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Sample records for inhibits formyl peptide

  1. Inhibition of formyl peptide receptor 1 reduces the efficacy of anticancer chemotherapy against carcinogen-induced breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Baracco, Elisa E; Pietrocola, Federico; Buqué, Aitziber; Bloy, Norma; Senovilla, Laura; Zitvogel, Laurence; Vacchelli, Erika; Kroemer, Guido

    2016-06-01

    The loss-of-function mutation of formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) has a negative impact on the progression-free and overall survival of breast cancer patients treated with anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy. This effect may be attributed to the fact that chemotherapy-induced antitumor immunity requires FPR1 and that such anticancer immune responses are responsible for the long-term effects of chemotherapy. Here, we investigated the possible contribution of FPR1 to the efficacy of a combination of mitoxantrone (MTX) and cyclophosphamide (CTX) for the treatment of hormone-induced breast cancer. Breast cancer induced by a combination of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) could be successfully treated with MTX plus CTX in thus far that tumor growth was retarded and overall survival was extended (as compared to vehicle-only treated controls). However, the therapeutic efficacy of the combination therapy was completely abolished when FPR1 receptors were blocked by means of cyclosporin H (CsH). Future genetic studies on neoadjuvant chemotherapy-treated breast cancers are warranted to validate these findings at the clinical level. PMID:27471610

  2. The formyl peptide receptor 1 exerts a tumor suppressor function in human gastric cancer by inhibiting angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Prevete, N; Liotti, F; Visciano, C; Marone, G; Melillo, R M; de Paulis, A

    2015-07-01

    N-formyl peptide receptors (FPR1, FPR2 and FPR3) are involved in innate immunity, inflammation and cancer. FPR expression, initially described in immune cells, was later observed in non-hematopoietic cell populations and tissues. Several studies suggested a role for FPRs in the progression of various tumor histotypes, including gastric cancer (GC), for which a positive association with a specific FPR1 polymorphism has recently been described. We previously showed that FPRs are expressed on gastric epithelium and are required for wound repair and restitution of barrier integrity. Here we assess the role of FPRs in GC. We characterized the functions of FPRs in GC epithelial cells (MKN28, AGS and MKN45) cultured in vitro by assessing migration, proliferation, resistance to apoptosis and activation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Activation of each FPR induced the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, proliferation, resistance to apoptosis and migration of GC cells in culture. Blocking compounds or RNA interference of each FPR reverted these effects. We also defined the in vivo tumorigenic potential of GC epithelial cells silenced for FPRs by xenograft experiments in immunocompromised mice. Interestingly, FPR1 silencing in GC cells (shFPR1) significantly enhanced xenograft growth with respect to shCTR, shFPR2 and shFPR3 xenografts, because of augmented vessel density and cell proliferation. Accordingly, HIF-1α and VEGF mRNA levels were higher in shFPR1 xenografts than in controls. Moreover, the in vitro production of proangiogenic factors in response to FPR2/3 agonists (WKYMVm, LL-37, uPA, uPAR84-95, AnxA1) or to other proinflammatory mediators (IL-1α) was higher in shFPR1 GC cells than in shCTR, shFPR2 and shFPR3 cells, suggesting that FPR1 functions as an inhibitor of CG angiogenesis. Thus, we propose that FPR1 stimulation may represent a novel therapeutic approach to counteract tumor angiogenesis. PMID:25263443

  3. Recognition of Bacterial Signal Peptides by Mammalian Formyl Peptide Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Bufe, Bernd; Schumann, Timo; Kappl, Reinhard; Bogeski, Ivan; Kummerow, Carsten; Podgórska, Marta; Smola, Sigrun; Hoth, Markus; Zufall, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) are G-protein-coupled receptors that function as chemoattractant receptors in innate immune responses. Here we perform systematic structure-function analyses of FPRs from six mammalian species using structurally diverse FPR peptide agonists and identify a common set of conserved agonist properties with typical features of pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Guided by these results, we discover that bacterial signal peptides, normally used to translocate proteins across cytoplasmic membranes, are a vast family of natural FPR agonists. N-terminally formylated signal peptide fragments with variable sequence and length activate human and mouse FPR1 and FPR2 at low nanomolar concentrations, thus establishing FPR1 and FPR2 as sensitive and broad signal peptide receptors. The vomeronasal receptor mFpr-rs1 and its sequence orthologue hFPR3 also react to signal peptides but are much more narrowly tuned in signal peptide recognition. Furthermore, all signal peptides examined here function as potent activators of the innate immune system. They elicit robust, FPR-dependent calcium mobilization in human and mouse leukocytes and trigger a range of classical innate defense mechanisms, such as the production of reactive oxygen species, metalloprotease release, and chemotaxis. Thus, bacterial signal peptides constitute a novel class of immune activators that are likely to contribute to mammalian immune defense against bacteria. This evolutionarily conserved detection mechanism combines structural promiscuity with high specificity and enables discrimination between bacterial and eukaryotic signal sequences. With at least 175,542 predicted sequences, bacterial signal peptides represent the largest and structurally most heterogeneous class of G-protein-coupled receptor agonists currently known for the innate immune system. PMID:25605714

  4. Derivative of wheat germ agglutinin specifically inhibits formyl-peptide-induced polymorphonuclear leukocyte chemotaxis by blocking re-expression (or recycling) of receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, H.D.; Elfman, F.; Lobo, E.; Sklar, L.; Chenoweth, D.; Hooper, C.

    1986-03-01

    The mechanism of action of a derivative of wheat germ agglutinin (WGA-D) which specifically and irreversibly inhibits N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP)-induced polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) chemotaxis was examined. At a concentration that completely inhibited PMN chemotaxis, WGA-D had no effect on either the uptake or release of (/sup 3/H)-FMLP by PMN. Similarly, WGA-D did not affect either the short-term binding to, or internalization by, PMN of a fluoresceinated FMLP analog. WGA-D did interfere, however, with the re-expression (or recycling) of FMLP receptors by PMN that had been preincubated with 1 ..mu..M FMLP for 10 min at 4/sup 0/C. This effect was specific for WGA-D, because it was not observed when concanavalin A was used. Scatchard plot analysis of FMLP binding to PMN after receptor re-expression demonstrated that WGA-D-treated PMN had a significant diminution in the number of high affinity receptors. WGA-D-mediated inhibition of FMLP receptor re-expression was associated with inhibition of FMLP-induced PMN chemotaxis, but had no effect on either FMLP-induced PMN superoxide anion generation or degranulation. Studies using (/sup 12/%I)-WGA-D demonstrated that PMN did not internalize WGA-D spontaneously. The data indicate that WGA-D perhaps by binding to the FMLP receptor, inhibits FMLP-induced PMN chemotaxis by blocking the re-expression (or recycling) of a population of receptors required for continuous migration.

  5. Bacterial formyl peptides affect the innate cellular antimicrobial responses of larval Galleria mellonella (Insecta: Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Alavo, Thiery B C; Dunphy, Gary B

    2004-04-01

    The non-self cellular (hemocytic) responses of Galleria mellonella larvae, including the attachment to slides and the removal of the bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila and Bacillus subtilis from the hemolymph, were affected by N-formyl peptides. Both N-formyl methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLF) and the ester derivative decreased hemocyte adhesion in vitro, and both elevated hemocyte counts and suppressed the removal of both X. nematophila and B. subtilis from the hemolymph in vivo. The amide derivative and the antagonist tertiary-butoxy-carbonyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (tBOC) increased hemocyte attachment to glass. The fMLF suppressed protein discharge from monolayers of granular cells with and without bacterial stimulation, while tBOC stimulated protein discharge. The peptide tBOC offset the effects of fMLF in vitro and in vivo. This is the first report implying the existence of formyl peptide receptors on insect hemocytes in which the compounds fMLF and tBOC inhibited and activated hemocyte activity, respectively.

  6. Chemotherapy-induced antitumor immunity requires formyl peptide receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Vacchelli, Erika; Ma, Yuting; Baracco, Elisa E; Sistigu, Antonella; Enot, David P; Pietrocola, Federico; Yang, Heng; Adjemian, Sandy; Chaba, Kariman; Semeraro, Michaela; Signore, Michele; De Ninno, Adele; Lucarini, Valeria; Peschiaroli, Francesca; Businaro, Luca; Gerardino, Annamaria; Manic, Gwenola; Ulas, Thomas; Günther, Patrick; Schultze, Joachim L; Kepp, Oliver; Stoll, Gautier; Lefebvre, Céline; Mulot, Claire; Castoldi, Francesca; Rusakiewicz, Sylvie; Ladoire, Sylvain; Apetoh, Lionel; Bravo-San Pedro, José Manuel; Lucattelli, Monica; Delarasse, Cécile; Boige, Valérie; Ducreux, Michel; Delaloge, Suzette; Borg, Christophe; André, Fabrice; Schiavoni, Giovanna; Vitale, Ilio; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Mattei, Fabrizio; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido

    2015-11-20

    Antitumor immunity driven by intratumoral dendritic cells contributes to the efficacy of anthracycline-based chemotherapy in cancer. We identified a loss-of-function allele of the gene coding for formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) that was associated with poor metastasis-free and overall survival in breast and colorectal cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. The therapeutic effects of anthracyclines were abrogated in tumor-bearing Fpr1(-/-) mice due to impaired antitumor immunity. Fpr1-deficient dendritic cells failed to approach dying cancer cells and, as a result, could not elicit antitumor T cell immunity. Experiments performed in a microfluidic device confirmed that FPR1 and its ligand, annexin-1, promoted stable interactions between dying cancer cells and human or murine leukocytes. Altogether, these results highlight the importance of FPR1 in chemotherapy-induced anticancer immune responses. PMID:26516201

  7. Monocytes and neutrophils from tuberculosis patients are insensitive to anti-inflammatory effects triggered by the prototypic formyl peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP)

    PubMed Central

    BEIGIER-BOMPADRE, M; ALEMÁN, M; BARRIONUEVO, P; FRANCO, M C; RUBEL, C J; SASIAIN, M Del C; PALERMO, M S; ABBATE, E; ISTURIZ, M A

    2003-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis where formyl peptides, which are cleavage products of bacterial and mitochondrial proteins, are present. In this study, we demonstrated that interferon gamma (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-10 induced the overexpression of the receptor for the Fc portion of IgG I (FcγRI) in monocytes from tuberculosis (TB) patients, showing that these cells respond to IFN-γ and IL-10 signals. We also demonstrated that lower doses of IL-10 render monocytes from TB patients less responsive to higher doses of the cytokine. Although the prototypic formyl peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) is a well-known proinflammatory agonist, we have demonstrated previously that preincubation of monocytes with FMLP inhibited the up-regulation of FcγRI induced by IFN-γ or IL-10. This effect was not observed in monocytes from TB patientes. FMLP also induced the down-regulation of the expression of FcγRI in monocytes that had been activated already with IFN-γ. However, this effect of FMLP was not observed in monocytes from TB patients and supernatants from monocytes obtained from these patients were incapable of inducing the down-regulation of FcγRI. In contrast to normal donors, supernatants from FMLP-treated neutrophils from TB patients did not modify the basal level of expression of FcγRI in monocytes from normal donors. In conclusion, in this study we demonstrated the existence of two novel mechanisms that may contribute to the pathological effects generated by M. tuberculosis: the enhancement of FcγRI in response to IFN-γ and IL-10, and the unresponsiveness to the anti-inflammatory effects induced by formyl peptides. PMID:12869034

  8. Antimicrobial peptide scolopendrasin VII, derived from the centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans, stimulates macrophage chemotaxis via formyl peptide receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoo Jung; Lee, Ha Young; Jung, Young Su; Park, Joon Seong; Hwang, Jae Sam; Bae, Yoe-Sik

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we report that one of the antimicrobial peptides scolopendrasin VII, derived from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans, stimulates actin polymerization and the subsequent chemotactic migration of macrophages through the activation of ERK and protein kinase B (Akt) activity. The scolopendrasin VII-induced chemotactic migration of macrophages is inhibited by the formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) antagonist cyclosporine H. We also found that scolopendrasin VII stimulate the chemotactic migration of FPR1-transfected RBL-2H3 cells, but not that of vector-transfected cells; moreover, scolopendrasin VII directly binds to FPR1. Our findings therefore suggest that the antimicrobial peptide scolopendrasin VII, derived from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans, stimulates macrophages, resulting in chemotactic migration via FPR1 signaling, and the peptide can be useful in the study of FPR1-related biological responses.

  9. Antimicrobial peptide scolopendrasin VII, derived from the centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans, stimulates macrophage chemotaxis via formyl peptide receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoo Jung; Lee, Ha Young; Jung, Young Su; Park, Joon Seong; Hwang, Jae Sam; Bae, Yoe-Sik

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we report that one of the antimicrobial peptides scolopendrasin VII, derived from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans, stimulates actin polymerization and the subsequent chemotactic migration of macrophages through the activation of ERK and protein kinase B (Akt) activity. The scolopendrasin VII-induced chemotactic migration of macrophages is inhibited by the formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) antagonist cyclosporine H. We also found that scolopendrasin VII stimulate the chemotactic migration of FPR1-transfected RBL-2H3 cells, but not that of vector-transfected cells; moreover, scolopendrasin VII directly binds to FPR1. Our findings therefore suggest that the antimicrobial peptide scolopendrasin VII, derived from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans, stimulates macrophages, resulting in chemotactic migration via FPR1 signaling, and the peptide can be useful in the study of FPR1-related biological responses. PMID:26129676

  10. Down-regulation of the chemokine receptor CCR5 by activation of chemotactic formyl peptide receptor in human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Shen, W; Li, B; Wetzel, M A; Rogers, T J; Henderson, E E; Su, S B; Gong, W; Le, Y; Sargeant, R; Dimitrov, D S; Oppenheim, J J; Wang, J M

    2000-10-15

    Interactions between cell surface receptors are important regulatory elements in the complex host responses to infections. In this study, it is shown that a classic chemotactic factor, the bacterial chemotactic peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucylphenyl-alanine (fMLF), rapidly induced a protein-kinase-C-mediated serine phosphorylation and down-regulation of the chemokine receptor CCR5, which serves as a major human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 coreceptor. The fMLF binding to its receptor, formyl peptide receptor (FPR), resulted in significant attenuation of cell responses to CCR5 ligands and in inhibition of HIV-1-envelope-glycoprotein-mediated fusion and infection of cells expressing CD4, CCR5, and FPR. The finding that the expression and function of CCR5 can be regulated by peptides that use an unrelated receptor may provide a novel approach to the design of anti-inflamatory and antiretroviral agents. (Blood. 2000;96:2887-2894)

  11. Human neutrophils are activated by a peptide fragment of Clostridium difficile toxin B presumably via formyl peptide receptor.

    PubMed

    Goy, Sebastian D; Olling, Alexandra; Neumann, Detlef; Pich, Andreas; Gerhard, Ralf

    2015-06-01

    Clostridium difficile may induce antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and, in severe cases, pseudomembranous colitis characterized by tremendous neutrophil infiltration. All symptoms are caused by two exotoxins: TcdA and TcdB. We describe here the activation of isolated human blood neutrophils by TcdB and, moreover, by toxin fragments generated by limited proteolytical digestion. Kinetics and profiles of TcdB-induced rise in intracellular-free Ca(2+) and reactive oxygen species production were similar to that induced by fMLF, which activates the formyl peptide receptor (FPR) recognizing formylated bacterial peptide sequences. Transfection assays with the FPR-1 isoform hFPR26 in HEK293 cells, heterologous desensitization experiments and FPR inhibition via cyclosporine H strongly suggest activation of cells via FPR-1. Domain analyses revealed that the N-terminal glucosyltransferase domain of TcdB is a potent activator of FPR pointing towards an additional mechanism that might contribute to pathogenesis. This pro-inflammatory ligand effect can be triggered even by cleaved and, thus, non-cytotoxic toxin. In summary, we report (i) a ligand effect on neutrophils as completely new molecular mode of action, (ii) pathogenic potential of truncated or proteolytically cleaved 'non-cytotoxic' fragments and (iii) an interaction of the N-terminal glucosyltransferase domain instead of the C-terminal receptor binding domain of TcdB with target cells. PMID:25529763

  12. FITC Conjugation Markedly Enhances Hepatic Clearance of N-Formyl Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Elvevold, Kjetil; Sveinbjørnsson, Baldur; Smedsrød, Bård

    2016-01-01

    In both septic and aseptic inflammation, N-formyl peptides may enter the circulation and induce a systemic inflammatory response syndrome similar to that observed during septic shock. The inflammatory response is brought about by the binding of N-formyl peptide to formyl peptide receptors (FPRs), specific signaling receptors expressed on myeloid as well as non-myeloid cells involved in the inflammatory process. N-formyl peptides conjugated with fluorochromes, such as fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) are increasingly experimentally used to identify tissues involved in inflammation. Hypothesizing that the process of FITC-conjugation may transfer formyl peptide to a ligand that is efficiently cleared from the circulation by the natural powerful hepatic scavenging regime we studied the biodistribution of intravenously administered FITC-fNLPNTL (Fluorescein-isothiocyanate- N-Formyl-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys) in mice. Our findings can be summarized as follows: i) In contrast to unconjugated fNLPNTL, FITC-fNLPNTL was rapidly taken up in the liver; ii) Mouse and human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) and hepatocytes express formyl peptide receptor 1 (FRP1) on both mRNA (PCR) and protein (Western blot) levels; iii) Immunohistochemistry showed that mouse and human liver sections expressed FRP1 in LSECs and hepatocytes; and iv) Uptake of FITC-fNLPNTL could be largely blocked in mouse and human hepatocytes by surplus-unconjugated fNLPNTL, thereby suggesting that the hepatocytes in both species recognized FITC-fNLPNTL and fNLPNTL as indistinguishable ligands. This was in contrast to the mouse and human LSECs, in which the uptake of FITC-fNLPNTL was mediated by both FRP1 and a scavenger receptor, specifically expressed on LSECs. Based on these results we conclude that a significant proportion of FITC-fNLPNTL is taken up in LSECs via a scavenger receptor naturally expressed in these cells. This calls for great caution when using FITC-fNLPNTL and other chromogen

  13. FITC Conjugation Markedly Enhances Hepatic Clearance of N-Formyl Peptides.

    PubMed

    Øie, Cristina Ionica; Snapkov, Igor; Elvevold, Kjetil; Sveinbjørnsson, Baldur; Smedsrød, Bård

    2016-01-01

    In both septic and aseptic inflammation, N-formyl peptides may enter the circulation and induce a systemic inflammatory response syndrome similar to that observed during septic shock. The inflammatory response is brought about by the binding of N-formyl peptide to formyl peptide receptors (FPRs), specific signaling receptors expressed on myeloid as well as non-myeloid cells involved in the inflammatory process. N-formyl peptides conjugated with fluorochromes, such as fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) are increasingly experimentally used to identify tissues involved in inflammation. Hypothesizing that the process of FITC-conjugation may transfer formyl peptide to a ligand that is efficiently cleared from the circulation by the natural powerful hepatic scavenging regime we studied the biodistribution of intravenously administered FITC-fNLPNTL (Fluorescein-isothiocyanate- N-Formyl-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys) in mice. Our findings can be summarized as follows: i) In contrast to unconjugated fNLPNTL, FITC-fNLPNTL was rapidly taken up in the liver; ii) Mouse and human liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) and hepatocytes express formyl peptide receptor 1 (FRP1) on both mRNA (PCR) and protein (Western blot) levels; iii) Immunohistochemistry showed that mouse and human liver sections expressed FRP1 in LSECs and hepatocytes; and iv) Uptake of FITC-fNLPNTL could be largely blocked in mouse and human hepatocytes by surplus-unconjugated fNLPNTL, thereby suggesting that the hepatocytes in both species recognized FITC-fNLPNTL and fNLPNTL as indistinguishable ligands. This was in contrast to the mouse and human LSECs, in which the uptake of FITC-fNLPNTL was mediated by both FRP1 and a scavenger receptor, specifically expressed on LSECs. Based on these results we conclude that a significant proportion of FITC-fNLPNTL is taken up in LSECs via a scavenger receptor naturally expressed in these cells. This calls for great caution when using FITC-fNLPNTL and other chromogen

  14. Cathepsin G-regulated Release of Formyl Peptide Receptor Agonists Modulate Neutrophil Effector Functions*

    PubMed Central

    Woloszynek, Josh C.; Hu, Ying; Pham, Christine T. N.

    2012-01-01

    Neutrophil serine proteases play an important role in inflammation by modulating neutrophil effector functions. We have previously shown that neutrophils deficient in the serine proteases cathepsin G and neutrophil elastase (CG/NE neutrophils) exhibit severe defects in chemokine CXCL2 release and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production when activated on immobilized immune complex. Exogenously added active CG rescues these defects, but the mechanism remains undefined. Using a protease-based proteomic approach, we found that, in vitro, the addition of exogenous CG to immune complex-stimulated CG/NE neutrophils led to a decrease in the level of cell-associated annexin A1 (AnxA1) and cathelin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP), both known inflammatory mediators. We further confirmed that, in vivo, CG was required for the extracellular release of AnxA1 and CRAMP in a subcutaneous air pouch model. In vitro, CG efficiently cleaved AnxA1, releasing the active N-terminal peptide Ac2-26, and processed CRAMP in limited fashion. Ac2-26 and CRAMP peptides enhanced the release of CXCL2 by CG/NE neutrophils in a dose-dependent manner via formyl peptide receptor (FPR) stimulation. Blockade of FPRs by an antagonist, Boc2 (t-Boc-Phe-d-Leu-Phe-d-Leu-Phe), abrogates CXCL2 release, whereas addition of FPR agonists, fMLF and F2L, relieves Boc2 inhibition. Furthermore, the addition of active CG, but not inactive CG, also relieves Boc2 inhibition. These findings suggest that CG modulates neutrophil effector functions partly by controlling the release (and proteolysis) of FPR agonists. Unexpectedly, we found that mature CRAMP, but not Ac2-26, induced ROS production through an FPR-independent pathway. PMID:22879591

  15. Identification of formyl peptides from Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus as potent chemoattractants for mouse neutrophils 1

    PubMed Central

    Southgate, Erica L.; He, Rong L.; Gao, Ji-Liang; Murphy, Philip M.; Nanamori, Masakatsu; Ye, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    The prototypic formyl peptide N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLF) is a major chemoattractant found in Escherichia coli culture supernatants and a potent agonist at human formyl peptide receptor (FPR) 1. Consistent with this, fMLF induces bactericidal functions in human neutrophils at nanomolar concentrations. However, it is a much less potent agonist for mouse FPR (mFPR) 1 and mouse neutrophils, requiring micromolar concentrations for cell activation. To determine whether other bacteria produce more potent agonists for mFPR1, we examined formyl peptides from Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus for their abilities to activate mouse neutrophils. A pentapeptide (N-formyl-Met-Ile-Val-Ile-Leu (fMIVIL)) from L. monocytogenes and a tetrapeptide (N-formyl-Met-Ile-Phe-Leu (fMIFL)) from S. aureus were found to induce mouse neutrophil chemotaxis at 1-10 nM and superoxide production at 10-100 nM, similar to the potency of fMLF on human neutrophils. Using transfected cell lines expressing mFPR1 and mFPR2, which are major forms of FPRs in mouse neutrophils, we found that mFPR1 is responsible for the high potency of fMIVIL and fMIFL. In comparison, activation of mFPR2 requires micromolar concentrations of the two peptides. Genetic deletion of mfpr1 resulted in abrogation of neutrophil superoxide production and degranulation in response to fMIVIL and fMIFL, further demonstrating that mFPR1 is the primary receptor for detection of these formyl peptides. In conclusion, the formyl peptides from L. monocytogenes and S. aureus are 100-fold more potent than fMLF in activating mouse neutrophils. The ability of mFPR1 to detect bacterially derived formyl peptides indicates that this important host defense mechanism is conserved in mice. PMID:18606697

  16. Walker 256 Tumor Growth Suppression by Crotoxin Involves Formyl Peptide Receptors and Lipoxin A4

    PubMed Central

    Brigatte, Patrícia; Faiad, Odair Jorge; Ferreira Nocelli, Roberta Cornélio; Landgraf, Richardt G.; Palma, Mario Sergio; Cury, Yara; Curi, Rui; Sampaio, Sandra Coccuzzo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of Crotoxin (CTX), the main toxin of South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom, on Walker 256 tumor growth, the pain symptoms associated (hyperalgesia and allodynia), and participation of endogenous lipoxin A4. Treatment with CTX (s.c.), daily, for 5 days reduced tumor growth at the 5th day after injection of Walker 256 carcinoma cells into the plantar surface of adult rat hind paw. This observation was associated with inhibition of new blood vessel formation and decrease in blood vessel diameter. The treatment with CTX raised plasma concentrations of lipoxin A4 and its natural analogue 15-epi-LXA4, an effect mediated by formyl peptide receptors (FPRs). In fact, the treatment with Boc-2, an inhibitor of FPRs, abolished the increase in plasma levels of these mediators triggered by CTX. The blockage of these receptors also abolished the inhibitory action of CTX on tumor growth and blood vessel formation and the decrease in blood vessel diameter. Together, the results herein presented demonstrate that CTX increases plasma concentrations of lipoxin A4 and 15-epi-LXA4, which might inhibit both tumor growth and formation of new vessels via FPRs. PMID:27190493

  17. Inhibition of formyl peptide-stimulated superoxide anion generation by Fal-002-2 occurs mainly through the blockade of the p21-activated kinase and protein kinase C signaling pathways in ratneutrophils.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ya-Ru; Huang, Li-Jiau; Lin, Hui-Yi; Hung, Yun-Jie; Lee, Miau-Rong; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Hsu, Mei-Feng; Wang, Jih-Pyang

    2013-02-15

    In formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP)-stimulated rat neutrophils, a synthetic compound, 6-chloro-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylate (Fal-002-2), inhibited superoxide anion (O2(•-)) generation with an IC50 value of about 11μM, which was not mediated by scavenging the generated O2(•-) or by a cytotoxic effect on neutrophils. Fal-002-2 effectively attenuated the phosphorylation of Ser residues in p47(phox) and the association between p47(phox) and p22(phox) in fMLP-stimulated neutrophils. The interaction of p47(phox) with protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms (α, βI, βII, δ and ζ) was attenuated by Fal-002-2 with a similar IC50 value to that required for inhibition of O2(•-) generation, whereas Fal-002-2 had no prominent effect on PKC isoform membrane translocation and did not affect the kinase activity. Moreover, Fal-002-2 had no effect on the phosphorylation of Akt and downstream glycogen synthase kinase-3β, only slightly affected the intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), but effectively attenuated the downstream MAPK-activated protein kinase-2 phosphorylation. The interaction of p21-activated kinase (PAK) 1with p47(phox), phosphorylation of PAK1 (Thr423/Ser144) and the membrane recruitment of PAK1 were effectively inhibited by Fal-002-2. Fal-002-2 also blocked the activation of Rac1 and Cdc42 in a concentration range that effectively inhibited PAK activation. Taken together, these results suggest that Fal-002-2 inhibits fMLP-stimulated O2(•-) generation in neutrophils mainly through the blockade of PKC and PAK signaling pathways and partly through p38 MAPK signaling.

  18. Regulation of N-Formyl Peptide Receptor Signaling and Trafficking by Arrestin-Src Kinase Interaction.

    PubMed

    Wagener, Brant M; Marjon, Nicole A; Prossnitz, Eric R

    2016-01-01

    Arrestins were originally described as proteins recruited to ligand-activated, phosphorylated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to attenuate G protein-mediated signaling. It was later revealed that arrestins also mediate GPCR internalization and recruit a number of signaling proteins including, but not limited to, Src family kinases, ERK1/2, and JNK3. GPCR-arrestin binding and trafficking control the spatial and temporal activity of these multi-protein complexes. In previous reports, we concluded that N-formyl peptide receptor (FPR)-mediated apoptosis, which occurs upon receptor stimulation in the absence of arrestins, is associated with FPR accumulation in perinuclear recycling endosomes. Under these conditions, inhibition of Src kinase and ERK1/2 prevented FPR-mediated apoptosis. To better understand the role of Src kinase in this process, in the current study we employed a previously described arrestin-2 (arr2) mutant deficient in Src kinase binding (arr2-P91G/P121E). Unlike wild type arrestin, arr2-P91G/P121E did not inhibit FPR-mediated apoptosis, suggesting that Src binding to arrestin-2 prevents apoptotic signaling. However, in cells expressing this mutant, FPR-mediated apoptosis was still blocked by inhibition of Src kinase activity, suggesting that activation of Src independent of arrestin-2 binding is involved in FPR-mediated apoptosis. Finally, while Src kinase inhibition prevented FPR-mediated-apoptosis in the presence of arr2-P91G/P121E, it did not prevent FPR-arr2-P91G/P121E accumulation in the perinuclear recycling endosome. On the contrary, inhibition of Src kinase activity mediated the accumulation of activated FPR-wild type arrestin-2 in recycling endosomes without initiating FPR-mediated apoptosis. Based on these observations, we conclude that Src kinase has two independent roles following FPR activation that regulate both FPR-arrestin-2 signaling and trafficking.

  19. Regulation of N-Formyl Peptide Receptor Signaling and Trafficking by Arrestin-Src Kinase Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Wagener, Brant M.; Marjon, Nicole A.; Prossnitz, Eric R.

    2016-01-01

    Arrestins were originally described as proteins recruited to ligand-activated, phosphorylated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to attenuate G protein-mediated signaling. It was later revealed that arrestins also mediate GPCR internalization and recruit a number of signaling proteins including, but not limited to, Src family kinases, ERK1/2, and JNK3. GPCR-arrestin binding and trafficking control the spatial and temporal activity of these multi-protein complexes. In previous reports, we concluded that N-formyl peptide receptor (FPR)-mediated apoptosis, which occurs upon receptor stimulation in the absence of arrestins, is associated with FPR accumulation in perinuclear recycling endosomes. Under these conditions, inhibition of Src kinase and ERK1/2 prevented FPR-mediated apoptosis. To better understand the role of Src kinase in this process, in the current study we employed a previously described arrestin-2 (arr2) mutant deficient in Src kinase binding (arr2-P91G/P121E). Unlike wild type arrestin, arr2-P91G/P121E did not inhibit FPR-mediated apoptosis, suggesting that Src binding to arrestin-2 prevents apoptotic signaling. However, in cells expressing this mutant, FPR-mediated apoptosis was still blocked by inhibition of Src kinase activity, suggesting that activation of Src independent of arrestin-2 binding is involved in FPR-mediated apoptosis. Finally, while Src kinase inhibition prevented FPR-mediated-apoptosis in the presence of arr2-P91G/P121E, it did not prevent FPR-arr2-P91G/P121E accumulation in the perinuclear recycling endosome. On the contrary, inhibition of Src kinase activity mediated the accumulation of activated FPR-wild type arrestin-2 in recycling endosomes without initiating FPR-mediated apoptosis. Based on these observations, we conclude that Src kinase has two independent roles following FPR activation that regulate both FPR-arrestin-2 signaling and trafficking. PMID:26788723

  20. Antagonism of Human Formyl Peptide Receptor 1 (FPR1) by Chromones and Related Isoflavones

    PubMed Central

    Schepetkin, Igor A.; Kirpotina, Liliya N.; Khlebnikov, Andrei I.; Cheng, Ni; Ye, Richard D.; Quinn, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) are G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) expressed on a variety of cell types. Because FPRs play an important role in the regulation of inflammatory reactions implicated in disease pathogenesis, FPR antagonists may represent novel therapeutics for modulating innate immunity. Previously, 4H-chromones were reported to be potent and competitive FPR1 antagonists. In the present studies, 96 additional chromone analogs, including related synthetic and natural isoflavones were evaluated for FPR1 antagonist activity. We identified a number of novel competitive FPR1 antagonists that inhibited fMLF-induced intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in FPR1-HL60 cells and effectively competed with WKYMVm-FITC for binding to FPR1 in FPR1-HL60 and FPR1-RBL cells. Compound 10 (6-hexyl-2-methyl-3-(1-methyl-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)-4-oxo-4H-chromen-7-yl acetate) was found to be the most potent FPR1-specific antagonist, with binding affinity Ki~100 nM. These chromones inhibited Ca2+ flux and chemotaxis in human neutrophils with nanomolar-micromolar IC50 values. In addition, the most potent novel FPR1 antagonists inhibited fMLF-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) in FPR1-RBL cells. These antagonists were specific for FPR1 and did not inhibit WKYMVM/WKYMVm-induced intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in FPR2-HL60 cells, FPR3-HL60 cells, RBL cells transfected with murine Fpr1, or interleukin 8-induced Ca2+ flux in human neutrophils and RBL cells transfected with CXC chemokine receptor 1 (CXCR1). Moreover, pharmacophore modeling showed that the active chromones had a significantly higher degree of similarity with the pharmacophore template as compared to inactive analogs. Thus, the chromone/isoflavone scaffold represents a relevant backbone for development of novel FPR1 antagonists. PMID:25450672

  1. Mitochondrial N-formyl peptides induce cardiovascular collapse and sepsis-like syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wenceslau, Camilla Ferreira; McCarthy, Cameron G; Szasz, Theodora; Goulopoulou, Styliani; Webb, R Clinton

    2015-04-01

    Fifty percent of trauma patients who present sepsis-like syndrome do not have bacterial infections. This condition is known as systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). A unifying factor of SIRS and sepsis is cardiovascular collapse. Trauma and severe blood loss cause the release of endogenous molecules known as damage-associated molecular patterns. Mitochondrial N-formyl peptides (F-MIT) are damage-associated molecular patterns that share similarities with bacterial N-formylated peptides and are potent immune system activators. The goal of this study was to investigate whether F-MIT trigger SIRS, including hypotension and vascular collapse via formyl peptide receptor (FPR) activation. We evaluated cardiovascular parameters in Wistar rats treated with FPR or histamine receptor antagonists and inhibitors of the nitric oxide pathway before and after F-MIT infusion. F-MIT, but not nonformylated peptides or mitochondrial DNA, induced severe hypotension via FPR activation and nitric oxide and histamine release. Moreover, F-MIT infusion induced hyperthermia, blood clotting, and increased vascular permeability. To evaluate the role of leukocytes in F-MIT-induced hypotension, neutrophil, basophil, or mast cells were depleted. Depletion of basophils, but not neutrophils or mast cells, abolished F-MIT-induced hypotension. Rats that underwent hemorrhagic shock increased plasma levels of mitochondrial formylated proteins associated with lung damage and antagonism of FPR ameliorated hemorrhagic shock-induced lung injury. Finally, F-MIT induced vasodilatation in isolated resistance arteries via FPR activation; however, F-MIT impaired endothelium-dependent relaxation in the presence of blood. These data suggest that F-MIT may be the link among trauma, SIRS, and cardiovascular collapse.

  2. Formyl Peptide Receptor Activation Elicits Endothelial Cell Contraction and Vascular Leakage.

    PubMed

    Wenceslau, Camilla F; McCarthy, Cameron G; Webb, R Clinton

    2016-01-01

    The major pathophysiological characteristic of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis is the loss of control of vascular tone and endothelial barrier dysfunction. These changes are attributed to pro-inflammatory mediators. It has been proposed that in patients and rats without infection, cell components from damaged tissue are the primary instigators of vascular damage. Mitochondria share several characteristics with bacteria, and when fragments of mitochondria are released into the circulation after injury, they are recognized by the innate immune system. N-Formyl peptides are common molecular signatures of bacteria and mitochondria and are known to play a role in the initiation of inflammation by activating the formyl peptide receptor (FPR). We have demonstrated that infusion of mitochondrial N-formyl peptides (F-MIT) leads to sepsis-like symptoms, including vascular leakage. We have also observed that F-MIT, via FPR activation, elicits changes in cytoskeleton-regulating proteins in endothelial cells. Therefore, we hypothesize that these FPR-mediated changes in cytoskeleton can cause endothelial cell contraction and, consequently vascular leakage. Here, we propose that endothelial FPR is a key contributor to impaired barrier function in SIRS and sepsis patients following trauma. PMID:27532003

  3. Formyl Peptide Receptor Activation Elicits Endothelial Cell Contraction and Vascular Leakage

    PubMed Central

    Wenceslau, Camilla F.; McCarthy, Cameron G.; Webb, R. Clinton

    2016-01-01

    The major pathophysiological characteristic of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis is the loss of control of vascular tone and endothelial barrier dysfunction. These changes are attributed to pro-inflammatory mediators. It has been proposed that in patients and rats without infection, cell components from damaged tissue are the primary instigators of vascular damage. Mitochondria share several characteristics with bacteria, and when fragments of mitochondria are released into the circulation after injury, they are recognized by the innate immune system. N-Formyl peptides are common molecular signatures of bacteria and mitochondria and are known to play a role in the initiation of inflammation by activating the formyl peptide receptor (FPR). We have demonstrated that infusion of mitochondrial N-formyl peptides (F-MIT) leads to sepsis-like symptoms, including vascular leakage. We have also observed that F-MIT, via FPR activation, elicits changes in cytoskeleton-regulating proteins in endothelial cells. Therefore, we hypothesize that these FPR-mediated changes in cytoskeleton can cause endothelial cell contraction and, consequently vascular leakage. Here, we propose that endothelial FPR is a key contributor to impaired barrier function in SIRS and sepsis patients following trauma. PMID:27532003

  4. International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXIII. Nomenclature for the Formyl Peptide Receptor (FPR) Family

    PubMed Central

    YE, RICHARD D.; BOULAY, FRANÇOIS; WANG, JI MING; DAHLGREN, CLAES; GERARD, CRAIG; PARMENTIER, MARC; SERHAN, CHARLES N.; MURPHY, PHILIP M.

    2009-01-01

    Formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) are a small group of seven-transmembrane domain, G protein-coupled receptors that are expressed mainly by mammalian phagocytic leukocytes and are known to be important in host defense and inflammation. The three human FPRs (FPR1, FPR2/ALX, and FPR3) share significant sequence homology and are encoded by clustered genes. Collectively, these receptors bind an extraordinarily numerous and structurally diverse group of agonistic ligands, including N-formyl and nonformyl peptides of different composition, that chemoattract and activate phagocytes. N-formyl peptides, which are encoded in nature only by bacterial and mitochondrial genes and result from obligatory initiation of bacterial and mitochondrial protein synthesis with N-formylmethionine, is the only ligand class common to all three human receptors. Surprisingly, the endogenous anti-inflammatory peptide annexin 1 and its N-terminal fragments also bind human FPR1 and FPR2/ALX, and the anti-inflammatory eicosanoid lipoxin A4 is an agonist at FPR2/ALX. In comparison, fewer agonists have been identified for FPR3, the third member in this receptor family. Structural and functional studies of the FPRs have produced important information for understanding the general pharmacological principles governing all leukocyte chemoattractant receptors. This article aims to provide an overview of the discovery and pharmacological characterization of FPRs, to introduce an International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology (IUPHAR)-recommended nomenclature, and to discuss unmet challenges, including the mechanisms used by these receptors to bind diverse ligands and mediate different biological functions. PMID:19498085

  5. Formyl peptide receptor as a novel therapeutic target for anxiety-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Irene; Rattazzi, Lorenza; Piras, Giuseppa; Gobbetti, Thomas; Panza, Elisabetta; Perretti, Mauro; Dalley, Jeffrey W; D'Acquisto, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    Formyl peptide receptors (FPR) belong to a family of sensors of the immune system that detect microbe-associated molecules and inform various cellular and sensorial mechanisms to the presence of pathogens in the host. Here we demonstrate that Fpr2/3-deficient mice show a distinct profile of behaviour characterised by reduced anxiety in the marble burying and light-dark box paradigms, increased exploratory behaviour in an open-field, together with superior performance on a novel object recognition test. Pharmacological blockade with a formyl peptide receptor antagonist, Boc2, in wild type mice reproduced most of the behavioural changes observed in the Fpr2/3(-/-) mice, including a significant improvement in novel object discrimination and reduced anxiety in a light/dark shuttle test. These effects were associated with reduced FPR signalling in the gut as shown by the significant reduction in the levels of p-p38. Collectively, these findings suggest that homeostatic FPR signalling exerts a modulatory effect on anxiety-like behaviours. These findings thus suggest that therapies targeting FPRs may be a novel approach to ameliorate behavioural abnormalities present in neuropsychiatric disorders at the cognitive-emotional interface.

  6. Mitochondrial DAMPs from femoral reamings activate neutrophils via formyl peptide receptors and P44/42 MAP Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Carl J.; Sursal, Tolga; Rodriguez, Edward K.; Appleton, Paul T.; Zhang, Qin; Itagaki, Kiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Hypothesis Fractures and femoral reaming are associated with lung injury. The mechanisms linking fractures and inflammation are unclear; but tissue disruption might release mitochondria. Mitochondria are evolutionarily derived from bacteria and contain “Damage Associated Molecular Patterns” (DAMPs) like formylated peptides that can activate immunocytes. We therefore studied whether fracture reaming releases mitochondrial DAMPs (MTD) and how MTD act on immune cells. Methods Femur fracture reamings (FFx) from 10 patients were spun to remove bone particulates. Supernatants were assayed for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Mitochondria were isolated from the residual reaming slurry, sonicated and spun at 12,000g. The resultant MTD were assayed for their ability to cause neutrophil (PMN) Ca2+ transient production, p44/42 MAPK phosphorylation, IL-8 release and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) release with and without formyl peptide receptor-1 (FPR1) blockade. Rats were injected with MTD and whole lung assayed for p44/42 activation. Results mtDNA appears at many thousand fold normal plasma levels in FFx and at intermediate levels in patients’ plasma, suggesting release from fracture to plasma. FFx MTD caused brisk PMN Ca2+ flux, activated PMN p44/42 MAPK and caused PMN release of IL-8 and MMP9. Responses to MTD were inhibited by FPR1 blockade using Cyclosporin H and anti-FPR1. MTD injection caused P44/42 phosphorylation in rat lung. Conclusions FFx reaming releases mitochondria into the wound and circulation. MTD then activates PMN. Release of damage signals like MTD from FFx may underlie activation of the cytokine cascades known to be associated with facture fixation and lung injury. PMID:20736789

  7. Ligand-induced adhesion to activated endothelium and to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in lymphocytes transfected with the N-formyl peptide receptor.

    PubMed

    Honda, S; Campbell, J J; Andrew, D P; Engelhardt, B; Butcher, B A; Warnock, R A; Ye, R D; Butcher, E C

    1994-04-15

    Binding of FMLP to the neutrophil N-formyl peptide receptor (FPR) transmits signals through pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins triggering Ca2+ flux, superoxide production, granule exocytosis, and neutrophil aggregation and adhesion involving the beta 2 (CD18) integrins. Expression of the FPR in mouse fibroblasts or human kidney cells has been shown to confer an N-formyl peptide-inducible Ca2+ flux in transfectants. Here we demonstrate that the transfected receptor can also support ligand-induced alterations in cellular adhesion. We established stable transfectants of mouse L1-2 pre-B cells with cDNA for human FPR (L1-2 FPR cells). The transfectants bind N-formyl-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys-fluorescein with 1.4 x 10(5) sites per cell and a dissociation constant of 3.3 nM. Stimulation with FMLP induces a transient Ca2+ flux. FMLP also triggers adhesion of L1-2 FPR cells to TNF-alpha- or LPS-activated bEnd3 cells (mouse brain-derived endothelial cells) and to purified mouse VCAM-1. Binding is inhibited by Abs to VCAM-1 and to the alpha-chain of its lymphocyte receptor (the alpha 4 beta 1 integrin, VLA-4). Stimulation with FMLP does not induce a change in cell surface expression of alpha 4. Induced adhesion to VCAM-1 is rapid, detectable at the earliest times measurable (30 to 60 s after FMLP addition), and is inhibited by pertussis toxin. We conclude that FPR can mediate integrin activation not only in neutrophils but also in lymphocytes, and can trigger rapid adhesion via lymphocyte alpha 4 beta 1. The adhesion of lymphocytes is critical to their migration and targeting; our results suggest the possibility of manipulating adhesive responses through expression of chemoattractant receptors in lymphoid cells engineered for cellular therapy, allowing targeted adhesion and potentially migration in response to locally administered ligands.

  8. Ligand-induced adhesion to activated endothelium and to vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in lymphocytes transfected with the N-formyl peptide receptor.

    PubMed

    Honda, S; Campbell, J J; Andrew, D P; Engelhardt, B; Butcher, B A; Warnock, R A; Ye, R D; Butcher, E C

    1994-04-15

    Binding of FMLP to the neutrophil N-formyl peptide receptor (FPR) transmits signals through pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins triggering Ca2+ flux, superoxide production, granule exocytosis, and neutrophil aggregation and adhesion involving the beta 2 (CD18) integrins. Expression of the FPR in mouse fibroblasts or human kidney cells has been shown to confer an N-formyl peptide-inducible Ca2+ flux in transfectants. Here we demonstrate that the transfected receptor can also support ligand-induced alterations in cellular adhesion. We established stable transfectants of mouse L1-2 pre-B cells with cDNA for human FPR (L1-2 FPR cells). The transfectants bind N-formyl-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys-fluorescein with 1.4 x 10(5) sites per cell and a dissociation constant of 3.3 nM. Stimulation with FMLP induces a transient Ca2+ flux. FMLP also triggers adhesion of L1-2 FPR cells to TNF-alpha- or LPS-activated bEnd3 cells (mouse brain-derived endothelial cells) and to purified mouse VCAM-1. Binding is inhibited by Abs to VCAM-1 and to the alpha-chain of its lymphocyte receptor (the alpha 4 beta 1 integrin, VLA-4). Stimulation with FMLP does not induce a change in cell surface expression of alpha 4. Induced adhesion to VCAM-1 is rapid, detectable at the earliest times measurable (30 to 60 s after FMLP addition), and is inhibited by pertussis toxin. We conclude that FPR can mediate integrin activation not only in neutrophils but also in lymphocytes, and can trigger rapid adhesion via lymphocyte alpha 4 beta 1. The adhesion of lymphocytes is critical to their migration and targeting; our results suggest the possibility of manipulating adhesive responses through expression of chemoattractant receptors in lymphoid cells engineered for cellular therapy, allowing targeted adhesion and potentially migration in response to locally administered ligands. PMID:7511663

  9. Mitochondrial protein-derived cryptides: Are endogenous N-formylated peptides including mitocryptide-2 components of mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns?

    PubMed

    Marutani, Takayuki; Hattori, Tatsuya; Tsutsumi, Koki; Koike, Yusuke; Harada, Akihiko; Noguchi, Kosuke; Kiso, Yoshiaki; Mukai, Hidehito

    2016-11-01

    Recently, much attention has been paid to "nonclassical" bioactive peptides, which are fragmented peptides simultaneously produced during maturation and degradation of various functional proteins. We identified many fragmented peptides derived from various mitochondrial proteins including mitocryptide-1 and mitocryptide-2 that efficiently activate neutrophils. These endogenous, functionally active, fragmented peptides are referred to as "cryptides." Among them, mitocryptide-2 is an N-formylated cryptide cleaved from mitochondrial cytochrome b that is encoded in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). It is known that 13 proteins encoded in mtDNA are translated in mitochondria as N-formylated forms, suggesting the existence of endogenous N-formylated peptides other than mitocryptide-2. Here, we investigated the effects of N-formylated peptides presumably cleaved from mtDNA-encoded proteins other than cytochrome b on the functions of neutrophilic cells to elucidate possible regulation by endogenous N-formylated cryptides. Four N-formylated cryptides derived from cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and NADH dehydrogenase subunits 4, 5, and 6 among 12 peptides from mtDNA-encoded proteins efficiently induced not only migration but also β-hexosaminidase release, which is an indicator of neutrophilic phagocytosis, in HL-60 cells differentiated into neutrophilic cells. These activities were comparable to or higher than those induced by mitocryptide-2. Although endogenous N-formylated peptides that are contained in mitochondrial damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) have yet to be molecularly identified, they have been implicated in innate immunity. Thus, N-formylated cryptides including mitocryptide-2 are first-line candidates for the contents of mitochondrial DAMPs to promote innate immune responses. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 580-587, 2016.

  10. Physiological characterization of formyl peptide receptor expressing cells in the mouse vomeronasal organ.

    PubMed

    Ackels, Tobias; von der Weid, Benoît; Rodriguez, Ivan; Spehr, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The mouse vomeronasal organ (VNO) is a chemosensory structure that detects both hetero- and conspecific social cues. Based on largely monogenic expression of either type 1 or 2 vomeronasal receptors (V1Rs/V2Rs) or members of the formyl peptide receptor (FPR) family, the vomeronasal sensory epithelium harbors at least three neuronal subpopulations. While various neurophysiological properties of both V1R- and V2R-expressing neurons have been described using genetically engineered mouse models, the basic biophysical characteristics of the more recently identified FPR-expressing vomeronasal neurons have not been studied. Here, we employ a transgenic mouse strain that coexpresses an enhanced variant of yellow fluorescent protein together with FPR-rs3 allowing to identify and analyze FPR-rs3-expressing neurons in acute VNO tissue slices. Single neuron electrophysiological recordings allow comparative characterization of the biophysical properties inherent to a prototypical member of the FPR-expressing subpopulation of VNO neurons. In this study, we provide an in-depth analysis of both passive and active membrane properties, including detailed characterization of several types of voltage-activated conductances and action potential discharge patterns, in fluorescently labeled vs. unmarked vomeronasal neurons. Our results reveal striking similarities in the basic (electro) physiological architecture of both transgene-expressing and non-expressing neurons, confirming the suitability of this genetically engineered mouse model for future studies addressing more specialized issues in vomeronasal FPR neurobiology. PMID:25484858

  11. Nuclear localization of Formyl-Peptide Receptor 2 in human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Fabio; Parisi, Melania; Fioretti, Tiziana; Sarnataro, Daniela; Esposito, Gabriella; Ammendola, Rosario

    2016-08-01

    Current models of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) signaling describe binding of external agonists to cell surface receptors which, in turn, trigger several biological responses. New paradigms indicate that GPCRs localize to and signal at the nucleus, thus regulating distinct signaling cascades. The formyl-peptide receptor FPR2 belongs to the GPCR super-family and is coupled to PTX-sensitive Gi proteins. We show by western blot analysis, immunofluorescence experiments and radioligand binding assays that FPR2 is expressed at nuclear level in CaLu-6 and AGS cells. Nuclear FPR2 is a functional receptor, since it participates in intra-nuclear signaling, as assessed by decreased G protein-FPR2 association and enhanced ERK2, c-Jun and c-Myc phosphorylation upon stimulation of intact nuclei with the FPR2 agonist, WKYMVm. We analyzed FPR2 sequence for the search of a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) and we found a stretch of basic aminoacids (227-KIHKK-231) in the third cytoplasmic loop of the receptor. We performed single (K230A) and multiple (H229A/K230A/K231A) mutagenesis of NLS. The constructs were individually overexpressed in HEK293 cells and immunofluorescence and western blot analysis showed that nuclear localization or translocation of FPR2 depends on the integrity of the H(229) and K(231) residues within the NLS. PMID:27177968

  12. Promotion of formyl peptide receptor 1-mediated neutrophil chemotactic migration by antimicrobial peptides isolated from the centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoo Jung; Lee, Sung Kyun; Jung, Young Su; Lee, Mingyu; Lee, Ha Young; Kim, Sang Doo; Park, Joon Seong; Koo, JaeHyung; Hwang, Jae Sam; Bae, Yoe-Sik

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the effects of two antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) isolated from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans on neutrophil activity. Stimulation of mouse neutrophils with the two AMPs elicited chemotactic migration of the cells in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner. The two AMPs also stimulated activation of ERK and Akt, which contribute to chemotactic migration of neutrophils. We found that AMP-stimulated neutrophil chemotaxis was blocked by a formyl peptide receptor (FPR) 1 antagonist (cyclosporin H); moreover the two AMPs stimulated the chemotactic migration of FPR1-expressing RBL-2H3 cells but not of vector-expressing RBL-2H3 cells. We also found that the two AMPs stimulate neutrophil migration in vivo, and that this effect is blocked in FPR1-deficient mice. Taken together, our results suggest that the two AMPs stimulate neutrophils, leading to chemotactic migration through FPR1, and the two AMPs will be useful for the study of FPR1 signaling and neutrophil activation. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(9): 520-525].

  13. Promotion of formyl peptide receptor 1-mediated neutrophil chemotactic migration by antimicrobial peptides isolated from the centipede Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoo Jung; Lee, Sung Kyun; Jung, Young Su; Lee, Mingyu; Lee, Ha Young; Kim, Sang Doo; Park, Joon Seong; Koo, JaeHyung; Hwang, Jae Sam; Bae, Yoe-Sik

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the effects of two antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) isolated from Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans on neutrophil activity. Stimulation of mouse neutrophils with the two AMPs elicited chemotactic migration of the cells in a pertussis toxin-sensitive manner. The two AMPs also stimulated activation of ERK and Akt, which contribute to chemotactic migration of neutrophils. We found that AMP-stimulated neutrophil chemotaxis was blocked by a formyl peptide receptor (FPR) 1 antagonist (cyclosporin H); moreover the two AMPs stimulated the chemotactic migration of FPR1-expressing RBL-2H3 cells but not of vector-expressing RBL-2H3 cells. We also found that the two AMPs stimulate neutrophil migration in vivo, and that this effect is blocked in FPR1-deficient mice. Taken together, our results suggest that the two AMPs stimulate neutrophils, leading to chemotactic migration through FPR1, and the two AMPs will be useful for the study of FPR1 signaling and neutrophil activation. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(9): 520-525]. PMID:27502013

  14. Association analysis of formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) polymorphisms and aspirin exacerbated respiratory diseases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee-Jeong; Cho, Sung-Hwan; Park, Jong-Sook; Lee, Tae-Hyeong; Lee, Eun-Ju; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Uh, Soo-Taek; Chung, Il Yup; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Choi, Inseon S; Park, Byung-Lae; Shin, Hyoung-Doo; Park, Choon-Sik

    2012-04-01

    Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory diseases (AERD) are associated with the metabolism of arachidonic acid. FPR2 (formyl peptide receptor2) is a high-affinity ligand receptor for potent anti-inflammatory lipid metabolites: lipoxins. Thus, functional alterations of the FPR2 may contribute to AERD. We investigated the relationship between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FPR2 and AERD. Asthmatics were categorized into AERD <15% decreases in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)), and/or naso-ocular reactions after oral aspirin challenge (n=170) and aspirin-tolerant asthma (ATA, n=268). In all, 11 SNPs were genotyped. FPR2 protein expressions on CD14-positive monocytes in peripheral blood were measured using flow cytometric analysis. We performed RT-PCR of the FPR2 mRNA expressed by peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Logistic regression analysis showed that the minor allele frequency of FPR2 -4209T>G (rs1769490) in intron 2 was significantly lower in the AERD group (n=170) than in the ATA group (n=268) (P=0.006, P(corr)=0.04, recessive model). The decline of FEV(1) after aspirin challenge was significantly lower in the subjects with GG homozygotes of FPR2 -4209T>G than those with the other genotypes (P=0.0002). Asthmatic homozygotes for FPR2 -4209T>G minor allele exhibited significantly higher FPR2 protein expression in CD14-positive monocytes than did those with the common allele of FPR2 -4209T>G allele (P=0.01). There was no difference in the expression of the wild form and the exon 2 deleted variant form of FPR2 gene according to the genotypes of FPR2 -4209T>G. The minor allele at FPR2 -4209T>G may have a protective role against the development of AERD, via increase of FPR2 protein expression in inflammatory cells. PMID:22377711

  15. Involvement of the Receptor for Formylated Peptides in the in Vivo Anti-Migratory Actions of Annexin 1 and its Mimetics

    PubMed Central

    Perretti, Mauro; Getting, Stephen J.; Solito, Egle; Murphy, Philip M.; Gao, Ji-Liang

    2001-01-01

    An innovative avenue for anti-inflammatory therapy is inhibition of neutrophil extravasation by potentiating the action of endogenous anti-inflammatory mediators. The glucocorticoid-inducible protein annexin 1 and derived peptides are effective in inhibiting neutrophil extravasation. Here we tested the hypothesis that an interaction with the receptor for formylated peptide (FPR), so far reported only in vitro, could be the mechanism for this in vivo action. In a model of mouse peritonitis, FPR antagonists abrogated the anti-migratory effects of peptides Ac2-26 and Ac2-12, with a partial reduction in annexin 1 effects. A similar result was obtained in FPR (knock-out) KO mice. Binding of annexin 1 to circulating leukocytes was reduced (>50%) in FPR KO mice. In vitro, annexin binding to peritoneal macrophages was also markedly reduced in FPR KO mice. Finally, evidence of direct annexin 1 binding to murine FPR was obtained with HEK-293 cells transfected with the receptor. Overall, these results indicate a functional role for FPR in the anti-migratory effect of annexin 1 and derived peptides. PMID:11395373

  16. The significance of functional receptor heterogeneity in the biological responses of the rabbit neutrophil to stimulation by chemotactic formyl peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Kermode, J C; Freer, R J; Becker, E L

    1991-01-01

    The characteristics of binding to the chemotactic receptors on rabbit peritoneal neutrophils were examined for seven formyl peptide analogues. These receptor-binding characteristics were compared with the abilities of the analogues to induce the biological responses of degranulation and chemotaxis. Five of the analogues showed distinct functional heterogeneity in their receptor-binding patterns, whereas the two most potent compounds displayed homogeneous binding patterns. The relative potencies of the formyl peptide analogues for stimulation of degranulation correlated well with their relative potencies for high-affinity, but not low-affinity, binding. The biphasic patterns for stimulation of chemotactic migration were similar for the less potent analogues, and their potencies paralleled those for both degranulation and receptor binding. In contrast, the most potent analogues induced a greater maximal extent of chemotactic migration than the other compounds, but displayed a lower than expected potency (i.e. they required higher than expected concentrations). These anomalies in the patterns of the chemotactic response cannot be reconciled with a simple receptor model comprising two independent classes of receptors. Instead, a model comprising interconvertible states of different affinities is proposed. The state of higher affinity appears to play a central role in initiation of both degranulation and chemotaxis. The more potent formyl peptide analogues are thought to stabilize an activated, higher-affinity, state of the receptor; this can explain their greater efficacy in stimulating chemotaxis. The proposed model may also be applicable to other receptors that are coupled by a guanine-nucleotide-binding regulatory protein to their associated effector. PMID:2064609

  17. Identification of Novel Small-Molecule Agonists for Human Formyl Peptide Receptors and Pharmacophore Models of Their RecognitionS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Kirpotina, Liliya N.; Khlebnikov, Andrei I.; Schepetkin, Igor A.; Ye, Richard D.; Rabiet, Marie-Josèphe; Jutila, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    N-formyl peptide receptor (FPR1) and N-formyl peptide receptor-like 1 (FPRL1, now known as FPR2) are G protein-coupled receptors involved in host defense and sensing cellular dysfunction. Because of the potential for FPR1/FPR2 as a therapeutic target, our recent high-throughput screening efforts have focused on the identification of unique nonpeptide agonists of FPR1/FPR2. In the present studies, we screened a chemolibrary of drug-like molecules for their ability to induce intracellular calcium mobilization in RBL-2H3 cells transfected with human FPR1 or FPR2. Screening of these compounds resulted in the identification of novel and potent agonists that activated both FPR1 and FPR2, as well as compounds that were specific for either FPR1 or FPR2 with EC50 values in the low micromolar range. Specificity of the compounds was supported by analysis of calcium mobilization in HL-60 cells transfected with human FPR1 and FPR2. In addition, all but one agonist activated intracellular calcium flux and chemotaxis in human neutrophils, irrespective of agonist specificity for FPR1 or FPR2. Molecular modeling of the group of FPR1 and FPR2 agonists using field point methodology allowed us to create pharmacophore models for ligand binding sites and formulate requirements for these specific N-formyl peptide receptor agonists. These studies further demonstrate that agonists of FPR1/FPR2 include compounds with wide chemical diversity and that analysis of such compounds can enhance our understanding of their ligand/receptor interaction. PMID:19903830

  18. Pharmacological profile of a bifunctional ligand of the formyl peptide receptor1 fused to the myc epitope.

    PubMed

    Charest-Morin, Xavier; Roy, Caroline; Fernandes, Maria J G; Marceau, François

    2015-03-01

    In human peripheral blood neutrophils or in myeloid PLB-985 cells differentiated towards a neutrophil-like phenotype, the peptide N-formyl-L-norleucyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-norleucyl-L-tyrosyl-L-leucyl-fluorescein isothiocyanate (f-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys-FITC) binds to and activates formyl peptide receptor1 (FPR1) and is submitted to receptor-mediated endocytosis (microscopy, cytofluorometry). This peptide may be considered a C-terminally extended version of f-Met-Leu-Phe which carries a fluorescent cargo into cells. By analogy to other peptide hormones for which we have evaluated epitope-tagged agonists as carriers of antibody cargoes, we have designed and evaluated f-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys-myc, C-terminally extended with the 10-residue myc tag. This peptide is as potent as f-Met-Leu-Phe to compete for f-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys-FITC uptake by PLB-985 cells, but did not mediate (10-1000nM) the internalization of the fluorescent anti-myc monoclonal antibody 4A6 added to the extracellular fluid at ~7nM (microscopy). The nonfluorescent version of the antibody (28nM) acts as a pre-receptor antagonist of f-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys-myc, but not of f-Met-Leu-Phe (superoxide release assay in differentiated PLB-985 cells). A further prolonged analog, f-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys-(Asn-Gly)5-myc, designed to decrease the possible steric hindrance between FPR1 and the bound anti-myc antibody, has little affinity for the receptor, precluding a direct assessment of this issue. Thus, the relatively low-affinity anti-myc antibody used at a high concentration functionally behaves as a selective pre-receptor antagonist of the agonist f-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-Tyr-Lys-myc.

  19. Serum amyloid A induces contrary immune responses via formyl peptide receptor-like 1 in human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ha Young; Kim, Mi-Kyoung; Park, Kyoung Sun; Shin, Eun Ha; Jo, Seong Ho; Kim, Sang Doo; Jo, Eun Jin; Lee, Youl-Nam; Lee, Chuhee; Baek, Suk-Hwan; Bae, Yoe-Sik

    2006-07-01

    Although the level of serum amyloid A has been reported to be up-regulated during inflammatory response, the role of serum amyloid A on the regulation of inflammation and immune response has not been elucidated. We found that serum amyloid A stimulated the production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-10, which are proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, respectively, in human monocytes. Low concentrations of serum amyloid A stimulated TNF-alpha production with maximal activity at 6 h after stimulation, whereas high concentrations of serum amyloid A stimulated IL-10 production with maximal activity at 12 h. The activations of the two cytokines by serum amyloid A occurred at both the transcription and translational levels. Signaling events induced by serum amyloid A included the activation of two mitogen-activated protein kinases (extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 kinase), which were found to be required for TNF-alpha and IL-10 production, respectively. The stimulation of formyl peptide receptor-like-1-expressing RBL-2H3 cells, but not of vector-expressing RBL-2H3 cells with serum amyloid A, induced mitogen-activated protein kinases activation and the accumulation of the RNAs of these two cytokines. Together, our findings suggest that serum amyloid A modulates contrary immune responses via formyl peptide receptor-like 1, by inducing TNF-alpha or IL-10, and demonstrate that extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 kinase play counteracting roles in this process.

  20. Peptide length and folding state govern the capacity of staphylococcal β-type phenol-soluble modulins to activate human formyl-peptide receptors 1 or 2.

    PubMed

    Kretschmer, Dorothee; Rautenberg, Maren; Linke, Dirk; Peschel, Andreas

    2015-04-01

    Most staphylococci produce short α-type PSMs and about twice as long β-type PSMs that are potent leukocyte attractants and toxins. PSMs are usually secreted with the N-terminal formyl group but are only weak agonists for the leukocyte FPR1. Instead, the FPR1-related FPR2 senses PSMs efficiently and is crucial for leukocyte recruitment in infection. Which structural features distinguish FPR1 from FPR2 ligands has remained elusive. To analyze which peptide properties may govern the capacities of β-type PSMs to activate FPRs, full-length and truncated variants of such peptides from Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus lugdunensis were synthesized. FPR2 activation was observed even for short N- or C-terminal β-type PSM variants once they were longer than 18 aa, and this activity increased with length. In contrast, the shortest tested peptides were potent FPR1 agonists, and this property declined with increasing peptide length. Whereas full-length β-type PSMs formed α-helices and exhibited no FPR1-specific activity, the truncated peptides had less-stable secondary structures, were weak agonists for FPR1, and required N-terminal formyl-methionine residues to be FPR2 agonists. Together, these data suggest that FPR1 and FPR2 have opposed ligand preferences. Short, flexible PSM structures may favor FPR1 but not FPR2 activation, whereas longer peptides with α-helical, amphipathic properties are strong FPR2 but only weak FPR1 agonists. These findings should help to unravel the ligand specificities of 2 critical human PRRs, and they may be important for new, anti-infective and anti-inflammatory strategies.

  1. Binding of formyl peptides to Walker 256 carcinosarcoma cells and the chemotactic response of these cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rayner, D.C.; Orr, F.W.; Shiu, R.P.

    1985-05-01

    N-Formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine (fMLP) induces chemotaxis in leukocytes, the response being mediated by peptide binding to a receptor on the plasma membrane. In tumor cells, this peptide has been reported to induce cellular swelling and chemotaxis in vitro and to enhance the localization of circulating tumor cells in vivo. In the Boyden chamber, the authors evaluated the migratory responses of Walker carcinosarcoma 256 cells to varying concentrations of fMLP. Sigmoidal dose-response curves were obtained with the dose of chemotactic factor that elicits a half-maximal chemotactic response of 5.0 +/- 2.5 X 10(-8) M. Checkerboard analysis indicated that these responses were dependent upon a concentration gradient of fMLP with increases in migration of circa 2 to 2.5 times that of random movement. To examine the binding of fMLP, the tumor cells were incubated with 5 X 10(-9) M fML-(/sup 3/H)P in Hanks balanced salt solution. Specific binding (0.5 to 1% of total radioligand, to whole cells inhibited by 5 X 10(-6) M fMLP) approached equilibrium after 4 to 6 h at 4 degrees C and after 6 to 10 h at 22 degrees C. Autoradiographic studies demonstrated heterogeneous binding of the peptide by tumor cells and also showed its intracellular localization. In homogenates of Walker cells prepared in 0.1 M Tris HCl, pH 7.4, with 10 mM MgCl2 and bovine serum albumin (1 mg/ml), specific binding of approximately 0.5% of total fML-(/sup 3/H)P reached equilibrium after 60 min at 4 degrees C. In whole cells and homogenates, binding was reversible by addition of unlabeled fMLP.

  2. N-Formyl-Methionyl-Leucyl-Phenylalanine Inhibits both Gamma Interferon- and Interleukin-10-Induced Expression of FcγRI on Human Monocytes

    PubMed Central

    Beigier-Bompadre, Macarena; Barrionuevo, Paula; Alves-Rosa, Fernanda; Rubel, Carolina J.; Palermo, Marina S.; Isturiz, Martín A.

    2001-01-01

    Three different classes of receptors for the Fc portion of immunoglobulin G (FcγRs), FcγRI, FcγRII, and FcγRIII, have been identified on human leukocytes. One of them, FcγRI, is a high-affinity receptor capable of induction of functions that include phagocytosis, respiratory burst, antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), and secretion of cytokines. This receptor is expressed on mononuclear phagocytes, and this expression is regulated by cytokines and hormones such as gamma interferon (IFN-γ), IFN-β, interleukin-10 (IL-10), and glucocorticoids. We have recently demonstrated that the chemotactic peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) is capable of inducing a time-dependent downregulation of both FcγRIIIB and FcγRII in human neutrophils, altering FcγR-dependent functions. Considering the biological relevance of the regulation of FcγRI, we investigated the effect of FMLP on the overexpression of FcγRI induced by both IFN-γ and IL-10 on human monocytes. We demonstrate that FMLP significantly abrogated IFN-γ- and IL-10-induced FcγRI expression, although its basal level of expression was not altered. However, other IFN-γ-mediated effects such as the overexpression of the major histocompatibility complex class II antigens and the enhancement of lipopolysaccharide-induced secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha were not affected by FMLP treatment. The formyl peptide completely inhibited the IFN-γ- and IL-10-induced enhancement of ADCC and phagocytosis carried out by adherent cells. The inhibitory effect of FMLP on FcγRI upregulation could exert an important regulatory effect during the evolution of bacterial infections. PMID:11238229

  3. Annexin A1 released from apoptotic cells acts through formyl peptide receptors to dampen inflammatory monocyte activation via JAK/STAT/SOCS signalling

    PubMed Central

    Pupjalis, Danute; Goetsch, Julia; Kottas, Diane J; Gerke, Volker; Rescher, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    The immunosuppressive effects of apoptotic cells involve inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine release and establishment of an anti-inflammatory cytokine profile, thus limiting the degree of inflammation and promoting resolution. We report here that this is in part mediated by the release of the anti-inflammatory mediator annexin A1 from apoptotic cells and the functional activation of annexin A1 receptors of the formyl peptide receptor (FPR) family on target cells. Supernatants from apoptotic neutrophils or the annexin A1 peptidomimetic Ac2-26 significantly reduced IL-6 signalling and the release of TNF-α from endotoxin-challenged monocytes. Ac2-26 activated STAT3 in a JAK-dependent manner, resulting in upregulated SOCS3 levels, and depletion of SOCS3 reversed the Ac2-26-mediated inhibition of IL-6 signalling. This identifies annexin A1 as part of the anti-inflammatory pattern of apoptotic cells and links the activation of FPRs to established signalling pathways triggering anti-inflammatory responses. PMID:21254404

  4. Real-time detection of implant-associated neutrophil responses using a formyl peptide receptor-targeting NIR nanoprobe

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jun; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Weng, Hong; Tang, Ewin N; Nair, Ashwin; Davé, Digant P; Tang, Liping

    2012-01-01

    Neutrophils play an important role in implant-mediated inflammation and infection. Unfortunately, current methods which monitor neutrophil activity, including enzyme measurements and histological evaluation, require many animals and cannot be used to accurately depict the dynamic cellular responses. To understand the neutrophil interactions around implant-mediated inflammation and infection it is critical to develop methods which can monitor in vivo cellular activity in real time. In this study, formyl peptide receptor (FPR)-targeting near-infrared nanoprobes were fabricated. This was accomplished by conjugating near-infrared dye with specific peptides having a high affinity to the FPRs present on activated neutrophils. The ability of FPR-targeting nanoprobes to detect and quantify activated neutrophils was assessed both in vitro and in vivo. As expected, FPR-targeting nanoprobes preferentially accumulated on activated neutrophils in vitro. Following transplantation, FPR-targeting nanoprobes preferentially accumulated at the biomaterial implantation site. Equally important, a strong relationship was observed between the extent of fluorescence intensity in vivo and the number of recruited neutrophils at the implantation site. Furthermore, FPR-targeting nanoprobes may be used to detect and quantify the number of neutrophils responding to a catheter-associated infection. The results show that FPR-targeting nanoprobes may serve as a powerful tool to monitor and measure the extent of neutrophil responses to biomaterial implants in vivo. PMID:22619542

  5. Proteomic analysis of the palmitate-induced myotube secretome reveals involvement of the annexin A1-formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) pathway in insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jong Hyuk; Kim, Dayea; Jang, Jin-Hyeok; Ghim, Jaewang; Park, Soyeon; Song, Parkyong; Kwon, Yonghoon; Kim, Jaeyoon; Hwang, Daehee; Bae, Yoe-Sik; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Berggren, Per-Olof; Ryu, Sung Ho

    2015-04-01

    Elevated levels of the free fatty acid palmitate are found in the plasma of obese patients and induce insulin resistance. Skeletal muscle secretes myokines as extracellular signaling mediators in response to pathophysiological conditions. Here, we identified and characterized the skeletal muscle secretome in response to palmitate-induced insulin resistance. Using a quantitative proteomic approach, we identified 36 secretory proteins modulated by palmitate-induced insulin resistance. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that palmitate-induced insulin resistance induced cellular stress and modulated secretory events. We found that the decrease in the level of annexin A1, a secretory protein, depended on palmitate, and that annexin A1 and its receptor, formyl peptide receptor 2 agonist, played a protective role in the palmitate-induced insulin resistance of L6 myotubes through PKC-θ modulation. In mice fed with a high-fat diet, treatment with the formyl peptide receptor 2 agonist improved systemic insulin sensitivity. Thus, we identified myokine candidates modulated by palmitate-induced insulin resistance and found that the annexin A1- formyl peptide receptor 2 pathway mediated the insulin resistance of skeletal muscle, as well as systemic insulin sensitivity. PMID:25616869

  6. Annexin A1 contributes to pancreatic cancer cell phenotype, behaviour and metastatic potential independently of Formyl Peptide Receptor pathway

    PubMed Central

    Belvedere, Raffaella; Bizzarro, Valentina; Forte, Giovanni; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; Parente, Luca; Petrella, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is a Ca2+-binding protein over-expressed in pancreatic cancer (PC). We recently reported that extracellular ANXA1 mediates PC cell motility acting on Formyl Peptide Receptors (FPRs). Here, we describe other mechanisms by which intracellular ANXA1 could mediate PC progression. We obtained ANXA1 Knock-Out (KO) MIA PaCa-2 cells using the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology. LC-MS/MS analysis showed altered expression of several proteins involved in cytoskeletal organization. As a result, ANXA1 KO MIA PaCa-2 partially lost their migratory and invasive capabilities with a mechanism that appeared independent of FPRs. The acquisition of a less aggressive phenotype has been further investigated in vivo. Wild type (WT), PGS (scrambled) and ANXA1 KO MIA PaCa-2 cells were engrafted orthotopically in SCID mice. No differences were found about PC primary mass, conversely liver metastatization appeared particularly reduced in ANXA1 KO MIA PaCa-2 engrafted mice. In summary, we show that intracellular ANXA1 is able to preserve the cytoskeleton integrity and to maintain a malignant phenotype in vitro. The protein has a relevant role in the metastatization process in vivo, as such it appears attractive and suitable as prognostic and therapeutic marker in PC progression. PMID:27412958

  7. Identification of Novel Formyl Peptide Receptor-Like 1 Agonists that Induce Macrophage Tumor Necrosis Factor α Production

    PubMed Central

    Schepetkin, Igor A.; Kirpotina, Liliya N.; Tian, Jun; Khlebnikov, Andrei I.; Ye, Richard D.; Quinn, Mark T.

    2008-01-01

    Development of immunomodulatory agents that enhance innate immune responses represents a promising strategy for combating infectious diseases. In the present studies, we screened a series of 71 arylcarboxylic acid hydrazide derivatives for their ability to induce macrophage tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) production and identified 6 such compounds, including one compound previously shown to be a formyl peptide receptor (FPR/FPRL1) agonist. The two most potent compounds [Compound 1: nicotinic acid [5-(3-bromophenyl)-2-furyl]methylene-hydrazide; Compound 2: 4-fluoro-benzoic acid [5-(3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-2-furyl]methylene-hydrazide] were selected for further analysis. These compounds induced de novo production of TNF-α in a dose- and time-dependent manner in human and murine monocyte/macrophage cell lines and in primary macrophages. These compounds also induced mobilization of intracellular Ca2+, production of reactive oxygen species, and chemotaxis in human and murine phagocytes. Induction of macrophage TNF-α production was pertussis toxin-sensitive, and analysis of the cellular target of these compounds showed that they were FPRL1-specific agonists and that this response was blocked by FPR/FPRL1 and FPRL1-specific antagonists. Additionally, pharmacophore modeling showed a high degree of similarity for low-energy conformations of these two compounds to the current pharmacophore model for FPR ligands (Edwards et al., 2005). Overall, these compounds represent novel FPRL1 agonists that induce TNF-α, a response distinct from those induced by other known FPR and FPRL1 agonists. PMID:18458054

  8. Further Studies on 2-Arylacetamide Pyridazin-3(2H)-ones: Design, Synthesis and Evaluation of 4,6-Disubstituted Analogues as Formyl Peptide Receptors (FPRs) Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Giovannoni, Maria Paola; Schepetkin, Igor A.; Cilibrizzi, Agostino; Crocetti, Letizia; Khlebnikov, Andrei I.; Dahlgren, Claes; Graziano, Alessia; Piaz, Vittorio Dal; Kirpotina, Liliya N.; Zerbinati, Serena; Vergelli, Claudia; Quinn, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    Formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) play an essential role in the regulation of endogenous inflammation and immunity. In the present studies, a large series of pyridazin-3(2H)-one derivatives bearing an arylacetamide chain at position 2 was synthesized and tested for FPR agonist activity. The pyridazin-3(2H)-one ring was confirmed to be an appropriate scaffold to support FPR agonist activity, and its modification at the 4 and 6 positions led to the identification of additional active agonists, which induced intracellular Ca2+ flux in HL-60 cells transfected with either FPR1, FPR2, or FPR3. Seven formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1)-specific and several mixed FPR1/FPR2 dual agonists were identified with low micromolar EC50 values. Furthermore, these agonists also activated human neutrophils, inducing intracellular Ca2+ flux and chemotaxis. Finally, molecular docking studies indicated that the most potent pyridazin-3(2H)-ones overlapped in their best docking poses with fMLF and WKYMVM peptides in the FPR1 and FPR2 ligand binding sites, respectively. Thus, pyridazinone-based compounds represent potential lead compounds for further development of selective and/or potent FPR agonists. PMID:23685570

  9. Human neutrophil formyl peptide receptor phosphorylation and the mucosal inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Leoni, Giovanna; Gripentrog, Jeannie; Lord, Connie; Riesselman, Marcia; Sumagin, Ronen; Parkos, Charles A.; Nusrat, Asma; Jesaitis, Algirdas J.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial/mitochondrial fMLF analogs bind FPR1, driving accumulation/activation of PMN at sites of infection/injury, while promoting wound healing in epithelia. We quantified levels of UFPR1 and TFPR1 in isolated PMN by use of phosphosensitive NFPRb and phosphorylation-independent NFPRa antibodies. UFPR1 and total TFPR were assessed inflamed mucosa, observed in human IBD. In isolated PMN after fMLF stimulation, UFPR1 declined 70% (fMLFEC50 = 11 ± 1 nM; t1/2 = 15 s) and was stable for up to 4 h, whereas TFPR1 changed only slightly. Antagonists (tBoc-FLFLF, CsH) and metabolic inhibitor NaF prevented the fMLF-dependent UFPR1 decrease. Annexin A1 fragment Ac2-26 also induced decreases in UFPR1 (Ac2-26EC50 ∼ 3 µM). Proinflammatory agents (TNF-α, LPS), phosphatase inhibitor (okadaic acid), and G-protein activator (MST) modestly increased fMLFEC50, 2- to 4-fold, whereas PTX, Ca2+ chelators (EGTA/BAPTA), H2O2, GM-CSF, ENA-78, IL-1RA, and LXA4 had no effect. Aggregation-inducing PAF, however, strongly inhibited fMLF-stimulated UFPR1 decreases. fMLF-driven PMN also demonstrated decreased UFPR1 after traversing monolayers of cultured intestinal epithelial cells, as did PMN in intestinal mucosal samples, demonstrating active inflammation from UC patients. Total TFPR remained high in PMN within inflamed crypts, migrating through crypt epithelium, and in the lamina propria-adjoining crypts, but UFPR1 was only observed at some peripheral sites on crypt aggregates. Loss of UFPR1 in PMN results from C-terminal S/T phosphorylation. Our results suggest G protein–insensitive, fMLF-dependent FPR1 phosphorylation in isolated suspension PMN, which may manifest in fMLF-driven transmigration and potentially, in actively inflamed tissues, except at minor discrete surface locations of PMN-containing crypt aggregates. PMID:25395303

  10. Serum amyloid A and pairing formyl peptide receptor 2 are expressed in corneas and involved in inflammation-mediated neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Sheng-Wei; Qi, Xia; Jia, Chang-Kai; Wang, Yi-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    AIM To solidify the involvement of Saa-related pathway in corneal neovascularization (CorNV). The pathogenesis of inflammatory CorNV is not fully understood yet, and our previous study implicated that serum amyloid A (Saa) 1 (Saa1) and Saa3 were among the genes up-regulated upon CorNV induction in mice. METHODS Microarray data obtained during our profiling project on CorNV were analyzed for the genes encoding the four SAA family members (Saa1-4), six reported SAA receptors (formyl peptide receptor 2, Tlr2, Tlr4, Cd36, Scarb1, P2rx7) and seven matrix metallopeptidases (Mmp) 1a, 1b, 2, 3, 9, 10, 13 reportedly to be expressed upon SAA pathway activation. The baseline expression or changes of interested genes were further confirmed in animals with CorNV using molecular or histological methods. CorNV was induced in Balb/c and C57BL/6 mice by placing either three interrupted 10-0 sutures or a 2 mm filter paper soaked with sodium hydroxide in the central area of the cornea. At desired time points, the corneas were harvested for histology examination or for extraction of mRNA and protein. The mRNA levels of Saa1, Saa3, Fpr2, Mmp2 and Mmp3 in corneas were detected using quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, and SAA3 protein in tissues detected using immunohistochemistry or western blotting. RESULTS Microarray data analysis revealed that Saa1, Saa3, Fpr2, Mmp2, Mmp3 messengers were readily detected in normal corneas and significantly up-regulated upon CorNV induction. The changes of these five genes were confirmed with real-time PCR assay. On the contrary, other SAA members (Saa2, Saa4), other SAA receptors (Tlr2, Tlr4, Cd36, P2rx7, etc), or other Mmps (Mmp1a, Mmp1b, Mmp9, Mmp10, Mmp13) did not show consistent changes. Immunohistochemistry study and western blotting further confirmed the expression of SAA3 products in normal corneas as well as their up-regulation in corneas with CorNV. CONCLUSION SAA-FPR2 pathway composing genes were expressed in normal murine corneas and

  11. Affinity maturation of a novel antagonistic human monoclonal antibody with a long VH CDR3 targeting the Class A GPCR formyl-peptide receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Douthwaite, Julie A; Sridharan, Sudharsan; Huntington, Catherine; Hammersley, Jayne; Marwood, Rose; Hakulinen, Jonna K; Ek, Margareta; Sjögren, Tove; Rider, David; Privezentzev, Cyril; Seaman, Jonathan C; Cariuk, Peter; Knights, Vikki; Young, Joyce; Wilkinson, Trevor; Sleeman, Matthew; Finch, Donna K; Lowe, David C; Vaughan, Tristan J

    2015-01-01

    Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies targeting G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are desirable for intervention in a wide range of disease processes. The discovery of such antibodies is challenging due to a lack of stability of many GPCRs as purified proteins. We describe here the generation of Fpro0165, a human anti-formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) antibody generated by variable domain engineering of an antibody derived by immunization of transgenic mice expressing human variable region genes. Antibody isolation and subsequent engineering of affinity, potency and species cross-reactivity using phage display were achieved using FPR1 expressed on HEK cells for immunization and selection, along with calcium release cellular assays for antibody screening. Fpro0165 shows full neutralization of formyl peptide-mediated activation of primary human neutrophils. A crystal structure of the Fpro0165 Fab shows a long, protruding VH CDR3 of 24 amino acids and in silico docking with a homology model of FPR1 suggests that this long VH CDR3 is critical to the predicted binding mode of the antibody. Antibody mutation studies identify the apex of the long VH CDR3 as key to mediating the species cross-reactivity profile of the antibody. This study illustrates an approach for antibody discovery and affinity engineering to typically intractable membrane proteins such as GPCRs.

