexes can effect measured substrate binding events as well as subsequent steps in the reaction cycle. In addition, these P450 monooxygenases are normally found in a membrane environment and the bilayer composition and dynamics can also effect these catalytic steps. Here, we describe the structural and functional characterization of a homogeneous monomeric population of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP 3A4) in a soluble nanoscale membrane bilayer, or Nanodisc [Nano Lett. 2 (2002) 853]. Cytochrome P450 3A4:Nanodisc assemblies were formed and purified to yield a 1:1 ratio of CYP 3A4 to Nanodisc. Solution small angle X-ray scattering was used to structurally characterize this monomeric CYP 3A4 in the membrane bilayer. The purified CYP 3A4:Nanodiscs showed a heretofore undescribed high level of homotropic cooperativity in the binding of testosterone. Soluble CYP 3A4:Nanodisc retains its known function and shows prototypic hydroxylation of testosterone when driven by hydrogen peroxide. This represents the first functional characterization of a true monomeric preparation of cytochrome P450 monooxygenase in a phospholipid bilayer and elucidates new properties of the monomeric form.

  16. Calorimetric studies of the thermal denaturation of cytochrome c peroxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Kresheck, G.C.; Erman, J.E.

    1988-04-05

    Two endotherms are observed by differential scanning calorimetry during the thermal denaturation of cytochrome c peroxidase at pH 7.0. The transition midpoint temperatures (t/sub m/) were 43.9 +- 1.4 and 63.3 +- 1.6 /sup 0/C, independent of concentration. The two endotherms were observed at all pH values between 4 and 8, with the transition temperatures varying with pH. Precipitation was observed between pH 4 and 6, and only qualitative data are presented for this region. The thermal unfolding of cytochrome c peroxidase was sensitive to the presence and ligation state of the heme. Only a single endotherm was observed for the unfolding of the apoprotein, and this transition was similar to the high-temperature transition in the holoenzyme. Addition of KCN to the holoenzyme increases the midpoint of the high-temperature transition whereas the low-temperature transition was increased upon addition of KF. Binding of the natural substrate ferricytochrome c to the enzyme increases the low-temperature transition by 4.8 +- 1.3 /sup 0/C but has no effect on the high-temperature transition at pH 7. The presence of cytochrome c peroxidase decreases the stability of cytochrome c, and both proteins appear to unfold simultaneously. The results are discussed in terms of the two domains evident in the X-ray crystallographic structure of cytochrome c peroxidase

  17. Cardiolipin modulates allosterically peroxynitrite detoxification by horse heart cytochrome c

    SciTech Connect

    Ascenzi, Paolo; Ciaccio, Chiara; Sinibaldi, Federica; Santucci, Roberto; Coletta, Massimo

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Cardiolipin binding to cytochrome c. {yields} Cardiolipin-dependent peroxynitrite isomerization by cytochrome c. {yields} Cardiolipin-cytochrome c complex plays pro-apoptotic effects. {yields} Cardiolipin-cytochrome c complex plays anti-apoptotic effects. -- Abstract: Upon interaction with bovine heart cardiolipin (CL), horse heart cytochrome c (cytc) changes its tertiary structure disrupting the heme-Fe-Met80 distal bond, reduces drastically the midpoint potential out of the range required for its physiological role, binds CO and NO with high affinity, and displays peroxidase activity. Here, the effect of CL on peroxynitrite isomerization by ferric cytc (cytc-Fe(III)) is reported. In the absence of CL, hexa-coordinated cytc does not catalyze peroxynitrite isomerization. In contrast, CL facilitates cytc-Fe(III)-mediated isomerization of peroxynitrite in a dose-dependent fashion inducing the penta-coordination of the heme-Fe(III)-atom. The value of the second order rate constant for CL-cytc-Fe(III)-mediated isomerization of peroxynitrite (k{sub on}) is (3.2 {+-} 0.4) x 10{sup 5} M{sup -1} s{sup -1}. The apparent dissociation equilibrium constant for CL binding to cytc-Fe(III) is (5.1 {+-} 0.8) x 10{sup -5} M. These results suggest that CL-cytc could play either pro-apoptotic or anti-apoptotic effects facilitating lipid peroxidation and scavenging of reactive nitrogen species, such as peroxynitrite, respectively.

  18. A spectroscopic study of uranyl-cytochrome b5/cytochrome c interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mei-Hui; Liu, Shuang-Quan; Du, Ke-Jie; Nie, Chang-Ming; Lin, Ying-Wu

    2014-01-01

    Uranium is harmful to human health due to its radiation damage and the ability of uranyl ion (UO22+) to interact with various proteins and disturb their biological functions. Cytochrome b5 (cyt b5) is a highly negatively charged heme protein and plays a key role in mediating cytochrome c (cyt c) signaling in apoptosis by forming a dynamic cyt b5-cyt c complex. In previous molecular modeling study in combination with UV-Vis studies, we found that UO22+ is capable of binding to cyt b5 at surface residues, Glu37 and Glu43. In this study, we further investigated the structural consequences of cyt b5 and cyt c, as well as cyt b5-cyt c complex, upon uranyl binding, by fluorescence spectroscopic and circular dichroism techniques. Moreover, we proposed a uranyl binding site for cyt c at surface residues, Glu66 and Glu69, by performing a molecular modeling study. It was shown that uranyl binds to cyt b5 (KD = 10 μM), cyt c (KD = 87 μM), and cyt b5-cyt c complex (KD = 30 μM) with a different affinity, which slightly alters the protein conformation and disturbs the interaction of cyt b5-cyt c complex. Additionally, we investigated the functional consequences of uranyl binding to the protein surface, which decreases the inherent peroxidase activity of cyt c. The information of uranyl-cyt b5/cyt c interactions gained in this study likely provides a clue for the mechanism of uranyl toxicity.

  19. A spectroscopic study of uranyl-cytochrome b5/cytochrome c interactions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mei-Hui; Liu, Shuang-Quan; Du, Ke-Jie; Nie, Chang-Ming; Lin, Ying-Wu

    2014-01-24

    Uranium is harmful to human health due to its radiation damage and the ability of uranyl ion (UO2(2+)) to interact with various proteins and disturb their biological functions. Cytochrome b5 (cyt b5) is a highly negatively charged heme protein and plays a key role in mediating cytochrome c (cyt c) signaling in apoptosis by forming a dynamic cyt b5-cyt c complex. In previous molecular modeling study in combination with UV-Vis studies, we found that UO2(2+) is capable of binding to cyt b5 at surface residues, Glu37 and Glu43. In this study, we further investigated the structural consequences of cyt b5 and cyt c, as well as cyt b5-cyt c complex, upon uranyl binding, by fluorescence spectroscopic and circular dichroism techniques. Moreover, we proposed a uranyl binding site for cyt c at surface residues, Glu66 and Glu69, by performing a molecular modeling study. It was shown that uranyl binds to cyt b5 (KD=10 μM), cyt c (KD=87 μM), and cyt b5-cyt c complex (KD=30 μM) with a different affinity, which slightly alters the protein conformation and disturbs the interaction of cyt b5-cyt c complex. Additionally, we investigated the functional consequences of uranyl binding to the protein surface, which decreases the inherent peroxidase activity of cyt c. The information of uranyl-cyt b5/cyt c interactions gained in this study likely provides a clue for the mechanism of uranyl toxicity.

  20. The cytochrome P450 genesis locus: the origin and evolution of animal cytochrome P450s

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, David R.; Goldstone, Jared V.; Stegeman, John J.

    2013-01-01

    The neighbourhoods of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in deuterostome genomes, as well as those of the cnidarians Nematostella vectensis and Acropora digitifera and the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens were examined to find clues concerning the evolution of CYP genes in animals. CYP genes created by the 2R whole genome duplications in chordates have been identified. Both microsynteny and macrosynteny were used to identify genes that coexisted near CYP genes in the animal ancestor. We show that all 11 CYP clans began in a common gene environment. The evidence implies the existence of a single locus, which we term the ‘cytochrome P450 genesis locus’, where one progenitor CYP gene duplicated to create a tandem set of genes that were precursors of the 11 animal CYP clans: CYP Clans 2, 3, 4, 7, 19, 20, 26, 46, 51, 74 and mitochondrial. These early CYP genes existed side by side before the origin of cnidarians, possibly with a few additional genes interspersed. The Hox gene cluster, WNT genes, an NK gene cluster and at least one ARF gene were close neighbours to this original CYP locus. According to this evolutionary scenario, the CYP74 clan originated from animals and not from land plants nor from a common ancestor of plants and animals. The CYP7 and CYP19 families that are chordate-specific belong to CYP clans that seem to have originated in the CYP genesis locus as well, even though this requires many gene losses to explain their current distribution. The approach to uncovering the CYP genesis locus overcomes confounding effects because of gene conversion, sequence divergence, gene birth and death, and opens the way to understanding the biodiversity of CYP genes, families and subfamilies, which in animals has been obscured by more than 600 Myr of evolution. PMID:23297357

  1. Inhibitory properties of trapping agents: glutathione, potassium cyanide, and methoxylamine, against major human cytochrome p450 isoforms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chenghong; Wong, Susan; Delarosa, Erlie M; Kenny, Jane R; Halladay, Jason S; Hop, Cornelis E; Khojasteh-Bakht, Siamak Cyrus

    2009-04-01

    In the early stages of drug discovery, the formation of reactive metabolites is often assessed by co-incubating the drug in liver microsomes with a trapping agent in the presence of NADPH. Our group assessed the capability of commonly used trapping agents to reversibly inhibit major cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms. Glutathione and cyanide did not inhibit the enzymes at concentrations up to 10 mM; however methoxylamine did show inhibition, with IC(50) values of 0.53 mM for CYP1A2, 4.12 mM for CYP2C9, 2.04 mM for CYP2C19, 9.72 mM for CYP2D6, and 1.26 and >10 mM for CYP3A4/5 (for testosterone and midazolam, respectively, as substrates).

