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Sample records for inhibits fast axonal

  1. Inhibition of Fast Axonal Transport by Pathogenic SOD1 Involves Activation of p38 MAP Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Morfini, Gerardo A.; Bosco, Daryl A.; Brown, Hannah; Gatto, Rodolfo; Kaminska, Agnieszka; Song, Yuyu; Molla, Linda; Baker, Lisa; Marangoni, M. Natalia; Berth, Sarah; Tavassoli, Ehsan; Bagnato, Carolina; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Hayward, Lawrence J.; Pigino, Gustavo F.; Watterson, D. Martin; Huang, Chun-Fang; Banker, Gary; Brown, Robert H.; Brady, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    Dying-back degeneration of motor neuron axons represents an established feature of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) associated with superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutations, but axon-autonomous effects of pathogenic SOD1 remained undefined. Characteristics of motor neurons affected in FALS include abnormal kinase activation, aberrant neurofilament phosphorylation, and fast axonal transport (FAT) deficits, but functional relationships among these pathogenic events were unclear. Experiments in isolated squid axoplasm reveal that FALS-related SOD1 mutant polypeptides inhibit FAT through a mechanism involving a p38 mitogen activated protein kinase pathway. Mutant SOD1 activated neuronal p38 in mouse spinal cord, neuroblastoma cells and squid axoplasm. Active p38 MAP kinase phosphorylated kinesin-1, and this phosphorylation event inhibited kinesin-1. Finally, vesicle motility assays revealed previously unrecognized, isoform-specific effects of p38 on FAT. Axon-autonomous activation of the p38 pathway represents a novel gain of toxic function for FALS-linked SOD1 proteins consistent with the dying-back pattern of neurodegeneration characteristic of ALS. PMID:23776455

  2. Notch Signaling Inhibits Axon Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bejjani, Rachid El; Hammarlund, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Summary Many neurons have limited capacity to regenerate their axons after injury. Neurons in the mammalian CNS do not regenerate, and even neurons in the PNS often fail to regenerate to their former targets. This failure is likely due in part to pathways that actively restrict regeneration; however, only a few factors that limit regeneration are known. Here, using single-neuron analysis of regeneration in vivo, we show that Notch/lin-12 signaling inhibits the regeneration of mature C. elegans neurons. Notch signaling suppresses regeneration by acting autonomously in the injured cell to prevent growth cone formation. The metalloprotease and gamma-secretase cleavage events that lead to Notch activation during development are also required for its activity in regeneration. Furthermore, blocking Notch activation immediately after injury improves regeneration. Our results define a novel, post-developmental role for the Notch pathway as a repressor of axon regeneration in vivo. PMID:22284182

  3. Fast axonal transport in early experimental disc edema.

    PubMed

    Radius, R L; Anderson, D R

    1980-02-01

    Previous work has documented impairment of slow axonal transport in papilledema, but the abnormalities in rapid transport were less certain. Therefore fast axonal transport was studied in 19 primate eyes subjected to ocular hypotony for 6 to 72 hr following surgical fistulization of the anterior chamber. Mild, irregular alterations in fast axonal transport were detected only after nerve head swelling was apparent. These changes in fast transport mechanisms in cases of nerve head edema occur after, and may be secondary to, impaired slow axoplasmic flow and the resultant axonal swelling. Furthermore, since prolonged complete interruption of axonal transport is theoretically inconsistent with the continued normal neuron function characteristic of papilledema and, moreover, since previous data shows a "slowdown" rather than complete blockade of axonal transport in papilledema, it is likely that in eyes with papilledema there does not exist a complete flock of axonal transport. Therefore we hypothesize that the swelling results when slow axoplasmic flow is locally slowed down but not totally stopped, with the axon distention producing secondary mild, irregular changes in fast axonal transport.

  4. Fast axonal transport in isolated axoplasm from the squid giant axon.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuyu; Kang, Minsu; Morfini, Gerardo; Brady, Scott T

    2016-01-01

    The giant axon of the squid provides a unique cell biological model for analyzing the biochemistry and cell biology of the axon. These axons may exceed 500 μm in diameter and can be readily dissected. Once the surrounding small axons and connective tissue are removed, the axoplasm can be extruded as an intact cylinder of isolated cytoplasm. This isolated axoplasm is morphologically indistinguishable from the intact axon, but without permeability barriers. Fast axonal transport will continue for more than 4 h after extrusion and can be visualized in real time. By perfusing defined concentrations of proteins and/or reagents into the axoplasm, this preparation represents a powerful model for study of intracellular trafficking and its underlying molecular mechanisms.

  5. Intra-axonal translation of RhoA promotes axon growth inhibition by CSPG.

    PubMed

    Walker, Breset A; Ji, Sheng-Jian; Jaffrey, Samie R

    2012-10-10

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are a major component of the glial scar that contributes to the limited regeneration of the CNS after axonal injury. However, the intracellular mechanisms that mediate the effects of CSPGs are not fully understood. Here we show that axonal growth inhibition mediated by CSPGs requires intra-axonal protein synthesis. Application of CSPGs to postnatal rat dorsal root ganglia axons results in an increase in the axonal levels of phosphorylated 4E-BP1, a marker of increased protein translation. Axons grown in media containing CSPGs exhibit markedly reduced growth rates, which can be restored by the selective application of protein synthesis inhibitors to distal axons. We show that these axons contain transcripts encoding RhoA, a regulator of the cytoskeleton that is commonly used by the signaling pathways activated by many inhibitors of axon growth. We also show that selective application of CSPGs to axons results in increased intra-axonal synthesis of RhoA and that depletion of RhoA transcripts from axons results in enhanced growth of axons in the presence of CSPGs. These data identify local translation as an effector pathway of CSPGs and demonstrate that local translation of RhoA contributes to the axon growth inhibitory effect of CSPGs.

  6. Pathogenic forms of tau inhibit kinesin-dependent axonal transport through a mechanism involving activation of axonal phosphotransferases.

    PubMed

    Kanaan, Nicholas M; Morfini, Gerardo A; LaPointe, Nichole E; Pigino, Gustavo F; Patterson, Kristina R; Song, Yuyu; Andreadis, Athena; Fu, Yifan; Brady, Scott T; Binder, Lester I

    2011-07-06

    Aggregated filamentous forms of hyperphosphorylated tau (a microtubule-associated protein) represent pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other tauopathies. While axonal transport dysfunction is thought to represent a primary pathogenic factor in AD and other neurodegenerative diseases, the direct molecular link between pathogenic forms of tau and deficits in axonal transport remain unclear. Recently, we demonstrated that filamentous, but not soluble, forms of wild-type tau inhibit anterograde, kinesin-based fast axonal transport (FAT) by activating axonal protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), independent of microtubule binding. Here, we demonstrate that amino acids 2-18 of tau, comprising a phosphatase-activating domain (PAD), are necessary and sufficient for activation of this pathway in axoplasms isolated from squid giant axons. Various pathogenic forms of tau displaying increased exposure of PAD inhibited anterograde FAT in squid axoplasm. Importantly, immunohistochemical studies using a novel PAD-specific monoclonal antibody in human postmortem tissue indicated that increased PAD exposure represents an early pathogenic event in AD that closely associates in time with AT8 immunoreactivity, an early marker of pathological tau. We propose a model of pathogenesis in which disease-associated changes in tau conformation lead to increased exposure of PAD, activation of PP1-GSK3, and inhibition of FAT. Results from these studies reveal a novel role for tau in modulating axonal phosphotransferases and provide a molecular basis for a toxic gain-of-function associated with pathogenic forms of tau.

  7. A supercritical density of fast Na+ channels ensures rapid propagation of action potentials in GABAergic interneuron axons

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hua; Jonas, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Fast-spiking, parvalbumin-expressing GABAergic interneurons/basket cells (BCs) play a key role in feedforward and feedback inhibition, gamma oscillations, and complex information processing. For these functions, fast propagation of action potentials (APs) from the soma to the presynaptic terminals is important. However, the functional properties of interneuron axons remain elusive. Here, we examined interneuron axons by confocally targeted subcellular patch-clamp recording in rat hippocampal slices. APs were initiated in the proximal axon ~20 μm from the soma, and propagated to the distal axon with high reliability and speed. Subcellular mapping revealed a stepwise increase of Na+ conductance density from the soma to the proximal axon, followed by a further gradual increase in the distal axon. Active cable modeling and experiments with partial channel block indicated that low axonal Na+ conductance density was sufficient for reliability, but high Na+ density was necessary for both speed of propagation and fast-spiking AP phenotype. Our results suggest that a supercritical density of Na+ channels compensates for the morphological properties of interneuron axons (small segmental diameter, extensive branching, and high bouton density), ensuring fast AP propagation and high-frequency repetitive firing. PMID:24657965

  8. Vascular endothelial-derived semaphorin 3 inhibits sympathetic axon growth.

    PubMed

    Damon, Deborah H

    2006-03-01

    Vascular sympathetic innervation is an important determinant of blood pressure and blood flow. The mechanisms that determine vascular sympathetic innervation are not well understood. Recent studies indicate that vascular endothelial cells (EC) express semaphorin 3A, a repulsive axon guidance cue. This suggests that EC would inhibit the growth of axons to blood vessels. The present study tests this hypothesis. RT-PCR and Western analyses confirmed that rat aortic vascular ECs expressed semaphorin 3A as well as other class 3 semaphorins (sema 3s). To determine the effects of EC-derived sema 3 on sympathetic axons, axon outgrowth was assessed in cultures of neonatal sympathetic ganglia grown for 72 h in the absence and presence of vascular EC. Nerve growth factor-induced axon growth in the presence of ECs was 50 +/- 4% (P < 0.05) of growth in the absence of ECs. ECs did not inhibit axon growth in the presence of an antibody that neutralized the activity of sema 3 (P > 0.05). RT-PCR and Western analyses also indicated that sema 3s were expressed in ECs of intact arteries. To assess the function of sema 3s in arteries, sympathetic ganglia were grown in the presence of arteries for 72 h, and the percentage of axons that grew toward the artery was determined: 44 +/- 4% of axons grew toward neonatal carotid arteries. Neutralization of sema 3s or removal of EC increased the percentage of axons that grew toward the artery (71 +/- 8% and 72 +/- 8%, respectively). These data indicate that vascular EC-derived sema 3s inhibit sympathetic axon growth and may thus be a determinant of vascular sympathetic innervation.

  9. IH activity is increased in populations of slow versus fast motor axons of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Chad; Jones, Kelvin E.

    2014-01-01

    Much is known about the electrophysiological variation in motoneuron somata across different motor units. However, comparatively less is known about electrophysiological variation in motor axons and how this could impact function or electrodiagnosis in healthy or diseased states. We performed nerve excitability testing on two groups of motor axons in Sprague–Dawley rats that are known to differ significantly in their chronic daily activity patterns and in the relative proportion of motor unit types: one group innervating the soleus (“slow motor axons”) and the other group innervating the tibialis anterior (“fast motor axons”) muscles. We found that slow motor axons have significantly larger accommodation compared to fast motor axons upon application of a 100 ms hyperpolarizing conditioning stimulus that is 40% of axon threshold (Z = 3.24, p = 0.001) or 20% of axon threshold (Z = 2.67, p = 0.008). Slow motor axons had larger accommodation to hyperpolarizing currents in the current-threshold measurement (-80% Z = 3.07, p = 0.002; -90% Z = 2.98, p = 0.003). In addition, we found that slow motor axons have a significantly smaller rheobase than fast motor axons (Z = -1.99, p = 0.047) accompanied by a lower threshold in stimulus-response curves. The results provide evidence that slow motor axons have greater activity of the hyperpolarization-activated inwardly rectifying cation conductance (IH) than fast motor axons. It is possible that this difference between fast and slow axons is caused by an adaptation to their chronic differences in daily activity patterns, and that this adaptation might have a functional effect on the motor unit. Moreover, these findings indicate that slow and fast motor axons may react differently to pathological conditions. PMID:25309406

  10. Regulating Axonal Responses to Injury: The Intersection between Signaling Pathways Involved in Axon Myelination and The Inhibition of Axon Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Sudheendra N. R.; Pearse, Damien D.

    2016-01-01

    Following spinal cord injury (SCI), a multitude of intrinsic and extrinsic factors adversely affect the gene programs that govern the expression of regeneration-associated genes (RAGs) and the production of a diversity of extracellular matrix molecules (ECM). Insufficient RAG expression in the injured neuron and the presence of inhibitory ECM at the lesion, leads to structural alterations in the axon that perturb the growth machinery, or form an extraneous barrier to axonal regeneration, respectively. Here, the role of myelin, both intact and debris, in antagonizing axon regeneration has been the focus of numerous investigations. These studies have employed antagonizing antibodies and knockout animals to examine how the growth cone of the re-growing axon responds to the presence of myelin and myelin-associated inhibitors (MAIs) within the lesion environment and caudal spinal cord. However, less attention has been placed on how the myelination of the axon after SCI, whether by endogenous glia or exogenously implanted glia, may alter axon regeneration. Here, we examine the intersection between intracellular signaling pathways in neurons and glia that are involved in axon myelination and axon growth, to provide greater insight into how interrogating this complex network of molecular interactions may lead to new therapeutics targeting SCI. PMID:27375427

  11. Effects of eribulin, vincristine, paclitaxel and ixabepilone on fast axonal transport and kinesin-1 driven microtubule gliding: Implications for chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    LaPointe, Nichole E.; Morfini, Gerardo; Brady, Scott T.; Feinstein, Stuart C.; Wilson, Leslie; Jordan, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a serious, painful and dose-limiting side effect of cancer drugs that target microtubules. The mechanisms underlying the neuronal damage are unknown, but may include disruption of fast axonal transport, an essential microtubule-based process that moves cellular components over long distances between neuronal cell bodies and nerve terminals. This idea is supported by the “dying back” pattern of degeneration observed in CIPN, and by the selective vulnerability of sensory neurons bearing the longest axonal projections. In this study, we test the hypothesis that microtubule-targeting drugs disrupt fast axonal transport using vesicle motility assays in isolated squid axoplasm and a cell-free microtubule gliding assay with defined components. We compare four clinically-used drugs, eribulin, vincristine, paclitaxel and ixabepilone. Of these, eribulin is associated with a relatively low incidence of severe neuropathy, while vincristine has a relatively high incidence. In vesicle motility assays, we found that all four drugs inhibited anterograde (conventional kinesin-dependent) fast axonal transport, with the potency being vincristine = ixabepilone > paclitaxel = eribulin. Interestingly, eribulin and paclitaxel did not inhibit retrograde (cytoplasmic dynein-dependent) fast axonal transport, in contrast to vincristine and ixabepilone. Similarly, vincristine and ixabepilone both exerted significant inhibitory effects in an in vitro microtubule gliding assay consisting of recombinant kinesin (kinesin-1) and microtubules composed of purified bovine brain tubulin, whereas paclitaxel and eribulin had negligible effects. Our results suggest that (i) inhibition of microtubule-based fast axonal transport may be a significant contributor to neurotoxicity induced by microtubule-targeting drugs, and (ii) that individual microtubule-targeting drugs affect fast axonal transport through different mechanisms. PMID:23711742

  12. Axon extension in the fast and slow lanes: substratum-dependent engagement of myosin II functions.

    PubMed

    Ketschek, Andrea R; Jones, Steven L; Gallo, Gianluca

    2007-09-01

    Axon extension involves the coordinated regulation of the neuronal cytoskeleton. Actin filaments drive protrusion of filopodia and lamellipodia while microtubules invade the growth cone, thereby providing structural support for the nascent axon. Furthermore, in order for axons to extend the growth cone must attach to the substratum. Previous work indicates that myosin II activity inhibits the advance of microtubules into the periphery of growth cones, and myosin II has also been implicated in mediating integrin-dependent cell attachment. However, it is not clear how the functions of myosin II in regulating substratum attachment and microtubule advance are integrated during axon extension. We report that inhibition of myosin II function decreases the rate of axon extension on laminin, but surprisingly promotes extension rate on polylysine. The differential effects of myosin II inhibition on axon extension rate are attributable to myosin II having the primary function of mediating substratum attachment on laminin, but not on polylysine. Conversely, on polylysine the primary function of myosin II is to inhibit microtubule advance into growth cones. Thus, the substratum determines the role of myosin II in axon extension by controlling the functions of myosin II that contribute to extension.

  13. Antisense Morpholino Oligonucleotides Reduce Neurofilament Synthesis and Inhibit Axon Regeneration in Lamprey Reticulospinal Neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guixin; Jin, Li-qing; Hu, Jianli; Rodemer, William; Selzer, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    The sea lamprey has been used as a model for the study of axonal regeneration after spinal cord injury. Previous studies have suggested that, unlike developing axons in mammal, the tips of regenerating axons in lamprey spinal cord are simple in shape, packed with neurofilaments (NFs), and contain very little F-actin. Thus it has been proposed that regeneration of axons in the central nervous system of mature vertebrates is not based on the canonical actin-dependent pulling mechanism of growth cones, but involves an internal protrusive force, perhaps generated by the transport or assembly of NFs in the distal axon. In order to assess this hypothesis, expression of NFs was manipulated by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides (MO). A standard, company-supplied MO was used as control. Axon retraction and regeneration were assessed at 2, 4 and 9 weeks after MOs were applied to a spinal cord transection (TX) site. Antisense MO inhibited NF180 expression compared to control MO. The effect of inhibiting NF expression on axon retraction and regeneration was studied by measuring the distance of axon tips from the TX site at 2 and 4 weeks post-TX, and counting the number of reticulospinal neurons (RNs) retrogradely labeled by fluorescently-tagged dextran injected caudal to the injury at 9 weeks post-TX. There was no statistically significant effect of MO on axon retraction at 2 weeks post-TX. However, at both 4 and 9 weeks post-TX, inhibition of NF expression inhibited axon regeneration.

  14. Optic nerve fast axonal transport abnormalities in primates. Occurrence after short posterior ciliary artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Radius, R L

    1980-11-01

    Fast axonal transport abnormalities in primate (Aotus trivirgatus) optic nerve were studied in ten eyes at various intervals after occlusion of the lateral short posterior ciliary circulation. Evidence of focal axonal ischemia, as indicated by swelling of mitochondria and dissolution of cytoplasmic detail, was noted as early as one hour after occlusion. Accumulation of mitochondria, microvesicles, and dense bodies, indicating focal interruption of axonal transport mechanisms, was noted in eyes examined at 2, 4, and 6 hours. This accumulation of organelles was limited to the region of the lamina cribrosa. Nerve head abnormalities were not seen in two eyes studied at two weeks.

  15. Fast and simplified mapping of mean axon diameter using temporal diffusion spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junzhong; Li, Hua; Li, Ke; Harkins, Kevin D; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Xie, Jingping; Kang, Hakmook; Dortch, Richard D; Anderson, Adam W; Does, Mark D; Gore, John C

    2016-04-01

    Mapping axon diameter is of interest for the potential diagnosis and monitoring of various neuronal pathologies. Advanced diffusion-weighted MRI methods have been developed to measure mean axon diameters non-invasively, but suffer major drawbacks that prevent their direct translation into clinical practice, such as complex non-linear data fitting and, more importantly, long scanning times that are usually not tolerable for most human subjects. In the current study, temporal diffusion spectroscopy using oscillating diffusion gradients was used to measure mean axon diameters with high sensitivity to small axons in the central nervous system. Axon diameters have been found to be correlated with a novel metric, DDR⊥ (the rate of dispersion of the perpendicular diffusion coefficient with gradient frequency), which is a model-free quantity that does not require complex data analyses and can be obtained from two diffusion coefficient measurements in clinically relevant times with conventional MRI machines. A comprehensive investigation including computer simulations and animal experiments ex vivo showed that measurements of DDR⊥ agree closely with histological data. In humans in vivo, DDR⊥ was also found to correlate well with reported mean axon diameters in human corpus callosum, and the total scan time was only about 8 min. In conclusion, DDR⊥ may have potential to serve as a fast, simple and model-free approach to map the mean axon diameter of white matter in clinics for assessing axon diameter changes.

  16. The dynein inhibitor Ciliobrevin D inhibits the bidirectional transport of organelles along sensory axons and impairs NGF-mediated regulation of growth cones and axon branches.

    PubMed

    Sainath, Rajiv; Gallo, Gianluca

    2015-07-01

    The axonal transport of organelles is critical for the development, maintenance, and survival of neurons, and its dysfunction has been implicated in several neurodegenerative diseases. Retrograde axon transport is mediated by the motor protein dynein. In this study, using embryonic chicken dorsal root ganglion neurons, we investigate the effects of Ciliobrevin D, a pharmacological dynein inhibitor, on the transport of axonal organelles, axon extension, nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced branching and growth cone expansion, and axon thinning in response to actin filament depolymerization. Live imaging of mitochondria, lysosomes, and Golgi-derived vesicles in axons revealed that both the retrograde and anterograde transport of these organelles was inhibited by treatment with Ciliobrevin D. Treatment with Ciliobrevin D reversibly inhibits axon extension and transport, with effects detectable within the first 20 min of treatment. NGF induces growth cone expansion, axonal filopodia formation and branching. Ciliobrevin D prevented NGF-induced formation of axonal filopodia and branching but not growth cone expansion. Finally, we report that the retrograde reorganization of the axonal cytoplasm which occurs on actin filament depolymerization is inhibited by treatment with Ciliobrevin D, indicating a role for microtubule based transport in this process, as well as Ciliobrevin D accelerating Wallerian degeneration. This study identifies Ciliobrevin D as an inhibitor of the bidirectional transport of multiple axonal organelles, indicating this drug may be a valuable tool for both the study of dynein function and a first pass analysis of the role of axonal transport.

  17. Class I PI3-kinase or Akt inhibition do not impair axonal polarization, but slow down axonal elongation.

    PubMed

    Diez, Héctor; Benitez, Ma José; Fernandez, Silvia; Torres-Aleman, Ignacio; Garrido, Juan José; Wandosell, Francisco

    2016-11-01

    PI3K proteins family have multiple and essential functions in most cellular events. This family is composed of class I, class II and class III PI3Ks, which upstream and downstream elements are not completely elucidated. Previous studies using the broad PI3K inhibitor, LY294002 allowed to propose that PI3 kinase>Akt pathway is a key element in the determination of axonal polarity in hippocampal neurons. Recently, new inhibitors with a higher selectivity for class I PI3K have been characterized. In the present study we have examined this widely accepted theory using a new class I PI3K inhibitor (GDC-0941), as well as Akt inhibitors, and PTEN phosphatase constructs to reduce PIP3 levels. Our present data show that both, class I PI3K inhibitor and Akt inhibitor did not alter axon specification in hippocampal neurons, but greatly reduced axon length. However, in the same experiments LY294002 effectively impeded axonal polarization, as previously reported. Our biochemical data show that both, class I PI3K and Akt inhibitors, effectively block downstream elements from Akt to S6K1 activity. Both inhibitors are stable in culture medium along the time period analysed, maintaining the inhibition better than LY294002. Besides, we found evidence that LY294002 directly inhibits mTORC1. However, further analysis using an mTORC1 inhibitor showed no change in neuron polarity. Same result was obtained using a general class III PI3K inhibitor. Interestingly, we found that either, wild-type PTEN, or a phosphatase-dead form of PTEN, disrupted axonal polarization, strongly suggesting that the role of PTEN in axonal polarity can be independent of PIP3.

  18. Inhibition of kinesin-5 improves regeneration of injured axons by a novel microtubule-based mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Baas, Peter W.; Matamoros, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules have been identified as a powerful target for augmenting regeneration of injured adult axons in the central nervous system. Drugs that stabilize microtubules have shown some promise, but there are concerns that abnormally stabilizing microtubules may have only limited benefits for regeneration, while at the same time may be detrimental to the normal work that microtubules perform for the axon. Kinesin-5 (also called kif11 or Eg5), a molecular motor protein best known for its crucial role in mitosis, acts as a brake on microtubule movements by other motor proteins in the axon. Drugs that inhibit kinesin-5, originally developed to treat cancer, result in greater mobility of microtubules in the axon and an overall shift in the forces on the microtubule array. As a result, the axon grows faster, retracts less, and more readily enters environments that are inhibitory to axonal regeneration. Thus, drugs that inhibit kinesin-5 offer a novel microtubule-based means to boost axonal regeneration without the concerns that accompany abnormal stabilization of the microtubule array. Even so, inhibiting kinesin-5 is not without its own caveats, such as potential problems with navigation of the regenerating axon to its target, as well as morphological effects on dendrites that could affect learning and memory if the drugs reach the brain. PMID:26199587

  19. Spinal irradiation does not inhibit distal axonal sprouting

    SciTech Connect

    Pamphlett, R.S.

    1988-05-01

    In an attempt to determine the relative importance of the nerve cell body and of the axon in initiating and controlling axonal regeneration, nerve cell bodies were irradiated and the ability of the distal axon to sprout was examined. Mice were subjected to either 25 or 50 Gray (Gy) of x-irradiation localized to the lumbar spinal cord. After times varying from 1 day to 6 months after irradiation, a sublethal dose of botulinum toxin (BoTx) was injected into the calf muscles of one leg. The soleus muscle was examined histologically after times varying from 1 week to 6 months after injection, and BoTx-induced ultraterminal axonal sprouting was assessed by the number of motor endplates showing sprouts, the length of the sprouts, and the long term endplate morphology. Apart from some irradiated subgroups having slightly shorter sprout lengths, no significant differences were found between irradiated and nonirradiated groups. The results suggest either that the processes in the nerve cell body responsible for initiating and supporting axonal growth are resistant to large doses of irradiation, or that growth regulatory mechanisms in the distal axon are under local control.

  20. HIV Glycoprotein Gp120 Impairs Fast Axonal Transport by Activating Tak1 Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Berth, Sarah H.; Mesnard-Hoaglin, Nichole; Wang, Bin; Kim, Hajwa; Song, Yuyu; Sapar, Maria; Morfini, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Sensory neuropathies are the most common neurological complication of HIV. Of these, distal sensory polyneuropathy (DSP) is directly caused by HIV infection and characterized by length-dependent axonal degeneration of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Mechanisms for axonal degeneration in DSP remain unclear, but recent experiments revealed that the HIV glycoprotein gp120 is internalized and localized within axons of DRG neurons. Based on these findings, we investigated whether intra-axonal gp120 might impair fast axonal transport (FAT), a cellular process critical for appropriate maintenance of the axonal compartment. Significantly, we found that gp120 severely impaired both anterograde and retrograde FAT. Providing a mechanistic basis for these effects, pharmacological experiments revealed an involvement of various phosphotransferases in this toxic effect, including members of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways (Tak-1, p38, and c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK)), inhibitor of kappa-B-kinase 2 (IKK2), and PP1. Biochemical experiments and axonal outgrowth assays in cell lines and primary cultures extended these findings. Impairments in neurite outgrowth in DRG neurons by gp120 were rescued using a Tak-1 inhibitor, implicating a Tak-1 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in gp120 neurotoxicity. Taken together, these observations indicate that kinase-based impairments in FAT represent a novel mechanism underlying gp120 neurotoxicity consistent with the dying-back degeneration seen in DSP. Targeting gp120-based impairments in FAT with specific kinase inhibitors might provide a novel therapeutic strategy to prevent axonal degeneration in DSP. PMID:27872270

  1. Redistribution of proteins of fast axonal transport following administration of beta,beta'-iminodipropionitrile: a quantitative autoradiographic study

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    Beta,beta'-iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) produces a rearrangement of axoplasmic organelles with displacement of microtubules, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria toward the center and of neurofilaments toward the periphery of the axon, whereas the rate of the fast component of axonal transport is unchanged. Separation of microtubules and neurofilaments makes the IDPN axons an excellent model for study of the role of these two organelles in axonal transport. The cross-sectional distribution of [3H]-labeled proteins moving with the front of the fast transport was analyzed by quantitative electron microscopic autoradiography in sciatic nerves of IDPN-treated and control rats, 6 h after injection of a 1:1 mixture of [3H]-proline and [3H]-lysine into lumbar ventral horns. In IDPN axons most of the transported [3H] proteins were located in the central region with microtubules, smooth endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, whereas few or none were in the periphery with neurofilaments. In control axons the [3H]-labeled proteins were uniformly distributed within the axoplasm. It is concluded that in fast axonal transport: (a) neurofilaments play no primary role; (b) the normal architecture of the axonal cytoskeleton and the normal cross-sectional distribution of transported materials are not indispensable for the maintenance of a normal rate of transport. The present findings are consistent with the models of fast transport that envision microtubules as the key organelles in providing directionality and propulsive force to the fast component of axonal transport. PMID:6183280

  2. A role for cyclin-dependent kinase(s) in the modulation of fast anterograde axonal transport: effects defined by olomoucine and the APC tumor suppressor protein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratner, N.; Bloom, G. S.; Brady, S. T.

    1998-01-01

    Proteins that interact with both cytoskeletal and membrane components are candidates to modulate membrane trafficking. The tumor suppressor proteins neurofibromin (NF1) and adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) both bind to microtubules and interact with membrane-associated proteins. The effects of recombinant NF1 and APC fragments on vesicle motility were evaluated by measuring fast axonal transport along microtubules in axoplasm from squid giant axons. APC4 (amino acids 1034-2844) reduced only anterograde movements, whereas APC2 (aa 1034-2130) or APC3 (aa 2130-2844) reduced both anterograde and retrograde transport. NF1 had no effect on organelle movement in either direction. Because APC contains multiple cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) consensus phosphorylation motifs, the kinase inhibitor olomoucine was examined. At concentrations in which olomoucine is specific for cyclin-dependent kinases (5 microM), it reduced only anterograde transport, whereas anterograde and retrograde movement were both affected at concentrations at which other kinases are inhibited as well (50 microM). Both anterograde and retrograde transport also were inhibited by histone H1 and KSPXK peptides, substrates for proline-directed kinases, including CDKs. Our data suggest that CDK-like axonal kinases modulate fast anterograde transport and that other axonal kinases may be involved in modulating retrograde transport. The specific effect of APC4 on anterograde transport suggests a model in which the binding of APC to microtubules may limit the activity of axonal CDK kinase or kinases in restricted domains, thereby affecting organelle transport.

  3. Effect of MSH/ACTH peptides on fast axonal transport in intact and regenerating sciatic nerves

    SciTech Connect

    Crescitelli, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    Fast axonal transport was examined in intact rats treated with ACTH 4-10 or ACTH 4-9 (ORG 2766), hypophysectomized rats, adrenalectomized rats, and in ACTH 4-10 treated rats with crushed regenerating sciatic nerves by injecting /sup 3/H-leucine into the ventral horn region of the spinal cord. The distance traveled by the transported activity along the sciatic nerve and the rate of fast axonal transport were not significantly altered as a result of treatment with ACTH 4-10, ACTH 4-9 (ORG 2766), hypophysectomy, or adrenalectomy. Treatment with ACTH 4-9 (ORG 2766) at concentrations of 1 ..mu..g/Kg /day and 10 ..mu..g/Kg/day caused significant reductions (62% and 64% respectively) in the crest height of the fast axonal transport curve as compared to 0.9% saline treated control animals. No significant differences were found in comparing the distance, rate, slope, or crest height of ACTH 4-10 treated animals with crushed regenerating (7 or 14d) sciatic nerves to control animals. In the group of animals in days, the amount of radiolabeled activity was significantly increased in the ACTH 4-10 treated animals as compared to control animals. The results indicate that during regeneration the peptide acts to prolong the initially high levels of synthetic activity which occur in regenerating axons.

  4. Identification of an Axonal Kinesin-3 Motor for Fast Anterograde Vesicle Transport that Facilitates Retrograde Transport of Neuropeptides

    PubMed Central

    Barkus, Rosemarie V.; Klyachko, Olga; Horiuchi, Dai; Dickson, Barry J.

    2008-01-01

    A screen for genes required in Drosophila eye development identified an UNC-104/Kif1 related kinesin-3 microtubule motor. Analysis of mutants suggested that Drosophila Unc-104 has neuronal functions that are distinct from those of the classic anterograde axonal motor, kinesin-1. In particular, unc-104 mutations did not cause the distal paralysis and focal axonal swellings characteristic of kinesin-1 (Khc) mutations. However, like Khc mutations, unc-104 mutations caused motoneuron terminal atrophy. The distributions and transport behaviors of green fluorescent protein-tagged organelles in motor axons indicate that Unc-104 is a major contributor to the anterograde fast transport of neuropeptide-filled vesicles, that it also contributes to anterograde transport of synaptotagmin-bearing vesicles, and that it contributes little or nothing to anterograde transport of mitochondria, which are transported primarily by Khc. Remarkably, unc-104 mutations inhibited retrograde runs by neurosecretory vesicles but not by the other two organelles. This suggests that Unc-104, a member of an anterograde kinesin subfamily, contributes to an organelle-specific dynein-driven retrograde transport mechanism. PMID:17989365

  5. Can BACE1 Inhibition Mitigate Early Axonal Pathology in Neurological Diseases?

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiao-Xin; Ma, Chao; Gai, Wei-Ping; Cai, Huaibin; Luo, Xue-Gang

    2014-01-01

    β-Secretase-1 (BACE1) is the rate-limiting enzyme for the genesis of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, the main constituents of the amyloid plaques in the brains of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) patients. BACE1 is being evaluated as an anti-Aβ target for AD therapy. Recent studies indicate that BACE1 elevation is associated with axonal and presynaptic pathology during plaque development. Evidence also points to a biological role for BACE1 in axonal outgrowth and synapse formation during development. Axonal, including presynaptic, pathology exists in AD as well as many other neurological disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, stroke, and trauma. In this review, we discuss pharmaceutical BACE1 inhibition as a therapeutic option for axonal pathogenesis, in addition to amyloid pathology. We first introduce the amyloidogenic processing of amyloid-β protein precursor and describe the normal expression pattern of the amyloidogenic proteins in the brain, with an emphasis on BACE1. We then address BACE1 elevation relative to amyloid plaque development, followed by updating recent understanding of a neurotrophic role of BACE1 in axon and synapse development. We further elaborate the occurrence of axonal pathology in some other neurological conditions. Finally, we propose pharmacological inhibition of excessive BACE1 activity as an option to mitigate early axonal pathology occurring in AD and other neurological disorders. PMID:24081378

  6. Optimal myelin elongation relies on YAP activation by axonal growth and inhibition by Crb3/Hippo pathway

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Ruani N.; Cotter, Laurent; Perrin-Tricaud, Claire; Berthelot, Jade; Bartolami, Sylvain; Pereira, Jorge A.; Gonzalez, Sergio; Suter, Ueli; Tricaud, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Fast nerve conduction relies on successive myelin segments that electrically isolate axons. Segment geometry—diameter and length—is critical for the optimization of nerve conduction and the molecular mechanisms allowing this optimized geometry are partially known. We show here that peripheral myelin elongation is dynamically regulated by stimulation of YAP (Yes-associated protein) transcription cofactor activity during axonal elongation and limited by inhibition of YAP activity via the Hippo pathway. YAP promotes myelin and non-myelin genes transcription while the polarity protein Crb3, localized at the tips of the myelin sheath, activates the Hippo pathway to temper YAP activity, therefore allowing for optimal myelin growth. Dystrophic Dy2j/2j mice mimicking human peripheral neuropathy with reduced internodal lengths have decreased nuclear YAP which, when corrected, leads to longer internodes. These data show a novel mechanism controlling myelin growth and nerve conduction, and provide a molecular ground for disease with short myelin segments. PMID:27435623

  7. NGF regulates the expression of axonal LINGO-1 to inhibit oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination.

    PubMed

    Lee, Xinhua; Yang, Zhongshu; Shao, Zhaohui; Rosenberg, Sheila S; Levesque, Melissa; Pepinsky, R Blake; Qiu, Mengsheng; Miller, Robert H; Chan, Jonah R; Mi, Sha

    2007-01-03

    Neurons and glia share a mutual dependence in establishing a functional relationship, and none is more evident than the process by which axons control myelination. Here, we identify LRR and Ig domain-containing, Nogo receptor-interacting protein (LINGO-1) as a potent axonal inhibitor of oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination that is regulated by nerve growth factor and its cognate receptor TrkA in a dose-dependent manner. Whereas LINGO-1 expressed by oligodendrocyte progenitor cells was previously identified as an inhibitor of differentiation, we demonstrate that axonal expression of LINGO-1 inhibits differentiation with equal potency. Disruption of LINGO-1 on either cell type is sufficient to overcome the inhibitory action and promote differentiation and myelination, independent of axon diameter. Furthermore, these results were recapitulated in transgenic mice overexpressing the full length LINGO-1 under the neuronal promoter synapsin. Myelination was greatly inhibited in the presence of enforced axonal LINGO-1. The implications of these results relate specifically to the development of potential therapeutics targeting extrinsic growth factors that may regulate the axonal expression of modulators of oligodendrocyte development.

  8. Fast axonal transport of the proteasome complex depends on membrane interaction and molecular motor function.

    PubMed

    Otero, Maria G; Alloatti, Matías; Cromberg, Lucas E; Almenar-Queralt, Angels; Encalada, Sandra E; Pozo Devoto, Victorio M; Bruno, Luciana; Goldstein, Lawrence S B; Falzone, Tomás L

    2014-04-01

    Protein degradation by the ubiquitin-proteasome system in neurons depends on the correct delivery of the proteasome complex. In neurodegenerative diseases, aggregation and accumulation of proteins in axons link transport defects with degradation impairments; however, the transport properties of proteasomes remain unknown. Here, using in vivo experiments, we reveal the fast anterograde transport of assembled and functional 26S proteasome complexes. A high-resolution tracking system to follow fluorescent proteasomes revealed three types of motion: actively driven proteasome axonal transport, diffusive behavior in a viscoelastic axonema and proteasome-confined motion. We show that active proteasome transport depends on motor function because knockdown of the KIF5B motor subunit resulted in impairment of the anterograde proteasome flux and the density of segmental velocities. Finally, we reveal that neuronal proteasomes interact with intracellular membranes and identify the coordinated transport of fluorescent proteasomes with synaptic precursor vesicles, Golgi-derived vesicles, lysosomes and mitochondria. Taken together, our results reveal fast axonal transport as a new mechanism of proteasome delivery that depends on membrane cargo 'hitch-hiking' and the function of molecular motors. We further hypothesize that defects in proteasome transport could promote abnormal protein clearance in neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. Chlorpyrifos and Chlorpyrifos-Oxon Inhibit Axonal Growth by Interfering with the Morphogenic Activity of Acetylcholinesterase

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dongren; Howard, Angela; Bruun, Donald; Ajua-Alemanj, Mispa; Pickart, Cecile; Lein, Pamela J.

    2008-01-01

    A primary role of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is regulation of cholinergic neurotransmission by hydrolysis of synaptic acetylcholine. In the developing nervous system, however, AChE also functions as a morphogenic factor to promote axonal growth. This raises the question of whether organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) that are known to selectively bind to and inactivate the enzymatic function of AChE also interfere with its morphogenic function to perturb axonogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we exposed primary cultures of sensory neurons derived from embryonic rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) to chlorpyrifos (CPF) or its oxon metabolite (CPFO). Both OPs significantly decreased axonal length at concentrations that had no effect on cell viability, protein synthesis or the enzymatic activity of AChE. Comparative analyses of the effects of CPF and CPFO on axonal growth in DRG neurons cultured from AChE nullizygous (AChE−/−) versus wildtype (AChE+/+) mice indicated that while these OPs inhibited axonal growth in AChE+/+ DRG neurons, they had no effect on axonal growth in AChE−/− DRG neurons. However, transfection of AChE−/− DRG neurons with cDNA encoding full-length AChE restored the wildtype response to the axon inhibitory effects of OPs. These data indicate that inhibition of axonal growth by OPs requires AChE, but the mechanism involves inhibition of the morphogenic rather than enzymatic activity of AChE. These findings suggest a novel mechanism for explaining not only the functional deficits observed in children and animals following developmental exposure to OPs, but also the increased vulnerability of the developing nervous system to OPs. PMID:18076960

  10. Chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-oxon inhibit axonal growth by interfering with the morphogenic activity of acetylcholinesterase

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Dongren; Howard, Angela; Bruun, Donald; Ajua-Alemanj, Mispa; Pickart, Cecile; Lein, Pamela J.

    2008-04-01

    A primary role of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is regulation of cholinergic neurotransmission by hydrolysis of synaptic acetylcholine. In the developing nervous system, however, AChE also functions as a morphogenic factor to promote axonal growth. This raises the question of whether organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) that are known to selectively bind to and inactivate the enzymatic function of AChE also interfere with its morphogenic function to perturb axonogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we exposed primary cultures of sensory neurons derived from embryonic rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) to chlorpyrifos (CPF) or its oxon metabolite (CPFO). Both OPs significantly decreased axonal length at concentrations that had no effect on cell viability, protein synthesis or the enzymatic activity of AChE. Comparative analyses of the effects of CPF and CPFO on axonal growth in DRG neurons cultured from AChE nullizygous (AChE{sup -/-}) versus wild type (AChE{sup +/+}) mice indicated that while these OPs inhibited axonal growth in AChE{sup +/+} DRG neurons, they had no effect on axonal growth in AChE{sup -/-} DRG neurons. However, transfection of AChE{sup -/-} DRG neurons with cDNA encoding full-length AChE restored the wild type response to the axon inhibitory effects of OPs. These data indicate that inhibition of axonal growth by OPs requires AChE, but the mechanism involves inhibition of the morphogenic rather than enzymatic activity of AChE. These findings suggest a novel mechanism for explaining not only the functional deficits observed in children and animals following developmental exposure to OPs, but also the increased vulnerability of the developing nervous system to OPs.

  11. Inhibition of Rho-kinase differentially affects axon regeneration of peripheral motor and sensory nerves.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Abhijeet R; Bobylev, Ilja; Zhang, Gang; Sheikh, Kazim A; Lehmann, Helmar C

    2015-01-01

    The small GTPase RhoA and its down-stream effector Rho-kinase (ROCK) are important effector molecules of the neuronal cytoskeleton. Modulation of the RhoA/ROCK pathway has been shown to promote axonal regeneration, however in vitro and animal studies are inconsistent regarding the extent of axonal outgrowth induced by pharmacological inhibition of ROCK. We hypothesized that injury to sensory and motor nerves result in diverse activation levels of RhoA, which may impact the response of those nerve fiber modalities to ROCK inhibition. We therefore examined the effects of Y-27632, a chemical ROCK inhibitor, on the axonal outgrowth of peripheral sensory and motor neurons grown in the presence of growth-inhibiting chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). In addition we examined the effects of three different doses of Y-27632 on nerve regeneration of motor and sensory nerves in animal models of peripheral nerve crush. In vitro, sensory neurons were less responsive to Y-27632 compared to motor neurons in a non-growth permissive environment. These differences were associated with altered expression and activation of RhoA in sensory and motor axons. In vivo, systemic treatment with high doses of Y-27632 significantly enhanced the regeneration of motor axons over short distances, while the regeneration of sensory fibers remained largely unchanged. Our results support the concept that in a growth non-permissive environment, the regenerative capacity of sensory and motor axons is differentially affected by the RhoA/ROCK pathway, with motor neurons being more responsive compared to sensory. Future treatments, that are aimed to modulate RhoA activity, should consider this functional diversity.

  12. Glycine Transporter-1 Inhibition Promotes Striatal Axon Sprouting via NMDA Receptors in Dopamine Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Castagna, Candace; Mrejeru, Ana; Lizardi-Ortiz, José E.; Klein, Zoe; Lindsley, Craig W.

    2013-01-01

    NMDA receptor activity is involved in shaping synaptic connections throughout development and adulthood. We recently reported that brief activation of NMDA receptors on cultured ventral midbrain dopamine neurons enhanced their axon growth rate and induced axonal branching. To test whether this mechanism was relevant to axon regrowth in adult animals, we examined the reinnervation of dorsal striatum following nigral dopamine neuron loss induced by unilateral intrastriatal injections of the toxin 6-hydroxydopamine. We used a pharmacological approach to enhance NMDA receptor-dependent signaling by treatment with an inhibitor of glycine transporter-1 that elevates levels of extracellular glycine, a coagonist required for NMDA receptor activation. All mice displayed sprouting of dopaminergic axons from spared fibers in the ventral striatum to the denervated dorsal striatum at 7 weeks post-lesion, but the reinnervation in mice treated for 4 weeks with glycine uptake inhibitor was approximately twice as dense as in untreated mice. The treated mice also displayed higher levels of striatal dopamine and a complete recovery from lateralization in a test of sensorimotor behavior. We confirmed that the actions of glycine uptake inhibition on reinnervation and behavioral recovery required NMDA receptors in dopamine neurons using targeted deletion of the NR1 NMDA receptor subunit in dopamine neurons. Glycine transport inhibitors promote functionally relevant sprouting of surviving dopamine axons and could provide clinical treatment for disorders such as Parkinson's disease. PMID:24133278

  13. ß-adrenoceptor blockers increase cardiac sympathetic innervation by inhibiting autoreceptor suppression of axon growth.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Gwenaëlle L; Bhattacherjee, Aritra; Tague, Sarah E; Hasan, Wohaib; Smith, Peter G

    2010-09-15

    β-Adrenoceptor antagonists are used widely to reduce cardiovascular sympathetic tone, but withdrawal is accompanied by sympathetic hyperactivity. Receptor supersensitivity accounts for some but not all aspects of this withdrawal syndrome. Therefore, we investigated effects of β-blockers on sympathetic innervation. Rats received infusions of adrenergic receptor blockers or saline for 1 week. The nonselective β-blocker propranolol and the β(1)-antagonist metoprolol both increased myocardial sympathetic axon density. At 2 d after propranolol discontinuation, β-receptor sensitivity and responsiveness to isoproterenol were similar to controls. However, tyramine-induced mobilization of norepinephrine stores produced elevated ventricular contractility consistent with enhanced sympathetic neuroeffector properties. In addition, rats undergoing discontinuation showed exaggerated increases in mean arterial pressure in response to air puff or noise startle. In sympathetic neuronal cell cultures, both propranolol and metoprolol increased axon outgrowth but the β(2)-blocker ICI 118551 did not. Norepinephrine synthesis suppression by α-methyl-p-tyrosine also increased sprouting and concurrent dobutamine administration reduced it, confirming that locally synthesized norepinephrine inhibits outgrowth via β(1)-adrenoceptors. Immunohistochemistry revealed β(1)-adrenoceptor protein on sympathetic axon terminations. In rats with coronary artery ligation, propranolol reversed heart failure-induced ventricular myocardial sympathetic axon depletion, but did not affect infarct-associated sympathetic hyperinnervation. We conclude that sympathetic neurons possess β(1)-autoreceptors that negatively regulate axon outgrowth. Chronic β-adrenoceptor blockade disrupts this feedback system, leading to ventricular sympathetic axon proliferation and increased neuroeffector gain, which are likely to contribute to β-blocker withdrawal syndrome.

  14. Flipping the transcriptional switch from myelin inhibition to axon growth in the CNS

    PubMed Central

    Carmel, Jason B.; Young, Wise; Hart, Ronald P.

    2015-01-01

    Poor regeneration of severed axons in the central nervous system (CNS) limits functional recovery. Regeneration failure involves interplay of inhibitory environmental elements and the growth state of the neuron. To find internal changes in gene expression that might overcome inhibitory environmental cues, we compared several paradigms that allow growth in the inhibitory environment. Conditions that allow axon growth by axotomized and cultured dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons on CNS myelin include immaturity (the first few postnatal days), high levels of cyclic adenosine mono phosphate (cAMP), and conditioning with a peripheral nerve lesion before explant. This shift from inhibition to growth depends on transcription. Seeking to understand the transcriptome changes that allow axon growth in the CNS, we collaborated with the Marie Filbin laboratory to identify several mRNAs that are functionally relevant, as determined by gain- and loss-of-function studies. In this Perspective, we review evidence from these experiments and discuss the merits of comparing multiple regenerative paradigms to identify a core transcriptional program for CNS axon regeneration. PMID:26236189

  15. Monitoring axonal and somatodendritic dopamine release using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in brain slices.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jyoti C; Rice, Margaret E

    2013-01-01

    Brain dopamine pathways serve wide-ranging functions including the control of movement, reward, cognition, learning, and mood. Consequently, dysfunction of dopamine transmission has been implicated in clinical conditions such as Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, addiction, and depression. Establishing factors that regulate dopamine release can provide novel insights into dopaminergic communication under normal conditions, as well as in animal models of disease in the brain. Here we describe methods for the study of somatodendritic and axonal dopamine release in brain slice preparations. Topics covered include preparation and calibration of carbon-fiber microelectrodes for use with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry, preparation of midbrain and forebrain slices, and procedures of eliciting and recording electrically evoked dopamine release from in vitro brain slices.

  16. Network state-dependent inhibition of identified hippocampal CA3 axo-axonic cells in vivo.

    PubMed

    Viney, Tim J; Lasztoczi, Balint; Katona, Linda; Crump, Michael G; Tukker, John J; Klausberger, Thomas; Somogyi, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Hippocampal sharp waves are population discharges initiated by an unknown mechanism in pyramidal cell networks of CA3. Axo-axonic cells (AACs) regulate action potential generation through GABAergic synapses on the axon initial segment. We found that CA3 AACs in anesthetized rats and AACs in freely moving rats stopped firing during sharp waves, when pyramidal cells fire most. AACs fired strongly and rhythmically around the peak of theta oscillations, when pyramidal cells fire at low probability. Distinguishing AACs from other parvalbumin-expressing interneurons by their lack of detectable SATB1 transcription factor immunoreactivity, we discovered a somatic GABAergic input originating from the medial septum that preferentially targets AACs. We recorded septo-hippocampal GABAergic cells that were activated during hippocampal sharp waves and projected to CA3. We hypothesize that inhibition of AACs, and the resulting subcellular redistribution of inhibition from the axon initial segment to other pyramidal cell domains, is a necessary condition for the emergence of sharp waves promoting memory consolidation.

  17. Model of very fast (>75 Hz) network oscillations generated by electrical coupling between the proximal axons of cerebellar Purkinje cells

    PubMed Central

    Traub, Roger D; Middleton, Steven J; Knöpfel, Thomas; Whittington, Miles A

    2009-01-01

    Very fast oscillations (VFO, >75 Hz) occur transiently in vivo, in the cerebellum of mice genetically modified to model Angelman syndrome, and in a mouse model of fetal alcohol syndrome. We recently reported VFO in slices of mouse cerebellar cortex (Crus I and II of ansiform and paramedian lobules), either in association with gamma oscillations (~40 Hz, evoked by nicotine), or in isolation (evoked by nicotine in combination with GABAA receptor blockade). The experimental data suggest a role for electrical coupling between Purkinje cells (blockade of VFO by drugs reducing gap junction conductance, and spikelets in some Purkinje cells); and the data suggest the specific involvement of Purkinje cell axons (because of field oscillation maxima in the granular layer). We show here that a detailed network model (1,000 multicompartment Purkinje cells) replicates the experimental data, when gap junctions are located on the proximal axons of Purkinje cells, provided sufficient spontaneous firing is present. Unlike other VFO models, most somatic spikelets do not correspond to axonal spikes in the parent axon, but reflect spikes in electrically coupled axons. The model predicts gating of VFO frequency by gNa inactivation, and experiments prolonging this inactivation time constant, with β-pompilidotoxin, are consistent with this prediction. The model also predicts that cerebellar VFO can be explained as an electrically coupled system of axons which are not intrinsic oscillators: the electrically uncoupled cells do not individually oscillate (in the model), and axonal firing rates are much lower in the uncoupled state than in the coupled state. PMID:18973579

  18. A cortical astrocyte subpopulation inhibits axon growth in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Wang, Zhe; Gou, Lin; Xu, Hanpeng

    2015-08-01

    Astrocytes are the most heterogeneous and predominant glial cell type in the central nervous system. However, the functional significance of this heterogeneity remains to be elucidated. Following injury, damaged astrocytes inhibit axonal regeneration in vivo and in vitro. Cultured primary astrocytes are commonly considered good supportive substrates for neuron attachment and axon regeneration. However, it is not known whether different populations of cells in the heterogeneous astrocyte culture affect neuron behavior in the same way. In the present study, the effect of astrocyte heterogeneity on neuronal attachment and neurite outgrowth was examined using an in vitro and in vivo coculture system. In vitro, neonatal cortical astrocytes were co-cultured with purified dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and astrocyte growth morphology, neuron attachment and neurite growth were evaluated. The results demonstrated that the heterogeneous astrocyte cells showed two different types of growth pattern, typical and atypical. Typical astrocytes were supportive to neuron attachment and neurite growth, which was consistent with previous studies, whereas atypical astrocytes inhibited neuron attachment and neurite growth. These inhibitory astrocytes exhibited a special growth pattern with various shapes and sizes, a high cell density, few oligodendrocytes on the top layer and occupied a smaller growth area compared with typical astrocytes. Neurites extended freely on typical supportive astrocyte populations, however, moved away when they reached atypical astrocyte growth pattern. Neurons growing on the atypical astrocyte pattern demonstrated minimal neurite outgrowth and these neurites had a dystrophic appearance, however, neuronal survival was unaffected. Immunocytochemistry studies demonstrated that these atypical inhibitory astrocytes were glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) positive cells. The existence of inhibitory astrocyte subpopulations in normal astrocytes reflects the

  19. Release of kinesin from vesicles by hsc70 and regulation of fast axonal transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsai, M. Y.; Morfini, G.; Szebenyi, G.; Brady, S. T.

    2000-01-01

    The nature of kinesin interactions with membrane-bound organelles and mechanisms for regulation of kinesin-based motility have both been surprisingly difficult to define. Most kinesin is recovered in supernatants with standard protocols for purification of motor proteins, but kinesin recovered on membrane-bound organelles is tightly bound. Partitioning of kinesin between vesicle and cytosolic fractions is highly sensitive to buffer composition. Addition of either N-ethylmaleimide or EDTA to homogenization buffers significantly increased the fraction of kinesin bound to organelles. Given that an antibody against kinesin light chain tandem repeats also releases kinesin from vesicles, these observations indicated that specific cytoplasmic factors may regulate kinesin release from membranes. Kinesin light tandem repeats contain DnaJ-like motifs, so the effects of hsp70 chaperones were evaluated. Hsc70 released kinesin from vesicles in an MgATP-dependent and N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive manner. Recombinant kinesin light chains inhibited kinesin release by hsc70 and stimulated the hsc70 ATPase. Hsc70 actions may provide a mechanism to regulate kinesin function by releasing kinesin from cargo in specific subcellular domains, thereby effecting delivery of axonally transported materials.

  20. Drosophila spichthyin inhibits BMP signaling and regulates synaptic growth and axonal microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinnan; Shaw, W. Robert; Tsang, Hilda T. H.; Reid, Evan; O'Kane, Cahir J.

    2008-01-01

    Summary To understand the functions of SPG6, mutated in the neurodegenerative disease hereditary spastic paraplegia, and of ichthyin, mutated in autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis, we have studied their Drosophila ortholog, spichthyin (Spict). Spict is found on early endosomes. Loss of Spict leads to upregulation of BMP signaling and expansion of the neuromuscular junction. BMP signaling is also necessary for a normal microtubule cytoskeleton and axonal transport; analysis of loss and gain-of-function phenotypes suggests that Spict antagonizes this function of BMP signaling. Spict interacts with BMP receptors and promotes their internalization from the plasma membrane, suggesting that it inhibits BMP signaling by regulating BMP receptor traffic. This is the first demonstration of a role for an SPG protein or ichthyin family member in a specific signaling pathway, and suggests disease mechanisms for hereditary spastic paraplegia that involve dependence of the microtubule cytoskeleton on BMP signaling. PMID:17220882

  1. Drosophila spichthyin inhibits BMP signaling and regulates synaptic growth and axonal microtubules.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinnan; Shaw, W Robert; Tsang, Hilda T H; Reid, Evan; O'Kane, Cahir J

    2007-02-01

    To understand the functions of NIPA1, mutated in the neurodegenerative disease hereditary spastic paraplegia, and of ichthyin, mutated in autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis, we have studied their Drosophila melanogaster ortholog, spichthyin (Spict). Spict is found on early endosomes. Loss of Spict leads to upregulation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling and expansion of the neuromuscular junction. BMP signaling is also necessary for a normal microtubule cytoskeleton and axonal transport; analysis of loss- and gain-of-function phenotypes indicate that Spict may antagonize this function of BMP signaling. Spict interacts with BMP receptors and promotes their internalization from the plasma membrane, implying that it inhibits BMP signaling by regulating BMP receptor traffic. This is the first demonstration of a role for a hereditary spastic paraplegia protein or ichthyin family member in a specific signaling pathway, and implies disease mechanisms for hereditary spastic paraplegia that involve dependence of the microtubule cytoskeleton on BMP signaling.

  2. Excitotoxic oligodendrocyte death and axonal damage induced by glutamate transporter inhibition.

    PubMed

    Domercq, María; Etxebarria, Estibaliz; Pérez-Samartín, Alberto; Matute, Carlos

    2005-10-01

    Glutamate uptake is crucial to terminate glutamate signaling and to prevent excitotoxicity. The present study describes the expression of functional glutamate transporters GLAST and GLT-1 in oligodendrocytes by means of electrophysiology, uptake assays, and immunocytochemistry. Inhibition of glutamate uptake, both in oligodendrocyte cultures and in isolated optic nerves, increases glutamate levels and causes oligodendrocyte excitotoxicity, which is prevented by alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) and kainate receptor antagonists. Furthermore, glutamate transporter inhibitors or antisense oligonucleotides applied onto the optic nerve in vivo lead to oligodendroglial loss, massive demyelination, and severe axonal damage. Overall, these results demonstrate that the integrity of oligodendrocytes and white matter depends on proper glutamate transporter function. Deregulated transporter activity may contribute to acute and chronic white matter damage.

  3. Inhibition of Poly-ADP-Ribosylation Fails to Increase Axonal Regeneration or Improve Functional Recovery after Adult Mammalian CNS Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xingxing; Byrne, Alexandra B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract After traumatic damage of the brain or spinal cord, many surviving neurons are disconnected, and recovery of function is limited by poor axon regeneration. Recent data have suggested that poly ADP-ribosylation plays a role in limiting axonal regrowth such that inhibition of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) may have therapeutic efficacy for neurological recovery after trauma. Here, we tested systemic administration of the PARP inhibitor, veliparib, and showed effective suppression of PARylation in the mouse CNS. After optic nerve crush injury or dorsal hemisection of the thoracic spinal cord in mice, treatment with veliparib at doses with pharmacodynamic action had no benefit for axonal regeneration or functional recovery. We considered whether PARP gene family specificity might play a role. In vitro mouse cerebral cortex axon regeneration experiments revealed that short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated suppression of PARP1 promoted axonal regeneration, whereas suppression of other PARP isoforms either had no effect or decreased regeneration. Therefore, we examined recovery from neurological trauma in mice lacking PARP1. No increase of axonal regeneration was observed in Parp1–/– mice after optic nerve crush injury or dorsal hemisection of the thoracic spinal cord, and there was no improvement in motor function recovery. Thus, comprehensive in vivo analysis reveals no indication that clinical PARP inhibitors will on their own provide benefit for recovery from CNS trauma. PMID:28032120

  4. Mdivi-1 Inhibits Astrocyte Activation and Astroglial Scar Formation and Enhances Axonal Regeneration after Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Gang; Cao, Yang; Shen, Feifei; Wang, Yangsong; Bai, Liangjie; Guo, Weidong; Bi, Yunlong; Lv, Gang; Fan, Zhongkai

    2016-01-01

    After spinal cord injury (SCI), astrocytes become hypertrophic, and proliferative, forming a dense network of astroglial processes at the site of the lesion. This constitutes a physical and biochemical barrier to axonal regeneration. Mitochondrial fission regulates cell cycle progression; inhibiting the cell cycle of astrocytes can reduce expression levels of axon growth-inhibitory molecules as well as astroglial scar formation after SCI. We therefore investigated how an inhibitor of mitochondrial fission, Mdivi-1, would affect astrocyte proliferation, astroglial scar formation, and axonal regeneration following SCI in rats. Western blot and immunofluorescent double-labeling showed that Mdivi-1 markedly reduced the expression of the astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and a cell proliferation marker, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, in astrocytes 3 days after SCI. Moreover, Mdivi-1 decreased the expression of GFAP and neurocan, a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. Notably, immunofluorescent labeling and Nissl staining showed that Mdivi-1 elevated the production of growth-associated protein-43 and increased neuronal survival at 4 weeks after SCI. Finally, hematoxylin-eosin staining, and behavioral evaluation of motor function indicated that Mdivi-1 also reduced cavity formation and improved motor function 4 weeks after SCI. Our results confirm that Mdivi-1 promotes motor function after SCI, and indicate that inhibiting mitochondrial fission using Mdivi-1 can inhibit astrocyte activation and astroglial scar formation and contribute to axonal regeneration after SCI in rats. PMID:27807407

  5. N- and L-Type Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels Mediate Fast Calcium Transients in Axonal Shafts of Mouse Peripheral Nerve

    PubMed Central

    Barzan, Ruxandra; Pfeiffer, Friederike; Kukley, Maria

    2016-01-01

    In the peripheral nervous system (PNS) a vast number of axons are accommodated within fiber bundles that constitute peripheral nerves. A major function of peripheral axons is to propagate action potentials along their length, and hence they are equipped with Na+ and K+ channels, which ensure successful generation, conduction and termination of each action potential. However little is known about Ca2+ ion channels expressed along peripheral axons and their possible functional significance. The goal of the present study was to test whether voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs) are present along peripheral nerve axons in situ and mediate rapid activity-dependent Ca2+ elevations under physiological circumstances. To address this question we used mouse sciatic nerve slices, Ca2+ indicator Oregon Green BAPTA-1, and 2-photon Ca2+ imaging in fast line scan mode (500 Hz). We report that transient increases in intra-axonal Ca2+ concentration take place along peripheral nerve axons in situ when axons are stimulated electrically with single pulses. Furthermore, we show for the first time that Ca2+ transients in peripheral nerves are fast, i.e., occur in a millisecond time-domain. Combining Ca2+ imaging and pharmacology with specific blockers of different VGCCs subtypes we demonstrate that Ca2+ transients in peripheral nerves are mediated mainly by N-type and L-type VGCCs. Discovery of fast Ca2+ entry into the axonal shafts through VGCCs in peripheral nerves suggests that Ca2+ may be involved in regulation of action potential propagation and/or properties in this system, or mediate neurotransmitter release along peripheral axons as it occurs in the optic nerve and white matter of the central nervous system (CNS). PMID:27313508

  6. NMNAT1 inhibits axon degeneration via blockade of SARM1-mediated NAD+ depletion

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Yo; Nakagawa, Takashi; Mao, Xianrong; DiAntonio, Aaron; Milbrandt, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of the NAD+ biosynthetic enzyme NMNAT1 leads to preservation of injured axons. While increased NAD+ or decreased NMN levels are thought to be critical to this process, the mechanism(s) of this axon protection remain obscure. Using steady-state and flux analysis of NAD+ metabolites in healthy and injured mouse dorsal root ganglion axons, we find that rather than altering NAD+ synthesis, NMNAT1 instead blocks the injury-induced, SARM1-dependent NAD+ consumption that is central to axon degeneration. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19749.001 PMID:27735788

  7. Inhibition of TLR4 Signalling-Induced Inflammation Attenuates Secondary Injury after Diffuse Axonal Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yonglin; Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Junjie; Ma, Xudong; Huang, Tingqin; Pang, Honggang

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that secondary injury after diffuse axonal injury (DAI) damages more axons than the initial insult, but the underlying mechanisms of this phenomenon are not fully understood. Recent studies show that toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a critical role in promoting adaptive immune responses and have been shown to be associated with brain damage. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the TLR4 signalling pathway in secondary axonal injury in the cortices of DAI rats. TLR4 was mainly localized in microglial cells and neurons, and the levels of TLR4 downstream signalling molecules, including TLR4, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88, toll/IR-1-(TIR-) domain-containing adaptor protein inducing interferon-beta, interferon regulatory factor 3, interferon β, nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65, and phospho-NF-κB p65, significantly increased and peaked at 1 d after DAI. Inhibition of TLR4 by TAK-242 attenuated apoptosis, neuronal and axonal injury, and glial responses. The neuroprotective effects of TLR4 inhibition were associated with decreases in the levels of TLR4 downstream signalling molecules and inflammatory factors, including interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and tumour necrosis factor-α. These results suggest that the TLR4 signalling pathway plays an important role in secondary injury and may be an important therapeutic target following DAI. PMID:27478307

  8. Restoring GM1 ganglioside expression ameliorates axonal outgrowth inhibition and cognitive impairments induced by blast traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Rubovitch, Vardit; Zilberstein, Yael; Chapman, Joab; Schreiber, Shaul; Pick, Chaim G.

    2017-01-01

    Blast induced traumatic brain injury (B-TBI) may cause various degrees of cognitive and behavioral disturbances but the exact brain pathophysiology involved is poorly understood. It was previously suggested that ganglioside alteration on the axon surface as well as axonal regenerating inhibitors (ARIs) such as myelin associated glycoprotein (MAG) were involved in axonal outgrowth inhibition (AOI), leading to brain damage. GM1 ganglioside content in the brain was significantly reduced while GD1 ganglioside was not affected. The axonal regeneration was also reduced as seen by the phosphorylated NF-H expression. Moreover, B-TBI induced a significant elevation in MAG expression in the brains of the injured mice. The blast injured mice exhibited a significant decline in spatial memory as seen by the Y-maze test. In addition, the injured mice showed pronounced damage to the visual memory (as evaluated by the Novel object recognition test). A single low dose of GM1 (2 mg/kg; IP), shortly after the injury, prevented both the cognitive and the cellular changes in the brains of the injured mice. These results enlighten part of the complicated mechanism that underlies the damage induced by B-TBI and may also suggest a potential new treatment strategy for brain injuries. PMID:28112258

  9. Lithium Enhances Axonal Regeneration in Peripheral Nerve by Inhibiting Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β Activation

    PubMed Central

    Su, Huanxing; Yuan, Qiuju; Qin, Dajiang; Yang, Xiaoying; So, Kwok-Fai; Wu, Wutian

    2014-01-01

    Brachial plexus injury often involves traumatic root avulsion resulting in permanent paralysis of the innervated muscles. The lack of sufficient regeneration from spinal motoneurons to the peripheral nerve (PN) is considered to be one of the major causes of the unsatisfactory outcome of various surgical interventions for repair of the devastating injury. The present study was undertaken to investigate potential inhibitory signals which influence axonal regeneration after root avulsion injury. The results of the study showed that root avulsion triggered GSK-3β activation in the injured motoneurons and remaining axons in the ventral funiculus. Systemic application of a clinical dose of lithium suppressed activated GSK-3β in the lesioned spinal cord to the normal level and induced extensive axonal regeneration into replanted ventral roots. Our study suggests that GSK-3β activity is involved in negative regulation for axonal elongation and regeneration and lithium, the specific GSK-3β inhibitor, enhances motoneuron regeneration from CNS to PNS. PMID:24967390

  10. Presynaptic hyperpolarization induces a fast analogue modulation of spike-evoked transmission mediated by axonal sodium channels

    PubMed Central

    Rama, Sylvain; Zbili, Mickaël; Bialowas, Andrzej; Fronzaroli-Molinieres, Laure; Ankri, Norbert; Carlier, Edmond; Marra, Vincenzo; Debanne, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    In the mammalian brain, synaptic transmission usually depends on presynaptic action potentials (APs) in an all-or-none (or digital) manner. Recent studies suggest, however, that subthreshold depolarization in the presynaptic cell facilitates spike-evoked transmission, thus creating an analogue modulation of a digital process (or analogue–digital (AD) modulation). At most synapses, this process is slow and not ideally suited for the fast dynamics of neural networks. We show here that transmission at CA3–CA3 and L5–L5 synapses can be enhanced by brief presynaptic hyperpolarization such as an inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP). Using dual soma–axon patch recordings and live imaging, we find that this hyperpolarization-induced AD facilitation (h-ADF) is due to the recovery from inactivation of Nav channels controlling AP amplitude in the axon. Incorporated in a network model, h-ADF promotes both pyramidal cell synchrony and gamma oscillations. In conclusion, cortical excitatory synapses in local circuits display hyperpolarization-induced facilitation of spike-evoked synaptic transmission that promotes network synchrony. PMID:26657943

  11. DRP1 inhibition rescues retinal ganglion cells and their axons by preserving mitochondrial integrity in a mouse model of glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, K-Y; Perkins, G A; Shim, M S; Bushong, E; Alcasid, N; Ju, S; Ellisman, M H; Weinreb, R N; Ju, W-K

    2015-01-01

    Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness and is characterized by slow and progressive degeneration of the optic nerve head axons and retinal ganglion cell (RGC), leading to loss of visual function. Although oxidative stress and/or alteration of mitochondrial (mt) dynamics induced by elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) are associated with this neurodegenerative disease, the mechanisms that regulate mt dysfunction-mediated glaucomatous neurodegeneration are poorly understood. Using a mouse model of glaucoma, DBA/2J (D2), which spontaneously develops elevated IOP, as well as an in vitro RGC culture system, we show here that oxidative stress, as evidenced by increasing superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and mt transcription factor A (Tfam) protein expression, triggers mt fission and loss by increasing dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) in the retina of glaucomatous D2 mice as well as in cultured RGCs exposed to elevated hydrostatic pressure in vitro. DRP1 inhibition by overexpressing DRP1 K38A mutant blocks mt fission and triggers a subsequent reduction of oxidative stress, as evidenced by decreasing SOD2 and Tfam protein expression. DRP1 inhibition promotes RGC survival by increasing phosphorylation of Bad at serine 112 in the retina and preserves RGC axons by maintaining mt integrity in the glial lamina of glaucomatous D2 mice. These findings demonstrate an important vicious cycle involved in glaucomatous neurodegeneration that starts with elevated IOP producing oxidative stress; the oxidative stress then leads to mt fission and a specific form of mt dysfunction that generates further oxidative stress, thus perpetuating the cycle. Our findings suggest that DRP1 is a potential therapeutic target for ameliorating oxidative stress-mediated mt fission and dysfunction in RGC and its axons during glaucomatous neurodegeneration. Thus, DRP1 inhibition may provide a new therapeutic strategy for protecting both RGCs and their axons in glaucoma and other optic

  12. Myelin Lipids Inhibit Axon Regeneration Following Spinal Cord Injury: a Novel Perspective for Therapy.

    PubMed

    Mar, Fernando M; da Silva, Tiago F; Morgado, Marlene M; Rodrigues, Lorena G; Rodrigues, Daniel; Pereira, Marta I L; Marques, Ana; Sousa, Vera F; Coentro, João; Sá-Miranda, Clara; Sousa, Mónica M; Brites, Pedro

    2016-03-01

    Lack of axon regeneration following spinal cord injury has been mainly ascribed to the inhibitory environment of the injury site, i.e., to chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and myelin-associated inhibitors (MAIs). Here, we used shiverer (shi) mice to assess axon regeneration following spinal cord injury in the presence of MAIs and CSPG but in the absence of compact myelin. Although in vitro shi neurons displayed a similar intrinsic neurite outgrowth to wild-type neurons, in vivo, shi fibers had increased regenerative capacity, suggesting that the wild-type spinal cord contains additional inhibitors besides MAIs and CSPG. Our data show that besides myelin protein, myelin lipids are highly inhibitory for neurite outgrowth and suggest that this inhibitory effect is released in the shi spinal cord given its decreased lipid content. Specifically, we identified cholesterol and sphingomyelin as novel myelin-associated inhibitors that operate through a Rho-dependent mechanism and have inhibitory activity in multiple neuron types. We further demonstrated the inhibitory action of myelin lipids in vivo, by showing that delivery of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin, a drug that reduces the levels of lipids specifically in the injury site, leads to increased axon regeneration of wild-type (WT) dorsal column axons following spinal cord injury. In summary, our work shows that myelin lipids are important modulators of axon regeneration that should be considered together with protein MAIs as critical targets in strategies aiming at improving axonal growth following injury.

  13. Quantitative measurements and modeling of cargo-motor interactions during fast transport in the living axon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seamster, Pamela E.; Loewenberg, Michael; Pascal, Jennifer; Chauviere, Arnaud; Gonzales, Aaron; Cristini, Vittorio; Bearer, Elaine L.