  12. Chemotactic peptide analogues. Synthesis and chemotactic activity of N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe analogues containing (S)-phenylalaninol derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zecchini, G P; Paradisi, M P; Torrini, I; Spisani, S

    1995-09-01

    The synthesis and the biological activity towards human neutrophils of some N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe-OMe analogues containing (S)-phenylalaninol (Pheol) or its derivatives in place of the native phenylalanine are reported. While the analogue containing Pheol (4) was found to be devoid of significant biological activity, its esters 3 and 5, although inactive as chemoattractants, are able to strongly stimulate superoxide production and are active with a lower efficacy in the lysozyme release. PMID:7487425

  13. Rat and human neutrophil N-formyl-peptide chemotactic receptors. Species difference in the glycosylation of similar 35-38 kDa polypeptide cores.

    PubMed Central

    Remes, J J; Petäjä-Repo, U E; Rajaniemi, H J

    1991-01-01

    Rat and human neutrophil N-formyl-peptide chemotactic receptors were subjected to glycosidase and proteinase treatments to determine the extent and species differences of glycosylation and the carbohydrate requirement in the high-affinity ligand binding. N-Formyl-Nle-Leu-Phe-Nle-125I-Tyr-Lys was attached to rat and human neutrophils either before or after glycosidase and proteinase treatments, and the labelled receptors were solubilized after glutaraldehyde cross-linking and analysed by SDS/PAGE and autoradiography. Both the rat and human N-formyl-peptide chemotactic receptors contain only N-linked oligosaccharides, as demonstrated by their sensitivity to peptide N-glycosidase F (PNGase F) and resistance to O-glycanase treatment. The N-linked oligosaccharides seem to be of the complex type rather than the high-mannose or hybrid type and lack terminal sialic acid, as demonstrated by their resistance to endoglycosidases D and H and neuraminidase treatments. This sensitivity pattern was similar in both species, and the shift in the molecular size of the receptors to 35-38 kDa after PNGase F treatment occurred through one intermediate product, suggesting that both receptors contain a similar 35-38 kDa polypeptide core with two N-linked complex-type oligosaccharides, the heterogeneity of which is responsible for the species difference in receptor size. Papain treatment alone or followed by PNGase F produced in both species a 33-36 kDa membrane-bound fragment that was still able to bind the ligand, suggesting that the oligosaccharides are located on the approx. 2 kDa papain-cleavable polypeptide fragment of the receptors. The cleavage sites for both papain and PNGase F were hidden in occupied receptors, suggesting a conformational or topographical change in these upon ligand binding. Scatchard analyses and cross-linking experiments demonstrated that carbohydrates are not required for high-affinity ligand binding and that the 33-36 kDa membrane-bound papain fragment of

  14. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) inhibits human renal cell carcinoma proliferation.

    PubMed

    Vacas, Eva; Fernández-Martínez, Ana B; Bajo, Ana M; Sánchez-Chapado, Manuel; Schally, Andrew V; Prieto, Juan C; Carmena, María J

    2012-10-01

    Clear renal cell carcinoma (cRCC) is an aggressive and fatal neoplasm. The present work was undertaken to investigate the antiproliferative potential of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) exposure on non-tumoral (HK2) and tumoral (A498, cRCC) human proximal tubular epithelial cell lines. Reverse transcription and semiquantitative PCR was used at the VIP mRNA level whereas enzyme immunoanalysis was performed at the protein level. Both renal cell lines expressed VIP as well as VIP/pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (VPAC) receptors whereas only HK2 cells expressed formyl peptide receptor-like 1 (FPRL-1). Receptors were functional, as shown by VIP stimulation of adenylyl cyclase activity. Treatment with 0.1μM VIP (24h) inhibited proliferation of A498 but not HK2 cells as based on a reduction in the incorporation of [(3)H]-thymidine and BrdU (5'-Br-2'-deoxyuridine), PCNA (proliferating-cell nuclear antigen) expression and STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) expression and activation. VPAC(1)-receptor participation was established using JV-1-53 antagonist and siRNA transfection. Growth-inhibitory response to VIP was related to the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (EPAC)/phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3-K) signaling systems as shown by studies on adenylate cyclase stimulation, and using the EPAC-specific compound 8CPT-2Me-cAMP and specific kinase inhibitors such as H89, wortmannin and PD98059. The efficacy of VIP on the prevention of tumor progression was confirmed in vivo using xenografted athymic mouse. These actions support a potential role of this peptide and its agonists in new therapies for cRCC.

  15. FAM19A4 is a novel cytokine ligand of formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) and is able to promote the migration and phagocytosis of macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenyan; Li, Ting; Wang, Xiaolin; Yuan, Wanxiong; Cheng, Yingying; Zhang, Heyu; Xu, Enquan; Zhang, Yingmei; Shi, Shuang; Ma, Dalong; Han, Wenling

    2015-01-01

    FAM19A4 is an abbreviation for family with sequence similarity 19 (chemokine (C–C motif)-like) member A4, which is a secretory protein expressed in low levels in normal tissues. The biological functions of FAM19A4 remain to be determined, and its potential receptor(s) is unclarified. In this study, we demonstrated that FAM19A4 was a classical secretory protein and we verified for the first time that its mature protein is composed of 95 amino acids. We found that the expression of this novel cytokine was upregulated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated monocytes and macrophages and was typically in polarized M1. FAM19A4 shows chemotactic activities on macrophages and enhances the macrophage phagocytosis of zymosan both in vitro and in vivo with noticeable increases of the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt). FAM19A4 can also increase the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) upon zymosan stimulation. Furthermore, based on receptor internalization, radio ligand binding assays and receptor blockage, we demonstrated for the first time that FAM19A4 is a novel ligand of formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1). The above data indicate that upon inflammatory stimulation, monocyte/macrophage-derived FAM19A4 may play a crucial role in the migration and activation of macrophages during pathogenic infections. PMID:25109685

  16. Tailoring elastase inhibition with synthetic peptides.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Andreia; Azoia, Nuno G; Carvalho, Ana C; Gomes, Andreia C; Güebitz, Georg; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2011-09-01

    Chronic wounds are the result of excessive amounts of tissue destructive proteases such as human neutrophil elastase (HNE). The high levels of this enzyme found on those types of wounds inactivate the endogenous inhibitor barrier thus, the search for new HNE inhibitors is required. This work presents two new HNE inhibitor peptides, which were synthesized based on the reactive-site loop of the Bowman-Birk inhibitor protein. The results obtained indicated that these new peptides are competitive inhibitors for HNE and, the inhibitory activity can be modulated by modifications introduced at the N- and C-terminal of the peptides. Furthermore, these peptides were also able to inhibit elastase from a human wound exudate while showing no cytotoxicity against human skin fibroblasts in vitro, greatly supporting their potential application in chronic wound treatment.

  17. Antiinflammatory effects of endotoxin. Inhibition of rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocyte responses to complement (C5)-derived peptides in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, J. T.; Hartiala, K. T.; Webster, R. O.; Howes, E. L.; Goldstein, I. M.

    1983-01-01

    Although capable of provoking a variety of inflammatory effects, endotoxin (bacterial lipopolysaccharide) paradoxically has been reported to be antiinflammatory. The authors have found that single intravenous injections of Escherichia coli endotoxin, 24 hours before challenge, inhibit almost completely the vascular permeability changes and exudation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes induced in rabbit skin by reversed passive Arthus reactions. Whereas intravenous injections of endotoxin also caused modest inhibition of the vascular permeability changes induced in rabbit skin by the synthetic peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP), exudation of polymorphonuclear leukocytes was unaffected. Polymorphonuclear leukocytes from rabbits given single injected doses of endotoxin exhibited markedly diminished chemotactic and degranulation responses to complement (C5)-derived peptides in vitro. Responses of these cells to FMLP, however, were normal. These data suggest that selective suppression of polymorphonuclear leukocyte responses to C5-derived peptides accounts, in part, for the antiinflammatory effects of endotoxin. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:6228151

  18. The Lipidated Peptidomimetic Lau-((S)-Aoc)-(Lys-βNphe)6-NH2 Is a Novel Formyl Peptide Receptor 2 Agonist That Activates Both Human and Mouse Neutrophil NADPH Oxidase.

    PubMed

    Holdfeldt, André; Skovbakke, Sarah Line; Winther, Malene; Gabl, Michael; Nielsen, Christina; Perez-Gassol, Iris; Larsen, Camilla Josephine; Wang, Ji Ming; Karlsson, Anna; Dahlgren, Claes; Forsman, Huamei; Franzyk, Henrik

    2016-09-16

    Neutrophils expressing formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2) play key roles in host defense, immune regulation, and resolution of inflammation. Consequently, the search for FPR2-specific modulators has attracted much attention due to its therapeutic potential. Earlier described agonists for this receptor display potent activity for the human receptor (FPR2) but low activity for the mouse receptor orthologue (Fpr2), rendering them inapplicable in murine models of human disease. Here we describe a novel FPR2 agonist, the proteolytically stable α-peptide/β-peptoid hybrid Lau-((S)-Aoc)-(Lys-βNphe)6-NH2 (F2M2), showing comparable potency in activating human and mouse neutrophils by inducing a rise in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and assembly of the superoxide-generating NADPH oxidase. This FPR2/Fpr2 agonist contains a headgroup consisting of a 2-aminooctanoic acid (Aoc) residue acylated with lauric acid (C12 fatty acid), which is linked to a peptide/peptoid repeat ((Lys-βNphe)6-NH2). Both the fatty acid moiety and the (S)-Aoc residue were required for FPR2/Fpr2 activation. This type of proteolytically stable FPR2-specific peptidomimetics may serve as valuable tools for future analysis of FPR2 signaling as well as for development of prophylactic immunomodulatory therapy. This novel class of cross-species FPR2/Fpr2 agonists should enable translation of results obtained with mouse neutrophils (and disease models) into enhanced understanding of human inflammatory and immune diseases. PMID:27422818

  19. Hydroxyapatite Growth Inhibition Effect of Pellicle Statherin Peptides.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Y; Karttunen, M; Jalkanen, J; Mussi, M C M; Liao, Y; Grohe, B; Lagugné-Labarthet, F; Siqueira, W L

    2015-08-01

    In our recent studies, we have shown that in vivo-acquired enamel pellicle is a sophisticated biological structure containing a significant portion of naturally occurring salivary peptides. From a functional aspect, the identification of peptides in the acquired enamel pellicle is of interest because many salivary proteins exhibit functional domains that maintain the activities of the native protein. Among the in vivo-acquired enamel pellicle peptides that have been newly identified, 5 peptides are derived from statherin. Here, we assessed the ability of these statherin pellicle peptides to inhibit hydroxyapatite crystal growth. In addition, atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to better understand the underlying physical mechanisms of hydroxyapatite growth inhibition. A microplate colorimetric assay was used to quantify hydroxyapatite growth. Statherin protein, 5 statherin-derived peptides, and a peptide lacking phosphate at residues 2 and 3 were analyzed. Statherin peptide phosphorylated on residues 2 and 3 indicated a significant inhibitory effect when compared with the 5 other peptides (P < 0.05). MD simulations showed a strong affinity and fast adsorption to hydroxyapatite for phosphopeptides, whereas unphosphorylated peptides interacted weakly with the hydroxyapatite. Our data suggest that the presence of a covalently linked phosphate group (at residues 2 and 3) in statherin peptides modulates the effect of hydroxyapatite growth inhibition. This study provides a mechanism to account for the composition and function of acquired enamel pellicle statherin peptides that will contribute as a base for the development of biologically stable and functional synthetic peptides for therapeutic use against dental caries and/or periodontal disease.

  20. Hydroxyapatite Growth Inhibition Effect of Pellicle Statherin Peptides.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Y; Karttunen, M; Jalkanen, J; Mussi, M C M; Liao, Y; Grohe, B; Lagugné-Labarthet, F; Siqueira, W L

    2015-08-01

    In our recent studies, we have shown that in vivo-acquired enamel pellicle is a sophisticated biological structure containing a significant portion of naturally occurring salivary peptides. From a functional aspect, the identification of peptides in the acquired enamel pellicle is of interest because many salivary proteins exhibit functional domains that maintain the activities of the native protein. Among the in vivo-acquired enamel pellicle peptides that have been newly identified, 5 peptides are derived from statherin. Here, we assessed the ability of these statherin pellicle peptides to inhibit hydroxyapatite crystal growth. In addition, atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to better understand the underlying physical mechanisms of hydroxyapatite growth inhibition. A microplate colorimetric assay was used to quantify hydroxyapatite growth. Statherin protein, 5 statherin-derived peptides, and a peptide lacking phosphate at residues 2 and 3 were analyzed. Statherin peptide phosphorylated on residues 2 and 3 indicated a significant inhibitory effect when compared with the 5 other peptides (P < 0.05). MD simulations showed a strong affinity and fast adsorption to hydroxyapatite for phosphopeptides, whereas unphosphorylated peptides interacted weakly with the hydroxyapatite. Our data suggest that the presence of a covalently linked phosphate group (at residues 2 and 3) in statherin peptides modulates the effect of hydroxyapatite growth inhibition. This study provides a mechanism to account for the composition and function of acquired enamel pellicle statherin peptides that will contribute as a base for the development of biologically stable and functional synthetic peptides for therapeutic use against dental caries and/or periodontal disease. PMID:26116492

  1. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of propolis, inhibits Helicobacter pylori peptide deformylase activity.

    PubMed

    Cui, Kunqiang; Lu, Weiqiang; Zhu, Lili; Shen, Xu; Huang, Jin

    2013-05-31

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major causative factor for gastrointestinal illnesses, H. pylori peptide deformylase (HpPDF) catalyzes the removal of formyl group from the N-terminus of nascent polypeptide chains, which is essential for H. pylori survival and is considered as a promising drug target for anti-H. pylori therapy. Propolis, a natural antibiotic from honeybees, is reported to have an inhibitory effect on the growth of H. pylori in vitro. In addition, previous studies suggest that the main active constituents in the propolis are phenolic compounds. Therefore, we evaluated a collection of phenolic compounds derived from propolis for enzyme inhibition against HpPDF. Our study results show that Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), one of the main medicinal components of propolis, is a competitive inhibitor against HpPDF, with an IC50 value of 4.02 μM. Furthermore, absorption spectra and crystal structural characterization revealed that different from most well known PDF inhibitors, CAPE block the substrate entrance, preventing substrate from approaching the active site, but CAPE does not have chelate interaction with HpPDF and does not disrupt the metal-dependent catalysis. Our study provides valuable information for understanding the potential anti-H. pylori mechanism of propolis, and CAPE could be served as a lead compound for further anti-H. pylori drug discovery. PMID:23611786

  2. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of propolis, inhibits Helicobacter pylori peptide deformylase activity.

    PubMed

    Cui, Kunqiang; Lu, Weiqiang; Zhu, Lili; Shen, Xu; Huang, Jin

    2013-05-31

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major causative factor for gastrointestinal illnesses, H. pylori peptide deformylase (HpPDF) catalyzes the removal of formyl group from the N-terminus of nascent polypeptide chains, which is essential for H. pylori survival and is considered as a promising drug target for anti-H. pylori therapy. Propolis, a natural antibiotic from honeybees, is reported to have an inhibitory effect on the growth of H. pylori in vitro. In addition, previous studies suggest that the main active constituents in the propolis are phenolic compounds. Therefore, we evaluated a collection of phenolic compounds derived from propolis for enzyme inhibition against HpPDF. Our study results show that Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), one of the main medicinal components of propolis, is a competitive inhibitor against HpPDF, with an IC50 value of 4.02 μM. Furthermore, absorption spectra and crystal structural characterization revealed that different from most well known PDF inhibitors, CAPE block the substrate entrance, preventing substrate from approaching the active site, but CAPE does not have chelate interaction with HpPDF and does not disrupt the metal-dependent catalysis. Our study provides valuable information for understanding the potential anti-H. pylori mechanism of propolis, and CAPE could be served as a lead compound for further anti-H. pylori drug discovery.

  3. SUMO-mimicking peptides inhibiting protein SUMOylation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bo; Villhauer, Eric B; Bhuripanyo, Karan; Kiyokawa, Hiroaki; Schindelin, Hermann; Yin, Jun

    2014-12-15

    The ubiquitin-like protein SUMO is transferred through a core E1-E2 cascade composed of the SUMO-activating enzyme (SAE) and Ubc9 to modify cellular proteins and transmit important biological signals. SAE primarily recognizes the C-terminal tail of SUMO and catalyzes ATP condensation with the SUMO C-terminal carboxylate to activate its transfer through the cascade. Here, we used phage display to show that a broad profile of SUMO C-terminal sequences could be activated by SAE. Based on this, we developed heptamer peptides that could 1) form thioester conjugates with SAE, 2) be transferred from SAE to Ubc9, and 3) be further transferred to the SUMOylation target protein RanGAP1. As these peptides recapitulate the action of SUMO in protein modification, we refer to them as "SUMO-mimicking peptides". We found that, once the peptides were conjugated to SAE and Ubc9, they blocked full-length SUMO from entering the cascade. These peptides can thus function as mechanism-based inhibitors of the protein SUMOylation reaction.

  4. Prediction of Biofilm Inhibiting Peptides: An In silico Approach.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sudheer; Sharma, Ashok K; Jaiswal, Shubham K; Sharma, Vineet K

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 75% of microbial infections found in humans are caused by microbial biofilms. These biofilms are resistant to host immune system and most of the currently available antibiotics. Small peptides are extensively studied for their role as anti-microbial peptides, however, only a limited studies have shown their potential as inhibitors of biofilm. Therefore, to develop a unique computational method aimed at the prediction of biofilm inhibiting peptides, the experimentally validated biofilm inhibiting peptides sequences were used to extract sequence based features and to identify unique sequence motifs. Biofilm inhibiting peptides were observed to be abundant in positively charged and aromatic amino acids, and also showed selective abundance of some dipeptides and sequence motifs. These individual sequence based features were utilized to construct Support Vector Machine-based prediction models and additionally by including sequence motifs information, the hybrid models were constructed. Using 10-fold cross validation, the hybrid model displayed the accuracy and Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) of 97.83% and 0.87, respectively. On the validation dataset, the hybrid model showed the accuracy and MCC value of 97.19% and 0.84, respectively. The validated model and other tools developed for the prediction of biofilm inhibiting peptides are available freely as web server at http://metagenomics.iiserb.ac.in/biofin/ and http://metabiosys.iiserb.ac.in/biofin/. PMID:27379078

  5. Prediction of Biofilm Inhibiting Peptides: An In silico Approach

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sudheer; Sharma, Ashok K.; Jaiswal, Shubham K.; Sharma, Vineet K.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 75% of microbial infections found in humans are caused by microbial biofilms. These biofilms are resistant to host immune system and most of the currently available antibiotics. Small peptides are extensively studied for their role as anti-microbial peptides, however, only a limited studies have shown their potential as inhibitors of biofilm. Therefore, to develop a unique computational method aimed at the prediction of biofilm inhibiting peptides, the experimentally validated biofilm inhibiting peptides sequences were used to extract sequence based features and to identify unique sequence motifs. Biofilm inhibiting peptides were observed to be abundant in positively charged and aromatic amino acids, and also showed selective abundance of some dipeptides and sequence motifs. These individual sequence based features were utilized to construct Support Vector Machine-based prediction models and additionally by including sequence motifs information, the hybrid models were constructed. Using 10-fold cross validation, the hybrid model displayed the accuracy and Matthews Correlation Coefficient (MCC) of 97.83% and 0.87, respectively. On the validation dataset, the hybrid model showed the accuracy and MCC value of 97.19% and 0.84, respectively. The validated model and other tools developed for the prediction of biofilm inhibiting peptides are available freely as web server at http://metagenomics.iiserb.ac.in/biofin/ and http://metabiosys.iiserb.ac.in/biofin/. PMID:27379078

  6. Strong inhibition of beta-amyloid peptide aggregation realized by two-steps evolved peptides.

    PubMed

    Ghimire Gautam, Sunita; Komatsu, Masayuki; Nishigaki, Koichi

    2015-03-01

    Several decades of cumulated research evidence have proven that aggregation of beta-amyloid 42 (Aβ42) is the main cause of neuronal death in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, inhibition of Aβ42 aggregation holds great promise for the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease. To this end, we used a systematic in vitro evolution including a paired peptide library method. We identified two peptides with high binding affinity (with Kd in the nm range) for Aβ42. Functionally, these peptides strongly inhibited the aggregation of Aβ42 as shown by the thioflavin T assay and atomic force microscopy. Moreover, these peptides rescued PC12 cells from the cytotoxic effect of aggregated Aβ42 in vitro. Our results suggest that these novel peptides may be potential therapeutic seeds for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  7. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide Inhibits Spontaneous Contractile Activity of Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Lobov, G I; Pan'kova, M N

    2016-06-01

    Atrial natriuretic peptide dose-dependently inhibited spontaneous phase and tonic activity of smooth muscle strips from the capsule of isolated bovine mesenteric lymph nodes. Pretreatment with L-NAME, diclofenac, and methylene blue had practically no effect on the peptide-induced relaxation responses. In contrast, glibenclamide significantly reduced the inhibitory effect of atrial natriuretic peptide. We suppose that the NO-dependent and cyclooxygenase signaling pathways are not involved in implementation of the inhibitory effects of atrial natriuretic peptide. ATP-sensitive K(+)-channels of the smooth muscle cell membrane are the last component in the signaling pathway leading to relaxation of smooth muscles of the lymph node capsule caused by atrial natriuretic peptide; activation of these channels leads to membrane hyperpolarization and smooth muscle relaxation. PMID:27383173

  8. Antiangiogenic activity of 2-formyl-8-hydroxy-quinolinium chloride.

    PubMed

    Lam, K-H; Lee, K K-H; Kok, S H-L; Wong, R S-M; Lau, F-Y; Cheng, G Y-M; Wong, W-Y; Tong, S-W; Chan, K-W; Chan, R Y-K; Tang, J C-O; Cheng, C-H; Hau, D K-P; Bian, Z-X; Gambari, R; Chui, C-H

    2016-05-01

    Tumour growth is closely related to the development of new blood vessels to supply oxygen and nutrients to cancer cells. Without the neovascular formation, tumour volumes cannot increase and undergo metastasis. Antiangiogenesis is one of the most promising approaches for antitumour therapy. The exploration of new antiangiogenic agents would be helpful in antitumour therapy. Quinoline is an aromatic nitrogen compound characterized by a double-ring structure which exhibits a benzene ring fused to pyridine at two adjacent carbon atoms. The high stability of quinoline makes it preferable in a variety of therapeutic and pharmaceutical applications, including antitumour treatment. This work is to examine the potential antiangiogenic activity of the synthetic compound 2-Formyl-8-hydroxy-quinolinium chloride. We found that 2-Formyl-8-hydroxy-quinolinium chloride could inhibit the growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro. Using the diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis model, 2-Formyl-8-hydroxy-quinolinium chloride showed strong antiangiogenic activity. Furthermore, 2-Formyl-8-hydroxy-quinolinium chloride could inhibit the growth of large Hep3B xenografted tumour from the nude mice. We assume that 2-Formyl-8-hydroxy-quinolinium chloride could be a potential antiangiogenic and antitumour agent and it is worthwhile to further study its underlying working mechanism. PMID:27133051

  9. A Novel Factor Xa-Inhibiting Peptide from Centipedes Venom.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yi; Shao, Yu; Chen, Hao; Ming, Xin; Wang, Jin-Bin; Li, Zhi-Yu; Wei, Ji-Fu

    2013-01-01

    Centipedes have been used as traditional medicine for thousands of years in China. Centipede venoms consist of many biochemical peptides and proteins. Factor Xa (FXa) is a serine endopeptidase that plays the key role in blood coagulation, and has been used as a new target for anti-thrombotic drug development. A novel FXa inhibitor, a natural peptide with the sequence of Thr-Asn-Gly-Tyr-Thr (TNGYT), was isolated from the venom of Scolopendra subspinipes mutilans using a combination of size-exclusion and reverse-phase chromatography. The molecular weight of the TNGYT peptide was 554.3 Da measured by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The amino acid sequence of TNGYT was determined by Edman degradation. TNGYT inhibited the activity of FXa in a dose-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 41.14 mg/ml. It prolonged the partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time in both in vitro and ex vivo assays. It also significantly prolonged whole blood clotting time and bleeding time in mice. This is the first report that an FXa inhibiting peptide was isolated from centipedes venom. PMID:24273471

  10. Characteristics of oedema formation induced by N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine in rabbit skin.

    PubMed Central

    Hellewell, P. G.; Yarwood, H.; Williams, T. J.

    1989-01-01

    1. The characteristics of N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP)-induced oedema formation were investigated in vivo in rabbit skin. 2. FMLP injected intradermally alone induced a small increase in plasma leakage, but marked synergism with prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in producing oedema responses was observed. In the presence of PGE2, FMLP was equiactive with C5a des Arg and 100-1000 times more active than histamine in terms of permeability-increasing activity. The response to FMLP was not dependent on endogenous histamine release. 3. FMLP-induced responses were of long duration (t1/2 approximately 40-50 min) when compared with bradykinin (t1/2 approximately 4-5 min). 4. The activity of a range of N-formyl peptides in increasing vascular permeability in skin correlated well with their activity as neutrophil stimulants in vitro. 5. Intravenous infusion of zymosan-activated plasma (ZAP) resulted in transient neutropenia and inhibition of oedema formation induced by FMLP and C5a des Arg in the skin. Responses to bradykinin were unaffected by the infusion of ZAP. 6. Intravenous injection of the non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug, ibuprofen, resulted in an inhibition of FMLP-induced, but not histamine-induced, oedema formation. This effect was independent of cyclo-oxygenase inhibition and the drug did not induced neutropenia. 7. Intravenous injection of the microtubule blocking agent colchicine inhibited FMLP-induced oedema formation. Responses to bradykinin were unaffected. When colchicine was administered after intradermal FMLP, subsequent plasma leakage was abolished. 8. The inference that receptors have evolved to bacterial secretions (i.e. FMLP) and products of the interaction of bacterial cell walls with tissue fluid (i.e. C5a des Arg), is consistent with the hypothesis that oedema formation is fundamentally a functional process concerned with regulating microbial lysis and opsonisation in an infected tissue. PMID:2497923

  11. HIV-1 TAT Inhibits Microglial Phagocytosis of Aβ Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Giunta, Brian; Zhou, Yuyan; Hou, Huayan; Rrapo, Elona; Fernandez, Francisco; Tan, Jun

    2008-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated dementia (HAD) is a subcortical neuropsychiatric syndrome that has increased in prevalence in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Several studies demonstrated increased amyloidosis in brains of HIV patients and suggested that there may be a significant number of long-term HIV survivors with co-morbid Alzheimer's disease (AD) in the future. We show HIV-1 Tat protein inhibits microglial uptake of Aβ1-42 peptide, a process that is enhanced by interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) and rescued by the STAT1 inhibitor (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG). It is hypothesized that reduced Aβ uptake occurs through IFN-γ mediated STAT1 activation. This process promotes a switch from a phagocytic to an antigen presenting phenotype in microglia through activation of class II transactivator (CIITA). Additionally, we show that HIV-1 Tat significantly disrupts apolipoprotein-3 (Apo-E3) promoted microglial Aβ uptake. As Tat has been shown to directly interact with the low density lipoprotein (LRP) receptor and thus inhibit the uptake of its ligands including apolipoprotein E4 (Apo-E4) and Aβ peptide in neurons, we further hypothesize that a similar inhibition of LRP may occur in microglia. Future studies will be required to fully characterize the mechanisms underlying IFN-γ enhancement of HIV-1 Tats disruption of microglial phagocytosis of Aβ and Apo-E3. PMID:18784813

  12. Structural basis of Rap phosphatase inhibition by Phr peptides.

    PubMed

    Gallego del Sol, Francisca; Marina, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Two-component systems, composed of a sensor histidine kinase and an effector response regulator (RR), are the main signal transduction devices in bacteria. In Bacillus, the Rap protein family modulates complex signaling processes mediated by two-component systems, such as competence, sporulation, or biofilm formation, by inhibiting the RR components involved in these pathways. Despite the high degree of sequence homology, Rap proteins exert their activity by two completely different mechanisms of action: inducing RR dephosphorylation or blocking RR binding to its target promoter. However the regulatory mechanism involving Rap proteins is even more complex since Rap activity is antagonized by specific signaling peptides (Phr) through a mechanism that remains unknown at the molecular level. Using X-ray analyses, we determined the structure of RapF, the anti-activator of competence RR ComA, alone and in complex with its regulatory peptide PhrF. The structural and functional data presented herein reveal that peptide PhrF blocks the RapF-ComA interaction through an allosteric mechanism. PhrF accommodates in the C-terminal tetratricopeptide repeat domain of RapF by inducing its constriction, a conformational change propagated by a pronounced rotation to the N-terminal ComA-binding domain. This movement partially disrupts the ComA binding site by triggering the ComA disassociation, whose interaction with RapF is also sterically impaired in the PhrF-induced conformation of RapF. Sequence analyses of the Rap proteins, guided by the RapF-PhrF structure, unveil the molecular basis of Phr recognition and discrimination, allowing us to relax the Phr specificity of RapF by a single residue change.

  13. Inhibition Effect of a Custom Peptide on Lung Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chih-Yu; Huang, Hsuan-Yu; Forrest, Michael D.; Pan, Yun-Ru; Wu, Wei-Jen; Chen, Hueih-Min

    2014-01-01

    Cecropin B is a natural antimicrobial peptide and CB1a is a custom, engineered modification of it. In vitro, CB1a can kill lung cancer cells at concentrations that do not kill normal lung cells. Furthermore, in vitro, CB1a can disrupt cancer cells from adhering together to form tumor-like spheroids. Mice were xenografted with human lung cancer cells; CB1a could significantly inhibit the growth of tumors in this in vivo model. Docetaxel is a drug in present clinical use against lung cancers; it can have serious side effects because its toxicity is not sufficiently limited to cancer cells. In our studies in mice: CB1a is more toxic to cancer cells than docetaxel, but dramatically less toxic to healthy cells. PMID:25310698

  14. Phage Display Selection of Cyclic Peptides That Inhibit Andes Virus Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Pamela R.; Hjelle, Brian; Njus, Hadya; Ye, Chunyan; Bondu-Hawkins, Virginie; Brown, David C.; Kilpatrick, Kathleen A.; Larson, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    Specific therapy is not available for hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome caused by Andes virus (ANDV). Peptides capable of blocking ANDV infection in vitro were identified using antibodies against ANDV surface glycoproteins Gn and Gc to competitively elute a cyclic nonapeptide-bearing phage display library from purified ANDV particles. Phage was examined for ANDV infection inhibition in vitro, and nonapeptides were synthesized based on the most-potent phage sequences. Three peptides showed levels of viral inhibition which were significantly increased by combination treatment with anti-Gn- and anti-Gc-targeting peptides. These peptides will be valuable tools for further development of both peptide and nonpeptide therapeutic agents. PMID:19515773

  15. Inhibition of the ferric uptake regulator by peptides derived from anti-FUR peptide aptamers: coupled theoretical and experimental approaches.

    PubMed

    Cissé, Cheickna; Mathieu, Sophie V; Abeih, Mohamed B Ould; Flanagan, Lindsey; Vitale, Sylvia; Catty, Patrice; Boturyn, Didier; Michaud-Soret, Isabelle; Crouzy, Serge

    2014-12-19

    The FUR protein (ferric uptake regulator) is an iron-dependent global transcriptional regulator. Specific to bacteria, FUR is an attractive antibacterial target since virulence is correlated to iron bioavailability. Recently, four anti-FUR peptide aptamers, composed of 13 amino acid variable loops inserted into a thioredoxinA scaffold, were identified, which were able to interact with Escherichia coli FUR (EcFUR), inhibit its binding to DNA and to decrease the virulence of pathogenic E. coli in a fly infection model. The first characterization of anti-FUR linear peptides (pF1 6 to 13 amino acids) derived from the variable part of the F1 anti-FUR peptide aptamer is described herein. Theoretical and experimental approaches, in original combination, were used to study interactions of these peptides with FUR in order to understand their mechanism of inhibition. After modeling EcFUR by homology, docking with Autodock was combined with molecular dynamics simulations in implicit solvent to take into account the flexibility of the partners. All calculations were cross-checked either with other programs or with experimental data. As a result, reliable structures of EcFUR and its complex with pF1 are given and an inhibition pocket formed by the groove between the two FUR subunits is proposed. The location of the pocket was validated through experimental mutation of key EcFUR residues at the site of proposed peptide interaction. Cyclisation of pF1, mimicking the peptide constraint in F1, improved inhibition. The details of the interactions between peptide and protein were analyzed and a mechanism of inhibition of these anti-FUR molecules is proposed.

  16. Venom peptides cathelicidin and lycotoxin cause strong inhibition of Escherichia coli ATP synthase.

    PubMed

    Azim, Sofiya; McDowell, Derek; Cartagena, Alec; Rodriguez, Ricky; Laughlin, Thomas F; Ahmad, Zulfiqar

    2016-06-01

    Venom peptides are known to have strong antimicrobial activity and anticancer properties. King cobra cathelicidin or OH-CATH (KF-34), banded krait cathelicidin (BF-30), wolf spider lycotoxin I (IL-25), and wolf spider lycotoxin II (KE-27) venom peptides were found to strongly inhibit Escherichia coli membrane bound F1Fo ATP synthase. The potent inhibition of wild-type E. coli in comparison to the partial inhibition of null E. coli by KF-34, BF-30, Il-25, or KE-27 clearly links the bactericidal properties of these venom peptides to the binding and inhibition of ATP synthase along with the possibility of other inhibitory targets. The four venom peptides KF-34, BF-30, IL-25, and KE-27, caused ≥85% inhibition of wild-type membrane bound E.coli ATP synthase. Venom peptide induced inhibition of ATP synthase and the strong abrogation of wild-type E. coli cell growth in the presence of venom peptides demonstrates that ATP synthase is a potent membrane bound molecular target for venom peptides. Furthermore, the process of inhibition was found to be fully reversible. PMID:26930579

  17. Endosomolytic Nano-Polyplex Platform Technology for Cytosolic Peptide Delivery To Inhibit Pathological Vasoconstriction

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A platform technology has been developed and tested for delivery of intracellular-acting peptides through electrostatically complexed nanoparticles, or nano-polyplexes, formulated from an anionic endosomolytic polymer and cationic therapeutic peptides. This delivery platform has been initially tested and optimized for delivery of two unique vasoactive peptides, a phosphomimetic of heat shock protein 20 and an inhibitor of MAPKAP kinase II, to prevent pathological vasoconstriction (i.e., vasospasm) in human vascular tissue. These peptides inhibit vasoconstriction and promote vasorelaxation by modulating actin dynamics in vascular smooth muscle cells. Formulating these peptides into nano-polyplexes significantly enhances peptide uptake and retention, facilitates cytosolic delivery through a pH-dependent endosomal escape mechanism, and enhances peptide bioactivity in vitro as measured by inhibition of F-actin stress fiber formation. In comparison to treatment with the free peptides, which were endowed with cell-penetrating sequences, the nano-polyplexes significantly increased vasorelaxation, inhibited vasoconstriction, and decreased F-actin formation in the human saphenous vein ex vivo. These results suggest that these formulations have significant potential for treatment of conditions such as cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage. Furthermore, because many therapeutic peptides include cationic cell-penetrating segments, this simple and modular platform technology may have broad applicability as a cost-effective approach for enhancing the efficacy of cytosolically active peptides. PMID:26004140

  18. Endosomolytic Nano-Polyplex Platform Technology for Cytosolic Peptide Delivery To Inhibit Pathological Vasoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Evans, Brian C; Hocking, Kyle M; Kilchrist, Kameron V; Wise, Eric S; Brophy, Colleen M; Duvall, Craig L

    2015-06-23

    A platform technology has been developed and tested for delivery of intracellular-acting peptides through electrostatically complexed nanoparticles, or nano-polyplexes, formulated from an anionic endosomolytic polymer and cationic therapeutic peptides. This delivery platform has been initially tested and optimized for delivery of two unique vasoactive peptides, a phosphomimetic of heat shock protein 20 and an inhibitor of MAPKAP kinase II, to prevent pathological vasoconstriction (i.e., vasospasm) in human vascular tissue. These peptides inhibit vasoconstriction and promote vasorelaxation by modulating actin dynamics in vascular smooth muscle cells. Formulating these peptides into nano-polyplexes significantly enhances peptide uptake and retention, facilitates cytosolic delivery through a pH-dependent endosomal escape mechanism, and enhances peptide bioactivity in vitro as measured by inhibition of F-actin stress fiber formation. In comparison to treatment with the free peptides, which were endowed with cell-penetrating sequences, the nano-polyplexes significantly increased vasorelaxation, inhibited vasoconstriction, and decreased F-actin formation in the human saphenous vein ex vivo. These results suggest that these formulations have significant potential for treatment of conditions such as cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage. Furthermore, because many therapeutic peptides include cationic cell-penetrating segments, this simple and modular platform technology may have broad applicability as a cost-effective approach for enhancing the efficacy of cytosolically active peptides.

  19. Inhibition of goby posterior intestinal NaCl absorption by natriuretic peptides and by cardiac extracts.

    PubMed

    Loretz, C A

    1996-01-01

    Natriuretic peptides abolish active Na+ and Cl- absorption across the posterior intestine of the euryhaline goby Gillichthys mirabilis. Inhibition by eel and human natriuretic peptides is dose-dependent with the following sequence of potencies based on experimentally determined ID50 values for inhibition of short-circuit current: eel ventricular natriuretic peptide (78 nmol.l-1), eel atrial natriuretic peptide (156 nmol.l-1), human brain natriuretic peptide (326 nmol.l-1), human alpha atrial natriuretic peptide (1.05 mumol.l-1), and eel C-type natriuretic peptide (75 mumol.l-1). Natriuretic peptides also significantly increase transcellular conductance. The observed sequence of natriuretic peptide potencies is suggestive of cellular mediation by GC-A-type NP-R1 receptors in this tissue; as expected for guanylyl-cyclase-coupled NP-R1 receptors, cyclic GMP mimics the action of natriuretic peptides on the goby intestine. Crude aqueous extracts of goby atrium and ventricle inhibited short circuit current and increased tissue conductance in a dose-dependent manner. Ventricular extract was more potent than atrial extract on both a per organ and per milligram basis.

  20. Standard Thermodynamic Functions of Tripeptides N-Formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalaninol and N-Formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine Methyl Ester.

    PubMed

    Markin, Alexey V; Markhasin, Evgeny; Sologubov, Semen S; Smirnova, Natalia N; Griffin, Robert G

    2014-04-10

    The heat capacities of tripeptides N-formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalaninol (N-f-MLF-OH) and N-formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine methyl ester (N-f-MLF-OMe) were measured by precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry over the temperature range from T = (6 to 350) K. The tripeptides were stable over this temperature range, and no phase change, transformation, association, or thermal decomposition was observed. The standard thermodynamic functions: molar heat capacity Cp,m, enthalpy H(T) - H(0), entropy S(T), and Gibbs energy G(T) - H(0) of peptides were calculated over the range from T = (0 to 350) K. The low-temperature (T ≤ 50 K) heat capacities dependencies were analyzed using the Debye's and the multifractal theories. The standard entropies of formation of peptides at T = 298.15 K were calculated.

  1. Standard Thermodynamic Functions of Tripeptides N-Formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalaninol and N-Formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine Methyl Ester

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The heat capacities of tripeptides N-formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalaninol (N-f-MLF-OH) and N-formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine methyl ester (N-f-MLF-OMe) were measured by precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry over the temperature range from T = (6 to 350) K. The tripeptides were stable over this temperature range, and no phase change, transformation, association, or thermal decomposition was observed. The standard thermodynamic functions: molar heat capacity Cp,m, enthalpy H(T) – H(0), entropy S(T), and Gibbs energy G(T) – H(0) of peptides were calculated over the range from T = (0 to 350) K. The low-temperature (T ≤ 50 K) heat capacities dependencies were analyzed using the Debye’s and the multifractal theories. The standard entropies of formation of peptides at T = 298.15 K were calculated. PMID:24803685

  2. Standard Thermodynamic Functions of Tripeptides N-Formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalaninol and N-Formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine Methyl Ester.

    PubMed

    Markin, Alexey V; Markhasin, Evgeny; Sologubov, Semen S; Smirnova, Natalia N; Griffin, Robert G

    2014-04-10

    The heat capacities of tripeptides N-formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalaninol (N-f-MLF-OH) and N-formyl-l-methionyl-l-leucyl-l-phenylalanine methyl ester (N-f-MLF-OMe) were measured by precision adiabatic vacuum calorimetry over the temperature range from T = (6 to 350) K. The tripeptides were stable over this temperature range, and no phase change, transformation, association, or thermal decomposition was observed. The standard thermodynamic functions: molar heat capacity C p,m, enthalpy H(T) - H(0), entropy S(T), and Gibbs energy G(T) - H(0) of peptides were calculated over the range from T = (0 to 350) K. The low-temperature (T ≤ 50 K) heat capacities dependencies were analyzed using the Debye's and the multifractal theories. The standard entropies of formation of peptides at T = 298.15 K were calculated. PMID:24803685

  3. Combinatorial Library of Improved Peptide Aptamers, CLIPs to Inhibit RAGE Signal Transduction in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Reverdatto, Sergey; Rai, Vivek; Xue, Jing; Burz, David S.; Schmidt, Ann Marie; Shekhtman, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Peptide aptamers are small proteins containing a randomized peptide sequence embedded into a stable protein scaffold, such as Thioredoxin. We developed a robust method for building a Combinatorial Library of Improved Peptide aptamers (CLIPs) of high complexity, containing ≥3×1010 independent clones, to be used as a molecular tool in the study of biological pathways. The Thioredoxin scaffold was modified to increase solubility and eliminate aggregation of the peptide aptamers. The CLIPs was used in a yeast two-hybrid screen to identify peptide aptamers that bind to various domains of the Receptor for Advanced Glycation End products (RAGE). NMR spectroscopy was used to identify interaction surfaces between the peptide aptamers and RAGE domains. Cellular functional assays revealed that in addition to directly interfering with known binding sites, peptide aptamer binding distal to ligand sites also inhibits RAGE ligand-induced signal transduction. This finding underscores the potential of using CLIPs to select allosteric inhibitors of biological targets. PMID:23785412

  4. Substituent effects on structural stability of formyl ketene and analysis of vibrational spectra of formyl haloketenes and formyl methylketene.

    PubMed

    Badawi, H M; Al-Saadi, A; Förner, W

    2002-01-01

    The conformational behavior and the structural stability of formyl fluoroketene, formyl chloroketene and formyl methylketene were investigated by utilizing quantum mechanical DFT calculations at B3LYP/6-31I + + G** and ab initio calculations at MP2/6-311 + + G** levels. The three molecules were predicted to have a planar s-cis<-->s-trans conformational equilibrium. From the calculations, the direction of the conformational equilibrium was found to be dependent on the nature of the substituting group. In formyl haloketenes, the cis conformation, where the C=O group eclipses the ketenic group, was expected to be of lower energy than the trans conformer. In the case of formyl methylketene the conformational stability was reversed and the trans form (the aldehydic hydrogen eclipsing the ketenic group) was calculated to be about 2 kcal mol(-1) lower in energy than the cis form. The calculated cis-trans energy barrier was found to be in the order: fluoride (15.3 kcal mol(-1)) > chloride (13.1 kcal mol(-1)) > methyl (11.7 kcal mol(-1). Full optimization was performed at the ground and the transition states of the molecules. The vibrational frequencies for the stable conformers of the three ketenic systems were computed at the DFT-B3LYP level, and the zero-point corrections were included into the calculated rotational barriers. Complete vibrational assignments were made on the basis of both normal coordinate calculations and comparison with experimental results of similar molecules. PMID:11808649

  5. Inhibiting the inhibitors: retro-inverso Smac peptides.

    PubMed

    Hossbach, Julia; Michalsky, Elke; Henklein, Peter; Jaeger, Marten; Daniel, Peter T; Preissner, Robert

    2009-12-01

    Resistance against apoptosis-inducing anti-cancer drugs remains a severe problem in therapy. One reason is the overexpression of inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (IAPs), a group of proteins responsible for the prevention of apoptosis induction by inactivation of initiator caspases. The natural inhibitor of the IAPs is the protein Smac, which impedes the binding to the caspases. Although Smac is a potent inhibitor, Smac peptides are not very stable in vivo and thus not applicable in therapy. Bioinformatical methods were applied to design Smac-derived peptides to break the therapy resistance in IAP high-expressing tumor cells. The exchange of amino acids in the Smac peptides AVPI and AVPF against unnatural amino acids leads to an improvement of the apoptosis sensitivity. The variety of Smac peptides was filtered by computational docking. Moreover, Smac-derived peptides with sufficient binding to the IAPs were tested in IAP-expressing Hodgkin Lymphoma cell lines.

  6. Hydroxyapatite-binding peptides for bone growth and inhibition

    DOEpatents

    Bertozzi, Carolyn R.; Song, Jie; Lee, Seung-Wuk

    2011-09-20

    Hydroxyapatite (HA)-binding peptides are selected using combinatorial phage library display. Pseudo-repetitive consensus amino acid sequences possessing periodic hydroxyl side chains in every two or three amino acid sequences are obtained. These sequences resemble the (Gly-Pro-Hyp).sub.x repeat of human type I collagen, a major component of extracellular matrices of natural bone. A consistent presence of basic amino acid residues is also observed. The peptides are synthesized by the solid-phase synthetic method and then used for template-driven HA-mineralization. Microscopy reveal that the peptides template the growth of polycrystalline HA crystals .about.40 nm in size.

  7. Identification of a glycogenolysis-inhibiting peptide from the corpora cardiaca of locusts.

    PubMed

    Clynen, Elke; Huybrechts, Jurgen; Baggerman, Geert; Van Doorn, Jan; Van Der Horst, Dick; De Loof, Arnold; Schoofs, Liliane

    2003-08-01

    A mass spectrometric study of the peptidome of the neurohemal part of the corpora cardiaca of Locusta migratoria and Schistocerca gregaria shows that it contains several unknown peptides. We were able to identify the sequence of one of these peptides as pQSDLFLLSPK. This sequence is identical to the part of the Locusta insulin-related peptide (IRP) precursor that is situated between the signal peptide and the B-chain. We designated this peptide as IRP copeptide. This IRP copeptide is also present in the pars intercerebralis, which is likely to be the site of synthesis. It is identical in both L. migratoria and S. gregaria. It shows no effect on the hemolymph lipid concentration in vivo or muscle contraction in vitro. The IRP copeptide is able to cause a decreased phosphorylase activity in locust fat body in vitro, opposite to the effect of the adipokinetic hormones and therefore possibly represents a glycogenolysis-inhibiting peptide. PMID:12865323

  8. A variant peptide of buffalo colostrum β-lactoglobulin inhibits angiotensin I-converting enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Rohit, A C; Sathisha, K; Aparna, H S

    2012-07-01

    β-lactoglobulin is a rich source of bioactive peptides. The LC-MS separated tryptic peptides of buffalo colostrum β-lactoglobulin (BLG-col) were computed based on MS-MS fragmentation for de novo sequencing. Among the selected peptides (P1-P8), a variant was detected with methionine at position 74 instead of glutamate. The sequences of two peptides were identical to hypocholesterolemic peptides whereas the remaining peptides were in accordance with buffalo milk β-lactoglobulin. Comparative sequence analysis of BLG-col to milk β-lactoglobulin was carried out using CLUSTALW2 and a molecular model for BLG-col was constructed (PMDB ID-PM0076812). The synthesized variant pentapeptide (IIAMK, m/z-576 Da) was found to inhibit angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) with an IC(50) of 498 ± 2 μM, which was rationalized through docking simulations using Molgrow virtual docker. PMID:22541393

  9. Major Peptides from Amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) Protein Inhibit HMG-CoA Reductase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Rosana Aparecida Manólio; Mendonça, Simone; de Castro, Luíla Ívini Andrade; Menezes, Amanda Caroline Cardoso Corrêa Carlos; Arêas, José Alfredo Gomes

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the major peptides generated by the in vitro hydrolysis of Amaranthus cruentus protein and to verify the effect of these peptides on the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMG-CoA reductase), a key enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. A protein isolate was prepared, and an enzymatic hydrolysis that simulated the in vivo digestion of the protein was performed. After hydrolysis, the peptide mixture was filtered through a 3 kDa membrane. The peptide profile of this mixture was determined by reversed phase high performance chromatography (RP-HPLC), and the peptide identification was performed by LC-ESI MS/MS. Three major peptides under 3 kDa were detected, corresponding to more than 90% of the peptides of similar size produced by enzymatic hydrolysis. The sequences identified were GGV, IVG or LVG and VGVI or VGVL. These peptides had not yet been described for amaranth protein nor are they present in known sequences of amaranth grain protein, except LVG, which can be found in amaranth α‑amylase. Their ability to inhibit the activity of HMG-CoA reductase was determined, and we found that the sequences GGV, IVG, and VGVL, significantly inhibited this enzyme, suggesting a possible hypocholesterolemic effect. PMID:25690031

  10. Proinsulin C-peptide inhibits lipolysis in diabetic rat adipose tissue through phosphodiestrase-3B enzyme.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, A; Omrani, G R; Hadjzadeh, M A; Varedi, M

    2013-03-01

    We have previously reported that C-peptide modulates insulin-mediated inhibition of lipolysis and glucose consumption but has no significant effects per se on adipose tissue of normal rats. It has been repeatedly observed that certain actions of C-peptide are restricted to the diabetic states. In the present study, therefore, we examined whether C-peptide alters lipolysis in adipose tissue of diabetic rats. Rats were rendered diabetic by streptozotocin and divided into 2 groups; insulin treated and untreated. Retroperitoneal adipose tissue was excised aseptically, subjected to organ culture and incubated with rat C-peptide, insulin, or a combination of both peptides in the presence or absence of isoproterenol. Tissue lipolysis was assessed by the rate of glycerol release into the culture media. The cultures were pretreated with cilostamide, a phosphodiesterase-3B enzyme inhibitor, when the role of this enzyme was to be examined. C-Peptide on its own, like insulin, significantly inhibited isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis in the adipose tissue of untreated diabetic rats. The effect was enhanced by a combination of C-peptide and insulin. Notably, the C-peptide's effect was totally blocked in the presence of cilostamide. In the adipose tissue of insulin treated rats, however, C-peptide failed to show any significant antilipolytic effects. These data show that C-peptide has the potential to act, conditionally, as an antilipolytic hormone by activating phosphodiesterase-3B and suggest that the action may contribute to the C-peptide's beneficial effects on diabetes-induced complications. PMID:22990990

  11. Selected antimicrobial peptides inhibit in vitro growth of Campylobacter spp.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Novel alternatives to traditional antibiotics are urgently needed for food-animal production. A goal of our laboratory is to develop and evaluate antimicrobial peptides (AMP) to control and reduce foodborne pathogens in poultry. AMP have been found in most every class of living organism where they h...

  12. Derivatives of the mouse cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) inhibit fungal and bacterial biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    De Brucker, Katrijn; Delattin, Nicolas; Robijns, Stijn; Steenackers, Hans; Verstraeten, Natalie; Landuyt, Bart; Luyten, Walter; Schoofs, Liliane; Dovgan, Barbara; Fröhlich, Mirjam; Michiels, Jan; Vanderleyden, Jos; Cammue, Bruno P A; Thevissen, Karin

    2014-09-01

    We identified a 26-amino-acid truncated form of the 34-amino-acid cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) in the islets of Langerhans of the murine pancreas. This peptide, P318, shares 67% identity with the LL-37 human antimicrobial peptide. As LL-37 displays antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity, we tested antifungal and antibiofilm activity of P318 against the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. P318 shows biofilm-specific activity as it inhibits C. albicans biofilm formation at 0.15 μM without affecting planktonic survival at that concentration. Next, we tested the C. albicans biofilm-inhibitory activity of a series of truncated and alanine-substituted derivatives of P318. Based on the biofilm-inhibitory activity of these derivatives and the length of the peptides, we decided to synthesize the shortened alanine-substituted peptide at position 10 (AS10; KLKKIAQKIKNFFQKLVP). AS10 inhibited C. albicans biofilm formation at 0.22 μM and acted synergistically with amphotericin B and caspofungin against mature biofilms. AS10 also inhibited biofilm formation of different bacteria as well as of fungi and bacteria in a mixed biofilm. In addition, AS10 does not affect the viability or functionality of different cell types involved in osseointegration of an implant, pointing to the potential of AS10 for further development as a lead peptide to coat implants. PMID:24982087

  13. Inhibition of inflammation by a p38 MAP kinase targeted cell permeable peptide.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jing; Meng, Xianmei; He, Junyun; Gu, Jun

    2008-11-01

    p38 MAPK has been the key therapeutic target for multiple inflammation diseases. However, the clinical applications of p38 inhibitors, most of which target on the ATP binding groove in the kinase, have been held back, largely because of their limited specificity and severe side-effects. An alternative strategy to generate highly selective p38 inhibitor is to block the specific interaction in the p38 signal pathway. Based on the hypothesis that specific binding peptides targeting on the docking groove would interfere the intrinsic interaction between p38 and its partners, we have designed a fusion peptide containing 12aa p38 docking sequence derived from MKK3b and 11aa HIV-TAT transmembrane sequence to form a cell permeable peptide. The peptide specifically binds to p38, and aborts its interaction with upstream kinase as well as downstream substrates, and thus to inhibit p38 phosphorylation and its signaling. Furthermore, the induction and secretion of TNFalpha and other inflammatory factors by LPS are blocked in peptide treated cells and mice. Finally the peptide has been shown to significantly inhibit ear oedema in mice. Therefore, the peptide holds great potential as an anti-inflammation agent for the treatment of inflammation and its related diseases. PMID:18991745

  14. Inhibition of VEGF mediated corneal neovascularization by anti-angiogenic peptide nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Senturk, Berna; Cubuk, M Ozgur; Ozmen, M Cuneyt; Aydin, Bahri; Guler, Mustafa O; Tekinay, Ayse B

    2016-11-01

    Atypical angiogenesis is one of the major symptoms of severe eye diseases, including corneal neovascularization, and the complex nature of abnormal vascularization requires targeted methods with high biocompatibility. The targeting of VEGF is the most common approach for preventing angiogenesis, and the LPPR peptide sequence is known to strongly inhibit VEGF activity by binding to the VEGF receptor neuropilin-1. Here, the LPPR epitope is presented on a peptide amphiphile nanofiber system to benefit from multivalency and increase the anti-angiogenic function of the epitope. Peptide amphiphile nanofibers are especially useful for ocular delivery applications due to their ability to remain on the site of interest for extended periods of time, facilitating the long-term presentation of bioactive sequences. Consequently, the LPPR sequence was integrated into a self-assembled peptide amphiphile network to increase its efficiency in the prevention of neovascularization. Anti-angiogenic effects of the peptide nanofibers were investigated by using both in vitro and in vivo models. LPPR-PA nanofibers inhibited endothelial cell proliferation, tube formation, and migration to a greater extent than the soluble LPPR peptide in vitro. In addition, the LPPR-PA nanofiber system led to the prevention of vascular maturation and the regression of angiogenesis in a suture-induced corneal angiogenesis model. These results show that the anti-angiogenic activity exhibited by LPPR peptide nanofibers may be utilized as a promising approach for the treatment of corneal angiogenesis. PMID:27616429

  15. The molecular mechanism of fullerene-inhibited aggregation of Alzheimer's β-amyloid peptide fragment.

    PubMed

    Xie, Luogang; Luo, Yin; Lin, Dongdong; Xi, Wenhui; Yang, Xinju; Wei, Guanghong

    2014-08-21

    Amyloid deposits are implicated in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The inhibition of β-sheet formation has been considered as the primary therapeutic strategy for AD. Increasing data show that nanoparticles can retard or promote the fibrillation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides depending on the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles, however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. In this study, our replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations show that fullerene nanoparticle - C60 (with a fullerene :  peptide molar ratio greater than 1 : 8) can dramatically prevent β-sheet formation of Aβ(16-22) peptides. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments further confirm the inhibitory effect of C60 on Aβ(16-22) fibrillation, in support of our REMD simulations. An important finding from our REMD simulations is that fullerene C180, albeit with the same number of carbon atoms as three C60 molecules (3C60) and smaller surface area than 3C60, displays an unexpected stronger inhibitory effect on the β-sheet formation of Aβ(16-22) peptides. A detailed analysis of the fullerene-peptide interaction reveals that the stronger inhibition of β-sheet formation by C180 results from the strong hydrophobic and aromatic-stacking interactions of the fullerene hexagonal rings with the Phe rings relative to the pentagonal rings. The strong interactions between the fullerene nanoparticles and Aβ(16-22) peptides significantly weaken the peptide-peptide interaction that is important for β-sheet formation, thus retarding Aβ(16-22) fibrillation. Overall, our studies reveal the significant role of fullerene hexagonal rings in the inhibition of Aβ(16-22) fibrillation and provide novel insight into the development of drug candidates against Alzheimer's disease.

  16. Designed Coiled-Coil Peptides Inhibit the Type Three Secretion System of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Larzábal, Mariano; Mercado, Elsa C.; Vilte, Daniel A.; Salazar-González, Hector; Cataldi, Angel; Navarro-Garcia, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Background Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are two categories of E. coli strains associated with human disease. A major virulence factor of both pathotypes is the expression of a type three secretion system (TTSS), responsible for their ability to adhere to gut mucosa causing a characteristic attaching and effacing lesion (A/E). The TTSS translocates effector proteins directly into the host cell that subvert mammalian cell biochemistry. Methods/Principal Findings We examined synthetic peptides designed to inhibit the TTSS. CoilA and CoilB peptides, both representing coiled-coil regions of the translocator protein EspA, and CoilD peptide, corresponding to a coiled–coil region of the needle protein EscF, were effective in inhibiting the TTSS dependent hemolysis of red blood cells by the EPEC E2348/69 strain. CoilA and CoilB peptides also reduced the formation of actin pedestals by the same strain in HEp-2 cells and impaired the TTSS-mediated protein translocation into the epithelial cell. Interestingly, CoilA and CoilB were able to block EspA assembly, destabilizing the TTSS and thereby Tir translocation. This blockage of EspA polymerization by CoilA or CoilB peptides, also inhibited the correct delivery of EspB and EspD as detected by immunoblotting. Interestingly, electron microscopy of bacteria incubated with the CoilA peptide showed a reduction of the length of EspA filaments. Conclusions Our data indicate that coiled-coil peptides can prevent the assembly and thus the functionality of the TTSS apparatus and suggest that these peptides could provide an attractive tool to block EPEC and EHEC pathogenesis. PMID:20140230

  17. Breast cancer growth inhibition by delivery of the MDGI-derived peptide P108.

    PubMed

    Wang, H L; Kurtz, A

    2000-05-11

    Mammary derived growth inhibitor (MDGI) is a member of the family of cytoplasmic fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs), which bind hydrophobic ligands such as fatty acids, retinoids, eicosanoids and prostaglandines. MDGI and an 11 amino acid MDGI-derived conserved C-terminal peptide (P108) inhibits growth of normal mammary epithelial cells in tissue and organ culture, but fails to inhibit proliferation of many breast cancer cell lines in vitro. Here, the effects of peptide P108 on tumor growth of MCF-7, MDA-MB468 and MDA-MB231 human breast cancer cell lines in nude mice were tested. To deliver P108 into tumors, a novel peptide production system was applied for expression and secretion of small bioactive peptides in mammalian cells. Functional differentiation was observed in MCF-7 and MDA-MB468 cells upon P108 expression. In addition, EGF-dependent colony formation in soft agar by MDA-MB468 cells was inhibited by secreted P108. Tumor growth in athymic nude mice was suppressed in all three cell lines tested. Furthermore, P108 expressed by MCF-7/P108 cells caused paracrine tumor growth inhibition of MDA-MB231 cells. These results indicate that breast cancer inhibition by P108 is independent of binding to hydrophobic ligands and is perhaps mediated by interference with EGF-dependent signaling pathways.

  18. Inhibition of regulated cell death by cell-penetrating peptides.

    PubMed

    Krautwald, Stefan; Dewitz, Christin; Fändrich, Fred; Kunzendorf, Ulrich

    2016-06-01

    Development of the means to efficiently and continuously renew missing and non-functional proteins in diseased cells remains a major goal in modern molecular medicine. While gene therapy has the potential to achieve this, substantial obstacles must be overcome before clinical application can be considered. A promising alternative approach is the direct delivery of non-permeant active biomolecules, such as oligonucleotides, peptides and proteins, to the affected cells with the purpose of ameliorating an advanced disease process. In addition to receptor-mediated endocytosis, cell-penetrating peptides are widely used as vectors for rapid translocation of conjugated molecules across cell membranes into intracellular compartments and the delivery of these therapeutic molecules is generally referred to as novel prospective protein therapy. As a broad coverage of the enormous amount of published data in this field is unrewarding, this review will provide a brief, focused overview of the technology and a summary of recent studies of the most commonly used protein transduction domains and their potential as therapeutic agents for the treatment of cellular damage and the prevention of regulated cell death. PMID:27048815

  19. Insect antimicrobial peptides act synergistically to inhibit a trypanosome parasite.

    PubMed

    Marxer, Monika; Vollenweider, Vera; Schmid-Hempel, Paul

    2016-05-26

    The innate immune system provides protection from infection by producing essential effector molecules, such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that possess broad-spectrum activity. This is also the case for bumblebees, Bombus terrestris, when infected by the trypanosome, Crithidia bombi Furthermore, the expressed mixture of AMPs varies with host genetic background and infecting parasite strain (genotype). Here, we used the fact that clones of C. bombi can be cultivated and kept as strains in medium to test the effect of various combinations of AMPs on the growth rate of the parasite. In particular, we used pairwise combinations and a range of physiological concentrations of three AMPs, namely Abaecin, Defensin and Hymenoptaecin, synthetized from the respective genomic sequences. We found that these AMPs indeed suppress the growth of eight different strains of C. bombi, and that combinations of AMPs were typically more effective than the use of a single AMP alone. Furthermore, the most effective combinations were rarely those consisting of maximum concentrations. In addition, the AMP combination treatments revealed parasite strain specificity, such that strains varied in their sensitivity towards the same mixtures. Hence, variable expression of AMPs could be an alternative strategy to combat highly variable infections.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolutionary ecology of arthropod antimicrobial peptides'. PMID:27160603

  20. Inhibition of HIV-1 infection by synthetic peptides derived CCR5 fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Imai, Masaki; Baranyi, Lajos; Okada, Noriko; Okada, Hidechika; E-mail: hiokada@med.nagoya-cu.ac.jp

    2007-02-23

    HIV-1 infection requires interaction of viral envelope protein gp160 with CD4 and a chemokine receptor, CCR5 or CXCR4 as entry coreceptor. We designed HIV-inhibitory peptides targeted to CCR5 using a novel computer program (ANTIS), which searched all possible sense-antisense amino acid pairs between proteins. Seven AHBs were found in CCR5 receptor. All AHB peptides were synthesized and tested for their ability to prevent HIV-1 infection to human T cells. A peptide fragment (LC5) which is a part of the CCR5 receptor corresponding to the loop between the fifth and sixth transmembrane regions (amino acids 222-240) proved to inhibit HIV-1{sub IIIB} infection of MT-4 cells. Interaction of these antisense peptides could be involved in sustaining HIV-1 infectivity. LC5 effectively indicated dose-dependent manner, and the suppression was enhanced additively by T20 peptide, which inhibits infection in vitro by disrupting the gp41 conformational changes necessary for membrane fusion. Thus, these results indicate that CCR5-derived AHB peptides could provide a useful tool to define the mechanism(s) of HIV infection, and may provide insight which will contribute to the development of an anti-HIV-1 reagent.

  1. Inhibition of Ebola Virus Entry by a C-peptide Targeted to Endosomes*

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Emily Happy; Harrison, Joseph S.; Radoshitzky, Sheli R.; Higgins, Chelsea D.; Chi, Xiaoli; Dong, Lian; Kuhn, Jens H.; Bavari, Sina; Lai, Jonathan R.; Chandran, Kartik

    2011-01-01

    Ebola virus (EboV) and Marburg virus (MarV) (filoviruses) are the causative agents of severe hemorrhagic fever. Infection begins with uptake of particles into cellular endosomes, where the viral envelope glycoprotein (GP) catalyzes fusion between the viral and host cell membranes. This fusion event is thought to involve conformational rearrangements of the transmembrane subunit (GP2) of the envelope spike that ultimately result in formation of a six-helix bundle by the N- and C-terminal heptad repeat (NHR and CHR, respectively) regions of GP2. Infection by other viruses employing similar viral entry mechanisms (such as HIV-1 and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus) can be inhibited with synthetic peptides corresponding to the native CHR sequence (“C-peptides”). However, previously reported EboV C-peptides have shown weak or insignificant antiviral activity. To determine whether the activity of a C-peptide could be improved by increasing its intracellular concentration, we prepared an EboV C-peptide conjugated to the arginine-rich sequence from HIV-1 Tat, which is known to accumulate in endosomes. We found that this peptide specifically inhibited viral entry mediated by filovirus GP proteins and infection by authentic filoviruses. We determined that antiviral activity was dependent on both the Tat sequence and the native EboV CHR sequence. Mechanistic studies suggested that the peptide acts by blocking a membrane fusion intermediate. PMID:21454542

  2. Peptides from cowpea present antioxidant activity, inhibit cholesterol synthesis and its solubilisation into micelles.

    PubMed

    Marques, Marcelo Rodrigues; Soares Freitas, Rosana Aparecida Manólio; Corrêa Carlos, Amanda Caroline; Siguemoto, Érica Sayuri; Fontanari, Gustavo Guadagnucci; Arêas, José Alfredo Gomes

    2015-02-01

    In previous studies, it was reported that the protein isolated from the cowpea interferes favourably in lipid metabolism, and reduces cholesterol synthesis. The present study investigated the role of cowpea peptide fractions in the micellar solubilisation of cholesterol, in the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) activity, and in the in vitro antioxidant capacity, considering the effects of thermal processing. The protein was isolated from the raw and cooked beans and digested to simulate human digestion. The peptides from the protein isolate of raw bean with molecular mass lower than 3kDa reduced 89% of the HMGCR enzymatic reaction velocity. The cooked cowpeas were more effective in inhibiting the micellar solubility of cholesterol than the raw ones but not the antioxidant activity. This is the first report that cowpea peptides inhibit cholesterol homeostasis in vitro in two distinct routes, and act as an antioxidant.

  3. Inhibition of Vaccinia virus entry by a broad spectrum antiviral peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Altmann, S.E.; Jones, J.C.; Schultz-Cherry, S.; Brandt, C.R.

    2009-06-05

    Concerns about the possible use of Variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox, as a weapon for bioterrorism have led to renewed efforts to identify new antivirals against orthopoxviruses. We identified a peptide, EB, which inhibited infection by Vaccinia virus with an EC{sub 50} of 15 muM. A control peptide, EBX, identical in composition to EB but differing in sequence, was inactive (EC{sub 50} > 200 muM), indicating sequence specificity. The inhibition was reversed upon removal of the peptide, and EB treatment had no effect on the physical integrity of virus particles as determined by electron microscopy. Viral adsorption was unaffected by the presence of EB, and the addition of EB post-entry had no effect on viral titers or on early gene expression. The addition of EB post-adsorption resulted in the inhibition of beta-galactosidase expression from an early viral promoter with an EC{sub 50} of 45 muM. A significant reduction in virus entry was detected in the presence of the peptide when the number of viral cores released into the cytoplasm was quantified. Electron microscopy indicated that 88% of the virions remained on the surface of cells in the presence of EB, compared to 37% in the control (p < 0.001). EB also blocked fusion-from-within, suggesting that virus infection is inhibited at the fusion step. Analysis of EB derivatives suggested that peptide length may be important for the activity of EB. The EB peptide is, to our knowledge, the first known small molecule inhibitor of Vaccinia virus entry.

  4. Minimal antizyme peptide fully functioning in the binding and inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase and antizyme inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ju-Yi; Yang, Jung-Yen; Lin, Chih-Li; Liu, Guang-Yaw; Hung, Hui-Chih

    2011-01-01

    Antizyme (AZ) is a protein with 228 amino acid residues that regulates ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) by binding to ODC and dissociating its homodimer, thus inhibiting its enzyme activity. Antizyme inhibitor (AZI) is homologous to ODC, but has a higher affinity than ODC for AZ. In this study, we quantified the biomolecular interactions between AZ and ODC as well as AZ and AZI to identify functional AZ peptides that could bind to ODC and AZI and inhibit their function as efficiently as the full-length AZ protein. For these AZ peptides, the inhibitory ability of AZ_95-228 was similar to that of AZ_WT. Furthermore, AZ_95-176 displayed an inhibition (IC(50): 0.20 µM) similar to that of AZ-95-228 (IC(50): 0.16 µM), even though a large segment spanning residues 177-228 was deleted. However, further deletion of AZ_95-176 from either the N-terminus or the C-terminus decreased its ability to inhibit ODC. The AZ_100-176 and AZ_95-169 peptides displayed a noteworthy decrease in ability to inhibit ODC, with IC(50) values of 0.43 and 0.37 µM, respectively. The AZ_95-228, AZ_100-228 and AZ_95-176 peptides had IC(50) values comparable to that of AZ_WT and formed AZ-ODC complexes with K(d,AZ-ODC) values of 1.5, 5.3 and 5.6 µM, respectively. Importantly, our data also indicate that AZI can rescue AZ peptide-inhibited ODC enzyme activity and that it can bind to AZ peptides with a higher affinity than ODC. Together, these data suggest that these truncated AZ proteins retain their AZI-binding ability. Thus, we suggest that AZ_95-176 is the minimal AZ peptide that is fully functioning in the binding of ODC and AZI and inhibition of their function. PMID:21931692

  5. Tryptophan inhibits Proteus vulgaris TnaC leader peptide elongation, activating tna operon expression.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Vera, Luis R; Yang, Rui; Yanofsky, Charles

    2009-11-01

    Expression of the tna operon of Escherichia coli and of Proteus vulgaris is induced by L-tryptophan. In E. coli, tryptophan action is dependent on the presence of several critical residues (underlined) in the newly synthesized TnaC leader peptide, WFNIDXXL/IXXXXP. These residues are conserved in TnaC of P. vulgaris and of other bacterial species. TnaC of P. vulgaris has one additional feature, distinguishing it from TnaC of E. coli; it contains two C-terminal lysine residues following the conserved proline residue. In the present study, we investigated L-tryptophan induction of the P. vulgaris tna operon, transferred on a plasmid into E. coli. Induction was shown to be L-tryptophan dependent; however, the range of induction was less than that observed for the E. coli tna operon. We compared the genetic organization of both operons and predicted similar folding patterns for their respective leader mRNA segments. However, additional analyses revealed that L-tryptophan action in the P. vulgaris tna operon involves inhibition of TnaC elongation, following addition of proline, rather than inhibition of leader peptide termination. Our findings also establish that the conserved residues in TnaC of P. vulgaris are essential for L-tryptophan induction, and for inhibition of peptide elongation. TnaC synthesis is thus an excellent model system for studies of regulation of both peptide termination and peptide elongation, and for studies of ribosome recognition of the features of a nascent peptide. PMID:19767424

  6. Inhibition of Sendai virus fusion with phospholipid vesicles and human erythrocyte membranes by hydrophobic peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Kelsey, D.R.; Flanagan, T.D.; Young, J.E.; Yeagle, P.L. )

    1991-06-01

    Hydrophobic di- and tripeptides which are capable of inhibiting enveloped virus infection of cells are also capable of inhibiting at least three different types of membrane fusion events. Large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) of N-methyl dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (N-methyl DOPE), containing encapsulated 1-aminonaphthalene-3,6,8-trisulfonic acid (ANTS) and/or p-xylene bis(pyridinium bromide) (DPX), were formed by extrusion. Vesicle fusion and leakage were then monitored with the ANTS/DPX fluorescence assay. Sendai virus fusion with lipid vesicles and Sendai virus fusion with human erythrocyte membranes were measured by following the relief of fluorescence quenching of virus labeled with octadecylrhodamine B chloride (R18). This study found that the effectiveness of the peptides carbobenzoxy-L-Phe-L-Phe (Z-L-Phe-L-Phe), Z-L-Phe, Z-D-Phe, and Z-Gly-L-Phe-L-Phe in inhibiting N-methyl DOPE LUV fusion or fusion of virus with N-methyl DOPE LUV also paralleled their reported ability to block viral infectivity. Furthermore, Z-D-Phe-L-PheGly and Z-Gly-L-Phe inhibited Sendai virus fusion with human erythrocyte membranes with the same relative potency with which they inhibited vesicle-vesicle and virus-vesicle fusion. The evidence suggests a mechanism by which these peptides exert their inhibition of plaque formation by enveloped viruses. This class of inhibitors apparently acts by inhibiting fusion of the viral envelope with the target cell membrane, thereby preventing viral infection. The physical pathway by which these peptides inhibit membrane fusion was investigated. {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of proposed intermediates in the pathway for membrane fusion in LUV revealed that the potent fusion inhibitor Z-D-Phe-L-PheGly selectively altered the structure (or dynamics) of the hypothesized fusion intermediates and that the poor inhibitor Z-Gly-L-Phe did not.

  7. Electroporation-based delivery of cell-penetrating peptide conjugates of peptide nucleic acids for antisense inhibition of intracellular bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ma, Sai; Schroeder, Betsy; Sun, Chen; Loufakis, Despina Nelie; Cao, Zhenning; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Lu, Chang

    2014-10-01

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been used for a myriad of cellular delivery applications and were recently explored for delivery of antisense agents such as peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) for bacterial inhibition. Although these molecular systems (i.e. CPP-PNAs) have shown ability to inhibit growth of bacterial cultures in vitro, they show limited effectiveness in killing encapsulated intracellular bacteria in mammalian cells such as macrophages, presumably due to difficulty involved in the endosomal escape of the reagents. In this report, we show that electroporation delivery dramatically increases the bioavailability of CPP-PNAs to kill Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 inside macrophages. Electroporation delivers the molecules without involving endocytosis and greatly increases the antisense effect. The decrease in the average number of Salmonella per macrophage under a 1200 V cm(-1) and 5 ms pulse was a factor of 9 higher than that without electroporation (in an experiment with a multiplicity of infection of 2 : 1). Our results suggest that electroporation is an effective approach for a wide range of applications involving CPP-based delivery. The microfluidic format will allow convenient functional screening and testing of PNA-based reagents for antisense applications.

  8. Inhibition of Arenavirus Infection by a Glycoprotein-Derived Peptide with a Novel Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Jennifer S.; Melnik, Lilia I.; Badani, Hussain; Wimley, William C.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The family Arenaviridae includes a number of viruses of public health importance, such as the category A hemorrhagic fever viruses Lassa virus, Junin virus, Machupo virus, Guanarito virus, and Sabia virus. Current chemotherapy for arenavirus infection is limited to the nucleoside analogue ribavirin, which is characterized by considerable toxicity and treatment failure. Using Pichinde virus as a model arenavirus, we attempted to design glycoprotein-derived fusion inhibitors similar to the FDA-approved anti-HIV peptide enfuvirtide. We have identified a GP2-derived peptide, AVP-p, with antiviral activity and no acute cytotoxicity. The 50% inhibitory dose (IC50) for the peptide is 7 μM, with complete inhibition of viral plaque formation at approximately 20 μM, and its antiviral activity is largely sequence dependent. AVP-p demonstrates activity against viruses with the Old and New World arenavirus viral glycoprotein complex but not against enveloped viruses of other families. Unexpectedly, fusion assays reveal that the peptide induces virus-liposome fusion at neutral pH and that the process is strictly glycoprotein mediated. As observed in cryo-electron micrographs, AVP-p treatment causes morphological changes consistent with fusion protein activation in virions, including the disappearance of prefusion glycoprotein spikes and increased particle diameters, and fluorescence microscopy shows reduced binding by peptide-treated virus. Steady-state fluorescence anisotropy measurements suggest that glycoproteins are destabilized by peptide-induced alterations in viral membrane order. We conclude that untimely deployment of fusion machinery by the peptide could render virions less able to engage in on-pathway receptor binding or endosomal fusion. AVP-p may represent a potent, highly specific, novel therapeutic strategy for arenavirus infection. IMPORTANCE Because the only drug available to combat infection by Lassa virus, a highly pathogenic arenavirus, is toxic

  9. PEPTIDE INHIBITORS OF MK2 SHOW PROMISE FOR INHIBITION OF ABDOMINAL ADHESIONS

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Brian C.; Kavalukas, Sandra; Brugnano, Jamie; Barbul, Adrian; Panitch, Alyssa

    2011-01-01

    Background Abdominal adhesions are a common side effect of surgical procedures with complications including infertility, chronic pain, and bowel obstruction, which may lead to the need for surgical lyses of the adhesions. Mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) has been implicated in several diseases involving inflammation and fibrosis. Thus, the development of a cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) that modulates MK2 activity may confer therapeutic benefit after abdominal surgery in general and more specifically after bowel anastomosis. Study Design This study evaluated the function of a CPP inhibitor of MK2 in human mesothelial cells and in a rat bowel anastomosis model. To determine IC50 and basic specificity, kinase inhibition was performed using a radiometric assay. Enzyme-Linked Immunoassay (ELISA) was used to evaluate interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression in response to IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) stimulation in vitro to validate MK2 kinase inhibition. Following bowel anastomosis (10 rats for each control and treatment at 4 and 10 days), the rats were evaluated for weight loss, normal healing (colonic burst strength and hydroxyproline content at the anastomosis), and number and density of adhesions. Results The IC50 of the MK2 inhibitor peptide (22µM) was similar to that of the nonspecific small molecule Rottlerin (IC50=5µM). The MK2 inhibitor peptide was effective at suppressing IL-1β and TNF-α stimulated IL-6 expression in mesothelial cells. In vivo, the MK2 inhibitor peptide was effective as suppressing both the density and number of adhesions formed as a result of bowel anastomosis. Importantly, the peptide had no negative effect on normal healing. Conclusions In conclusion, the peptide inhibitor of MK2, MMI-0100, has the potential to significantly reduce inflammation through suppression of inflammatory cytokine expression and showed promise as a therapeutic for abdominal adhesions. PMID:21492875

  10. Rgg protein structure-function and inhibition by cyclic peptide compounds.

    PubMed

    Parashar, Vijay; Aggarwal, Chaitanya; Federle, Michael J; Neiditch, Matthew B

    2015-04-21

    Peptide pheromone cell-cell signaling (quorum sensing) regulates the expression of diverse developmental phenotypes (including virulence) in Firmicutes, which includes common human pathogens, e.g., Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Cytoplasmic transcription factors known as "Rgg proteins" are peptide pheromone receptors ubiquitous in Firmicutes. Here we present X-ray crystal structures of a Streptococcus Rgg protein alone and in complex with a tight-binding signaling antagonist, the cyclic undecapeptide cyclosporin A. To our knowledge, these represent the first Rgg protein X-ray crystal structures. Based on the results of extensive structure-function analysis, we reveal the peptide pheromone-binding site and the mechanism by which cyclosporin A inhibits activation of the peptide pheromone receptor. Guided by the Rgg-cyclosporin A complex structure, we predicted that the nonimmunosuppressive cyclosporin A analog valspodar would inhibit Rgg activation. Indeed, we found that, like cyclosporin A, valspodar inhibits peptide pheromone activation of conserved Rgg proteins in medically relevant Streptococcus species. Finally, the crystal structures presented here revealed that the Rgg protein DNA-binding domains are covalently linked across their dimerization interface by a disulfide bond formed by a highly conserved cysteine. The DNA-binding domain dimerization interface observed in our structures is essentially identical to the interfaces previously described for other members of the XRE DNA-binding domain family, but the presence of an intermolecular disulfide bond buried in this interface appears to be unique. We hypothesize that this disulfide bond may, under the right conditions, affect Rgg monomer-dimer equilibrium, stabilize Rgg conformation, or serve as a redox-sensitive switch.

  11. Isolation and characterization of two peptides with prolactin release-inhibiting activity from porcine hypothalami.

    PubMed Central

    Schally, A V; Guoth, J G; Redding, T W; Groot, K; Rodriguez, H; Szonyi, E; Stults, J; Nikolics, K

    1991-01-01

    Two peptides with in vitro prolactin release-inhibiting activity were purified from stalk median eminence (SME) fragments of 20,000 pig hypothalami. Monolayer cultures of rat anterior pituitary cells were incubated with aliquots of chromatographic fractions and the inhibition of release of prolactin in vitro was measured by RIA in order to monitor the purification. The hypothalamic tissue extract was separated into 11 fractions by high-performance aqueous size-exclusion chromatography with one fraction showing a 4-fold increase in prolactin release-inhibiting factor (PIF) activity. This material was further purified by semipreparative reversed-phase (RP) HPLC. This process resulted in the separation of two distinct fractions that showed high PIF activity. These were further purified by semipreparative and analytical RP-HPLC to apparent homogeneity as judged by the UV absorbance profiles. Neither of the two peptides showed cross-reactivity with gonadotropin releasing hormone-associated peptide or with somatostatin-14 antibodies. Protein sequence analysis revealed that one of the PIF peptides was Trp-Cys-Leu-Glu-Ser-Ser-Gln-Cys-Gln-Asp-Leu-Ser-Thr-Glu-Ser-Asn-Leu-Leu- Ala-Cys - Ile-Arg-Ala-Cys-Lys-Pro, identical to residues 27-52 of the N-terminal region of the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) precursor (corresponding to amino acids 1-26 of the 16-kDa fragment). The sequence of the other PIF was Ala-Ser-Asp-Arg-Ser-Asn-Ala-Thr-Leu-Leu-Asp-Gly-Pro-Ser-Gly-Ala-Leu-Leu- Leu-Arg - Leu-Val-Gln-Leu-Ala-Gly-Ala-Pro-Glu-Pro-Ala-Glu-Pro-Ala-Gln-Pro-Gly-Val- Tyr, representing residues 109-147 of the vasopressin-neurophysin precursor. Synthetic peptides corresponding to the N-terminal region of POMC had significant PIF activity in vitro. PMID:2023899

  12. Efflux by small multidrug resistance proteins is inhibited by membrane-interactive helix-stapled peptides.

    PubMed

    Bellmann-Sickert, Kathrin; Stone, Tracy A; Poulsen, Bradley E; Deber, Charles M

    2015-01-16

    Bacterial cell membranes contain several protein pumps that resist the toxic effects of drugs by efficiently extruding them. One family of these pumps, the small multidrug resistance proteins (SMRs), consists of proteins of about 110 residues that need to oligomerize to form a structural pathway for substrate extrusion. As such, SMR oligomerization sites should constitute viable targets for efflux inhibition, by disrupting protein-protein interactions between helical segments. To explore this proposition, we are using Hsmr, an SMR from Halobacter salinarum that dimerizes to extrude toxicants. Our previous work established that (i) Hsmr dimerization is mediated by a helix-helix interface in Hsmr transmembrane (TM) helix 4 (residues (90)GLALIVAGV(98)); and (ii) a peptide comprised of the full TM4(85-105) sequence inhibits Hsmr-mediated ethidium bromide efflux from bacterial cells. Here we define the minimal linear sequence for inhibitor activity (determined as TM4(88-100), and then "staple" this sequence via Grubbs metathesis to produce peptides typified by acetyl-A-(Sar)3-(88)VVGLXLIZXGVVV(100)-KKK-NH2 (X = 2-(4'-pentenyl)alanine at positions 92 and 96; Z = Val, Gly, or Asn at position 95)). The Asn(95) peptide displayed specific efflux inhibition and resensitization of Hsmr-expressing cells to ethidium bromide; and was non-hemolytic to human red blood cells. Stapling essentially prevented peptide degradation in blood plasma and liver homogenates versus an unstapled counterpart. The overall results confirm that the stapled analog of TM4(88-100) retains the structural complementarity required to disrupt the Hsmr TM4-TM4 locus in Hsmr, and portend the general validity of stapled peptides as therapeutics for the disruption of functional protein-protein interactions in membranes.