  2. RESEARCH PAPERDrp1 is dispensable for apoptotic cytochrome c release in primed MCF10A and fibroblast cells but affects Bcl-2 antagonist-induced respiratory changes

    PubMed Central

    Clerc, P; Ge, S X; Hwang, H; Waddell, J; Roelofs, B A; Karbowski, M; Sesaki, H; Polster, B M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) mediates mitochondrial fission and is thought to promote Bax/Bak-induced cytochrome c release during apoptosis. Conformationally active Bax, Bak and Bax/Bak-activating BH3-only proteins, such as Bim, are restrained by anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins in cells that are ‘primed for death’. Inhibition of Bcl-2/Bcl-xL/Bcl-w by the antagonist ABT-737 causes rapid apoptosis of primed cells. Hence, we determined whether Drp1 is required for cytochrome c release, respiratory alterations and apoptosis of cells that are already primed for death. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We tested the Drp1 inhibitor mdivi-1 for inhibition of cytochrome c release in MCF10A cells primed by Bcl-2 overexpression. We measured ATP synthesis-dependent,-independent and cytochrome c-limited maximal oxygen consumption rates (OCRs) and cell death of immortalized wild-type (WT) and Drp1 knockout (KO) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) treated with ABT-737. KEY RESULTS Mdivi-1 failed to attenuate ABT-737-induced cytochrome c release. ABT-737 decreased maximal OCR measured in the presence of uncoupler in both WT and Drp1 KO MEF, consistent with respiratory impairment due to release of cytochrome c. However, Drp1 KO MEF were slightly less sensitive to this ABT-737-induced respiratory inhibition compared with WT, and were resistant to an initial ABT-737-induced increase in ATP synthesis-independent O2 consumption. Nevertheless, caspase-dependent cell death was not reduced. Pro-apoptotic Bax was unaltered, whereas Bak was up-regulated in Drp1 KO MEF. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The findings indicate that once fibroblast cells are primed for death, Drp1 is not required for apoptosis. However, Drp1 may contribute to ABT-737-induced respiratory changes and the kinetics of cytochrome c release. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on Mitochondrial Pharmacology: Energy, Injury & Beyond. To view the other articles in this issue visit http

  3. Purification and two-dimensional crystallization of bacterial cytochrome oxidases.

    PubMed

    Warne, A; Wang, D N; Saraste, M

    1995-12-01

    A novel strategy which employes chromatography on an immobilized metal ion has been developed for the purification of bacterial cytochrome c and quinol oxidases. Many bacterial oxidase complexes appear to have a natural affinity to bind to the chelated copper ion. A combination of three different chromatographic principles (anion exchange, metal-affinity and gel filtration) makes an effective tool chest for the preparation of homogeneous and protein-chemically pure bacterial oxidases. These preparations have been used for two-dimensional crystallization. Until now, crystals have been obtained using the Paracococcus denitrificans and Rhodobacter sphaeroides cytochrome aa3 and the Escherichia coli cytochrome bo. The crystals diffract to approximately 2.5 nm in negative stain and have potential for further structural studies.

  4. Mitochondrial cytochrome c biogenesis: no longer an enigma.

    PubMed

    Babbitt, Shalon E; Sutherland, Molly C; San Francisco, Brian; Mendez, Deanna L; Kranz, Robert G

    2015-08-01

    Cytochromes c (cyt c) and c1 are heme proteins that are essential for aerobic respiration. Release of cyt c from mitochondria is an important signal in apoptosis initiation. Biogenesis of c-type cytochromes involves covalent attachment of heme to two cysteines (at a conserved CXXCH sequence) in the apocytochrome. Heme attachment is catalyzed in most mitochondria by holocytochrome c synthase (HCCS), which is also necessary for the import of apocytochrome c (apocyt c). Thus, HCCS affects cellular levels of cyt c, impacting mitochondrial physiology and cell death. Here, we review the mechanisms of HCCS function and the roles of heme and residues in the CXXCH motif. Additionally, we consider concepts emerging within the two prokaryotic cytochrome c biogenesis pathways.

  5. Cytochrome c catalyzes the in vitro synthesis of arachidonoyl glycine

    SciTech Connect

    McCue, Jeffrey M.; Driscoll, William J.; Mueller, Gregory P.

    2008-01-11

    Long chain fatty acyl glycines are an emerging class of biologically active molecules that occur naturally and produce a wide array of physiological effects. Their biosynthetic pathway, however, remains unknown. Here we report that cytochrome c catalyzes the synthesis of N-arachidonoyl glycine (NAGly) from arachidonoyl coenzyme A and glycine in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. The identity of the NAGly product was verified by isotope labeling and mass analysis. Other heme-containing proteins, hemoglobin and myoglobin, were considerably less effective in generating arachidonoyl glycine as compared to cytochrome c. The reaction catalyzed by cytochrome c in vitro points to its potential role in the formation of NAGly and other long chain fatty acyl glycines in vivo.

  6. Cytochrome P450 enzyme mediated herbal drug interactions (Part 2)

    PubMed Central

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Phopin, Kamonrat; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2014-01-01

    To date, a number of significant herbal drug interactions have their origins in the alteration of cytochrome P450 (CYP) activity by various phytochemicals. Among the most noteworthy are those involving St. John's wort and drugs metabolized by human CYP3A4 enzyme. This review article is the continued work from our previous article (Part 1) published in this journal (Wanwimolruk and Prachayasittikul, 2014[ref:133]). This article extends the scope of the review to six more herbs and updates information on herbal drug interactions. These include black cohosh, ginseng, grape seed extract, green tea, kava, saw palmetto and some important Chinese medicines are also presented. Even though there have been many studies to determine the effects of herbs and herbal medicines on the activity of CYP, most of them were in vitro and in animal studies. Therefore, the studies are limited in predicting the clinical relevance of herbal drug interactions. It appeared that the majority of the herbal medicines have no clear effects on most of the CYPs examined. For example, the existing clinical trial data imply that black cohosh, ginseng and saw palmetto are unlikely to affect the pharmacokinetics of conventional drugs metabolized by human CYPs. For grape seed extract and green tea, adverse herbal drug interactions are unlikely when they are concomitantly taken with prescription drugs that are CYP substrates. Although there were few clinical studies on potential CYP-mediated interactions produced by kava, present data suggest that kava supplements have the ability to inhibit CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 significantly. Therefore, caution should be taken when patients take kava with CYP1A2 or CYP2E1 substrate drugs as it may enhance their therapeutic and adverse effects. Despite the long use of traditional Chinese herbal medicines, little is known about the potential drug interactions with these herbs. Many popularly used Chinese medicines have been shown in vitro to significantly change the

  7. Cytochrome P450 enzyme mediated herbal drug interactions (Part 1)

    PubMed Central

    Wanwimolruk, Sompon; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that herbal supplements or herbal medicines are now commonly used. As many patients taking prescription medications are concomitantly using herbal supplements, there is considerable risk for adverse herbal drug interactions. Such interactions can enhance the risk for an individual patient, especially with regard to drugs with a narrow therapeutic index such as warfarin, cyclosporine A and digoxin. Herbal drug interactions can alter pharmacokinetic or/and pharmacodynamic properties of administered drugs. The most common pharmacokinetic interactions usually involve either the inhibition or induction of the metabolism of drugs catalyzed by the important enzymes, cytochrome P450 (CYP). The aim of the present article is to provide an updated review of clinically relevant metabolic CYP-mediated drug interactions between selected herbal supplements and prescription drugs. The commonly used herbal supplements selected include Echinacea, Ginkgo biloba, garlic, St. John's wort, goldenseal, and milk thistle. To date, several significant herbal drug interactions have their origins in the alteration of CYP enzyme activity by various phytochemicals. Numerous herbal drug interactions have been reported. Although the significance of many interactions is uncertain but several interactions, especially those with St. John’s wort, may have critical clinical consequences. St. John’s wort is a source of hyperforin, an active ingredient that has a strong affinity for the pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR). As a PXR ligand, hyperforin promotes expression of CYP3A4 enzymes in the small intestine and liver. This in turn causes induction of CYP3A4 and can reduce the oral bioavailability of many drugs making them less effective. The available evidence indicates that, at commonly recommended doses, other selected herbs including Echinacea, Ginkgo biloba, garlic, goldenseal and milk thistle do not act as potent or moderate inhibitors or inducers of CYP enzymes. A good

  8. Importance of cytochromes in cyclization reactions: quantum chemical study on a model reaction of proguanil to cycloguanil.