    2012-10-01

    The kinesins have long been known to drive microtubule-based transport of sub-cellular components, yet the mechanisms of their attachment to cargo remain a mystery. Several different cargo-receptors have been proposed based on their in vitro binding affinities to kinesin-1. Only two of these—phosphatidyl inositol, a negatively charged lipid, and the carboxyl terminus of the amyloid precursor protein (APP-C), a trans-membrane protein—have been reported to mediate motility in living systems. A major question is how these many different cargo, receptors and motors interact to produce the complex choreography of vesicular transport within living cells. Here we describe an experimental assay that identifies cargo-motor receptors by their ability to recruit active motors and drive transport of exogenous cargo towards the synapse in living axons. Cargo is engineered by derivatizing the surface of polystyrene fluorescent nanospheres (100 nm diameter) with charged residues or with synthetic peptides derived from candidate motor receptor proteins, all designed to display a terminal COOH group. After injection into the squid giant axon, particle movements are imaged by laser-scanning confocal time-lapse microscopy. In this report we compare the motility of negatively charged beads with APP-C beads in the presence of glycine-conjugated non-motile beads using new strategies to measure bead movements. The ensuing quantitative analysis of time-lapse digital sequences reveals detailed information about bead movements: instantaneous and maximum velocities, run lengths, pause frequencies and pause durations. These measurements provide parameters for a mathematical model that predicts the spatiotemporal evolution of distribution of the two different types of bead cargo in the axon. The results reveal that negatively charged beads differ from APP-C beads in velocity and dispersion, and predict that at long time points APP-C will achieve greater progress towards the presynaptic

  14. The tumor suppressor HHEX inhibits axon growth when prematurely expressed in developing central nervous system neurons

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Matthew T; Venkatesh, Ishwariya; Callif, Ben L; Thiel, Laura K; Coley, Denise M; Winsor, Kristen N; Wang, Zimei; Kramer, Audra A; Lerch, Jessica K; Blackmore, Murray G

    2015-01-01

    Neurons in the embryonic and peripheral nervous system respond to injury by activating transcriptional programs supportive of axon growth, ultimately resulting in functional recovery. In contrast, neurons in the adult central nervous system (CNS) possess a limited capacity to regenerate axons after injury, fundamentally constraining repair. Activating pro-regenerative gene expression in CNS neurons is a promising therapeutic approach, but progress is hampered by incomplete knowledge of the relevant transcription factors. An emerging hypothesis is that factors implicated in cellular growth and motility outside the nervous system may also control axon growth in neurons. We therefore tested sixty-nine transcription factors, previously identified as possessing tumor suppressive or oncogenic properties in non-neuronal cells, in assays of neurite outgrowth. This screen identified YAP1 and E2F1 as enhancers of neurite outgrowth, and PITX1, RBM14, ZBTB16, and HHEX as inhibitors. Follow-up experiments focused on the tumor suppressor HHEX, one of the strongest growth inhibitors. HHEX is widely expressed in adult CNS neurons, including corticospinal tract neurons after spinal injury, but is present in only trace amounts in immature cortical neurons and adult peripheral neurons. HHEX overexpression in early postnatal cortical neurons reduced both initial axonogenesis and the rate of axon elongation, and domain deletion analysis strongly implicated transcriptional repression as the underlying mechanism. These findings suggest a role for HHEX in restricting axon growth in the developing CNS, and substantiate the hypothesis that previously identified oncogenes and tumor suppressors can play conserved roles in axon extension. PMID:26306672

  15. Axon growth inhibition by RhoA/ROCK in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Yuki; Yamashita, Toshihide

    2014-01-01

    Rho kinase (ROCK) is a serine/threonine kinase and a downstream target of the small GTPase Rho. The RhoA/ROCK pathway is associated with various neuronal functions such as migration, dendrite development, and axonal extension. Evidence from animal studies reveals that RhoA/ROCK signaling is involved in various central nervous system (CNS) diseases, including optic nerve and spinal cord injuries, stroke, and neurodegenerative diseases. Given that RhoA/ROCK plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of CNS diseases, the development of therapeutic agents targeting this pathway is expected to contribute to the treatment of CNS diseases. The RhoA/ROCK pathway mediates the effects of myelin-associated axon growth inhibitors-Nogo, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein (OMgp), and repulsive guidance molecule (RGM). Blocking RhoA/ROCK signaling can reverse the inhibitory effects of these molecules on axon outgrowth, and promotes axonal sprouting and functional recovery in animal models of CNS injury. To date, several RhoA/ROCK inhibitors have been under development or in clinical trials as therapeutic agents for neurological disorders. In this review, we focus on the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway in neurological disorders. We also discuss the potential therapeutic approaches of RhoA/ROCK inhibitors for various neurological disorders.

  16. Axon growth inhibition by RhoA/ROCK in the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Yuki; Yamashita, Toshihide

    2014-01-01

    Rho kinase (ROCK) is a serine/threonine kinase and a downstream target of the small GTPase Rho. The RhoA/ROCK pathway is associated with various neuronal functions such as migration, dendrite development, and axonal extension. Evidence from animal studies reveals that RhoA/ROCK signaling is involved in various central nervous system (CNS) diseases, including optic nerve and spinal cord injuries, stroke, and neurodegenerative diseases. Given that RhoA/ROCK plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of CNS diseases, the development of therapeutic agents targeting this pathway is expected to contribute to the treatment of CNS diseases. The RhoA/ROCK pathway mediates the effects of myelin-associated axon growth inhibitors—Nogo, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein (OMgp), and repulsive guidance molecule (RGM). Blocking RhoA/ROCK signaling can reverse the inhibitory effects of these molecules on axon outgrowth, and promotes axonal sprouting and functional recovery in animal models of CNS injury. To date, several RhoA/ROCK inhibitors have been under development or in clinical trials as therapeutic agents for neurological disorders. In this review, we focus on the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway in neurological disorders. We also discuss the potential therapeutic approaches of RhoA/ROCK inhibitors for various neurological disorders. PMID:25374504

  17. Firing regulation of fast-spiking interneurons by autaptic inhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Daqing; Chen, Mingming; Perc, Matjaž; Wu, Shengdun; Xia, Chuan; Zhang, Yangsong; Xu, Peng; Xia, Yang; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-05-01

    Fast-spiking (FS) interneurons in the brain are self-innervated by powerful inhibitory GABAergic autaptic connections. By computational modelling, we investigate how autaptic inhibition regulates the firing response of such interneurons. Our results indicate that autaptic inhibition both boosts the current threshold for action potential generation and modulates the input-output gain of FS interneurons. The autaptic transmission delay is identified as a key parameter that controls the firing patterns and determines multistability regions of FS interneurons. Furthermore, we observe that neuronal noise influences the firing regulation of FS interneurons by autaptic inhibition and extends their dynamic range for encoding inputs. Importantly, autaptic inhibition modulates noise-induced irregular firing of FS interneurons, such that coherent firing appears at an optimal autaptic inhibition level. Our results reveal the functional roles of autaptic inhibition in taming the firing dynamics of FS interneurons.

  18. Chondroitinase C Selectively Degrades Chondroitin Sulfate Glycosaminoglycans that Inhibit Axonal Growth within the Endoneurium of Peripheral Nerve

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The success of peripheral nerve regeneration is highly dependent on the regrowth of axons within the endoneurial basal lamina tubes that promote target-oriented pathfinding and appropriate reinnervation. Restoration of nerve continuity at this structural level after nerve transection injury by direct repair and nerve grafting remains a major surgical challenge. Recently, biological approaches that alter the balance of growth inhibitors and promoters in nerve have shown promise to improve appropriate axonal regeneration and recovery of peripheral nerve function. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are known inhibitors of axonal growth. This growth inhibition is mainly associated with a CSPG's glycosaminoglycan chains. Enzymatic degradation of these chains with chondroitinase eliminates this inhibitory activity and, when applied in vivo, can improve the outcome of nerve repair. To date, these encouraging findings were obtained with chondroitinase ABC (a pan-specific chondroitinase). The aim of this study was to examine the distribution of CSPG subtypes in rodent, rabbit, and human peripheral nerve and to test more selective biological enzymatic approaches to improve appropriate axonal growth within the endoneurium and minimize aberrant growth. Here we provide evidence that the endoneurium, but not the surrounding epineurium, is rich in CSPGs that have glycosaminoglycan chains readily degraded by chondroitinase C. Biochemical studies indicate that chondroitinase C has degradation specificity for 6-sulfated glycosaminoglycans found in peripheral nerve. We found that chondroitinase C degrades and inactivates inhibitory CSPGs within the endoneurium but not so much in the surrounding nerve compartments. Cryoculture bioassays (neurons grown on tissue sections) show that chondroitinase C selectively and significantly enhanced neuritic growth associated with the endoneurial basal laminae without changing growth-inhibiting properties of the surrounding epineurium

  19. Differential screening of mutated SOD1 transgenic mice reveals early up-regulation of a fast axonal transport component in spinal cord motor neurons.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, L; de Tapia, M; René, F; Lutz-Bucher, B; Gordon, J W; Mercken, L; Pradier, L; Loeffler, J P

    2000-08-01

    In the present study we analyze the molecular mechanisms underlying motor neuron degeneration in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS). For this, we used a transgenic mouse model expressing the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene with a Gly(86) to Arg (G86R) mutation equivalent to that found in a subset of human FALS. Using an optimized suppression subtractive hybridization method, a cDNA specifically up-regulated during the asymptomatic phase in the lumbar spinal cord of G86R mice was identified by sequence analysis as the KIF3-associated protein (KAP3), a regulator of fast axonal transport. RT-PCR analysis revealed that KAP3 induction was an early event arising long before axonal degeneration. Immunohistochemical studies further revealed that KAP3 protein predominantly accumulates in large motor neurons of the ventral spinal cord. We further demonstrated that KAP3 up-regulation occurs independent of any change in the other components of the kinesin II complex. However, since the ubiquitous KIF1A motor is up-regulated, our results show an early and complex rearrangement of the fast axonal transport machinery in the course of FALS pathology.

  20. Bulbospinal inhibition of PAD elicited by stimulation of afferent and motor axons in the isolated frog spinal cord and brainstem.

    PubMed

    González, H; Jiménez, I; Rudomin, P

    1992-01-01

    1. In the isolated spinal cord and brainstem of the frog, stimulation of the brainstem (BS) with trains of 3-4 pulses at 60-400 Hz produced dorsal root potentials (DRPs). The lowest threshold sites eliciting DRPs were located at the level of the obex up to about 2.5 mm rostrally, 0.5-1.2 mm laterally, between 0.5 and 1.6 mm depth. This region corresponds to the bulbar reticular formation (RF). 2. Stimulation of the RF with strengths below those required to produce DRPs, very effectively inhibited the DRPs produced by stimulation of a neighboring dorsal root (DR-DRPs) as well as the DRPs produced by antidromic stimulation of the central end of motor nerves (VR-DRPs). The inhibition was detectable 20 ms after the first pulse of the conditioning train, attained maximal values between 50 and 100 ms and lasted more than 250 ms. 3. Stimulation of the bulbar RF increased the negative response (N1 response) produced in the motor pool by antidromic activation of motoneurons. The time course of the facilitation of the N1 response resembled that of the reticularly-induced inhibition of the VR-DRPs and DR-DRPs. 4. The present series of observations supports the existence of reticulo-spinal pathways that are able to inhibit the depolarization elicited in afferent fibers by stimulation of other afferent fibers or by antidromic activation of motor axons. This inhibition appears to be exerted on the PAD mediating interneurons and is envisaged as playing an important role in motor control.

  1. hnRNP-Q1 represses nascent axon growth in cortical neurons by inhibiting Gap-43 mRNA translation

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kathryn R.; McAninch, Damian S.; Stefanovic, Snezana; Xing, Lei; Allen, Megan; Li, Wenqi; Feng, Yue; Mihailescu, Mihaela Rita; Bassell, Gary J.

    2016-01-01

    Posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression by mRNA-binding proteins is critical for neuronal development and function. hnRNP-Q1 is an mRNA-binding protein that regulates mRNA processing events, including translational repression. hnRNP-Q1 is highly expressed in brain tissue, suggesting a function in regulating genes critical for neuronal development. In this study, we have identified Growth-associated protein 43 (Gap-43) mRNA as a novel target of hnRNP-Q1 and have demonstrated that hnRNP-Q1 represses Gap-43 mRNA translation and consequently GAP-43 function. GAP-43 is a neuronal protein that regulates actin dynamics in growth cones and facilitates axonal growth. Previous studies have identified factors that regulate Gap-43 mRNA stability and localization, but it remains unclear whether Gap-43 mRNA translation is also regulated. Our results reveal that hnRNP-Q1 knockdown increased nascent axon length, total neurite length, and neurite number in mouse embryonic cortical neurons and enhanced Neuro2a cell process extension; these phenotypes were rescued by GAP-43 knockdown. Additionally, we have identified a G-quadruplex structure in the 5′ untranslated region of Gap-43 mRNA that directly interacts with hnRNP-Q1 as a means to inhibit Gap-43 mRNA translation. Therefore hnRNP-Q1–mediated repression of Gap-43 mRNA translation provides an additional mechanism for regulating GAP-43 expression and function and may be critical for neuronal development. PMID:26658614

  2. Fast Synaptic Inhibition in Spinal Sensory Processing and Pain Control

    PubMed Central

    Zeilhofer, Hanns Ulrich; Wildner, Hendrik; Yevenes, Gonzalo E.

    2013-01-01

    The two amino acids γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) and glycine mediate fast inhibitory neurotransmission in different CNS areas and serve pivotal roles in the spinal sensory processing. Under healthy conditions, they limit the excitability of spinal terminals of primary sensory nerve fibers and of intrinsic dorsal horn neurons through pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms, and thereby facilitate the spatial and temporal discrimination of sensory stimuli. Removal of fast inhibition not only reduces the fidelity of normal sensory processing but also provokes symptoms very much reminiscent of pathological and chronic pain syndromes. This review summarizes our knowledge of the molecular bases of spinal inhibitory neurotransmission and its organization in dorsal horn sensory circuits. Particular emphasis is placed on the role and mechanisms of spinal inhibitory malfunction in inflammatory and neuropathic chronic pain syndromes. PMID:22298656

  3. Activation of Casein Kinase II and Inhibition of Phosphatase and Tensin Homologue Deleted on Chromosome 10 Phosphatase by Nerve Growth Factor/p75NTR Inhibit Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β and Stimulate Axonal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Arevalo, María-Angeles

    2006-01-01

    Axonal elongation and guidance are controlled by extracellular factors such as the neurotrophins. Indeed, nerve growth factor (NGF) seems to promote axon growth through binding to its p75NTR receptor and inactivating RhoA. Furthermore, the local inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β by NGF also favors microtubule polymerization and axon extension. Inactivation of GSK-3β may be due to the NGF/TrkA-mediated activation of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3 kinase), which increases the levels of phosphatydilinositol 3-phosphate [PI(3)P]. However, we show here that NGF may inactivate GSK-3β through an alternative mechanism. In cultured hippocampal neurons, the capacity of NGF to promote axon elongation is mostly mediated by p75NTR, and the activation of this pathway leads to the inactivation of GSK-3β. However, the signaling pathway triggered by NGF/p75NTR acts through casein kinase II (CK2). NGF/p75NTR-activated CK2 phosphorylates the phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN), thus rendering this phosphatase inactive. Like activation of the PI-3 kinase, PTEN inactivation allows PI(3)P levels to increase, thus favoring GSK-3β inactivation and axon outgrowth. This newly disclosed mechanism may help to extend the repertoire of pharmacological agents that activate CK2 or that inhibit PTEN to stimulate axon regeneration after trauma or disease. PMID:16723502

  4. Inhibition of neuropeptide degradation suppresses sweating but increases the area of the axon reflex flare.

    PubMed

    Schlereth, Tanja; Breimhorst, Markus; Werner, Nicolas; Pottschmidt, Katrin; Drummond, Peter D; Birklein, Frank

    2013-04-01

    The neuropeptides CGRP (calcitonin gene-elated peptide) and substance P (SP) mediate neurogenic inflammation. Both are degraded by the neutral endopeptidase (NEP) which can be blocked by phosphoramidon. The aim was to evaluate the effect of NEP inhibition on sweating and vasodilatation. Dermal microdialysis was performed on the skin of 39 subjects. Two fibres were perfused with phosphoramidon (0.01%, 0.02% or 0.2%), two with saline. Acetylcholine (ACh) was either added to the microdialysis perfusate (n = 30, 10(-2)  m) or thermoregulatory sweating was induced (n = 9). Co-application of phosphoramidon reduced cholinergic and thermoregulatory sweating. However, the flare size - a localized increase in superficial blood flow after ACh-application - was significantly increased. The increase in flare size is most probably due to increased CGRP levels. The inhibition of sweating by phosphoramidon may involve an increase in SP, a reduction in CGRP-degradation fragments or a direct inhibitory action of phosphoramidon.

  5. Serotonin spillover onto the axon initial segment of motoneurons induces central fatigue by inhibiting action potential initiation.

    PubMed

    Cotel, Florence; Exley, Richard; Cragg, Stephanie J; Perrier, Jean-François

    2013-03-19

    Motor fatigue induced by physical activity is an everyday experience characterized by a decreased capacity to generate motor force. Factors in both muscles and the central nervous system are involved. The central component of fatigue modulates the ability of motoneurons to activate muscle adequately independently of the muscle physiology. Indirect evidence indicates that central fatigue is caused by serotonin (5-HT), but the cellular mechanisms are unknown. In a slice preparation from the spinal cord of the adult turtle, we found that prolonged stimulation of the raphe-spinal pathway--as during motor exercise--activated 5-HT1A receptors that decreased motoneuronal excitability. Electrophysiological tests combined with pharmacology showed that focal activation of 5-HT1A receptors at the axon initial segment (AIS), but not on other motoneuronal compartments, inhibited the action potential initiation by modulating a Na(+) current. Immunohistochemical staining against 5-HT revealed a high-density innervation of 5-HT terminals on the somatodendritic membrane and a complete absence on the AIS. This observation raised the hypothesis that a 5-HT spillover activates receptors at this latter compartment. We tested it by measuring the level of extracellular 5-HT with cyclic voltammetry and found that prolonged stimulations of the raphe-spinal pathway increased the level of 5-HT to a concentration sufficient to activate 5-HT1A receptors. Together our results demonstrate that prolonged release of 5-HT during motor activity spills over from its release sites to the AIS of motoneurons. Here, activated 5-HT1A receptors inhibit firing and, thereby, muscle contraction. Hence, this is a cellular mechanism for central fatigue.

  6. Serotonin spillover onto the axon initial segment of motoneurons induces central fatigue by inhibiting action potential initiation

    PubMed Central

    Cotel, Florence; Exley, Richard; Cragg, Stephanie J.; Perrier, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Motor fatigue induced by physical activity is an everyday experience characterized by a decreased capacity to generate motor force. Factors in both muscles and the central nervous system are involved. The central component of fatigue modulates the ability of motoneurons to activate muscle adequately independently of the muscle physiology. Indirect evidence indicates that central fatigue is caused by serotonin (5-HT), but the cellular mechanisms are unknown. In a slice preparation from the spinal cord of the adult turtle, we found that prolonged stimulation of the raphe-spinal pathway—as during motor exercise—activated 5-HT1A receptors that decreased motoneuronal excitability. Electrophysiological tests combined with pharmacology showed that focal activation of 5-HT1A receptors at the axon initial segment (AIS), but not on other motoneuronal compartments, inhibited the action potential initiation by modulating a Na+ current. Immunohistochemical staining against 5-HT revealed a high-density innervation of 5-HT terminals on the somatodendritic membrane and a complete absence on the AIS. This observation raised the hypothesis that a 5-HT spillover activates receptors at this latter compartment. We tested it by measuring the level of extracellular 5-HT with cyclic voltammetry and found that prolonged stimulations of the raphe-spinal pathway increased the level of 5-HT to a concentration sufficient to activate 5-HT1A receptors. Together our results demonstrate that prolonged release of 5-HT during motor activity spills over from its release sites to the AIS of motoneurons. Here, activated 5-HT1A receptors inhibit firing and, thereby, muscle contraction. Hence, this is a cellular mechanism for central fatigue. PMID:23487756

  7. Pressure-induced fast axonal transport abnormalities and the anatomy at the lamina cribrosa in primate eyes.

    PubMed

    Radius, R L

    1983-03-01

    In ten owl monkey eyes (Aotus trivirgatus) the location of pressure-induced (perfusion pressure 35 mmHg) axonal transport abnormalities was determined by the examination of serial step cross-section tissue radio autographs from the optic nerve head. The degree of the local transport interruption did not correlate with the fiber bundle cross-section area, the shape of the laminar pores or the density of the inter-bundle septa in that region.

  8. The lin-4 microRNA targets the LIN-14 transcription factor to inhibit netrin-mediated axon attraction.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yan; Chiu, Hui; Domenger, Dorothée; Chuang, Chiou-Fen; Chang, Chieh

    2012-06-12

    miR-125 microRNAs, such as lin-4 in Caenorhabditis elegans, were among the first microRNAs discovered, are phylogenetically conserved, and have been implicated in regulating developmental timing. Here, we showed that loss-of-function mutations in lin-4 microRNA increased axon attraction mediated by the netrin homolog UNC-6. The absence of lin-4 microRNA suppressed the axon guidance defects of anterior ventral microtubule (AVM) neurons caused by loss-of-function mutations in slt-1, which encodes a repulsive guidance cue. Selective expression of lin-4 microRNA in AVM neurons of lin-4-null animals indicated that the effect of lin-4 on AVM axon guidance was cell-autonomous. Promoter reporter analysis suggested that lin-4 was likely expressed strongly in AVM neurons during the developmental time frame that the axons are guided to their targets. In contrast, the lin-4 reporter was barely detectable in anterior lateral microtubule (ALM) neurons, axon guidance of which is insensitive to netrin. In AVM neurons, the transcription factor LIN-14, a target of lin-4 microRNA, stimulated UNC-6-mediated ventral guidance of the AVM axon. LIN-14 promoted attraction of the AVM axon through the UNC-6 receptor UNC-40 [the worm homolog of vertebrate Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC)] and its cofactor MADD-2, which signals through both the UNC-34 (Ena) and the CED-10 (Rac1) downstream pathways. LIN-14 stimulated UNC-6-mediated axon attraction in part by increasing UNC-40 abundance. Our study indicated that lin-4 microRNA reduced the activity of LIN-14 to terminate UNC-6-mediated axon guidance of AVM neurons.

  9. Cortical PKC inhibition promotes axonal regeneration of the corticospinal tract and forelimb functional recovery after cervical dorsal spinal hemisection in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaofei; Hu, Jianguo; She, Yun; Smith, George M; Xu, Xiao-Ming

    2014-11-01

    Our previous study shows that conventional protein kinases C (cPKCs) are key signaling mediators that are activated by extracellular inhibitory molecules. Inhibition of cPKC by intrathecal infusion of a cPKC inhibitor, GÖ6976, into the site of dorsal hemisection (DH) induces regeneration of lesioned dorsal column sensory, but not corticospinal tract (CST), axons. Here, we investigated whether a direct cortical delivery of GÖ6976 into the soma of corticospinal neurons promotes regeneration of CST and the recovery of forelimb function in rats with cervical spinal cord injuries. We report that cortical delivery of GÖ6976 reduced injury-induced activation of conventional PKCα and PKCβ1 in CST neurons, promoted regeneration of CST axons through and beyond a cervical DH at C4, formed new synapses on target neurons caudal to the injury, and enhanced forelimb functional recovery in adult rats. When combined with lenti-Chondroitinase ABC treatment, cortical administration of GÖ6976 promoted even greater CST axonal regeneration and recovery of forelimb function. Thus, this study has demonstrated a novel strategy that can promote anatomical regeneration of damaged CST axons and partial recovery of forelimb function. Importantly, such an effect is critically dependent on the efficient blockage of injury-induced PKC activation in the soma of layer V CST neurons.

  10. AMIGO3 is an NgR1/p75 co-receptor signalling axon growth inhibition in the acute phase of adult central nervous system injury.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zubair; Douglas, Michael R; John, Gabrielle; Berry, Martin; Logan, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Axon regeneration in the injured adult CNS is reportedly inhibited by myelin-derived inhibitory molecules, after binding to a receptor complex comprised of the Nogo-66 receptor (NgR1) and two transmembrane co-receptors p75/TROY and LINGO-1. However, the post-injury expression pattern for LINGO-1 is inconsistent with its proposed function. We demonstrated that AMIGO3 levels were significantly higher acutely than those of LINGO-1 in dorsal column lesions and reduced in models of dorsal root ganglion neuron (DRGN) axon regeneration. Similarly, AMIGO3 levels were raised in the retina immediately after optic nerve crush, whilst levels were suppressed in regenerating optic nerves, induced by intravitreal peripheral nerve implantation. AMIGO3 interacted functionally with NgR1-p75/TROY in non-neuronal cells and in brain lysates, mediating RhoA activation in response to CNS myelin. Knockdown of AMIGO3 in myelin-inhibited adult primary DRG and retinal cultures promoted disinhibited neurite growth when cells were stimulated with appropriate neurotrophic factors. These findings demonstrate that AMIGO3 substitutes for LINGO-1 in the NgR1-p75/TROY inhibitory signalling complex and suggests that the NgR1-p75/TROY-AMIGO3 receptor complex mediates myelin-induced inhibition of axon growth acutely in the CNS. Thus, antagonizing AMIGO3 rather than LINGO-1 immediately after CNS injury is likely to be a more effective therapeutic strategy for promoting CNS axon regeneration when combined with neurotrophic factor administration.

  11. A retinoic acid receptor beta agonist (CD2019) overcomes inhibition of axonal outgrowth via phosphoinositide 3-kinase signalling in the injured adult spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Agudo, Marta; Yip, Ping; Davies, Meirion; Bradbury, Elizabeth; Doherty, Patrick; McMahon, Stephen; Maden, Malcolm; Corcoran, Jonathan P T

    2010-01-01

    After spinal cord injury in the adult mammal, axons do not normally regrow and this commonly leads to paralysis. Retinoic acid (RA) can stimulate neurite outgrowth in vitro of both the embryonic central and peripheral nervous system, via activation of the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) beta2. We show here that regions of the adult CNS, including the cerebellum and cerebral cortex, express RARbeta2. We show that when cerebellar neurons are grown in the presence of myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) which inhibits neurite outgrowth, RARbeta can be activated in a dose dependent manner by a RARbeta agonist (CD2019) and neurite outgrowth can occur via phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signalling. In a model of spinal cord injury CD2019 also acts through PI3K signalling to induce axonal outgrowth of descending corticospinal fibres and promote functional recovery. Our data suggest that RARbeta agonists may be of therapeutic potential for human spinal cord injuries.

  12. Erythropoietin promotes axonal regeneration after optic nerve crush in vivo by inhibition of RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Tan, Haibo; Zhong, Yisheng; Shen, Xi; Cheng, Yu; Jiao, Qin; Deng, Lianfu

    2012-11-01

    We investigated whether the RhoA/ROCK pathway was involved in the effect of erythropoietin (EPO) to promote retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) axonal regeneration in a rat optic nerve crush (ONC) model. We demonstrated that both EPO and ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 significantly enhanced RGCs survival and axon regeneration in vivo, and the effects of these agents were additive. Expression of active-RhoA was decreased after EPO or Y-27632 per pull down assay and affinity precipitation. Administration of EPO and Y-27632 cocktail resulted in even more RhoA inactivation, decreased expression of ROCK-1 and ROCK-2, and increased expression of growth associated protein-43 (GAP-43) protein per immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Down-regulation of active-RhoA, ROCK-1, and ROCK-2 expression by EPO coincided with the appearance of larger numbers of regenerating axons. In conclusion, the RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway was involved in the EPO effect to promote RGCs axon regeneration after ONC.

  13. Promotion of axon regeneration and inhibition of astrocyte activation by alpha A-crystallin on crushed optic nerve

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Wei-Yang; Liu, Xiao; Gu, Xian-Liang; Ying, Xi; Wu, Nan; Xu, Hai-Wei; Wang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    AIM To explore the effects of αA-crystallin in astrocyte gliosis after optic nerve crush (ONC) and the mechanism of α-crystallin in neuroprotection and axon regeneration. METHODS ONC was established on the Sprague-Dawley rat model and αA-crystallin (10−4 g/L, 4 µL) was intravitreously injected into the rat model. Flash-visual evoked potential (F-VEP) was examined 14d after ONC, and the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) levels in the retina and crush site were analyzed 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14d after ONC by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot respectively. The levels of beta Tubulin (TUJ1), growth-associated membrane phosphoprotein-43 (GAP-43), chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and neurocan were also determined by IHC 14d after ONC. RESULTS GFAP level in the retina and the optic nerve significantly increased 1d after ONC, and reached the peak level 7d post-ONC. Injection of αA-crystallin significantly decreased GFAP level in both the retina and the crush site 3d after ONC, and induced astrocytes architecture remodeling at the crush site. Quantification of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons indicated αA-crystallin markedly promoted axon regeneration in ONC rats and enhanced the regenerated axons penetrated into the glial scar. CSPGs and neurocan expression also decreased 14d after αA-crystallin injection. The amplitude (N1-P1) and latency (P1) of F-VEP were also restored. CONCLUSION Our results suggest α-crystallin promotes the axon regeneration of RGCs and suppresses the activation of astrocytes. PMID:27500100

  14. Cortical Interneuron Subtypes Vary in Their Axonal Action Potential Properties

    PubMed Central

    Casale, Amanda E.; Foust, Amanda J.; Bal, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    The role of interneurons in cortical microcircuits is strongly influenced by their passive and active electrical properties. Although different types of interneurons exhibit unique electrophysiological properties recorded at the soma, it is not yet clear whether these differences are also manifested in other neuronal compartments. To address this question, we have used voltage-sensitive dye to image the propagation of action potentials into the fine collaterals of axons and dendrites in two of the largest cortical interneuron subtypes in the mouse: fast-spiking interneurons, which are typically basket or chandelier neurons; and somatostatin containing interneurons, which are typically regular spiking Martinotti cells. We found that fast-spiking and somatostatin-expressing interneurons differed in their electrophysiological characteristics along their entire dendrosomatoaxonal extent. The action potentials generated in the somata and axons, including axon collaterals, of somatostatin-expressing interneurons are significantly broader than those generated in the same compartments of fast-spiking inhibitory interneurons. In addition, action potentials back-propagated into the dendrites of somatostatin-expressing interneurons much more readily than fast-spiking interneurons. Pharmacological investigations suggested that axonal action potential repolarization in both cell types depends critically upon Kv1 channels, whereas the axonal and somatic action potentials of somatostatin-expressing interneurons also depend on BK Ca2+-activated K+ channels. These results indicate that the two broad classes of interneurons studied here have expressly different subcellular physiological properties, allowing them to perform unique computational roles in cortical circuit operations. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neurons in the cerebral cortex are of two major types: excitatory and inhibitory. The proper balance of excitation and inhibition in the brain is critical for its operation. Neurons

  15. Neuronal activity biases axon selection for myelination in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Jacob H.; Ravanelli, Andrew M.; Schwindt, Rani; Scott, Ethan K.; Appel, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    An essential feature of vertebrate neural development is ensheathment of axons with myelin, an insulating membrane formed by oligodendrocytes. Not all axons are myelinated, but mechanisms directing myelination of specific axons are unknown. Using zebrafish we show that activity-dependent secretion stabilizes myelin sheath formation on select axons. When VAMP2-dependent exocytosis is silenced in single axons, oligodendrocytes preferentially ensheath neighboring axons. Nascent sheaths formed on silenced axons are shorter in length, but when activity of neighboring axons is also suppressed, inhibition of sheath growth is relieved. Using in vivo time-lapse microscopy, we show that only 25% of oligodendrocyte processes that initiate axon wrapping are stabilized during normal development, and that initiation does not require activity. Instead, oligodendrocyte processes wrapping silenced axons are retracted more frequently. We propose that axon selection for myelination results from excessive and indiscriminate initiation of wrapping followed by refinement that is biased by activity-dependent secretion from axons. PMID:25849987

  16. UNC-16 (JIP3) Acts Through Synapse-Assembly Proteins to Inhibit the Active Transport of Cell Soma Organelles to Caenorhabditis elegans Motor Neuron Axons.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Stacey L; Morrison, Logan M; Yorks, Rosalina M; Hoover, Christopher M; Boominathan, Soorajnath; Miller, Kenneth G

    2015-09-01

    The conserved protein UNC-16 (JIP3) inhibits the active transport of some cell soma organelles, such as lysosomes, early endosomes, and Golgi, to the synaptic region of axons. However, little is known about UNC-16's organelle transport regulatory function, which is distinct from its Kinesin-1 adaptor function. We used an unc-16 suppressor screen in Caenorhabditis elegans to discover that UNC-16 acts through CDK-5 (Cdk5) and two conserved synapse assembly proteins: SAD-1 (SAD-A Kinase), and SYD-2 (Liprin-α). Genetic analysis of all combinations of double and triple mutants in unc-16(+) and unc-16(-) backgrounds showed that the three proteins (CDK-5, SAD-1, and SYD-2) are all part of the same organelle transport regulatory system, which we named the CSS system based on its founder proteins. Further genetic analysis revealed roles for SYD-1 (another synapse assembly protein) and STRADα (a SAD-1-interacting protein) in the CSS system. In an unc-16(-) background, loss of the CSS system improved the sluggish locomotion of unc-16 mutants, inhibited axonal lysosome accumulation, and led to the dynein-dependent accumulation of lysosomes in dendrites. Time-lapse imaging of lysosomes in CSS system mutants in unc-16(+) and unc-16(-) backgrounds revealed active transport defects consistent with the steady-state distributions of lysosomes. UNC-16 also uses the CSS system to regulate the distribution of early endosomes in neurons and, to a lesser extent, Golgi. The data reveal a new and unprecedented role for synapse assembly proteins, acting as part of the newly defined CSS system, in mediating UNC-16's organelle transport regulatory function.

  17. Low Piconewton Towing of CNS Axons against Diffusing and Surface-Bound Repellents Requires the Inhibition of Motor Protein-Associated Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilinc, Devrim; Blasiak, Agata; O'Mahony, James J.; Lee, Gil U.

    2014-11-01

    Growth cones, dynamic structures at axon tips, integrate chemical and physical stimuli and translate them into coordinated axon behaviour, e.g., elongation or turning. External force application to growth cones directs and enhances axon elongation in vitro; however, direct mechanical stimulation is rarely combined with chemotactic stimulation. We describe a microfluidic device that exposes isolated cortical axons to gradients of diffusing and substrate-bound molecules, and permits the simultaneous application of piconewton (pN) forces to multiple individual growth cones via magnetic tweezers. Axons treated with Y-27632, a RhoA kinase inhibitor, were successfully towed against Semaphorin 3A gradients, which repel untreated axons, with less than 12 pN acting on a small number of neural cell adhesion molecules. Treatment with Y-27632 or monastrol, a kinesin-5 inhibitor, promoted axon towing on substrates coated with chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, potent axon repellents. Thus, modulating key molecular pathways that regulate contractile stress generation in axons counteracts the effects of repellent molecules and promotes tension-induced growth. The demonstration of parallel towing of axons towards inhibitory environments with minute forces suggests that mechanochemical stimulation may be a promising therapeutic approach for the repair of the damaged central nervous system, where regenerating axons face repellent factors over-expressed in the glial scar.

  18. Silence of synaptotagmin I in INS-1 cells inhibits fast exocytosis and fast endocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong Xiong; Zhou Keming; Wu Zhengxing . E-mail: xutao@ibp.ac.cn; Xu Tao . E-mail: ibbwuzx@mail.hust.edu.cn

    2006-08-18

    Synaptotagmin I (Syt I) is a Ca{sup 2+} sensor for triggering fast synchronized release of neurotransmitters. However, controversy remains whether Syt I is also obligatory for the exocytosis and endocytosis of larger dense core vesicles (LDCVs) in endocrine cells. In this study, we used a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to silence the expression of Syt I and investigated the roles of Syt I on exocytosis and endocytosis in INS-1 cells. Our results demonstrated that expression of Syt I is remarkably reduced by the Syt I gene targeting shRNA. Using high-time resolution capacitance measurement, we found that the silence of Syt I decreased the calcium sensitivity of fusion of insulin granules and therefore reduced the exocytotic burst triggered by step-like [Ca{sup 2+}] {sub i} elevation. In addition, the occurrence frequency and amplitude of fast endocytosis were remarkably reduced in the silenced cells. We conclude that Syt I not only participates in the Ca{sup 2+}-sensing of LDCV fusion with plasmalemma, but also plays a crucial role in fast endocytosis in INS-1 cells.

  19. GSK249320, A Monoclonal Antibody Against the Axon Outgrowth Inhibition Molecule Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein, Improves Outcome of Rodents with Experimental Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Cash, Diana; Easton, Alanna C.; Mesquita, Michel; Beech, John; Williams, Steve; Lloyd, Andrew; Irving, Elaine; Cramer, Steven C.

    2016-01-01

    Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) is an inhibitor of axon growth. MAG levels increase after stroke. GSK249320 is a monoclonal antibody that neutralizes MAG-mediated inhibition and so may promote axon outgrowth and improve post-stroke outcomes. The current study tested the hypothesis that GSK249320 initiated 24 hours or 7 days after experimental stroke improves behavioural outcomes. Rats with right middle cerebral artery occlusion for 90 minutes were randomized to receive 6 weeks of intravenous (a) GSK249320 starting 24 hours post-stroke, (b) GSK249320 starting 7 days post-stroke, or (c) vehicle. Behavioral testing was performed over 7 weeks. Serial MRI demonstrated no differences in infarct volume across groups. Animals treated with GSK249320 24 hours post-stroke showed larger increases in Neuroscore (time X group, p = 0.0008) and staircase test (main effect of group, p = 0.0214) as compared to controls, but animals treated 7 days post-stroke showed no significant behavioral benefit. No significant results were found for the sticky tape or cylinder tests. A separate set of animals with experimental stroke received a single intravenous dose of GSK249320 or vehicle at 1 hour, 24 hours, 48 hours or 1 week post-stroke, and immunohistochemistry methods were used to measure GSK249320 distribution; GSK249320 was found in the ipsilesional hemisphere only, the extent of which increased with later times of injection. These data suggest that intravenous GSK249320 penetrates the lesion site and is associated with a small effect on functional outcomes when initiated 24 hours post-stroke and so support the translational potential of this monoclonal antibody as a restorative therapy for patients with stroke. PMID:28018988

  20. Fasting potentiates the anticancer activity of tyrosine kinase inhibitors by strengthening MAPK signaling inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Caffa, Irene; D'Agostino, Vito; Damonte, Patrizia; Soncini, Debora; Cea, Michele; Monacelli, Fiammetta; Odetti, Patrizio; Ballestrero, Alberto; Provenzani, Alessandro; Longo, Valter D.; Nencioni, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are now the mainstay of treatment in many types of cancer. However, their benefit is frequently short-lived, mandating the search for safe potentiation strategies. Cycles of fasting enhance the activity of chemo-radiotherapy in preclinical cancer models and dietary approaches based on fasting are currently explored in clinical trials. Whether combining fasting with TKIs is going to be potentially beneficial remains unknown. Here we report that starvation conditions increase the ability of commonly administered TKIs, including erlotinib, gefitinib, lapatinib, crizotinib and regorafenib, to block cancer cell growth, to inhibit the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and to strengthen E2F-dependent transcription inhibition. In cancer xenografts models, both TKIs and cycles of fasting slowed tumor growth, but, when combined, these interventions were significantly more effective than either type of treatment alone. In conclusion, cycles of fasting or of specifically designed fasting-mimicking diets should be evaluated in clinical studies as a means to potentiate the activity of TKIs in clinical use. PMID:25909220

  1. Fasting potentiates the anticancer activity of tyrosine kinase inhibitors by strengthening MAPK signaling inhibition.

    PubMed

    Caffa, Irene; D'Agostino, Vito; Damonte, Patrizia; Soncini, Debora; Cea, Michele; Monacelli, Fiammetta; Odetti, Patrizio; Ballestrero, Alberto; Provenzani, Alessandro; Longo, Valter D; Nencioni, Alessio

    2015-05-20

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are now the mainstay of treatment in many types of cancer. However, their benefit is frequently short-lived, mandating the search for safe potentiation strategies. Cycles of fasting enhance the activity of chemo-radiotherapy in preclinical cancer models and dietary approaches based on fasting are currently explored in clinical trials. Whether combining fasting with TKIs is going to be potentially beneficial remains unknown. Here we report that starvation conditions increase the ability of commonly administered TKIs, including erlotinib, gefitinib, lapatinib, crizotinib and regorafenib, to block cancer cell growth, to inhibit the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and to strengthen E2F-dependent transcription inhibition. In cancer xenografts models, both TKIs and cycles of fasting slowed tumor growth, but, when combined, these interventions were significantly more effective than either type of treatment alone. In conclusion, cycles of fasting or of specifically designed fasting-mimicking diets should be evaluated in clinical studies as a means to potentiate the activity of TKIs in clinical use.

  2. Isoflurane enhances both fast and slow synaptic inhibition in the hippocampus at amnestic concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Shuiping; Perouansky, Misha; Pearce, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Inhibition mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors has long been considered an important target for a variety of general anesthetics. In the hippocampus, two types of phasic GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition coexist: GABAA,fast, which is expressed primarily at peri-somatic sites, and GABAA,slow, which is expressed primarily in the dendrites. Their spatial segregation suggests distinct functions: GABAA,slow may control plasticity of dendritic synapses, while GABAA,fast controls action potential initiation at the soma. We examined modulation of GABAA,fast and GABAA,slow inhibition by isoflurane at amnesic concentrations, and compared it to modulation by behaviorally equivalent doses of the GABAA receptor-selective drug etomidate. Methods Whole-cell recordings were conducted at near-physiological temperature from pyramidal cells in organotypic hippocampal cultures obtained from C57BL/6 x 129/SvJ F1 hybrid mice. GABAA receptor-mediated currents were isolated using glutamate receptor antagonists. GABAA,slow currents were evoked by electrical stimulation in the stratum lacunosum-moleculare. Miniature GABAA,fast currents were recorded in the presence of tetrodotoxin. Results 100 µM isoflurane (approximately EC50,amnesia) slowed fast and slow inhibitory postsynaptic current decay by approximately 25%. Higher concentrations, up to 400 µM, produced proportionally greater effects without altering current amplitudes. The effects on GABAA,slow were approximately one-half those produced by equi-amnesic concentrations of etomidate. Conclusions Isoflurane enhances both types of phasic GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition to similar degrees at amnesic concentrations. This pattern differs from etomidate, which at low concentrations selectively enhances slow inhibition. These effects of isoflurane are sufficiently large that they may contribute substantially to its suppression of hippocampal learning and memory. PMID:22343472

  3. Localization of brain-derived neurotrophic factor to distinct terminals of mossy fiber axons implies regulation of both excitation and feedforward inhibition of CA3 pyramidal cells.

    PubMed

    Danzer, Steve C; McNamara, James O

    2004-12-15

    Hippocampal dentate granule cells directly excite and indirectly inhibit CA3 pyramidal cells via distinct presynaptic terminal specializations of their mossy fiber axons. This mossy fiber pathway contains the highest concentration of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the CNS, yet whether BDNF is positioned to regulate the excitatory and/or inhibitory pathways is unknown. To localize BDNF, confocal microscopy of green fluorescent protein transgenic mice was combined with BDNF immunohistochemistry. Approximately half of presynaptic granule cell-CA3 pyramidal cell contacts were found to contain BDNF. Moreover, enhanced neuronal activity virtually doubled the percentage of BDNF-immunoreactive terminals contacting CA3 pyramidal cells. To our surprise, BDNF was also found in mossy fiber terminals contacting inhibitory neurons. These studies demonstrate that mossy fiber BDNF is poised to regulate both direct excitatory and indirect feedforward inhibitory inputs to CA3 pyramdal cells and reveal that seizure activity increases the pool of BDNF-expressing granule cell presynaptic terminals contacting CA3 pyramidal cells.

  4. Experiment vs. theory on electric inhibition of fast electron penetration of targets

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, R R; Akli, K U; Batani, D; Baton, S; Hatchett, S P; Hey, D; Key, M H; King, J A; MacKinnon, A J; Norreys, P A; Snavely, R A; Stephens, R; Stoeckl, C; Town, R J; Zhang, B

    2005-06-13

    A dominant force of inhibition of fast electrons in normal density matter is due to an axially directed electrostatic field. Fast electrons leave the critical density layer and enter the solid in an assumed relativistic Maxwellian energy distribution. Within a cycle of the solid density plasma frequency, the charge separation is neutralized by a background return current density j{sub b} = en{sub b}v{sub b} equal and opposite to the fast electron current density j{sub f} = en{sub f}v{sub f} [1] where it is assumed that the fast electron number density is much less than the background number density, n{sub f} << n{sub b} [2]. This charge and current neutralization allows the forward moving fast electron current to temporarily exceed the Alfven limit by many orders of magnitude [3]. During this period the cold return current, in passing through the material resistivity, ohmically generates an electric field in opposition to the fast current. As a result, the fast electron current loses its energy to the material, via the return current, in the form of heat [4]. So, although the highly energetic electrons suffer relatively little direct collisional loss of energy (owing to the inverse relation of the Coulomb cross section to velocity), their motion is substantially damped by ohmic heating of the slower return current. The equation for the ohmically generated electric field, E, is given by Ohm's law, E = j{sub c}{eta} where {eta} is the material resistivity.

  5. Axon sorting within the spinal cord marginal zone via Robo-mediated inhibition of N-cadherin controls spinocerebellar tract formation.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Nozomi; Insolera, Ryan; Sillitoe, Roy V; Shi, Song-Hai; Kaprielian, Zaven

    2012-10-31

    The axons of spinal projection neurons transmit sensory information to the brain by ascending within highly organized longitudinal tracts. However, the molecular mechanisms that control the sorting of these axons within the spinal cord and their directed growth to poorly defined targets are not understood. Here, we show that an interplay between Robo and the cell adhesion molecule, N-cadherin, sorts spinal commissural axons into appropriate longitudinal tracts within the spinal cord, and thereby facilitates their brain targeting. Specifically, we show that d1 and d2 spinal commissural axons join the lateral funiculus within the spinal cord and target the cerebellum in chick embryos, and that these axons contribute to the spinocerebellar projection in transgenic reporter mice. Disabling Robo signaling or overexpressing N-cadherin on these axons prevents the formation of the lateral funiculus and the spinocerebellar tract, and simultaneously perturbing Robo and N-cadherin function rescues both phenotypes in chick embryos. Consistent with these observations, disabling Robo function in conditional N-cadherin knock-out mice results in a wild-type-like lateral funiculus. Together, these findings suggest that spinal projection axons must be sorted into distinct longitudinal tracts within the spinal cord proper to project to their brain targets.

  6. Axon sorting within the spinal cord marginal zone via Robo-mediated inhibition of N-cadherin controls spinocerebellar tract formation

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Nozomi; Insolera, Ryan; Sillitoe, Roy V.; Shi, Song-Hai; Kaprielian, Zaven

    2012-01-01

    The axons of spinal projection neurons transmit sensory information to the brain by ascending within highly organized longitudinal tracts. However, the molecular mechanisms that control the sorting of these axons within the spinal cord and their directed growth to poorly defined targets are not understood. Here, we show that an interplay between Robo and the cell adhesion molecule, N-cadherin, sorts spinal commissural axons into appropriate longitudinal tracts within the spinal cord, and thereby facilitates their brain targeting. Specifically, we show that d1 and d2 spinal commissural axons join the lateral funiculus within the spinal cord and target the cerebellum in chick embryos, and that these axons contribute to the spinocerebellar projection in transgenic reporter mice. Disabling Robo signaling or overexpressing N-cadherin on these axons prevents the formation of the lateral funiculus and the spinocerebellar tract, and simultaneously perturbing Robo and N-cadherin function rescues both phenotypes in chick embryos. Consistent with these observations, disabling Robo function in conditional N-cadherin knockout mice results in a wild type-like lateral funiculus. Together, these findings suggest that spinal projection axons must be sorted into distinct longitudinal tracts within the spinal cord proper to project to their brain targets. PMID:23115176

  7. The axon as a unique computational unit in neurons.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Takuya

    2013-02-01

    In the mammalian cortex, axons are highly ramified and link an enormous number of neurons over large distances. The conventional view assumes that action potentials (APs) are initiated at the axon initial segment in an all-or-none fashion and are then self-propagated orthodromically along axon collaterals without distortion of the AP waveform. By contrast, recent experimental results suggest that the axonal AP waveform can be modified depending on the activation states of the ion channels and receptors on axonal cell membranes. This AP modulation can regulate neurotransmission to postsynaptic neurons. In addition, the latest studies have provided evidence that cortical axons can integrate somatic burst firings and promote activity-dependent ectopic AP generation, which may underlie the oscillogenesis of fast rhythmic network activity. These seminal observations indicate that axons can perform diverse functional operations that extend beyond the prevailing model of axon physiology.

  8. Nerve Growth Factor Promotes Reorganization of the Axonal Microtubule Array at Sites of Axon Collateral Branching

    PubMed Central

    Ketschek, Andrea; Jones, Steven; Spillane, Mirela; Korobova, Farida; Svitkina, Tatyana; Gallo, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    The localized debundling of the axonal microtubule array and the entry of microtubules into axonal filopodia are two defining features of collateral branching. We report that nerve growth factor (NGF), a branch inducing signal, increases the frequency of microtubule debundling along the axon shaft of chicken embryonic sensory neurons. Sites of debundling correlate strongly with the localized targeting of microtubules into filopodia. Platinum replica electron microscopy suggests physical interactions between debundled microtubules and axonal actin filaments. However, as evidenced by depolymerization of actin filaments and inhibition of myosin II, actomyosin force generation does not promote debundling. In contrast, loss of actin filaments or inhibition of myosin II activity promotes debundling, indicating that axonal actomyosin forces suppress debundling. MAP1B is a microtubule associated protein that represses axon branching. Following treatment with NGF, microtubules penetrating filopodia during the early stages of branching exhibited lower levels of associated MAP1B. NGF increased and decreased the levels of MAP1B phosphorylated at a GSK-3β site (pMAP1B) along the axon shaft and within axonal filopodia, respectively. The levels of MAP1B and pMAP1B were not altered at sites of debundling, relative to the rest of the axon. Unlike the previously determined effects of NGF on the axonal actin cytoskeleton, the effects of NGF on microtubule debundling were not affected by inhibition of protein synthesis. Collectively, these data indicate that NGF promotes localized axonal microtubule debundling, that actomyosin forces antagonize microtubule debundling and that NGF regulates pMAP1B in axonal filopodia during the early stages of collateral branch formation. PMID:25846486

  9. AxonQuant: A Microfluidic Chamber Culture-Coupled Algorithm That Allows High-Throughput Quantification of Axonal Damage

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yang; Yang, Mengxue; Huang, Zhuo; Chen, Xiaoping; Maloney, Michael T.; Zhu, Li; Liu, Jianghong; Yang, Yanmin; Du, Sidan; Jiang, Xingyu; Wu, Jane Y.

    2014-01-01

    Published methods for imaging and quantitatively analyzing morphological changes in neuronal axons have serious limitations because of their small sample sizes, and their time-consuming and nonobjective nature. Here we present an improved microfluidic chamber design suitable for fast and high-throughput imaging of neuronal axons. We developed the Axon-Quant algorithm, which is suitable for automatic processing of axonal imaging data. This microfluidic chamber-coupled algorithm allows calculation of an ‘axonal continuity index’ that quantitatively measures axonal health status in a manner independent of neuronal or axonal density. This method allows quantitative analysis of axonal morphology in an automatic and nonbiased manner. Our method will facilitate large-scale high-throughput screening for genes or therapeutic compounds for neurodegenerative diseases involving axonal damage. When combined with imaging technologies utilizing different gene markers, this method will provide new insights into the mechanistic basis for axon degeneration. Our microfluidic chamber culture-coupled AxonQuant algorithm will be widely useful for studying axonal biology and neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:24603552

  10. Axon injury triggers EFA-6 mediated destabilization of axonal microtubules via TACC and doublecortin like kinase.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lizhen; Chuang, Marian; Koorman, Thijs; Boxem, Mike; Jin, Yishi; Chisholm, Andrew D

    2015-09-04

    Axon injury triggers a series of changes in the axonal cytoskeleton that are prerequisites for effective axon regeneration. In Caenorhabditis elegans the signaling protein Exchange Factor for ARF-6 (EFA-6) is a potent intrinsic inhibitor of axon regrowth. Here we show that axon injury triggers rapid EFA-6-dependent inhibition of axonal microtubule (MT) dynamics, concomitant with relocalization of EFA-6. EFA-6 relocalization and axon regrowth inhibition require a conserved 18-aa motif in its otherwise intrinsically disordered N-terminal domain. The EFA-6 N-terminus binds the MT-associated proteins TAC-1/Transforming-Acidic-Coiled-Coil, and ZYG-8/Doublecortin-Like-Kinase, both of which are required for regenerative growth cone formation, and which act downstream of EFA-6. After injury TAC-1 and EFA-6 transiently relocalize to sites marked by the MT minus end binding protein PTRN-1/Patronin. We propose that EFA-6 acts as a bifunctional injury-responsive regulator of axonal MT dynamics, acting at the cell cortex in the steady state and at MT minus ends after injury.

  11. Nootropic agents enhance the recruitment of fast GABAA inhibition in rat neocortex.

    PubMed

    Ling, Douglas S F; Benardo, Larry S

    2005-07-01

    It is widely believed that nootropic (cognition-enhancing) agents produce their therapeutic effects by augmenting excitatory synaptic transmission in cortical circuits, primarily through positive modulation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptors (AMPARs). However, GABA-mediated inhibition is also critical for cognition, and enhanced GABA function may be likewise therapeutic for cognitive disorders. Could nootropics act through such a mechanism as well? To address this question, we examined the effects of nootropic agents on excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs and IPSCs) recorded from layer V pyramidal cells in acute slices of somatosensory cortex. Aniracetam, a positive modulator of AMPA/kainate receptors, increased the peak amplitude of evoked EPSCs and the amplitude and duration of polysynaptic fast IPSCs, manifested as a greater total charge carried by IPSCs. As a result, the EPSC/IPSC ratio of total charge was decreased, representing a shift in the excitation-inhibition balance that favors inhibition. Aniracetam did not affect the magnitude of either monosynaptic IPSCs (mono-IPSCs) recorded in the presence of excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists, or miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) recorded in the presence of tetrodotoxin. However, the duration of both mono-IPSCs and mIPSCs was prolonged, suggesting that aniracetam also directly modulates GABAergic transmission. Cyclothiazide, a preferential modulator of AMPAR function, enhanced the magnitude and duration of polysynaptic IPSCs, similar to aniracetam, but did not affect mono-IPSCs. Concanavalin A, a kainate receptor modulator, had little effect on EPSCs or IPSCs, suggesting there was no contribution from kainate receptor activity. These findings indicate that AMPAR modulators strengthen inhibition in neocortical pyramidal cells, most likely by altering the kinetics of AMPARs on synaptically connected interneurons and possibly by modulating GABA(A) receptor responses

  12. Kindling induces transient fast inhibition in the dentate gyrus--CA3 projection.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, R; Heinemann, U

    2001-04-01

    The granule cells of the dentate gyrus (DG) send a strong glutamatergic projection, the mossy fibre tract, toward the hippocampal CA3 field, where it excites pyramidal cells and neighbouring inhibitory interneurons. Despite their excitatory nature, granule cells contain small amounts of GAD (glutamate decarboxylase), the main synthetic enzyme for the inhibitory transmitter GABA. Chronic temporal lobe epilepsy results in transient upregulation of GAD and GABA in granule cells, giving rise to the speculation that following overexcitation, mossy fibres exert an inhibitory effect by release of GABA. We therefore stimulated the DG and recorded synaptic potentials from CA3 pyramidal cells in brain slices from kindled and control rats. In both preparations, DG stimulation caused excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)/inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) sequences. These potentials could be completely blocked by glutamate receptor antagonists in control rats, while in the kindled rats, a bicuculline-sensitive fast IPSP remained, with an onset latency similar to that of the control EPSP. Interestingly, this IPSP disappeared 1 month after the last seizure. When synaptic responses were evoked by high-frequency stimulation, EPSPs in normal rats readily summate to evoke action potentials. In slices from kindled rats, a summation of IPSPs overrides that of the EPSPs and reduces the probability of evoking action potentials. Our data show for the first time that kindling induces functionally relevant activity-dependent expression of fast inhibition onto pyramidal cells, coming from the DG, that can limit CA3 excitation in a frequency-dependent manner.

  13. Determination of asulam by fast stopped-flow chemiluminescence inhibition of luminol/peroxidase.

    PubMed

    García Sánchez, F; Navas Díaz, A; Delgado Téllez, C; Algarra, M

    2008-10-19

    An efficient, sensitive and fast stopped-flow method has been developed to determine asulam in water, based on its inhibition effect on the horseradish peroxidase-luminol-hydrogen peroxide chemiluminescence reaction, (HRP-luminol-H(2)O(2)). Ultra fast data acquisition (0.20s) facilitates excellent selectivity because no interferences from concomitants in the matrix act in such short time scale. The precision as repeatability (expressed as relative standard deviation, n=10) was 0.4% at a 40 pM level. The detection limit was 1.5 pM (0.35 ng/L) and 7.15 pM in pure and raw water, respectively. The calibration data over the range 5-60 pM present a correlation coefficient of r=0.9993. The proposed method has been applied to determine asulam in water samples by using solid-phase extraction (SPE). Mean recovery value was 98.1+/-2% at 50 pM level.

  14. Prolyl isomerase Pin1 regulates axon guidance by stabilizing CRMP2A selectively in distal axons

    PubMed Central

    Balastik, Martin; Zhou, Xiao Zhen; Alberich-Jorda, Meritxell; Weissova, Romana; Žiak, Jakub; Pazyra-Murphy, Maria F.; Cosker, Katharina E; Machonova, Olga; Kozmikova, Iryna; Chen, Chun-Hau; Pastorino, Lucia; Asara, John M.; Cole, Adam; Sutherland, Calum; Segal, Rosalind A.; Lu, Kun Ping

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Axon guidance relies on precise translation of the gradients of the extracellular signals into local changes of cytoskeletal dynamics, but the molecular mechanisms regulating dose-dependent responses of growth cones are still poorly understood. Here we show that during embryonic development in growing axons low level of Semaphorin3A stimulation is buffered by the prolyl isomerase Pin1. We demonstrate, that Pin1 stabilizes CDK5-phosphorylated CRMP2A, the major isoform of CRMP2 in distal axons. Consequently, Pin1 knockdown or knockout reduces CRMP2A level specifically in distal axons and inhibits axon growth, which can be fully rescued by Pin1 or CRMP2A expression. Moreover, Pin1 knockdown or knockout increases sensitivity to Sema3A-induced growth cone collapse in vitro and in vivo leading to developmental abnormalities in axon guidance. These results identify an important isoform-specific function and regulation of CRMP2A in controlling axon growth, and uncover Pin1-catalyzed prolyl isomerization as a regulatory mechanism in axon guidance. PMID:26489457

  15. Axonal Cleaved Caspase-3 Regulates Axon Targeting and Morphogenesis in the Developing Auditory Brainstem

    PubMed Central

    Rotschafer, Sarah E.; Allen-Sharpley, Michelle R.; Cramer, Karina S.

    2016-01-01

    Caspase-3 is a cysteine protease that is most commonly associated with cell death. Recent studies have shown additional roles in mediating cell differentiation, cell proliferation and development of cell morphology. We investigated the role of caspase-3 in the development of chick auditory brainstem nuclei during embryogenesis. Immunofluorescence from embryonic days E6–13 revealed that the temporal expression of cleaved caspase-3 follows the ascending anatomical pathway. The expression is first seen in the auditory portion of VIIIth nerve including central axonal regions projecting to nucleus magnocellularis (NM), then later in NM axons projecting to nucleus laminaris (NL), and subsequently in NL dendrites. To examine the function of cleaved caspase-3 in chick auditory brainstem development, we blocked caspase-3 cleavage in developing chick embryos with the caspase-3 inhibitor Z-DEVD-FMK from E6 to E9, then examined NM and NL morphology and NM axonal targeting on E10. NL lamination in treated embryos was disorganized and the neuropil around NL contained a significant number of glial cells normally excluded from this region. Additionally, NM axons projected into inappropriate portions of NL in Z-DEVD-FMK treated embyros. We found that the presence of misrouted axons was associated with more severe NL disorganization. The effects of axonal caspase-3 inhibition on both NL morphogenesis and NM axon targeting suggest that these developmental processes are coordinated, likely through communication between axons and their targets. PMID:27822180

  16. Enhanced axon outgrowth and improved long-distance axon regeneration in sprouty2 deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Marvaldi, Letizia; Thongrong, Sitthisak; Kozłowska, Anna; Irschick, Regina; Pritz, Christian O; Bäumer, Bastian; Ronchi, Giulia; Geuna, Stefano; Hausott, Barbara; Klimaschewski, Lars

    2015-03-01

    Sprouty (Spry) proteins are negative feedback inhibitors of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling. Downregulation of Spry2 has been demonstrated to promote elongative axon growth of cultured peripheral and central neurons. Here, we analyzed Spry2 global knockout mice with respect to axon outgrowth in vitro and peripheral axon regeneration in vivo. Neurons dissociated from adult Spry2 deficient sensory ganglia revealed stronger extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation and enhanced axon outgrowth. Prominent axon elongation was observed in heterozygous Spry2(+/-) neuron cultures, whereas homozygous Spry2(-/-) neurons predominantly exhibited a branching phenotype. Following sciatic nerve crush, Spry2(+/-) mice recovered faster in motor but not sensory testing paradigms (Spry2(-/-) mice did not tolerate anesthesia required for nerve surgery). We attribute the improvement in the rotarod test to higher numbers of myelinated fibers in the regenerating sciatic nerve, higher densities of motor endplates in hind limb muscles and increased levels of GAP-43 mRNA, a downstream target of extracellular regulated kinase signaling. Conversely, homozygous Spry2(-/-) mice revealed enhanced mechanosensory function (von Frey's test) that was accompanied by an increased innervation of the epidermis, elevated numbers of nonmyelinated axons and more IB4-positive neurons in dorsal root ganglia. The present results corroborate the functional significance of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling inhibitors for axon outgrowth during development and nerve regeneration and propose Spry2 as a novel potential target for pharmacological inhibition to accelerate long-distance axon regeneration in injured peripheral nerves.

  17. Histone Acetylation Inhibitors Promote Axon Growth in Adult DRG neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shen; Nazif, Kutaiba; Smith, Alexander; Baas, Peter W; Smith, George M

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic mechanisms that guide damaged axons to regenerate following spinal cord injury remain poorly understood. Manipulation of posttranslational modifications of key proteins in mature neurons could re-invigorate growth machinery after injury. One such modification is acetylation, a reversible process controlled by two enzyme families acting in opposition, the Histone Deacetylases (HDACs) and the Histone Acetyl Transferases (HATs). While acetylated histones in the nucleus is associated with upregulation of growth promoting genes, de-acetylated tubulin in the axoplasm is associated with more labile microtubules, conducive to axon growth. In this study we investigated the effects of HAT inhibitors and HDAC inhibitors on cultured adult dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. We found that inhibition of HATs, using Anacardic Acid or CPTH2, improved axon outgrowth, while inhibition of HDACs using TSA or Tubacin, inhibited axon growth. Furthermore, Anacardic Acid increased the number of axons able to cross an inhibitory chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) border. Histone acetylation, but not tubulin acetylation levels, was affected by HAT inhibitors, whereas tubulin acetylation levels were increased in the presence of HDAC inhibitor Tubacin. Although microtubule stabilizing drug taxol did not have an effect on the lengths of DRG axons, nocodazole decreased axon lengths. While the mechanistic basis will require future studies, our data show that inhibitors of HAT can augment axon growth in adult DRG neurons, with the potential of aiding axon growth over inhibitory substrates produced by the glial scar. PMID:25702820

  18. Continuous infusion of neurotrophin-3 triggers sprouting, decreases the levels of TrkA and TrkC, and inhibits epileptogenesis and activity-dependent axonal growth in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, B; Michalski, B; Racine, R J; Fahnestock, M

    2002-01-01

    Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), a member of the neurotrophin family of neurotrophic factors, is important for cell survival, axonal growth and neuronal plasticity. Epileptiform activation can regulate the expression of neurotrophins, and increases or decreases in neurotrophins can affect both epileptogenesis and seizure-related axonal growth. Interestingly, the expression of nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor is rapidly up-regulated following seizures, while NT-3 mRNA remains unchanged or undergoes a delayed down-regulation, suggesting that NT-3 might have a different function in epileptogenesis. In the present study, we demonstrate that continuous intraventricular infusion of NT-3 in the absence of kindling triggers mossy fiber sprouting in the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus and the stratum oriens of the CA3 region. Furthermore, despite this NT-3-related sprouting effect, continuous infusion of NT-3 retards the development of behavioral seizures and inhibits kindling-induced mossy fiber sprouting in the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. We also show that prolonged infusion of NT-3 leads to a decrease in kindling-induced Trk phosphorylation and a down-regulation of the high-affinity Trk receptors, TrkA and TrkC, suggesting an involvement of both cholinergic nerve growth factor receptors and hippocampal NT-3 receptors in these effects. Our results demonstrate an important inhibitory role for NT-3 in seizure development and seizure-related synaptic reorganization.

  19. Lacosamide Inhibition of Nav1.7 Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels: Slow Binding to Fast-Inactivated States.

    PubMed

    Jo, Sooyeon; Bean, Bruce P

    2017-04-01

    Lacosamide is an antiseizure agent that targets voltage-dependent sodium channels. Previous experiments have suggested that lacosamide is unusual in binding selectively to the slow-inactivated state of sodium channels, in contrast to drugs like carbamazepine and phenytoin, which bind tightly to fast-inactivated states. Using heterologously expressed human Nav1.7 sodium channels, we examined the state-dependent effects of lacosamide. Lacosamide induced a reversible shift in the voltage dependence of fast inactivation studied with 100-millisecond prepulses, suggesting binding to fast-inactivated states. Using steady holding potentials, lacosamide block was very weak at -120 mV (3% inhibition by 100 µM lacosamide) but greatly enhanced at -80 mV (43% inhibition by 100 µM lacosamide), where there is partial fast inactivation but little or no slow inactivation. During long depolarizations, lacosamide slowly (over seconds) put channels into states that recovered availability slowly (hundreds of milliseconds) at -120 mV. This resembles enhancement of slow inactivation, but the effect was much more pronounced at -40 mV, where fast inactivation is complete, but slow inactivation is not, than at 0 mV, where slow inactivation is maximal, more consistent with slow binding to fast-inactivated states than selective binding to slow-inactivated states. Furthermore, inhibition by lacosamide was greatly reduced by pretreatment with 300 µM lidocaine or 300 µM carbamazepine, suggesting that lacosamide, lidocaine, and carbamazepine all bind to the same site. The results suggest that lacosamide binds to fast-inactivated states in a manner similar to other antiseizure agents but with slower kinetics of binding and unbinding.

  20. Local Translation of Extranuclear Lamin B Promotes Axon Maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Byung C.; Jung, Hosung; Dwivedy, Asha; O'Hare, Catherine M.; Zivraj, Krishna H.; Holt, Christine E.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Local protein synthesis plays a key role in regulating stimulus-induced responses in dendrites and axons. Recent genome-wide studies have revealed that thousands of different transcripts reside in these distal neuronal compartments, but identifying those with functionally significant roles presents a challenge. We performed an unbiased screen to look for stimulus-induced, protein synthesis-dependent changes in the proteome ofXenopus retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons. The intermediate filament protein lamin B2 (LB2), normally associated with the nuclear membrane, was identified as an unexpected major target. Axonal ribosome immunoprecipitation confirmed translation of lb2 mRNA in vivo. Inhibition of lb2 mRNA translation in axons in vivo does not affect guidance but causes axonal degeneration. Axonal LB2 associates with mitochondria, and LB2-deficient axons exhibit mitochondrial dysfunction and defects in axonal transport. Our results thus suggest that axonally synthesized lamin B plays a crucial role in axon maintenance by promoting mitochondrial function. PMID:22341447

  1. Involvement of lysosomes in the early stages of axon degeneration.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jin; Yan, Tingting; Feng, Yan; Zhai, Qiwei

    2010-02-01

    Axon degeneration is a common hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases, and the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Lysosomes are involved in some neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. Whether lysosomes are involved in axon degeneration is yet to be elucidated. In this study, we found only about 10% lysosomes remained in axons of cultured superior cervical ganglia (SCGs) after transection for 4h when stained with LysoTracker. Furthermore, we found that lysosomal disruption occurred earlier than morphological changes and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, the well-known axon-protective protein Wld(S) delayed injury-induced axon degeneration from both morphological changes and lysosomal disruption. Lysosomal inhibitors including chloroquine and ammonium chloride induced axon degeneration in cultured SCGs, and Wld(S) also slowed down the axon degeneration induced by lysosomal inhibitors. All these data suggest that lysosomal disruption is an early marker of axon degeneration, and inhibition of lysosome induces axon degeneration in a Wld(S)-protectable way. Thus, maintenance of normal lysosomal function might be an important approach to delay axon degeneration in neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. Intermittent fasting is neuroprotective in focal cerebral ischemia by minimizing autophagic flux disturbance and inhibiting apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Ji Heun; Yu, Kwang Sik; Bak, Dong Ho; Lee, Je Hun; Lee, Nam Seob; Jeong, Young Gil; Kim, Dong Kwan; Kim, Jwa-Jin; Han, Seung-Yun

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that autophagy induced by caloric restriction (CR) is neuroprotective against cerebral ischemia. However, it has not been determined whether intermittent fasting (IF), a variation of CR, can exert autophagy-related neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia. Therefore, the neuroprotective effect of IF was evaluated over the course of two weeks in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia, which was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion and reperfusion (MCAO/R). Specifically, the role of autophagy modulation as a potential underlying mechanism for this phenomenon was investigated. It was demonstrated that IF reduced infarct volume and brain edema, improved neurobehavioral deficits, and rescued neuronal loss after MCAO/R. Furthermore, neuronal apoptosis was decreased by IF in the rat cortex. An increase in the number of autophagosomes (APs) was demonstrated in the cortices of IF-treated rats, using immunofluorescence staining and transmission electron microscopy. Using immunoblots, an IF-induced increase was detected in microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II, Rab7, and cathepsin D protein levels, which corroborated previous morphological studies. Notably, IF reduced the accumulation of APs and p62, demonstrating that IF attenuated the MCAO/R-induced disturbance of autophagic flux in neurons. The findings of the present study suggest that IF-induced neuroprotection in focal cerebral ischemia is due, at least in part, to the minimization of autophagic flux disturbance and inhibition of apoptosis.

  3. Axonal GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Trigo, Federico F; Marty, Alain; Stell, Brandon M

    2008-09-01

    Type A GABA receptors (GABA(A)Rs) are well established as the main inhibitory receptors in the mature mammalian forebrain. In recent years, evidence has accumulated showing that GABA(A)Rs are prevalent not only in the somatodendritic compartment of CNS neurons, but also in their axonal compartment. Evidence for axonal GABA(A)Rs includes new immunohistochemical and immunogold data: direct recording from single axonal terminals; and effects of local applications of GABA(A)R modulators on action potential generation, on axonal calcium signalling, and on neurotransmitter release. Strikingly, whereas presynaptic GABA(A)Rs have long been considered inhibitory, the new studies in the mammalian brain mostly indicate an excitatory action. Depending on the neuron that is under study, axonal GABA(A)Rs can be activated by ambient GABA, by GABA spillover, or by an autocrine action, to increase either action potential firing and/or transmitter release. In certain neurons, the excitatory effects of axonal GABA(A)Rs persist into adulthood. Altogether, axonal GABA(A)Rs appear as potent neuronal modulators of the mammalian CNS.

  4. White matter involvement after TBI: Clues to axon and myelin repair capacity.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Regina C; Mierzwa, Amanda J; Marion, Christina M; Sullivan, Genevieve M

    2016-01-01

    Impact-acceleration forces to the head cause traumatic brain injury (TBI) with damage in white matter tracts comprised of long axons traversing the brain. White matter injury after TBI involves both traumatic axonal injury (TAI) and myelin pathology that evolves throughout the post-injury time course. The axon response to initial mechanical forces and secondary insults follows the process of Wallerian degeneration, which initiates as a potentially reversible phase of intra-axonal damage and proceeds to an irreversible phase of axon fragmentation. Distal to sites of axon disconnection, myelin sheaths remain for prolonged periods, which may activate neuroinflammation and inhibit axon regeneration. In addition to TAI, TBI can cause demyelination of intact axons. These evolving features of axon and myelin pathology also represent opportunities for repair. In experimental TBI, demyelinated axons exhibit remyelination, which can serve to both protect axons and facilitate recovery of function. Myelin remodeling may also contribute to neuroplasticity. Efficient clearance of myelin debris is a potential target to attenuate the progression of chronic pathology. During the early phase of Wallerian degeneration, interventions that prevent the transition from reversible damage to axon disconnection warrant the highest priority, based on the poor regenerative capacity of axons in the CNS. Clinical evaluation of TBI will need to address the challenge of accurately detecting the extent and stage of axon damage. Distinguishing the complex white matter changes associated with axons and myelin is necessary for interpreting advanced neuroimaging approaches and for identifying a broader range of therapeutic opportunities to improve outcome after TBI.

  5. Regulation of Microtubule Dynamics in Axon Regeneration: Insights from C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ngang Heok; Chisholm, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    The capacity of an axon to regenerate is regulated by its external environment and by cell-intrinsic factors. Studies in a variety of organisms suggest that alterations in axonal microtubule (MT) dynamics have potent effects on axon regeneration. We review recent findings on the regulation of MT dynamics during axon regeneration, focusing on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In C. elegans the dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK) promotes axon regeneration, whereas the exchange factor for Arf6 (EFA-6) inhibits axon regeneration. Both DLK and EFA-6 respond to injury and control axon regeneration in part via MT dynamics. How the DLK and EFA-6 pathways are related is a topic of active investigation, as is the mechanism by which EFA-6 responds to axonal injury. We evaluate potential candidates, such as the MT affinity-regulating kinase PAR-1/MARK, in regulation of EFA-6 and axonal MT dynamics in regeneration.