  13. Efflux by Small Multidrug Resistance Proteins Is Inhibited by Membrane-interactive Helix-stapled Peptides*

    PubMed Central

    Bellmann-Sickert, Kathrin; Stone, Tracy A.; Poulsen, Bradley E.; Deber, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial cell membranes contain several protein pumps that resist the toxic effects of drugs by efficiently extruding them. One family of these pumps, the small multidrug resistance proteins (SMRs), consists of proteins of about 110 residues that need to oligomerize to form a structural pathway for substrate extrusion. As such, SMR oligomerization sites should constitute viable targets for efflux inhibition, by disrupting protein-protein interactions between helical segments. To explore this proposition, we are using Hsmr, an SMR from Halobacter salinarum that dimerizes to extrude toxicants. Our previous work established that (i) Hsmr dimerization is mediated by a helix-helix interface in Hsmr transmembrane (TM) helix 4 (residues 90GLALIVAGV98); and (ii) a peptide comprised of the full TM4(85–105) sequence inhibits Hsmr-mediated ethidium bromide efflux from bacterial cells. Here we define the minimal linear sequence for inhibitor activity (determined as TM4(88–100), and then “staple” this sequence via Grubbs metathesis to produce peptides typified by acetyl-A-(Sar)3-88VVGLXLIZXGVVV100-KKK-NH2 (X = 2-(4′-pentenyl)alanine at positions 92 and 96; Z = Val, Gly, or Asn at position 95)). The Asn95 peptide displayed specific efflux inhibition and resensitization of Hsmr-expressing cells to ethidium bromide; and was non-hemolytic to human red blood cells. Stapling essentially prevented peptide degradation in blood plasma and liver homogenates versus an unstapled counterpart. The overall results confirm that the stapled analog of TM4(88–100) retains the structural complementarity required to disrupt the Hsmr TM4-TM4 locus in Hsmr, and portend the general validity of stapled peptides as therapeutics for the disruption of functional protein-protein interactions in membranes. PMID:25425644

  14. Rgg protein structure–function and inhibition by cyclic peptide compounds

    PubMed Central

    Parashar, Vijay; Aggarwal, Chaitanya; Federle, Michael J.; Neiditch, Matthew B.

    2015-01-01

    Peptide pheromone cell–cell signaling (quorum sensing) regulates the expression of diverse developmental phenotypes (including virulence) in Firmicutes, which includes common human pathogens, e.g., Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Cytoplasmic transcription factors known as “Rgg proteins” are peptide pheromone receptors ubiquitous in Firmicutes. Here we present X-ray crystal structures of a Streptococcus Rgg protein alone and in complex with a tight-binding signaling antagonist, the cyclic undecapeptide cyclosporin A. To our knowledge, these represent the first Rgg protein X-ray crystal structures. Based on the results of extensive structure–function analysis, we reveal the peptide pheromone-binding site and the mechanism by which cyclosporin A inhibits activation of the peptide pheromone receptor. Guided by the Rgg–cyclosporin A complex structure, we predicted that the nonimmunosuppressive cyclosporin A analog valspodar would inhibit Rgg activation. Indeed, we found that, like cyclosporin A, valspodar inhibits peptide pheromone activation of conserved Rgg proteins in medically relevant Streptococcus species. Finally, the crystal structures presented here revealed that the Rgg protein DNA-binding domains are covalently linked across their dimerization interface by a disulfide bond formed by a highly conserved cysteine. The DNA-binding domain dimerization interface observed in our structures is essentially identical to the interfaces previously described for other members of the XRE DNA-binding domain family, but the presence of an intermolecular disulfide bond buried in this interface appears to be unique. We hypothesize that this disulfide bond may, under the right conditions, affect Rgg monomer–dimer equilibrium, stabilize Rgg conformation, or serve as a redox-sensitive switch. PMID:25847993

  15. Tyrosine-sulfated V2 peptides inhibit HIV-1 infection via coreceptor mimicry.

    PubMed

    Cimbro, Raffaello; Peterson, Francis C; Liu, Qingbo; Guzzo, Christina; Zhang, Peng; Miao, Huiyi; Van Ryk, Donald; Ambroggio, Xavier; Hurt, Darrell E; De Gioia, Luca; Volkman, Brian F; Dolan, Michael A; Lusso, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    Tyrosine sulfation is a post-translational modification that facilitates protein-protein interaction. Two sulfated tyrosines (Tys173 and Tys177) were recently identified within the second variable (V2) loop of the major HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, gp120, and shown to contribute to stabilizing the intramolecular interaction between V2 and the third variable (V3) loop. Here, we report that tyrosine-sulfated peptides derived from V2 act as structural and functional mimics of the CCR5 N-terminus and potently block HIV-1 infection. Nuclear magnetic and surface plasmon resonance analyses indicate that a tyrosine-sulfated V2 peptide (pV2α-Tys) adopts a CCR5-like helical conformation and directly interacts with gp120 in a CD4-dependent fashion, competing with a CCR5 N-terminal peptide. Sulfated V2 mimics, but not their non-sulfated counterparts, inhibit HIV-1 entry and fusion by preventing coreceptor utilization, with the highly conserved C-terminal sulfotyrosine, Tys177, playing a dominant role. Unlike CCR5 N-terminal peptides, V2 mimics inhibit a broad range of HIV-1 strains irrespective of their coreceptor tropism, highlighting the overall structural conservation of the coreceptor-binding site in gp120. These results document the use of receptor mimicry by a retrovirus to occlude a key neutralization target site and provide leads for the design of therapeutic strategies against HIV-1. PMID:27389109

  16. Monoclonal Antibodies Inhibit in vitro Fibrillar Aggregation of the Alzheimer β -Amyloid Peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Beka; Koppel, Rela; Hanan, Eilat; Katzav, Tamar

    1996-01-01

    The β -amyloid peptide, the hallmark of Alzheimer disease, forms fibrillar toxic aggregates in brain tissue that can be dissolved only by strong denaturing agents. To study β -amyloid formation and its inhibition, we prepared immune complexes with two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), AMY-33 and 6F/3D, raised against β -amyloid fragments spanning amino acid residues 1-28 and 8-17 of the β -amyloid peptide chain, respectively. In vitro aggregation of β -amyloid peptide was induced by incubation for 3 h at 37 degrees C and monitored by ELISA, negative staining electron microscopy, and fluorimetric studies. We found that the mAbs prevent the aggregation of β -amyloid peptide and that the inhibitory effect appears to be related to the localization of the antibody-binding sites and the nature of the aggregating agents. Preparation of mAbs against ``aggregating epitopes,'' defined as sequences related to the sites where protein aggregation is initiated, may lead to the understanding and prevention of protein aggregation. The results of this study may provide a foundation for using mAbs in vivo to prevent the β -amyloid peptide aggregation that is associated with Alzheimer disease.

  17. Methionine oxidation of amyloid peptides by peroxovanadium complexes: inhibition of fibril formation through a distinct mechanism.

    PubMed

    He, Lei; Wang, Xuesong; Zhu, Dengsen; Zhao, Cong; Du, Weihong

    2015-12-01

    Fibril formation of amyloid peptides is linked to a number of pathological states. The prion protein (PrP) and amyloid-β (Aβ) are two remarkable examples that are correlated with prion disorders and Alzheimer's disease, respectively. Metal complexes, such as those formed by platinum and ruthenium compounds, can act as inhibitors against peptide aggregation primarily through metal coordination. This study revealed the inhibitory effect of two peroxovanadium complexes, (NH4)[VO(O2)2(bipy)]·4H2O (1) and (NH4)[VO(O2)2(phen)]·2H2O (2), on amyloid fibril formation of PrP106-126 and Aβ1-42via site-specific oxidation of methionine residues, besides direct binding of the complexes with the peptides. Complexes 1 and 2 showed higher anti-amyloidogenic activity on PrP106-126 aggregation than on Aβ1-42, though their regulation on the cytotoxicity induced by the two peptides could not be differentiated. The action efficacy may be attributed to the different molecular structures of the vanadium complex and the peptide sequence. Results reflected that methionine oxidation may be a crucial action mode in inhibiting amyloid fibril formation. This study offers a possible application value for peroxovanadium complexes against amyloid proteins. PMID:26444976

  18. Methionine oxidation of amyloid peptides by peroxovanadium complexes: inhibition of fibril formation through a distinct mechanism.

    PubMed

    He, Lei; Wang, Xuesong; Zhu, Dengsen; Zhao, Cong; Du, Weihong

    2015-12-01

    Fibril formation of amyloid peptides is linked to a number of pathological states. The prion protein (PrP) and amyloid-β (Aβ) are two remarkable examples that are correlated with prion disorders and Alzheimer's disease, respectively. Metal complexes, such as those formed by platinum and ruthenium compounds, can act as inhibitors against peptide aggregation primarily through metal coordination. This study revealed the inhibitory effect of two peroxovanadium complexes, (NH4)[VO(O2)2(bipy)]·4H2O (1) and (NH4)[VO(O2)2(phen)]·2H2O (2), on amyloid fibril formation of PrP106-126 and Aβ1-42via site-specific oxidation of methionine residues, besides direct binding of the complexes with the peptides. Complexes 1 and 2 showed higher anti-amyloidogenic activity on PrP106-126 aggregation than on Aβ1-42, though their regulation on the cytotoxicity induced by the two peptides could not be differentiated. The action efficacy may be attributed to the different molecular structures of the vanadium complex and the peptide sequence. Results reflected that methionine oxidation may be a crucial action mode in inhibiting amyloid fibril formation. This study offers a possible application value for peroxovanadium complexes against amyloid proteins.

  19. Glucagon-like peptide-1 inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell dedifferentiation through mitochondrial dynamics regulation.

    PubMed

    Torres, Gloria; Morales, Pablo E; García-Miguel, Marina; Norambuena-Soto, Ignacio; Cartes-Saavedra, Benjamín; Vidal-Peña, Gonzalo; Moncada-Ruff, David; Sanhueza-Olivares, Fernanda; San Martín, Alejandra; Chiong, Mario

    2016-03-15

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a neuroendocrine hormone produced by gastrointestinal tract in response to food ingestion. GLP-1 plays a very important role in the glucose homeostasis by stimulating glucose-dependent insulin secretion, inhibiting glucagon secretion, inhibiting gastric emptying, reducing appetite and food intake. Because of these actions, the GLP-1 peptide-mimetic exenatide is one of the most promising new medicines for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In vivo treatments with GLP-1 or exenatide prevent neo-intima layer formation in response to endothelial damage and atherosclerotic lesion formation in aortic tissue. Whether GLP-1 modulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and proliferation by controlling mitochondrial dynamics is unknown. In this report, we showed that GLP-1 increased mitochondrial fusion and activity in a PKA-dependent manner in the VSMC cell line A7r5. GLP-1 induced a Ser-637 phosphorylation in the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1, and decreased Drp1 mitochondrial localization. GLP-1 inhibited PDGF-BB-induced VSMC migration and proliferation, actions inhibited by overexpressing wild type Drp1 and mimicked by the Drp1 inhibitor Mdivi-1 and by overexpressing dominant negative Drp1. These results show that GLP-1 stimulates mitochondrial fusion, increases mitochondrial activity and decreases PDGF-BB-induced VSMC dedifferentiation by a PKA/Drp1 signaling pathway. Our data suggest that GLP-1 inhibits vascular remodeling through a mitochondrial dynamics-dependent mechanism.

  20. Glucagon-like peptide-1 inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell dedifferentiation through mitochondrial dynamics regulation.

    PubMed

    Torres, Gloria; Morales, Pablo E; García-Miguel, Marina; Norambuena-Soto, Ignacio; Cartes-Saavedra, Benjamín; Vidal-Peña, Gonzalo; Moncada-Ruff, David; Sanhueza-Olivares, Fernanda; San Martín, Alejandra; Chiong, Mario

    2016-03-15

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a neuroendocrine hormone produced by gastrointestinal tract in response to food ingestion. GLP-1 plays a very important role in the glucose homeostasis by stimulating glucose-dependent insulin secretion, inhibiting glucagon secretion, inhibiting gastric emptying, reducing appetite and food intake. Because of these actions, the GLP-1 peptide-mimetic exenatide is one of the most promising new medicines for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In vivo treatments with GLP-1 or exenatide prevent neo-intima layer formation in response to endothelial damage and atherosclerotic lesion formation in aortic tissue. Whether GLP-1 modulates vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration and proliferation by controlling mitochondrial dynamics is unknown. In this report, we showed that GLP-1 increased mitochondrial fusion and activity in a PKA-dependent manner in the VSMC cell line A7r5. GLP-1 induced a Ser-637 phosphorylation in the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1, and decreased Drp1 mitochondrial localization. GLP-1 inhibited PDGF-BB-induced VSMC migration and proliferation, actions inhibited by overexpressing wild type Drp1 and mimicked by the Drp1 inhibitor Mdivi-1 and by overexpressing dominant negative Drp1. These results show that GLP-1 stimulates mitochondrial fusion, increases mitochondrial activity and decreases PDGF-BB-induced VSMC dedifferentiation by a PKA/Drp1 signaling pathway. Our data suggest that GLP-1 inhibits vascular remodeling through a mitochondrial dynamics-dependent mechanism. PMID:26807480

  1. Inhibition of pepsin by analogues of pepsinogen-(1-12)-peptide with substitutions in the 4-7 sequence region.

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, B M; Lewitt, M; Pham, C

    1983-01-01

    Derivatives of the 1-12 sequence of pig pepsinogen were prepared by solid-phase peptide synthesis. The three derivatives contain substitutions in the 4-7 region of the 1-12 sequence. Glycine was used to replace the hydrophobic residues -Val-Pro-Leu-Val- in pairs. After cleavage and purification, the synthetic peptides were compared with a synthetic peptide of the native sequence, prepared at the same time, with respect to their ability to inhibit the pepsin-catalysed clotting of milk. Inhibitory potency, determined from plots of percentage inhibition versus concentration of synthetic peptide, is inversely correlated with the substitution of glycine residues for the hydrophobic residues. Therefore the equilibrium inhibition of pepsin by these peptides is dominated by the hydrophobic nature of the 4-7 sequence region. PMID:6405735

  2. The molecular mechanism of fullerene-inhibited aggregation of Alzheimer's β-amyloid peptide fragment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Luogang; Luo, Yin; Lin, Dongdong; Xi, Wenhui; Yang, Xinju; Wei, Guanghong

    2014-07-01

    Amyloid deposits are implicated in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The inhibition of β-sheet formation has been considered as the primary therapeutic strategy for AD. Increasing data show that nanoparticles can retard or promote the fibrillation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides depending on the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles, however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. In this study, our replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations show that fullerene nanoparticle - C60 (with a fullerene : peptide molar ratio greater than 1 : 8) can dramatically prevent β-sheet formation of Aβ(16-22) peptides. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments further confirm the inhibitory effect of C60 on Aβ(16-22) fibrillation, in support of our REMD simulations. An important finding from our REMD simulations is that fullerene C180, albeit with the same number of carbon atoms as three C60 molecules (3C60) and smaller surface area than 3C60, displays an unexpected stronger inhibitory effect on the β-sheet formation of Aβ(16-22) peptides. A detailed analysis of the fullerene-peptide interaction reveals that the stronger inhibition of β-sheet formation by C180 results from the strong hydrophobic and aromatic-stacking interactions of the fullerene hexagonal rings with the Phe rings relative to the pentagonal rings. The strong interactions between the fullerene nanoparticles and Aβ(16-22) peptides significantly weaken the peptide-peptide interaction that is important for β-sheet formation, thus retarding Aβ(16-22) fibrillation. Overall, our studies reveal the significant role of fullerene hexagonal rings in the inhibition of Aβ(16-22) fibrillation and provide novel insight into the development of drug candidates against Alzheimer's disease.Amyloid deposits are implicated in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The inhibition of

  3. Synthesis and in vitro inhibition properties of oligonucleotide conjugates carrying amphipathic proline-rich peptide derivatives of the sweet arrow peptide (SAP).

    PubMed

    Grijalvo, Santiago; Eritja, Ramon

    2012-05-01

    In this study, a series of derivatives of the amphipathic proline-rich sweet arrow peptide (SAP) were covalently linked to antisense oligonucleotides designed to inhibit Renilla luciferase gene. Oligonucleotide-peptide conjugates carrying lysine (Lys) and ornithine (Orn) residues were prepared using the stepwise approach by assembling first the peptide sequence followed by the assembly of the DNA molecule. The resulting Lys, Orn-conjugates were transformed to the corresponding arginine and homoarginine oligonucleotide-peptide conjugates by reaction with O-methylisourea. The introduction of the SAP at 3'-termini of a phosphorothioate oligonucleotide did not affect the ability to inhibit gene expression when transfected with lipofectamine. However, these conjugates were not able to enter cells without transfecting agent. Further studies using SAP as a transfection agent showed promising results for the conjugates carrying the Orn-SAP. All conjugates showed high duplex stabilities.

  4. Inhibition of Influenza A Virus Infection In Vitro by Peptides Designed In Silico

    PubMed Central

    López-Martínez, Rogelio; Ramírez-Salinas, G. Lizbeth; Correa-Basurto, José; Barrón, Blanca L.

    2013-01-01

    Influenza A viruses are enveloped, segmented negative single-stranded RNA viruses, capable of causing severe human respiratory infections. Currently, only two types of drugs are used to treat influenza A infections, the M2 H+ ion channel blockers (amantadine and rimantadine) and the neuraminidase inhibitors (NAI) (oseltamivir and zanamivir). Moreover, the emergence of drug-resistant influenza A virus strains has emphasized the need to develop new antiviral agents to complement or replace the existing drugs. Influenza A virus has on the surface a glycoprotein named hemagglutinin (HA) which due to its important role in the initial stage of infection: receptor binding and fusion activities of viral and endosomal membranes, is a potential target for new antiviral drugs. In this work we designed nine peptides using several bioinformatics tools. These peptides were derived from the HA1 and HA2 subunits of influenza A HA with the aim to inhibit influenza A virus infection. The peptides were synthetized and their antiviral activity was tested in vitro against several influenza A viral strains: Puerto Rico/916/34 (H1N1), (H1N1)pdm09, swine (H1N1) and avian (H5N2). We found these peptides were able to inhibit the influenza A viral strains tested, without showing any cytotoxic effect. By docking studies we found evidence that all the peptides were capable to bind to the viral HA, principally to important regions on the viral HA stalk, thus could prevent the HA conformational changes required to carry out its membranes fusion activity. PMID:24146939

  5. Peptidoglycan Branched Stem Peptides Contribute to Streptococcus pneumoniae Virulence by Inhibiting Pneumolysin Release

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Neil G.; Narciso, Ana R.; Filipe, Sergio R.; Camilli, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) colonizes the human nasopharynx and is a significant pathogen worldwide. Pneumolysin (Ply) is a multi-functional, extracellular virulence factor produced by this organism that is critical for pathogenesis. Despite the absence of any apparent secretion or cell surface attachment motifs, Ply localizes to the cell envelope of actively growing cells. We sought to characterize the consequences of this surface localization. Through functional assays with whole cells and subcellular fractions, we determined that Ply activity and its release into the extracellular environment are inhibited by peptidoglycan (PG) structure. The ability of PG to inhibit Ply release was dependent on the stem peptide composition of this macromolecule, which was manipulated by mutation of the murMN operon that encodes proteins responsible for branched stem peptide synthesis. Additionally, removal of choline-binding proteins from the cell surface significantly reduced Ply release to levels observed in a mutant with a high proportion of branched stem peptides suggesting a link between this structural feature and surface-associated choline-binding proteins involved in PG metabolism. Of clinical relevance, we also demonstrate that a hyperactive, mosaic murMN allele associated with penicillin resistance causes decreased Ply release with concomitant increases in the amount of branched stem peptides. Finally, using a murMN deletion mutant, we observed that increased Ply release is detrimental to virulence during a murine model of pneumonia. Taken together, our results reveal a novel role for branched stem peptides in pneumococcal pathogenesis and demonstrate the importance of controlled Ply release during infection. These results highlight the importance of PG composition in pathogenesis and may have broad implications for the diverse PG structures observed in other bacterial pathogens. PMID:26114646

  6. Peptide inhibition of constitutively activated epithelial Na(+) channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Ji, H L; Fuller, C M; Benos, D J

    1999-12-31

    The hypothesis that 30-amino acid peptides corresponding to the C-terminal portion of the beta- and/or gamma-rat epithelial sodium channel (rENaC) subunits block constitutively activated ENaC was tested by examining the effects of these peptides on wild-type (wt) rENaC (alphabetagamma-rENaC), truncated Liddle's mutants (alphabeta(T)gamma-, alphabetagamma(T)-, and alphabeta(T)gamma(T)-rENaC), and point mutants (alphabeta(Y)gamma-, alphabetagamma(Y)-rENaC) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The chord conductances of alphabeta(T)gamma-, alphabetagamma(T)-, and alphabeta(T)gamma(T)-rENaC were 2- or 3-fold greater than for wt alphabetagamma-rENaC. Introduction of peptides into oocytes expressing alphabeta(T)gamma-, alphabetagamma(T)-, and alphabeta(T)gamma(T)-rENaC produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of the amiloride-sensitive Na(+) conductances, with apparent dissociation constants (K(d)) ranging from 1700 to 160 microM, depending upon whether individual peptides or their combination was used. Injection of peptides alone or in combination into oocytes expressing wt alphabetagamma-rENaC or single-point mutants did not affect the amiloride-sensitive whole-cell currents. The single channel conductances of all the mutant ENaCs were the same as that of wild type (alphabetagamma-). The single channel activities (N.P(o)) of the mutants were approximately 2.2-2.6-fold greater than wt alphabetagamma-rENaC (1.08 +/- 0.24, n = 7) and were reduced to 1.09 +/- 0.17 by 100 microM peptide mixture (n = 9). The peptides were without effect on the single channel properties of either wt or single-point mutants of rENaC. Our data demonstrate that the C-terminal peptides blocked the Liddle's truncation mutant (alphabeta(T)gamma(T)) expressed in Xenopus oocytes but not the single-point mutants (alphabeta(Y)gamma or alphabetagamma(Y)). Moreover, the blocking effect of both peptides in combination on alphabeta(T)gamma(T)-rENaC was synergistic. PMID:10608827

  7. Ebolavirus Δ-Peptide Immunoadhesins Inhibit Marburgvirus and Ebolavirus Cell Entry▿

    PubMed Central

    Radoshitzky, Sheli R.; Warfield, Kelly L.; Chi, Xiaoli; Dong, Lian; Kota, Krishna; Bradfute, Steven B.; Gearhart, Jacqueline D.; Retterer, Cary; Kranzusch, Philip J.; Misasi, John N.; Hogenbirk, Marc A.; Wahl-Jensen, Victoria; Volchkov, Viktor E.; Cunningham, James M.; Jahrling, Peter B.; Aman, M. Javad; Bavari, Sina; Farzan, Michael; Kuhn, Jens H.

    2011-01-01

    With the exception of Reston and Lloviu viruses, filoviruses (marburgviruses, ebolaviruses, and “cuevaviruses”) cause severe viral hemorrhagic fevers in humans. Filoviruses use a class I fusion protein, GP1,2, to bind to an unknown, but shared, cell surface receptor to initiate virus-cell fusion. In addition to GP1,2, ebolaviruses and cuevaviruses, but not marburgviruses, express two secreted glycoproteins, soluble GP (sGP) and small soluble GP (ssGP). All three glycoproteins have identical N termini that include the receptor-binding region (RBR) but differ in their C termini. We evaluated the effect of the secreted ebolavirus glycoproteins on marburgvirus and ebolavirus cell entry, using Fc-tagged recombinant proteins. Neither sGP-Fc nor ssGP-Fc bound to filovirus-permissive cells or inhibited GP1,2-mediated cell entry of pseudotyped retroviruses. Surprisingly, several Fc-tagged Δ-peptides, which are small C-terminal cleavage products of sGP secreted by ebolavirus-infected cells, inhibited entry of retroviruses pseudotyped with Marburg virus GP1,2, as well as Marburg virus and Ebola virus infection in a dose-dependent manner and at low molarity despite absence of sequence similarity to filovirus RBRs. Fc-tagged Δ-peptides from three ebolaviruses (Ebola virus, Sudan virus, and Taï Forest virus) inhibited GP1,2-mediated entry and infection of viruses comparably to or better than the Fc-tagged RBRs, whereas the Δ-peptide-Fc of an ebolavirus nonpathogenic for humans (Reston virus) and that of an ebolavirus with lower lethality for humans (Bundibugyo virus) had little effect. These data indicate that Δ-peptides are functional components of ebolavirus proteomes. They join cathepsins and integrins as novel modulators of filovirus cell entry, might play important roles in pathogenesis, and could be exploited for the synthesis of powerful new antivirals. PMID:21697477

  8. A novel sea anemone peptide that inhibits acid-sensing ion channels.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Armando Alexei; Salceda, Emilio; Garateix, Anoland Georgina; Zaharenko, André Junqueira; Peigneur, Steve; López, Omar; Pons, Tirso; Richardson, Michael; Díaz, Maylín; Hernández, Yasnay; Ständker, Ludger; Tytgat, Jan; Soto, Enrique

    2014-03-01

    Sea anemones produce ion channels peptide toxins of pharmacological and biomedical interest. However, peptides acting on ligand-gated ion channels, including acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) toxins, remain poorly explored. PhcrTx1 is the first compound characterized from the sea anemone Phymanthus crucifer, and it constitutes a novel ASIC inhibitor. This peptide was purified by gel filtration, ion-exchange and reversed-phase chromatography followed by biological evaluation on ion channels of isolated rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons using patch clamp techniques. PhcrTx1 partially inhibited ASIC currents (IC50∼100 nM), and also voltage-gated K(+) currents but the effects on the peak and on the steady state currents were lower than 20% in DRG neurons, at concentrations in the micromolar range. No significant effect was observed on Na(+) voltage-gated currents in DRG neurons. The N-terminal sequencing yielded 32 amino acid residues, with a molecular mass of 3477 Da by mass spectrometry. No sequence identity to other sea anemone peptides was found. Interestingly, the bioinformatic analysis of Cys-pattern and secondary structure arrangement suggested that this peptide presents an Inhibitor Cystine Knot (ICK) scaffold, which has been found in other venomous organisms such as spider, scorpions and cone snails. Our results show that PhcrTx1 represents the first member of a new structural group of sea anemones toxins acting on ASIC and, with much lower potency, on Kv channels. Moreover, this is the first report of an ICK peptide in cnidarians, suggesting that the occurrence of this motif in venomous animals is more ancient than expected.

  9. Food-derived opioid peptides inhibit cysteine uptake with redox and epigenetic consequences.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Malav S; Shah, Jayni S; Al-Mughairy, Sara; Hodgson, Nathaniel W; Simms, Benjamin; Trooskens, Geert A; Van Criekinge, Wim; Deth, Richard C

    2014-10-01

    Dietary interventions like gluten-free and casein-free diets have been reported to improve intestinal, autoimmune and neurological symptoms in patients with a variety of conditions; however, the underlying mechanism of benefit for such diets remains unclear. Epigenetic programming, including CpG methylation and histone modifications, occurring during early postnatal development can influence the risk of disease in later life, and such programming may be modulated by nutritional factors such as milk and wheat, especially during the transition from a solely milk-based diet to one that includes other forms of nutrition. The hydrolytic digestion of casein (a major milk protein) and gliadin (a wheat-derived protein) releases peptides with opioid activity, and in the present study, we demonstrate that these food-derived proline-rich opioid peptides modulate cysteine uptake in cultured human neuronal and gastrointestinal (GI) epithelial cells via activation of opioid receptors. Decreases in cysteine uptake were associated with changes in the intracellular antioxidant glutathione and the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine. Bovine and human casein-derived opioid peptides increased genome-wide DNA methylation in the transcription start site region with a potency order similar to their inhibition of cysteine uptake. Altered expression of genes involved in redox and methylation homeostasis was also observed. These results illustrate the potential of milk- and wheat-derived peptides to exert antioxidant and epigenetic changes that may be particularly important during the postnatal transition from placental to GI nutrition. Differences between peptides derived from human and bovine milk may contribute to developmental differences between breastfed and formula-fed infants. Restricted antioxidant capacity, caused by wheat- and milk-derived opioid peptides, may predispose susceptible individuals to inflammation and systemic oxidation, partly explaining the benefits of gluten-free or

  10. The FGF-2-Derived Peptide FREG Inhibits Melanoma Growth In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Aguzzi, Maria S; Faraone, Debora; D'Arcangelo, Daniela; De Marchis, Francesco; Toietta, Gabriele; Ribatti, Domenico; Parazzoli, Alberto; Colombo, Paolo; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Facchiano, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Previous data report that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2)-derived peptide FREG potently inhibits FGF-2-dependent angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Here, we show that FREG inhibits up to 70% in vitro growth and invasion/migration of smooth muscle and melanoma cells. Such inhibition is mediated by platelet-derived growth factor-receptor-α (PDGF-Rα); in fact, proliferation and migration were restored upon PDGF-Rα neutralization. Further experiments demonstrated that FREG interacts with PDGF-Rα both in vitro and in vivo and stimulates its phosphorylation. We have previously shown that overexpressing PDGF-Rα strongly inhibits melanoma growth in vivo; we, therefore, hypothesized that PDGF-Rα agonists may represent a novel tool to inhibit melanoma growth in vivo. To support this hypothesis, FREG was inoculated intravenously (i.v.) in a mouse melanoma model and markedly inhibited pulmonary metastases formation. Immunohistochemical analyses showed less proliferation, less angiogenesis, and more apoptosis in metastasized lungs upon FREG treatment, as compared to untreated controls. Finally, in preliminary acute toxicity studies, FREG showed no toxicity signs in healthy animals, and neither microscopic nor macroscopic toxicity at the liver, kidney, and lungs level. Altogether, these data indicate that FREG systemic treatment strongly inhibits melanoma metastases development and indicate for the first time that agonists of PDGF-Rα may control melanoma both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:20924364

  11. The FGF-2-derived peptide FREG inhibits melanoma growth in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Aguzzi, Maria S; Faraone, Debora; D'Arcangelo, Daniela; De Marchis, Francesco; Toietta, Gabriele; Ribatti, Domenico; Parazzoli, Alberto; Colombo, Paolo; Capogrossi, Maurizio C; Facchiano, Antonio

    2011-02-01

    Previous data report that fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2)-derived peptide FREG potently inhibits FGF-2-dependent angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Here, we show that FREG inhibits up to 70% in vitro growth and invasion/migration of smooth muscle and melanoma cells. Such inhibition is mediated by platelet-derived growth factor-receptor-α (PDGF-Rα); in fact, proliferation and migration were restored upon PDGF-Rα neutralization. Further experiments demonstrated that FREG interacts with PDGF-Rα both in vitro and in vivo and stimulates its phosphorylation. We have previously shown that overexpressing PDGF-Rα strongly inhibits melanoma growth in vivo; we, therefore, hypothesized that PDGF-Rα agonists may represent a novel tool to inhibit melanoma growth in vivo. To support this hypothesis, FREG was inoculated intravenously (i.v.) in a mouse melanoma model and markedly inhibited pulmonary metastases formation. Immunohistochemical analyses showed less proliferation, less angiogenesis, and more apoptosis in metastasized lungs upon FREG treatment, as compared to untreated controls. Finally, in preliminary acute toxicity studies, FREG showed no toxicity signs in healthy animals, and neither microscopic nor macroscopic toxicity at the liver, kidney, and lungs level. Altogether, these data indicate that FREG systemic treatment strongly inhibits melanoma metastases development and indicate for the first time that agonists of PDGF-Rα may control melanoma both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:20924364

  12. Peptidyl transferase inhibition by the nascent leader peptide of an inducible cat gene.

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Z; Rogers, E J; Lovett, P S

    1993-01-01

    The site of ribosome stalling in the leader of cat transcripts is critical to induction of downstream translation. Site-specific stalling requires translation of the first five leader codons and the presence of chloramphenicol, a sequence-independent inhibitor of ribosome elongation. We demonstrate in this report that a synthetic peptide (the 5-mer) corresponding to the N-terminal five codons of the cat-86 leader inhibits peptidyl transferase in vitro. The N-terminal 2-, 3-, and 4-mers and the reverse 5-mer (reverse amino acid sequence of the 5-mer) are virtually without effect on peptidyl transferase. A missense mutation in the cat-86 leader that abolishes induction in vivo corresponds to an amino acid replacement in the 5-mer that completely relieves peptidyl transferase inhibition. In contrast, a missense mutation that does not interfere with in vivo induction corresponds to an amino acid replacement in the 5-mer that does not significantly alter peptidyl transferase inhibition. Our results suggest that peptidyl transferase inhibition by the nascent cat-86 5-mer peptide may be the primary determinant of the site of ribosome stalling in the leader. A model based on this concept can explain the site specificity of ribosome stalling as well as the response of induction to very low levels of the antibiotic inducer. Images PMID:7690023

  13. Efficient Inhibition of Hepatitis B Virus Infection by a preS1-binding Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Xiaoli; Zhou, Ming; He, Yonggang; Wan, Yanmin; Bai, Weiya; Tao, Shuai; Ren, Yanqin; Zhang, Xinxin; Xu, Jianqing; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Junqi; Hu, Kanghong; Xie, Youhua

    2016-01-01

    Entry inhibitors are promising novel antivirals against hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The existing potential entry inhibitors have targeted the cellular receptor(s). In this study, we aim to develop the first entry inhibitor that inhibits HBV infection via targeting viral particles. The preS1 segment of the large envelope glycoprotein of HBV is essential for virion attachment and infection. Previously, we obtained a preS1-binding short peptide B10 by screening a phage display peptide library using the N-terminal half of preS1 (residues 1 to 60, genotype C). We report here that by means of concatenation of B10, we identified a quadruple concatemer 4B10 that displayed a markedly increased preS1-binding activity. The main binding site of 4B10 in preS1 was mapped to the receptor binding enhancing region. 4B10 blocked HBV attachment to hepatic cells and inhibited HBV infection of primary human and tupaia hepatocytes at low nanomolar concentrations. The 4B10-mediated inhibition of HBV infection is specific as it did not inhibit the infection of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein pseudotyped lentivirus or human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Moreover, 4B10 showed no binding activity to hepatic cells. In conclusion, we have identified 4B10 as a promising candidate for a novel class of HBV entry inhibitors. PMID:27384014

  14. Identification of peptides that bind hepatitis C virus envelope protein E2 and inhibit viral cellular entry from a phage-display peptide library.

    PubMed

    Lü, Xin; Yao, Min; Zhang, Jian-Min; Yang, Jing; Lei, Ying-Feng; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Jia, Zhan-Sheng; Ma, Li; Lan, Hai-Yun; Xu, Zhi-Kai; Yin, Wen

    2014-05-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope protein E2 is required for the entry of HCV into cells. Viral envelope proteins interact with cell receptors in a multistep process, which may be a promising target for the development of novel antiviral agents. In this study, a heptapeptide M13 phage-display library was screened for peptides that bind specifically to prokaryotically expressed, purified truncated HCV envelope protein E2. ELISA assay was used to quantify the binding of the peptides to HCV E2 protein. Flow cytometry, quantitative reverse-transcription PCR and western blotting were used to investigate the inhibition effect of one peptide on HCV infection in hepatoma cells (Huh7.5) in vitro. Four peptides capable of binding specifically to HCV E2 protein were obtained after three rounds of biopanning. Peptide C18 (WPWHNHR), with the highest affinity for binding HCV E2 protein, was synthesized. The results showed that peptide C18 inhibited the viral infectivity of both HCV pseudotype particles (HCVpp) harboring HCV envelope glycoproteins and cell-culture produced HCV (HCVcc). Thus, this study demonstrated that peptide C18 is a potential candidate for anti-HCV therapy as a novel viral entry inhibitor.

  15. Peptides derived from central turn motifs within integrin αIIb and αV cytoplasmic tails inhibit integrin activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinlei; Liu, Yongqing; Haas, Thomas A

    2014-12-01

    We previously found that peptides derived from the full length of integrin αIIb and αV cytoplasmic tails inhibited their parent integrin activation, respectively. Here we showed that the cell-permeable peptides corresponding to the conserved central turn motif within αIIb and αV cytoplasmic tails, myr-KRNRPPLEED (αIIb peptide) and myr-KRVRPPQEEQ (αV peptide), similarly inhibited both αIIb and αV integrin activation. Pre-treatment with αIIb or αV peptides inhibited Mn(2+)-activated αIIbβ3 binding to soluble fibrinogen as well as the binding of αIIbβ3-expressing Chinese Hamster Ovary cells to immobilized fibrinogen. Our turn peptides also inhibited adhesion of two breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-435 and MCF7) to αV ligand vitronectin. These results suggest that αIIb and αV peptides share a same mechanism in regulating integrin function. Using αIIb peptide as a model, we found that replacement of RPP with AAA significantly attenuated the inhibitory activity of αIIb peptide. Furthermore, we found that αIIb peptide specifically bound to β-tubulin in cells. Our work suggests that the central motif of α tails is an anchoring point for cytoskeletons during integrin activation and integrin-mediated cell adhesion, and its function depends on the turn structure at RPP. However, post-treatment of peptides derived from the full-length tail or from the turn motif did not reverse αIIb and αV integrin activation.

  16. Influenza Viral Hemagglutinin Peptide Inhibits Influenza Viral Entry by Shielding the Host Receptor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing; Guo, Ying

    2016-03-11

    Influenza viral infection of the host begins by the attachment of viral hemagglutinin to a cell surface receptor. In the current study, a hemagglutinin fragment peptide library was screened using an H5N1 recombinant pseudotyped viral system. One peptide, designated HA-pep25, showed effective antiviral activity against both human and avian influenza viral strains (IC50 = 12.0-51.0 μM). A mechanistic study demonstrated direct binding between HA-pep25 and sialyllactose, which mimics the host receptor for the influenza virus. This binding was independent of the presence of sialic acid on the cell membrane. By generating alanine substitutions in HA-pep25, eight residues were identified as essential for the peptide's anti-influenza activity. HA-pep25 derived from hemagglutinin blocked influenza viral entry by shielding the host receptor on the cell membrane. This peptide might be a candidate drug for influenza virus entry inhibition and may be combined with other antivirals targeting different steps of the influenza viral life cycle. PMID:27623031

  17. Identification of Equine Lactadherin-derived Peptides That Inhibit Rotavirus Infection via Integrin Receptor Competition*

    PubMed Central

    Civra, Andrea; Giuffrida, Maria Gabriella; Donalisio, Manuela; Napolitano, Lorenzo; Takada, Yoshikazu; Coulson, Barbara S.; Conti, Amedeo; Lembo, David

    2015-01-01

    Human rotavirus is the leading cause of severe gastroenteritis in infants and children under the age of 5 years in both developed and developing countries. Human lactadherin, a milk fat globule membrane glycoprotein, inhibits human rotavirus infection in vitro, whereas bovine lactadherin is not active. Moreover, it protects breastfed infants against symptomatic rotavirus infections. To explore the potential antiviral activity of lactadherin sourced by equines, we undertook a proteomic analysis of milk fat globule membrane proteins from donkey milk and elucidated its amino acid sequence. Alignment of the human, bovine, and donkey lactadherin sequences revealed the presence of an Asp-Gly-Glu (DGE) α2β1 integrin-binding motif in the N-terminal domain of donkey sequence only. Because integrin α2β1 plays a critical role during early steps of rotavirus host cell adhesion, we tested a minilibrary of donkey lactadherin-derived peptides containing DGE sequence for anti-rotavirus activity. A 20-amino acid peptide containing both DGE and RGD motifs (named pDGE-RGD) showed the greatest activity, and its mechanism of antiviral action was characterized; pDGE-RGD binds to integrin α2β1 by means of the DGE motif and inhibits rotavirus attachment to the cell surface. These findings suggest the potential anti-rotavirus activity of equine lactadherin and support the feasibility of developing an anti-rotavirus peptide that acts by hindering virus-receptor binding. PMID:25814665

  18. A GBP 130 derived peptide from Plasmodium falciparum binds to human erythrocytes and inhibits merozoite invasion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Suarez, J E; Urquiza, M; Curtidor, H; Rodriguez, L E; Ocampo, M; Torres, E; Guzman, F; Patarroyo, M E

    2000-01-01

    The malarial GBP 130 protein binds weakly to intact human erythrocytes; the binding sites seem to be located in the repeat region and this region's antibodies block the merozoite invasion. A peptide from this region (residues from 701 to 720) which binds to human erythrocytes was identified. This peptide named 2220 did not bind to sialic acid; the binding site on human erythrocyte was affected by treatment with trypsin but not by chymotrypsin. The peptide was able to inhibit Plasmodium falciparum merozoite invasion of erythrocytes. The residues F701, K703, L705, T706, E713 (FYKILTNTDPNDEVERDNAD) were found to be critical for peptide binding to erythrocytes. PMID:10904405

  19. Peptide nucleic acids inhibit growth of Brucella suis in pure culture and in infected murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekaran, Parthiban; Alexander, Jeffry C.; Seleem, Mohamed N.; Jain, Neeta; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Wattam, Alice R.; Setubal, João C.; Boyle, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01

    Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) are single-stranded, synthetic nucleic acid analogues containing a pseudopeptide backbone in place of the phosphodiester sugar–phosphate. When PNAs are covalently linked to cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) they readily penetrate the bacterial cell envelope, inhibit expression of targeted genes and cause growth inhibition both of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. However, the effectiveness of PNAs against Brucella, a facultative intracellular bacterial pathogen, was unknown. The susceptibility of a virulent Brucella suis strain to a variety of PNAs was assessed in pure culture as well as in murine macrophages. The studies showed that some of the PNAs targeted to Brucella genes involved in DNA (polA, dnaG, gyrA), RNA (rpoB), cell envelope (asd), fatty acid (kdtA, acpP) and protein (tsf) synthesis inhibit the growth of B. suis in culture and in macrophages after 24 h of treatment. PNA treatment inhibited Brucella growth by interfering with gene expression in a sequence-specific and dose-dependent manner at micromolar concentrations. The most effective PNA in broth culture was that targeting polA at ca. 12 μM. In contrast, in B. suis-infected macrophages, the most effective PNAs were those targeting asd and dnaG at 30 μM; both of these PNAs had little inhibitory effect on Brucella in broth culture. The polA PNA that inhibits wild-type B. suis also inhibits the growth of wild-type Brucella melitensis 16M and Brucella abortus 2308 in culture. This study reveals the potential usefulness of antisense PNA constructs as novel therapeutic agents against intracellular Brucella. PMID:23305655

  20. Peptides derived from CXCL8 based on in silico analysis inhibit CXCL8 interactions with its receptor CXCR1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shinn-Jong; Liou, Je-Wen; Chang, Chun-Chun; Chung, Yi; Lin, Lee-Fong; Hsu, Hao-Jen

    2015-12-01

    Chemokine CXCL8 is crucial for regulation of inflammatory and immune responses via activating its cognate receptor CXCR1. In this study, molecular docking and binding free energy calculations were combined to predict the initial binding event of CXCL8 to CXCR1 for peptide drug design. The simulations reveal that in the initial binding, the N-loop of CXCL8 interacts with the N-terminus of CXCR1, which is dominated by electrostatic interactions. The derived peptides from the binding region of CXCL8 are synthesized for further confirmation. Surface plasmon resonance analyses indicate that the CXCL8 derived peptide with 14 residues is able to bind to the receptor CXCR1 derived peptide with equilibrium KD of 252 μM while the peptide encompassing a CXCL8 K15A mutation hardly binds to CXCR1 derived peptide (KD = 1553 μM). The cell experiments show that the designed peptide inhibits CXCL8-induced and LPS-activated monocytes adhesion and transmigration. However, when the peptides were mutated on two lysine residues (K15 and K20), the inhibition effects were greatly reduced indicating these two amino acids are key residues for the initial binding of CXCL8 to CXCR1. This study demonstrates that in silico prediction based functional peptide design can be effective for developing anti-inflammation drugs.

  1. The inhibition of calcium carbonate crystal growth by the cysteine-rich Mdm2 peptide.

    PubMed

    Dalas, E; Chalias, A; Gatos, D; Barlos, K

    2006-08-15

    The crystal growth of calcite, the most stable calcium carbonate polymorph, in the presence of the cysteine-rich Mdm2 peptide (containing 48 amino acids in the ring finger configuration), has been investigated by the constant composition technique. Crystallization took place exclusively on well-characterized calcite crystals in solutions supersaturated only with respect to this calcium carbonate salt. The kinetic results indicated a surface diffusion spiral growth mechanism. The presence of the Mdm2 peptide inhibited the crystal growth of calcite by 22-58% in the concentration range tested, through adsorption onto the active growth sites of the calcite crystal surface. The kinetic results favored a Langmuir-type adsorption model, and the value of the calculated affinity constant was k(aff)=147x10(4) dm(3)mol(-1), a(ads)=0.29. PMID:16678843

  2. Formyl-Modified Polyaniline for the Catalytic Dehydration of Fructose to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liangfang; Dai, Jinhang; Liu, Mingyang; Tang, Dianyong; Liu, Shuqing; Hu, Changwei

    2016-08-23

    We report an unprecedented solid organic-base catalyst, formyl-modified polyaniline (FS-PAN), for the dehydration of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) with a high yield of 90.4 mol %. We demonstrate that the nitrogen atoms incorporated between the phenyl rings in the backbone of the polyaniline chain contribute to the basicity of the catalyst. The grafting of electron-withdrawing formyl groups to the imine nitrogen atoms leads to a significant increase of basicity of the polymer catalyst owing to the greater localization of electrons at the amide nitrogen atom formed. A linear dependence of the yield of HMF on the grafting level of formyl groups in FS-PAN indicates that the amide acts as the active phase. A possible reaction mechanism for this organic-base-catalyzed dehydration reaction is proposed. The side-reaction of HMF rehydration is inhibited thoroughly, and the condensation of any reaction intermediates to undesirable oligomers is restrained by this base catalyst. This organic-base catalyst can be recycled completely without loss of activity. This research highlights the first application of a highly effective and stable solid base catalyst for the transformation of renewable carbohydrates into fine chemicals. PMID:27453215

  3. Inhibiting complex IL-17A and IL-17RA interactions with a linear peptide

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shenping; Desharnais, Joel; Sahasrabudhe, Parag V.; Jin, Ping; Li, Wei; Oates, Bryan D.; Shanker, Suman; Banker, Mary Ellen; Chrunyk, Boris A.; Song, Xi; Feng, Xidong; Griffor, Matt; Jimenez, Judith; Chen, Gang; Tumelty, David; Bhat, Abhijit; Bradshaw, Curt W.; Woodnutt, Gary; Lappe, Rodney W.; Thorarensen, Atli; Qiu, Xiayang; Withka, Jane M.; Wood, Lauren D.

    2016-01-01

    IL-17A is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that has been implicated in autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Monoclonal antibodies inhibiting IL-17A signaling have demonstrated remarkable efficacy, but an oral therapy is still lacking. A high affinity IL-17A peptide antagonist (HAP) of 15 residues was identified through phage-display screening followed by saturation mutagenesis optimization and amino acid substitutions. HAP binds specifically to IL-17A and inhibits the interaction of the cytokine with its receptor, IL-17RA. Tested in primary human cells, HAP blocked the production of multiple inflammatory cytokines. Crystal structure studies revealed that two HAP molecules bind to one IL-17A dimer symmetrically. The N-terminal portions of HAP form a β-strand that inserts between two IL-17A monomers while the C-terminal section forms an α helix that directly blocks IL-17RA from binding to the same region of IL-17A. This mode of inhibition suggests opportunities for developing peptide antagonists against this challenging target. PMID:27184415

  4. A Truncated Nef Peptide from SIVcpz Inhibits the Production of HIV-1 Infectious Progeny

    PubMed Central

    Sabino Cunha, Marcela; Lima Sampaio, Thatiane; Peterlin, B. Matija; Jesus da Costa, Luciana

    2016-01-01

    Nef proteins from all primate Lentiviruses, including the simian immunodeficiency virus of chimpanzees (SIVcpz), increase viral progeny infectivity. However, the function of Nef involved with the increase in viral infectivity is still not completely understood. Nonetheless, until now, studies investigating the functions of Nef from SIVcpz have been conducted in the context of the HIV-1 proviruses. In an attempt to investigate the role played by Nef during the replication cycle of an SIVcpz, a Nef-defective derivative was obtained from the SIVcpzWTGab2 clone by introducing a frame shift mutation at a unique restriction site within the nef sequence. This nef-deleted clone expresses an N-terminal 74-amino acid truncated peptide of Nef and was named SIVcpz-tNef. We found that the SIVcpz-tNef does not behave as a classic nef-deleted HIV-1 or simian immunodeficiency virus of macaques SIVmac. Markedly, SIVcpz-tNef progeny from both Hek-293T and Molt producer cells were completely non-infectious. Moreover, the loss in infectivity of SIVcpz-tNef correlated with the inhibition of Gag and GagPol processing. A marked accumulation of Gag and very low levels of reverse transcriptase were detected in viral lysates. Furthermore, these observations were reproduced once the tNef peptide was expressed in trans both in SIVcpzΔNef and HIV-1WT expressing cells, demonstrating that the truncated peptide is a dominant negative for viral processing and infectivity for both SIVcpz and HIV-1. We demonstrated that the truncated Nef peptide binds to GagPol outside the protease region and by doing so probably blocks processing of both GagPol and Gag precursors at a very early stage. This study demonstrates for the first time that naturally-occurring Nef peptides can potently block lentiviral processing and infectivity. PMID:27399760

  5. Small molecule and peptide-mediated inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 dimerization

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sun Young; Song, Kyung-A; Kieff, Elliott; Kang, Myung-Soo

    2012-07-27

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evidence that targeting EBNA1 dimer, an EBV onco-antigen, can be achievable. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A small molecule and a peptide as EBNA1 dimerization inhibitors identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both inhibitors associated with EBNA1 and blocked EBNA1 DNA binding activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Also, prevented its dimerization, and repressed viral gene transcription. -- Abstract: Latent Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection is associated with human B cell lymphomas and certain carcinomas. EBV episome persistence, replication, and gene expression are dependent on EBV-encoded nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1)'s DNA binding domain (DBD)/dimerization domain (DD)-mediated sequence-specific DNA binding activity. Homodimerization of EBNA1 is essential for EBNA1 DNA binding and transactivation. In this study, we characterized a novel small molecule EBNA1 inhibitor EiK1, screened from the previous high throughput screening (HTS). The EiK1 compound specifically inhibited the EBNA1-dependent, OriP-enhanced transcription, but not EBNA1-independent transcription. A Surface Plasmon Resonance Biacore assay revealed that EiK1 associates with EBNA1 amino acid 459-607 DBD/DD. Consistent with the SPR data, in vitro gel shift assays showed that EiK1 suppressed the activity of EBNA1 binding to the cognate familial repeats (FR) sequence, but not control RBP-J{kappa} binding to the J{kappa} site. Subsequently, a cross-linker-mediated in vitro multimerization assay and EBNA1 homodimerization-dependent yeast two-hybrid assay showed that EiK1 significantly inhibited EBNA1 dimerization. In an attempt to identify more highly specific peptide inhibitors, small peptides encompassing the EBNA1 DBD/DD were screened for inhibition of EBNA1 DBD-mediated DNA binding function. The small peptide P85, covering EBNA1 a.a. 560-574, significantly blocked EBNA1 DNA binding activity in vitro, prevented dimerization in vitro and in vivo, associated with

  6. A cell permeable peptide inhibitor of NFAT inhibits macrophage cytokine expression and ameliorates experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Elloumi, Houda Z; Maharshak, Nitsan; Rao, Kavitha N; Kobayashi, Taku; Ryu, Hyungjin S; Mühlbauer, Marcus; Li, Fengling; Jobin, Christian; Plevy, Scott E

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) plays a critical role in the development and function of immune and non-immune cells. Although NFAT is a central transcriptional regulator of T cell cytokines, its role in macrophage specific gene expression is less defined. Previous work from our group demonstrated that NFAT regulates Il12b gene expression in macrophages. Here, we further investigate NFAT function in murine macrophages and determined the effects of a cell permeable NFAT inhibitor peptide 11R-VIVIT on experimental colitis in mice. Treatment of bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) with tacrolimus or 11R-VIVIT significantly inhibited LPS and LPS plus IFN-γ induced IL-12 p40 mRNA and protein expression. IL-12 p70 and IL-23 secretion were also decreased. NFAT nuclear translocation and binding to the IL-12 p40 promoter was reduced by NFAT inhibition. Experiments in BMDMs from IL-10 deficient (Il10(-/-)) mice demonstrate that inhibition of IL-12 expression by 11R-VIVIT was independent of IL-10 expression. To test its therapeutic potential, 11R-VIVIT was administered systemically to Il10(-/-) mice with piroxicam-induced colitis. 11R-VIVIT treated mice demonstrated significant improvement in colitis compared to mice treated with an inactive peptide. Moreover, decreased spontaneous secretion of IL-12 p40 and TNF in supernatants from colon explant cultures was demonstrated. In summary, NFAT, widely recognized for its role in T cell biology, also regulates important innate inflammatory pathways in macrophages. Selective blocking of NFAT via a cell permeable inhibitory peptide is a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases.

  7. The Antitumor Peptide CIGB-552 Increases COMMD1 and Inhibits Growth of Human Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fernández Massó, Julio R.; Oliva Argüelles, Brizaida; Tejeda, Yelaine; Astrada, Soledad; Garay, Hilda; Reyes, Osvaldo; Delgado-Roche, Livan; Bollati-Fogolín, Mariela; Vallespí, Maribel G.

    2013-01-01

    We have demonstrated that the peptide L-2 designed from an alanine scanning of the Limulus-derived LALF32-51 region is a potential candidate for the anticancer therapy and its cell-penetrating capacity is an associated useful property. By the modification in the primary structure of L-2, a second-generation peptide (CIGB-552) was developed. However, the molecular mechanism underlying its cytotoxic activity remains partially unknown. In this study, it was shown that CIGB-552 increases the levels of COMMD1, a protein involved in copper homeostasis, sodium transport, and the NF-κB signaling pathway. We found that CIGB-552 induces ubiquitination of RelA and inhibits the antiapoptotic activity regulated by NF-κB, whereas the knockdown of COMMD1 blocks this effect. We also found that CIGB-552 decreases the antioxidant capacity and induces the peroxidation of proteins and lipids in the tumor cells. Altogether, this study provides new insights into the mechanism of action of the peptide CIGB-552, which could be relevant in the design of future anticancer therapies. PMID:23401744

  8. Effective protein inhibition in intact mouse oocytes through peptide nanoparticle-mediated antibody transfection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ruichao; Jin, Zhen; Gao, Leilei; Liu, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Female meiosis is a fundamental area of study in reproductive medicine, and the mouse oocyte model of in vitro maturation (IVM) is most widely used to study female meiosis. To investigate the probable role(s) of an unknown protein in female meiosis, the method traditionally used involves microinjecting a specific antibody into mouse oocytes. Recently, in studies on somatic cells, peptide nanoparticle-mediated antibody transfection has become a popular tool because of its high efficiency, low toxicity, good stability, and strong serum compatibility. However, untill now no researchers have tried using this technique on mouse oocytes because the zona pellucida surrounding the oocyte membrane (vitelline membrane) is usually thought or proved to be a tough barrier to macromolecules such as antibodies and proteins. Therefore, we attempted to introduce an antibody into mouse oocytes using a peptide nanoparticle. Here we show for the first time that with our optimized method, an antibody can be effectively delivered into mouse oocytes and inhibit its target protein with high specificity. We obtained significant results using small GTPase Arl2 as a test subject protein. We propose peptide nanoparticle-mediated antibody transfection to be a superior alternative to antibody microinjection for preliminary functional studies of unknown proteins in mouse oocytes. PMID:27114861

  9. Simultaneous Inhibition of Key Growth Pathways in Melanoma Cells and Tumor Regression by a Designed Bidentate Constrained Helical Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Amlanjyoti; Mallick, Shampa; Ghosh, Piya; Maiti, Atanu; Ahmed, Israr; Bhattacharyya, Seemana; Mandal, Tapashi; Manna, Asit; Roy, Koushik; Singh, Sandeep; Nayak, Dipak Kumar; Wilder, Paul T.; Markowitz, Joseph; Weber, David J.; Ghosh, Mrinal K.; Chattopadhyay, Samit; Guha, Rajdeep; Konar, Aditya; Bandyopadhyay, Santu; Roy, Siddhartha

    2014-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions are part of a large number of signaling networks and potential targets for drug development. However, discovering molecules that can specifically inhibit such interactions is a major challenge. S100B, a calcium-regulated protein, plays a crucial role in the proliferation of melanoma cells through protein-protein interactions. In this article, we report the design and development of a bidentate conformationally constrained peptide against dimeric S100B based on a natural tight binding peptide, TRTK-12. The helical conformation of the peptide was constrained by substitution of α-amino isobutyric acid----an amino acid having high helical propensity----in positions which do not interact with S100B. A branched bidentate version of the peptide, bound to S100B tightly with a dissociation constant of 8 nM. When conjugated to a cell penetrating peptide, it caused growth inhibition and rapid apoptosis in melanoma cells. The molecule exerts anti-proliferative action through simultaneous inhibition of key growth pathways including reactivation of wild-type p53 and inhibition of Akt and STAT-3 phosphorylation. The apoptosis induced by the bidentate constrained helix is caused by direct migration of p53 to mitochondria. At moderate intravenous dose, the peptide completely inhibits melanoma growth in a mouse model without any significant observable toxicity. The specificity was shown by lack of ability of a double mutant peptide to cause tumor regression at the same dose level. The methodology described here for direct protein-protein interaction inhibition may be effective for rapid development of inhibitors against relatively weak protein-protein interactions for de novo drug development. PMID:24839139

  10. Preliminary study on the inhibition of nuclear internalization of Tat peptides by conjugation with a receptor-specific peptide and fluorescent dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Duanwen; Liang, Kexiang; Ye, Yunpeng; Tetteh, Elizabeth; Achilefu, Samuel

    2006-02-01

    Numerous studies have shown that basic Tat peptide (48-57) internalized non-specifically in cells and localized in the nucleus. However, localization of imaging agents in cellular nucleus is not desirable because of the potential mutagenesis. When conjugated to the peptides that undergo receptor-mediated endocytosis, Tat peptide could target specific cells or pathologic tissue. We tested this hypothesis by incorporating a somatostatin receptor-avid peptide (octreotate, Oct) and two different fluorescent dyes, Cypate 2 (Cy2) and fluorescein 5'-carboxlic acid (5-FAM), into the Tat-peptide sequence. In addition to the Cy2 or 5-FAM-labeled Oct conjugated to Tat peptide (Tat) to produce Tat-Oct-Cypate2 or Tat-Oct-5-FAM, we also labeled the Tat the Tat peptide with these dyes (Tat-Cy2 and Tat-5-FAM) to serve as positive control. A somatostatin receptor-positive pancreatic tumor cell line, AR42J, was used to assess cell internalization. The results show that Tat-5-FAM and Tat-Cypate2 localized in both nucleus and cytoplasm of the cells. In contrast to Tat-Oct-Cypate2, which localized in both the cytoplasm and nucleus, Tat-Oct-5-FAM internalized in the cytoplasm but not in the nucleus of AR42J cells. The internalizations were inhibited by adding non-labeled corresponding peptides, suggesting that the endocytoses of each group of labeled and the corresponding unlabeled compounds occurred through a common pathway. Thus, fluorescent probes and endocytosis complex between octreotate and somatostatin receptors in cytoplasm could control nuclear internalization of Tat peptides.

  11. Inhibition of fibril formation in beta-amyloid peptide by a novel series of benzofurans.

    PubMed Central

    Howlett, D R; Perry, A E; Godfrey, F; Swatton, J E; Jennings, K H; Spitzfaden, C; Wadsworth, H; Wood, S J; Markwell, R E

    1999-01-01

    A series of benzofuran derivatives have been identified as inhibitors of fibril formation in the beta-amyloid peptide. The activity of these compounds has been assessed by a novel fibril-formation-specific immunoassay and for their effects on the production of a biologically active fibril product. The inhibition afforded by the compounds seems to be associated with their binding to beta-amyloid, as identified by scintillation proximity binding assay. Binding assays and NMR studies also indicate that the inhibition is associated with self-aggregation of the compounds. There is a close correlation between the activity of the benzofurans as inhibitors of fibril formation and their ability to bind to beta-amyloid. Non-benzofuran inhibitors of the fibril formation process do not seem to bind to the same site on the beta-amyloid molecule as the benzofurans. Thus a specific recognition site might exist for benzofurans on beta-amyloid, binding to which seems to interfere with the ability of the peptide to form fibrils. PMID:10229684

  12. Exploring monovalent and multivalent peptides for the inhibition of FBP21-tWW

    PubMed Central

    Bertazzon, Miriam; Marczynke, Michaela; Seitz, Oliver; Volkmer, Rudolf; Haag, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Summary The coupling of peptides to polyglycerol carriers represents an important route towards the multivalent display of protein ligands. In particular, the inhibition of low affinity intracellular protein–protein interactions can be addressed by this design. We have applied this strategy to develop binding partners for FBP21, a protein which is important for the splicing of pre-mRNA in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Firstly, by using phage display the optimized sequence WPPPPRVPR was derived which binds with K Ds of 80 μM and 150 µM to the individual WW domains and with a K D of 150 μM to the tandem-WW1–WW2 construct. Secondly, this sequence was coupled to a hyperbranched polyglycerol (hPG) that allowed for the multivalent display on the surface of the dendritic polymer. This novel multifunctional hPG-peptide conjugate displayed a K D of 17.6 µM which demonstrates that the new carrier provides a venue for the future inhibition of proline-rich sequence recognition by FBP21 during assembly of the spliceosome. PMID:26124874

  13. Amyloid peptide Aβ40 inhibits aggregation of Aβ42: Evidence from molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viet, Man Hoang; Li, Mai Suan

    2012-06-01

    Effects of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide Aβ40 on secondary structures of Aβ42 are studied by all-atom simulations using the GROMOS96 43a1 force field with explicit water. It is shown that in the presence of Aβ40 the beta-content of monomer Aβ42 is reduced. Since the fibril-prone conformation N* of full-length Aβ peptides has the shape of beta strand-loop-beta strand this result suggests that Aβ40 decreases the probability of observing N* of Aβ42 in monomer state. Based on this and the hypothesis that the higher is the population of N* the higher fibril formation rates, one can expect that, in agreement with the recent experiment, Aβ40 inhibit fibril formation of Aβ42. It is shown that the presence of Aβ40 makes the salt bridge D23-K28 and fragment 18-33 of Aβ42 more flexible providing additional support for this experimental fact. Our estimation of the binding free energy by the molecular mechanics-Poisson-Boltzmann surface area method reveals the inhibition mechanism that Aβ40 binds to Aβ42 modifying its morphology.

  14. Peptide p277 of HSP60 signals T cells: inhibition of inflammatory chemotaxis.

    PubMed

    Nussbaum, Gabriel; Zanin-Zhorov, Alexandra; Quintana, Francisco; Lider, Ofer; Cohen, Irun R

    2006-10-01

    Peptide p277 is a 24-amino acid fragment of the heat shock protein 60 molecule, first discovered to be an antigen for diabetogenic T-cell clones in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. Therapeutic vaccination with p277 can arrest the spontaneous diabetogenic process both in NOD mice and in humans associated with a T(h)1 to T(h)2 cytokine shift specific for the autoimmune T cells. We now report that p277 can directly signal human T cells via innate toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, leading to up-regulation of integrin-mediated adhesion to fibronectin, and inhibition of chemotaxis to the chemokine SDF-1alpha in vitro. Resting CD45RA(+) T cells responded to lower concentrations of p277 than resting CD45RO(+) T cells, but activation of CD45RO(+) T cells greatly increased their sensitivity to p277. Mouse T cells, but not macrophages, were also sensitive to the innate effects of peptide p277, and adoptive transfer of diabetes by splenic T cells from NOD mice could be inhibited by p277 treatment before transfer. Thus, T cells do respond innately to p277, and signaling by soluble p277 through TLR2 could contribute to the treatment of type 1 diabetes; p277 may stop the destruction of beta cells by signaling in concert both innate and adaptive receptors on T cells. PMID:16893923

  15. Selective inhibition by a synthetic hirudin peptide of fibrin-dependent thrombosis in baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Cadroy, Y.; Hanson, S.R.; Harker, L.A. ); Maraganore, J.M. )

    1991-02-15

    To determine the importance of the thrombin substrate recognition exosite for fibrinogen binding in the formation of both arterial and venous thrombi the authors evaluated the antithrombotic effects of the tyrosine-sulfated dodecapeptide from residues 53-64 of hirudin (H peptide) in a nonhuman primate model. This peptide was studied because it inhibits thrombin cleavages of fibrinogen by simple competition without blocking enzyme catalytic-site function. When an exteriorized arteriovenous access shunt model was used in baboons (Papio anubis), thrombus formation was induced by placing a thrombogenic device made of (i) a segment of tubing coated covalently with type I collagen, which generated platelet-rich thrombi under arterial flow conditions, and (ii) two subsequent annular regions of flow expansion that produced fibrin-rich thrombi typically associated with venous valves and veins. Thrombus formation was quantified by measurements of {sup 111}In-labeled platelet and {sup 125}I-labeled fibrinogen deposition in both arterial-flow and venous-flow portions of the device. These finding suggest that, by competitive inhibition of fibrinogen binding to thrombin, fibrin-rich venous-type thrombus formation may be selectively prevented. This strategy may be therapeutically attractive for preserving normal platelet function when conventional anticoagulant therapy is contraindicated.

  16. ppGpp inhibits peptide elongation cycle of chloroplast translation system in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Yuhta; Takabayashi, Taito; Kuroda, Hiroshi; Yukawa, Yasushi; Sattasuk, Kwanchanok; Akita, Mitsuru; Nozawa, Akira; Tozawa, Yuzuru

    2012-01-01

    Chloroplasts possess common biosynthetic pathways for generating guanosine 3',5'-(bis)pyrophosphate (ppGpp) from GDP and ATP by RelA-SpoT homolog enzymes. To date, several hypothetical targets of ppGpp in chloroplasts have been suggested, but they remain largely unverified. In this study, we have investigated effects of ppGpp on translation apparatus in chloroplasts by developing in vitro protein synthesis system based on an extract of chloroplasts isolated from pea (Pisum sativum). The chloroplast extracts showed stable protein synthesis activity in vitro, and the activity was sensitive to various types of antibiotics. We have demonstrated that ppGpp inhibits the activity of chloroplast translation in dose-effective manner, as does the toxic nonhydrolyzable GTP analog guanosine 5'-(β,γ-imido)triphosphate (GDPNP). We further examined polyuridylic acid-directed polyphenylalanine synthesis as a measure of peptide elongation activity in the pea chloroplast extract. Both ppGpp and GDPNP as well as antibiotics, fusidic acid and thiostrepton, inhibited the peptide elongation cycle of the translation system, but GDP in the similar range of the tested ppGpp concentration did not affect the activity. Our results thus show that ppGpp directly affect the translation system of chloroplasts, as they do that of bacteria. We suggest that the role of the ppGpp signaling system in translation in bacteria is conserved in the translation system of chloroplasts.

  17. Inhibition of protein phosphorylation by synthetic peptides from the Fc region of human IgG during the mixed lymphocyte response

    SciTech Connect

    McClurg, M.R.; Hahn, G.S.; Plummer, J.M.

    1986-03-01

    Certain synthetic peptides derived from the Fc region of human IgG suppressed protein, RNA, and DNA synthesis during mixed lymphocyte reactions. Responder mononuclear cells were incubated with medium or agents that alter phosphorylation of cellular proteins before immunomodulatory Fc peptides and stimulator cells were added. Incubating cells with trifluoperazine which inhibits calcium binding to calmodulin and inhibits protein kinase C (PKC) increased inhibition of the MLR induced by Fc peptides. Conversely, incubating cells with dubutyryl cyclic AMP (DBcAMP), calmodulin, 1,2-diolein, or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) abolished inhibition of the MLR induced by Fc peptides. Inhibition of the MLR by Fc ..gamma.. peptides was not affected when DBcAMP or PMA was added after peptide addition. The PKC activity of cell homogenates was decreased by 69% when Fc..gamma.. peptides were present during the MLR. The in vitro phosphorylation of histone Hl by partially purified PKC from lymphocytes was inhibited 74% in the presence of Fc..gamma.. peptides. These results indicate that suppression of the MLR induced by Fc..gamma.. peptides is dependent on inhibition of protein phosphorylation by kinases including protein kinase C. The inhibition of phosphorylation may be related to the ability of Fc..gamma.. peptides to reverse animal models of autoimmune disease.

  18. Dynamic behavior of small heat shock protein inhibition on amyloid fibrillization of a small peptide (SSTSAA) from RNase A

    SciTech Connect

    Xi, Dong; Dong, Xiao; Deng, Wei; Lai, Luhua

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mechanism of small heat shock protein inhibition on fibril formation was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peptide SSTSAA with modified ends was used for amyloid fibril formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FRET signal was followed during the fibril formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mj HSP16.5 inhibits fibril formation when introduced in the lag phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mj HSP16.5 slows down fibril formation when introduced after the lag phase. -- Abstract: Small heat shock proteins, a class of molecular chaperones, are reported to inhibit amyloid fibril formation in vitro, while the mechanism of inhibition remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism by which Mj HSP16.5 inhibits amyloid fibril formation of a small peptide (SSTSAA) from RNase A. A model peptide (dansyl-SSTSAA-W) was designed by introducing a pair of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) probes into the peptide, allowing for the monitoring of fibril formation by this experimental model. Mj HSP16.5 completely inhibited fibril formation of the model peptide at a molar ratio of 1:120. The dynamic process of fibril formation, revealed by FRET, circular dichroism, and electron microscopy, showed a lag phase of about 2 h followed by a fast growth period. The effect of Mj HSP16.5 on amyloid fibril formation was investigated by adding it into the incubation solution during different growth phases. Adding Mj HSP16.5 to the incubating peptide before or during the lag phase completely inhibited fibril formation. However, introducing Mj HSP16.5 after the lag phase only slowed down the fibril formation process by adhering to the already formed fibrils. These findings provide insight into the inhibitory roles of small heat shock proteins on amyloid fibril formation at the molecular level.

  19. Inhibition of A-type potassium current by the peptide toxin SNX-482.

    PubMed

    Kimm, Tilia; Bean, Bruce P

    2014-07-01

    SNX-482, a peptide toxin isolated from tarantula venom, has become widely used as an inhibitor of Cav2.3 voltage-gated calcium channels. Unexpectedly, we found that SNX-482 dramatically reduced the A-type potassium current in acutely dissociated dopamine neurons from mouse substantia nigra pars compacta. The inhibition persisted when calcium was replaced by cobalt, showing that it was not secondary to a reduction of calcium influx. Currents from cloned Kv4.3 channels expressed in HEK-293 cells were inhibited by SNX-482 with an IC50 of <3 nM, revealing substantially greater potency than for SNX-482 inhibition of Cav2.3 channels (IC50 20-60 nM). At sub-saturating concentrations, SNX-482 produced a depolarizing shift in the voltage dependence of activation of Kv4.3 channels and slowed activation kinetics. Similar effects were seen on gating of cloned Kv4.2 channels, but the inhibition was less pronounced and required higher toxin concentrations. These results reveal SNX-482 as the most potent inhibitor of Kv4.3 channels yet identified. Because of the effects on both Kv4.3 and Kv4.2 channels, caution is needed when interpreting the effects of SNX-482 on cells and circuits where these channels are present. PMID:25009251

  20. Heterologous Stacking of Prion Protein Peptides Reveals Structural Details of Fibrils and Facilitates Complete Inhibition of Fibril GrowthS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Boshuizen, Ronald S.; Schulz, Veronica; Morbin, Michela; Mazzoleni, Giulia; Meloen, Rob H.; Langedijk, Johannes P. M.

    2009-01-01

    Fibrils play an important role in the pathogenesis of amyloidosis; however, the underlying mechanisms of the growth process and the structural details of fibrils are poorly understood. Crucial in the fibril formation of prion proteins is the stacking of PrP monomers. We previously proposed that the structure of the prion protein fibril may be similar as a parallel left-handed β-helix. The β-helix is composed of spiraling rungs of parallel β-strands, and in the PrP model residues 105–143 of each PrP monomer can contribute two β-helical rungs to the growing fibril. Here we report data to support this model. We show that two cyclized human PrP peptides corresponding to residues 105–124 and 125–143, based on two single rungs of the left-handed β-helical core of the human PrPSc fibril, show spontaneous cooperative fibril growth in vitro by heterologous stacking. Because the structural model must have predictive value, peptides were designed based on the structure rules of the left-handed β-helical fold that could stack with prion protein peptides to stimulate or to block fibril growth. The stimulator peptide was designed as an optimal left-handed β-helical fold that can serve as a template for fibril growth initiation. The inhibiting peptide was designed to bind to the exposed rung but frustrate the propagation of the fibril growth. The single inhibitory peptide hardly shows inhibition, but the combination of the inhibitory with the stimulatory peptide showed complete inhibition of the fibril growth of peptide huPrP-(106–126). Moreover, the unique strategy based on stimulatory and inhibitory peptides seems a powerful new approach to study amyloidogenic fibril structures in general and could prove useful for the development of therapeutics. PMID:19304665

  1. Calcitonin Peptide Family Members Are Differentially Regulated by LPS and Inhibit Functions of Rat Alveolar NR8383 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Soultanova, Aichurek; Mikulski, Zbigniew; Pfeil, Uwe; Grau, Veronika; Kummer, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Members of the calcitonin peptide family—calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), adrenomedullin (AM), and adrenomedullin2/intermedin (IMD)–exert modulatory effects upon monocytes and macrophages of various extrapulmonary origins. Utilizing the rat alveolar macrophage (AMφ) cell line NR8383, we here set out to determine to which extent these three peptides and their receptors are differentially regulated in AMφ and what specific effects they have on AMφ key functions. LPS treatment differentially up-regulated expression of the peptides and receptors. Among the three peptides, IMD mRNA content was lowest both in primary rat AMφ and NR8383 cells, whereas IMD peptide dominated in basal and LPS-stimulated secretion from NR8383 cells. Fcγ receptor-mediated phagocytosis and TNF-α production were inhibited by AM, IMD, and CGRP, whereas pro-IL-1β mRNA was slightly down-regulated exclusively by CGRP. Neither of these peptides affected IL-6 or IL-10 production. None increased intracellular calcium concentration, but AM significantly inhibited store-operated calcium entry. In conclusion, the rat AMφ cell line NR8383 is both a source and a target of the calcitonin peptide family members AM, IMD, and CGRP. Despite sharing proteins of the receptor complexes, AM, IMD, and CGRP each showed a characteristic pattern of effects and regulation, suggesting that these closely related peptides are not just redundant members of one common signaling pathway but act in concert by addressing parallel signaling cascades. Since peptide and receptor expression are up-regulated by LPS, these signaling pathways might act as inhibitory feedback mechanisms in pulmonary bacterial infection. PMID:27737007

  2. Novel peptide VIP-TAT with higher affinity for PAC1 inhibited scopolamine induced amnesia.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rongjie; Yang, Yanxu; Cui, Zekai; Zheng, Lijun; Zeng, Zhixing; Zhang, Huahua

    2014-10-01

    A novel peptide VIP-TAT with a cell penetrating peptide TAT at the C-terminus of VIP was constructed and prepared using intein mediated purification with an affinity chitin-binding tag (IMPACT) system to enhance the brain uptake efficiency for the medical application in central nervous system. It was found by labeling VIP-TAT and VIP with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) that the extension with TAT increased the brain uptake efficiency of VIP-TAT significantly. Then short-term and long-term treatment with scopolamine (Scop) was used to evaluate the effect of VIP-TAT or VIP on Scop induced amnesia. Both short-term and long-term administration of VIP-TAT inhibited the latent time reduction in step-through test induced by Scop significantly, but long-term administration of VIP aggravated the Scop induced amnesia. Long-term i.p. injection of VIP-TAT was shown to have positive effect by inhibiting the oxidative damage, apoptosis and the cholinergic system activity reduction that induced by Scop, while VIP exerted negative effect in brain opposite to that in periphery system. The in vitro data showed that VIP-TAT had not only protective but also proliferative effect on Neuro2a cells which was inhibited by PAC1 antagonist PACAP(6-38). Competition binding assay and cAMP assay confirmed that VIP-TAT had higher affinity and activation for PAC1 than VIP. So it was concluded that the significantly stronger protective effect of VIP-TAT against Scop induced amnesia than VIP was due to (1) the enhanced brain uptake efficiency of VIP-TAT and (2) the increased affinity and activation of VIP-TAT for receptor PAC1.

  3. Inhibition of the Hantavirus Fusion Process by Predicted Domain III and Stem Peptides from Glycoprotein Gc

    PubMed Central

    Barriga, Gonzalo P.; Villalón-Letelier, Fernando; Márquez, Chantal L.; Bignon, Eduardo A.; Acuña, Rodrigo; Ross, Breyan H.; Monasterio, Octavio; Mardones, Gonzalo A.; Vidal, Simon E.; Tischler, Nicole D.

    2016-01-01

    Hantaviruses can cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome or hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans. To enter cells, hantaviruses fuse their envelope membrane with host cell membranes. Previously, we have shown that the Gc envelope glycoprotein is the viral fusion protein sharing characteristics with class II fusion proteins. The ectodomain of class II fusion proteins is composed of three domains connected by a stem region to a transmembrane anchor in the viral envelope. These fusion proteins can be inhibited through exogenous fusion protein fragments spanning domain III (DIII) and the stem region. Such fragments are thought to interact with the core of the fusion protein trimer during the transition from its pre-fusion to its post-fusion conformation. Based on our previous homology model structure for Gc from Andes hantavirus (ANDV), here we predicted and generated recombinant DIII and stem peptides to test whether these fragments inhibit hantavirus membrane fusion and cell entry. Recombinant ANDV DIII was soluble, presented disulfide bridges and beta-sheet secondary structure, supporting the in silico model. Using DIII and the C-terminal part of the stem region, the infection of cells by ANDV was blocked up to 60% when fusion of ANDV occurred within the endosomal route, and up to 95% when fusion occurred with the plasma membrane. Furthermore, the fragments impaired ANDV glycoprotein-mediated cell-cell fusion, and cross-inhibited the fusion mediated by the glycoproteins from Puumala virus (PUUV). The Gc fragments interfered in ANDV cell entry by preventing membrane hemifusion and pore formation, retaining Gc in a non-resistant homotrimer stage, as described for DIII and stem peptide inhibitors of class II fusion proteins. Collectively, our results demonstrate that hantavirus Gc shares not only structural, but also mechanistic similarity with class II viral fusion proteins, and will hopefully help in developing novel therapeutic strategies against hantaviruses

  4. Inhibition of the Hantavirus Fusion Process by Predicted Domain III and Stem Peptides from Glycoprotein Gc.

    PubMed

    Barriga, Gonzalo P; Villalón-Letelier, Fernando; Márquez, Chantal L; Bignon, Eduardo A; Acuña, Rodrigo; Ross, Breyan H; Monasterio, Octavio; Mardones, Gonzalo A; Vidal, Simon E; Tischler, Nicole D

    2016-07-01

    Hantaviruses can cause hantavirus pulmonary syndrome or hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in humans. To enter cells, hantaviruses fuse their envelope membrane with host cell membranes. Previously, we have shown that the Gc envelope glycoprotein is the viral fusion protein sharing characteristics with class II fusion proteins. The ectodomain of class II fusion proteins is composed of three domains connected by a stem region to a transmembrane anchor in the viral envelope. These fusion proteins can be inhibited through exogenous fusion protein fragments spanning domain III (DIII) and the stem region. Such fragments are thought to interact with the core of the fusion protein trimer during the transition from its pre-fusion to its post-fusion conformation. Based on our previous homology model structure for Gc from Andes hantavirus (ANDV), here we predicted and generated recombinant DIII and stem peptides to test whether these fragments inhibit hantavirus membrane fusion and cell entry. Recombinant ANDV DIII was soluble, presented disulfide bridges and beta-sheet secondary structure, supporting the in silico model. Using DIII and the C-terminal part of the stem region, the infection of cells by ANDV was blocked up to 60% when fusion of ANDV occurred within the endosomal route, and up to 95% when fusion occurred with the plasma membrane. Furthermore, the fragments impaired ANDV glycoprotein-mediated cell-cell fusion, and cross-inhibited the fusion mediated by the glycoproteins from Puumala virus (PUUV). The Gc fragments interfered in ANDV cell entry by preventing membrane hemifusion and pore formation, retaining Gc in a non-resistant homotrimer stage, as described for DIII and stem peptide inhibitors of class II fusion proteins. Collectively, our results demonstrate that hantavirus Gc shares not only structural, but also mechanistic similarity with class II viral fusion proteins, and will hopefully help in developing novel therapeutic strategies against hantaviruses

  5. Identification of a NEP1-35 recognizing peptide that neutralizes CNS myelin inhibition using phage display library.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qiyue; Cai, Wenqin; Li, Shurong; Su, Bingyin

    2013-03-01

    Nogo-A has been identified as an inhibitory molecule to neurite outgrowth after injury in adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS). The C-terminal fragment of Nogo-A, Nogo-66, inhibits axonal regrowth through NgR1 signaling. Residues 1-32 of Nogo-66 cover two regions that contribute most affinity of Nogo-66 to NgR1. It is unclear whether blocking the two regions with specific small ligands could neutralize the inhibition of Nogo-66. Therefore in this study we explored two phage display peptide libraries to screen small peptides that might bind Nogo-66. NEP1-35 containing 1-33 residues of Nogo-66 was taken as the target for panning. We found that phage-borne peptides with stronger affinity to NEP1-35 contained a relatively conserved motif, RRXXXXXXXRRX. Afterwards one identified peptide, NH(2)-RRQTLSHQMRRP-COOH was synthesized and tested in neurite outgrowth assay, in which this small molecule showed moderate ability to neutralize CNS myelin inhibition in vitro. Our results demonstrated that short peptides could act as adaptors to Nogo-66 and neutralize CNS myelin inhibition in vitro. Additionally, the results also suggested that phage display could help to discover novel small molecules with high affinity to CNS regrowth inhibitors, which might be able to promote CNS regeneration with fewer side effects since they could block only the corresponding regions of inhibitors.