    PubMed

    Arfeen, Minhajul; Patel, Dhilon S; Abbat, Sheenu; Taxak, Nikhil; Bharatam, Prasad V

    2014-10-30

    Proguanil, an anti-malarial prodrug, undergoes cytochrome P450 catalyzed biotransformation to the pharmacologically active triazine metabolite (cycloguanil), which inhibits plasmodial dihydrofolate reductase. This cyclization is catalyzed by CYP2C19 and many anti-malarial lead compounds are being designed and synthesized to exploit this pathway. Quantum chemical calculations were performed using the model species (Cpd I for active species of cytochrome and N4-isopropyl-N6-methylbiguanide for proguanil) to elucidate the mechanism of the cyclization pathway. The overall reaction involves the loss of a water molecule, and is exothermic by approximately 55 kcal/mol, and involves a barrier of approximately 17 kcal/mol. The plausible reaction pathway involves the initial H-radical abstraction from the isopropyl group by Cpd I, followed by two alternative paths- (i) oxygen rebound to provide hydroxyl derivative and (ii) loss of additional H-radical to yield 1,3,5-triazatriene, which undergoes cyclization. This study helped in understanding the role of the active species of cytochromes in this important cyclization reaction.

  9. Effects of phenol on metabolic activities and transcription profiles of cytochrome P450 enzymes in Chironomus kiinensis larvae.

    PubMed

    Cao, C W; Sun, L L; Niu, F; Liu, P; Chu, D; Wang, Z Y

    2016-02-01

    Phenol, also known as carbolic acid or phenic acid, is a priority pollutant in aquatic ecosystems. The present study has investigated metabolic activities and transcription profiles of cytochrome P450 enzymes in Chironomus kiinensis under phenol stress. Exposure of C. kiinensis larvae to three sublethal doses of phenol (1, 10 and 100 µM) inhibited cytochrome P450 enzyme activity during the 96 h exposure period. The P450 activity measured after the 24 h exposure to phenol stress could be used to assess the level (low or high) of phenol contamination in the environment. To investigate the potential of cytochrome P450 genes as molecular biomarkers to monitor phenol contamination, the cDNA of ten CYP6 genes from the transcriptome of C. kiinensis were identified and sequenced. The open reading frames of the CYP6 genes ranged from 1266 to 1587 bp, encoding deduced polypeptides composed of between 421 and 528 amino acids, with predicted molecular masses from 49.01 to 61.94 kDa and isoelectric points (PI) from 6.01 to 8.89. Among the CYP6 genes, the mRNA expression levels of the CYP6EW3, CYP6EV9, CYP6FV1 and CYP6FV2 genes significantly altered in response to phenol exposure; therefore, these genes could potentially serve as biomarkers in the environment. This study shows that P450 activity combined with one or multiple CYP6 genes could be used to monitor phenol pollution.

  10. Spinosad induces programmed cell death involves mitochondrial dysfunction and cytochrome C release in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Mingjun; Wang, Bo; Gao, Jufang; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Wenping; Tao, Liming

    2017-02-01

    Spinosad, a reduced-risk insecticide, acts on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor in the nervous system of target insects. However, its mechanism of action in non-neural insect cells is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate mitochondrial functional changes associated with spinosad in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells. Our results indicate that in Sf9 cells, spinosad induces programmed cell death and mitochondrial dysfunction through enhanced reactive oxygen species production, mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening, and mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, eventually leading to cytochrome C release and apoptosis. The cytochrome C release induced by spinosad treatment was partly inhibited by the mPTP inhibitors cyclosporin A and bongkrekic acid. Subsequently, we found that spinosad downregulated Bcl-2 expression and upregulated p53 and Bax expressions, activated caspase-9 and caspase-3, and triggered PARP cleavage in Sf9 cells. These findings suggested that spinosad-induced programmed cell death was modulated by mitochondrial dysfunction and cytochrome C release.

  11. Predictive three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship of cytochrome P450 1A2 inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Korhonen, Laura E; Rahnasto, Minna; Mähönen, Niina J; Wittekindt, Carsten; Poso, Antti; Juvonen, Risto O; Raunio, Hannu

    2005-06-02

    The purpose of this study was to determine the cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) inhibition potencies of structurally diverse compounds to create a comprehensive three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) model of CYP1A2 inhibitors and to use this model to predict the inhibition potencies of an external set of compounds. Fifty-two compounds including naphthalene, lactone and quinoline derivatives were assayed in a 96-well plate format for CYP1A2 inhibition activity using 7-ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylation as the probe reaction. The IC50 values of the tested compounds varied from 2.3 microM to over 40,000 microM. On the basis of this data set, a comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and GRID/GOLPE models were created that yielded novel structural information about the interaction between inhibitory molecules and the CYP1A2 active site. The created CoMFA model was able to accurately predict inhibitory potencies of several structurally unrelated compounds, including selective inhibitors of other cytochrome P450 forms.

  12. Catalysis by Methylamine Dehydrogenase and Electron Transfer to Amicyanin and Cytochrome C(551I) from Paracoccus Denitrificans.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Harold Burns

    1995-01-01

    , the inhibition of the rm k^ {fast}_{obs} by MADH, and the ionic strength dependence of the two phases. The slow phase had a rate of 3.1 rm s^ {-1} which is consistent with electron transfer between amicyanin and cytochrome c_ {55li} within the ternary complex. The fast phase does not exhibit saturation behavior, must have an electron transfer rate greater than 1000 rm s^{-1}, and likely involves a complex of amicyanin and cytochrome c_{55li } near the hydrophobic patch of amicyanin.

  13. Evaluation of cytochrome P450{sub BS{beta}} reactivity against polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, Eduardo; Hayen, Heiko; Niemeyer, Christof M.; E-mail: christof.niemeyer@uni-dortmund.de

    2007-03-30

    The oxidation of 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) by cytochrome P450{sub BS{beta}} using three different electron acceptors is reported. Three PAH were found to be substrates for the oxidation by P450{sub BS{beta}}, namely anthracene, 9-methyl-anthracene and azulene. The respective oxidation products were identified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. In addition, 10 drug-like compounds were investigated for their effects on the catalytic activity of P450{sub BS{beta}} by carrying out inhibition studies. The stability of P450{sub BS{beta}} against hydrogen peroxide, cumene, and ter-butyl hydroperoxide was determined. Overall, the results of this study suggested that the P450{sub BS{beta}} enzyme represents a powerful catalyst in terms of the catalytic activity and operational stability.

  14. A cytochrome cd1-type nitrite reductase mediates the first step of denitrification in Alcaligenes eutrophus.

    PubMed

    Sann, R; Kostka, S; Friedrich, B

    1994-01-01

    Respiratory nitrite reductase (NIR) has been purified from the soluble extract of denitrifying cells of Alcaligenes eutrophus strain H16 to apparent electrophoretic homogeneity. The enzyme was induced under anoxic conditions in the presence of nitrite. Purified NIR showed typical features of a cytochrome cd1-type nitrite reductase. It appeared to be a dimer of kDa subunits, its activity was only weakly inhibited by the copper chelator diethyldithiocarbamate, and spectral analysis revealed absorption maxima which were characteristic for the presence of heme c and heme d1. The isoelectric point of 8.6 was considerably higher than the pI determined for cd1 nitrite reductases from pseudomonads. Eighteen amino acids at the N-terminus of the A. eutrophus NIR, obtained by protein sequencing, showed no significant homology to the N-terminal region of nitrite reductases from Pseudomonas stutzeri and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  15. Enzymatic metabolism of ergosterol by cytochrome p450scc to biologically active 17alpha,24-dihydroxyergosterol.