  6. Regulation of Microtubule Dynamics in Axon Regeneration: Insights from C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ngang Heok; Chisholm, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    The capacity of an axon to regenerate is regulated by its external environment and by cell-intrinsic factors. Studies in a variety of organisms suggest that alterations in axonal microtubule (MT) dynamics have potent effects on axon regeneration. We review recent findings on the regulation of MT dynamics during axon regeneration, focusing on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In C. elegans the dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK) promotes axon regeneration, whereas the exchange factor for Arf6 (EFA-6) inhibits axon regeneration. Both DLK and EFA-6 respond to injury and control axon regeneration in part via MT dynamics. How the DLK and EFA-6 pathways are related is a topic of active investigation, as is the mechanism by which EFA-6 responds to axonal injury. We evaluate potential candidates, such as the MT affinity-regulating kinase PAR-1/MARK, in regulation of EFA-6 and axonal MT dynamics in regeneration. PMID:27350865

  7. Action potential modulation in CA1 pyramidal neuron axons facilitates OLM interneuron activation in recurrent inhibitory microcircuits of rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sooyun

    2014-01-01

    Oriens-lacunosum moleculare (O-LM) interneurons in the CA1 region of the hippocampus play a key role in feedback inhibition and in the control of network activity. However, how these cells are efficiently activated in the network remains unclear. To address this question, I performed recordings from CA1 pyramidal neuron axons, the presynaptic fibers that provide feedback innervation of these interneurons. Two forms of axonal action potential (AP) modulation were identified. First, repetitive stimulation resulted in activity-dependent AP broadening. Broadening showed fast onset, with marked changes in AP shape following a single AP. Second, tonic depolarization in CA1 pyramidal neuron somata induced AP broadening in the axon, and depolarization-induced broadening summated with activity-dependent broadening. Outside-out patch recordings from CA1 pyramidal neuron axons revealed a high density of α-dendrotoxin (α-DTX)-sensitive, inactivating K+ channels, suggesting that K+ channel inactivation mechanistically contributes to AP broadening. To examine the functional consequences of axonal AP modulation for synaptic transmission, I performed paired recordings between synaptically connected CA1 pyramidal neurons and O-LM interneurons. CA1 pyramidal neuron-O-LM interneuron excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) showed facilitation during both repetitive stimulation and tonic depolarization of the presynaptic neuron. Both effects were mimicked and occluded by α-DTX, suggesting that they were mediated by K+ channel inactivation. Therefore, axonal AP modulation can greatly facilitate the activation of O-LM interneurons. In conclusion, modulation of AP shape in CA1 pyramidal neuron axons substantially enhances the efficacy of principal neuron-interneuron synapses, promoting the activation of O-LM interneurons in recurrent inhibitory microcircuits.

  8. Action Potential Modulation in CA1 Pyramidal Neuron Axons Facilitates OLM Interneuron Activation in Recurrent Inhibitory Microcircuits of Rat Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sooyun

    2014-01-01

    Oriens-lacunosum moleculare (O-LM) interneurons in the CA1 region of the hippocampus play a key role in feedback inhibition and in the control of network activity. However, how these cells are efficiently activated in the network remains unclear. To address this question, I performed recordings from CA1 pyramidal neuron axons, the presynaptic fibers that provide feedback innervation of these interneurons. Two forms of axonal action potential (AP) modulation were identified. First, repetitive stimulation resulted in activity-dependent AP broadening. Broadening showed fast onset, with marked changes in AP shape following a single AP. Second, tonic depolarization in CA1 pyramidal neuron somata induced AP broadening in the axon, and depolarization-induced broadening summated with activity-dependent broadening. Outside-out patch recordings from CA1 pyramidal neuron axons revealed a high density of α-dendrotoxin (α-DTX)-sensitive, inactivating K+ channels, suggesting that K+ channel inactivation mechanistically contributes to AP broadening. To examine the functional consequences of axonal AP modulation for synaptic transmission, I performed paired recordings between synaptically connected CA1 pyramidal neurons and O-LM interneurons. CA1 pyramidal neuron–O-LM interneuron excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) showed facilitation during both repetitive stimulation and tonic depolarization of the presynaptic neuron. Both effects were mimicked and occluded by α-DTX, suggesting that they were mediated by K+ channel inactivation. Therefore, axonal AP modulation can greatly facilitate the activation of O-LM interneurons. In conclusion, modulation of AP shape in CA1 pyramidal neuron axons substantially enhances the efficacy of principal neuron–interneuron synapses, promoting the activation of O-LM interneurons in recurrent inhibitory microcircuits. PMID:25409299

  9. Axons take a dive

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Cheuk Ka; Cebrián-Silla, Arantxa; Paredes, Mercedes F; Huang, Eric J; García-Verdugo, Jose Manuel; Alvarez-Buylla, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    In the walls of the lateral ventricles of the adult mammalian brain, neural stem cells (NSCs) and ependymal (E1) cells share the apical surface of the ventricular–subventricular zone (V–SVZ). In a recent article, we show that supraependymal serotonergic (5HT) axons originating from the raphe nuclei in mice form an extensive plexus on the walls of the lateral ventricles where they contact E1 cells and NSCs. Here we further characterize the contacts between 5HT supraependymal axons and E1 cells in mice, and show that suprependymal axons tightly associated to E1 cells are also present in the walls of the human lateral ventricles. These observations raise interesting questions about the function of supraependymal axons in the regulation of E1 cells. PMID:26413556

  10. Axonal isoforms of myosin-I.

    PubMed

    Lund, Linda M; Machado, Victor M; McQuarrie, Irvine G

    2005-05-13

    We have examined spinal motor neurons in Sprague-Dawley rats to further characterize a mechanoenzyme, myosin-Igamma (myr4), which is found in high concentration during axon tract formation in neonates. We raised an antibody to myr4 and made riboprobes for in situ hybridization. Myr4 mRNA was abundant in spinal cord motor neurons (particularly during axon regrowth). Nerves undergoing Wallerian degeneration (from a crush 7 days earlier) showed anti-myr4 labeling of the axolemma and SER--after microtubules, neurofilaments, and F-actin had already been degraded--which is consistent with a described lipid-binding domain in the tail region of myosin-Is. Newly synthesized myr4 was carried in axons by the slow component (SC) of axonal transport at 1-8 mm/day, whereas, none was carried by the fast component (FC). We conclude that SC delivers myr4 to the cytoplasmic surfaces of stationary axonal membranes (SER and axolemma). This positioning would anchor the tail domain of myr4 and leave the catalytic head domain free to interact with F-actin.

  11. Pathways regulating modality-specific axonal regeneration in peripheral nerve.

    PubMed

    Wood, Matthew D; Mackinnon, Susan E

    2015-03-01

    Following peripheral nerve injury, the distal nerve is primed for regenerating axons by generating a permissive environment replete with glial cells, cytokines, and neurotrophic factors to encourage axonal growth. However, increasing evidence demonstrates that regenerating axons within peripheral nerves still encounter axonal-growth inhibitors, such as chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. Given the generally poor clinical outcomes following peripheral nerve injury and reconstruction, the use of pharmacological therapies to augment axonal regeneration and overcome inhibitory signals has gained considerable interest. Joshi et al. (2014) have provided evidence for preferential or modality-specific (motor versus sensory) axonal growth and regeneration due to inhibitory signaling from Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) pathway regulation. By providing inhibition to the ROCK signaling pathway through Y-27632, they demonstrate that motor neurons regenerating their axons are impacted to a greater extent compared to sensory neurons. In light of this evidence, we briefly review the literature regarding modality-specific axonal regeneration to provide context to their findings. We also describe potential and novel barriers, such as senescent Schwann cells, which provide additional axonal-growth inhibitory factors for future consideration following peripheral nerve injury.

  12. Rapid axonal transport in primate optic nerve. Distribution of pressure-induced interruption.

    PubMed

    Radius, R L; Anderson, D R

    1981-04-01

    Six primate eyes were studied after four hours of elevated intraocular pressure. Tissue specimens from the region of the lamina cribrosa were examined in cross section by transmission electron microscopy. Interruption in fast orthograde and retrograde axonal transport was identified in individual axons by noting accumulation of membraneous microorganelles, such as mitochondria and microvesicles within axon cylinders. Although organelle accumulation varied from bundle to bundle, involvement of individual axons was diffuse across the extent of a specific axon bundle. This observation contradicts the apparent association of axonal transport block with crosswise-oriented trabecular beams at the level of the lamina cribrosa as seen in tissue specimens examined in longitudinal section. It also fails to support the notion that blocked axonal transport with elevated pressure is produced by kinking of axons at the lamina.

  13. MAPK signaling promotes axonal degeneration by speeding the turnover of the axonal maintenance factor NMNAT2

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Lauren J; Summers, Daniel W; Sasaki, Yo; Brace, EJ; Milbrandt, Jeffrey; DiAntonio, Aaron

    2017-01-01

    Injury-induced (Wallerian) axonal degeneration is regulated via the opposing actions of pro-degenerative factors such as SARM1 and a MAPK signal and pro-survival factors, the most important of which is the NAD+ biosynthetic enzyme NMNAT2 that inhibits activation of the SARM1 pathway. Here we investigate the mechanism by which MAPK signaling facilitates axonal degeneration. We show that MAPK signaling promotes the turnover of the axonal survival factor NMNAT2 in cultured mammalian neurons as well as the Drosophila ortholog dNMNAT in motoneurons. The increased levels of NMNAT2 are required for the axonal protection caused by loss of MAPK signaling. Regulation of NMNAT2 by MAPK signaling does not require SARM1, and so cannot be downstream of SARM1. Hence, pro-degenerative MAPK signaling functions upstream of SARM1 by limiting the levels of the essential axonal survival factor NMNAT2 to promote injury-dependent SARM1 activation. These findings are consistent with a linear molecular pathway for the axonal degeneration program. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22540.001 PMID:28095293

  14. Axonal maintenance, glia, exosomes, and heat shock proteins

    PubMed Central

    Tytell, Michael; Lasek, Raymond J.; Gainer, Harold

    2016-01-01

    Of all cellular specializations, the axon is especially distinctive because it is a narrow cylinder of specialized cytoplasm called axoplasm with a length that may be orders of magnitude greater than the diameter of the cell body from which it originates. Thus, the volume of axoplasm can be much greater than the cytoplasm in the cell body. This fact raises a logistical problem with regard to axonal maintenance. Many of the components of axoplasm, such as soluble proteins and cytoskeleton, are slowly transported, taking weeks to months to travel the length of axons longer than a few millimeters after being synthesized in the cell body. Furthermore, this slow rate of supply suggests that the axon itself might not have the capacity to respond fast enough to compensate for damage to transported macromolecules. Such damage is likely in view of the mechanical fragility of an axon, especially those innervating the limbs, as rapid limb motion with high impact, like running, subjects the axons in the limbs to considerable mechanical force. Some researchers have suggested that local, intra-axonal protein synthesis is the answer to this problem. However, the translational state of axonal RNAs remains controversial. We suggest that glial cells, which envelop all axons, whether myelinated or not, are the local sources of replacement and repair macromolecules for long axons. The plausibility of this hypothesis is reinforced by reviewing several decades of work on glia-axon macromolecular transfer, together with recent investigations of exosomes and other extracellular vesicles, as vehicles for the transmission of membrane and cytoplasmic components from one cell to another. PMID:26962444

  15. Mechanical Properties of Axons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, Roberto; Pullarkat, Pramod A.; Melo, Francisco

    2007-07-01

    The mechanical response of PC12 neurites under tension is investigated using a microneedle technique. Elastic response, viscoelastic relaxation, and active contraction are observed. The mechanical model proposed by Dennerll et al. [J. Cell Biol. 109, 3073 (1989).JCLBA30021-952510.1083/jcb.109.6.3073], which involves three mechanical devices—a stiff spring κ coupled with a Voigt element that includes a less stiff spring k and a dashpot γ—has been improved by adding a new element to describe the main features of the contraction of axons. This element, which represents the action of molecular motors, acts in parallel with viscous forces defining a global tension response of axons T against elongation rates δ˙k. Under certain conditions, axons show a transition from a viscoelastic elongation to active contraction, suggesting the presence of a negative elongation rate sensitivity in the curve T vs δ˙k.

  16. Molecular Determinants Fundamental to Axon Regeneration After SCI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Months 1-18) Introduction: The zebrafish spinal cord model system is unique because of the co-existence of brainstem neurons that do ( regenerators ) and...3: To identify genes involved in axon regeneration from brainstem neurons in the injured adult zebrafish spinal cord. Experiments will be...performed to label brainstem neurons with fast blue that do or do not, regenerate an axon across an injury in the adult zebrafish spinal cord. Non

  17. Molecular Determinants Fundamental to Axon Regeneration After SCI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    1-12) Introduction: The zebrafish spinal cord model system is unique because of the co-existence of brainstem neurons that do ( regenerators ) and...11 SOW: Specifc Aim 3: To identify genes involved in axon regeneration from brainstem neurons in the injured adult zebrafish spinal cord...Experiments will be performed to label brainstem neurons with fast blue that do or do not, regenerate an axon across an injury in the adult zebrafish

  18. Receptor Tyrosine Kinases: Molecular Switches Regulating CNS Axon Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Vigneswara, Vasanthy; Kundi, Sarina; Ahmed, Zubair

    2012-01-01

    The poor or lack of injured adult central nervous system (CNS) axon regeneration results in devastating consequences and poor functional recovery. The interplay between the intrinsic and extrinsic factors contributes to robust inhibition of axon regeneration of injured CNS neurons. The insufficient or lack of trophic support for injured neurons is considered as one of the major obstacles contributing to their failure to survive and regrow their axons after injury. In the CNS, many of the signalling pathways associated with neuronal survival and axon regeneration are regulated by several classes of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) that respond to a variety of ligands. This paper highlights and summarises the most relevant recent findings pertinent to different classes of the RTK family of molecules, with a particular focus on elucidating their role in CNS axon regeneration. PMID:22848811

  19. Axons provide the secretory machinery for trafficking of voltage-gated sodium channels in peripheral nerve

    PubMed Central

    González, Carolina; Cánovas, José; Fresno, Javiera; Couve, Eduardo; Court, Felipe A.; Couve, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of the axonal proteome is key to generate and maintain neural function. Fast and slow axoplasmic waves have been known for decades, but alternative mechanisms to control the abundance of axonal proteins based on local synthesis have also been identified. The presence of the endoplasmic reticulum has been documented in peripheral axons, but it is still unknown whether this localized organelle participates in the delivery of axonal membrane proteins. Voltage-gated sodium channels are responsible for action potentials and are mostly concentrated in the axon initial segment and nodes of Ranvier. Despite their fundamental role, little is known about the intracellular trafficking mechanisms that govern their availability in mature axons. Here we describe the secretory machinery in axons and its contribution to plasma membrane delivery of sodium channels. The distribution of axonal secretory components was evaluated in axons of the sciatic nerve and in spinal nerve axons after in vivo electroporation. Intracellular protein trafficking was pharmacologically blocked in vivo and in vitro. Axonal voltage-gated sodium channel mRNA and local trafficking were examined by RT-PCR and a retention-release methodology. We demonstrate that mature axons contain components of the endoplasmic reticulum and other biosynthetic organelles. Axonal organelles and sodium channel localization are sensitive to local blockade of the endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi transport. More importantly, secretory organelles are capable of delivering sodium channels to the plasma membrane in isolated axons, demonstrating an intrinsic capacity of the axonal biosynthetic route in regulating the axonal proteome in mammalian axons. PMID:26839409

  20. Diisopropylfluorophosphate Impairs the Transport of Membrane-Bound Organelles in Rat Cortical Axons

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jie; Naughton, Sean X.; Wulff, Heike; Singh, Vikrant; Beck, Wayne D.; Magrane, Jordi; Thomas, Bobby; Kaidery, Navneet Ammal; Hernandez, Caterina M.

    2016-01-01

    The extensive use of organophosphates (OPs) is an ongoing environmental health concern due to multiple reports of OP-related neurologic abnormalities. The mechanism of the acute toxicity of OPs has been attributed to inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), but there is growing evidence that this may not account for all the long-term neurotoxic effects of OPs. In previous experiments (using ex vivo and in vitro model systems) we observed that the insecticide OP chlorpyrifos impaired the movements of vesicles and mitochondria in axons. Here, using a time-lapse imaging technique, we evaluated the OP-nerve agent diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) across a wide range of concentrations (subnanomolar to micromolar) for effects on fast axonal transport of membrane-bound organelles (MBOs) that contain the amyloid precursor protein (APP) tagged with the fluorescent marker Dendra2 (APPDendra2). Both 1 and 24 hours of exposure to DFP and a positive control compound, colchicine, resulted in a decrease in the velocity of anterograde and retrograde movements of MBOs and an increase in the number of stationary MBOs. These effects occurred at picomolar (100 pM) to low nanomolar (0.1 nM) concentrations that were not associated with compromised cell viability or cytoskeletal damage. Moreover, the effects of DFP on axonal transport occurred at concentrations that did not inhibit AChE activity, and they were not blocked by cholinergic receptor antagonists. Given the fundamental importance of axonal transport to neuronal function, these observations may explain some of the long-term neurologic deficits that have been observed in humans who have been exposed to OPs. PMID:26718240

  1. Molecular Determinants Fundamental to Axon Regeneration after SCI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    adult zebrafish (Specific Aim 1). We also will examine in vivo the role of PTP σ in inhibition of axon regeneration (Specific Aim 2). In addition, we...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-11-1-0645 TITLE: Molecular Determinants Fundamental to Axon Regeneration ... Regeneration after SCI 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0645 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Jeffrey Alan Plunkett, Ph.D

  2. Complex Intrinsic Membrane Properties and Dopamine Shape Spiking Activity in a Motor Axon

    PubMed Central

    Ballo, Aleksander W.; Bucher, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    We studied the peripheral motor axons of the two pyloric dilator (PD) neurons of the stomatogastric ganglion in the lobster, Homarus americanus. Intracellular recordings from the motor nerve showed both fast and slow voltage- and activity-dependent dynamics. During rhythmic bursts, the PD axons displayed changes in spike amplitude and duration. Pharmacological experiments and the voltage-dependence of these phenomena suggest that inactivation of sodium and A-type potassium channels are responsible. In addition, the “resting” membrane potential was dependent on ongoing spike or burst activity, with more hyperpolarized values when activity was strong. Nerve stimulations, pharmacological block and current clamp experiments suggest that this is due to a functional antagonism between a slow after-hyperpolarization (sAHP) and inward rectification through hyperpolarization-activated current (IH). Dopamine application resulted in modest depolarization and “ectopic” peripheral spike initiation in the absence of centrally generated activity. This effect was blocked by CsCl and ZD7288, consistent with a role of IH. High frequency nerve stimulation inhibited peripheral spike initiation for several seconds, presumably due to the sAHP. Both during normal bursting activity and antidromic nerve stimulation, the conduction delay over the length of the peripheral nerve changed in a complex manner. This suggests that axonal membrane dynamics can have a substantial effect on the temporal fidelity of spike patterns propagated from a spike initiation site to a synaptic target, and that neuromodulators can influence the extent to which spike patterns are modified. PMID:19386902

  3. Wallerian degeneration of zebrafish trigeminal axons in the skin is required for regeneration and developmental pruning.

    PubMed

    Martin, Seanna M; O'Brien, Georgeann S; Portera-Cailliau, Carlos; Sagasti, Alvaro

    2010-12-01

    Fragments of injured axons that detach from their cell body break down by the molecularly regulated process of Wallerian degeneration (WD). Although WD resembles local axon degeneration, a common mechanism for refining neuronal structure, several previously examined instances of developmental pruning were unaffected by WD pathways. We used laser axotomy and time-lapse confocal imaging to characterize and compare peripheral sensory axon WD and developmental pruning in live zebrafish larvae. Detached fragments of single injured axon arbors underwent three stereotyped phases of WD: a lag phase, a fragmentation phase and clearance. The lag phase was developmentally regulated, becoming shorter as embryos aged, while the length of the clearance phase increased with the amount of axon debris. Both cell-specific inhibition of ubiquitylation and overexpression of the Wallerian degeneration slow protein (Wld(S)) lengthened the lag phase dramatically, but neither affected fragmentation. Persistent Wld(S)-expressing axon fragments directly repelled regenerating axon branches of their parent arbor, similar to self-repulsion among sister branches of intact arbors. Expression of Wld(S) also disrupted naturally occurring local axon pruning and axon degeneration in spontaneously dying trigeminal neurons: although pieces of Wld(S)-expressing axons were pruned, and some Wld(S)-expressing cells still died during development, in both cases detached axon fragments failed to degenerate. We propose that spontaneously pruned fragments of peripheral sensory axons must be removed by a WD-like mechanism to permit efficient innervation of the epidermis.

  4. Wallerian degeneration of zebrafish trigeminal axons in the skin is required for regeneration and developmental pruning

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Seanna M.; O'Brien, Georgeann S.; Portera-Cailliau, Carlos; Sagasti, Alvaro

    2010-01-01

    Fragments of injured axons that detach from their cell body break down by the molecularly regulated process of Wallerian degeneration (WD). Although WD resembles local axon degeneration, a common mechanism for refining neuronal structure, several previously examined instances of developmental pruning were unaffected by WD pathways. We used laser axotomy and time-lapse confocal imaging to characterize and compare peripheral sensory axon WD and developmental pruning in live zebrafish larvae. Detached fragments of single injured axon arbors underwent three stereotyped phases of WD: a lag phase, a fragmentation phase and clearance. The lag phase was developmentally regulated, becoming shorter as embryos aged, while the length of the clearance phase increased with the amount of axon debris. Both cell-specific inhibition of ubiquitylation and overexpression of the Wallerian degeneration slow protein (WldS) lengthened the lag phase dramatically, but neither affected fragmentation. Persistent WldS-expressing axon fragments directly repelled regenerating axon branches of their parent arbor, similar to self-repulsion among sister branches of intact arbors. Expression of WldS also disrupted naturally occurring local axon pruning and axon degeneration in spontaneously dying trigeminal neurons: although pieces of WldS-expressing axons were pruned, and some WldS-expressing cells still died during development, in both cases detached axon fragments failed to degenerate. We propose that spontaneously pruned fragments of peripheral sensory axons must be removed by a WD-like mechanism to permit efficient innervation of the epidermis. PMID:21041367

  5. Fast synaptic inhibition promotes synchronized gamma oscillations in hippocampal interneuron networks

    PubMed Central

    Bartos, Marlene; Vida, Imre; Frotscher, Michael; Meyer, Axel; Monyer, Hannah; Geiger, Jörg R. P.; Jonas, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Networks of GABAergic interneurons are of critical importance for the generation of gamma frequency oscillations in the brain. To examine the underlying synaptic mechanisms, we made paired recordings from “basket cells” (BCs) in different subfields of hippocampal slices, using transgenic mice that express enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the parvalbumin promoter. Unitary inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) showed large amplitude and fast time course with mean amplitude-weighted decay time constants of 2.5, 1.2, and 1.8 ms in the dentate gyrus, and the cornu ammonis area 3 (CA3) and 1 (CA1), respectively (33–34°C). The decay of unitary IPSCs at BC–BC synapses was significantly faster than that at BC–principal cell synapses, indicating target cell-specific differences in IPSC kinetics. In addition, electrical coupling was found in a subset of BC–BC pairs. To examine whether an interneuron network with fast inhibitory synapses can act as a gamma frequency oscillator, we developed an interneuron network model based on experimentally determined properties. In comparison to previous interneuron network models, our model was able to generate oscillatory activity with higher coherence over a broad range of frequencies (20–110 Hz). In this model, high coherence and flexibility in frequency control emerge from the combination of synaptic properties, network structure, and electrical coupling. PMID:12235359

  6. Alterations of mitochondrial dynamics allow retrograde propagation of locally initiated axonal insults

    PubMed Central

    Lassus, Benjamin; Magifico, Sebastien; Pignon, Sandra; Belenguer, Pascale; Miquel, Marie-Christine; Peyrin, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    In chronic neurodegenerative syndromes, neurons progressively die through a generalized retraction pattern triggering retrograde axonal degeneration toward the cell bodies, which molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Recent observations suggest that direct activation of pro-apoptotic signaling in axons triggers local degenerative events associated with early alteration of axonal mitochondrial dynamics. This raises the question of the role of mitochondrial dynamics on both axonal vulnerability stress and their implication in the spreading of damages toward unchallenged parts of the neuron. Here, using microfluidic chambers, we assessed the consequences of interfering with OPA1 and DRP1 proteins on axonal degeneration induced by local application of rotenone. We found that pharmacological inhibition of mitochondrial fission prevented axonal damage induced by rotenone, in low glucose conditions. While alteration of mitochondrial dynamics per se did not lead to spontaneous axonal degeneration, it dramatically enhanced axonal vulnerability to rotenone, which had no effect in normal glucose conditions, and promoted retrograde spreading of axonal degeneration toward the cell body. Altogether, our results suggest a mitochondrial priming effect in axons as a key process of axonal degeneration. In the context of neurodegenerative diseases, like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s, mitochondria fragmentation could hasten neuronal death and initiate spatial dispersion of locally induced degenerative events. PMID:27604820

  7. 6-Sulphated Chondroitins Have a Positive Influence on Axonal Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Rachel; Rosahl, Thomas W.; Whiting, Paul J.; Fawcett, James W.; Kwok, Jessica C. F.

    2011-01-01

    Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) upregulated in the glial scar inhibit axon regeneration via their sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Chondroitin 6-sulphotransferase-1 (C6ST-1) is upregulated after injury leading to an increase in 6-sulphated GAG. In this study, we ask if this increase in 6-sulphated GAG is responsible for the increased inhibition within the glial scar, or whether it represents a partial reversion to the permissive embryonic state dominated by 6-sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Using C6ST-1 knockout mice (KO), we studied post-injury changes in chondroitin sulphotransferase (CSST) expression and the effect of chondroitin 6-sulphates on both central and peripheral axon regeneration. After CNS injury, wild-type animals (WT) showed an increase in mRNA for C6ST-1, C6ST-2 and C4ST-1, but KO did not upregulate any CSSTs. After PNS injury, while WT upregulated C6ST-1, KO showed an upregulation of C6ST-2. We examined regeneration of nigrostriatal axons, which demonstrate mild spontaneous axon regeneration in the WT. KO showed many fewer regenerating axons and more axonal retraction than WT. However, in the PNS, repair of the median and ulnar nerves led to similar and normal levels of axon regeneration in both WT and KO. Functional tests on plasticity after the repair also showed no evidence of enhanced plasticity in the KO. Our results suggest that the upregulation of 6-sulphated GAG after injury makes the extracellular matrix more permissive for axon regeneration, and that the balance of different CSs in the microenvironment around the lesion site is an important factor in determining the outcome of nervous system injury. PMID:21747937

  8. GLP-1 and GLP-2 act in concert to inhibit fasted, but not fed, small bowel motility in the rat.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Ayhan; Näslund, Erik; Holst, Jens Juul; Hellström, Per M

    2002-07-15

    Small bowel motility was studied in rats at increasing (1-20 pmol/kg/min) intravenous doses of either glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) or glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) alone, or in combination in the fasted and fed state. There was a dose-dependent inhibitory action of GLP-1 on the migrating myoelectric complex (MMC), where the dose of 5 pmol/kg/min induced an increased MMC cycle length. No effect was seen with GLP-2 alone, but the combination of GLP-1 and GLP-2 induced a more pronounced inhibitory effect, with significant increase of the MMC cycle length from a dose of 2 pmol/kg/min. During fed motility, infusion of GLP-1 resulted in an inhibition of spiking activity compared to control. In contrast, infusion of GLP-2 only numerically increased spiking activity compared to control, while the combination of GLP-1 and GLP-2 resulted in no change compared to control. In summary, this study demonstrates an additive effect of peripheral administration of GLP-1 and GLP-2 on fasted small bowel motility. In the fed state, GLP-1 and GLP-2 seem to display counter-balancing effects on motility of the small intestine.

  9. Rafting along the axon on Unc104 motors.

    PubMed

    Scholey, Jonathan M

    2002-05-01

    Neurotransmission depends upon the fast axonal transport of synaptic vesicle precursors by the monomeric kinesin Unc104, a motor whose mechanism of action is a topic of debate. New work suggests that the formation of lipid raft domains triggers the assembly of vesicle-bound Unc104 dimers and the concomitant activation of processive movement, facilitating efficient long-range vesicle transport.

  10. How lateral inhibition and fast retinogeniculo-cortical oscillations create vision: A new hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Jerath, Ravinder; Cearley, Shannon M; Barnes, Vernon A; Nixon-Shapiro, Elizabeth

    2016-11-01

    The role of the physiological processes involved in human vision escapes clarification in current literature. Many unanswered questions about vision include: 1) whether there is more to lateral inhibition than previously proposed, 2) the role of the discs in rods and cones, 3) how inverted images on the retina are converted to erect images for visual perception, 4) what portion of the image formed on the retina is actually processed in the brain, 5) the reason we have an after-image with antagonistic colors, and 6) how we remember space. This theoretical article attempts to clarify some of the physiological processes involved with human vision. The global integration of visual information is conceptual; therefore, we include illustrations to present our theory. Universally, the eyeball is 2.4cm and works together with membrane potential, correspondingly representing the retinal layers, photoreceptors, and cortex. Images formed within the photoreceptors must first be converted into chemical signals on the photoreceptors' individual discs and the signals at each disc are transduced from light photons into electrical signals. We contend that the discs code the electrical signals into accurate distances and are shown in our figures. The pre-existing oscillations among the various cortices including the striate and parietal cortex, and the retina work in unison to create an infrastructure of visual space that functionally "places" the objects within this "neural" space. The horizontal layers integrate all discs accurately to create a retina that is pre-coded for distance. Our theory suggests image inversion never takes place on the retina, but rather images fall onto the retina as compressed and coiled, then amplified through lateral inhibition through intensification and amplification on the OFF-center cones. The intensified and amplified images are decompressed and expanded in the brain, which become the images we perceive as external vision.

  11. Axon specification in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Fukata, Yuko; Kimura, Toshihide; Kaibuchi, Kozo

    2002-08-01

    Neurons are the most highly polarized cells, comprised of two structurally and functionally distinct parts, axons and dendrites. This asymmetry enables a vectorial flow of signaling within neurons. One of the most fundamental questions still to be answered in neuroscience is how these two specialized processes initially develop. The first manifestation of polarization occurs when one of the immature neurites acquires axonal characteristics. We review recent advances that have highlighted the involvement of several cellular events in the initial formation of the axon, including membrane traffic and cytoskeletal rearrangement. We then discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying axon formation, focusing on the Rho family small GTPases and an axon-inducing neuronal protein, CRMP-2.

  12. Evidence for the Role of MAP1B in Axon Formation

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Billault, Christian; Avila, Jesus; Cáceres, Alfredo

    2001-01-01

    Cultured neurons obtained from a hypomorphous MAP1B mutant mouse line display a selective and significant inhibition of axon formation that reflects a delay in axon outgrowth and a reduced rate of elongation. This phenomenon is paralleled by decreased microtubule formation and dynamics, which is dramatic at the distal axonal segment, as well as in growth cones, where the more recently assembled microtubule polymer normally predominates. These neurons also have aberrant growth cone formation and increased actin-based protrusive activity. Taken together, this study provides direct evidence showing that by promoting microtubule dynamics and regulating cytoskeletal organization MAP1B has a crucial role in axon formation. PMID:11452005

  13. Dopamine modulates Ih in a motor axon

    PubMed Central

    Ballo, Aleksander W.; Keene, Jennifer C.; Troy, Patricia J.; Goeritz, Marie L.; Nadim, Farzan; Bucher, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    We studied the axons of the pyloric dilator (PD) neurons in the stomatogastric nervous system of the lobster. The several centimeters long portions of these axons in the motor nerves depolarize in response to low concentrations of dopamine (DA) and exhibit peripheral spike initiation in the absence of centrally generated activity. This effect is inhibited by blockers of hyperpolarization-activated inward current (Ih). We show here that peripheral spike initiation was also elicited by D1-type receptor agonists and drugs that increase cAMP. This suggests that DA acts through a D1-type receptor mechanism to modulate hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channels. We used two- electrode voltage clamp of the axon to directly study the effect of DA on Ih. Surprisingly, DA decreased the maximal conductance. However, due to a shift of the activation curve to more depolarized potentials, and a change in the slope, conductance was increased at biologically relevant membrane potentials. These changes were solely due to modulation of Ih, as DA had no discernible effect when Ih was blocked. In addition, they were not induced by repeated activation and could be mimicked by application of drugs that increase cAMP concentration. DA modulation of Ih persisted in the presence of a protein kinase A inhibitor and is therefore potentially mediated by a phosphorylation-independent direct effect of cAMP on the ion channel. A computer model of the axon showed that the changes in maximal conductance and voltage-dependence were not qualitatively affected by space clamp problems. PMID:20573890

  14. Role of CSPG receptor LAR phosphatase in restricting axon regeneration after CNS injury

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bin; Park, Dongsun; Ohtake, Yosuke; Li, Hui; Hayat, Umar; Li, Junjun; Selzer, Michael E.; Longo, Frank M.; Li, Shuxin

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular matrix molecule chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are highly upregulated in scar tissues and form a potent chemical barrier for CNS axon regeneration. Recent studies support that the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase σ (PTPσ) and its subfamily member leukocyte common antigen related phosphatase (LAR) act as transmembrane receptors to mediate CSPG inhibition. PTPσ deficiency increased regrowth of ascending axons into scar tissues and descending corticospinal tract (CST) axons into the caudal spinal cord after spinal cord injury (SCI). Pharmacological LAR inhibition enhanced serotonergic axon growth in SCI mice. However, transgenic LAR deletion on axon growth in vivo and role of LAR in regulating regrowth of other fiber tracts have not been studied. Here, we studied role of LAR in restricting regrowth of injured descending CNS axons in deficient mice. LAR deletion increased regrowth of serotonergic axons into scar tissues and caudal spinal cord after dorsal overhemitransection. LAR deletion also stimulated regrowth of CST fibers into the caudal spinal cord. LAR protein was upregulated days to weeks after injury and co-localized to serotonergic and CST axons. Moreover, LAR deletion improved functional recovery by increasing BMS locomotor scores and stride length and reducing grid walk errors. This is the first transgenic study that demonstrates crucial role of LAR in restricting regrowth of injured CNS axons. PMID:25220840

  15. Magnesium Sensitizes Slow Vacuolar Channels to Physiological Cytosolic Calcium and Inhibits Fast Vacuolar Channels in Fava Bean Guard Cell Vacuoles.

    PubMed

    Pei; Ward; Schroeder

    1999-11-01

    Vacuolar ion channels in guard cells play important roles during stomatal movement and are regulated by many factors including Ca(2+), calmodulin, protein kinases, and phosphatases. We report that physiological cytosolic and luminal Mg(2+) levels strongly regulate vacuolar ion channels in fava bean (Vicia faba) guard cells. Luminal Mg(2+) inhibited fast vacuolar (FV) currents with a K(i) of approximately 0.23 mM in a voltage-dependent manner at positive potentials on the cytoplasmic side. Cytosolic Mg(2+) at 1 mM also inhibited FV currents. Furthermore, in the absence of cytosolic Mg(2+), cytosolic Ca(2+) at less than 10 µM did not activate slow vacuolar (SV) currents. However, when cytosolic Mg(2+) was present, submicromolar concentrations of cytosolic Ca(2+) activated SV currents with a K(d) of approximately 227 nM, suggesting a synergistic Mg(2+)-Ca(2+) effect. The activation potential of SV currents was shifted toward physiological potentials in the presence of cytosolic Mg(2+) concentrations. The direction of SV currents could also be changed from outward to both outward and inward currents. Our data predict a model for SV channel regulation, including a cytosolic binding site for Ca(2+) with an affinity in the submicromolar range and a cytosolic low-affinity Mg(2+)-Ca(2+) binding site. SV channels are predicted to contain a third binding site on the vacuolar luminal side, which binds Ca(2+) and is inhibitory. In conclusion, cytosolic Mg(2+) sensitizes SV channels to physiological cytosolic Ca(2+) elevations. Furthermore, we propose that cytosolic and vacuolar Mg(2+) concentrations ensure that FV channels do not function as a continuous vacuolar K(+) leak, which would prohibit stomatal opening.

  16. Toll-like receptor 4 deficiency impairs microglial phagocytosis of degenerating axons.

    PubMed

    Rajbhandari, Labchan; Tegenge, Million Adane; Shrestha, Shiva; Ganesh Kumar, Nishant; Malik, Adeel; Mithal, Aditya; Hosmane, Suneil; Venkatesan, Arun

    2014-12-01

    Microglia are rapidly activated in the central nervous system (CNS) in response to a variety of injuries, including inflammation, trauma, and stroke. In addition to modulation of the innate immune response, a key function of microglia is the phagocytosis of dying cells and cellular debris, which can facilitate recovery. Despite emerging evidence that axonal debris can pose a barrier to regeneration of new axons in the CNS, little is known of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie clearance of degenerating CNS axons. We utilize a custom micropatterned microfluidic system that enables robust microglial-axon co-culture to explore the role of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in microglial phagocytosis of degenerating axons. We find that pharmacologic and genetic disruption of TLR4 blocks induction of the Type-1 interferon response and inhibits phagocytosis of axon debris in vitro. Moreover, TLR4-dependent microglial clearance of unmyelinated axon debris facilitates axon outgrowth. In vivo, microglial phagocytosis of CNS axons undergoing Wallerian degeneration in a dorsal root axotomy model is impaired in adult mice in which TLR4 has been deleted. Since purinergic receptors can influence TLR4-mediated signaling, we also explored a role for the microglia P2 receptors and found that the P2X7R contributes to microglial clearance of degenerating axons. Overall, we identify TLR4 as a key player in axonal debris clearance by microglia, thus creating a more permissive environment for axonal outgrowth. Our findings have significant implications for the development of protective and regenerative strategies for the many inflammatory, traumatic, and neurodegenerative conditions characterized by CNS axon degeneration.

  17. Wnt/Calcium Signaling Mediates Axon Growth and Guidance in the Developing Corpus Callosum

    PubMed Central

    Hutchins, B Ian; Li, Li; Kalil, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    It has been shown in vivo that Wnt5a gradients surround the corpus callosum and guide callosal axons after the midline (postcrossing) by Wnt5a-induced repulsion via Ryk receptors. In dissociated cortical cultures we showed that Wnt5a simultaneously promotes axon outgrowth and repulsion by calcium signaling. Here to test the role of Wnt5a/calcium signaling in a complex in vivo environment we used sensorimotor cortical slices containing the developing corpus callosum. Plasmids encoding the cytoplasmic marker DsRed and the genetically encoded calcium indicator GCaMP2 were electroporated into one cortical hemisphere. Postcrossing callosal axons grew 50% faster than pre-crossing axons and higher frequencies of calcium transients in axons and growth cones correlated well with outgrowth. Application of pharmacological inhibitors to the slices showed that signaling pathways involving calcium release through IP3 receptors and calcium entry through TRP channels regulate post-crossing axon outgrowth and guidance. Co-electroporation of Ryk siRNA and DsRed revealed that knock down of the Ryk receptor reduced outgrowth rates of postcrossing but not precrossing axons by 50% and caused axon misrouting. Guidance errors in axons with Ryk knockdown resulted from reduced calcium activity. In the corpus callosum CaMKII inhibition reduced the outgrowth rate of postcrossing (but not precrossing) axons and caused severe guidance errors which resulted from reduced CaMKII-dependent repulsion downstream of Wnt/calcium. We show for the first time that Wnt/Ryk calcium signaling mechanisms regulating axon outgrowth and repulsion in cortical cultures are also essential for the proper growth and guidance of postcrossing callosal axons which involve axon repulsion through CaMKII. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 71: 269–283, 2011. PMID:20936661

  18. Biochemical analysis of axon-specific phosphorylation events using isolated squid axoplasms.

    PubMed

    Kang, Minsu; Baker, Lisa; Song, Yuyu; Brady, Scott T; Morfini, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate functionality of nodes of Ranvier, presynaptic terminals, and other axonal subdomains depends on efficient and timely delivery of proteins synthesized and packaged into membrane-bound organelles (MBOs) within the neuronal cell body. MBOs are transported and delivered to their final sites of utilization within axons by a cellular process known as fast axonal transport (FAT). Conventional kinesin, the most abundant multisubunit motor protein expressed in mature neurons, is responsible for FAT of a large variety of MBOs and plays a major role in the maintenance of appropriate axonal connectivity. Consistent with the variety and large number of discrete subdomains within axons, experimental evidence revealed the identity of several protein kinases that modulate specific functional activities of conventional kinesin. Thus, methods for the analysis of kinase activity and conventional kinesin phosphorylation facilitate the study of FAT regulation in health and disease conditions. Axonal degeneration, abnormal patterns of protein phosphorylation, and deficits in FAT represent early pathological features characteristic of neurological diseases caused by unrelated neuropathogenic proteins. Interestingly, some of these proteins were shown to produce deficits in FAT by modulating the activity of specific protein kinases involved in conventional kinesin phosphorylation. However, experimental systems that facilitate an evaluation of molecular events within axons remain scarce. Using the isolated squid axoplasm preparation, we describe methods for evaluating axon-autonomous effects of neuropathogenic proteins on the activity of protein kinases. Protocols are also provided to evaluate the effect of such proteins on the phosphorylation of endogenous axonal substrates, including conventional kinesin and neurofilaments.

  19. Cytoplasmic dynein is associated with slow axonal transport.

    PubMed Central

    Dillman, J F; Dabney, L P; Pfister, K K

    1996-01-01

    Neuronal function is dependent on the transport of materials from the cell body to the synapse via anterograde axonal transport. Anterograde axonal transport consists of several components that differ in both rate and protein composition. In fast transport, membranous organelles are moved along microtubules by the motor protein kinesin. The cytoskeleton and the cytomatrix proteins move in the two components of slow transport. While the mechanisms underlying slow transport are unknown, it has been hypothesized that the movement of microtubules in slow transport is generated by sliding. To determine whether dynein, a motor protein that causes microtubule sliding in flagella, may play a role in slow axonal transport, we identified the transport rate components with which cytoplasmic dynein is associated in rat optic nerve. Nearly 80% of the anterogradely moving dynein was associated with slow transport, whereas only approximately 15% of the dynein was associated with the membranous organelles of anterograde fast axonal transport. A segmental analysis of the transport of dynein through contiguous regions of the optic nerve and tract showed that dynein is associated with the microfilaments and other proteins of slow component b. Dynein from this transport component has the capacity to bind microtubules in vitro. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that cytoplasmic dynein generates the movement of microtubules in slow axonal transport. A model is presented to illustrate how dynein attached to the slow component b complex of proteins is appropriately positioned to generate force of the correct polarity to slide microtubules down the axon. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8552592

  20. Amyloid-β oligomers induce tau-independent disruption of BDNF axonal transport via calcineurin activation in cultured hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ramser, Elisa M.; Gan, Kathlyn J.; Decker, Helena; Fan, Emily Y.; Suzuki, Matthew M.; Ferreira, Sergio T.; Silverman, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Disruption of fast axonal transport (FAT) is an early pathological event in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Soluble amyloid-β oligomers (AβOs), increasingly recognized as proximal neurotoxins in AD, impair organelle transport in cultured neurons and transgenic mouse models. AβOs also stimulate hyperphosphorylation of the axonal microtubule-associated protein, tau. However, the role of tau in FAT disruption is controversial. Here we show that AβOs reduce vesicular transport of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in hippocampal neurons from both wild-type and tau-knockout mice, indicating that tau is not required for transport disruption. FAT inhibition is not accompanied by microtubule destabilization or neuronal death. Significantly, inhibition of calcineurin (CaN), a calcium-dependent phosphatase implicated in AD pathogenesis, rescues BDNF transport. Moreover, inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 and glycogen synthase kinase 3β, downstream targets of CaN, prevents BDNF transport defects induced by AβOs. We further show that AβOs induce CaN activation through nonexcitotoxic calcium signaling. Results implicate CaN in FAT regulation and demonstrate that tau is not required for AβO-induced BDNF transport disruption. PMID:23783030

  1. Mechanistic logic underlying the axonal transport of cytosolic proteins

    PubMed Central

    Scott, David A.; Das, Utpal; Tang, Yong; Roy, Subhojit

    2011-01-01

    Proteins vital to presynaptic function are synthesized in the neuronal perikarya and delivered into synapses via two modes of axonal transport. While membrane-anchoring proteins are conveyed in fast axonal transport via motor-driven vesicles, cytosolic proteins travel in slow axonal transport; via mechanisms that are poorly understood. We found that in cultured axons, populations of cytosolic proteins tagged to photoactivable-GFP (PA-GFP) move with a slow motor-dependent anterograde bias; distinct from vesicular-trafficking or diffusion of untagged PA-GFP. The overall bias is likely generated by an intricate particle-kinetics involving transient assembly and short-range vectorial spurts. In-vivo biochemical studies reveal that cytosolic proteins are organized into higher-order structures within axon-enriched fractions that are largely segregated from vesicles. Data-driven biophysical modeling best predicts a scenario where soluble molecules dynamically assemble into mobile supra-molecular structures. We propose a model where cytosolic proteins are transported by dynamically assembling into multi-protein complexes that are directly/indirectly conveyed by motors. PMID:21555071

  2. Task-dependent inhibition of slow-twitch soleus and excitation of fast-twitch gastrocnemius do not require high movement speed and velocity-dependent sensory feedback

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Ricky; Prilutsky, Boris I.

    2014-01-01

    Although individual heads of triceps surae, soleus (SO) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles, are often considered close functional synergists, previous studies have shown distinct activity patterns between them in some motor behaviors. The goal of this study was to test two hypotheses explaining inhibition of slow SO with respect to fast MG: (1) inhibition occurs at high movement velocities and mediated by velocity-dependent sensory feedback and (2) inhibition depends on the ankle-knee joint moment combination and does not require high movement velocities. The hypotheses were tested by comparing the SO EMG/MG EMG ratio during fast and slow motor behaviors (cat paw shake responses vs. back, straight leg load lifting in humans), which had the same ankle extension-knee flexion moment combination; and during fast and slow behaviors with the ankle extension-knee extension moment combination (human vertical jumping and stance phase of walking in cats and leg load lifting in humans). In addition, SO EMG/MG EMG ratio was determined during cat paw shake responses and walking before and after removal of stretch velocity-dependent sensory feedback by self-reinnervating SO and/or gastrocnemius. We found the ratio SO EMG/MG EMG below 1 (p < 0.05) during fast paw shake responses and slow back load lifting, requiring the ankle extension-knee flexion moment combination; whereas the ratio SO EMG/MG EMG was above 1 (p < 0.05) during fast vertical jumping and slow tasks of walking and leg load lifting, requiring ankle extension-knee extension moments. Removal of velocity-dependent sensory feedback did not affect the SO EMG/MG EMG ratio in cats. We concluded that the relative inhibition of SO does not require high muscle velocities, depends on ankle-knee moment combinations, and is mechanically advantageous for allowing a greater MG contribution to ankle extension and knee flexion moments. PMID:25389407

  3. Mitochondria and Caspases Tune Nmnat-Mediated Stabilization to Promote Axon Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Li; Stone, Michelle C.; Weiner, Alexis T.; Gheres, Kyle W.; Xiong, Xin; Collins, Catherine A.

    2016-01-01

    Axon injury can lead to several cell survival responses including increased stability and axon regeneration. Using an accessible Drosophila model system, we investigated the regulation of injury responses and their relationship. Axon injury stabilizes the rest of the cell, including the entire dendrite arbor. After axon injury we found mitochondrial fission in dendrites was upregulated, and that reducing fission increased stabilization or neuroprotection (NP). Thus axon injury seems to both turn on NP, but also dampen it by activating mitochondrial fission. We also identified caspases as negative regulators of axon injury-mediated NP, so mitochondrial fission could control NP through caspase activation. In addition to negative regulators of NP, we found that nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (Nmnat) is absolutely required for this type of NP. Increased microtubule dynamics, which has previously been associated with NP, required Nmnat. Indeed Nmnat overexpression was sufficient to induce NP and increase microtubule dynamics in the absence of axon injury. DLK, JNK and fos were also required for NP. Because NP occurs before axon regeneration, and NP seems to be actively downregulated, we tested whether excessive NP might inhibit regeneration. Indeed both Nmnat overexpression and caspase reduction reduced regeneration. In addition, overexpression of fos or JNK extended the timecourse of NP and dampened regeneration in a Nmnat-dependent manner. These data suggest that NP and regeneration are conflicting responses to axon injury, and that therapeutic strategies that boost NP may reduce regeneration. PMID:27923046

  4. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 is a novel target to promote axonal regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Brochier, Camille; Jones, James I.; Willis, Dianna E.; Langley, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic options for the restoration of neurological functions after acute axonal injury are severely limited. In addition to limiting neuronal loss, effective treatments face the challenge of restoring axonal growth within an injury environment where inhibitory molecules from damaged myelin and activated astrocytes act as molecular and physical barriers. Overcoming these barriers to permit axon growth is critical for the development of any repair strategy in the central nervous system. Here, we identify poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) as a previously unidentified and critical mediator of multiple growth-inhibitory signals. We show that exposure of neurons to growth-limiting molecules—such as myelin-derived Nogo and myelin-associated glycoprotein—or reactive astrocyte-produced chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans activates PARP1, resulting in the accumulation of poly(ADP-ribose) in the cell body and axon and limited axonal growth. Accordingly, we find that pharmacological inhibition or genetic loss of PARP1 markedly facilitates axon regeneration over nonpermissive substrates. Together, our findings provide critical insights into the molecular mechanisms of axon growth inhibition and identify PARP1 as an effective target to promote axon regeneration. PMID:26598704

  5. Axon Regeneration Genes Identified by RNAi Screening in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Nix, Paola; Hammarlund, Marc; Hauth, Linda; Lachnit, Martina; Jorgensen, Erik M.

    2014-01-01

    Axons of the mammalian CNS lose the ability to regenerate soon after development due to both an inhibitory CNS environment and the loss of cell-intrinsic factors necessary for regeneration. The complex molecular events required for robust regeneration of mature neurons are not fully understood, particularly in vivo. To identify genes affecting axon regeneration in Caenorhabditis elegans, we performed both an RNAi-based screen for defective motor axon regeneration in unc-70/β-spectrin mutants and a candidate gene screen. From these screens, we identified at least 50 conserved genes with growth-promoting or growth-inhibiting functions. Through our analysis of mutants, we shed new light on certain aspects of regeneration, including the role of β-spectrin and membrane dynamics, the antagonistic activity of MAP kinase signaling pathways, and the role of stress in promoting axon regeneration. Many gene candidates had not previously been associated with axon regeneration and implicate new pathways of interest for therapeutic intervention. PMID:24403161

  6. The axonal cytoskeleton: from organization to function

    PubMed Central

    Kevenaar, Josta T.; Hoogenraad, Casper C.

    2015-01-01

    The axon is the single long fiber that extends from the neuron and transmits electrical signals away from the cell body. The neuronal cytoskeleton, composed of microtubules (MTs), actin filaments and neurofilaments, is not only required for axon formation and axonal transport but also provides the structural basis for several specialized axonal structures, such as the axon initial segment (AIS) and presynaptic boutons. Emerging evidence suggest that the unique cytoskeleton organization in the axon is essential for its structure and integrity. In addition, the increasing number of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases linked to defect in actin- and microtubule-dependent processes emphasizes the importance of a properly regulated cytoskeleton for normal axonal functioning. Here, we provide an overview of the current understanding of actin and microtubule organization within the axon and discuss models for the functional role of the cytoskeleton at specialized axonal structures. PMID:26321907

  7. Transcellular degradation of axonal mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Chung-ha O.; Kim, Keun-Young; Bushong, Eric A.; Mills, Elizabeth A.; Boassa, Daniela; Shih, Tiffany; Kinebuchi, Mira; Phan, Sebastien; Zhou, Yi; Bihlmeyer, Nathan A.; Nguyen, Judy V.; Jin, Yunju; Ellisman, Mark H.; Marsh-Armstrong, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    It is generally accepted that healthy cells degrade their own mitochondria. Here, we report that retinal ganglion cell axons of WT mice shed mitochondria at the optic nerve head (ONH), and that these mitochondria are internalized and degraded by adjacent astrocytes. EM demonstrates that mitochondria are shed through formation of large protrusions that originate from otherwise healthy axons. A virally introduced tandem fluorophore protein reporter of acidified mitochondria reveals that acidified axonal mitochondria originating from the retinal ganglion cell are associated with lysosomes within columns of astrocytes in the ONH. According to this reporter, a greater proportion of retinal ganglion cell mitochondria are degraded at the ONH than in the ganglion cell soma. Consistently, analyses of degrading DNA reveal extensive mtDNA degradation within the optic nerve astrocytes, some of which comes from retinal ganglion cell axons. Together, these results demonstrate that surprisingly large proportions of retinal ganglion cell axonal mitochondria are normally degraded by the astrocytes of the ONH. This transcellular degradation of mitochondria, or transmitophagy, likely occurs elsewhere in the CNS, because structurally similar accumulations of degrading mitochondria are also found along neurites in superficial layers of the cerebral cortex. Thus, the general assumption that neurons or other cells necessarily degrade their own mitochondria should be reconsidered. PMID:24979790

  8. T-type Ca2+ channels are required for enhanced sympathetic axon growth by TNFα reverse signalling

    PubMed Central

    Kisiswa, Lilian; Erice, Clara; Ferron, Laurent; Wyatt, Sean; Osório, Catarina; Dolphin, Annette C.

    2017-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1)-activated TNFα reverse signalling, in which membrane-integrated TNFα functions as a receptor for TNFR1, enhances axon growth from developing sympathetic neurons and plays a crucial role in establishing sympathetic innervation. Here, we have investigated the link between TNFα reverse signalling and axon growth in cultured sympathetic neurons. TNFR1-activated TNFα reverse signalling promotes Ca2+ influx, and highly selective T-type Ca2+ channel inhibitors, but not pharmacological inhibitors of L-type, N-type and P/Q-type Ca2+ channels, prevented enhanced axon growth. T-type Ca2+ channel-specific inhibitors eliminated Ca2+ spikes promoted by TNFα reverse signalling in axons and prevented enhanced axon growth when applied locally to axons, but not when applied to cell somata. Blocking action potential generation did not affect the effect of TNFα reverse signalling on axon growth, suggesting that propagated action potentials are not required for enhanced axon growth. TNFα reverse signalling enhanced protein kinase C (PKC) activation, and pharmacological inhibition of PKC prevented the axon growth response. These results suggest that TNFα reverse signalling promotes opening of T-type Ca2+ channels along sympathetic axons, which is required for enhanced axon growth. PMID:28100666

  9. Action-potential modulation during axonal conduction.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Takuya; Matsuki, Norio; Ikegaya, Yuji

    2011-02-04

    Once initiated near the soma, an action potential (AP) is thought to propagate autoregeneratively and distribute uniformly over axonal arbors. We challenge this classic view by showing that APs are subject to waveform modulation while they travel down axons. Using fluorescent patch-clamp pipettes, we recorded APs from axon branches of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons ex vivo. The waveforms of axonal APs increased in width in response to the local application of glutamate and an adenosine A(1) receptor antagonist to the axon shafts, but not to other unrelated axon branches. Uncaging of calcium in periaxonal astrocytes caused AP broadening through ionotropic glutamate receptor activation. The broadened APs triggered larger calcium elevations in presynaptic boutons and facilitated synaptic transmission to postsynaptic neurons. This local AP modification may enable axonal computation through the geometry of axon wiring.

  10. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Promote Axonal Outgrowth Alone and Synergistically with Astrocytes via tPA

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jian-Yong; Chopp, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We reported that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) enhance neurological recovery from experimental stroke and increase tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) expression in astrocytes. Here, we investigate mechanisms by which tPA mediates MSC enhanced axonal outgrowth. Primary murine neurons and astrocytes were isolated from wild-type (WT) and tPA-knockout (KO) cortices of embryos. Mouse MSCs (WT) were purchased from Cognate Inc. Neurons (WT or KO) were seeded in soma side of Xona microfluidic chambers, and astrocytes (WT or KO) and/or MSCs in axon side. The chambers were cultured as usual (normoxia) or subjected to oxygen deprivation. Primary neurons (seeded in plates) were co-cultured with astrocytes and/or MSCs (in inserts) for Western blot. In chambers, WT axons grew significantly longer than KO axons and exogenous tPA enhanced axonal outgrowth. MSCs increased WT axonal outgrowth alone and synergistically with WT astrocytes at both normoxia and oxygen deprivation conditions. The synergistic effect was inhibited by U0126, an ERK inhibitor, and receptor associated protein (RAP), a low density lipoprotein receptor related protein 1 (LRP1) ligand antagonist. However, MSCs exerted neither individual nor synergistic effects on KO axonal outgrowth. Western blot showed that MSCs promoted astrocytic tPA expression and increased neuronal tPA alone and synergistically with astrocytes. Also, MSCs activated neuronal ERK alone and synergistically with astrocytes, which was inhibited by RAP. We conclude: (1) MSCs promote axonal outgrowth via neuronal tPA and synergistically with astrocytic tPA; (2) neuronal tPA is critical to observe the synergistic effect of MSC and astrocytes on axonal outgrowth; and (3) tPA mediates MSC treatment-induced axonal outgrowth through the LRP1 receptor and ERK. PMID:27959956

  11. ETHANOL ALTERS CALCIUM SIGNALING IN AXONAL GROWTH CONES

    PubMed Central

    Mah, Stephanie J.; Fleck, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    Calcium (Ca2+) channels are sensitive to ethanol and Ca2+ signaling is a critical regulator of axonal growth and guidance. Effects of acute and chronic exposure to ethanol (22, 43, or 87 mM) on voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs) in whole cells, and KCl-induced Ca2+ transients in axonal growth cones, were examined using dissociated hippocampal cultures. Whole-cell patch-clamp analysis in neurons with newly-formed axons (Stage 3) revealed that rapidly inactivating, low-voltage activated (LVA) and non-inactivating, high-voltage activated (HVA) currents were both inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by acute ethanol, with relatively greater inhibition of HVA currents. When assessed by Fluo-4-AM imaging, baseline fluorescence and Ca2+ response to ethanol in Stage 3 neurons was similar compared to neurons without axons, but peak Ca2+ transient amplitudes in response to bath-applied KCl were greater in Stage 3 neurons and were decreased by acute ethanol. The amplitude of Ca2+ transients elicited specifically in axonal growth cones by focal application of KCl was also inhibited by acute exposure to moderate-to-high concentrations of ethanol (43 or 87 mM), whereas a lower concentration (22 mM) had no effect. When 43 or 87 mM ethanol was present continuously in the medium, KCl-evoked Ca2+ transient amplitudes were also reduced in growth cones. In contrast, Ca2+ transients were increased by continuous exposure to 22 mM ethanol. Visualization using a fluorescent dihydropyridine analog revealed that neurons continuously exposed to ethanol expressed increased amounts of L-type Ca2+ channels, with greater increases in axonal growth cones than cell bodies. Thus, acute ethanol reduces Ca2+ current and KCl-induced Ca2+ responses in whole cells and axonal growth cones, respectively, and chronic exposure is also generally inhibitory despite apparent up-regulation of L-type channel expression. These results are consistent with a role for altered growth cone Ca2+ signaling in abnormal

  12. Potent glycan inhibitors of myelin-associated glycoprotein enhance axon outgrowth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Alka A; Blixt, Ola; Paulson, James C; Schnaar, Ronald L

    2005-04-22

    Myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG, Siglec-4) is one of several endogenous axon regeneration inhibitors that limit recovery from central nervous system injury and disease. Molecules that block such inhibitors may enhance axon regeneration and functional recovery. MAG, a member of the Siglec family of sialic acid-binding lectins, binds to sialoglycoconjugates on axons and particularly to gangliosides GD1a and GT1b, which may mediate some of the inhibitory effects of MAG. In a prior study, we identified potent monovalent sialoside inhibitors of MAG using a novel screening platform. In the current study, the most potent of these were tested for their ability to reverse MAG-mediated inhibition of axon outgrowth from rat cerebellar granule neurons in vitro. Monovalent sialoglycans enhanced axon regeneration in proportion to their MAG binding affinities. The most potent glycoside was disialyl T antigen (NeuAcalpha2-3Galbeta1-3[NeuAcalpha2-6]GalNAc-R), followed by 3-sialyl T antigen (NeuAcalpha2-3Galbeta1-3GalNAc-R), structures expressed on O-linked glycoproteins as well as on gangliosides. Prior studies indicated that blocking gangliosides reversed MAG inhibition. In the current study, blocking O-linked glycoprotein sialylation with benzyl-alpha-GalNAc had no effect. The ability to reverse MAG inhibition with monovalent glycosides encourages further exploration of glycans and glycan mimetics as blockers of MAG-mediated axon outgrowth inhibition.

  13. Optofluidic control of axonal guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Ling; Ordonez, Simon; Black, Bryan; Mohanty, Samarendra K.

    2013-03-01

    Significant efforts are being made for control on axonal guidance due to its importance in nerve regeneration and in the formation of functional neuronal circuitry in-vitro. These include several physical (topographic modification, optical force, and electric field), chemical (surface functionalization cues) and hybrid (electro-chemical, photochemical etc) methods. Here, we report comparison of the effect of linear flow versus microfluidic flow produced by an opticallydriven micromotor in guiding retinal ganglion axons. A circularly polarized laser tweezers was used to hold, position and spin birefringent calcite particle near growth cone, which in turn resulted in microfluidic flow. The flow rate and resulting shear-force on axons could be controlled by a varying the power of the laser tweezers beam. The calcite particles were placed separately in one chamber and single particle was transported through microfluidic channel to another chamber containing the retina explant. In presence of flow, the turning of axons was found to strongly correlate with the direction of flow. Turning angle as high as 90° was achieved. Optofluidic-manipulation can be applied to other types of mammalian neurons and also can be extended to stimulate mechano-sensing neurons.

  14. Axonal remodeling in the corticospinal tract after stroke: how does rehabilitative training modulate it?

    PubMed Central

    Okabe, Naohiko; Narita, Kazuhiko; Miyamoto, Osamu

    2017-01-01

    Stroke causes long-term disability, and rehabilitative training is commonly used to improve the consecutive functional recovery. Following brain damage, surviving neurons undergo morphological alterations to reconstruct the remaining neural network. In the motor system, such neural network remodeling is observed as a motor map reorganization. Because of its significant correlation with functional recovery, motor map reorganization has been regarded as a key phenomenon for functional recovery after stroke. Although the mechanism underlying motor map reorganization remains unclear, increasing evidence has shown a critical role for axonal remodeling in the corticospinal tract. In this study, we review previous studies investigating axonal remodeling in the corticospinal tract after stroke and discuss which mechanisms may underlie the stimulatory effect of rehabilitative training. Axonal remodeling in the corticospinal tract can be classified into three types based on the location and the original targets of corticospinal neurons, and it seems that all the surviving corticospinal neurons in both ipsilesional and contralesional hemisphere can participate in axonal remodeling and motor map reorganization. Through axonal remodeling, corticospinal neurons alter their output selectivity from a single to multiple areas to compensate for the lost function. The remodeling of the corticospinal axon is influenced by the extent of tissue destruction and promoted by various therapeutic interventions, including rehabilitative training. Although the precise molecular mechanism underlying rehabilitation-promoted axonal remodeling remains elusive, previous data suggest that rehabilitative training promotes axonal remodeling by upregulating growth-promoting and downregulating growth-inhibiting signals.

  15. Selective control of small versus large diameter axons using infrared laser light (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lothet, Emilie H.; Shaw, Kendrick M.; Horn, Charles C.; Lu, Hui; Wang, Yves T.; Jansen, E. Duco; Chiel, Hillel J.; Jenkins, Michael W.

    2016-03-01

    Sensory information is conveyed to the central nervous system via small diameter unmyelinated fibers. In general, smaller diameter axons have slower conduction velocities. Selective control of such fibers could create new clinical treatments for chronic pain, nausea in response to chemo-therapeutic agents, or hypertension. Electrical stimulation can control axonal activity, but induced axonal current is proportional to cross-sectional area, so that large diameter fibers are affected first. Physiologically, however, synaptic inputs generally affect small diameter fibers before large diameter fibers (the size principle). A more physiological modality that first affected small diameter fibers could have fewer side effects (e.g., not recruiting motor axons). A novel mathematical analysis of the cable equation demonstrates that the minimum length along the axon for inducing block scales with the square root of axon diameter. This implies that the minimum length along an axon for inhibition will scale as the square root of axon diameter, so that lower radiant exposures of infrared light will selectively affect small diameter, slower conducting fibers before those of large diameter. This prediction was tested in identified neurons from the marine mollusk Aplysia californica. Radiant exposure to block a neuron with a slower conduction velocity (B43) was consistently lower than that needed to block a faster conduction velocity neuron (B3). Furthermore, in the vagus nerve of the musk shrew, lower radiant exposure blocked slow conducting fibers before blocking faster conducting fibers. Infrared light can selectively control smaller diameter fibers, suggesting many novel clinical treatments.

  16. Calpain-mediated cleavage of collapsin response mediator protein-2 drives acute axonal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian-Nan; Michel, Uwe; Lenz, Christof; Friedel, Caroline C.; Köster, Sarah; d’Hedouville, Zara; Tönges, Lars; Urlaub, Henning; Bähr, Mathias; Lingor, Paul; Koch, Jan C.

    2016-01-01

    Axonal degeneration is a key initiating event in many neurological diseases. Focal lesions to axons result in a rapid disintegration of the perilesional axon by acute axonal degeneration (AAD) within several hours. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of AAD are only incompletely understood. Here, we studied AAD in vivo through live-imaging of the rat optic nerve and in vitro in primary rat cortical neurons in microfluidic chambers. We found that calpain is activated early during AAD of the optic nerve and that calpain inhibition completely inhibits axonal fragmentation on the proximal side of the crush while it attenuates AAD on the distal side. A screening of calpain targets revealed that collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP2) is a main downstream target of calpain activation in AAD. CRMP2-overexpression delayed bulb formation and rescued impairment of axonal mitochondrial transport after axotomy in vitro. In vivo, CRMP2-overexpression effectively protected the proximal axon from fragmentation within 6 hours after crush. Finally, a proteomic analysis of the optic nerve was performed at 6 hours after crush, which identified further proteins regulated during AAD, including several interactors of CRMP2. These findings reveal CRMP2 as an important mediator of AAD and define it as a putative therapeutic target. PMID:27845394

  17. Peptide YY directly inhibits ghrelin-activated neurons of the arcuate nucleus and reverses fasting-induced c-Fos expression.

    PubMed

    Riediger, Thomas; Bothe, Christine; Becskei, Csilla; Lutz, Thomas A

    2004-01-01

    The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (Arc) monitors and integrates hormonal and metabolic signals involved in the maintenance of energy homeostasis. The orexigenic peptide ghrelin is secreted from the stomach during negative status of energy intake and directly activates neurons of the medial arcuate nucleus (ArcM) in rats. In contrast to ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY) is released postprandially from the gut and reduces food intake when applied peripherally. Neurons in the ArcM express ghrelin receptors and neuropeptide Y receptors. Thus, PYY may inhibit feeding by acting on ghrelin-sensitive Arc neurons. Using extracellular recordings, we (1) characterized the effects of PYY on the electrical activity of ghrelin-sensitive neurons in the ArcM of rats. In order to correlate the effect of PYY on neuronal activity with the energy status, we (2) investigated the ability of PYY to reverse fasting-induced c-Fos expression in Arc neurons of mice. In addition, we (3) sought to confirm that PYY reduces food intake under our experimental conditions. Superfusion of PYY reversibly inhibited 94% of all ArcM neurons by a direct postsynaptic mechanism. The PYY-induced inhibition was dose-dependent and occurred at a threshold concentration of 10(-8)M. Consistent with the opposite effects of ghrelin and PYY on food intake, a high percentage (50%) of Arc neurons was activated by ghrelin and inhibited by PYY. In line with this inhibitory action, peripherally injected PYY partly reversed the fasting-induced c-Fos expression in Arc neurons of mice. Similarly, refeeding of food-deprived mice reversed the fasting-induced activation in the Arc. Furthermore, peripherally injected PYY reduced food intake in 12-hour fasted mice. Thus the activity of Arc neurons correlated with the feeding status and was not only reduced by feeding but also by administration of PYY in non-refed mice. In conclusion, our current observations suggest that PYY may contribute to signaling a positive status of energy intake

  18. RETINOID SIGNALING IS INVOLVED IN GOVERNING THE WAITING PERIOD FOR AXONS IN CHICK HINDLIMB

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guoying; Scott, Sheryl A.

    2008-01-01

    During embryonic development in chick, axons pause in a plexus region for approximately one day prior to invading the limb. We have previously shown that this “waiting period” is governed by maturational changes in the limb. Here we provide a detailed description of the spatiotemporal pattern of Raldh2 expression in lumboscaral motoneurons and in the limb, and show that retinoid signaling in the limb contributes significantly to terminating the waiting period. Raldh2, indicative of retinoid signaling, first appears in hindlimb mesenchyme near the end of the waiting period. Transcripts are more abundant in connective tissue associated with predominantly fast muscles than predominantly slow muscles, but are not expressed in muscle cells themselves. The tips of ingrowing axons are always found in association with domains of Raldh2, but development of Raldh2 expression is not regulated by the axons. Instead, retinoid signaling appears to regulate axon entry into the limb. Supplying exogenous retinoic acid to proximal limb during the waiting period caused both motor and sensory axons to invade the limb prematurely and altered the normal stereotyped pattern of axon ingrowth without obvious effects on limb morphogenesis or motoneuron specification. Conversely, locally decreasing retinoid synthesis reduced axon growth into the limb. Retinoic acid significantly enhanced motor axon growth in vitro, suggesting that retinoic acid may directly promote axon growth into the limb in vivo. In addition, retinoid signaling may indirectly affect the waiting period by regulating the maturation of other gate keeping or guidance molecules in the limb. Together these findings reveal a novel function of retinoid signaling in governing the timing and patterning of axon growth into the limb. PMID:18602384

  19. Association of actin filaments with axonal microtubule tracts.

    PubMed

    Bearer, E L; Reese, T S

    1999-02-01

    Axoplasmic organelles move on actin as well as microtubules in vitro and axons contain a large amount of actin, but little is known about the organization and distribution of actin filaments within the axon. Here we undertake to define the relationship of the microtubule bundles typically found in axons to actin filaments by applying three microscopic techniques: laser-scanning confocal microscopy of immuno-labeled squid axoplasm; electronmicroscopy of conventionally prepared thin sections; and electronmicroscopy of touch preparations-a thin layer of axoplasm transferred to a specimen grid and negatively stained. Light microscopy shows that longitudinal actin filaments are abundant and usually coincide with longitudinal microtubule bundles. Electron microscopy shows that microfilaments are interwoven with the longitudinal bundles of microtubules. These bundles maintain their integrity when neurofilaments are extracted. Some, though not all microfilaments decorate with the S1 fragment of myosin, and some also act as nucleation sites for polymerization of exogenous actin, and hence are definitively identified as actin filaments. These actin filaments range in minimum length from 0.5 to 1.5 microm with some at least as long as 3.5 microm. We conclude that the microtubule-based tracks for fast organelle transport also include actin filaments. These actin filaments are sufficiently long and abundant to be ancillary or supportive of fast transport along microtubules within bundles, or to extend transport outside of the bundle. These actin filaments could also be essential for maintaining the structural integrity of the microtubule bundles.

  20. Reduced BACE1 activity enhances clearance of myelin debris and regeneration of axons in the injured peripheral nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Farah, Mohamed H.; Pan, Bao Han; Hoffman, Paul N.; Ferraris, Dana; Tsukamoto, Takashi; Nguyen, Thien; Wong, Philip C.; Price, Donald L.; Slusher, Barbara S.; Griffin, John W.

    2012-01-01

    β- site amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) is an aspartyl protease best known for its role in generating the amyloid β peptides that are present in plaques of Alzheimer's Disease. BACE1 has been an attractive target for drug development. In cultured embryonic neurons BACE1-cleaved N-terminal APP is further processed to generate a fragment that can trigger axonal degeneration, suggesting a vital role for BACE1 in axonal health. In addition, BACE1 cleaves neuregulin 1 type III, a protein critical for myelination of peripheral axons by Schwann cells during development. Here, we asked if axonal degeneration or axonal regeneration in adult nerves might be affected by inhibition or elimination of BACE1. We report that BACE1 knockout and wild-type nerves degenerated at a similar rate after axotomy and to a similar extent in the experimental neuropathies produced by administration of paclitaxel and acrylamide. These data indicate N-APP is not the sole culprit in axonal degeneration in adult nerves. Unexpectedly, however, we observed that BACE1 knockout mice had markedly enhanced clearance of axonal and myelin debris from degenerated fibers, accelerated axonal regeneration, and earlier reinnervation of neuromuscular junctions, compared to littermate controls. These observations were reproduced in part by pharmacological inhibition of BACE1. These data suggest BACE1 inhibition as a therapeutic approach to accelerate regeneration and recovery after peripheral nerve damage. PMID:21490216

  1. Wnt5a induces Ryk-dependent and -independent effects on callosal axon and dendrite growth.

    PubMed

    Clark, Charlotte E J; Richards, Linda J; Stacker, Steven A; Cooper, Helen M

    2014-02-01

    The non-canonical Wnt receptor, Ryk, promotes chemorepulsive axon guidance in the developing mouse brain and spinal cord in response to Wnt5a. Ryk has also been identified as a major suppressor of axonal regrowth after spinal cord injury. Thus, a comprehensive understanding of how growing axons and dendrites respond to Wnt5a-mediated Ryk activation is required if we are to overcome this detrimental activity. Here we undertook a detailed analysis of the effect of Wnt5a/Ryk interactions on axonal and dendritic growth in dissociated embryonic mouse cortical neuron cultures, focusing on callosal neurons known to be responsive to Ryk-induced chemorepulsion. We show that Ryk inhibits axonal growth in response to Wnt5a. We also show that Wnt5a inhibits dendrite growth independently of Ryk. However, this inhibition is relieved when Ryk is present. Therefore, Wnt5a-mediated Ryk activation triggers divergent responses in callosal axons and dendrites in the in vitro context.