  6. A peptide targeted against phosphoprotein and leader RNA interaction inhibits growth of Chandipura virus -- an emerging rhabdovirus.

    PubMed

    Roy, Arunava; Chakraborty, Prasenjit; Polley, Smarajit; Chattopadhyay, Dhrubajyoti; Roy, Siddhartha

    2013-11-01

    The fatal illness caused by Chandipura virus (CHPV), an emerging pathogen, presently lacks any therapeutic option. Previous research suggested that interaction between the virally encoded phosphoprotein (P) and the positive sense leader RNA (le-RNA) may play an important role in the viral lifecycle. In this report, we have identified a β-sheet/loop motif in the C-terminal domain of the CHPV P protein as essential for this interaction. A synthetic peptide encompassing this motif and spanning a continuous stretch of 36 amino acids (Pep208-243) was found to bind the le-RNA in vitro and inhibit CHPV growth in infected cells. Furthermore, a stretch of three amino acid residues at position 217-219 was identified as essential for this interaction, both in vitro and in infected cells. siRNA knockdown-rescue experiments demonstrated that these three amino acid residues are crucial for the leader RNA binding function of P protein in the CHPV life cycle. Mutations of these three amino acid residues render the peptide completely ineffective against CHPV. Effect of inhibition of phosphoprotein-leader RNA interaction on viral replication was assayed. Peptide Pep208-243 tagged with a cell penetrating peptide was found to inhibit CHPV replication as ascertained by real time RT-PCR. The specific inhibition of viral growth observed using this peptide suggests a new possibility for designing of anti-viral agents against Mononegavirale group of human viruses.

  7. A non-peptide NK1-receptor antagonist, RP 67580, inhibits neurogenic inflammation postsynaptically.

    PubMed Central

    Moussaoui, S. M.; Montier, F.; Carruette, A.; Blanchard, J. C.; Laduron, P. M.; Garret, C.

    1993-01-01

    1. The non-peptide neurokinin NK1-receptor antagonist, RP 67580 (3aR, 7aR), a perhydroisoindolone derivative, powerfully reduced plasma extravasation in rat hind paw skin induced by local application of xylene (ID50 = 0.03 mg kg-1, i.v.) or capsaicin (ID50 = 0.06 mg kg-1, i.v.), or by i.v. injection of exogenous substance P (SP) or septide ([pGlu6,Pro9]SP(6-11)) (ID50 = 0.04-0.05 mg kg-1, i.v.). RP 67580 (1 mg kg-1, i.v.) also abolished capsaicin-induced nasal fluid hypersecretion (by 82 +/- 5%). These effects were found to be stereospecific, the enantiomer, RP 68651 (3aS, 7aS), being inactive at 1 mg kg-1, i.v. 2. In rats neonatally treated with capsaicin (50 mg kg-1, s.c.), plasma extravasation induced by SP was significantly increased (by 43 +/- 7%). RP 67580 (1 mg kg-1, i.v.) completely inhibited the SP-induced plasma extravasation in capsaicin neonatally treated-animals, as it did in control animals. This result suggests that RP 67580 acts at the postsynaptic level for the inhibition of plasma extravasation. 3. Opioid receptor agonists, mu-(morphine) and kappa-(PD-117302) at 10 mg kg-1, s.c., in contrast to NK1-receptor antagonists, did not inhibit plasma extravasation induced by exogenous SP. They were, however, partially effective against plasma extravasation induced by electrical nerve stimulation (74 +/- 4% and 48 +/- 9% inhibition at 10 mg kg-1, s.c. of morphine and PD-117302, respectively, compared to 90 +/- 3% inhibition obtained with RP 67580, 3 mg kg-1, s.c.).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7684305

  8. Peptide vaccines and peptidomimetics of EGFR (HER-1) ligand binding domain inhibit cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Foy, Kevin Chu; Wygle, Ruthie M; Miller, Megan J; Overholser, Jay P; Bekaii-Saab, Tanios; Kaumaya, Pravin T P

    2013-07-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a validated target for several cancers including lung, colorectal, and certain subtypes of breast cancer. Cetuximab targets ligand binding of EGFR, but major problems like high cost, short t1/2, toxicity, and emergence of resistance are associated with the drug. Immunization with EGFR B cell epitopes will train the immune system to produce specific Abs that can kill cancer cells. Also, therapy with stable, less-expensive, and nontoxic EGFR peptide mimics will block EGFR signaling and inhibit cancer growth. We designed three peptides based on the contact sites between EGF and EGFR. The B cell epitopes were synthesized alone and also linked with the measles virus T cell epitope to produce a chimeric peptide vaccine. The peptide vaccines were immunogenic in both mice and rabbits and Abs raised against the vaccine specifically bound EGFR-expressing cells and recombinant human EGFR protein. The peptide mimics and the anti-peptide Abs were able to inhibit EGFR signaling pathways. Immunization with the peptide vaccine or treatment with the B cell epitopes significantly reduced tumor growth in both transplantable breast and lung cancer models. Immunohistochemical analysis also showed significant reductions in microvascular density and actively dividing cells in the tumor sections after treatment in the FVB/n breast cancer model. The 418-435 B cell epitope was the best candidate both as a vaccine or peptide mimic because it caused significant inhibition in the two mouse models. Our results show that this novel EGFR B cell epitope has great potential to be used as a vaccine or treatment option for EGFR-expressing cancers.

  9. Thiosemicarbazone modification of 3-acetyl coumarin inhibitspeptide aggregation and protect against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Ranade, Dnyanesh S; Bapat, Archika M; Ramteke, Shefali N; Joshi, Bimba N; Roussel, Pascal; Tomas, Alain; Deschamps, Patrick; Kulkarni, Prasad P

    2016-10-01

    Aggregation of amyloid β peptide (Aβ) is an important event in the progression of Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, among the available therapeutic approaches to fight with disease, inhibition of Aβ aggregation is widely studied and one of the promising approach for the development of treatments for Alzheimer's disease. Thiosemicarbazone compounds are known for their variety of biological activities. However, the potential of thiosemicarbazone compounds towards inhibition of Aβ peptide aggregation and the subsequent toxicity is little explored. Herein, we report synthesis and x-ray crystal structure of novel compound 3-acetyl coumarin thiosemicarbazone and its efficacy toward inhibition of Aβ(1-42) peptide aggregation. Our results indicate that 3-acetyl coumarin thiosemicarbazone inhibits Aβ(1-42) peptide aggregation up to 80% compared to the parent 3-acetyl coumarin which inhibits 52%. Further, 3-acetyl coumarin thiosemicarbazone provides neuroprotection against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cell line. These findings indicate that thiosemicarbazone modification renders 3-acetyl coumarin neuroprotective properties.

  10. Thiosemicarbazone modification of 3-acetyl coumarin inhibitspeptide aggregation and protect against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Ranade, Dnyanesh S; Bapat, Archika M; Ramteke, Shefali N; Joshi, Bimba N; Roussel, Pascal; Tomas, Alain; Deschamps, Patrick; Kulkarni, Prasad P

    2016-10-01

    Aggregation of amyloid β peptide (Aβ) is an important event in the progression of Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, among the available therapeutic approaches to fight with disease, inhibition of Aβ aggregation is widely studied and one of the promising approach for the development of treatments for Alzheimer's disease. Thiosemicarbazone compounds are known for their variety of biological activities. However, the potential of thiosemicarbazone compounds towards inhibition of Aβ peptide aggregation and the subsequent toxicity is little explored. Herein, we report synthesis and x-ray crystal structure of novel compound 3-acetyl coumarin thiosemicarbazone and its efficacy toward inhibition of Aβ(1-42) peptide aggregation. Our results indicate that 3-acetyl coumarin thiosemicarbazone inhibits Aβ(1-42) peptide aggregation up to 80% compared to the parent 3-acetyl coumarin which inhibits 52%. Further, 3-acetyl coumarin thiosemicarbazone provides neuroprotection against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cell line. These findings indicate that thiosemicarbazone modification renders 3-acetyl coumarin neuroprotective properties. PMID:26232353

  11. Injection of Cocaine-Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART) peptide into the nucleus accumbens does not inhibit caffeine-induced locomotor activity: Implications for CART peptide mechanism.

    PubMed

    Job, Martin O

    2016-09-01

    Much evidence suggests that intra-nucleus accumbens (NAc) CART peptide (CART 55-102) injection inhibits locomotor activity (LMA) when there is an increase in the release and activity of dopamine (DA) in the NAc. However, this hypothesis has not been fully tested. One way to examine this is to determine if there is a lack of effect of intra-NAc CART peptide on LMA that does not involve increases in DA release in the NAc. Several studies have suggested that caffeine-induced LMA does not involve extracellular DA release in the NAc core. Therefore, in this study, we have examined the effect of injections of CART peptide (2.5μg) into the NAc core on the locomotor effects of caffeine in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Several LMA relevant doses of caffeine were used (0, 10, 20mg/kg i.p.), and an inverted U response curve was found as expected. We determined, in the same animals, that intra-NAc CART peptide had no effect on caffeine-induced LMA whereas it blunted cocaine-mediated LMA, as shown by other reports. We also extended a previous observation in mice by showing that at a LMA activating dose of caffeine there is no alteration of CART peptide levels in the NAc of rats. Our study supports the hypothesis that the inhibitory effects of CART peptide in the NAc may be exerted only under conditions of increased extracellular DA release and activity in this region. Our results also suggest that intra-NAc CART 55-102 does not generally inhibit increases in LMA due to all drugs, but has a more specific inhibitory effect on dopaminergic neurotransmission. PMID:27168116

  12. IL-10 inhibits while calcitriol reestablishes placental antimicrobial peptides gene expression.

    PubMed

    Olmos-Ortiz, Andrea; Noyola-Martínez, Nancy; Barrera, David; Zaga-Clavellina, Verónica; Avila, Euclides; Halhali, Ali; Biruete, Benjamín; Larrea, Fernando; Díaz, Lorenza

    2015-04-01

    IL-10 and calcitriol help to achieve a successful pregnancy by suppressing active maternal immunity; however, these factors exert opposite effects upon microbial infections. In the skin and immune cells, IL-10 downregulates β-defensins while calcitriol induces cathelicidin gene expression in various tissues including placenta. Though, the regulation of human placental β-defensins by IL-10 and calcitriol has not been studied. Therefore, we explored the regulation of these antimicrobial peptides expression in cultured placental cells by calcitriol and IL-10 alone and combined. Real time PCR showed that calcitriol stimulated, while IL-10 inhibited, β-defensins and cathelicidin gene expression (P<0.05). In coincubations studies, calcitriol was able to maintain antimicrobial peptides gene expression above control values, overriding IL-10 inhibitory effects. Calcitriol downregulated endogenous IL-10 secretion. Interestingly, calcitriol and TNF-α cooperatively enhanced β-defensins, while TNF-α reduced basal and calcitriol-stimulated cathelicidin gene expression. In summary, calcitriol and IL-10 exerted opposite effects on antimicrobial peptides expression in the human placenta, suggesting that unbalanced production of IL-10 and calcitriol could be deleterious to innate immune responses during gestation. Our results suggest that calcitriol enhancement of placental defenses involves two mechanisms: (1) downregulation of IL-10 secretion and (2) direct upregulation of β-defensins and cathelicidin gene expression. Considering that IL-10 and calcitriol differentially regulate the innate immune response in the placenta, in the case of an infection, calcitriol might restrict IL-10 permissive actions towards microbial invasion while restrains inflammation, allowing for pregnancy to continue in quiescence. These results strongly advice maternal vitamin D sufficiency during pregnancy.

  13. Intracellular Generation of a Diterpene-Peptide Conjugate that Inhibits 14-3-3-Mediated Interactions.

    PubMed

    Parvatkar, Prakash; Kato, Nobuo; Uesugi, Motonari; Sato, Shin-Ichi; Ohkanda, Junko

    2015-12-23

    Synthetic agents that disrupt intracellular protein-protein interactions (PPIs) are highly desirable for elucidating signaling networks and developing new therapeutics. However, designing cell-penetrating large molecules equipped with the many functional groups necessary for binding to large interfaces remains challenging. Here, we describe a rational strategy for the intracellular oxime ligation-mediated generation of an amphipathic bivalent inhibitor composed of a peptide and diterpene natural product, fusicoccin, which binds 14-3-3 protein with submicromolar affinity. Our results demonstrate that co-treatment of cells with small module molecules, the aldehyde-containing fusicoccin 1 and the aminooxy-containing peptide 2, generates the corresponding conjugate 3 in cells, resulting in significant cytotoxicity. In contrast, chemically synthesized 3 is not cytotoxic, likely due to its inability to penetrate cells. Compound 3, but not 1 or 2, disrupts endogenous 14-3-3/cRaf interactions, suggesting that cell death is caused by inhibition of 14-3-3 activity. These results suggest that intracellular generation of large-sized molecules may serve as a new approach for modulating PPIs.

  14. Iron oxide nanoparticles induce Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth, induce biofilm formation, and inhibit antimicrobial peptide function.

    PubMed

    Borcherding, Jennifer; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Chen, Haihan; Stebounova, Larissa; Wu, Chia-Ming; Rubasinghege, Gayan; Mudunkotuwa, Imali A; Caraballo, Juan Carlos; Zabner, Joseph; Grassian, Vicki H; Comellas, Alejandro P

    2014-04-01

    Given the increased use of iron-containing nanoparticles in a number of applications, it is important to understand any effects that iron-containing nanoparticles can have on the environment and human health. Since iron concentrations are extremely low in body fluids, there is potential that iron-containing nanoparticles may influence the ability of bacteria to scavenge iron for growth, affect virulence and inhibit antimicrobial peptide (AMP) function. In this study, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA01) and AMPs were exposed to iron oxide nanoparticles, hematite (α-Fe2O3), of different sizes ranging from 2 to 540 nm (2 ± 1, 43 ± 6, 85 ± 25 and 540 ± 90 nm) in diameter. Here we show that the greatest effect on bacterial growth, biofilm formation, and AMP function impairment is found when exposed to the smallest particles. These results are attributed in large part to enhanced dissolution observed for the smallest particles and an increase in the amount of bioavailable iron. Furthermore, AMP function can be additionally impaired by adsorption onto nanoparticle surfaces. In particular, lysozyme readily adsorbs onto the nanoparticle surface which can lead to loss of peptide activity. Thus, this current study shows that co-exposure of nanoparticles and known pathogens can impact host innate immunity. Therefore, it is important that future studies be designed to further understand these types of impacts. PMID:25221673

  15. EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR LIKE5 peptide represses stomatal development by inhibiting meristemoid maintenance in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Tomoko; Kondo, Tatsuhiko; Nishizawa, Michi; Kajita, Ryoko; Kakimoto, Tatsuo; Ishiguro, Sumie

    2013-01-01

    Stomatal development in Arabidopsis epidermis is both positively and negatively regulated by a family of Cys-rich peptides, EPIDERMAL PATTERNING FACTOR LIKEs (EPFLs). We synthesized biologically active synthetic EPFL5 (sEPFL5) peptide, which reduced the number of stoma in leaves and cotyledons. The sEPFL5 possesses three disulfide bonds at positions identical to those of a positive development factor, stomagen. Application of sEPFL5 had little inhibitory effect on protodermal cells entering the stomatal lineage, but did inhibit the maintenance of meristemoid activity, resulting in the differentiation of arrested meristemoids into pavement cells. This phenotype was enhanced in the too many mouths (tmm) mutant background. RNA analysis revealed that sEPFL5 application halved SPEECHLESS expression and abolished MUTE expression in tmm mutants, explaining the phenotype observed. The action of sEPFL5 was mediated by ERECTA family receptors. We propose that EPFL5 functions to establish the differentiation of stomatal lineage cells to pavement cells. PMID:23748792

  16. Hsp70 and antifibrillogenic peptides promote degradation and inhibit intracellular aggregation of amyloidogenic light chains.

    SciTech Connect

    Dul, J. L.; Davis, D. P.; Williamson, E. K.; Stevens, F. J.; Argon, Y.; Univ. of Chicago

    2001-02-19

    In light chain (LC) amyloidosis an immunoglobulin LC assembles into fibrils that are deposited in various tissues. Little is known about how these fibrils form in vivo. We previously showed that a known amyloidogenic LC, SMA, can give rise to amyloid fibrils in vitro when a segment of one of its {beta} sheets undergoes a conformational change, exposing an Hsp70 binding site. To examine SMA aggregation in vivo, we expressed it and its wild-type counterpart, LEN, in COS cells. While LEN is rapidly oxidized and subsequently secreted, newly synthesized SMA remains in the reduced state. Most SMA molecules are dislocated out of the ER into the cytosol, where they are ubiquitinylated and degraded by proteasomes. A parallel pathway for molecules that are not degraded is condensation into perinuclear aggresomes that are surrounded by vimentin-containing intermediate filaments and are dependent upon intact microtubules. Inhibition of proteasome activity shifts the balance toward aggresome formation. Intracellular aggregation is decreased and targeting to proteasomes improved by overexpression of the cytosolic chaperone Hsp70. Importantly, transduction into the cell of an Hsp70 target peptide, derived from the LC sequence, also reduces aggresome formation and increases SMA degradation. These results demonstrate that an amyloidogenic LC can aggregate intracellularly despite the common presentation of extracellular aggregates, and that a similar molecular surface mediates both in vitro fibril formation and in vivo aggregation. Furthermore, rationally designed peptides can be used to suppress this aggregation and may provide a feasible therapeutic approach.

  17. Small stress molecules inhibit aggregation and neurotoxicity of prion peptide 106-126

    SciTech Connect

    Kanapathipillai, Mathumai; Ku, Sook Hee; Girigoswami, Koyeli; Park, Chan Beum

    2008-01-25

    In prion diseases, the posttranslational modification of host-encoded prion protein PrP{sup c} yields a high {beta}-sheet content modified protein PrP{sup sc}, which further polymerizes into amyloid fibrils. PrP106-126 initiates the conformational changes leading to the conversion of PrP{sup c} to PrP{sup sc}. Molecules that can defunctionalize such peptides can serve as a potential tool in combating prion diseases. In microorganisms during stressed conditions, small stress molecules (SSMs) are formed to prevent protein denaturation and maintain protein stability and function. The effect of such SSMs on PrP106-126 amyloid formation is explored in the present study using turbidity, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and cellular toxicity assay. Turbidity and AFM studies clearly depict that the SSMs-ectoine and mannosylglyceramide (MGA) inhibit the PrP106-126 aggregation. Our study also connotes that ectoine and MGA offer strong resistance to prion peptide-induced toxicity in human neuroblastoma cells, concluding that such molecules can be potential inhibitors of prion aggregation and toxicity.

  18. Selective Inhibition of Aggregation and Toxicity of a Tau-Derived Peptide using Its Glycosylated Analogues.

    PubMed

    Frenkel-Pinter, Moran; Richman, Michal; Belostozky, Anna; Abu-Mokh, Amjaad; Gazit, Ehud; Rahimipour, Shai; Segal, Daniel

    2016-04-18

    Protein glycosylation is a ubiquitous post-translational modification that regulates the folding and function of many proteins. Misfolding of protein monomers and their toxic aggregation are the hallmark of many prevalent diseases. Thus, understanding the role of glycans in protein aggregation is highly important and could contribute both to unraveling the pathology of protein misfolding diseases as well as providing a means for modifying their course for therapeutic purposes. Using β-O-linked glycosylated variants of the highly studied Tau-derived hexapeptide motif VQIVYK, which served as a simplified amyloid model, we demonstrate that amyloid formation and toxicity can be strongly attenuated by a glycan unit, depending on the nature of the glycan itself. Importantly, we show for the first time that not only do glycans hinder self-aggregation, but the glycosylated peptides are capable of inhibiting aggregation of the non-modified corresponding amyloid scaffold.

  19. Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Receptor Blocker Inhibits Spontaneous Activity of Human Ureter.

    PubMed

    Jankovic, Slobodan M; Jankovic, Snezana V; Stojadinovic, Dobrivoje; Stojadinovic, Miroslav; Djuric, Janko M; Stojic, Isidora

    2015-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is present in nerve fibers that innervate the human ureter and may have important influence on the motility of this organ. The aim of our study was to investigate whether CGRP could affect the motility of an isolated human ureter. The tension and intraluminal pressure of the isolated ureteral segments were recorded and registered on a personal computer. Both phasic and tonic contractions of the isolated preparations were measured as area under the tension or pressure recordings. CGRP and CGRP fragment 8-37 were separately added to the organ baths in a cumulative way, thereby gradually increasing their concentration in the baths' solution. Alpha-CGRP did not affect either phasic, spontaneous activity or tone of isolated ureteral segments, as measured by both tension and intraluminal pressure. On the other hand, CGRP 8-37 caused concentration-dependent inhibition of spontaneous contractions of the isolated ureteral segments. PMID:26305057

  20. Inhibition of amyloid fiber assembly by both BiP and its target peptide.

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D. P.; Raffen, R.; Vogen, S.; Williamson, E.; Stevens, F. J.; Argon, Y.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Chicago

    2000-10-01

    Immunoglobulin light chain (LC) normally is a soluble, secreted protein, but some LC assemble into ordered fibrils whose deposition in tissues results in amyloidosis and organ failure. Here we reconstitute fibril formation in vitro and show that preformed fibrils can nucleate polymerization of soluble LC. This prion-like behavior has important physiological implications, since somatic mutations generate multiple related LC sequences. Furthermore, we demonstrate that fibril formation in vitro and aggregation of whole LC within cells are inhibited by BiP and by a synthetic peptide that is identical to a major LC binding site for BiP. We propose that LC form fibrils via an interprotein loop swap and that the underlying conformational change should be amenable to drug therapy.

  1. Small peptides blocking inhibition of factor Xa and tissue factor-factor VIIa by tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI).

    PubMed

    Dockal, Michael; Hartmann, Rudolf; Fries, Markus; Thomassen, M Christella L G D; Heinzmann, Alexandra; Ehrlich, Hartmut; Rosing, Jan; Osterkamp, Frank; Polakowski, Thomas; Reineke, Ulrich; Griessner, Andreas; Brandstetter, Hans; Scheiflinger, Friedrich

    2014-01-17

    Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) is a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor that inhibits activated factor X (FXa) via a slow-tight binding mechanism and tissue factor-activated FVII (TF-FVIIa) via formation of a quaternary FXa-TFPI-TF-FVIIa complex. Inhibition of TFPI enhances coagulation in hemophilia models. Using a library approach, we selected and subsequently optimized peptides that bind TFPI and block its anticoagulant activity. One peptide (termed compound 3), bound with high affinity to the Kunitz-1 (K1) domain of TFPI (Kd ∼1 nM). We solved the crystal structure of this peptide in complex with the K1 of TFPI at 2.55-Å resolution. The structure of compound 3 can be segmented into a N-terminal anchor; an Ω-shaped loop; an intermediate segment; a tight glycine-loop; and a C-terminal α-helix that is anchored to K1 at its reactive center loop and two-stranded β-sheet. The contact surface has an overall hydrophobic character with some charged hot spots. In a model system, compound 3 blocked FXa inhibition by TFPI (EC50 = 11 nM) and inhibition of TF-FVIIa-catalyzed FX activation by TFPI (EC50 = 2 nM). The peptide prevented transition from the loose to the tight FXa-TFPI complex, but did not affect formation of the loose FXa-TFPI complex. The K1 domain of TFPI binds and inhibits FVIIa and the K2 domain similarly inhibits FXa. Because compound 3 binds to K1, our data show that K1 is not only important for FVIIa inhibition but also for FXa inhibition, i.e. for the transition of the loose to the tight FXa-TFPI complex. This mode of action translates into normalization of coagulation of hemophilia plasmas. Compound 3 thus bears potential to prevent bleeding in hemophilia patients. PMID:24275667

  2. Small Peptides Blocking Inhibition of Factor Xa and Tissue Factor-Factor VIIa by Tissue Factor Pathway Inhibitor (TFPI)*

    PubMed Central

    Dockal, Michael; Hartmann, Rudolf; Fries, Markus; Thomassen, M. Christella L. G. D.; Heinzmann, Alexandra; Ehrlich, Hartmut; Rosing, Jan; Osterkamp, Frank; Polakowski, Thomas; Reineke, Ulrich; Griessner, Andreas; Brandstetter, Hans; Scheiflinger, Friedrich

    2014-01-01

    Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) is a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor that inhibits activated factor X (FXa) via a slow-tight binding mechanism and tissue factor-activated FVII (TF-FVIIa) via formation of a quaternary FXa-TFPI-TF-FVIIa complex. Inhibition of TFPI enhances coagulation in hemophilia models. Using a library approach, we selected and subsequently optimized peptides that bind TFPI and block its anticoagulant activity. One peptide (termed compound 3), bound with high affinity to the Kunitz-1 (K1) domain of TFPI (Kd ∼1 nm). We solved the crystal structure of this peptide in complex with the K1 of TFPI at 2.55-Å resolution. The structure of compound 3 can be segmented into a N-terminal anchor; an Ω-shaped loop; an intermediate segment; a tight glycine-loop; and a C-terminal α-helix that is anchored to K1 at its reactive center loop and two-stranded β-sheet. The contact surface has an overall hydrophobic character with some charged hot spots. In a model system, compound 3 blocked FXa inhibition by TFPI (EC50 = 11 nm) and inhibition of TF-FVIIa-catalyzed FX activation by TFPI (EC50 = 2 nm). The peptide prevented transition from the loose to the tight FXa-TFPI complex, but did not affect formation of the loose FXa-TFPI complex. The K1 domain of TFPI binds and inhibits FVIIa and the K2 domain similarly inhibits FXa. Because compound 3 binds to K1, our data show that K1 is not only important for FVIIa inhibition but also for FXa inhibition, i.e. for the transition of the loose to the tight FXa-TFPI complex. This mode of action translates into normalization of coagulation of hemophilia plasmas. Compound 3 thus bears potential to prevent bleeding in hemophilia patients. PMID:24275667

  3. Staphylococcus aureus Formyl-Methionyl Transferase Mutants Demonstrate Reduced Virulence Factor Production and Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Lewandowski, Thomas; Huang, Jianzhong; Fan, Frank; Rogers, Shannon; Gentry, Daniel; Holland, Reannon; DeMarsh, Peter; Zalacain, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Inhibitors of peptide deformylase (PDF) represent a new class of antibacterial agents with a novel mechanism of action. Mutations that inactivate formyl methionyl transferase (FMT), the enzyme that formylates initiator methionyl-tRNA, lead to an alternative initiation of protein synthesis that does not require deformylation and are the predominant cause of resistance to PDF inhibitors in Staphylococcus aureus. Here, we report that loss-of-function mutations in FMT impart pleiotropic effects that include a reduced growth rate, a nonhemolytic phenotype, and a drastic reduction in production of multiple extracellular proteins, including key virulence factors, such as α-hemolysin and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), that have been associated with S. aureus pathogenicity. Consequently, S. aureus FMT mutants are greatly attenuated in neutropenic and nonneutropenic murine pyelonephritis infection models and show very high survival rates compared with wild-type S. aureus. These newly discovered effects on extracellular virulence factor production demonstrate that FMT-null mutants have a more severe fitness cost than previously anticipated, leading to a substantial loss of pathogenicity and a restricted ability to produce an invasive infection. PMID:23571548

  4. Staphylococcus aureus formyl-methionyl transferase mutants demonstrate reduced virulence factor production and pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Thomas; Huang, Jianzhong; Fan, Frank; Rogers, Shannon; Gentry, Daniel; Holland, Reannon; Demarsh, Peter; Aubart, Kelly; Zalacain, Magdalena

    2013-07-01

    Inhibitors of peptide deformylase (PDF) represent a new class of antibacterial agents with a novel mechanism of action. Mutations that inactivate formyl methionyl transferase (FMT), the enzyme that formylates initiator methionyl-tRNA, lead to an alternative initiation of protein synthesis that does not require deformylation and are the predominant cause of resistance to PDF inhibitors in Staphylococcus aureus. Here, we report that loss-of-function mutations in FMT impart pleiotropic effects that include a reduced growth rate, a nonhemolytic phenotype, and a drastic reduction in production of multiple extracellular proteins, including key virulence factors, such as α-hemolysin and Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), that have been associated with S. aureus pathogenicity. Consequently, S. aureus FMT mutants are greatly attenuated in neutropenic and nonneutropenic murine pyelonephritis infection models and show very high survival rates compared with wild-type S. aureus. These newly discovered effects on extracellular virulence factor production demonstrate that FMT-null mutants have a more severe fitness cost than previously anticipated, leading to a substantial loss of pathogenicity and a restricted ability to produce an invasive infection.

  5. Effective Inhibition of Cellular ROS Production by MXCXXC-Type Peptides: Potential Therapeutic Applications in Copper-Homeostasis Disorders.

    PubMed

    Shoshan, Michal S; Tshuva, Edit Y

    2016-06-27

    Cyclic and acyclic peptides with sequences derived from metallochaperone binding sites, but differing at position 2, were analyzed for their inhibitory reactivity towards cellular ROS (reactive oxygen species) formation and catalytic activity towards oxidation with H2 O2 , in comparison with three commercial drugs clinically employed in chelation therapy for Wilson's disease. Acyclic peptides were more effective inhibitors than the cyclic ones, with one leading peptide with threonine at position 2 systematically showing the highest efficiency in reducing cellular ROS levels and in inhibiting Cu oxidation. This peptide was more effective than all commercial drugs in all aspects analyzed, and showed no toxicity towards human colon HT-29 cancer cells at concentrations 10-100 times higher than the IC50 of the commercial drugs, corroborating its high medicinal potential. PMID:27124086

  6. Inhibiting and reversing amyloid-β peptide (1-40) fibril formation with gramicidin S and engineered analogues.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jinghui; Otero, José M; Yu, Chien-Hung; Wärmländer, Sebastian K T S; Gräslund, Astrid; Overhand, Mark; Abrahams, Jan Pieter

    2013-12-16

    In Alzheimer's disease, amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides aggregate into extracellular fibrillar deposits. Although these deposits may not be the prime cause of the neurodegeneration that characterizes this disease, inhibition or dissolution of amyloid fibril formation by Aβ peptides is likely to affect its development. ThT fluorescence measurements and AFM images showed that the natural antibiotic gramicidin S significantly inhibited Aβ amyloid formation in vitro and could dissolve amyloids that had formed in the absence of the antibiotic. In silico docking suggested that gramicidin S, a cyclic decapeptide that adopts a β-sheet conformation, binds to the Aβ peptide hairpin-stacked fibril through β-sheet interactions. This may explain why gramicidin S reduces fibril formation. Analogues of gramicidin S were also tested. An analogue with a potency that was four-times higher than that of the natural product was identified.

  7. Identification and Evaluation of Cryoprotective Peptides from Chicken Collagen: Ice-Growth Inhibition Activity Compared to That of Type I Antifreeze Proteins in Sucrose Model Systems.

    PubMed

    Du, Lihui; Betti, Mirko

    2016-06-29

    The ability of chicken collagen peptides to inhibit the growth of ice crystals was evaluated and compared to that of fish antifreeze proteins (AFPs). This ice inhibition activity was assessed using a polarized microscope by measuring ice crystal dimensions in a sucrose model system with and without collagen peptides after seven thermal cycles. The system was stabilized at -25 °C and cycled between -16 and -12 °C. Five candidate peptides with ice inhibition activity were identified using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry and were then synthesized. Their ice inhibition capacity was compared to that of type I AFPs in a 23% sucrose model system. Specific collagen peptides with certain amino acid sequences reduced the extent of ice growth by approximately 70% at a relatively low concentration (1 mg/mL). These results suggest that specific collagen peptides may act in a noncolligative manner, inhibiting ice crystal growth like type I AFPs, but less efficiently. PMID:27293017

  8. Inhibition of serotonin release by bombesin-like peptides in rat hypothalamus in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Saporito, M.S.; Warwick, R.O. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    We investigated the activity of bombesin (BN), neuromedin-C (NM-C) and neuromedin-B (NM-B) on serotonin (5-HT) release and reuptake in rat hypothalamus (HYP) in vitro. BN and NM-C but not NM-B decreased K/sup +/ evoked /sup 3/H-5-HT release from superfused HYP slices by 25%. Bacitracin, a nonspecific peptidase inhibitor, reversed the inhibitory effect of BN on K/sup +/ evoked /sup 3/H-5-HT release. Phosphoramidon (PAN, 10 /mu/M) an endopeptidase 24.11 inhibitor, abolished the inhibitory effect of BN, but not NM-C, on K/sup +/ evoked /sup 3/H-5-HT release. The peptidyl dipeptidase A inhibitor enalaprilat (ENP, 10 /mu/M), enhanced both BN and NM-C inhibition of /sup 3/H-5-HT release. Bestatin (BST, 10 /mu/M) had no effect on BN or NM-C inhibitory activity on /sup 3/H-5-HT release. Neither BN, NM-C nor NM-B affected reuptake of /sup 3/H-5-HT into HYP synaptosomes alone or in combination with any of the peptidase inhibitors, nor did these peptides alter the ability of fluoxetine to inhibit /sup 3/H-5-HT uptake.

  9. The connexin43 mimetic peptide Gap19 inhibits hemichannels without altering gap junctional communication in astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Abudara, Verónica; Bechberger, John; Freitas-Andrade, Moises; De Bock, Marijke; Wang, Nan; Bultynck, Geert; Naus, Christian C.; Leybaert, Luc; Giaume, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In the brain, astrocytes represent the cellular population that expresses the highest amount of connexins (Cxs). This family of membrane proteins is the molecular constituent of gap junction channels and hemichannels that provide pathways for direct cytoplasm-to-cytoplasm and inside-out exchange, respectively. Both types of Cx channels are permeable to ions and small signaling molecules allowing astrocytes to establish dynamic interactions with neurons. So far, most pharmacological approaches currently available do not distinguish between these two channel functions, stressing the need to develop new specific molecular tools. In astrocytes two major Cxs are expressed, Cx43 and Cx30, and there is now evidence indicating that at least Cx43 operates as a gap junction channel as well as a hemichannel in these cells. Based on studies in primary cultures as well as in acute hippocampal slices, we report here that Gap19, a nonapeptide derived from the cytoplasmic loop of Cx43, inhibits astroglial Cx43 hemichannels in a dose-dependent manner, without affecting gap junction channels. This peptide, which not only selectively inhibits hemichannels but is also specific for Cx43, can be delivered in vivo in mice as TAT-Gap19, and displays penetration into the brain parenchyma. As a result, Gap19 combined with other tools opens up new avenues to decipher the role of Cx43 hemichannels in interactions between astrocytes and neurons in physiological as well as pathological situations. PMID:25374505

  10. Butyrate upregulates endogenous host defense peptides to enhance disease resistance in piglets via histone deacetylase inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Haitao; Guo, Bingxiu; Gan, Zhenshun; Song, Deguang; Lu, Zeqing; Yi, Hongbo; Wu, Yueming; Wang, Yizhen; Du, Huahua

    2016-01-01

    Butyrate has been used to treat different inflammatory disease with positive outcomes, the mechanisms by which butyrate exerts its anti-inflammatory effects remain largely undefined. Here we proposed a new mechanism that butyrate manipulate endogenous host defense peptides (HDPs) which contributes to the elimination of Escherichia coli O157:H7, and thus affects the alleviation of inflammation. An experiment in piglets treated with butyrate (0.2% of diets) 2 days before E. coli O157:H7 challenge was designed to investigate porcine HDP expression, inflammation and E. coli O157:H7 load in feces. The mechanisms underlying butyrate-induced HDP gene expression and the antibacterial activity and bacterial clearance of macrophage 3D4/2 cells in vitro were examined. Butyrate treatment (i) alleviated the clinical symptoms of E. coli O157:H7-induced hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and the severity of intestinal inflammation; (ii) reduced the E. coli O157:H7 load in feces; (iii) significantly upregulated multiple, but not all, HDPs in vitro and in vivo via histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition; and (iv) enhanced the antibacterial activity and bacterial clearance of 3D4/2 cells. Our findings indicate that butyrate enhances disease resistance, promotes the clearance of E. coli O157:H7, and alleviates the clinical symptoms of HUS and inflammation, partially, by affecting HDP expression via HDAC inhibition. PMID:27230284

  11. Caspase inhibition therapy abolishes brain trauma-induced increases in Abeta peptide: implications for clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Abrahamson, Eric E; Ikonomovic, Milos D; Ciallella, John R; Hope, Caroline E; Paljug, William R; Isanski, Barbara A; Flood, Dorothy G; Clark, Robert S B; DeKosky, Steven T

    2006-02-01

    The detrimental effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on brain tissue integrity involve progressive axonal damage, necrotic cell loss, and both acute and delayed apoptotic neuronal death due to activation of caspases. Post-injury accumulation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its toxic metabolite amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) has been implicated in apoptosis as well as in increasing the risk for developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) after TBI. Activated caspases proteolyze APP and are associated with increased Abeta production after neuronal injury. Conversely, Abeta and related APP/Abeta fragments stimulate caspase activation, creating a potential vicious cycle of secondary injury after TBI. Blockade of caspase activation after brain injury suppresses apoptosis and improves neurological outcome, but it is not known whether such intervention also prevents increases in Abeta levels in vivo. The present study examined the effect of caspase inhibition on post-injury levels of soluble Abeta, APP, activated caspase-3, and caspase-cleaved APP in the hippocampus of nontransgenic mice expressing human Abeta, subjected to controlled cortical injury (CCI). CCI produced brain tissue damage with cell loss and elevated levels of activated caspase-3, Abeta(1-42) and Abeta(1-40), APP, and caspase-cleaved APP fragments in hippocampal neurons and axons. Post-CCI intervention with intracerebroventricular injection of 100 nM Boc-Asp(OMe)-CH(2)F (BAF, a pan-caspase inhibitor) significantly reduced caspase-3 activation and improved histological outcome, suppressed increases in Abeta and caspase-cleaved APP, but showed no significant effect on overall APP levels in the hippocampus after CCI. These data demonstrate that after TBI, caspase inhibition can suppress elevations in Abeta. The extent to which Abeta suppression contributes to improved outcome following inhibition of caspases after TBI is unclear, but such intervention may be a valuable therapeutic strategy for preventing the

  12. Heptad repeat 2-based peptides inhibit avian sarcoma and leukosis virus subgroup a infection and identify a fusion intermediate.

    PubMed

    Netter, Robert C; Amberg, Sean M; Balliet, John W; Biscone, Mark J; Vermeulen, Arwen; Earp, Laurie J; White, Judith M; Bates, Paul

    2004-12-01

    Fusion proteins of enveloped viruses categorized as class I are typified by two distinct heptad repeat domains within the transmembrane subunit. These repeats are important structural elements that assemble into the six-helix bundles characteristic of the fusion-activated envelope trimer. Peptides derived from these domains can be potent and specific inhibitors of membrane fusion and virus infection. To facilitate our understanding of retroviral entry, peptides corresponding to the two heptad repeat domains of the avian sarcoma and leukosis virus subgroup A (ASLV-A) TM subunit of the envelope protein were characterized. Two peptides corresponding to the C-terminal heptad repeat (HR2), offset from one another by three residues, were effective inhibitors of infection, while two overlapping peptides derived from the N-terminal heptad repeat (HR1) were not. Analysis of envelope mutants containing substitutions within the HR1 domain revealed that a single amino acid change, L62A, significantly reduced sensitivity to peptide inhibition. Virus bound to cells at 4 degrees C became sensitive to peptide within the first 5 min of elevating the temperature to 37 degrees C and lost sensitivity to peptide after 15 to 30 min, consistent with a transient intermediate in which the peptide binding site is exposed. In cell-cell fusion experiments, peptide inhibitor sensitivity occurred prior to a fusion-enhancing low-pH pulse. Soluble receptor for ASLV-A induces a lipophilic character in the envelope which can be measured by stable liposome binding, and this activation was found to be unaffected by inhibitory HR2 peptide. Finally, receptor-triggered conformational changes in the TM subunit were also found to be unaffected by inhibitory peptide. These changes are marked by a dramatic shift in mobility on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, from a subunit of 37 kDa to a complex of about 80 kDa. Biotinylated HR2 peptide bound specifically to the 80-kDa complex

  13. Virtual Screening of Peptide and Peptidomimetic Fragments Targeted to Inhibit Bacterial Dithiol Oxidase DsbA

    PubMed Central

    Stoermer, Martin J.; Tay, Stephanie; McMahon, Róisín M.; Fairlie, David P.; Martin, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Antibacterial drugs with novel scaffolds and new mechanisms of action are desperately needed to address the growing problem of antibiotic resistance. The periplasmic oxidative folding system in Gram-negative bacteria represents a possible target for anti-virulence antibacterials. By targeting virulence rather than viability, development of resistance and side effects (through killing host native microbiota) might be minimized. Here, we undertook the design of peptidomimetic inhibitors targeting the interaction between the two key enzymes of oxidative folding, DsbA and DsbB, with the ultimate goal of preventing virulence factor assembly. Structures of DsbB - or peptides - complexed with DsbA revealed key interactions with the DsbA active site cysteine, and with a hydrophobic groove adjacent to the active site. The present work aimed to discover peptidomimetics that target the hydrophobic groove to generate non-covalent DsbA inhibitors. The previously reported structure of a Proteus mirabilis DsbA active site cysteine mutant, in a non-covalent complex with the heptapeptide PWATCDS, was used as an in silico template for virtual screening of a peptidomimetic fragment library. The highest scoring fragment compound and nine derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for DsbA binding and inhibition. These experiments discovered peptidomimetic fragments with inhibitory activity at millimolar concentrations. Although only weakly potent relative to larger covalent peptide inhibitors that interact through the active site cysteine, these fragments offer new opportunities as templates to build non-covalent inhibitors. The results suggest that non-covalent peptidomimetics may need to interact with sites beyond the hydrophobic groove in order to produce potent DsbA inhibitors. PMID:26225423

  14. Differential substrate specificity and kinetic behavior of Escherichia coli YfdW and Oxalobacter formigenes formyl coenzyme A transferase.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Cory G; Berthold, Catrine L; Gruez, Arnaud; Jónsson, Stefán; Lindqvist, Ylva; Cambillau, Christian; Richards, Nigel G J

    2008-04-01

    The yfdXWUVE operon appears to encode proteins that enhance the ability of Escherichia coli MG1655 to survive under acidic conditions. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenotypic behavior remain to be elucidated, findings from structural genomic studies have shown that the structure of YfdW, the protein encoded by the yfdW gene, is homologous to that of the enzyme that mediates oxalate catabolism in the obligate anaerobe Oxalobacter formigenes, O. formigenes formyl coenzyme A transferase (FRC). We now report the first detailed examination of the steady-state kinetic behavior and substrate specificity of recombinant, wild-type YfdW. Our studies confirm that YfdW is a formyl coenzyme A (formyl-CoA) transferase, and YfdW appears to be more stringent than the corresponding enzyme (FRC) in Oxalobacter in employing formyl-CoA and oxalate as substrates. We also report the effects of replacing Trp-48 in the FRC active site with the glutamine residue that occupies an equivalent position in the E. coli protein. The results of these experiments show that Trp-48 precludes oxalate binding to a site that mediates substrate inhibition for YfdW. In addition, the replacement of Trp-48 by Gln-48 yields an FRC variant for which oxalate-dependent substrate inhibition is modified to resemble that seen for YfdW. Our findings illustrate the utility of structural homology in assigning enzyme function and raise the question of whether oxalate catabolism takes place in E. coli upon the up-regulation of the yfdXWUVE operon under acidic conditions. PMID:18245280

  15. Engineering D-Amino Acid Containing Collagen Like Peptide at the Cleavage Site of Clostridium histolyticum Collagenase for Its Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Velmurugan, Punitha; Jonnalagadda, Raghava Rao; Unni Nair, Balachandran

    2015-01-01

    Collagenase is an important enzyme which plays an important role in degradation of collagen in wound healing, cancer metastasis and even in embryonic development. However, the mechanism of this degradation has not yet been completely understood. In the field of biomedical and protein engineering, the design and development of new peptide based materials is of main concern. In the present work an attempt has been made to study the effect of DAla in collagen like peptide (imino-poor region of type I collagen) on the structure and stability of peptide against enzyme hydrolysis. Effect of replacement of DAla in the collagen like peptide has been studied using circular dichroic spectroscopy (CD). Our findings suggest that, DAla substitution leads to conformational changes in the secondary structure and favours the formation of polyproline II conformation than its L-counterpart in the imino-poor region of collagen like peptides. Change in the chirality of alanine at the cleavage site of collagenase in the imino-poor region inhibits collagenolytic activity. This may find application in design of peptides and peptidomimics for enzyme-substrate interaction, specifically with reference to collagen and other extra cellular matrix proteins. PMID:25973613

  16. Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase cleaves a C-terminal peptide from human thrombin that inhibits host inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    van der Plas, Mariena J. A.; Bhongir, Ravi K. V.; Kjellström, Sven; Siller, Helena; Kasetty, Gopinath; Mörgelin, Matthias; Schmidtchen, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen known for its immune evasive abilities amongst others by degradation of a large variety of host proteins. Here we show that digestion of thrombin by P. aeruginosa elastase leads to the release of the C-terminal thrombin-derived peptide FYT21, which inhibits pro-inflammatory responses to several pathogen-associated molecular patterns in vitro and in vivo by preventing toll-like receptor dimerization and subsequent activation of down-stream signalling pathways. Thus, P. aeruginosa ‘hijacks' an endogenous anti-inflammatory peptide-based mechanism, thereby enabling modulation and circumvention of host responses. PMID:27181065

  17. Natriuretic Peptide-Induced Catecholamine Release from Cardiac Sympathetic Neurons: Inhibition by Histamine H3 and H4 Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Noel Yan-Ki; Robador, Pablo A.

    2012-01-01

    We reported previously that natriuretic peptides, including brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), promote norepinephrine release from cardiac sympathetic nerves and dopamine release from differentiated pheochromocytoma PC12 cells. These proexocytotic effects are mediated by an increase in intracellular calcium secondary to cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) activation caused by a protein kinase G (PKG)-mediated inhibition of phosphodiesterase type 3 (PDE3). The purpose of the present study was to search for novel means to prevent the proadrenergic effects of natriuretic peptides. For this, we focused our attention on neuronal inhibitory Gαi/o-coupled histamine H3 and H4 receptors. Our findings show that activation of neuronal H3 and H4 receptors inhibits the release of catecholamines elicited by BNP in cardiac synaptosomes and differentiated PC12 cells. This effect results from a decrease in intracellular Ca2+ due to reduced intracellular cAMP/PKA activity, caused by H3 and H4 receptor-mediated PKG inhibition and consequent PDE3-induced increase in cAMP metabolism. Indeed, selective H3 and H4 receptor agonists each synergized with a PKG inhibitor and a PDE3 activator in attenuating BNP-induced norepinephrine release from cardiac sympathetic nerve endings. This indicates that PKG inhibition and PDE3 stimulation are pivotal for the H3 and H4 receptor-mediated attenuation of BNP-induced catecholamine release. Cardiac sympathetic overstimulation is characteristic of advanced heart failure, which was recently found not to be improved by the administration of recombinant BNP (nesiritide), despite the predicated beneficial effects of natriuretic peptides. Because excessive catecholamine release is likely to offset the desirable effects of natriuretic peptides, our findings suggest novel means to alleviate their adverse effects and improve their therapeutic potential. PMID:22923736

  18. Flurbiprofen inhibits capsaicin induced calcitonin gene related peptide release from rat spinal cord via an endocannabinoid dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Kay; Hamza, May; Ates, Mehmet; Gühring, Hans

    2003-02-27

    Calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) is involved in nociceptive transmission and modulation at the spinal level. In the spinal superperfusion model, Delta(9) tetrahydrocannabinol inhibited capsaicin induced CGRP release in a concentration dependent manner. Similarly, flurbiprofen (3 microM) inhibited spinal CGRP release. This inhibition was reversed by the CB(1) antagonist AM-251 (1 microM), but not by co-administration of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2); 285 nM). AM-251 had no modulatory effect on flurbiprofen-induced cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibiting capacity as shown by PGE(2) levels. Furthermore, the phospholipase A(2) inhibitor palmityl trifluromethyl ketone (15 microM) reversed flurbiprofen's inhibitory effect. In conclusion the present work provides evidence on the shift of arachidonic acid metabolism towards endocannabinoids formation in response to COX inhibition as a mechanism for flurbiprofen inhibitory effect on spinal CGRP release.

  19. Mo polyoxometalate nanoclusters capable of inhibiting the aggregation of Aβ-peptide associated with Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qingchang; Yang, Licong; Zheng, Chuping; Zheng, Wenjing; Zhang, Jingnan; Zhou, Yunshan; Liu, Jie

    2014-05-01

    A neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is aggregation of a forty-residue peptide known as amyloid beta forty (Aβ40). While past work has indicated that blocking Aβ40 aggregation could be an effective strategy for the treatment of AD, developing therapies with this goal has been met with limited success. Polyoxometalates (POMs) have been previously investigated for their anti-viral and anti-tumoral properties and we report here that three representative POM nanoclusters have been synthesized for use against Aβ40 aggregation. Through the use of thioflavin T fluorescence, turbidity, circular dichroism spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we found that all three POM complexes can significantly inhibit both natural Aβ40 self-aggregation and metal-ion induced Aβ40 aggregation. We also evaluated the protective effect of POM complexes on Aβ40-induced neurotoxicity in cultured PC12 cells and found that treatment with POM complexes can elevate cell viability, decrease levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species, and stabilize mitochondrial membrane potential. These findings indicate that all three representative POM complexes are capable of inhibiting Aβ40 aggregation and subsequent neurotoxicity. While a complete mechanistic understanding remains to be elucidated, the synthesized POM complexes may work through a synergistic interaction with metal ions and Aβ40. These data indicate that POM complexes have high therapeutic potential for use against one of the primary neuropathological features of AD.A neuropathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is aggregation of a forty-residue peptide known as amyloid beta forty (Aβ40). While past work has indicated that blocking Aβ40 aggregation could be an effective strategy for the treatment of AD, developing therapies with this goal has been met with limited success. Polyoxometalates (POMs) have been previously investigated for their anti-viral and anti-tumoral properties

  20. Combined Oral Administration of Bovine Collagen Peptides with Calcium Citrate Inhibits Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, JunLi; Wang, YiHu; Song, ShuJun; Wang, XiJie; Qin, YaYa; Si, ShaoYan; Guo, YanChuan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Collagen peptides (CPs) and calcium citrate are commonly used as bone health supplements for treating osteoporosis. However, it remains unknown whether the combination of oral bovine CPs with calcium citrate is more effective than administration of either agent alone. Methods Forty 12-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 8) for once-daily intragastric administration of different treatments for 3 months at 3 months after ovariectomy (OVX) as follows: sham + vehicle; OVX + vehicle; OVX + 750 mg/kg CP; OVX + CP-calcium citrate (75 mg/kg); OVX + calcium citrate (75 mg/kg). After euthanasia, the femurs were removed and analyzed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and micro-computed tomography, and serum samples were analyzed for bone metabolic markers. Results OVX rats supplemented with CPs or CP-calcium citrate showed osteoprotective effects, with reductions in the OVX-induced decreases in their femoral bone mineral density. Moreover, CP-calcium citrate prevented trabecular bone loss, improved the microarchitecture of the distal femur, and significantly inhibited bone loss with increased bone volume, connectivity density, and trabecular number compared with OVX control rats. CP or CP-calcium citrate administration significantly increased serum procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide levels and reduced serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and C-telopeptide of type I collagen levels. Conclusions Our data indicate that combined oral administration of bovine CPs with calcium citrate inhibits bone loss in OVX rats. The present findings suggest that combined oral administration of bovine CPs with calcium citrate is a promising alternative for reducing bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women. PMID:26258559

  1. Tachykinin-related peptide and GABA-mediated presynaptic inhibition of crayfish photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Glantz, R M; Miller, C S; Nässel, D R

    2000-03-01

    Off-axis illumination elicits lateral inhibition at the primary visual synapse in crustacea and insects. The evidence suggests that the inhibitory action is presynaptic (i.e., on the photoreceptor terminal) and that the amacrine neurons of the lamina ganglionaris (the first synaptic layer) may be part of the inhibitory pathway. The neurotransmitters and the synaptic mechanisms are unknown. We show by immunocytochemistry that GABA and a tachykinin-related peptide (TRP) are localized in the amacrine neurons of the crayfish lamina ganglionaris. Indirect evidence suggests that GABA and TRP may be colocalized in these neurons. The extensive processes of the amacrine neurons occupy lamina layers containing the terminals of photoreceptors. Application of exogenous GABA and TRP to photoreceptor terminals produces a short-latency, dose-dependent hyperpolarization with a decay time constant on the order of a few seconds. TRP also exhibits actions that evolve over several minutes. These include a reduction of the receptor potential (and the light-elicited current) by approximately 40% and potentiation of the action of GABA by approximately 100%. The mechanisms of TRP action in crayfish are not known, but a plausible pathway is a TRP-dependent elevation of intracellular Ca(2+) that reduces photoreceptor sensitivity in arthropods. Although the mechanisms are not established, the results indicate that in crayfish photoreceptors TRP displays actions on two time scales and can exert profound modulatory control over cell function.

  2. Neuroprotective Peptide humanin inhibits inflammatory response in astrocytes induced by lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shen-Ting; Zhao, Li; Li, Jian-Hua

    2013-03-01

    Humanin (HN) has been proved to be an extensive neuroprotective peptide against AD-related and unrelated insults, but little is know about the effect of HN in inflammation response. Current studies indicated the receptors of HN have a close relationship with immune system, which led us to hypothesize HN might have a role in inflammatory response. In this study, we used lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce astrocyte inflammation response. This model in vitro allowed us to study the effect of HN on the pure response of astrocyte without the exogenous influence between cells in vivo. Our results showed that 1.0 μg/ml LPS induced a significant activation of astrocyte, shown as the marked increase in the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression, the cell viability and the number of 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive living cells. Pretreatment with HN (5, 10, 20 μM) led to a significant inhibition in astrocyte overactivation in a concentration dependent manner. We also found pretreatment with HN decreased the level of proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) induced by LPS. Furthermore, we noticed HN couldn't completely reverse the above inflammatory injury. Our findings imply that HN partly antagonizes inflammation injury induced by LPS and the protective effect of HN on astrocyte is concentration-dependent.

  3. Farnesoid X receptor inhibits glucagon-like peptide-1 production by enteroendocrine L cells.

    PubMed

    Trabelsi, Mohamed-Sami; Daoudi, Mehdi; Prawitt, Janne; Ducastel, Sarah; Touche, Véronique; Sayin, Sama I; Perino, Alessia; Brighton, Cheryl A; Sebti, Yasmine; Kluza, Jérôme; Briand, Olivier; Dehondt, Hélène; Vallez, Emmanuelle; Dorchies, Emilie; Baud, Grégory; Spinelli, Valeria; Hennuyer, Nathalie; Caron, Sandrine; Bantubungi, Kadiombo; Caiazzo, Robert; Reimann, Frank; Marchetti, Philippe; Lefebvre, Philippe; Bäckhed, Fredrik; Gribble, Fiona M; Schoonjans, Kristina; Pattou, François; Tailleux, Anne; Staels, Bart; Lestavel, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids are signalling molecules, which activate the transmembrane receptor TGR5 and the nuclear receptor FXR. BA sequestrants (BAS) complex bile acids in the intestinal lumen and decrease intestinal FXR activity. The BAS-BA complex also induces glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) production by L cells which potentiates β-cell glucose-induced insulin secretion. Whether FXR is expressed in L cells and controls GLP-1 production is unknown. Here, we show that FXR activation in L cells decreases proglucagon expression by interfering with the glucose-responsive factor Carbohydrate-Responsive Element Binding Protein (ChREBP) and GLP-1 secretion by inhibiting glycolysis. In vivo, FXR deficiency increases GLP-1 gene expression and secretion in response to glucose hence improving glucose metabolism. Moreover, treatment of ob/ob mice with the BAS colesevelam increases intestinal proglucagon gene expression and improves glycaemia in a FXR-dependent manner. These findings identify the FXR/GLP-1 pathway as a new mechanism of BA control of glucose metabolism and a pharmacological target for type 2 diabetes. PMID:26134028

  4. Farnesoid X Receptor Inhibits Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Production by Enteroendocrine L-cells

    PubMed Central

    TRABELSI, Mohamed-Sami; DAOUDI, Mehdi; PRAWITT, Janne; DUCASTEL, Sarah; TOUCHE, Véronique; SAYIN, Sama I.; PERINO, Alessia; BRIGHTON, Cheryl A.; SEBTI, Yasmine; KLUZA, Jérôme; BRIAND, Olivier; DEHONDT, Hélène; VALLEZ, Emmanuelle; DORCHIES, Emilie; BAUD, Grégory; SPINELLI, Valeria; HENNUYER, Nathalie; CARON, Sandrine; BANTUBUNGI, Kadiombo; CAIAZZO, Robert; REIMANN, Frank; MARCHETTI, Philippe; LEFEBVRE, Philippe; BÄCKHED, Fredrik; GRIBBLE, Fiona M.; SCHOONJANS, Kristina; PATTOU, François; TAILLEUX, Anne; STAELS, Bart; LESTAVEL, Sophie

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids (BA) are signalling molecules which activate the transmembrane receptor TGR5 and the nuclear receptor FXR. BA sequestrants (BAS) complex BA in the intestinal lumen and decrease intestinal FXR activity. The BAS-BA complex also induces Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) production by L-cells which potentiates β-cell glucose-induced insulin secretion. Whether FXR is expressed in L-cells and controls GLP-1 production is unknown. Here we show that FXR activation in L-cells decreases proglucagon expression by interfering with the glucose-responsive factor Carbohydrate-Responsive Element Binding Protein (ChREBP) and GLP-1 secretion by inhibiting glycolysis. In vivo, FXR-deficiency increases GLP-1 gene expression and secretion in response to glucose hence improving glucose metabolism. Moreover, treatment of ob/ob mice with the BAS colesevelam increases intestinal proglucagon gene expression and improves glycemia in a FXR-dependent manner. These findings identify the FXR/GLP-1 pathway as a new mechanism of BA control of glucose metabolism and a pharmacological target for type 2 diabetes. PMID:26134028

  5. Identification of small peptides inhibiting the integrase-LEDGF/p75 interaction through targeting the cellular co-factor.

    PubMed

    Cavalluzzo, Claudia; Christ, Frauke; Voet, Arnout; Sharma, Ajendra; Singh, Brajendra Kumar; Zhang, Kam Y J; Lescrinier, Eveline; De Maeyer, Marc; Debyser, Zeger; Van der Eycken, Erik

    2013-10-01

    The integration of the viral DNA into the host genome is one of the essential steps in the HIV replication cycle. This process is mediated by the viral enzyme integrase (IN) and lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75). LEDGF/p75 has been identified as a crucial cellular co-factor of integration that acts by tethering IN to the cellular chromatin. Recently, circular peptides were identified that bind to the C-terminal domain of IN and disrupt the interaction with LEDGF/p75. Starting from the circular peptides, we identified a short peptidic sequence able to inhibit the LEDGF/p75-IN interaction at low μM concentration through its binding to the IN binding site of LEDGF/p75. This discovery can lead to the synthesis of peptidomimetics with high anti-HIV activity targeting the cellular co-factor LEDGF/p75 and not the viral protein IN.

  6. Inhibition of interleukin-1 beta-induced pyresis in the rabbit by peptide 204-212 of lipocortin 5.

    PubMed

    Palmi, M; Frosini, M; Sgaragli, G P; Becherucci, C; Perretti, M; Parente, L

    1995-07-25

    The intracerebroventricular administration of interleukin-1 beta (12.5 ng/kg) in rabbits caused a prompt rise of prostaglandin E2 concentration (+ 632.6 +/- 243.9%) in the cerebrospinal fluid followed by hyperthermia (+ 1.61 +/- 0.14 delta degrees C). The intracerebroventricular administration of an anti-inflammatory nonapeptide (amino acids 204-212, SHLRKVFDK) derived from lipocortin 5, thereafter referred to as lipocortin 5-(204-212)-peptide, inhibited in a significant manner both the increase in cerebrospinal fluid [prostaglandin E2] and the febrile response induced by the cytokine. This inhibitory effect is probably due to interference by the peptide with phospholipase A2 activity. A control peptide (FKRVHDLKS) formed by the same amino acids in a randomly shuffled sequence had no effect. These results show that, in addition to the anti-inflammatory effect previously reported, the peptide 204-212 of lipocortin 5 possesses, like glucocorticoids, anti-pyretic activity. The research on lipocortin-derived peptides may lead to the development of novel anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic compounds. PMID:8566125

  7. Identification of a Small Peptide That Inhibits PCSK9 Protein Binding to the Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yingnan; Eigenbrot, Charles; Zhou, Lijuan; Shia, Steven; Li, Wei; Quan, Clifford; Tom, Jeffrey; Moran, Paul; Di Lello, Paola; Skelton, Nicholas J.; Kong-Beltran, Monica; Peterson, Andrew; Kirchhofer, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    PCSK9 (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9) is a negative regulator of the hepatic LDL receptor, and clinical studies with PCSK9-inhibiting antibodies have demonstrated strong LDL-c-lowering effects. Here we screened phage-displayed peptide libraries and identified the 13-amino acid linear peptide Pep2-8 as the smallest PCSK9 inhibitor with a clearly defined mechanism of inhibition that has been described. Pep2-8 bound to PCSK9 with a KD of 0.7 μm but did not bind to other proprotein convertases. It fully restored LDL receptor surface levels and LDL particle uptake in PCSK9-treated HepG2 cells. The crystal structure of Pep2-8 bound to C-terminally truncated PCSK9 at 1.85 Å resolution showed that the peptide adopted a strand-turn-helix conformation, which is remarkably similar to its solution structure determined by NMR. Consistent with the functional binding site identified by an Ala scan of PCSK9, the structural Pep2-8 contact region of about 400 Å2 largely overlapped with that contacted by the EGF(A) domain of the LDL receptor, suggesting a competitive inhibition mechanism. Consistent with this, Pep2-8 inhibited LDL receptor and EGF(A) domain binding to PCSK9 with IC50 values of 0.8 and 0.4 μm, respectively. Remarkably, Pep2-8 mimicked secondary structural elements of the EGF(A) domain that interact with PCSK9, notably the β-strand and a discontinuous short α-helix, and it engaged in the same β-sheet hydrogen bonds as EGF(A) does. Although Pep2-8 itself may not be amenable to therapeutic applications, this study demonstrates the feasibility of developing peptidic inhibitors to functionally relevant sites on PCSK9. PMID:24225950

  8. A novel nanoparticle containing neuritin peptide with grp170 induces a CTL response to inhibit tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Bangqing; Shen, Hanchao; Su, Tonggang; Lin, Li; Chen, Ting; Yang, Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Malignant glioma is among the most challenging of all cancers to treat successfully. Despite recent advances in surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, current treatment regimens have only a marginal impact on patient survival. In this study, we constructed a novel nanoparticle containing neuritin peptide with grp170. The nanoparticle could elicit a neuritin-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte response to lyse glioma cells in vitro. In addition, the nanoparticle could inhibit tumor growth and improve the lifespan of tumor-bearing mice in vivo. Taken together, the results demonstrated that the nanoparticle can inhibit tumor growth and represents a promising therapy for glioma. PMID:26290143

  9. A novel Omp25-binding peptide screened by phage display can inhibit Brucella abortus 2308 infection in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junbo; Guo, Fei; Huang, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Yuanzhi; Yin, Shuanghong; Li, Zhiqiang

    2014-01-01

    Brucellosis is a globally distributed zoonotic disease affecting animals and humans, and current antibiotic and vaccine strategies are not optimal. The surface-exposed protein Omp25 is involved in Brucella virulence and plays an important role in Brucella pathogenesis during infection, suggesting that Omp25 could be a useful target for selecting potential therapeutic molecules to inhibit Brucella pathogenesis. In this study, we identified, we believe for the first time, peptides that bind specifically to the Omp25 protein of pathogens, using a phage panning technique, After four rounds of panning, 42 plaques of eluted phages were subjected to pyrosequencing. Four phage clones that bound better than the other clones were selected following confirmation by ELISA and affinity constant determination. The peptides selected could significantly inhibit Brucella abortus 2308 (S2308) internalization and intracellular growth in RAW264.7 macrophages, and significantly induce secretion of TNF-α and IL-12 in peptide- and S2308-treated cells. Any observed peptide (OP11, OP27, OP35 or OP40) could significantly inhibit S2308 infection in BALB/c mice. Moreover, the peptide OP11 was the best candidate peptide for inhibiting S2308 infection in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that peptide OP11 has potential for exploitation as a peptide drug in resisting S2308 infection. PMID:24722798

  10. Antimicrobial peptides from amphibian skin potently inhibit human immunodeficiency virus infection and transfer of virus from dendritic cells to T cells.

    PubMed

    VanCompernolle, Scott E; Taylor, R Jeffery; Oswald-Richter, Kyra; Jiang, Jiyang; Youree, Bryan E; Bowie, John H; Tyler, Michael J; Conlon, J Michael; Wade, David; Aiken, Christopher; Dermody, Terence S; KewalRamani, Vineet N; Rollins-Smith, Louise A; Unutmaz, Derya

    2005-09-01

    Topical antimicrobicides hold great promise in reducing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. Amphibian skin provides a rich source of broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides including some that have antiviral activity. We tested 14 peptides derived from diverse amphibian species for the capacity to inhibit HIV infection. Three peptides (caerin 1.1, caerin 1.9, and maculatin 1.1) completely inhibited HIV infection of T cells within minutes of exposure to virus at concentrations that were not toxic to target cells. These peptides also suppressed infection by murine leukemia virus but not by reovirus, a structurally unrelated nonenveloped virus. Preincubation with peptides prevented viral fusion to target cells and disrupted the HIV envelope. Remarkably, these amphibian peptides also were highly effective in inhibiting the transfer of HIV by dendritic cells (DCs) to T cells, even when DCs were transiently exposed to peptides 8 h after virus capture. These data suggest that amphibian-derived peptides can access DC-sequestered HIV and destroy the virus before it can be transferred to T cells. Thus, amphibian-derived antimicrobial peptides show promise as topical inhibitors of mucosal HIV transmission and provide novel tools to understand the complex biology of HIV capture by DCs.

  11. Inhibition of discoidin domain receptor 2-mediated lung cancer cells progression by gold nanoparticle-aptamer-assisted delivery of peptides containing transmembrane-juxtamembrane 1/2 domain

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Daehwan; Yeom, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Boeun; Lee, Kangseok; Bae, Jeehyeon; Rhee, Sangmyung

    2015-08-21

    The delivery of biologically functional peptides into mammalian cells can be a direct and effective method for cancer therapy and treatment of other diseases. Discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2) is a collagen-induced receptor tyrosine kinase recently identified as a novel therapeutic target in lung cancer. In this study, we report that peptides containing the functional domain of DDR2 can be efficiently delivered into lung malignant cancer cells via a gold nanoparticle-DNA aptamer conjugate (AuNP-Apt)-based system. Peptide delivery resulted in the abrogation of DDR2 activation triggered by collagen. Moreover, the peptide delivered by the AuNP-Apt system inhibited cancer cell proliferation and invasion mediated by DDR2 activation. Thus, these results suggest that peptide loaded onto AuNP-Apt conjugates can be used for the development of peptide-based biomedical applications for the treatment of DDR2-positive cancer. - Highlights: • TM-JM1/2 peptides are efficiently delivered into cells by AuNP-Apt-conjugates. • TM-JM1/2 peptides loaded onto AuNP-Apt conjugates inhibit DDR2 activation. • Inhibition of DDR2 activation by TM-JM1/2 peptides decreases tumor progression.

  12. Recombinant albumins containing additional peptide sequences smaller than barbourin retain the ability of barbourin-albumin to inhibit platelet aggregation.

    PubMed

    Sheffield, William P; Wilson, Brianna; Eltringham-Smith, Louise J; Gataiance, Sharon; Bhakta, Varsha

    2005-05-01

    The previously described fusion protein BLAH(6) (Marques JA et al.,Thromb Haemost 2001; 86: 902-8) is a recombinant protein that combines the small disintegrin barbourin with hexahistidine-tagged rabbit serumalbumin (RSA) produced in Pichia pastoris yeast. We sought to determine: (1) if BLAH(6) was immunogenic; and (2) if its barbourin domain could be productively replaced with smaller peptides. Purified BLAH(6) was injected into rabbits, and anti-barbourin antibodies were universally detected in plasma 28 days later; BLAH(6) was, however, equally effective in reducing platelet aggregation in both naive and pre-treated rabbits. Thrombocytopenia was not observed, and complexing BLAH(6) to alpha(IIb)beta(3) had no effect on antibody detection. The barbourin moiety of BLAH(6) was replaced with each of four sequences: Pep I (VCKGDWPC); PepII (VCRGDWPC); PepIII (bar-bourin 41-54); and PepIV (LPSPGDWR). The corresponding fusion proteins were tested for their ability to inhibit ADP-induced platelet aggregation. PepIII-LAH(6) inhibited neither rabbit nor human platelets. PepI-LAH(6) and PepIV-LAH(6) inhibited rabbit platelet aggregation as effectively as BLAH(6), but PepIV-LAH(6) did not inhibit human platelet aggregation. PepI-LAH(6) and PepIILAH(6) inhibited human platelet aggregation with IC(50)s 10- and 20-fold higher than BLAH(6). Cross-immunoprecipitation assays with human platelet lysates confirmed that all proteins and peptides interacted with the platelet integrin alpha(IIb)beta(3), but with greatly varying affinities. Our results suggest that the antiplatelet activity of BLAH(6) can be retained in albumin fusion proteins in which smaller peptides replace the barbourin domain; these proteins may be less immunogenic than BLAH(6).

  13. Assessing the Efficacy of Mdm2/Mdm4-Inhibiting Stapled Peptides Using Cellular Thermal Shift Assays

    PubMed Central

    Xiong Tan, Ban; Brown, Christopher J.; Ferrer, Fernando J.; Yuen, Tsz Ying; Quah, Soo Tng; Chan, Boon Hong; Jansson, Anna E.; Teo, Hsiang Ling; Nordlund, Pär; Lane, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Previous publications on stapled peptide inhibitors against Mdm2/Mdm4-p53 interactions have established that this new class of drugs have the potential to be easily optimised to attain high binding affinity and specificity, but the mechanisms controlling their cellular uptake and target engagement remain elusive and controversial. To aid in understanding the rules of peptide and staple design, and to enable rapid optimisation, we employed the newly-developed cellular thermal shift assay (CETSA). CETSA was able to validate stapled peptide binding to Mdm2 and Mdm4, and the method was also used to determine the extent of cellular uptake, cellular availability, and intracellular binding of the endogenous target proteins in its native environment. Our data suggest that while the stapled peptides engage their targets intracellularly, more work is needed to improve their cellular entry and target engagement efficiency in vivo. CETSA now provides a valuable tool to optimize such in vivo properties of stapled peptides. PMID:26159518

  14. A Peptide-Coated Gold Nanocluster Exhibits Unique Behavior in Protein Activity Inhibition.

    PubMed

    An, Deyi; Su, Jiguo; Weber, Jeffrey K; Gao, Xueyun; Zhou, Ruhong; Li, Jingyuan

    2015-07-01

    Gold nanoclusters (AuNCs) can be primed for biomedical applications through functionalization with peptide coatings. Often anchored by thiol groups, such peptide coronae not only serve as passivators but can also endow AuNCs with additional bioactive properties. In this work, we use molecular dynamics simulations to study the structure of a tridecapeptide-coated Au25 cluster and its subsequent interactions with the enzyme thioredoxin reductase 1, TrxR1. We find that, in isolation, both the distribution and conformation of the coating peptides fluctuate considerably. When the coated AuNC is placed around TrxR1, however, the motion of the highly charged peptide coating (+5e/peptide) is quickly biased by electrostatic attraction to the protein; the asymmetric coating acts to guide the nanocluster's diffusion toward the enzyme's negatively charged active site. After the AuNC comes into contact with TrxR1, its peptide corona spreads over the protein surface to facilitate stable binding with protein. Though individual salt bridge interactions between the tridecapeptides and TrxR1 are transient in nature, the cooperative binding of the peptide-coated AuNC is very stable, overall. Interestingly, the biased corona peptide motion, the spreading and the cooperation between peptide extensions observed in AuNC binding are reminiscent of bacterial stimulus-driven approaching and adhesion mechanisms mediated by cilia. The prevailing AuNC binding mode we characterize also satisfies a notable hydrophobic interaction seen in the association of thioredoxin to TrxR1, providing a possible explanation for the AuNC binding specificity observed in experiments. Our simulations thus suggest this peptide-coated AuNC serves as an adept thioredoxin mimic that extends an array of auxiliary structural components capable of enhancing interactions with the target protein in question.

  15. A new sea anemone peptide, APETx2, inhibits ASIC3, a major acid-sensitive channel in sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Diochot, Sylvie; Baron, Anne; Rash, Lachlan D; Deval, Emmanuel; Escoubas, Pierre; Scarzello, Sabine; Salinas, Miguel; Lazdunski, Michel

    2004-04-01

    From a systematic screening of animal venoms, we isolated a new toxin (APETx2) from the sea anemone Anthopleura elegantissima, which inhibits ASIC3 homomeric channels and ASIC3-containing heteromeric channels both in heterologous expression systems and in primary cultures of rat sensory neurons. APETx2 is a 42 amino-acid peptide crosslinked by three disulfide bridges, with a structural organization similar to that of other sea anemone toxins that inhibit voltage-sensitive Na+ and K+ channels. APETx2 reversibly inhibits rat ASIC3 (IC50=63 nM), without any effect on ASIC1a, ASIC1b, and ASIC2a. APETx2 directly inhibits the ASIC3 channel by acting at its external side, and it does not modify the channel unitary conductance. APETx2 also inhibits heteromeric ASIC2b+3 current (IC50=117 nM), while it has less affinity for ASIC1b+3 (IC50=0.9 microM), ASIC1a+3 (IC50=2 microM), and no effect on the ASIC2a+3 current. The ASIC3-like current in primary cultured sensory neurons is partly and reversibly inhibited by APETx2 with an IC50 of 216 nM, probably due to the mixed inhibitions of various co-expressed ASIC3-containing channels. PMID:15044953

  16. Peptide inhibitors of botulinum neurotoxin serotype A: design, inhibition, cocrystal structures, structure-activity relationship and pharmacophore modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar G.; Swaminathan S.; Kumaran, D.; Ahmed, S. A.

    2012-05-01

    Clostridium botulinum neurotoxins are classified as Category A bioterrorism agents by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The seven serotypes (A-G) of the botulinum neurotoxin, the causative agent of the disease botulism, block neurotransmitter release by specifically cleaving one of the three SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) proteins and induce flaccid paralysis. Using a structure-based drug-design approach, a number of peptide inhibitors were designed and their inhibitory activity against botulinum serotype A (BoNT/A) protease was determined. The most potent peptide, RRGF, inhibited BoNT/A protease with an IC{sub 50} of 0.9 {micro}M and a K{sub i} of 358 nM. High-resolution crystal structures of various peptide inhibitors in complex with the BoNT/A protease domain were also determined. Based on the inhibitory activities and the atomic interactions deduced from the cocrystal structures, the structure-activity relationship was analyzed and a pharmacophore model was developed. Unlike the currently available models, this pharmacophore model is based on a number of enzyme-inhibitor peptide cocrystal structures and improved the existing models significantly, incorporating new features.

  17. Galectin-1-asialofetuin interaction is inhibited by peptides containing the tyr-xxx-tyr motif acting on the glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Wéber, Edit; Hetényi, Anasztázia; Váczi, Balázs; Szolnoki, Eva; Fajka-Boja, Roberta; Tubak, Vilmos; Monostori, Eva; Martinek, Tamás A

    2010-01-25

    Galectin-1 (Gal-1), a ubiquitous beta-galactoside-binding protein expressed by various normal and pathological tissues, has been implicated in cancer and autoimmune/inflammatory diseases in consequence of its regulatory role in adhesion, cell viability, proliferation, and angiogenesis. The functions of Gal-1 depend on its affinity for beta-galactoside-containing glycoconjugates; accordingly, the inhibition of sugar binding blocks its functions, hence promising potential therapeutic tools. The Tyr-Xxx-Tyr peptide motifs have been reported to be glycomimetic sequences, mainly on the basis of their inhibitory effect on the Gal-1-asialofetuin (ASF) interaction. However, the results regarding the efficacy of the Tyr-Xxx-Tyr motif as a glycomimetic inhibitor are still controversial. The present STD and trNOE NMR experiments reveal that the Tyr-Xxx-Tyr peptides studied do not bind to Gal-1, whereas their binding to ASF is clearly detected. (15)N,(1)H HSQC titrations with (15)N-labeled Gal-1 confirm the absence of any peptide-Gal-1 interaction. These data indicate that the Tyr-Xxx-Tyr peptides tested in this work are not glycomimetics as they interact with ASF via an unrevealed molecular linkage.

  18. Single residue deletions along the length of the influenza HA fusion peptide lead to inhibition of membrane fusion function

    SciTech Connect

    Langley, William A.; Thoennes, Sudha; Bradley, Konrad C.; Galloway, Summer E.; Talekar, Ganesh R.; Cummings, Sandra F.; Vareckova, Eva; Russell, Rupert J.; Steinhauer, David A.

    2009-11-25

    A panel of eight single amino acid deletion mutants was generated within the first 24 residues of the fusion peptide domain of the of the hemagglutinin (HA) of A/Aichi/2/68 influenza A virus (H3N2 subtype). The mutant HAs were analyzed for folding, cell surface transport, cleavage activation, capacity to undergo acid-induced conformational changes, and membrane fusion activity. We found that the mutant DELTAF24, at the C-terminal end of the fusion peptide, was expressed in a non-native conformation, whereas all other deletion mutants were transported to the cell surface and could be cleaved into HA1 and HA2 to activate membrane fusion potential. Furthermore, upon acidification these cleaved HAs were able to undergo the characteristic structural rearrangements that are required for fusion. Despite this, all mutants were inhibited for fusion activity based on two separate assays. The results indicate that the mutant fusion peptide domains associate with target membranes in a non-functional fashion, and suggest that structural features along the length of the fusion peptide are likely to be relevant for optimal membrane fusion activity.

  19. Peptide Inhibitor of Complement C1 (PIC1) Rapidly Inhibits Complement Activation after Intravascular Injection in Rats.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Julia A; Hair, Pamela S; Pallera, Haree K; Kumar, Parvathi S; Mauriello, Clifford T; Nyalwidhe, Julius O; Phelps, Cody A; Park, Dalnam; Thielens, Nicole M; Pascal, Stephen M; Chen, Waldon; Duffy, Diane M; Lattanzio, Frank A; Cunnion, Kenji M; Krishna, Neel K

    2015-01-01

    The complement system has been increasingly recognized to play a pivotal role in a variety of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Consequently, therapeutic modulators of the classical, lectin and alternative pathways of the complement system are currently in pre-clinical and clinical development. Our laboratory has identified a peptide that specifically inhibits the classical and lectin pathways of complement and is referred to as Peptide Inhibitor of Complement C1 (PIC1). In this study, we determined that the lead PIC1 variant demonstrates a salt-dependent binding to C1q, the initiator molecule of the classical pathway. Additionally, this peptide bound to the lectin pathway initiator molecule MBL as well as the ficolins H, M and L, suggesting a common mechanism of PIC1 inhibitory activity occurs via binding to the collagen-like tails of these collectin molecules. We further analyzed the effect of arginine and glutamic acid residue substitution on the complement inhibitory activity of our lead derivative in a hemolytic assay and found that the original sequence demonstrated superior inhibitory activity. To improve upon the solubility of the lead derivative, a pegylated, water soluble variant was developed, structurally characterized and demonstrated to inhibit complement activation in mouse plasma, as well as rat, non-human primate and human serum in vitro. After intravenous injection in rats, the pegylated derivative inhibited complement activation in the blood by 90% after 30 seconds, demonstrating extremely rapid function. Additionally, no adverse toxicological effects were observed in limited testing. Together these results show that PIC1 rapidly inhibits classical complement activation in vitro and in vivo and is functional for a variety of animal species, suggesting its utility in animal models of classical complement-mediated diseases. PMID:26196285

  20. Copper-dependent inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase by Abeta(1-42) requires reduced methionine at residue 35 of the Abeta peptide.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Peter J; Barnham, Kevin J; Duce, James A; Blake, Rachel E; Masters, Colin L; Trounce, Ian A

    2006-10-01

    By altering key amino acid residues of the Alzheimer's disease-associated amyloid-beta peptide, we investigated the mechanism through which amyloid-beta inhibits cytochrome c oxidase (EC 1.9.3.1). Native amyloid-beta inhibited cytochrome oxidase by up to 65%, and the level of inhibition was determined by the period of amyloid-beta ageing before the cytochrome oxidase assay. Substituting tyrosine-10 with alanine did not affect maximal enzyme inhibition, but the altered peptide required a longer period of ageing. By contrast, oxidizing the sulfur of methionine-35 to a sulfoxide, or substituting methionine-35 with valine, completely abrogated the peptide's inhibitory potential towards cytochrome oxidase. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the loss of inhibitory potential towards cytochrome oxidase with the methionine-35-altered peptides did not correlate with a substantially different distribution of amyloid-beta oligomeric species. Although the amyloid-beta-mediated inhibition of cytochrome oxidase was completely dependent on the presence of divalent Cu2+, it was not supported by monovalent Cu+, and experiments with catalase and H2O2 indicated that the mechanism of cytochrome oxidase inhibition does not involve amyloid-beta-mediated H2O2 production. We propose that amyloid-beta-mediated inhibition of cytochrome oxidase is dependent on the peptide's capacity to bind, then reduce Cu2+, and that it may involve the formation of a redox active amyloid-beta-methionine radical. PMID:16987248

  1. Inhibition of cytochalasin-primed neutrophils by hyperosmolarity.

    PubMed

    Giambelluca, Miriam S; Gende, Oscar A

    2008-10-01

    Experimental and clinical investigations using hyperosmotic solutions for resuscitation of hemorrhagic shock demonstrated modulation of the inflammatory response. Decreased postinjury hyperinflammation has been attributed to a reduction in neutrophil-mediated tissue damage. This study shows that cytoskeletal disruption with cytochalasinB did not reverse or prevent the inhibitory effect of an osmolarity increase on the neutrophil cytotoxic response to a formyl peptide. In cytochalasin-primed neutrophils, the hyperosmolarity-dependent inhibition promptly reversed after returning to iso-osmotic levels. Paradoxically, an increase in osmolarity after stimulation produced an increase in the release of reactive oxygen species to the extracellular medium. The inhibitory effect of hyperosmotic NaCl can be reproduced by solutions of similar osmolarity containing N-methyl glucamine or sucrose, but solutions containing mannitol allowed an almost complete response to N-formyl methionyl leucyl phenylalanine. The effects on the release of reactive oxygen species to the extracellular media found with the OxyBURST-bovine serum albumin assay correlated with the changes of the intracellular calcium signal, indicating that the inhibition by hyperosmolarity occurs near the receptor level. PMID:18277949

  2. Michael addition of dehydroalanine-containing MAPK peptides to catalytic lysine inhibits the activity of phosphothreonine lyase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuan; Yang, Ru; Huang, Juan; Liang, Qiujin; Guo, Yanmin; Bian, Weixiang; Luo, Lingfei; Li, Hongtao

    2015-11-30

    The phosphothreonine lyases OspF and SpvC irreversibly inactivate host dual-phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) [pThr-X-pTyr motif] through β-elimination. We found that dual-phosphorylated (pSer-X-pTyr) MAPK substrate peptides and their resulting catalytic products cross-link to OspF and SpvC. Mass spectrometry results revealed that these linkages form between lysine, which acts as a general base, and dehydroalanine (Dha) on catalytic products. The nucleophilic addition efficiency is dependent on the K136 residue being in a deprotonated state. Peptide cross-linking inhibits the activity of SpvC and blocks the inactivation of MAPK signaling by SpvC. Small compounds mimicking these sequences may act as phosphothreonine lyase inhibitors. PMID:26519561

  3. Improved Synthesis of and Nucleophilic Addition to 2-Formyl-2-Cyclohexenone

    PubMed Central

    Adary, Elan M.; Chang, Chih-wei; Auria, Damian T. D’; Nguyen, Phuc M.; Polewacz, Klaudyna; Reinicke, Justin A.; Seo, Hannah; Berger, Gideon O.