    PubMed

    Slominski, Andrzej; Semak, Igor; Zjawiony, Jordan; Wortsman, Jacobo; Gandy, Michael N; Li, Jinghu; Zbytek, Blazej; Li, Wei; Tuckey, Robert C

    2005-08-01

    We demonstrate the metabolism of ergosterol by cytochrome P450scc in either a reconstituted system or isolated adrenal mitochondria. The major reaction product was identified as 17alpha,24-dihydroxyergosterol. Purified P450scc also generated hydroxyergosterol as a minor product, which is probably an intermediate in the synthesis of 17alpha,24-dihydroxyergosterol. In contrast to cholesterol and 7-dehydrocholesterol, cleavage of the ergosterol side chain was not observed. NMR analysis clearly located one hydroxyl group to C24, with evidence that the second hydroxyl group is at C17. 17alpha,24-Dihydroxyergosterol inhibited cell proliferation of HaCaT keratinocytes and melanoma cells. Thus, in comparison with cholesterol and 7-dehydrocholesterol, the 24-methyl group and the C22-C23 double bond of ergosterol prevent side chain cleavage by P450scc and change the enzyme's hydroxylase activity from C22 and C20, to C24 and C17, generating bioactive product.

  16. Effects of 6-paradol, an unsaturated ketone from gingers, on cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeong Jun; Kim, In Sook; Rehman, Shaheed Ur; Ha, Sang Keun; Nakamura, Katsunori; Yoo, Hye Hyun

    2017-02-20

    Paradols are unsaturated ketones produced by biotransformation of shogaols in gingers. Among them, 6-paradol has been investigated as a new drug candidate due to its anti-inflammatory, apoptotic, and neuroprotective activities. In this study, the inhibitory effects of 6-paradol on the activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes were investigated with human liver microsomes and recombinant CYP isozymes. 6-Paradol showed concentration-dependent inhibitory effects on CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 isozymes, with IC50 values ranging from 3.8 to 21.4µM in recombinant CYP isozymes. However, the inhibition was not potentiated following pre-incubation, indicating that 6-paradol is not a mechanism-based inhibitor. These results suggest that pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions might occur with 6-paradol, which must be considered in the process of new drug development.

  17. [Detection of synthesized microsomal hemoproteins (cytochrome P-448) using autofluorography].

    PubMed

    Chasovnikova, O B; Tsyrlov, I B

    1986-01-01

    Simple and informative method for the elucidation of de novo synthesized forms of microsomal cytochrome P-448 induced by 3-methylcholanthrene and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlordibenzo-p-dioxine has been developed. The method is based on gel fluorography upon electrophoretic separation of microsomal proteins obtained from the liver of rats pre-treated with the inducers of monooxygenase system components and then with 14C-leucine. At least two forms of cytochrome P-448 (with molecular weight of 56000 and 53000) were shown to be de novo synthesized under the influence of 3-methylcholanthrene and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlodbibenzo-p-dioxine.

  18. Spectroscopic quantitation of cytochrome P-450 in human lung microsomes.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, C W; Guenthner, T M

    1990-01-01

    The cytochrome P-450 content of human lung microsomes was measured by difference spectroscopy of the carbon monoxide-complexed hemoprotein. These measurements were only possible after the microsome preparation had been subjected to centrifugation over a discontinuous sucrose gradient, to remove an opaque black contaminant. The specific concentration of total cytochrome P-450 in human lung microsomes is essentially identical to that of microsomes prepared under identical conditions from untreated baboon lungs, but is only 0.7% of the specific content found in lung microsomes from untreated rabbits. These measurements correspond well to the observed metabolic capacities of the various microsome samples.

  19. Effects of cytochrome P450 inhibitors on potassium currents and mechanical activity in rat portal vein.

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, G.; Zygmunt, P. M.; Högestätt, E. D.; Weston, A. H.

    1996-01-01

    1. The effects of the cytochrome P450 inhibitors, proadifen, clotrimazole and 17-octadecynoic acid (17-ODYA) on K-currents in freshly-isolated single cells derived from rat portal vein and on mechanical activity in whole veins were studied. 2. When cells were stepped from -90 mV to a series of test potentials (from -80 to +50 mV), a delayed rectifier current (IK(V)) and an A-type current (IK(A)) could be identified. Proadifen (10 microM), clotrimazole (30 microM) and 17-ODYA (5 microM) each inhibited IK(V) but had little effect on IK(A). 3. When cells were held at -10 mV to inactivate the time-dependent K-currents, IK(V) and IK(A), levcromakalim (3 microM) induced a time-independent outward K-current (IK(ATP)) which was totally inhibited by clotrimazole (30 microM) and almost fully inhibited by proadifen (10 microM). 17-ODYA (5 microM) had no effect on IK(ATP) and exerted only a minor inhibitory action on this current at 20 microM. 4. 17-ODYA (5 microM) potentiated current flow through the large conductance, Ca-sensitive K-channel (BKCa). In contrast, proadifen (10 microM) had no effect on IBK(Ca) whereas clotrimazole (30 microM) exerted a small but significant inhibitory action. 5. Proadifen (10 microM) and clotrimazole (30 microM) each inhibited the magnitude but increased the frequency of spontaneous contractions in whole portal veins. 17-ODYA (5 microM) had no effect on spontaneous contractions but these were inhibited when the concentration of 17-ODYA was increased to 50 microM. 6. The spasmolytic effect of levcromakalim on spontaneous contractions was antagonized by proadifen (10-30 microM) in a concentration-dependent manner but 17-ODYA (up to 50 microM) was without effect. 7. These results in portal vein show that cytochrome P450 inhibitors exert profound effects on a variety of K-channel subtypes. This suggests that enzymes dependent on this cofactor may be important regulators of K-channel activity in smooth muscle. The relevance of these findings for the

  20. Creation of a gold nanoparticle based electrochemical assay for the detection of inhibitors of bacterial cytochrome bd oxidases.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Eugénie; Nikolaev, Anton; Nasiri, Hamid R; Hoeser, Jo; Friedrich, Thorsten; Hellwig, Petra; Melin, Frederic

    2016-10-01

    Cytochrome bd oxidases are membrane proteins expressed by bacteria including a number of pathogens, which make them an attractive target for the discovery of new antibiotics. An electrochemical assay is developed to study the activity of these proteins and inhibition by quinone binding site tool compounds. The setup relies on their immobilization at electrodes specifically modified with gold nanoparticles, which allows achieving a direct electron transfer to/from the heme cofactors of this large enzyme. After optimization of the protein coverages, the assay shows at pH7 a good reproducibility and readout stability over time, and it is thus suitable for further screening of small molecule collections.

  1. CYTOCHROME P450 17A1 STRUCTURES WITH PROSTATE CANCER DRUGS ABIRATERONE AND TOK-001

    PubMed Central

    DeVore, Natasha M.; Scott, Emily E.

    2011-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 17A1 (P450c17) catalyzes the biosynthesis of androgens in humans1. Since prostate cancer cells proliferate in response to androgen steroids2,3, CYP17A1 inhibition is a new strategy to prevent androgen synthesis and treat lethal metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer4, but drug development has been hampered by the lack of a CYP17A1 structure. Here we report the only known structures of CYP17A1, which contain either abiraterone, a first-in-class steroidal inhibitor recently approved by the FDA for late-stage prostate cancer5, or TOK-001, another inhibitor in clinical trials4,6. Both bind the heme iron forming a 60° angle above the heme plane, packing against the central I helix with the 3β-OH interacting with N202 in the F helix. Importantly, this binding mode differs substantially from those predicted by homology models or from steroids in other cytochrome P450 enzymes with known structures, with some features more similar to steroid receptors. While the overall CYP17A1 structure provides a rationale for understanding many mutations found in patients with steroidogenic diseases, the active site reveals multiple steric and hydrogen bonding features that will facilitate better understanding of the enzyme’s dual hydroxylase and lyase catalytic capabilities and assist in rational drug design. Specifically, structure-based design is expected to aid development of inhibitors that bind only CYP17A1 and solely inhibit its androgen-generating lyase activity to improve treatment of prostate and other hormone-responsive cancers. PMID:22266943

  2. Betulin induces mitochondrial cytochrome c release associated apoptosis in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; He, Kan; Huang, Yinghui; Zheng, Daxin; Gao, Chang; Cui, Lin; Jin, Ying-Hua