  2. Selective regulation of axonal growth from developing hippocampal neurons by tumor necrosis factor superfamily member APRIL☆

    PubMed Central

    Osório, Catarina; Chacón, Pedro J.; White, Matthew; Kisiswa, Lilian; Wyatt, Sean; Rodríguez-Tébar, Alfredo; Davies, Alun M.

    2014-01-01

    APRIL (A Proliferation-Inducing Ligand, TNFSF13) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor superfamily that regulates lymphocyte survival and activation and has been implicated in tumorigenesis and autoimmune diseases. Here we report the expression and first known activity of APRIL in the nervous system. APRIL and one of its receptors, BCMA (B-Cell Maturation Antigen, TNFRSF17), are expressed by hippocampal pyramidal cells of fetal and postnatal mice. In culture, these neurons secreted APRIL, and function-blocking antibodies to either APRIL or BCMA reduced axonal elongation. Recombinant APRIL enhanced axonal elongation, but did not influence dendrite elongation. The effect of APRIL on axon elongation was inhibited by anti-BCMA and the expression of a signaling-defective BCMA mutant in these neurons, suggesting that the axon growth-promoting effect of APRIL is mediated by BCMA. APRIL promoted phosphorylation and activation of ERK1, ERK2 and Akt and serine phosphorylation and inactivation of GSK-3β in cultured hippocampal pyramidal cells. Inhibition of MEK1/MEK2 (activators of ERK1/ERK2), PI3-kinase (activator of Akt) or Akt inhibited the axon growth-promoting action of APRIL, as did pharmacological activation of GSK-3β and the expression of a constitutively active form of GSK-3β. These findings suggest that APRIL promotes axon elongation by a mechanism that depends both on ERK signaling and PI3-kinase/Akt/GSK-3β signaling. PMID:24444792

  3. Neuroanatomical technique for studying long axonal projections in the central nervous system: combined axonal staining and pre-labeling in parasagittal gerbil brain slices.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, N

    2012-08-01

    A method is described for studying the morphological features of extensive axonal projections within the central nervous system of the gerbil, Meriones anguiculatus. Potentially long descending axonal projections between the auditory thalamus and lower brainstem were used as a model. The inferior colliculus (IC) in the tectum was injected in vivo with a fluorescent retrograde tracer, Fluoro-Gold, to label cells in the medial geniculate body (MGB) that had descending projections to the IC, and cells in the superior olivary complex (SOC) that had ascending projections to the IC. Another fluorescent retrograde tracer, fast blue, was injected into the cochlea to label olivocochlear (OC) cells in the SOC. Inferomedially curved parasagittal slices containing ipsilateral auditory cell groups from the thalamus to the brainstem were cut and descending axons of the pre-labeled MGB cells were traced anterogradely with Biocytin. After visualizing histologically the injected Biocytin, discretely labeled IC-projecting axons of the MGB cells were traced including their collaterals that extended further into the SOC. In the SOC, these axons terminated on pre-labeled cells including OC cells. The combination of anterograde and retrograde tracing in the slice preparations described here demonstrated extensive descending axonal projections from the thalamus to their targets in the lower brainstem that had known ascending/descending projections within the auditory system.

  4. A slow axon antidromic blockade hypothesis for tremor reduction via deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    García, Míriam R; Pearlmutter, Barak A; Wellstead, Peter E; Middleton, Richard H

    2013-01-01

    Parkinsonian and essential tremor can often be effectively treated by deep brain stimulation. We propose a novel explanation for the mechanism by which this technique ameliorates tremor: a reduction of the delay in the relevant motor control loops via preferential antidromic blockade of slow axons. The antidromic blockade is preferential because the pulses more rapidly clear fast axons, and the distribution of axonal diameters, and therefore velocities, in the involved tracts, is sufficiently long-tailed to make this effect quite significant. The preferential blockade of slow axons, combined with gain adaptation, results in a reduction of the mean delay in the motor control loop, which serves to stabilize the feedback system, thus ameliorating tremor. This theory, without any tuning, accounts for several previously perplexing phenomena, and makes a variety of novel predictions.

  5. Fate of severed cortical projection axons.

    PubMed

    Fishman, P S; Mattu, A

    1993-01-01

    Corticospinal neurons show a primarily degenerative response to axotomy in adult mammals. The long remaining proximal axon with its extensive synaptic contacts may contribute to the lack of initial regenerative response in this cell type. We examined a related group of cortical axons after lesions in the subcortical white matter close to their cell bodies of origin. With cholera B chain conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (CTB-HRP), transcallosal axons projecting into areas of a lesion were labeled. Animals surviving between 2 days and 4 months were examined with both light microscopic and ultrastructural techniques. During the first several days after injury, many of the axon terminals projecting into the lesion site had the appearance of axonal sprouts, although the majority of endings had the appearance of degenerating terminal swellings. By 2 weeks after injury some axonal sprouts had extended a short distance along the margins of the lesions, into overlying cortex. Four weeks after injury there is a reduction in the number of axons extending toward the lesion. This loss of axons appeared progressive and resulted in not only a loss of labeled axons, but also eventually in atrophy of the subcortical white matter near the lesion. In comparison to corticospinal axon lesions in the spinal cord or medullary pyramids, there is more extensive axonal sprouting and elongation after subcortical lesions. Degenerative morphological features still predominate after subcortical lesions and no successful trans-lesion axonal regeneration occurs. Axonal retraction and loss are both accelerated and more extensive after proximal subcortical axotomy than after corticospinal tract lesions.

  6. Stuttering Interneurons Generate Fast and Robust Inhibition onto Projection Neurons with Low Capacity of Short Term Modulation in Mouse Lateral Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chen; Xu, Xiao-Bin; He, Ye; Liu, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Min; Zhang, Xin; Li, Bao-Ming; Pan, Bing-Xing

    2013-01-01

    The stuttering interneurons (STi) represent one minor subset of interneuron population and exhibit characteristic stuttering firing upon depolarization current injection. While it has been long held that the GABAergic inhibitory transmission largely varies with the subtype identity of presynaptic interneurons, whether such a rule also applies to STi is largely unknown. Here, by paired recording of interneuron and their neighboring projection neuron in lateral amygdala, we found that relative to the fast spiking and late spiking interneurons, the STi-evoked unitary postsynaptic currents onto the projection neurons had markedly larger amplitude, shorter onset latency and faster rising and decay kinetics. The quantal content and the number of vesicles in the readily releasable pool were also larger in synapses made by STi versus other interneurons. Moreover, the short-term plasticity, as reflected by the paired pulse depression and depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition, was the least prominent in the output synapses of STi. Thus, the fast and robust inhibition together with its low capacity of short term modulation may suggest an important role for STi in preventing the overexcitation of the projection neurons and thus gating the information traffic in amygdala. PMID:23527307

  7. LAR receptor tyrosine phosphatases and HSPGs guide peripheral sensory axons to the skin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang; Wolfson, Sean N.; Gharib, Arash; Sagasti, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    Background Peripheral axons of somatosensory neurons innervate the skin early in development to detect touch stimuli. Embryological experiments had suggested that the skin produces guidance cues that attract sensory axons, but neither the attractants nor their neuronal receptors had previously been identified. Results To investigate peripheral axon navigation to the skin, we combined live imaging of developing zebrafish Rohon-Beard (RB) neurons with molecular loss-of-function manipulations. Simultaneously knocking down two members of the LAR family of receptor tyrosine phosphatases expressed in RB neurons, or inhibiting their function with dominant negative proteins, misrouted peripheral axons to internal tissues. Time-lapse imaging indicated that peripheral axon guidance, rather than outgrowth or maintenance, was defective in LAR deficient neurons. Peripheral axons displayed a similar misrouting phenotype in mutants defective in heparan sulfate proteoglycan (HSPG) production and avoided regions in which HSPGs were locally degraded. Conclusions HSPGs and LAR family receptors are required for sensory axon guidance to the skin. Together, our results support a model in which peripheral HSPGs are attractive ligands for LAR receptors on RB neurons. PMID:22326027

  8. Axonal regeneration of optic nerve after crush in Nogo66 receptor knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Su, Ying; Wang, Feng; Teng, Yan; Zhao, Shi-Guang; Cui, Hao; Pan, Shang-Ha

    2009-09-04

    Mature retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) cannot regenerate injured axons because some neurite growth inhibitors, including the C-terminal of Nogo-A (Nogo66), myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and Omgp, exert their effects on neuron regeneration through the Nogo receptor (NgR). In this study, the axonal regeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after optic nerve (ON) crush was investigated both in vivo and in vitro in NgR knockout mice. We used NgR knockout mice as the experimental group, and C57BL/6 mice as the control group. Partial ON injury was induced by using a specially designed ON clip to pinch the ON 1mm behind the mouse eyeball with 40g pressure for 9s. NgR mRNA was studied by in situ hybridization (ISH). NgR protein was studied by Western blot. Growth Associated Protein 43 (GAP-43), a plasticity protein expressed highly during axon regeneration, was studied by immunofluorescence staining on the frozen sections. RGCs were cultured and purified. The axonal growth of RGCs was calculated by a computerized image analyzer. We found that compared with the control group, the GAP-43 expression was significantly higher and the axonal growth was significantly more active at every observation time point in the experimental group. These results indicate that NgR genes play an important role in the axonal regeneration after ON injury, while knockout of NgR is effective for eliminating this inhibition and enhancing axonal regeneration.

  9. Fast, non-competitive and reversible inhibition of NMDA-activated currents by 2-BFI confers neuroprotection.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhao; Yang, Jin-Long; Jiang, Susan X; Hou, Sheng-Tao; Zheng, Rong-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Excessive activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) causes excitotoxicity, a process important in stroke-induced neuronal death. Drugs that inhibit NMDA receptor-mediated [Ca(2+)]i influx are potential leads for development to treat excitotoxicity-induced brain damage. Our previous studies showed that 2-(2-benzofu-ranyl)-2-imidazoline (2-BFI), an immidazoline receptor ligand, dose-dependently protects rodent brains from cerebral ischemia injury. However, the molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we found that 2-BFI transiently and reversibly inhibits NMDA, but not AMPA currents, in a dose-dependent manner in cultured rat cortical neurons. The mechanism of 2-BFI inhibition of NMDAR is through a noncompetitive fashion with a faster on (Kon = 2.19±0.33×10(-9) M(-1) sec(-1)) and off rate (Koff = 0.67±0.02 sec(-1)) than those of memantine, a gold standard for therapeutic inhibition NMDAR-induced excitotoxicity. 2-BFI also transiently and reversibly blocked NMDA receptor-mediated calcium entry to cultured neurons and provided long-term neuroprotection against NMDA toxicity in vitro. Collectively, these studies demonstrated a potential mechanism of 2-BFI-mediated neuroprotection and indicated that 2-BFI is an excellent candidate for repositioning as a drug for stroke treatment.

  10. Drosophila microRNA-34 Impairs Axon Pruning of Mushroom Body γ Neurons by Downregulating the Expression of Ecdysone Receptor.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yen-Wei; Chu, Sao-Yu; Wei, Jia-Yi; Cheng, Chu-Ya; Li, Jian-Chiuan; Chen, Po-Lin; Chen, Chun-Hong; Yu, Hung-Hsiang

    2016-12-23

    MicroRNA-34 (miR-34) is crucial for preventing chronic large-scale neurite degeneration in the aged brain of Drosophila melanogaster. Here we investigated the role of miR-34 in two other types of large-scale axon degeneration in Drosophila: axotomy-induced axon degeneration in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and developmentally related axon pruning in mushroom body (MB) neurons. Ectopically overexpressed miR-34 did not inhibit axon degeneration in OSNs following axotomy, whereas ectopically overexpressed miR-34 in differentiated MB neurons impaired γ axon pruning. Intriguingly, the miR-34-induced γ axon pruning defect resulted from downregulating the expression of ecdysone receptor B1 (EcR-B1) in differentiated MB γ neurons. Notably, the separate overexpression of EcR-B1 or a transforming growth factor- β receptor Baboon, whose activation can upregulate the EcR-B1 expression, in MB neurons rescued the miR-34-induced γ axon pruning phenotype. Future investigations of miR-34 targets that regulate the expression of EcR-B1 in MB γ neurons are warranted to elucidate pathways that regulate axon pruning, and to provide insight into mechanisms that control large-scale axon degeneration in the nervous system.

  11. Drosophila microRNA-34 Impairs Axon Pruning of Mushroom Body γ Neurons by Downregulating the Expression of Ecdysone Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yen-Wei; Chu, Sao-Yu; Wei, Jia-Yi; Cheng, Chu-Ya; Li, Jian-Chiuan; Chen, Po-Lin; Chen, Chun-Hong; Yu, Hung-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA-34 (miR-34) is crucial for preventing chronic large-scale neurite degeneration in the aged brain of Drosophila melanogaster. Here we investigated the role of miR-34 in two other types of large-scale axon degeneration in Drosophila: axotomy-induced axon degeneration in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) and developmentally related axon pruning in mushroom body (MB) neurons. Ectopically overexpressed miR-34 did not inhibit axon degeneration in OSNs following axotomy, whereas ectopically overexpressed miR-34 in differentiated MB neurons impaired γ axon pruning. Intriguingly, the miR-34-induced γ axon pruning defect resulted from downregulating the expression of ecdysone receptor B1 (EcR-B1) in differentiated MB γ neurons. Notably, the separate overexpression of EcR-B1 or a transforming growth factor- β receptor Baboon, whose activation can upregulate the EcR-B1 expression, in MB neurons rescued the miR-34-induced γ axon pruning phenotype. Future investigations of miR-34 targets that regulate the expression of EcR-B1 in MB γ neurons are warranted to elucidate pathways that regulate axon pruning, and to provide insight into mechanisms that control large-scale axon degeneration in the nervous system. PMID:28008974

  12. Antidromic propagation of action potentials in branched axons: implications for the mechanisms of action of deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Grill, Warren M; Cantrell, Meredith B; Robertson, Matthew S

    2008-02-01

    Electrical stimulation of the central nervous system creates both orthodromically propagating action potentials, by stimulation of local cells and passing axons, and antidromically propagating action potentials, by stimulation of presynaptic axons and terminals. Our aim was to understand how antidromic action potentials navigate through complex arborizations, such as those of thalamic and basal ganglia afferents-sites of electrical activation during deep brain stimulation. We developed computational models to study the propagation of antidromic action potentials past the bifurcation in branched axons. In both unmyelinated and myelinated branched axons, when the diameters of each axon branch remained under a specific threshold (set by the antidromic geometric ratio), antidromic propagation occurred robustly; action potentials traveled both antidromically into the primary segment as well as "re-orthodromically" into the terminal secondary segment. Propagation occurred across a broad range of stimulation frequencies, axon segment geometries, and concentrations of extracellular potassium, but was strongly dependent on the geometry of the node of Ranvier at the axonal bifurcation. Thus, antidromic activation of axon terminals can, through axon collaterals, lead to widespread activation or inhibition of targets remote from the site of stimulation. These effects should be included when interpreting the results of functional imaging or evoked potential studies on the mechanisms of action of DBS.

  13. Where does axon guidance lead us?

    PubMed Central

    Stoeckli, Esther

    2017-01-01

    During neural circuit formation, axons need to navigate to their target cells in a complex, constantly changing environment. Although we most likely have identified most axon guidance cues and their receptors, we still cannot explain the molecular background of pathfinding for any subpopulation of axons. We lack mechanistic insight into the regulation of interactions between guidance receptors and their ligands. Recent developments in the field of axon guidance suggest that the regulation of surface expression of guidance receptors comprises transcriptional, translational, and post-translational mechanisms, such as trafficking of vesicles with specific cargos, protein-protein interactions, and specific proteolysis of guidance receptors. Not only axon guidance molecules but also the regulatory mechanisms that control their spatial and temporal expression are involved in synaptogenesis and synaptic plasticity. Therefore, it is not surprising that genes associated with axon guidance are frequently found in genetic and genomic studies of neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:28163913

  14. Human Genetic Disorders of Axon Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Engle, Elizabeth C.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews symptoms and signs of aberrant axon connectivity in humans, and summarizes major human genetic disorders that result, or have been proposed to result, from defective axon guidance. These include corpus callosum agenesis, L1 syndrome, Joubert syndrome and related disorders, horizontal gaze palsy with progressive scoliosis, Kallmann syndrome, albinism, congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 1, Duane retraction syndrome, and pontine tegmental cap dysplasia. Genes mutated in these disorders can encode axon growth cone ligands and receptors, downstream signaling molecules, and axon transport motors, as well as proteins without currently recognized roles in axon guidance. Advances in neuroimaging and genetic techniques have the potential to rapidly expand this field, and it is feasible that axon guidance disorders will soon be recognized as a new and significant category of human neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:20300212

  15. Soluble complement receptor 1 protects the peripheral nerve from early axon loss after injury.

    PubMed

    Ramaglia, Valeria; Wolterman, Ruud; de Kok, Maryla; Vigar, Miriam Ann; Wagenaar-Bos, Ineke; King, Rosalind Helen Mary; Morgan, Brian Paul; Baas, Frank

    2008-04-01

    Complement activation is a crucial early event in Wallerian degeneration. In this study we show that treatment of rats with soluble complement receptor 1 (sCR1), an inhibitor of all complement pathways, blocked both systemic and local complement activation after crush injury of the sciatic nerve. Deposition of membrane attack complex (MAC) in the nerve was inhibited, the nerve was protected from axonal and myelin breakdown at 3 days after injury, and macrophage infiltration and activation was strongly reduced. We show that both classical and alternative complement pathways are activated after acute nerve trauma. Inhibition of the classical pathway by C1 inhibitor (Cetor) diminished, but did not completely block, MAC deposition in the injured nerve, blocked myelin breakdown, inhibited macrophage infiltration, and prevented macrophage activation at 3 days after injury. However, in contrast to sCR1 treatment, early signs of axonal degradation were visible in the nerve, linking MAC deposition to axonal damage. We conclude that sCR1 protects the nerve from early axon loss after injury and propose complement inhibition as a potential therapy for the treatment of diseases in which axon loss is the main cause of disabilities.

  16. Enzyme-instructed self-assembly of taxol promotes axonal branching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Bin; Miao, Qingqing; Tang, Anming; Liang, Gaolin

    2015-09-01

    Axonal branching is important for vertebrate neuron signaling. Taxol has a biphasic effect on axonal branching (i.e., high concentration inhibits axonal growth but low concentration restores it). To the best of our knowledge, low concentration of taxol to promote axonal branching has not been reported yet. Herein, we rationally designed a taxol derivative Fmoc-Phe-Phe-Lys(taxol)-Tyr(H2PO4)-OH (1) which could be subjected to alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-catalyzed self-assembly to form taxol nanofibers. We found that, at 10 μM, 1 has a microtubule (MT) condensation effect similar to that of taxol on mammalian cells but with more chronic toxicity than taxol on the cells. At a low concentration of 10 nM, 1 not only promoted neurite elongation as taxol did but also promoted axonal branching which was not achieved by using taxol. We propose that self-assembly of 1 along the MTs prohibited their lateral contacts and thus promoted axonal branching. Our strategy of enzyme-instructed self-assembly (EISA) of a taxol derivative provides a new tool for scientists to study the morphology of neurons, as well as their behaviours.Axonal branching is important for vertebrate neuron signaling. Taxol has a biphasic effect on axonal branching (i.e., high concentration inhibits axonal growth but low concentration restores it). To the best of our knowledge, low concentration of taxol to promote axonal branching has not been reported yet. Herein, we rationally designed a taxol derivative Fmoc-Phe-Phe-Lys(taxol)-Tyr(H2PO4)-OH (1) which could be subjected to alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-catalyzed self-assembly to form taxol nanofibers. We found that, at 10 μM, 1 has a microtubule (MT) condensation effect similar to that of taxol on mammalian cells but with more chronic toxicity than taxol on the cells. At a low concentration of 10 nM, 1 not only promoted neurite elongation as taxol did but also promoted axonal branching which was not achieved by using taxol. We propose that self-assembly of 1

  17. Mechanosensitive TRPC1 channels promote calpain proteolysis of talin to regulate spinal axon outgrowth.

    PubMed

    Kerstein, Patrick C; Jacques-Fricke, Bridget T; Rengifo, Juliana; Mogen, Brian J; Williams, Justin C; Gottlieb, Philip A; Sachs, Fredrick; Gomez, Timothy M

    2013-01-02

    Intracellular Ca(2+) signals control the development and regeneration of spinal axons downstream of chemical guidance cues, but little is known about the roles of mechanical cues in axon guidance. Here we show that transient receptor potential canonical 1 (TRPC1) subunits assemble mechanosensitive (MS) channels on Xenopus neuronal growth cones that regulate the extension and direction of axon outgrowth on rigid, but not compliant, substrata. Reducing expression of TRPC1 by antisense morpholinos inhibits the effects of MS channel blockers on axon outgrowth and local Ca(2+) transients. Ca(2+) influx through MS TRPC1 activates the protease calpain, which cleaves the integrin adaptor protein talin to reduce Src-dependent axon outgrowth, likely through altered adhesion turnover. We found that talin accumulates at the tips of dynamic filopodia, which is lost upon cleavage of talin by active calpain. This pathway may also be important in axon guidance decisions since asymmetric inhibition of MS TRPC1 is sufficient to induce growth cone turning. Together our results suggest that Ca(2+) influx through MS TRPC1 on filopodia activates calpain to control growth cone turning during development.

  18. The Highwire Ubiquitin Ligase Promotes Axonal Degeneration by Tuning Levels of Nmnat Protein

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Xin; Hao, Yan; Sun, Kan; Li, Jiaxing; Li, Xia; Mishra, Bibhudatta; Soppina, Pushpanjali; Wu, Chunlai; Hume, Richard I.; Collins, Catherine A.

    2012-01-01

    Axonal degeneration is a hallmark of many neuropathies, neurodegenerative diseases, and injuries. Here, using a Drosophila injury model, we have identified a highly conserved E3 ubiquitin ligase, Highwire (Hiw), as an important regulator of axonal and synaptic degeneration. Mutations in hiw strongly inhibit Wallerian degeneration in multiple neuron types and developmental stages. This new phenotype is mediated by a new downstream target of Hiw: the NAD+ biosynthetic enzyme nicotinamide mononucleotide adenyltransferase (Nmnat), which acts in parallel to a previously known target of Hiw, the Wallenda dileucine zipper kinase (Wnd/DLK) MAPKKK. Hiw promotes a rapid disappearance of Nmnat protein in the distal stump after injury. An increased level of Nmnat protein in hiw mutants is both required and sufficient to inhibit degeneration. Ectopically expressed mouse Nmnat2 is also subject to regulation by Hiw in distal axons and synapses. These findings implicate an important role for endogenous Nmnat and its regulation, via a conserved mechanism, in the initiation of axonal degeneration. Through independent regulation of Wnd/DLK, whose function is required for proximal axons to regenerate, Hiw plays a central role in coordinating both regenerative and degenerative responses to axonal injury. PMID:23226106

  19. Axon regeneration pathways identified by systematic genetic screening in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lizhen; Wang, Zhiping; Ghosh-Roy, Anindya; Hubert, Thomas; Yan, Dong; O'Rourke, Sean; Bowerman, Bruce; Wu, Zilu; Jin, Yishi; Chisholm, Andrew D

    2011-09-22

    The mechanisms underlying the ability of axons to regrow after injury remain poorly explored at the molecular genetic level. We used a laser injury model in Caenorhabditis elegans mechanosensory neurons to screen 654 conserved genes for regulators of axonal regrowth. We uncover several functional clusters of genes that promote or repress regrowth, including genes classically known to affect axon guidance, membrane excitability, neurotransmission, and synaptic vesicle endocytosis. The conserved Arf Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF), EFA-6, acts as an intrinsic inhibitor of regrowth. By combining genetics and in vivo imaging, we show that EFA-6 inhibits regrowth via microtubule dynamics, independent of its Arf GEF activity. Among newly identified regrowth inhibitors, only loss of function in EFA-6 partially bypasses the requirement for DLK-1 kinase. Identification of these pathways significantly expands our understanding of the genetic basis of axonal injury responses and repair.

  20. Hippocampal theta rhythm and its coupling with gamma oscillations require fast inhibition onto parvalbumin-positive interneurons.

    PubMed

    Wulff, Peer; Ponomarenko, Alexey A; Bartos, Marlene; Korotkova, Tatiana M; Fuchs, Elke C; Bähner, Florian; Both, Martin; Tort, Adriano B L; Kopell, Nancy J; Wisden, William; Monyer, Hannah

    2009-03-03

    Hippocampal theta (5-10 Hz) and gamma (35-85 Hz) oscillations depend on an inhibitory network of GABAergic interneurons. However, the lack of methods for direct and cell-type-specific interference with inhibition has prevented better insights that help link synaptic and cellular properties with network function. Here, we generated genetically modified mice (PV-Deltagamma(2)) in which synaptic inhibition was ablated in parvalbumin-positive (PV+) interneurons. Hippocampal local field potential and unit recordings in the CA1 area of freely behaving mice revealed that theta rhythm was strongly reduced in these mice. The characteristic coupling of theta and gamma oscillations was strongly altered in PV-Deltagamma(2) mice more than could be accounted for by the reduction in theta rhythm only. Surprisingly, gamma oscillations were not altered. These data indicate that synaptic inhibition onto PV+ interneurons is indispensable for theta- and its coupling to gamma oscillations but not for rhythmic gamma-activity in the hippocampus. Similar alterations in rhythmic activity were obtained in a computational hippocampal network model mimicking the genetic modification, suggesting that intrahippocampal networks might contribute to these effects.

  1. Glutamate receptors on myelinated spinal cord axons: II)AMPA and GluR5 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ouardouz, M.; Coderre, E.; Zamponi, G. W.; Hameed, S.; Yin, X.; Trapp, B.D.; Stys, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Glutamate receptors, which play a major role in the physiology and pathology of CNS gray matter, are also involved in the pathophysiology of white matter. However the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for excitotoxic damage to white matter elements are not fully understood. We explored the roles of AMPA and GluR5 kainate receptors in axonal Ca2+ deregulation. Methods Dorsal column axons were loaded with a Ca2+ indicator and imaged in vitro using confocal microscopy. Results Both AMPA and a GluR5 kainate receptor agonists increased intra-axonal Ca2+ in myelinated rat dorsal column fibers. These responses were inhibited by selective antagonists of these glutamate receptors. The GluR5-mediated Ca2+ rise was mediated by both canonical (i.e. ionotropic) and non-canonical (metabotropic) signalling, dependent on a pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein and a phospholipase C-dependent pathway, promoting Ca2+ release from IP3-dependent stores. Additionally, the GluR5 response was significantly reduced by intra-axonal NO scavengers. In contrast, GluR4 AMPA receptors operated via Ca2+ induced Ca2+ release, dependent on ryanodine receptors, and unaffected by NO scavengers. Neither pathway depended on L-type Ca2+ channels, in contrast to GlurR6 kainate receptor action 1. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the presence of GluR4 and GluR5 clustered at the surface of myelinated axons; GluR5 co-immunoprecipitated with nNOS and often co-localized with nNOS clusters on the internodal axon. Interpretation Central myelinated axons express functional AMPA and GluR5 kainate receptors, and can directly respond to glutamate receptor agonists. These glutamate receptor-dependent signalling pathways promote an increase in intra-axonal Ca2+ levels potentially contributing to axonal degeneration. PMID:19224531

  2. Midbrain dopaminergic axons are guided longitudinally through the diencephalon by Slit/Robo signals.

    PubMed

    Dugan, James P; Stratton, Andrea; Riley, Hilary P; Farmer, W Todd; Mastick, Grant S

    2011-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurons from the ventral mesencephalon/diencephalon (mesodiencephalon) form vital pathways constituting the majority of the brain's dopamine systems. Mesodiencephalic dopaminergic (mdDA) neurons extend longitudinal projections anteriorly through the diencephalon, ascending toward forebrain targets. The mechanisms by which mdDA axons initially navigate through the diencephalon are poorly understood. Recently the Slit family of secreted axon guidance proteins, and their Robo receptors, have been identified as important guides for descending longitudinal axons. To test the potential roles of Slit/Robo guidance in ascending trajectories, we examined tyrosine hydroxylase-positive (TH+) projections from mdDA neurons in mutant mouse embryos. We found that mdDA axons grow out of and parallel to Slit-positive ventral regions within the diencephalon, and that subsets of the mdDA axons likely express Robo1 and possibly also Robo2. Slit2 was able to directly inhibit TH axon outgrowth in explant co-culture assays. The mdDA axons made significant pathfinding errors in Slit1/2 and Robo1/2 knockout mice, including spreading out in the diencephalon to form a wider tract. The wider tract resulted from a combination of invasion of the ventral midline, consistent with Slit repulsion, but also axons wandering dorsally, away from the ventral midline. Aberrant dorsal trajectories were prominent in Robo1 and Robo1/2 knockout mice, suggesting that an aspect of Robo receptor function is Slit-independent. These results indicate that Slit/Robo signaling is critical during the initial establishment of dopaminergic pathways, with roles in the dorsoventral positioning and precise pathfinding of these ascending longitudinal axons.

  3. AxonSeg: Open Source Software for Axon and Myelin Segmentation and Morphometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zaimi, Aldo; Duval, Tanguy; Gasecka, Alicja; Côté, Daniel; Stikov, Nikola; Cohen-Adad, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Segmenting axon and myelin from microscopic images is relevant for studying the peripheral and central nervous system and for validating new MRI techniques that aim at quantifying tissue microstructure. While several software packages have been proposed, their interface is sometimes limited and/or they are designed to work with a specific modality (e.g., scanning electron microscopy (SEM) only). Here we introduce AxonSeg, which allows to perform automatic axon and myelin segmentation on histology images, and to extract relevant morphometric information, such as axon diameter distribution, axon density and the myelin g-ratio. AxonSeg includes a simple and intuitive MATLAB-based graphical user interface (GUI) and can easily be adapted to a variety of imaging modalities. The main steps of AxonSeg consist of: (i) image pre-processing; (ii) pre-segmentation of axons over a cropped image and discriminant analysis (DA) to select the best parameters based on axon shape and intensity information; (iii) automatic axon and myelin segmentation over the full image; and (iv) atlas-based statistics to extract morphometric information. Segmentation results from standard optical microscopy (OM), SEM and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy are presented, along with validation against manual segmentations. Being fully-automatic after a quick manual intervention on a cropped image, we believe AxonSeg will be useful to researchers interested in large throughput histology. AxonSeg is open source and freely available at: https://github.com/neuropoly/axonseg. PMID:27594833

  4. Single axon IPSPs elicited in pyramidal cells by three classes of interneurones in slices of rat neocortex.

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, A M; West, D C; Hahn, J; Deuchars, J

    1996-01-01

    1. Using dual intracellular recordings in slices of adult rat neocortex, twenty-four IPSPs activated by single presynaptic interneurones were studied in simultaneously recorded pyramidal cells. Fast spiking interneurones inhibited one in four or five of their close pyramidal neighbours. No reciprocal connections were observed. After recordings neurones were filled with biocytin. 2. Interneurones that elicited IPSPs were classified as classical fast spiking (n = 10), as non-classical fast spiking (n = 3, including one burst-firing interneurone), as unclassified, or slow interneurones (n = 8), or as regular spiking interneurones (n = 3), i.e. interneurones whose electrophysiological characteristics were indistinguishable from those of pyramidal cells. 3. All of the seven classical fast spiking cells anatomically fully recovered had aspiny, beaded dendrites. Their partially myelinated axons ramified extensively, varying widely in shape and extent, but randomly selected labelled axon terminals typically innervated somata and large calibre dendrites on electron microscopic examination. One 'autapse' was demonstrated. One presumptive regular spiking interneurone axon made four somatic and five dendritic connections with unlabelled targets. 4. Full anatomical reconstructions of labelled classical fast spiking interneurones and their postsynaptic pyramids (n = 5) demonstrated one to five boutons per connection. The two recorded IPSPs that were fully reconstructed morphologically (3 and 5 terminals) were, however, amongst the smallest recorded (< 0.4 mV). Some connections may therefore involve larger numbers of contacts. 5. Single axon IPSPs were between 0.2 and 3.5 mV in average amplitude at -55 to -60 mV. Extrapolated reversal potentials were between -70 and -82 mV. IPSP time course correlated with the type of presynaptic interneurone, but not with IPSP latency, amplitude, reversal potential, or sensitivity to current injected at the soma. 6. Classical fast spiking

  5. Efficient simulations of tubulin-driven axonal growth.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Stefan; Henningsson, Erik; Heyden, Anders

    2016-08-01

    This work concerns efficient and reliable numerical simulations of the dynamic behaviour of a moving-boundary model for tubulin-driven axonal growth. The model is nonlinear and consists of a coupled set of a partial differential equation (PDE) and two ordinary differential equations. The PDE is defined on a computational domain with a moving boundary, which is part of the solution. Numerical simulations based on standard explicit time-stepping methods are too time consuming due to the small time steps required for numerical stability. On the other hand standard implicit schemes are too complex due to the nonlinear equations that needs to be solved in each step. Instead, we propose to use the Peaceman-Rachford splitting scheme combined with temporal and spatial scalings of the model. Simulations based on this scheme have shown to be efficient, accurate, and reliable which makes it possible to evaluate the model, e.g. its dependency on biological and physical model parameters. These evaluations show among other things that the initial axon growth is very fast, that the active transport is the dominant reason over diffusion for the growth velocity, and that the polymerization rate in the growth cone does not affect the final axon length.

  6. Axonal interferon responses and alphaherpesvirus neuroinvasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Ren

    Infection by alphaherpesviruses, including herpes simplex virus (HSV) and pseudorabies virus (PRV), typically begins at a peripheral epithelial surface and continues into the peripheral nervous system (PNS) that innervates this tissue. Inflammatory responses are induced at the infected peripheral site prior to viral invasion of the PNS. PNS neurons are highly polarized cells with long axonal processes that connect to distant targets. When the peripheral tissue is first infected, only the innervating axons are exposed to this inflammatory milieu, which include type I interferon (e.g. IFNbeta) and type II interferon (i.e. IFNgamma). IFNbeta can be produced by all types of cells, while IFNgamma is secreted by some specific types of immune cells. And both types of IFN induce antiviral responses in surrounding cells that express the IFN receptors. The fundamental question is how do PNS neurons respond to the inflammatory milieu experienced only by their axons. Axons must act as potential front-line barriers to prevent PNS infection and damage. Using compartmented cultures that physically separate neuron axons from cell bodies, I found that pretreating isolated axons with IFNbeta or IFNgamma significantly diminished the number of HSV-1 and PRV particles moving from axons to the cell bodies in an IFN receptor-dependent manner. Furthermore, I found the responses in axons are activated differentially by the two types of IFNs. The response to IFNbeta is a rapid, axon-only response, while the response to IFNgamma involves long distance signaling to the PNS cell body. For example, exposing axons to IFNbeta induced STAT1 phosphorylation (p-STAT1) only in axons, while exposure of axons to IFNgamma induced p-STAT1 accumulation in distant cell body nuclei. Blocking transcription in cell bodies eliminated IFNgamma-, but not IFNbeta-mediated antiviral effects. Proteomic analysis of IFNbeta- or IFNgamma-treated axons identified several differentially regulated proteins. Therefore

  7. The axonal transport of mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Saxton, William M.; Hollenbeck, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Vigorous transport of cytoplasmic components along axons over substantial distances is crucial for the maintenance of neuron structure and function. The transport of mitochondria, which serves to distribute mitochondrial functions in a dynamic and non-uniform fashion, has attracted special interest in recent years following the discovery of functional connections among microtubules, motor proteins and mitochondria, and their influences on neurodegenerative diseases. Although the motor proteins that drive mitochondrial movement are now well characterized, the mechanisms by which anterograde and retrograde movement are coordinated with one another and with stationary axonal mitochondria are not yet understood. In this Commentary, we review why mitochondria move and how they move, focusing particularly on recent studies of transport regulation, which implicate control of motor activity by specific cell-signaling pathways, regulation of motor access to transport tracks and static microtubule–mitochondrion linkers. A detailed mechanism for modulating anterograde mitochondrial transport has been identified that involves Miro, a mitochondrial Ca2+-binding GTPase, which with associated proteins, can bind and control kinesin-1. Elements of the Miro complex also have important roles in mitochondrial fission–fusion dynamics, highlighting questions about the interdependence of biogenesis, transport, dynamics, maintenance and degradation. PMID:22619228

  8. Dopaminergic modulation of axon collaterals interconnecting spiny neurons of the rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Jaime N; Hernández, Adán; Galarraga, Elvira; Tapia, Dagoberto; Laville, Antonio; Vergara, Ramiro; Aceves, Jorge; Bargas, José

    2003-10-01

    Dopamine is a critical modulator of striatal function; its absence produces Parkinson's disease. Most cellular actions of dopamine are still unknown. This work describes the presynaptic actions of dopaminergic receptor agonists on GABAergic transmission between neostriatal projection neurons. Axon collaterals interconnect projection neurons, the main axons of which project to other basal ganglia nuclei. Most if not all of these projecting axons pass through the globus pallidus. Thus, we lesioned the intrinsic neurons of the globus pallidus and stimulated neostriatal efferent axons antidromically with a bipolar electrode located in this nucleus. This maneuver revealed a bicuculline-sensitive synaptic current while recording in spiny cells. D1 receptor agonists facilitated whereas D2 receptor agonists depressed this synaptic current. In contrast, a bicuculline-sensitive synaptic current evoked by field stimulation inside the neostriatum was not consistently modulated, in agreement with previous studies. The data are discussed in light of the most recent experimental and modeling results. The conclusion was that inhibition of spiny cells by axon collaterals of other spiny cells is quantitatively important; however, to be functionally important, this inhibition might be conditioned to the synchronized firing of spiny neurons. Finally, dopamine exerts a potentially important role regulating the extent of lateral inhibition.

  9. Voltage-dependent potassium currents during fast spikes of rat cerebellar Purkinje neurons: inhibition by BDS-I toxin.

    PubMed

    Martina, Marco; Metz, Alexia E; Bean, Bruce P

    2007-01-01

    We characterized the kinetics and pharmacological properties of voltage-activated potassium currents in rat cerebellar Purkinje neurons using recordings from nucleated patches, which allowed high resolution of activation and deactivation kinetics. Activation was exceptionally rapid, with 10-90% activation in about 400 mus at +30 mV, near the peak of the spike. Deactivation was also extremely rapid, with a decay time constant of about 300 mus near -80 mV. These rapid activation and deactivation kinetics are consistent with mediation by Kv3-family channels but are even faster than reported for Kv3-family channels in other neurons. The peptide toxin BDS-I had very little blocking effect on potassium currents elicited by 100-ms depolarizing steps, but the potassium current evoked by action potential waveforms was inhibited nearly completely. The mechanism of inhibition by BDS-I involves slowing of activation rather than total channel block, consistent with the effects described in cloned Kv3-family channels and this explains the dramatically different effects on currents evoked by short spikes versus voltage steps. As predicted from this mechanism, the effects of toxin on spike width were relatively modest (broadening by roughly 25%). These results show that BDS-I-sensitive channels with ultrafast activation and deactivation kinetics carry virtually all of the voltage-dependent potassium current underlying repolarization during normal Purkinje cell spikes.

  10. Cable energy function of cortical axons

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Huiwen; Hines, Michael L.; Yu, Yuguo

    2016-01-01

    Accurate estimation of action potential (AP)-related metabolic cost is essential for understanding energetic constraints on brain connections and signaling processes. Most previous energy estimates of the AP were obtained using the Na+-counting method, which seriously limits accurate assessment of metabolic cost of ionic currents that underlie AP conduction along the axon. Here, we first derive a full cable energy function for cortical axons based on classic Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) neuronal equations and then apply the cable energy function to precisely estimate the energy consumption of AP conduction along axons with different geometric shapes. Our analytical approach predicts an inhomogeneous distribution of metabolic cost along an axon with either uniformly or nonuniformly distributed ion channels. The results show that the Na+-counting method severely underestimates energy cost in the cable model by 20–70%. AP propagation along axons that differ in length may require over 15% more energy per unit of axon area than that required by a point model. However, actual energy cost can vary greatly depending on axonal branching complexity, ion channel density distributions, and AP conduction states. We also infer that the metabolic rate (i.e. energy consumption rate) of cortical axonal branches as a function of spatial volume exhibits a 3/4 power law relationship. PMID:27439954

  11. Molecular mechanisms of optic axon guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inatani, Masaru

    2005-12-01

    Axon guidance is one of the critical processes during vertebrate central nervous system (CNS) development. The optic nerve, which contains the axons of retinal ganglion cells, has been used as a powerful model to elucidate some of the mechanisms underlying axon guidance because it is easily manipulated experimentally, and its function is well understood. Recent molecular biology studies have revealed that numerous guidance molecules control the development of the visual pathway. This review introduces the molecular mechanisms involved in each critical step during optic axon guidance. Axonal projections to the optic disc are thought to depend on adhesion molecules and inhibitory extracellular matrices such as chondroitin sulfate. The formation of the head of the optic nerve and the optic chiasm require ligand-receptor interactions between netrin-1 and the deleted in colorectal cancer receptor, and Slit proteins and Robo receptors, respectively. The gradient distributions of ephrin ligands and Eph receptors are essential for correct ipsilateral projections at the optic chiasm and the topographic mapping of axons in the superior colliculus/optic tectum. The precise gradient is regulated by transcription factors determining the retinal dorso-ventral and nasal-temporal polarities. Moreover, the axon guidance activities by Slit and semaphorin 5A require the existence of heparan sulfate, which binds to numerous guidance molecules. Recent discoveries about the molecular mechanisms underlying optic nerve guidance will facilitate progress in CNS developmental biology and axon-regeneration therapy.

  12. Glycinergic inhibition in thalamus revealed by synaptic receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Ghavanini, Ahmad A; Mathers, David A; Puil, Ernest

    2005-09-01

    Using juvenile rat brain slices, we examined the possibility that strychnine-sensitive receptors for glycine-like amino acids contributed to synaptic inhibition in ventrobasal thalamus, where gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) is the prevalent inhibitory transmitter. Ventrobasal nuclei showed staining for antibodies against alpha1 and alpha2 subunits of the glycine receptor. Exogenously applied glycine, taurine and beta-alanine increased membrane conductance, effects antagonized by strychnine, indicative of functional glycine receptors. Using glutamate receptor antagonists, we isolated inhibitory postsynaptic potentials and currents (IPSPs and IPSCs) evoked by high-threshold stimulation of medial lemniscus. Like the responses to glycine agonists, these synaptic responses reversed near E(Cl). In comparative tests with GABA receptor antagonists, strychnine attenuated inhibition in a majority of neurons, but did not alter slow, GABA(B) inhibition. For complete blockade, the majority of fast IPSPs required co-application of strychnine with bicuculline or gabazine, GABA(A) receptor antagonists. Strychnine acting with an IC50 approximately = 33 nM, eliminated residual fast inhibition during selective GABA(A) receptor blockade with gabazine. The latency of onset for IPSPs was compatible with polysynaptic pathways or prolonged axonal propagation time. Strychnine lacked effects on monosynaptic, GABAergic IPSPs from zona incerta. The specific actions of strychnine implicated a glycine receptor contribution to fast inhibition in somatosensory thalamus.

  13. Ascending midbrain dopaminergic axons require descending GAD65 axon fascicles for normal pathfinding

    PubMed Central

    García-Peña, Claudia M.; Kim, Minkyung; Frade-Pérez, Daniela; Ávila-González, Daniela; Téllez, Elisa; Mastick, Grant S.; Tamariz, Elisa; Varela-Echavarría, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The Nigrostriatal pathway (NSP) is formed by dopaminergic axons that project from the ventral midbrain to the dorsolateral striatum as part of the medial forebrain bundle. Previous studies have implicated chemotropic proteins in the formation of the NSP during development but little is known of the role of substrate-anchored signals in this process. We observed in mouse and rat embryos that midbrain dopaminergic axons ascend in close apposition to descending GAD65-positive axon bundles throughout their trajectory to the striatum. To test whether such interaction is important for dopaminergic axon pathfinding, we analyzed transgenic mouse embryos in which the GAD65 axon bundle was reduced by the conditional expression of the diphtheria toxin. In these embryos we observed dopaminergic misprojection into the hypothalamic region and abnormal projection in the striatum. In addition, analysis of Robo1/2 and Slit1/2 knockout embryos revealed that the previously described dopaminergic misprojection in these embryos is accompanied by severe alterations in the GAD65 axon scaffold. Additional studies with cultured dopaminergic neurons and whole embryos suggest that NCAM and Robo proteins are involved in the interaction of GAD65 and dopaminergic axons. These results indicate that the fasciculation between descending GAD65 axon bundles and ascending dopaminergic axons is required for the stereotypical NSP formation during brain development and that known guidance cues may determine this projection indirectly by instructing the pathfinding of the axons that are part of the GAD65 axon scaffold. PMID:24926237

  14. Mapping mean axon diameter and axonal volume fraction by MRI using temporal diffusion spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junzhong; Li, Hua; Harkins, Kevin D; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Xie, Jingping; Kang, Hakmook; Does, Mark D; Gore, John C

    2014-12-01

    Mapping mean axon diameter and intra-axonal volume fraction may have significant clinical potential because nerve conduction velocity is directly dependent on axon diameter, and several neurodegenerative diseases affect axons of specific sizes and alter axon counts. Diffusion-weighted MRI methods based on the pulsed gradient spin echo (PGSE) sequence have been reported to be able to assess axon diameter and volume fraction non-invasively. However, due to the relatively long diffusion times used, e.g. >20ms, the sensitivity to small axons (diameter<2μm) is low, and the derived mean axon diameter has been reported to be overestimated. In the current study, oscillating gradient spin echo (OGSE) diffusion sequences with variable frequency gradients were used to assess rat spinal white matter tracts with relatively short effective diffusion times (1-5ms). In contrast to previous PGSE-based methods, the extra-axonal diffusion cannot be modeled as hindered (Gaussian) diffusion when short diffusion times are used. Appropriate frequency-dependent rates are therefore incorporated into our analysis and validated by histology-based computer simulation of water diffusion. OGSE data were analyzed to derive mean axon diameters and intra-axonal volume fractions of rat spinal white matter tracts (mean axon diameter of ~1.27-5.54μm). The estimated values were in good agreement with histology, including the small axon diameters (<2.5μm). This study establishes a framework for the quantification of nerve morphology using the OGSE method with high sensitivity to small axons.

  15. Mapping mean axon diameter and axonal volume fraction by MRI using temporal diffusion spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Junzhong; Li, Hua; Harkins, Kevin D.; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Xie, Jingping; Kang, Hakmook; Does, Mark D.; Gore, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Mapping mean axon diameter and intra-axonal volume fraction may have significant clinical potential because nerve conduction velocity is directly dependent on axon diameter, and several neurodegenerative diseases affect axons of specific sizes and alter axon counts. Diffusion-weighted MRI methods based on the pulsed gradient spin echo (PGSE) sequence have been reported to be able to assess axon diameter and volume fraction non-invasively. However, due to the relatively long diffusion times used, e.g. > 20 ms, the sensitivity to small axons (diameter < 2 µm) is low, and the derived mean axon diameter has been reported to be overestimated. In the current study, oscillating gradient spin echo (OGSE) diffusion sequences with variable frequency gradients were used to assess rat spinal white matter tracts with relatively short effective diffusion times (1 – 5 ms). In contrast to previous PGSE-based methods, the extra-axonal diffusion cannot be modeled as hindered (Gaussian) diffusion when short diffusion times are used. Appropriate frequency-dependent rates are therefore incorporated into our analysis and validated by histology-based computer simulation of water diffusion. OGSE data were analyzed to derive mean axon diameters and intra-axonal volume fractions of rat spinal white matter tracts (mean axon diameter ~ 1.27 – 5.54 µm). The estimated values were in good agreement with histology, including the small axon diameters (< 2.5 µm). This study establishes a framework for quantification of nerve morphology using the OGSE method with high sensitivity to small axons. PMID:25225002

  16. Slit and Receptor Tyrosine Phosphatase 69D Confer Spatial Specificity to Axon Branching via Dscam1

    PubMed Central

    Dascenco, Dan; Erfurth, Maria-Luise; Izadifar, Azadeh; Song, Minmin; Sachse, Sonja; Bortnick, Rachel; Urwyler, Olivier; Petrovic, Milan; Ayaz, Derya; He, Haihuai; Kise, Yoshiaki; Thomas, Franziska; Kidd, Thomas; Schmucker, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Axonal branching contributes substantially to neuronal circuit complexity. Studies in Drosophila have shown that loss of Dscam1 receptor diversity can fully block axon branching in mechanosensory neurons. Here we report that cell-autonomous loss of the Receptor-Tyrosine-Phosphatase 69D (RPTP69D) and loss of midline-localized Slit inhibit formation of specific axon collaterals through modulation of Dscam1 activity. Genetic and biochemical data support a model in which direct binding of Slit to Dscam1 enhances the interaction of Dscam1 with RPTP69D, stimulating Dscam1 dephosphorylation. Single growth cone imaging reveals that Slit/RPTP69D are not required for general branch initiation, but instead promote the extension of specific axon collaterals. Hence, while regulation of intrinsic Dscam1-Dscam1 isoform interactions is essential for formation of all mechanosensory-axon branches, the local ligand-induced alterations of Dscam1 phosphorylation in distinct growth cone compartments enable the spatial specificity of axon collateral formation. PMID:26317474

  17. Regulation of axonal growth and neuromuscular junction formation by neuronal phosphatase and tensin homologue signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pan P.; Peng, H. Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    During the development of the vertebrate neuromuscular junction (NMJ), motor axon tips stop growing after contacting muscle and transform into presynaptic terminals that secrete the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and activate postsynaptic ACh receptors (AChRs) to trigger muscle contraction. The neuron-intrinsic signaling that retards axonal growth to facilitate stable nerve–muscle interaction and synaptogenesis is poorly understood. In this paper, we report a novel function of presynaptic signaling by phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) in mediating a growth-to-synaptogenesis transition in neurons. In Xenopus nerve–muscle cocultures, axonal growth speed was halved after contact with muscle, when compared with before contact, but when cultures were exposed to the PTEN blocker bisperoxo (1,10-phenanthroline) oxovanadate, axons touching muscle grew ∼50% faster than their counterparts in control cultures. Suppression of neuronal PTEN expression using morpholinos or the forced expression of catalytically inactive PTEN in neurons also resulted in faster than normal axonal advance after contact with muscle cells. Significantly, interference with PTEN by each of these methods also led to reduced AChR clustering at innervation sites in muscle, indicating that disruption of neuronal PTEN signaling inhibited NMJ assembly. We thus propose that PTEN-dependent slowing of axonal growth enables the establishment of stable nerve–muscle contacts that develop into NMJs. PMID:22918949

  18. Molecular basis of the inhibition of the fast inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.5 by tarantula toxin Jingzhaotoxin-II.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Zhou, Xi; Tang, Cheng; Zhang, Yunxiao; Tao, Huai; Chen, Ping; Liu, Zhonghua

    2015-06-01

    Jingzhaotoxin-II (JZTX-II) is a 32-residue peptide from the Chinese tarantula Chilobrachys jingzhao venom, and preferentially inhibits the fast inactivation of the voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs) in rat cardiac myocytes. In the present study, we elucidated the action mechanism of JZTX-II inhibiting hNav1.5, a VGSC subtype mainly distributed in human cardiac myocytes. Among the four VGSC subtypes tested, hNav1.5 was the most sensitive to JZTX-II (EC50=125±4nM). Although JZTX-II had little or no effect on steady-state inactivation of the residual currents conducted by hNav1.5, it caused a 10mV hyperpolarized shift of activation. Moreover, JZTX-II increased the recovery rate of hNav1.5 channels, which should lead to a shorter transition from the inactivation to closed state. JZTX-II dissociated from toxin-channel complex via extreme depolarization and subsequently rebound to the channel upon repolarization. Mutagenesis analyses showed that the domain IV (DIV) voltage-sensor domain (VSD) was critical for JZTX-II binding to hNav1.5 and some mutations located in S1-S2 and S3-S4 extracellular loops of hNav1.5 DIV additively reduced the toxin sensitivity of hNav1.5. Our data identified the mechanism underlying JZTX-II inhibiting hNav1.5, similar to scorpion α-toxins, involving binding to neurotoxin receptor site 3.

  19. Calpain-Mediated Proteolysis of Talin and FAK Regulates Adhesion Dynamics Necessary for Axon Guidance.

    PubMed

    Kerstein, Patrick C; Patel, Kevin M; Gomez, Timothy M

    2017-02-08

    Guidance of axons to their proper synaptic target sites requires spatially and temporally precise modulation of biochemical signals within growth cones. Ionic calcium (Ca(2+)) is an essential signal for axon guidance that mediates opposing effects on growth cone motility. The diverse effects of Ca(2+) arise from the precise localization of Ca(2+) signals into microdomains containing specific Ca(2+) effectors. For example, differences in the mechanical and chemical composition of the underlying substrata elicit local Ca(2+) signals within growth cone filopodia that regulate axon guidance through activation of the protease calpain. However, how calpain regulates growth cone motility remains unclear. Here, we identify the adhesion proteins talin and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) as proteolytic targets of calpain in Xenopus laevis spinal cord neurons both in vivo and in vitro Inhibition of calpain increases the localization of endogenous adhesion signaling to growth cone filopodia. Using live cell microscopy and specific calpain-resistant point-mutants of talin (L432G) and FAK (V744G), we find that calpain inhibits paxillin-based adhesion assembly through cleavage of talin and FAK, and adhesion disassembly through cleavage of FAK. Blocking calpain cleavage of talin and FAK inhibits repulsive turning from focal uncaging of Ca(2+) within filopodia. In addition, blocking calpain cleavage of talin and FAK in vivo promotes Rohon-Beard peripheral axon extension into the skin. These data demonstrate that filopodial Ca(2+) signals regulate axon outgrowth and guidance through calpain regulation of adhesion dynamics through specific cleavage of talin and FAK.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The proper formation of neuronal networks requires accurate guidance of axons and dendrites during development by motile structures known as growth cones. Understanding the intracellular signaling mechanisms that govern growth cone motility will clarify how the nervous system develops and regenerates

  20. Onset of diffuse reflectivity and fast electron flux inhibition in 528-nm-laser{endash}solid interactions at ultrahigh intensity

    SciTech Connect

    Feurer, T.; Theobald, W.; Sauerbrey, R.; Uschmann, I.; Altenbernd, D.; Teubner, U.; Gibbon, P.; Foerster, E.; Malka, G.; Miquel, J.L.

    1997-10-01

    Using a high-power femtosecond frequency-doubled Nd:glass laser system with a contrast ratio of 10{sup 12}, the interaction between light and matter up to intensities of 10{sup 19} Wthinspcm{sup {minus}2}has been investigated. The absorption of the laser light in solid aluminum is almost independent of the polarization, peaks at about 25{degree}, and reaches values of almost 45{percent}. Assuming an exponential electron distribution, a temperature of 420 keV at 4{times}10{sup 18} Wthinspcm{sup {minus}2}was measured. These experiments and the detection of the hard-x-ray radiation (60 keV{endash}1 MeV) implied a conversion efficiency of 10{sup {minus}4}{endash}10{sup {minus}3} into suprathermal electrons. A second low-energy electron distribution either with trajectories mainly parallel to the target surface or with a reduced penetration depth due to flux inhibition was also inferred from K{alpha} line radiation measurements. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. Mitochondrial Dynamics Decrease Prior to Axon Degeneration Induced by Vincristine and are Partially Rescued by Overexpressed cytNmnat1

    PubMed Central

    Berbusse, Gregory W.; Woods, Laken C.; Vohra, Bhupinder P. S.; Naylor, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Axon degeneration is a prominent feature of various neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s, and is often characterized by aberrant mitochondrial dynamics. Mitochondrial fission, fusion, and motility have been shown to be particularly important in progressive neurodegeneration. Thus we investigated these imperative dynamics, as well as mitochondrial fragmentation in vincristine induced axon degradation in cultured dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. CytNmnat1 inhibits axon degeneration in various paradigms including vincristine toxicity. The mechanism of its protection is not yet fully understood; therefore, we also investigated the effect of cytNmnat1 on mitochondrial dynamics in vincristine treated neurons. We observed that vincristine treatment decreases the rate of mitochondrial fission, fusion and motility and induces mitochondrial fragmentation. These mitochondrial events precede visible axon degeneration. Overexpression of cytNmnat1 inhibits axon degeneration and preserves the normal mitochondrial dynamics and motility in vincristine treated neurons. We suggest the alterations in mitochondrial structure and dynamics are early events which lead to axon degeneration and cytNmnat1 blocks axon degeneration by halting the vincristine induced changes to mitochondrial structure and dynamics. PMID:27486387

  2. Radial Glial Cell-Neuron Interaction Directs Axon Formation at the Opposite Side of the Neuron from the Contact Site.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chundi; Funahashi, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Takashi; Takano, Tetsuya; Nakamuta, Shinichi; Namba, Takashi; Kaibuchi, Kozo

    2015-10-28

    How extracellular cues direct axon-dendrite polarization in mouse developing neurons is not fully understood. Here, we report that the radial glial cell (RGC)-cortical neuron interaction directs axon formation at the opposite side of the neuron from the contact site. N-cadherin accumulates at the contact site between the RGC and cortical neuron. Inhibition of the N-cadherin-mediated adhesion decreases this oriented axon formation in vitro, and disrupts the axon-dendrite polarization in vivo. Furthermore, the RGC-neuron interaction induces the polarized distribution of active RhoA at the contacting neurite and active Rac1 at the opposite neurite. Inhibition of Rho-Rho-kinase signaling in a neuron impairs the oriented axon formation in vitro, and prevents axon-dendrite polarization in vivo. Collectively, these results suggest that the N-cadherin-mediated radial glia-neuron interaction determines the contacting neurite as the leading process for radial glia-guided neuronal migration and directs axon formation to the opposite side acting through the Rho family GTPases.

  3. Hydrogels as scaffolds and delivery systems to enhance axonal regeneration after injuries

    PubMed Central

    Carballo-Molina, Oscar A.; Velasco, Iván

    2015-01-01

    Damage caused to neural tissue by disease or injury frequently produces a discontinuity in the nervous system (NS). Such damage generates diverse alterations that are commonly permanent, due to the limited regeneration capacity of the adult NS, particularly the Central Nervous System (CNS). The cellular reaction to noxious stimulus leads to several events such as the formation of glial and fibrous scars, which inhibit axonal regeneration in both the CNS and the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS). Although in the PNS there is some degree of nerve regeneration, it is common that the growing axons reinnervate incorrect areas, causing mismatches. Providing a permissive substrate for axonal regeneration in combination with delivery systems for the release of molecules, which enhances axonal growth, could increase regeneration and the recovery of functions in the CNS or the PNS. Currently, there are no effective vehicles to supply growth factors or cells to the damaged/diseased NS. Hydrogels are polymers that are biodegradable, biocompatible and have the capacity to deliver a large range of molecules in situ. The inclusion of cultured neural cells into hydrogels forming three-dimensional structures allows the formation of synapses and neuronal survival. There is also evidence showing that hydrogels constitute an amenable substrate for axonal growth of endogenous or grafted cells, overcoming the presence of axonal regeneration inhibitory molecules, in both the CNS and PNS. Recent experiments suggest that hydrogels can carry and deliver several proteins relevant for improving neuronal survival and axonal growth. Although the use of hydrogels is appealing, its effectiveness is still a matter of discussion, and more results are needed to achieve consistent recovery using different parameters. This review also discusses areas of opportunity where hydrogels can be applied, in order to promote axonal regeneration of the NS. PMID:25741236

  4. Astrocyte scar formation aids CNS axon regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Mark A.; Burda, Joshua E.; Ren, Yilong; Ao, Yan; O’Shea, Timothy M.; Kawaguchi, Riki; Coppola, Giovanni; Khakh, Baljit S.; Deming, Timothy J.; Sofroniew, Michael V.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Transected axons fail to regrow in the mature central nervous system (CNS). Astrocyte scars are widely regarded as causal in this failure. Here, using three genetically targeted loss-of-function manipulations in adult mice, we show that preventing astrocyte scar formation, attenuating scar-forming astrocytes, or deleting chronic astrocyte scars all failed to result in spontaneous regrowth of transected corticospinal, sensory or serotonergic axons through severe spinal cord injury (SCI) lesions. In striking contrast, sustained local delivery via hydrogel depots of required axon-specific growth factors not present in SCI lesions, plus growth-activating priming injuries, stimulated robust, laminin-dependent sensory axon regrowth past scar-forming astrocytes and inhibitory molecules in SCI lesions. Preventing astrocyte scar formation significantly reduced this stimulated axon regrowth. RNA sequencing revealed that astrocytes and non-astrocyte cells in SCI lesions express multiple axon-growth supporting molecules. Our findings show that contrary to prevailing dogma, astrocyte scar formation aids rather than prevents CNS axon regeneration. PMID:27027288

  5. Emerging brain morphologies from axonal elongation

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Maria A.; Miller, Kyle E.; Kuhl, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the characteristic morphology of our brain remains a challenging, yet important task in human evolution, developmental biology, and neurosciences. Mathematical modeling shapes our understanding of cortical folding and provides functional relations between cortical wavelength, thickness, and stiffness. Yet, current mathematical models are phenomenologically isotropic and typically predict non-physiological, periodic folding patterns. Here we establish a mechanistic model for cortical folding, in which macroscopic changes in white matter volume are a natural consequence of microscopic axonal growth. To calibrate our model, we consult axon elongation experiments in chick sensory neurons. We demonstrate that a single parameter, the axonal growth rate, explains a wide variety of in vitro conditions including immediate axonal thinning and gradual thickness restoration. We embed our axonal growth model into a continuum model for brain development using axonal orientation distributions motivated by diffusion spectrum imaging. Our simulations suggest that white matter anisotropy - as an emergent property from directional axonal growth - intrinsically induces symmetry breaking, and predicts more physiological, less regular morphologies with regionally varying gyral wavelengths and sulcal depths. Mechanistic modeling of brain development could establish valuable relationships between brain connectivity, brain anatomy, and brain function. PMID:25824370

  6. Cargo distributions differentiate pathological axonal transport impairments

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Cassie S.; Lee, Robert H.; Coulter, Wallace H.

    2012-01-01

    Axonal transport is an essential process in neurons, analogous to shipping goods, by which energetic and cellular building supplies are carried downstream (anterogradely) and wastes are carried upstream (retrogradely) by molecular motors, which act as cargo porters. Impairments in axonal transport have been linked to devastating and often lethal neurodegenerative diseases, such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Huntington’s, and Alzheimer’s. Axonal transport impairment types include a decrease in available motors for cargo transport (motor depletion), the presence of defective or non-functional motors (motor dilution), and the presence of increased or larger cargos (protein aggregation). An impediment to potential treatment identification has been the inability to determine what type(s) of axonal transport impairment candidates that could be present in a given disease. In this study, we utilize a computational model and common axonal transport experimental metrics to reveal the axonal transport impairment general characteristics or “signatures” that result from three general defect types of motor depletion, motor dilution, and protein aggregation. Our results not only provide a means to discern these general impairments types, they also reveal key dynamic and emergent features of axonal transport, which potentially underlie multiple impairment types. The identified characteristics, as well as the analytical method, can be used to help elucidate the axonal transport impairments observed in experimental and clinical data. For example, using the model-predicted defect signatures, we identify the defect candidates, which are most likely to be responsible for the axonal transport impairments in the G93A SOD1 mouse model of ALS. PMID:22285784

  7. Rescuing axons from degeneration does not affect retinal ganglion cell death

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, S.; Mietto, B.S.; Paula, C.; Muniz, T.; Martinez, A.M.B.; Gardino, P.F.

    2016-01-01

    After a traumatic injury to the central nervous system, the distal stumps of axons undergo Wallerian degeneration (WD), an event that comprises cytoskeleton and myelin breakdown, astrocytic gliosis, and overexpression of proteins that inhibit axonal regrowth. By contrast, injured neuronal cell bodies show features characteristic of attempts to initiate the regenerative process of elongating their axons. The main molecular event that leads to WD is an increase in the intracellular calcium concentration, which activates calpains, calcium-dependent proteases that degrade cytoskeleton proteins. The aim of our study was to investigate whether preventing axonal degeneration would impact the survival of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) after crushing the optic nerve. We observed that male Wistar rats (weighing 200-400 g; n=18) treated with an exogenous calpain inhibitor (20 mM) administered via direct application of the inhibitor embedded within the copolymer resin Evlax immediately following optic nerve crush showed a delay in the onset of WD. This delayed onset was characterized by a decrease in the number of degenerated fibers (P<0.05) and an increase in the number of preserved fibers (P<0.05) 4 days after injury. Additionally, most preserved fibers showed a normal G-ratio. These results indicated that calpain inhibition prevented the degeneration of optic nerve fibers, rescuing axons from the process of axonal degeneration. However, analysis of retinal ganglion cell survival demonstrated no difference between the calpain inhibitor- and vehicle-treated groups, suggesting that although the calpain inhibitor prevented axonal degeneration, it had no effect on RGC survival after optic nerve damage. PMID:27007653

  8. Primary neuron culture for nerve growth and axon guidance studies in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Chen, Zheyan; Lee, Han; Henle, Steven J; Cheever, Thomas R; Ekker, Stephen C; Henley, John R

    2013-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a widely used model organism in genetics and developmental biology research. Genetic screens have proven useful for studying embryonic development of the nervous system in vivo, but in vitro studies utilizing zebrafish have been limited. Here, we introduce a robust zebrafish primary neuron culture system for functional nerve growth and guidance assays. Distinct classes of central nervous system neurons from the spinal cord, hindbrain, forebrain, and retina from wild type zebrafish, and fluorescent motor neurons from transgenic reporter zebrafish lines, were dissociated and plated onto various biological and synthetic substrates to optimize conditions for axon outgrowth. Time-lapse microscopy revealed dynamically moving growth cones at the tips of extending axons. The mean rate of axon extension in vitro was 21.4±1.2 µm hr(-1) s.e.m. for spinal cord neurons, which corresponds to the typical ∼0.5 mm day(-1) growth rate of nerves in vivo. Fluorescence labeling and confocal microscopy demonstrated that bundled microtubules project along axons to the growth cone central domain, with filamentous actin enriched in the growth cone peripheral domain. Importantly, the growth cone surface membrane expresses receptors for chemotropic factors, as detected by immunofluorescence microscopy. Live-cell functional assays of axon extension and directional guidance demonstrated mammalian brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-dependent stimulation of outgrowth and growth cone chemoattraction, whereas mammalian myelin-associated glycoprotein inhibited outgrowth. High-resolution live-cell Ca(2+)-imaging revealed local elevation of cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration in the growth cone induced by BDNF application. Moreover, BDNF-induced axon outgrowth, but not basal outgrowth, was blocked by treatments to suppress cytoplasmic Ca(2+) signals. Thus, this primary neuron culture model system may be useful for studies of neuronal development, chemotropic axon

  9. Intraocular injection of dibutyryl cyclic AMP promotes axon regeneration in rat optic nerve.

    PubMed

    Monsul, Nicholas T; Geisendorfer, Abram R; Han, Paul J; Banik, Rudrani; Pease, Mary Ellen; Skolasky, Richard L; Hoffman, Paul N

    2004-04-01

    The optic nerve is a CNS pathway containing molecules capable of inhibiting axon elongation. The growth program in embryonic retinal ganglion cell (RGC) neurons enables axons to regenerate in the optic nerve through at least two mechanisms. Namely, high cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels abrogate the ability of CNS molecules to inhibit elongation, and the pattern of gene expression enables axons to undergo rapid, sustained, and lengthy elongation. In adult mammals, recovery of visual function after optic nerve injury is limited by both the death of most RGC neurons and the inability of surviving axons to regenerate. We now report that a single intraocular injection of the membrane-permeable cAMP analogue dibutyryl cAMP (db cAMP) promotes the regeneration of RGC axons in the optic nerves of adult rats, but does not prevent the death of RGC neurons. This regeneration in optic nerves crushed within the orbit (2 mm from the eye) was equally effective either 1 day before or 1 day after db cAMP injection. The number of regenerating axons, which was maximal 14 days after crush, declined with increasing time after injury (i.e., 28, 56, and 112 days) and distance beyond the crush site (i.e., 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mm). Thus, db cAMP promotes optic nerve regeneration without increasing the survival of axotomized RGC neurons. Furthermore, since db cAMP does not enable axons to undergo rapid, sustained, and lengthy elongation, strategies that increase survival and promote these changes in elongation may critically complement the ability of db cAMP to promote regeneration.

  10. Ndel1-derived peptides modulate bidirectional transport of injected beads in the squid giant axon

    PubMed Central

    Segal, Michal; Soifer, Ilya; Petzold, Heike; Howard, Jonathon; Elbaum, Michael; Reiner, Orly

    2012-01-01

    Summary Bidirectional transport is a key issue in cellular biology. It requires coordination between microtubule-associated molecular motors that work in opposing directions. The major retrograde and anterograde motors involved in bidirectional transport are cytoplasmic dynein and conventional kinesin, respectively. It is clear that failures in molecular motor activity bear severe consequences, especially in the nervous system. Neuronal migration may be impaired during brain development, and impaired molecular motor activity in the adult is one of the hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases leading to neuronal cell death. The mechanisms that regulate or coordinate kinesin and dynein activity to generate bidirectional transport of the same cargo are of utmost importance. We examined how Ndel1, a cytoplasmic dynein binding protein, may regulate non-vesicular bidirectional transport. Soluble Ndel1 protein, Ndel1-derived peptides or control proteins were mixed with fluorescent beads, injected into the squid giant axon, and the bead movements were recorded using time-lapse microscopy. Automated tracking allowed for extraction and unbiased analysis of a large data set. Beads moved in both directions with a clear bias to the anterograde direction. Velocities were distributed over a broad range and were typically slower than those associated with fast vesicle transport. Ironically, the main effect of Ndel1 and its derived peptides was an enhancement of anterograde motion. We propose that they may function primarily by inhibition of dynein-dependent resistance, which suggests that both dynein and kinesin motors may remain engaged with microtubules during bidirectional transport. PMID:23213412

  11. Influence of dose rate on fast neutron OER and biological effectiveness determined for growth inhibition in Vicia faba.

    PubMed

    Van Dam, J; Billiet, G; Bonte, J; Octave-Prignot, M; Wambersie, A

    1983-09-01

    The influence of dose rate on the effectiveness of a neutron irradiation was investigated using growth inhibition in Vicia faba bean roots as biological system. d(50) + Be neutron beams produced at the cyclotron CYCLONE of the University of Louvain-la-Neuve were used, at high and low dose rate, by modifying the deuteron beam current. When decreasing the dose rate from 0.14 Gy.min-1 to 0.2 Gy.h-1, the effectiveness of the neutrons decreased down to 0.84 +/- 0.05 (dose ratio, at high and low dose rate. Dhigh/Dlow, producing equal biological effect). Control irradiations, with 60Co gamma-rays, indicated a similar reduction in effectiveness (0.84 +/- 0.03) when decreasing dose rate from 0.6 Gy.min-1 to 0.7 Gy.h-1. In previous experiments, on the same Vicia faba system, higher RBE values were observed for 252Cf neutrons, at low dose rate (RBE = 8.3), compared to different neutron beams actually used in external beam therapy (RBE = 3.2 - 3.6 for d(50) + Be, p(75) + Be and 15 MeV (d, T) neutrons). According to present results, this higher RBE has to be related to the lower energy of the 252Cf neutron spectrum (2 MeV), since the influence of dose rate was shown to be small. As far as OER is concerned, for d(50) + Be neutrons, it decreases from 1.65 +/- 0.12 to 1.59 +/- 0.09 when decreasing dose rate from 0.14 Gy.min-1 to 0.2 Gy.h-1. Control irradiations with 60Co gamma-rays have shown an OER decrease from 2.69 +/- 0.08 to 2.55 +/- 0.11 when decreasing dose rate from 0.6 Gy.min-1 to 0.7 Gy.h-1. These rather small OER reductions are within the statistical fluctuations.

  12. Calcium release from intra-axonal endoplasmic reticulum leads to axon degeneration through mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Villegas, Rosario; Martinez, Nicolas W; Lillo, Jorge; Pihan, Phillipe; Hernandez, Diego; Twiss, Jeffery L; Court, Felipe A

    2014-05-21

    Axonal degeneration represents an early pathological event in neurodegeneration, constituting an important target for neuroprotection. Regardless of the initial injury, which could be toxic, mechanical, metabolic, or genetic, degeneration of axons shares a common mechanism involving mitochondrial dysfunction and production of reactive oxygen species. Critical steps in this degenerative process are still unknown. Here we show that calcium release from the axonal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through ryanodine and IP3 channels activates the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and contributes to axonal degeneration triggered by both mechanical and toxic insults in ex vivo and in vitro mouse and rat model systems. These data reveal a critical and early ER-dependent step during axonal degeneration, providing novel targets for axonal protection in neurodegenerative conditions.