    2014-01-01

    A preparation of 2-formyl-2-cyclohexenone in nearly quantitative yield and purity of approximately 95% is described. It is scalable and has been extended to the synthesis of the 5- and 7-membered ring homologs with comparable yields. Conditions have also been developed for the successful conjugate addition of dimethylmalonate to 2-formyl-2-cyclohexenone, in good and scalable yield (60%). This result has been extended to 5 other nucleophile classes, and the dimethylmalonate conjugate addition has been demonstrated with 2-formyl-2-cyclopentenone and 2-formyl-2-cycloheptenone. PMID:25593375

  4. Minimum requirements for inhibition of smooth-muscle myosin light-chain kinase by synthetic peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, J T; Floyd, D M; Lee, V G; Little, D K; Moreland, S

    1989-01-01

    Although the amino acid residues that are important for peptide substrates of myosin light-chain kinase have been reported, those that are important for peptide inhibitors of this enzyme have not previously been investigated. Synthetic peptides based on the sequence Lys11-Lys12-Arg13-Ala-Ala-Arg16-Ala-Thr-Ser19 -Asn-Val21-Phe22-Ala of the chicken gizzard myosin light chain were tested as inhibitors of pig carotid-artery myosin light-chain kinase. The basic amino acid residues of the known myosin light-chain kinase inhibitor Lys-Lys-Arg-Ala-Ala-Arg-Ala-Thr-Ser-NH2 (IC50 = 14 microM) [Pearson, Misconi & Kemp (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 25-27] were shown to be the important residues that contribute to inhibitor potency, as evidence by the finding that the hexapeptide Lys-Lys-Arg-Ala-Ala-Arg-NH2 had an IC50 value of 22 microM. This indicates that binding of the phosphorylatable serine residue to myosin light-chain kinase, which is of obvious importance for a substrate, does not enhance the potency of an inhibitor. With the aim of preparing more potent inhibitors, peptides Lys-Lys-Arg-Ala-Ala-Arg-Ala-Ala-Xaa-NH2 were prepared with a variety of amino acids substituted for the phosphorylatable serine residue. None of these peptides was a more potent inhibitor than the serine peptide. PMID:2920029

  5. Specific Inhibition of Herpes Simplex Virus DNA Polymerase by Helical Peptides Corresponding to the Subunit Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Digard, Paul; Williams, Kevin P.; Hensley, Preston; Brooks, Ian S.; Dahl, Charles E.; Coen, Donald M.

    1995-02-01

    The herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase consists of two subunits-a catalytic subunit and an accessory subunit, UL42, that increases processivity. Mutations affecting the extreme C terminus of the catalytic subunit specifically disrupt subunit interactions and ablate virus replication, suggesting that new antiviral drugs could be rationally designed to interfere with polymerase heterodimerization. To aid design, we performed circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and analytical ultracentrifugation studies, which revealed that a 36-residue peptide corresponding to the C terminus of the catalytic subunit folds into a monomeric structure with partial α-helical character. CD studies of shorter peptides were consistent with a model where two separate regions of α-helix interact to form a hairpin-like structure. The 36-residue peptide and a shorter peptide corresponding to the C-terminal 18 residues blocked UL42-dependent long-chain DNA synthesis at concentrations that had no effect on synthesis by the catalytic subunit alone or by calf thymus DNA polymerase δ and its processivity factor. These peptides, therefore, represent a class of specific inhibitors of herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase that act by blocking accessory-subunit-dependent synthesis. These peptides or their structures may form the basis for the synthesis of clinically effective drugs.

  6. Impact of commercial precooking of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) on the generation of peptides, after pepsin-pancreatin hydrolysis, capable to inhibit dipeptidyl peptidase-IV.

    PubMed

    Mojica, Luis; Chen, Karen; de Mejía, Elvira González

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the bioactive properties of the released peptides from commercially available precook common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). Bioactive properties and peptide profiles were evaluated in protein hydrolysates of raw and commercially precooked common beans. Five varieties (Black, Pinto, Red, Navy, and Great Northern) were selected for protein extraction, protein and peptide molecular mass profiles, and peptide sequences. Potential bioactivities of hydrolysates, including antioxidant capacity and inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV), and angiotensin converting enzyme I (ACE) were analyzed after digestion with pepsin/pancreatin. Hydrolysates from Navy beans were the most potent inhibitors of DPP-IV with no statistical differences between precooked and raw (IC50 = 0.093 and 0.095 mg protein/mL, respectively). α-Amylase inhibition was higher for raw Red, Navy and Great Northern beans (36%, 31%, 27% relative to acarbose (rel ac)/mg protein, respectively). α-Glucosidase inhibition among all bean hydrolysates did not show significant differences; however, inhibition values were above 40% rel ac/mg protein. IC50 values for ACE were not significantly different among all bean hydrolysates (range 0.20 to 0.34 mg protein/mL), except for Red bean that presented higher IC50 values. Peptide molecular mass profile ranged from 500 to 3000 Da. A total of 11 and 17 biologically active peptide sequences were identified in raw and precooked beans, respectively. Peptide sequences YAGGS and YAAGS from raw Great Northern and precooked Pinto showed similar amino acid sequences and same potential ACE inhibition activity. Processing did not affect the bioactive properties of released peptides from precooked beans. Commercially precooked beans could contribute to the intake of bioactive peptides and promote health.

  7. Design, structure and biological activity of beta-turn peptides of CD2 protein for inhibition of T-cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Jining, Liu; Makagiansar, Irwan; Yusuf-Makagiansar, Helena; Chow, Vincent T K; Siahaan, Teruna J; Jois, Seetharama D S

    2004-07-01

    The interaction between cell-adhesion molecules CD2 and CD58 is critical for an immune response. Modulation or inhibition of these interactions has been shown to be therapeutically useful. Synthetic 12-mer linear and cyclic peptides, and cyclic hexapeptides based on rat CD2 protein, were designed to modulate CD2-CD58 interaction. The synthetic peptides effectively blocked the interaction between CD2-CD58 proteins as demonstrated by antibody binding, E-rosetting and heterotypic adhesion assays. NMR and molecular modeling studies indicated that the synthetic cyclic peptides exhibit beta-turn structure in solution and closely mimic the beta-turn structure of the surface epitopes of the CD2 protein. Docking studies of CD2 peptides and CD58 protein revealed the possible binding sites of the cyclic peptides on CD58 protein. The designed cyclic peptides with beta-turn structure have the ability to modulate the CD2-CD58 interaction.

  8. Recombinant vascular basement-membrane-derived multifunctional peptide inhibits angiogenesis and growth of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, You-Hua; Cao, Jian-Guo; Xiang, Hong-Lin; Xia, Hong; Qin, Yong; Huang, A-Ji; Xiao, Di; Xu, Fang

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor activities of recombinant vascular basement membrane-derived multifunctional peptide (rVBMDMP) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: HepG2, Bel-7402, Hep-3B, HUVE-12 and L-02 cell lines were cultured in vitro and the inhibitory effect of rVBMDMP on proliferation of cells was detected by MTT assay. The in vivo antitumor efficacy of rVBMDMP on HCC was assessed by HepG2 xenografts in nude mice. Distribution of rVBMDMP, mechanism by which the growth of HepG2 xenografts is inhibited, and microvessel area were observed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and CD31 immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: MTT assay showed that rVBMDMP markedly inhibited the proliferation of human HCC (HepG2, Bel-7402, Hep-3B) cells and human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVE-12) cells in a dose-dependent manner, with little effect on the growth of L-02 cells. When the IC50 was 4.68, 7.65, 8.96, 11.65 and 64.82 μmol/L, respectively, the potency of rVBMDMP to HepG2 cells was similar to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) with an IC50 of 4.59 μmol/L. The selective index of cytotoxicity to HepG2 cells of rVBMDMP was 13.8 (64.82/4.68), which was higher than that of 5-FU [SI was 1.9 (8.94/4.59)]. The VEGF-targeted recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody bevacizumab (100 mg/L) did not affect the proliferation of HepG2, Bel-7402, Hep-3B and L-02 cells, but the growth inhibitory rate of bevacizumab (100 mg/L) to HUVE-12 cells was 87.6% ± 8.2%. Alternis diebus intraperitoneal injection of rVBMDMP suppressed the growth of HepG2 xenografts in a dose-dependent manner. rVBMDMP (1, 3, 10 mg/kg) decreased the tumor weight by 12.6%, 55.9% and 79.7%, respectively, compared with the vehicle control. Immunohistochemical staining of rVBMDMP showed that the positive area rates (2.2% ± 0.73%, 4.5% ± 1.3% and 11.5% ± 3.8%) in rVBMDMP treated group (1, 3, 10 mg/kg) were significantly higher than that (0.13% ± 0.04%) in the control group (P < 0.01). The positive

  9. The role of citric acid in oral peptide and protein formulations: relationship between calcium chelation and proteolysis inhibition.

    PubMed

    Welling, Søren H; Hubálek, František; Jacobsen, Jette; Brayden, David J; Rahbek, Ulrik L; Buckley, Stephen T

    2014-04-01

    The excipient citric acid (CA) has been reported to improve oral absorption of peptides by different mechanisms. The balance between its related properties of calcium chelation and permeation enhancement compared to a proteolysis inhibition was examined. A predictive model of CA's calcium chelation activity was developed and verified experimentally using an ion-selective electrode. The effects of CA, its salt (citrate, Cit) and the established permeation enhancer, lauroyl carnitine chloride (LCC) were compared by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and permeability of insulin and FD4 across Caco-2 monolayers and rat small intestinal mucosae mounted in Ussing chambers. Proteolytic degradation of insulin was determined in rat luminal extracts across a range of pH values in the presence of CA. CA's capacity to chelate calcium decreased ~10-fold for each pH unit moving from pH 6 to pH 3. CA was an inferior weak permeation enhancer compared to LCC in both in vitro models using physiological buffers. At pH 4.5 however, degradation of insulin in rat luminal extracts was significantly inhibited in the presence of 10mM CA. The capacity of CA to chelate luminal calcium does not occur significantly at the acidic pH values where it effectively inhibits proteolysis, which is its dominant action in oral peptide formulations. On account of insulin's low basal permeability, inclusion of alternative permeation enhancers is likely to be necessary to achieve sufficient oral bioavailability since this is a weak property of CA.

  10. The lectin Siglec-G inhibits dendritic cell cross-presentation by impairing MHC class I-peptide complex formation.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuanyuan; Guo, Zhenhong; Liu, Yiqi; Li, Xia; Zhang, Qian; Xu, Xiongfei; Gu, Yan; Zhang, Yi; Zhao, Dezhi; Cao, Xuetao

    2016-10-01

    CD8α(+) dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized at cross-presenting extracellular antigens on major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules to initiate cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses; however, details of the mechanisms that regulate cross-presentation remain unknown. We found lower expression of the lectin family member Siglec-G in CD8α(+) DCs, and Siglec-G deficient (Siglecg(-/-)) mice generated more antigen-specific CTLs to inhibit intracellular bacterial infection and tumor growth. MHC class I-peptide complexes were more abundant on Siglecg(-/-) CD8α(+) DCs than on Siglecg(+/+) CD8α(+) DCs. Mechanistically, phagosome-expressed Siglec-G recruited the phosphatase SHP-1, which dephosphorylated the NADPH oxidase component p47(phox) and inhibited the activation of NOX2 on phagosomes. This resulted in excessive hydrolysis of exogenous antigens, which led to diminished formation of MHC class I-peptide complexes for cross-presentation. Therefore, Siglec-G inhibited DC cross-presentation by impairing such complex formation, and our results add insight into the regulation of cross-presentation in adaptive immunity. PMID:27548433

  11. Identification of the sAPRIL Binding Peptide and Its Growth Inhibition Effects in the Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang; Li, Jing; He, Mei-rong

    2015-01-01

    Background A proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) super family. It binds to its specific receptors and is involved in multiple processes during tumorigenesis and tumor cells proliferation. High levels of APRIL expression are closely correlated to the growth, metastasis, and 5-FU drug resistance of colorectal cancer. The aim of this study was to identify a specific APRIL binding peptide (BP) able to block APRIL activity that could be used as a potential treatment for colorectal cancer. Methods A phage display library was used to identify peptides that bound selectively to soluble recombinant human APRIL (sAPRIL). The peptides with the highest binding affinity for sAPRIL were identified using ELISA. The effects of sAPRIL-BP on cell proliferation and cell cycle/apoptosis in vitro were evaluated using the CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. An in vivo mouse model of colorectal cancer was used to determine the anti-tumor efficacy of the sAPRIL-BP. Results Three candidate peptides were characterized from eight phage clones with high binding affinity for sAPRIL. The peptide with the highest affinity was selected for further characterization. The identified sAPRIL-BP suppressed tumor cell proliferation and cell cycle progression in LOVO cells in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo in a mouse colorectal challenge model, the sAPRIL-BP reduced the growth of tumor xenografts in nude mice by inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis intratumorally. Moreover, in an in vivo metastasis model, sAPRIL-BP reduced liver metastasis of colorectal cancer cells. Conclusions sAPRIL-BP significantly suppressed tumor growth in vitro and in vivo and might be a candidate for treating colorectal cancers that express high levels of APRIL. PMID:25826583

  12. A pool of peptides extracted from wheat bud chromatin inhibits tumor cell growth by causing defective DNA synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We previously reported that a pool of low molecular weight peptides can be extracted by alkali treatment of DNA preparations obtained from prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells after intensive deproteinization. This class of peptides, isolated from wheat bud chromatin, induces growth inhibition, DNA damage, G2 checkpoint activation and apoptosis in HeLa cells. In this work we studied their mechanism of action by investigating their ability to interfere with DNA synthesis. Methods BrdUrd comet assays were used to detect DNA replication defects during S phase. DNA synthesis, cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and DNA damage response pathway activation were assessed using 3H-thymidine incorporation, DNA flow cytometry and Western blotting, respectively. Results BrdUrd labelling close to DNA strand discontinuities (comet tails) detects the number of active replicons. This number was significantly higher in treated cells (compared to controls) from entry until mid S phase, but markedly lower in late S phase, indicating the occurrence of defective DNA synthesis. In mid S phase the treated cells showed less 3H-thymidine incorporation with respect to the controls, which supports an early arrest of DNA synthesis. DNA damage response activation was also shown in both p53-defective HeLa cells and p53-proficient U2OS cells by the detection of the phosphorylated form of H2AX after peptide treatment. These events were accompanied in both cell lines by an increase in p21 levels and, in U2OS cells, of phospho-p53 (Ser15) levels. At 24 h of recovery after peptide treatment the cell cycle phase distribution was similar to that seen in controls and CDK1 kinase accumulation was not detected. Conclusion The data reported here show that the antiproliferative effect exhibited by these chromatin peptides results from their ability to induce genomic stress during DNA synthesis. This effect seems to be S-phase specific since surviving cells are able to progress through their

  13. A Nerve Growth Factor Peptide Retards Seizure Development and Inhibits Neuronal Sprouting in a Rat Model of Epilepsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, Kashif; van der Zee, Catharina E. E. M.; Ross, Gregory M.; Chapman, C. Andrew; Stanisz, Jolanta; Riopelle, Richard J.; Racine, Ronald J.; Fahnestock, Margaret

    1995-10-01

    Kindling, an animal model of epilepsy wherein seizures are induced by subcortical electrical stimulation, results in the upregulation of neurotrophin mRNA and protein in the adult rat forebrain and causes mossy fiber sprouting in the hippocampus. Intraventricular infusion of a synthetic peptide mimic of a nerve growth factor domain that interferes with the binding of neurotrophins to their receptors resulted in significant retardation of kindling and inhibition of mossy fiber sprouting. These findings suggest a critical role for neurotrophins in both kindling and kindling-induced synaptic reorganization.

  14. Inhibition of NF-kappaB activity by plasmid expressed alphaMSH peptide.

    PubMed

    Etemad-Moghadam, Bijan; Chen, Hongmin; Yin, Peng; Aziz, Nazneen; Hedley, Mary Lynne

    2002-04-01

    Alpha-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (alphaMSH) is a neuroimmunomodulatory peptide with remarkable anti-inflammatory properties. Daily or twice daily administration of the peptide reduces the symptoms of several inflammatory animal disease models and the peptide has demonstrated safety in human trials. Unfortunately, the pharmacokinetics of peptide delivery are not favorable from the pharmaceutical perspective. For this reason, plasmid-based vectors were created that constitutively express the immunomodulatory peptide. The fusion constructs encode the 13 amino acids of alphaMSH in frame with the first domain of serum albumin, separated by a linker and furin cleavage sites. The fusion proteins were expressed and processed in human fetal kidney (293) cells. Supernatant from B16/F10 cells transfected with the constructs stimulated secretion of melanin from melanocytes. Furthermore, transfected cytoskeletal muscle (Sol8) cells secreted bioactive alphaMSH that reduced NF-kappaB-mediated transcriptional activation of a luciferase reporter gene. The activity of these vectors provides tools and the impetus for testing the constructs in several animal models of chronic inflammation. PMID:11960637

  15. Inhibition of Hepatocyte Apoptosis: An Important Mechanism of Corn Peptides Attenuating Liver Injury Induced by Ethanol.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhili; Hou, Tao; Shi, Wen; Liu, Weiwei; He, Hui

    2015-09-11

    In this study, the effects of mixed corn peptides and synthetic pentapeptide (QLLPF) on hepatocyte apoptosis induced by ethanol were investigated in vivo. QLLPF, was previously characterized from corn protein hydrolysis, which had been shown to exert good facilitating alcohol metabolism activity. Mice were pre-treated with the mixed corn peptides and the pentapeptide for 1 week and then treated with ethanol. After treatment of three weeks, the biochemical indices and the key ethanol metabolizing enzymes, the serum TNF-α, liver TGF-β1 concentrations and the protein expressions related to apoptosis were determined. We found that the Bcl-2, Bax and cytochrome c expressions in the intrinsic pathway and the Fas, FasL and NF-κB expressions in the extrinsic pathway together with higher TNF-α and TGF-β1 concentrations were reversed compared with the model group by both the mixed corn peptides and the pentapeptide. The activation of caspase3 was also suppressed. Additionally, apoptosis was further confirmed with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and the TUNEL assay demonstrated peptides suppressed hepatocyte apoptosis. Our results suggest that apoptosis induced by ethanol is alleviated in response to the treatment of corn peptides, potentially due to reversing the related protein expression.

  16. Sea Anemone Peptide with Uncommon β-Hairpin Structure Inhibits Acid-sensing Ion Channel 3 (ASIC3) and Reveals Analgesic Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Osmakov, Dmitry I.; Kozlov, Sergey A.; Andreev, Yaroslav A.; Koshelev, Sergey G.; Sanamyan, Nadezhda P.; Sanamyan, Karen E.; Dyachenko, Igor A.; Bondarenko, Dmitry A.; Murashev, Arkadii N.; Mineev, Konstantin S.; Arseniev, Alexander S.; Grishin, Eugene V.

    2013-01-01

    Three novel peptides were isolated from the venom of the sea anemone Urticina grebelnyi. All of them are 29 amino acid peptides cross-linked by two disulfide bridges, with a primary structure similar to other sea anemone peptides belonging to structural group 9a. The structure of the gene encoding the shared precursor protein of the identified peptides was determined. One peptide, π-AnmTX Ugr 9a-1 (short name Ugr 9-1), produced a reversible inhibition effect on both the transient and the sustained current of human ASIC3 channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. It completely blocked the transient component (IC50 10 ± 0.6 μm) and partially (48 ± 2%) inhibited the amplitude of the sustained component (IC50 1.44 ± 0.19 μm). Using in vivo tests in mice, Ugr 9-1 significantly reversed inflammatory and acid-induced pain. The other two novel peptides, AnmTX Ugr 9a-2 (Ugr 9-2) and AnmTX Ugr 9a-3 (Ugr 9-3), did not inhibit the ASIC3 current. NMR spectroscopy revealed that Ugr 9-1 has an uncommon spatial structure, stabilized by two S-S bridges, with three classical β-turns and twisted β-hairpin without interstrand disulfide bonds. This is a novel peptide spatial structure that we propose to name boundless β-hairpin. PMID:23801332

  17. RGD-containing peptides inhibit intestinal regeneration in the sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Serrano, Arelys; García-Arrarás, José E

    2004-09-01

    The sea cucumber Holothuria glaberrima is an echinoderm capable of regenerating its viscera. Previous studies from our group have shown a striking remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) during intestinal regeneration. To study the role of the ECM during regeneration, we have focused on the RGD sequences present in many ECM molecules. Regenerating animals were treated with an RGDS (Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser) peptide that competes with the interaction between RGD sequence and cellular integrins. Saline and RGES (Arg-Gly-Glu-Ser) peptide injections were done as controls. The size of the regenerating intestine was determined, and the regenerating structures were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for the presence of collagen and fibronectin, as well as for muscle and other cells. The results show a delay in intestinal regeneration in animals injected with the RGDS peptide, suggesting that the ECM-integrin interaction plays an important function in the regenerative process.

  18. Surface behavior of peptides from E1 GBV-C protein: Interaction with anionic model membranes and importance in HIV-1 FP inhibition.

    PubMed

    Galatola, R; Cruz, A; Gómara, M J; Prat, J; Alsina, M A; Haro, I; Pujol, M

    2015-02-01

    The interaction between a peptide sequence from GB virus C E1 protein (E1P8) and its structural analogs (E1P8-12), (E1P8-13), and (E1P8-21) with anionic lipid membranes (POPG vesicles and POPG, DPPG or DPPC/DPPG (2:1) monolayers) and their association with HIV-1 fusion peptide (HIV-1 FP) inhibition at the membrane level were studied using biophysical methods. All peptides showed surface activity but leakage experiments in vesicles as well as insertion kinetics in monolayers and lipid/peptide miscibility indicated a low level of interaction: neither E1P8 nor its analogs induced the release of vesicular content and the exclusion pressure values (πe) were clearly lower than the biological membrane pressure (24-30 mN m(-1)) and the HIV-1 FP (35 mN m(-1)). Miscibility was elucidated in terms of the additivity rule and excess free energy of mixing (GE). E1P8, E1P8-12 and E1P8-21 (but not E1P8-13) induced expansion of the POPG monolayer. The mixing process is not thermodynamically favored as the positive GE values indicate. To determine how E1 peptides interfere in the action of HIV-1 FP at the membrane level, mixed monolayers of HIV-1 FP/E1 peptides (2:1) and POPG were obtained. E1P8 and its derivative E1P8-21 showed the greatest HIV-1 FP inhibition. The LC-LE phase lipid behavior was morphologically examined via fluorescence microscopy (FM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Images revealed that the E1 peptides modify HIV-1 FP-lipid interaction. This fact may be attributed to a peptide/peptide interaction as indicated by AFM results. Finally, hemolysis assay demonstrated that E1 peptides inhibit HIV-1 FP activity.

  19. The leader peptides of attenuation-regulated chloramphenicol resistance genes inhibit translational termination.

    PubMed Central

    Moffat, J G; Tate, W P; Lovett, P S

    1994-01-01

    Placing a translation stop codon at the ribosomal pause site in the leader of the attenuation-regulated cat-86 gene activates cat expression in the absence of the inducer, chloramphenicol. Genetic experiments have shown that this phenomenon depends on the amino acid sequence of the leader-encoded peptide and could readily be explained if the peptide was an inhibitor of translation termination. Here we demonstrate that the cat-86 leader pentapeptide is an in vitro inhibitor of translation termination in addition to its previously described antipeptidyltransferase activity. PMID:7961481

  20. Inhibition of Raf/MAPK signaling in Xenopus oocyte extracts by Raf-1-specific peptides.

    PubMed

    Radziwill, G; Steinhusen, U; Aitken, A; Moelling, K

    1996-10-01

    Raf-1 is an upstream element of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway which leads to cell proliferation and differentiation. In this study Raf-1 derived peptides comprising the conserved amino acid residues Arg89 and Ser259, involved in binding of activated Ras and 14-3-3 proteins, respectively, were shown to interfere with MAPK activation in extracts from immature Xenopus oocytes. Lipids prepared from oocyte extracts can stimulate MAPK in a Ras- and protein kinase C-independent manner. This lipid-induced MAPK activation is blocked by a Raf-1 derived peptide comprising Ser259.

  1. A Cationic Peptide, TAT-Cd0, Inhibits Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Ocular Infection In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Gilbert G.; Larsen, Inna V.; Gauger, Joshua; Carballo, Erica; Stern, Rebecca; Brummel, Rachel; Brandt, Curtis R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To test the in vivo activity of a peptide derived from the protein transducing domain of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Tat protein, TAT-Cd0, in a murine herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) keratitis model. Methods. The efficacy of TAT-Cd0 was assessed in a postinfection treatment model with different concentrations (1 mg/mL, 0.1 mg/mL, 0.01 mg/mL) of the peptide in one of four delivery vehicles: artificial tears, PBS, methylcellulose, and aquaphor cream. Treatment began within 4 or 24 hours postinfection. Viral titers in the tear film were determined by plaque assay. Results. TAT-Cd0 reduced the severity of keratitis in all of the delivery vehicles tested when treatment started, 4 hours postinfection. Peptide in the tears or PBS delivery vehicle had the most significant reduction in disease severity and delayed the onset of vascularization and stromal keratitis. The percentage of mice presenting with disease was also significantly reduced and viral titers were reduced by 1 log at 24 hours postinfection in mice treated with 1 mg/mL TAT-Cd0, suggesting that inhibiting replication early is sufficient to achieve clinical effects. Lower concentrations were not effective and delaying treatment by 24 hours was also not effective. Conclusions. This study shows that TAT-Cd0 is an effective antiviral against HSV-1 strain KOS when applied shortly postinfection and that aqueous-based formulations are more suitable. PMID:23341013

  2. A new class of synthetic anti-lipopolysaccharide peptides inhibits influenza A virus replication by blocking cellular attachment.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Julia; Schneider, Carola; Heinbockel, Lena; Brandenburg, Klaus; Reimer, Rudolph; Gabriel, Gülsah

    2014-04-01

    Influenza A viruses are a continuous threat to human health as illustrated by the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Since circulating influenza virus strains become increasingly resistant against currently available drugs, the development of novel antivirals is urgently needed. Here, we have evaluated a recently described new class of broad-spectrum antiviral peptides (synthetic anti-lipopolysaccharide peptides; SALPs) for their potential to inhibit influenza virus replication in vitro and in vivo. We found that particularly SALP PEP 19-2.5 shows high binding affinities for the influenza virus receptor molecule, N-Acetylneuraminic acid, leading to impaired viral attachment and cellular entry. As a result, replication of several influenza virus subtypes (H7N7, H3N2 and 2009 pandemic H1N1) was strongly reduced. Furthermore, mice co-treated with PEP 19-2.5 were protected against an otherwise 100% lethal H7N7 influenza virus infection. These findings show that SALPs exhibit antiviral activity against influenza viruses by blocking virus attachment and entry into host cells. Thus, SALPs present a new class of broad-spectrum antiviral peptides for further development for influenza virus therapy. PMID:24486207

  3. The host antimicrobial peptide Bac71-35 binds to bacterial ribosomal proteins and inhibits protein synthesis.

    PubMed

    Mardirossian, Mario; Grzela, Renata; Giglione, Carmela; Meinnel, Thierry; Gennaro, Renato; Mergaert, Peter; Scocchi, Marco

    2014-12-18

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are molecules from innate immunity with high potential as novel anti-infective agents. Most of them inactivate bacteria through pore formation or membrane barrier disruption, but others cross the membrane without damages and act inside the cells, affecting vital processes. However, little is known about their intracellular bacterial targets. Here we report that Bac71-35, a proline-rich AMP belonging to the cathelicidin family, can reach high concentrations (up to 340 μM) inside the E. coli cytoplasm. The peptide specifically and completely inhibits in vitro translation in the micromolar concentration range. Experiments of incorporation of radioactive precursors in macromolecules with E. coli cells confirmed that Bac71-35 affects specifically protein synthesis. Ribosome coprecipitation and crosslinking assays showed that the peptide interacts with ribosomes, binding to a limited subset of ribosomal proteins. Overall, these results indicate that the killing mechanism of Bac71-35 is based on a specific block of protein synthesis.

  4. New elements in the C-type natriuretic peptide signaling pathway inhibiting swine in vitro oocyte meiotic resumption.

    PubMed

    Santiquet, Nicolas; Papillon-Dion, Emilie; Djender, Nadjib; Guillemette, Christine; Richard, François J

    2014-07-01

    C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and its cognate receptor, natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR) B, have been shown to promote cGMP production in granulosa/cumulus cells. Once transferred to the oocyte through the gap junctions, the cGMP inhibits oocyte meiotic resumption. CNP has been shown to bind another natriuretic receptor, NPR-C. NPR-C is known to interact with and degrade bound CNP, and has been reported to possess signaling functions. Therefore, NPR-C could participate in the control of oocyte maturation during swine in vitro maturation (IVM). Here, we examine the effect of CNP signaling on meiotic resumption, the amount of cGMP and gap junctional communication (GJC) regulation during swine IVM. The results show an inhibitory effect of CNP in inhibiting oocyte meiotic resumption in follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-stimulated IVM. We also found that an NPR-C-specific agonist (cANP([4-23])) is likely to play a role in maintaining meiotic arrest during porcine IVM when in the presence of a suboptimal dose of CNP. Moreover, we show that, even if CNP can increase intracellular concentration of cGMP in cumulus-oocyte complexes, cANP((4-23)) had no impact on cGMP concentration, suggesting a potential cGMP-independent signaling pathway related to NPR-C activation. These data support a potential involvement of cANP((4-23)) through NPR-C in inhibiting oocyte meiotic resumption while in the presence of a suboptimal dose of CNP. The regulation of GJC was not altered by CNP, cANP((4-23)), or the combination of CNP and cANP((4-23)), supporting their potential contribution in sending signals to the oocytes. These findings offer promising insights in to new elements of the signaling pathways that may be involved in inhibiting resumption of meiosis during FSH-stimulated swine IVM.

  5. In vitro growth of growth of campylobacter spp. inhibited by selected antimicrobial peptides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Novel alternatives to traditional antibiotics are urgently needed for food-animal production. A goal of our laboratory is to develop and evaluate antimicrobial peptides (AMP) to control and reduce foodborne pathogens in poultry. AMP have been found in most every class of living organism...

  6. A PCNA-Derived Cell Permeable Peptide Selectively Inhibits Neuroblastoma Cell Growth

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Long; Smith, Shanna; Li, Caroline; Hickey, Robert J.; Stark, Jeremy M.; Fields, Gregg B.; Lang, Walter H.; Sandoval, John A.; Malkas, Linda H.

    2014-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), through its interaction with various proteins involved in DNA synthesis, cell cycle regulation, and DNA repair, plays a central role in maintaining genome stability. We previously reported a novel cancer associated PCNA isoform (dubbed caPCNA), which was significantly expressed in a broad range of cancer cells and tumor tissues, but not in non-malignant cells. We found that the caPCNA-specific antigenic site lies between L126 and Y133, a region within the interconnector domain of PCNA that is known to be a major binding site for many of PCNA's interacting proteins. We hypothesized that therapeutic agents targeting protein-protein interactions mediated through this region may confer differential toxicity to normal and malignant cells. To test this hypothesis, we designed a cell permeable peptide containing the PCNA L126-Y133 sequence. Here, we report that this peptide selectively kills human neuroblastoma cells, especially those with MYCN gene amplification, with much less toxicity to non-malignant human cells. Mechanistically, the peptide is able to block PCNA interactions in cancer cells. It interferes with DNA synthesis and homologous recombination-mediated double-stranded DNA break repair, resulting in S-phase arrest, accumulation of DNA damage, and enhanced sensitivity to cisplatin. These results demonstrate conceptually the utility of this peptide for treating neuroblastomas, particularly, the unfavorable MYCN-amplified tumors. PMID:24728180

  7. Transgenic tobacco expressing a modified spider peptide inhibits the growth of plant pathogens and insect larvae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gene encoding lycotoxin I, an amphipathic pore-forming peptide, was modified to increase oral toxicity to insects. One of the most active modified genes was then constitutively expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and transformants were evaluated for insect and disease resistance. Pathogenic...

  8. Inhibition of HIV-1 reactivation by a telomerase-derived peptide in a HSP90-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hong; Choi, Myung-Soo; Inn, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Bum-Joon

    2016-01-01

    A peptide vaccine designed to induce T-cell immunity to telomerase, GV1001, has been shown to modulate cellular signaling pathways and confer a direct anti-cancer effect through the interaction with heat shock protein (HSP) 90 and 70. Here, we have found that GV1001 can modulate transactivation protein-mediated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 transactivation in an HSP90-dependent manner. GV1001 treatment resulted in significant suppression of HIV-1 replication and rescue of infected cells from death by HIV-1. Transactivation of HIV-long terminal repeat (LTR) was inhibited by GV1001, indicating that GV1001 suppressed the transcription from proviral HIV DNA. The anti-HIV-1 activity of GV1001 was completely abrogated by an HSP90-neutralizing antibody, indicating that the antiviral activity depends on HSP90. Further mechanistic studies revealed that GV1001 suppresses basal NF-κB activation, which is required for HIV-1 LTR transactivation in an HSP90-dependent manner. Inhibition of LTR transactivation by GV1001 suggests its potential to suppress HIV-1 reactivation from latency. Indeed, PMA-mediated reactivation of HIV-1 from latent infected cells was suppressed by GV1001. The results suggest the potential therapeutic use of GV1001, a peptide proven to be safe for human use, as an anti-HIV-1 agent to suppress the reactivation from latently infected cells. PMID:27363520

  9. TRAM-Derived Decoy Peptides inhibits the inflammatory response in mouse mammary epithelial cells and a mastitis model in mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaoyu; Tian, Yuan; Wang, Tiancheng; Zhang, Wenlong; Wang, Wei; Gao, Xuejiao; Qu, Shihui; Cao, Yongguo; Zhang, Naisheng

    2015-10-01

    It has been proved that TRAM-Derived Decoy peptides have anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we synthesized a TRAM-Derived decoy peptide (TM6), belongs to TRAM TIR domain, of which sequence is "N"-RQIKIWFQNRRMKWK, KENFLRDTWCNFQFY-"C" and evaluated the effects of TM6 on lipopolysaccharide-induced mastitis in mice. In vivo, LPS-induced mice mastitis model was established by injection of LPS through the duct of mammary gland. TM6 was injected 1h before or after LPS treatment. In vitro, primary mouse mammary epithelial cells were used to investigate the effects of TM6 on LPS-induced inflammatory responses. The results showed that TM6 inhibited LPS-induced mammary gland histopathologic changes, MPO activity, and TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 production in mice. In vitro, TM6 significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-6 production, as well as NF-κB and MAPKs activation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that TM6 had protective effects on LPS-mastitis and may be a promising therapeutic reagent for mastitis treatment.

  10. Drug efflux by a small multidrug resistance protein is inhibited by a transmembrane peptide.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Bradley E; Deber, Charles M

    2012-07-01

    Drug-resistant bacteria use several families of membrane-embedded transporters to remove antibiotics from the cell. One such family is the small multidrug resistance proteins (SMRs) that, because of their relatively small size (ca. 110 residues with four transmembrane [TM] helices), must form (at least) dimers to efflux drugs. Here, we use a Lys-tagged synthetic peptide with exactly the same sequence as TM4 of the full-length SMR Hsmr from Halobacterium salinarum [TM4 sequence: AcA(Sar)(3)-VAGVVGLALIVAGVVVLNVAS-KKK (Sar = N-methylglycine)] to compete with and disrupt the native TM4-TM4 interactions believed to constitute the locus of Hsmr dimerization. Using a cellular efflux assay of the fluorescent SMR substrate ethidium bromide, we determined that bacterial cells containing Hsmr are able to remove cellular ethidium via first-order exponential decay with a rate constant (k) of 10.1 × 10(-3) ± 0.7 × 10(-3) s(-1). Upon treatment of the cells with the TM4 peptide, we observed a saturable ~60% decrease in the efflux rate constant to 3.7 × 10(-3) ± 0.2 × 10(-3) s(-1). In corresponding experiments with control peptides, including scrambled sequences and a sequence with d-chirality, a decrease in ethidium efflux either was not observed or was marginal, likely from nonspecific effects. The designed peptides did not evoke bacterial lysis, indicating that they act via the α-helicity and membrane insertion propensities of the native TM4 helix. Our overall results suggest that this approach could conceivably be used to design hydrophobic peptides for disruption of key TM-TM interactions of membrane proteins and represent a valuable route to the discovery of new therapeutics.

  11. Release of Membrane-Bound Vesicles and Inhibition of Tumor Cell Adhesion by the Peptide Neopetrosiamide A

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Pamela; Heller, Markus; Williams, David E.; McIntosh, Lawrence P.; Vogl, A. Wayne; Foster, Leonard J.; Andersen, Raymond J.; Roberge, Michel; Roskelley, Calvin D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Neopetrosiamide A (NeoA) is a 28-amino acid tricyclic peptide originally isolated from a marine sponge as a tumor cell invasion inhibitor whose mechanism of action is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We show that NeoA reversibly inhibits tumor cell adhesion, disassembles focal adhesions in pre-attached cells, and decreases the level of β1 integrin subunits on the cell surface. NeoA also induces the formation of dynamic, membrane-bound protrusions on the surface of treated cells and the release of membrane-bound vesicles into the culture medium. Proteomic analysis indicates that the vesicles contain EGF and transferrin receptors as well as a number of proteins involved in adhesion and migration including: β1 integrin and numerous α integrin subunits; actin and actin-binding proteins such as cofilin, moesin and myosin 1C; and membrane modulating eps15 homology domain (EHD) proteins. Surface labeling, trafficking inhibition, and real-time imaging experiments all suggest that β1 integrin-containing vesicles are released directly from NeoA-induced cell surface protrusions rather than from vesicles generated intracellularly. The biological activity of NeoA is dependent on its disulfide bond pattern and NMR spectroscopy indicates that the peptide is globular with a continuous ridge of hydrophobic groups flanked by charged amino acid residues that could facilitate a simultaneous interaction with lipids and proteins in the membrane. Conclusions/Significance NeoA is an anti-adhesive peptide that decreases cell surface integrin levels through a novel, yet to be elucidated, mechanism that involves the release of adhesion molecule-containing vesicles from the cell surface. PMID:20520768

  12. Identification of Plasmodium falciparum RhopH3 protein peptides that specifically bind to erythrocytes and inhibit merozoite invasion

    PubMed Central

    Pinzón, Carlos Giovanni; Curtidor, Hernando; Reyes, Claudia; Méndez, David; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin

    2008-01-01

    The identification of sequences involved in binding to erythrocytes is an important step for understanding the molecular basis of merozoite–erythrocyte interactions that take place during invasion of the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite into host cells. Several molecules located in the apical organelles (micronemes, rhoptry, dense granules) of the invasive-stage parasite are essential for erythrocyte recognition, invasion, and establishment of the nascent parasitophorous vacuole. Particularly, it has been demonstrated that rhoptry proteins play an important role in binding to erythrocyte surface receptors, among which is the PfRhopH3 protein, which triggers important immune responses in patients from endemic regions. It has also been reported that anti-RhopH3 antibodies inhibit in vitro invasion of erythrocytes, further supporting its direct involvement in erythrocyte invasion processes. In this study, PfRhopH3 consecutive peptides were synthesized and tested in erythrocyte binding assays for identifying those regions mediating binding to erythrocytes. Fourteen PfRhopH3 peptides presenting high specific binding activity were found, whose bindings were saturable and presented nanomolar dissociation constants. These high-activity binding peptides (HABPs) were characterized by having α-helical structural elements, as determined by circular dichroism, and having receptors of a possible sialic acid-dependent and/or glycoprotein-dependent nature, as evidenced in enzyme-treated erythrocyte binding assays and further corroborated by cross-linking assay results. Furthermore, these HABPs inhibited merozoite in vitro invasion of normal erythrocytes at 200 μM by up to 60% and 90%, suggesting that some RhopH3 protein regions are involved in the P. falciparum erythrocyte invasion. PMID:18593818

  13. C-type natriuretic peptide inhibits leukocyte recruitment and platelet-leukocyte interactions via suppression of P-selectin expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scotland, Ramona S.; Cohen, Marc; Foster, Paul; Lovell, Matthew; Mathur, Anthony; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Hobbs, Adrian J.

    2005-10-01

    The multifaceted process of immune cell recruitment to sites of tissue injury is key to the development of an inflammatory response and involved in the pathogenesis of numerous cardiovascular disorders. We recently identified C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) as an important endothelium-derived mediator that regulates vascular tone and protects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Herein, we investigated whether CNP inhibits leukocyte recruitment and platelet aggregation and thereby exerts a potential antiinflammatory influence on the blood vessel wall. We assessed the effects of CNP on leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in mouse mesenteric postcapillary venules in vivo in animals with high basal leukocyte activation (endothelial nitric oxide synthase knockout mice, eNOS-/-) or under acute inflammatory conditions (induced by interleukin-1 or histamine). CNP suppressed basal leukocyte rolling in eNOS-/- mice in a rapid, reversible, and concentration-dependent manner. These effects of CNP were mimicked by the selective natriuretic peptide receptor-C agonist cANF4-23. CNP also suppressed leukocyte rolling induced by IL-1 or histamine, inhibited platelet-leukocyte interactions, and prevented thrombin-induced platelet aggregation of human blood. Furthermore, analysis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, leukocytes, and platelets revealed that CNP selectively attenuates expression of P-selectin. Thus, CNP is a modulator of acute inflammation in the blood vessel wall characterized by leukocyte and platelet activation. These antiinflammatory effects appear to be mediated, at least in part, via suppression of P-selectin expression. These observations suggest that endothelial CNP might maintain an anti-atherogenic influence on the blood vessel wall and represent a target for therapeutic intervention in inflammatory cardiovascular disorders. endothelium | natriuretic peptide receptor type C | atherosclerosis | thrombosis

  14. CopA3 peptide prevents ultraviolet-induced inhibition of type-I procollagen and induction of matrix metalloproteinase-1 in human skin fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Hee; Kim, Han-Hyuk; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Jung, Hyun-Gug; Yu, Jae-Myo; Lee, Eun-Su; Cho, Yong-Hun; Kim, Dong-In; An, Bong-Jeun

    2014-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) exposure is well-known to induce premature aging, which is mediated by matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) activity. A 9-mer peptide, CopA3 (CopA3) was synthesized from a natural peptide, coprisin, which is isolated from the dung beetle Copris tripartitus. As part of our continuing search for novel bioactive natural products, CopA3 was investigated for its in vitro anti-skin photoaging activity. UV-induced inhibition of type-I procollagen and induction of MMP-1 were partially prevented in human skin fibroblasts by CopA3 peptide in a dose-dependent manner. At a concentration of 25 μM, CopA3 nearly completely inhibited MMP-1 expression. These results suggest that CopA3, an insect peptide, is a potential candidate for the prevention and treatment of skin aging. PMID:24853614

  15. Symbiotic Plant Peptides Eliminate Candida albicans Both In Vitro and in an Epithelial Infection Model and Inhibit the Proliferation of Immortalized Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ördögh, Lilla; Vörös, Andrea; Nagy, István; Kondorosi, Éva

    2014-01-01

    The increasing number of multidrug-resistant microbes now emerging necessitates the identification of novel antimicrobial agents. Plants produce a great variety of antimicrobial peptides including hundreds of small, nodule-specific cysteine-rich NCR peptides that, in the legume Medicago truncatula, govern the differentiation of endosymbiotic nitrogen fixing bacteria and, in vitro, can display potent antibacterial activities. In this study, the potential candidacidal activity of 19 NCR peptides was investigated. Cationic NCR peptides having an isoelectric point above 9 were efficient in killing Candida albicans, one of the most common fungal pathogens of humans. None of the tested NCR peptides were toxic for immortalized human epithelial cells at concentrations that effectively killed the fungus; however, at higher concentrations, some of them inhibited the division of the cells. Furthermore, the cationic peptides successfully inhibited C. albicans induced human epithelial cell death in an in vitro coculture model. These results highlight the therapeutic potential of cationic NCR peptides in the treatment of candidiasis. PMID:25243129

  16. The membrane-active amphibian peptide caerin 1.8 inhibits fibril formation of amyloid β1-42.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanqin; Wang, Tianfang; Calabrese, Antonio N; Carver, John A; Cummins, Scott F; Bowie, John H

    2015-11-01

    The amphibian host-defense peptide caerin 1.8 [(1)GLFKVLGSV(10)AKHLLPHVVP(20)VIAEKL(NH2)] inhibits fibril formation of amyloid β 1-42 [(1)DAEFRHDSG(10)YEVHHQKLVF(20)FAEDVGSNKG(30)AIIGLMVGGV(40)VIA] [Aβ42] (the major precursor of the extracellular fibrillar deposits of Alzheimer's disease). Some truncated forms of caerin 1.8 also inhibit fibril formation of Aβ42. For example, caerin 1.8 (1-13) [(1)GLFKVLGSV(10)AKHL(NH2) and caerin 1.8 (22-25) [KVLGSV(10)AKHLLPHVVP(20)VIAEKL(NH2)] show 85% and 75% respectively of the inhibition activity of the parent caerin 1.8. The synthetic peptide KLVFFKKKKKK is a known inhibitor of Aβ42 fibril formation, and was used as a standard in this study. Caerin 1.8 is the more effective fibril inhibitor. IC50 values (± 15%) are caerin 1.8 (75 μM) and KLVFFKKKKKK (370 μM). MALDI mass spectrometry shows the presence of a small peak corresponding to a protonated 1:1 adduct [caerin 1.8/Aβ42]H(+). Molecular dynamics simulation suggests that both hydrogen bonding and hydrophobic interactions between Aβ42 and caerin 1.8 facilitate the formation of a 1:1 complex in water. Fibril formation from Aβ42 has been proposed to be based around the (16)KLVF(20)F region of Aβ42; this region in the 1:1 complex is partially blocked from attachment of a further molecule of Aβ42.

  17. Antibiotic and antimicrobial peptide combinations: synergistic inhibition of Pseudomonas fluorescens and antibiotic-resistant variants.

    PubMed

    Naghmouchi, Karim; Le Lay, Christophe; Baah, John; Drider, Djamel

    2012-02-01

    Variants resistant to penicillin G (RvP), streptomycin (RvS), lincomycin (RvL) and rifampicin (RvR) were developed from a colistin-sensitive isolate of Pseudomonas fluorescens LRC-R73 (P. fluorescens). Cell fatty acid composition, K(+) efflux and sensitivity to antimicrobial peptides (nisin Z, pediocin PA-1/AcH and colistin) alone or combined with antibiotics were determined. P. fluorescens was highly sensitive to kanamycin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol at minimal inhibitory concentrations of 0.366, 0.305 and 0.732 μg/ml respectively. P. fluorescens, RvP, RvS, RvL and RvR were resistant to nisin Z and pediocin PA-1/AcH at concentrations ≥100 μg/ml but sensitive to colistin at 0.076, 0.043, 0.344, 0.344 and 0.258 μg/ml respectively. A synergistic inhibitory effect (FICI ≤0.5) was observed when resistant variants were treated with peptide/antibiotic combinations. No significant effect on K(+) efflux from the resistant variants in the presence of antibiotics or peptides alone or combined was observed. The proportion of C16:0 was significantly higher in antibiotic-resistant variants than in the parent strain, accounting for 32.3%, 46.49%, 43.3%, 40.1% and 44.1% of the total fatty acids in P. fluorescens, RvP, RvS, RvL and RvR respectively. Combination of antibiotics with antimicrobial peptides could allow reduced use of antibiotics in medical applications and could help slow the emergence of bacteria resistant to antibiotics. PMID:22172555

  18. A urokinase-type plasminogen activator-inhibiting cyclic peptide with an unusual P2 residue and an extended protease binding surface demonstrates new modalities for enzyme inhibition.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Martin; Wind, Troels; Blouse, Grant E; Christensen, Anni; Petersen, Helle H; Kjelgaard, Signe; Mathiasen, Lisa; Holtet, Thor L; Andreasen, Peter A

    2005-11-18

    To find new principles for inhibiting serine proteases, we screened phage-displayed random peptide repertoires with urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) as the target. The most frequent of the isolated phage clones contained the disulfide bridge-constrained sequence CSWRGLENHRMC, which we designated upain-1. When expressed recombinantly with a protein fusion partner, upain-1 inhibited the enzymatic activity of uPA competitively with a temperature and pH-dependent K(i), which at 25 degrees C and pH 7.4 was approximately 500 nm. At the same conditions, the equilibrium dissociation constant K(D), monitored by displacement of p-aminobenzamidine from the specificity pocket of uPA, was approximately 400 nm. By an inhibitory screen against other serine proteases, including trypsin, upain-1 was found to be highly selective for uPA. The cyclical structure of upain-1 was indispensable for uPA binding. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis identified Arg(4) of upain-1 as the P(1) residue and indicated an extended binding interaction including the specificity pocket and the 37-, 60-, and 97-loops of uPA and the P(1), P(2), P(3)', P(4)', and the P(5)' residues of upain-1. Substitution with alanine of the P(2) residue, Trp(3), converted upain-1 into a distinct, although poor, uPA substrate. Upain-1 represents a new type of uPA inhibitor that achieves selectivity by targeting uPA-specific surface loops. Most likely, the inhibitory activity depends on its cyclical structure and the unusual P(2) residue preventing the scissile bond from assuming a tetrahedral geometry and thus from undergoing hydrolysis. Peptide-derived inhibitors such as upain-1 may provide novel mechanistic information about enzyme-inhibitor interactions and alternative methodologies for designing effective protease inhibitors. PMID:16141208

  19. A Heparan Sulfate-Binding Cell Penetrating Peptide for Tumor Targeting and Migration Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Ping-Hsueh; Chang, Pei-Lin; Wang, Wen-Ching; Chuang, Yung-Jen; Chang, Margaret Dah-Tsyr

    2015-01-01

    As heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) are known as co-receptors to interact with numerous growth factors and then modulate downstream biological activities, overexpression of HS/HSPG on cell surface acts as an increasingly reliable prognostic factor in tumor progression. Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are short-chain peptides developed as functionalized vectors for delivery approaches of impermeable agents. On cell surface negatively charged HS provides the initial attachment of basic CPPs by electrostatic interaction, leading to multiple cellular effects. Here a functional peptide (CPPecp) has been identified from critical HS binding region in hRNase3, a unique RNase family member with in vitro antitumor activity. In this study we analyze a set of HS-binding CPPs derived from natural proteins including CPPecp. In addition to cellular binding and internalization, CPPecp demonstrated multiple functions including strong binding activity to tumor cell surface with higher HS expression, significant inhibitory effects on cancer cell migration, and suppression of angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, different from conventional highly basic CPPs, CPPecp facilitated magnetic nanoparticle to selectively target tumor site in vivo. Therefore, CPPecp could engage its capacity to be developed as biomaterials for diagnostic imaging agent, therapeutic supplement, or functionalized vector for drug delivery. PMID:26064887

  20. Proteolytically Inactive Insulin-Degrading Enzyme Inhibits Amyloid Formation Yielding Non-Neurotoxic Aβ Peptide Aggregates

    PubMed Central

    de Tullio, Matias B.; Castelletto, Valeria; Hamley, Ian W.; Martino Adami, Pamela V.; Morelli, Laura; Castaño, Eduardo M.

    2013-01-01

    Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is a neutral Zn2+ peptidase that degrades short peptides based on substrate conformation, size and charge. Some of these substrates, including amyloid β (Aβ) are capable of self-assembling into cytotoxic oligomers. Based on IDE recognition mechanism and our previous report of the formation of a stable complex between IDE and intact Aβ in vitro and in vivo, we analyzed the possibility of a chaperone-like function of IDE. A proteolytically inactive recombinant IDE with Glu111 replaced by Gln (IDEQ) was used. IDEQ blocked the amyloidogenic pathway of Aβ yielding non-fibrillar structures as assessed by electron microscopy. Measurements of the kinetics of Aβ aggregation by light scattering showed that 1) IDEQ effect was promoted by ATP independent of its hydrolysis, 2) end products of Aβ-IDEQ co-incubation were incapable of “seeding” the assembly of monomeric Aβ and 3) IDEQ was ineffective in reversing Aβ aggregation. Moreover, Aβ aggregates formed in the presence of IDEQ were non-neurotoxic. IDEQ had no conformational effects upon insulin (a non-amyloidogenic protein under physiological conditions) and did not disturb insulin receptor activation in cultured cells. Our results suggest that IDE has a chaperone-like activity upon amyloid-forming peptides. It remains to be explored whether other highly conserved metallopeptidases have a dual protease-chaperone function to prevent the formation of toxic peptide oligomers from bacteria to mammals. PMID:23593132

  1. Specific inhibition of herpes virus replication by receptor-mediated entry of an antiviral peptide linked to Escherichia coli enterotoxin B subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Marcello, A; Loregian, A; Cross, A; Marsden, H; Hirst, T R; Palù, G

    1994-01-01

    Mimetic peptides capable of selectively disrupting protein-protein interactions represent potential therapeutic agents for inhibition of viral and cellular enzymes. This approach was first suggested by the observation that the peptide YAGAVVNDL, corresponding to the carboxyl-terminal 9 amino acids of the small subunit of ribonucleotide reductase of herpes simplex virus, specifically inhibited the viral enzyme in vitro. Evaluation and use of this peptide as a potential antiviral agent has, however, been thwarted by its failure to inhibit virus replication in vivo, presumably because the peptide is too large to enter eukaryotic cells unaided. Here, we show that the nontoxic B subunit of Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin can be used as a recombinant carrier for the receptor-mediated delivery of YAGAVVNDL into virally infected cells. The resultant fusion protein specifically inhibited herpes simplex virus type 1 replication and ribonucleotide reductase activity in quiescent Vero cells. Preincubation of the fusion protein with soluble GM1 ganglioside abolished this antiviral effect, indicating that receptor-mediated binding to the target cell is necessary for its activity. This provides direct evidence of the usefulness of carrier-mediated delivery to evaluate the intracellular efficacy of a putative antiviral peptide. Images PMID:8090758

  2. Synthetic conantokin peptides potently inhibit N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated currents of retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Luoxiu; Balsara, Rashna D; Castellino, Francis J

    2014-12-01

    Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), which are the sole output neurons of the retina, express N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), rendering these cells susceptible to glutamate excitotoxicity, with implications for loss of normal RGC excitatory responses in disorders such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. Therefore, antagonists that inhibit NMDAR-mediated currents specifically by targeting the GluN2B component of the ion channel have the potential to serve as a basis for developing potential therapeutics. The roles of peptidic conantokins, which are potent brain neuronal NMDAR inhibitors, were studied. By using patch-clamp whole-cell analyses in dissociated RGCs and retinal whole-mount RGCs, we evaluated the effects of synthetic conantokin-G (conG) and conantokin-T (conT), which are small γ-carboxyglutamate-containing peptides, on NMDA-mediated excitatory responses in mouse RGCs. Both conG and conT inhibited the NMDA-mediated currents of dark-adapted dissociated and whole-mount RGCs in a dose-dependent, reversible, noncompetitive manner. Inhibition of NMDA-mediated steady-state currents by NMDAR nonsubunit-selective conT was approximately threefold greater than GluN2B-selective conG or ifenprodil, demonstrating its potential ability to inhibit both GluN2A- and GluN2B-containing ion channels in RGCs. Because the extent of inhibition of NMDA-evoked currents by conG and the pharmacologic GluN2B-selective inhibitor ifenprodil were similar (40-45%) to that of the GluN2A-selective antagonist NVP-AAM0077, we conclude that the levels of GluN2A and GluN2B subunits are similar in RGCs. These results provide a novel basis for developing effective neuroprotective agents to aid in the prevention of undesired glutamatergic excitotoxicity in neurodegenerative diseases of the retina and demonstrate functional assembly of NMDARs in RGCs. PMID:25043917

  3. Generation of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV-inhibiting peptides from β-lactoglobulin secreted by Lactococcus lactis.

    PubMed

    Shigemori, Suguru; Oshiro, Kazushi; Wang, Pengfei; Yamamoto, Yoshinari; Wang, Yeqin; Sato, Takashi; Uyeno, Yutaka; Shimosato, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies showed that hydrolysates of β-lactoglobulin (BLG) prepared using gastrointestinal proteases strongly inhibit dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) activity in vitro. In this study, we developed a BLG-secreting Lactococcus lactis strain as a delivery vehicle and in situ expression system. Interestingly, trypsin-digested recombinant BLG from L. lactis inhibited DPP-IV activity, suggesting that BLG-secreting L. lactis may be useful in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:25157356

  4. A novel cell-penetrating peptide suppresses breast tumorigenesis by inhibiting β-catenin/LEF-1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Tsung-Hua; Hsu, Chia-Yi; Tsai, Cheng-Fang; Chiu, Chien-Chih; Liang, Shih-Shin; Wang, Tsu-Nai; Kuo, Po-Lin; Long, Cheng-Yu; Tsai, Eing-Mei

    2016-01-01

    The inhibition of β-catenin/LEF-1 signaling is an emerging strategy in cancer therapy. However, clinical targeted treatment of the β-catenin/LEF-1 complex remains relatively ineffective. Therefore, development of specific molecular targets is a key approach for identifying new cancer therapeutics. Thus, we attempted to synthesize a peptide (TAT-NLS-BLBD-6) that could interfere with the interaction of β-catenin and LEF-1 at nuclei in human breast cancer cells. TAT-NLS-BLBD-6 directly interacted with β-catenin and inhibited breast cancer cell growth, invasion, migration, and colony formation as well as increased arrest of sub-G1 phase and apoptosis; it also suppressed breast tumor growth in nude mouse and zebrafish xenotransplantation models, showed no signs of toxicity, and did not affect body weight. Furthermore, the human global gene expression profiles and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software showed that the TAT-NLS-BLBD-6 downstream target genes were associated with the HER-2 and IL-9 signaling pathways. TAT-NLS-BLBD-6 commonly down-regulated 27 candidate genes in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, which are concurrent with Wnt downstream target genes in human breast cancer. Our study suggests that TAT-NLS-BLBD-6 is a promising drug candidate for the development of effective therapeutics specific for Wnt/β-catenin signaling inhibition. PMID:26750754

  5. IGF-1R peptide vaccines/mimics inhibit the growth of BxPC3 and JIMT-1 cancer cells and exhibit synergistic antitumor effects with HER-1 and HER-2 peptides

    PubMed Central

    Foy, Kevin Chu; Miller, Megan J; Overholser, Jay; Donnelly, Siobhan M; Nahta, Rita; Kaumaya, Pravin TP

    2014-01-01

    The insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) plays a crucial role in cellular growth, proliferation, transformation, and inhibition of apoptosis. A myriad of human cancer types have been shown to overexpress IGF-1R, including breast and pancreatic adenocarcinoma. IGF-1R signaling interferes with numerous receptor pathways, rendering tumor cells resistant to chemotherapy, anti-hormonal therapy, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, also known as HER-1) and v-erb-b2 avian erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2, (ERBB2, best known as HER-2) -targeted therapies. Targeting the IGF:IGF-1R axis with innovative peptide inhibitors and vaccine antibodies thus represents a promising therapeutic strategy to overcome drug resistance and to provide new avenues for individualized and combinatorial treatment strategies. In this study, we designed, synthesized, and characterized several B-cell epitopes from the IGF-1:IGF-1R axis. The chimeric peptide epitopes were highly immunogenic in outbred rabbits, eliciting high levels of peptide vaccine antibodies. The IGF-1R peptide antibodies and peptide mimics inhibited cell proliferation and receptor phosphorylation, induced apoptosis and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), and significantly inhibited tumor growth in the transplantable BxPC-3 pancreatic and JIMT-1 breast cancer models. Our results showed that the peptides and antibodies targeting residues 56–81 and 233–251 are potential therapeutic and vaccine candidates for the treatment of IGF-1R-expressing cancers, including those that are resistant to the HER-2-targeted antibody, trastuzumab. Additionally, we found additive antitumor effects for the combination treatment of the IGF-1R 56-81 epitope with HER-1-418 and HER-2-597 epitopes. Treatment with the IGF-1R/HER-1 or IGF-1R/HER-2 combination inhibited proliferation, invasion, and receptor phosphorylation, and induced apoptosis and ADCC, to a greater degree than single agents. PMID:25941587

  6. Antibacterial peptide nisin: a potential role in the inhibition of oral pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zhongchun; Ni, Longxing; Ling, Junqi

    2014-10-01

    Although the antimicrobial peptide nisin has been extensively studied in the food industry for decades, its application in the oral cavity remains to develop and evaluate its feasibility in treating oral common diseases. Nisin is an odorless, colorless, tasteless substance with low toxicity and with antibacterial activities against Gram-positive bacteria. These biologic properties may establish its use in promising products for oral diseases. This article summarizes the antibacterial efficiency of nisin against pathogenic bacteria related to dental caries and root canal infection and discusses the combination of nisin and common oral drugs.

  7. Antibacterial peptide nisin: a potential role in the inhibition of oral pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tong, Zhongchun; Ni, Longxing; Ling, Junqi

    2014-10-01

    Although the antimicrobial peptide nisin has been extensively studied in the food industry for decades, its application in the oral cavity remains to develop and evaluate its feasibility in treating oral common diseases. Nisin is an odorless, colorless, tasteless substance with low toxicity and with antibacterial activities against Gram-positive bacteria. These biologic properties may establish its use in promising products for oral diseases. This article summarizes the antibacterial efficiency of nisin against pathogenic bacteria related to dental caries and root canal infection and discusses the combination of nisin and common oral drugs. PMID:25088158

  8. Inhibition of Human Papillomavirus DNA Replication by an E1-Derived p80/UAF1-Binding Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Lehoux, Michaël; Fradet-Turcotte, Amélie; Lussier-Price, Mathieu; Omichinski, James G.

    2012-01-01

    The papillomavirus E1 helicase is recruited by E2 to the viral origin, where it assembles into a double hexamer that orchestrates replication of the viral genome. We previously identified the cellular WD40 repeat-containing protein p80/UAF1 as a novel interaction partner of E1 from anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) types. p80 was found to interact with the first 40 residues of HPV type 31 (HPV31) E1, and amino acid substitutions within this domain abrogated the maintenance of the viral episome in keratinocytes. In this study, we report that these p80-binding substitutions reduce by 70% the ability of E1 to support transient viral DNA replication without affecting its interaction with E2 and assembly at the origin in vivo. Microscopy studies revealed that p80 is relocalized from the cytoplasm to discrete subnuclear foci by E1 and E2. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays further revealed that p80 is recruited to the viral origin in an E1- and E2-dependent manner. Interestingly, overexpression of a 40-amino-acid-long p80-binding peptide, derived from HPV31 E1, was found to inhibit viral DNA replication by preventing the recruitment of endogenous p80 to the origin. Mutant peptides defective for p80 interaction were not inhibitory, demonstrating the specificity of this effect. Characterization of this E1 peptide by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) showed that it is intrinsically disordered in solution, while mapping studies indicated that the WD repeats of p80 are required for E1 interaction. These results provide additional evidence for the requirement for p80 in anogenital HPV DNA replication and highlight the potential of E1-p80 interaction as a novel antiviral target. PMID:22278251

  9. Inhibition of human papillomavirus DNA replication by an E1-derived p80/UAF1-binding peptide.

    PubMed

    Lehoux, Michaël; Fradet-Turcotte, Amélie; Lussier-Price, Mathieu; Omichinski, James G; Archambault, Jacques

    2012-04-01

    The papillomavirus E1 helicase is recruited by E2 to the viral origin, where it assembles into a double hexamer that orchestrates replication of the viral genome. We previously identified the cellular WD40 repeat-containing protein p80/UAF1 as a novel interaction partner of E1 from anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) types. p80 was found to interact with the first 40 residues of HPV type 31 (HPV31) E1, and amino acid substitutions within this domain abrogated the maintenance of the viral episome in keratinocytes. In this study, we report that these p80-binding substitutions reduce by 70% the ability of E1 to support transient viral DNA replication without affecting its interaction with E2 and assembly at the origin in vivo. Microscopy studies revealed that p80 is relocalized from the cytoplasm to discrete subnuclear foci by E1 and E2. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays further revealed that p80 is recruited to the viral origin in an E1- and E2-dependent manner. Interestingly, overexpression of a 40-amino-acid-long p80-binding peptide, derived from HPV31 E1, was found to inhibit viral DNA replication by preventing the recruitment of endogenous p80 to the origin. Mutant peptides defective for p80 interaction were not inhibitory, demonstrating the specificity of this effect. Characterization of this E1 peptide by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) showed that it is intrinsically disordered in solution, while mapping studies indicated that the WD repeats of p80 are required for E1 interaction. These results provide additional evidence for the requirement for p80 in anogenital HPV DNA replication and highlight the potential of E1-p80 interaction as a novel antiviral target. PMID:22278251

  10. Inhibition of human papillomavirus DNA replication by an E1-derived p80/UAF1-binding peptide.

    PubMed

    Lehoux, Michaël; Fradet-Turcotte, Amélie; Lussier-Price, Mathieu; Omichinski, James G; Archambault, Jacques

    2012-04-01

    The papillomavirus E1 helicase is recruited by E2 to the viral origin, where it assembles into a double hexamer that orchestrates replication of the viral genome. We previously identified the cellular WD40 repeat-containing protein p80/UAF1 as a novel interaction partner of E1 from anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) types. p80 was found to interact with the first 40 residues of HPV type 31 (HPV31) E1, and amino acid substitutions within this domain abrogated the maintenance of the viral episome in keratinocytes. In this study, we report that these p80-binding substitutions reduce by 70% the ability of E1 to support transient viral DNA replication without affecting its interaction with E2 and assembly at the origin in vivo. Microscopy studies revealed that p80 is relocalized from the cytoplasm to discrete subnuclear foci by E1 and E2. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays further revealed that p80 is recruited to the viral origin in an E1- and E2-dependent manner. Interestingly, overexpression of a 40-amino-acid-long p80-binding peptide, derived from HPV31 E1, was found to inhibit viral DNA replication by preventing the recruitment of endogenous p80 to the origin. Mutant peptides defective for p80 interaction were not inhibitory, demonstrating the specificity of this effect. Characterization of this E1 peptide by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) showed that it is intrinsically disordered in solution, while mapping studies indicated that the WD repeats of p80 are required for E1 interaction. These results provide additional evidence for the requirement for p80 in anogenital HPV DNA replication and highlight the potential of E1-p80 interaction as a novel antiviral target.

  11. Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCMI 885 secretes peptides that inhibit the growth of some non-Saccharomyces wine-related strains.

    PubMed

    Albergaria, Helena; Francisco, Diana; Gori, Klaus; Arneborg, Nils; Gírio, Francisco

    2010-04-01

    The nature of the toxic compounds produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae CCMI 885 that induce the early death of Hanseniaspora guilliermondii during mixed fermentations, as well as their ability to inhibit the growth of other non-Saccharomyces wine-related strains, was investigated. The killing effect of mixed supernatants towards H. guilliermondii was inactivated by protease treatments, thus revealing the proteinaceous nature of the toxic compounds. Analysis of the protein pattern of mixed supernatants on Tricine SDS-PAGE showed that this S. cerevisiae strain secretes peptides (<10 kDa), which were detected only when death of H. guilliermondii was already established. Death-inducing supernatants were ultrafiltrated by 10 and 2 kDa membranes, respectively, and the inhibitory effect of those permeates were tested in H. guilliermondii cultures. Results indicated that the (2-10) kDa protein fraction of those supernatants seemed to contain antimicrobial peptides active against H. guilliermondii. Thus, the (2-10) kDa protein fraction was concentrated and its inhibitory effect tested against strains of Kluyveromyces marxianus, Kluyveromyces thermotolerans, Torulaspora delbrueckii and H. guilliermondii. Under the growth conditions used for these tests, the (2-10) kDa protein fraction of S. cerevisiae CCMI 885 supernatants exhibited a fungistatic effect against all the strains and a fungicidal effect against K. marxianus.

  12. A potential therapeutic peptide-based neutralizer that potently inhibits Shiga toxin 2 in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Tu, Wei; Liu, Yuenan; Zhou, Peng; Cai, Kun; Li, Zhan; Liu, Xiong; Ning, Nianzhi; Huang, Jie; Wang, Shenghan; Huang, Jian; Wang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2) is a major virulence factor in infections with Stx-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), which can cause serious clinical complications in humans, such as hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Recently, we screened and identified two peptide-based Stx2 neutralizers, TF-1 and WA-8, which specifically and directly bind to Stx2. Computer simulations suggested that the majority of TF-1 or WA-8 binds tightly at the receptor-binding site 3 of Stx2. The two peptides also effectively inhibited the cytotoxic activity of Stx2 by blocking the binding of Stx2 to target cells. TF-1 exhibits remarkable therapeutic potency in both mice and rat toxicity models. In mice toxicity models, TF-1 provided full protection when mice were injected with 5 LD50 of Stx2. In rat toxicity models, TF-1 reduced fatal tissue damage and completely protected rats from the lethal challenges of Stx2. In these rats, TF-1 significantly decreased the concentration of Stx2 in blood and diminished tissue distribution levels of Stx2. Furthermore, TF-1 effectively protected rats from the pathological effects caused by Stx2, especially in the kidney, thymus, adrenal gland, and lung. Taken together, these results indicate that TF-1 is a promising therapeutic agent against the pathogenicity of Stx2. PMID:26903273

  13. Specific interaction between Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipoprotein-derived peptides and target cells inhibits mycobacterial entry in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ocampo, Marisol; Curtidor, Hernando; Vanegas, Magnolia; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin

    2014-01-01

    Summary Tuberculosis (TB) continues being one of the diseases having the greatest mortality rates around the world, 8.7 million cases having been reported in 2011. An efficient vaccine against TB having a great impact on public health is an urgent need. Usually, selecting antigens for vaccines has been based on proteins having immunogenic properties for patients suffering TB and having had promising results in mice and non-human primates. Our approach has been based on a functional approach involving the pathogen–host interaction in the search for antigens to be included in designing an efficient, minimal, subunit-based anti-tuberculosis vaccine. This means that Mycobacterium tuberculosis has mainly been involved in studies and that lipoproteins represent an important kind of protein on the cell envelope which can also contribute towards this pathogen's virulence. This study has assessed the expression of four lipoproteins from M. tuberculosis H37Rv, i.e. Rv1411c (LprG), Rv1911c (LppC), Rv2270 (LppN) and Rv3763 (LpqH), and the possible biological activity of peptides derived from these. Five peptides were found for these proteins which had high specific binding to both alveolar A549 epithelial cells and U937 monocyte-derived macrophages which were able to significantly inhibit mycobacterial entry to these cells in vitro. PMID:25041568

  14. Inhibition of β2Integrin–Mediated Leukocyte Cell Adhesion by Leucine–Leucine–Glycine Motif–Containing Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Koivunen, Erkki; Ranta, Tanja-Maria; Annila, Arto; Taube, Seija; Uppala, Asko; Jokinen, Marjukka; van Willigen, Gijsbert; Ihanus, Eveliina; Gahmberg, Carl G.

    2001-01-01

    Many integrins mediate cell attachment to the extracellular matrix by recognizing short tripeptide sequences such as arginine–glycine–aspartic acid and leucine–aspartate–valine. Using phage display, we have now found that the leukocyte-specific β2 integrins bind sequences containing a leucine–leucine–glycine (LLG) tripeptide motif. An LLG motif is present on intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, the major β2 integrin ligand, but also on several matrix proteins, including von Willebrand factor. We developed a novel β2 integrin antagonist peptide CPCFLLGCC (called LLG-C4), the structure of which was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance. The LLG-C4 peptide inhibited leukocyte adhesion to ICAM-1, and, interestingly, also to von Willebrand factor. When immobilized on plastic, the LLG-C4 sequence supported the β2 integrin–mediated leukocyte adhesion, but not β1 or β3 integrin–mediated cell adhesion. These results suggest that LLG sequences exposed on ICAM-1 and on von Willebrand factor at sites of vascular injury play a role in the binding of leukocytes, and LLG-C4 and peptidomimetics derived from it could provide a therapeutic approach to inflammatory reactions. PMID:11381078

  15. Inhibition of leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions and inflammation by peptides from a bacterial adhesin which mimic coagulation factor X.

    PubMed Central

    Rozdzinski, E; Sandros, J; van der Flier, M; Young, A; Spellerberg, B; Bhattacharyya, C; Straub, J; Musso, G; Putney, S; Starzyk, R

    1995-01-01

    Factor X (factor ten) of the coagulation cascade binds to the integrin CD11b/CD18 during inflammation, initiating procoagulant activity on the surface of leukocytes (Altieri, D.C., O.R. Etingin, D.S. Fair, T.K. Brunk, J.E. Geltosky, D.P. Hajjar, and T. S. Edgington. 1991. Science [Wash.DC]. 254:1200-1202). Filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), an adhesin of Bordetella pertussis also binds to the CD11b/CD18 integrin (Relman D., E. Tuomanen, S. Falkow, D.T. Golenbock, K. Saukkonen, and S.D. Wright. 1990. Cell. 61:1375-1382). FHA and the CD11b/CD18 binding loops of Factor X share amino acid sequence similarity. FHA peptides similar to Factor X binding loops inhibited 125I-Factor X binding to human neutrophils and prolonged clotting time. In addition, ETKEVDG and its Factor X analogue prevented transendothelial migration of leukocytes in vitro and reduced leukocytosis and blood brain barrier disruption in vivo. Interference with leukocyte migration by a coagulation-based peptide suggests a novel strategy for antiinflammatory therapy. PMID:7883955

  16. Folic Acid Inhibits Amyloid β-Peptide Production through Modulating DNA Methyltransferase Activity in N2a-APP Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Jiang, Mingyue; Zhao, Shijing; Liu, Huan; Zhang, Xumei; Wilson, John X; Huang, Guowei

    2015-10-20

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disease resulting in progressive dementia, and is a principal cause of dementia among older adults. Folate acts through one-carbon metabolism to support the methylation of multiple substrates. We hypothesized that folic acid supplementation modulates DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity and may alter amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) production in AD. Mouse Neuro-2a cells expressing human APP695 were incubated with folic acid (2.8-40 μmol/L), and with or without zebularine (the DNMT inhibitor). DNMT activity, cell viability, Aβ and DNMTs expression were then examined. The results showed that folic acid stimulated DNMT gene and protein expression, and DNMT activity. Furthermore, folic acid decreased Aβ protein production, whereas inhibition of DNMT activity by zebularine increased Aβ production. The results indicate that folic acid induces methylation potential-dependent DNMT enzymes, thereby attenuating Aβ production.

  17. Inhibition of alloreactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes by peptides from the alpha 2 domain of HLA-A2.

    PubMed

    Parham, P; Clayberger, C; Zorn, S L; Ludwig, D S; Schoolnik, G K; Krensky, A M

    Class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules function in the recognition of antigens by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Although this biological role is firmly established and much has been learnt about their structure and polymorphic variation, little is known of the regions of class I molecules that are involved in functional interactions with components of the T-cell surface. Here we show that peptides derived from residues 98-113 of the alpha 2 domain of HLA-A2 specifically inhibit the recognition of target cells by many HLA-A2-specific CTL. In addition to identifying a region that is probably involved in binding the T-cell receptor these results raise the possibility that alloreactive CTL may recognize degraded fragments of class I histocompatibility antigens. PMID:2433598

  18. Substrate activity of synthetic formyl phosphate in the reaction catalyzed by formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase

    SciTech Connect

    Smithers, G.W.; Jahansouz, H.; Kofron, J.L.; Himes, R.H.; Reed, G.H.

    1987-06-30

    Formyl phosphate, a putative enzyme-bound intermediate in the reaction catalyzed by formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (EC 6.3.4.3), was synthesized from formyl fluoride and inorganic phosphate, and the product was characterized by /sup 31/P, /sup 1/H, and /sup 13/C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Measurement of hydrolysis rates by /sup 31/P NMR indicates that formyl phosphate is particularly labile, with a half-life of 48 min in a buffered neutral solution at 20 /sup 0/C. At pH 7, hydrolysis occurs with P-O bond cleavage, as demonstrated by /sup 18/O incorporation from H/sub 2//sup 18/O into P/sub i/, while at pH 1 and pH 13 hydrolysis occurs with C-O bond cleavage. The substrate activity of formyl phosphate was tested in the reaction catalyzed by formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase isolated from Clostridium cylindrosporum. Formyl phosphate supports the reaction in both the forward and reverse directions. Thus, N/sup 10/-formyltetrahydrofolate is produced from tetrahydrofolate and formyl phosphate in a reaction mixture that contains enzyme, Mg(II), and ADP, and ATP is produced from formyl phosphate and ADP with enzyme, Mg(II), and tetrahydrofolate present. The requirements for ADP and for tetrahydrofolate as cofactors in these reactions are consistent with previous steady-state kinetic and isotope exchange studies, which demonstrated that all substrate subsites must be occupied prior to catalysis. The k/sub cat/ values for both the forward and reverse directions, with formyl phosphate as the substrate, are much lower than those for the normal forward and reverse reactions. Kinetic analysis of the formyl phosphate supported reactions indicates that the low steady-state rates observed for the synthetic intermediate are most likely due to the sequential nature of the normal reaction.

  19. Inhibition of adhesion of hepatocellular carcinoma cells to basement membrane components by receptor competition with RGD- or YIGSR-containing synthetic peptides.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ze-Zhi; Li, Ping; Huang, Qi-Ping; Qin, Jian; Xiao, Guo-Hui; Cai, Shao-Xi

    2003-01-01

    A micropipette technique was used to investigate the effects of four synthetic peptides, YIGSR, CDPGYIGSR, RGDS and GRGDTP, on the adhesion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells onto type IV collagen/laminin/fibronectin coated surfaces. Adhesion of HCC cells to laminin was found to be YIGSR- or CDPGYIGSR-dependent while that to fibronectin and type IV collagen was RGDS- or GRGDTP-dependent. The reduction in adhesion strengths of HCC cells was slight to moderate (up to 55%), and was dependent on the peptide concentration. The decrease in adhesion strengths was reversed by an increase in ligand coating concentration and was compromised by prolonged interaction of the cells with the surfaces. These results suggested that the inhibition was due to competitive retardation rather than to a blockade of adhesion strengthening. A simple asymptotic function was adopted to fit the correlation between the mean of cell adhesion strengths and peptide concentration within defined concentration ranges. Regression analysis showed that cell adhesion strengths appeared to approach a plateau with increasing concentration of the inhibitory peptides, which was not always uniform over the entire concentration range tested. Further reduction in adhesion strengths was observed at higher peptide concentrations. It is suggested that the constants obtained by fitting over a low peptide concentration range might be kinetically representative of the inhibition during early events of adhesion or attachment.

  20. Tanshinones inhibit amyloid aggregation by amyloid-β peptide, disaggregate amyloid fibrils, and protect cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiuming; Yu, Xiang; Patal, Kunal; Hu, Rundong; Chuang, Steven; Zhang, Ge; Zheng, Jie

    2013-06-19

    The misfolding and aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides into amyloid fibrils is regarded as one of the causative events in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Tanshinones extracted from Chinese herb Danshen (Salvia Miltiorrhiza Bunge) were traditionally used as anti-inflammation and cerebrovascular drugs due to their antioxidation and antiacetylcholinesterase effects. A number of studies have suggested that tanshinones could protect neuronal cells. In this work, we examine the inhibitory activity of tanshinone I (TS1) and tanshinone IIA (TS2), the two major components in the Danshen herb, on the aggregation and toxicity of Aβ1-42 using atomic force microscopy (AFM), thioflavin-T (ThT) fluorescence assay, cell viability assay, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. AFM and ThT results show that both TS1 and TS2 exhibit different inhibitory abilities to prevent unseeded amyloid fibril formation and to disaggregate preformed amyloid fibrils, in which TS1 shows better inhibitory potency than TS2. Live/dead assay further confirms that introduction of a very small amount of tanshinones enables protection of cultured SH-SY5Y cells against Aβ-induced cell toxicity. Comparative MD simulation results reveal a general tanshinone binding mode to prevent Aβ peptide association, showing that both TS1 and TS2 preferentially bind to a hydrophobic β-sheet groove formed by the C-terminal residues of I31-M35 and M35-V39 and several aromatic residues. Meanwhile, the differences in binding distribution, residues, sites, population, and affinity between TS1-Aβ and TS2-Aβ systems also interpret different inhibitory effects on Aβ aggregation as observed by in vitro experiments. More importantly, due to nonspecific binding mode of tanshinones, it is expected that tanshinones would have a general inhibitory efficacy of a wide range of amyloid peptides. These findings suggest that tanshinones, particularly TS1 compound, offer promising lead compounds with dual

  1. Experimental and theoretical study of 4-formyl pyrrole derived aroylhydrazones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawat, Poonam; Singh, R. N.