    2010-07-01

    We examined whether betulin, a naturally abundant compound, has anticancer functions in human cancer cells. The results showed that betulin significantly inhibited cell viability in cervix carcinoma HeLa cells, hepatoma HepG2 cells, lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, and breast cancer MCF-7 cells with IC(50) values ranging from 10 to 15 microg/mL. While betulin exhibited only moderate anticancer activity in other human cancer cells such as hepatoma SK-HEP-1 cells, prostate carcinoma PC-3, and lung carcinoma NCI-H460, with IC(50) values ranging from 20 to 60 microg/mL, it showed minor growth inhibition in human erythroleukemia K562 cells (IC(50) > 100 microg/mL). We further investigated the mechanism of anticancer activity by betulin, using HeLa cells as an experimental model. Betulin (10 microg/mL) induces apoptotic cell death, as evidenced by morphological characteristics such as membrane phosphatidylserine translocation, nuclear condensation/fragmentation, and apoptotic body formation. A kinetics analysis showed that the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c occurred as early as 30 min after treatment with betulin. Betulin, unlike its chemical derivative betulinic acid, did not directly trigger mitochondrial cytochrome c release in isolated mitochondria. Importantly, Bax and Bak were rapidly translocated to the mitochondria 30 min after betulin treatment. The sequential activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3/-7 and the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) were observed behind those mitochondrial events. Furthermore, specific downregulation of either caspase-9, Bax, or Bak by siRNA effectively reduced PARP cleavage and caspase-3 activation. Taken together, the lines of evidence demonstrate that betulin triggers apoptosis of human cancer cells through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

  3. Sequence Polymorphism of Cytochrome b Gene in Theileria annulata Tunisian Isolates and Its Association with Buparvaquone Treatment Failure

    PubMed Central

    Mhadhbi, Moez; Chaouch, Melek; Ajroud, Kaouthar; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz; BenAbderrazak, Souha

    2015-01-01

    Background Buparvaquone (BW 720C) is the major hydroxynaphtoquinone active against tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata infection). Previous studies showed that buparvaquone, similarly to others hydroxynaphtoquinone, probably acts by binding to cytochrome b (cyt b) inhibiting the electron transport chain in the parasite. Several observations suggested that T. annulata is becoming resistant to buparvaquone in many endemic regions (Tunisia, Turkey and Iran), which may hinder the development of bovine livestock in these areas. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study we sought to determine whether point mutations in T. annulata cytochrome b gene could be associated to buparvaquone resistance. A total of 28 clones were studied in this work, 19 of which were obtained from 3 resistant isolates (ST2/12, ST2/13 and ST2/19) collected at different time after treatment, from a field treatment failure and nine clones isolated from 4 sensitive stocks of T. annulata (Beja, Battan, Jed4 and Sousse). The cytochrome b gene was amplified and sequenced. We identified five point mutations at the protein sequences (114, 129, 253, 262 and 347) specific for the clones isolated from resistant stocks. Two of them affecting 68% (13/19) of resistant clones, are present in the drug-binding site Q02 region at the position 253 in three resistant clones and at the position 262 in 11 out of 19 resistant clones. These two mutations substitute a neutral and hydrophobic amino acids by polar and hydrophilic ones which could interfere with the drug binding capabilities. When we compared our sequences to the Iranian ones, the phylogenetic tree analyses show the presence of a geographical sub-structuring in the population of T. annulata. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, our results suggest that the cytochrome b gene may be used as a tool to discriminate between different T. annulata genotypes and also as a genetic marker to characterize resistant isolates of T. annulata. PMID

  4. Role of cytochrome P450 2E1 in the metabolism of acrylamide and acrylonitrile in mice.

    PubMed

    Sumner, S C; Fennell, T R; Moore, T A; Chanas, B; Gonzalez, F; Ghanayem, B I

    1999-11-01

    Acrylonitrile (AN) and acrylamide (AM) are commonly used in the synthesis of plastics and polymers. In rodents, AM and AN are metabolized to the epoxides glycidamide and cyanoethylene oxide, respectively. The aim of this study was to determine the role of cytochrome P450 in the metabolism of AM and AN in vivo. Wild-type (WT) mice, WT mice pretreated with aminobenzotriazole (ABT, 50 mg/kg ip, 2 h pre-exposure), and mice devoid of cytochrome P450 2E1 (P450 2E1-null) were treated with 50 mg/kg [(13)C]AM po. WT mice and P450 2E1-null mice were treated with 2.5 or 10 mg/kg [(13)C]AN po. Urine was collected for 24 h, and metabolites were characterized using (13)C NMR. WT mice excreted metabolites derived from the epoxides and from direct GSH conjugation with AM or AN. Only metabolites derived from direct GSH conjugation with AM or AN were observed in the urine from ABT-pretreated WT mice and P450 2E1-null mice. On the basis of evaluation of urinary metabolites at these doses, these data suggest that P450 2E1 is possibly the only cytochrome P450 enzyme involved in the metabolism of AM and AN in mice, that inhibiting total P450 activity does not result in new pathways of non-P450 metabolism of AM, and that mice devoid of P450 2E1 do not excrete metabolites of AM or AN that would be produced by oxidation by other cytochrome P450s. P450 2E1-null mice may be an appropriate model for the investigation of the role of oxidative metabolism in the toxicity or carcinogenicity of these compounds.

  5. Cardiac contractility in Antarctic teleost is modulated by nitrite through xanthine oxidase and cytochrome p-450 nitrite reductase.

    PubMed

    Garofalo, Filippo; Amelio, Daniela; Gattuso, Alfonsina; Cerra, Maria Carmela; Pellegrino, Daniela

    2015-09-15

    In mammalian and non-mammalian vertebrates, nitrite anion, the largest pool of intravascular and tissue nitric oxide storage, represents a key player of many biological processes, including cardiac modulation. As shown by our studies on Antarctic teleosts, nitrite-dependent cardiac regulation is of great relevance also in cold-blooded vertebrates. This study analysed the influence elicited by nitrite on the performance of the perfused beating heart of two Antarctic stenotherm teleosts, the haemoglobinless Chionodraco hamatus (icefish) and the red-blooded Trematomus bernacchii. Since haemoglobin is crucial in nitric oxide homeostasis, the icefish, a naturally occurring genetic knockout for this protein, provides exclusive opportunities to investigate nitric oxide/nitrite signaling. In vivo, nitrite conversion to nitric oxide requires the nitrite reductase activity of xanthine oxidase and cytochrome P-450, thus the involvement of these enzymes was also evaluated. We showed that, in C. hamatus and T. bernacchii, nitrite influenced cardiac performance by inducing a concentration-dependent positive inotropic effect which was unaffected by nitric oxide scavenging by PTIO in C. hamatus, while it was abolished in T. bernacchii. Specific inhibition of xanthine oxidase and cytochrome P-450 revealed, in the two teleosts, that the nitrite-dependent inotropism required the nitrite reductase activity of both enzymes. We also found that xanthine oxidase is more expressed in C. hamatus than in T. bernacchii, while the opposite was observed concerning cytochrome P-450. Results suggested that in the heart of C. hamatus and T. bernacchii, nitrite is an integral physiological source of nitric oxide with important signaling properties, which require the nitrite reductase activity of xanthine oxidase and cytochrome P-450.

  6. Importance of hydrophobic interaction between a SoxB-type cytochrome c oxidase with its natural substrate cytochrome c-551 and its mutants.

    PubMed

    Kagekawa, Sayaka; Mizukami, Makoto; Noguchi, Shunsuke; Sakamoto, Junshi; Sone, Nobuhito

    2002-08-01

    Cytochrome c-551, the electron donor of SoxB-type cytochrome c oxidase in thermophilic bacilli, can be over-expressed in Bacillus thermodenitrificans cells by tranformation with pSTEc551. Several mutant cytochromes c-551 were prepared by site-directed mutagenesis to this expression plasmid. Among them, several Lys residues were changed to Ala/Ser, and we found that these mutant cytochromes retained their activity as substrates, although their K(m) values were 0.04-0.12 microM, depending on the site replaced. In contrast, the C19A mutant cytochrome, which was produced in Brevibacillus choshinensis as a secretion protein, lost its activity as a substrate, suggesting that the fatty acyl-glyceryl residue covalently bound to the cysteine residue of the wild-type c-551 plays a very important role in the activity. The importance of the hydrophobic fatty acid residue for the binding of cytochrome c-551 to the oxidase was also shown by the loss of substrate activity in deacylated cytochrome c-551. These results show the importance of the hydrophobic interaction between this cytochrome and SoxB-type oxidase, despite the fact that the importance of an electrostatic interaction between cytochrome c and mitochondrial cytochrome aa(3) oxidase has already been established.

  7. The effects of flubendazole and mebendazole on cytochromes P4501A in pheasant hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Savlík, M; Polásková, P; Szotáková, B; Lamka, J; Skálová, L

    2005-10-01

    Many benzimidazoles are known inducers of cytochromes P4501A (CYP1A) in laboratory animals and cell lines. As flubendazole and mebendazole are benzimidazole anthelmintics often used in a pheasant, in the present study an effect of these drugs in primary cultures of pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) hepatocytes was investigated. After 48 h incubation of the hepatocytes with the benzimidazoles (0.2-5 microM), CYP1A activities -- ethoxyresorufin O-deethylation (EROD) and methoxyresorufin O-demethylation (MROD) activities were measured and the CYP1A protein levels were determined by Western blotting. None of the tested benzimidazoles influenced the CYP1A protein content. No pharmacologically significant enhancement of CYP1A after exposure of the hepatocytes to flubendazole and mebendazole was found. Inhibition of the EROD/MROD activities caused by both tested substances was observed only at the highest concentration (5 microM). From a point of view of CYP1A induction or inhibition, the treatment of pheasants by both anthelmintics tested seems to be safe. Our study demonstrates the inter-species differences in CYP1A inducibility and the importance of induction/inhibition studies on target animals.