  13. Axon initial segment Kv1 channels control axonal action potential waveform and synaptic efficacy.

    PubMed

    Kole, Maarten H P; Letzkus, Johannes J; Stuart, Greg J

    2007-08-16

    Action potentials are binary signals that transmit information via their rate and temporal pattern. In this context, the axon is thought of as a transmission line, devoid of a role in neuronal computation. Here, we show a highly localized role of axonal Kv1 potassium channels in shaping the action potential waveform in the axon initial segment (AIS) of layer 5 pyramidal neurons independent of the soma. Cell-attached recordings revealed a 10-fold increase in Kv1 channel density over the first 50 microm of the AIS. Inactivation of AIS and proximal axonal Kv1 channels, as occurs during slow subthreshold somatodendritic depolarizations, led to a distance-dependent broadening of axonal action potentials, as well as an increase in synaptic strength at proximal axonal terminals. Thus, Kv1 channels are strategically positioned to integrate slow subthreshold signals, providing control of the presynaptic action potential waveform and synaptic coupling in local cortical circuits.

  14. Flamingo regulates R8 axon-axon and axon-target interactions in the Drosophila visual system.

    PubMed

    Senti, Kirsten-André; Usui, Tadao; Boucke, Karin; Greber, Urs; Uemura, Tadashi; Dickson, Barry J

    2003-05-13

    Photoreceptors (R cells) in the Drosophila retina connect to targets in three distinct layers of the optic lobe of the brain: R1-R6 connect to the lamina, and R7 and R8 connect to distinct layers in the medulla. In each of these layers, R axon termini are arranged in evenly spaced topographic arrays. In a genetic screen for mutants with abnormal R cell connectivity, we recovered mutations in flamingo (fmi). fmi encodes a seven-transmembrane cadherin, previously shown to function in planar cell polarity and in dendritic patterning. Here, we show that fmi has two specific functions in R8 axon targeting: it facilitates competitive interactions between adjacent R8 axons to ensure their correct spacing, and it promotes the formation of stable connections between R8 axons and their target cells in the medulla. The former suggests a general role for Fmi in establishing nonoverlapping dendritic and axonal target fields. The latter, together with the finding that N-Cadherin has an analogous role in R7 axon-target interactions, points to a cadherin-based system for target layer specificity in the Drosophila visual system.

  15. Spatially Reciprocal Inhibition of Inhibition within a Stimulus Selection Network in the Avian Midbrain

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, C. Alex; Mysore, Shreesh P.; Bryant, Astra S.; Huguenard, John R.; Knudsen, Eric I.

    2014-01-01

    Reciprocal inhibition between inhibitory projection neurons has been proposed as the most efficient circuit motif to achieve the flexible selection of one stimulus among competing alternatives. However, whether such a motif exists in networks that mediate selection is unclear. Here, we study the connectivity within the nucleus isthmi pars magnocellularis (Imc), a GABAergic nucleus that mediates competitive selection in the midbrain stimulus selection network. Using laser photostimulation of caged glutamate, we find that feedback inhibitory connectivity is global within the Imc. Unlike typical lateral inhibition in other circuits, intra-Imc inhibition remains functionally powerful over long distances. Anatomically, we observed long-range axonal projections and retrograde somatic labeling from focal injections of bi-directional tracers in the Imc, consistent with spatial reciprocity of intra-Imc inhibition. Together, the data indicate that spatially reciprocal inhibition of inhibition occurs throughout the Imc. Thus, the midbrain selection circuit possesses the most efficient circuit motif possible for fast, reliable, and flexible selection. PMID:24465755

  16. Regulation of Conduction Time along Axons

    PubMed Central

    Seidl, Armin H.

    2013-01-01

    Timely delivery of information is essential for proper function of the nervous system. Precise regulation of nerve conduction velocity is needed for correct exertion of motor skills, sensory integration and cognitive functions. In vertebrates, the rapid transmission of signals along nerve fibers is made possible by the myelination of axons and the resulting saltatory conduction in between nodes of Ranvier. Myelin is a specialization of glia cells and is provided by oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system. Myelination not only maximizes conduction velocity, but also provides a means to systematically regulate conduction times in the nervous system. Systematic regulation of conduction velocity along axons, and thus systematic regulation of conduction time in between neural areas, is a common occurrence in the nervous system. To date, little is understood about the mechanism that underlies systematic conduction velocity regulation and conduction time synchrony. Node assembly, internode distance (node spacing) and axon diameter - all parameters determining the speed of signal propagation along axons - are controlled by myelinating glia. Therefore, an interaction between glial cells and neurons has been suggested. This review summarizes examples of neural systems in which conduction velocity is regulated by anatomical variations along axons. While functional implications in these systems are not always clear, recent studies in the auditory system of birds and mammals present examples of conduction velocity regulation in systems with high temporal precision and a defined biological function. Together these findings suggest an active process that shapes the interaction between axons and myelinating glia to control conduction velocity along axons. Future studies involving these systems may provide further insight into how specific conduction times in the brain are established and maintained in development. Throughout the text, conduction velocity is used for the

  17. Regulation of conduction time along axons.

    PubMed

    Seidl, A H

    2014-09-12

    Timely delivery of information is essential for proper functioning of the nervous system. Precise regulation of nerve conduction velocity is needed for correct exertion of motor skills, sensory integration and cognitive functions. In vertebrates, the rapid transmission of signals along nerve fibers is made possible by the myelination of axons and the resulting saltatory conduction in between nodes of Ranvier. Myelin is a specialization of glia cells and is provided by oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system. Myelination not only maximizes conduction velocity, but also provides a means to systematically regulate conduction times in the nervous system. Systematic regulation of conduction velocity along axons, and thus systematic regulation of conduction time in between neural areas, is a common occurrence in the nervous system. To date, little is understood about the mechanism that underlies systematic conduction velocity regulation and conduction time synchrony. Node assembly, internode distance (node spacing) and axon diameter - all parameters determining the speed of signal propagation along axons - are controlled by myelinating glia. Therefore, an interaction between glial cells and neurons has been suggested. This review summarizes examples of neural systems in which conduction velocity is regulated by anatomical variations along axons. While functional implications in these systems are not always clear, recent studies on the auditory system of birds and mammals present examples of conduction velocity regulation in systems with high temporal precision and a defined biological function. Together these findings suggest an active process that shapes the interaction between axons and myelinating glia to control conduction velocity along axons. Future studies involving these systems may provide further insight into how specific conduction times in the brain are established and maintained in development. Throughout the text, conduction velocity is used for the

  18. Excitability tuning of axons in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Ohura, Shunsuke; Kamiya, Haruyuki

    2016-05-01

    The axon is a long neuronal process that originates from the soma and extends towards the presynaptic terminals. The pioneering studies on the squid giant axon or the spinal cord motoneuron established that the axon conducts action potentials faithfully to the presynaptic terminals with self-regenerative processes of membrane excitation. Recent studies challenged the notion that the fundamental understandings obtained from the study of squid giant axons are readily applicable to the axons in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). These studies revealed that the functional and structural properties of the CNS axons are much more variable than previously thought. In this review article, we summarize the recent understandings of axon physiology in the mammalian CNS due to progress in the subcellular recording techniques which allow direct recordings from the axonal membranes, with emphasis on the hippocampal mossy fibers as a representative en passant axons typical for cortical axons.

  19. Strength and duration of perisomatic GABAergic inhibition depend on distance between synaptically connected cells

    PubMed Central

    Strüber, Michael; Jonas, Peter; Bartos, Marlene

    2015-01-01

    GABAergic perisoma-inhibiting fast-spiking interneurons (PIIs) effectively control the activity of large neuron populations by their wide axonal arborizations. It is generally assumed that the output of one PII to its target cells is strong and rapid. Here, we show that, unexpectedly, both strength and time course of PII-mediated perisomatic inhibition change with distance between synaptically connected partners in the rodent hippocampus. Synaptic signals become weaker due to lower contact numbers and decay more slowly with distance, very likely resulting from changes in GABAA receptor subunit composition. When distance-dependent synaptic inhibition is introduced to a rhythmically active neuronal network model, randomly driven principal cell assemblies are strongly synchronized by the PIIs, leading to higher precision in principal cell spike times than in a network with uniform synaptic inhibition. PMID:25583495

  20. Methodological advances in imaging intravital axonal transport

    PubMed Central

    Sleigh, James N.; Vagnoni, Alessio; Twelvetrees, Alison E.; Schiavo, Giampietro

    2017-01-01

    Axonal transport is the active process whereby neurons transport cargoes such as organelles and proteins anterogradely from the cell body to the axon terminal and retrogradely in the opposite direction. Bi-directional transport in axons is absolutely essential for the functioning and survival of neurons and appears to be negatively impacted by both aging and diseases of the nervous system, such as Alzheimer’s disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The movement of individual cargoes along axons has been studied in vitro in live neurons and tissue explants for a number of years; however, it is currently unclear as to whether these systems faithfully and consistently replicate the in vivo situation. A number of intravital techniques originally developed for studying diverse biological events have recently been adapted to monitor axonal transport in real-time in a range of live organisms and are providing novel insight into this dynamic process. Here, we highlight these methodological advances in intravital imaging of axonal transport, outlining key strengths and limitations while discussing findings, possible improvements, and outstanding questions. PMID:28344778

  1. LYSOSOMAL ACTIVITY ASSOCIATED WITH DEVELOPMENTAL AXON PRUNING

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jae W.; Misgeld, Thomas; Kang, Hyuno; Knecht, Sharm; Lu, Ju; Cao, Yi; Cotman, Susan L.; Bishop, Derron L.; Lichtman, Jeff W.

    2009-01-01

    Clearance of cellular debris is a critical feature of the developing nervous system, as evidenced by the severe neurological consequences of lysosomal storage diseases in children. An important developmental process, that generates considerable cellular debris, is synapse elimination in which many axonal branches are pruned. The fate of these pruned branches is not known. Here, we investigate the role of lysosomal activity in neurons and glia in the removal of axon branches during early postnatal life. Using a probe for lysosomal activity, we observed robust staining associated with retreating motor axons. Lysosomal function was involved in axon removal because retreating axons were cleared more slowly in a mouse model of a lysosomal storage disease. In addition, we found lysosomal activity in the cerebellum at the time of, and at sites where, climbing fibers are eliminated. We propose that lysosomal activity is a central feature of synapse elimination. Moreover, staining for lysosomal activity may serve as a marker for regions of the developing nervous system undergoing axon pruning. PMID:18768693

  2. microRNAs in axon guidance

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Archana N.; Bellon, Anaïs; Baudet, Marie-Laure

    2014-01-01

    Brain wiring is a highly intricate process in which trillions of neuronal connections are established. Its initial phase is particularly crucial in establishing the general framework of neuronal circuits. During this early step, differentiating neurons extend axons, which reach their target by navigating through a complex environment with extreme precision. Research in the past 20 years has unraveled a vast and complex array of chemotropic cues that guide the leading tip of axons, the growth cone, throughout its journey. Tight regulation of these cues, and of their receptors and signaling pathways, is necessary for the high degree of accuracy required during circuit formation. However, little is known about the nature of regulatory molecules or mechanisms fine-tuning axonal cue response. Here we review recent, and somewhat fragmented, research on the possibility that microRNAs (miRNAs) could be key fine-tuning regulatory molecules in axon guidance. miRNAs appear to shape long-range axon guidance, fasciculation and targeting. We also present several lines of evidence suggesting that miRNAs could have a compartmentalized and differential action at the cell soma, and within axons and growth cones. PMID:24672429

  3. Methodological advances in imaging intravital axonal transport.

    PubMed

    Sleigh, James N; Vagnoni, Alessio; Twelvetrees, Alison E; Schiavo, Giampietro

    2017-01-01

    Axonal transport is the active process whereby neurons transport cargoes such as organelles and proteins anterogradely from the cell body to the axon terminal and retrogradely in the opposite direction. Bi-directional transport in axons is absolutely essential for the functioning and survival of neurons and appears to be negatively impacted by both aging and diseases of the nervous system, such as Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The movement of individual cargoes along axons has been studied in vitro in live neurons and tissue explants for a number of years; however, it is currently unclear as to whether these systems faithfully and consistently replicate the in vivo situation. A number of intravital techniques originally developed for studying diverse biological events have recently been adapted to monitor axonal transport in real-time in a range of live organisms and are providing novel insight into this dynamic process. Here, we highlight these methodological advances in intravital imaging of axonal transport, outlining key strengths and limitations while discussing findings, possible improvements, and outstanding questions.

  4. cJun promotes CNS axon growth

    PubMed Central

    Lerch, Jessica K; Martinez, Yania; Bixby, John L; Lemmon, Vance P

    2014-01-01

    A number of genes regulate regeneration of peripheral axons, but their ability to drive axon growth and regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) remains largely untested. To address this question we overexpressed eight transcription factors and one small GTPase alone and in pairwise combinations to test whether combinatorial overexpression would have a synergistic impact on CNS neuron neurite growth. The Jun oncogene/signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (JUN/STAT6) combination increased neurite growth in dissociated cortical neurons and in injured cortical slices. In injured cortical slices, JUN overexpression increased axon growth to a similar extent as JUN and STAT6 together. Interestingly, JUN overexpression was not associated with increased growth associated protein 43 (GAP43) or integrin alpha 7 (ITGA7) expression, though these are predicted transcriptional targets. This study demonstrates that JUN overexpression in cortical neurons stimulates axon growth, but does so independently of changes in expression of genes thought to be critical for JUN’s effects on axon growth. We conclude that JUN activity underlies this CNS axonal growth response, and that it is mechanistically distinct from peripheral regeneration responses, in which increases in JUN expression coincide with increases in GAP43 expression. PMID:24521823

  5. Tau phosphorylation affects its axonal transport and degradation

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Martín, Teresa; Cuchillo-Ibáñez, Inmaculada; Noble, Wendy; Nyenya, Fanon; Anderton, Brian H.; Hanger, Diane P.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorylated forms of microtubule-associated protein tau accumulate in neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer's disease. To investigate the effects of specific phosphorylated tau residues on its function, wild type or phosphomutant tau was expressed in cells. Elevated tau phosphorylation decreased its microtubule binding and bundling, and increased the number of motile tau particles, without affecting axonal transport kinetics. In contrast, reducing tau phosphorylation enhanced the amount of tau bound to microtubules and inhibited axonal transport of tau. To determine whether differential tau clearance is responsible for the increase in phosphomimic tau, we inhibited autophagy in neurons which resulted in a 3-fold accumulation of phosphomimic tau compared with wild type tau, and endogenous tau was unaffected. In autophagy-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts, but not in neurons, proteasomal degradation of phosphomutant tau was also reduced compared with wild type tau. Therefore, autophagic and proteasomal pathways are involved in tau degradation, with autophagy appearing to be the primary route for clearing phosphorylated tau in neurons. Defective autophagy might contribute to the accumulaton of tau in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23601672

  6. GSK3β inhibition accelerates axon debris clearance and new axon remyelination

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yixun; Weng, Jian; Han, Duanyang; Chen, Bo; Ma, Mingtai; Yu, Youlai; Li, Ming; Liu, Zhongdi; Zhang, Peixun; Jiang, Baoguo

    2016-01-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) inhibitors, especially the mood stabilizer lithium chloride, are also used as neuroprotective or anti-inflammatory agents. We studied the influence of LiCl on inducing early myelin clearance and on regulating the remyelination following peripheral nerves injury. We showed that the oral administration of adult mice with LiCl after sciatic nerve crush injury accelerated in vivo myelin debris clearance stimulated the expression of myelin proteins, restored the myelin structure, and accelerated the recovery of sciatic functions. LiCl treatment also promoted remyelination of the sciatic nerve after crush. Furthermore, we also demonstrated that LiCl exerts its action in Schwann cells by increasing the amount of β-catenin and provoking its nuclear localization in vivo. We showed by ChIP experiments that LiCl treatment drives β-catenin to bind to T-cell factor/lymphoid-enhancer factor response elements identified in myelin-related genes. Taken together, our results provide the first evidence that the GSK3β could be considered as an important drug in inducing early myelin debris clearance and regulating the expression of myelin genes, which open new approaches in the clinical treatment of nerve injuries by utilizing GSK3β inhibitors such as lithium. PMID:28078012

  7. Mechanical Effects of Dynamic Binding between Tau Proteins on Microtubules during Axonal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadzadeh, Hossein; Smith, Douglas H.; Shenoy, Vivek B.

    2015-01-01

    The viscoelastic nature of axons plays a key role in their selective vulnerability to damage in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Experimental studies have shown that although axons can tolerate 100% strain under slow loading rates, even strain as small as 5% can rupture microtubules (MTs) during the fast loading velocities relevant to TBI. Here, we developed a computational model to examine rate-dependent behavior related to dynamic interactions between MTs and the MT-associated protein tau under varying strains and strain rates. In the model, inverted pairs of tau proteins can dynamically cross-link parallel MTs via the respective MT-binding domain of each tau. The model also incorporates realistic thermodynamic breaking and reformation of the bonds between the connected tau proteins as they respond to mechanical stretch. With simulated stretch of the axon, the model shows that despite the highly dynamic nature of binding and unbinding events, under fast loading rates relevant to TBI, large tensile forces can be transmitted to the MTs that can lead to mechanical rupture of the MT cylinder, in agreement with experimental observations and as inferred in human TBI. In contrast, at slow loading rates, the progressive breaking and reformation of the bonds between the tau proteins facilitate the extension of axons up to ∼100% strain without any microstructural damage. The model also predicts that under fast loading rates, individual MTs detach from MT bundles via sequential breaking of the tau-tau bonds. Finally, the model demonstrates that longer MTs are more susceptible to mechanical rupture, whereas short MTs are more prone to detachment from the MT bundle, leading to disintegration of the axonal MT ultrastructure. Notably, the predictions from the model are in excellent agreement with the findings of the recent in vitro mechanical testing of micropatterned neuronal cultures. PMID:26636944

  8. Role of voltage-gated cation channels and axon reflexes in the release of sensory neuropeptides by capsaicin from isolated rat trachea.

    PubMed

    Németh, József; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Oroszi, Gábor; Jakab, Balázs; Pintér, Erika; Szilvássy, Zoltán; Szolcsányi, János

    2003-01-05

    In order to reveal the role of axon reflexes and sensory receptors in sensory neuropeptide release in response to capsaicin, liberation of substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide and somatostatin from isolated rat tracheae was investigated in the presence of voltage-sensitive Na(+) and Ca(2+) channel blocking agents. Neuropeptide release induced by capsaicin (10 nM) remained unchanged in the presence of 25 mM lidocaine, 1 microM tetrodotoxin or the N-type Ca(2+) channel inhibitor, omega-conotoxin GVIA (100-300 nM). Peptide release by 100 pulses of 2 Hz field stimulation was prevented by lidocaine or tetrodotoxin. Omega-agatoxin TK (250 nM) significantly inhibited and Cd(2+) (200 microM) prevented capsaicin-induced neuropeptide release. These results suggest that chemical stimulation-induced neuropeptide release does not involve activation of fast Na(+) channels or N- and P-type voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels, but contribution of Q-type Ca(2+) channels is possible. Sensory neuropeptides are released by capsaicin from sensory receptors without axon reflexes.

  9. Expression of an Activated Integrin Promotes Long-Distance Sensory Axon Regeneration in the Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Cheah, Menghon; Chew, Daniel J.; Moloney, Elizabeth B.; Verhaagen, Joost; Fässler, Reinhard

    2016-01-01

    After CNS injury, axon regeneration is blocked by an inhibitory environment consisting of the highly upregulated tenascin-C and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs). Tenascin-C promotes growth of axons if they express a tenascin-binding integrin, particularly α9β1. Additionally, integrins can be inactivated by CSPGs, and this inhibition can be overcome by the presence of a β1-binding integrin activator, kindlin-1. We examined the synergistic effect of α9 integrin and kindlin-1 on sensory axon regeneration in adult rat spinal cord after dorsal root crush and adeno-associated virus transgene expression in dorsal root ganglia. After 12 weeks, axons from C6–C7 dorsal root ganglia regenerated through the tenascin-C-rich dorsal root entry zone into the dorsal column up to C1 level and above (>25 mm axon length) through a normal pathway. Animals also showed anatomical and electrophysiological evidence of reconnection to the dorsal horn and behavioral recovery in mechanical pressure, thermal pain, and ladder-walking tasks. Expression of α9 integrin or kindlin-1 alone promoted much less regeneration and recovery. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The study demonstrates that long-distance sensory axon regeneration over a normal pathway and with sensory and sensory–motor recovery can be achieved. This was achieved by expressing an integrin that recognizes tenascin-C, one of the components of glial scar tissue, and an integrin activator. This enabled extensive long-distance (>25 mm) regeneration of both myelinated and unmyelinated sensory axons with topographically correct connections in the spinal cord. The extent of growth and recovery we have seen would probably be clinically significant. Restoration of sensation to hands, perineum, and genitalia would be a significant improvement for a spinal cord-injured patient. PMID:27383601

  10. Filamin A is required in injured axons for HDAC5 activity and axon regeneration.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yongcheol; Park, Dongeun; Cavalli, Valeria

    2015-09-11

    Microtubule dynamics are important for axon growth during development as well as axon regeneration after injury. We have previously identified HDAC5 as an injury-regulated tubulin deacetylase that functions at the injury site to promote axon regeneration. However, the mechanisms involved in the spatial control of HDAC5 activity remain poorly understood. Here we reveal that HDAC5 interacts with the actin binding protein filamin A via its C-terminal domain. Filamin A plays critical roles in HDAC5-dependent tubulin deacetylation because, in cells lacking filamin A, the levels of acetylated tubulin are elevated markedly. We found that nerve injury increases filamin A axonal expression in a protein synthesis-dependent manner. Reducing filamin A levels or interfering with the interaction between HDAC5 and filamin A prevents injury-induced tubulin deacetylation as well as HDAC5 localization at the injured axon tips. In addition, neurons lacking filamin A display reduced axon regeneration. Our findings suggest a model in which filamin A local translation following axon injury controls localized HDAC5 activity to promote axon regeneration.

  11. Filamin A Is Required in Injured Axons for HDAC5 Activity and Axon Regeneration*

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yongcheol; Park, Dongeun; Cavalli, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    Microtubule dynamics are important for axon growth during development as well as axon regeneration after injury. We have previously identified HDAC5 as an injury-regulated tubulin deacetylase that functions at the injury site to promote axon regeneration. However, the mechanisms involved in the spatial control of HDAC5 activity remain poorly understood. Here we reveal that HDAC5 interacts with the actin binding protein filamin A via its C-terminal domain. Filamin A plays critical roles in HDAC5-dependent tubulin deacetylation because, in cells lacking filamin A, the levels of acetylated tubulin are elevated markedly. We found that nerve injury increases filamin A axonal expression in a protein synthesis-dependent manner. Reducing filamin A levels or interfering with the interaction between HDAC5 and filamin A prevents injury-induced tubulin deacetylation as well as HDAC5 localization at the injured axon tips. In addition, neurons lacking filamin A display reduced axon regeneration. Our findings suggest a model in which filamin A local translation following axon injury controls localized HDAC5 activity to promote axon regeneration. PMID:26157139

  12. Partial interruption of axonal transport due to microtubule breakage accounts for the formation of periodic varicosities after traumatic axonal injury.

    PubMed

    Tang-Schomer, Min D; Johnson, Victoria E; Baas, Peter W; Stewart, William; Smith, Douglas H

    2012-01-01

    Due to their viscoelastic nature, white matter axons are susceptible to damage by high strain rates produced during traumatic brain injury (TBI). Indeed, diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is one of the most common features of TBI, characterized by the hallmark pathological profiles of axonal bulbs at disconnected terminal ends of axons and periodic swellings along axons, known as "varicosities." Although transport interruption underlies axonal bulb formation, it is unclear how varicosities arise, with multiple sites accumulating transported materials along one axon. Recently, axonal microtubules have been found to physically break during dynamic stretch injury of cortical axons in vitro. Here, the same in vitro model was used in parallel with histopathological analyses of human brains acquired acutely following TBI to examine the potential role of mechanical microtubule damage in varicosity formation post-trauma. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) following in vitro stretch injury revealed periodic breaks of individual microtubules along axons that regionally corresponded with undulations in axon morphology. However, typically less than a third of microtubules were broken in any region of an axon. Within hours, these sites of microtubule breaks evolved into periodic swellings. This suggests axonal transport may be halted along one broken microtubule, yet can proceed through the same region via other intact microtubules. Similar axonal undulations and varicosities were observed following TBI in humans, suggesting primary microtubule failure may also be a feature of DAI. These data indicate a novel mechanism of mechanical microtubule damage leading to partial transport interruption and varicosity formation in traumatic axonal injury.

  13. Ectopic vesicular neurotransmitter release along sensory axons mediates neurovascular coupling via glial calcium signaling.

    PubMed

    Thyssen, Anne; Hirnet, Daniela; Wolburg, Hartwig; Schmalzing, Günther; Deitmer, Joachim W; Lohr, Christian

    2010-08-24

    Neurotransmitter release generally is considered to occur at active zones of synapses, and ectopic release of neurotransmitters has been demonstrated in a few instances. However, the mechanism of ectopic neurotransmitter release is poorly understood. We took advantage of the intimate morphological and functional proximity of olfactory receptor axons and specialized glial cells, olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), to study ectopic neurotransmitter release. Axonal stimulation evoked purinergic and glutamatergic Ca(2+) responses in OECs, indicating ATP and glutamate release. In axons expressing synapto-pHluorin, stimulation evoked an increase in synapto-pHluorin fluorescence, indicative of vesicle fusion. Transmitter release was dependent on Ca(2+) and could be inhibited by bafilomycin A1 and botulinum toxin A. Ca(2+) transients in OECs evoked by ATP, axonal stimulation, and laser photolysis of NP-EGTA resulted in constriction of adjacent blood vessels. Our results indicate that ATP and glutamate are released ectopically by vesicles along axons and mediate neurovascular coupling via glial Ca(2+) signaling.

  14. Effect of nano-hydroxyapatite on the axonal guidance growth of rat cortical neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Meili; Zhou, Gang; Song, Wei; Li, Ping; Liu, Haifeng; Niu, Xufeng; Fan, Yubo

    2012-05-01

    Nanomaterials such as carbon nanotubes (CNT) can improve axonal connecting in a target direction during regeneration, however, it is limited by the neurotoxicity of CNT. Here we investigate the possible protective effect of nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) against nerve injury, as well as CNT in cultured rat cortical neurons. In this study the nanomaterials were characterized by X-Ray diffractometry (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Our results showed that axonal migration and extension were increased significantly after n-HA treatment by immunocytochemistry assay. The patch clamp assay results showed that n-HA acts protectively after nerve injury, which inhibited the average amplitude and frequency of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). n-HA is not neurotoxic for the electrophysiology activity of cells. To find the effect of n-HA on axonal guidance growth in the cultured cortical neurons, Netrin 1, one of the axonal guidance cues, was determined by RT-PCR and western blot assay. Compared to the control group, n-HA down-regulated the mRNA level of netrin 1, and moreover, the expression of netrin 1 decreased significantly in the cells. n-HA caused the axonal guidance growth to be mediated by netrin 1 during nerve regeneration. Therefore, the data from the present study provided a new approach for the therapy or prevention of nerve injury.

  15. Fibrinogen-induced perivascular microglial clustering is required for the development of axonal damage in neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Davalos, Dimitrios; Kyu Ryu, Jae; Merlini, Mario; Baeten, Kim M.; Le Moan, Natacha; Petersen, Mark A.; Deerinck, Thomas J.; Smirnoff, Dimitri S.; Bedard, Catherine; Hakozaki, Hiroyuki; Gonias Murray, Sara; Ling, Jennie B.; Lassmann, Hans; Degen, Jay L.; Ellisman, Mark H.; Akassoglou, Katerina

    2012-01-01

    Blood-brain barrier disruption, microglial activation and neurodegeneration are hallmarks of multiple sclerosis. However, the initial triggers that activate innate immune responses and their role in axonal damage remain unknown. Here we show that the blood protein fibrinogen induces rapid microglial responses toward the vasculature and is required for axonal damage in neuroinflammation. Using in vivo two-photon microscopy, we demonstrate that microglia form perivascular clusters before myelin loss or paralysis onset and that, of the plasma proteins, fibrinogen specifically induces rapid and sustained microglial responses in vivo. Fibrinogen leakage correlates with areas of axonal damage and induces reactive oxygen species release in microglia. Blocking fibrin formation with anticoagulant treatment or genetically eliminating the fibrinogen binding motif recognized by the microglial integrin receptor CD11b/CD18 inhibits perivascular microglial clustering and axonal damage. Thus, early and progressive perivascular microglial clustering triggered by fibrinogen leakage upon blood-brain barrier disruption contributes to axonal damage in neuroinflammatory disease. PMID:23187627

  16. Normal spastin gene dosage is specifically required for axon regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Michelle C.; Rao, Kavitha; Gheres, Kyle W.; Kim, Seahee; Tao, Juan; Rochelle, Caroline La; Folker, Christin T.; Sherwood, Nina T.; Rolls, Melissa M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Axon regeneration allows neurons to repair circuits after trauma, but most of the molecular players remain to be identified. As microtubule rearrangements have been observed in injured neurons, we tested whether microtubule severing proteins might play a role in axon regeneration. We found that axon regeneration is extremely sensitive to levels of the microtubule severing protein spastin. While microtubule behavior in uninjured neurons was not perturbed in animals heterozygous for a spastin null allele, axon regeneration was severely disrupted in this background. Two types of axon regeneration, regeneration of an axon from a dendrite after proximal axotomy and regeneration of an axon from the stump after distal axotomy, were defective in Drosophila with one mutant copy of the spastin gene. Other types of axon and dendrite outgrowth, including regrowth of dendrites after pruning, were normal in heterozygotes. We conclude that regenerative axon growth is uniquely sensitive to spastin gene dosage. PMID:23122959

  17. Mitochondrial immobilization mediated by syntaphilin facilitates survival of demyelinated axons

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Nobuhiko; Chiang, Hao; Mahad, Don J.; Kidd, Grahame J.; Liu, LiPing; Ransohoff, Richard M.; Sheng, Zu-Hang; Komuro, Hitoshi; Trapp, Bruce D.

    2014-01-01

    Axonal degeneration is a primary cause of permanent neurological disability in individuals with the CNS demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis. Dysfunction of axonal mitochondria and imbalanced energy demand and supply are implicated in degeneration of chronically demyelinated axons. The purpose of this study was to define the roles of mitochondrial volume and distribution in axonal degeneration following acute CNS demyelination. We show that the axonal mitochondrial volume increase following acute demyelination of WT CNS axons does not occur in demyelinated axons deficient in syntaphilin, an axonal molecule that immobilizes stationary mitochondria to microtubules. These findings were supported by time-lapse imaging of WT and syntaphilin-deficient axons in vitro. When demyelinated, axons deficient in syntaphilin degenerate at a significantly greater rate than WT axons, and this degeneration can be rescued by reducing axonal electrical activity with the Na+ channel blocker flecainide. These results support the concept that syntaphilin-mediated immobilization of mitochondria to microtubules is required for the volume increase of axonal mitochondria following acute demyelination and protects against axonal degeneration in the CNS. PMID:24958879

  18. Mutant Huntingtin Impairs Axonal Trafficking in Mammalian Neurons In Vivo and In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Trushina, Eugenia; Dyer, Roy B.; Badger, John D.; Ure, Daren; Eide, Lars; Tran, David D.; Vrieze, Brent T.; Legendre-Guillemin, Valerie; McPherson, Peter S.; Mandavilli, Bhaskar S.; Van Houten, Bennett; Zeitlin, Scott; McNiven, Mark; Aebersold, Ruedi; Hayden, Michael; Parisi, Joseph E.; Seeberg, Erling; Dragatsis, Ioannis; Doyle, Kelly; Bender, Anna; Chacko, Celin; McMurray, Cynthia T.

    2004-01-01

    Recent data in invertebrates demonstrated that huntingtin (htt) is essential for fast axonal trafficking. Here, we provide direct and functional evidence that htt is involved in fast axonal trafficking in mammals. Moreover, expression of full-length mutant htt (mhtt) impairs vesicular and mitochondrial trafficking in mammalian neurons in vitro and in whole animals in vivo. Particularly, mitochondria become progressively immobilized and stop more frequently in neurons from transgenic animals. These defects occurred early in development prior to the onset of measurable neurological or mitochondrial abnormalities. Consistent with a progressive loss of function, wild-type htt, trafficking motors, and mitochondrial components were selectively sequestered by mhtt in human Huntington's disease-affected brain. Data provide a model for how loss of htt function causes toxicity; mhtt-mediated aggregation sequesters htt and components of trafficking machinery leading to loss of mitochondrial motility and eventual mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:15340079

  19. Protein phosphorylation: Localization in regenerating optic axons

    SciTech Connect

    Larrivee, D. )

    1990-09-01

    A number of axonal proteins display changes in phosphorylation during goldfish optic nerve regeneration. (1) To determine whether the phosphorylation of these proteins was closely linked to their synthesis in the retinal ganglion cell body, cycloheximide was injected intraocularly into goldfish whose optic nerves had been regenerating for 3 weeks. Cycloheximide reduced the incorporation of (3H)proline and 32P orthophosphate into total nerve protein by 84% and 46%, respectively. Of the 20 individual proteins examined, 17 contained less than 15% of the (3H)proline label measured in corresponding controls, whereas 18 proteins contained 50% or more of the 32P label, suggesting that phosphorylation was largely independent of synthesis. (2) To determine whether the proteins were phosphorylated in the ganglion cell axons, axonal transport of proteins was blocked by intraocular injection of vincristine. Vincristine reduced (3H)proline labeling of total protein by 88% and 32P labeling by 49%. Among the individual proteins (3H)proline labeling was reduced by 90% or more in 18 cases but 32P labeling was reduced only by 50% or less. (3) When 32P was injected into the cranial cavity near the ends of the optic axons, all of the phosphoproteins were labeled more intensely in the optic tract than in the optic nerve. These results suggest that most of the major phosphoproteins that undergo changes in phosphorylation in the course of regeneration are phosphorylated in the optic axons.

  20. How Schwann Cells Sort Axons: New Concepts.

    PubMed

    Feltri, M Laura; Poitelon, Yannick; Previtali, Stefano Carlo

    2016-06-01

    Peripheral nerves contain large myelinated and small unmyelinated (Remak) fibers that perform different functions. The choice to myelinate or not is dictated to Schwann cells by the axon itself, based on the amount of neuregulin I-type III exposed on its membrane. Peripheral axons are more important in determining the final myelination fate than central axons, and the implications for this difference in Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes are discussed. Interestingly, this choice is reversible during pathology, accounting for the remarkable plasticity of Schwann cells, and contributing to the regenerative potential of the peripheral nervous system. Radial sorting is the process by which Schwann cells choose larger axons to myelinate during development. This crucial morphogenetic step is a prerequisite for myelination and for differentiation of Remak fibers, and is arrested in human diseases due to mutations in genes coding for extracellular matrix and linkage molecules. In this review we will summarize progresses made in the last years by a flurry of reverse genetic experiments in mice and fish. This work revealed novel molecules that control radial sorting, and contributed unexpected ideas to our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms that control radial sorting of axons.

  1. Calcium permeable AMPA receptor-dependent long lasting plasticity of intrinsic excitability in fast spiking interneurons of the dentate gyrus decreases inhibition in the granule cell layer.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Debanjan; Sikdar, Sujit Kumar

    2015-03-01

    The local fast-spiking interneurons (FSINs) are considered to be crucial for the generation, maintenance, and modulation of neuronal network oscillations especially in the gamma frequency band. Gamma frequency oscillations have been associated with different aspects of behavior. But the prolonged effects of gamma frequency synaptic activity on the FSINs remain elusive. Using whole cell current clamp patch recordings, we observed a sustained decrease of intrinsic excitability in the FSINs of the dentate gyrus (DG) following repetitive stimulations of the mossy fibers at 30 Hz (gamma bursts). Surprisingly, the granule cells (GCs) did not express intrinsic plastic changes upon similar synaptic excitation of their apical dendritic inputs. Interestingly, pairing the gamma bursts with membrane hyperpolarization accentuated the plasticity in FSINs following the induction protocol, while the plasticity attenuated following gamma bursts paired with membrane depolarization. Paired pulse ratio measurement of the synaptic responses did not show significant changes during the experiments. However, the induction protocols were accompanied with postsynaptic calcium rise in FSINs. Interestingly, the maximum and the minimum increase occurred during gamma bursts with membrane hyperpolarization and depolarization respectively. Including a selective blocker of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) in the bath; significantly attenuated the calcium rise and blocked the membrane potential dependence of the calcium rise in the FSINs, suggesting their involvement in the observed phenomenon. Chelation of intracellular calcium, blocking HCN channel conductance or blocking CP-AMPARs during the experiment forbade the long lasting expression of the plasticity. Simultaneous dual patch recordings from FSINs and synaptically connected putative GCs confirmed the decreased inhibition in the GCs accompanying the decreased intrinsic excitability in the FSINs. Experimentally constrained network

  2. Nuclear factor-kappaB activation in axons and Schwann cells in experimental sciatic nerve injury and its role in modulating axon regeneration: studies with etanercept.

    PubMed

    Smith, Darrell; Tweed, Christopher; Fernyhough, Paul; Glazner, Gordon W

    2009-06-01

    Early inflammatory events may inhibit functional recovery after injury in both the peripheral and central nervous systems. We investigated the role of the inflammatory tumor necrosis factor/nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) axis on events subsequent to sciatic nerve crush injury in adult rats. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays revealed that within 6 hours after crush, NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity increased significantly in a 1-cm section around the crush site. By immunofluorescence staining, there was increased nuclear localization of the NF-kappaB subunits p50 but not p65 or c-Rel in Schwann cells but no obvious inflammatory cell infiltration. In rats injected subcutaneously with etanercept, a tumor necrosis factor receptor chimera that binds free cytokine, the injury-induced rise in NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity was inhibited, and nuclear localization of p50 in Schwann cells was lowered after the injury. Axonal growth 3 days after nerve crush assessed with immunofluorescence for GAP43 demonstrated that the regeneration distance of leading axons from the site of nerve crush was greater in etanercept-treated animals than in saline-treated controls. These data indicate that tumor necrosis factor mediates rapid activation of injury-induced NF-kappaB DNA binding in Schwann cells and that these events are associated with inhibition of postinjury axonal sprouting.

  3. A macroscopic model of traffic jams in axons.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, A V; Avramenko, A A

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a minimal macroscopic model capable of explaining the formation of traffic jams in fast axonal transport. The model accounts for the decrease of the number density of positively (and negatively) oriented microtubules near the location of the traffic jam due to formation of microtubule swirls; the model also accounts for the reduction of the effective velocity of organelle transport in the traffic jam region due to organelles falling off microtubule tracks more often in the swirl region. The model is based on molecular-motor-assisted transport equations and the hydrodynamic model of traffic jams in highway traffic. Parametric analyses of the model's predictions for various values of viscosity of the traffic flow, variance of the velocity distribution, diffusivity of microtubule-bound and free organelles, rate constants for binding to and detachment from microtubules, relaxation time, and average motor velocities of the retrograde and anterograde transport, are carried out.

  4. AXONAL TRANSPORT: CARGO-SPECIFIC MECHANISMS OF MOTILITY AND REGULATION

    PubMed Central

    Maday, Sandra; Twelvetrees, Alison E.; Moughamian, Armen J.; Holzbaur, Erika L. F.

    2014-01-01

    Axonal transport is essential for neuronal function, and many neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases result from mutations in the axonal transport machinery. Anterograde transport supplies distal axons with newly synthesized proteins and lipids, including synaptic components required to maintain presynaptic activity. Retrograde transport is required to maintain homeostasis by removing aging proteins and organelles from the distal axon for degradation and recycling of components. Retrograde axonal transport also plays a major role in neurotrophic and injury response signaling. This review provides an overview of the axonal transport pathway and discusses its role in neuronal function. PMID:25374356

  5. Microfluidic device for unidirectional axon growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malishev, E.; Pimashkin, A.; Gladkov, A.; Pigareva, Y.; Bukatin, A.; Kazantsev, V.; Mukhina, I.; Dubina, M.

    2015-11-01

    In order to better understand the communication and connectivity development of neuron networks, we designed microfluidic devices with several chambers for growing dissociated neuronal cultures from mice fetal hippocampus (E18). The chambers were connected with microchannels providing unidirectional axonal growth between “Source” and “Target” neural sub-networks. Experiments were performed in a hippocampal cultures plated in a poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic chip, aligned with a 60 microelectrode array (MEA). Axonal growth through microchannels was observed with brightfield, phase-contrast and fluorescence microscopy, and after 7 days in vitro electrical activity was recorded. Visual inspection and spike propagation analysis showed the predominant axonal growth in microchannels in a direction from “Source” to “Target”.

  6. Active segmentation of 3D axonal images.

    PubMed

    Muralidhar, Gautam S; Gopinath, Ajay; Bovik, Alan C; Ben-Yakar, Adela

    2012-01-01

    We present an active contour framework for segmenting neuronal axons on 3D confocal microscopy data. Our work is motivated by the need to conduct high throughput experiments involving microfluidic devices and femtosecond lasers to study the genetic mechanisms behind nerve regeneration and repair. While most of the applications for active contours have focused on segmenting closed regions in 2D medical and natural images, there haven't been many applications that have focused on segmenting open-ended curvilinear structures in 2D or higher dimensions. The active contour framework we present here ties together a well known 2D active contour model [5] along with the physics of projection imaging geometry to yield a segmented axon in 3D. Qualitative results illustrate the promise of our approach for segmenting neruonal axons on 3D confocal microscopy data.

  7. Building and maintaining the axon initial segment

    PubMed Central

    Grubb, Matthew S.; Burrone, Juan

    2011-01-01

    The axon initial segment is a unique neuronal subregion involved in the initiation of action potentials and in the control of axonal identity. Recent work has helped our understanding of how this specialised structure develops, not least in identifying possible mechanisms leading to the localisation of the AIS’s master organiser protein, ankyrin-G. The most exciting current work, however, focuses on later aspects of AIS function and plasticity. Recent studies have shown that the AIS is subdivided into distinct structural and functional domains, have demonstrated how the AIS acts as a cytoplasmic barrier for axonal transport, and have discovered that the AIS can be surprisingly plastic in its responses to alterations in neuronal activity. PMID:20537529

  8. Traumatic Axonal Injury: Mechanisms and Translational Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Hill, Ciaran S; Coleman, Michael P; Menon, David K

    2016-05-01

    Traumatic axonal injury (TAI) is an important pathoanatomical subgroup of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and a major driver of mortality and functional impairment. Experimental models have provided insights into the effects of mechanical deformation on the neuronal cytoskeleton and the subsequent processes that drive axonal injury. There is also increasing recognition that axonal or white matter loss may progress for years post-injury and represent one mechanistic framework for progressive neurodegeneration after TBI. Previous trials of novel therapies have failed to make an impact on clinical outcome, in both TBI in general and TAI in particular. Recent advances in understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of injury have the potential to translate into novel therapeutic targets.

  9. Axon contact-driven Schwann cell dedifferentiation.

    PubMed

    Soto, Jennifer; Monje, Paula V

    2017-02-24

    Mature Schwann cells (SCs) retain dedifferentiation potential throughout adulthood. Still, how dedifferentiation occurs remains uncertain. Results from a variety of cell-based assays using in vitro cultured cAMP-differentiated and myelinating SCs revealed the existence of a novel dedifferentiating activity expressed on the surface of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) axons. This activity had the capacity to prevent SC differentiation and elicit dedifferentiation through direct SC-axon contact. Evidence is provided showing that a rapid loss of myelinating SC markers concomitant to proliferation occurred even in the presence of elevated cAMP, a signal that is required to drive and maintain a differentiated state. The dedifferentiating activity was a membrane-bound protein found exclusively in DRG neurons, as judged by its subcellular partitioning, sensitivity to proteolytic degradation and cell-type specificity, and remained active even after disruption of cellular organization. It differed from the membrane-anchored neuregulin-1 isoforms that are responsible for axon contact-induced SC proliferation and exerted its action independently of mitogenic signaling emanating from receptor tyrosine kinases and mitogen-activated protein kinases such as ERK and JNK. Interestingly, dedifferentiation occurred without concomitant changes in the expression of Krox-20, a transcriptional enhancer of myelination, and c-Jun, an inhibitor of myelination. In sum, our data indicated the existence of cell surface axon-derived signals that override pro-differentiating cues, drive dedifferentiation and allow SCs to proliferate in response to axonal mitogens. This axonal signal may negatively regulate myelination at the onset or reversal of the differentiated state.

  10. Retrograde Axonal Degeneration in Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tagliaferro, Patricia; Burke, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    In spite of tremendous research efforts we have not yet achieved two of our principal therapeutic goals in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD), to prevent its onward progression and to provide restoration of systems that have already been damaged by the time of diagnosis. There are many possible reasons for our inability to make progress. One possibility is that our efforts thus far may not have been directed towards the appropriate cellular compartments. Up until now research has been largely focused on the loss of neurons in the disease. Thus, neuroprotection approaches have been largely aimed at blocking mechanisms that lead to destruction of the neuronal cell body. Attempts to provide neurorestoration have been almost entirely focused on replacement of neurons. We herein review the evidence that the axonal component of diseased neuronal systems merit more of our attention. Evidence from imaging studies, from postmortem neurochemical studies, and from genetic animal models suggests that the axons of the dopaminergic system are involved predominantly and early in PD. Since the mechanisms of axonal destruction are distinct from those of neuron cell body degeneration, a focus on axonal neurobiology will offer new opportunities for preventing their degeneration. At present these mechanisms remain largely obscure. However, defining them is likely to offer new opportunities for neuroprotection. In relation to neurorestoration, while it has been classically believed that neurons of the adult central nervous system are incapable of new axon growth, recent evidence shows that this is not true for the dopaminergic projection. In conclusion, the neurobiology of axons is likely to offer many new approaches to protective and restorative therapeutics. PMID:27003783

  11. Distorted Coarse Axon Targeting and Reduced Dendrite Connectivity Underlie Dysosmia after Olfactory Axon Injury

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Ryo; Fujimoto, Satoshi; Aihara, Shuhei

    2016-01-01

    The glomerular map in the olfactory bulb (OB) is the basis for odor recognition. Once established during development, the glomerular map is stably maintained throughout the life of an animal despite the continuous turnover of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). However, traumatic damage to OSN axons in the adult often leads to dysosmia, a qualitative and quantitative change in olfaction in humans. A mouse model of dysosmia has previously indicated that there is an altered glomerular map in the OB after the OSN axon injury; however, the underlying mechanisms that cause the map distortion remain unknown. In this study, we examined how the glomerular map is disturbed and how the odor information processing in the OB is affected in the dysosmia model mice. We found that the anterior–posterior coarse targeting of OSN axons is disrupted after OSN axon injury, while the local axon sorting mechanisms remained. We also found that the connectivity of mitral/tufted cell dendrites is reduced after injury, leading to attenuated odor responses in mitral/tufted cells. These results suggest that existing OSN axons are an essential scaffold for maintaining the integrity of the olfactory circuit, both OSN axons and mitral/tufted cell dendrites, in the adult. PMID:27785463

  12. Automated Axon Counting in Rodent Optic Nerve Sections with AxonJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarei, Kasra; Scheetz, Todd E.; Christopher, Mark; Miller, Kathy; Hedberg-Buenz, Adam; Tandon, Anamika; Anderson, Michael G.; Fingert, John H.; Abràmoff, Michael David

    2016-05-01

    We have developed a publicly available tool, AxonJ, which quantifies the axons in optic nerve sections of rodents stained with paraphenylenediamine (PPD). In this study, we compare AxonJ’s performance to human experts on 100x and 40x images of optic nerve sections obtained from multiple strains of mice, including mice with defects relevant to glaucoma. AxonJ produced reliable axon counts with high sensitivity of 0.959 and high precision of 0.907, high repeatability of 0.95 when compared to a gold-standard of manual assessments and high correlation of 0.882 to the glaucoma damage staging of a previously published dataset. AxonJ allows analyses that are quantitative, consistent, fully-automated, parameter-free, and rapid on whole optic nerve sections at 40x. As a freely available ImageJ plugin that requires no highly specialized equipment to utilize, AxonJ represents a powerful new community resource augmenting studies of the optic nerve using mice.

  13. Automated Axon Counting in Rodent Optic Nerve Sections with AxonJ

    PubMed Central

    Zarei, Kasra; Scheetz, Todd E.; Christopher, Mark; Miller, Kathy; Hedberg-Buenz, Adam; Tandon, Anamika; Anderson, Michael G.; Fingert, John H.; Abràmoff, Michael David

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a publicly available tool, AxonJ, which quantifies the axons in optic nerve sections of rodents stained with paraphenylenediamine (PPD). In this study, we compare AxonJ’s performance to human experts on 100x and 40x images of optic nerve sections obtained from multiple strains of mice, including mice with defects relevant to glaucoma. AxonJ produced reliable axon counts with high sensitivity of 0.959 and high precision of 0.907, high repeatability of 0.95 when compared to a gold-standard of manual assessments and high correlation of 0.882 to the glaucoma damage staging of a previously published dataset. AxonJ allows analyses that are quantitative, consistent, fully-automated, parameter-free, and rapid on whole optic nerve sections at 40x. As a freely available ImageJ plugin that requires no highly specialized equipment to utilize, AxonJ represents a powerful new community resource augmenting studies of the optic nerve using mice. PMID:27226405

  14. A PIK3C3–Ankyrin-B–Dynactin pathway promotes axonal growth and multiorganelle transport

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, Damaris Nadia; Badea, Alexandra; Davis, Jonathan; Hostettler, Janell; He, Jiang; Zhong, Guisheng; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2014-01-01

    Axon growth requires long-range transport of organelles, but how these cargoes recruit their motors and how their traffic is regulated are not fully resolved. In this paper, we identify a new pathway based on the class III PI3-kinase (PIK3C3), ankyrin-B (AnkB), and dynactin, which promotes fast axonal transport of synaptic vesicles, mitochondria, endosomes, and lysosomes. We show that dynactin associates with cargo through AnkB interactions with both the dynactin subunit p62 and phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate (PtdIns(3)P) lipids generated by PIK3C3. AnkB knockout resulted in shortened axon tracts and marked reduction in membrane association of dynactin and dynein, whereas it did not affect the organization of spectrin–actin axonal rings imaged by 3D-STORM. Loss of AnkB or of its linkages to either p62 or PtdIns(3)P or loss of PIK3C3 all impaired organelle transport and particularly retrograde transport in hippocampal neurons. Our results establish new functional relationships between PIK3C3, dynactin, and AnkB that together promote axonal transport of organelles and are required for normal axon length. PMID:25533844

  15. Small-molecule axon-polarization studies enabled by a shear-free microfluidic gradient generator

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hui; Ferreira, Meghaan M.

    2014-01-01

    A deep understanding of the mechanisms behind neurite polarization and axon path-finding is important for interpreting how the human body guides neurite growth during development and response to injury. Further, it is of great clinical importance to identify diffusible chemical cues that promote neurite regeneration for nervous tissue repair. Despite the fast development of various types of concentration gradient generators, it has been challenging to fabricate neuron friendly (i.e. shear-free and biocompatible for neuron growth and maturation) devices to create stable gradients, particularly for fast diffusing small molecules, which typically require high flow and shear rates. Here we present a finite element analysis for a polydimethylsiloxane/polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PDMS/PEG-DA) based gradient generator, describe the microfabrication process, and validate its use for neuronal axon polarization studies. This device provides a totally shear-free, biocompatible microenvironment with a linear and stable concentration gradient of small molecules such as forskolin. The gradient profile in this device can be customized by changing the composition or width of the PEG-DA barriers during direct UV photo-patterning within a permanently bonded PDMS device. Primary rat cortical neurons (embryonic E18) exposed to soluble forskolin gradients for 72 hr exhibited statistically significant polarization and guidance of their axons. This device provides a useful platform for both chemotaxis and directional guidance studies, particularly for shear sensitive and non-adhesive cell cultures, while allowing fast new device design prototyping at a low cost. PMID:24781157

  16. Small-molecule axon-polarization studies enabled by a shear-free microfluidic gradient generator.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Ferreira, Meghaan M; Heilshorn, Sarah C

    2014-06-21

    A deep understanding of the mechanisms behind neurite polarization and axon path-finding is important for interpreting how the human body guides neurite growth during development and response to injury. Further, it is of great clinical importance to identify diffusible chemical cues that promote neurite regeneration for nervous tissue repair. Despite the fast development of various types of concentration gradient generators, it has been challenging to fabricate neuron-friendly (i.e. shear-free and biocompatible for neuron growth and maturation) devices to create stable gradients, particularly for fast diffusing small molecules, which typically require high flow and shear rates. Here we present a finite element analysis for a polydimethylsiloxane/polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PDMS/PEG-DA) based gradient generator, describe the microfabrication process, and validate its use for neuronal axon polarization studies. This device provides a totally shear-free, biocompatible microenvironment with a linear and stable concentration gradient of small molecules such as forskolin. The gradient profile in this device can be customized by changing the composition or width of the PEG-DA barriers during direct UV photo-patterning within a permanently bonded PDMS device. Primary rat cortical neurons (embryonic E18) exposed to soluble forskolin gradients for 72 h exhibited statistically significant polarization and guidance of their axons. This device provides a useful platform for both chemotaxis and directional guidance studies, particularly for shear sensitive and non-adhesive cell cultures, while allowing fast new device design prototyping at a low cost.

  17. Tau reduction prevents Aβ-induced axonal transport deficits by blocking activation of GSK3β

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jordan C.; Fomenko, Vira; Miyamoto, Takashi; Suberbielle, Elsa; Knox, Joseph A.; Ho, Kaitlyn; Kim, Daniel H.; Yu, Gui-Qiu

    2015-01-01

    Axonal transport deficits in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are attributed to amyloid β (Aβ) peptides and pathological forms of the microtubule-associated protein tau. Genetic ablation of tau prevents neuronal overexcitation and axonal transport deficits caused by recombinant Aβ oligomers. Relevance of these findings to naturally secreted Aβ and mechanisms underlying tau’s enabling effect are unknown. Here we demonstrate deficits in anterograde axonal transport of mitochondria in primary neurons from transgenic mice expressing familial AD-linked forms of human amyloid precursor protein. We show that these deficits depend on Aβ1–42 production and are prevented by tau reduction. The copathogenic effect of tau did not depend on its microtubule binding, interactions with Fyn, or potential role in neuronal development. Inhibition of neuronal activity, N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor function, or glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) activity or expression also abolished Aβ-induced transport deficits. Tau ablation prevented Aβ-induced GSK3β activation. Thus, tau allows Aβ oligomers to inhibit axonal transport through activation of GSK3β, possibly by facilitating aberrant neuronal activity. PMID:25963821

  18. Diverse Modes of Axon Elaboration in the Developing Neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Weimer, Robby M; De Paola, Vincenzo; Caroni, Pico; Svoboda, Karel

    2005-01-01

    The development of axonal arbors is a critical step in the establishment of precise neural circuits, but relatively little is known about the mechanisms of axonal elaboration in the neocortex. We used in vivo two-photon time-lapse microscopy to image axons in the neocortex of green fluorescent protein-transgenic mice over the first 3 wk of postnatal development. This period spans the elaboration of thalamocortical (TC) and Cajal-Retzius (CR) axons and cortical synaptogenesis. Layer 1 collaterals of TC and CR axons were imaged repeatedly over time scales ranging from minutes up to days, and their growth and pruning were analyzed. The structure and dynamics of TC and CR axons differed profoundly. Branches of TC axons terminated in small, bulbous growth cones, while CR axon branch tips had large growth cones with numerous long filopodia. TC axons grew rapidly in straight paths, with frequent interstitial branch additions, while CR axons grew more slowly along tortuous paths. For both types of axon, new branches appeared at interstitial sites along the axon shaft and did not involve growth cone splitting. Pruning occurred via retraction of small axon branches (tens of microns, at both CR and TC axons) or degeneration of large portions of the arbor (hundreds of microns, for TC axons only). The balance between growth and retraction favored overall growth, but only by a slight margin. Given the identical layer 1 territory upon which CR and TC axons grow, the differences in their structure and dynamics likely reflect distinct intrinsic growth programs for axons of long projection neurons versus local interneurons. PMID:16026180

  19. Effects of PTEN and Nogo Codeletion on Corticospinal Axon Sprouting and Regeneration in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Geoffroy, Cédric G.; Lorenzana, Ariana O.; Kwan, Jeffrey P.; Lin, Kyle; Ghassemi, Omeed; Ma, Andrew; Xu, Nuo; Creger, Daniel; Liu, Kai; He, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Axons in the adult CNS have poor ability to grow after injury, impeding functional recovery in patients of spinal cord injury. This has been attributed to both a developmental decline in neuron-intrinsic growth ability and the presence of extrinsic growth inhibitors. We previously showed that genetic deletion of Nogo, an extrinsic inhibitor, promoted axonal sprouting from uninjured corticospinal tract (CST) neurons but not regeneration from injured CST neurons, whereas genetic deletion of PTEN, an intrinsic inhibitor, promoted both CST sprouting and regeneration. Here we test the hypothesis that combining an elevation of neuron-intrinsic growth ability and a reduction of extrinsic growth inhibition by genetic codeletion of PTEN and Nogo may further improve injury-induced axonal growth. In an apparent paradox, additionally deleting Nogo further enhanced CST regeneration but not sprouting in PTEN-deleted mice. Enhanced CST regeneration and sprouting in PTEN and PTEN/Nogo-deleted mice were associated with no or only temporary improvement in functional recovery. Our data illustrate that neuron-intrinsic and -extrinsic factors regulate axon regeneration and sprouting in complex ways and provide proof-of-principle evidence that targeting both can further improve regeneration. Neuron-intrinsic growth ability is an important determinant of neuronal responsiveness to changes in extrinsic growth inhibition, such that an elevated intrinsic growth state is a prerequisite for reducing extrinsic inhibition to take effect on CST regeneration. Meanwhile, additional strategies are required to unleash the full potential for functional recovery with enhanced axon regeneration and/or sprouting. PMID:25904793

  20. Neural Progenitor Cells Promote Axonal Growth and Alter Axonal mRNA Localization in Adult Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Merianda, Tanuja T.; Jin, Ying

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The inhibitory environment of the spinal cord and the intrinsic properties of neurons prevent regeneration of axons following CNS injury. However, both ascending and descending axons of the injured spinal cord have been shown to regenerate into grafts of embryonic neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Previous studies have shown that grafts composed of glial-restricted progenitors (GRPs) and neural-restricted progenitors (NRPs) can provide a permissive microenvironment for axon growth. We have used cocultures of adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons together with NPCs, which have shown significant enhancement of axon growth by embryonic rat GRP and GRPs/NRPs, both in coculture conditions and when DRGs are exposed to conditioned medium from the NPC cultures. This growth-promoting effect of NPC-conditioned medium was also seen in injury-conditioned neurons. DRGs cocultured with GRPs/NRPs showed altered expression of regeneration-associated genes at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. We found that levels of GAP-43 mRNA increased in DRG cell bodies and axons. However, hepcidin antimicrobial peptide (HAMP) mRNA decreased in the cell bodies of DRGs cocultured with GRPs/NRPs, which is distinct from the increase in cell body HAMP mRNA levels seen in DRGs after injury conditioning. Endogenous GAP-43 and β-actin mRNAs as well as reporter RNAs carrying axonally localizing 3'UTRs of these transcripts showed significantly increased levels in distal axons in the DRGs cocultured with GRPs/NRPs. These results indicate that axon growth promoted by NPCs is associated not only with enhanced transcription of growth-associated genes but also can increase localization of some mRNAs into growing axons. PMID:28197547

  1. Granule cell ascending axon excitatory synapses onto Golgi cells implement a potent feedback circuit in the cerebellar granular layer.

    PubMed

    Cesana, Elisabetta; Pietrajtis, Katarzyna; Bidoret, Céline; Isope, Philippe; D'Angelo, Egidio; Dieudonné, Stéphane; Forti, Lia

    2013-07-24

    The function of inhibitory interneurons within brain microcircuits depends critically on the nature and properties of their excitatory synaptic drive. Golgi cells (GoCs) of the cerebellum inhibit cerebellar granule cells (GrCs) and are driven both by feedforward mossy fiber (mf) and feedback GrC excitation. Here, we have characterized GrC inputs to GoCs in rats and mice. We show that, during sustained mf discharge, synapses from local GrCs contribute equivalent charge to GoCs as mf synapses, arguing for the importance of the feedback inhibition. Previous studies predicted that GrC-GoC synapses occur predominantly between parallel fibers (pfs) and apical GoC dendrites in the molecular layer (ML). By combining EM and Ca(2+) imaging, we now demonstrate the presence of functional synaptic contacts between ascending axons (aa) of GrCs and basolateral dendrites of GoCs in the granular layer (GL). Immunohistochemical quantification estimates these contacts to be ∼400 per GoC. Using Ca(2+) imaging to identify synaptic inputs, we show that EPSCs from aa and mf contacts in basolateral dendrites display similarly fast kinetics, whereas pf inputs in the ML exhibit markedly slower kinetics as they undergo strong filtering by apical dendrites. We estimate that approximately half of the local GrC contacts generate fast EPSCs, indicating their basolateral location in the GL. We conclude that GrCs, through their aa contacts onto proximal GoC dendrites, define a powerful feedback inhibitory circuit in the GL.

  2. Cell-to-cell transfer of glial proteins to the squid giant axon: The glia- neuron protein transfer hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Lasek, RJ; Gainer, H; Barker, JL

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that glial cells synthesize proteins which are transferred to adjacent neurons was evaluated in the giant fiber of the squid (Loligo pealei). When giant fibers are separated from their neuron cell bodies and incubated in the presence of radioactive amino acids, labeled proteins appear in the glial cells and axoplasm. Labeled axonal proteins were detected by three methods: extrusion of the axoplasm from the giant fiber, autoradiography, and perfusion of the giant fiber. This protein synthesis is completely inhibited by puromycin but is not affected by chloramphenicol. The following evidence indicates that the labeled axonal proteins are not synthesized within the axon itself. (a) The axon does not contain a significant amount of ribosomes or ribosomal RNA. (b) Isolated axoplasm did not incorporate [(3)H]leucine into proteins. (c) Injection of Rnase into the giant axon did not reduce the appearance of newly synthesized proteins in the axoplasm of the giant fiber. These findings, coupled with other evidence, have led us to conclude that the adaxonal glial cells synthesize a class of proteins which are transferred to the giant axon. Analysis of the kinetics of this phenomenon indicates that some proteins are transferred to the axon within minutes of their synthesis in the glial cells. One or more of the steps in the transfer process appear to involve Ca++, since replacement of extracellular Ca++ by either Mg++ or Co++ significantly reduces the appearance of labeled proteins in the axon. A substantial fraction of newly synthesized glial proteins, possibly as much as 40 percent, are transferred to the giant axon. These proteins are heterogeneous and range in size from 12,000 to greater than 200,000 daltons. Comparisons of the amount of amino acid incorporation in glia cells and neuron cell bodies raise the possibility that the adaxonal glial cells may provide an important source of axonal proteins which is supplemental to that provided by axonal transport

  3. BK Channels Localize to the Paranodal Junction and Regulate Action Potentials in Myelinated Axons of Cerebellar Purkinje Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hirono, Moritoshi; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Misono, Kaori; Zollinger, Daniel R.; Trimmer, James S.

    2015-01-01

    In myelinated axons, K+ channels are clustered in distinct membrane domains to regulate action potentials (APs). At nodes of Ranvier, Kv7 channels are expressed with Na+ channels, whereas Kv1 channels flank nodes at juxtaparanodes. Regulation of axonal APs by K+ channels would be particularly important in fast-spiking projection neurons such as cerebellar Purkinje cells. Here, we show that BK/Slo1 channels are clustered at the paranodal junctions of myelinated Purkinje cell axons of rat and mouse. The paranodal junction is formed by a set of cell-adhesion molecules, including Caspr, between the node and juxtaparanodes in which it separates nodal from internodal membrane domains. Remarkably, only Purkinje cell axons have detectable paranodal BK channels, whose clustering requires the formation of the paranodal junction via Caspr. Thus, BK channels occupy this unique domain in Purkinje cell axons along with the other K+ channel complexes at nodes and juxtaparanodes. To investigate the physiological role of novel paranodal BK channels, we examined the effect of BK channel blockers on antidromic AP conduction. We found that local application of blockers to the axon resulted in a significant increase in antidromic AP failure at frequencies above 100 Hz. We also found that Ni2+ elicited a similar effect on APs, indicating the involvement of Ni2+-sensitive Ca2+ channels. Furthermore, axonal application of BK channel blockers decreased the inhibitory synaptic response in the deep cerebellar nuclei. Thus, paranodal BK channels uniquely support high-fidelity firing of APs in myelinated Purkinje cell axons, thereby underpinning the output of the cerebellar cortex. PMID:25948259

  4. Single, high-dose intraspinal injection of chondroitinase reduces glycosaminoglycans in injured spinal cord and promotes corticospinal axonal regrowth after hemisection but not contusion.

    PubMed

    Iseda, Tsutomu; Okuda, Tetsuhito; Kane-Goldsmith, Noriko; Mathew, Marlon; Ahmed, Sameer; Chang, Yu-Wen; Young, Wise; Grumet, Martin

    2008-04-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) inhibit axonal growth, and treatment with chondroitinase ABC promotes axonal regeneration in some models of central nervous system (CNS) injury. The aims of this study were (1) to compare the spatiotemporal appearance of CSPG expression between spinal cord contusion and hemisection models, and (2) to evaluate chondroitinase treatment effects on axonal regrowth in the two injury models. After hemisection, CSPG-immunoreactivity (IR) in the injury site rose to peak levels at 18 days but then decreased dramatically by 49 days; in contrast, CSPG-IR remained high for at least 49 days after contusion. After hemisection, many anterogradely labeled corticospinal tract (CST) axons remained close to CSPG-rich lesion sites, but after contusion, most CST axons retracted by approximately 1 mm rostral from the rostral-most CSPG-rich cyst. Intraspinal injection of chondroitinase at 0, 1, 2, and 4 weeks following injury dramatically reduced CSPG-IR in both injury models within 4 days, and CSPG-IR remained low for at least 3 weeks. After the chondroitinase treatment, many axons grew around the lesion site in hemisected spinal cords but not in contused spinal cords. We propose that improved axonal growth in hemisected spinal cords is due to decreased inhibition resulting from degradation of CSPGs located adjacent to severed CST axons. However, in spinal cord contusions, retracted CST axons fail to grow across gliotic regions that surround CSPG-rich injury sites despite efficient degradation with chondroitinase, suggesting that other inhibitors of axonal growth persist in the gliotic regions.

  5. Acceleration of axonal outgrowth in rat sciatic nerve at one week after axotomy.

    PubMed

    Jacob, J M; McQuarrie, I G

    1993-03-01

    Following injury of sciatic motor axons in the rat, the rate of axonal outgrowth is faster if there has been a prior "conditioning" axotomy. The acceleration of outgrowth is due to an acceleration of SCb, the rate [slow (SC)] component of axonal transport that carries cytomatrix proteins; this occurs throughout the axon by 7 days after the conditioning axotomy (Jacob and McQuarrie, 1991a, J. Neurobiol. 22:570-583). To further characterize the conditioning lesion effect (CLE), it is important to know (1) the minimum effective conditioning interval (time between conditioning and testing lesions), (2) whether the cell body reaction is required, and (3) whether outgrowth accelerates after a single axotomy. Outgrowth distances were measured by radiolabeling all newly synthesized neuronal proteins and detecting those carried to growth cones by fast axonal transport. When the conditioning and testing lesions were made simultaneously (0 day conditioning interval), there was no CLE. With a conditioning interval of 3 days, there was a shortening of the initial delay (before the onset of outgrowth) without a change in outgrowth rate. With conditioning intervals of 7, 14, and 21 days, the rates of outgrowth were increased by 8%, 22%, and 11%, respectively. To determine whether the cell body reaction to axotomy is necessary for the CLE, a nonaxotomizing stimulus to axonal growth (partial denervation) was used in place of a conditioning axotomy. This had no effect on the rate of outgrowth from a testing lesion made 14 days later. Finally, we examined the possibility that outgrowth accelerates after a single lesion. Outgrowth was faster at 6-9 days after axotomy than at 3-6 days (p < 0.001), and accelerated further at 9-12 days (p < 0.001). We conclude that (1) the shortest effective conditioning interval is 3 days; (2) the cell body reaction is necessary for the CLE; (3) axonal outgrowth from a single axotomy accelerates in concert with the anabolic phase of the cell body

  6. Spatial temperature gradients guide axonal outgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Black, Bryan; Vishwakarma, Vivek; Dhakal, Kamal; Bhattarai, Samik; Pradhan, Prabhakar; Jain, Ankur; Kim, Young-tae; Mohanty, Samarendra

    2016-01-01

    Formation of neural networks during development and regeneration after injury depends on accuracy of axonal pathfinding, which is primarily believed to be influenced by chemical cues. Recently, there is growing evidence that physical cues can play crucial role in axonal guidance. However, detailed mechanism involved in such guidance cues is lacking. By using weakly-focused near-infrared continuous wave (CW) laser microbeam in the path of an advancing axon, we discovered that the beam acts as a repulsive guidance cue. Here, we report that this highly-effective at-a-distance guidance is the result of a temperature field produced by the near-infrared laser light absorption. Since light absorption by extracellular medium increases when the laser wavelength was red shifted, the threshold laser power for reliable guidance was significantly lower in the near-infrared as compared to the visible spectrum. The spatial temperature gradient caused by the near-infrared laser beam at-a-distance was found to activate temperature-sensitive membrane receptors, resulting in an influx of calcium. The repulsive guidance effect was significantly reduced when extracellular calcium was depleted or in the presence of TRPV1-antagonist. Further, direct heating using micro-heater confirmed that the axonal guidance is caused by shallow temperature-gradient, eliminating the role of any non-photothermal effects. PMID:27460512

  7. Spatial temperature gradients guide axonal outgrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Bryan; Vishwakarma, Vivek; Dhakal, Kamal; Bhattarai, Samik; Pradhan, Prabhakar; Jain, Ankur; Kim, Young-Tae; Mohanty, Samarendra

    2016-07-01

    Formation of neural networks during development and regeneration after injury depends on accuracy of axonal pathfinding, which is primarily believed to be influenced by chemical cues. Recently, there is growing evidence that physical cues can play crucial role in axonal guidance. However, detailed mechanism involved in such guidance cues is lacking. By using weakly-focused near-infrared continuous wave (CW) laser microbeam in the path of an advancing axon, we discovered that the beam acts as a repulsive guidance cue. Here, we report that this highly-effective at-a-distance guidance is the result of a temperature field produced by the near-infrared laser light absorption. Since light absorption by extracellular medium increases when the laser wavelength was red shifted, the threshold laser power for reliable guidance was significantly lower in the near-infrared as compared to the visible spectrum. The spatial temperature gradient caused by the near-infrared laser beam at-a-distance was found to activate temperature-sensitive membrane receptors, resulting in an influx of calcium. The repulsive guidance effect was significantly reduced when extracellular calcium was depleted or in the presence of TRPV1-antagonist. Further, direct heating using micro-heater confirmed that the axonal guidance is caused by shallow temperature-gradient, eliminating the role of any non-photothermal effects.

  8. Mechanosensitivity in axon growth and guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbach, Jeff

    2013-03-01

    In the developing nervous system, axons respond to a diverse array of cues to generate the intricate connection network required for proper function. The growth cone, a highly motile structure at the tip of a growing axon, integrates information about the local environment and modulates outgrowth and guidance, but little is known about effects of external mechanical cues and internal mechanical forces on growth cone behavior. We have investigated axon outgrowth and force generation on soft elastic substrates for dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons (from the peripheral nervous system) and hippocampal neurons (from the central) to see how the mechanics of the microenvironment affect different populations. We find that force generation and stiffness-dependent outgrowth are strongly dependent on cell type. We also observe very different internal dynamics and substrate coupling in the two populations, suggesting that the difference in force generation is due to stronger adhesions and therefore stronger substrate engagement in the peripheral nervous system neurons. We will discuss the biological origins of these differences, and recent analyses of the dynamic aspects of growth cone force generation and the implications for the role of mechanosensitivity in axon guidance. In collaboration with D. Koch, W. Rosoff, and H. M. Geller. Supported by NINDS grant 1R01NS064250-01 (J.S.U.) and the NHLBI Intramural Research Program (H.M.G.).

  9. Modeling molecular mechanisms in the axon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rooij, R.; Miller, K. E.; Kuhl, E.

    2016-12-01

    Axons are living systems that display highly dynamic changes in stiffness, viscosity, and internal stress. However, the mechanistic origin of these phenomenological properties remains elusive. Here we establish a computational mechanics model that interprets cellular-level characteristics as emergent properties from molecular-level events. We create an axon model of discrete microtubules, which are connected to neighboring microtubules via discrete crosslinking mechanisms that obey a set of simple rules. We explore two types of mechanisms: passive and active crosslinking. Our passive and active simulations suggest that the stiffness and viscosity of the axon increase linearly with the crosslink density, and that both are highly sensitive to the crosslink detachment and reattachment times. Our model explains how active crosslinking with dynein motors generates internal stresses and actively drives axon elongation. We anticipate that our model will allow us to probe a wide variety of molecular phenomena—both in isolation and in interaction—to explore emergent cellular-level features under physiological and pathological conditions.