    2015-03-01

    Two new 4-formyl pyrrole derived aroylhydrazones (3a, b) from ethyl 4-formyl-3,5-dimetyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate and aroylhydrazides (3,5-dinitrobenzohydrazide/2-hydrazinocarbonyl-N-phenyl-acetamide) have been synthesized and characterized by various spectroscopic techniques 1H NMR, Mass, UV-Visible and FT-IR. The calculated thermodynamic parameters show that the formation of 3a as spontaneous, whereas 3b as non-spontaneous. TD-DFT has been used to calculate the absorption wavelengths, oscillator strength (f) and the nature of electronic excitations. Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis has been carried out to explore the various conjugative and hyperconjugative interactions and their second order stabilization energy (E(2)) within monomer and its dimer. The dimer formation of 3a, 3b due to result of intermolecular hydrogen bonding N1sbnd H30⋯O84, N1sbnd H28⋯O60 is obvious in 1H NMR, NBO and FT-IR as down field chemical shifts, n(O84) → σ∗(N1sbnd H30), n(O60) → σ∗(N1sbnd H28) interactions, vibrational red shifts, respectively. To determine the strength and nature of hydrogen bonding, topological parameters at bond critical points (BCP) have been analyzed by 'Quantum theory of Atoms in molecules' (QTAIM) in detail. The global electrophilicity index (ω) has been calculated to determine the relative electrophilic strength of molecules. The local reactivity descriptors analyses such as Fukui functions (fk+, fk-), local softnesses (sk+, sk-) and electrophilicity indices (ωk+, ωk-) have been performed to determine the reactive sites within molecules. The first hyperpolarizabilities (β0) of 3a, b have been computed to evaluate the non-linear optical (NLO) response of the investigated molecules.

  2. A cyclic peptide derived from alpha-fetoprotein inhibits the proliferative effects of the epidermal growth factor and estradiol in MCF7 cells.

    PubMed

    Torres, Cristian; Antileo, Elmer; Epuñán, Maráa José; Pino, Ana María; Valladares, Luis Emilio; Sierralta, Walter Daniel

    2008-06-01

    A cyclic peptide derived from the active domain of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) significantly inhibited the proliferation of MCF7 cells stimulated with the epidermal growth factor (EGF) or estradiol (E2). The action of these three agents on cell growth was independent of the presence of calf serum in the culture medium. Our results demonstrated that the cyclic peptide interfered markedly with the regulation of MAPK by activated c-erbB2. The cyclic peptide showed no effect on the E2-stimulated release of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 nor on the shedding of heparin-binding EGF into the culture medium. We propose that the AFP-derived cyclic peptide represents a valuable novel antiproliferative agent for treating breast cancer. PMID:18497971

  3. A cyclic peptide derived from alpha-fetoprotein inhibits the proliferative effects of the epidermal growth factor and estradiol in MCF7 cells.

    PubMed

    Torres, Cristian; Antileo, Elmer; Epuñán, Maráa José; Pino, Ana María; Valladares, Luis Emilio; Sierralta, Walter Daniel

    2008-06-01

    A cyclic peptide derived from the active domain of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) significantly inhibited the proliferation of MCF7 cells stimulated with the epidermal growth factor (EGF) or estradiol (E2). The action of these three agents on cell growth was independent of the presence of calf serum in the culture medium. Our results demonstrated that the cyclic peptide interfered markedly with the regulation of MAPK by activated c-erbB2. The cyclic peptide showed no effect on the E2-stimulated release of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 nor on the shedding of heparin-binding EGF into the culture medium. We propose that the AFP-derived cyclic peptide represents a valuable novel antiproliferative agent for treating breast cancer.

  4. Ascalin, a new anti-fungal peptide with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase-inhibiting activity from shallot bulbs.

    PubMed

    Wang, H X; Ng, T B

    2002-06-01

    An isolation procedure comprising ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose, affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on SP-Sepharose and gel filtration on Superdex 75 was used to isolate an anti-fungal peptide from the bulbs of the shallot Allium ascalonicum. The peptide demonstrated a molecular weight of 9.5kDa, and possessed an N-terminal sequence YQCGQGG somewhat similar to chitinases from other Allium species which are however much larger in molecular weight. The peptide designated ascalin manifested a unique specific anti-fungal activity. It inhibited mycelial growth in the fungus Botrytis cinerea but not in the fungi Mycosphaerella arachidicola and Fusarium oxysporum. Ascalin inhibited HIV-1 reverse transcriptase with an IC(50) of 10 microM, much more potently than Allium tuberosum anti-fungal protein and other anti-fungal proteins.

  5. Inhibition of Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide Function: A Promising Strategy for Treating Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Durham, Paul L.

    2011-01-01

    The neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is implicated in the underlying pathology of migraine. Serum levels of CGRP, which are elevated during a migraine attack, have been reported to return to normal with alleviation of pain. In addition, CGRP administration has been shown to cause a migraine-like headache in susceptible individuals. Importantly, CGRP receptors are found on many cell types within the trigeminovascular system that are thought to play important roles in controlling inflammatory and nociceptive processes. Based on these findings, it was proposed that blockage of CGRP receptor function and, hence, the physiological effects of CGRP would be effective in aborting a migraine attack. This review will summarize key preclinical data that support the therapeutic potential of using CGRP receptor antagonists or molecules that bind CGRP within the context of current neurovascular theories on migraine pathology. PMID:18808507

  6. What's in a Name? Roles of RFamide-Related Peptides Beyond Gonadotrophin Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kim, J S

    2016-09-01

    RFamide-related peptides (RFRPs) have been heavily implicated in the control of reproductive function subsequent to their discovery more than 16 years ago. However, recent studies using genetic and pharmacological tools have challenged their importance in regulating the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. It is generally accepted that RFRPs act as part of a wider RFamide system, which involves two receptors, called the neuropeptide FF receptors (NPFFR1 and R2), and includes the closely-related neuropeptide NPFF. NPFF has been studied ever since the 1980s and many of the functions of NPFF are also shared by RFRPs. The current review questions whether these functions of NPFF are indeed specific to just NPFF alone and presents evidence from both neuroendocrine and pharmacological perspectives. Furthermore, recently emerging new functions of RFRPs are discussed with the overall goal of clarifying the functions of RFRPs beyond the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis.

  7. Protein matrices for improved wound healing: elastase inhibition by a synthetic peptide model.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Andreia; Pêgo, Ana Paula; Henriques, Lara; Lamghari, Meriem; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2010-09-13

    The unique properties of silk fibroin were combined with keratin to develop new wound-dressing materials. Silk fibroin/keratin (SF/K) films were prepared to reduce high levels of elastase found on chronic wounds. This improved biological function was achieved by the incorporation of a small peptide synthesized based on the reactive-site loop of the Bowman-Birk Inhibitor (BBI) protein. In vitro degradation and release were evaluated using porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) solution as a model of wound exudate. It was found that biological degradation and release rate are highly dependent on film composition. Furthermore, the level of PPE activity can be tuned by changing the film composition, thus showing an innovative way of controlling the elastase-antielastase imbalance found on chronic wounds.

  8. IL-2 induces T cell adherence to extracellular matrix: inhibition of adherence and migration by IL-2 peptides generated by leukocyte elastase.

    PubMed

    Ariel, A; Yavin, E J; Hershkoviz, R; Avron, A; Franitza, S; Hardan, I; Cahalon, L; Fridkin, M; Lider, O

    1998-09-01

    Migration of inflammatory cells requires cell adhesion and their subsequent detachment from the extracellular matrix (ECM). Leukocyte activation and migration must be terminated to stop inflammation. Here, we report that IL-2 enhances human T cell adherence to laminin, collagen type IV, and fibronectin (FN). In contrast, neutrophil elastase, an enzyme activated during inflammation, degrades IL-2 to yield IL-2 fractions that inhibit IL-2-induced T cell adhesion to FN. The amino acid composition of two of these IL-2 fractions, which appear to block T cell adherence to FN, were analyzed, and three peptides were consequently synthesized. The three peptides IVL, RMLT, and EFLNRWIT, but not the corresponding inversely synthesized peptides, inhibited T cell adhesion to FN induced by a variety of activators: IL-2, IL-7, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1beta, and PMA, as well as anti-CD3 and anti-beta1 integrin-activating mAb. Moreover, these IL-2 peptides inhibited T cell chemotaxis via FN-coated membranes induced by IL-2 and MIP-1beta. Inhibition of T cell adherence and migration apparently involves abrogation of the rearrangement of the T cell actin cytoskeleton. Thus, the migrating immune cells, the cytokines, and the ECM can create a functional relationship in which both inflammation-inducing signals and inhibitory molecules of immune responses can coexist; the enzymatic products of IL-2 may serve as natural feedback inhibitors of inflammation. PMID:9725245

  9. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of peptide deformylase (PDF) from Bacillus cereus in ligand-free and actinonin-bound forms

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Joon Kyu; Moon, Jin Ho; Kim, Jae-Hong; Kim, Eunice EunKyeong

    2005-01-01

    Peptide deformylase (PDF) from B. cereus has been overexpressed, purified and crystallized in ligand-free and actinonin-bound forms. Diffraction data have been collected from these crystals to 1.7 and 2.0 Å resolution, respectively. In bacteria, protein expression initiates with an N-formyl group and this needs to be removed in order to ensure proper bacterial growth. These formylation and deformylation processes are unique to eubacteria; therefore, inhibition of these would provide a novel antibacterial therapy. Deformylation is carried out by peptide deformylase (PDF). PDF from Bacillus cereus, one of the major pathogenic bacteria, was cloned into expression plasmid pET-28a (Novagen), overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and purified to high quality. Crystals have been obtained of both ligand-free PDF and PDF to which actinonin, a highly potent naturally occurring inhibitor, is bound. Both crystals belong to space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 42.72, b = 44.04, c = 85.19 Å and a = 41.31, b = 44.56, c = 84.47 Å, respectively. Diffraction data were collected to 1.7 Å resolution for the inhibitor-free crystals and to 2.0 Å resolution for the actinonin-bound crystals.

  10. Exogenous carbon monoxide inhibits neutrophil infiltration in LPS-induced sepsis by interfering with FPR1 via p38 MAPK but not GRK2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Qin, Weiting; Song, Mingming; Zhang, Yisen; Sun, Bingwei

    2016-06-01

    Excessive neutrophil infiltration in vital organs is life-threatening to patients who suffer from sepsis. We identified a critical role of exogenous carbon monoxide (CO) in the inhibition of neutrophil infiltration during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis. CO delivered from carbon monoxide-releasing molecule 2 (CORM-2) dramatically increased the survival rate of C57BL/6 mice subjected to LPS in vivo. CORM-2 significantly suppressed neutrophil infiltration in liver and lung as well as markers of inflammatory responses. Affymetrix GeneChip array analysis revealed that the increased expression of chemoattractant receptor formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) may contribute to the excessive neutrophil infiltration. The under agarose migration assay demonstrated that LPS stimulation promoted migration to the ligand of FPR1, N-Formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) but that CORM-2 treatment inhibited this promotion. Further studies demonstrated that CORM-2 internalized FPR1 by inhibiting p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) but not G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), which may explain the inhibitory effect of CORM-2 on LPS-stimulated neutrophils. In summary, our study demonstrates that exogenous CO inhibits sepsis-induced neutrophil infiltration by interfering with FPR1 via p38 MAPK but not GRK2.

  11. Exogenous carbon monoxide inhibits neutrophil infiltration in LPS-induced sepsis by interfering with FPR1 via p38 MAPK but not GRK2

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; Qin, Weiting; Song, Mingming; Zhang, Yisen; Sun, Bingwei

    2016-01-01

    Excessive neutrophil infiltration in vital organs is life-threatening to patients who suffer from sepsis. We identified a critical role of exogenous carbon monoxide (CO) in the inhibition of neutrophil infiltration during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis. CO delivered from carbon monoxide-releasing molecule 2 (CORM-2) dramatically increased the survival rate of C57BL/6 mice subjected to LPS in vivo. CORM-2 significantly suppressed neutrophil infiltration in liver and lung as well as markers of inflammatory responses. Affymetrix GeneChip array analysis revealed that the increased expression of chemoattractant receptor formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) may contribute to the excessive neutrophil infiltration. The under agarose migration assay demonstrated that LPS stimulation promoted migration to the ligand of FPR1, N-Formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP) but that CORM-2 treatment inhibited this promotion. Further studies demonstrated that CORM-2 internalized FPR1 by inhibiting p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) but not G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2), which may explain the inhibitory effect of CORM-2 on LPS-stimulated neutrophils. In summary, our study demonstrates that exogenous CO inhibits sepsis-induced neutrophil infiltration by interfering with FPR1 via p38 MAPK but not GRK2. PMID:27144520

  12. Phosphorylated Peptides from Antarctic Krill (Euphausia superba) Prevent Estrogen Deficiency Induced Osteoporosis by Inhibiting Bone Resorption in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Xia, Guanghua; Zhao, Yanlei; Yu, Zhe; Tian, Yingying; Wang, Yiming; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Jingfeng; Xue, Changhu

    2015-11-01

    In the current study, we investigated the improvement of phosphorylated peptides from Antarctic krill Euphausia superba (PP-AKP) on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. PP-AKP was supplemented to ovariectomized Sprague-Dawley rats for 90 days. The results showed that PP-AKP treatment remarkably prevented the reduction of bone mass and improved cancellous bone structure and biochemical properties. PP-AKP also significantly decreased serum contents of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP), cathepsin K (Cath-k), matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9), deoxypyridinoline (DPD), C-terminal telopeptide of collagen I (CTX-1), Ca, and P. Mechanism investigation revealed that PP-AKP significantly increased the osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) ratio in mRNA expression, protein expression, and serum content. Further research suggested that NF-κB signaling pathways were inhibited by suppressing the mRNA and protein expressions of nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFATc1) and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), diminishing the mRNA expression and phosphorylation of nuclear factor κB p65 (NF-κB p65), three key transcription factors in NF-κB pathways. These results suggest that PP-AKP can improve osteoporosis by inhibiting bone resorption via suppressing the activation of osteoclastogenesis related NF-κB pathways.

  13. Glucagon-like peptide-1 inhibits angiotensin II-induced mesangial cell damage via protein kinase A.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Yuji; Matsui, Takanori; Ojima, Ayako; Nishino, Yuri; Nakashima, Sae; Maeda, Sayaka; Yamagishi, Sho-ichi

    2012-11-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that renin-angiotensin system plays a role in diabetic nephropathy. Recently, we have found that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), one of the incretins, a gut hormone secreted from L cells in the intestine in response to food intake, inhibits advanced glycation end product-induced monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 gene expression in mesangial cells thorugh the interaction with the receptor of GLP-1. However, effects of GLP-1 on angiotensin II-exposed mesangial cells are unknown. This study investigated whether and how GLP-1 blocked the angiotensin II-induced mesangial cell damage in vitro. GLP-1 completely blocked the angiotensin II-induced superoxide generation, NF-κB activation, up-regulation of mRNA levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in mesangial cells, all of which were prevented by the treatments with H-89, an inhibitor of protein kinase A. The present results demonstrated for the first time that GLP-1 blocked the angiotensin II-induced mesangial cell injury by inhibiting superoxide-mediated NF-κB activation via protein kinase C pathway. Our present study suggests that strategies to enhance the biological actions of GLP-1 may be a promising strategy for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy.

  14. [The correlation between postsynaptic inhibition and GABA, opioid peptides, SP in electroacupuncture].

    PubMed

    Fang, Z; Yu, Q; Li, Y

    1993-01-01

    Identified tract cells in lumbar enlargement were recorded from intact anaesthetized rats. The prolongation of the latency of antidromic action potential was a measure of postsynaptic inhibition. Both ST 36 and SP 6 were stimulated electrically. In EA group (N = 12) EA prolonged the latency for 0.111 +/- 0.022 ms (P < 0.001). In bicuculline group (N = 12) the prolongation of the latency for 0.010 +/- 0.004 ms (P < 0.05) by EA was less than that of EA group with statistical significance. In naloxone group (N = 12) and SP antiserum group (N = 12) EA did not induce a significant prolongation of the latency. It suggested that GABA, opioides and SP might be involved in postsynaptic inhibition induced by EA.

  15. A Cell-Permeable Hairpin Peptide Inhibits Hepatitis C Viral Nonstructural Protein 5A Mediated Translation and Virus Production

    PubMed Central

    Khachatoorian, Ronik; Arumugaswami, Vaithilingaraja; Ruchala, Piotr; Raychaudhuri, Santanu; Maloney, Eden M.; Miao, Edna; Dasgupta, Asim; French, Samuel W.

    2012-01-01

    NS5A is a key regulator of hepatitis C virus (HCV) life cycle including RNA replication, assembly, and translation. We and others have shown NS5A to augment HCV IRES-mediated translation. Further, Quercetin treatment and heat shock protein (HSP) 70 knockdown inhibit NS5A-driven augmentation of IRES-mediated translation and infectious virus production. We have also co-immunoprecipitated HSP70 with NS5A and demonstrated cellular colocalization leading to the hypothesis that the NS5A/HSP70 complex formation is important for IRES-mediated translation. Here, we have identified the NS5A region responsible for complex formation through in vitro deletion analyses. Deletion of NS5A domains II and III failed to reduce HSP70 binding, whereas domain I deletion eliminated complex formation. NS5A domain I alone also bound HSP70. Deletion mapping of domain I identified the C-terminal 34 amino acids (C34) to be the interaction site. Further, addition of C34 to domains II and III restored complex formation. C34 expression significantly reduced intracellular viral protein levels, in contrast to same size control peptides from other NS5A domains. C34 also competitively inhibited NS5A-augmented IRES-mediated translation, while controls did not. Triple-alanine scan mutagenesis identified an exposed beta-sheet hairpin in C34 to be primarily responsible for NS5A-augmented IRES-mediated translation. Moreover, treatment with a 10 amino acid peptide derivative of C34 suppressed NS5A-augmented IRES-mediated translation and significantly inhibited intracellular viral protein synthesis, with no associated cytotoxicity. Conclusion: These results support the hypothesis that the NS5A/HSP70 complex augments viral IRES-mediated translation, identify a sequence-specific hairpin element in NS5A responsible for complex formation, and demonstrate the functional significance of C34 hairpin-mediated NS5A/HSP70 interaction. Identification of this element may allow for further interrogation of NS5A

  16. Antibacterial peptide from normal rabbit serum. 3. Inhibition of microbial electron transport.

    PubMed

    Carroll, S F; Martinez, R J

    1981-10-13

    The influence of the primary rabbit serum bactericide, PC-III, on the respiratory activity of Bacillus subtilis has been examined. Glucose- or lactate-dependent respiration by whole cells was rapidly and completely inhibited by concentrations of the bactericide producing significant cell death. Similar results were observed with membrane vesicles oxidizing NADH. In both cases, bactericide-induced inhibition of respiration was calcium dependent and blocked electron transport between cytochromes b and a. PC-III competed with oxidized Saccharomyces cytochrome c when the latter was used as an electron acceptor in cytochrome c reductase reactions catalyzed by B. subtilis membrane vesicles. Competitive inhibition by PC-III was also observed when reduced Saccharomyces cytochrome c was used as electron donor in the cytochrome c oxidase reaction. At an ionic strength of 0.13, PC-III exhibits a Ki of 25.9 and 102 nM for the reductase and oxidase complexes, respectively. Increasing the ionic strength to that producing optimal antibacterial action against whole cells (0.24) increased the Ki of PC-III for the reductase (75.4 nM), while the oxidase decreased (92.3 nM).

  17. Human B cells secrete migration inhibition factor (MIF) and present a naturally processed MIF peptide on HLA-DRB1*0405 by a FXXL motif

    PubMed Central

    Wymann, D; Blüggel, M; Kalbacher, H; Blesken, T; Akdis, C A; Meyer, H E; Blaser, K

    1999-01-01

    A better knowledge of peptide structures interacting with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules is of great interest for better understanding of the molecular basis of immune recognition. We have isolated naturally processed peptides from a continuously growing antigen-presenting Epstein–Barr virus-transformed human B-cell line. HLA-DR complexes were purified by specific affinity chromatography and complexed peptides were released by acid treatment. The isolated peptides were separated by reversed phase chromatography and fractions were analysed by Edman degradation at picomolar ranges. From 30 fractions that were examined seven peptides bound to the HLA-DRB1*0405 and two peptides from the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class II associated invariant chain bound to HLA-DRB1*1302. In addition, a N-terminal β-chain peptide of the 0405 allele was identified. Evaluation of amino acid sequences revealed a refined FXXL motif for the 0405 allele, in which F (phenylalanine) stands for any aromatic amino acid and L (leucine) can be exchanged by either I (isoleucine) or V (valine). In total, three fractions contained a peptide derived from the human migration inhibition factor (MIF), a pro-inflammatory cytokine that is normally produced by activated T lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Indeed, cytokine analysis revealed high amounts of MIF secreted by the B-cell line, confirming that MHC class II expressing cells can present any intrinsic peptide that contains the distinct motif for HLA-binding. For MIF, the amino acid sequence Y36IAV39 represents the required binding motif for HLA-DRB1*0405. Nevertheless, it is the first time that cytokine fragments were found to bind to HLA molecules on human B cells. PMID:10233671

  18. Peptide deformylase inhibitor actinonin reduces celastrol’s HSP70 induction while synergizing proliferation inhibition in tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Celastrol is a promising anti-tumor agent, yet it also elevates heat shock proteins (HSPs), especially HSP70, this effect believed to reduce its anti-tumor effects. Concurrent use of siRNA to increase celastrol’s anti-tumor effects through HSP70 interference has been reported, but because siRNA technology is difficult to clinically apply, an alternative way to curb unwanted HSP70 elevation caused by celastrol treatment is worth exploring. Methods In this work, we explore three alternative strategies to control HSP70 elevation: (1) Searching for cancer cell types that show no HSP70 elevation in the presence of celastrol (thus recommending themselves as suitable targets); (2) Modifying HSP70-inducing chemical groups, i.e.: the carboxyl group in celastrol; and (3) Using signaling molecule inhibitors to specifically block HSP70 elevation while protecting and/or enhancing anti-tumor effects. Results The first strategy was unsuccessful since celastrol treatment increased HSP70 in all 7 of the cancer cell types tested, this result related to HSF1 activation. The ubiquity of HSF1 expression in different cancer cells might explain why celastrol has no cell-type limitation for HSP70 induction. The second strategy revealed that modification of celastrol’s carboxyl group abolished its ability to elevate HSP70, but also abolished celastrol’s tumor inhibition effects. In the third strategy, 11 inhibitors for 10 signaling proteins reportedly related to celastrol action were tested, and five of these could reduce celastrol-caused HSP70 elevation. Among these, the peptide deformylase (PDF) inhibitor, actinonin, could synergize celastrol’s proliferation inhibition. Conclusions Concurrent use of the chemical agent actinonin could reduce celastrol’s HSP70 elevation and also enhance proliferation inhibition by celastrol. This combination presents a novel alternative to siRNA technology and is worth further investigation for its potentially effective anti

  19. Folic acid administration inhibits amyloid β-peptide accumulation in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Liu, Huan; Yu, Min; Zhang, Xumei; Zhang, Meilin; Wilson, John X; Huang, Guowei

    2015-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with malnutrition, altered one-carbon metabolism and increased hippocampal amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) accumulation. Aberrant DNA methylation may be an epigenetic mechanism that underlies AD pathogenesis. We hypothesized that folic acid acts through an epigenetic gene silencing mechanism to lower Aβ levels in the APP/PS1 transgenic mouse model of AD. APP/PS1 mice were fed either folate-deficient or control diets and gavaged daily with 120 μg/kg folic acid, 13.3mg/kg S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) or both. Examination of the mice after 60 days of treatment showed that serum folate concentration increased with intake of folic acid but not SAM. Folate deficiency lowered endogenous SAM concentration, whereas neither intervention altered S-adenosylhomocysteine concentration. DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) activity increased with intake of folic acid raised DNMT activity in folate-deficient mice. DNA methylation rate was stimulated by folic acid in the amyloid precursor protein (APP) promoter and in the presenilin 1 (PS1) promoter. Folate deficiency elevated hippocampal APP, PS1 and Aβ protein levels, and these rises were prevented by folic acid. In conclusion, these findings are consistent with a mechanism in which folic acid increases methylation potential and DNMT activity, modifies DNA methylation and ultimately decreases APP, PS1 and Aβ protein levels.

  20. Stabilization of a β-hairpin in monomeric Alzheimer's amyloid-β peptide inhibits amyloid formation

    PubMed Central

    Hoyer, Wolfgang; Grönwall, Caroline; Jonsson, Andreas; Ståhl, Stefan; Härd, Torleif

    2008-01-01

    According to the amyloid hypothesis, the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is triggered by the oligomerization and aggregation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide into protein plaques. Formation of the potentially toxic oligomeric and fibrillar Aβ assemblies is accompanied by a conformational change toward a high content of β-structure. Here, we report the solution structure of Aβ(1–40) in complex with the phage-display selected affibody protein ZAβ3, a binding protein of nanomolar affinity. Bound Aβ(1–40) features a β-hairpin comprising residues 17–36, providing the first high-resolution structure of Aβ in β conformation. The positions of the secondary structure elements strongly resemble those observed for fibrillar Aβ. ZAβ3 stabilizes the β-sheet by extending it intermolecularly and by burying both of the mostly nonpolar faces of the Aβ hairpin within a large hydrophobic tunnel-like cavity. Consequently, ZAβ3 acts as a stoichiometric inhibitor of Aβ fibrillation. The selected Aβ conformation allows us to suggest a structural mechanism for amyloid formation based on soluble oligomeric hairpin intermediates. PMID:18375754

  1. Small Molecule Inhibited Parathyroid Hormone Mediated cAMP Response by N–Terminal Peptide Binding

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amit; Baumann, Monika; Balbach, Jochen

    2016-01-01

    Ligand binding to certain classes of G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) stimulates the rapid synthesis of cAMP through G protein. Human parathyroid hormone (PTH), a member of class B GPCRs, binds to its receptor via its N–terminal domain, thereby activating the pathway to this secondary messenger inside cells. Presently, GPCRs are the target of many pharmaceuticals however, these drugs target only a small fraction of structurally known GPCRs (about 10%). Coordination complexes are gaining interest due to their wide applications in the medicinal field. In the present studies we explored the potential of a coordination complex of Zn(II) and anthracenyl–terpyridine as a modulator of the parathyroid hormone response. Preferential interactions at the N–terminal domain of the peptide hormone were manifested by suppressed cAMP generation inside the cells. These observations contribute a regulatory component to the current GPCR–cAMP paradigm, where not the receptor itself, but the activating hormone is a target. To our knowledge, this is the first report about a coordination complex modulating GPCR activity at the level of deactivating its agonist. Developing such molecules might help in the control of pathogenic PTH function such as hyperparathyroidism, where control of excess hormonal activity is essentially required. PMID:26932583

  2. Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide inhibits fibroblast migration via P2X7 receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Shohei; Matsui, Kazuki; Kawaguchi, Haruyo; Yamashita, Tomomi; Mohri, Tomomi; Fujio, Yasushi; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2013-08-01

    Fibrosis is one of the most common pathological alterations in heart failure, and fibroblast migration is an essential process in the development of cardiac fibrosis. Experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) is a model of inflammatory heart disease characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration followed by healing without residual fibrosis. However, the precise mechanisms mediating termination of inflammation and nonfibrotic healing remain to be elucidated. Microarray analysis of hearts from model mice at multiple time points after EAM induction identified several secreted proteins upregulated during nonfibrotic healing, including the anti-inflammatory cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP). Treatment with LL-37, a human homolog of CAMP, activated MAP kinases in fibroblasts but not in cardiomyocytes, indicating that fibroblasts were the target of CAMP activity. In addition, LL-37 decreased fibroblast migration in the in vitro scratch assay. P2X7 receptor (P2X7R), a well-known receptor for LL-37, was involved in LL-37 mediated biological effect on cardiac fibroblasts. Stimulation of BzATP, a P2X7R agonist, activated MAPK in fibroblasts, whereas the P2X7R antagonist, BBG, as well as P2X7R deletion abolished both LL-37-mediated MAPK activation and LL-37-induced reduction in fibroblast migration. These results strongly suggest that CAMP upregulation during myocarditis prevents myocardial fibrosis by restricting fibroblast migration via activation of the P2X7R-MAPK signaling pathway. PMID:23867818

  3. Inhibition of Lymphangiogenesis and Angiogenesis in Breast Tumor Xenografts and Lymph Nodes by a Peptide Derived from Transmembrane Protein 45A12

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Esak; Koskimaki, Jacob E; Pandey, Niranjan B; Popel, Aleksander S

    2013-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting blood vessels, is a process that supports tumor growth and metastatic dissemination. Lymphangiogenesis also facilitates metastasis by increasing dissemination through the lymphatic vessels (LVs). Even after treatment with antiangiogenic agents, breast cancer patients are vulnerable to LV-mediated metastasis. We report that a 14-amino acid peptide derived from transmembrane protein 45A shows multimodal inhibition of lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis in breast cancer. The peptide blocks lymphangiogenic and angiogenic phenotypes of lymphatic and blood endothelial cells induced by tumor-conditioned media prepared from MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. The peptide delays growth of MDA-MB-231 tumor xenografts and normalizes tumor-conditioned lymph nodes (LNs). These studies demonstrate the antilymphangiogenic and antiangiogenic potential of the peptide against primary tumors and premetastatic, tumor-conditioned regional LNs. Mechanistically, the peptide blocks vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 2 and 3 (VEGFR2/3) and downstream proteins by binding to neuropilin 1/2 (NRP1/2) and inhibiting VEGFR2/3 and NRP1/2 complex formation in the presence of VEGFA/C. PMID:23441126

  4. Amaranth lunasin-like peptide internalizes into the cell nucleus and inhibits chemical carcinogen-induced transformation of NIH-3T3 cells.

    PubMed

    Maldonado-Cervantes, Enrique; Jeong, Hyung Jin; León-Galván, Fabiola; Barrera-Pacheco, Alberto; De León-Rodríguez, Antonio; González de Mejia, Elvira; de Lumen, Ben O; Barba de la Rosa, Ana P

    2010-09-01

    Because an unbalanced diet is an important risk factor for several illnesses, interest has increased in finding novel health-promoting foods. Amaranth produces seeds that not only have substantial nutritional properties but that also contain phytochemical compounds as rutin and nicotiflorin and peptides with antihypertensive and anticarcinogenic activities. We report that a cancer-preventive peptide in amaranth has activities similar to those of soybean lunasin. The amaranth lunasin-like peptide, however, requires less time than the soybean lunasin to internalize into the nucleus of NIH-3T3 cells, and inhibits histone acetylation (H(3) and H(4) in a 70 and 77%, respectively). The amaranth lunasin-like peptide inhibited the transformation of NIH-3T3 cells to cancerous foci. The open reading frame (ORF) of amaranth lunasin corresponds to a bifunctional inhibitor/lipid-transfer protein (LTP). LTPs are a family of proteins that in plants are implicated in different functions, albeit all linked to developmental processes and biotic and abiotic stress resistance. Our results open new intriguing questions about the function of lunasin in plants and support that amaranth is a food alternative containing natural peptides with health-promoting benefits.

  5. Inhibition of human spermatozoa-zona pellucida binding by a combinatorially derived peptide from a synthetic target.

    PubMed

    Pieczenik, George; Garrisi, John; Cohen, Jacques

    2006-09-01

    Intact zona-free human oocytes were screened using a combinatorial peptide library selection protocol. Pieczenik Peptide Sequence 1 (PPS1) HEHRKRG binds human spermatozoa. A complementary and unique binding sequence HNSSLSPLATPA (PPS2) was developed from the first PPS1 ligand that binds to the human zona pellucida or oolemma. Cytoplasm-free zonae from unfertilized eggs were obtained and used as an assay system to test the effects of exposure to these two ligands. Spermatozoa were inserted into evacuated zonae and their behaviour and binding activity were assessed at regular intervals. The behaviour of spermatozoa exposed to PPS1 and unlabelled spermatozoa injected into unexposed zonae was similar as far as binding was concerned (50 and 54% binding), but PPS1 exposed spermatozoa had higher motility and displacement, marked by their escape from the zona pellucida. Zonae exposed to PPS2 inhibited the interaction between injected spermatozoa and the inside of the zona when compared with controls (8.3 and 53.8% attached respectively, P < 0.001). The sperm-zona pellucida interaction described in this paper is applied as a functional assay for molecular interactions of sperm binding and can be used to assess function for potential surface markers on gametes. It is shown here that a unique binding ligand (PPS2) can be synthesized from another complimentary ligand (PPS1) without the need for a known intermediate substrate. PPS1 and PPS2 may have properties that can be used to target processes involved in conception and assisted reproduction. A movie sequence taken approximately 30 min after injection of spermatozoa into empty human zonae pellucidae shows behaviour of non-manipulated spermatozoa into zonae not exposed or exposed to ligand. This may be purchased for viewing on the Internet at www.rbmonline.com/Article/2159 (free to web subscribers).

  6. Atrial natriuretic peptide inhibits cell cycle activity of embryonic cardiac progenitor cells via its NPRA receptor signaling axis.

    PubMed

    Hotchkiss, Adam; Feridooni, Tiam; Baguma-Nibasheka, Mark; McNeil, Kathleen; Chinni, Sarita; Pasumarthi, Kishore B S

    2015-04-01

    The biological effects of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) are mediated by natriuretic peptide receptors (NPRs), which can either activate guanylyl cyclase (NPRA and NPRB) or inhibit adenylyl cyclase (NPRC) to modulate intracellular cGMP or cAMP, respectively. During cardiac development, ANP serves as an early maker of differentiating atrial and ventricular chamber myocardium. As development proceeds, expression of ANP persists in the atria but declines in the ventricles. Currently, it is not known whether ANP is secreted or the ANP-NPR signaling system plays any active role in the developing ventricles. Thus the primary aims of this study were to 1) examine biological activity of ANP signaling systems in embryonic ventricular myocardium, and 2) determine whether ANP signaling modulates proliferation/differentiation of undifferentiated cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) and/or cardiomyocytes. Here, we provide evidence that ANP synthesized in embryonic day (E)11.5 ventricular myocytes is actively secreted and processed to its biologically active form. Notably, NPRA and NPRC were detected in E11.5 ventricles and exogenous ANP stimulated production of cGMP in ventricular cell cultures. Furthermore, we showed that exogenous ANP significantly decreased cell number and DNA synthesis of CPCs but not cardiomyocytes and this effect could be reversed by pretreatment with the NPRA receptor-specific inhibitor A71915. ANP treatment also led to a robust increase in nuclear p27 levels in CPCs compared with cardiomyocytes. Collectively, these data provide evidence that in the developing mammalian ventricles ANP plays a local paracrine role in regulating the balance between CPC proliferation and differentiation via NPRA/cGMP-mediated signaling pathways.

  7. Antimicrobial peptides and endotoxin inhibit cytokine and nitric oxide release but amplify respiratory burst response in human and murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Zughaier, Susu M.; Shafer, William M.; Stephens, David S.

    2005-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), in addition to their antibacterial properties, are also chemotactic and signalling molecules that connect the innate and adaptive immune responses. The role of AMP [α defensins, LL-37, a cathepsin G-derived peptide (CG117-136), protegrins (PG-1), polymyxin B (PMX) and LLP1] in modulating the respiratory burst response in human and murine macrophages in the presence of bacterial endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or lipooligosaccharide (LOS)] was investigated. AMP were found to neutralize endotoxin induction of nitric oxide and TNFα release in macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, macrophages primed overnight with AMP and LOS or LPS significantly enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) release compared with cells primed with endotoxin or AMP alone, while no responses were seen in unprimed cells. This enhanced ROS release by macrophages was seen in all cell lines including those obtained from C3H/HeJ (TLR4−/−) mice. Similar effects were also seen when AMP and endotoxin were added directly with zymosan to trigger phagocytosis and the respiratory burst in unprimed RAW 264.7 and C3H/HeJ macrophages. Amplification of ROS release was also demonstrated in a cell-free system of xanthine and xanthine oxidase. Although AMP inhibited cytokine and nitric oxide induction by endotoxin in a TLR4-dependent manner, AMP and endotoxin amplified ROS release in a TLR4-independent manner possibly by exerting a prolonged catalytic effect on the ROS generating enzymes such as the NADPH-oxidase complex. PMID:16098213

  8. A naturally occurring α(s1)-casein-derived peptide in bovine milk inhibits apoptosis of granulosa cells induced by serum-free conditions.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, T; Ganzorig, K; Miyamoto, A; Ishii, T; Urashima, T; Fukuda, K

    2014-03-01

    Several naturally occurring peptides in bovine milk were characterized by tandem mass spectrometry and Edman degradation. Chromatograms of peptide fractions (passed through an ultra-filtration membrane, nominal molecular weight limit 3000) prepared from colostrum (collected immediately after parturition) and transitional milk (collected 5 days postpartum) showed that they were almost identical. In total, six peptides, α(s1)-CN (f16-23) (RPKHPIKH), α(s1)-CN (f16-24) (RPKHPIKHQ), α(s1)-CN (f17-25) (PKHPIKHQG), α(s1)-CN (f46-52) (VFGKEKV), α(s1)-CN (f94-105) (HIQKEDVPSER), and β-CN (f121-128) (HKEMPFPK), were identified. One of the major peptides, the N-terminal fragment of αs1 -casein, varied structurally during early lactation: α(s1)-CN (f17-25) (PKHPIKHQG) and α(s1)-CN (f16-23) (RPKHPIKH)/α(s1)-CN (f16-24) (RPKHPIKHQ) were found in colostrum and transitional milk, respectively. A chemically synthesized peptide, α(s1)-CN (f16-23) (RPKHPIKH), inhibited apoptosis of bovine granulosa cells induced by serum-free conditions in a dose-dependent manner, in consequence of caspase-3 and caspase-9 suppressions. The physiological function of the peptide remains unclear, but it may have potential use as pharmaceutical agent and as an anti-apoptotic agent in cell culture medium. PMID:24399684

  9. Tail shock produces inhibition as well as sensitization of the siphon-withdrawal reflex of Aplysia: possible behavioral role for presynaptic inhibition mediated by the peptide Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2.

    PubMed

    Mackey, S L; Glanzman, D L; Small, S A; Dyke, A M; Kandel, E R; Hawkins, R D

    1987-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that, in addition to being modulated by presynaptic facilitation, the sensory neurons of the gill- and siphon-withdrawal reflex of Aplysia are also capable of being modulated by transient presynaptic inhibition produced by the peptide Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2. These two modulatory effects involve different second-messenger systems: the facilitation is mediated through cAMP-dependent protein phosphorylation, and the inhibition is mediated through the lipoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid. To explore the behavioral function of this inhibition, we have carried out a parametric analysis of the effect of tail shock on the siphon-withdrawal reflex. In addition to producing sensitization of the withdrawal reflex, tail shock also transiently inhibits the reflex. The inhibition is produced by relatively weak shock, whereas sensitization is more prominent and may mask the inhibition with stronger shock. Furthermore, inhibition is not observed after habituation training. Cellular studies suggest that the behavioral inhibition is mediated, at least in part, by presynaptic inhibition of transmitter release from the siphon sensory neurons. Moreover, we have identified an interneuron within the left pleural ganglion (LPL16) that shows Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2 immunoreactivity, is activated by tail shock, and simulates the presynaptic inhibitory actions produced by tail shock. Therefore, our results suggest that presynaptic inhibition mediated by Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-NH2 and its lipoxygenase second messenger contributes to behavioral inhibition of the siphon-withdrawal reflex.

  10. Selective inhibition of transient K+ current by La3+ in crab peptide-secretory neurons.

    PubMed

    Duan, S; Cooke, I M

    1999-04-01

    Although divalent cations and lanthides are well-known inhibitors of voltage-dependent Ca2+ currents (ICa), their ability to selectively inhibit a voltage-gated K+ current is less widely documented. We report that La3+ inhibits the transient K+ current (IA) of crab (Cardisoma carnifex) neurosecretory cells at ED50 approximately 5 microM, similar to that blocking ICa, without effecting the delayed rectifier K+ current (IK). Neurons were dissociated from the major crustacean neuroendocrine system, the X-organ-sinus gland, plated in defined medium, and recorded by whole cell patch clamp after 1-2 days in culture. The bath saline included 0.5 microM TTX and 0.5 mM CdCl2 to eliminate inward currents. Responses to depolarizing steps from a holding potential of -40 mV represented primarily IK. They were unchanged by La3+ up to 500 microM. Currents from -80 mV in the presence of 20 mM TEA were shown to represent primarily IA. La3+ (with TEA) reduced IA and maximum conductance (GA) by approximately 10% for 1 microM and another 10% each in 10 and 100 microM La3+. Normalized GA-V curves were well fit with a single Boltzmann function, with V1/2 +4 mV and slope 15 mV in control; V1/2 was successively approximately 15 mV depolarized and slope increased approximately 2 mV for each of these La3+ concentrations. Cd2+ (1 mM), Zn2+ (200 microM), and Pb2+ (100 microM) or removal of saline Mg2+ (26 mM) had little or no effect on IA. Steady-state inactivation showed similar right shifts (from V1/2 -39 mV) and slope increases (from 2.5 mV) in 10 and 100 microM La3+. Time to peak IA was slowed in 10 and 100 microM La3+, whereas curves of normalized time constants of initial decay from peak IA versus Vc were right-shifted successively approximately 15 mV for the three La3+ concentrations. The observations were fitted by a Woodhull-type model postulating a La3+-selective site that lies 0.26-0.34 of the distance across the membrane electric field, and both block of K+ movement and

  11. Expression of conformationally constrained adhesion peptide in an antibody CDR loop and inhibition of natural killer cell cytotoxic activity by an antibody antigenized with the RGD motif.

    PubMed Central

    Zanetti, M; Filaci, G; Lee, R H; del Guercio, P; Rossi, F; Bacchetta, R; Stevenson, F; Barnaba, V; Billetta, R

    1993-01-01

    We report that an antibody engineered to express three Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) repeats in the third complementarity-determining region of the heavy chain (antigenized antibody) efficiently inhibits the lysis of human erythroleukemia K-562 cells by natural killer (NK) cells. Synthetic peptides containing RGD did not inhibit. Inhibition was specific for the (RGD)3-containing loop and required simultaneous occupancy of the Fc receptor (CD16) on effector cells. The antigenized antibody inhibited other forms of cytotoxicity mediated by NK cells but not cytotoxicity mediated by major histocompatibility complex-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). A three-dimensional model of the engineered antibody loop shows the structure and physicochemical characteristics probably required for the ligand activity. The results indicate that an RGD motif is involved in the productive interaction between NK and target cells. Moreover, they show that peptide expression in the hypervariable loops of an antibody molecule is an efficient procedure for stabilizing oligopeptides within a limited spectrum of tertiary structures. This is a new approach towards imparting ligand properties to antibody molecules and can be used to study the biological function and specificity of short peptide motifs, including those involved in cell adhesion. Images PMID:8223447

  12. NEMO Binding Domain peptide inhibits constitutive NF-κB activity and reduces tumor burden in a canine model of relapsed, refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Gaurnier-Hausser, Anita; Patel, Reema; Baldwin, Albert S.; May, Michael J.; Mason, Nicola J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Activated B-Cell Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (ABC-DLBCL) is an aggressive, poorly chemoresponsive lymphoid malignancy characterized by constitutive canonical NF-κB activity that promotes lymphomagenesis and chemotherapy resistance via over-expression of anti-apoptotic NF-κB target genes. Inhibition of the canonical NF-κB pathway may therefore have therapeutic relevance in ABC-DLBCL. Here we set out to determine whether dogs with spontaneous DLBCL have comparative aberrant constitutive NF-κB activity and to determine the therapeutic relevance of NF-κB inhibition in dogs with relapsed, resistant DLBCL. Experimental Design Canonical NF-κB activity was evaluated by electrophoretic mobility shift assays and immunoblot analyses, and NF-κB target gene expression was measured by qRT-PCR. Primary malignant canine B lymphocytes were treated with the selective IKK complex inhibitor Nemo Binding Domain (NBD) peptide, and evaluated for NF-κB activity and apoptosis. NBD peptide was administered intra-nodally to dogs with relapsed B-cell lymphoma and NF-κB target gene expression and tumor burden were evaluated pre and post treatment. Results Constitutive canonical NF-κB activity and increased NF-κB target gene expression was detected in primary DLBCL tissue. NBD peptide inhibited this activity and induced apoptosis of primary malignant B cells in vitro. Intra-tumoral injections of NBD peptide to dogs with relapsed DLBCL inhibited NF-κB target gene expression and reduced tumor burden. Conclusions This work shows that dogs with spontaneous DLBCL represent a clinically relevant, spontaneous, large animal model for human ABC-DLBCL and demonstrates the therapeutic relevance of NF-κB inhibition in the treatment of ABC-DLBCL. These results have important translational relevance for ABC-DLBCL treatment in human patients. PMID:21610150

  13. Naphthoquinone-Tryptophan Hybrid Inhibits Aggregation of the Tau-Derived Peptide PHF6 and Reduces Neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Frenkel-Pinter, Moran; Tal, Sharon; Scherzer-Attali, Roni; Abu-Hussien, Malak; Alyagor, Idan; Eisenbaum, Tal; Gazit, Ehud; Segal, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Tauopathies, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), are a group of disorders characterized neuropathologically by intracellular toxic accumulations of abnormal protein aggregates formed by misfolding of the microtubule-associated protein tau. Since protein self-assembly appears to be an initial key step in the pathology of this group of diseases, intervening in this process can be both a prophylactic measure and a means for modifying the course of the disease for therapeutic purposes. We and others have shown that aromatic small molecules can be effective inhibitors of aggregation of various protein assemblies, by binding to the aromatic core in aggregation-prone motifs and preventing their self-assembly. Specifically, we have designed a series of small aromatic naphthoquinone-tryptophan hybrid molecules as candidate aggregation inhibitors of β -sheet based assembly and demonstrated their efficacy toward inhibiting aggregation of the amyloid-β peptide, another culprit of AD, as well as of various other aggregative proteins involved in other protein misfolding diseases. Here we tested whether a leading naphthoquinone-tryptophan hybrid molecule, namely NQTrp, can be repurposed as an inhibitor of the aggregation of the tau protein in vitro and in vivo. We show that the molecule inhibits the in vitro assembly of PHF6, the aggregation-prone fragment of tau protein, reduces hyperphosphorylated tau deposits and ameliorates tauopathy-related behavioral defect in an established transgenic Drosophila model expressing human tau. We suggest that NQTrp, or optimized versions of it, could act as novel disease modifying drugs for AD and other tauopathies.

  14. Calcitonin gene-related peptide inhibits autophagic-lysosomal proteolysis through cAMP/PKA signaling in rat skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Machado, Juliano; Manfredi, Leandro H; Silveira, Wilian A; Gonçalves, Dawit A P; Lustrino, Danilo; Zanon, Neusa M; Kettelhut, Isis C; Navegantes, Luiz C

    2016-03-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide released by motor neuron in skeletal muscle and modulates the neuromuscular transmission by induction of synthesis and insertion of acetylcholine receptor on postsynaptic muscle membrane; however, its role in skeletal muscle protein metabolism remains unclear. We examined the in vitro and in vivo effects of CGRP on protein breakdown and signaling pathways in control skeletal muscles and muscles following denervation (DEN) in rats. In isolated muscles, CGRP (10(-10) to 10(-6)M) reduced basal and DEN-induced activation of overall proteolysis in a concentration-dependent manner. The in vitro anti-proteolytic effect of CGRP was completely abolished by CGRP8-37, a CGRP receptor antagonist. CGRP down-regulated the lysosomal proteolysis, the mRNA levels of LC3b, Gabarapl1 and cathepsin L and the protein content of LC3-II in control and denervated muscles. In parallel, CGRP elevated cAMP levels, stimulated PKA/CREB signaling and increased Foxo1 phosphorylation in both conditions. In denervated muscles and starved C2C12 cells, Rp-8-Br-cAMPs or PKI, two PKA inhibitors, completely abolished the inhibitory effect of CGRP on Foxo1, 3 and 4 and LC3 lipidation. A single injection of CGRP (100 μg kg(-1)) in denervated rats increased the phosphorylation levels of CREB and Akt, inhibited Foxo transcriptional activity, the LC3 lipidation as well as the mRNA levels of LC3b and cathepsin L, two bona fide targets of Foxo. This study shows for the first time that CGRP exerts a direct inhibitory action on autophagic-lysosomal proteolysis in control and denervated skeletal muscle by recruiting cAMP/PKA signaling, effects that are related to inhibition of Foxo activity and LC3 lipidation. PMID:26718975

  15. A shrimp C-type lectin inhibits proliferation of the hemolymph microbiota by maintaining the expression of antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian-Wei; Xu, Ji-Dong; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Vasta, Gerardo Raul; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2014-04-25

    Some aquatic invertebrates such as shrimp contain low albeit stable numbers of bacteria in the circulating hemolymph. The proliferation of this hemolymph microbiota in such a nutrient-rich environment is tightly controlled in healthy animals, but the mechanisms responsible had remained elusive. In the present study, we report a C-type lectin (MjHeCL) from the kuruma shrimp (Marsupenaeus japonicus) that participates in restraining the hemolymph microbiota. Although the expression of MjHeCL did not seem to be modulated by bacterial challenge, the down-regulation of its expression by RNA interference led to proliferation of the hemolymph microbiota, ultimately resulting in shrimp death. This phenotype was rescued by the injection of recombinant MjHeCL, which restored the healthy status of the knockdown shrimp. A mechanistic analysis revealed that MjHeCL inhibited bacterial proliferation by modulating the expression of antimicrobial peptides. The key function of MjHeCL in the shrimp immune homeostasis might be related to its broader recognition spectrum of the hemolymph microbiota components than other lectins. Our study demonstrates the role of MjHeCL in maintaining the healthy status of shrimp and provides new insight into the biological significance of C-type lectins, a diversified and abundant lectin family in invertebrate species.

  16. A cyclized peptide derived from alpha fetoprotein inhibits the proliferation of ER-positive canine mammary cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Torres, Cristian Gabriel; Pino, Ana María; Sierralta, Walter Daniel

    2009-06-01

    The effects of estradiol (E2) and of an AFP-derived cyclized peptide (cP) on the proliferation of primary cultures of cancer cells isolated from spontaneous canine mammary tumors were studied. The cellular response to E2 and cP was related to the expression of estradiol receptor (isoforms alpha and beta). In ER-positive cells, 2 nM estradiol increased cell proliferation and the phosphorylation of ERK1/2; 2 microg/ml cP inhibited all these effects. Estradiol also increased HER2 immunoreactivity in ER-positive cells, an effect that was reverted to its basal values by cP. Estradiol stimulated in these cells the release of MMP2 and MMP9 and the shedding of HB-EGF, effects that the cP did not affect. ER-negative cells were refractory to estradiol or cP. All canine mammary tumor cells in culture responded to treatments analogously to human mammary cancer cells. Our results support the proposal of cP as a new, potentially effective therapeutic agent for the management of mammary cancer. PMID:19424616

  17. Peptide aptamer mimicking RAD51-binding domain of BRCA2 inhibits DNA damage repair and survival in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mack; Misra, Smita; Chaudhuri, Minu; Chaudhuri, Gautam

    2011-05-01

    The eukaryotic DNA recombination repair protein BRCA2 is functional in the parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei. The mechanism of the involvement of BRCA2 in homologous recombination includes its interaction with the DNA recombinase proteins of the RAD51 family. BRCA2 is known to interact with RAD51 through its unique and essential BRC sequence motifs. T. brucei BRCA2 homolog (TbBRCA2) has fifteen repeating BRC motifs as compared to mammalian BRCA2 that has only eight. We report here our yeast 2-hybrid analysis studies on the interactions of TbBRCA2 BRC motifs with five different RAD51 paralogues of T. brucei. Our study revealed that a single BRC motif is sufficient to bind to these RAD51 paralogues. To test the possibility whether a single 44 amino acid long repeating unit of the TbBRCA2 BRC motif may be exploited as an inhibitor of T. brucei growth, we ectopically expressed this peptide segment in the procyclic form of the parasite and evaluated its effects on cell survival as well as the sensitivity of these cells to the DNA damaging agent methyl methane sulfonate (MMS). Expression of a single BRC motif led to MMS sensitivity and inhibited cellular proliferation in T. brucei.

  18. Inhibition of /sup 125/I-labeled ristocetin binding to Micrococcus luteus cells by the peptides related to bacterial cell wall mucopeptide precursors: quantitative structure-activity relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.H.; Martin, Y.; Otis, E.; Mao, J.

    1989-01-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) of N-Ac amino acids, N-Ac dipeptides, and N-Ac tripeptides in inhibition of /sup 125/I-labeled ristocetin binding to Micrococcus luteus cell wall have been developed to probe the details of the binding between ristocetin and N-acetylated peptides. The correlation equations indicate that (1) the binding is stronger for peptides in which the side chain of the C-terminal amino acid has a large molar refractivity (MR) value, (2) the binding is weaker for peptides with polar than for those with nonpolar C-terminal side chains, (3) the N-terminal amino acid in N-Ac dipeptides contributes 12 times that of the C-terminal amino acid to binding affinity, and (4) the interactions between ristocetin and the N-terminal amino acid of N-acetyl tripeptides appear to be much weaker than those with the first two amino acids.

  19. Substance P antagonist also inhibits specific binding and mitogenic effects of vasopressin and bombesin-related peptides in Swiss 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zachary, I.; Rozengurt, E.

    1986-05-29

    While vasopressin and peptides of the bombesin family bind to different receptors in quiescent Swiss 3T3 cells, the antagonist (D-Arg/sup 1/,D-Pro/sup 2/,D-Trp/sup 7,9/,Leu/sup 11/) substance P blocks the specific binding of both (/sup 3/H) vasopressin and /sup 125/I-gastrin-releasing peptide to these cells. In addition, the antagonist inhibits the mobilization of Ca/sup 2 +/ and induction of DNA synthesis by vasopressin. These results indicate that (D-Arg/sup 1/,D-Pro,D-Trp/sup 7,9/,Leu/sup 11/) substance P has the ability to interact with the receptors for three structurally unrelated peptide hormones.

  20. 3-Fluoroazetidinecarboxylic Acids and trans,trans-3,4-Difluoroproline as Peptide Scaffolds: Inhibition of Pancreatic Cancer Cell Growth by a Fluoroazetidine Iminosugar.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zilei; Jenkinson, Sarah F; Vermaas, Tom; Adachi, Isao; Wormald, Mark R; Hata, Yukako; Kurashima, Yukiko; Kaji, Akira; Yu, Chu-Yi; Kato, Atsushi; Fleet, George W J

    2015-05-01

    Reverse aldol opening renders amides of 3-hydroxyazetidinecarboxylic acids (3-OH-Aze) unstable above pH 8. Aze, found in sugar beet, is mis-incorporated for proline in peptides in humans and is associated with multiple sclerosis and teratogenesis. Aze-containing peptides may be oxygenated by prolyl hydroxylases resulting in potential damage of the protein by a reverse aldol of the hydroxyazetidine; this, rather than changes in conformation, may account for the deleterious effects of Aze. This paper describes the synthesis of 3-fluoro-Aze amino acids as hydroxy-Aze analogues which are not susceptible to aldol cleavage. 4-(Azidomethyl)-3-fluoro-Aze and 3,4-difluoroproline are new peptide building blocks. trans,trans-2,4-Dihydroxy-3-fluoroazetidine, an iminosugar, inhibits the growth of pancreatic cancer cells to a similar degree as gemcitabine.

  1. Selective Inhibition on RAGE-binding AGEs Required by Bioactive Peptide Alpha-S2 Case in Protein from Goat Ethawah Breed Milk: Study of Biological Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Fatchiyah, Fatchiyah; Hardiyanti, Ferlany; Widodo, Nashi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Advanced Glycation End Products (AGE) play a pivotal role in the development various degenerative diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, neuropathy, and nephropathy. Different studies have been done to employ AGEs as drug targets for the diseases therapy. In previous study, we have found bioactive peptide from Ethawah goat milk for anti-diabetic that may work through inhibition of AGE receptor function. However, the mechanism of bioactive peptides inhibits AGE- AGE receptor (RAGE) bonding still not clear yet. Therefore we investigated the inhibition mechanism by calculate the potential energy binding among the peptides, AGEs and RAGE using molecular docking system. Methods: Modeling 3D-structure was predicted by SWISS-MODEL web server. The virtual interaction was analyzed by docking system using HEX 8.0, Pymol and Discovery Studio 4.0 software. Results: this study showed that AGEs (Argypirimidine, Imidazole, Pentosidine and Pyrraline) bind to C-domain of RAGE. The total energy binding of RAGE with Argypirimidine, Imidazole, Pentosidine and Pyrraline were 378.35kJ/mol, -74.57kJ/mol, -301.25kJ/mol and -400.72kJ/mol, respectively. We have found three peptides among eight peptides from Ethawah goat milk, which are able bind to C-domain of RAGE, there are CSN1S2 f41-47, CSN1S2 f182-189, and CSN1S2 f214-221. The CSN1S22 f41-47 at arginine residue 47 interacts with proline162, leusine163 and leusine158 of RAGE. The total binding energy between CSN1S2 f41-47, CSN1S2 f182-189, and CSN1S2 f214-221 with RAGE were -378.35 kJ/mol, -359.97kJ/mol, -356.78 kJ/mol, respectively. Total binding energy and binding pattern indicated that RAGE more prefer bind with peptide and block AGE bind to functional site of RAGE. Further analysis showed that complex peptide-RAGE shifted binding site of AGE on function domain RAGE. Conclusion: This study suggested that the peptides from Ethawah goat milk may act as an inhibitor of AGEs-RAGE interaction that impaired

  2. Peripheral Administration of a Long-Acting Peptide Oxytocin Receptor Agonist Inhibits Fear-Induced Freezing

    PubMed Central

    Modi, Meera E.; Majchrzak, Mark J.; Fonseca, Kari R.; Doran, Angela; Osgood, Sarah; Vanase-Frawley, Michelle; Feyfant, Eric; McInnes, Heather; Darvari, Ramin; Buhl, Derek L.

    2016-01-01

    Oxytocin (OT) modulates the expression of social and emotional behaviors and consequently has been proposed as a pharmacologic treatment of psychiatric diseases, including autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia; however, endogenous OT has a short half-life in plasma and poor permeability across the blood-brain barrier. Recent efforts have focused on the development of novel drug delivery methods to enhance brain penetration, but few efforts have aimed at improving its half-life. To explore the behavioral efficacy of an OT analog with enhanced plasma stability, we developed PF-06655075 (PF1), a novel non–brain-penetrant OT receptor agonist with increased selectivity for the OT receptor and significantly increased pharmacokinetic stability. PF-06478939 was generated with only increased stability to disambiguate changes to selectivity versus stability. The efficacy of these compounds in evoking behavioral effects was tested in a conditioned fear paradigm. Both central and peripheral administration of PF1 inhibited freezing in response to a conditioned fear stimulus. Peripheral administration of PF1 resulted in a sustained level of plasma concentrations for greater than 20 hours but no detectable accumulation in brain tissue, suggesting that plasma or cerebrospinal fluid exposure was sufficient to evoke behavioral effects. Behavioral efficacy of peripherally administered OT receptor agonists on conditioned fear response opens the door to potential peripheral mechanisms in other behavioral paradigms, whether they are mediated by direct peripheral activation or feed-forward responses. Compound PF1 is freely available as a tool compound to further explore the role of peripheral OT in behavioral response. PMID:27217590

  3. LSKL peptide alleviates subarachnoid fibrosis and hydrocephalus by inhibiting TSP1-mediated TGF-β1 signaling activity following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Fan; Li, Gaofeng; Yuan, Wen; Chen, Yujie; Zuo, Yuchun; Rashid, Kauthar; Zhang, John H.; Feng, Hua; Liu, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Hydrocephalus has been demonstrated to be an independent risk factor for poor outcomes in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Blockage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow and drainage is widely considered to play a vital role in communicating hydrocephalus, possibly due to subarachnoid fibrosis. A previous study indicated that transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), a key fibrogenic factor, is significantly increased in the CSF following SAH, implying a pivotal role in the development of chronic hydrocephalus. To investigate whether LSKL peptide, a small molecular peptide and competitive antagonist for TGF-β1, protects against subarachnoid fibrosis and hydrocephalus after SAH, a two-hemorrhage injection model of SAH was created in Sprague-Dawley rats. LSKL (1 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally immediately following the first intravenous injection of blood in the SAH model, with repeated injections of LSKL every 12 h until sacrifice. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1), TGF-β1, p-Smad2/3, collagen I and pro-collagen I c-terminal propeptide levels were assessed via western blotting and ELISA. Lateral ventricular index, Masson staining and Morris water maze tests were employed to evaluate subarachnoid fibrosis, hydrocephalus and long-term neurological function following SAH. It was found that the LKSL peptide readily crossed the blood brain barrier, was protective against subarachnoid fibrosis, attenuated ventriculomegaly and effectively suppressed hydrocephalus. In addition, the results indicated that the protective effects of the LSKL peptide were achieved via the inhibition of TGF-β1 activity and subsequent Smad2/3 signaling. Importantly, the LSKL peptide may improve long-term neurocognitive deficits after SAH. In conclusion, the LSKL peptide suppresses subarachnoid fibrosis via inhibition of TSP1-mediated TGF-β1 activity, prevents the development of chronic hydrocephalus and improves long-term neurocognitive defects following SAH.

  4. LSKL peptide alleviates subarachnoid fibrosis and hydrocephalus by inhibiting TSP1-mediated TGF-β1 signaling activity following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Fan; Li, Gaofeng; Yuan, Wen; Chen, Yujie; Zuo, Yuchun; Rashid, Kauthar; Zhang, John H.; Feng, Hua; Liu, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Hydrocephalus has been demonstrated to be an independent risk factor for poor outcomes in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Blockage of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow and drainage is widely considered to play a vital role in communicating hydrocephalus, possibly due to subarachnoid fibrosis. A previous study indicated that transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), a key fibrogenic factor, is significantly increased in the CSF following SAH, implying a pivotal role in the development of chronic hydrocephalus. To investigate whether LSKL peptide, a small molecular peptide and competitive antagonist for TGF-β1, protects against subarachnoid fibrosis and hydrocephalus after SAH, a two-hemorrhage injection model of SAH was created in Sprague-Dawley rats. LSKL (1 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally immediately following the first intravenous injection of blood in the SAH model, with repeated injections of LSKL every 12 h until sacrifice. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1), TGF-β1, p-Smad2/3, collagen I and pro-collagen I c-terminal propeptide levels were assessed via western blotting and ELISA. Lateral ventricular index, Masson staining and Morris water maze tests were employed to evaluate subarachnoid fibrosis, hydrocephalus and long-term neurological function following SAH. It was found that the LKSL peptide readily crossed the blood brain barrier, was protective against subarachnoid fibrosis, attenuated ventriculomegaly and effectively suppressed hydrocephalus. In addition, the results indicated that the protective effects of the LSKL peptide were achieved via the inhibition of TGF-β1 activity and subsequent Smad2/3 signaling. Importantly, the LSKL peptide may improve long-term neurocognitive deficits after SAH. In conclusion, the LSKL peptide suppresses subarachnoid fibrosis via inhibition of TSP1-mediated TGF-β1 activity, prevents the development of chronic hydrocephalus and improves long-term neurocognitive defects following SAH. PMID:27698755

  5. Short communication: Is consumption of a cheese rich in angiotensin-converting enzyme-inhibiting peptides, such as the Norwegian cheese Gamalost, associated with reduced blood pressure?

    PubMed

    Nilsen, R; Pripp, A H; Høstmark, A T; Haug, A; Skeie, S

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibiting peptides derived from dairy products may decrease blood pressure. These peptides have been identified in many cheeses, and Gamalost, a traditional Norwegian cheese, is particularly rich in these peptides. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine whether frequency of Gamalost intake was associated with blood pressure in a Norwegian population sample. Blood pressure and other clinical measurements, including the factors of metabolic syndrome, were obtained from 168 participants (56% female, mean age = 51 yr) who completed a questionnaire about dietary habits and other health-related factors. Mean Gamalost intake was 2 servings per week. The prevalence of hypertension was 23.8% in the population, with mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures of 128 and 78 mmHg, respectively. Intake of Gamalost was inversely associated with systolic blood pressure. Each increase in frequency unit of Gamalost intake corresponded to a reduction in systolic blood pressure of 0.72 mmHg, after controlling for sex, age, education, waist circumference, physical activity, smoking status, and dairy food intake. Results from this study indicate that consumption of Gamalost (or other foods rich in ACE-inhibiting peptides) may reduce blood pressure.

  6. Inhibition of filament formation of human Rad51 protein by a small peptide derived from the BRC-motif of the BRCA2 protein.

    PubMed

    Nomme, Julian; Takizawa, Yoshimasa; Martinez, Susan F; Renodon-Cornière, Axelle; Fleury, Fabrice; Weigel, Pierre; Yamamoto, Ken-ichi; Kurumizaka, Hitoshi; Takahashi, Masayuki

    2008-05-01

    Human Rad51 is a key element of recombinational DNA repair and is related to the resistance of cancer cells to chemo- and radiotherapies. The protein is thus a potential target of anti-cancer treatment. The crystallographic analysis shows that the BRC-motif of the BRCA2 tumor suppressor is in contact with the subunit-subunit interface of Rad51 and could thus prevent filament formation of Rad51. However, biochemical analysis indicates that a BRC-motif peptide of 69 amino acids preferentially binds to the N-terminal part of Rad51. We show experimentally that a short peptide of 28 amino acids derived from the BRC4 motif binds to the subunit-subunit interface and dissociates its filament, both in the presence and absence of DNA, certainly by binding to dissociated monomers. The inhibition is efficient and specific for Rad51: the peptide does not even interact with Rad51 homologs or prevent their interaction with DNA. Neither the N-terminal nor the C-terminal half of the peptide interacts with human Rad51, indicating that both parts are involved in the interaction, as expected from the crystal structure. These results suggest the possibility of developing inhibitors of human Rad51 based on this peptide.

  7. Identification of the peptide derived from S1 domain that inhibits type I and type II feline infectious peritonitis virus infection.

    PubMed

    Doki, Tomoyoshi; Takano, Tomomi; Koyama, Yusuke; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

    2015-06-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) can cause a lethal disease in cats, feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). A therapeutic drug that is effective against FIP has not yet been developed. Peptides based on viral protein amino acid sequences have recently been attracting attention as new antiviral drugs. In the present study, we synthesized 30 overlapping peptides based on the amino acid sequence of the S1 domain of the type I FIPV strain KU-2 S protein, and investigated their inhibitory effects on FIPV infection. To evaluate the inhibitory effects on type I FIPV infection of these peptides, we investigated a method to increase the infection efficiency of poorly replicative type I FIPV. The efficiency of type I FIPV infection was increased by diluting the virus with medium containing a polycation. Of the 30 peptides, I-S1-8 (S461-S480), I-S1-9 (S471-S490), I-S1-10 (S481-S500), I-S1-16 (S541-S560), and I-S1-22 (S601-S620) significantly decreased the infectivity of FIPV strain KU-2 while I-S1-9 and I-S1-16 exhibited marked inhibitory effects on FIPV infection. The inhibitory effects on FIPV infection of these 2 peptides on other type I and type II FIPV strains, feline herpesvirus (FHV), and feline calicivirus (FCV) were also examined. These 2 peptides specifically inhibited type I and type II FIPV, but did FHV or FCV infection. In conclusion, the possibility of peptides derived from the S protein of type I FIPV strain KU-2 as anti-FIPV agents effective not only for type I, but also type II FIPV was demonstrated in vitro. PMID:25896976

  8. Identification of the peptide derived from S1 domain that inhibits type I and type II feline infectious peritonitis virus infection.

    PubMed

    Doki, Tomoyoshi; Takano, Tomomi; Koyama, Yusuke; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu

    2015-06-01

    Feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) can cause a lethal disease in cats, feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). A therapeutic drug that is effective against FIP has not yet been developed. Peptides based on viral protein amino acid sequences have recently been attracting attention as new antiviral drugs. In the present study, we synthesized 30 overlapping peptides based on the amino acid sequence of the S1 domain of the type I FIPV strain KU-2 S protein, and investigated their inhibitory effects on FIPV infection. To evaluate the inhibitory effects on type I FIPV infection of these peptides, we investigated a method to increase the infection efficiency of poorly replicative type I FIPV. The efficiency of type I FIPV infection was increased by diluting the virus with medium containing a polycation. Of the 30 peptides, I-S1-8 (S461-S480), I-S1-9 (S471-S490), I-S1-10 (S481-S500), I-S1-16 (S541-S560), and I-S1-22 (S601-S620) significantly decreased the infectivity of FIPV strain KU-2 while I-S1-9 and I-S1-16 exhibited marked inhibitory effects on FIPV infection. The inhibitory effects on FIPV infection of these 2 peptides on other type I and type II FIPV strains, feline herpesvirus (FHV), and feline calicivirus (FCV) were also examined. These 2 peptides specifically inhibited type I and type II FIPV, but did FHV or FCV infection. In conclusion, the possibility of peptides derived from the S protein of type I FIPV strain KU-2 as anti-FIPV agents effective not only for type I, but also type II FIPV was demonstrated in vitro.

  9. A 24-Residue Peptide (p5), Derived from p35, the Cdk5 Neuronal Activator, Specifically Inhibits Cdk5-p25 Hyperactivity and Tau Hyperphosphorylation*

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ya-Li; Amin, Niranjana D.; Hu, Ya-Fang; Rudrabhatla, Parvathi; Shukla, Varsha; Kanungo, Jyotshnabala; Kesavapany, Sashi; Grant, Philip; Albers, Wayne; Pant, Harish C.

    2010-01-01

    The activity of Cdk5-p35 is tightly regulated in the developing and mature nervous system. Stress-induced cleavage of the activator p35 to p25 and a p10 N-terminal domain induces deregulated Cdk5 hyperactivity and perikaryal aggregations of hyperphosphorylated Tau and neurofilaments, pathogenic hallmarks in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, respectively. Previously, we identified a 125-residue truncated fragment of p35 called CIP that effectively and specifically inhibited Cdk5-p25 activity and Tau hyperphosphorylation induced by Aβ peptides in vitro, in HEK293 cells, and in neuronal cells. Although these results offer a possible therapeutic approach to those neurodegenerative diseases assumed to derive from Cdk5-p25 hyperactivity and/or Aβ induced pathology, CIP is too large for successful therapeutic regimens. To identify a smaller, more effective peptide, in this study we prepared a 24-residue peptide, p5, spanning CIP residues Lys245–Ala277. p5 more effectively inhibited Cdk5-p25 activity than did CIP in vitro. In neuron cells, p5 inhibited deregulated Cdk5-p25 activity but had no effect on the activity of endogenous Cdk5-p35 or on any related endogenous cyclin-dependent kinases in HEK293 cells. Specificity of p5 inhibition in cortical neurons may depend on the p10 domain in p35, which is absent in p25. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that p5 reduced Aβ(1–42)-induced Tau hyperphosphorylation and apoptosis in cortical neurons. These results suggest that p5 peptide may be a unique and useful candidate for therapeutic studies of certain neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:20720012

  10. [STUDIES IN VITRO INHIBITION OF THE ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME-I, HYPOTENSIVE AND ANTIHYPERTENSIVE EFFECTS OF PEPTIDE FRACTIONS OF V. UNGUICULATA].

    PubMed

    Cú-Cañetas, Trinidad; Betancur Ancona, David; Gallegos Tintoré, Santiago; Sandoval Peraza, Mukthar; Chel Guerrero, Luis

    2015-11-01

    Inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme I (ACE-I) in vitro and in vivo from peptide fractions by enzymatic hydrolysis of the Vigna unguiculata protein concentrate was evaluated. Hydrolysis was done with Pepsin-Pancreatin and Flavourzima in two separate systems. The resulting hidrolysates were ultrafiltrated to obtain fractions with different molecular weight. The fractions with better inhibition Flavourzima were size > 1 kDa (> 1 kDa-F) and < 1 kDa (< 1 kDa-F), with an IC50 of 1222.84 and 1098.6 μg/ml respectively. Pepsin-Pancreatin fraction.

  11. [STUDIES IN VITRO INHIBITION OF THE ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME-I, HYPOTENSIVE AND ANTIHYPERTENSIVE EFFECTS OF PEPTIDE FRACTIONS OF V. UNGUICULATA].

    PubMed

    Cú-Cañetas, Trinidad; Betancur Ancona, David; Gallegos Tintoré, Santiago; Sandoval Peraza, Mukthar; Chel Guerrero, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme I (ACE-I) in vitro and in vivo from peptide fractions by enzymatic hydrolysis of the Vigna unguiculata protein concentrate was evaluated. Hydrolysis was done with Pepsin-Pancreatin and Flavourzima in two separate systems. The resulting hidrolysates were ultrafiltrated to obtain fractions with different molecular weight. The fractions with better inhibition Flavourzima were size > 1 kDa (> 1 kDa-F) and < 1 kDa (< 1 kDa-F), with an IC50 of 1222.84 and 1098.6 μg/ml respectively. Pepsin-Pancreatin fraction. PMID:26545668

  12. The mechanism of inhibition of the cyclin-dependent kinase-2 as revealed by the molecular dynamics study on the complex CDK2 with the peptide substrate HHASPRK

    PubMed Central

    Bártová, Iveta; Otyepka, Michal; KřÍž, Zdeněk; Koča, Jaroslav

    2005-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were used to explain structural details of cyclin-dependent kinase-2 (CDK2) inhibition by phosphorylation at T14 and/or Y15 located in the glycine-rich loop (G-loop). Ten-nanosecond-long simulations of fully active CDK2 in a complex with a short peptide (HHASPRK) substrate and of CDK2 inhibited by phosphorylation of T14 and/or Y15 were produced. The inhibitory phosphorylations at T14 and/or Y15 show namely an ATP misalignment and a G-loop shift (~5 Å) causing the opening of the substrate binding box. The biological functions of the G-loop and GxGxxG motif evolutionary conservation in protein kinases are discussed. The position of the ATP γ-phosphate relative to the phosphorylation site (S/T) of the peptide substrate in the active CDK2 is described and compared with inhibited forms of CDK2. The MD results clearly provide an explanation previously not known as to why a basic residue (R/K) is preferred at the P2 position in phosphorylated S/T peptide substrates. PMID:15632290

  13. Oxidant Sensing by TRPM2 Inhibits Neutrophil Migration and Mitigates Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Cao, Luyang; Liu, Xiaowen; Sieracki, Nathan A; Di, Anke; Wen, Xi; Chen, Yong; Taylor, Shalina; Huang, Xiaojia; Tiruppathi, Chinnaswamy; Zhao, You-Yang; Song, Yuanlin; Gao, Xiaopei; Jin, Tian; Bai, Chunxue; Malik, Asrar B; Xu, Jingsong

    2016-09-12

    Blood neutrophils perform an essential host-defense function by directly migrating to bacterial invasion sites to kill bacteria. The mechanisms mediating the transition from the migratory to bactericidal phenotype remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that TRPM2, a trp superfamily member, senses neutrophil-generated reactive oxygen species and restrains neutrophil migration. The inhibitory function of oxidant sensing by TRPM2 requires the oxidation of Cys549, which then induces TRMP2 binding to formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) and subsequent FPR1 internalization and signaling inhibition. The oxidant sensing-induced termination of neutrophil migration at the site of infection permits a smooth transition to the subsequent microbial killing phase. PMID:27569419

  14. Ambident Reactivity of Acetyl- and Formyl-Stabilized Phosphonium Ylides.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Peter A; Karaghiosoff, Konstantin; Mayr, Herbert

    2016-09-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of the reactions of formyl-stabilized ylide Ph3P═CHCHO (1) and acetyl-stabilized ylide Ph3P═CHCOMe (2) with benzhydrylium ions (Ar2CH(+), 3) were investigated by UV-vis and NMR spectroscopy. As ambident nucleophiles, ylides 1 and 2 can react at oxygen as well as at the α-carbon. For some reactions, it was possible to determine the second-order rate constant for O-attack as well as for C-attack and to derive the nucleophile-specific parameters N and sN according to the correlation lg k (20 °C) = sN(E + N) for both nucleophilic sites. Generally, O-attack of benzhydrylium ions is faster than C-attack. However, the initially formed benzhydryloxyvinylphosphonium ions can only be observed by NMR spectroscopy when benzhydryl cations with high Lewis acidity are employed. In other cases, rearrangement to the thermodynamically more stable products arising from C-attack occurs. The results derived from our investigations are employed to rationalize the behavior of ambident nucleophiles 1 and 2 in reactions with carbon-centered electrophiles in general. It is shown that the principle of hard and soft acids and bases (HSAB) and the related Klopman-Salem concept of charge and orbital control lead to incorrect predictions of regioselectivity. We also show that the rate of the Wittig reaction of ylide 2 with aldehyde 14 is significantly faster than the rate of either C- or O-attack calculated using lg k (20 °C) = sN(E + N), thus indicating that the oxaphosphetane is formed by a concerted [2 + 2] cycloaddition. PMID:27499510

  15. A herpes simplex virus scaffold peptide that binds the portal vertex inhibits early steps in viral replication.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kui; Wills, Elizabeth; Baines, Joel D

    2013-06-01

    Previous experiments identified a 12-amino-acid (aa) peptide that was sufficient to interact with the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) portal protein and was necessary to incorporate the portal into capsids. In the present study, cells were treated at various times postinfection with peptides consisting of a portion of the Drosophila antennapedia protein, previously shown to enter cells efficiently, fused to either wild-type HSV-1 scaffold peptide (YPYYPGEARGAP) or a control peptide that contained changes at positions 4 and 5. These 4-tyrosine and 5-proline residues are highly conserved in herpesvirus scaffold proteins and were previously shown to be critical for the portal interaction. Treatment early in infection with subtoxic levels of wild-type peptide reduced viral infectivity by over 1,000-fold, while the mutant peptide had little effect on viral yields. In cells infected for 3 h in the presence of wild-type peptide, capsids were observed to transit to the nuclear rim normally, as viewed by fluorescence microscopy. However, observation by electron microscopy in thin sections revealed an aberrant and significant increase of DNA-containing capsids compared to infected cells treated with the mutant peptide. Early treatment with peptide also prevented formation of viral DNA replication compartments. These data suggest that the antiviral peptide stabilizes capsids early in infection, causing retention of DNA within them, and that this activity correlates with peptide binding to the portal protein. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that the portal vertex is the conduit through which DNA is ejected to initiate infection.

  16. Velvet antler peptide prevents pressure overload-induced cardiac fibrosis via transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 pathway inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lihong; Mi, Yang; Guan, Hongya; Xu, Yan; Mei, Yingwu

    2016-07-15

    Velvet antlers (VAs) are commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine and invigorant and contain many functional components for health promotion. The velvet antler peptide sVAP32 is one of active components in VAs; based on structural study, the sVAP32 interacts with TGF-β1 receptors and disrupts the TGF-β1 pathway. We hypothesized that sVAP32 prevents cardiac fibrosis from pressure overload by blocking TGF-β1 signaling. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or a sham operation. After one month, rats received either sVAP32 (15mg/kg/day) or vehicle for an additional one month. TAC surgery induced significant cardiac dysfunction, fibroblast activation and fibrosis; these effects were improved by treatment with sVAP32. In the heart tissue, TAC remarkably increased the expression of TGF-β1 and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), reactive oxygen species levels, and the phosphorylation levels of Smad2/3 and extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2). SVAP32 inhibited the increases in reactive oxygen species levels, CTGF expression and the phosphorylation of Smad2/3 and ERK1/2, but not TGF-β1 expression. In cultured cardiac fibroblasts, angiotensin II (Ang II) had similar effects compared to TAC surgery, such as increases in α-SMA-positive cardiac fibroblasts and collagen synthesis. SVAP32 eliminated these effects by disrupting TGF-β1 binding to its receptors and blocking Ang II/TGF-β1 downstream signaling. These results demonstrated that sVAP32 has anti-fibrotic effects by blocking the TGF-β1 pathway in cardiac fibroblasts.