  8. Role of cytochrome P4502B6 in methadone metabolism and clearance.

    PubMed

    Kharasch, Evan D; Stubbert, Kristi

    2013-03-01

    Methadone N-demethylation in vitro is catalyzed by hepatic cytochrome P4502B6 (CYP2B6) and CYP3A4, but clinical disposition is often attributed to CYP3A4. This investigation tested the hypothesis that CYP2B6 is a prominent CYP isoform responsible for clinical methadone N-demethylation and clearance, using the in vivo mechanism-based CYP2B6 inhibitor ticlopidine, given orally for 4 days. A preliminary clinical investigation with the CYP3A4/5 substrate probe alfentanil established that ticlopidine did not inhibit intestinal or hepatic CYP3A4/5. Subjects received intravenous plus oral (deuterium-labeled) racemic methadone before and after ticlopidine. Ticlopidine significantly and stereoselectively (S > R) inhibited methadone N-demethylation, decreasing plasma metabolite/methadone area under the curve ratios and metabolite formation clearances. Ticlopidine also significantly increased the dose-adjusted plasma area under the curve for R- and S-methadone by 20% and 60%, respectively, after both intravenous and oral dosing. CYP2B6 inhibition reduces methadone N-demethylation and clearance, and alters methadone concentrations, demonstrating an important role for CYP2B6 in clinical methadone disposition.

  9. Cytochrome b5 and NADH cytochrome b5 reductase: genotype-phenotype correlations for hydroxylamine reduction

    PubMed Central

    Sacco, James C.; Trepanier, Lauren A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives NADH cytochrome b5 reductase (b5R) and cytochrome b5 (b5) catalyze the reduction of sulfamethoxazole hydroxylamine (SMX-HA), which can contribute to sulfonamide hypersensitivity, to the parent drug sulfamethoxazole. Variability in hydroxylamine reduction could thus play a role in adverse drug reactions. The aim of this study was to characterize variability in SMX-HA reduction in 111 human livers, and investigate its association with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in b5 and b5R cDNA. Methods Liver microsomes were assayed for SMX-HA reduction activity, and b5 and b5R expression was semi-quantified by immunoblotting. The coding regions of the b5 (CYB5A) and b5R (CYB5R3) genes were resequenced. Results Hepatic SMX-HA reduction displayed a 19-fold range of individual variability (0.06–1.11 nmol/min/mg protein), and a 17-fold range in efficiency (Vmax/Km) among outliers. SMX-HA reduction was positively correlated with b5 and b5R protein content (p < 0.0001, r = 0.42; p = 0.01, r = 0.23, respectively), and expression of both proteins correlated with one another (p < 0.0001; r = 0.74). A novel cSNP in CYB5A (S5A) was associated with very low activity and protein expression. Two novel CYB5R3 SNPs, R59H and R297H, displayed atypical SMX-HA reduction kinetics and decreased SMX-HA reduction efficiency. Conclusion These studies indicate that while novel cSNPs in CYB5A and CYB5R3 are associated with significantly altered protein expression and/or hydroxylamine reduction activities, these low frequency cSNPs only appear to minimally impact overall observed phenotypic variability. Work is underway to characterize polymorphisms in other regions of these genes to further account for individual variability in hydroxylamine reduction. PMID:19997042

  10. Low reduction potential cytochrome b5 isotypes of Giardia intestinalis.

    PubMed

    Pazdzior, Robert; Yang, Zhen Alice; Mesbahuddin, Mirfath Sultana; Yee, Janet; van der Est, Art; Rafferty, Steven

    2015-10-01

    Despite lacking mitochondria and a known pathway for heme biosynthesis the micro-aerotolerant anaerobic protozoan parasite Giardia intestinalis encodes four members of the cytochrome b5 family of electron transfer proteins, three of which are small, single-domain proteins. While these are similar in size and fold to their better-known mammalian counterparts the Giardia proteins have distinctly lower reduction potentials, ranging from -140 to -171 mV compared to +6 mV for the bovine microsomal protein. This difference is accounted for by a more polar heme environment in the Giardia proteins, as mutation of a conserved heme pocket tyrosine residue to phenylalanine in the Giardia cytochrome b5 isotype-I (gCYTb5-I Y61F) raises its reduction potential by nearly 100 mV. All three isotypes have UV-visible spectra consistent with axial coordination of the heme by a pair of histidine residues, but electron paramagnetic spectroscopy indicates that the planes of their imidazole rings are nearly perpendicular rather than coplanar as observed in mammalian cytochrome b5, which may be due to geometrical constraints imposed by a one-residue shorter spacing between the ligand pair in the Giardia proteins. Although no function has yet to be ascribed to any Giardia cytochrome b5, the presence of similar sequences in many other eukaryotes indicates that these represent an under-characterized class of low reduction potential family members.

  11. Cytochrome allelic variants and clopidogrel metabolism in cardiovascular diseases therapy.

    PubMed

    Jarrar, Mohammed; Behl, Shalini; Manyam, Ganiraju; Ganah, Hany; Nazir, Mohammed; Nasab, Reem; Moustafa, Khaled

    2016-06-01

    Clopidogrel and aspirin are among the most prescribed dual antiplatelet therapies to treat the acute coronary syndrome and heart attacks. However, their potential clinical impacts are a subject of intense debates. The therapeutic efficiency of clopidogrel is controlled by the actions of hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYPs) enzymes and impacted by individual genetic variations. Inter-individual polymorphisms in CYPs enzymes affect the metabolism of clopidogrel into its active metabolites and, therefore, modify its turnover and clinical outcome. So far, clinical trials fail to confirm higher or lower adverse cardiovascular effects in patients treated with combinations of clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors, compared with clopidogrel alone. Such inconclusive findings may be due to genetic variations in the cytochromes CYP2C19 and CYP3A4/5. To investigate potential interactions/effects of these cytochromes and their allele variants on the treatment of acute coronary syndrome with clopidogrel alone or in combination with proton pump inhibitors, we analyze recent literature and discuss the potential impact of the cytochrome allelic variants on cardiovascular events and stent thrombosis treated with clopidogrel. The diversity of CYP2C19 polymorphisms and prevalence span within various ethnic groups, subpopulations and demographic areas are also debated.

  12. Solubilized cytochrome c oxidase from Paracoccus denitrificans is a monomer.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, B; Grabo, M; Gregor, I; Lustig, A; Regenass, M; Rosenbusch, J P

    1982-05-25

    Cytochrome c oxidase purified from the bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans was analyzed by analytical ultracentrifugation. In the detergent octyltetra/pentaoxyethylene (C8E45), the isolated enzyme exhibits a molecular weight of 79,000 to 84,000. The detergent-solubilized enzyme is thus a monomer which contains one copy of each of the two subunits.

  13. The number of nucleotide binding sites in cytochrome C oxidase.

    PubMed

    Rieger, T; Napiwotzki, J; Hüther, F J; Kadenbach, B

    1995-12-05

    The binding of 2'(3')-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-adenosine-5'-triphosphate (TNP-ATP), [35S]ATP alpha S and 8-azido-[gamma-32P]ATP to isolated cytochrome c oxidase of bovine heart and liver and to the two-subunit enzyme of Paracoccus dentrificans was studied by measuring the fluorescence change or bound radioactivity, respectively. With TNP-ATP three binding sites were determined at cytochrome c oxidase from bovine heart and liver, both with two dissociation constants Kd of about 0.2 and 0.9 microM. Trypsin treatment of the enzyme from bovine heart, resulted in one binding site with a Kd of 0.3 microM. The two-subunit enzyme of Paracoccus dentrificans had only one binding site with a Kd of 3.6 microM. The binding of [35S]ATP alpha S to cytochrome c oxidase was studied by equilibrium dialysis. With the enzyme of bovine heart seven and the enzyme of liver six high-affinity binding sites with apparent Kd's of 7.5 and 12 microM, respectively, were obtained. The two-subunit enzyme of Paracoccus denitrificans had one binding site with a Kd of 20 microM. The large number of binding sites at cytochrome c oxidase from bovine heart, mainly at nuclear coded subunits, was verified by photoaffinity labelling with 8-azido-[gamma-32P]ATP.