  10. A model of axonal transport drug delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Andrey V.

    2012-04-01

    In this paper a model of targeted drug delivery by means of active (motor-driven) axonal transport is developed. The model is motivated by recent experimental research by Filler et al. (A.G. Filler, G.T. Whiteside, M. Bacon, M. Frederickson, F.A. Howe, M.D. Rabinowitz, A.J. Sokoloff, T.W. Deacon, C. Abell, R. Munglani, J.R. Griffiths, B.A. Bell, A.M.L. Lever, Tri-partite complex for axonal transport drug delivery achieves pharmacological effect, Bmc Neuroscience 11 (2010) 8) that reported synthesis and pharmacological efficiency tests of a tri-partite complex designed for axonal transport drug delivery. The developed model accounts for two populations of pharmaceutical agent complexes (PACs): PACs that are transported retrogradely by dynein motors and PACs that are accumulated in the axon at the Nodes of Ranvier. The transitions between these two populations of PACs are described by first-order reactions. An analytical solution of the coupled system of transient equations describing conservations of these two populations of PACs is obtained by using Laplace transform. Numerical results for various combinations of parameter values are presented and their physical significance is discussed.

  11. Modeling molecular mechanisms in the axon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rooij, R.; Miller, K. E.; Kuhl, E.

    2017-03-01

    Axons are living systems that display highly dynamic changes in stiffness, viscosity, and internal stress. However, the mechanistic origin of these phenomenological properties remains elusive. Here we establish a computational mechanics model that interprets cellular-level characteristics as emergent properties from molecular-level events. We create an axon model of discrete microtubules, which are connected to neighboring microtubules via discrete crosslinking mechanisms that obey a set of simple rules. We explore two types of mechanisms: passive and active crosslinking. Our passive and active simulations suggest that the stiffness and viscosity of the axon increase linearly with the crosslink density, and that both are highly sensitive to the crosslink detachment and reattachment times. Our model explains how active crosslinking with dynein motors generates internal stresses and actively drives axon elongation. We anticipate that our model will allow us to probe a wide variety of molecular phenomena—both in isolation and in interaction—to explore emergent cellular-level features under physiological and pathological conditions.

  12. Suppression of axonal conduction by sinusoidal stimulation in rat hippocampus in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, A. L.; Durand, D. M.

    2007-06-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS), also known as high frequency stimulation (HFS), is a well-established therapy for Parkinson's disease and essential tremor, and shows promise for the therapeutic control of epilepsy. However, the direct effect of DBS on neural elements close to the stimulating electrode remains an important unanswered question. Computational studies have suggested that HFS has a dual effect on neural elements inhibiting cell bodies, while exciting axons. Prior experiments have shown that sinusoidal HFS (50 Hz) can suppress synaptic and non-synaptic cellular activity in several in vitro epilepsy models, in all layers of the hippocampus. However, the effects of HFS on axons near the electrode are still unclear. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that HFS suppresses axonal conduction in vitro. Sinusoidal HFS was applied to the alvear axon field of transverse rat hippocampal slices. The results show that HFS suppresses the alvear compound action potential (CAP) as well as the CA1 antidromic evoked potential (AEP). Complete suppression was observed as a 100% reduction in the amplitude of the evoked field potential for the duration of the stimulus. Evoked potential width and latency were not significantly affected by sinusoidal HFS. Suppression was dependent on HFS amplitude and frequency, but independent of stimulus duration and synaptic transmission. The frequency dependence of sinusoidal HFS is similar to that observed in clinical DBS, with maximal suppression between 50 and 200 Hz. HFS produced not only suppression of axonal conduction but also a correlated rise in extracellular potassium. These data provide new insights into the effects of HFS on neuronal elements, and show that HFS can block axonal activity through non-synaptic mechanisms.

  13. Suppression of axonal conduction by sinusoidal stimulation in rat hippocampus in vitro.

    PubMed

    Jensen, A L; Durand, D M

    2007-06-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS), also known as high frequency stimulation (HFS), is a well-established therapy for Parkinson's disease and essential tremor, and shows promise for the therapeutic control of epilepsy. However, the direct effect of DBS on neural elements close to the stimulating electrode remains an important unanswered question. Computational studies have suggested that HFS has a dual effect on neural elements inhibiting cell bodies, while exciting axons. Prior experiments have shown that sinusoidal HFS (50 Hz) can suppress synaptic and non-synaptic cellular activity in several in vitro epilepsy models, in all layers of the hippocampus. However, the effects of HFS on axons near the electrode are still unclear. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that HFS suppresses axonal conduction in vitro. Sinusoidal HFS was applied to the alvear axon field of transverse rat hippocampal slices. The results show that HFS suppresses the alvear compound action potential (CAP) as well as the CA1 antidromic evoked potential (AEP). Complete suppression was observed as a 100% reduction in the amplitude of the evoked field potential for the duration of the stimulus. Evoked potential width and latency were not significantly affected by sinusoidal HFS. Suppression was dependent on HFS amplitude and frequency, but independent of stimulus duration and synaptic transmission. The frequency dependence of sinusoidal HFS is similar to that observed in clinical DBS, with maximal suppression between 50 and 200 Hz. HFS produced not only suppression of axonal conduction but also a correlated rise in extracellular potassium. These data provide new insights into the effects of HFS on neuronal elements, and show that HFS can block axonal activity through non-synaptic mechanisms.

  14. Functional polarity of dendrites and axons of primate A1 amacrine cells

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Christopher M.; Detwiler, Peter B.; Dacey, Dennis M.

    2011-01-01

    The A1 cell is an axon-bearing amacrine cell of the primate retina with a diffusely stratified, moderately branched dendritic tree (~400 µm diameter). Axons arise from proximal dendrites forming a second concentric, larger arborization (>4 mm diameter) of thin processes with bouton-like swellings along their length. A1 cells are ON-OFF transient cells that fire a brief high frequency burst of action potentials in response to light (Stafford & Dacey, 1997). It has been hypothesized that A1 cells receive local input to their dendrites, with action potentials propagating output via the axons across the retina, serving a global inhibitory function. To explore this hypothesis we recorded intracellularly from A1 cells in an in vitro macaque monkey retina preparation. A1 cells have an antagonistic center-surround receptive field structure for the ON and OFF components of the light response. Blocking the ON pathway with L-AP4 eliminated ON center responses but not OFF center responses or ON or OFF surround responses. Blocking GABAergic inhibition with picrotoxin increased response amplitudes without affecting receptive field structure. TTX abolished action potentials, with little effect on the sub-threshold light response or basic receptive field structure. We also used multi-photon laser scanning microscopy to record light-induced calcium transients in morphologically identified dendrites and axons of A1 cells. TTX completely abolished such calcium transients in the axons but not in the dendrites. Together these results support the current model of A1 function, whereby the dendritic tree receives synaptic input that determines the center-surround receptive field; and action potentials arise in the axons, which propagate away from the dendritic field across the retina. PMID:17550636

  15. The Extract of Roots of Sophora flavescens Enhances the Recovery of Motor Function by Axonal Growth in Mice with a Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Norio; Kuboyama, Tomoharu; Kazuma, Kohei; Konno, Katsuhiro; Tohda, Chihiro

    2016-01-01

    Although axonal extension to reconstruct spinal tracts should be effective for restoring function after spinal cord injury (SCI), chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) levels increase at spinal cord lesion sites, and inhibit axonal regrowth. In this study, we found that the water extract of roots of Sophora flavescens extended the axons of mouse cortical neurons, even on a CSPG-coated surface. Consecutive oral administrations of S. flavescens extract to SCI mice for 31 days increased the density of 5-HT-positive axons at the lesion site and improved the motor function. Further, the active constituents in the S. flavescens extract were identified. The water and alkaloid fractions of the S. flavescens extract each exhibited axonal extension activity in vitro. LC/MS analysis revealed that these fractions mainly contain matrine and/or oxymatrine, which are well-known major compounds in S. flavescens. Matrine and oxymatrine promoted axonal extension on the CSPG-coated surface. This study is the first to demonstrate that S. flavescens extract, matrine, and oxymatrine enhance axonal growth in vitro, even on a CSPG-coated surface, and that S. flavescens extract improves motor function and increases axonal density in SCI mice. PMID:26834638

  16. Critical role of axonal A-type K+ channels and axonal geometry in the gating of action potential propagation along CA3 pyramidal cell axons: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Kopysova, I L; Debanne, D

    1998-09-15

    A model of CA3 pyramidal cell axons was used to study a new mode of gating of action potential (AP) propagation along the axon that depends on the activation of A-type K+ current (Debanne et al., 1997). The axonal membrane contained voltage-dependent Na+ channels, K+ channels, and A-type K+ channels. The density of axonal A-channels was first determined so that (1) at the resting membrane potential an AP elicited by a somatic depolarization was propagated into all axon collaterals and (2) propagation failures occurred when a brief somatic hyperpolarization preceded the AP induction. Both conditions were fulfilled only when A-channels were distributed in clusters but not when they were homogeneously distributed along the axon. Failure occurs in the proximal part of the axon. Conduction failure could be determined by a single cluster of A-channels, local decrease of axon diameter, or axonal elongation. We estimated the amplitude and temporal parameters of the hyperpolarization required for induction of a conduction block. Transient and small somatic hyperpolarizations, such as simulated GABAA inhibitory postsynaptic potentials, were able to block the AP propagation. It was shown that AP induction had to occur with a short delay (<30 msec) after the hyperpolarization. We discuss the possible conditions in which such local variations of the axon geometry and A-channel density may occur and the incidence of AP propagation failures on hippocampal network properties.

  17. Nogo-A is involved in secondary axonal degeneration of thalamus in hypertensive rats with focal cortical infarction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Liang, Zhijian; Hou, Qinghua; Xing, Shihui; Ling, Li; He, Meixia; Pei, Zhong; Zeng, Jinsheng

    2007-05-07

    We investigate whether Nogo-A is involved in the secondary axonal degeneration in the thalamus after distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rats (RHRSP). The expression of Nogo-A in ipsilateral ventroposterior nucleus (VPN) of the thalamus in RHRSP was observed at 1, 2 and 4 weeks after distal MCAO. In addition, intracerebroventricular infusion of NEP1-40, a Nogo-66 receptor (NgR) antagonist peptide, was administered starting 24 h after MCAO and continued for 1, 2 and 4 weeks, respectively. Axonal damage and regeneration were evaluated by analysis of the immunoreactivity (IR) of amyloid betaA4 precursor protein (APP), growth associated protein 43 (GAP-43) and microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP-2) in ipsilateral VPN of the thalamus at 1, 2 and 4 weeks after distal MCAO. Following ischemia, the expression of Nogo-A in oligodendrocytes increased persistently and its localization became redistributed around damaged axons and dendrites. Administration of NEP1-40 downregulated the expression of Nogo-A, reduced axonal injury and enhanced axonal regeneration. Our data suggest that Nogo-A is involved in secondary axonal degeneration and that inhibition of Nogo-A can reduce neuronal damage in the thalamus after distal MCAO.

  18. The TC10-exo70 complex is essential for membrane expansion and axonal specification in developing neurons

    PubMed Central

    Dupraz, Sebastián; Grassi, Diego; Bernis, María Eugenia; Sosa, Lucas; Bisbal, Mariano; Gastaldi, Laura; Jausoro, Ignacio; Cáceres, Alfredo; Pfenninger, Karl H.; Quiroga, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    Axonal elongation is one of the hallmarks of neuronal polarization. This phenomenon requires axonal membrane growth by exocytosis of plasmalemmal precursor vesicles (PPVs) at the nerve growth cone, a process regulated by IGF-1 activation of the PI3k pathway. Few details are known, however, about the targeting mechanisms for PPVs. Here we show, in cultured hippocampal pyramidal neurons and growth cones isolated from fetal rat brain, that IGF-1 activates the GTP-binding protein TC10, which triggers translocation to the plasma membrane of the exocyst component exo70 in the distal axon and growth cone. We also show that TC10 and exo70 function are necessary for addition of new membrane and, thus, axon elongation stimulated by IGF-1. Moreover, expression silencing of either TC10 or exo70 inhibit the establishment of neuronal polarity by hindering the insertion of IGF-1 receptor in one of the undifferentiated neurites. We conclude that, in hippocampal pyramidal neurons in culture, (i) membrane expansion at the axonal growth cone is regulated by IGF-1 via a cascade involving TC10 and the exocyst complex, (ii) TC10 and exo70 are essential for the polarized externalization of IGF-1 receptor, and (iii) this process is necessary for axon specification. PMID:19846717

  19. The TC10-Exo70 complex is essential for membrane expansion and axonal specification in developing neurons.

    PubMed

    Dupraz, Sebastián; Grassi, Diego; Bernis, María Eugenia; Sosa, Lucas; Bisbal, Mariano; Gastaldi, Laura; Jausoro, Ignacio; Cáceres, Alfredo; Pfenninger, Karl H; Quiroga, Santiago

    2009-10-21

    Axonal elongation is one of the hallmarks of neuronal polarization. This phenomenon requires axonal membrane growth by exocytosis of plasmalemmal precursor vesicles (PPVs) at the nerve growth cone, a process regulated by IGF-1 activation of the PI3K (phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase) pathway. Few details are known, however, about the targeting mechanisms for PPVs. Here, we show, in cultured hippocampal pyramidal neurons and growth cones isolated from fetal rat brain, that IGF-1 activates the GTP-binding protein TC10, which triggers translocation to the plasma membrane of the exocyst component exo70 in the distal axon and growth cone. We also show that TC10 and exo70 function are necessary for addition of new membrane and, thus, axon elongation stimulated by IGF-1. Moreover, expression silencing of either TC10 or exo70 inhibit the establishment of neuronal polarity by hindering the insertion of IGF-1 receptor in one of the undifferentiated neurites. We conclude that, in hippocampal pyramidal neurons in culture, (1) membrane expansion at the axonal growth cone is regulated by IGF-1 via a cascade involving TC10 and the exocyst complex, (2) TC10 and exo70 are essential for the polarized externalization of IGF-1 receptor, and (3) this process is necessary for axon specification.

  20. Slit-Robo signals regulate pioneer axon pathfinding of the tract of the postoptic commissure in the mammalian forebrain.

    PubMed

    Ricaño-Cornejo, Itzel; Altick, Amy L; García-Peña, Claudia M; Nural, Hikmet Feyza; Echevarría, Diego; Miquelajáuregui, Amaya; Mastick, Grant S; Varela-Echavarría, Alfredo

    2011-10-01

    During early vertebrate forebrain development, pioneer axons establish a symmetrical scaffold descending longitudinally through the rostral forebrain, thus forming the tract of the postoptic commissure (TPOC). In mouse embryos, this tract begins to appear at embryonic day 9.5 (E9.5) as a bundle of axons tightly constrained at a specific dorsoventral level. We have characterized the participation of the Slit chemorepellants and their Robo receptors in the control of TPOC axon projection. In E9.5-E11.5 mouse embryos, Robo1 and Robo2 are expressed in the nucleus origin of the TPOC (nTPOC), and Slit expression domains flank the TPOC trajectory. These findings suggested that these proteins are important factors in the dorsoventral positioning of the TPOC axons. Consistently with this role, Slit2 inhibited TPOC axon growth in collagen gel cultures, and interfering with Robo function in cultured embryos induced projection errors in TPOC axons. Moreover, absence of both Slit1 and Slit2 or Robo1 and Robo2 in mutant mouse embryos revealed aberrant TPOC trajectories, resulting in abnormal spreading of the tract and misprojections into both ventral and dorsal tissues. These results reveal that Slit-Robo signaling regulates the dorsoventral position of this pioneer tract in the developing forebrain.

  1. Spatiotemporal gradients of intra-axonal [Na+] after transection and resealing in lizard peripheral myelinated axons.

    PubMed Central

    David, G; Barrett, J N; Barrett, E F

    1997-01-01

    1. Post-transection changes in intracellular Na+ ([Na+]i) were measured in lizard peripheral axons ionophoretically injected with the Na(+)-sensitive ratiometric dye, sodium-binding benzofuran isophthalate (SBFI). 2. Following axonal transection in physiological saline [Na+]i increased to more than 100 mM in a region that quickly extended hundreds of micrometers from the transection site. This post-transection increase in [Na+]i was similar when the bath contained 5 microM tetrodotoxin, but was absent in Na(+)-free solution. Depolarization of uncut axons in 50 mM K+ produced little or no elevation of [Na+]i until veratridine was added. These results suggest that the post-transection increase in [Na+]i was due mainly to Na+ entry via the cut end, rather than via depolarization-activated Na+ channels. 3. The spatiotemporal profile of the post-transection increase in [Na+]i could be accounted for by movement of Na+ from the cut end with an apparent diffusion coefficient of 1.3 x 10(-5) cm2 s-1. 4. [Na+]i began to decline toward resting levels by 20 +/- 15 min (mean +/- S.D.) post-transection, except in regions of the axon within 160 +/- 85 microns of the transection site, where [Na+]i remained high. The boundary between axonal regions in which [Na+]i did or did not recover probably defines a locus of resealing of the axonal membrane. 5. [Na+]i returned to resting values within about 1 h after resealing, even in axonal regions where the normal transmembrane [Na+] gradient had completely dissipated. The recovery of [Na+]i was faster and reached lower levels than expected by diffusional redistribution of Na+ along the axon. Partial recovery occurred even in an isolated internode, indicating that the internodal axolemma can actively extrude Na+. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:9032679

  2. Axonal Terminals Exposed to Amyloid-β May Not Lead to Pre-Synaptic Axonal Damage

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shu-Wei; Nishioka, Christopher; Labib, Wessam; Liang, Hsiao-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Background Synaptic deficits and neuronal loss are the major pathological manifestations of Alzheimer’s disease. However, the link between the early synaptic loss and subsequent neurodegeneration is not entirely clear. Cell culture studies have shown that amyloid-β (Aβ) applied to axonal terminals can cause retrograde degeneration leading to the neuronal loss, but this process has not been demonstrated in live animals. Objective To test if Aβ applied to retinal ganglion cell axonal terminals can induce axonal damage in the optic nerve and optic tract in mice. Methods Aβ was injected into the terminal field of the optic tract, in the left lateral geniculate nucleus of wildtype C57BL/6 mice. Following the injection, monthly diffusion tensor imaging was performed. Three months after the injection, mice underwent visual evoked potential recordings, and then sacrificed for immunohistochemical examination. Results There were no significant changes seen with diffusion tensor imaging in the optic nerve and optic tract 3 months after the Aβ injection. The myelin and axons in these regions remained intact according to immunohistochemistry. The only significant changes observed in this study were delayed transduction and reduced amplitude of visual evoked potentials, although both Aβ and its reversed form caused similar changes. Conclusion Despite the published in vitro studies, there was no significant axonal damage in the optic nerve and optic tract after injecting Aβ onto retinal ganglion cell axonal terminals of wildtype C57BL/6 mice. PMID:25697704

  3. mTORC1 is necessary but mTORC2 and GSK3β are inhibitory for AKT3-induced axon regeneration in the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Linqing; Yang, Liu; Huang, Haoliang; Liang, Feisi; Ling, Chen; Hu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Injured mature CNS axons do not regenerate in mammals. Deletion of PTEN, the negative regulator of PI3K, induces CNS axon regeneration through the activation of PI3K-mTOR signaling. We have conducted an extensive molecular dissection of the cross-regulating mechanisms in axon regeneration that involve the downstream effectors of PI3K, AKT and the two mTOR complexes (mTORC1 and mTORC2). We found that the predominant AKT isoform in CNS, AKT3, induces much more robust axon regeneration than AKT1 and that activation of mTORC1 and inhibition of GSK3β are two critical parallel pathways for AKT-induced axon regeneration. Surprisingly, phosphorylation of T308 and S473 of AKT play opposite roles in GSK3β phosphorylation and inhibition, by which mTORC2 and pAKT-S473 negatively regulate axon regeneration. Thus, our study revealed a complex neuron-intrinsic balancing mechanism involving AKT as the nodal point of PI3K, mTORC1/2 and GSK3β that coordinates both positive and negative cues to regulate adult CNS axon regeneration. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14908.001 PMID:27026523

  4. Changes in brain tissue and behavior patterns induced by single short-term fasting in mice.

    PubMed

    Hisatomi, Yuko; Asakura, Kyo; Kugino, Kenji; Kurokawa, Mamoru; Asakura, Tomiko; Nakata, Keiko

    2013-01-01

    In humans, emaciation from long-term dietary deficiencies, such as anorexia, reportedly increases physical activity and brain atrophy. However, the effects of single short-term fasting on brain tissue or behavioral activity patterns remain unclear. To clarify the impact of malnutrition on brain function, we conducted a single short-term fasting study as an anorexia model using male adult mice and determined if changes occurred in migratory behavior as an expression of brain function and in brain tissue structure. Sixteen-week-old C57BL/6J male mice were divided into either the fasted group or the control group. Experiments were conducted in a fixed indoor environment. We examined the effects of fasting on the number of nerve cells, structural changes in the myelin and axon density, and brain atrophy. For behavior observation, the amount of food and water consumed, ingestion time, and the pattern of movement were measured using a time-recording system. The fasted mice showed a significant increase in physical activity and their rhythm of movement was disturbed. Since the brain was in an abnormal state after fasting, mice that were normally active during the night became active regardless of day or night and performed strenuous exercise at a high frequency. The brain weight did not change by a fast, and brain atrophy was not observed. Although no textural change was apparent by fasting, the neuronal neogenesis in the subventricular zone and hippocampus was inhibited, causing disorder of the brain function. A clear association between the suppression of encephalic neuropoiesis and overactivity was not established. However, it is interesting that the results of this study suggest that single short-term fasting has an effect on encephalic neuropoiesis.

  5. Axonal degeneration in paraplegin-deficient mice is associated with abnormal mitochondria and impairment of axonal transport

    PubMed Central

    Ferreirinha, Fatima; Quattrini, Angelo; Pirozzi, Marinella; Valsecchi, Valentina; Dina, Giorgia; Broccoli, Vania; Auricchio, Alberto; Piemonte, Fiorella; Tozzi, Giulia; Gaeta, Laura; Casari, Giorgio; Ballabio, Andrea; Rugarli, Elena I.

    2004-01-01

    In several neurodegenerative diseases, axonal degeneration occurs before neuronal death and contributes significantly to patients’ disability. Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a genetically heterogeneous condition characterized by selective degeneration of axons of the corticospinal tracts and fasciculus gracilis. HSP may therefore be considered an exemplary disease to study the local programs mediating axonal degeneration. We have developed a mouse model for autosomal recessive HSP due to mutations in the SPG7 gene encoding the mitochondrial ATPase paraplegin. Paraplegin-deficient mice are affected by a distal axonopathy of spinal and peripheral axons, characterized by axonal swelling and degeneration. We found that mitochondrial morphological abnormalities occurred in synaptic terminals and in distal regions of axons long before the first signs of swelling and degeneration and correlated with onset of motor impairment during a rotarod test. Axonal swellings occur through massive accumulation of organelles and neurofilaments, suggesting impairment of anterograde axonal transport. Retrograde axonal transport is delayed in symptomatic mice. We speculate that local failure of mitochondrial function may affect axonal transport and cause axonal degeneration. Our data suggest that a timely therapeutic intervention may prevent the loss of axons. PMID:14722615

  6. Preserve and protect: maintaining axons within functional circuits.

    PubMed

    Pease, Sarah E; Segal, Rosalind A

    2014-10-01

    During development, neural circuits are initially generated by exuberant innervation and are rapidly refined by selective preservation and elimination of axons. The establishment and maintenance of functional circuits therefore requires coordination of axon survival and degeneration pathways. Both developing and mature circuits rely on interdependent mitochondrial and cytoskeletal components to maintain axonal health and homeostasis; injury or diseases that impinge on these components frequently cause pathologic axon loss. Here, we review recent findings that identify mechanisms of axonal preservation in the contexts of development, injury, and disease.

  7. astray, a zebrafish roundabout homolog required for retinal axon guidance.

    PubMed

    Fricke, C; Lee, J S; Geiger-Rudolph, S; Bonhoeffer, F; Chien, C B

    2001-04-20

    As growing retinotectal axons navigate from the eye to the tectum, they sense guidance molecules distributed along the optic pathway. Mutations in the zebrafish astray gene severely disrupt retinal axon guidance, causing anterior-posterior pathfinding defects, excessive midline crossing, and defasciculation of the retinal projection. Eye transplantation experiments show that astray function is required in the eye. We identify astray as zebrafish robo2, a member of the Roundabout family of axon guidance receptors. Retinal ganglion cells express robo2 as they extend axons. Thus, robo2 is required for multiple axon guidance decisions during establishment of the vertebrate visual projection.

  8. Preserve and protect: maintaining axons within functional circuits

    PubMed Central

    Pease, Sarah E.; Segal, Rosalind A.

    2014-01-01

    During development, neural circuits are initially generated by exuberant innervation and are rapidly refined by selective preservation and elimination of axons. The establishment and maintenance of functional circuits therefore requires coordination of axon survival and degeneration pathways. Both developing and mature circuits rely on interdependent mitochondrial and cytoskeletal components to maintain axonal health and homeostasis; injury or diseases that impinge on these components frequently cause pathologic axon loss. Here, we review recent findings that identify mechanisms of axonal preservation in the contexts of development, injury, and disease. PMID:25167775

  9. How Fast Is Fast?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korn, Abe

    1994-01-01

    Presents an activity that enables students to answer for themselves the question of how fast a body must travel before the nonrelativistic expression must be replaced with the correct relativistic expression by deciding on the accuracy required in describing the kinetic energy of a body. (ZWH)

  10. Two Modes of the Axonal Interferon Response Limit Alphaherpesvirus Neuroinvasion

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ren; Koyuncu, Orkide O.; Greco, Todd M.; Diner, Benjamin A.; Cristea, Ileana M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Infection by alphaherpesviruses, including herpes simplex virus (HSV) and pseudorabies virus (PRV), typically begins at epithelial surfaces and continues into the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Inflammatory responses are induced at the infected peripheral site prior to invasion of the PNS. When the peripheral tissue is first infected, only the innervating axons are exposed to this inflammatory milieu, which includes the interferons (IFNs). The fundamental question is how do PNS cell bodies respond to these distant, potentially damaging events experienced by axons. Using compartmented cultures that physically separate neuron axons from cell bodies, we found that pretreating isolated axons with beta interferon (IFN-β) or gamma interferon (IFN-γ) significantly diminished the number of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) and PRV particles moving in axons toward the cell bodies in a receptor-dependent manner. Exposing axons to IFN-β induced STAT1 phosphorylation (p-STAT1) only in axons, while exposure of axons to IFN-γ induced p-STAT1 accumulation in distant cell body nuclei. Blocking transcription in cell bodies eliminated antiviral effects induced by IFN-γ, but not those induced by IFN-β. Proteomic analysis of IFN-β- or IFN-γ-treated axons identified several differentially regulated proteins. Therefore, unlike treatment with IFN-γ, IFN-β induces a noncanonical, local antiviral response in axons. The activation of a local IFN response in axons represents a new paradigm for cytokine control of neuroinvasion. PMID:26838720

  11. Partial Interruption of Axonal Transport Due to Microtubule Breakage Accounts for the Formation of Periodic Varicosities after Traumatic Axonal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tang-Schomer, Min D.; Johnson, Victoria E.; Baas, Peter W.; Stewart, William; Smith, Douglas H.

    2012-01-01

    Due to their viscoelastic nature, white matter axons are susceptible to damage by high strain rates produced during traumatic brain injury (TBI). Indeed, diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is one of the most common features of TBI, characterized by the hallmark pathological profiles of axonal bulbs at disconnected terminal ends of axons and periodic swellings along axons, known as “varicosities.” Although transport interruption underlies axonal bulb formation, it is unclear how varicosities arise, with multiple sites accumulating transported materials along one axon. Recently, axonal microtubules have been found to physically break during dynamic stretch-injury of cortical axons in vitro. Here, the same in vitro model was used in parallel with histopathological analyses of human brains acquired acutely following TBI to examine the potential role of mechanical microtubule damage in varicosity formation post-trauma. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) following in vitro stretch-injury revealed periodic breaks of individual microtubules along axons that regionally corresponded with undulations in axon morphology. However, typically less than a third of microtubules were broken in any region of an axon. Within hours, these sites of microtubule breaks evolved into periodic swellings. This suggests axonal transport may be halted along one broken microtubule, yet can proceed through the same region via other intact microtubules. Similar axonal undulations and varicosities were observed following TBI in humans, suggesting primary microtubule failure may also be a feature of DAI. These data indicate a novel mechanism of mechanical microtubule damage leading to partial transport interruption and varicosity formation in traumatic axonal injury. PMID:22079153

  12. The Emerging Role of Forces in Axonal Elongation

    PubMed Central

    Suter, Daniel M.; Miller, Kyle E.

    2011-01-01

    An understanding of how axons elongate is needed to develop rational strategies to treat neurological diseases and nerve injury. Growth cone-mediated neuronal elongation is currently viewed as occurring through cytoskeletal dynamics involving the polymerization of actin and tubulin subunits at the tip of the axon. However, recent work suggests that axons and growth cones also generate forces (through cytoskeletal dynamics, kinesin, dynein, and myosin), forces induce axonal elongation, and axons lengthen by stretching. This review highlights results from various model systems (Drosophila, Aplysia, Xenopus, chicken, mouse, rat, and PC12 cells), supporting a role for forces, bulk microtubule movements, and intercalated mass addition in the process of axonal elongation. We think that a satisfying answer to the question, “How do axons grow?” will come by integrating the best aspects of biophysics, genetics, and cell biology. PMID:21527310

  13. Relay of retrograde synaptogenic signals through axonal transport of BMP receptors

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Rebecca B.; Machamer, James B.; Kim, Nam Chul; Hays, Thomas S.; Marqués, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    Summary Neuronal function depends on the retrograde relay of growth and survival signals from the synaptic terminal, where the neuron interacts with its targets, to the nucleus, where gene transcription is regulated. Activation of the Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) pathway at the Drosophila larval neuromuscular junction results in nuclear accumulation of the phosphorylated form of the transcription factor Mad in the motoneuron nucleus. This in turn regulates transcription of genes that control synaptic growth. How BMP signaling at the synaptic terminal is relayed to the cell body and nucleus of the motoneuron to regulate transcription is unknown. We show that the BMP receptors are endocytosed at the synaptic terminal and transported retrogradely along the axon. Furthermore, this transport is dependent on BMP pathway activity, as it decreases in the absence of ligand or receptors. We further demonstrate that receptor traffic is severely impaired when Dynein motors are inhibited, a condition that has previously been shown to block BMP pathway activation. In contrast to these results, we find no evidence for transport of phosphorylated Mad along the axons, and axonal traffic of Mad is not affected in mutants defective in BMP signaling or retrograde transport. These data support a model in which complexes of activated BMP receptors are actively transported along the axon towards the cell body to relay the synaptogenic signal, and that phosphorylated Mad at the synaptic terminal and cell body represent two distinct molecular populations. PMID:22573823

  14. The vesicular SNARE Synaptobrevin is required for Semaphorin 3A axonal repulsion

    PubMed Central

    Zylbersztejn, Kathleen; Petkovic, Maja; Burgo, Andrea; Deck, Marie; Garel, Sonia; Marcos, Séverine; Bloch-Gallego, Evelyne; Nothias, Fatiha; Serini, Guido; Bagnard, Dominique; Binz, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Attractive and repulsive molecules such as Semaphorins (Sema) trigger rapid responses that control the navigation of axonal growth cones. The role of vesicular traffic in axonal guidance is still largely unknown. The exocytic vesicular soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptor (SNARE) Synaptobrevin 2 (Syb2) is known for mediating neurotransmitter release in mature neurons, but its potential role in axonal guidance remains elusive. Here we show that Syb2 is required for Sema3A-dependent repulsion but not Sema3C-dependent attraction in cultured neurons and in the mouse brain. Syb2 associated with Neuropilin 1 and Plexin A1, two essential components of the Sema3A receptor, via its juxtatransmembrane domain. Sema3A receptor and Syb2 colocalize in endosomal membranes. Moreover, upon Sema3A treatment, Syb2-deficient neurons failed to collapse and transport Plexin A1 to cell bodies. Reconstitution of Sema3A receptor in nonneuronal cells revealed that Sema3A further inhibited the exocytosis of Syb2. Therefore, Sema3A-mediated signaling and axonal repulsion require Syb2-dependent vesicular traffic. PMID:22213797

  15. Involvement of ADAM10 in axonal outgrowth and myelination of the peripheral nerve.

    PubMed

    Jangouk, Parastoo; Dehmel, Thomas; Meyer Zu Hörste, Gerd; Ludwig, Andreas; Lehmann, Helmar C; Kieseier, Bernd C

    2009-12-01

    The disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) is a membrane-anchored metalloproteinase with both proteolytic and disintegrin characteristics. Here, we investigate the expression, regulation, and functional role of ADAM10 in axonal outgrowth and myelination of the peripheral nerve. Expression pattern analysis of 11 ADAM family members in co-cultures of rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and Schwann cells (SCs) demonstrated the most pronounced mRNA expression for ADAM10. In further studies, ADAM10 was found to be consistently upregulated in DRG-SC co-cultures before the induction of myelination. Neurons as well as SCs widely expressed ADAM10 at the protein level. In neurons, the expression of ADAM10 was exclusively limited to the axons before the induction of myelination. Inhibition of ADAM10 activity by the hydroxamate-based inhibitors GI254023X and GW280264X resulted in a significant decrease in the mean axonal length. These data suggest that ADAM10 represents a prerequisite for myelination, although its activity is not required during the process of myelination itself as demonstrated by expression analysis of myelin protein zero (P0) and Sudan black staining. Hence, during the process of myelin formation, ADAM10 is highly upregulated and appears to be critically involved in axonal outgrowth that is a requirement for myelination in the peripheral nerve.

  16. A dynamic formin-dependent deep F-actin network in axons

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Archan; Tang, Yong; Wang, Lina; Ladt, Kelsey; Loi, Jonathan; Dargent, Bénédicte; Leterrier, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Although actin at neuronal growth cones is well-studied, much less is known about actin organization and dynamics along axon shafts and presynaptic boutons. Using probes that selectively label filamentous-actin (F-actin), we found focal “actin hotspots” along axons—spaced ∼3–4 µm apart—where actin undergoes continuous assembly/disassembly. These foci are a nidus for vigorous actin polymerization, generating long filaments spurting bidirectionally along axons—a phenomenon we call “actin trails.” Super-resolution microscopy reveals intra-axonal deep actin filaments in addition to the subplasmalemmal “actin rings” described recently. F-actin hotspots colocalize with stationary axonal endosomes, and blocking vesicle transport diminishes the actin trails, suggesting mechanistic links between vesicles and F-actin kinetics. Actin trails are formin—but not Arp2/3—dependent and help enrich actin at presynaptic boutons. Finally, formin inhibition dramatically disrupts synaptic recycling. Collectively, available data suggest a two-tier F-actin organization in axons, with stable “actin rings” providing mechanical support to the plasma membrane and dynamic "actin trails" generating a flexible cytoskeletal network with putative physiological roles. PMID:26216902

  17. LINGO-1 antagonist promotes functional recovery and axonal sprouting after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Ji, Benxiu; Li, Mingwei; Wu, Wu-Tian; Yick, Leung-Wah; Lee, Xinhua; Shao, Zhaohui; Wang, Joy; So, Kwok-Fai; McCoy, John M; Pepinsky, R Blake; Mi, Sha; Relton, Jane K

    2006-11-01

    LINGO-1 is a CNS-specific protein and a functional component of the NgR1/p75/LINGO-1 and NgR1/TAJ(TROY)/LINGO-1 signaling complexes that mediate inhibition of axonal outgrowth. These receptor complexes mediate the axonal growth inhibitory effects of Nogo, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein (OMgp) via RhoA activation. Soluble LINGO-1 (LINGO-1-Fc), which acts as an antagonist of these pathways by blocking LINGO-1 binding to NgR1, was administered to rats after dorsal or lateral hemisection of the spinal cord. LINGO-1-Fc treatment significantly improved functional recovery, promoted axonal sprouting and decreased RhoA activation and increased oligodendrocyte and neuronal survival after either rubrospinal or corticospinal tract transection. These experiments demonstrate an important role for LINGO-1 in modulating axonal outgrowth in vivo and that treatment with LINGO-1-Fc can significantly enhance recovery after spinal cord injury.

  18. Towards axonal regeneration and neuroprotection in glaucoma: Rho kinase inhibitors as promising therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Van de Velde, Sarah; De Groef, Lies; Stalmans, Ingeborg; Moons, Lieve; Van Hove, Inge

    2015-08-01

    Due to a prolonged life expectancy worldwide, the incidence of age-related neurodegenerative disorders such as glaucoma is increasing. Glaucoma is the second cause of blindness, resulting from a slow and progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons. Up to now, intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction is the only treatment modality by which ophthalmologists attempt to control disease progression. However, not all patients benefit from this therapy, and the pathophysiology of glaucoma is not always associated with an elevated IOP. These limitations, together with the multifactorial etiology of glaucoma, urge the pressing medical need for novel and alternative treatment strategies. Such new therapies should focus on preventing or retarding RGC death, but also on repair of injured axons, to ultimately preserve or improve structural and functional connectivity. In this respect, Rho-associated coiled-coil forming protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitors hold a promising potential to become very prominent drugs for future glaucoma treatment. Their field of action in the eye does not seem to be restricted to IOP reduction by targeting the trabecular meshwork or improving filtration surgery outcome. Indeed, over the past years, important progress has been made in elucidating their ability to improve ocular blood flow, to prevent RGC death/increase RGC survival and to retard axonal degeneration or induce proper axonal regeneration. Within this review, we aim to highlight the currently known capacity of ROCK inhibition to promote neuroprotection and regeneration in several in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo experimental glaucoma models.

  19. New perspectives in cyclic AMP-mediated axon growth and guidance: The emerging epoch of Epac.

    PubMed

    Peace, Andrew G; Shewan, Derryck A

    2011-03-10

    In the search for a cure to brain and spinal cord injury much has been learned about the inhibitory environment of the central nervous system (CNS), and yet a clinical therapy remains elusive. In recent years great advances have been made in understanding intracellular molecular mechanisms that transduce cell surface receptor-mediated signals that neurons receive from their environment. Many of these signalling pathways share common mechanisms, which presents the possibility that manipulating activities of key cell signalling molecules such as those regulated by 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) might allow axons to simultaneously overcome the inhibitory effects of a number of extracellular ligands. The identification of Epac, a novel direct intracellular target for cAMP, has opened up a new avenue of research that is beginning to explain how cAMP can mediate a range of neuronal functions including distinct axon growth and guidance decisions. With current research tools that allow more specific activation of proteins or knock-down of their expression, as well as quantitation of protein activities in live cells, it is already becoming clear that Epac plays highly important roles in the development and function of the nervous system. Here, we focus on emerging evidence that Epac mediates cAMP-regulated axon growth and chemoattraction, and thus represents a novel target for overcoming axon growth inhibition and promoting CNS regeneration.

  20. Kinetics of activation of the sodium conductance in the squid giant axon.

    PubMed Central

    Keynes, R D; Kimura, J E

    1983-01-01

    The time course of the rise in sodium conductance during positive voltage-clamp pulses was measured in squid giant axons perfused with CsF and immersed in low-sodium solutions. The initial transients were eliminated by subtraction of records made after blocking the sodium channels with tetrodotoxin. The value of tau m as defined by Hodgkin & Huxley (1952) passed through a well defined maximum at a membrane potential of about -35 mV. On fitting the initial inflexion in the rise of INa to the expression mXh instead of m3h, the value of X was found to vary from axon to axon between 2.9 and 4.4, with an average of 3.5. For any given axon, X did not vary significantly with pulse potential. Measurements of tau m were made on approaching each value of the membrane potential both from the negative and from the positive side. The cube law kinetics of the Hodgkin-Huxley equations were closely obeyed. Application of a negative prepulse to -180 mV delayed the rise of conductance by 20 musec at 7 degrees C without obviously changing tau m. Comparisons of the voltage dependence of tau m with that of the time constant tau 1 of the fast relaxation of the asymmetry current measured in the same axon, showed that tau 1 was smaller than tau m except at positive potentials, was less steeply voltage-dependent, and reached its maximum at a more positive potential. PMID:6308231

  1. Axonal transport of calmodulin: a physiologic approach to identification of long-term associations between proteins

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    Calmodulin is a soluble, heat-stable protein which has been shown to modulate both membrane-bound and soluble enzymes, but relatively little has been known about the in vivo associations of calmodulin. A 17,000- dalton heat-stable protein was found to move in axonal transport in the guinea pig visual system with the proteins of slow component b (SCb; 2 mm/d) along with actin and the bulk of the soluble proteins of the axon. Co-electrophoresis of purified calmodulin and radioactively labeled SCb proteins in two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) demonstrated the identity of the heat-stable SCb protein and calmodulin on the basis of pI, molecular weight, and anomalous migration in the presence of Ca2+-chelating agents. No proteins co-migrating with calmodulin in two-dimensional PAGE could be detected among the proteins of slow component a (SCa; 0.3 mm/d, microtubules and neurofilaments) or fast component (FC; 250 mm/d, membrane-associated proteins). We conclude that calmodulin is transported solely as part of the SCb complex of proteins, the axoplasmic matrix. Calmodulin moves in axonal transport independent of the movements of microtubules (SCa) and membranes (FC), which suggests that the interactions of calmodulin with these structures may represent a transient interaction between groups of proteins moving in axonal transport at different rates. Axonal transport has been shown to be an effective tool for the demonstration of long-term in vivo protein associations. PMID:6166619

  2. Electrogenic Tuning of the Axon Initial Segment

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Brian D.; Goldberg, Ethan M.; Rudy, Bernardo

    2010-01-01

    Action potentials (APs) provide the primary means of rapid information transfer in the nervous system. Where exactly these signals are initiated in neurons has been a basic question in neurobiology and the subject of extensive study. Converging lines of evidence indicate that APs are initiated in a discrete and highly specialized portion of the axon—the axon initial segment (AIS). The authors review key aspects of the organization and function of the AIS and focus on recent work that has provided important insights into its electrical signaling properties. In addition to its main role in AP initiation, the new findings suggest that the AIS is also a site of complex AP modulation by specific types of ion channels localized to this axonal domain. PMID:20007821

  3. Multifunctional Silk Nerve Guides for Axon Outgrowth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tupaj, Marie C.

    Peripheral nerve regeneration is a critical issue as 2.8% of trauma patients present with this type of injury, estimating a total of 200,000 nerve repair procedures yearly in the United States. While the peripheral nervous system exhibits slow regeneration, at a rate of 0.5 mm -- 9 mm/day following trauma, this regenerative ability is only possible under certain conditions. Clinical repairs have changed slightly in the last 30 years and standard methods of treatment include suturing damaged nerve ends, allografting, and autografting, with the autograft the gold standard of these approaches. Unfortunately, the use of autografts requires a second surgery and there is a shortage of nerves available for grafting. Allografts are a second option however allografts have lower success rates and are accompanied by the need of immunosuppressant drugs. Recently there has been a focus on developing nerve guides as an "off the shelf" approach. Although some natural and synthetic guidance channels have been approved by the FDA, these nerve guides are unfunctionalized and repair only short gaps, less than 3 cm in length. The goal of this project was to identify strategies for functionalizing peripheral nerve conduits for the outgrowth of neuron axons in vitro . To accomplish this, two strategies (bioelectrical and biophysical) were indentified for increasing axon outgrowth and promoting axon guidance. Bioelectrical strategies exploited electrical stimulation for increasing neurite outgrowth. Biophysical strategies tested a range of surface topographies for axon guidance. Novel methods were developed for integrating electrical and biophysical strategies into silk films in 2D. Finally, a functionalized nerve conduit system was developed that integrated all strategies for the purpose of attaching, elongating, and guiding nervous tissue in vitro. Future directions of this work include silk conduit translation into a rat sciatic nerve model in vivo for the purpose of repairing long

  4. Temporal identity in axonal target layer recognition.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, Milan; Hummel, Thomas

    2008-12-11

    The segregation of axon and dendrite projections into distinct synaptic layers is a fundamental principle of nervous system organization and the structural basis for information processing in the brain. Layer-specific recognition molecules that allow projecting neurons to stabilize transient contacts and initiate synaptogenesis have been identified. However, most of the neuronal cell-surface molecules critical for layer organization are expressed broadly in the developing nervous system, raising the question of how these so-called permissive adhesion molecules support synaptic specificity. Here we show that the temporal expression dynamics of the zinc-finger protein sequoia is the major determinant of Drosophila photoreceptor connectivity into distinct synaptic layers. Neighbouring R8 and R7 photoreceptors show consecutive peaks of elevated sequoia expression, which correspond to their sequential target-layer innervation. Loss of sequoia in R7 leads to a projection switch into the R8 recipient layer, whereas a prolonged expression in R8 induces a redirection of their axons into the R7 layer. The sequoia-induced axon targeting is mediated through the ubiquitously expressed Cadherin-N cell adhesion molecule. Our data support a model in which recognition specificity during synaptic layer formation is generated through a temporally restricted axonal competence to respond to broadly expressed adhesion molecules. Because developing neurons innervating the same target area often project in a distinct, birth-order-dependent sequence, temporal identity seems to contain crucial information in generating not only cell type diversity during neuronal division but also connection diversity of projecting neurons.

  5. Ionized calcium concentrations in squid axons

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    Values for ionized [Ca] in squid axons were obtained by measuring the light emission from a 0.1-mul drop of aequorin confined to a plastic dialysis tube of 140-mum diameter located axially. Ionized Ca had a mean value of 20 x 10(-9) M as judged by the subsequent introduction of CaEGTA/EGTA buffer (ratio ca. 0.1) into the axoplasm, and light measurement on a second aequorin drop. Ionized Ca in axoplasma was also measured by introducing arsenazo dye into an axon by injection and measuring the Ca complex of such a dye by multichannel spectrophotometry. Values so obtained were ca. 50 x 10(-9) M as calibrated against CaEGTA/EGTA buffer mixtures. Wth a freshly isolated axon in 10 mM Ca seawater, the aequorin glow invariably increased with time; a seawater [Ca] of 2-3 mM allowed a steady state with respect to [Ca]. Replacement of Na+ in seawater with choline led to a large increase in light emission from aequorin. Li seawater partially reversed this change and the reintroduction of Na+ brought light levels back to their initial value. Stimulation at 60/s for 2-5 min produced an increase in aequorin glow about 0.1% of that represented by the known Ca influx, suggesting operationally the presence of substantial Ca buffering. Treatment of an axon with CN produced a very large increase in aequorin glow and in Ca arsenazo formation only if the external seawater contained Ca. PMID:818340

  6. Interspecies variation in axon-myelin relationships.

    PubMed

    Fraher, J P; O'Sullivan, A W

    2000-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper was to determine the extent and nature of interspecies differences in axon calibre and myelin sheath thickness and in the various relationships between these. Morphometric analysis of the axon perimeter-myelin sheath thickness relationship was performed on an equivalent nerve fibre population in a mammal, the rat, a bird, the chicken, an amphibian, the frog, a bony fish, the trout, and a cartilaginous fish, the dogfish. The abducent nerve was studied. It is especially suitable for this purpose because its fibres are closely similar in type and in peripheral distribution across the species studied. The relationship differed substantially between species. Differences were present in its setting, as described by the positions of the scatterplots, in the g ratio and in the regression and correlation data relating the parameters. Both parameters were markedly larger in the fish species than in all of the others. In addition, in rat, chicken, frog and trout, where large and small fibre classes could be differentiated clearly, the setting of the relationship between the two parameters was different for the two classes. In the main, variation in each of the parameters was greater between than within species. The larger fibres in the fish species were closely similar in axon perimeter and sheath thickness despite their long evolutionary separation. From this study and from others in the series, it may be concluded that there is no fixed or constant relationship between axon calibre and the thickness of the surrounding myelin sheath. Each nerve tends to have its own particular relationship and this differs between species.

  7. Activation of mTor Signaling by Gene Transduction to Induce Axon Regeneration in the Central Nervous System Following Neural Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    phosphorylates and thereby inhibits the GTPase activity of the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). This inhibition allows accumulation of activated GTP-bound...Sobue, 2009). Transduction of neurons with a constitutively active form of p70S6K induced the formation of multiple axons, whereas increased expression

  8. Synaptic Democracy and Vesicular Transport in Axons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Levien, Ethan

    2015-04-01

    Synaptic democracy concerns the general problem of how regions of an axon or dendrite far from the cell body (soma) of a neuron can play an effective role in neuronal function. For example, stimulated synapses far from the soma are unlikely to influence the firing of a neuron unless some sort of active dendritic processing occurs. Analogously, the motor-driven transport of newly synthesized proteins from the soma to presynaptic targets along the axon tends to favor the delivery of resources to proximal synapses. Both of these phenomena reflect fundamental limitations of transport processes based on a localized source. In this Letter, we show that a more democratic distribution of proteins along an axon can be achieved by making the transport process less efficient. This involves two components: bidirectional or "stop-and-go" motor transport (which can be modeled in terms of advection-diffusion), and reversible interactions between motor-cargo complexes and synaptic targets. Both of these features have recently been observed experimentally. Our model suggests that, just as in human societies, there needs to be a balance between "efficiency" and "equality".

  9. Mechanisms of diabetic neuropathy: axon dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sima, Anders A F; Zhang, Weixian

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is the most common complication of diabetes. It shows a progressive development with sensory loss, pain and autonomic dysfunction as common symptoms. Pathologically it is characterized by a series of interrelated metabolic abnormalities with insulin deficiency and hyperglycemia as the initiating culprits. The neuropathy accompanying type 2DM (insulin resistance) and type 1DM (insulin deficiency) appears to differ as to their structural changes; the former showing a milder axonal involvement and segmental myelin breakdown, whereas the latter shows a more severe axonal atrophy and axonal loss. Based mainly on animal data we will describe the sequential neuropathologic changes and differences in the two types of diabetes. These differences are related to differences in a myriad of underlying sequential metabolic abnormalities, which will be dealt with in detail. How metabolic defects affect nerve function will be elaborated upon. The disorder does not only involve somatic peripheral nerves but also autonomic and central nerve tracts. Today no successful therapy exists for diabetic neuropathy. During the last 30 years several experimental drugs targeting the polyol-pathway and oxidative stress have been tested, but with limited or no success. Instead therapies targeting the initiating and overriding pathogenetic abnormalities, such as insulin-deficiency and hyperglycemia need to be employed. One such agent is the insulinomimetic C-peptide which has demonstrated significant therapeutic and preventive effects in type 1 diabetic patients. Not surprisingly this has been particularly successful following early intervention. However diabetic neuropathy still remains a major medical problem affecting millions of patients.

  10. Sprouting of axonal collaterals after spinal cord injury is prevented by delayed axonal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Collyer, E; Catenaccio, A; Lemaitre, D; Diaz, P; Valenzuela, V; Bronfman, F; Court, F A

    2014-11-01

    After an incomplete spinal cord injury (SCI), partial recovery of locomotion is accomplished with time. Previous studies have established a functional link between extension of axon collaterals from spared spinal tracts and locomotor recovery after SCI, but the tissular signals triggering collateral sprouting have not been identified. Here, we investigated whether axonal degeneration after SCI contributes to the sprouting of collaterals from axons spared after injury. To this end, we evaluated collateral sprouting from BDA-labeled uninjured corticospinal axons after spinal cord hemisection (SCI(H)) in wild type (WT) mouse and Wld(S) mouse strains, which shows a significant delay in Wallerian degeneration after injury. After SCI(H), spared fibers of WT mice extend collateral sprouts to both intact and denervated sides of the spinal cord distant from the injury site. On the contrary, in the Wld(S) mice collateral sprouting from spared fibers was greatly reduced after SCI(H). Consistent with a role for collateral sprouting in functional recovery after SCI, locomotor recovery after SCI(H) was impaired in Wld(S) mice compared to WT animals. In conclusion, our results identify axonal degeneration as one of the triggers for collateral sprouting from the contralesional uninjured fibers after an SCI(H). These results open the path for identifying molecular signals associated with tissular changes after SCI that promotes collateral sprouting and functional recovery.

  11. Axon-glial relations during regeneration of axons in the adult rat anterior medullary velum.

    PubMed

    Berry, M; Hunter, A S; Duncan, A; Lordan, J; Kirvell, S; Tsang, W L; Butt, A M

    1998-12-01

    The anterior medullary velum (AMV) of adult Wistar rats was lesioned in the midsagittal plane, transecting all decussating axons including those of the central projection of the IVth nerve. At selected times up to 200 days after transection, the degenerative and regenerative responses of axons and glia were analyzed using transmission and scanning electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. In particular, both the capacity of oligodendrocytes to remyelinate regenerated fibers and the stability of the CNS/PNS junctional zone of the IVth nerve rootlet were documented. Transected central AMV axons exhibited four patterns of fiber regeneration in which fibers grew: rostrocaudally in the reactive paralesion neuropil (Group 1); randomly within the AMV (Group 2); into the ipsilateral IVth nerve rootlet, after turning at the lesion edge and growing recurrently through the old degenerated contralateral central trochlear nerve trajectory (Group 3); and ectopically through paralesion tears in the ependyma onto the surface of the IVth ventricle (Group 4). Group 1-3 axons regenerated unperturbed through degenerating central myelin, reactive astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia, and large accumulations of hematogenous macrophages. Only Group 3 axons survived long term in significant numbers, and all became myelinated by oligodendrocytes, ultimately establishing thin sheaths with relatively normal nodal gaps and intersegmental myelin sheath lengths. Schwann cells at the CNS/PNS junction of the IVth nerve rootlet did not invade the CNS, but astrocyte processes grew across the junction into the PNS portion of the IVth nerve. The basal lamina of the junctional glia limitans remained stable throughout the experimental period.

  12. Acute fasting increases somatodendritic dopamine release in the ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Roseberry, Aaron G

    2015-08-01

    Fasting and food restriction alter the activity of the mesolimbic dopamine system to affect multiple reward-related behaviors. Food restriction decreases baseline dopamine levels in efferent target sites and enhances dopamine release in response to rewards such as food and drugs. In addition to releasing dopamine from axon terminals, dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) also release dopamine from their soma and dendrites, and this somatodendritic dopamine release acts as an autoinhibitory signal to inhibit neighboring VTA dopamine neurons. It is unknown whether acute fasting also affects dopamine release, including the local inhibitory somatodendritic dopamine release in the VTA. In these studies, I have tested whether fasting affects the inhibitory somatodendritic dopamine release within the VTA by examining whether an acute 24-h fast affects the inhibitory postsynaptic current mediated by evoked somatodendritic dopamine release (D2R IPSC). Fasting increased the contribution of the first action potential to the overall D2R IPSC and increased the ratio of repeated D2R IPSCs evoked at short intervals. Fasting also reduced the effect of forskolin on the D2R IPSC and led to a significantly bigger decrease in the D2R IPSC in low extracellular calcium. Finally, fasting resulted in an increase in the D2R IPSCs when a more physiologically relevant train of D2R IPSCs was used. Taken together, these results indicate that fasting caused a change in the properties of somatodendritic dopamine release, possibly by increasing dopamine release, and that this increased release can be sustained under conditions where dopamine neurons are highly active.

  13. Equivalent Activities of Repulsive Axon Guidance Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Long, Hong; Yoshikawa, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    Receptors on the growth cone at the leading edge of elongating axons play critical guidance roles by recognizing cues via their extracellular domains and transducing signals via their intracellular domains, resulting in changes in direction of growth. An important concept to have emerged in the axon guidance field is the importance of repulsion as a major guidance mechanism. Given the number and variety of different repulsive receptors, it is generally thought that there are likely to be qualitative differences in the signals they transduce. However, the nature of these possible differences is unknown. By creating chimeras using the extracellular and intracellular domains of three different Drosophila repulsive receptors, Unc5, Roundabout (Robo), and Derailed (Drl) and expressing them in defined cells within the embryonic nervous system, we examined the responses elicited by their intracellular domains systematically. Surprisingly, we found no qualitative differences in growth cone response or axon growth, suggesting that, despite their highly diverged sequences, each intracellular domain elicits repulsion via a common pathway. In terms of the signaling pathway(s) used by the repulsive receptors, mutations in the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Trio strongly enhance the repulsive activity of all three intracellular domains, suggesting that repulsion by Unc5, Robo, and Drl, and perhaps repulsion in general, involves Trio activity. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT A prevailing concept that has emerged in the axon guidance field is the importance of repulsion as a guidance mechanism for steering axons to their appropriate targets. Given the number and variety of different repulsive receptors, it is generally thought that there are differences in the signals that they transduce. However, this has never been tested directly. We have used the advanced genetics of Drosophila to compare directly the outputs of different repulsive receptors. Surprisingly, we found no qualitative

  14. Axonal transport studied in a single vertebrate neuron: the giant electromotor neuron of the electric catfish, Malapterurus electricus.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, H; Tashiro, T; Komiya, Y; Kurokawa, M

    1989-02-01

    Axonal transport was studied using a single vertebrate neuron, the giant electromotor neuron of the electric catfish, Malapterurus electricus. The electric organs of this strongly electric fish are innervated by two neurons whose axons form one electric nerve each. After injection of [35S]methionine into the spinal cord at the level of the two perikarya radioactively labelled material is exported by fast flow as a small wave with a velocity of 5.8 mm/h and a somal release time of 91 min (29 degrees C). Slow flow investigated between 15 and 39 days had a velocity of 1.36 mm/d at 29 degrees C. Analysis of radiolabelled proteins by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed different patterns of labelling between slow and fast flow. The relative molecular mass of the two major proteins labelled on slow flow correspond to actin and tubulin. Labelled proteins of higher relative molecular mass may correspond to neurofilament proteins. Our results suggest that this vertebrate single-neuron and single-axon system can be used successfully for axonal transport studies.

  15. Organophosphates induce distal axonal damage, but not brain oedema, by inactivating neuropathy target esterase

    SciTech Connect

    Read, David J.; Li Yong; Chao, Moses V.; Cavanagh, John B.; Glynn, Paul

    2010-05-15

    Single doses of organophosphorus compounds (OP) which covalently inhibit neuropathy target esterase (NTE) can induce lower-limb paralysis and distal damage in long nerve axons. Clinical signs of neuropathy are evident 3 weeks post-OP dose in humans, cats and chickens. By contrast, clinical neuropathy in mice following acute dosing with OPs or any other toxic compound has never been reported. Moreover, dosing mice with ethyloctylphosphonofluoridate (EOPF) - an extremely potent NTE inhibitor - causes a different (subacute) neurotoxicity with brain oedema. These observations have raised the possibility that mice are intrinsically resistant to neuropathies induced by acute toxic insult, but may incur brain oedema, rather than distal axonal damage, when NTE is inactivated. Here we provide the first report that hind-limb dysfunction and extensive axonal damage can occur in mice 3 weeks after acute dosing with a toxic compound, bromophenylacetylurea. Three weeks after acutely dosing mice with neuropathic OPs no clinical signs were observed, but distal lesions were present in the longest spinal sensory axons. Similar lesions were evident in undosed nestin-cre:NTEfl/fl mice in which NTE had been genetically-deleted from neural tissue. The extent of OP-induced axonal damage in mice was related to the duration of NTE inactivation and, as reported in chickens, was promoted by post-dosing with phenylmethanesulfonylfluoride. However, phenyldipentylphosphinate, another promoting compound in chickens, itself induced in mice lesions different from the neuropathic OP type. Finally, EOPF induced subacute neurotoxicity with brain oedema in both wild-type and nestin-cre:NTEfl/fl mice indicating that the molecular target for this effect is not neural NTE.

  16. Sculpting Neural Circuits by Axon and Dendrite Pruning

    PubMed Central

    Riccomagno, Martin M.; Kolodkin, Alex L.

    2015-01-01

    The assembly of functional neural circuits requires the combined action of progressive and regressive events. Regressive events encompass a variety of inhibitory developmental processes, including axon and dendrite pruning, which facilitate the removal of exuberant neuronal connections. Most axon pruning involves the removal of axons that had already made synaptic connections, thus, axon pruning is tightly associated with synapse elimination. In many instances these developmental processes are regulated by the interplay between neurons and glial cells that act instructively during neural remodeling. Owing to the importance of axon and dendritic pruning, these remodeling events require precise spatial and temporal control, and this is achieved by a range of distinct molecular mechanisms. Disruption of these mechanisms results in abnormal pruning, which has been linked to brain dysfunction. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of axon and dendritic pruning will be instrumental in advancing our knowledge of neural disease and mental disorders. PMID:26436703

  17. Molecular Determinants Fundamental to Axon Regeneration after SCI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    will determine the relationship between L1.1 and neurocan and its role in axon regeneration from adult zebrafish brainstem neurons in vitro. The...determine the relationship between L1.1 and neurocan and its role in axon regeneration from adult zebrafish brainstem neurons in vitro. Increased...concerning the potential interactions between neurocan and L1 and the role they play in axonal regeneration seen in the zebrafish . 18 Figure

  18. DISRUPTION OF THE AXON INITIAL SEGMENT CYTOSKELETON IS A NEW MECHANISM FOR NEURONAL INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, Dorothy P.; Jha, Smita; Liu, Fudong; Akella, Trupti; McCullough, Louise D.; Rasband, Matthew N.

    2009-01-01

    Many factors contribute to nervous system dysfunction and failure to regenerate after injury or disease. Here, we describe a previously unrecognized mechanism for nervous system injury. We show that neuronal injury causes rapid, irreversible, and preferential proteolysis of the axon initial segment (AIS) cytoskeleton independently of cell death or axon degeneration, leading to loss of both ion channel clusters and neuronal polarity. Furthermore, we show this is caused by proteolysis of the AIS cytoskeletal proteins ankyrinG and βIV spectrin by the calcium-dependent cysteine protease calpain. Importantly, calpain inhibition is sufficient to preserve the molecular organization of the AIS both in vitro and in vivo. We conclude that loss of AIS ion channel clusters and neuronal polarity are important contributors to neuronal dysfunction after injury, and that strategies to facilitate recovery must preserve or repair the AIS cytoskeleton. PMID:19846712

  19. Axonal Degeneration Is Mediated by the Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore

    PubMed Central

    Barrientos, Sebastian A.; Martinez, Nicolas W.; Yoo, Soonmoon; Jara, Juan S.; Zamorano, Sebastian; Hetz, Claudio; Twiss, Jeffery L.; Alvarez, Jaime; Court, Felipe A.

    2011-01-01

    Axonal degeneration is an active process that has been associated with neurodegenerative conditions triggered by mechanical, metabolic, infectious, toxic, hereditary and inflammatory stimuli. This degenerative process can cause permanent loss of function, so it represents a focus for neuroprotective strategies. Several signaling pathways are implicated in axonal degeneration, but identification of an integrative mechanism for this self-destructive process has remained elusive. Here, we show that rapid axonal degeneration triggered by distinct mechanical and toxic insults is dependent on the activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). Both pharmacological and genetic targeting of cyclophilin D, a functional component of the mPTP, protects severed axons and vincristine-treated neurons from axonal degeneration in ex vivo and in vitro mouse and rat model systems. These effects were observed in axons from both the peripheral and central nervous system. Our results suggest that the mPTP is a key effector of axonal degeneration, upon which several independent signaling pathways converge. Since axonal and synapse degeneration are increasingly considered early pathological events in neurodegeneration, our work identifies a potential target for therapeutic intervention in a wide variety of conditions that lead to loss of axons and subsequent functional impairment. PMID:21248121

  20. Concepts for regulation of axon integrity by enwrapping glia

    PubMed Central

    Beirowski, Bogdan

    2013-01-01

    Long axons and their enwrapping glia (EG; Schwann cells (SCs) and oligodendrocytes (OLGs)) form a unique compound structure that serves as conduit for transport of electric and chemical information in the nervous system. The peculiar cytoarchitecture over an enormous length as well as its substantial energetic requirements make this conduit particularly susceptible to detrimental alterations. Degeneration of long axons independent of neuronal cell bodies is observed comparatively early in a range of neurodegenerative conditions as a consequence of abnormalities in SCs and OLGs . This leads to the most relevant disease symptoms and highlights the critical role that these glia have for axon integrity, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. The quest to understand why and how axons degenerate is now a crucial frontier in disease-oriented research. This challenge is most likely to lead to significant progress if the inextricable link between axons and their flanking glia in pathological situations is recognized. In this review I compile recent advances in our understanding of the molecular programs governing axon degeneration, and mechanisms of EG’s non-cell autonomous impact on axon-integrity. A particular focus is placed on emerging evidence suggesting that EG nurture long axons by virtue of their intimate association, release of trophic substances, and neurometabolic coupling. The correction of defects in these functions has the potential to stabilize axons in a variety of neuronal diseases in the peripheral nervous system and central nervous system (PNS and CNS). PMID:24391540

  1. Differences in excitability properties of FDI and ADM motor axons.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jong Seok; Sawai, Setsu; Misawa, Sonoko; Kanai, Kazuaki; Isose, Sagiri; Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2009-03-01

    The first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles are innervated by the same ulnar nerve, but studies have shown that the former is much more severely affected in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In this study, threshold tracking was used to investigate whether membrane properties differ between FDI and ADM motor axons. In 12 normal subjects, compound muscle action potentials were recorded from FDI and ADM after ulnar nerve stimulation at the wrist. The strength-duration time constant was significantly longer in the FDI axons than in the ADM axons, and latent addition studies showed greater threshold changes at the conditioning-test stimulus of 0.2 ms in FDI than in ADM axons. These findings suggest that nodal persistent sodium conductances are more prominent in FDI axons than in ADM axons, and therefore excitability is physiologically higher in FDI axons. Even in the same nerve at the same sites, membrane properties of FDI and ADM motor axons differ significantly, and thus their axonal/neuronal responses to disease may also differ.

  2. Molecular analysis of axon repulsion by the notochord.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Christopher N G; Ohta, Kunimasa; Quick, Marie M; Fleming, Angeleen; Keynes, Roger; Tannahill, David

    2003-03-01

    During development of the amniote peripheral nervous system, the initial trajectory of primary sensory axons is determined largely by the action of axon repellents. We have shown previously that tissues flanking dorsal root ganglia, the notochord lying medially and the dermamyotomes lying laterally, are sources of secreted molecules that prevent axons from entering inappropriate territories. Although there is evidence suggesting that SEMA3A contributes to the repellent activity of the dermamyotome, the nature of the activity secreted by the notochord remains undetermined. We have employed an expression cloning strategy to search for axon repellents secreted by the notochord, and have identified SEMA3A as a candidate repellent. Moreover, using a spectrum of different axon populations to assay the notochord activity, together with neuropilin/Fc receptor reagents to block semaphorin activity in collagen gel assays, we show that SEMA3A probably contributes to notochord-mediated repulsion. Sympathetic axons that normally avoid the midline in vivo are also repelled, in part, by a semaphorin-based notochord activity. Although our results implicate semaphorin signalling in mediating repulsion by the notochord, repulsion of early dorsal root ganglion axons is only partially blocked when using neuropilin/Fc reagents. Moreover, retinal axons, which are insensitive to SEMA3A, are also repelled by the notochord. We conclude that multiple factors act in concert to guide axons in this system, and that further notochord repellents remain to be identified.

  3. The Impact of Prestretch Induced Surface Anisotropy on Axon Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chun; Pyne, Ryan; Kim, Jungsil; Wright, Neil Thomas; Baek, Seungik

    2016-01-01

    Nerve regeneration after spinal cord injury requires proper axon alignment to bridge the lesion site and myelination to achieve functional recovery. Significant effort has been invested in developing engineering approaches to induce axon alignment with less focus on myelination. Topological features, such as aligned fibers and channels, have been shown to induce axon alignment, but do not enhance axon thickness. We previously demonstrated that surface anisotropy generated through mechanical prestretch induced mesenchymal stem cells to align in the direction of prestretch. In this study, we demonstrate that static prestretch-induced anisotropy promotes dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons to extend thicker axon aggregates along the stretched direction and form aligned fascicular-like axon tracts. Moreover, Schwann cells, when cocultured with DRG neurons on the prestretched surface colocalized with the aligned axons and expressed P0 protein, are indicative of myelination of the aligned axons, thereby demonstrating that prestretch-induced surface anisotropy is beneficial in enhancing axon alignment, growth, and myelination. PMID:26563431

  4. Axonal Velocity Distributions in Neural Field Equations

    PubMed Central

    Bojak, Ingo; Liley, David T. J.

    2010-01-01

    By modelling the average activity of large neuronal populations, continuum mean field models (MFMs) have become an increasingly important theoretical tool for understanding the emergent activity of cortical tissue. In order to be computationally tractable, long-range propagation of activity in MFMs is often approximated with partial differential equations (PDEs). However, PDE approximations in current use correspond to underlying axonal velocity distributions incompatible with experimental measurements. In order to rectify this deficiency, we here introduce novel propagation PDEs that give rise to smooth unimodal distributions of axonal conduction velocities. We also argue that velocities estimated from fibre diameters in slice and from latency measurements, respectively, relate quite differently to such distributions, a significant point for any phenomenological description. Our PDEs are then successfully fit to fibre diameter data from human corpus callosum and rat subcortical white matter. This allows for the first time to simulate long-range conduction in the mammalian brain with realistic, convenient PDEs. Furthermore, the obtained results suggest that the propagation of activity in rat and human differs significantly beyond mere scaling. The dynamical consequences of our new formulation are investigated in the context of a well known neural field model. On the basis of Turing instability analyses, we conclude that pattern formation is more easily initiated using our more realistic propagator. By increasing characteristic conduction velocities, a smooth transition can occur from self-sustaining bulk oscillations to travelling waves of various wavelengths, which may influence axonal growth during development. Our analytic results are also corroborated numerically using simulations on a large spatial grid. Thus we provide here a comprehensive analysis of empirically constrained activity propagation in the context of MFMs, which will allow more realistic studies

  5. Therapy Development for Diffuse Axonal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Douglas H.; Hicks, Ramona

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) remains a prominent feature of human traumatic brain injury (TBI) and a major player in its subsequent morbidity. The importance of this widespread axonal damage has been confirmed by multiple approaches including routine postmortem neuropathology as well as advanced imaging, which is now capable of detecting the signatures of traumatically induced axonal injury across a spectrum of traumatically brain-injured persons. Despite the increased interest in DAI and its overall implications for brain-injured patients, many questions remain about this component of TBI and its potential therapeutic targeting. To address these deficiencies and to identify future directions needed to fill critical gaps in our understanding of this component of TBI, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke hosted a workshop in May 2011. This workshop sought to determine what is known regarding the pathogenesis of DAI in animal models of injury as well as in the human clinical setting. The workshop also addressed new tools to aid in the identification of this axonal injury while also identifying more rational therapeutic targets linked to DAI for continued preclinical investigation and, ultimately, clinical translation. This report encapsulates the oral and written components of this workshop addressing key features regarding the pathobiology of DAI, the biomechanics implicated in its initiating pathology, and those experimental animal modeling considerations that bear relevance to the biomechanical features of human TBI. Parallel considerations of alternate forms of DAI detection including, but not limited to, advanced neuroimaging, electrophysiological, biomarker, and neurobehavioral evaluations are included, together with recommendations for how these technologies can be better used and integrated for a more comprehensive appreciation of the pathobiology of DAI and its overall structural and functional implications. Lastly, the

  6. Soluble Nogo Receptor Down-regulates Expression of Neuronal Nogo-A to Enhance Axonal Regeneration*

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xiangmin; Zhou, Zhigang; Hu, Jian; Fink, David J.; Mata, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Nogo-A, a member of the reticulon family, is present in neurons and oligodendrocytes. Nogo-A in central nervous system (CNS) myelin prevents axonal regeneration through interaction with Nogo receptor 1, but the function of Nogo-A in neurons is less known. We found that after axonal injury, Nogo-A is increased in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons unable to regenerate following a dorsal root injury or a sciatic nerve ligation-cut injury and that exposure in vitro to CNS myelin dramatically enhanced neuronal Nogo-A mRNA and protein through activation of RhoA while inhibiting neurite growth. Knocking down neuronal Nogo-A by small interfering RNA results in a marked increase of neurite outgrowth. We constructed a nonreplicating herpes simplex virus vector (QHNgSR) to express a truncated soluble fragment of Nogo receptor 1 (NgSR). NgSR released from QHNgSR prevented myelin inhibition of neurite extension by hippocampal and DRG neurons in vitro. NgSR prevents RhoA activation by myelin and decreases neuronal Nogo-A. Subcutaneous inoculation of QHNgSR to transduce DRG neurons resulted in improved regeneration of myelinated fibers in both the dorsal root and the spinal dorsal root entry zone, with concomitant improvement in sensory behavior. The results indicate that neuronal Nogo-A is an important intermediate in neurite growth dynamics and its expression is regulated by signals related to axonal injury and regeneration, that CNS myelin appears to activate signaling events that mimic axonal injury, and that NgSR released from QHNgSR may be used to improve recovery after injury. PMID:19901030

  7. ALS Along the Axons - Expression of Coding and Noncoding RNA Differs in Axons of ALS models.

    PubMed

    Rotem, Nimrod; Magen, Iddo; Ionescu, Ariel; Gershoni-Emek, Noga; Altman, Topaz; Costa, Christopher J; Gradus, Tal; Pasmanik-Chor, Metsada; Willis, Dianna E; Ben-Dov, Iddo Z; Hornstein, Eran; Perlson, Eran

    2017-03-16

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a multifactorial lethal motor neuron disease with no known treatment. Although the basic mechanism of its degenerative pathogenesis remains poorly understood, a subcellular spatial alteration in RNA metabolism is thought to play a key role. The nature of these RNAs remains elusive, and a comprehensive characterization of the axonal RNAs involved in maintaining neuronal health has yet to be described. Here, using cultured spinal cord (SC) neurons grown using a compartmented platform followed by next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology, we find that RNA expression differs between the somatic and axonal compartments of the neuron, for both mRNA and microRNA (miRNA). Further, the introduction of SOD1(G93A) and TDP43(A315T), established ALS-related mutations, changed the subcellular expression and localization of RNAs within the neurons, showing a spatial specificity to either the soma or the axon. Altogether, we provide here the first combined inclusive profile of mRNA and miRNA expression in two ALS models at the subcellular level. These data provide an important resource for studies on the roles of local protein synthesis and axon degeneration in ALS and can serve as a possible target pool for ALS treatment.