  17. RGD peptides protects against acute lung injury in septic mice through Wisp1-integrin β6 pathway inhibition.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xibing; Wang, Xin; Zhao, Xiang; Jin, Shuqing; Tong, Yao; Ren, Hao; Chen, Zhixia; Li, Quan

    2015-04-01

    Acute lung injury is a common consequence of sepsis, a life-threatening inflammatory response caused by severe infection. In this study, we elucidate the attenuating effects of synthetic Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser peptides (RGDs) on acute lung injury in a sepsis mouse model. We further reveal that the beneficial effects of RGDs stem from their negative regulation of the Wisp1 (WNT1-inducible signaling pathway)-integrin β6 pathway. After inducing sepsis using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), mice were randomized into experimental and control groups, and survival rates were recorded over 7 days, whereas only 20% of mice subjected to CLP survived when compared with untreated controls; the addition of RGDs to this treatment regimen dramatically increased the survival rate to 80%. Histological analysis revealed acute lung injury in CLP-treated mice, whereas those subjected to the combined treatment of CLP and RGDs showed a considerable decrease in lung injury severity. The addition of RGDs also dramatically attenuated other common sepsis-associated effects, such as increased white blood cell number in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and decreased pulmonary capillary barrier function. Furthermore, treatment with RGDs decreased the serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid levels of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6, contrary to the CLP treatment alone that increased the levels of these proteins. Interestingly, however, RGDs had no detectable effect on bacterial invasion following sepsis induction. In addition, mice treated with RGDs showed decreased levels of wisp1 and integrin β6 when compared with CLP-treated mice. In the present study, a linkage between Wisp1 and integrin β6 was evaluated in vivo. Most strikingly, RGDs resulted in a decreased association of Wisp1 with integrin β6 based on coimmunoprecipitation analyses. These data suggest that RGDs ameliorate acute lung injury in a sepsis mouse model by inhibiting the Wisp1-integrin β6

  18. Annexin A1 mimetic peptide controls the inflammatory and fibrotic effects of silica particles in mice

    PubMed Central

    Trentin, P G; Ferreira, T P T; Arantes, A C S; Ciambarella, B T; Cordeiro, R S B; Flower, R J; Perretti, M; Martins, M A; Silva, P M R

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Endogenous glucocorticoids are pro-resolving mediators, an example of which is the endogenous glucocorticoid-regulated protein annexin A1 (ANXA1). Because silicosis is an occupational lung disease characterized by unabated inflammation and fibrosis, in this study we tested the therapeutic properties of the N-terminal ANXA1-derived peptide annexin 1-(2-26) (Ac2-26) on experimental silicosis. Experimental Approach Swiss-Webster mice were administered silica particles intranasally and were subsequently treated with intranasal peptide Ac2-26 (200 μg per mouse) or dexamethasone (25 μg per mouse) for 7 days, starting 6 h post-challenge. Ac2-26 abolished the leukocyte infiltration, collagen deposition, granuloma formation and generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines evoked by silica; these variables were only partially inhibited by dexamethasone. Key Results A clear exacerbation of the silica-induced pathological changes was observed in ANXA1 knockout mice as compared with their wild-type (WT) littermate controls. Incubation of lung fibroblasts from WT mice with Ac2-26 in vitro reduced IL-13 or TGF-β-induced production of CCL2 (MCP-1) and collagen, but this peptide did not affect the production of CCL2 (MCP-1) by stimulated fibroblasts from formyl peptide receptor type 1 (FPR1) knockout mice. Ac2-26 also inhibited the production of CCL2 (MCP-1) from fibroblasts of FPR2 knockout mice. Conclusions and Implications Collectively, our findings reveal novel protective properties of the ANXA1 derived peptide Ac2-26 on the inflammatory and fibrotic responses induced by silica, and suggest that ANXA1 mimetic agents might be a promising strategy as innovative anti-fibrotic approaches for the treatment of silicosis. PMID:25659822

  19. HbAHP-25, an In-Silico Designed Peptide, Inhibits HIV-1 Entry by Blocking gp120 Binding to CD4 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Tahir; Patgaonkar, Mandar; Kumar C, Selvaa; Pasi, Achhelal; Reddy, Kudumula Venkata Rami

    2015-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) poses a serious threat to the developing world and sexual transmission continues to be the major source of new infections. Therefore, the development of molecules, which prevent new HIV-1 infections, is highly warranted. In the present study, a panel of human hemoglobin (Hb)-α subunit derived peptides and their analogues, with an ability to bind gp120, were designed in-silico and their anti-HIV-1 activity was evaluated. Of these peptides, HbAHP-25, an analogue of Hb-α derived peptide, demonstrated significant anti-HIV-1 activity. HbAHP-25 was found to be active against CCR5-tropic HIV-1 strains (ADA5 and BaL) and CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 strains (IIIB and NL4-3). Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and ELISA revealed direct interaction between HbAHP-25 and HIV-1 envelope protein, gp120. The peptide prevented binding of CD4 to gp120 and blocked subsequent steps leading to entry and/or fusion or both. Anti-HIV activity of HbAHP-25 appeared to be specific as it failed to inhibit the entry of HIV-1 pseudotyped virus (HIV-1 VSV). Further, HbAHP-25 was found to be non-cytotoxic to TZM-bl cells, VK2/E6E7 cells, CEM-GFP cells and PBMCs, even at higher concentrations. Moreover, HbAHP-25 retained its anti-HIV activity in presence of seminal plasma and vaginal fluid. In brief, the study identified HbAHP-25, a novel anti-HIV peptide, which directly interacts with gp120 and thus has a potential to inhibit early stages of HIV-1 infection. PMID:25915507

  20. HbAHP-25, an In-Silico Designed Peptide, Inhibits HIV-1 Entry by Blocking gp120 Binding to CD4 Receptor.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Tahir; Patgaonkar, Mandar; Kumar, Selvaa C; Pasi, Achhelal; Reddy, Kudumula Venkata Rami

    2015-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) poses a serious threat to the developing world and sexual transmission continues to be the major source of new infections. Therefore, the development of molecules, which prevent new HIV-1 infections, is highly warranted. In the present study, a panel of human hemoglobin (Hb)-α subunit derived peptides and their analogues, with an ability to bind gp120, were designed in-silico and their anti-HIV-1 activity was evaluated. Of these peptides, HbAHP-25, an analogue of Hb-α derived peptide, demonstrated significant anti-HIV-1 activity. HbAHP-25 was found to be active against CCR5-tropic HIV-1 strains (ADA5 and BaL) and CXCR4-tropic HIV-1 strains (IIIB and NL4-3). Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and ELISA revealed direct interaction between HbAHP-25 and HIV-1 envelope protein, gp120. The peptide prevented binding of CD4 to gp120 and blocked subsequent steps leading to entry and/or fusion or both. Anti-HIV activity of HbAHP-25 appeared to be specific as it failed to inhibit the entry of HIV-1 pseudotyped virus (HIV-1 VSV). Further, HbAHP-25 was found to be non-cytotoxic to TZM-bl cells, VK2/E6E7 cells, CEM-GFP cells and PBMCs, even at higher concentrations. Moreover, HbAHP-25 retained its anti-HIV activity in presence of seminal plasma and vaginal fluid. In brief, the study identified HbAHP-25, a novel anti-HIV peptide, which directly interacts with gp120 and thus has a potential to inhibit early stages of HIV-1 infection. PMID:25915507

  1. Structure-Based Design and Synthesis of Potent Cyclic Peptides Inhibiting the YAP-TEAD Protein-Protein Interaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhisen; Lin, Zhaohu; Zhou, Zheng; Shen, Hong C; Yan, S Frank; Mayweg, Alexander V; Xu, Zhiheng; Qin, Ning; Wong, Jason C; Zhang, Zhenshan; Rong, Yiping; Fry, David C; Hu, Taishan

    2014-09-11

    The YAP-TEAD protein-protein interaction (PPI) mediates the oncogenic function of YAP, and inhibitors of this PPI have potential usage in treatment of YAP-involved cancers. Here we report the design and synthesis of potent cyclic peptide inhibitors of the YAP-TEAD interaction. A truncation study of YAP interface 3 peptide identified YAP(84-100) as a weak peptide inhibitor (IC50 = 37 μM), and an alanine scan revealed a beneficial mutation, D94A. Subsequent replacement of a native cation-π interaction with an optimized disulfide bridge for conformational constraint and synergistic effect between macrocyclization and modification at positions 91 and 93 greatly boosted inhibitory activity. Peptide 17 was identified with an IC50 of 25 nM, and the binding affinity (K d = 15 nM) of this 17mer peptide to TEAD1 proved to be stronger than YAP(50-171) (K d = 40 nM).

  2. Rescue of amyloid-Beta-induced inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by a peptide homologous to the nicotine binding domain of the alpha 7 subtype.

    PubMed

    Nery, Arthur A; Magdesian, Margaret H; Trujillo, Cleber A; Sathler, Luciana B; Juliano, Maria A; Juliano, Luiz; Ulrich, Henning; Ferreira, Sergio T

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by brain accumulation of the neurotoxic amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) and by loss of cholinergic neurons and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Recent evidence indicates that memory loss and cognitive decline in AD correlate better with the amount of soluble Aβ than with the extent of amyloid plaque deposits in affected brains. Inhibition of nAChRs by soluble Aβ40 is suggested to contribute to early cholinergic dysfunction in AD. Using phage display screening, we have previously identified a heptapeptide, termed IQ, homologous to most nAChR subtypes, binding with nanomolar affinity to soluble Aβ40 and blocking Aβ-induced inhibition of carbamylcholine-induced currents in PC12 cells expressing α7 nAChRs. Using alanine scanning mutagenesis and whole-cell current recording, we have now defined the amino acids in IQ essential for reversal of Aβ40 inhibition of carbamylcholine-induced responses in PC12 cells, mediated by α7 subtypes and other endogenously expressed nAChRs. We further investigated the effects of soluble Aβ, IQ and analogues of IQ on α3β4 nAChRs recombinantly expressed in HEK293 cells. Results show that nanomolar concentrations of soluble Aβ40 potently inhibit the function of α3β4 nAChRs, and that subsequent addition of IQ or its analogues does not reverse this effect. However, co-application of IQ makes the inhibition of α3β4 nAChRs by Aβ40 reversible. These findings indicate that Aβ40 inhibits different subtypes of nAChRs by interacting with specific receptor domains homologous to the IQ peptide, suggesting that IQ may be a lead for novel drugs to block the inhibition of cholinergic function in AD.

  3. Peptides based on alphaV-binding domains of erythrocyte ICAM-4 inhibit sickle red cell-endothelial interactions and vaso-occlusion in the microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Kaul, Dhananjay K; Liu, Xiao-du; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Mankelow, Tosti; Parsons, Stephen; Spring, Frances; An, Xiuli; Mohandas, Narla; Anstee, David; Chasis, Joel Anne

    2006-11-01

    Growing evidence shows that adhesion molecules on sickle erythrocytes interact with vascular endothelium leading to vaso-occlusion. Erythrocyte intercellular adhesion molecule-4 (ICAM-4) binds alphaV-integrins, including alphaVbeta3 on endothelial cells. To explore the contribution of ICAM-4 to vascular pathology of sickle cell disease, we tested the effects of synthetic peptides, V(16)PFWVRMS (FWV) and T(91)RWATSRI (ATSR), based on alphaV-binding domains of ICAM-4 and capable of inhibiting ICAM-4 and alphaV-binding in vitro. For these studies, we utilized an established ex vivo microvascular model system that enables intravital microscopy and quantitation of adhesion under shear flow. In this model, the use of platelet-activating factor, which causes endothelial oxidant generation and endothelial activation, mimicked physiological states known to occur in sickle cell disease. Infusion of sickle erythrocytes into platelet-activating factor-treated ex vivo rat mesocecum vasculature produced pronounced adhesion of erythrocytes; small-diameter venules were sites of maximal adhesion and frequent blockage. Both FWV and ATSR peptides markedly decreased adhesion, and no vessel blockage was observed with either of the peptides, resulting in improved hemodynamics. ATSR also inhibited adhesion in unactivated microvasculature. Although infused fluoresceinated ATSR colocalized with vascular endothelium, pretreatment with function-blocking antibody to alphaVbeta3-integrin markedly inhibited this interaction. Our data strengthen the thesis that ICAM-4 on sickle erythrocytes binds endothelium via alphaVbeta3 and that this interaction contributes to vaso-occlusion. Thus peptides or small molecule mimetics of ICAM-4 may have therapeutic potential.

  4. Development of a high-affinity peptide that prevents phospholemman (PLM) inhibition of the sodium/calcium exchanger 1 (NCX1).

    PubMed

    Wanichawan, Pimthanya; Hodne, Kjetil; Hafver, Tandekile Lubelwana; Lunde, Marianne; Martinsen, Marita; Louch, William Edward; Sejersted, Ole Mathias; Carlson, Cathrine Rein

    2016-08-01

    NCX1 (Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger 1) is an important regulator of intracellular Ca(2+) and a potential therapeutic target for brain ischaemia and for diastolic heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. PLM (phospholemman), a substrate for protein kinases A and C, has been suggested to regulate NCX1 activity. However, although several studies have demonstrated that binding of phosphorylated PLM (pSer(68)-PLM) leads to NCX1 inhibition, other studies have failed to demonstrate a functional interaction of these proteins. In the present study, we aimed to analyse the biological function of the pSer(68)-PLM-NCX1 interaction by developing high-affinity blocking peptides. PLM was observed to co-fractionate and co-immunoprecipitate with NCX1 in rat left ventricle, and in co-transfected HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293 cells. For the first time, the NCX1-PLM interaction was also demonstrated in the brain. PLM binding sites on NCX1 were mapped to two regions by peptide array assays, containing the previously reported PASKT and QKHPD motifs. Conversely, the two NCX1 regions bound identical sequences in the cytoplasmic domain of PLM, suggesting that NCX1-PASKT and NCX1-QKHPD might bind to each PLM monomer. Using two-dimensional peptide arrays of the native NCX1 sequence KHPDKEIEQLIELANYQVLS revealed that double substitution of tyrosine for positions 1 and 4 (K1Y and D4Y) enhanced pSer(68)-PLM binding 8-fold. The optimized peptide blocked binding of NCX1-PASKT and NCX1-QKHPD to PLM and reversed PLM(S68D) inhibition of NCX1 activity (both forward and reverse mode) in HEK-293 cells. Altogether our data indicate that PLM interacts directly with NCX1 and inhibits NCX1 activity when phosphorylated at Ser(68).

  5. Development of a high-affinity peptide that prevents phospholemman (PLM) inhibition of the sodium/calcium exchanger 1 (NCX1)

    PubMed Central

    Wanichawan, Pimthanya; Hodne, Kjetil; Hafver, Tandekile Lubelwana; Lunde, Marianne; Martinsen, Marita; Louch, William Edward; Sejersted, Ole Mathias; Carlson, Cathrine Rein

    2016-01-01

    NCX1 (Na+/Ca2+ exchanger 1) is an important regulator of intracellular Ca2+ and a potential therapeutic target for brain ischaemia and for diastolic heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. PLM (phospholemman), a substrate for protein kinases A and C, has been suggested to regulate NCX1 activity. However, although several studies have demonstrated that binding of phosphorylated PLM (pSer68-PLM) leads to NCX1 inhibition, other studies have failed to demonstrate a functional interaction of these proteins. In the present study, we aimed to analyse the biological function of the pSer68-PLM–NCX1 interaction by developing high-affinity blocking peptides. PLM was observed to co-fractionate and co-immunoprecipitate with NCX1 in rat left ventricle, and in co-transfected HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293 cells. For the first time, the NCX1–PLM interaction was also demonstrated in the brain. PLM binding sites on NCX1 were mapped to two regions by peptide array assays, containing the previously reported PASKT and QKHPD motifs. Conversely, the two NCX1 regions bound identical sequences in the cytoplasmic domain of PLM, suggesting that NCX1-PASKT and NCX1-QKHPD might bind to each PLM monomer. Using two-dimensional peptide arrays of the native NCX1 sequence KHPDKEIEQLIELANYQVLS revealed that double substitution of tyrosine for positions 1 and 4 (K1Y and D4Y) enhanced pSer68-PLM binding 8-fold. The optimized peptide blocked binding of NCX1-PASKT and NCX1-QKHPD to PLM and reversed PLM(S68D) inhibition of NCX1 activity (both forward and reverse mode) in HEK-293 cells. Altogether our data indicate that PLM interacts directly with NCX1 and inhibits NCX1 activity when phosphorylated at Ser68. PMID:27247424

  6. Seasonal plasticity in the peptide neuronal systems: potential roles of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone, gonadotrophin-inhibiting hormone, neuropeptide Y and vasoactive intestinal peptide in the regulation of the reproductive axis in subtropical Indian weaver birds.

    PubMed

    Surbhi; Rastogi, A; Rani, S; Kumar, V

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments examined the expression of gonadotrophin-releasing and inhibiting hormones (GnRH-I, GnRH-II and GnIH), neuropeptide Y (NPY) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in subtropical Indian weaver birds, which demonstrate relative photorefractoriness. Experiment 1 measured peptide expression levels in the form of immunoreactive (-IR) cells, percentage cell area and cell optical density in the preoptic area (GnRH-I), midbrain (GnRH-II), paraventricular nucleus (GnIH), mediobasal hypothalamus [dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), infundibular complex (INc), NPY and VIP] and lateral septal organ (VIP) during the progressive, breeding, regressive and nonbreeding phases of the annual reproductive cycle. GnRH-I was decreased in the nonbreeding and VIP was increased in INc in the breeding and regressive states. GnRH-II and NPY levels did not differ between the testicular phases. Double-labelled immunohistochemistry (IHC) revealed a close association between the GnRH/GnIH, GnRH/NPY, GnRH/VIP and GnIH/NPY peptide systems, implicating them interacting and playing roles in the reproductive regulation in weaver birds. Experiment 2 further measured these peptide levels in the middle of day and night in weaver birds that were maintained under short days (8 : 16 h light /dark cycle; photosensitive), exposed to ten long days (16 : 8 h light /dark cycle; photostimulated) or maintained for approximately 2 years on a 16 : 8 h light /dark cycle (photorefractory). Reproductively immature testes in these groups precluded the possible effect of an enhanced gonadal feedback on the hypothalamic peptide expression. There were group differences in the GnRH-I (not GnRH-II), GnIH, NPY and VIP immunoreactivity, albeit with variations in immunoreactivity measures in the present study. These results, which are consistent with those reported in birds with relative photorefractoriness, show the distribution and possibly a complex interaction of key neuropeptides in the regulation of the

  7. Inhibition of Human Neutrophil Responses by Essential Oil of Artemisia kotuchovii and Its Constituents

    PubMed Central

    Schepetkin, Igor A.; Kushnarenko, Svetlana V.; Özek, Gulmira; Kirpotina, Liliya N.; Utegenova, Gulzhakhan A.; Kotukhov, Yuriy A.; Danilova, Alevtina N.; Özek, Temel; Başer, K. Hüsnü Can; Quinn, Mark T.

    2015-01-01

    Essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the flowers+leaves and stems of Artemisia kotuchovii Kupr. (AKEOf+l and AKEOstm, respectively) and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The primary components of the oils were estragole, (E)- and (Z)-β-ocimenes, methyl eugenol, limonene, spathulenol, β-pinene, myrcene, and (E)-methyl cinnamate. Seventy four constituents were present at concentrations from 0.1 to 1.0%, and 34 compounds were identified in trace (<0.1%) amounts in one or both plant components. Screening of the essential oils for biological activity showed that AKEOstm, but not AKEOf+l, inhibited N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLF)-stimulated Ca2+ flux and chemotaxis and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human neutrophils. Selected pure constituents, representing >96% of the AKEOstm composition, were also tested in human neutrophils and HL-60 cells transfected with N-formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1). We found that one component, 6-methyl-3,5-heptadien-2-one (MHDO), inhibited fMLF- and interleukin 8 (IL-8)-stimulated Ca2+ flux, fMLF-induced chemotaxis, and PMA-induced ROS production in human neutrophils. MHDO also inhibited fMLF-induced Ca2+ flux in FPR1-HL60 cells. These results suggest that MHDO may be effective in modulating some innate immune responses, possibly by an inhibition of neutrophil migration and ROS production. PMID:25959257

  8. Inhibition of Human Neutrophil Responses by the Essential Oil of Artemisia kotuchovii and Its Constituents.

    PubMed

    Schepetkin, Igor A; Kushnarenko, Svetlana V; Özek, Gulmira; Kirpotina, Liliya N; Utegenova, Gulzhakhan A; Kotukhov, Yuriy A; Danilova, Alevtina N; Özek, Temel; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Quinn, Mark T

    2015-05-27

    Essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the flowers+leaves and stems of Artemisia kotuchovii Kupr. (AKEO(f+l) and AKEO(stm), respectively) and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The primary components of the oils were estragole, (E)- and (Z)-β-ocimenes, methyleugenol, limonene, spathulenol, β-pinene, myrcene, and (E)-methyl cinnamate. Seventy-four constituents were present at concentrations from 0.1 to 1.0%, and 34 compounds were identified in trace (<0.1%) amounts in one or both plant components. Screening of the essential oils for biological activity showed that AKEO(stm), but not AKEOf+l, inhibited N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLF)-stimulated Ca(2+) flux and chemotaxis and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human neutrophils. Selected pure constituents, representing >96% of the AKEO(stm) composition, were also tested in human neutrophils and HL-60 cells transfected with N-formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1). One component, 6-methyl-3,5-heptadien-2-one (MHDO), inhibited fMLF- and interleukin 8 (IL-8)-stimulated Ca(2+) flux, fMLF-induced chemotaxis, and PMA-induced ROS production in human neutrophils. MHDO also inhibited fMLF-induced Ca(2+) flux in FPR1-HL60 cells. These results suggest that MHDO may be effective in modulating some innate immune responses, possibly by inhibition of neutrophil migration and ROS production. PMID:25959257

  9. Inhibition of Human Neutrophil Responses by the Essential Oil of Artemisia kotuchovii and Its Constituents.

    PubMed

    Schepetkin, Igor A; Kushnarenko, Svetlana V; Özek, Gulmira; Kirpotina, Liliya N; Utegenova, Gulzhakhan A; Kotukhov, Yuriy A; Danilova, Alevtina N; Özek, Temel; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Quinn, Mark T

    2015-05-27

    Essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation of the flowers+leaves and stems of Artemisia kotuchovii Kupr. (AKEO(f+l) and AKEO(stm), respectively) and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The primary components of the oils were estragole, (E)- and (Z)-β-ocimenes, methyleugenol, limonene, spathulenol, β-pinene, myrcene, and (E)-methyl cinnamate. Seventy-four constituents were present at concentrations from 0.1 to 1.0%, and 34 compounds were identified in trace (<0.1%) amounts in one or both plant components. Screening of the essential oils for biological activity showed that AKEO(stm), but not AKEOf+l, inhibited N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLF)-stimulated Ca(2+) flux and chemotaxis and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in human neutrophils. Selected pure constituents, representing >96% of the AKEO(stm) composition, were also tested in human neutrophils and HL-60 cells transfected with N-formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1). One component, 6-methyl-3,5-heptadien-2-one (MHDO), inhibited fMLF- and interleukin 8 (IL-8)-stimulated Ca(2+) flux, fMLF-induced chemotaxis, and PMA-induced ROS production in human neutrophils. MHDO also inhibited fMLF-induced Ca(2+) flux in FPR1-HL60 cells. These results suggest that MHDO may be effective in modulating some innate immune responses, possibly by inhibition of neutrophil migration and ROS production.

  10. Synthesis, conformational and theoretical studies of 1,n-di(2-formyl-4-phenylazophenoxy)alkanes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balachander, R.; Manimekalai, A.

    2016-01-01

    1,n-di(2-Formyl-4-phenylazophenoxy)alkanes 1 and 2 and 1,3-di(2-formyl-4-phenylazophenoxymethyl)benzene 3 were synthesis and characterized by FT-IR, UV-Vis, 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectral studies. The stable conformations of 1-3 were predicted theoretically and selected geometrical parameters were derived from optimized structures. The molecular parameters of HOMO-LUMO energies, polarizability, hyperpolarizability, natural bond orbital (NBO), atom in molecule (AIM) analysis and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) surfaces were determined by the density functional theory (DFT) method and analysed.

  11. Formylated chloro-bridged iridium(III) dimers as OLED materials: opening up new possibilities.

    PubMed

    Wong, Michael Y; Xie, Guohua; Tourbillon, Clarisse; Sandroni, Martina; Cordes, David B; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; Samuel, Ifor D W; Zysman-Colman, Eli

    2015-05-14

    In this study, a series of four formyl-substituted chloro-bridged iridium(iii) dimers were prepared. Their absorption, photophysical and electrochemical properties were studied in dichloromethane solution. It was found that as the formyl content increased on the cyclometalating ligands, emission unexpectedly became brighter. Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) were fabricated using each of these iridium dimers as the emitter. The OLED fabricated using the brightest of the series, 2b, as the dopant afforded a decent external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 2.6%. This suggests that chloro-bridged iridium dimers are potential candidates as solid-state emitters.

  12. Temperature dependant electrical properties of formyl-TIPPCu(II)/p-Si heterojunction diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Dil Nawaz; Sayyad, Muhammad Hassan; Wahab, Fazal; Tahir, Muhammad; Yaseen, Muhammad; Munawar, Munawar Ali; Ali, Mukhtar

    2014-05-01

    This paper reports the temperature dependent electrical characterization of formyl-TIPPCu(II)/p-Si heterojunction diode which was fabricated by growing thin films of formyl-TIPPCu(II) on the p-type silicon substrate by thermal sublimation technique. The variation in electrical characteristics of the fabricated devices has been systematically investigated as the function of temperature by using current-voltage (I-V) measurements in the temperature range 299-339 K. The diode parameters like ideality factor, zero bias barrier height and parasitic series resistance have been found to be strongly temperature dependant. The zero bias barrier height increases while ideality factor and series resistance decreases with increasing temperature.

  13. Inhibition of amyloid fibril formation of human amylin by N-alkylated amino acid and alpha-hydroxy acid residue containing peptides.

    PubMed

    Rijkers, Dirk T S; Höppener, Jo W M; Posthuma, George; Lips, Cornelis J M; Liskamp, Rob M J

    2002-09-16

    Amyloid deposits are formed as a result of uncontrolled aggregation of (poly)peptides or proteins. Today several diseases are known, for example Alzheimer's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, mad cow disease, in which amyloid formation is involved. Amyloid fibrils are large aggregates of beta-pleated sheets and here a general method is described to introduce molecular mutations in order to achieve disruption of beta-sheet formation. Eight backbone-modified amylin derivatives, an amyloidogenic peptide involved in maturity onset diabetes, were synthesized. Their beta-sheet forming properties were studied by IR spectroscopy and electron microscopy. Modification of a crucial amide NH by an alkyl chain led to a complete loss of the beta-sheet forming capacity of amylin. The resulting molecular mutated amylin derivative could be used to break the beta-sheet thus retarding beta-sheet formation of unmodified amylin. Moreover, it was found that the replacement of this amide bond by an ester moiety suppressed fibrillogenesis significantly. Introduction of N-alkylated amino acids and/or ester functionalities-leading to depsipeptides-into amyloidogenic peptides opens new avenues towards novel peptidic beta-sheet breakers for inhibition of beta-amyloid aggregation. PMID:12298020

  14. Inhibition of cell migration and invasion mediated by the TAT-RasGAP317-326 peptide requires the DLC1 tumor suppressor.

    PubMed

    Barras, D; Lorusso, G; Rüegg, C; Widmann, C

    2014-10-30

    TAT-RasGAP(317-326), a peptide corresponding to the 317-326 sequence of p120 RasGAP coupled with a cell-permeable TAT-derived peptide, sensitizes the death response of various tumor cells to several anticancer treatments. We now report that this peptide is also able to increase cell adherence, prevent cell migration and inhibit matrix invasion. This is accompanied by a marked modification of the actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesion redistribution. Interestingly, integrins and the small Rho GTP-binding protein, which are well-characterized proteins modulating actin fibers, adhesion and migration, do not appear to be required for the pro-adhesive properties of TAT-RasGAP(317-326). In contrast, deleted in liver cancer-1, a tumor suppressor protein, the expression of which is often deregulated in cancer cells, was found to be required for TAT-RasGAP(317-326) to promote cell adherence and inhibit migration. These results show that TAT-RasGAP(317-326), besides its ability to favor tumor cell death, hampers cell migration and invasion.

  15. Investigation the Possibility of Using Peptides with a Helical Repeating Pattern of Hydro-Phobic and Hydrophilic Residues to Inhibit IL-10

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Guoying; Chen, Shu; Yang, Yuedong; Cummins, Scott F.; Zhan, Jian; Li, Zhixiu; Zhu, Bin; Mounsey, Kate; Walton, Shelley; Wei, Ming Q.; Wang, Yuejian; Zhou, Yaoqi; Wang, Tianfang; Liu, Xiaosong

    2016-01-01

    Blockade of IL-10 signalling clears chronic viral and bacterial infections. Immunization together with blockade of IL-10 signalling or relatively low level of IL-10 further enhances viral and bacterial clearance. IL-10 functions through binding to interleukin 10 receptor (IL-10R). Here we showed that peptides P1 and P2 with the hydrophobic and hydrophilic pattern of the IL10R-binding helix in IL-10 could bind with either IL-10R1 or IL-10, and inhibit inflammatory signals with long duration and negligible cytotoxicity in vitro. Furthermore, P2 can enhance antigen specific CD8+ T cell responses in mice induced by the vaccine based on a long peptide of protein E7 in a human papillomavirus type 16. PMID:27100390

  16. Investigation the Possibility of Using Peptides with a Helical Repeating Pattern of Hydro-Phobic and Hydrophilic Residues to Inhibit IL-10.

    PubMed

    Ni, Guoying; Chen, Shu; Yang, Yuedong; Cummins, Scott F; Zhan, Jian; Li, Zhixiu; Zhu, Bin; Mounsey, Kate; Walton, Shelley; Wei, Ming Q; Wang, Yuejian; Zhou, Yaoqi; Wang, Tianfang; Liu, Xiaosong

    2016-01-01

    Blockade of IL-10 signalling clears chronic viral and bacterial infections. Immunization together with blockade of IL-10 signalling or relatively low level of IL-10 further enhances viral and bacterial clearance. IL-10 functions through binding to interleukin 10 receptor (IL-10R). Here we showed that peptides P1 and P2 with the hydrophobic and hydrophilic pattern of the IL10R-binding helix in IL-10 could bind with either IL-10R1 or IL-10, and inhibit inflammatory signals with long duration and negligible cytotoxicity in vitro. Furthermore, P2 can enhance antigen specific CD8+ T cell responses in mice induced by the vaccine based on a long peptide of protein E7 in a human papillomavirus type 16.

  17. Inhibition of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli by antimicrobial peptides caseicin A and B and the factors affecting their antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Mary J; Rivas, Lucia; Burgess, Catherine M; Fanning, Séamus; Duffy, Geraldine

    2012-02-15

    The antimic robial activities of caseicin A and B antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) were assessed against a selection of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) strains (n=11), other bacterial pathogenic and spoilage bacteria (n=7), using a model broth system. The ability of the AMPs to retain their antimicrobial activities against a strain of E. coli O157:H7 380-94 under various test conditions (pH, temperature, water activity, sodium chloride concentrations, inoculum size and the presence of competitive microflora) was assessed and the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and number of surviving E. coli O157:H7 calculated. The mean number of VTEC surviving after exposure to 2 mg/ml caseicin A and B was reduced by 4.96 and 4.19 log(10) cfu/ml compared to the respective controls. The susceptibility of E. coli O157:H7 to the caseicin AMPs decreased as temperature, pH, water activity and inoculum size were reduced. The presence of sodium chloride (0.5-2.5%) did not affect the activity of caseicin A (p>0.05), however it did inhibit the activity of caseicin B. The presence of a competitive microflora cocktail did not significantly (p>0.05) affect the activities of the AMPs for the majority of the concentrations tested. Using a quantitative PCR assay, the levels of verotoxins (vt1 and vt2) expressed by E. coli O157:H7 following exposure to a sub-inhibitory concentration (0.5 mg/ml) of caseicin A showed that the verotoxin levels did not differ from the levels produced by the control cultures. The antimicrobial activity of caseicin A against E. coli O157:H7 was also tested in a model rumen system, however concentrations of ≥2 mg/ml did not significantly (p>0.05) reduce E. coli O157:H7 numbers in the model system over a 24 h period. The application of caseicin AMPs in food and/or animal production may be valuable in combination with other antimicrobials although further research is required.

  18. Selective inhibition of the prothrombinase complex: factor Va alters macromolecular recognition of a tick anticoagulant peptide mutant by factor Xa.

    PubMed

    Betz, A; Vlasuk, G P; Bergum, P W; Krishnaswamy, S

    1997-01-01

    The prothrombinase complex assembles through reversible interactions between the protease, factor Xa, the cofactor, factor Va, and acidic phospholipid membranes in the presence of calcium ions. Changes in macromolecular recognition by factor Xa which may result from its interaction with factor Va in the prothrombinase complex have been probed using a recombinant derivative of tick anticoagulant peptide where Arg3 has been replaced with Ala (R3A-TAP). In contrast to the wild type inhibitor, R3A-TAP was a weak competitive inhibitor of factor Xa (Ki = 794 nM). The inhibition of the prothrombinase complex by R3A-TAP was characterized by slow, tight-binding kinetics with an increased affinity of approximately 4000-fold (Ki* = 0.195 nM) relative to that of solution-phase factor Xa. Stopped-flow measurements using p-aminobenzamidine (PAB) demonstrated that the reaction between solution-phase factor Xa and R3A-TAP could be adequately described by a single reversible step with rate constants that were consistent with equilibrium binding measurements. The rate-limiting bimolecular combination of R3A-TAP and factor Xa was competitive with PAB binding of the protease. In contrast, the reaction of R3A-TAP with prothrombinase measured using PAB yielded biphasic stopped-flow traces, indicating a multistep pathway for the reaction of the inhibitor with the enzyme complex. The kinetic measurements were consistent with the initial formation of a ternary complex between R3A-TAP, prothrombinase, and PAB followed by two unimolecular steps which lead to PAB dissociation from the enzyme. In this case, prior occupation of the active site by PAB had no effect on the bimolecular reaction between R3A-TAP and prothrombinase. Thus, the interaction of factor Xa with factor Va on the membrane surface alters recognition of R3A-TAP by the protease, leading to changes in the thermodynamics as well as in the observed kinetic mechanism for the reaction. Therefore, a single amino acid substitution in

  19. OMP Peptides Activate the DegS Stress-Sensor Protease by a Relief of Inhibition Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, Jungsan; Grant, Robert A.; Sauer, Robert T.; MIT

    2010-03-19

    In the E. coli periplasm, C-terminal peptides of misfolded outer-membrane porins (OMPs) bind to the PDZ domains of the trimeric DegS protease, triggering cleavage of a transmembrane regulator and transcriptional activation of stress genes. We show that an active-site DegS mutation partially bypasses the requirement for peptide activation and acts synergistically with mutations that disrupt contacts between the protease and PDZ domains. Biochemical results support an allosteric model, in which these mutations, active-site modification, and peptide/substrate binding act in concert to stabilize proteolytically active DegS. Cocrystal structures of DegS in complex with different OMP peptides reveal activation of the protease domain with varied conformations of the PDZ domain and without specific contacts from the bound OMP peptide. Taken together, these results indicate that the binding of OMP peptides activates proteolysis principally by relieving inhibitory contacts between the PDZ domain and the protease domain of DegS.

  20. Microinjection of CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptide into the nucleus accumbens inhibits the cocaine-induced upregulation of dopamine receptors and locomotor sensitization.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qinghua; Sun, Xi; Liu, Ziyong; Yang, Jianghua; Oh, Ki-Wan; Hu, Zhenzhen

    2014-09-01

    Repeated exposure to addictive drugs enhances dopamine receptor (DR) signaling and the ultimate phosphorylation of the cyclic adenosine 5'-monophosphate (cAMP)-response element-binding protein (CREB)-regulated cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). These effects are known to contribute to the expression of behavioral sensitization. CART peptides are neuropeptides that modulate drug reward and reinforcement. The present experiments investigated the effects of CART 55-102 microinjection into the NAcc on (1) the phosphorylation of CREB, (2) cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling and (3) extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylated kinase signaling. Here, we show that repeated microinjections into the NAcc of CART 55-102 peptides (1.0 or 2.5μg, 0.5μl/side) attenuates cocaine-induced enhancements of D1R, D2R and D3R phosphorylation in this sites. Furthermore, the microinjection of CART 55-102 followed by repeated injections of cocaine (15mg/kg) dose-dependently blocked the enhancement of cAMP levels, PKA activity and pERK and pCREB levels on the fifth day of cocaine administration. The cocaine-induced locomotor activity and behavioral sensitization in rats were also inhibited by the 5-day-microinjection of CART peptides. These results suggest that the phosphorylation of CREB by cocaine in the NAcc was blocked by the CART 55-102 peptide via the inhibition of D1R and D2R stimulation, D3R phosphorylation, cAMP/PKA signaling and ERK phosphorylated kinase signaling. These effects may have played a compensatory inhibitory role in the behavioral sensitization of rats that received microinjections of CART 55-102. PMID:24953280

  1. Inhibition of dehydration-induced water intake by glucocorticoids is associated with activation of hypothalamic natriuretic peptide receptor-A in rat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Guan, Jing; Kang, Yunxiao; Xiu, Heming; Chen, Ying; Deng, Bao; Liu, Kunshen

    2010-12-20

    Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) provides a potent defense mechanism against volume overload in mammals. Its primary receptor, natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPR-A), is localized mostly in the kidney, but also is found in hypothalamic areas involved in body fluid volume regulation. Acute glucocorticoid administration produces potent diuresis and natriuresis, possibly by acting in the renal natriuretic peptide system. However, chronic glucocorticoid administration attenuates renal water and sodium excretion. The precise mechanism underlying this paradoxical phenomenon is unclear. We assume that chronic glucocorticoid administration may activate natriuretic peptide system in hypothalamus, and cause volume depletion by inhibiting dehydration-induced water intake. Volume depletion, in turn, compromises renal water excretion. To test this postulation, we determined the effect of dexamethasone on dehydration-induced water intake and assessed the expression of NPR-A in the hypothalamus. The rats were deprived of water for 24 hours to have dehydrated status. Prior to free access to water, the water-deprived rats were pretreated with dexamethasone or vehicle. Urinary volume and water intake were monitored. We found that dexamethasone pretreatment not only produced potent diuresis, but dramatically inhibited the dehydration-induced water intake. Western blotting analysis showed the expression of NPR-A in the hypothalamus was dramatically upregulated by dexamethasone. Consequently, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (the second messenger for the ANP) content in the hypothalamus was remarkably increased. The inhibitory effect of dexamethasone on water intake presented in a time- and dose-dependent manner, which emerged at least after 18-hour dexamethasone pretreatment. This effect was glucocorticoid receptor (GR) mediated and was abolished by GR antagonist RU486. These results indicated a possible physiologic role for glucocorticoids in the hypothalamic control of water intake

  2. Peptide derived from desalinated boiled tuna extract inhibits adipogenesis through the downregulation of C/EBP-α and PPAR-γ in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Min; Kim, Eun-Young; Kim, In-Hye; Nam, Taek-Jeong

    2015-05-01

    Recently, obesity has increased due to a variety of reasons, including the availability of 'fast food' and high-fat diets. Developing anti-obesity functional drugs and foods from natural sources may offer solutions to this global concern. Generally, tuna is a high-protein, low-fat and low-calorie food with various bioactive effects. It may improve memory, reduce cholesterol levels and positively affect the development of brain cells. In this study, we screened the anti-obesity potential of peptides derived from tuna protein. We then observed protein bands by the Coomassie blue staining of a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gel. The protein mixture was concentrated and desalted using in-gel trypsin digestion and a C18 nano column and Poros R2 reversed-phase preparation, prior to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS/MS). We screened the peptides for their ability to affect adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We also measured glucose uptake, triglyceride levels and lipid droplets using Oil Red O staining. As a result, we confirmed that one peptide inhibited adipocyte differentiation. We also observed the expression of obesity-related genes by western blot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The peptide from the tuna extract significantly reduced the expression levels of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBP-α) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) adipocyte marker genes. Thus, our data suggest that this peptide from boiled tuna extract reduces lipid components and adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells, and these characteristics may be of value in the development of anti-obesity foods.

  3. Pyrrhocoricin, a proline-rich antimicrobial peptide derived from insect, inhibits the translation process in the cell-free Escherichia coli protein synthesis system.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Masayuki; Ochiai, Akihito; Kondo, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Shun; Ishiyama, Yohei; Saitoh, Eiichi; Kato, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Takaaki

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that pyrrhocoricin, a proline-rich antimicrobial peptide (PrAMP), killed sensitive species in a dose-dependent manner by specifically binding to DnaK. Here, on the basis of the finding that DnaK-deficient Escherichia coli strains are susceptible to PrAMPs, we used pyrrhocoricin to investigate internal targets other than DnaK. Using conventional antibiotics (bleomycin, streptomycin, and fosfomycin) that have known modes of action, first, we validated the availability of an assay using a cell-free rapid translation system (RTS), which is an in vitro protein synthesis system based on E. coli lysate, for evaluating inhibition of protein synthesis. We found that, similarly to bleomycin and streptomycin, pyrrhocoricin inhibited GFP synthesis in RTS in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, blockage of transcription and translation steps in RTS was individually estimated using RT-PCR after gene expression to determine mRNA products and using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to determine the amounts of GFP expressed from purified mRNA, respectively. The results demonstrated that this inhibition of GFP synthesis by pyrrhocoricin did not occur at the transcription step but rather at the translation step, in a manner similar to that of GFP synthesis by streptomycin, an inhibitor of the translation step by causing misreading of tRNA. These results suggest that RTS is a powerful assay system for determining if antimicrobial peptides inhibit protein synthesis and its transcription and/or translation steps. This is the first study to have shown that pyrrhocoricin inhibited protein synthesis by specifically repressing the translation step. PMID:26472128

  4. Pyrrhocoricin, a proline-rich antimicrobial peptide derived from insect, inhibits the translation process in the cell-free Escherichia coli protein synthesis system.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Masayuki; Ochiai, Akihito; Kondo, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Shun; Ishiyama, Yohei; Saitoh, Eiichi; Kato, Tetsuo; Tanaka, Takaaki

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that pyrrhocoricin, a proline-rich antimicrobial peptide (PrAMP), killed sensitive species in a dose-dependent manner by specifically binding to DnaK. Here, on the basis of the finding that DnaK-deficient Escherichia coli strains are susceptible to PrAMPs, we used pyrrhocoricin to investigate internal targets other than DnaK. Using conventional antibiotics (bleomycin, streptomycin, and fosfomycin) that have known modes of action, first, we validated the availability of an assay using a cell-free rapid translation system (RTS), which is an in vitro protein synthesis system based on E. coli lysate, for evaluating inhibition of protein synthesis. We found that, similarly to bleomycin and streptomycin, pyrrhocoricin inhibited GFP synthesis in RTS in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, blockage of transcription and translation steps in RTS was individually estimated using RT-PCR after gene expression to determine mRNA products and using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to determine the amounts of GFP expressed from purified mRNA, respectively. The results demonstrated that this inhibition of GFP synthesis by pyrrhocoricin did not occur at the transcription step but rather at the translation step, in a manner similar to that of GFP synthesis by streptomycin, an inhibitor of the translation step by causing misreading of tRNA. These results suggest that RTS is a powerful assay system for determining if antimicrobial peptides inhibit protein synthesis and its transcription and/or translation steps. This is the first study to have shown that pyrrhocoricin inhibited protein synthesis by specifically repressing the translation step.

  5. Synthetic antimicrobial β-peptide in dual-treatment with fluconazole or ketoconazole enhances the in vitro inhibition of planktonic and biofilm Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Mora-Navarro, Camilo; Caraballo-León, Jean; Torres-Lugo, Madeline; Ortiz-Bermúdez, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    Fungal infections are a pressing concern for human health worldwide, particularly for immunocompromised individuals. Current challenges such as the elevated toxicity of common antifungal drugs and the emerging resistance towards these could be overcome by multidrug therapy. Natural antimicrobial peptides, AMPs, in combination with other antifungal agents are a promising avenue to address the prevailing challenges. However, they possess limited biostability and susceptibility to proteases, which has significantly hampered their development as antifungal therapies. β-peptides are synthetic materials designed to mimic AMPs while allowing high tunability and increased biostability. In this work, we report for the first time the inhibition achieved in Candida albicans when treated with a mixture of a β-peptide model and fluconazole or ketoconazole. This combination treatment enhanced the biological activity of these azoles in planktonic and biofilm Candida, and also in a fluconazole-resistant strain. Furthermore, the in vitro cytotoxicity of the dual treatment was evaluated towards the human hepatoma cell line, HepG2, a widely used model derived from liver tissue, which is primarily affected by azoles. Analyses based on the LA-based method and the mass-action law principle, using a microtiter checkerboard approach, revealed synergism of the combination treatment in the inhibition of planktonic C. albicans. The dual treatment proved to be fungicidal at 48 and 72 h. Interestingly, it was also found that the viability of HepG2 was not significantly affected by the dual treatments. Finally, a remarkable enhancement in the inhibition of the highly azole-resistant biofilms and fluconazole resistant C. albicans strain was obtained.

  6. Genetic Selection of Peptide Aptamers That Interact and Inhibit Both Small Protein B and Alternative Ribosome-Rescue Factor A of Aeromonas veronii C4

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng; Chen, Yong; Wang, Dan; Tang, Yanqiong; Tang, Hongqian; Song, Haichao; Sun, Qun; Zhang, Yueling; Liu, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas veronii is a pathogenic gram-negative bacterium, which infects a variety of animals and results in mass mortality. The stalled-ribosome rescues are reported to ensure viability and virulence under stress conditions, of which primarily include trans-translation and alternative ribosome-rescue factor A (ArfA) in A. veronii. For identification of specific peptides that interact and inhibit the stalled-ribosome rescues, peptide aptamer library (pTRG-SN-peptides) was constructed using pTRG as vector and Staphylococcus aureus nuclease (SN) as scaffold protein, in which 16 random amino acids were introduced to form an exposed surface loop. In the meantime both Small Protein B (SmpB) which acts as one of the key components in trans-translation, and ArfA were inserted to pBT to constitute pBT-SmpB and pBT-ArfA, respectively. The peptide aptamer PA-2 was selected from pTRG-SN-peptides by bacterial two-hybrid system (B2H) employing pBT-SmpB or pBT-ArfA as baits. The conserved sites G133K134 and D138K139R140 of C-terminal SmpB were identified by interacting with N-terminal SN, and concurrently the residue K62 of ArfA was recognized by interacting with the surface loop of the specific peptide aptamer PA-2. The expression plasmids pN-SN or pN-PA-2, which combined the duplication origin of pRE112 with the neokanamycin promoter expressing SN or PA-2, were created and transformed into A. veronii C4, separately. The engineered A. veronii C4 which endowing SN or PA-2 expression impaired growth capabilities under stress conditions including temperatures, sucrose, glucose, potassium chloride (KCl) and antibiotics, and the stress-related genes rpoS and nhaP were down-regulated significantly by Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) when treating in 2.0% KCl. Thus, the engineered A. veronii C4 conferring PA-2 expression might be potentially attenuated vaccine, and also the peptide aptamer PA-2 could develop as anti-microbial drugs targeted to the ribosome rescued factors in A

  7. Genetic Selection of Peptide Aptamers That Interact and Inhibit Both Small Protein B and Alternative Ribosome-Rescue Factor A of Aeromonas veronii C4.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Chen, Yong; Wang, Dan; Tang, Yanqiong; Tang, Hongqian; Song, Haichao; Sun, Qun; Zhang, Yueling; Liu, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Aeromonas veronii is a pathogenic gram-negative bacterium, which infects a variety of animals and results in mass mortality. The stalled-ribosome rescues are reported to ensure viability and virulence under stress conditions, of which primarily include trans-translation and alternative ribosome-rescue factor A (ArfA) in A. veronii. For identification of specific peptides that interact and inhibit the stalled-ribosome rescues, peptide aptamer library (pTRG-SN-peptides) was constructed using pTRG as vector and Staphylococcus aureus nuclease (SN) as scaffold protein, in which 16 random amino acids were introduced to form an exposed surface loop. In the meantime both Small Protein B (SmpB) which acts as one of the key components in trans-translation, and ArfA were inserted to pBT to constitute pBT-SmpB and pBT-ArfA, respectively. The peptide aptamer PA-2 was selected from pTRG-SN-peptides by bacterial two-hybrid system (B2H) employing pBT-SmpB or pBT-ArfA as baits. The conserved sites G133K134 and D138K139R140 of C-terminal SmpB were identified by interacting with N-terminal SN, and concurrently the residue K62 of ArfA was recognized by interacting with the surface loop of the specific peptide aptamer PA-2. The expression plasmids pN-SN or pN-PA-2, which combined the duplication origin of pRE112 with the neokanamycin promoter expressing SN or PA-2, were created and transformed into A. veronii C4, separately. The engineered A. veronii C4 which endowing SN or PA-2 expression impaired growth capabilities under stress conditions including temperatures, sucrose, glucose, potassium chloride (KCl) and antibiotics, and the stress-related genes rpoS and nhaP were down-regulated significantly by Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) when treating in 2.0% KCl. Thus, the engineered A. veronii C4 conferring PA-2 expression might be potentially attenuated vaccine, and also the peptide aptamer PA-2 could develop as anti-microbial drugs targeted to the ribosome rescued factors in A

  8. Anti-Biofilm and Immunomodulatory Activities of Peptides That Inhibit Biofilms Formed by Pathogens Isolated from Cystic Fibrosis Patients.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente-Núñez, César; Mansour, Sarah C; Wang, Zhejun; Jiang, Lucy; Breidenstein, Elena B M; Elliott, Melissa; Reffuveille, Fany; Speert, David P; Reckseidler-Zenteno, Shauna L; Shen, Ya; Haapasalo, Markus; Hancock, Robert E W

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients often acquire chronic respiratory tract infections due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) species. In the CF lung, these bacteria grow as multicellular aggregates termed biofilms. Biofilms demonstrate increased (adaptive) resistance to conventional antibiotics, and there are currently no available biofilm-specific therapies. Using plastic adherent, hydroxyapatite and flow cell biofilm models coupled with confocal and scanning electron microscopy, it was demonstrated that an anti-biofilm peptide 1018 prevented biofilm formation, eradicated mature biofilms and killed biofilms formed by a wide range of P. aeruginosa and B. cenocepacia clinical isolates. New peptide derivatives were designed that, compared to their parent peptide 1018, showed similar or decreased anti-biofilm activity against P. aeruginosa biofilms, but increased activity against biofilms formed by the Gram-positive bacterium methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, some of these new peptide derivatives retained the immunomodulatory activity of 1018 since they induced the production of the chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and suppressed lipopolysaccharide-mediated tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and were non-toxic towards these cells. Peptide 1018 and its derivatives provide promising leads for the treatment of chronic biofilm infections and hyperinflammatory lung disease in CF patients.

  9. Anti-Biofilm and Immunomodulatory Activities of Peptides That Inhibit Biofilms Formed by Pathogens Isolated from Cystic Fibrosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente-Núñez, César; Mansour, Sarah C.; Wang, Zhejun; Jiang, Lucy; Breidenstein, Elena B.M.; Elliott, Melissa; Reffuveille, Fany; Speert, David P.; Reckseidler-Zenteno, Shauna L.; Shen, Ya; Haapasalo, Markus; Hancock, Robert E.W.

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients often acquire chronic respiratory tract infections due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) species. In the CF lung, these bacteria grow as multicellular aggregates termed biofilms. Biofilms demonstrate increased (adaptive) resistance to conventional antibiotics, and there are currently no available biofilm-specific therapies. Using plastic adherent, hydroxyapatite and flow cell biofilm models coupled with confocal and scanning electron microscopy, it was demonstrated that an anti-biofilm peptide 1018 prevented biofilm formation, eradicated mature biofilms and killed biofilms formed by a wide range of P. aeruginosa and B. cenocepacia clinical isolates. New peptide derivatives were designed that, compared to their parent peptide 1018, showed similar or decreased anti-biofilm activity against P. aeruginosa biofilms, but increased activity against biofilms formed by the Gram-positive bacterium methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, some of these new peptide derivatives retained the immunomodulatory activity of 1018 since they induced the production of the chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and suppressed lipopolysaccharide-mediated tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and were non-toxic towards these cells. Peptide 1018 and its derivatives provide promising leads for the treatment of chronic biofilm infections and hyperinflammatory lung disease in CF patients. PMID:26221537

  10. Consumption of peptide-included and free tryptophan induced by peroxyl radicals: A kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, E; López-Alarcón, C

    2014-10-01

    It is well-known that tryptophan residues are efficiently oxidized by peroxyl radicals, generating kynurenine, and N-formyl kynurenine as well as hydroperoxide derivatives as products. In the present work we studied the kinetic of such reaction employing free and peptide-included tryptophan. Two azocompounds were used to produce peroxyl radicals: AAPH (2,2'-Azobis(2-methylpropionamidine) dihydrochloride) and ABCVA (4,4'-Azobis(4-cyanovaleric acid)), which generate cationic and anionic peroxyl radicals, respectively. Tryptophan consumption was assessed by fluorescence spectroscopy and the reactions were carried out in phosphate buffer (75mM, pH 7.4) at 45°C. Only a slight effect of the peroxyl radical charge was evidenced on the consumption of free tryptophan and the dipeptide Gly-Trp. Employing AAPH as peroxyl radical source, at low free tryptophan concentrations (1-10µM) near 0.3 mol of tryptophan were consumed per each mol of peroxyl radicals introduced into the system. However, at high free tryptophan concentrations (100µM-1mM) such stoichiometry increased in a tryptophan concentration-way. At 1mM three moles of tryptophan were consumed per mol of AAPH-derived peroxyl radicals, evidencing the presence of chain reactions. A similar behavior was observed when di and tri-peptides (Gly-Trp, Trp-Gly, Gly-Trp-Gly, Trp-Ala, Ala-Trp-Ala) were studied. Nonetheless, at low initial concentration (5µM), the initial consumption rate of tryptophan included in the peptides was two times higher than free tryptophan. In contrast, at high concentration (1mM) free and peptide-included tryptophan showed similar initial consumption rates. These results could be explained considering a disproportionation process of tryptophanyl radicals at low free tryptophan concentrations, a process that would be inhibited when tryptophan is included in peptides.

  11. Peptide-Mediated Interference of PB2-eIF4G1 Interaction Inhibits Influenza A Viruses' Replication in Vitro and in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shuofeng; Chu, Hin; Ye, Jiahui; Hu, Meng; Singh, Kailash; Chow, Billy K C; Zhou, Jie; Zheng, Bo-Jian

    2016-07-01

    Influenza viruses are obligate parasites that hijack the host cellular system. Previous results have shown that the influenza virus PB2 subunit confers a dependence of host eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4-γ 1 (eIF4G1) for viral mRNA translation. Here, we demonstrated that peptide-mediated interference of the PB2-eIF4G1 interaction inhibited virus replication in vitro and in vivo. Remarkably, intranasal administration of the peptide provided 100% protection against lethal challenges of influenza A viruses in BALB/c mice, including H1N1, H5N1, and H7N9 influenza virus subtypes. Mapping of the PB2 protein indicated that the eIF4G1 binding sites resided within the PB2 cap-binding domain. Virtual docking analysis suggested that the inhibitory peptide associated with the conserved amino acid residues that were essential to PB2 cap-binding activity. Overall, our results identified the PB2-eIF4G1 interactive site as a druggable target for influenza therapeutics. PMID:27626099

  12. The Tachykinin Peptide Neurokinin B Binds Copper Forming an Unusual [CuII(NKB)2] Complex and Inhibits Copper Uptake into 1321N1 Astrocytoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Neurokinin B (NKB) is a member of the tachykinin family of neuropeptides that have neuroinflammatory, neuroimmunological, and neuroprotective functions. In a neuroprotective role, tachykinins can help protect cells against the neurotoxic processes observed in Alzheimer’s disease. A change in copper homeostasis is a clear feature of Alzheimer’s disease, and the dysregulation may be a contributory factor in toxicity. Copper has recently been shown to interact with neurokinin A and neuropeptide γ and can lead to generation of reactive oxygen species and peptide degradation, which suggests that copper may have a place in tachykinin function and potentially misfunction. To explore this, we have utilized a range of spectroscopic techniques to show that NKB, but not substance P, can bind CuII in an unusual [CuII(NKB)2] neutral complex that utilizes two N-terminal amine and two imidazole nitrogen ligands (from each molecule of NKB) and the binding substantially alters the structure of the peptide. Using 1321N1 astrocytoma cells, we show that copper can enter the cells and subsequently open plasma membrane calcium channels but when bound to neurokinin B copper ion uptake is inhibited. This data suggests a novel role for neurokinin B in protecting cells against copper-induced calcium changes and implicates the peptide in synaptic copper homeostasis. PMID:23875773

  13. Protein kinase C betaII peptide inhibitor exerts cardioprotective effects in rat cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Omiyi, Didi; Brue, Richard J; Taormina, Philip; Harvey, Margaret; Atkinson, Norrell; Young, Lindon H

    2005-08-01

    Ischemia followed by reperfusion (I/R) in the presence of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) results in a marked cardiac contractile dysfunction. A cell-permeable protein kinase C (PKC) betaII peptide inhibitor was used to test the hypothesis that PKC betaII inhibition could attenuate PMN-induced cardiac dysfunction by suppression of superoxide production from PMNs and increase NO release from vascular endothelium. The effects of the PKC betaII peptide inhibitor were examined in isolated ischemic (20 min) and reperfused (45 min) rat hearts with PMNs. The PKC betaII inhibitor (10 microM; n = 7) significantly attenuated PMN-induced cardiac dysfunction compared with I/R hearts (n = 9) receiving PMNs alone in left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) and the maximal rate of LVDP (+dP/dt(max)) cardiac function indices (p < 0.01). The PKC betaII inhibitor at 10 microM significantly increased endothelial NO release from a basal value of 1.85 +/- 0.18 pmol NO/mg tissue to 3.49 +/- 0.62 pmol NO/mg tissue from rat aorta. It also significantly inhibited superoxide release (i.e., absorbance) from N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine-stimulated rat PMNs from 0.13 +/- 0.01 to 0.02 +/- 0.004 (p < 0.01) at 10 microM. Histological analysis of the left ventricle of representative rat hearts from each group showed that the PKC betaII peptide inhibitor-treated hearts experienced a marked reduction in PMN vascular adherence and infiltration into the postreperfused cardiac tissue compared with I/R + PMN hearts (p < 0.01). These results suggest that the PKC betaII peptide inhibitor attenuates PMN-induced post-I/R cardiac contractile dysfunction by increasing endothelial NO release and by inhibiting superoxide release from PMNs. PMID:15878997

  14. Inefficient constitutive inhibition of P2X3 receptors by brain natriuretic peptide system contributes to sensitization of trigeminal sensory neurons in a genetic mouse model of familial hemiplegic migraine

    PubMed Central

    Marchenkova, Anna; Vilotti, Sandra; Ntamati, Niels; van den Maagdenberg, Arn MJM

    2016-01-01

    Background On trigeminal ganglion neurons, pain-sensing P2X3 receptors are constitutively inhibited by brain natriuretic peptide via its natriuretic peptide receptor-A. This inhibition is associated with increased P2X3 serine phosphorylation and receptor redistribution to non-lipid raft membrane compartments. The natriuretic peptide receptor-A antagonist anantin reverses these effects. We studied whether P2X3 inhibition is dysfunctional in a genetic familial hemiplegic migraine type-1 model produced by introduction of the human pathogenic R192Q missense mutation into the mouse CACNA1A gene (knock-in phenotype). This model faithfully replicates several properties of familial hemiplegic migraine type-1, with gain-of-function of CaV2.1 Ca2+ channels, raised levels of the algogenic peptide calcitonin gene-related peptide, and enhanced activity of P2X3 receptors in trigeminal ganglia. Results In knock-in neurons, anantin did not affect P2X3 receptor activity, membrane distribution, or serine phosphorylation level, implying ineffective inhibition by the constitutive brain natriuretic peptide/natriuretic peptide receptor-A pathway. However, expression and functional properties of this pathway remained intact together with its ability to downregulate TRPV1 channels. Reversing the familial hemiplegic migraine type-1 phenotype with the CaV2.1-specific antagonist, ω-agatoxin IVA restored P2X3 activity to wild-type level and enabled the potentiating effects of anantin again. After blocking calcitonin gene-related peptide receptors, P2X3 receptors exhibited wild-type properties and were again potentiated by anantin. Conclusions P2X3 receptors on mouse trigeminal ganglion neurons are subjected to contrasting modulation by inhibitory brain natriuretic peptide and facilitatory calcitonin gene-related peptide that both operate via complex intracellular signaling. In the familial hemiplegic migraine type-1 migraine model, the action of calcitonin gene-related peptide appears to

  15. Efficient Inhibition of Hepatitis B Virus Infection by Acylated Peptides Derived from the Large Viral Surface Protein†

    PubMed Central

    Gripon, Philippe; Cannie, Isabelle; Urban, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    The lack of an appropriate in vitro infection system for the major human pathogen hepatitis B virus (HBV) has prevented a molecular understanding of the early infection events of HBV. We used the novel HBV-infectible cell line HepaRG and primary human hepatocytes to investigate the interference of infection by HBV envelope protein-derived peptides. We found that a peptide consisting of the authentically myristoylated N-terminal 47 amino acids of the pre-S1 domain of the large viral envelope protein (L protein) specifically prevented HBV infection, with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 8 nM. The replacement of myristic acid with other hydrophobic moieties resulted in changes in the inhibitory activity, most notably by a decrease in the IC50 to picomolar concentrations for longer unbranched fatty acids. The obstruction of HepaRG cell susceptibility to HBV infection after short preincubation times with the peptides suggested that the peptides efficiently target and inactivate a receptor at the hepatocyte surface. Our data both shed light on the molecular mechanism of HBV entry into hepatocytes and provide a basis for the development of potent hepadnaviral entry inhibitors as a novel therapeutic concept for the treatment of hepatitis Β. PMID:15650187

  16. Inhibition of lethal inflammatory responses through the targeting of membrane-associated Toll-like receptor 4 signaling complexes with a Smad6-derived peptide.

    PubMed

    Lee, Youn Sook; Park, Jin Seok; Jung, Su Myung; Kim, Sang-Doo; Kim, Jun Hwan; Lee, Jae Young; Jung, Kyeong Cheon; Mamura, Mizuko; Lee, Sangho; Kim, Seong-Jin; Bae, Yoe-Sik; Park, Seok Hee

    2015-05-01

    We have previously reported that Smad6, one of the inhibitory Smads of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling, inhibits Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 signaling by disrupting the Pellino-1-mediated TLR4 signaling complex. Here, we developed Smaducin-6, a novel membrane-tethered palmitic acid-conjugated Smad6-derived peptide composed of amino acids 422-441 of Smad6. Smaducin-6 interacted with Pellino-1, located in the inner membrane, thereby disrupting the formation of IRAK1-, RIP1-, IKKε-mediated TLR4 signaling complexes. Systemic administration of Smaducin-6 showed a significant therapeutic effect on mouse TLR4-mediated inflammatory disease models, cecal-ligation-puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis, and lipopolysaccharide-induced endotoxemia, by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokine production and apoptosis while enhancing neutrophil migration and bacterial clearance. Our findings provide clues to develop new peptide-based drugs to target Pellino-1 protein in TLR4 signaling pathway for the treatment of sepsis.

  17. Kinetics and molecular docking studies of the inhibitions of angiotensin converting enzyme and renin activities by hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) peptides.

    PubMed

    Girgih, Abraham T; He, Rong; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2014-05-01

    Four novel peptide sequences (WVYY, WYT, SVYT, and IPAGV) identified from an enzymatic digest of hemp seed proteins were used for enzyme inhibition kinetics and molecular docking studies. Results showed that WVYY (IC50 = 0.027 mM) was a more potent (p < 0.05) ACE-inhibitory peptide than WYT (IC50 = 0.574 mM). However, WYT (IC50 = 0.054 mM) and SVYT (IC50 = 0.063 mM) had similar renin-inhibitory activity, which was significantly better than that of IPAGV (IC50 = 0.093 mM). Kinetics studies showed that WVYY had a lower inhibition constant (Ki) of 0.06 mM and hence greater affinity for ACE when compared to the 1.83 mM obtained for WYT. SVYT had lowest Ki value of 0.89 mM against renin, when compared to the values obtained for WYT and IPAGV. Molecular docking results showed that the higher inhibitory activities of WVYY and SVYT were due to the greater degree of noncovalent bond-based interactions with the enzyme protein, especially formation of higher numbers of hydrogen bonds with active site residues.

  18. Inhibition on JAK-STAT3 Signaling Transduction Cascade Is Taken by Bioactive Peptide Alpha-S2 Casein Protein from Goat Ethawah Breed Milk

    PubMed Central

    Rohmah, Rista Nikmatu; Hardiyanti, Ferlany; Fatchiyah, Fatchiyah

    2015-01-01

    Background: RA is a systemic inflammatory disease that causes developing comorbidity conditions. This condition can cause by overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokine. In a previous study, we have found bioactive peptide CSN1S2 from Ethawah goat milk for anti-inflammatory for repair the ileum destruction. However, the signaling transduction cascade of bioactive peptides inhibits inflammation still not clear yet. Therefore, we analyzed the signaling transduction cascade via JAK-STAT3 pathway by in vivo and in silico. Methods: The ileum was isolated DNA and amplification with specific primer. The sequence was analyzed using the Sanger sequencing method. Modeling 3D-structure was predicted by SWISS-MODEL and virtual interaction was analyzed by docking system using Pymol and Discovery Studio 4.0 software. Results: This study showed that STAT3 has target gene 480bp. The normal group and normal treating- CSN1S2 of goat milk have similarity from gene bank. Whereas, RA group had transversion mutation that the purine change into pyrimidine even cause frameshift mutation. Interestingly, after treating with the CSN1S2 protein of goat milk shows reverse to the normal acid sequence group. Based on in silico study, from eight peptides, only three peptides of CSN1S2 protein, which carried by PePT1 to enter the small intestine. The fragments are PepT1-41-NMAIHPR-47; PepT1-182-KISQYYQK-189 and PepT1-214-TNAIPYVR-221. We have found just one bioactive peptide of f182-KISQYYQK-189 is able bind to STAT3. The energy binding of f182-KISQYYQK-189 and RA-STAT3 amino acid, it was Σ = -402.43 kJ/mol and the energy binding of f182-KISQYYQK-189 and RAS-STAT3 amino acid is decreasing into Σ = -407.09 kJ/mol. Conclusion: This study suggested that the fragment 182-KISQYYQK-189 peptides from Ethawah goat milk may act as an anti-inflammatory agent via JAK-STAT3 signal transduction cascade at the cellular level. PMID:26483598

  19. Inhibition of the contractile action of bradykinin on isolated smooth muscle preparations by derivatives of low molecular weight peptides.

    PubMed

    Claeson, G; Fareed, J; Larsson, C; Kindel, G; Arielly, S; Simonsson, R; Messmore, H L; Balis, J U

    1979-01-01

    The carbonyl terminal tripeptide sequence of bradykinin (Pro-Phe-Arg) is molecularly manipulated to obtain agents with potent antagonistic activity towards the smooth muscle contractile activity of bradykinin. Screening of various peptide derivatives revealed that heptyl amides or esters of H-D-Pro-Phe-Arg, and H-D-Phe-Phe-Arg possessed relatively stronger antibradykinin activity on the isolated smooth muscle preparation. The parent tripeptides, H-D-Pro-Phe-Arg-OH, and H-D-Phe-Phe-Arg-OH, and their amino acid components, i.e. D-Proline, D-Phenylalanine, L-Phenylalanine and Arginine, did not possess any antibradykinin activity in concentrations of up to 10(-4) M. When the heptyl derivatives of these peptides were incubated with either heparinized or citrated whole blood or plasma, the antibradykinin activity was not lost. Incubation of these peptide derivatives with either carboxypeptidase A or B did not result in any loss of the pharmacological effect. However, pancreatic protease extract produced a significant loss of the anti-oxytocic action on the isolated rat uterus preparation. H-D-Pro-Phe-Arg-NH-lauryl derivative also blocked the action of bradykinin and this effect sustained for a longer period of time comparative to the blockade with H-D-Pro-Phe-Arg-NH-heptyl derivative. In concentrations of 10(-7) M and 10(-8) M and 1 min incubation, which blocked the contractile action of bradykinin (1 nmole) on the isolated guinea pig ileum, these peptide derivatives did not block the action of acetylcholine, histamine, and serotonin. However, in concentrations of about 10(-6) M and higher with 5 min. incubation histamin is also blocked. On the isolated rat uterus preparation the contractile action of acetylcholine, angiotensin, oxytocin and vasopressin was blocked at concentrations of 10(-6) M. These findings warrant a differential pharmacological evaluation and in vivo testing of these peptide derivatives to investigate their therapeutic potential.

  20. A Novel Peptide Derived from the Fusion Protein Heptad Repeat Inhibits Replication of Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis Virus In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Koichi; Abe, Yusaku; Kodama, Eiichi N.; Nabika, Ryota; Oishi, Shinya; Ohara, Shinichiro; Sato, Masatoki; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Fujii, Nobutaka; Hosoya, Mitsuaki

    2016-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a persistent, progressive, and fatal degenerative disease resulting from persistent measles virus (MV) infection of the central nervous system. Most drugs used to treat SSPE have been reported to have limited effects. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies are urgently required. The SSPE virus, a variant MV strain, differs virologically from wild-type MV strain. One characteristic of the SSPE virus is its defective production of cell-free virus, which leaves cell-to-cell infection as the major mechanism of viral dissemination. The fusion protein plays an essential role in this cell-to-cell spread. It contains two critical heptad repeat regions that form a six-helix bundle in the trimer similar to most viral fusion proteins. In the case of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), a synthetic peptide derived from the heptad repeat region of the fusion protein enfuvirtide inhibits viral replication and is clinically approved as an anti-HIV-1 agent. The heptad repeat regions of HIV-1 are structurally and functionally similar to those of the MV fusion protein. We therefore designed novel peptides derived from the fusion protein heptad repeat region of the MV and examined their effects on the measles and SSPE virus replication in vitro and in vivo. Some of these synthetic novel peptides demonstrated high antiviral activity against both the measles (Edmonston strain) and SSPE (Yamagata-1 strain) viruses at nanomolar concentrations with no cytotoxicity in vitro. In particular, intracranial administration of one of the synthetic peptides increased the survival rate from 0% to 67% in an SSPE virus-infected nude mouse model. PMID:27612283

  1. Placenta Peptide Can Protect Mitochondrial Dysfunction through Inhibiting ROS and TNF-α Generation, by Maintaining Mitochondrial Dynamic Network and by Increasing IL-6 Level during Chronic Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Muluye, Rekik A.; Bian, Yuhong; Wang, Li; Alemu, Paulos N.; Cui, Huantian; Peng, Xiaofei; Li, Shanshan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Level of fatigue is related to the metabolic energy available to tissues and cells, mainly through mitochondrial respiration, as well fatigue is the most common symptom of poorly functioning mitochondria. Hence, dysfunction of these organelles may be the cause of the fatigue seen in Chronic fatigue (CF). Placenta has been used for treatment of fatigue and various disease, moreover peptides has known protect mitochondrial viability, and alleviate fatigue. These properties of placenta and peptides may link with its effect on mitochondria; therefore, it is highly important to investigate the effectiveness of placenta peptide on fatigue and mitochondrial dysfunction. Methods: After administration of sheep placenta peptide (SPP) for 1 month, mice’s were forced to swim till exhaustion for 90 min to induce chronic fatigue. Electron microscopic examination of skeletal muscle mitochondrial structure, tissue Malondialdehyde (MDA), mitochondrial SOD and serum inflammatory cytokines level were investigated in order to determine the potential effect of SPP on mitochondria during CF. Rat skeletal muscle (L6 cell) were also treated with different concentration of SPP to determine the effect of SPP on cell viability using Thiazoyl blue tetrazolium assay. Results: Our finding revealed that forced swimming induced fatigue model can cause mitochondrial damage through Reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated lipid peroxidation and Tumor Necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) elevation. Whereas SPP protected fatigue induced mitochondrial dysfunction through preventing ROS and TNF-α generation, by maintaining mitochondrial dynamic network and by increasing serum IL-6 level. Conclusion: SPP can protect damage in mitochondrial components which will allow proper functioning of mitochondria that will in turn inhibit progression of chronic fatigue. Therefore, SPP may represent a novel therapeutic advantage for preventing mitochondrial dysfunction in patients with chronic fatigue. PMID

  2. A Novel Peptide Derived from the Fusion Protein Heptad Repeat Inhibits Replication of Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis Virus In Vitro and In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Koichi; Abe, Yusaku; Kodama, Eiichi N; Nabika, Ryota; Oishi, Shinya; Ohara, Shinichiro; Sato, Masatoki; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Fujii, Nobutaka; Hosoya, Mitsuaki

    2016-01-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a persistent, progressive, and fatal degenerative disease resulting from persistent measles virus (MV) infection of the central nervous system. Most drugs used to treat SSPE have been reported to have limited effects. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies are urgently required. The SSPE virus, a variant MV strain, differs virologically from wild-type MV strain. One characteristic of the SSPE virus is its defective production of cell-free virus, which leaves cell-to-cell infection as the major mechanism of viral dissemination. The fusion protein plays an essential role in this cell-to-cell spread. It contains two critical heptad repeat regions that form a six-helix bundle in the trimer similar to most viral fusion proteins. In the case of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), a synthetic peptide derived from the heptad repeat region of the fusion protein enfuvirtide inhibits viral replication and is clinically approved as an anti-HIV-1 agent. The heptad repeat regions of HIV-1 are structurally and functionally similar to those of the MV fusion protein. We therefore designed novel peptides derived from the fusion protein heptad repeat region of the MV and examined their effects on the measles and SSPE virus replication in vitro and in vivo. Some of these synthetic novel peptides demonstrated high antiviral activity against both the measles (Edmonston strain) and SSPE (Yamagata-1 strain) viruses at nanomolar concentrations with no cytotoxicity in vitro. In particular, intracranial administration of one of the synthetic peptides increased the survival rate from 0% to 67% in an SSPE virus-infected nude mouse model. PMID:27612283

  3. Inhibiting the color formation by gradient temperature-elevating Maillard reaction of soybean peptide-xylose system based on interaction of l-cysteine and Amadori compounds.

    PubMed

    Huang, M G; Zhang, X M; Eric, K; Abbas, S; Hayat, K; Liu, P; Xia, S Q; Jia, C S

    2012-05-01

    Light color and savory flavor enhancer are attractive for consumers and food producers. The effect of addition time of l-cysteine on inhibiting color formation was investigated in soybean peptide-xylose system, and the possible pathway was explored. Once dicarbonyl compounds were formed during the Maillard reaction, the addition of l-cysteine had no color-inhibiting effect; if l-cysteine was added immediately after the Amadori compound was formed, the extraordinary color-inhibiting effect was observed. Therefore, an improved way to inhibit color formation was proposed on the basis of the interaction of l-cysteine and Amadori compounds by controlling the addition time of l-cysteine through gradient temperature-elevating Maillard reaction. The system was heated at 80 °C for 60 min to form Amadori compounds, followed by the addition of L-cysteine, and the temperature was raised to 120 °C and held for 110 min. Compared with traditional products, the lightest color product was found desirable by GC/MS analysis and sensory evaluation. The novel method proposed can be a guide for the industrial preparation of light-colored products.

  4. Peptide deformylase inhibitors as potent antimycobacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Teo, Jeanette W P; Thayalan, Pamela; Beer, David; Yap, Amelia S L; Nanjundappa, Mahesh; Ngew, Xinyi; Duraiswamy, Jeyaraj; Liung, Sarah; Dartois, Veronique; Schreiber, Mark; Hasan, Samiul; Cynamon, Michael; Ryder, Neil S; Yang, Xia; Weidmann, Beat; Bracken, Kathryn; Dick, Thomas; Mukherjee, Kakoli

    2006-11-01

    Peptide deformylase (PDF) catalyzes the hydrolytic removal of the N-terminal formyl group from nascent proteins. This is an essential step in bacterial protein synthesis, making PDF an attractive target for antibacterial drug development. Essentiality of the def gene, encoding PDF from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, was demonstrated through genetic knockout experiments with Mycobacterium bovis BCG. PDF from M. tuberculosis strain H37Rv was cloned, expressed, and purified as an N-terminal histidine-tagged recombinant protein in Escherichia coli. A novel class of PDF inhibitors (PDF-I), the N-alkyl urea hydroxamic acids, were synthesized and evaluated for their activities against the M. tuberculosis PDF enzyme as well as their antimycobacterial effects. Several compounds from the new class had 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of <100 nM. Some of the PDF-I displayed antibacterial activity against M. tuberculosis, including MDR strains with MIC90 values of <1 microM. Pharmacokinetic studies of potential leads showed that the compounds were orally bioavailable. Spontaneous resistance towards these inhibitors arose at a frequency of < or =5 x 10(-7) in M. bovis BCG. DNA sequence analysis of several spontaneous PDF-I-resistant mutants revealed that half of the mutants had acquired point mutations in their formyl methyltransferase gene (fmt), which formylated Met-tRNA. The results from this study validate M. tuberculosis PDF as a drug target and suggest that this class of compounds have the potential to be developed as novel antimycobacterial agents.

  5. Rapid glucocorticoid inhibition of vasoactive intestinal peptide-induced cyclic AMP accumulation and prolactin release in rat pituitary cells in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Rotsztejn, W H; Dussaillant, M; Nobou, F; Rosselin, G

    1981-01-01

    Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) stimulates both adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation and prolactin release in normal rat pituitary cells in culture. cAMP accumulation is significant (P less than 0.01) at VIP concentrations as low as 1 nM and reaches a maximum with 0.1 microM. Addition of dexamethasone as early as 15 min before VIP inhibits VIP stimulation of both cAMP production and PRL secretion. The rapid inhibition is dose-dependent: it appears at doses as low as 0.01 pM and is complete at 1 pM dexamethasone. Increasing concentrations of dexamethasone induce a noncompetitive type of inhibition, as shown by the decrease in Vmax with no change in the apparent Km for VIP. Cycloheximide (1 mM) counteracts the inhibitory effect of dexamethasone on VIP-induced cAMP production, which suggests the involvement of a rapid protein synthesis mechanism. Ru-26988, a specific glucocorticoid devoid of any mineralocorticoid activity and which does not bind to intracellular transcortin-like component, also produces an inhibition of VIP-induced cAMP accumulation. Corticosterone also inhibits VIP-induced cAMP production but at concentrations higher than those of dexamethasone. In contrast, aldosterone, progesterone, estradiol, and testosterone have no effect. These results demonstrate that, in normal rat pituitary cells in culture, glucocorticoids at physiological concentrations rapidly inhibit the cAMP production and prolactin release induced by VIP by acting through specific glucocorticoid receptors. PMID:6278481

  6. Inhibition of lanthanide nanocrystal-induced inflammasome activation in macrophages by a surface coating peptide through abrogation of ROS production and TRPM2-mediated Ca(2+) influx.

    PubMed

    Yao, Han; Zhang, Yunjiao; Liu, Liu; Xu, Youcui; Liu, Xi; Lin, Jun; Zhou, Wei; Wei, Pengfei; Jin, Peipei; Wen, Long-Ping

    2016-11-01

    Lanthanide-based nanoparticles (LNs) hold great promise in medicine. A variety of nanocrystals, including LNs, elicits potent inflammatory response through activation of NLRP3 inflammasome. We have previously identified an LNs-specific surface coating peptide RE-1, with the sequence of 'ACTARSPWICG', which reduced nanocrystal-cell interaction and abrogated LNs-induced autophagy and toxicity in both HeLa cells and liver hepatocytes. Here we show that RE-1 coating effectively inhibited LNs-induced inflammasome activation, mostly mediated by NLRP3, in mouse bone marrow derived macrophage (BMDM) cells, human THP-1 cells and mouse peritoneal macrophages and also reduced LNs-elicited inflammatory response in vivo. RE-1 coating had no effect on cellular internalization of LNs in BMDM cells, in contrast to the situation in HeLa cells where cell uptake of LNs was significantly inhibited by RE-1. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the inflammasome-inhibiting effect of RE-1, we assessed several parameters known to influence nanocrystal-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation. RE-1 coating did not reduce potassium efflux, which occurred after LNs treatment in BMDM cells and was necessary but insufficient for LNs-induced inflammasome activation. RE-1 did decrease lysosomal damage induced by LNs, but the inhibitor of cathepsin B did not affect LNs-elicited caspase 1 activation and IL-1β release, suggesting that lysosomal damage was not critically important for LNs-induced inflammasome activation. On the other hand, LNs-induced elevation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), critically important for inflammasome activation, was largely abolished by RE-1 coating, with the reduction on NADPH oxidase-generated ROS playing a more prominent role for RE-1's inflammasome-inhibiting effect than the reduction on mitochondria-generated ROS. ROS generation further triggered Ca(2+) influx, an event that was mediated by Transient Receptor Potential M2 (TRPM2) and was

  7. Aloe arborescens Extract Protects IMR-32 Cells against Alzheimer Amyloid Beta Peptide via Inhibition of Radical Peroxide Production.

    PubMed

    Clementi, Maria Elisabetta; Tringali, Giuseppe; Triggiani, Doriana; Giardina, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    Aloe arborescens is commonly used as a pharmaceutical ingredient for its effect in burn treatment and ability to increase skin wound healing properties. Besides, it is well known to have beneficial phytotherapeutic, anticancer, and radio-protective properties. In this study, we first provided evidence that A. arborescens extract protects IMR32, a neuroblastoma human cellular line, from toxicity induced by beta amyloid, the peptide responsible for Alzheimer's disease. In particular, pretreatment with A. arborescens maintains an elevated cell viability and exerts a protective effect on mitochondrial functionality, as evidenced by oxygen consumption experiments. The protective mechanism exerted by A. arborescens seems be related to lowering of oxidative potential of the cells, as demonstrated by the ROS measurement compared with the results obtained in the presence of amyloid beta (1-42) peptide alone. Based on these preliminary observations we suggest that use ofA. arborescens extract could be developed as agents for the management of AD. PMID:26749845

  8. Structures of proline-rich peptides bound to the ribosome reveal a common mechanism of protein synthesis inhibition

    DOE PAGES

    Gagnon, Matthieu G.; Roy, Raktim N.; Lomakin, Ivan B.; Florin, Tanja; Mankin, Alexander S.; Steitz, Thomas A.

    2016-01-24

    Here, with bacterial resistance becoming a serious threat to global public health, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have become a promising area of focus in antibiotic research. AMPs are derived from a diverse range of species, from prokaryotes to humans, with a mechanism of action that often involves disruption of the bacterial cell membrane. Proline-rich antimicrobial peptides (PrAMPs) are instead actively transported inside the bacterial cell where they bind and inactivate specific targets. Recently, it was reported that some PrAMPs, such as Bac71–35, oncocins and apidaecins, bind and inactivate the bacterial ribosome. Here we report the crystal structures of Bac71–35, Pyrrhocoricin, Metalnikowinmore » and two oncocin derivatives, bound to the Thermus thermophilus 70S ribosome. Each of the PrAMPs blocks the peptide exit tunnel of the ribosome by simultaneously occupying three well characterized antibioticbinding sites and interferes with the initiation step of translation, thereby revealing a common mechanism of action used by these PrAMPs to inactivate protein synthesis. Our study expands the repertoire of PrAMPs and provides a framework for designing new-generation therapeutics.« less

  9. Structures of proline-rich peptides bound to the ribosome reveal a common mechanism of protein synthesis inhibition.

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Matthieu G; Roy, Raktim N; Lomakin, Ivan B; Florin, Tanja; Mankin, Alexander S; Steitz, Thomas A

    2016-03-18

    With bacterial resistance becoming a serious threat to global public health, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have become a promising area of focus in antibiotic research. AMPs are derived from a diverse range of species, from prokaryotes to humans, with a mechanism of action that often involves disruption of the bacterial cell membrane. Proline-rich antimicrobial peptides (PrAMPs) are instead actively transported inside the bacterial cell where they bind and inactivate specific targets. Recently, it was reported that some PrAMPs, such as Bac71 -35, oncocins and apidaecins, bind and inactivate the bacterial ribosome. Here we report the crystal structures of Bac71 -35, Pyrrhocoricin, Metalnikowin and two oncocin derivatives, bound to the Thermus thermophilus 70S ribosome. Each of the PrAMPs blocks the peptide exit tunnel of the ribosome by simultaneously occupying three well characterized antibiotic-binding sites and interferes with the initiation step of translation, thereby revealing a common mechanism of action used by these PrAMPs to inactivate protein synthesis. Our study expands the repertoire of PrAMPs and provides a framework for designing new-generation therapeutics. PMID:26809677

  10. Structures of proline-rich peptides bound to the ribosome reveal a common mechanism of protein synthesis inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Gagnon, Matthieu G.; Roy, Raktim N.; Lomakin, Ivan B.; Florin, Tanja; Mankin, Alexander S.; Steitz, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    With bacterial resistance becoming a serious threat to global public health, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have become a promising area of focus in antibiotic research. AMPs are derived from a diverse range of species, from prokaryotes to humans, with a mechanism of action that often involves disruption of the bacterial cell membrane. Proline-rich antimicrobial peptides (PrAMPs) are instead actively transported inside the bacterial cell where they bind and inactivate specific targets. Recently, it was reported that some PrAMPs, such as Bac71–35, oncocins and apidaecins, bind and inactivate the bacterial ribosome. Here we report the crystal structures of Bac71–35, Pyrrhocoricin, Metalnikowin and two oncocin derivatives, bound to the Thermus thermophilus 70S ribosome. Each of the PrAMPs blocks the peptide exit tunnel of the ribosome by simultaneously occupying three well characterized antibiotic-binding sites and interferes with the initiation step of translation, thereby revealing a common mechanism of action used by these PrAMPs to inactivate protein synthesis. Our study expands the repertoire of PrAMPs and provides a framework for designing new-generation therapeutics. PMID:26809677

  11. Proteolytically inactive insulin-degrading enzyme inhibits amyloid formation yielding non-neurotoxic aβ peptide aggregates.