  14. Relationship between horn fly infestation and polymorphisms in cytochrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Individual animal variation occurs regarding external parasite infestation in beef cattle. Our objective was to determine if horn flies infestations present on beef cattle are associated with the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; T-318C) in the cytochrome P450 gene (CYP3A28) and the prolactin (PR...

  15. Isolation of a cytochrome aa3 gene from Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    PubMed Central

    O'Brian, Mark R.; Maier, Robert J.

    1987-01-01

    Bradyhizobium japonicum strain LO501 is a Tn5-induced mutant that does not express the terminal oxidase cytochrome aa3 (cytochrome-c oxidase, EC 1.9.3.1). Two and one-half kilobase pairs of LO501 genomic DNA that flanks the transposon was isolated and used as a hybridization probe to obtain the wild-type gene from a cosmid library. Two subcloned fragments from two of the isolated cosmids were ligated into broad host range vectors, and restriction maps of these fragments were generated. The resultant plasmids, pCA1 and pBL33, each contained DNA homologous to that mutated in strain LO501. The two plasmids were each introduced into strain LO501 by conjugal transfer, and it was found that pCA1, but not pBL33, complemented the oxidase mutant. The transconjugant strain LO501[pCA1] expressed wild-type levels of cytochrome aa3, as discerned spectrophotometrically, and had restored N,N,N′,N′-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine oxidase activity. Furthermore, the frequency of complementation of LO501 cells that received pCA1 by conjugation was 1.0, demonstrating that pCA1 complemented the mutant in trans. The results show that pCA1 contains the entire wild-type gene that was mutated in strain LO501, and this gene is required for cytochrome aa3 expression. Images PMID:16593835

  16. Electron-paramagnetic-resonance studies of structure and function of the two-haem enzymes Pseudomonas cytochrome c peroxidase and beef heart cytochrome c oxidase.

    PubMed

    Vänngård, T

    1985-06-01

    Beef heart cytochrome c oxidase contains two cytochromes, a and a3, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa cytochrome c peroxidase has one high- and one low-potential c haem, cHP and cLP. The parallelism in co-ordination and spin states between cytochrome a and haem cHP on the one hand and between cytochrome a3 and haem cLP on the other is illustrated. The two latter haems become accessible to cyanide, when the former are reduced. Such reduction also leads to an activation of the enzymes. Mechanisms are presented in which ferryl forms of cytochromes a3 and haem cLP take part. The enzymes reach an oxidation state, formally the same as resting enzyme, but with different properties.

  17. Soluble CuA domain of cyanobacterial cytochrome c oxidase.

    PubMed

    Paumann, Martina; Lubura, Borjana; Regelsberger, Günther; Feichtinger, Markus; Köllensberger, Gunda; Jakopitsch, Christa; Furtmüller, Paul G; Peschek, Günter A; Obinger, Christian

    2004-03-12

    The genomes of several cyanobacteria show the existence of gene clusters encoding subunits I, II, and III of aa(3)-type cytochrome c oxidase. The enzyme occurs on both plasma and thylakoid membranes of these oxygenic phototrophic prokaryotes. Here we report the expression and purification of a truncated subunit II copper A (Cu(A)) domain (i.e. the electron entry and donor binding site) of cytochrome c oxidase from the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803 in high yield. The water-soluble purple redox-active bimetallic center displays a relatively low standard reduction potential of 216 mV. Its absorption spectrum at pH 7 is similar to that of other soluble fragments from aa(3)-type oxidases, but the insensitivity of both absorbance and circular dichroism spectra to pH suggests that it is less exposed to the aqueous milieu compared with other Cu(A) domains. Oxidation of horse heart cytochrome c by the bimetallic center follows monophasic kinetics. At pH 7 and low ionic strength the bimolecular rate constant is (2.1 +/- 0.3) x 10(4) m-1 s(-1), and the rates decrease upon the increase of ionic strength. Sequence alignment and modeling of cyanobacterial Cu(A) domains show several peculiarities such as: (i) a large insertion located between the second transmembrane region and the putative hydrophobic cytochrome c docking site, (ii) the lack of acidic residues shown to be important in the interaction between cytochrome c and Paracoccus Cu(A) domain, and (iii) an extended C terminus similar to Escherichia coli ubiquinol oxidase.

  18. Cytochromes P450 in the bioactivation of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Ioannides, Costas; Lewis, David F V

    2004-01-01

    The initial view that the cytochrome P450 enzyme system functions simply in the deactivation of xenobiotics is anachronistic on the face of mounting evidence that this system can also transform many innocuous chemicals to toxic products. However, not all xenobiotic-metabolising cytochrome P450 subfamilies show the same propensity in the bioactivation of chemicals. For example, the CYP2C, 2B and 2D subfamilies play virtually no role in the bioactivation of toxic and carcinogenic chemicals, whereas the CYP1A, 1B and 2E subfamilies are responsible for the bioactivation of the majority of xenobiotics. Electronic and molecular structural features of organic chemicals appear to predispose them to either bioactivation by one cytochrome P450 enzyme or deactivation by another. Consequently, the fate of a chemical in the body is largely dependent on the cytochrome P450 profile at the time of exposure. Any factor that modulates the enzymes involved in the metabolism of a certain chemical will also influence its toxicity and carcinogenicity. For example, many chemical carcinogens bioactivated by CYP1, on repeated administration, selectively induce this family, thus exacerbating their carcinogenicity. CYP1 induction potency by chemicals appears to be determined by a combination of their molecular shape and electron activation. The function of cytochromes P450 in the bioactivation of chemicals is currently being exploited to design systems that can be used clinically to facilitate the metabolic conversion of prodrugs to their biologically-active metabolites in cells that poorly express them, such as tumour cells, in the so-called gene-directed prodrug therapy.

  19. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-mediated depression of rat testicular heme synthesis and microsomal cytochrome P-450.

    PubMed

    Tofilon, P J; Piper, W N

    1982-11-15

    Exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) produces hirsutism, alopecia, and chloracne, symptoms that suggest a possible alteration of endocrine function. Therefore, the effects of TCDD on rat testicular cytochrome P-450 content were investigated. Forty-eight hours after a single, oral dose of TCDD (25 microgram/kg) testicular microsomal cytochrome P-450 levels were depressed by approximately 24%. Microsomal cytochrome P-450 continued to decrease to 62% of control levels at 4 days and remained at approximately the same levels 7 days following treatment. Testicular microsomal heme content exhibited a similar pattern after administration of TCDD. No alterations in testicular delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) synthase were detected. The incorporation of [14C]ALA into microsomal heme was decreased to approximately 36% of control values at 24 hr after TCDD administration. Testicular weights were not altered during the 7-day experimental period. These data suggest that TCDD depresses cytochrome P-450 levels in the rat testis through an inhibition of the synthesis of testicular heme.

  20. Effects of various compounds on lipid peroxidation mediated by detergent-solubilized rat liver NADPH-cytochrome C reductase.

    PubMed

    Kamataki, T; Sugita, O; Naminohira, S; Kitagawa, H

    1978-12-01

    A reconstituted lipid peroxidation system containing NADPH-cytochrome c reductase isolated from detergent-solubilized rat liver microsomes was used to determine the effects of several compounds, including drugs, on the lipid peroxidation activity. EDTA and ferrous ion were essential requirements for reconstitution of the activity. The addition of 1,10-phenanthroline to the system containing both EDTA and ferrous ion further enhanced the activity. Pyrocatecol, thymol, p-aminophenol, imipramine, p-chloromercuribenzoate (PCMB) and alpha-tocopherol exhibited strong inhibition, aniline, N-monomethylaniline, aminopyrine, benzphetamine, SKF 525-A and NADP exhibited moderate inhibition, and phenol, benzoic acid, acetanilide and nicotinamide exhibited less or no inhibition at the concentrations lower than 1000 micron M. Metal ions such as Hg+, Hg2+, Co2+, Cu2+, Mn2+ and U6+ inhibited lipid peroxidation strongly. In addition, Cd2+, St2+ and Ca2+ exhibited less potent to moderate inhibition, and Ba2+ and Mg2+ were without effects on the activity. Among sulfhydryl compounds tested, dithiothreitol inhibited lipid peroxidation to a greater extent than did the other three compounds, glutathione, cysteine and mercaptoethanol.