  8. Coordinated Interaction of Down Syndrome Cell Adhesion Molecule (DSCAM) nd Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC) with Dynamic TUBB3 Mediates Netrin-1-Induced Axon Branching

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huai; Shao, Qiangqiang; Qu, Chao; Yang, Tao; Dwyer, Trisha; Liu, Guofa

    2015-01-01

    Modulation of actin and microtubule (MT) dynamics in neurons is implicated in guidance cue-dependent axon outgrowth, branching and pathfinding. Although the role of MTs in axon guidance has been well known, how extracellular guidance signals engage MT behavior in axon branching remains unclear. Previously, we have shown that TUBB3, the most dynamic β-tubulin isoform in neurons, directly binds to DCC to regulate MT dynamics in Netrin-1-mediated axon guidance. Here, we report that TUBB3 directly interacted with another Netrin-1 receptor DSCAM and Netrin-1 increased this interaction in primary neurons. MT dynamics were required for Netrin-1-promoted association of DSCAM with TUBB3. Knockdown of either DSCAM or DCC or addition of a function blocking anti-DCC antibody mutually blocked Netrin-1-induced interactions, suggesting that DSCAM interdependently coordinated with DCC in Netrin-1-induced binding to TUBB3. Both DSCAM and DCC were partially colocalized with TUBB3 in the axon branch and the axon branching point of primary neurons and Netrin-1 increased these colocalizations. Netrin-1 induced the interaction of endogenous DSCAM with polymerized TUBB3 in primary neurons and Src family kinases (SFKs) were required for regulating this binding. Knockdown of DSCAM only, DCC only or both was sufficient to block Netrin-1-induced axon branching of E15 mouse cortical neurons. Knocking down TUBB3 inhibited Netrin-1 induced axon branching as well. These results suggest that DSCAM collaborates with DCC to regulate MT dynamics via direct binding to dynamic TUBB3 in Netrin-1-induced axon branching. PMID:25754961

  9. AxonPacking: An Open-Source Software to Simulate Arrangements of Axons in White Matter

    PubMed Central

    Mingasson, Tom; Duval, Tanguy; Stikov, Nikola; Cohen-Adad, Julien

    2017-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS AxonPacking: Open-source software for simulating white matter microstructure.Validation on a theoretical disk packing problem.Reproducible and stable for various densities and diameter distributions.Can be used to study interplay between myelin/fiber density and restricted fraction. Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can provide parameters that describe white matter microstructure, such as the fiber volume fraction (FVF), the myelin volume fraction (MVF) or the axon volume fraction (AVF) via the fraction of restricted water (fr). While already being used for clinical application, the complex interplay between these parameters requires thorough validation via simulations. These simulations required a realistic, controlled and adaptable model of the white matter axons with the surrounding myelin sheath. While there already exist useful algorithms to perform this task, none of them combine optimisation of axon packing, presence of myelin sheath and availability as free and open source software. Here, we introduce a novel disk packing algorithm that addresses these issues. The performance of the algorithm is tested in term of reproducibility over 50 runs, resulting density, and stability over iterations. This tool was then used to derive multiple values of FVF and to study the impact of this parameter on fr and MVF in light of the known microstructure based on histology sample. The standard deviation of the axon density over runs was lower than 10−3 and the expected hexagonal packing for monodisperse disks was obtained with a density close to the optimal density (obtained: 0.892, theoretical: 0.907). Using an FVF ranging within [0.58, 0.82] and a mean inter-axon gap ranging within [0.1, 1.1] μm, MVF ranged within [0.32, 0.44] and fr ranged within [0.39, 0.71], which is consistent with the histology. The proposed algorithm is implemented in the open-source software AxonPacking (https://github.com/neuropoly/axonpacking) and can be useful for

  10. AxonPacking: An Open-Source Software to Simulate Arrangements of Axons in White Matter.

    PubMed

    Mingasson, Tom; Duval, Tanguy; Stikov, Nikola; Cohen-Adad, Julien

    2017-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS AxonPacking: Open-source software for simulating white matter microstructure.Validation on a theoretical disk packing problem.Reproducible and stable for various densities and diameter distributions.Can be used to study interplay between myelin/fiber density and restricted fraction. Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can provide parameters that describe white matter microstructure, such as the fiber volume fraction (FVF), the myelin volume fraction (MVF) or the axon volume fraction (AVF) via the fraction of restricted water (fr). While already being used for clinical application, the complex interplay between these parameters requires thorough validation via simulations. These simulations required a realistic, controlled and adaptable model of the white matter axons with the surrounding myelin sheath. While there already exist useful algorithms to perform this task, none of them combine optimisation of axon packing, presence of myelin sheath and availability as free and open source software. Here, we introduce a novel disk packing algorithm that addresses these issues. The performance of the algorithm is tested in term of reproducibility over 50 runs, resulting density, and stability over iterations. This tool was then used to derive multiple values of FVF and to study the impact of this parameter on fr and MVF in light of the known microstructure based on histology sample. The standard deviation of the axon density over runs was lower than 10(-3) and the expected hexagonal packing for monodisperse disks was obtained with a density close to the optimal density (obtained: 0.892, theoretical: 0.907). Using an FVF ranging within [0.58, 0.82] and a mean inter-axon gap ranging within [0.1, 1.1] μm, MVF ranged within [0.32, 0.44] and fr ranged within [0.39, 0.71], which is consistent with the histology. The proposed algorithm is implemented in the open-source software AxonPacking (https://github.com/neuropoly/axonpacking) and can be useful for

  11. Neu3 sialidase-mediated ganglioside conversion is necessary for axon regeneration and is blocked in CNS axons.

    PubMed

    Kappagantula, Sunil; Andrews, Melissa R; Cheah, Menghon; Abad-Rodriguez, José; Dotti, Carlos G; Fawcett, James W

    2014-02-12

    PNS axons have a high intrinsic regenerative ability, whereas most CNS axons show little regenerative response. We show that activation of Neu3 sialidase, also known as Neuraminidase-3, causing conversion of GD1a and GT1b to GM1 ganglioside, is an essential step in regeneration occurring in PNS (sensory) but not CNS (retinal) axons in adult rat. In PNS axons, axotomy activates Neu3 sialidase, increasing the ratio of GM1/GD1a and GM1/GT1b gangliosides immediately after injury in vitro and in vivo. No change in the GM1/GD1a ratio after axotomy was observed in retinal axons (in vitro and in vivo), despite the presence of Neu3 sialidase. Externally applied sialidase converted GD1a ganglioside to GM1 and rescued axon regeneration in CNS axons and in PNS axons after Neu3 sialidase blockade. Neu3 sialidase activation in DRGs is initiated by an influx of extracellular calcium, activating P38MAPK and then Neu3 sialidase. Ganglioside conversion by Neu3 sialidase further activates the ERK pathway. In CNS axons, P38MAPK and Neu3 sialidase were not activated by axotomy.

  12. Anti-glycan antibodies halt axon regeneration in a model of Guillain Barrè Syndrome axonal neuropathy by inducing microtubule disorganization via RhoA-ROCK-dependent inactivation of CRMP-2.

    PubMed

    Rozés Salvador, Victoria; Heredia, Florencia; Berardo, Andrés; Palandri, Anabela; Wojnacki, Jose; Vivinetto, Ana L; Sheikh, Kazim A; Caceres, Alfredo; Lopez, Pablo H H

    2016-04-01

    Several reports have linked the presence of high titers of anti-Gg Abs with delayed recovery/poor prognosis in GBS. In most cases, failure to recover is associated with halted/deficient axon regeneration. Previous work identified that monoclonal and patient-derived anti-Gg Abs can act as inhibitory factors in an animal model of axon regeneration. Further studies using primary dorsal root ganglion neuron (DRGn) cultures demonstrated that anti-Gg Abs can inhibit neurite outgrowth by targeting gangliosides via activation of the small GTPase RhoA and its associated kinase (ROCK), a signaling pathway common to other established inhibitors of axon regeneration. We aimed to study the molecular basis of the inhibitory effect of anti-Gg abs on neurite outgrowth by dissecting the molecular dynamics of growth cones (GC) cytoskeleton in relation to the spatial-temporal analysis of RhoA activity. We now report that axon growth inhibition in DRGn induced by a well characterized mAb targeting gangliosides GD1a/GT1b involves: i) an early RhoA/ROCK-independent collapse of lamellipodia; ii) a RhoA/ROCK-dependent shrinking of filopodia; and iii) alteration of GC microtubule organization/and presumably dynamics via RhoA/ROCK-dependent phosphorylation of CRMP-2 at threonine 555. Our results also show that mAb 1B7 inhibits peripheral axon regeneration in an animal model via phosphorylation/inactivation of CRMP-2 at threonine 555. Overall, our data may help to explain the molecular mechanisms underlying impaired nerve repair in GBS. Future work should define RhoA-independent pathway/s and effectors regulating actin cytoskeleton, thus providing an opportunity for the design of a successful therapy to guarantee an efficient target reinnervation.

  13. The transport properties of axonal microtubules establish their polarity orientation

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    It is well established that axonal microtubules (MTs) are uniformly oriented with their plus ends distal to the neuronal cell body (Heidemann, S. R., J. M. Landers, and M. A. Hamborg. 1981. J. Cell Biol. 91:661-665). However, the mechanisms by which these MTs achieve their uniform polarity orientation are unknown. Current models for axon growth differ with regard to the contributions of MT assembly and transport to the organization and elaboration of the axonal MT array. Do the transport properties or assembly properties of axonal MTs determine their polarity orientation? To distinguish between these possibilities, we wished to study the initiation and outgrowth of axons under conditions that would arrest MT assembly while maintaining substantial levels of preexisting polymer in the cell body that could still be transported into the axon. We found that we could accomplish this by culturing rat sympathetic neurons in the presence of nanomolar levels of vinblastine. In concentrations of the drug up to and including 100 nM, the neurons actively extend axons. The vinblastine- axons are shorter than control axons, but clearly contain MTs. To quantify the effects of the drug on MT mass, we compared the levels of polymer throughout the cell bodies and axons of neurons cultured overnight in the presence of 0, 16, and 50 nM vinblastine with the levels of MT polymer in freshly plated neurons before axon outgrowth. Without drug, the total levels of polymer increase by roughly twofold. At 16 nM vinblastine, the levels of polymer are roughly equal to the levels in freshly plated neurons, while at 50 nM, the levels of polymer are reduced by about half this amount. Thus, 16 nM vinblastine acts as a "kinetic stabilizer" of MTs, while 50 nM results in some net MT disassembly. At both drug concentrations, there is a progressive increase in the levels of MT polymer in the axons as they grow, and a corresponding depletion of polymer from the cell body. These results indicate that

  14. DGAT2 Mutation in a Family with Autosomal-Dominant Early-Onset Axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease.

    PubMed

    Hong, Young Bin; Kang, Junghee; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lee, Jinho; Kwak, Geon; Hyun, Young Se; Nam, Soo Hyun; Hong, Hyun Dae; Choi, Yu-Ri; Jung, Sung-Chul; Koo, Heasoo; Lee, Ji Eun; Choi, Byung-Ok; Chung, Ki Wha

    2016-05-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most common inherited peripheral neuropathy and is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disorder. We examined a Korean family in which two individuals had an autosomal-dominant axonal CMT with early-onset, sensory ataxia, tremor, and slow disease progression. Pedigree analysis and exome sequencing identified a de novo missense mutation (p.Y223H) in the diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) gene. DGAT2 encodes an endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial-associated membrane protein, acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase, which catalyzes the final step of the triglyceride (TG) biosynthesis pathway. The patient showed consistently decreased serum TG levels, and overexpression of the mutant DGAT2 significantly inhibited the proliferation of mouse motor neuron cells. Moreover, the variant form of human DGAT2 inhibited the axonal branching in the peripheral nervous system of zebrafish. We suggest that mutation of DGAT2 is the novel underlying cause of an autosomal-dominant axonal CMT2 neuropathy. This study will help provide a better understanding of the pathophysiology of axonal CMT and contribute to the molecular diagnostics of peripheral neuropathies.

  15. Strategically positioned inhibitory synapses of axo-axonic cells potently control principal neuron spiking in the basolateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Veres, Judit M; Nagy, Gergő Attila; Vereczki, Viktória Krisztina; Andrási, Tibor; Hájos, Norbert

    2014-12-03

    Axo-axonic cells (AACs) in cortical regions selectively innervate the axon initial segments (AISs) of principal cells (PCs), where the action potentials are generated. These GABAergic interneurons can alter the activity of PCs, but how the efficacy of spike control correlates with the number of output synapses remains unclear. Moreover, the relationship between the spatial distribution of GABAergic synapses and the action potential initiation site along the AISs is not well defined. Using paired recordings obtained in the mouse basolateral amygdala, we found that AACs powerfully inhibited or delayed the timing of PC spiking by 30 ms, if AAC output preceded PC spiking with no more than 80 ms. By correlating the number of synapses and the probability of spiking, we revealed that larger numbers of presynaptic AAC boutons giving rise to larger postsynaptic responses provided more effective inhibition of PC spiking. At least 10-12 AAC synapses, which could originate from 2-3 AACs on average, were necessary to veto the PC firing under our recording conditions. Furthermore, we determined that the threshold for the action potential generation along PC axons is the lowest between 20 and 40 μm from soma, which axonal segment received the highest density of GABAergic inputs. Single AACs preferentially innervated this narrow portion of the AIS where action potentials were generated with the highest likelihood, regardless of the number of synapses forming a given connection. Our results uncovered a fine organization of AAC innervation maximizing their inhibitory efficacy by strategically positioning synapses along the AISs.

  16. Botulinum Neurotoxins A and E Undergo Retrograde Axonal Transport in Primary Motor Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Manich, Maria; Bercsenyi, Kinga; Menendez, Guillermo; Rossetto, Ornella; Caleo, Matteo; Schiavo, Giampietro

    2012-01-01

    The striking differences between the clinical symptoms of tetanus and botulism have been ascribed to the different fate of the parental neurotoxins once internalised in motor neurons. Tetanus toxin (TeNT) is known to undergo transcytosis into inhibitory interneurons and block the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters in the spinal cord, causing a spastic paralysis. In contrast, botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) block acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction, therefore inducing a flaccid paralysis. Whilst overt experimental evidence supports the sorting of TeNT to the axonal retrograde transport pathway, recent findings challenge the established view that BoNT trafficking is restricted to the neuromuscular junction by highlighting central effects caused by these neurotoxins. These results suggest a more complex scenario whereby BoNTs also engage long-range trafficking mechanisms. However, the intracellular pathways underlying this process remain unclear. We sought to fill this gap by using primary motor neurons either in mass culture or differentiated in microfluidic devices to directly monitor the endocytosis and axonal transport of full length BoNT/A and BoNT/E and their recombinant binding fragments. We show that BoNT/A and BoNT/E are internalised by spinal cord motor neurons and undergo fast axonal retrograde transport. BoNT/A and BoNT/E are internalised in non-acidic axonal carriers that partially overlap with those containing TeNT, following a process that is largely independent of stimulated synaptic vesicle endo-exocytosis. Following intramuscular injection in vivo, BoNT/A and TeNT displayed central effects with a similar time course. Central actions paralleled the peripheral spastic paralysis for TeNT, but lagged behind the onset of flaccid paralysis for BoNT/A. These results suggest that the fast axonal retrograde transport compartment is composed of multifunctional trafficking organelles orchestrating the simultaneous transfer of diverse cargoes

  17. Action potential processing in a detailed Purkinje cell model reveals a critical role for axonal compartmentalization

    PubMed Central

    Masoli, Stefano; Solinas, Sergio; D'Angelo, Egidio

    2015-01-01

    The Purkinje cell (PC) is among the most complex neurons in the brain and plays a critical role for cerebellar functioning. PCs operate as fast pacemakers modulated by synaptic inputs but can switch from simple spikes to complex bursts and, in some conditions, show bistability. In contrast to original works emphasizing dendritic Ca-dependent mechanisms, recent experiments have supported a primary role for axonal Na-dependent processing, which could effectively regulate spike generation and transmission to deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN). In order to account for the numerous ionic mechanisms involved (at present including Nav1.6, Cav2.1, Cav3.1, Cav3.2, Cav3.3, Kv1.1, Kv1.5, Kv3.3, Kv3.4, Kv4.3, KCa1.1, KCa2.2, KCa3.1, Kir2.x, HCN1), we have elaborated a multicompartmental model incorporating available knowledge on localization and gating of PC ionic channels. The axon, including initial segment (AIS) and Ranvier nodes (RNs), proved critical to obtain appropriate pacemaking and firing frequency modulation. Simple spikes initiated in the AIS and protracted discharges were stabilized in the soma through Na-dependent mechanisms, while somato-dendritic Ca channels contributed to sustain pacemaking and to generate complex bursting at high discharge regimes. Bistability occurred only following Na and Ca channel down-regulation. In addition, specific properties in RNs K currents were required to limit spike transmission frequency along the axon. The model showed how organized electroresponsive functions could emerge from the molecular complexity of PCs and showed that the axon is fundamental to complement ionic channel compartmentalization enabling action potential processing and transmission of specific spike patterns to DCN. PMID:25759640

  18. Gating of dopamine transmission by calcium and axonal N-, Q-, T- and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels differs between striatal domains

    PubMed Central

    Brimblecombe, Katherine R; Gracie, Caitlin J; Platt, Nicola J; Cragg, Stephanie J

    2015-01-01

    The axonal voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCCs) that catalyse dopamine (DA) transmission are incompletely defined. Yet, they are critical to DA function and might prime subpopulations of DA neurons for parkinsonian degeneration. Previous studies of VGCCs will have encompassed those on striatal cholinergic interneurons, which strongly influence DA transmission. We identify which VGCCs on DA axons govern DA transmission, we determine their dynamic properties and reveal an underlying basis for differences between the caudate putamen (CPu) and nucleus accumbens (NAc). We detected DA release evoked electrically during nicotinic receptor blockade or optogenetically by light activation of channel rhodopsin-expressing DA axons in mouse striatal slices. Subtype-specific VGCC blockers indicated that N-, Q-, T- and L-VGCCs govern DA release in CPu, but in NAc, T and L-channels are relatively silent. The roles of the most dominant channels were inversely frequency-dependent, due to low-pass filtering of DA release by Ca2+-dependent relationships between initial release probability and short-term plasticity. Ca2+ concentration–response curves revealed that differences between CPu and NAc were due to greater underlying Ca2+ sensitivity of DA transmission from CPu axons. Functions for ‘silent’ L- and T-channels in NAc could be unmasked by elevating extracellular [Ca2+]. Furthermore, we identified a greater coupling between BAPTA-sensitive, fast Ca2+ transients and DA transmission in CPu axons, and evidence for endogenous fast buffering of Ca2+ in NAc. These data reveal that a range of VGCCs operate dynamically on DA axons, depending on local driving forces. Furthermore, they reveal dramatic differences in Ca2+ handling between axonal subpopulations that show different vulnerability to parkinsonian degeneration. PMID:25533038

  19. Clinical progression in Parkinson disease and the neurobiology of axons.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Hsiao-Chun; Ulane, Christina M; Burke, Robert E

    2010-06-01

    Despite tremendous growth in recent years in our knowledge of the molecular basis of Parkinson disease (PD) and the molecular pathways of cell injury and death, we remain without therapies that forestall disease progression. Although there are many possible explanations for this lack of success, one is that experimental therapeutics to date have not adequately focused on an important component of the disease process, that of axon degeneration. It remains unknown what neuronal compartment, either the soma or the axon, is involved at disease onset, although some have proposed that it is the axons and their terminals that take the initial brunt of injury. Nevertheless, this concept has not been formally incorporated into many of the current theories of disease pathogenesis, and it has not achieved a wide consensus. More importantly, in view of growing evidence that the molecular mechanisms of axon degeneration are separate and distinct from the canonical pathways of programmed cell death that mediate soma destruction, the possibility of early involvement of axons in PD has not been adequately emphasized as a rationale to explore the neurobiology of axons for novel therapeutic targets. We propose that ongoing degeneration of axons, not cell bodies, is the primary determinant of clinically apparent progression of disease, and that future experimental therapeutics intended to forestall disease progression will benefit from a new focus on the distinct mechanisms of axon degeneration.

  20. A Microchip for High-throughput Axon Growth Drug Screening

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Jeong, Sehoon; Koo, Chiwan; Han, Arum; Park, Jaewon

    2016-01-01

    It has been recently known that not only the presence of inhibitory molecules associated with myelin but also the reduced growth capability of the axons limit mature central nervous system (CNS) axonal regeneration after injury. Conventional axon growth studies are typically conducted using multi-well cell culture plates that are very challenging to investigate localized effects of drugs and limited to low throughput. Unfortunately, there is currently no other in vitro tools that allow investigating localized axonal responses to biomolecules in high-throughput for screening potential drugs that might promote axonal growth. We have developed a compartmentalized neuron culture platform enabling localized biomolecular treatments in parallel to axons that are physically and fluidically isolated from their neuronal somata. The 24 axon compartments in the developed platform are designed to perform four sets of six different localized biomolecular treatments simultaneously on a single device. In addition, the novel microfluidic configuration allows culture medium of 24 axon compartments to be replenished altogether by a single aspiration process, making high-throughput drug screening a reality. PMID:27928514

  1. Axon guidance of rat cortical neurons by microcontact printed gradients.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Rita; Zentis, Peter D; Rajappa, Lionel T; Hofmann, Boris; Banzet, Marko; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Meffert, Simone H

    2011-03-01

    Substrate-bound gradients expressed in numerous spatio-temporal patterns play a crucial role during the development of complex neural circuits. A deeper understanding of the axon guidance mechanism is provided by studying the effect of a defined substrate-bound cue on a confined neural network. In this study, we constructed a discontinuous substrate-bound gradient to control neuronal cell position, the path of neurite growth, and axon directionality. A variety of gradient patterns, with slight changes in slope, width, and length were designed and fabricated by microcontact printing using laminin/poly-l-lysine (PLL) or PLL alone. The gradients were tested for neurite growth and their impact on axon guidance of embryonic rat cortical neurons. The neurite length was determined and the axon was evaluated by Tau-1 immunostaining. We found that the microgradients of laminin/PLL and PLL directed neurons' adhesion, differentially controlled the neurite growth, and guided up to 84% of the axons. The effect of the protein micropattern on axon guidance and neurite growth depended on the protein and geometric parameters used. Our approach proved to be very successful in guiding axons of single multipolar neurons with very high efficiency. It could thereby be useful to engineer defined neural networks for analyzing signal processing of functional circuits, as well as to unravel fundamental questions of the axon guidance mechanism.

  2. Action potential initiation and propagation in CA3 pyramidal axons.

    PubMed

    Meeks, Julian P; Mennerick, Steven

    2007-05-01

    Thin, unmyelinated axons densely populate the mammalian hippocampus and cortex. However, the location and dynamics of spike initiation in thin axons remain unclear. We investigated basic properties of spike initiation and propagation in CA3 neurons of juvenile rat hippocampus. Sodium channel alpha subunit distribution and local applications of tetrodotoxin demonstrate that the site of first threshold crossing in CA3 neurons is approximately 35 microm distal to the soma, somewhat more proximal than our previous estimates. This discrepancy can be explained by the finding, obtained with simultaneous whole cell somatic and extracellular axonal recordings, that a zone of axon stretching to approximately 100 microm distal to the soma reaches a maximum rate of depolarization nearly synchronously by the influx of sodium from the high-density channels. Models of the proximal axon incorporating observed distributions of sodium channel staining recapitulated salient features of somatic and axonal spike waveforms, including the predicted initiation zone, characteristic spike latencies, and conduction velocity. The preferred initiation zone was unaltered by stimulus strength or repetitive spiking, but repetitive spiking increased threshold and significantly slowed initial segment recruitment time and conduction velocity. Our work defines the dynamics of initiation and propagation in hippocampal principal cell axons and may help reconcile recent controversies over initiation site in other axons.

  3. Regulatory mechanisms underlying the differential growth of dendrites and axons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Sterne, Gabriella R; Ye, Bing

    2014-08-01

    A typical neuron is comprised of an information input compartment, or the dendrites, and an output compartment, known as the axon. These two compartments are the structural basis for functional neural circuits. However, little is known about how dendritic and axonal growth are differentially regulated. Recent studies have uncovered two distinct types of regulatory mechanisms that differentiate dendritic and axonal growth: dedicated mechanisms and bimodal mechanisms. Dedicated mechanisms regulate either dendritespecific or axon-specific growth; in contrast, bimodal mechanisms direct dendritic and axonal development in opposite manners. Here, we review the dedicated and bimodal regulators identified by recent Drosophila and mammalian studies. The knowledge of these underlying molecular mechanisms not only expands our understanding about how neural circuits are wired, but also provides insights that will aid in the rational design of therapies for neurological diseases.

  4. Neuronal polarity in Drosophila: sorting out axons and dendrites

    PubMed Central

    Rolls, Melissa M.

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila neurons have identifiable axons and dendrites based on cell shape, but it is only just starting to become clear how Drosophila neurons are polarized at the molecular level. Dendrite-specific components, including the Golgi complex, GABA receptors, neurotransmitter receptor scaffolding proteins and cell adhesion molecules have been described. And proteins involved in constructing presynaptic specializations are concentrated in axons of some neurons. A very simple model for how these components are distributed to axons and dendrites can be constructed based on the opposite polarity of microtubules in axons and dendrites: dynein carries cargo into dendrites, and kinesins carry cargo into axons. The simple model works well for multipolar neurons, but will likely need refinement for unipolar neurons, which are common in Drosophila. PMID:21557498

  5. Impaired fast-spiking, suppressed cortical inhibition, and increased susceptibility to seizures in mice lacking Kv3.2 K+ channel proteins.

    PubMed

    Lau, D; Vega-Saenz de Miera, E C; Contreras, D; Ozaita, A; Harvey, M; Chow, A; Noebels, J L; Paylor, R; Morgan, J I; Leonard, C S; Rudy, B

    2000-12-15

    Voltage-gated K(+) channels of the Kv3 subfamily have unusual electrophysiological properties, including activation at very depolarized voltages (positive to -10 mV) and very fast deactivation rates, suggesting special roles in neuronal excitability. In the brain, Kv3 channels are prominently expressed in select neuronal populations, which include fast-spiking (FS) GABAergic interneurons of the neocortex, hippocampus, and caudate, as well as other high-frequency firing neurons. Although evidence points to a key role in high-frequency firing, a definitive understanding of the function of these channels has been hampered by a lack of selective pharmacological tools. We therefore generated mouse lines in which one of the Kv3 genes, Kv3.2, was disrupted by gene-targeting methods. Whole-cell electrophysiological recording showed that the ability to fire spikes at high frequencies was impaired in immunocytochemically identified FS interneurons of deep cortical layers (5-6) in which Kv3.2 proteins are normally prominent. No such impairment was found for FS neurons of superficial layers (2-4) in which Kv3.2 proteins are normally only weakly expressed. These data directly support the hypothesis that Kv3 channels are necessary for high-frequency firing. Moreover, we found that Kv3.2 -/- mice showed specific alterations in their cortical EEG patterns and an increased susceptibility to epileptic seizures consistent with an impairment of cortical inhibitory mechanisms. This implies that, rather than producing hyperexcitability of the inhibitory interneurons, Kv3.2 channel elimination suppresses their activity. These data suggest that normal cortical operations depend on the ability of inhibitory interneurons to generate high-frequency firing.

  6. Poly(Trimethylene Carbonate-co-ε-Caprolactone) Promotes Axonal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Daniela Nogueira; Brites, Pedro; Fonseca, Carlos; Pêgo, Ana Paula

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian central nervous system (CNS) neurons do not regenerate after injury due to the inhibitory environment formed by the glial scar, largely constituted by myelin debris. The use of biomaterials to bridge the lesion area and the creation of an environment favoring axonal regeneration is an appealing approach, currently under investigation. This work aimed at assessing the suitability of three candidate polymers – poly(ε-caprolactone), poly(trimethylene carbonate-co-ε-caprolactone) (P(TMC-CL)) (11∶89 mol%) and poly(trimethylene carbonate) - with the final goal of using these materials in the development of conduits to promote spinal cord regeneration. Poly(L-lysine) (PLL) coated polymeric films were tested for neuronal cell adhesion and neurite outgrowth. At similar PLL film area coverage conditions, neuronal polarization and axonal elongation was significantly higher on P(TMC-CL) films. Furthermore, cortical neurons cultured on P(TMC-CL) were able to extend neurites even when seeded onto myelin. This effect was found to be mediated by the glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) signaling pathway with impact on the collapsin response mediator protein 4 (CRMP4), suggesting that besides surface topography, nanomechanical properties were implicated in this process. The obtained results indicate P(TMC-CL) as a promising material for CNS regenerative applications as it promotes axonal growth, overcoming myelin inhibition. PMID:24586346

  7. Axon and dendrite pruning in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fengwei; Schuldiner, Oren

    2014-08-01

    Pruning, a process by which neurons selectively remove exuberant or unnecessary processes without causing cell death, is crucial for the establishment of mature neural circuits during animal development. Yet relatively little is known about molecular and cellular mechanisms that govern neuronal pruning. Holometabolous insects, such as Drosophila, undergo complete metamorphosis and their larval nervous systems are replaced with adult-specific ones, thus providing attractive models for studying neuronal pruning. Drosophila mushroom body and dendritic arborization neurons have been utilized as two appealing systems to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of axon and dendrite pruning, respectively. In this review we highlight recent developments and discuss some similarities and differences in the mechanisms that regulate these two distinct modes of neuronal pruning in Drosophila.

  8. Patterns of growth, axonal extension and axonal arborization of neuronal lineages in the developing Drosophila brain

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Camilla; Shy, Diana; Spindler, Shana R.; Fung, Siaumin; Pereanu, Wayne; Younossi -Hartenstein, Amelia; Hartenstein, Volker

    2009-01-01

    The Drosophila central brain is composed of approximately 100 paired lineages, with most lineages comprising 100–150 neurons. Most lineages have a number of important characteristics in common. Typically, neurons of a lineage stay together as a coherent cluster and project their axons into a coherent bundle visible from late embryo to adult. Neurons born during the embryonic period form the primary axon tracts (PATs) that follow stereotyped pathways in the neuropile. Apoptotic cell death removes an average of 30–40% of primary neurons around the time of hatching. Secondary neurons generated during the larval period form secondary axon tracts (SATs) that typically fasciculate with their corresponding primary axon tract. SATs develop into the long fascicles that interconnect the different compartments of the adult brain. Structurally, we distinguish between three types of lineages: PD lineages, characterized by distinct, spatially separate proximal and distal arborizations; C lineages with arborizations distributed continuously along the entire length of their tract; D lineages that lack proximal arborizations. Arborizations of many lineages, in particular those of the PD type, are restricted to distinct neuropile compartments. We propose that compartments are ‘scaffolded” by individual lineages, or small groups thereof. Thereby, the relatively small number of primary neurons of each primary lineage set up the compartment map in the late embryo. Compartments grow during the larval period simply by an increase in arbor volume of primary neurons. Arbors of secondary neurons form within or adjacent to the larval compartments, resulting in smaller compartment subdivisions and additional, adult specific compartments. PMID:19538956

  9. Neuron Morphology Influences Axon Initial Segment Plasticity.

    PubMed

    Gulledge, Allan T; Bravo, Jaime J

    2016-01-01

    In most vertebrate neurons, action potentials are initiated in the axon initial segment (AIS), a specialized region of the axon containing a high density of voltage-gated sodium and potassium channels. It has recently been proposed that neurons use plasticity of AIS length and/or location to regulate their intrinsic excitability. Here we quantify the impact of neuron morphology on AIS plasticity using computational models of simplified and realistic somatodendritic morphologies. In small neurons (e.g., dentate granule neurons), excitability was highest when the AIS was of intermediate length and located adjacent to the soma. Conversely, neurons having larger dendritic trees (e.g., pyramidal neurons) were most excitable when the AIS was longer and/or located away from the soma. For any given somatodendritic morphology, increasing dendritic membrane capacitance and/or conductance favored a longer and more distally located AIS. Overall, changes to AIS length, with corresponding changes in total sodium conductance, were far more effective in regulating neuron excitability than were changes in AIS location, while dendritic capacitance had a larger impact on AIS performance than did dendritic conductance. The somatodendritic influence on AIS performance reflects modest soma-to-AIS voltage attenuation combined with neuron size-dependent changes in AIS input resistance, effective membrane time constant, and isolation from somatodendritic capacitance. We conclude that the impact of AIS plasticity on neuron excitability will depend largely on somatodendritic morphology, and that, in some neurons, a shorter or more distally located AIS may promote, rather than limit, action potential generation.

  10. In vivo two-photon imaging reveals a role of progesterone in reducing axonal dieback after spinal cord injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhijie; Xie, Wenguang; Ju, Furong; Khan, Akbar; Zhang, Shengxiang

    2017-04-01

    Progesterone (PG) as a neuroprotective reagent has been used for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI) in experimental animal models. However, its effect and mechanism on axonal dieback at the early stage of SCI remain unclear. Here, we investigate the dynamics of injured axons and the effect of PG on the axonal dieback, glial response, and behavioral recovery in a mouse model of SCI. Two-photon intravital imaging combined with a simplified imaging window chamber were used to image axons in hemisected spinal cords over a period of 3 days. Repeated imaging showed that axonal dieback distance in mice treated with PG after SCI was significantly reduced than that in mice treated with vehicle after SCI (P < 0.05) at the time point of 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h after SCI. The densities of astrocytes and microglia in the SCI-vehicle treated group were significantly higher than those in mice treated with PG after SCI (P < 0.05). Real time polymerase chain reaction assay indicated that administration of PG after SCI down-regulated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines MCP-1, NOS2, and IL-1β (P < 0.05). PG treatment also improved the behavioral performance post injury. These findings suggested that PG exerted a neuroprotective effect by attenuating axonal dieback, reducing the accumulation of astrocytes and microglia and inhibiting the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  11. Axon Growth and Guidance Genes Identify Nascent, Immature, and Mature Olfactory Sensory Neurons

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Jeremy C.; Titlow, William B.; McClintock, Timothy S.

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenesis of projection neurons requires that axons be initiated, extended, and connected. Differences in the expression of axon growth and guidance genes must drive these events, but comprehensively characterizing these differences in a single neuronal type has not been accomplished. Guided by a catalog of gene expression in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry revealed that Cxcr4 and Dbn1, two axon initiation genes, marked the developmental transition from basal progenitor cells to immature OSNs in the olfactory epithelium. The CXCR4 immunoreactivity of these nascent OSNs overlapped partially with markers of proliferation of basal progenitor cells and partially with immunoreactivity for GAP43, the canonical marker of immature OSNs. Intracellular guidance cue signaling transcripts Ablim1, Crmp1, Dypsl2, Dpysl3, Dpysl5, Gap43, Marcskl1, and Stmn1–4 were specific to, or much more abundant in, the immature OSN layer. Receptors that mediate axonal inhibition or repulsion tended to be expressed in both immature and mature OSNs (Plxna1, Plxna4, Nrp2, Efna5) or specifically in mature OSNs (Plxna3, Unc5b, Efna3, Epha5, Epha7), although some were specific to immature OSNs (Plxnb1, Plxnb2, Plxdc2, Nrp1). Cell adhesion molecules were expressed either by both immature and mature OSNs (Dscam, Ncam1, Ncam2, Nrxn1) or solely by immature OSNs (Chl1, Nfasc1, Dscaml1). Given the loss of intracellular signaling protein expression, the continued expression of guidance cue receptors in mature OSNs is consistent with a change in the role of these receptors, perhaps to sending signals back to the cell body and nucleus. PMID:20882566

  12. The Number of Alphaherpesvirus Particles Infecting Axons and the Axonal Protein Repertoire Determines the Outcome of Neuronal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Koyuncu, Orkide O.; Song, Ren; Greco, Todd M.; Cristea, Ileana M.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Infection by alphaherpesviruses invariably results in invasion of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and establishment of either a latent or productive infection. Infection begins with long-distance retrograde transport of viral capsids and tegument proteins in axons toward the neuronal nuclei. Initial steps of axonal entry, retrograde transport, and replication in neuronal nuclei are poorly understood. To better understand how the mode of infection in the PNS is determined, we utilized a compartmented neuron culturing system where distal axons of PNS neurons are physically separated from cell bodies. We infected isolated axons with fluorescent-protein-tagged pseudorabies virus (PRV) particles and monitored viral entry and transport in axons and replication in cell bodies during low and high multiplicities of infection (MOIs of 0.01 to 100). We found a threshold for efficient retrograde transport in axons between MOIs of 1 and 10 and a threshold for productive infection in the neuronal cell bodies between MOIs of 1 and 0.1. Below an MOI of 0.1, the viral genomes that moved to neuronal nuclei were silenced. These genomes can be reactivated after superinfection by a nonreplicating virus, but not by a replicating virus. We further showed that viral particles at high-MOI infections compete for axonal proteins and that this competition determines the number of viral particles reaching the nuclei. Using mass spectrometry, we identified axonal proteins that are differentially regulated by PRV infection. Our results demonstrate the impact of the multiplicity of infection and the axonal milieu on the establishment of neuronal infection initiated from axons. PMID:25805728

  13. Rosiglitazone ameliorates diffuse axonal injury by reducing loss of tau and up-regulating caveolin-1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yong-lin; Song, Jin-ning; Ma, Xu-dong; Zhang, Bin-fei; Li, Dan-dong; Pang, Hong-gang

    2016-01-01

    Rosiglitazone up-regulates caveolin-1 levels and has neuroprotective effects in both chronic and acute brain injury. Therefore, we postulated that rosiglitazone may ameliorate diffuse axonal injury via its ability to up-regulate caveolin-1, inhibit expression of amyloid-beta precursor protein, and reduce the loss and abnormal phosphorylation of tau. In the present study, intraperitoneal injection of rosiglitazone significantly reduced the levels of amyloid-beta precursor protein and hyperphosphorylated tau (phosphorylated at Ser404(p-tau (S404)), and it increased the expression of total tau and caveolin-1 in the rat cortex. Our results show that rosiglitazone inhibits the expression of amyloid-beta precursor protein and lowers p-tau (S404) levels, and it reduces the loss of total tau, possibly by up-regulating caveolin-1. These actions of rosiglitazone may underlie its neuroprotective effects in the treatment of diffuse axonal injury. PMID:27482223

  14. Fast Reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, S.; Pisanti, O.

    The following sections are included: * Elementary Considerations * The Integral Equation to the Neutron Distribution * The Critical Size for a Fast Reactor * Supercritical Reactors * Problems and Exercises

  15. Reggies/flotillins regulate retinal axon regeneration in the zebrafish optic nerve and differentiation of hippocampal and N2a neurons.

    PubMed

    Munderloh, Christina; Solis, Gonzalo P; Bodrikov, Vsevolod; Jaeger, Friederike A; Wiechers, Marianne; Málaga-Trillo, Edward; Stuermer, Claudia A O

    2009-05-20

    The reggies/flotillins--proteins upregulated during axon regeneration in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs)--are scaffolding proteins of microdomains and involved in neuronal differentiation. Here, we show that reggies regulate axon regeneration in zebrafish (ZF) after optic nerve section (ONS) in vivo as well as axon/neurite extension in hippocampal and N2a neurons in vitro through signal transduction molecules modulating actin dynamics. ZF reggie-1a, -2a, and -2b downregulation by reggie-specific morpholino (Mo) antisense oligonucleotides directly after ONS significantly reduced ZF RGC axon regeneration: RGC axons from reggie Mo retinas were markedly reduced. Moreover, the number of axon-regenerating RGCs, identified by insertion of A488-coupled dextran, decreased by 69% in retinas 7 d after Mo application. At 10 and 14 d, RGCs decreased by 53 and 33%, respectively, in correlation with the gradual inactivation of the Mos. siRNA-mediated knockdown of reggie-1 and -2 inhibited the differentiation and axon/neurite extension in hippocampal and N2a neurons. N2a cells had significantly shorter filopodia, more cells had lamellipodia and fewer neurites, defects which were rescued by a reggie-1 construct without siRNA-binding sites. Furthermore, reggie knockdown strongly perturbed the balanced activation of the Rho family GTPases Rac1, RhoA, and cdc42, influenced the phosphorylation of cortactin and cofilin, the formation of the N-WASP, cortactin and Arp3 complex, and affected p38, Ras, ERK1/2 (extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2), and focal adhesion kinase activation. Thus, as suggested by their prominent re-expression after lesion, the reggies represent neuron-intrinsic factors for axon outgrowth and regeneration, being crucial for the coordinated assembly of signaling complexes regulating cytoskeletal remodeling.

  16. Radial Glial Cell–Neuron Interaction Directs Axon Formation at the Opposite Side of the Neuron from the Contact Site

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chundi; Funahashi, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Takashi; Takano, Tetsuya; Nakamuta, Shinichi; Namba, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    How extracellular cues direct axon–dendrite polarization in mouse developing neurons is not fully understood. Here, we report that the radial glial cell (RGC)–cortical neuron interaction directs axon formation at the opposite side of the neuron from the contact site. N-cadherin accumulates at the contact site between the RGC and cortical neuron. Inhibition of the N-cadherin-mediated adhesion decreases this oriented axon formation in vitro, and disrupts the axon–dendrite polarization in vivo. Furthermore, the RGC–neuron interaction induces the polarized distribution of active RhoA at the contacting neurite and active Rac1 at the opposite neurite. Inhibition of Rho–Rho-kinase signaling in a neuron impairs the oriented axon formation in vitro, and prevents axon–dendrite polarization in vivo. Collectively, these results suggest that the N-cadherin-mediated radial glia–neuron interaction determines the contacting neurite as the leading process for radial glia-guided neuronal migration and directs axon formation to the opposite side acting through the Rho family GTPases. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neurons are highly polarized cell lines typically with a single axon and multiple dendrites, which underlies the ability of integrating and transmitting the information in the brain. How is the axon–dendrite polarity of neurons established in the developing neocortex? Here we show that the N-cadherin-mediated radial glial cell–neuron interaction directs axon–dendrite polarization, the radial glial cell–neuron interaction induces polarized distribution of active RhoA and active Rac1 in neurons, and Rho–Rho-kinase signaling is required for axon–dendrite polarization. Our work advances the overall understanding of how extracellular cues direct axon–dendrite polarization in mouse developing neurons. PMID:26511243

  17. Local erythropoietin signaling enhances regeneration in peripheral axons.

    PubMed

    Toth, C; Martinez, J A; Liu, W Q; Diggle, J; Guo, G F; Ramji, N; Mi, R; Hoke, A; Zochodne, D W

    2008-06-23

    Erythropoietin (EPO) and its receptor (EPO-R), mediate neuroprotection from axonopathy and apoptosis in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). We examined the impact and potential mechanisms of local EPO signaling on regenerating PNS axons in vivo and in vitro. As a consequence of injury, peripheral nerve axons and DRG neurons have a marked increase in the expression of EPO and EPO-R. Local delivery of EPO via conduit over 2 weeks to rat sciatic nerve following crush injury increased the density and maturity of regenerating myelinated axons growing distally from the crush site. In addition, EPO also rescued retrograde degeneration and atrophy of axons. EPO substantially increased the density and intensity of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) expression within outgrowing axons. Behavioral improvements in sensorimotor function also occurred in rats exposed to near nerve EPO delivery. EPO delivery led to decreased nuclear factor kappaB (NFkB) activation but increased phosphorylation of Akt and STAT3 within nerve and dorsal root ganglia neurons indicating rescue from an injury phenotype. Spinal cord explant studies also demonstrated a similar dose-dependent effect of EPO upon motor axonal outgrowth. Local EPO signaling enhances regenerating peripheral nervous system axons in addition to its known neuroprotection. Exogenous EPO may have a therapeutic role in a large number of peripheral nerve diseases through its impact on regeneration.

  18. Axonal Transport and Morphology: How Myelination gets Nerves into Shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Peter; Zhao, Peng; Monsma, Paula; Brown, Tony

    2011-03-01

    The local caliber of mature axons is largely determined by neurofilament (NF) content. The axoskeleton, mainly consisting of NFs, however, is dynamic. NFs are assembled in the cell body and are transported by molecular motors on microtubule tracks along the axon at a slow rate of fractions of mm per day. We combine live cell fluorescent imaging techniques to access NF transport in myelinated and non-myelinated segments of axons with computational modeling of the active NF flow to show that a), myelination locally slows NF transport rates by regulating duty ratios and b), that the predicted increase in axon caliber agrees well with experiments. This study, for the first time, links NF kinetics directly to axonal morphology, providing a novel conceptual framework for the physical understanding of processes leading to the formation of axonal structures such as the ``Nodes of Ranvier'' as well as abnormal axonal swellings associated with neurodegenerative diseases like Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). NSF grants # IOS-0818412(PJ) and IOS-0818653 (AB).

  19. Developmental mechanism of the periodic membrane skeleton in axons

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Guisheng; He, Jiang; Zhou, Ruobo; Lorenzo, Damaris; Babcock, Hazen P; Bennett, Vann; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2014-01-01

    Actin, spectrin, and associated molecules form a periodic sub-membrane lattice structure in axons. How this membrane skeleton is developed and why it preferentially forms in axons are unknown. Here, we studied the developmental mechanism of this lattice structure. We found that this structure emerged early during axon development and propagated from proximal regions to distal ends of axons. Components of the axon initial segment were recruited to the lattice late during development. Formation of the lattice was regulated by the local concentration of βII spectrin, which is higher in axons than in dendrites. Increasing the dendritic concentration of βII spectrin by overexpression or by knocking out ankyrin B induced the formation of the periodic structure in dendrites, demonstrating that the spectrin concentration is a key determinant in the preferential development of this structure in axons and that ankyrin B is critical for the polarized distribution of βII spectrin in neurites. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04581.001 PMID:25535840

  20. The histone acetyltransferase p300 promotes intrinsic axonal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Gaub, Perrine; Joshi, Yashashree; Wuttke, Anja; Naumann, Ulrike; Schnichels, Sven; Heiduschka, Peter; Di Giovanni, Simone

    2011-07-01

    Axonal regeneration and related functional recovery following axonal injury in the adult central nervous system are extremely limited, due to a lack of neuronal intrinsic competence and the presence of extrinsic inhibitory signals. As opposed to what occurs during nervous system development, a weak proregenerative gene expression programme contributes to the limited intrinsic capacity of adult injured central nervous system axons to regenerate. Here we show, in an optic nerve crush model of axonal injury, that adenoviral (cytomegalovirus promoter) overexpression of the acetyltransferase p300, which is regulated during retinal ganglion cell maturation and repressed in the adult, can promote axonal regeneration of the optic nerve beyond 0.5 mm. p300 acetylates histone H3 and the proregenerative transcription factors p53 and CCAAT-enhancer binding proteins in retinal ganglia cells. In addition, it directly occupies and acetylates the promoters of the growth-associated protein-43, coronin 1 b and Sprr1a and drives the gene expression programme of several regeneration-associated genes. On the contrary, overall increase in cellular acetylation using the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A, enhances retinal ganglion cell survival but not axonal regeneration after optic nerve crush. Therefore, p300 targets both the epigenome and transcription to unlock a post-injury silent gene expression programme that would support axonal regeneration.

  1. A Microchip for Quantitative Analysis of CNS Axon Growth under Localized Biomolecular Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jaewon; Kim, Sunja; Park, Su Inn; Choe, Yoonsuck; Li, Jianrong; Han, Arum

    2013-01-01

    Growth capability of neurons is an essential factor in axon regeneration. To better understand how microenvironments influence axon growth, methods that allow spatial control of cellular microenvironments and easy quantification of axon growth are critically needed. Here, we present a microchip capable of physically guiding the growth directions of axons while providing physical and fluidic isolation from neuronal somata/dendrites that enables localized biomolecular treatments and linear axon growth. The microchip allows axons to grow in straight lines inside the axon compartments even after the isolation; therefore, significantly facilitating the axon length quantification process. We further developed an image processing algorithm that automatically quantifies axon growth. The effect of localized extracellular matrix components and brain-derived neurotropic factor treatments on axon growth was investigated. Results show that biomolecules may have substantially different effects on axon growth depending on where they act. For example, while chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan causes axon retraction when added to the axons, it promotes axon growth when applied to the somata. The newly developed microchip overcomes limitations of conventional axon growth research methods that lack localized control of biomolecular environments and are often performed at a significantly lower cell density for only a short period of time due to difficulty in monitoring of axonal growth. This microchip may serve as a powerful tool for investigating factors that promote axon growth and regeneration. PMID:24161788

  2. High plasticity of axonal pathology in Alzheimer's disease mouse models.

    PubMed

    Blazquez-Llorca, Lidia; Valero-Freitag, Susana; Rodrigues, Eva Ferreira; Merchán-Pérez, Ángel; Rodríguez, J Rodrigo; Dorostkar, Mario M; DeFelipe, Javier; Herms, Jochen

    2017-02-07

    Axonal dystrophies (AxDs) are swollen and tortuous neuronal processes that are associated with extracellular depositions of amyloid β (Aβ) and have been observed to contribute to synaptic alterations occurring in Alzheimer's disease. Understanding the temporal course of this axonal pathology is of high relevance to comprehend the progression of the disease over time. We performed a long-term in vivo study (up to 210 days of two-photon imaging) with two transgenic mouse models (dE9xGFP-M and APP-PS1xGFP-M). Interestingly, AxDs were formed only in a quarter of GFP-expressing axons near Aβ-plaques, which indicates a selective vulnerability. AxDs, especially those reaching larger sizes, had long lifetimes and appeared as highly plastic structures with large variations in size and shape and axonal sprouting over time. In the case of the APP-PS1 mouse only, the formation of new long axonal segments in dystrophic axons (re-growth phenomenon) was observed. Moreover, new AxDs could appear at the same point of the axon where a previous AxD had been located before disappearance (re-formation phenomenon). In addition, we observed that most AxDs were formed and developed during the imaging period, and numerous AxDs had already disappeared by the end of this time. This work is the first in vivo study analyzing quantitatively the high plasticity of the axonal pathology around Aβ plaques. We hypothesized that a therapeutically early prevention of Aβ plaque formation or their growth might halt disease progression and promote functional axon regeneration and the recovery of neural circuits.

  3. Reassembly of Excitable Domains after CNS Axon Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Marin, Miguel A.; de Lima, Silmara; Gilbert, Hui-Ya; Giger, Roman J.; Benowitz, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Action potential initiation and propagation in myelinated axons require ion channel clustering at axon initial segments (AIS) and nodes of Ranvier. Disruption of these domains after injury impairs nervous system function. Traditionally, injured CNS axons are considered refractory to regeneration, but some recent approaches challenge this view by showing robust long-distance regeneration. However, whether these approaches allow remyelination and promote the reestablishment of AIS and nodes of Ranvier is unknown. Using mouse optic nerve crush as a model for CNS traumatic injury, we performed a detailed analysis of AIS and node disruption after nerve crush. We found significant disruption of AIS and loss of nodes within days of the crush, and complete loss of nodes 1 week after injury. Genetic deletion of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten) in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), coupled with stimulation of RGCs by inflammation and cAMP, dramatically enhanced regeneration. With this treatment, we found significant reestablishment of RGC AIS, remyelination, and even reassembly of nodes in regions proximal, within, and distal to the crush site. Remyelination began near the retina, progressed distally, and was confirmed by electron microscopy. Although axons grew rapidly, remyelination and nodal ion channel clustering was much slower. Finally, genetic deletion of ankyrinG from RGCs to block AIS reassembly did not affect axon regeneration, indicating that preservation of neuronal polarity is not required for axon regeneration. Together, our results demonstrate, for the first time, that regenerating CNS axons can be remyelinated and reassemble new AIS and nodes of Ranvier. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We show, for the first time, that regenerated CNS axons have the capacity to both remyelinate and reassemble the axon initial segments and nodes of Ranvier necessary for rapid and efficient action potential propagation. PMID:27581456

  4. In Vivo Two-Photon Imaging of Axonal Dieback, Blood Flow, and Calcium Influx with Methylprednisolone Therapy after Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Peifu; Zhang, Yiling; Chen, Chao; Ji, Xinran; Ju, Furong; Liu, Xingyu; Gan, Wen-Biao; He, Zhigang; Zhang, Shengxiang; Li, Wei; Zhang, Lihai

    2015-01-01

    Severe spinal cord injury (SCI) can cause neurological dysfunction and paralysis. However, the early dynamic changes of neurons and their surrounding environment after SCI are poorly understood. Although methylprednisolone (MP) is currently the standard therapeutic agent for treating SCI, its efficacy remains controversial. The purpose of this project was to investigate the early dynamic changes and MP's efficacy on axonal damage, blood flow, and calcium influx into axons in a mouse SCI model. YFP H-line and Thy1-GCaMP transgenic mice were used in this study. Two-photon microscopy was used for imaging of axonal dieback, blood flow, and calcium influx post-injury. We found that MP treatment attenuated progressive damage of axons, increased blood flow, and reduced calcium influx post-injury. Furthermore, microglia/macrophages accumulated in the lesion site after SCI and expressed the proinflammatory mediators iNOS, MCP-1 and IL-1β. MP treatment markedly inhibited the accumulation of microglia/macrophages and reduced the expression of the proinflammatory mediators. MP treatment also improved the recovery of behavioral function post-injury. These findings suggest that MP exerts a neuroprotective effect on SCI treatment by attenuating progressive damage of axons, increasing blood flow, reducing calcium influx, and inhibiting the accumulation of microglia/macrophages after SCI. PMID:25989524

  5. In vivo two-photon imaging of axonal dieback, blood flow, and calcium influx with methylprednisolone therapy after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Tang, Peifu; Zhang, Yiling; Chen, Chao; Ji, Xinran; Ju, Furong; Liu, Xingyu; Gan, Wen-Biao; He, Zhigang; Zhang, Shengxiang; Li, Wei; Zhang, Lihai

    2015-05-19

    Severe spinal cord injury (SCI) can cause neurological dysfunction and paralysis. However, the early dynamic changes of neurons and their surrounding environment after SCI are poorly understood. Although methylprednisolone (MP) is currently the standard therapeutic agent for treating SCI, its efficacy remains controversial. The purpose of this project was to investigate the early dynamic changes and MP's efficacy on axonal damage, blood flow, and calcium influx into axons in a mouse SCI model. YFP H-line and Thy1-GCaMP transgenic mice were used in this study. Two-photon microscopy was used for imaging of axonal dieback, blood flow, and calcium influx post-injury. We found that MP treatment attenuated progressive damage of axons, increased blood flow, and reduced calcium influx post-injury. Furthermore, microglia/macrophages accumulated in the lesion site after SCI and expressed the proinflammatory mediators iNOS, MCP-1 and IL-1β. MP treatment markedly inhibited the accumulation of microglia/macrophages and reduced the expression of the proinflammatory mediators. MP treatment also improved the recovery of behavioral function post-injury. These findings suggest that MP exerts a neuroprotective effect on SCI treatment by attenuating progressive damage of axons, increasing blood flow, reducing calcium influx, and inhibiting the accumulation of microglia/macrophages after SCI.

  6. Intra-axonal myosin and actin in nerve regeneration.

    PubMed

    McQuarrie, Irvine G; Lund, Linda M

    2009-10-01

    A focused review of sciatic nerve regeneration in the rat model, based on research conducted by the authors, is presented. We examine structural proteins carried distally in the axon by energy-requiring motor enzymes, using protein chemistry and molecular biology techniques in combination with immunohistochemistry. Relevant findings from other laboratories are cited and discussed. The general conclusion is that relatively large amounts of actin and tubulin are required to construct a regenerating axon and that these materials mainly originate in the parent axon. The motor enzymes that carry these proteins forward as macromolecules include kinesin and dynein but probably also include myosin.

  7. Axon-glial interactions at the Drosophila CNS midline.

    PubMed

    Crews, Stephen T

    2010-01-01

    The glia that reside at the midline of the Drosophila CNS are an important embryonic signaling center and also wrap the axons that cross the CNS. The development of the midline glia (MG) is characterized by migration, ensheathment, subdivision of axon commissures, apoptosis, and the extension of glial processes. All of these events are characterized by cell-cell contact between MG and adjacent neurons. Cell adhesion and signaling proteins that mediate different aspects of MG development and MG-neuron interactions have been identified. This provides a foundation for ultimately obtaining an integrated picture of how the MG assemble into a characteristic axonal support structure in the CNS.

  8. Rapamycin-Resistant mTOR Activity Is Required for Sensory Axon Regeneration Induced by a Conditioning Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Na; Ding, Yue; Chan, Leung Ting; Wang, Xu; Gao, Xin; Jiang, Songshan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Neuronal mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity is a critical determinant of the intrinsic regenerative ability of mature neurons in the adult central nervous system (CNS). However, whether its action also applies to peripheral nervous system (PNS) neurons after injury remains elusive. To address this issue unambiguously, we used genetic approaches to determine the role of mTOR signaling in sensory axon regeneration in mice. We showed that deleting mTOR in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons suppressed the axon regeneration induced by conditioning lesions. To establish whether the impact of mTOR on axon regeneration results from functions of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) or 2 (mTORC2), two distinct kinase complexes, we ablated either Raptor or Rictor in DRG neurons. We found that suppressing mTORC1 signaling dramatically decreased the conditioning lesion effect. In addition, an injury to the peripheral branch boosts mTOR activity in DRG neurons that cannot be completely inhibited by rapamycin, a widely used mTOR-specific inhibitor. Unexpectedly, examining several conditioning lesion–induced pro-regenerative pathways revealed that Raptor deletion but not rapamycin suppressed Stat3 activity in neurons. Therefore, our results demonstrate that crosstalk between mTOR and Stat3 signaling mediates the conditioning lesion effect and provide genetic evidence that rapamycin-resistant mTOR activity contributes to the intrinsic axon growth capacity in adult sensory neurons after injury. PMID:28101526

  9. Assessment of functional recovery and axonal sprouting in oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein (OMgp) null mice after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Ji, Benxiu; Case, Lauren C; Liu, Kai; Shao, Zhaohui; Lee, Xinhua; Yang, Zhongshu; Wang, Joy; Tian, Tim; Shulga-Morskaya, Svetlana; Scott, Martin; He, Zhigang; Relton, Jane K; Mi, Sha

    2008-10-01

    Oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein (OMgp) is a myelin component that has been shown in vitro to inhibit neurite outgrowth by binding to the Nogo-66 receptor (NgR1)/Lingo-1/Taj (TROY)/p75 receptor complex to activate the RhoA pathway. To investigate the effects of OMgp on axon regeneration in vivo, OMgp(-/-) mice on a mixed 129/Sv/C57BL/6 (129BL6) or a C57BL/6 (BL6) genetic background were tested in two spinal cord injury (SCI) models - a severe complete transection or a milder dorsal hemisection. OMgp(-/-) mice on the mixed 129BL6 genetic background showed greater functional improvement compared to OMgp(+/+) littermates, with increased numbers of cholera toxin B-labeled ascending sensory axons and 5-HT(+) descending axons and less RhoA activation after spinal cord injury. Myelin isolated from OMgp(-/-) mice (129BL6) was significantly less inhibitory to neurite outgrowth than wild-type (wt) myelin in vitro. However, OMgp(-/-) mice on a BL/6 genetic background showed neither statistically significant functional recovery nor axonal sprouting following dorsal hemisection.

  10. Npn-1 contributes to axon-axon interactions that differentially control sensory and motor innervation of the limb.

    PubMed

    Huettl, Rosa-Eva; Soellner, Heidi; Bianchi, Elisa; Novitch, Bennett G; Huber, Andrea B

    2011-02-01

    The initiation, execution, and completion of complex locomotor behaviors are depending on precisely integrated neural circuitries consisting of motor pathways that activate muscles in the extremities and sensory afferents that deliver feedback to motoneurons. These projections form in tight temporal and spatial vicinities during development, yet the molecular mechanisms and cues coordinating these processes are not well understood. Using cell-type specific ablation of the axon guidance receptor Neuropilin-1 (Npn-1) in spinal motoneurons or in sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), we have explored the contribution of this signaling pathway to correct innervation of the limb. We show that Npn-1 controls the fasciculation of both projections and mediates inter-axonal communication. Removal of Npn-1 from sensory neurons results in defasciculation of sensory axons and, surprisingly, also of motor axons. In addition, the tight coupling between these two heterotypic axonal populations is lifted with sensory fibers now leading the spinal nerve projection. These findings are corroborated by partial genetic elimination of sensory neurons, which causes defasciculation of motor projections to the limb. Deletion of Npn-1 from motoneurons leads to severe defasciculation of motor axons in the distal limb and dorsal-ventral pathfinding errors, while outgrowth and fasciculation of sensory trajectories into the limb remain unaffected. Genetic elimination of motoneurons, however, revealed that sensory axons need only minimal scaffolding by motor axons to establish their projections in the distal limb. Thus, motor and sensory axons are mutually dependent on each other for the generation of their trajectories and interact in part through Npn-1-mediated fasciculation before and within the plexus region of the limbs.

  11. Cannabinoid Receptors Modulate Neuronal Morphology and AnkyrinG Density at the Axon Initial Segment

    PubMed Central

    Tapia, Mónica; Dominguez, Ana; Zhang, Wei; del Puerto, Ana; Ciorraga, María; Benitez, María José; Guaza, Carmen; Garrido, Juan José

    2017-01-01

    Neuronal polarization underlies the ability of neurons to integrate and transmit information. This process begins early in development with axon outgrowth, followed by dendritic growth and subsequent maturation. In between these two steps, the axon initial segment (AIS), a subcellular domain crucial for generating action potentials (APs) and maintaining the morphological and functional polarization, starts to develop. However, the cellular/molecular mechanisms and receptors involved in AIS initial development and maturation are mostly unknown. In this study, we have focused on the role of the type-1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R), a highly abundant G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) in the nervous system largely involved in different phases of neuronal development and differentiation. Although CB1R activity modulation has been related to changes in axons or dendrites, its possible role as a modulator of AIS development has not been yet explored. Here we analyzed the potential role of CB1R on neuronal morphology and AIS development using pharmacological and RNA interference approaches in cultured hippocampal neurons. CB1R inhibition, at a very early developmental stage, has no effect on axonal growth, yet CB1R activation can promote it. By contrast, subsequent dendritic growth is impaired by CB1R inhibition, which also reduces ankyrinG density at the AIS. Moreover, our data show a significant correlation between early dendritic growth and ankyrinG density. However, CB1R inhibition in later developmental stages after dendrites are formed only reduces ankyrinG accumulation at the AIS. In conclusion, our data suggest that neuronal CB1R basal activity plays a role in initial development of dendrites and indirectly in AIS proteins accumulation. Based on the lack of CB1R expression at the AIS, we hypothesize that CB1R mediated modulation of dendritic arbor size during early development indirectly determines the accumulation of ankyrinG and AIS development. Further studies

  12. Cannabinoid Receptors Modulate Neuronal Morphology and AnkyrinG Density at the Axon Initial Segment.

    PubMed

    Tapia, Mónica; Dominguez, Ana; Zhang, Wei; Del Puerto, Ana; Ciorraga, María; Benitez, María José; Guaza, Carmen; Garrido, Juan José

    2017-01-01

    Neuronal polarization underlies the ability of neurons to integrate and transmit information. This process begins early in development with axon outgrowth, followed by dendritic growth and subsequent maturation. In between these two steps, the axon initial segment (AIS), a subcellular domain crucial for generating action potentials (APs) and maintaining the morphological and functional polarization, starts to develop. However, the cellular/molecular mechanisms and receptors involved in AIS initial development and maturation are mostly unknown. In this study, we have focused on the role of the type-1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R), a highly abundant G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) in the nervous system largely involved in different phases of neuronal development and differentiation. Although CB1R activity modulation has been related to changes in axons or dendrites, its possible role as a modulator of AIS development has not been yet explored. Here we analyzed the potential role of CB1R on neuronal morphology and AIS development using pharmacological and RNA interference approaches in cultured hippocampal neurons. CB1R inhibition, at a very early developmental stage, has no effect on axonal growth, yet CB1R activation can promote it. By contrast, subsequent dendritic growth is impaired by CB1R inhibition, which also reduces ankyrinG density at the AIS. Moreover, our data show a significant correlation between early dendritic growth and ankyrinG density. However, CB1R inhibition in later developmental stages after dendrites are formed only reduces ankyrinG accumulation at the AIS. In conclusion, our data suggest that neuronal CB1R basal activity plays a role in initial development of dendrites and indirectly in AIS proteins accumulation. Based on the lack of CB1R expression at the AIS, we hypothesize that CB1R mediated modulation of dendritic arbor size during early development indirectly determines the accumulation of ankyrinG and AIS development. Further studies

  13. Fast algal eco-toxicity assessment: Influence of light intensity and exposure time on Chlorella vulgaris inhibition by atrazine and DCMU.

    PubMed

    Camuel, Alexandre; Guieysse, Benoit; Alcántara, Cynthia; Béchet, Quentin

    2017-06-01

    In order to develop a rapid assay suitable for algal eco-toxicity assessments under conditions representative of natural ecosystems, this study evaluated the short-term (<1h) response of algae exposed to atrazine and DCMU using oxygen productivity measurements. When Chlorella vulgaris was exposed to these herbicides under 'standard' low light intensity (as prescribed by OECD201 guideline), the 20min-EC50 values recorded via oxygen productivity (atrazine: 1.32±0.07μM; DCMU: 0.31±0.005μM) were similar the 96-h EC50 recorded via algal growth (atrazine: 0.56μM; DCMU: 0.41μM), and within the range of values reported in the literature. 20min-EC50 values increased by factors of 3.0 and 2.1 for atrazine and DCMU, respectively, when light intensity increased from 60 to 1400μmolm(-2)s(-1) of photosynthetically active radiation, or PAR. Further investigation showed that exposure time significantly also impacted the sensitivity of C. vulgaris under high light intensity (>840μmolm(-2)s(-1) as PAR) as the EC50 for atrazine and DCMU decreased by up to 6.2 and 2.1 folds, respectively, after 50min of exposure at a light irradiance of 1400μmolm(-2)s(-1) as PAR. This decrease was particularly marked at high light intensities and low algae concentrations and is explained by the herbicide disruption of the electron transfer chain triggering photo-inhibition at high light intensities. Eco-toxicity assessments aiming to understand the potential impact of toxic compounds on natural ecosystems should therefore be performed over sufficient exposure times (>20min for C. vulgaris) and under light intensities relevant to these ecosystems.

  14. Bilaterian Giant Ankyrins Have a Common Evolutionary Origin and Play a Conserved Role in Patterning the Axon Initial Segment

    PubMed Central

    Jegla, Timothy; Nguyen, Michelle M.; Feng, Chengye; Goetschius, Daniel J.; van Rossum, Damian B.; Pisupati, Aditya; Milner, Elliott S.

    2016-01-01

    In vertebrate neurons, the axon initial segment (AIS) is specialized for action potential initiation. It is organized by a giant 480 Kd variant of ankyrin G (AnkG) that serves as an anchor for ion channels and is required for a plasma membrane diffusion barrier that excludes somatodendritic proteins from the axon. An unusually long exon required to encode this 480Kd variant is thought to have been inserted only recently during vertebrate evolution, so the giant ankyrin-based AIS scaffold has been viewed as a vertebrate adaptation for fast, precise signaling. We re-examined AIS evolution through phylogenomic analysis of ankyrins and by testing the role of ankyrins in proximal axon organization in a model multipolar Drosophila neuron (ddaE). We find giant isoforms of ankyrin in all major bilaterian phyla, and present evidence in favor of a single common origin for giant ankyrins and the corresponding long exon in a bilaterian ancestor. This finding raises the question of whether giant ankyrin isoforms play a conserved role in AIS organization throughout the Bilateria. We examined this possibility by looking for conserved ankyrin-dependent AIS features in Drosophila ddaE neurons via live imaging. We found that ddaE neurons have an axonal diffusion barrier proximal to the cell body that requires a giant isoform of the neuronal ankyrin Ank2. Furthermore, the potassium channel shal concentrates in the proximal axon in an Ank2-dependent manner. Our results indicate that the giant ankyrin-based cytoskeleton of the AIS may have evolved prior to the radiation of extant bilaterian lineages, much earlier than previously thought. PMID:27911898

  15. Epigenetic Regulation of Axon Regeneration after Neural Injury

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jung Eun; Cho, Yongcheol

    2017-01-01

    When peripheral axons are damaged, neuronal injury signaling pathways induce transcriptional changes that support axon regeneration and consequent functional recovery. The recent development of bioinformatics techniques has allowed for the identification of many of the regeneration-associated genes that are regulated by neural injury, yet it remains unclear how global changes in transcriptome are coordinated. In this article, we review recent studies on the epigenetic mechanisms orchestrating changes in gene expression in response to nerve injury. We highlight the importance of epigenetic mechanisms in discriminating efficient axon regeneration in the peripheral nervous system and very limited axon regrowth in the central nervous system and discuss the therapeutic potential of targeting epigenetic regulators to improve neural recovery. PMID:28152303

  16. Axon guidance: repulsion and attraction in roundabout ways.

    PubMed

    Pappu, Kartik S; Zipursky, S Lawrence

    2010-05-11

    The secreted signal Slit and its three receptors, Robo1-3, regulate axon guidance in the Drosophila nervous system. Differences in expression and structure of Robo paralogs contribute to diversifying growth cone responses to a common ligand.

  17. Motile axonal mitochondria contribute to the variability of presynaptic strength.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tao; Qiao, Haifa; Pan, Ping-Yue; Chen, Yanmin; Sheng, Zu-Hang

    2013-08-15

    One of the most notable characteristics of synaptic transmission is the wide variation in synaptic strength in response to identical stimulation. In hippocampal neurons, approximately one-third of axonal mitochondria are highly motile, and some dynamically pass through presynaptic boutons. This raises a fundamental question: can motile mitochondria contribute to the pulse-to-pulse variability of presynaptic strength? Recently, we identified syntaphilin as an axonal mitochondrial-docking protein. Using hippocampal neurons and slices of syntaphilin knockout mice, we demonstrate that the motility of axonal mitochondria correlates with presynaptic variability. Enhancing mitochondrial motility increases the pulse-to-pulse variability, whereas immobilizing mitochondria reduces the variability. By dual-color live imaging at single-bouton levels, we further show that motile mitochondria passing through boutons dynamically influence synaptic vesicle release, mainly by altering ATP homeostasis in axons. Thus, our study provides insight into the fundamental properties of the CNS to ensure the plasticity and reliability of synaptic transmission.

  18. Restoration of visual function by enhancing conduction in regenerated axons

    PubMed Central

    Bei, Fengfeng; Lee, Henry Hing Cheong; Liu, Xuefeng; Gunner, Georgia; Jin, Hai; Ma, Long; Wang, Chen; Hou, lijun; Hensch, Takao K.; Frank, Eric; Sanes, Joshua R.; Chen, Chinfei; Fagiolini, Michela; He, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    Although a number of repair strategies have been shown to promote axon outgrowth following neuronal injury in the mammalian central nervous system, it remains unclear whether regenerated axons establish functional synapses and support behavior. Here, in both juvenile and adult mice, we show that either PTEN and SOCS3 co-deletion, or co-overexpression of osteopontin (OPN)/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1)/ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), induces regrowth of retinal axons and formation of functional synapses in the superior colliculus (SC), but not significant recovery of visual function. Further analyses suggest that regenerated axons fail to conduct action potentials from the eye to the SC due to lack of myelination. Consistent with this idea, administration of voltage-gated potassium channel blockers restores conduction and results in increased visual acuity. Thus, enhancing both regeneration and conduction effectively improves function after optic nerve injury. PMID:26771493

  19. Sodium Channels, Mitochondria, and Axonal Degeneration in Peripheral Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Persson, Anna-Karin; Hoeijmakers, Janneke G J; Estacion, Mark; Black, Joel A; Waxman, Stephen G

    2016-05-01

    Peripheral neuropathy results from damage to peripheral nerves and is often accompanied by pain in affected limbs. Treatment represents an unmet medical need and a thorough understanding of the mechanisms underlying axonal injury is needed. Longer nerve fibers tend to degenerate first (length-dependence), and patients carrying pathogenic mutations throughout life usually become symptomatic in mid- or late-life (time-dependence). The activity of voltage-gated sodium channels can contribute to axonal injury and sodium channel gain-of-function mutations have been linked to peripheral neuropathy. Recent studies have implicated sodium channel activity, mitochondrial compromise, and reverse-mode Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange in time- and length-dependent axonal injury. Elucidation of molecular mechanisms underlying axonal injury in peripheral neuropathy may provide new therapeutic strategies for this painful and debilitating condition.