    PubMed

    de Tullio, Matias B; Castelletto, Valeria; Hamley, Ian W; Martino Adami, Pamela V; Morelli, Laura; Castaño, Eduardo M

    2013-01-01

    Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is a neutral Zn(2+) peptidase that degrades short peptides based on substrate conformation, size and charge. Some of these substrates, including amyloid β (Aβ) are capable of self-assembling into cytotoxic oligomers. Based on IDE recognition mechanism and our previous report of the formation of a stable complex between IDE and intact Aβ in vitro and in vivo, we analyzed the possibility of a chaperone-like function of IDE. A proteolytically inactive recombinant IDE with Glu111 replaced by Gln (IDEQ) was used. IDEQ blocked the amyloidogenic pathway of Aβ yielding non-fibrillar structures as assessed by electron microscopy. Measurements of the kinetics of Aβ aggregation by light scattering showed that 1) IDEQ effect was promoted by ATP independent of its hydrolysis, 2) end products of Aβ-IDEQ co-incubation were incapable of "seeding" the assembly of monomeric Aβ and 3) IDEQ was ineffective in reversing Aβ aggregation. Moreover, Aβ aggregates formed in the presence of IDEQ were non-neurotoxic. IDEQ had no conformational effects upon insulin (a non-amyloidogenic protein under physiological conditions) and did not disturb insulin receptor activation in cultured cells. Our results suggest that IDE has a chaperone-like activity upon amyloid-forming peptides. It remains to be explored whether other highly conserved metallopeptidases have a dual protease-chaperone function to prevent the formation of toxic peptide oligomers from bacteria to mammals. PMID:23593132

  12. Solubilization and functional reconstitution of polymorphonuclear leukocyte formyl-Methionyl-Leucyl-Phenylalanine receptors and guanine nucleotide binding proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    Formyl-Methionyl-Leucyl-Phenylalanine (fMLP) binds to specific polymorphonuclear leukocyte plasma membrane receptors stimulating chemotaxis and bactericidal responses. One of the initial events of the ligand receptor interaction is a rise in inositol trisphosphate, which triggers intracellular calcium release. The generation of inositol trisphosphate is mediated by the fMLP-activated phospholipase C via a GTP-binding protein (G-protein). In analogy to the adrenergic stimulation of adenylate cyclase, the following signal transduction model has been proposed: The fMLP receptor activates a G-protein which then stimulates phospholipase C to hydrolyse phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate to inositol trisphosphate and diacylglycerol. This work has focused on characterizing the structural and functional coupling fMLP receptor and G-proteins in native membranes, detergent micelles and reconstituted phospholipid vesicles. Tight coupling between the fMLP receptor and G-protein has been demonstrated in both native and solubilized membranes by assaying quanine nucleotide-induced inhibition of (/sup 3/H)fMLP binding and fMLP stimulated GTPase activity.

  13. The Macrocyclic Peptide Antibiotic Micrococcin P1 Is Secreted by the Food-Borne Bacterium Staphylococcus equorum WS 2733 and Inhibits Listeria monocytogenes on Soft Cheese

    PubMed Central

    Carnio, Markus C.; Höltzel, Alexandra; Rudolf, Melanie; Henle, Thomas; Jung, Günther; Scherer, Siegfried

    2000-01-01

    Staphylococcus equorum WS 2733 was found to produce a substance exhibiting a bacteriostatic effect on a variety of gram-positive bacteria. The metabolite was purified to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation and semipreparative reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Electrospray mass spectrometry confirmed the high purity of the compound and revealed a molecular mass of 1,143 Da. By two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy the substance was identified as micrococcin P1 which is a macrocyclic peptide antibiotic that has not yet been reported for the genus Staphylococcus. A total of 95 out of 95 Listeria strains and 130 out of 135 other gram-positive bacteria were inhibited by this substance, while none of 37 gram-negative bacteria were affected. The antilisterial potential of this food-grade strain as a protective starter culture was evaluated by its in situ application in cheese-ripening experiments under laboratory conditions. A remarkable growth reduction of Listeria monocytogenes could be achieved compared to control cheese ripened with a nonbacteriocinogenic type strain of Staphylococcus equorum. In order to prove that inhibition was due to micrococcin P1, a micrococcin-deficient mutant was constructed which did not inhibit L. monocytogenes in cheese-ripening experiments. PMID:10831414

  14. Flexible supercapacitor based on electrochemically synthesized pyrrole formyl pyrrole copolymer coated on carbon microfibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholami, Mehrdad; Moozarm Nia, Pooria; Narimani, Leila; Sokhakian, Mehran; Alias, Yatimah

    2016-08-01

    The main objective of this work is to prepare a flexible supercapacitor using electrochemically synthesized pyrrole formyl pyrrole copolymer P(Py-co-FPy) coated on the carbon microfibers. Due to difficulties of working with carbon microfibers, glassy carbon was used to find out optimized conditions by varying mole ratio of pyrrole and formyl pyrrole monomers on the capacitance value. The prepared electrodes were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Then the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to characterize the optimized electrode. The specific capacitance is calculated using cyclic voltammetry, charge/discharge method, and impedance spectroscopy. The charge/discharge study reveals that the best specific capacitance is estimated to be 220.3 mF cm-2 for equal mole fraction of pyrrole and formyl pyrrole Py (0.1)-FP (0.1) at discharge current of 3 × 10-4 A. This optimized electrode keeps about 92% of its capacitance value in high current of discharging. The specific capacitances calculated by all the mentioned methods are in agreement with each other. Finally, the found optimized conditions were successfully applied to produce a flexible supercapacitor on the surface of carbon microfibers.

  15. Molecular binding of self-assembling peptide EAK16-II with anticancer agent EPT and its implication in cancer cell inhibition.

    PubMed

    Lu, Sheng; Wang, Hui; Sheng, Yuebiao; Liu, Mingyao; Chen, P

    2012-05-30

    The current drug delivery techniques involve encapsulation, targeting and controlled release of the drug with various molecules or nanoparticles, but rarely has the drug molecular state or form been investigated. It is necessary to deliver a drug with a prescribed molecular state in order to maximize drug therapeutic effects. Here we present two facile methods to characterize molecular states of the anticancer drug ellipticine (EPT) encapsulated in the self-assembling peptide EAK, and relate the different molecular states of EPT to their respective cancer inhibition efficacies. The first method is UV-based, where drug loading capacity of a particular molecular state was determined. The experimental data corroborated a molecular binding model, where peptide-drug interaction was assumed to be electrostatic in nature. The developed model could elucidate a unique pH effect on protonated EPT loading capacity. The second method is based on fluorescence characteristics of EPT, which could differentiate the two molecular states: protonated and crystalline of EPT in situ. The inner filter effect was, however, found with this method, presenting an ineluctable obstacle in quantitative analysis of fluorescence data. A correction method for the inner filter effect was thus developed. With this approach, concentrations of EPT at different molecular states in its peptide complex solutions were determined. In vitro cytotoxicity assay was applied to evaluate the efficacy of the two molecular states of EPT, showing that protonated EPT was more efficient at killing cancer cells than crystalline EPT. The molecular binding model and two characterization methods for EAK-EPT complexation could be extended to other carrier-drug systems. PMID:22465389

  16. Crucial elements that maintain the interactions between the regulatory TnaC peptide and the ribosome exit tunnel responsible for Trp inhibition of ribosome function.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Allyson K; Shirole, Nitin H; Murakami, Shino; Benedik, Michael J; Sachs, Matthew S; Cruz-Vera, Luis R

    2012-03-01

    Translation of the TnaC nascent peptide inhibits ribosomal activity in the presence of l-tryptophan, inducing expression of the tnaCAB operon in Escherichia coli. Using chemical methylation, this work reveals how interactions between TnaC and the ribosome are affected by mutations in both molecules. The presence of the TnaC-tRNA(Pro) peptidyl-tRNA within the ribosome protects the 23S rRNA nucleotide U2609 against chemical methylation. Such protection was not observed in mutant ribosomes containing changes in 23S rRNA nucleotides of the A748-A752 region. Nucleotides A752 and U2609 establish a base-pair interaction. Most replacements of either A752 or U2609 affected Trp induction of a TnaC-regulated LacZ reporter. However, the single change A752G, or the dual replacements A752G and U2609C, maintained Trp induction. Replacements at the conserved TnaC residues W12 and D16 also abolished the protection of U2609 by TnaC-tRNA(Pro) against chemical methylation. These data indicate that the TnaC nascent peptide in the ribosome exit tunnel interacts with the U2609 nucleotide when the ribosome is Trp responsive. This interaction is affected by mutational changes in exit tunnel nucleotides of 23S rRNA, as well as in conserved TnaC residues, suggesting that they affect the structure of the exit tunnel and/or the nascent peptide configuration in the tunnel. PMID:22110039

  17. Biodegradable Hydrophilic Polyurethane PEGU25 Loading Antimicrobial Peptide Bmap-28: A Sustained-release Membrane Able to Inhibit Bacterial Biofilm Formation in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jianzhong; Liu, Qinyu; Tian, Ye; Jian, Zhongyu; Li, Hong; Wang, Kunjie

    2015-01-01

    Catheter-related infection makes up a large part of hospital infection and contributes 80% to all nosocomial urological infection, costing hundreds of millions dollar per year for treatment. Biodegradable hydrophilic material incorporating antibiotic substance is a promising way to prevent catheter-related infection. And antimicrobial peptide seems an optimal drug for its desirable antibiotic effect. In the current research, we produced a new kind of antibiotic material by incorporating antimicrobial peptide Bmap-28 with polyurethane PEGU25 and tested its effect on Proteus mirabilis in vitro. Compared with the control group, PEGU25 membrane incorporating Bmap-28 had a significant lower bacteria load after co-cultured with the Proteus mirabilis. And its antibiotic effect could be observed throughout the whole 7-day test. Also the Bmap-28 membrane could delay catheter obstruction caused by encrustation. Our findings reveal that PEGU25 incorporating Bmap-28 can well inhibit bacterial biofilm formation of common pathogens for catheter-related urinary tract infection in vitro, which makes it a promising antibiotic material for medical tubes for urology. PMID:25727362

  18. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) inhibits DMBA/croton oil induced skin tumor growth by modulating NF-κB, MMPs, and infiltrating mast cells in swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Vimala; Vellaichamy, Elangovan

    2014-10-01

    Cardiac hormone atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and its receptor, natriuretic peptide receptor-A (NPR-A) are implicated as a vital regulator of cancer cell growth and tumor progression. However, the underlying mechanism by which ANP opposes the cancer growth in in-vivo remains unknown. Herein, we investigated the anti-cancer activity of ANP on 7, 12-dimethyl benzanthracence (DMBA)/Croton oil- induced two-step skin carcinogenic mouse model. Skin tumor incidence and tumor volume were recorded during the experimental period of 16 weeks. ANP (1 μg/kg body weight/alternate days for 4 weeks) was injected subcutaneously from the 13th week of DMBA/Croton oil induction. ANP treatment markedly inhibited the skin tumor growth (P<0.001). A significant reduction in the level of NF-κB activation (P<0.001), infiltrating mast cell count (P<0.01) and MMP-2/-9 (P<0.001, respectively) were noticed in the ANP treated mice skin tissue. Further, ANP treatment revert back the altered levels of serum LDH-4, C-reactive protein (CRP), and enzymatic antioxidants (SOD and CAT activities) to near normal level. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that ANP opposes the skin carcinogenesis by suppressing the inflammatory response and MMPs.

  19. C-Npys (S-3-nitro-2-pyridinesulfenyl) and peptide derivatives can inhibit a serine-thiol proteinase activity from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Alisson L; Carmona, Adriana K; Silva, Luiz S; Cunha, Carlos E L; Nakayasu, Ernesto S; Almeida, Igor C; Juliano, Maria A; Puccia, Rosana

    2007-04-20

    The inhibitory capacity of C-Npys (S-[3-nitro-2-pyridinesulfenyl]) derivatives over thiol-containing serine proteases has never been tested. In the present work we used an extracellular serine-thiol proteinase activity from the fungal pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis (PbST) to describe a potent inhibitory capacity of Bzl-C(Npys)KRLTL-NH(2) and Bzl-MKRLTLC(Npys)-NH(2). The assays were performed with PbST enriched upon affinity chromatography in a p-aminobenzamidine (pABA)-Sepharose column. Although PbST can cleave the fluorescence resonance energy transfer peptide Abz-MKRLTL-EDDnp between L-T, the C(Npys) derivatives were not substrates nor were they toxic in a cell detachment assay, allowing therapeutic use. The best inhibitor was Bzl-C(Npys)KRLTL-NH(2) (K(i)=16nM), suggesting that the peptide sequence promoted a favorable interaction, especially when C(Npys) was placed at a further position from the L-T bond, at the N-terminus. Inhibition was completely reverted with dithioerythritol, indicating that it was due to the reactivity of the C(Npys) moiety with a free SH- group. PMID:17328865

  20. Interaction Dynamics in Inhibiting the Aggregation of Aβ Peptides by SWCNTs: A Combined Experimental and Coarse-Grained Molecular Dynamic Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Dongdong; Qi, Ruxi; Li, Shujie; He, Ruoyu; Li, Pei; Wei, Guanghong; Yang, Xinju

    2016-09-21

    The aggregation of amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) is considered as the main possible cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD). How to suppress the formation of toxic Aβ aggregates has been an intensive concern over the past several decades. Increasing evidence shows that whether carbon nanomaterials can suppress or promote the aggregation depends on their physicochemical properties. However, their interaction dynamics remains elusive as amyloid fibrillation is a complex multistep process. In this paper, we utilized atomic force microscopy (AFM), electrostatic force microscopy (EFM), ThT/fluorescence spectroscopy, and cell viability measurements, combined with coarse-grained molecular dynamic (MD) simulations to study the dynamic interaction of full length Aβ with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). At the single SWCNTs scale, it is found that the presence of SWCNTs would result in rapid and spontaneous adsorption of Aβ1-40 peptides on their surface and stacking into nonfibrillar aggregates with reduced toxicity, which plays an important role in inhibiting the formation of toxic oligomers and mature fibrils. Our results provide new clues for studying the interaction in amyloid/SWCNTs system as well as for seeking amyloidosis inhibitors with carbon nanomaterials. PMID:27441457

  1. Enhanced striatial /sup 3/H-spiroperidol binding induced by chronic haloperidol treatment inhibited by peptides administered during the withdrawal phase

    SciTech Connect

    Bhargava, H.N.

    1984-02-27

    Chronic intragastric administration of haloperidol (1.5 mg/kg/day) for 21 days followed by a 3-day withdrawal period resulted in the development of enhanced locomotor activity response to apomorphine, and an increase in the number of binding sites for /sup 3/H-spiroperidol in the striatal membranes of the rat brain. Subcutaneous administration of Pro-Leu-Gly-NH/sub 2/ or cyclo-(Leu-Gly) in doses of 2 mg/kg/day given for 3-days after termination of haloperidol treatment inhibited the enhanced response to apomorphine, as well as the increases in the number of /sup 3/H-spiroperidol binding sites in the striatum. If indeed, the supersensitivity of striatal dopamine receptors is one of the mechanisms in the development of tardive dyskinesia symptoms, the present results suggest that the above peptides may be helpful in ameliorating some of the symptoms of tardive dyskinesia induced by neuroleptic drugs. 31 references, 3 figures.

  2. Sodium butyrate inhibits Staphylococcus aureus internalization in bovine mammary epithelial cells and induces the expression of antimicrobial peptide genes.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; Villarreal-Fernández, Edith; Cano-Camacho, Horacio; López-Meza, Joel E

    2009-07-01

    A distinctive feature of bovine milk fat is the presence of butyrate, molecule with recognized antimicrobial and antiinflammatory properties. Bovine mastitis is a pathology characterized by inflammatory and infectious processes; however, the role of sodium butyrate on Staphylococcus aureus infection in mammary epithelium has not been studied. In this work we assess the role of sodium butyrate on the invasion of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) by S. aureus responsible of mastitis and on the expression of antimicrobial peptide genes. Our data show that sodium butyrate (0.25-0.5mM) reduces approximately 50% the internalization of S. aureus (ATCC 27543) into bMEC. By RT-PCR analysis, we showed that sodium butyrate is able to up-regulate the expression of tracheal antimicrobial peptide (TAP), beta-defensin and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNAs, as well as nitric oxide production. Also, sodium butyrate and infection increased acetylation of histone H3 in bMEC. These results indicate that sodium butyrate could be effective to modulate innate immune gene expression in mammary gland that leads to a better defense against bacterial infection. To our knowledge, this is the first report that shows a role of sodium butyrate during the internalization of S. aureus into bMEC. PMID:19393738

  3. Trp2 peptide vaccine adjuvanted with (R)-DOTAP inhibits tumor growth in an advanced melanoma model

    PubMed Central

    Vasievich, Elizabeth A.; Ramishetti, Srinivas; Zhang, Yuan; Huang, Leaf

    2012-01-01

    Previously we have shown cationic lipid (R)-DOTAP as the immunologically active enantiomer of the DOTAP racemic mixture, initiating complete tumor regression in an exogenous antigen model (murine cervical cancer model). Here, we investigate the use of (R)-DOTAP as an efficacious adjuvant delivering an endogenous antigen in an aggressive murine solid tumor melanoma model. (R)-DOTAP/Trp2 peptide complexes showed decreasing size and charge with increasing peptide concentration, taking a rod-shape at highest concentrations. The particles were stable for at 2 weeks at 4°C. A dose of 75nmol Trp2 (formulated in (R)-DOTAP) was able to show statistically significant tumor growth delay compared to lower doses of 5 and 25nmol which were no different than untreated tumors. (R)-DOTAP/Trp2 (75nmol) treated mice also showed increased T cell IFN-γ secretion after restimulation with Trp2, as well as CTL activity in vivo. This vaccination group also showed the highest population of functionally active tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, indicated by IFN-γ secretion after restimulation with Trp2. Thus, (R)-DOTAP has shown the ability to break tolerance as an adjuvant. Its activity to enhance immunogenicity of other tumor associated antigens should be studied further. PMID:22142394

  4. Sodium butyrate inhibits Staphylococcus aureus internalization in bovine mammary epithelial cells and induces the expression of antimicrobial peptide genes.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; Villarreal-Fernández, Edith; Cano-Camacho, Horacio; López-Meza, Joel E

    2009-07-01

    A distinctive feature of bovine milk fat is the presence of butyrate, molecule with recognized antimicrobial and antiinflammatory properties. Bovine mastitis is a pathology characterized by inflammatory and infectious processes; however, the role of sodium butyrate on Staphylococcus aureus infection in mammary epithelium has not been studied. In this work we assess the role of sodium butyrate on the invasion of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) by S. aureus responsible of mastitis and on the expression of antimicrobial peptide genes. Our data show that sodium butyrate (0.25-0.5mM) reduces approximately 50% the internalization of S. aureus (ATCC 27543) into bMEC. By RT-PCR analysis, we showed that sodium butyrate is able to up-regulate the expression of tracheal antimicrobial peptide (TAP), beta-defensin and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNAs, as well as nitric oxide production. Also, sodium butyrate and infection increased acetylation of histone H3 in bMEC. These results indicate that sodium butyrate could be effective to modulate innate immune gene expression in mammary gland that leads to a better defense against bacterial infection. To our knowledge, this is the first report that shows a role of sodium butyrate during the internalization of S. aureus into bMEC.

  5. A Novel Peptide Derived from Human Pancreatitis-Associated Protein Inhibits Inflammation In Vivo and In Vitro and Blocks NF-Kappa B Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiaolu; Jin, Huiyi; Liu, Kun; Gu, Qing; Xu, Xun

    2011-01-01

    Background Pancreatitis-associated protein (PAP) is a pancreatic secretory protein belongs to the group VII of C-type lectin family. Emerging evidence suggests that PAP plays a protective effect in inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we newly identified a 16-amino-acid peptide (named PAPep) derived from C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD) of human PAP with potent anti-inflammatory activity using both in vivo and in vitro assays. Methodology/Principal Findings We assessed the anti-inflammatory effect of PAPep on endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in rats and demonstrated that intravitreal pretreatment of PAPep concentration-dependently attenuated clinical manifestation of EIU rats, reduced protein leakage and cell infiltration into the aqueous humor (AqH), suppressed tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 production in ocular tissues, and improved histopathologic manifestation of EIU. Furthermore, PAPep suppressed the LPS-induced mRNA expression of TNF-α and IL-6 in RAW 264.7 cells, inhibited protein expression of ICAM-1 in TNF-α-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as well as U937 cells adhesion to HUVECs. Western blot analysis in ocular tissues and different cell lines revealed that the possible mechanism for this anti-inflammatory effect of PAPep may depend on its ability to inhibit the activation of NF-kB signaling pathway. Conclusions/Significance Our studies provide the first evidence that the sequence of PAPep is within the critically active region for the anti-inflammatory function of PAP and the peptide may be a promising candidate for the management of ocular inflammatory diseases. PMID:22195011

  6. In vitro and ex vivo activity of peptide deformylase inhibitors against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anshika; Sharma, Sadhna; Khuller, G K; Kanwar, A J

    2009-09-01

    Bacterial peptide deformylase (PDF) catalyses removal of the N-terminal formyl group of proteins and is essential for protein maturation, growth and survival of bacteria. Thus, PDF appears to be a good antimycobacterial drug target. In the present study, various well-known PDF inhibitors, such as BB-3497, actinonin, 1,10-phenanthroline, hydroxylamine hydrochloride and galardin, were selected to evaluate their inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. All compounds were found to be active against M. tuberculosis, with MIC(90) values (lowest drug concentration at which 90% of growth was inhibited on the basis of CFU enumeration) ranging from 0.2 mg/L to 74 mg/L. BB-3497 and 1,10-phenanthroline exhibited potent in vitro antimycobacterial activity, and also showed synergism with isoniazid and rifampicin. All compounds showed a bacteriostatic mode of inhibition. Under ex vivo conditions and short-course chemotherapy, BB-3497 and actinonin were found to be significantly active, with BB-3497 exhibiting comparable efficacy to that of isoniazid. Collectively, promising activities of PDF inhibitors such as BB-3497 and actinonin suggest their potential use against M. tuberculosis.

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Action of an Antimicrobial Model Peptide That Suppresses the TRIF-Dependent Signaling Pathway via Inhibition of Toll-Like Receptor 4 Endocytosis in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Do-Wan; Heo, Kang-Hyuck; Kim, Young-Kyu; Sim, Eun-Jeong; Kang, Tae-Bong; Choi, Jae-Wan; Sim, Dae-Won; Cheong, Sun-Hee; Lee, Seung-Hong; Bang, Jeong-Kyu; Won, Hyung-Sik; Lee, Kwang-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also called host defense peptides, particularly those with amphipathic helical structures, are emerging as target molecules for therapeutic development due to their immunomodulatory properties. Although the antimicrobial activity of AMPs is known to be exerted primarily by permeation of the bacterial membrane, the mechanism underlying its anti-inflammatory activity remains to be elucidated. We report potent anti-inflammatory activity of WALK11.3, an antimicrobial model peptide with an amphipathic helical conformation, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. This peptide inhibited the expression of inflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide, COX-2, IL-1β, IL-6, INF-β, and TNF-α. Although WALK11.3 did not exert a major effect on all downstream signaling in the MyD88-dependent pathway, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)- mediated pro-inflammatory signals were markedly attenuated in the TRIF-dependent pathway due to inhibition of the phosphorylation of STAT1 by attenuation of IRF3 phosphorylation. WALK11.3 specifically inhibited the endocytosis of TLR4, which is essential for triggering TRIF-mediated signaling in macrophage cells. Hence, we suggest that specific interference with TLR4 endocytosis could be one of the major modes of the anti-inflammatory action of AMPs. Our designed WALK11 peptides, which possess both antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities, may be promising molecules for the development of therapies for infectious inflammation. PMID:26017270

  8. Selective inhibition of JNK with a peptide inhibitor attenuates pain hypersensitivity and tumor growth in a mouse skin cancer pain model.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yong-Jing; Cheng, Jen-Kun; Zeng, Qing; Xu, Zhen-Zhong; Decosterd, Isabelle; Xu, Xiaoyin; Ji, Ru-Rong

    2009-09-01

    Cancer pain significantly affects the quality of cancer patients, and current treatments for this pain are limited. C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) has been implicated in tumor growth and neuropathic pain sensitization. We investigated the role of JNK in cancer pain and tumor growth in a skin cancer pain model. Injection of luciferase-transfected B16-Fluc melanoma cells into a hindpaw of mouse induced robust tumor growth, as indicated by increase in paw volume and fluorescence intensity. Pain hypersensitivity in this model developed rapidly (<5 days) and reached a peak in 2 weeks, and was characterized by mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia. Tumor growth was associated with JNK activation in tumor mass, dorsal root ganglion (DRG), and spinal cord and a peripheral neuropathy, such as loss of nerve fibers in the hindpaw skin and induction of ATF-3 expression in DRG neurons. Repeated systemic injections of D-JNKI-1 (6 mg/kg, i.p.), a selective and cell-permeable peptide inhibitor of JNK, produced an accumulative inhibition of mechanical allodynia and heat hyperalgesia. A bolus spinal injection of D-JNKI-1 also inhibited mechanical allodynia. Further, JNK inhibition suppressed tumor growth in vivo and melanoma cell proliferation in vitro. In contrast, repeated injections of morphine (5 mg/kg), a commonly used analgesic for terminal cancer, produced analgesic tolerance after 1 day and did not inhibit tumor growth. Our data reveal a marked peripheral neuropathy in this skin cancer model and important roles of the JNK pathway in cancer pain development and tumor growth. JNK inhibitors such as D-JNKI-1 may be used to treat cancer pain. PMID:19445931

  9. N-formylation of lysine in histone proteins as a secondary modification arising from oxidative DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Tao; Zhou, Xinfeng; Taghizadeh, Koli; Dong, Min; Dedon, Peter C.

    2007-01-01

    The posttranslational modification of histone and other chromatin proteins has a well recognized but poorly defined role in the physiology of gene expression. With implications for interfering with these epigenetic mechanisms, we now report the existence of a relatively abundant secondary modification of chromatin proteins, the N6-formylation of lysine that appears to be uniquely associated with histone and other nuclear proteins. Using both radiolabeling and sensitive bioanalytical methods, we demonstrate that the formyl moiety of 3′-formylphosphate residues arising from 5′-oxidation of deoxyribose in DNA, caused by the enediyne neocarzinostatin, for example, acylate the N6-amino groups of lysine side chains. A liquid chromatography (LC)–tandem mass spectrometry (MS) method was developed to quantify the resulting N6-formyl-lysine residues, which were observed to be present in unperturbed cells and all sources of histone proteins to the extent of 0.04–0.1% of all lysines in acid-soluble chromatin proteins including histones. Cells treated with neocarzinostatin showed a clear dose–response relationship for the formation of N6-formyl-lysine, with this nucleosome linker-selective DNA-cleaving agent causing selective N6-formylation of the linker histone H1. The N6-formyl-lysine residue appears to represent an endogenous histone secondary modification, one that bears chemical similarity to lysine N6-acetylation recognized as an important determinant of gene expression in mammalian cells. The N6-formyl modification of lysine may interfere with the signaling functions of lysine acetylation and methylation and thus contribute to the pathophysiology of oxidative and nitrosative stress. PMID:17190813

  10. Self-Assembly of a 9-Residue Amyloid-Forming Peptide Fragment of SARS Corona Virus E-protein: Mechanism of Self Aggregation and Amyloid-Inhibition of hIAPP

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Jyotsna; Bera, Supriyo; Midya, Anupam; Fierke, Carol A.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Bhunia, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    Molecular self-assembly, a phenomenon widely observed in nature, has been exploited through organic molecules, proteins, DNA and peptides to study complex biological systems. These self-assembly systems may also be used in understanding the molecular and structural biology which can inspire the design and synthesis of increasingly complex biomaterials. Specifically, use of these building blocks to investigate protein folding and misfolding has been of particular value since it can provide tremendous insights into peptide aggregation related to a variety of protein misfolding diseases, or amyloid diseases (e.g. Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, type-II diabetes). Herein, the self-assembly of TK9, a 9 residue peptide of the extra membrane C-terminal tail of the SARS Corona virus envelope, and its variants were characterized through biophysical, spectroscopic and simulated studies, and it was confirmed that the structure of these peptides influence their aggregation propensity, hence, mimicking amyloid proteins. TK9, which forms a beta-sheet rich fibril, contains a key sequence motif that may be critical for beta-sheet formation, thus making it an interesting system to study amyloid fibrillation. TK9 aggregates were further examined through simulations to evaluate the possible intra- and inter peptide interactions at the molecular level. These self-assembly peptides can also serve as amyloid inhibitors through hydrophobic and electrophilic recognition interactions. Our results show that TK9 inhibits the fibrillation of hIAPP, a 37 amino acid peptide implicated in the pathology of type-II diabetes. Thus, biophysical and NMR experimental results have revealed a molecular level understanding of peptide folding events, as well as the inhibition of amyloid-protein aggregation are reported. PMID:25785896

  11. Antimicrobial Peptides in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guangshun; Mishra, Biswajit; Lau, Kyle; Lushnikova, Tamara; Golla, Radha; Wang, Xiuqing

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights new members, novel mechanisms of action, new functions, and interesting applications of antimicrobial peptides reported in 2014. As of December 2014, over 100 new peptides were registered into the Antimicrobial Peptide Database, increasing the total number of entries to 2493. Unique antimicrobial peptides have been identified from marine bacteria, fungi, and plants. Environmental conditions clearly influence peptide activity or function. Human α-defensin HD-6 is only antimicrobial under reduced conditions. The pH-dependent oligomerization of human cathelicidin LL-37 is linked to double-stranded RNA delivery to endosomes, where the acidic pH triggers the dissociation of the peptide aggregate to release its cargo. Proline-rich peptides, previously known to bind to heat shock proteins, are shown to inhibit protein synthesis. A model antimicrobial peptide is demonstrated to have multiple hits on bacteria, including surface protein delocalization. While cell surface modification to decrease cationic peptide binding is a recognized resistance mechanism for pathogenic bacteria, it is also used as a survival strategy for commensal bacteria. The year 2014 also witnessed continued efforts in exploiting potential applications of antimicrobial peptides. We highlight 3D structure-based design of peptide antimicrobials and vaccines, surface coating, delivery systems, and microbial detection devices involving antimicrobial peptides. The 2014 results also support that combination therapy is preferred over monotherapy in treating biofilms. PMID:25806720

  12. Carbon nanotube inhibits the formation of β-sheet-rich oligomers of the Alzheimer's amyloid-β(16-22) peptide.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiyu; Luo, Yin; Derreumaux, Philippe; Wei, Guanghong

    2011-11-01

    Alzheimer's disease is associated with the abnormal self-assembly of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide into toxic β-rich aggregates. Experimental studies have shown that hydrophobic nanoparticles retard Aβ fibrillation by slowing down the nucleation process; however, the effects of nanoparticles on Aβ oligomeric structures remain elusive. In this study, we investigate the conformations of Aβ(16-22) octamers in the absence and presence of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) by performing extensive all-atom replica exchange molecular-dynamics simulations in explicit solvent. Our simulations starting from eight random chains demonstrate that the addition of SWCNT into Aβ(16-22) solution prevents β-sheet formation. Simulation starting from a prefibrillar β-sheet octamer shows that SWCNT destabilizes the β-sheet structure. A detailed analysis of the Aβ(16-22)/SWCNT/water interactions reveals that both the inhibition of β-sheet formation and the destabilization of prefibrillar β-sheets by SWCNT result from the same physical forces: hydrophobic and π-stacking interactions (with the latter playing a more important role). By analyzing the stacking patterns between the Phe aromatic rings and the SWCNT carbon rings, we find that short ring-centroid distances mostly favor parallel orientation, whereas large distances allow all other orientations to be populated. Overall, our computational study provides evidence that SWCNT is likely to inhibit Aβ(16-22) and full-length Aβ fibrillation.

  13. Cellular and molecular insight into the inhibition of primary root growth of Arabidopsis induced by peptaibols, a class of linear peptide antibiotics mainly produced by Trichoderma spp.

    PubMed

    Shi, Wei-Ling; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Wang, Li-Xia; Gong, Zhi-Ting; Li, Shuyu; Li, Chun-Long; Xie, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Mei; Li, Chuanyou; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Song, Xiao-Yan

    2016-04-01

    Trichoderma spp. are well known biocontrol agents that produce a variety of antibiotics. Peptaibols are a class of linear peptide antibiotics mainly produced by Trichoderma Alamethicin, the most studied peptaibol, is reported as toxic to plants at certain concentrations, while the mechanisms involved are unclear. We illustrated the toxic mechanisms of peptaibols by studying the growth-inhibitory effect of Trichokonin VI (TK VI), a peptaibol from Trichoderma longibrachiatum SMF2, on Arabidopsis primary roots. TK VI inhibited root growth by suppressing cell division and cell elongation, and disrupting root stem cell niche maintenance. TK VI increased auxin content and disrupted auxin response gradients in root tips. Further, we screened the Arabidopsis TK VI-resistant mutant tkr1. tkr1 harbors a point mutation in GORK, which encodes gated outwardly rectifying K(+)channel proteins. This mutation alleviated TK VI-induced suppression of K(+)efflux in roots, thereby stabilizing the auxin gradient. The tkr1 mutant also resisted the phytotoxicity of alamethicin. Our results indicate that GORK channels play a key role in peptaibol-plant interaction and that there is an inter-relationship between GORK channels and maintenance of auxin homeostasis. The cellular and molecular insight into the peptaibol-induced inhibition of plant root growth advances our understanding of Trichoderma-plant interactions.

  14. Cdk5 inhibitory peptide (CIP) inhibits Cdk5/p25 activity induced by high glucose in pancreatic beta cells and recovers insulin secretion from p25 damage.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ya-Li; Li, Congyu; Hu, Ya-Fang; Cao, Li; Wang, Hui; Li, Bo; Lu, Xiao-Hua; Bao, Li; Luo, Hong-Yan; Shukla, Varsha; Amin, Niranjana D; Pant, Harish C

    2013-01-01

    Cdk5/p25 hyperactivity has been demonstrated to lead to neuron apoptosis and degenerations. Chronic exposure to high glucose (HG) results in hyperactivity of Cdk5 and reduced insulin secretion. Here, we set out to determine whether abnormal upregulation of Cdk5/p25 activity may be induced in a pancreatic beta cell line, Min6 cells. We first confirmed that p25 were induced in overexpressed p35 cells treated with HG and increased time course dependence. Next, we showed that no p25 was detected under short time HG stimulation (4-12 hrs), however was detectable in the long exposure in HG cells (24 hrs and 48 hrs). Cdk5 activity in the above cells was much higher than low glucose treated cells and resulted in more than 50% inhibition of insulin secretion. We confirmed these results by overexpression of p25 in Min6 cells. As in cortical neurons, CIP, a small peptide, inhibited Cdk5/p25 activity and restored insulin secretion. The same results were detected in co-infection of dominant negative Cdk5 (DNCdk5) with p25. CIP also reduced beta cells apoptosis induced by Cdk5/p25. These studies indicate that Cdk5/p25 hyperactivation deregulates insulin secretion and induces cell death in pancreatic beta cells and suggests that CIP may serve as a therapeutic agent for type 2 diabetes. PMID:24039692

  15. Cellular and molecular insight into the inhibition of primary root growth of Arabidopsis induced by peptaibols, a class of linear peptide antibiotics mainly produced by Trichoderma spp.

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wei-Ling; Chen, Xiu-Lan; Wang, Li-Xia; Gong, Zhi-Ting; Li, Shuyu; Li, Chun-Long; Xie, Bin-Bin; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Mei; Li, Chuanyou; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Song, Xiao-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Trichoderma spp. are well known biocontrol agents that produce a variety of antibiotics. Peptaibols are a class of linear peptide antibiotics mainly produced by Trichoderma. Alamethicin, the most studied peptaibol, is reported as toxic to plants at certain concentrations, while the mechanisms involved are unclear. We illustrated the toxic mechanisms of peptaibols by studying the growth-inhibitory effect of Trichokonin VI (TK VI), a peptaibol from Trichoderma longibrachiatum SMF2, on Arabidopsis primary roots. TK VI inhibited root growth by suppressing cell division and cell elongation, and disrupting root stem cell niche maintenance. TK VI increased auxin content and disrupted auxin response gradients in root tips. Further, we screened the Arabidopsis TK VI-resistant mutant tkr1. tkr1 harbors a point mutation in GORK, which encodes gated outwardly rectifying K+ channel proteins. This mutation alleviated TK VI-induced suppression of K+ efflux in roots, thereby stabilizing the auxin gradient. The tkr1 mutant also resisted the phytotoxicity of alamethicin. Our results indicate that GORK channels play a key role in peptaibol–plant interaction and that there is an inter-relationship between GORK channels and maintenance of auxin homeostasis. The cellular and molecular insight into the peptaibol-induced inhibition of plant root growth advances our understanding of Trichoderma–plant interactions. PMID:26850879

  16. A novel peptide sansalvamide analogue inhibits pancreatic cancer cell growth through G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest

    SciTech Connect

    Ujiki, Michael B. |; Milam, Ben; Ding Xianzhong |; Roginsky, Alexandra B.; Salabat, M. Reza; Talamonti, Mark S.; Bell, Richard H. |; Gu Wenxin; Silverman, Richard B. ||; Adrian, Thomas E. |. E-mail: tadrian@northwestern.edu

    2006-02-24

    Patients with pancreatic cancer have little hope for cure because no effective therapies are available. Sansalvamide A is a cyclic depsipeptide produced by a marine fungus. We investigated the effect of a novel sansalvamide A analogue on growth, cell-cycle phases, and induction of apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells in vitro. The sansalvamide analogue caused marked time- and concentration-dependent inhibition of DNA synthesis and cell proliferation of two human pancreatic cancer cell lines (AsPC-1 and S2-013). The analogue induced G0/G1 phase cell-cycle arrest and morphological changes suggesting induction of apoptosis. Apoptosis was confirmed by annexin V binding. This novel sansalvamide analogue inhibits growth of pancreatic cancer cells through G0/G1 arrest and induces apoptosis. Sansalvamide analogues may be valuable for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  17. Inhibition of malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum development by crotamine, a cell penetrating peptide from the snake venom.

    PubMed

    El Chamy Maluf, S; Dal Mas, C; Oliveira, E B; Melo, P M; Carmona, A K; Gazarini, M L; Hayashi, M A F

    2016-04-01

    We show here that crotamine, a polypeptide from the South American rattlesnake venom with cell penetrating and selective anti-fungal and anti-tumoral properties, presents a potent anti-plasmodial activity in culture. Crotamine inhibits the development of the Plasmodium falciparum parasites in a dose-dependent manner [IC50 value of 1.87 μM], and confocal microscopy analysis showed a selective internalization of fluorescent-labeled crotamine into P. falciparum infected erythrocytes, with no detectable fluorescence in uninfected healthy erythrocytes. In addition, similarly to the crotamine cytotoxic effects, the mechanism underlying the anti-plasmodial activity may involve the disruption of parasite acidic compartments H(+) homeostasis. In fact, crotamine promoted a reduction of parasites organelle fluorescence loaded with the lysosomotropic fluorochrome acridine orange, in the same way as previously observed mammalian tumoral cells. Taken together, we show for the first time crotamine not only compromised the metabolism of the P. falciparum, but this toxin also inhibited the parasite growth. Therefore, we suggest this snake polypeptide as a promising lead molecule for the development of potential new molecules, namely peptidomimetics, with selectivity for infected erythrocytes and ability to inhibit the malaria infection by its natural affinity for acid vesicles. PMID:26806200

  18. The Inhibition and Resistance Mechanisms of Actinonin, Isolated from Marine Streptomyces sp. NHF165, against Vibrio anguillarum.

    PubMed

    Yang, Na; Sun, Chaomin

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio sp. is the most serious pathogen in marine aquaculture, and the development of anti-Vibrio agents is urgently needed. However, it is extreme lack of high-throughput screening (HTS) model for searching anti-Vibrio compounds. Here, we established a protein-based HTS screening model to identify agents targeting peptide deformylase (PDF) of Vibrio anguillarum. To find potential anti-Vibrio compounds, crude extracts derived from marine actinomycetes were applied for screening with this model. Notably, crude extract of strain Streptomyces sp. NHF165 inhibited dramatically both on V. anguillarum PDF (VaPDF) activity and V. anguillarum cell growth. And actinonin was further identified as the functional component. Anti-VaPDF and anti-V. anguillarum activities of actinonin were dose-dependent, and the IC50 values were 6.94 and 2.85 μM, respectively. To understand the resistance of V. anguillarum against actinonin, spontaneous V. anguillarum mutants with resistance against actinonin were isolated. Surprisingly, for the resistant strains, the region between 774 and 852 base pairs was found to be absent in the gene folD which produces 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate, a donor of N-formyl to Met-tRNA(fmet). When compared to the wild type strain, ΔfolD mutant showed eight times of minimum inhibition concentration on actinonin, however, the folD complementary strain could not grow on the medium supplemented with actinonin, which suggested that folD gene mutation was mainly responsible for the actinonin resistance. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that marine derived Streptomyces sp. could produce actinonin with anti-VaPDF activity and the resistance against actinonin by V. anguillarum is mediated by mutation in folD gene. PMID:27679625

  19. The Inhibition and Resistance Mechanisms of Actinonin, Isolated from Marine Streptomyces sp. NHF165, against Vibrio anguillarum

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Na; Sun, Chaomin

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio sp. is the most serious pathogen in marine aquaculture, and the development of anti-Vibrio agents is urgently needed. However, it is extreme lack of high-throughput screening (HTS) model for searching anti-Vibrio compounds. Here, we established a protein-based HTS screening model to identify agents targeting peptide deformylase (PDF) of Vibrio anguillarum. To find potential anti-Vibrio compounds, crude extracts derived from marine actinomycetes were applied for screening with this model. Notably, crude extract of strain Streptomyces sp. NHF165 inhibited dramatically both on V. anguillarum PDF (VaPDF) activity and V. anguillarum cell growth. And actinonin was further identified as the functional component. Anti-VaPDF and anti-V. anguillarum activities of actinonin were dose-dependent, and the IC50 values were 6.94 and 2.85 μM, respectively. To understand the resistance of V. anguillarum against actinonin, spontaneous V. anguillarum mutants with resistance against actinonin were isolated. Surprisingly, for the resistant strains, the region between 774 and 852 base pairs was found to be absent in the gene folD which produces 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate, a donor of N-formyl to Met-tRNAfmet. When compared to the wild type strain, ΔfolD mutant showed eight times of minimum inhibition concentration on actinonin, however, the folD complementary strain could not grow on the medium supplemented with actinonin, which suggested that folD gene mutation was mainly responsible for the actinonin resistance. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that marine derived Streptomyces sp. could produce actinonin with anti-VaPDF activity and the resistance against actinonin by V. anguillarum is mediated by mutation in folD gene. PMID:27679625

  20. The Inhibition and Resistance Mechanisms of Actinonin, Isolated from Marine Streptomyces sp. NHF165, against Vibrio anguillarum

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Na; Sun, Chaomin

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio sp. is the most serious pathogen in marine aquaculture, and the development of anti-Vibrio agents is urgently needed. However, it is extreme lack of high-throughput screening (HTS) model for searching anti-Vibrio compounds. Here, we established a protein-based HTS screening model to identify agents targeting peptide deformylase (PDF) of Vibrio anguillarum. To find potential anti-Vibrio compounds, crude extracts derived from marine actinomycetes were applied for screening with this model. Notably, crude extract of strain Streptomyces sp. NHF165 inhibited dramatically both on V. anguillarum PDF (VaPDF) activity and V. anguillarum cell growth. And actinonin was further identified as the functional component. Anti-VaPDF and anti-V. anguillarum activities of actinonin were dose-dependent, and the IC50 values were 6.94 and 2.85 μM, respectively. To understand the resistance of V. anguillarum against actinonin, spontaneous V. anguillarum mutants with resistance against actinonin were isolated. Surprisingly, for the resistant strains, the region between 774 and 852 base pairs was found to be absent in the gene folD which produces 10-formyl-tetrahydrofolate, a donor of N-formyl to Met-tRNAfmet. When compared to the wild type strain, ΔfolD mutant showed eight times of minimum inhibition concentration on actinonin, however, the folD complementary strain could not grow on the medium supplemented with actinonin, which suggested that folD gene mutation was mainly responsible for the actinonin resistance. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that marine derived Streptomyces sp. could produce actinonin with anti-VaPDF activity and the resistance against actinonin by V. anguillarum is mediated by mutation in folD gene.

  1. The negative regulators Foxj1 and Foxo3a are up-regulated by a peptide that inhibits systemic lupus erythematosus-associated T cell responses.

    PubMed

    Sela, Uri; Dayan, Molly; Hershkoviz, Rami; Cahalon, Liora; Lider, Ofer; Mozes, Edna

    2006-11-01

    A peptide (hCDR1) based on the complementarity determining region-1 of an anti-DNA antibody ameliorates systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in induced and spontaneous lupus models. Our objectives were to determine the effects of hCDR1 on TCR signaling and on its negative regulators, Foxj1 and Foxo3a. BALB/c mice were immunized with the SLE-inducing anti-DNA antibody, designated 16/6Id, and treated with hCDR1. hCDR1 treatment specifically inhibited IFN-gamma secretion by T cells in association with down-regulated T-bet expression and NF-kappaB activation; however, GATA-3 expression was not affected. Furthermore, TCR signaling (ZAP-70 phosphorylation) was inhibited, and the mRNA expression of the two modulators of Th1 activation, Foxj1 and Foxo3a, was significantly up-regulated. The latter were also elevated in SLE-afflicted (NZBxNZW)F1 mice that were treated with hCDR1. Addition of TGF-beta, which was elevated following treatment with hCDR1, to T cells from 16/6Id immunized mice, up-regulated Foxj1 and Foxo3a mRNA expression, similarly to hCDR1. In contrast, anti-TGF-beta antibodies added to hCDR1-treated T cells abrogated its effect. Thus, hCDR1 elevates TGF-beta, which contributes to the up-regulation of T cell Foxj1 and Foxo3a expression, leading to inhibition of NF-kappaB activation and IFN-gamma secretion, which is required for the maintenance of SLE. PMID:17051618

  2. Peptides from sesame cake extend healthspan of Caenorhabditis elegans via upregulation of skn-1 and inhibition of intracellular ROS levels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuanhua; Ma, Xiaoli; Li, Jiao; Cui, Xiaodong

    2016-09-01

    The peptides from sesame cake (PSC) which are the main by-product of agricultural processing of sesame were prepared. To evaluate benefits of PSC for health and longevity, antioxidant activity and anti-aging effects were studied in vitro and in a Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) model system. PSC exhibited antioxidant activity in vitro, and induced beneficial effects on lifespan and several health parameters of C.elegans, including pharyngeal pumping rate, locomotion and lipofuscin accumulation. In a mev-1 mutant, PSC increased lifespan, and it enhanced oxidative stress tolerance in wild-type nematodes. After treatment with PSC, SOD activity, GSH content, and GSH/GSSG ratio were increased, leading to low intracellular ROS levels in C. elegans. PSC up-regulated skn-1 mRNA, and its target gene gcs-1, and abolished the extension of lifespan in skn-1 mutant, indicating that PSC-mediated longevity is dependent on activation of the skn-1/Nrf-2 transcription factor. Current results warrant research into the use of PSC as nutraceuticals for overall health improvement.

  3. Thimet oligopeptidase specificity: evidence of preferential cleavage near the C-terminus and product inhibition from kinetic analysis of peptide hydrolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Knight, C G; Dando, P M; Barrett, A J

    1995-01-01

    The substrate-size specificity of human thimet oligopeptidase (EC 3.4.24.15) was investigated with oligomers of glycyl-prolyl-leucine (GPL)n where n = 2, 3, 4 and 5. These peptides were cleaved only at Leu-Gly bonds to give GPL as the single final product. Hydrolysis was most rapid with (GPL)3 and slowest with (GPL)5. The more water-soluble oligomers of Gly-Hyp-Leu showed the same trend. (Gly-Hyp-Leu)6 was not hydrolysed, consistent with the previous finding that substrates larger than 17 amino acids are not cleaved by thimet oligopeptidase. The cleavage of (GPL)3 to GPL fitted a sequential first-order model. First-order kinetics were unexpected as the initial substrate concentration was greater than Km. The anomaly was also seen during the cleavage of bradykinin and neurotensin, and in these cases first-order behaviour was due to potent competitive inhibition by the C-terminal product. The sequential mechanism for (GPL)3 breakdown by thimet oligopeptidase does not discriminate between initial cleavages towards the N- or C-terminus. As isoleucine is an unfavourable residue in P1, substrates were made in which selected leucine residues were replaced by isoleucine. GPL--GPI--GPL (where--represents the bond between the tripeptide units) was resistant to hydrolysis and GPI--GPL--GPL was cleaved only at the -Leu-Gly- bond. Experiments with isoleucine-containing analogues of (Gly-Hyp-Leu)4 showed that thimet oligopeptidase preferred to cleave these peptides near the C-terminus. PMID:7755557

  4. Latent Ice Recrystallization Inhibition Activity in Nonantifreeze Proteins: Ca2+-Activated Plant Lectins and Cation-Activated Antimicrobial Peptides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Organisms living in polar regions have evolved a series of antifreeze (glyco) proteins (AFGPs) to enable them to survive by modulating the structure of ice. These proteins have huge potential for use in cellular cryopreservation, ice-resistant surfaces, frozen food, and cryosurgery, but they are limited by their relatively low availability and questions regarding their mode of action. This has triggered the search for biomimetic materials capable of reproducing this function. The identification of new structures and sequences capable of inhibiting ice growth is crucial to aid our understanding of these proteins. Here, we show that plant c-type lectins, which have similar biological function to human c-type lectins (glycan recognition) but no sequence homology to AFPs, display calcium-dependent ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) activity. This IRI activity can be switched on/off by changing the Ca2+ concentration. To show that more (nonantifreeze) proteins may exist with the potential to display IRI, a second motif was considered, amphipathicity. All known AFPs have defined hydrophobic/hydrophilic domains, rationalizing this choice. The cheap, and widely used, antimicrobial Nisin was found to have cation-dependent IRI activity, controlled by either acid or addition of histidine-binding ions such as zinc or nickel, which promote its amphipathic structure. These results demonstrate a new approach in the identification of antifreeze protein mimetic macromolecules and may help in the development of synthetic mimics of AFPs. PMID:26407233

  5. Latent Ice Recrystallization Inhibition Activity in Nonantifreeze Proteins: Ca2+-Activated Plant Lectins and Cation-Activated Antimicrobial Peptides.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Daniel E; Gibson, Matthew I

    2015-10-12

    Organisms living in polar regions have evolved a series of antifreeze (glyco) proteins (AFGPs) to enable them to survive by modulating the structure of ice. These proteins have huge potential for use in cellular cryopreservation, ice-resistant surfaces, frozen food, and cryosurgery, but they are limited by their relatively low availability and questions regarding their mode of action. This has triggered the search for biomimetic materials capable of reproducing this function. The identification of new structures and sequences capable of inhibiting ice growth is crucial to aid our understanding of these proteins. Here, we show that plant c-type lectins, which have similar biological function to human c-type lectins (glycan recognition) but no sequence homology to AFPs, display calcium-dependent ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) activity. This IRI activity can be switched on/off by changing the Ca2+ concentration. To show that more (nonantifreeze) proteins may exist with the potential to display IRI, a second motif was considered, amphipathicity. All known AFPs have defined hydrophobic/hydrophilic domains, rationalizing this choice. The cheap, and widely used, antimicrobial Nisin was found to have cation-dependent IRI activity, controlled by either acid or addition of histidine-binding ions such as zinc or nickel, which promote its amphipathic structure. These results demonstrate a new approach in the identification of antifreeze protein mimetic macromolecules and may help in the development of synthetic mimics of AFPs. PMID:26407233

  6. Latent Ice Recrystallization Inhibition Activity in Nonantifreeze Proteins: Ca2+-Activated Plant Lectins and Cation-Activated Antimicrobial Peptides.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Daniel E; Gibson, Matthew I

    2015-10-12

    Organisms living in polar regions have evolved a series of antifreeze (glyco) proteins (AFGPs) to enable them to survive by modulating the structure of ice. These proteins have huge potential for use in cellular cryopreservation, ice-resistant surfaces, frozen food, and cryosurgery, but they are limited by their relatively low availability and questions regarding their mode of action. This has triggered the search for biomimetic materials capable of reproducing this function. The identification of new structures and sequences capable of inhibiting ice growth is crucial to aid our understanding of these proteins. Here, we show that plant c-type lectins, which have similar biological function to human c-type lectins (glycan recognition) but no sequence homology to AFPs, display calcium-dependent ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) activity. This IRI activity can be switched on/off by changing the Ca2+ concentration. To show that more (nonantifreeze) proteins may exist with the potential to display IRI, a second motif was considered, amphipathicity. All known AFPs have defined hydrophobic/hydrophilic domains, rationalizing this choice. The cheap, and widely used, antimicrobial Nisin was found to have cation-dependent IRI activity, controlled by either acid or addition of histidine-binding ions such as zinc or nickel, which promote its amphipathic structure. These results demonstrate a new approach in the identification of antifreeze protein mimetic macromolecules and may help in the development of synthetic mimics of AFPs.

  7. Cationic peptide mR18L with lipid lowering properties inhibits LPS-induced systemic and liver inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Sharifov, Oleg F; Nayyar, Gaurav; Ternovoy, Vladimir V; Mishra, Vinod K; Litovsky, Silvio H; Palgunachari, Mayakonda N; Garber, David W; Anantharamaiah, G M; Gupta, Himanshu

    2013-07-12

    The cationic single domain peptide mR18L has demonstrated lipid-lowering and anti-atherogenic properties in different dyslipidemic mouse models. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated inflammation is considered as one of the potential triggers for atherosclerosis. Here, we evaluated anti-inflammatory effects of mR18L peptide against LPS-mediated inflammation. First, we tested the efficacy and tolerance of 1, 2.5 and 5mg/kg mR18L in normolipidemic rats stimulated with 5mg/kg LPS. LPS and then mR18L were injected in different intraperitoneal regions. By 2h post LPS, mR18L inhibited LPS-mediated plasma TNF-α elevation at all doses, with the effect being stronger for 2.5mg/kg (P<0.05 vs. 1mg/kg, non-significant vs. 5mg/kg). In a similar model, 2.5mg/kg mR18L reduced LPS-mediated inflammation in the liver, as assessed by microscopic examination of liver sections and measurements of iNOS expression in the liver tissue. In plasma, 2.5mg/kg mR18L decreased levels of TNF-α and IL-6, decreased endotoxin activity and enhanced HDL binding to LPS. In another similar experiment, mR18L administered 1h post LPS, prevented elevation of plasma triglycerides by 6h post LPS and increased plasma activity of anti-oxidant enzyme paraoxonase 1, along with noted trends in reducing plasma levels of endotoxin and IL-6. Surface plasmon resonance study revealed that mR18L readily binds LPS. We conclude that mR18L exerts anti-endotoxin activity at least in part due to direct LPS-binding and LPS-neutralizing effects. We suggest that anti-endotoxin activity of mR18L is an important anti-inflammatory property, which may increase anti-atherogenic potential of this promising orally active lipid-lowering peptide. PMID:23791744

  8. Self-assembly of a nine-residue amyloid-forming peptide fragment of SARS corona virus E-protein: mechanism of self aggregation and amyloid-inhibition of hIAPP.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Anirban; Pithadia, Amit S; Bhat, Jyotsna; Bera, Supriyo; Midya, Anupam; Fierke, Carol A; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Bhunia, Anirban

    2015-04-01

    Molecular self-assembly, a phenomenon widely observed in nature, has been exploited through organic molecules, proteins, DNA, and peptides to study complex biological systems. These self-assembly systems may also be used in understanding the molecular and structural biology which can inspire the design and synthesis of increasingly complex biomaterials. Specifically, use of these building blocks to investigate protein folding and misfolding has been of particular value since it can provide tremendous insights into peptide aggregation related to a variety of protein misfolding diseases, or amyloid diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, type-II diabetes). Herein, the self-assembly of TK9, a nine-residue peptide of the extra membrane C-terminal tail of the SARS corona virus envelope, and its variants were characterized through biophysical, spectroscopic, and simulated studies, and it was confirmed that the structure of these peptides influences their aggregation propensity, hence, mimicking amyloid proteins. TK9, which forms a beta-sheet rich fibril, contains a key sequence motif that may be critical for beta-sheet formation, thus making it an interesting system to study amyloid fibrillation. TK9 aggregates were further examined through simulations to evaluate the possible intra- and interpeptide interactions at the molecular level. These self-assembly peptides can also serve as amyloid inhibitors through hydrophobic and electrophilic recognition interactions. Our results show that TK9 inhibits the fibrillation of hIAPP, a 37 amino acid peptide implicated in the pathology of type-II diabetes. Thus, biophysical and NMR experimental results have revealed a molecular level understanding of peptide folding events, as well as the inhibition of amyloid-protein aggregation are reported.

  9. Central administration of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) and related peptides inhibits feeding behavior in the Siberian hamster.

    PubMed

    Steward, Carolyn A; Horan, Tracey L; Schuhler, Sandrine; Bennett, Geoffrey W; Ebling, Francis J P

    2003-04-15

    Centrally acting thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), independent of endocrine action, has been shown to regulate several metabolic and behavioral parameters in rats, including food intake and locomotor activity. The present study investigated and compared the effects of central TRH on feeding behavior in Siberian hamsters exposed to long (LP) or short (SP) photoperiods, which induce natural physiological states of obesity and leanness respectively. The effects of two TRH analogues, RX77368 (a metabolically stable TRH analogue) and TRH-Gly (an endogenous precursor to TRH with putative preferential action at the central TRH receptor, TRH-R2), were also investigated. All peptides were infused via the third ventricle (i.c.v.). Food intake was measured, and the proportion of time spent interacting with food, active or resting was scored. TRH (5 microg) significantly reduced food intake without producing associated changes in activity in hamsters maintained in both LP (p < 0.001) and SP (p < 0.05). A lower dose of TRH (0.5 microg) only decreased feeding significantly (p < 0.01) in hamsters exposed to SP, indicating that there may be an underlying difference in sensitivity to TRH depending on metabolic state. RX77368 (1 microg) produced substantial hypophagia (p < 0.001) and decreased the proportion of time spent interacting with food, but, unlike TRH, may produce this via an increase in locomotor activity. TRH-Gly (5 microg) produced a small decrease in food intake (p < 0.05), lasting for 6 h. We conclude that TRH and TRH analogues possess anorexigenic capacities in this species, with a likely site of action in the hypothalamus. Increased sensitivity to the hypophagic effects of central TRH may contribute to the long-term catabolic state induced by short photoperiods.

  10. Crystal structure of 4-formyl-2-nitro-phenyl 4-chloro-2-nitro-benzoate.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Fuquen, Rodolfo; Hernández, Geraldine; Ellena, Javier; De Simone, Carlos A; Tenorio, Juan C

    2015-12-01

    In the title compound, C14H7ClN2O7, the central ester moiety is essentially planar, with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.0113 Å. The ester group is twisted away from the chloro- and formyl-substituted rings by 84.60 (9) and 88.55 (9)°, respectively. The crystal packing shows inter-molecular C-H⋯O inter-actions. These inter-actions generate R 2 (2)(20) and R 4 (4)(22) edge-fused rings parallel to (20-2). PMID:26870539

  11. Mitochondrion-Targeted Peptide SS-31 Inhibited Oxidized Low-Density Lipoproteins-Induced Foam Cell Formation through both ROS Scavenging and Inhibition of Cholesterol Influx in RAW264.7 Cells.

    PubMed

    Hao, Shuangying; Ji, Jiajie; Zhao, Hongting; Shang, Longcheng; Wu, Jing; Li, Huihui; Qiao, Tong; Li, Kuanyu

    2015-12-01

    Foam cell formation as a result of imbalance of modified cholesterol influx and efflux by macrophages is a key to the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis. Oxidative stress is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. SS-31 is a member of the Szeto-Schiller (SS) peptides shown to specifically target the inner mitochondrial membrane to scavenge reactive oxygen species. In this study, we investigated whether SS-31 may provide protective effect on macrophage from foam cell formation in RAW264.7 cells. The results showed that SS-31 inhibited oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL)-induced foam cell formation and cholesterol accumulation, demonstrated by intracellular oil red O staining and measurement of cholesterol content. The mechanism was revealed that SS-31 did not only significantly attenuated ox-LDL-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased the activities of superoxide dismutases, but also dose-dependently inhibited the expression of CD36 and LOX-1, two scavenger receptors of ox-LDL, while the expression of ATP-binding cassette A1 and G1, playing a pivotal role in cholesterol efflux, was not affected. As a result, SS-31 decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha, suggesting the prevention of inflammatory responses. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that SS-31 provides a beneficial effect on macrophages from foam cell formation, likely, through both ROS scavenging and inhibition of cholesterol influx. Therefore, SS-31 may potentially be of therapeutic relevance in prevention of human atherogenesis.

  12. Mitochondrion-Targeted Peptide SS-31 Inhibited Oxidized Low-Density Lipoproteins-Induced Foam Cell Formation through both ROS Scavenging and Inhibition of Cholesterol Influx in RAW264.7 Cells.

    PubMed

    Hao, Shuangying; Ji, Jiajie; Zhao, Hongting; Shang, Longcheng; Wu, Jing; Li, Huihui; Qiao, Tong; Li, Kuanyu

    2015-01-01

    Foam cell formation as a result of imbalance of modified cholesterol influx and efflux by macrophages is a key to the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis. Oxidative stress is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. SS-31 is a member of the Szeto-Schiller (SS) peptides shown to specifically target the inner mitochondrial membrane to scavenge reactive oxygen species. In this study, we investigated whether SS-31 may provide protective effect on macrophage from foam cell formation in RAW264.7 cells. The results showed that SS-31 inhibited oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL)-induced foam cell formation and cholesterol accumulation, demonstrated by intracellular oil red O staining and measurement of cholesterol content. The mechanism was revealed that SS-31 did not only significantly attenuated ox-LDL-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased the activities of superoxide dismutases, but also dose-dependently inhibited the expression of CD36 and LOX-1, two scavenger receptors of ox-LDL, while the expression of ATP-binding cassette A1 and G1, playing a pivotal role in cholesterol efflux, was not affected. As a result, SS-31 decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha, suggesting the prevention of inflammatory responses. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that SS-31 provides a beneficial effect on macrophages from foam cell formation, likely, through both ROS scavenging and inhibition of cholesterol influx. Therefore, SS-31 may potentially be of therapeutic relevance in prevention of human atherogenesis. PMID:26633327

  13. An Efficient and General Method for Formylation of Aryl Bromides with CO2 and Poly(methylhydrosiloxane).

    PubMed

    Yu, Bo; Yang, Zhenzhen; Zhao, Yanfei; Hao, Leiduan; Zhang, Hongye; Gao, Xiang; Han, Buxing; Liu, Zhimin

    2016-01-18

    The formylation of aryl halides with CO2 to generate aryl aldehydes is challenging. Herein, we report a novel synthesis of aryl aldehydes by formylation of aryl bromides with CO2 and a waste silane, poly(methylhydrosiloxane) (PMHS). It has been discovered that a simple combination of 1,3-bis(diphenyphosphino)propane (DPPP)-chelated Pd catalyst, Pd(DPPP)Cl2 , with 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene (DBU) is able to effectively catalyze the reaction, leading to aryl aldehydes in moderate to excellent yields, and without any by-products in most cases. Moreover, this route could be extended to the formylation of aryl iodides with high efficiency. This approach is simple, less costly, and environmentally friendly, and also widens the applications of CO2 to form value-added chemicals by the construction of new C-C bonds.

  14. Theoretical study on the vibrational spectra of methoxy- and formyl-dihydroxy- trans-stilbenes and their hydrolytic equilibria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnár, Viktor; Billes, Ferenc; Tyihák, Ernő; Mikosch, Hans

    2008-02-01

    Compounds formed by exchanging one of the resveratrol hydroxy groups to methoxy or formyl groups are biologically important. Quantum chemical DFT calculations were applied for the simulation of some of their properties. Their optimized structures and charge distributions were computed. Based on the calculated vibrational force constants and optimized molecular structure infrared and Raman spectra were calculated. The characteristics of the vibrational modes were determined by normal coordinate analysis. Applying the calculated thermodynamic functions also for resveratrol, methanol, formaldehyde and water, thermodynamic equilibria were calculated for the equilibria between resveratrol and its methyl and formyl substituted derivatives, respectively.

  15. Association of the N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe receptor in human neutrophils with a GTP-binding protein sensitive to pertussis toxin.

    PubMed Central

    Lad, P M; Olson, C V; Smiley, P A

    1985-01-01

    Pertussis toxin inhibits the N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMet-Leu-Phe) mediated human neutrophil functions of enzyme release, superoxide generation, aggregation, and chemotaxis. As pertussis toxin modifies the GTP binding receptor-regulatory protein "Ni," the association of the fMet-Leu-Phe receptor with such a protein was further examined in purified neutrophil plasma membranes. Both fMet-Leu-Phe-mediated guanine nucleotide exchange and nucleotide-mediated regulation of the fMet-Leu-Phe receptor are inhibited by pertussis toxin. In addition, membrane pretreatment with pertussis toxin abolishes the fMet-Leu-Phe-mediated inhibition of adenylate cyclase. Actions of pertussis toxin are due to the ADP-ribosylation of a single subunit at 41 kDa in the neutrophil plasma membrane, which comigrates on NaDodSO4 gels with the Ni GTP-binding protein in the platelet plasma membrane. Our results suggest that (i) the fMet-Leu-Phe receptor is associated with a Ni GTP regulatory protein, and (ii) a fMet-Leu-Phe-Ni complex is important in the control of several neutrophil functions, probably involving multiple transduction systems, including adenylate cyclase. Images PMID:2983319

  16. Inhibition of Grape Crown Gall by Agrobacterium vitis F2/5 Requires Two Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases and One Polyketide Synthase.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Desen; Burr, Thomas J

    2016-02-01

    Agrobacterium vitis nontumorigenic strain F2/5 is able to inhibit crown gall disease on grapevines. The mechanism of grape tumor inhibition (GTI) by F2/5 has not been fully determined. In this study, we demonstrate that two nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes (F-avi3342 and F-avi5730) and one polyketide synthase gene (F-avi4330) are required for GTI. Knockout of any one of them resulted in F/25 losing GTI capacity. We previously reported that F-avi3342 and F-avi4330 but not F-avi5730 are required for induction of grape tissue necrosis and tobacco hypersensitive response. F-avi5730 is predicted to encode a single modular NRPS. It is located in a cluster that is homologous to the siderophore vicibactin biosynthesis locus in Rhizobium species. Individual disruption of F-avi5730 and two immediate downstream genes, F-avi5731 and F-avi5732, all resulted in reduced siderophore production; however, only F-avi5730 was found to be required for GTI. Complemented F-avi5730 mutant (ΔF-avi5730(+)) restored a wild-type level of GTI activity. It was determined that, over time, populations of ΔF-avi4330, ΔF-avi3342, and ΔF-avi5730 at inoculated wound sites on grapevine did not differ from those of ΔF-avi5730(+) indicating that loss of GTI was not due to reduced colonization of wound sites by mutants. PMID:26575143

  17. Characterizing the PK/PD relationship for inhibition of capsaicin-induced dermal vasodilatation by MK-3207, an oral calcitonin gene related peptide receptor antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chi-Chung; Vermeersch, Steve; Denney, William S; Kennedy, William P; Palcza, John; Gipson, Adrianna; Han, Tae H; Blanchard, Rebecca; De Lepeleire, Inge; Depré, Marleen; Murphy, M Gail; Van Dyck, Kristien; de Hoon, Jan N

    2015-01-01

    Aims Calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists are effective acute migraine treatments. A capsaicin-induced dermal vasodilatation (CIDV) model has been developed to provide target-engagement information in healthy volunteers. In the model, CGRP release is provoked after dermal capsaicin application, by activating transient receptor potential vanilloid-type-1 (TRPV1) receptors at peripheral sensory nerves. Laser Doppler imaging is used to quantify CIDV and subsequent inhibition by CGRP receptor antagonists. We sought to evaluate a CGRP receptor antagonist, MK-3207, in the biomarker model and to assess the predictability of the CIDV response to migraine clinical efficacy. Methods An integrated population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) model was developed to describe the exposure−response relationship for CIDV inhibition by CGRP and TRPV1 receptor antagonists. MK-3207 dose−response predictions were made based on estimated potency from the PK/PD model and mean plasma concentrations observed at the doses investigated. Results The results suggested that a 20 mg dose of MK-3207 (EC50 of 1.59 nm) would be required to attain the peripheral CIDV response at a target level that was shown previously to correlate with 2 h clinical efficacy based on phase 3 telcagepant clinical data, and that a plateau of the dose−response would be reached around 40–100 mg. These predictions provided a quantitative rationale for dose selection in a phase 2 clinical trial of MK-3207 and helped with interpretation of the efficacy results from the trial. Conclusions The integrated CIDV PK/PD model provides a useful platform for characterization of PK/PD relationships and predictions of dose−response relationships to aid in future development of CGRP and TRPV1 receptor antagonists. PMID:25377933

  18. Cancer-preventive peptide lunasin from Solanum nigrum L. inhibits acetylation of core histones H3 and H4 and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (Rb).

    PubMed

    Jeong, Jin Boo; Jeong, Hyung Jin; Park, Jae Ho; Lee, Sun Hee; Lee, Jeong Rak; Lee, Hee Kyeong; Chung, Gyu Young; Choi, Jeong Doo; de Lumen, Ben O

    2007-12-26

    Lunasin, a unique 43 amino acid, 4.8 kDa cancer-chemopreventive peptide initially reported in soybean and now found in barley and wheat, has been shown to be cancer-chemopreventive in mammalian cells and in a skin cancer mouse model against oncogenes and chemical carcinogens. To identify bioactive components in traditional herbal medicines and in search for new sources of lunasin, we report here the properties of lunasin from Solanum nigrum L. (SNL), a plant indigenous to northeast Asia. Lunasin was screened in the crude extracts of five varieties of the medicinal plants of Solanaceae origin and seven other major herbal plants. An in vitro digestion stability assay for measuring bioavailability was carried out on SNL crude protein and autoclaved SNL using pepsin and pancreatin. A nonradioactive histone acetyltransferase (HAT) assay and HAT activity colorimetric assay were used to measure the inhibition of core histone acetylation. The inhibitory effect of lunasin on the phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (Rb) was determined by immunoblotting against phospho-Rb. Lunasin isolated from autoclaved SNL inhibited core histone H3 and H4 acetylation, the activities of the HATs, and the phosphorylation of the Rb protein. Lunasin in the crude protein and in the autoclaved crude protein was very stable to pepsin and pancreatin in vitro digestion, while the synthetic pure lunasin was digested at 2 min after the reaction. We conclude that lunasin is a bioactive and bioavailable component in SNL and that consumption of SNL may play an important role in cancer prevention. PMID:18038993

  19. Inhibition of Grape Crown Gall by Agrobacterium vitis F2/5 Requires Two Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetases and One Polyketide Synthase.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Desen; Burr, Thomas J

    2016-02-01

    Agrobacterium vitis nontumorigenic strain F2/5 is able to inhibit crown gall disease on grapevines. The mechanism of grape tumor inhibition (GTI) by F2/5 has not been fully determined. In this study, we demonstrate that two nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes (F-avi3342 and F-avi5730) and one polyketide synthase gene (F-avi4330) are required for GTI. Knockout of any one of them resulted in F/25 losing GTI capacity. We previously reported that F-avi3342 and F-avi4330 but not F-avi5730 are required for induction of grape tissue necrosis and tobacco hypersensitive response. F-avi5730 is predicted to encode a single modular NRPS. It is located in a cluster that is homologous to the siderophore vicibactin biosynthesis locus in Rhizobium species. Individual disruption of F-avi5730 and two immediate downstream genes, F-avi5731 and F-avi5732, all resulted in reduced siderophore production; however, only F-avi5730 was found to be required for GTI. Complemented F-avi5730 mutant (ΔF-avi5730(+)) restored a wild-type level of GTI activity. It was determined that, over time, populations of ΔF-avi4330, ΔF-avi3342, and ΔF-avi5730 at inoculated wound sites on grapevine did not differ from those of ΔF-avi5730(+) indicating that loss of GTI was not due to reduced colonization of wound sites by mutants.

  20. Mannosylated self-peptide inhibits the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis via expansion of nonencephalitogenic T cells.

    PubMed

    Kel, Junda M; Slütter, Bram; Drijfhout, Jan Wouter; Koning, Frits; Nagelkerken, Lex

    2008-07-01

    Tolerance to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in SJL mice can be induced by immunization with a mannosylated form of the proteolipid protein (M-PLP139-151), despite the presence of CFA. The state of tolerance is characterized by poor delayed-type hypersensitivity responses and the absence of clinical EAE symptoms. In vivo monitoring of CFSE-labeled PLP139-151-specific TCR-transgenic (5B6) T cells revealed that immunization with M-PLP139-151 increases the clonal expansion of 5B6 T cells that do not develop full effector functions. Moreover, nonfunctional T cells obtained from M-PLP139-151-immunized mice showed poor blastogenesis and were unable to transfer EAE to naïve recipients. Nevertheless, the in vitro production of cytokines and chemokines associated with EAE was unaffected. Importantly, tolerance induced by M-PLP139-151 was abrogated by the administration of pertussis toxin, resulting in EAE development. Our results suggest that M-PLP139-151 inhibits EAE development by affecting the differentiation of T cells into encephalitogenic effector cells.

  1. The presence of the Rb c-box peptide in the cytoplasm inhibits p210bcr-abl transforming function.

    PubMed

    Guo, X Y; Balague, C; Wang, T; Randhawa, G; Yuan, Z; Bachier, C; Greenberger, J; Arlinghaus, R; Kufe, D; Deisseroth, A B

    1999-02-25

    In order to test if the carboxyl terminal polypeptide of the Retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor protein, could be used to suppress the growth factor-independent growth phenotype of p210bcr-abl positive myeloid cells, we introduced a truncated form of the 3' end of the Rb cDNA encoding its last 173 amino acid residues (Rb C-box) which localize into the cytoplasm where the p210bcr-abl transforming protein is found, into myeloid cells (32D) which depends on the p210bcr-abl protein for IL3 growth factor-independent growth (32D-p210). The expression of the plasmid vectors carrying the Rb C-box cDNAs was shown to inhibit the abl tyrosine specific protein kinase activity of the p210(bcr-abl) oncoprotein and to suppress the IL3-independent growth phenotype of the 32D-p210 cells. The Rb C-box polypeptides did not suppress the growth of the untransfected 32D parental cell line in methylcellulose in the presence of IL3-conditioned medium. These results suggest that the cytoplasmic localization of the p210(bcr-abl) allows it to escape the effect of intranuclear proteins such as Rb which negatively regulate the p145(c-abl) kinase. PMID:10102629

  2. Morphology and electrical properties of electrochemically synthesized pyrrole-formyl pyrrole copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholami, Mehrdad; Nia, Pooria Moozarm; Alias, Yatimah

    2015-12-01

    A direct electrochemical copolymerization of pyrrole-formyl pyrrole (Py-co-FPy) was carried out by oxidative copolymerization of formyl pyrrole and pyrrole in LiClO4 aqueous solution through galvanostatic method. The (Py-co-FPy) copolymer was characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy-filtering transmission electron microscope (EFTEM), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The FESEM images showed that the synthesized copolymer had a hollow whelk-like helixes structure, which justifies the enhancement of charge transportation through the copolymer film. Cyclic voltammetry studies revealed that the electrocatalytic activity of synthesized copolymer has improved and the surface coverage in copolymer enhanced 1.6 times compared to polypyrrole alone. Besides, (Py-co-FPy) copolymer showed 2.5 times lower electrochemical charge transfer resistance (Rct) value in impedance spectroscopy. Therefore, this copolymer has a strong potential to be used in several applications such as sensor applications.

  3. A peptide of the RGS domain of GRK2 binds and inhibits Gαq to suppress pathological cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Schumacher, Sarah M.; Gao, Erhe; Cohen, Maya; Lieu, Melissa; Chuprun, J. Kurt; Koch, Walter J.

    2016-01-01

    G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) kinases (GRKs) play a critical role in cardiac function by regulating GPCR activity. GRK2 suppresses GPCR signaling by phosphorylating and desensitizing active GPCRs, and through protein-protein interactions that uncouple GPCRs from their downstream effectors. Several GRK2 interacting partners, including Gαq, promote maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy, which leads to heart failure, a leading cause of mortality worldwide. The regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) domain of GRK2 interacts with and inhibits Gαq in vitro. We generated TgβARKrgs mice with cardiac-specific expression of the RGS domain of GRK2 and subjected these mice to pressure overload to trigger adaptive changes that lead to heart failure. Unlike their nontransgenic littermate controls, the TgβARKrgs mice exhibited less hypertrophy as indicated by reduced left ventricular wall thickness, decreased expression of genes linked to cardiac hypertrophy, and less adverse structural remodeling. The βARKrgs peptide, but not endogenous GRK2, interacted with Gαq and interfered with signaling through this G protein. These data support the development of GRK2-based therapeutic approaches to prevent hypertrophy and heart failure. PMID:27016525

  4. Bacterial Peptide deformylase inhibition of cyano substituted biaryl analogs: Synthesis, in vitro biological evaluation, molecular docking study and in silico ADME prediction.

    PubMed

    Khan, Firoz A Kalam; Patil, Rajendra H; Shinde, Devanand B; Sangshetti, Jaiprakash N

    2016-08-15

    Herein, we report the synthesis and screening of cyano substituted biaryl analogs 5(a-m) as Peptide deformylase (PDF) enzyme inhibitors. The compounds 5a (IC50 value=13.16μM), 5d (IC50 value=15.66μM) and 5j (IC50 value=19.16μM) had shown good PDF inhibition activity. The compounds 5a (MIC range=11.00-15.83μg/mL), 5b (MIC range=23.75-28.50μg/mL) and 5j (MIC range=7.66-16.91μg/mL) had also shown potent antibacterial activity when compared with ciprofloxacin (MIC range=25-50μg/mL). Thus, the active derivatives were not only potent PDF inhibitors but also efficient antibacterial agents. In order to gain more insight on the binding mode of the compounds with PDF, the synthesized compounds 5(a-m) were docked against PDF enzyme of Escherichia coli and compounds exhibited good binding properties. In silico ADME properties of synthesized compounds were also analyzed and showed potential to develop as good oral drug candidates. PMID:27269198

  5. Decreased Caffeine-Induced Locomotor Activity via Microinjection of CART Peptide into the Nucleus Accumbens Is Linked to Inhibition of the pCaMKIIa-D3R Interaction.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiang; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Dong, Yun; Huang, Yonghong; Yang, Jianhua; Oh, Ki-Wan; Hu, Zhenzhen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the inhibitory modulation of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides, particularly with respect to the function of the D3 dopamine receptor (D3R), which is activated by its interaction with phosphorylated CaMKIIα (pCaMKIIα) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). After repeated oral administration of caffeine (30 mg/kg) for five days, microinjection of CART peptide (0.08 μM/0.5 μl/hemisphere) into the NAc affected locomotor behavior. The pCaMKIIα-D3R interaction, D3R phosphorylation and cAMP/PKA/phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) signaling pathway activity were measured in NAc tissues, and Ca2+ influx and pCaMKIIα levels were measured in cultured NAc neurons. We found that CART attenuated the caffeine-mediated enhancement of depolarization-induced Ca2+ influx and CaMKIIα phosphorylation in cultured NAc neurons. Repeated microinjection of CART peptides into the NAc decreased the caffeine-induced enhancement of Ca2+ channels activity, pCaMKIIα levels, the pCaMKIIα-D3R interaction, D3R phosphorylation, cAMP levels, PKA activity and pCREB levels in the NAc. Furthermore, behavioral sensitization was observed in rats that received five-day administration of caffeine following microinjection of saline but not in rats that were treated with caffeine following microinjection of CART peptide. These results suggest that caffeine-induced CREB phosphorylation in the NAc was ameliorated by CART peptide due to its inhibition of D3R phosphorylation. These effects of CART peptides may play a compensatory role by inhibiting locomotor behavior in rats. PMID:27404570

  6. Decreased Caffeine-Induced Locomotor Activity via Microinjection of CART Peptide into the Nucleus Accumbens Is Linked to Inhibition of the pCaMKIIa-D3R Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Qiang; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Dong, Yun; Huang, Yonghong; Yang, Jianhua; Oh, Ki-Wan; Hu, Zhenzhen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the inhibitory modulation of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides, particularly with respect to the function of the D3 dopamine receptor (D3R), which is activated by its interaction with phosphorylated CaMKIIα (pCaMKIIα) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). After repeated oral administration of caffeine (30 mg/kg) for five days, microinjection of CART peptide (0.08 μM/0.5 μl/hemisphere) into the NAc affected locomotor behavior. The pCaMKIIα-D3R interaction, D3R phosphorylation and cAMP/PKA/phosphorylated CREB (pCREB) signaling pathway activity were measured in NAc tissues, and Ca2+ influx and pCaMKIIα levels were measured in cultured NAc neurons. We found that CART attenuated the caffeine-mediated enhancement of depolarization-induced Ca2+ influx and CaMKIIα phosphorylation in cultured NAc neurons. Repeated microinjection of CART peptides into the NAc decreased the caffeine-induced enhancement of Ca2+ channels activity, pCaMKIIα levels, the pCaMKIIα-D3R interaction, D3R phosphorylation, cAMP levels, PKA activity and pCREB levels in the NAc. Furthermore, behavioral sensitization was observed in rats that received five-day administration of caffeine following microinjection of saline but not in rats that were treated with caffeine following microinjection of CART peptide. These results suggest that caffeine-induced CREB phosphorylation in the NAc was ameliorated by CART peptide due to its inhibition of D3R phosphorylation. These effects of CART peptides may play a compensatory role by inhibiting locomotor behavior in rats. PMID:27404570

  7. Inhibiting the Calcineurin-NFAT (Nuclear Factor of Activated T Cells) Signaling Pathway with a Regulator of Calcineurin-derived Peptide without Affecting General Calcineurin Phosphatase Activity*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Mulero, Ma Carme; Aubareda, Anna; Orzáez, Mar; Messeguer, Joaquim; Serrano-Candelas, Eva; Martínez-Hoyer, Sergio; Messeguer, Àngel; Pérez-Payá, Enrique; Pérez-Riba, Mercè

    2009-01-01

    Calcineurin phosphatase plays a crucial role in T cell activation. Dephosphorylation of the nuclear factors of activated T cells (NFATs) by calcineurin is essential for activating cytokine gene expression and, consequently, the immune response. Current immunosuppressive protocols are based mainly on calcineurin inhibitors, cyclosporine A and FK506. Unfortunately, these drugs are associated with severe side effects. Therefore, immunosuppressive agents with higher selectivity and lower toxicity must be identified. The immunosuppressive role of the family of proteins regulators of calcineurin (RCAN, formerly known as DSCR1) which regulate the calcineurin-NFAT signaling pathway, has been described recently. Here, we identify and characterize the minimal RCAN sequence responsible for the inhibition of calcineurin-NFAT signaling in vivo. The RCAN-derived peptide spanning this sequence binds to calcineurin with high affinity. This interaction is competed by a peptide spanning the NFAT PXIXIT sequence, which