  1. Isolation and characterization of an Escherichia coli mutant lacking cytochrome d terminal oxidase.

    PubMed Central

    Green, G N; Gennis, R B

    1983-01-01

    A screening procedure was devised which permitted the isolation of a cytochrome d-deficient mutant by its failure to oxidize the artificial electron donor N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine. Cytochrome a1 and probably cytochrome b558 were also missing in the mutant. Growth and oxygen uptake rates were similar for both parent and mutant strains. However, the strain lacking cytochrome d had an increased sensitivity to cyanide, indicating that cytochrome d confers some resistance to this respiratory inhibitor. The gene responsible for these phenotypes has been named cyd and maps between tolA and sucB. PMID:6304009

  2. Mechanistic Scrutiny Identifies a Kinetic Role for Cytochrome b5 Regulation of Human Cytochrome P450c17 (CYP17A1, P450 17A1)

    PubMed Central

    Simonov, Alexandr N.; Holien, Jessica K.; Yeung, Joyee Chun In; Nguyen, Ann D.; Corbin, C. Jo; Zheng, Jie; Kuznetsov, Vladimir L.; Auchus, Richard J.; Conley, Alan J.; Bond, Alan M.; Parker, Michael W.; Rodgers, Raymond J.; Martin, Lisandra L.

    2015-01-01

    Cytochrome P450c17 (P450 17A1, CYP17A1) is a critical enzyme in the synthesis of androgens and is now a target enzyme for the treatment of prostate cancer. Cytochrome P450c17 can exhibit either one or two physiological enzymatic activities differentially regulated by cytochrome b5. How this is achieved remains unknown. Here, comprehensive in silico, in vivo and in vitro analyses were undertaken. Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer analysis showed close interactions within living cells between cytochrome P450c17 and cytochrome b5. In silico modeling identified the sites of interaction and confirmed that E48 and E49 residues in cytochrome b5 are essential for activity. Quartz crystal microbalance studies identified specific protein-protein interactions in a lipid membrane. Voltammetric analysis revealed that the wild type cytochrome b5, but not a mutated, E48G/E49G cyt b5, altered the kinetics of electron transfer between the electrode and the P450c17. We conclude that cytochrome b5 can influence the electronic conductivity of cytochrome P450c17 via allosteric, protein-protein interactions. PMID:26587646

  3. The orientations of cytochrome c in the highly dynamic complex with cytochrome b5 visualized by NMR and docking using HADDOCK

    PubMed Central

    Volkov, Alexander N.; Ferrari, Davide; Worrall, Jonathan A.R.; Bonvin, Alexandre M.J.J.; Ubbink, Marcellus

    2005-01-01

    The interaction of bovine microsomal ferricytochrome b5 with yeast iso-1-ferri and ferrocytochrome c has been investigated using heteronuclear NMR techniques. Chemical-shift perturbations for 1H and 15N nuclei of both cytochromes, arising from the interactions with the unlabeled partner proteins, were used for mapping the interacting surfaces on both proteins. The similarity of the binding shifts observed for oxidized and reduced cytochrome c indicates that the complex formation is not influenced by the oxidation state of the cytochrome c. Protein–protein docking simulations have been performed for the binary cytochrome b5–cytochrome c and ternary (cytochrome b5)–(cytochrome c)2 complexes using a novel HADDOCK approach. The docking procedure, which makes use of the experimental data to drive the docking, identified a range of orientations assumed by the proteins in the complex. It is demonstrated that cytochrome c uses a confined surface patch for interaction with a much more extensive surface area of cytochrome b5. Taken together, the experimental data suggest the presence of a dynamic ensemble of conformations assumed by the proteins in the complex. PMID:15689516

  4. Insights into cytochrome bc 1 complex binding mode of antimalarial 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinones through molecular modelling

    PubMed Central

    Sodero, Ana Carolina Rennó; Abrahim-Vieira, Bárbara; Torres, Pedro Henrique Monteiro; Pascutti, Pedro Geraldo; Garcia, Célia RS; Ferreira, Vitor Francisco; da Rocha, David Rodrigues; Ferreira, Sabrina Baptista; Silva, Floriano Paes

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Malaria persists as a major public health problem. Atovaquone is a drug that inhibits the respiratory chain of Plasmodium falciparum, but with serious limitations like known resistance, low bioavailability and high plasma protein binding. OBJECTIVES The aim of this work was to perform molecular modelling studies of 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinones analogues of atovaquone on the Qo site of P. falciparum cytochrome bc 1 complex (Pfbc1) to suggest structural modifications that could improve their antimalarial activity. METHODS We have built the homology model of the cytochrome b (CYB) and Rieske iron-sulfur protein (ISP) subunits from Pfbc1 and performed the molecular docking of 41 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinones with known in vitro antimalarial activity and predicted to act on this target. FINDINGS Results suggest that large hydrophobic R2 substituents may be important for filling the deep hydrophobic Qo site pocket. Moreover, our analysis indicates that the H-donor 2-hydroxyl group may not be crucial for efficient binding and inhibition of Pfbc1 by these atovaquone analogues. The C1 carbonyl group (H-acceptor) is more frequently involved in the important hydrogen bonding interaction with His152 of the Rieske ISP subunit. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Additional interactions involving residues such as Ile258 and residues required for efficient catalysis (e.g., Glu261) could be explored in drug design to avoid development of drug resistance by the parasite. PMID:28327793

  5. The involvement of cytochrome P450 peroxidase in the metabolic bioactivation of cumene hydroperoxide by isolated rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Anari, M R; Khan, S; O'Brien, P J

    1996-09-01

    Organic hydroperoxides are believed to be primarily detoxified in cells by the GSH peroxidase/GSSG reductase system and activated to cytotoxic radical species by non-heme iron. However, organic hydroperoxides seem to be bioactivated by cytochrome P450 (P450) in isolated hepatocytes as various P450 (particularly P450 2E1) inhibitors inhibited cumene hydroperoxide (CumOOH) metabolism and attenuated subsequent cytotoxic effects including antimycin A-resistant respiration, lipid peroxidation, iron mobilization, ATP depletion, and cell membrane disruption. CumOOH metabolism was also faster in P450 1A-induced hepatocytes and was inhibited by the P450 1A inhibitor alpha-naphthoflavone. The ferric chelator deferoxamine also prevented cytotoxicity even after CumOOH had been metabolized but had no effect on CumOOH metabolism. This emphasizes the toxicological significance of the iron released following hydroperoxide metabolic activation by cytochrome P450. The radical trap, 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPO), had no effect on CumOOH metabolism but prevented CumOOH-induced antimycin A-resistant respiration, lipid peroxidation, iron mobilization, and loss of membrane integrity. These results suggest that CumOOH is metabolically activated by some P450 enzymes (e.g., P450 2E1) in hepatocytes to form reactive radical metabolites or oxidants that cause lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity.

  6. Diminished degradation of yeast cytochrome c by interactions with its physiological partners.

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, D A; Sherman, F

    1995-01-01

    The level and structure of yeast iso-1-cytochrome c and iso-2-cytochrome c, encoded by the nuclear genes CYC1 and CYC7, respectively, are normally not altered in rho- mutants, which completely lack the cytochromes a.a3 subunits and cytochrome b that are encoded by mitochondrial DNA. In contrast, iso-cytochromes c containing the amino acid change Thr-78-->Ile (T78I) were observed at the normal or near-normal wild-type level in rho+ strains but were completely absent in rho- mutants. We have demonstrated with the "global" suppressor mutation Asn-52-->Ile and by pulse-chase labeling that the T78I iso-1-cytochrome c undergoes rapid cellular degradation in rho- mutants. Furthermore, specific mutations revealed that the deficiency of T78I iso-1 cytochrome c can be caused by the lack of cytochrome a.a3 or cytochrome c1, but not by the lack of cytochrome b. Thus, this and certain other, but not all, labile forms of cytochrome c are protected from degradation by the interaction with its physiological partners. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7731975

  7. A comparison of the physical and chemical properties of four cytochromes c from Azotobacter vinelandii

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Wilbur H.; Orme-Johnson, William H.; Burris, Robert H.

    1973-01-01

    1. A modified method for the separation and purification of four cytochromes c from Azotobacter vinelandii is described. Two new cytochromes c have been purified and are designated cytochromes c(551) and c(555). 2. Additional evidence is presented to establish the dihaem nature of cytochrome c4. Ultracentrifugation data indicated similar molecular weights for the native and the denatured protein. Cleavage with CNBr yielded seven peptides; the amino acid compositions of the purified peptides were determined. Only one haem peptide was recovered. 3. Cytochromes c(551) and c(555) were characterized as acidic proteins of molecular weights about 12000. The spectral properties, isoelectric points, `maps' of peptides from CNBr cleavage and amino acid compositions were determined for these two proteins. 4. The spectral properties, isoelectric points, molecular weights, CNBr peptide `maps', amino acid compositions, relative oxidation–reduction potentials and e.p.r. (electron-paramagnetic-resonance) spectra of the four cytochromes c were compared. Cytochrome c4 and cytochrome c(551) appear to be distinct proteins. The distinction between cytochromes c5 and c(555) was not as clear, and our data are inadequate to establish firmly that they are distinct proteins. 5. The dihaem nature of cytochrome c4 is evident in its e.p.r. spectrum. The e.p.r. spectra are similar to the spectra of mammalian cytochromes c. PMID:4360247