  20. Neuronal intrinsic barriers for axon regeneration in the adult CNS

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Fang; He, Zhigang

    2010-01-01

    A major reason for the devastating and permanent disabilities after spinal cord and other types of CNS injury is the failure of injured axons to regenerate and to re-build the functional circuits. Thus, a long-standing goal has been to develop strategies that could promote axon regeneration and restore functions. Recent studies revealed that simply removing extracellular inhibitory activities is insufficient for successful axon regeneration in the adult CNS. On the other side, evidence from different species and different models is accumulating to support the notion that diminished intrinsic regenerative ability of mature neurons is a major contributor to regeneration failure. This review will summarize the molecular mechanisms regulating intrinsic axon growth capacity in the adult CNS and discuss potential implications for therapeutic strategies. PMID:20418094

  1. Recovery of axonal myelination sheath and axonal caliber in the mouse corpus callosum following damage induced by N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate.

    PubMed

    Utrera, Juana; Romero, Rafael; Verdaguer, Ester; Junyent, Fèlix; Auladell, Carme

    2011-12-01

    Disulfiram is an aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor used for the treatment of alcohol dependence and of cocaine addiction. It has been demonstrated that subchronic administration of disulfiram or N,N-diethyldithiocarbamate (DEDTC), the main derivative of disulfiram, to rats can produce central-peripheral distal axonopathy. However, few data regarding the axonal effects of these compounds in the central nervous system exist. Our previous studies have revealed DEDTC-induced axonal damage in the mouse brain during the course of postnatal development, together with alterations in axonal pathfinding and in the myelination process, with partial recovery during the post-treatment period. In order to gather new data about how this axonal damage and recovery occurs in the central nervous system, we performed an ultrastructural analysis of the axons located in the corpus callosum from mice treated with DEDTC during postnatal development. The axonal caliber throughout the axonal area, the maximum axonal diameter, the maximum fiber diameter, and the axonal circularity, at different postnatal stages [from postnatal day (P)9 to P30], were analyzed. In addition, parameters related to the myelinization process (number of myelinated axons, sheath thickness, and the ratio of myelinated axons to total axons) were evaluated. A reduction in the average value of axonal caliber during treatment and a delay in the axonal myelination process were detected. Whereas early recovery of individual axons occurred after treatment (P22), complete recovery of myelinated axons occurred at late postnatal stages (P42). Therefore, chronic treatment with dithiocarbamates requires periods of rest to encourage the recovery of myelinated axons.

  2. Evaluation of the Technicon Axon analyser.

    PubMed

    Martínez, C; Márquez, M; Cortés, M; Mercé, J; Rodriguez, J; González, F

    1990-01-01

    An evaluation of the Technicon Axon analyser was carried out following the guidelines of the 'Sociedad Española de Química Clínica' and the European Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards.A photometric study revealed acceptable results at both 340 nm and 404 nm. Inaccuracy and imprecision were lower at 404 nm than at 340 nm, although poor dispersion was found at both wavelengths, even at low absorbances. Drift was negligible, the imprecision of the sample pipette delivery system was greater for small sample volumes, the reagent pipette delivery system imprecision was acceptable and the sample diluting system study showed good precision and accuracy.Twelve analytes were studied for evaluation of the analyser under routine working conditions. Satisfactory results were obtained for within-run imprecision, while coefficients of variation for betweenrun imprecision were much greater than expected. Neither specimenrelated nor specimen-independent contamination was found in the carry-over study. For all analytes assayed, when comparing patient sample results with those obtained in a Hitachi 737 analyser, acceptable relative inaccuracy was observed.

  3. Differential compartmentalization of mRNAs in squid giant axon.

    PubMed

    Chun, J T; Gioio, A E; Crispino, M; Giuditta, A; Kaplan, B B

    1996-11-01

    Previously, we reported that the squid giant axon contains a heterogeneous population of mRNAs that includes beta-actin, beta-tubulin, kinesin, neurofilament proteins, and enolase. To define the absolute levels and relative distribution of these mRNAs, we have used competitive reverse transcription-PCR to quantify the levels of five mRNAs present in the giant axon and giant fiber lobe (GFL), the location of the parental cell soma. In the GFL, the number of transcripts for these mRNAs varied over a fourfold range, with beta-tubulin being the most abundant mRNA species (1.25 x 10(9) molecules per GFL). Based on transcript number, the rank order of mRNA levels in the GFL was beta-tubulin > beta-actin > kinesin > enolase > microtubule-associated protein (MAP) H1. In contrast, kinesin mRNA was most abundant in the axon (4.1 x 10(7) molecules per axon) with individual mRNA levels varying 15-fold. The rank order of mRNA levels in the axon was kinesin > beta-tubulin > MAP H1 > beta-actin > enolase. The relative abundance of the mRNA species in the axon did not correlate with the size of the transcript, nor was it directly related to their corresponding levels in the GFL. Taken together, these findings confirm that significant amounts of mRNA are present in the giant axon and suggest that specific mRNAs are differentially transported into the axonal domain.

  4. Modality-Specific Axonal Regeneration: Toward Selective Regenerative Neural Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Lotfi, Parisa; Garde, Kshitija; Chouhan, Amit K.; Bengali, Ebrahim; Romero-Ortega, Mario I.

    2011-01-01

    Regenerative peripheral nerve interfaces have been proposed as viable alternatives for the natural control of robotic prosthetic devices. However, sensory and motor axons at the neural interface are of mixed sub-modality types, which difficult the specific recording from motor axons and the eliciting of precise sensory modalities through selective stimulation. Here we evaluated the possibility of using type specific neurotrophins to preferentially entice the regeneration of defined axonal populations from transected peripheral nerves into separate compartments. Segregation of mixed sensory fibers from dorsal root ganglion neurons was evaluated in vitro by compartmentalized diffusion delivery of nerve growth factor (NGF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), to preferentially entice the growth of TrkA+ nociceptive and TrkC+ proprioceptive subsets of sensory neurons, respectively. The average axon length in the NGF channel increased 2.5-fold compared to that in saline or NT-3, whereas the number of branches increased threefold in the NT-3 channels. These results were confirmed using a 3D “Y”-shaped in vitro assay showing that the arm containing NGF was able to entice a fivefold increase in axonal length of unbranched fibers. To address if such segregation can be enticed in vivo, a “Y”-shaped tubing was used to allow regeneration of the transected adult rat sciatic nerve into separate compartments filled with either NFG or NT-3. A significant increase in the number of CGRP+ pain fibers were attracted toward the sural nerve, while N-52+ large-diameter axons were observed in the tibial and NT-3 compartments. This study demonstrates the guided enrichment of sensory axons in specific regenerative chambers, and supports the notion that neurotrophic factors can be used to segregate sensory and perhaps motor axons in separate peripheral interfaces. PMID:22016734

  5. Morphology of axonal transport abnormalities in primate eyes.

    PubMed

    Radius, R L; Anderson, D R

    1981-11-01

    The ultrastructure of the retina and optic nerve head was studied in primate eyes after central retinal artery occlusion. Within 2 hours of the vascular occlusion the inner retinal layers undergo watery (isosmotic) swelling. This watery swelling of axons and astroglia extends into the nerve head as far back as the anterior boundary of the scleral lamina cribrosa. The swelling is increased 4 hours after the occlusion, and by 24 hours disintegration has occurred. At the optic nerve head mitochondria and vesicles of smooth endoplasmic reticulum begin to accumulate within 2 hours. The accumulation increases at 4 hours and persists to 24 hours. The watery swelling seems characteristic of ischaemic axons. Membranous organelles accumulate at the boundary of an ischaemic zone when material carried by axonal transport is brought via the healthy axon segment to the boundary, but they cannot proceed further into the ischaemic zone. Such accumulation is typical of locations where rapid orthograde axonal transport or retrograde axonal transport is blocked. In contrast, when slow axonal flow is impaired, the swelling is characterised by an excess of cytoplasmic gel without a marked accumulation of organelles. Rapid orthograde transport and retrograde transport seem to be closely related to one another, while slow axoplasmic flow seems fundamentally different. From morphological findings we suspect that, in experimental glaucoma, intraocular pressure first affects the intracellular physiological process of rapid orthograde and retrograde axonal transport. Watery swelling may not occur unless the ischaemic injury to cell metabolism is more advanced. In contrast, in experimental papilloedema, the swelling results predominantly from impaired slow axoplasmic flow.

  6. Morphology of axonal transport abnormalities in primate eyes.

    PubMed Central

    Radius, R L; Anderson, D R

    1981-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the retina and optic nerve head was studied in primate eyes after central retinal artery occlusion. Within 2 hours of the vascular occlusion the inner retinal layers undergo watery (isosmotic) swelling. This watery swelling of axons and astroglia extends into the nerve head as far back as the anterior boundary of the scleral lamina cribrosa. The swelling is increased 4 hours after the occlusion, and by 24 hours disintegration has occurred. At the optic nerve head mitochondria and vesicles of smooth endoplasmic reticulum begin to accumulate within 2 hours. The accumulation increases at 4 hours and persists to 24 hours. The watery swelling seems characteristic of ischaemic axons. Membranous organelles accumulate at the boundary of an ischaemic zone when material carried by axonal transport is brought via the healthy axon segment to the boundary, but they cannot proceed further into the ischaemic zone. Such accumulation is typical of locations where rapid orthograde axonal transport or retrograde axonal transport is blocked. In contrast, when slow axonal flow is impaired, the swelling is characterised by an excess of cytoplasmic gel without a marked accumulation of organelles. Rapid orthograde transport and retrograde transport seem to be closely related to one another, while slow axoplasmic flow seems fundamentally different. From morphological findings we suspect that, in experimental glaucoma, intraocular pressure first affects the intracellular physiological process of rapid orthograde and retrograde axonal transport. Watery swelling may not occur unless the ischaemic injury to cell metabolism is more advanced. In contrast, in experimental papilloedema, the swelling results predominantly from impaired slow axoplasmic flow. Images PMID:6173060

  7. Molecular Determinants Fundamental to Axon Regeneration after SCI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Figure 10. Zebrafish Spinal cord transection. Isolated spinal column of transected zebrafish spinal cord (rostral to left), panel A. Arrows...mammalian spinal cord, axon regeneration is frustrated by inhibitors such as chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) expressed by reactive astrocytes...present at the injury site. In adult zebrafish, Danio rerio, some brainstem neuronsare able to grow their axon beyond a spinal cord injury, even

  8. Magnetic Resonance Characterization of Axonal Response to Spinal Cord Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    proper diagnosis and treatment. Magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ) is routinely performed in patients and provides valuable information about cord edema and...novel MRI methods to the problem of assessment of axonal loss, axonal diameter distribution, and myelin loss (q-space imaging (QSI) and ultra-short...echo-time (UTE) MRI ) first on animal specimens and then on human subjects. During the final period of the project the focus of the research was on the

  9. Axonal Noise as a Source of Synaptic Variability

    PubMed Central

    Neishabouri, Ali; Faisal, A. Aldo

    2014-01-01

    Post-synaptic potential (PSP) variability is typically attributed to mechanisms inside synapses, yet recent advances in experimental methods and biophysical understanding have led us to reconsider the role of axons as highly reliable transmission channels. We show that in many thin axons of our brain, the action potential (AP) waveform and thus the Ca++ signal controlling vesicle release at synapses will be significantly affected by the inherent variability of ion channel gating. We investigate how and to what extent fluctuations in the AP waveform explain observed PSP variability. Using both biophysical theory and stochastic simulations of central and peripheral nervous system axons from vertebrates and invertebrates, we show that channel noise in thin axons (<1 µm diameter) causes random fluctuations in AP waveforms. AP height and width, both experimentally characterised parameters of post-synaptic response amplitude, vary e.g. by up to 20 mV and 0.5 ms while a single AP propagates in C-fibre axons. We show how AP height and width variabilities increase with a ¾ power-law as diameter decreases and translate these fluctuations into post-synaptic response variability using biophysical data and models of synaptic transmission. We find for example that for mammalian unmyelinated axons with 0.2 µm diameter (matching cerebellar parallel fibres) axonal noise alone can explain half of the PSP variability in cerebellar synapses. We conclude that axonal variability may have considerable impact on synaptic response variability. Thus, in many experimental frameworks investigating synaptic transmission through paired-cell recordings or extracellular stimulation of presynaptic neurons, causes of variability may have been confounded. We thereby show how bottom-up aggregation of molecular noise sources contributes to our understanding of variability observed at higher levels of biological organisation. PMID:24809823

  10. Fast gamma oscillations are generated intrinsically in CA1 without the involvement of fast-spiking basket cells.

    PubMed

    Craig, Michael T; McBain, Chris J

    2015-02-25

    Information processing in neuronal networks relies on the precise synchronization of ensembles of neurons, coordinated by the diverse family of inhibitory interneurons. Cortical interneurons can be usefully parsed by embryonic origin, with the vast majority arising from either the caudal or medial ganglionic eminences (CGE and MGE). Here, we examine the activity of hippocampal interneurons during gamma oscillations in mouse CA1, using an in vitro model where brief epochs of rhythmic activity were evoked by local application of kainate. We found that this CA1 KA-evoked gamma oscillation was faster than that in CA3 and, crucially, did not appear to require the involvement of fast-spiking basket cells. In contrast to CA3, we also found that optogenetic inhibition of pyramidal cells in CA1 did not significantly affect the power of the oscillation, suggesting that excitation may not be essential for gamma genesis in this region. We found that MGE-derived interneurons were generally more active than CGE interneurons during CA1 gamma, although a group of CGE-derived interneurons, putative trilaminar cells, were strongly phase-locked with gamma oscillations and, together with MGE-derived axo-axonic and bistratified cells, provide attractive candidates for being the driver of this locally generated, predominantly interneuron-driven model of gamma oscillations.

  11. Axon guidance mechanisms for establishment of callosal connections.

    PubMed

    Nishikimi, Mitsuaki; Oishi, Koji; Nakajima, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the formation of interhemispheric connections which are involved in high-ordered functions of the cerebral cortex in eutherian animals, including humans. The development of callosal axons, which transfer and integrate information between the right/left hemispheres and represent the most prominent commissural system, must be strictly regulated. From the beginning of their growth, until reaching their targets in the contralateral cortex, the callosal axons are guided mainly by two environmental cues: (1) the midline structures and (2) neighboring? axons. Recent studies have shown the importance of axona guidance by such cues and the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this paper, we review these guidance mechanisms during the development of the callosal neurons. Midline populations express and secrete guidance molecules, and "pioneer" axons as well as interactions between the medial and lateral axons are also involved in the axon pathfinding of the callosal neurons. Finally, we describe callosal dysgenesis in humans and mice, that results from a disruption of these navigational mechanisms.

  12. Axon morphology at the lamina cribrosa in monkey eyes.

    PubMed

    Radius, R L; Klewin, K M

    1986-01-01

    The eyes of 8 monkeys (Aotus trivirgatus) were studied. The mean cross-section area and the least diameter of axon cylinders were calculated from measurements made by computer assisted planimetry of electron photomicrographs of sections through the optic nerve head at the level of the lamina cribrosa. The density of intrabundle connective tissue and glial cell elements in nerve fiber bundles was also calculated. The mean cross-section area and minimum diameter of axons in the temporal part were less than in the nasal part of the nerve. The values for axons in the superior and inferior parts of the nerve were intermediate. A similar pattern of increasing dimensions was seen in axons from the more axial nerve compared to neurons in the more circumferential nerve sectors. The density of the intrabundle, nonaxonal tissue elements did not differ significantly across the nerve. Although axon dimensions may play some role in defining the vulnerability of neuronal tissue to a pressure insult, the results of this anatomic investigation do not support the hypothesis that differences in axonal distribution by size across the nerve section define the regional vulnerability of the nerve head to elevated intraocular pressure.

  13. Axons degenerate in the absence of mitochondria in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Rawson, Randi L; Yam, Lung; Weimer, Robby M; Bend, Eric G; Hartwieg, Erika; Horvitz, H Robert; Clark, Scott G; Jorgensen, Erik M

    2014-03-31

    Many neurodegenerative disorders are associated with mitochondrial defects [1-3]. Mitochondria can play an active role in degeneration by releasing reactive oxygen species and apoptotic factors [4-7]. Alternatively, mitochondria can protect axons from stress and insults, for example by buffering calcium [8]. Recent studies manipulating mitochondria lend support to both of these models [9-13]. Here, we identify a C. elegans mutant, ric-7, in which mitochondria are unable to exit the neuron cell bodies, similar to the kinesin-1/unc-116 mutant. When axons lacking mitochondria are cut with a laser, they rapidly degenerate. Some neurons even spontaneously degenerate in ric-7 mutants. Degeneration can be suppressed by forcing mitochondria into the axons of the mutants. The protective effect of mitochondria is also observed in the wild-type: a majority of axon fragments containing a mitochondrion survive axotomy, whereas those lacking mitochondria degenerate. Thus, mitochondria are not required for axon degeneration and serve a protective role in C. elegans axons.

  14. Myelin vs axon abnormalities in white matter in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Kathryn E; Ongür, Dost; Sperry, Sarah H; Cohen, Bruce M; Sehovic, Selma; Goldbach, Jacqueline R; Du, Fei

    2015-03-13

    White matter (WM) abnormalities are among the most commonly reported neuroimaging findings in bipolar disorder. Nonetheless, the specific nature and pathophysiology of these abnormalities remain unclear. Use of a combination of magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) and diffusion tensor spectroscopy (DTS) permits examination of myelin and axon abnormalities separately. We aimed to examine myelination and axon geometry in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder with psychosis (BDP) by combining these two complementary noninvasive MRI techniques. We applied a combined MRI approach using MTR to study myelin content and DTS to study metabolite (N-acetylaspartate, NAA) diffusion within axons in patients with BDP (n=21) and healthy controls (n=24). Data were collected from a 1 × 3 × 3-cm voxel within the right prefrontal cortex WM at 4 Tesla. Clinical and cognitive data were examined in association with MTR and DTS data. MTR was significantly reduced in BDP, suggesting reduced myelin content. The apparent diffusion coefficient of NAA did not differ from healthy controls, suggesting no changes in axon geometry in patients with BDP. These findings suggest that patients with BDP exhibit reduced myelin content, but no changes in axon geometry compared with controls. These findings are in contrast with our recent findings, using the same techniques, in patients with schizophrenia (SZ), which suggest both myelination and axon abnormalities in SZ. This difference may indicate that alterations in WM in BDP may have unique causes and may be less extensive than WM abnormalities seen in SZ.

  15. Developmental time windows for axon growth influence neuronal network topology.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sol; Kaiser, Marcus

    2015-04-01

    Early brain connectivity development consists of multiple stages: birth of neurons, their migration and the subsequent growth of axons and dendrites. Each stage occurs within a certain period of time depending on types of neurons and cortical layers. Forming synapses between neurons either by growing axons starting at similar times for all neurons (much-overlapped time windows) or at different time points (less-overlapped) may affect the topological and spatial properties of neuronal networks. Here, we explore the extreme cases of axon formation during early development, either starting at the same time for all neurons (parallel, i.e., maximally overlapped time windows) or occurring for each neuron separately one neuron after another (serial, i.e., no overlaps in time windows). For both cases, the number of potential and established synapses remained comparable. Topological and spatial properties, however, differed: Neurons that started axon growth early on in serial growth achieved higher out-degrees, higher local efficiency and longer axon lengths while neurons demonstrated more homogeneous connectivity patterns for parallel growth. Second, connection probability decreased more rapidly with distance between neurons for parallel growth than for serial growth. Third, bidirectional connections were more numerous for parallel growth. Finally, we tested our predictions with C. elegans data. Together, this indicates that time windows for axon growth influence the topological and spatial properties of neuronal networks opening up the possibility to a posteriori estimate developmental mechanisms based on network properties of a developed network.

  16. Myelin vs Axon Abnormalities in White Matter in Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowski, Kathryn E; Ongür, Dost; Sperry, Sarah H; Cohen, Bruce M; Sehovic, Selma; Goldbach, Jacqueline R; Du, Fei

    2015-01-01

    White matter (WM) abnormalities are among the most commonly reported neuroimaging findings in bipolar disorder. Nonetheless, the specific nature and pathophysiology of these abnormalities remain unclear. Use of a combination of magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) and diffusion tensor spectroscopy (DTS) permits examination of myelin and axon abnormalities separately. We aimed to examine myelination and axon geometry in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder with psychosis (BDP) by combining these two complementary noninvasive MRI techniques. We applied a combined MRI approach using MTR to study myelin content and DTS to study metabolite (N-acetylaspartate, NAA) diffusion within axons in patients with BDP (n=21) and healthy controls (n=24). Data were collected from a 1 × 3 × 3-cm voxel within the right prefrontal cortex WM at 4 Tesla. Clinical and cognitive data were examined in association with MTR and DTS data. MTR was significantly reduced in BDP, suggesting reduced myelin content. The apparent diffusion coefficient of NAA did not differ from healthy controls, suggesting no changes in axon geometry in patients with BDP. These findings suggest that patients with BDP exhibit reduced myelin content, but no changes in axon geometry compared with controls. These findings are in contrast with our recent findings, using the same techniques, in patients with schizophrenia (SZ), which suggest both myelination and axon abnormalities in SZ. This difference may indicate that alterations in WM in BDP may have unique causes and may be less extensive than WM abnormalities seen in SZ. PMID:25409595

  17. Parametric Probability Distribution Functions for Axon Diameters of Corpus Callosum.

    PubMed

    Sepehrband, Farshid; Alexander, Daniel C; Clark, Kristi A; Kurniawan, Nyoman D; Yang, Zhengyi; Reutens, David C

    2016-01-01

    Axon diameter is an important neuroanatomical characteristic of the nervous system that alters in the course of neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis. Axon diameters vary, even within a fiber bundle, and are not normally distributed. An accurate distribution function is therefore beneficial, either to describe axon diameters that are obtained from a direct measurement technique (e.g., microscopy), or to infer them indirectly (e.g., using diffusion-weighted MRI). The gamma distribution is a common choice for this purpose (particularly for the inferential approach) because it resembles the distribution profile of measured axon diameters which has been consistently shown to be non-negative and right-skewed. In this study we compared a wide range of parametric probability distribution functions against empirical data obtained from electron microscopy images. We observed that the gamma distribution fails to accurately describe the main characteristics of the axon diameter distribution, such as location and scale of the mode and the profile of distribution tails. We also found that the generalized extreme value distribution consistently fitted the measured distribution better than other distribution functions. This suggests that there may be distinct subpopulations of axons in the corpus callosum, each with their own distribution profiles. In addition, we observed that several other distributions outperformed the gamma distribution, yet had the same number of unknown parameters; these were the inverse Gaussian, log normal, log logistic and Birnbaum-Saunders distributions.

  18. Parametric Probability Distribution Functions for Axon Diameters of Corpus Callosum

    PubMed Central

    Sepehrband, Farshid; Alexander, Daniel C.; Clark, Kristi A.; Kurniawan, Nyoman D.; Yang, Zhengyi; Reutens, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Axon diameter is an important neuroanatomical characteristic of the nervous system that alters in the course of neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis. Axon diameters vary, even within a fiber bundle, and are not normally distributed. An accurate distribution function is therefore beneficial, either to describe axon diameters that are obtained from a direct measurement technique (e.g., microscopy), or to infer them indirectly (e.g., using diffusion-weighted MRI). The gamma distribution is a common choice for this purpose (particularly for the inferential approach) because it resembles the distribution profile of measured axon diameters which has been consistently shown to be non-negative and right-skewed. In this study we compared a wide range of parametric probability distribution functions against empirical data obtained from electron microscopy images. We observed that the gamma distribution fails to accurately describe the main characteristics of the axon diameter distribution, such as location and scale of the mode and the profile of distribution tails. We also found that the generalized extreme value distribution consistently fitted the measured distribution better than other distribution functions. This suggests that there may be distinct subpopulations of axons in the corpus callosum, each with their own distribution profiles. In addition, we observed that several other distributions outperformed the gamma distribution, yet had the same number of unknown parameters; these were the inverse Gaussian, log normal, log logistic and Birnbaum-Saunders distributions. PMID:27303273

  19. Spatially coordinated kinase signaling regulates local axon degeneration.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mark; Maloney, Janice A; Kallop, Dara Y; Atwal, Jasvinder K; Tam, Stephen J; Baer, Kristin; Kissel, Holger; Kaminker, Joshua S; Lewcock, Joseph W; Weimer, Robby M; Watts, Ryan J

    2012-09-26

    In addition to being a hallmark of neurodegenerative disease, axon degeneration is used during development of the nervous system to prune unwanted connections. In development, axon degeneration is tightly regulated both temporally and spatially. Here, we provide evidence that degeneration cues are transduced through various kinase pathways functioning in spatially distinct compartments to regulate axon degeneration. Intriguingly, glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) acts centrally, likely modulating gene expression in the cell body to regulate distally restricted axon degeneration. Through a combination of genetic and pharmacological manipulations, including the generation of an analog-sensitive kinase allele mutant mouse for GSK3β, we show that the β isoform of GSK3, not the α isoform, is essential for developmental axon pruning in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, we identify the dleu2/mir15a/16-1 cluster, previously characterized as a regulator of B-cell proliferation, and the transcription factor tbx6, as likely downstream effectors of GSK3β in axon degeneration.

  20. The role of microtubule dynamics in growth cone motility and axonal growth

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The growth cone contains dynamic and relatively stable microtubule populations, whose function in motility and axonal growth is uncharacterized. We have used vinblastine at low doses to inhibit microtubule dynamics without appreciable depolymerization to probe the role of these dynamics in growth cone behavior. At doses of vinblastine that interfere only with dynamics, the forward and persistent movement of the growth cone is inhibited and the growth cone wanders without appreciable forward translocation; it quickly resumes forward growth after the vinblastine is washed out. Direct visualization of fluorescently tagged microtubules in these neurons shows that in the absence of dynamic microtubules, the remaining mass of polymer does not invade the peripheral lamella and does not undergo the usual cycle of bundling and splaying and the growth cone stops forward movement. These experiments argue for a role for dynamic microtubules in allowing microtubule rearrangements in the growth cone. These rearrangements seem to be necessary for microtubule bundling, the subsequent coalescence of the cortex around the bundle to form new axon, and forward translocation of the growth cone. PMID:7822411

  1. Negative regulation of glial engulfment activity by Draper terminates glial responses to axon injury

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Mary A.; Hackett, Rachel; Doherty, Johnna; Sheehan, Amy; Speese, Sean D.; Freeman, Marc R.

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal injury elicits potent cellular responses from glia, but molecular pathways modulating glial activation, phagocytic function, and termination of reactive responses remain poorly defined. Here we show that positive or negative regulation of glial reponses to axon injury are molecularly encoded by unique isoforms of the Drosophila engulfment receptor Draper. Draper-I promotes engulfment of axonal debris through an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM). In contrast, Draper-II, an alternative splice variant, potently inhibits glial engulfment function. Draper-II suppresses Draper-I signaling through a novel immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM)-like domain and the tyrosine phosphatase Corkscrew (Csw). Intriguingly, loss of Draper-II/Csw signaling prolongs expression of glial engulfment genes after axotomy and reduces the ability of glia to respond to secondary axotomy. Our work highlights a novel role for Draper-II in inhibiting glial responses to neurodegeneration, and indicates a balance of opposing Draper-I/-II signaling events is essential to maintain glial sensitivity to brain injury. PMID:22426252

  2. Cell biology in neuroscience: Cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying axon formation, growth, and branching.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Tommy L; Courchet, Julien; Polleux, Franck

    2013-09-16

    Proper brain wiring during development is pivotal for adult brain function. Neurons display a high degree of polarization both morphologically and functionally, and this polarization requires the segregation of mRNA, proteins, and lipids into the axonal or somatodendritic domains. Recent discoveries have provided insight into many aspects of the cell biology of axonal development including axon specification during neuronal polarization, axon growth, and terminal axon branching during synaptogenesis.

  3. Fast CRCs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    Detecting Codes: General Theory and Their Application in Feedback Communication Systems. Kluwer Academic, 1995. [8] D.E. Knuth , The Art of Computer ... computation . Index Terms—Fast CRC, low-complexity CRC, checksum, error-detection code, Hamming code, period of polynomial, fast software implementation...simulations, and performance analysis of systems and networks. CRC implementation in software is desirable, because many computers do not have hardware

  4. Rapidly transported organelles containing membrane and cytoskeletal components: their relation to axonal growth

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    We have examined the movements, composition, and cellular origin of phase-dense varicosities in cultures of chick sympathetic and sensory neurons. These organelles are variable in diameter (typically between 0.2 and 2 microns) and undergo saltatory movements both towards and away from the neuronal cell body. Their mean velocities vary inversely with the size of the organelle and are greater in the retrograde than the anterograde direction. Organelles stain with the lipophilic dye 1, 1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethyl-indocarbocyanine and with antibodies to cytoskeletal components. In cultures double-stained with antibodies to alpha-tubulin and 70-kD neurofilament protein (NF-L), approximately 40% of the organelles stain for tubulin, 30% stain for NF- L, 10% stain for both tubulin and NF-L, and 40% show no staining with either antibody. The association of cytoskeletal proteins with the organelles shows that these proteins are able to move by a form of rapid axonal transport. Under most culture conditions the predominant direction of movement is towards the cell body, suggesting that the organelles are produced at or near the growth cone. Retrograde movements continue in culture medium lacking protein or high molecular mass components and increase under conditions in which the advance of the growth cone is arrested. There is a fourfold increase in the number of organelles moving retrogradely in neurites that encounter a substratum-associated barrier to elongation; retrograde movements increase similarly in cultures exposed to cytochalasin at levels known to block growth cone advance. No previously described organelle shows behavior coordinated with axonal growth in this way. We propose that the organelles contain membrane and cytoskeletal components that have been delivered to the growth cone, by slow or fast anterograde transport, in excess of the amounts required to synthesize more axon. In view of their rapid mobility and variable contents, we suggest that they

  5. Axonal loss in the multiple sclerosis spinal cord revisited.

    PubMed

    Petrova, N; Carassiti, D; Altmann, D R; Baker, D; Schmierer, K

    2017-04-12

    Preventing chronic disease deterioration is an unmet need in people with multiple sclerosis, where axonal loss is considered a key substrate of disability. Clinically, chronic multiple sclerosis often presents as progressive myelopathy. Spinal cord cross-sectional area assessed using MRI predicts increasing disability and has, by inference, been proposed as an indirect index of axonal degeneration. However, the association between cross-sectional area and axonal loss, and their correlation with demyelination, have never been systematically investigated using human post mortem tissue. We extensively sampled spinal cords of seven women and six men with multiple sclerosis (mean disease duration= 29 years) and five healthy controls to quantify axonal density and its association with demyelination and cross-sectional area. 396 tissue blocks were embedded in paraffin and immuno-stained for myelin basic protein and phosphorylated neurofilaments. Measurements included total cross-sectional area, areas of (i) lateral cortico-spinal tracts, (ii) grey matter, (iii) white matter, (iv) demyelination, and the number of axons within the lateral cortico-spinal tracts. Linear mixed models were used to analyse relationships. In multiple sclerosis cross-sectional area reduction at cervical, thoracic and lumbar levels ranged between 19 and 24% with white (19-24%) and grey (17-21%) matter atrophy contributing equally across levels. Axonal density in multiple sclerosis was lower by 57-62% across all levels and affected all fibres regardless of diameter. Demyelination affected 24-48% of the grey matter, most extensively at the thoracic level, and 11-13% of the white matter, with no significant differences across levels. Disease duration was associated with reduced axonal density, however not with any area index. Significant association was detected between focal demyelination and decreased axonal density. In conclusion, over nearly 30 years multiple sclerosis reduces axonal density by 60

  6. Fastigial nucleus electrostimulation reduces the expression of repulsive guidance molecule, improves axonal growth following focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fan; Yin, Honglei; Qin, Xinyue

    2012-09-01

    The role of repulsive guidance molecule A (RGMa) in cerebral ischemia remains unclear. In the study, we examined the expression of RGMa in ischemic brain tissues following focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (IR) in rats. An established middle cerebral artery suture occlusion model was employed. A dipolar electrode was placed into the cerebellum to stimulate the cerebellar fastigial nucleus for 1 h at 2 h after ischemia. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to measure the mRNA RGMa and its downstream mediator, Ras homolog A (RhoA). Immunohistochemistry was applied to detect RGMa and RhoA expressions and to evaluate axonal regeneration by optical density analysis of 200 kDa neurofilaments. We found that both mRNA and protein levels of RGMa and RhoA were increased in the ischemic cortex and hippocampus 48 h following cerebral IR and these elevated levels were maintained for 2 weeks. Electrostimulation of the fastigial nucleus reduced the expression of RGMa and RhoA at 24 h and 2 weeks following cerebral IR. In addition, axonal growth was enhanced in the fastigial nucleus electrostimulated group compared to non-stimulated ischemic animals (P < 0.05). RGMa/RhoA expression was negatively correlated with the growth of axons (P < 0.05). Therefore, we concluded that RGMa and RhoA could be another key molecule and might inhibit axonal regeneration during cerebral IR injury. Electrostimulation of the fastigial nucleus enhances axonal growth, possibly by reducing the expression of RGMa and RhoA after cerebral IR.

  7. EphA3 Expressed in the Chicken Tectum Stimulates Nasal Retinal Ganglion Cell Axon Growth and Is Required for Retinotectal Topographic Map Formation

    PubMed Central

    Rapacioli, Melina; Salierno, Marcelo; Etchenique, Roberto; Flores, Vladimir; Sanchez, Viviana; Carri, Néstor Gabriel; Scicolone, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    Background Retinotopic projection onto the tectum/colliculus constitutes the most studied model of topographic mapping and Eph receptors and their ligands, the ephrins, are the best characterized molecular system involved in this process. Ephrin-As, expressed in an increasing rostro-caudal gradient in the tectum/colliculus, repel temporal retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons from the caudal tectum and inhibit their branching posterior to their termination zones. However, there are conflicting data regarding the nature of the second force that guides nasal axons to invade and branch only in the caudal tectum/colliculus. The predominant model postulates that this second force is produced by a decreasing rostro-caudal gradient of EphA7 which repels nasal optic fibers and prevents their branching in the rostral tectum/colliculus. However, as optic fibers invade the tectum/colliculus growing throughout this gradient, this model cannot explain how the axons grow throughout this repellent molecule. Methodology/Principal Findings By using chicken retinal cultures we showed that EphA3 ectodomain stimulates nasal RGC axon growth in a concentration dependent way. Moreover, we showed that nasal axons choose growing on EphA3-expressing cells and that EphA3 diminishes the density of interstitial filopodia in nasal RGC axons. Accordingly, in vivo EphA3 ectodomain misexpression directs nasal optic fibers toward the caudal tectum preventing their branching in the rostral tectum. Conclusions We demonstrated in vitro and in vivo that EphA3 ectodomain (which is expressed in a decreasing rostro-caudal gradient in the tectum) is necessary for topographic mapping by stimulating the nasal axon growth toward the caudal tectum and inhibiting their branching in the rostral tectum. Furthermore, the ability of EphA3 of stimulating axon growth allows understanding how optic fibers invade the tectum growing throughout this molecular gradient. Therefore, opposing tectal gradients of repellent ephrin

  8. Differential conduction block in branches of a bifurcating axon.

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, Y; Parnas, I; Spira, M E

    1979-01-01

    1. Propagation of action potentials at high frequency was studied in a branching axon of the lobster by means of simultaneous intracellular recording both before and after the branch point. 2. Although the branching axon studied has a geometrical ratio close to one (perfect impedance matching) conduction across the branch point failed at stimulation frequencies above 30 Hz. 3. The block of conduction after high frequency stimulation occurred at the branch point per se. The parent axon and daughter branches continued to conduct action potentials. 4. Conduction block after high frequency stimulation appeared first in the thicker daughter branch and only later in the thin branch. 5. With high frequency stimulation there was a 10-15% reduction in amplitude of the action potential in the parent axon, a corresponding decrease in the rate of rise of the action potential, a 25-30% decrease in conduction velocity, marked increase in threshold and prolongation of the refractory period. In addition the membrane was depolarized by 1-3 mV. 6. Measurements of the membrane current using the patch clamp technique showed a large decrease in the phase of inward current associated with the action potential, before the branching point. 7. The small membrane depolarization seen after high frequency stimulation is not the sole cause of the conduction block. Imposed prolonged membrane depolarization (8 mV for 120 sec) was insufficient to produce conduction block. 8. In vivo chronic extracellular recordings from the main nerve bundle (which contains the parent axon) and the large daughter branch revealed that: (a) the duration and frequency of trains of action potentials along the axons exceeded those used in the isolated nerve experiments and (b) conduction failure in the large daughter branch could be induced in the whole animal by electrical stimulation of the main branch as in the isolated preparation. 9. Possible mechanisms underlying block of conduction after high frequency

  9. Pre-target axon sorting in the avian auditory brainstem

    PubMed Central

    Kashima, Daniel T.; Rubel, Edwin W; Seidl, Armin H.

    2012-01-01

    Topographic organization of neurons is a hallmark of brain structure. The establishment of the connections between topographically organized brain regions has attracted much experimental attention and it is widely accepted that molecular cues guide outgrowing axons to their targets in order to construct topographic maps. In a number of systems afferent axons are organized topographically along their trajectory as well and it has been suggested that this pre-target sorting contributes to map formation. Neurons in auditory regions of the brain are arranged according to their best frequency (BF), the sound frequency they respond to optimally. This BF changes predictably with position along the so-called tonotopic axis. In the avian auditory brainstem, the tonotopic organization of the second- and third-order auditory neurons in nucleus magnocellularis (NM) and nucleus laminaris (NL) has been well described. In this study we examine whether the decussating NM axons forming the crossed dorsal cochlear tract (XDCT) and innervating the contralateral NL are arranged in a systematic manner. We electroporated dye into cells in different frequency regions of NM to anterogradely label their axons in the XDCT. The placement of dye in NM was compared to the location of labeled axons in XDCT. Our results show that NM axons in XDCT are organized in a precise tonotopic manner along the rostrocaudal axis, spanning over the entire rostrocaudal extent of both the origin and target nuclei. We propose that in the avian auditory brainstem, this pre-target axon sorting contributes to tonotopic map formation in NL. PMID:23239056

  10. Wnt5a Regulates Midbrain Dopaminergic Axon Growth and Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Blakely, Brette D.; Bye, Christopher R.; Fernando, Chathurini V.; Horne, Malcolm K.; Macheda, Maria L.; Stacker, Steven A.; Arenas, Ernest; Parish, Clare L.

    2011-01-01

    During development, precise temporal and spatial gradients are responsible for guiding axons to their appropriate targets. Within the developing ventral midbrain (VM) the cues that guide dopaminergic (DA) axons to their forebrain targets remain to be fully elucidated. Wnts are morphogens that have been identified as axon guidance molecules. Several Wnts are expressed in the VM where they regulate the birth of DA neurons. Here, we describe that a precise temporo-spatial expression of Wnt5a accompanies the development of nigrostriatal projections by VM DA neurons. In mice at E11.5, Wnt5a is expressed in the VM where it was found to promote DA neurite and axonal growth in VM primary cultures. By E14.5, when DA axons are approaching their striatal target, Wnt5a causes DA neurite retraction in primary cultures. Co-culture of VM explants with Wnt5a-overexpressing cell aggregates revealed that Wnt5a is capable of repelling DA neurites. Antagonism experiments revealed that the effects of Wnt5a are mediated by the Frizzled receptors and by the small GTPase, Rac1 (a component of the non-canonical Wnt planar cell polarity pathway). Moreover, the effects were specific as they could be blocked by Wnt5a antibody, sFRPs and RYK-Fc. The importance of Wnt5a in DA axon morphogenesis was further verified in Wnt5a−/− mice, where fasciculation of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) as well as the density of DA neurites in the MFB and striatal terminals were disrupted. Thus, our results identify a novel role of Wnt5a in DA axon growth and guidance. PMID:21483795

  11. Axon Stretch Growth: The Mechanotransduction of Neuronal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Loverde, Joseph R.; Tolentino, Rosa E.; Pfister, Bryan J.

    2011-01-01

    During pre-synaptic embryonic development, neuronal processes traverse short distances to reach their targets via growth cone. Over time, neuronal somata are separated from their axon terminals due to skeletal growth of the enlarging organism (Weiss 1941; Gray, Hukkanen et al. 1992). This mechanotransduction induces a secondary mode of neuronal growth capable of accommodating continual elongation of the axon (Bray 1984; Heidemann and Buxbaum 1994; Heidemann, Lamoureux et al. 1995; Pfister, Iwata et al. 2004). Axon Stretch Growth (ASG) is conceivably a central factor in the maturation of short embryonic processes into the long nerves and white matter tracts characteristic of the adult nervous system. To study ASG in vitro, we engineered bioreactors to apply tension to the short axonal processes of neuronal cultures (Loverde, Ozoka et al. 2011). Here, we detail the methods we use to prepare bioreactors and conduct ASG. First, within each stretching lane of the bioreactor, neurons are plated upon a micro-manipulated towing substrate. Next, neurons regenerate their axonal processes, via growth cone extension, onto a stationary substrate. Finally, stretch growth is performed by towing the plated cell bodies away from the axon terminals adhered to the stationary substrate; recapitulating skeletal growth after growth cone extension. Previous work has shown that ASG of embryonic rat dorsal root ganglia neurons are capable of unprecedented growth rates up to 10mm/day, reaching lengths of up to 10cm; while concurrently resulting in increased axonal diameters (Smith, Wolf et al. 2001; Pfister, Iwata et al. 2004; Pfister, Bonislawski et al. 2006; Pfister, Iwata et al. 2006; Smith 2009). This is in dramatic contrast to regenerative growth cone extension (in absence of mechanical stimuli) where growth rates average 1mm/day with successful regeneration limited to lengths of less than 3cm (Fu and Gordon 1997; Pfister, Gordon et al. 2011). Accordingly, further study of ASG may help

  12. Differential conduction block in branches of a bifurcating axon.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Y; Parnas, I; Spira, M E

    1979-10-01

    1. Propagation of action potentials at high frequency was studied in a branching axon of the lobster by means of simultaneous intracellular recording both before and after the branch point. 2. Although the branching axon studied has a geometrical ratio close to one (perfect impedance matching) conduction across the branch point failed at stimulation frequencies above 30 Hz. 3. The block of conduction after high frequency stimulation occurred at the branch point per se. The parent axon and daughter branches continued to conduct action potentials. 4. Conduction block after high frequency stimulation appeared first in the thicker daughter branch and only later in the thin branch. 5. With high frequency stimulation there was a 10-15% reduction in amplitude of the action potential in the parent axon, a corresponding decrease in the rate of rise of the action potential, a 25-30% decrease in conduction velocity, marked increase in threshold and prolongation of the refractory period. In addition the membrane was depolarized by 1-3 mV. 6. Measurements of the membrane current using the patch clamp technique showed a large decrease in the phase of inward current associated with the action potential, before the branching point. 7. The small membrane depolarization seen after high frequency stimulation is not the sole cause of the conduction block. Imposed prolonged membrane depolarization (8 mV for 120 sec) was insufficient to produce conduction block. 8. In vivo chronic extracellular recordings from the main nerve bundle (which contains the parent axon) and the large daughter branch revealed that: (a) the duration and frequency of trains of action potentials along the axons exceeded those used in the isolated nerve experiments and (b) conduction failure in the large daughter branch could be induced in the whole animal by electrical stimulation of the main branch as in the isolated preparation. 9. Possible mechanisms underlying block of conduction after high frequency

  13. Gap junction networks can generate both ripple-like and fast ripple-like oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Anna; Traub, Roger D.; Vladimirov, Nikita; Jenkins, Alistair; Nicholson, Claire; Whittaker, Roger G.; Schofield, Ian; Clowry, Gavin J.; Cunningham, Mark O.; Whittington, Miles A.

    2014-01-01

    Fast ripples (FRs) are network oscillations, defined variously as having frequencies of > 150 to > 250 Hz, with a controversial mechanism. FRs appear to indicate a propensity of cortical tissue to originate seizures. Here, we demonstrate field oscillations, at up to 400 Hz, in spontaneously epileptic human cortical tissue in vitro, and present a network model that could explain FRs themselves, and their relation to ‘ordinary’ (slower) ripples. We performed network simulations with model pyramidal neurons, having axons electrically coupled. Ripples (< 250 Hz) were favored when conduction of action potentials, axon to axon, was reliable. Whereas ripple population activity was periodic, firing of individual axons varied in relative phase. A switch from ripples to FRs took place when an ectopic spike occurred in a cell coupled to another cell, itself multiply coupled to others. Propagation could then start in one direction only, a condition suitable for re-entry. The resulting oscillations were > 250 Hz, were sustained or interrupted, and had little jitter in the firing of individual axons. The form of model FR was similar to spontaneously occurring FRs in excised human epileptic tissue. In vitro, FRs were suppressed by a gap junction blocker. Our data suggest that a given network can produce ripples, FRs, or both, via gap junctions, and that FRs are favored by clusters of axonal gap junctions. If axonal gap junctions indeed occur in epileptic tissue, and are mediated by connexin 26 (recently shown to mediate coupling between immature neocortical pyramidal cells), then this prediction is testable. PMID:24118191

  14. Changes in axonally transported proteins during axon regeneration in toad retinal ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    1981-01-01

    In an effort to understand the regulation of the transition of a mature neuron to the growth, or regenerating, state we have analyzed the composition of the axonally transported proteins in the retinal ganglion cells of the toad Bufo marinus after inducing axon regeneration by crushing the optic nerve. At increasing intervals after axotomy, we labeled the retinal ganglion cells with [35S]methionine and subsequently analyzed the labeled transported polypeptides in the crushed optic nerve by means of one- and two-dimensional electrophoretic techniques. The most significant conclusion from these experiments is that, while the transition from the mature to the regenerating state does not require a gross qualitative alteration in the composition of axonally transported proteins, the relative labeling of a small subset of rapidly transported proteins is altered dramatically (changes of more than 20-fold) and reproducibly (more than 30 animals) by axotomy. One of these growth-associated proteins (GAPs) was soluble in an aqueous buffer, while three were associated with a crude membrane fraction. The labeling of all three of the membrane- associated GAPs increased during the first 8 d after axotomy, and they continued to be labeled for at least 4 wk. The modulation of these proteins after axotomy is consistent with the possibility that they are involve in growth-specific functions and that the altered expression of a small number of genes is a crucial regulatory event in the transition of a mature neuron to a growth state. In addition to these selective changes in rapidly transported proteins, we observed the following more general metabolic correlates of the regeneration process: The total radioactive label associated with the most rapidly transported proteins (groups I and II) increased three to fourfold during the first 8 d after the nerve was crushed, while the total label associated with more slowly moving proteins (group IV) increased about 10-fold during this same

  15. Schwann cell-derived exosomes enhance axonal regeneration in the peripheral nervous system.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Verrilli, María Alejandra; Picou, Frederic; Court, Felipe A

    2013-11-01

    Axonal regeneration in the peripheral nervous system is greatly supported by Schwann cells (SCs). After nerve injury, SCs dedifferentiate to a progenitor-like state and efficiently guide axons to their original target tissues. Contact and soluble factors participate in the crosstalk between SCs and axons during axonal regeneration. Here we show that dedifferentiated SCs secrete nano-vesicles known as exosomes which are specifically internalized by axons. Surprisingly, SC-derived exosomes markedly increase axonal regeneration in vitro and enhance regeneration after sciatic nerve injury in vivo. Exosomes shift the growth cone morphology to a pro-regenerating phenotype and decrease the activity of the GTPase RhoA, involved in growth cone collapse and axon retraction. Altogether, our work identifies a novel mechanism by which SCs communicate with neighboring axons during regenerative processes. We propose that SC exosomes represent an important mechanism by which these cells locally support axonal maintenance and regeneration after nerve damage.

  16. Myelinated sensory and alpha motor axon regeneration in peripheral nerve neuromas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macias, M. Y.; Lehman, C. T.; Sanger, J. R.; Riley, D. A.

    1998-01-01

    Histochemical staining for carbonic anhydrase and cholinesterase (CE) activities was used to analyze sensory and motor axon regeneration, respectively, during neuroma formation in transected and tube-encapsulated peripheral nerves. Median-ulnar and sciatic nerves in the rodent model permitted testing whether a 4 cm greater distance of the motor neuron soma from axotomy site or intrinsic differences between motor and sensory neurons influenced regeneration and neuroma formation 10, 30, and 90 days later. Ventral root radiculotomy confirmed that CE-stained axons were 97% alpha motor axons. Distance significantly delayed axon regeneration. When distance was negligible, sensory axons grew out sooner than motor axons, but motor axons regenerated to a greater quantity. These results indicate regeneration differences between axon subtypes and suggest more extensive branching of motor axons within the neuroma. Thus, both distance from injury site to soma and inherent motor and sensory differences should be considered in peripheral nerve repair strategies.

  17. Fast valve

    DOEpatents

    Van Dyke, W.J.

    1992-04-07

    A fast valve is disclosed that can close on the order of 7 milliseconds. It is closed by the force of a compressed air spring with the moving parts of the valve designed to be of very light weight and the valve gate being of wedge shaped with O-ring sealed faces to provide sealing contact without metal to metal contact. The combination of the O-ring seal and an air cushion create a soft final movement of the valve closure to prevent the fast air acting valve from having a harsh closing. 4 figs.

  18. Fast valve

    DOEpatents

    Van Dyke, William J.

    1992-01-01

    A fast valve is disclosed that can close on the order of 7 milliseconds. It is closed by the force of a compressed air spring with the moving parts of the valve designed to be of very light weight and the valve gate being of wedge shaped with O-ring sealed faces to provide sealing contact without metal to metal contact. The combination of the O-ring seal and an air cushion create a soft final movement of the valve closure to prevent the fast air acting valve from having a harsh closing.

  19. Corticothalamic Axons Are Essential for Retinal Ganglion Cell Axon Targeting to the Mouse Dorsal Lateral Geniculate Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, James A.; Ito, Shinya; Schaevitz, Laura; Yamada, Jena; Chen, Bin; Litke, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) relay information about the outside world to multiple subcortical targets within the brain. This information is either used to dictate reflexive behaviors or relayed to the visual cortex for further processing. Many subcortical visual nuclei also receive descending inputs from projection neurons in the visual cortex. Most areas receive inputs from layer 5 cortical neurons in the visual cortex but one exception is the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), which receives layer 6 inputs and is also the only RGC target that sends direct projections to the cortex. Here we ask how visual system development and function changes in mice that develop without a cortex. We find that the development of a cortex is essential for RGC axons to terminate in the dLGN, but is not required for targeting RGC axons to other subcortical nuclei. RGC axons also fail to target to the dLGN in mice that specifically lack cortical layer 6 projections to the dLGN. Finally, we show that when mice develop without a cortex they can still perform a number of vision-dependent tasks. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) is a sensory thalamic relay area that receives feedforward inputs from retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the retina, and feed back inputs from layer 6 neurons in the visual cortex. In this study we examined genetically manipulated mice that develop without a cortex or without cortical layer 6 axonal projections, and find that RGC axons fail to project to the dLGN. Other RGC recipient areas, such as the superior colliculus and suprachiasmatic nucleus, are targeted normally. These results provide support for a new mechanism of target selection that may be specific to the thalamus, whereby descending cortical axons provide an activity that promotes feedforward targeting of RGC axons to the dLGN. PMID:27170123

  20. A novel technique using hydrophilic polymers to promote axonal fusion.

    PubMed

    Bamba, Ravinder; Riley, D Colton; Kelm, Nathaniel D; Does, Mark D; Dortch, Richard D; Thayer, Wesley P

    2016-04-01

    The management of traumatic peripheral nerve injury remains a considerable concern for clinicians. With minimal innovations in surgical technique and a limited number of specialists trained to treat peripheral nerve injury, outcomes of surgical intervention have been unpredictable. The inability to manipulate the pathophysiology of nerve injury (i.e., Wallerian degeneration) has left scientists and clinicians depending on the slow and lengthy process of axonal regeneration (~1 mm/day). When axons are severed, the endings undergo calcium-mediated plasmalemmal sealing, which limits the ability of the axon to be primarily repaired. Polythethylene glycol (PEG) in combination with a bioengineered process overcomes the inability to fuse axons. The mechanism for PEG axonal fusion is not clearly understood, but multiple studies have shown that a providing a calcium-free environment is essential to the process known as PEG fusion. The proposed mechanism is PEG-induced lipid bilayer fusion by removing the hydration barrier surrounding the axolemma and reducing the activation energy required for membrane fusion to occur. This review highlights PEG fusion, its past and current studies, and future directions in PEG fusion.

  1. Mechanisms of Distal Axonal Degeneration in Peripheral Neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Cashman, Christopher R.; Höke, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a common complication of a variety of diseases and treatments, including diabetes, cancer chemotherapy, and infectious causes (HIV, hepatitis C, and Campylobacter jejuni). Despite the fundamental difference between these insults, peripheral neuropathy develops as a combination of just six primary mechanisms: altered metabolism, covalent modification, altered organelle function and reactive oxygen species formation, altered intracellular and inflammatory signaling, slowed axonal transport, and altered ion channel dynamics and expression. All of these pathways converge to lead to axon dysfunction and symptoms of neuropathy. The detailed mechanisms of axon degeneration itself have begun to be elucidated with studies of animal models with altered degeneration kinetics, including the slowed Wallerian degeneration (Wlds) and Sarmknockout animal models. These studies have shown axonal degeneration to occur througha programmed pathway of injury signaling and cytoskeletal degradation. Insights into the common disease insults that converge on the axonal degeneration pathway promise to facilitate the development of therapeutics that may be effective against other mechanisms of neurodegeneration. PMID:25617478

  2. Distinct nonuniform cable properties optimize rapid and efficient activation of fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Nörenberg, Anja; Hu, Hua; Vida, Imre; Bartos, Marlene; Jonas, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Fast-spiking, parvalbumin-expressing basket cells (BCs) play a key role in feedforward and feedback inhibition in the hippocampus. However, the dendritic mechanisms underlying rapid interneuron recruitment have remained unclear. To quantitatively address this question, we developed detailed passive cable models of BCs in the dentate gyrus based on dual somatic or somatodendritic recordings and complete morphologic reconstructions. Both specific membrane capacitance and axial resistivity were comparable to those of pyramidal neurons, but the average somatodendritic specific membrane resistance (Rm) was substantially lower in BCs. Furthermore, Rm was markedly nonuniform, being lowest in soma and proximal dendrites, intermediate in distal dendrites, and highest in the axon. Thus, the somatodendritic gradient of Rm was the reverse of that in pyramidal neurons. Further computational analysis revealed that these unique cable properties accelerate the time course of synaptic potentials at the soma in response to fast inputs, while boosting the efficacy of slow distal inputs. These properties will facilitate both rapid phasic and efficient tonic activation of BCs in hippocampal microcircuits. PMID:20080772

  3. Distinct nonuniform cable properties optimize rapid and efficient activation of fast-spiking GABAergic interneurons.

    PubMed

    Nörenberg, Anja; Hu, Hua; Vida, Imre; Bartos, Marlene; Jonas, Peter

    2010-01-12

    Fast-spiking, parvalbumin-expressing basket cells (BCs) play a key role in feedforward and feedback inhibition in the hippocampus. However, the dendritic mechanisms underlying rapid interneuron recruitment have remained unclear. To quantitatively address this question, we developed detailed passive cable models of BCs in the dentate gyrus based on dual somatic or somatodendritic recordings and complete morphologic reconstructions. Both specific membrane capacitance and axial resistivity were comparable to those of pyramidal neurons, but the average somatodendritic specific membrane resistance (R(m)) was substantially lower in BCs. Furthermore, R(m) was markedly nonuniform, being lowest in soma and proximal dendrites, intermediate in distal dendrites, and highest in the axon. Thus, the somatodendritic gradient of R(m) was the reverse of that in pyramidal neurons. Further computational analysis revealed that these unique cable properties accelerate the time course of synaptic potentials at the soma in response to fast inputs, while boosting the efficacy of slow distal inputs. These properties will facilitate both rapid phasic and efficient tonic activation of BCs in hippocampal microcircuits.

  4. Project FAST.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essexville-Hampton Public Schools, MI.

    Described are components of Project FAST (Functional Analysis Systems Training) a nationally validated project to provide more effective educational and support services to learning disordered children and their regular elementary classroom teachers. The program is seen to be based on a series of modules of delivery systems ranging from mainstream…

  5. Axonal and somatic filtering of antidromically evoked cortical excitation by simulated deep brain stimulation in rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Chomiak, T; Hu, B

    2007-01-01

    Antidromic cortical excitation has been implicated as a contributing mechanism for high-frequency deep brain stimulation (DBS). Here, we examined the reliability of antidromic responses of type 2 corticofugal fibres in rat over a stimulation frequency range compatible to the DBS used in humans. We activated antidromically individual layer V neurones by stimulating their two subcortical axonal branches. We found that antidromic cortical excitation is not as reliable as generally assumed. Whereas the fast conducting branches of a type 2 axon in the highly myelinated brainstem region follow high-frequency stimulation, the slower conducting fibres in the poorly myelinated thalamic region function as low-pass filters. These fibres fail to transmit consecutive antidromic spikes at the beginning of high-frequency stimulation, but are able to maintain a steady low-frequency (6–12 Hz) spike output during the stimulation. In addition, antidromic responses evoked from both branches are rarely present in cortical neurones with a more hyperpolarized membrane potential. Our data indicate that axon-mediated antidromic excitation in the cortex is strongly influenced by the myelo-architecture of the stimulation site and the excitability of individual cortical neurones. PMID:17170044

  6. Action in the axon: generation and transport of signaling endosomes.

    PubMed

    Cosker, Katharina E; Courchesne, Stephanie L; Segal, Rosalind A

    2008-06-01

    Neurons extend axonal processes over long distances, necessitating efficient transport mechanisms to convey target-derived neurotrophic survival signals from remote distal axons to cell bodies. Retrograde transport, powered by dynein motors, supplies cell bodies with survival signals in the form of 'signaling endosomes'. In this review, we will discuss new advances in our understanding of the motor proteins that bind to and move signaling components in a retrograde direction and discuss mechanisms that might specify distinct neuronal responses to spatially restricted neurotrophin signals. Disruption of retrograde transport leads to a variety of neurodegenerative diseases, highlighting the role of retrograde transport of signaling endosomes for axonal maintenance and the importance of efficient transport for neuronal survival and function.

  7. Growing axons analysis by using Granulometric Size Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, Mariela A.; Ballarin, Virginia L.; Rapacioli, Melina; Celín, A. R.; Sánchez, V.; Flores, V.

    2011-09-01

    Neurite growth (neuritogenesis) in vitro is a common methodology in the field of developmental neurobiology. Morphological analyses of growing neurites are usually difficult because their thinness and low contrast usually prevent to observe clearly their shape, number, length and spatial orientation. This paper presents the use of the granulometric size distribution in order to automatically obtain information about the shape, size and spatial orientation of growing axons in tissue cultures. The results here presented show that the granulometric size distribution results in a very useful morphological tool since it allows the automatic detection of growing axons and the precise characterization of a relevant parameter indicative of the axonal growth spatial orientation such as the quantification of the angle of deviation of the growing direction. The developed algorithms automatically quantify this orientation by facilitating the analysis of these images, which is important given the large number of images that need to be processed for this type of study.

  8. Axon selection: From a polarized cytoplasm to a migrating neuron.

    PubMed

    de Anda, Froylan Calderon; Tsai, Li-Huei

    2011-05-01

    The shape of a neuron supplies valuable clues as to its function. Neurons typically extend a single long, thin axon, which will transmit signals and several shorter and thicker dendrites, which will receive signals. The understanding of the means by which neurons acquire a polarized morphology is a fundamental issue in developmental neurobiology. The current view suggests that axon selection involves a stochastic mechanism. However, new data suggest that a polarized cytoplasm not only determines the position of neurite emergence, but also sets the conditions for morphological polarization. In vertebrates, neurons migrate before establishing their final morphology. Recent work shows that the polarized cytoplasm also determines how neurons migrate. Thus, neuronal migration might influence the processes by which neurons form an axon.

  9. Evidence of widespread axonal pathology in Wolfram syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shannon, P; Becker, L; Deck, J

    1999-09-01

    Wolfram syndrome, characterised by diabetes insipidus, diabetes mellitus, optic atrophy sensorineural deafness and acquired urinary tract abnormalities, is an hereditary neurodegenerative syndrome, the pathogenesis of which is unknown. We report the post-mortem findings on a patient with well-documented Wolfram syndrome. The brain showed severe degeneration of the optic nerves, chiasm and tracts as well as severe loss of neurons from the lateral geniculate nuclei, basis pontis, and the hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei. In addition, there was a widespread axonal dystrophy with axonal swellings in the pontocerebellar tracts, the optic radiations, the hippocampal fornices and the deep cerebral white matter. This widespread axonal pathology parallels the pattern of neurodegeneration and in many areas is more striking than neuronal loss.

  10. Semaphorin 7A promotes axon outgrowth through integrins and MAPKs.

    PubMed

    Pasterkamp, R Jeroen; Peschon, Jacques J; Spriggs, Melanie K; Kolodkin, Alex L

    2003-07-24

    Striking parallels exist between immune and nervous system cellular signalling mechanisms. Molecules originally shown to be critical for immune responses also serve neuronal functions, and similarly neural guidance cues can modulate immune function. We show here that semaphorin 7A (Sema7A), a membrane-anchored member of the semaphorin family of guidance proteins previously known for its immunomodulatory effects, can also mediate neuronal functions. Unlike many other semaphorins, which act as repulsive guidance cues, Sema7A enhances central and peripheral axon growth and is required for proper axon tract formation during embryonic development. Unexpectedly, Sema7A enhancement of axon outgrowth requires integrin receptors and activation of MAPK signalling pathways. These findings define a previously unknown biological function for semaphorins, identify an unexpected role for integrins and integrin-dependent intracellular signalling in mediating semaphorin responses, and provide a framework for understanding and interfering with Sema7A function in both immune and nervous systems.

  11. Involvement of SARA in Axon and Dendrite Growth.

    PubMed

    Arias, Cristina Isabel; Siri, Sebastián Omar; Conde, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    SARA (Smad Anchor for Receptor Activation) plays a crucial role in Rab5-mediated endocytosis in cell lines localizing to early endosomes where it regulates morphology and function. Here, we analyzed the role of SARA during neuronal development and tested whether it functions as a regulator of endocytic trafficking of selected axonal and membrane proteins. Suppression of SARA perturbs the appearance of juxtanuclear endocytic recycling compartments and the neurons show long axons with large growth cones. Furthermore, surface distribution of the cell adhesion molecule L1 in axons and the fusion of vesicles containing transferring receptor (TfR) in dendrites were increased in neurons where SARA was silenced. Conversely, SARA overexpression generated large early endosomes and reduced neurite outgrowth. Taken together, our findings suggest a significant contribution of SARA to key aspects of neuronal development, including neurite formation.

  12. [Mechanisms of growth of neuronal axons and dendrites].

    PubMed

    Lest'anová, Z; Bacová, Z; Havránek, T; Bakos, J

    2013-01-01

    Brain development is determined by neuronal differentiation including changes of cell polarity and asymetric growth of neuronal processes. Although, there are many unkown factors contributing to changes of lenght of neuronal cones, mounting experimental and review papers focus on changes of growth conus and role of axonal transport. In particular, mechanisms of actin/microtubule polymerisation and depolymerisation are important. Role of intracellular calcium is also significant. Normal and properly timed changes of lenght of axons and dendrites are dependent on interaction of neurons and glia. Moreover, regeneration of injured axons is dependent on growth factors secreted from glial cells. The aim of the present study is characterisation of the most important mechanisms underlying changes of lenght of neurites.

  13. Secretion-related uptake of horseradish peroxidase in neurohypophysial axons

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    During secretion of the neurohypophysial hormones, oxytocin and vasopressin, secretory granule membrane is added to the plasma membrane of the axon terminals. It is generally assumed that subsequent internalization of this additional membrane occurs by endocytosis. In order to study this process, we have traced the uptake of intravenously injected horseradish peroxidase by neurohypophysial axons in rats and golden hamsters. Peroxidase reaction product within the secretory axons was found mainly in vacuolar and C-shaped structures of a size comparable with or larger than the neurosecretory granules. Our observations suggest that these large horseradish peroxidase (HRP)- impregnated vacuoles arise directly by a form of macropinocytosis. Morphometric analysis indicated that this form of membrane retrieval increased significantly after the two types of stimuli used, reversible hemorrhage and electrical stimulation of the pituitary stalk. Microvesicular uptake of HRP was found to be comparatively less. PMID:181385

  14. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Preserve Function in Aging Axons

    PubMed Central

    Baltan, Selva

    2012-01-01

    Aging increases the vulnerability of aging white matter to ischemic injury. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors preserve young adult white matter structure and function during ischemia by conserving ATP and reducing excitotoxicity. In isolated optic nerve from 12 month old mice, deprived of oxygen and glucose, we show that pan- and Class I specific HDAC inhibitors promote functional recovery of axons. This protection correlates with preservation of axonal mitochondria. The cellular expression of HDAC 3, in the central nervous system (CNS) and HDAC 2 in optic nerve considerably changed with age expanding to more cytoplasmic domains from nuclear compartments suggesting that changes in glial cell protein acetylation may confer protection to aging axons. Our results indicate manipulation of HDAC activities in glial cells may have a universal potential for stroke therapy across age groups. PMID:23050648

  15. Using quantum filters to process images of diffuse axonal injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda Osorio, Mateo

    2014-06-01

    Some images corresponding to a diffuse axonal injury (DAI) are processed using several quantum filters such as Hermite Weibull and Morse. Diffuse axonal injury is a particular, common and severe case of traumatic brain injury (TBI). DAI involves global damage on microscopic scale of brain tissue and causes serious neurologic abnormalities. New imaging techniques provide excellent images showing cellular damages related to DAI. Said images can be processed with quantum filters, which accomplish high resolutions of dendritic and axonal structures both in normal and pathological state. Using the Laplacian operators from the new quantum filters, excellent edge detectors for neurofiber resolution are obtained. Image quantum processing of DAI images is made using computer algebra, specifically Maple. Quantum filter plugins construction is proposed as a future research line, which can incorporated to the ImageJ software package, making its use simpler for medical personnel.

  16. TNFα reverse signaling promotes sympathetic axon growth and target innervation

    PubMed Central

    Kisiswa, Lilian; Osório, Catarina; Erice, Clara; Vizard, Thomas; Wyatt, Sean; Davies, Alun M

    2013-01-01

    Reverse signaling via members of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily is increasingly recognized among cells of the immune system where it controls multiple aspects of immune function. Here we document TNFα reverse signaling in the nervous system for the first time and show that it plays a crucial role in establishing sympathetic innervation. During postnatal development, sympathetic axons express TNFα as they grow and branch in their target tissues which in turn express TNFR1. In culture, soluble forms of TNFR1 act directly on postnatal sympathetic axons to promote growth and branching by a mechanism that depends on membrane integrated TNFα and downstream MEK/ERK activation. Sympathetic innervation density is significantly reduced in several tissues in postnatal and adult mice lacking either TNFα or TNFR1. These findings reveal that target-derived TNFR1 acts as a reverse signaling ligand for membrane-integrated TNFα to promote sympathetic axon growth and branching. PMID:23749144

  17. Pili canaliculi as manifestation of giant axonal neuropathy*

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; Garcias, Gilberto; Silva, Ricardo Marques e; Batista, Stela Laner; Pasetto, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Giant axonal neuropathy is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease. The condition is characterized by neurons with abnormally large axons due to intracellular filament accumulation. The swollen axons affect both the peripheral and central nervous system. A 6-year old female patient had been referred to a geneticist reporting problems with walking and hypotonia. At the age of 10, she became wheelchair dependent. Scanning electron microscopy of a curly hair classified it as pili canaliculi. GAN gene sequencing demonstrated mutation c.1456G>A (p.GLU486LYS). At the age of 12, the patient died due to respiratory complications. Dermatologists should be aware of this entity since hair changes are considered suggestive of GAN. PMID:28300918

  18. The axon-protective WLD(S) protein partially rescues mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis after axonal injury.

    PubMed

    Godzik, Katharina; Coleman, Michael P

    2015-04-01

    The axon-protective Wallerian degeneration slow (WLD(S)) protein can ameliorate the decline in axonal ATP levels after neurite transection. Here, we tested the hypothesis that this effect is associated with maintenance of mitochondrial respiration and/or glycolysis. We used isolated neurites of superior cervical ganglion (SCG) cultures in the Seahorse XF-24 Metabolic Flux Analyser to determine mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis under different conditions. We observed that both mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis declined significantly during the latent phase of Wallerian degeneration. WLD(S) partially reduced the decline both in glycolysis and in mitochondrial respiration. In addition, we found that depleting NAD levels in uncut cultures led to changes in mitochondrial respiration and glycolysis similar to those rescued by WLD(S) after cut, suggesting that the maintenance of NAD levels in Wld(S) neurites after axonal injury at least partially underlies the maintenance of ATP levels. However, by using another axon-protective mutation (Sarm1(-/-)), we could demonstrate that rescue of basal ECAR (and hence probably glycolysis) rather than basal OCR (mitochondrial respiration) may be part of the protective phenotype to delay Wallerian degeneration. These findings open new routes to study glycolysis and the connection between NAD and ATP levels in axon degeneration, which may help to eventually develop therapeutic strategies to treat neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury and Diffuse Axonal Injury in Swine

    PubMed Central

    Browne, Kevin D.; Chen, Xiao-Han; Meaney, David F.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Until recently, mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or “concussion” was generally ignored as a major health issue. However, emerging evidence suggests that this injury is by no means mild, considering it induces persisting neurocognitive dysfunction in many individuals. Although little is known about the pathophysiological aspects of mTBI, there is growing opinion that diffuse axonal injury (DAI) may play a key role. To explore this possibility, we adapted a model of head rotational acceleration in swine to produce mTBI by scaling the mechanical loading conditions based on available biomechanical data on concussion thresholds in humans. Using these input parameters, head rotational acceleration was induced in either the axial plane (transverse to the brainstem; n=3), causing a 10- to 35-min loss of consciousness, or coronal plane (circumferential to the brainstem; n=2), which did not produce a sustained loss of consciousness. Seven days following injury, immunohistochemical analyses of the brains revealed that both planes of head rotation induced extensive axonal pathology throughout the white matter, characterized as swollen axonal bulbs or varicosities that were immunoreactive for accumulating neurofilament protein. However, the distribution of the axonal pathology was different between planes of head rotation. In particular, more swollen axonal profiles were observed in the brainstems of animals injured in the axial plane, suggesting an anatomic substrate for prolonged loss of consciousness in mTBI. Overall, these data support DAI as an important pathological feature of mTBI, and demonstrate that surprisingly overt axonal pathology may be present, even in cases without a sustained loss of consciousness. PMID:21740133

  20. Hypergravity hinders axonal development of motor neurons in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Kalichamy, Saraswathi Subbammal; Yoon, Kyoung-hye

    2016-01-01

    As space flight becomes more accessible in the future, humans will be exposed to gravity conditions other than our 1G environment on Earth. Our bodies and physiology, however, are adapted for life at 1G gravity. Altering gravity can have profound effects on the body, particularly the development of muscles, but the reasons and biology behind gravity’s effect are not fully known. We asked whether increasing gravity had effects on the development of motor neurons that innervate and control muscle, a relatively unexplored area of gravity biology. Using the nematode model organism Caenorhabditis elegans, we examined changes in response to hypergravity in the development of the 19 GABAergic DD/VD motor neurons that innervate body muscle. We found that a high gravity force above 10G significantly increases the number of animals with defects in the development of axonal projections from the DD/VD neurons. We showed that a critical period of hypergravity exposure during the embryonic/early larval stage was sufficient to induce defects. While characterizing the nature of the axonal defects, we found that in normal 1G gravity conditions, DD/VD axonal defects occasionally occurred, with the majority of defects occurring on the dorsal side of the animal and in the mid-body region, and a significantly higher rate of error in the 13 VD axons than the 6 DD axons. Hypergravity exposure increased the rate of DD/VD axonal defects, but did not change the distribution or the characteristics of the defects. Our study demonstrates that altering gravity can impact motor neuron development. PMID:27833821

  1. Uncovering sensory axonal dysfunction in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Jia-Ying; Tani, Jowy; Chang, Tsui-San; Lin, Cindy Shin-Yi

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated sensory and motor nerve excitability properties to elucidate the development of diabetic neuropathy. A total of 109 type 2 diabetes patients were recruited, and 106 were analyzed. According to neuropathy severity, patients were categorized into G0, G1, and G2+3 groups using the total neuropathy score-reduced (TNSr). Patients in the G0 group were asymptomatic and had a TNSr score of 0. Sensory and motor nerve excitability data from diabetic patients were compared with data from 33 healthy controls. Clinical assessment, nerve conduction studies, and sensory and motor nerve excitability testing data were analyzed to determine axonal dysfunction in diabetic neuropathy. In the G0 group, sensory excitability testing revealed increased stimulus for the 50% sensory nerve action potential (P<0.05), shortened strength-duration time constant (P<0.01), increased superexcitability (P<0.01), decreased subexcitability (P<0.05), decreased accommodation to depolarizing current (P<0.01), and a trend of decreased accommodation to hyperpolarizing current in threshold electrotonus. All the changes progressed into G1 (TNSr 1–8) and G2+3 (TNSr 9–24) groups. In contrast, motor excitability only had significantly increased stimulus for the 50% compound motor nerve action potential (P<0.01) in the G0 group. This study revealed that the development of axonal dysfunction in sensory axons occurred prior to and in a different fashion from motor axons. Additionally, sensory nerve excitability tests can detect axonal dysfunction even in asymptomatic patients. These insights further our understanding of diabetic neuropathy and enable the early detection of sensory axonal abnormalities, which may provide a basis for neuroprotective therapeutic approaches. PMID:28182728

  2. Uncovering sensory axonal dysfunction in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Sung, J